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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 096 961 028 




In compliance with current 

copyright law, Cornell University 

Library produced this 

replacement volume on paper 

that meets the ANSI Standard 

Z39.48-1992 to replace the 

irreparably deteriorated original. 

2003 







WO 



President White Library 
CoRNEEE University 



THE SPANISH SERIES 



TOLEDO 



THE SPANISH SERIES 



edited by albert f. calvert 

Goya 
Toledo 
Madrid 
Seville 

MURILLO 

Cordova 
Velazquez 
The Prado 
The Escorial 
Royal Palaces of Spain 
Granada and Alhambra 
Spanish Arms and Armour 
Leon, Burgos & Salamanca 
Valladolid, Oviedo, Segovia, 
Zamora, Avila & Zaragoza 



TOLEDO 

AN HISTORICAL AND DE- 
SCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF 
THE "CITY OF GENERATIONS," 
BY ALBERT F. CALVERT, WITH 
OVER 500 ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONDON: JOHN Lx-VNE, THE BODLEY HEAD 
NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMVII 



PREFACE 

The author would, in the ordinary way, be hard 
put to it to frame a reasonable apology for com- 
piling a new volume on the subject of the ancient 
and royal city of Toledo. Artists have reproduced 
its wonder of imposing and picturesque detail ; 
archaeologists have explored its many monuments ; 
historians have discovered in its archives a record 
which, for many centuries, represents the log-book 
of Spain. There is no secret, apart from the im- 
penetrable mystery of its origin, which has not been 
revealed ; its chronicle is a well-thumbed volume. 
The beginnings of Spanish history go no further 
back than the earliest references we have to the 
natural stronghold founded on the seven rocks on 
the banks of the Tagus, and Spanish tradition 
claims for the citadel an antiquity coeval with the 
sun and stars. Both the history and the legends 
have been transcribed in many languages, yet, in 
a series which is intended to embrace all Spain 
in its compendious design, the inclusion of the 
twice-told tale of the " city of generations " carries 
with it an unquestionable justification. 

The ambition of the author has not been to 
throw fresh light on a well-worn subject, nor to 



VIU 



PREFACE 



supplement the work of earlier and more erudite 
writers with new facts or theories, but simply, as 
in the case of the earlier volumes in this series, 
to equip the illustrations with a brief, explanatory 
text. It would be futile to attempt to even out- 
line the story of Toledo in some hundred and 
fifty pages of letterpress, but I hope it may be 
found that in this limited space sufficient detail 
has been given to convey to the reader a general 
idea of the changing fortunes and unchanging 
character of the city, which Padilla has described 
as " the crown of Spain, the light of the world, 
free from the time of the mighty Goths." 

The impression of grandeur and melancholy, 
of strength and silence, which the traveller 
receives from a visit to the one-time capital of the 
Peninsula, cannot be suggested by the written 
word, but it may be that the illustrations will 
recall, if they do not suggest, the feeling which 
the city inspires. Toledo is mediaeval in its 
architecture and its atmosphere. The Moorish 
occupation has left no more than a scratch upon 
its Gothic character ; the spirit of modernity has 
been defied by its virile antiquity. But the 
Moslem remains have been made a feature of the 
illustrations, and, as in the volumes devoted to 
Seville, Cordova, and Granada in this series, the 
intricacies of Arabian decoration have been ex- 
tensively reproduced. 

Many of the plates are included here by the 



PREFACE ix 

courtesy of Messrs. Alguacil, Rafael Garzon, Hauser 
and Menet, and Moreno, and to these gentlemen 
I tender my sincere thanks for the permission 
accorded me to reproduce them. I have also to 
acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. E. B. 
d'Auvergne for the assistance rendered by him 
in the compilation, and to Messrs. Martin and 
Gamoneda for their kindness in allowing me to 
make use of the matter and illustrations contained 
in the volume on Toledo which they have pub- 
lished in the new series of the Monumentos 
Arquitectbnicos de Espana. 

I venture to hope that no apology is needed 
for including the chapter on El Greco, and the 
selection of his pictures, which appear in this 
volume. A separate book, devoted entirely to 
this subject, which will be issued in this series, 
cannot be ready for some time, and as so little 
has been written about Domeniko Theotokopouli, 
and so few of his pictures have been reproduced, 
I have decided to incorporate these brief notes 
concerning the Cretan painter, whose association 
with Toledo extended over a period of nearly 
forty years. 

A. F. C. 

" ROYSTON," 

Swiss Cottage, 
N.W. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



The Childhood of the City i 

The City under the Visigoths .... 8 

Toledo under the Moor 29 

Toledo the Capital of Castile .... 59 

Buildings of the Castilian Period ... 83 

The Cathedral loi 

The Decline of the City 130 

El Greco 147 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Toledo. {Specially drawn for The Spanish Series) 

General View of Toledo from the South-east 

View of Toledo from the South-east . 

General View of Toledo .... 

View of Toledo from the Campo del Rey . 

General View of Toledo .... 

State of the Ruins of the Circo Maximo in the Year 

1848, according to the " Album Artistico " 
The River Tagus ..... 
Bridge of Alcantara .... 

Perspective of St. Martin's Bridge and the Direction 

of the Fortified Lines .... 
Perspective View of the Site of the Aqueduct 
Environs of Toledo 
Plaza de Zocodover 
The Town Hall 
The Market-place 
The Market-place 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
A Street in Toledo 
Visagra Gate . 



PLATE 

I 

2 

3 
4 

5 



10 
II 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 



TOLEDO 




TITLE 


PLATE 
26 




27 
28 


idge . 
City Walls . 


. . .29 

29 

- 30 



XIV 

A Street in Toledo 

A Street in Toledo 

Bridge of Alcantara 

Alcantara Gate 

Alcantara Portal and Bridge 

Exterior of the Northern Citi 

Fortifications of the old Bridge of Boats, replaced by 

the Bridge of St. Martin 

Remains of the City Walls of " Al-Hizem," from the 

Gate of the Doce Cantos to the Plaza de Armas of 

the Bridge of Alcantara ..... 
Remains of the City Walls, south-west, rebuilt at the 

Time of the Reconquest ..... 
Remains of the Roman Ramparts of the first Enclosure 

of the City ....... 

Remains of the Roman Ramparts of the first Enclosure 

of the City. (Plaza de Armas of the Bridge of 

Alcantara) ....... 

Visigoth Capital transformed into a Fountain Basin. 

(No. 9, Callejou de la Lamparilla) 
Principal Entrance to the House of the Baths of Aben- 

Ya-Yix Bajada al Colegio del Infantes. 
Sepulchral Arch of the Infante don Fernando Perez 

in the Belen Chapel in the Convent of the Comen- 

dadora de Santiago .... 
Ruins of Polan Castle. Fourteenth Century 
Guadamar Castle ..... 
Remains of the Roman Ramparts of the first Enclosure 

of the City ...... 

The Exterior Walls 

Remains of the Fortifications in the Jewish Suburb 
Gate of the " Almofala " (Bib-al-Mojadha) rebuilt in 

the Fourteenth Century 
" The Abbot's Tower " in the Northern Walls 
Ruins of the Aquaria Tower, commonly called " Horno 

del Vidrio "...... 

Remains of the Aqueduct (left bank of the river) . 



31 

32 
33 
34 

35 
35 
36 



36 

n 
38 

39 
40 
40 

41 
41 

42 
43 



ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

TITLE PLATE 

Remains of the Aqueduct (right bank of the river) . 43 
Remains of the Roman Construction in the Tower of 

the Plaza de Armas of the Bridge of Alcantara . 44 
Bridge of Alcantara . . . . . -45 

East Side of the Bridge of Alcantara . . . .46 

Posterior Fa9ade of the defensive Tower of the Bridge 

of Alcantara ....... 47 

Defensive Tower of the Bridge of Alcantara. Anterior 

Fa9ade ........ 48 

Alcantara Gate ....... 49 

Commemorative Inscription in the Avenue of the 

Defensive Tower of the Bridge of Alcantara . . 50 

Coat-of-Arms of the Catholic Sovereigns in front of 

the Defensive Tower of the Bridge of Alcantara . 5 1 
" The Khalif's Capitals " at No. 13 Calle del Coliseo . 51 
Perspective of the Bridge of Alcantara . . .52 

St. Martin's Bridge . . . . . . -53 

St. Martin's Bridge . . . . . . -54 

Fafade of Santa Cruz ...... 54 

Defensive Towers at the Entrance of St. Martin's 

Bridge and the Town . . . . -55 

Restored Posterior Fa9ade of the Arch de La Sangre . 55 
Remains of the Aqueduct (right bank) ... 56 

East Side of St. Martin's Bridge 57 

Defensive Tower of St. Martin's Bridge. Fa9ade seen 

from the Bridge . . . . . -58 

Defensive Tower of St. Martin's Bridge. Fa9ade seen 

from the Highway . . . . . .58 

Malbardon Gate. Eleventh Century .... 59 

Visagra Gate ........ 60 

Upper Part of the Visagra Gate. Built in 1550 . . 61 

Tower in the City Walls of " The Suburb of San Isidoro," 

near the new Visagra Gate . . . .62 

Hydraulic Machine and Remains of the Walls in the 

Quarter of the Curtidores, near the River . . 63 

Walls of the Suburb of San Isidoro .... 63 
Ancient Visagra Gate ...... 64 



65 
66 



xvi TOLEDO 

TITLE 

Ancient Visagra Gate. The Side which joins the Wall 

and the side Defensive Tower .... 

Ancient Visagra Gate. Defensive and Side Tower 
Ancient Visagra Gate. Remains of the Eastern Facade 67 
Detail of the Principal Fajade of the old Visagra Gate . 68 
Interior of the old Visagra Gate ..... 68 

Ancient Visagra Gate ...... 69 

The Tower called " Puerta Baja de la Herreria," now 

" Gate of the Sun " 70 

Castle of San Servando . . ... . -71 

Castle of San Servando. Ancient Entrance in the West 

Fajade ........ 72 

Castle of San Servando. South-east Angle. . . 72 

Door of the Castle in San Servando . . . -73 

Gate of Valmadron ....... 74 

Gate of Cambron . . . . . . -75 

Los Baiios de Florinda de Cava . ... yd 

Entrance to Los Bancs ...... TJ 

Ruins of the Tower called " Los Bafios de Florinda 

de Cava " . . ..... 78 

Details of the Convent of Santa Fe. EJeventh Century 79 
West Portal in the old Hermitage, now the Inn of Santa 

Ana, on the Sisla road . ... . .80 

Altar-piece of San Justo . . . . . .81 

Detail of the Church of San Justo. Fifteenth Century. 82 
Detail of the Chapel of Santos Justo and Pastor . . 83 

Effigies of Juan Guas, architect of San Juan de Los 

Reyes, and of his son. Chapel of Christ at the 

Column, in the Parish Church of San Justo . . 84 

Effigies of Mari Alvares, wife of Juan Guas, and of her 

Daughter. Chapel of Christ at the Column, in 

the Parish Church of San Justo . . . .85 

Mosque of the Tornerias. Exterior of the South Fafade, 

South-west Angle ...... 86 

Interior of the Mosque de las Tornerias ... 87 
Arch of the " Kiblah " in the Mosque de las Tornerias . 88 
Mosque of the Tornerias. Trefoil Arched Window . 89 



ILLUSTRATIONS xvii 



90 
90 

91 
92 

93 
94 



TITLE 

Mosque of the Tornerias. Horse-shoe Window . 

Mosque of the Tornerias. Arched Window . 

Mosque of the Tornerias. Rectangular Window . 

Mosque de las Tornerias ..... 

Mosque of the Tornerias, built over Roman Remains 

Supposed Elevation of the Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom 

Supposed Plan of the Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom . 

Actual Situation of the North-east Fa9ade of the 
Ancient Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom, a Transept 
and Mudejar Apsis of the Hermitage of Santo 
Cristo dela Luz. ...... 95 

The Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom, Horse-shoe Arch and 
Remains of the Dado and Little Arches and Win- 
dows in the North-east Fa9ade (right side) . . 96 

The Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom, Horse-shoe Arch and 
Remains of the Dado of Little Arches and Windows 
in the North-east Facade (left side) . 

Principal Nave in the Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom . 

Arch in the Southern Interior of the Mosque of Bib-al 
Mardom ....... 

Actual Entrance to the Castle .... 

Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom. Arch in the Interior Wall 
South-west Angle ..... 

Detail of the North-west Fa9ade of the Mosque of Bib-al 
Mard6m ....... 

Bib-al-Mardom. " Arch of the Cross," Interior Facade loi 

Bib-al-Mard6m. " Arch of the Cross," Exterior Fa9ade loi 

Mosque of Bib-al-Mard6m . . . . . .102 

North-west Fa9ade of the Mosque of Bib-al-Mard6m 
(Hermitage of Santo Cristo de la Luz), discovered 
in February 1899 ...... 103 

The Epigraphic Medallion on the North-west Fa9ade of 
the Mosque of Bib-al-Mardom (Hermitage of 
Santo Cristo de la Luz), rebuilt in the year 370 
after the Hegira (a.d. 980) ..... 104 

Visigoth Capital in the old Moorish Parish Church of San 

Sebastian . . . . . . .105 



97 
gS 

99 
99 



100 



XVlll 



TOLEDO 



Visigoth Base which serves as a Capital in the old 
Moorish Parish Church of San Sebastian 

Santo Cristo de la Luz ...... 

The Hermitage of Santo Cristo de la Luz . 

Wall-Paintings of Santo Cristo de la Luz . 

Church of Santo Cristo de la Luz .... 

Wall-Paintings of Santo Cristo de la Luz . 

Ancient Mosque, now the Hermitage of Santo Cristo 
de la Luz ........ 

Exterior of the Hermitage of Santo Cristo de la Luz, 
and Towers of various Churches .... 

Detail of the Transito (Synagogue), built in 1360 at the 
expense of Samuel Levi ..... 

Details of the Interior Decoration of the Church of the 
Transito (Ancient Synagogue) .... 

Details of the Interior Decoration of the Church of the 
Transito (Ancient Synagogue) .... 

Details of the Transito (Synagogue) .... 

Details of the Transito (Synagogue) .... 

Details of the Transito (Synagogue) .... 

Entrance Arch in the Building called Taller Del Moro . 

Detail of Decoration in the Moorish Workshop . 

Details of the Palace of the Ayalas .... 

Details of the Palace of the Ayalas .... 

Exterior of the Chapel of Santo Cristo de la Vega. 

Door and Exterior of Santa Maria la Blanca 

Sections and Details of the Ancient Synagogue, now the 
Church of Santa Maria la Blanca .... 

Part of the Longitudinal Section of the Ancient Syna- 
gogue, now the Church of Santa Maria la Blanca . 

Interior of Santa Maria la Blanca 

Interior of Santa Maria la Blanca 

Interior of Santa Maria la Blanca 

Carcel de Santa Hermandad 

A Gothic Doorway . 

A Doorway .... 

St. Michael's Tower. Fourteenth Century 



PLATE 

105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
no 



112 

113 
114 

IIS 
n6 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 

123 
124 

125 

126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 



ILLUSTRATIONS xix 



The Alcazar. West Fa9ade after the latest Restoration 1 50 
The Alcazar . . . . . , . .151 

Alcazar. Principal Facade on the North . . .152 

The Alcazar. East Fa9ade, after the latest Restoration 153 



General View of the Alcazar .... 

The Alcazar. The Principal Staircase 
The Alcazar. Principal North Portal 
The Alcazar. Court and Plan .... 

Court of the Alcazar ...... 

Court in the Alcazar. After the latest Restoration 

The Alcazar. Plan and Details. North Fa9ade. 

Details of the North Facade of the Alcazar . 

Door of the Hall of the House of the Mesa (the Table) 

Details of the House of the Mesa 

Details of the House of the Mesa 



PLATE 

134 
135 
136 
137 
138 

139 

140 

141 

142 

143 



House of the Toledos 

Details of a Courtyard 

Details of a Courtyard 

Details of a Courtyard 

Details of a Courtyard 

Details of a Courtyard 

The Fountain of Calerahigo 

Arab Details 

Visigoth Crowns and Crosses of Guarrazar 

Visigoth Crowns and Crosses of Guarrazar 

Visigoth Crowns and Crosses found at Toledo and now 

in the Royal Armoury at Madrid . . . .144 

San Pedro Martin ....... 145 

Calle de Santo Tome . . . . . .145 

Alcazar Royal Palace. Reproduction of the Engraving 
made in 1566 for Braun's " Civitates Orbi Terra- 
rum "........ 146 

Perspective of the Alcazar in 1845. East and North 
Facades. Reproduction of an Engraving in the 
Work " Toledo Pintoresca "... 

The Alcazar. Taken from the Plaza de Zocodover 

South Fafade of the Alcazar .... 



147 
148 
149 



154 
155 
156 

157 
158 

159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 



XX TOLEDO 

TITLE PLATE 

Details of the House of the Mesa . . . .165 

Details of the Hall of the House of the Mesa . . 166 

Details of the Hall of the House of the Mesa . .167 

Details of the Hall of the House of the Mesa . .168 

Details of the House of the Mesa . . . .169 

Doorway of the College of the Infantes. Sixteenth 

Century . . . . . . . .170 

Doorway of the Palace of the Martinez . . .171 

Roman Tower of San Juan de los Reyes . . .172 

Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .172 

Exterior of San Juan de los Reyes .... 173 

San Juan de los Reyes . . . . . -174 

Plan of the Church and Processional Cloister of San 

Juan de los Reyes . . . . . .175 

Doorway in San Juan de los Reyes . . . .176 

Gothic Doorway in San Juan de los Reyes . . .177 

Exterior of the Arch of San Juan de los Reyes . .178 

Interior of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .179 

Interior of San Juan de los Reyes . . . . 1 80 

Interior of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .181 

Longitudinal Section of the Church of San Juan de los 

Reyes ........ 182 

Interior, San Juan de los Reyes . . . .183 

Retablo, San Juan de los Reyes . . . .183 

Gallery in San Juan de los Reyes . . . .184 

Gallery in San Juan de los Reyes . . . .185 

Details of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .186 

Details of Gallery in San Juan de los Reyes . . 187 

Details of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .188 

San Juan de los Reyes. Wall in the Presbytery . . 189 

Interior of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .190 

Interior of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .191 

Interior of San Juan de los Reyes . . . .192 

San Juan de los Reyes. Decoration in the Transverse 

Nave ........ 193 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details of the Arms of Isabella 

the Catholic ....... 194 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



XXI 



Details of the Transept of the Church of San Juan de 
los Reyes ........ 

San Juan de los Reyes. Interior .... 

A Dome in San Juan de los Reyes .... 

Remains of Windows of San Juan de los Reyes . 
Details of the Cross-Aisle in the Church of San Juan 

de los Reyes . . . » 

Altar of San Juan de los Reyes .... 

Altar of San Juan de los Reyes .... 

Details of the Altar-piece in San Juan de los Reyes 
Copy of the original Drawing of the Arch and Cross- 
Aisle of San Juan de los Reyes .... 

Longitudinal Section of the Cloister of San Juan de los 
Reyes ..... 

Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

San Juan de los Reyes. The Cloisters 

Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

Details of the Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

Compartment of the Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details of the Cloisters 

Details of the Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details of the Cloisters , 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details of the Cloisters , 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details of the Cloisters , 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details of the Cloisters , 

Church of San Juan de los Reyes. Courtyard 

Court in San Juan de los Reyes . 

Doorway of the Museum of San Juan de los Reyes 

San Juan de los Reyes. Details above Door of Museum 

Palace of Don Pedro the Cruel . 

Details of the Palace of Don Pedro the Cruel 

Fa9ade of the Palace of Don Pedro the Cruel 

Doorway of the Palace of Don Pedro the Cruel 

Doorway of the Palace of Don Pedro the Cruel 

The Cathedral 

General View of the Cathedral . 



195 
196 
197 
198 

199 
200 
200 
201 



203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 



TOLEDO 



xxu 

TITLE PLATE 

The Cathedral 227 

Section of the Cathedral 228 

Longitudinal Section of the Cathedral . . .229 

Transverse Section of the Cathedral . . . .230 

Principal Fa9ade of the Cathedral and Tower . .231 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Exterior . . .232 

Portal of the Principal Fajade . . 233 

Principal Gate. . . . -234 

The Gate of the Lions . . .235 

Porch of the Principal Fajade . . 236 

The Lion Door . . . .237 

The Lion Door . . . .237 

Door of the Cathedral . . . . . .238 

The Cathedral. Door of the Lost Child . . .239 

Details of the Puerta de la Feria . 240 
Gate of the Conception . . .241 

Ornamental Details of the Gates . 242 
Central Nave . . . . -243 

Tomb of Alonso de Carrillo . . 243 

General View of the Interior . . 244 

General View of the Interior . . 245 

Interior ...... 246 

Interior . . . . . . 247 

Windows in the Principal Nave of the Cathedral . . 248 

The Cathedral. Grating of the Principal Chapel. 

Sixteenth Century ...... 249 

The Cathedral. Exterior of the Principal Chapel . 250 

The Cathedral. Exterior of the Principal Chapel . 251 

The Cathedral. Exterior of the Principal Chapel . 252 

The Cathedral. Details of the Principal Chapel . -253 

The Cathedral. Details of the Principal Chapel . .254 

The Cathedral. Exterior of the Principal Chapel . 255 

The Cathedral. Details of the Principal Chapel . .256 

The Cathedral. Details of the Principal Chapel . . 257 

The Cathedral. Altar-piece of the Principal Chapel . 258 
The Cathedral. Detail of the Altar-piece of the Prin- 
cipal Chapel ....... 259 



The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 



The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 



The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 

Century . 
The Cathedral. 

Century . 
The Cathedral 

Altar 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

TITLE 

Exterior of the High Altar 
Exterior of the High Altar 
Exterior of the High Altar 
Details of the Altar-piece . 
Frontal of the High Altar. 



XXlll 

PLATE 

260 

261 

262 

. 263 



Fifteenth 



Frontal of the High Altar. Fifteenth 
Detail of the Frontal of the High 



The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 



The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 



264 



265 

266 
Exterior of the Principal Chapel . 267 

Sepulchre of Cardinal Mendoza in the 
Principal Chapel ...... 268 

The Cathedral. Dome of the Principal Chapel . . 269 

Exterior of the Choir . . .270 

Exterior of the Choir . . .271 

Details of the Exterior of the Choir . 272 
Exterior of the Choir . . . 273 

Choir Stalls 274 

Choir Stalls 275 

Choir Stalls 276 

Details of the Choir Stalls, representing 
the Re-conquest of Granada by Ferdinand and 

Isabella 277 

Interior of the Choir . . . 278 

Details of the Choir .... 279 

Details of the Choir .... 280 

The Archbishop's Throne, representing 

the Transfiguration. By Berruguete . . .281 

The Cathedral. Virgin of the Laneros . . . 282 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . .283 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella. . . 284 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . .285 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . . 286 



xxiv TOLEDO 



TITLE 



The Cathedral. Detail of Choir Stalls. The Capture 

of Alhama by Ferdinand and Isabella, 1482. Re- 
conquest of Granada ...... 287 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . .288 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . . 289 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . . 290 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . .291 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . . 292 

The Cathedral. Detail of the Choir Stalls. Re-conquest 

of Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella . . . 293 

The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 294 
The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 295 
The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 296 
The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 297 
The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 298 
The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 299 
The Cathedral. Upper part of the Choir Stalls, carved 

by Berruguete and Borgoiia. Sixteenth Century . 300 
The Cathedral. Masonry in the Choir . . . 301 

The Cathedral. Exterior of the Presbytery . . 302 

The Cathedral. Interior of the Chapel of the New 

Kings with the Sepulchres of Don Henry the 

Bastard and his Wife ..... 303 

The Cathedral. Sepulchres of Don Henry the Bastard 

and his Wife in the Chapel of the New Kings . . 304 

The Cathedral. Sepulchre of Cardinal Tavera in the 

Chapel of the New Kings ..... 305 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxv 

TITLE PLATE 

The Cathedral. Sepulchre of Don Juan I. in the Chapel jj-v, 

of the New Kings . . . . . . 306 

The Cathedral. Sepulchre of Dona Leonor, Wife of Don ^ 

Juan I., in the Chapel of the New Kings . . 307 

The Cathedral. Chapel of the Descent of the Virgin . 308 
The Cathedral. Muzarabic Chapel .... 309 
The Cathedral. Details of the Chapel of the Virgen 

de la Antigua . . . . . . .310 

The Cathedral. Chapel of the Virgen de la Antigua. 

Fourteenth Century . . . . . .311 

The Cathedral. Doorway of the Chapel of the Canons . 312 
Altar-piece of Santa Isabel . . . . -313 

Altar-piece of Santa Catalina . . . . •313 

Altar-piece of Santa Catalina . . . . .314 

Altar-piece of Santa Catalina . . . . • 3 1 S 

Altar-piece of Santa Catalina . . . . .316 

Chapel of Santa Catalina. Founded by the Counts of 

Cedillo . . . . . . . .317 

The Cathedral. Chapel of Santiago, containing the 

Sepulchres of Don Alvaro de Luna and that of his 

Wife Doiia Juana. Fifteenth Century . . .318 

The Cathedral. Sepulchre of Don Juan de Zerezuela in 

the Chapel of Santiago. Fifteenth Century . . 319 

Cupola of the Chapel " de los Reyes Nuevos " in the 

Cathedral . . . . . . .320 

Cupola of the " Capilla de Santiago," called " De Don 

Alvaro de Luna " in the Cathedral . . . 320 

The Cathedral. Sepulchre of Don Gil Carrillo de Albor- 

noz in the Chapel of San Ildefonso . . .321 

The Cathedral. Sepulchre of Gil de Albornoz in the 

Chapel of San Ildefonso ..... 322 

The Cathedral. Entrance to the Chapter Room. Six- 
teenth Century . . . . . . -323 

The Cathedral. Chapter Room .... 324 

The Cathedral. Various Portraits of Cardinals . . 325 

The Cathedral. Various Portraits of Cardinals . . 326 

The Cathedral. Details in the Chapter Room . . 327 



XXVI 



TOLEDO 



TITLE 

Chapter Room .... 

Doorway of the Chapter Room . 
Detail of a Doorway in the Chapter 



Cupboard made by Gregorio Pardo 
for the Antechamber of the Chapter 



The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 
The Cathedral. 

Room 
The Cathedral. 

(1549-1551) 

House 
Cupboard in the Cathedral 
The Cathedral. A Rich and Gossamer-carved Ceiling 

in the Chapter Hall. Sixteenth Century 
The Cathedral. Ceiling in the Chapter Hall 
The Cathedral. A Ceiling in the Ante-room 
The Cathedral Cloisters ..... 
The Cathedral Cloisters ..... 
Presentation Portal in the Cloister of the Cathedral 
Exterior, by the Cloisters of the Chapel, of the Place of 

Sepulchre built by Henry II. for his Tomb . 
The Cathedral. Picture by Bayeu in the Cloisters 
Portal of St. Catherine in the Cloister of the Cathedral 
The Cathedral. Details of the Gate of the Presentation 

in the Cloister 
The Cathedral. Reliquary of San Sebastian in the 

Octavo 
The Cathedral. Detail of the Reliquary of San Sebas 

tian in the Octavo 
The Cathedral. A Byzantine Reliquary 
Sepulchres in the Cathedral 
Sculpture in the Cathedral 
The Cathedral. Bronze Lectern and Books of the 

Holy Office 
The Cathedral. A Bronze Pulpit 
The Cathedral. Detail of a Pulpit 
Pulpit in the Cathedral 
Cathedral Bells which Ring when the Host is Elevated 
The Cathedral. Statue of Don Juan II. Sixteenth 

Century ........ 

The Cathedral. St. Francis of Assisi . . . . 



PLATE 
328 



331 

333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 

339 
340 
341 

342 

343 

344 
345 
346 
347 

34S 
349 
350 
351 
352 

353 
354 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxvii 

TITLE PLATE 

The Cathedral. A Picture by Bayeu . . -355 

Details in the Cathedral . . . . . -356 

The Cathedral. Cover of a Missal . . . -357 

The Cathedral. Silver Salver, " The Abduction of the 

Sabine Women," by Benvenuto Cellini . . 358 

The Cathedral. Chalice and Paten .... 359 
The Cathedral. A Ship that belonged to Queen Juana 

la Loca ........ 360 

Monstrance in the Cathedral . . . . .361 

The Cathedral. Sword of Alfonso VI. . . . 362 

The Cathedral. The Adoration of the Kings (silk) . 363 
The Cathedral. The Veil of Santa Leocadia (silk) . 364 
The Cathedral. The Assumption (silk) . . -365 

The Cathedral. The Beheading of San Eugenio (silk) . 366 
Kufic Entablature in the Cathedral .... 367 

The Cathedral. A Dalmatic embroidered in Gold and 

Silk. Sixteenth Century ..... 368 
The Cathedral. A Chasuble embroidered in Gold and 

Silk. Sixteenth Century ..... 369 
The Cathedral. Details of the Puerta del Reloj . . 370 

The Cathedral. Details of the Puerta del Reloj . . 371 

The Cathedral. Details of the Puerta del Reloj . .372 

The Cathedral. Details of the Puerta del Reloj . . 373 

Effigies of Juan Guas (architect of San Juan de los 

Reyes), his Wife, and Children . . . . 374 

Sculpture in San Andres ...... 375 

Banner of the Salado . . . . . .376 

St. Peter Natano and St. Theresa sculptured in Wood . 377 
Plan of the Santa Iglesia Primada .... 378 

Santa Isabel. Side Altar-piece .... 379 

Santa Isabel. Detail of an Altar-piece . . . 380 

Parish Church of Santiago . . . . .381 

Exterior of Santiago del Arrabal. Thirteenth Century 382 
Pulpit in the Church of Santiago del Arrabal, from 

which San Vicente de Ferrer preached against the 

Jews 383 

Parochial Church of Santiago del Arrabal . . . 384 



xxviii TOLEDO 

TITLE 

Church of San Tome ..... 

Detail of an Altar-piece in the Church of the Trinity- 
Sepulchres in the Church of St. Peter the Martyr. 
Details of a Sepulchre in the Church of St. Peter the 

MartjT: .... 
Church of St. Peter the Martyr. Statue of a Kneeling 

Canon .... 
Chapel in San Juan de la Penitencia 
Chapel in San Juan de la Penitencia 
Details of San Juan de la Penitencia 
Sepulchre in San Juan de la Penitencia 
Sepulchre in San Juan de la Penitencia 
Detail of the Convent of San Juan de la Penitencia 
Details of the Convent of San Juan de la Penitencia 
Convent of Santo Domingo . -' . 
Convent of Santo Domingo .... 
Convent of Santo Domingo .... 
Ancient Sepulchre in the Convent of Santo Domingo 
Santo Domingo el Real. Principal Altar-piece . 
Doorway of the Convent of San Antonio . 
Porch of the Church and Convent of San Clemeute 
Porch of the Church and Convent of San Clemente 
Detail of the Interior of the Convent of San Clemente 
Portal of Santa Cruz ..... 

Portal of Santa Cruz ..... 

Porch of Santa Cruz ..... 

The Hospital of Santa Cruz .... 
Court of Santa Cruz ..... 

Courtyard of the Hospital .... 

Court of Santa Cruz ..... 

Court of Santa Cruz ..... 

Detail of the Portal of the Hospital of Santa Cruz 
Details of Santa Cruz ..... 
Hospital of Santa Cruz ..... 
Portals in the Vestibule of the Ancient Hospital of 

Santa Cruz ..... 

Hospital of Santa Cruz. Portrait of the Founder 

Cardinal Mendoza 



385 
386 

387 



389 
390 
391 
392 
393 
394 
395 
396 
397 
398 
399 
400 
401 
402 
403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
408 
409 
410 
411 
412 

413 
414 

41S 
416 
417 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



XXIX 



TITLE 

Hospital de Afuera. The Court 

Hospital de Afuera . 

Hospital of St. John Baptist 

Hospital de Afuera. Sepulchre of Cardinal Tavera, 
1557, Alonzo Berruguete . 

The University 

The University 

Details of the House of Munarriz 

Gate of Al Mardom . 

Altar of the Church of San Justo 

Portal of the Archbishop's Palace 

In the Town Hall 

Cloisters of San Juan de los Reyes 

View of St. Martin's Bridge, looking down the River 

Gallery of San Juan de los Reyes 

A Moorish Workshop 

Hotel Castilla .... 

Detail of the Courtyard of the Hotel Castilla 

Visigoth Capitals in the Church of San Sebastian 

National Archaeological Museum. Capital, Fourth 
Century after the Hegira ..... 

National Archaeological Museum. Capital of Santiago 
de los Caballeros near the Alcazar. Fourth 
Century after the Hegira ..... 

Capital in the Archaeological Museum 

National Archaeological Museum. Fragment of Dado 
found near the Basilica of Santa Leocadia . 

National Arch^ological Museum. Window of San Gines 

National Archaeological Museum. Decorative Table in 
White Marble, belonging to the Aljama Mosque of 
Toledo ........ 

National Archaeological Museum. Decorative Frag- 
ment found at the " Miradero." Carved in White 
Marble ........ 

Capital in the South-west Angle, belonging to the old 
Mosque, now the Hermitage of Santo Cristo de la 
Luz ........ 



PLATE 
418 

420 

421 
422 
422 

424 
424 
42s 
425 
426 
426 
427 
427 
428 
429 

431 



431 

432 

433 
433 



434 



434 



435 



XXX TOLEDO 

TITLE PLATE 

The Fifth of the Visigoth Capitals of the Hospital of 

Santa Cruz . . . . . . -435 

National Archsological Museum. Skylight or Orna- 
ment found at Toledo . . . . .436 

Visigoth Capital in the Provincial Museum . . 436 

Architectural Fragments of the Visigoth Period in the 

Parish Church of San Roman . . . -437 

Architectural Pieces of the Visigoth Period existing in 

the City 43^ 

Architectural Fragments of the Visigoth Period . . 439 

Capital of the South-east Angle belonging to the ancient 
Mosque, now the Hermitage of Santo Cristo de la 
Luz ........ 440 

Visigoth Capital of the old Parish Church of San Sebas- 
tian ........ 440 

National Archffiological Museum. Visigoth Capitals of 
the Church of Santa Eulalia. Fragment of the 
Dado of the Basilica of Santo Leocadia . .441 

Capitals in the Archaeological Museum . . . 442 

Provincial Museum. Capital of the Fourth Century 

after the Hegira ...... 443 

National Archeeological Museum. Arab Astrolabe 
made at Toledo in the year 459 after the Hegira 
(a.d. 1067) 443 

Architectural Fragments of the Visigoth Period . . 444 

Architectural Fragments anterior to the Mahometan 

Irruption, No. i ..... . 445 

Architectural Parts and Decorative Remains anterior 

to the Mahometan Irruption, No. 2 . . . 446 

Architectural Parts and Decorative Fragments anterior 

to the Mahometan Irruption, No. 3 . . . 447 

Arches of various Churches of the Fourteenth and 

Fifteenth Centuries ...... 448 

Denudation of our Lord before the Crucifixion. El 

Greco. Sacristy of the Cathedral . . . 449 

The Virgin, St. Anne, the Child Jesus, and St. John. 

El Greco. Chapel of St. Anne .... 450 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxxi 

TITLE PLATE 

Oar Lady of Sorrows. El Greco. Sacristy of the New 

Kings, in the Cathedral . . . . -451 

Pentecost. El Greco. Church of the Trinity . .452 

Jesus and St. John. El Greco. Church of St. John 

the Baptist 453 

The Assumption. El Greco. Chapel of San Jos6 . 454 
St. Martin. El Greco. Chapel of San Jose . . .455 

The Holy Eucharist, by El Greco. Church of San Jose 456 
San Jose and the Child Jesus. El Greco. Parish 

Church of the Magdalene . . . . .457 

The Interment of Count de Orgaz. El Greco. Church 

of Sauto Tome ....... 458 

Detail of the Interment of Count de Orgaz. El Greco. 459 
Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz. El 

Greco ........ 460 

Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz. El 

Greco ........ 461 

Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz. El 

Greco ........ 462 

Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz. El 

Greco ........ 463 

Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz . 464 
Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz. El 

Greco ........ 465 

Fragment of the Interment of the Count de Orgaz. El 

Greco ........ 466 

The Annunciation. El Greco. Parish Church of San 

Nicolas ........ 467 

The Crucifixion. El Greco. San Nicolas . . . 468 

San Pedro Nolasco. El Greco. Parish Church of San 

Nicolas ........ 469 

The Assumption. El Greco. Parish Church of San 

Vicente ........ 470 

San Eugenio. El Greco. Parish Church of San Vicente 471 
St. Peter. El Greco. Parish Church of San Vicente . 472 
Jesus and the Virgin. El Greco. Parish Church of 

San Vicente . . . . . . .473 



xxxii TOLEDO 

TITLE PLATE 

The Ascension. El Greco. San Domingo el Antigua . 474 
A Saint (? Santo Domingo el Antigua). El Greco . 47s 
The Birth of Jesus. El Greco. Santo Domingo el 

Antigua ........ 476 

Santa Veronica with the Sudarium. El Greco. Santo 

Domingo el Antigua ...... 477 

St. John Baptist. El Greco. Santo Domingo el An- 
tigua ........ 478 

St. John the Evangelist. El Greco. Church of Santo 

Domingo ........ 479 

Altar-piece of the Convent of Santo Domingo. El Greco 480 
St. Francis of Assisi. El Greco. College of Noble 

Ladies . . . . . . . .481 

The Baptism of Jesus. El Greco. Hospital of St. John 

Baptist ........ 482 

Portrait of Cardinal Tavera. El Greco. Hospital of 

St. John Baptist . . . . . .483 

View of the High Altar of the Tavera Hospital. El 

Greco ........ 484 

General View of Toledo (left half). El Greco. Pro- 
vincial Museum . . . . . . .485 

General View of Toledo (right half). El Greco. Pro- 
vincial Museum . ...... 486 

View of Toledo. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 487 

Portrait of Antonio Covarrubias. El Greco. Provin- 
cial Museum . . . . . . .488 

Portrait of the Son of Covarrubias. El Greco. Pro- 
vincial Museum . . . . . .489 

The Crucifixion. El Greco. Provincial Museum . 490 

Allegory of the Virgin. El Greco. Provincial Museum 491 
Portrait of Juan de Avila. El Greco. Provincial 

Museum ........ 492 

Our Saviour. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 493 

St. John the Evangelist. El Greco. Provincial Mu- 
seum ........ 494 

St. Peter. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 495 

St. Matthias. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 496 



ILLUSTRATIONS xxxiii 

TITLE PLATE 

St. Philip. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 497 

St. Andrew. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 498 

St. Thomas. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 499 

St. Simon. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 500 

St. Matthew. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 501 

St. Jude Tadeo. El Greco. Provincial Museum . 502 

An Apostle. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 503 

An Apostle. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 504 

An Apostle. El Greco. Provincial Museum . . 505 

The Annunciation. El Greco ..... 506 

The Dream of Philip II. El Greco. Chapter Hall 

of the Escorial ....... 507 

St. Maurice and the Theban Legion. EI Greco. Chap- 
ter Hall of the Escorial ..... 508 

Portrait of El Greco by Himself. Senor A. de Beruete, 

Madrid ........ 509 

Christ driving the Money Changers from the Temple. 

El Greco. Senor de Beruete, Madrid . . .510 

Portrait of a Student (El Greco ?). El Greco. Don 

Pablo Bosch, Madrid . . . . .511 



TOLEDO 



TOLEDO 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE CITY 

There are spots that stand out in the ocean of 
time like islands unsubmerged. The flood of years 
has rolled onwards past and around them, and its 
billows have broken in vain against their shores. 
Such a spot is Toledo. It lifts its head above 
the ever-shifting waters of the ages, and looks 
forth unchanged, unchanging, across the sea of 
centuries — a last surviving beacon of the drowned 
mediaeval world. 

Very old is the city. It has outgrown decay. 
Nor can we conceive it as changing. It has almost 
become a part of the everlasting hills on which it 
stands. The rock has grown into Toledo and 
Toledo into the rock. 

In a land where all is old, men marvel at the 
antiquity of this city. And when it was younger 
by centuries, the chroniclers, groping amid legends 
and fables the wildest and most extravagant, 
strove to penetrate the darkness of the ages and 
to discern the pale glimmerings of Toledo's dawn. 
Here, surely, first trod the first man, thought the 

A 



2 TOLEDO 

ancients, and here was already a city when God 
first placed His sun exactly over it in the yet-dark 
Heavens. If this was not so, said another 
chronicler, then beyond doubt Toledo's seven 
hills were the first to appear above the waters of 
the Deluge, and Tubal, the grandson of Noah, 
established here a kingdom. So stories and 
traditions multiplied, each historian inventing a 
fresh one. These fables of the city's founding 
are quaint, curious, and ingenious. Iberia and 
Hispania of course suggested persons, and so we 
find Iberia, daughter of King Hispan, and wife of 
a Persian captain, Pyrrhus, resorting in search of 
health to the banks of theTagus, and her husband 
making a bower for her on these rocky steeps. 
Hercules, who is credited with the foundation of 
Seville, added the building of Toledo to his many 
labours. " Dismiss these far-fetched fables," 
cries the learned prelate De Rada, " and admit 
that our city was founded by the Consuls Tolemon 
and Brutus, in the reign of Ptolemy Evergetes." 
But another conjecture as absolutely baseless as 
the others ! More interesting is the legend that the 
town was built by Jews flying from Nebuchad- 
nezzar, by whom it was named Toledoth, "the 
city of generation." Certain it is that Jews lived 
in Toledo at the earliest periods of its history, and 
played a great part, as we shall see, in its affairs. 
However picturesque may be these traditions 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE CITY 3 

and wonderings of the sages, we cannot resist the 
conclusion that the beginnings of this old capital 
of Spain were obscure and commonplace enough. 
Along the banks of the yellow Tagus savage 
tribesmen pastured their flocks and herds, and 
the more practical spirits among them recognised 
the advantages of the cliff above the river as a 
settlement. Doubtless mere temporary encamp- 
ments succeeded each other here season after 
season, till some sentiment or necessity attached 
men permanently to the spot, and a rude cluster 
of huts was formed — the rough inception of our 
greatest towns. 

The Celtiberians hereabouts were known to the 
Romans as Carpetani (how ill these Latin forms 
seem to reproduce the uncouth designations 
which these primitive peoples really bore !) The 
Carthaginians were the first civilised nation to 
come in contact with them, and we hear of a 
Punic governor, Tago. It is impossible to resist 
the suspicion that his personality arose. Aphrodite- 
like, from the river Tagus. But a Moorish writer 
gives a plausible account of a revolt which arose 
among the Carpetani consequent on Tago's as- 
sassination by Hasdrubal, the contemporary of 
Hannibal. This brought that great commander 
himself upon the scene. Before him the tribes- 
men were scattered like chaff before the wind. 

Did the African Phoenicians found a per- 



4 TOLEDO 

manent station at Toledo ? It would not seem so. 
No vestige or fragment, no trace whatever of their 
domination has come down to us. Most likely 
this was a mere trading centre, where the black- 
bearded, keen-eyed Semites bartered the wares of 
Africa and the East against the ores and fleeces 
of Spain. The population remained almost purely 
Celtic. One wonders if a few Carthaginians settled 
amongst them, and if their descendants became 
confounded with their kinsmen in race, the Jews. 
It is a wild conjecture, but might not the presence 
of such Semitic settlers have given rise to the 
fantastic legend of the founding of Toledo by the 
Children of Israel ? 

Where the Carthaginian sowed, the Roman 
reaped. And now the Carpetanian village looms 
in the light not of mere tradition, but of history. 
Livy tells us that in the year 193 B.C. the Pro- 
Consul Marcus Fulvius Nobilior defeated a host 
of Celtiberians, Vaccei and Vectones in this region, 
and took prisoner a king called Hilerno. In 
consequence of this victory Toledo — described as 
itrbs parva sed loco niunito — fell into the power of 
the conquerors. The wild rebellious Celts might 
henceforward chafe and lash themselves into im- 
potent fury ; on their necks the yoke of the 
Roman was firmly riveted, never by the natives 
unassisted to be shaken off. 

Historians have remarked on the aloofness of 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE CITY 5 

the Toledans during the long winter of foreign 
domination. Between the various leaders and 
factions who made Spain their cock-pit, the 
citizens observed strict neutrality. They rendered 
no assistance to Viriathus in his magnanimous 
attempt to recover national independence. Per- 
haps they were not wanting in sympathy for their 
compatriots ; but the conquerors had long recog- 
nised the military value of the town by the Tagus, 
and here we may suppose was always a strong 
garrison ready to stamp out the first efforts at 
revolt. 

Under the wings of the Roman eagle, the 
material prosperity of Toledo steadily increased. 
From a collection of wretched huts, it had become 
a colonia, the capital of Carpetania. As such it 
would have had its arx, or citadel, prjetorium, 
forum, temples, baths, and vici, or long suburbs 
straggling into the country. Of all these practi- 
cally no traces remain. But in the Vega, outside 
the town, may be traced a semicircular enclosure, 
formed by masses of stones and mortar, about a 
metre in thickness, but of varying height. This 
space has been dignified with the name of Circus 
Maximum, and is undoubtedly a Roman work. 
But Senor Amador de los Rios has demonstrated 
almost conclusively that the Circus never advanced 
much beyond the foundations, which we now see 
before us probably in no very different state from 



6 TOLEDO 

that in which they were left some two thousand 
years ago. But though no Celtiberian captives 
or Christian martyrs here were " butchered to 
make a Roman hoHday," the consecration of the 
spot to the practice of cruelty bore fruit in after 
years. For the fires lit by the Inquisition were 
kindled here, and the Christian put the incom- 
pleted amphitheatre to the use for which it had 
been designed by the Pagan. To-day the men 
of Toledo play at pclota in the enclosure, and their 
cheery shouts may well scare away the ghosts of 
torturer and victim. 

This may be regarded as the most important 
Roman remains in the neighbourhood of the 
city. The famous Cave of Hercules, which 
figures so largely in legendary lore, was probably 
the crypt or substructure of a Temple of Jupiter ; 
and on the cliff-side below the Alcazar are a few 
fragments of a once-important aqueduct. 

It has been conjectured from the dimensions of 
the projected Circus that the Romans had at one 
time thought of elevating Toledo to the rank of 
chief city of Spain. The design, if it ever was 
formed, was never carried into execution. Of 
what passed in +he town under Latin rule we have 
but the vaguest notion. Toledo, like almost every 
other place in Europe, has its traditions of fierce 
persecution productive of local martyrs. Almost 
as many Christians were massacred in Spain, if 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE CITY 7 

we credit these stories, as Gibbon thinks perished 
in the whole Roman Empire. Among the 
martyrs of Toletum, it is perhaps superfluous to 
say, was a young and lovely virgin, in this 
instance called Leocadia. She was done to death 
by the truculent Dacian. St. Eugenius, the first 
bishop of Toledo, is said to have been a disciple 
of St. Paul. He was martyred at Paris, and his 
alleged remains were obtained from Charles IX. 
of France and presented to the city by Philip II. 

In early ecclesiastical annals Toledo has less 
shadowy claims on remembrance as the seat of 
several councils, the most celebrated being those 
of 396, 400, 589. The minutes of the second 
council are preserved in the local archives. Miss 
Hannah Lynch makes merry over the fathers' 
spirited denunciations of her sex. In truth, the 
irreverent reader is reminded of those other 
fulminations launched in the diocese of Rheims 
against certain persons unknown, and of the 
poet's surprised comment on their want of effect. 
The sex fared better at the hands of the Council, 
however, than vegetarians and mathematicians, 
both of whom were excommunicated downright. 
Neither class is numerous in Spain at the present 
day, so the labours of the fathers may not have 
been altogether ineffectual. 



THE CITY UNDER THE 
VISIGOTH 

DcRiNG the fifth century the Toledans may well 
have listened with attention to spiritual discus- 
sions, for looking forth from their rocky perch, 
they beheld the kingdoms of the earth passing 
away, and all that had seemed stable and eternal 
fading like the morning mist. The final breaking- 
up of the great world-controlling power was 
evident. Nations, the very names of which the 
men of the south had never heard, loomed from 
out the darkness of the north, and swept like a 
cloud of locusts over the land. The whole of 
Spain was desolate. Toledo, ever grim and stub- 
born, stood prepared to die hard. The tide of 
Vandal invasion surged in vain round her walls; 
then spent its fury in the south. The Visigoths 
established themselves in southern France. Under 
Walya they had overrun Spain, but had exchanged 
it, willingly enough, for Aquitania. Euric the 
Balthing, who succeeded his brother Theodoric 
as king in 466, seems to have repented of the bar- 
gain. He reconquered all Spain, except Galicia, 
which was held by the Suevi, and took Toledo. 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 9 

Where the Vandal had failed, the Visigoth suc- 
ceeded. In the first years of the sixth century 
the Franks stripped Euric's grandson, Amalaric, 
of practically all his possessions north of the Py- 
renees, and the kingdom of the Visigoths became 
synonymous with Spain. Its capital was Nar- 
bonne during the troubled reigns of Theudis and 
Theudigisel. But in 553 Athanagild was elected 
king. His wife was the sister of the Bishop of 
Toledo, and partly on that account, perhaps, but 
more probably because of its central position, he 
made that city his capital. That rank it retained 
during the continuance of the Visigothic mon- 
archy, with the brief interval of the reign of 
Liuba, who succeeded Athanagild in 567 and re- 
moved his Court to Narbonne. 

The history of Toledo for the next century and 
a half becomes, in some sort, the history of Spain. 
Under Liuba's brother and successor Leovigild 
(more correctly Liobagilths) the monarchy was 
consolidated. The Suevi in the north-west were 
subdued, and the nominal suzerainty of the 
Eastern Emperor was disavowed. Despite the 
difference in religion between the Visigoths, who 
were Arians, and the Romanised Iberians, who were 
Catholics, the two races began to intermingle, and 
the fusion of both into a single nation commenced. 
Leovigild was the first of his line to assume the 
insignia and appurtenances of royalty, and struck 



lo TOLEDO 

coins with his own likeness and the description, 
" King in Toledo." The title is significant of the 
increased importance of the city. The prosperity 
of the kingdom was temporarily interrupted by 
the celebrated insurrection of the monarch's son 
Ermenegild. This was the outcome of the mar- 
riage of that prince with Ingunthis, the daughter 
of the Prankish and Catholic king Sisebert. The 
wedding was solemnised in Toledo with great 
pomp, but the city shortly after became the scene 
of violent quarrels between Queen Goiswintha and 
her daughter-in-law. Ermenegild embraced his 
wife's religion, and headed a revolt against his 
father. He was defeated, and paid the penalty 
with his life at Tarragona, after refusing to accept 
the sacrament at the hands of an Arian bishop. 
Unedifying though his conduct may appear to 
us, he was regarded as a martyr for the faith, and 
is enrolled among the saints of the Catholic 
Church. 

Nor does his example seem to have been with- 
out its effect upon his brother, Reccared, who 
succeeded Leovigild in 587. In the month of 
May 589, Toledo was thronged with Catholic 
bishops and priests — many lately returned from 
exile — and with nobles from all parts of Spain, 
making their way to the Basilica of Santa Maria 
de la Sede Real, to assist at the solemn profession 
of the Catholic faith by the king and his queen, 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH ii 

Baddo. Sixty-two prelates took part in this, the 
third Council of Toledo, the most eminent being 
Massona, Bishop of Merida, Leandro of Baetica, 
Santardus of Braga, Ugno of Barcelona, Megecias 
of Narbonne, and Eufemio of Toledo. It was a 
memorable day for Spain. The king's example 
was soon followed by his subjects of his own race, 
and the unification of the two peoples was greatly 
accelerated. 

During the hundred and ten years that elapsed 
between the death of Reccared(6oi) and the rout 
of the Guadelete (711), no fewer than fifteen sove- 
reigns sat on the throne of Spain. Toledo was 
the theatre of their barbaric triumphings, their 
violent entrances and tragic exits. Now the city 
would resound with the savage, exultant yells of 
the townsmen, as they dragged the body of the 
usurper Witeric up and down the steep, uneven 
streets — to cast the bleeding, shapeless thing 
that had so lately been a king, upon a dunghill. 
Now, the people would be acclaiming Wamba, 
greatest of the Visigoths — after the strange scene 
at Gerticos, where the crown was forced upon 
him at the sword's point ; another time, a long 
procession of captives would file through the 
gates, to witness to the old king's triumph in 
Narbonnese Gaul. Not a " demise of the crown " 
but there would be angry mutterings among the 
townsfolk, and whispers of murder, compulsion, 



12 TOLEDO 

and fraud. And while the kings raved and the 
people wept, the Church grew every day stronger 
— so strong that usurper and legitimate sovereign 
alike had perforce to obtain her sanction to his 
election and accession. And as the years went 
on, the spark of religious zeal in the breast of 
Spain was fanned into flame, and we read of fierce 
onslaughts on the Jewish citizens, and of merciless 
edicts, condemning them to penalties painful and 
humiliating. Dark days were these for the 
Children of Israel whose home Toledo so long 
had been ; but darker still were impending for 
their persecutors and for the royal line of the 
Visigoths. 

An exact picture of society in Spain at this 
period has been preserved in the Etymologies of 
Isidore Pacense. The Visigoths were a primitive, 
barbarous people, who had imposed upon them- 
selves the outward appearances of Roman, or 
rather of Byzantine, civilisation. The contemptu- 
ous reference of Hallam to this " obscure race " 
is undeserved. Even in their earlier stages of 
development the Goths manifested many noble 
qualities — notably, a clemency towards their 
enemies — which were not conspicuous in the 
more polished nations of the South. And though 
they never properly assimilated the culture of the 
Latins, they attained to a degree of refinement and 
civilisation which compares favourably with that 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 13 

reached by contemporaries. " Spain," remarks 
the author of " Toledo " in the " Monumentos 
Arquitectonicos de Espaiia," " may then fairly and 
proudly claim that, while in Central Europe art 
had acquired no distinctive form — in the midst 
of the bitterness of slavery, when, before the 
abjuration of Reccared, the fusion of the races 
was not legally recognised — the Iberian Peninsula 
had developed a definite and evident artistic and 
literary individuality. That individuality must 
have been the result of the fortuitous conjunction 
and union of Latin traditions, more or less de- 
generate, with influences originally Byzantine 
and with those other transformed elements intro- 
duced by the Germanic hosts of Atawulf ; but, 
even then, it remains an individuality, which 
asserts itself in the surviving examples of Visigothic 
culture, and which was transmitted to the genera- 
tions succeeding the Moslem conquest," 

According to the standpoint of the critic, the 
Gothic kings' taste for pomp and luxury may be 
interpreted as proof of their civilised instincts or 
of their native barbarism. For of the splendour 
of the Court of Toledo we have abundant testi- 
mony. From the writings of Isidore, we learn 
that the nobles used only goblets and basins of 
the precious metals, that their garments were of 
superfine silk, and their ornaments of the richest 
jewels. The elaborate ceremonial of the royal 



14 TOLEDO 

household may be inferred from the Ust of func- 
tionaries — the First Count, or Chief Butler, the 
Escancias ; the Count Chamberlain, or Cnbicu- 
lario ; the Master of the Horse, Estahidario ; 
the Major Domo, or Nunierario ; the Steward, or 
Silonario; the Master of the Pages, or Espartarius; 
the Count of the Sagrarios, or Sacred Things ; and 
the Treasurer, or Argeniarios. These offices were 
only held by the highest nobles. In the Cluny 
Museum at Paris and the Royal Armoury at 
Madrid are preserved the superb Votive Crowns 
discovered at Guarrazar in 1858. These priceless 
objects proclaim the wealth and munificence of 
the Visigothic monarchs. They are composed of 
double hoops of gold, decorated on the outside 
by three bands in relief. The outer bands are set 
with pearls and sapphires, and the middle band 
with the same stones in a setting of a red vitreous 
substance. The crown is suspended by four 
chains from a double gold rosette, which encloses 
a piece of rock crystal set in facets. Each chain 
consists of four links, shaped like the leaf of the 
pear-tree, and percees a jour. In its original state 
the crown of King Swinthila, now in the Madrid 
Armoury, had, hanging from its lower rim, a cross 
and twenty-two letters, making up the inscription, 
sviNTHiLANUS REX OFFERET. All and each of these 
letters were actual j ewels, set in the red glassy paste 
already mentioned, to them being attached large 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 15 

single pearls and pear-shaped sapphires. Though 
only twelve letters were remaining when the 
crown was discovered, the dedication was skil- 
fully reconstructed by Senores de Madrazo and 
Amador de los Rios. The crown of Recceswinth 
in the Cluny Museum and the crown of the Abbot 
Theodosius at Madrid do not differ greatly from 
that of Swinthila in style and material. Though 
the workmanship is rude compared with modern 
specimens of the goldsmith's art, these crowns 
still excite admiration by their beauty and rich- 
ness. Inquiring into the origin of their style, 
Sefior de Riano arrives at the conclusion that it 
" must be looked for in the East ; their manufac- 
ture was most probably Spanish. We cannot 
imagine the extraordinary magnificence of the 
Visigothic court, so similar to that of Constanti- 
nople and other contemporary ones, without the 
presence at each of a group of artists whose task 
was to satisfy these demands." Not only the 
applied arts, but letters and learning were cul- 
tivated at Toledo. Swinthila and Recceswinth 
delighted in the composition of epistles and 
verses, in which, unfortunately, the taste, acquired 
from the Byzantines, for long-winded, flowery 
and involved phrases is painfully apparent. 
Recceswinth interested himself in the collection 
and revision of ancient manuscripts. In his reign 
flourished the learned and saintly Ildefonso, who 



i6 TOLEDO 

was publicly thanked for his work on the per- 
petual virginity of Mary by the martyr Saint 
Leocadia, who came expressly from Heaven for 
the purpose. One of Ildefonso's successors in the 
see of Toledo, Julian, was a Jew by birth, or at 
least descent. He was renowned for his erudition 
and especially as a polemical writer. Though he 
narrowly escaped excommunication as a heretic, 
he is now venerated as a saint, and was buried 
beside St. Ildefonso. 

As the seat of a Court which did something 
more than ape the culture of the Latins {pace 
Mr. Leonard Williams), Toledo rose from an 
obscure Roman colony into a city of dignity and 
importance. It is supposed to have reached its 
highest stage of development in the reign of King 
Wamba (672-680), whose mutilated statue con- 
fronts the traveller on approaching the town 
from the railway-station. Most of the buildings 
ascribed by the chroniclers, however, to that king 
were in all probability only restored by his orders, 
and were originally constructed by his prede- 
cessors. Isidore Pacense enumerates among the 
edifices existing in his time in Spain, basilicas, 
monasteries, oratories, and hermitages ; the 
Aula Regia, or royal residence, " distinguished 
before all other buildings by the richness of the 
four porticos which encircled it"; the Atrii of 
the nobility, which were allowed only three 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 17 

porticos ; hospitals, guest-houses, and Reposiiaria, 
or treasure-houses. It is reasonable to assume 
that the capital of Spain would have possessed 
buildings of all the kinds specified during the 
hundred years that elapsed between the death of 
Athanagild and the accession of Wamba. 

To the former king is attributed the foundation 
of the sanctuary converted later into the Hermi- 
tage of Cristo de la Luz, and the Church of 
Santa Justa, reconstructed in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. From an inscription on marble found in 
1581, near the Convent of San Juan de la Peni- 
tencia, it would appear that Reccared built a 
church consecrated to the Virgin in the year 587. 
The text runs : in nomine dni consecra | 

TA ECCLESIA SCTE MARIE | IN CATHOLICO DIE 
PRIMO I IDUS APRILIS ANNO FEU | CITER PRIMO 
REGNI D-NI I NOSTRI GLORIOSISSIMI H | RECCAREDI 
REGIS ERA I DCXXV. To Liuba II. is ascribed 
the erection of the Church of San Sebastian, 
where some capitals and shafts, discovered in 
1899, exist to attest its Visigothic origin. The 
Basilica of Santa Leocadia dated from the days 
of Sisebut (612-621) : and though the chroniclers 
assign no date to the dedication of the Church 
of San Gines there can be no doubt that it 
took place in the seventh century. Wamba 
adorned with statuary and partially restored the 
city walls, but it is an error, based on a corrupt 

B 



i8 TOLEDO 

text of Isidore Pacense's, to suppose that he 
built them. 

The site of the Aula Regia, or Palace of the 
Visigothic kings, has long been a matter of 
dispute among archaeologists. The author of the 
article on Toledo in the " Monumentos Arqui- 
tectonicos" decides in favour of the plot of 
ground covered by the Convents of the Concep- 
cion and the Comendadoies de Santiago, the 
ruined Hospital of Santa Cruz, and the new 
extension of the Paseo del Miradero — close to 
the Zocodover, in the north-east angle of the city. 
Adjacent to the palace was the Basilica of Saints 
Peter and Paul, " which seems," says Senor 
Menendez y Pidal, "to have been the royal 
pantheon, opened only for the entombment of the 
sovereign and the taking the oath of allegiance to 
his successor." Here were suspended the votive 
crowns, afterwards buried at Guarrazar ; here 
probably were interred Athanagild, Leovigild, 
Reccared I., Liuba U., Gundemar, Sisebut, Rec- 
cared H., Tulga, Erwig, Egica, and Witica. 
Their very dust has long since been scattered 
by the wind — who shall say where ? In a hall 
attached to that Basilica, in similar annexes to the 
Basilicas of Santa Leocadia and Santa Maria de la 
Sede Real, were held those ecclesiastical synods 
which so powerfully contributed to the shaping 
of the destinies of Spain. Santa Leocadia's 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 19 

church is now known as the Cristo de la Vega ; 
the Basilica de Santa Maria faced the Bridge of 
Alcantara and was in after years known as Santa 
Maria de Alficem. Here Recceswinth is said to 
have been crowned, the temple being afterwards 
restored by Erwig, Wamba's successor. 

Not a single building erected by the Visigothic 
kings exists to-day. " Destroyed by man's fury 
and by the vicissitudes of time," regretfully ob- 
serves Seiior Amador de los Rios, " or altered till 
all trace of their original form has been lost, by 
the pious care which intended to preserve them, 
you may seek in vain in the city of Wamba for an 
intact monument of that age ; not even the walls 
ascribed to that prince have remained entire. Frag- 
ments of friezes ; isolated capitals, which have 
adorned later edifices, oddly out of place in the 
scheme of decorations, or cut and defaced ; broken 
shafts, perhaps bearing some inscriptions ; pieces 
of a hinge, a metope, a lintel, or an impost, 
perhaps some dedicatory tablet — this is all that 
has escaped at Toledo the devastating scythe of 
time." 

These relics, however, are fortunately numerous. 
For a detailed description of the more important, 
the reader is referred to the " Monumentos Arqui- 
tectonicos de Espana." Some we shall notice 
more particularly in dealing with the edifices of 
which they now form part. 



20 TOLEDO 

Under Wamba the Visigothic monarchy reached 
the apex of its greatness. Under his four succes- 
sors, Erwig, Egica, Witica, and Roderic, State 
and people are said to have become hopelessly 
enervated. The old Gothic vigour blazed up now 
and again in some individual ruler or statesman, 
but failed to communicate itself to the nation. 
The kingdom was tottering to its fall. The taste 
for display and the amenities of existence grew 
stronger in this period of decline. Never was there 
such wealth and splendour in Toledo as when it 
fell a prey to the hosts of Islam. The rapid decay 
of this once great and martial race is without a 
parallel in history. It is difficult to assign to it a 
cause. Luxury was the privilege only of the 
nobility and clergy, and could hardly have cor- 
rupted the whole people. Modern writers lamely 
attribute the final catastrophe to ecclesiastical in- 
fluence and domination. Perhaps when all has 
been said, the state of Spain under Witica and 
Roderic was not much worse than under subse- 
quent rulers of other dynasties ; and the downfall 
may have been due, not so much to the effeminacy 
of the vanquished, as to the extraordinary mili- 
tary genius of the conquerors. Historians would 
have said little about the degeneracy of the Visi- 
goths if the battle of the Guadalete had had a 
different issue. 

The Hispano-Goths, as Catholics, evinced a 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 21 

fanatical and intolerant temper which had been 
conspicuously lacking in them as Arians. Harsh 
edicts continued to be promulgated against the 
Jews — then, as till a much later date, a most im- 
portant element in the population of Toledo. The 
unlucky Children of Israel may have derived in 
the intervals of persecution some malicious con 
solation from the bitter quarrels between the 
king and the Catholic clergy. Witica was an 
enemy, or what was probably regarded as the 
same thing, a would-be reformer of the Church. 
To his impiety, indeed, monkish writers are fond 
of ascribing the destruction of the Gothic kingdom. 
His predecessor, Egica, did not hesitate to con- 
demn to excommunication, exile, and confiscation 
of property, Sisebert, the powerful Archbishop 
of Toledo. Perhaps some clerkly chronicler, 
by way of retaliation for this outrage upon his 
order, invented the following discreditable story, 
to be found in the pages of Lozano. 

King Egica had conceived an ardent passion 
for the beautiful Dona Luz, who is described as 
the grand-daughter of Kindasvvinth, and the sister 
of Roderic, afterwards king. Her love, however, 
was given to her uncle, Don Favila, Duke or 
Governor of Cantabria. The lovers, wearied at 
last by the king's opposition to their union, went 
through a secret and simplified form of marriage 
in the lady's bedchamber before a statue of the 



22 TOLEDO 

Virgin. In the course of time, Dona Luz be- 
came a mother, Egica's suspicions had already 
been enkindled, and fearing his wrath, she placed 
the new-born infant in a little ark and set it afloat 
on the bosom of the Tagus. As her maids pushed 
out the tiny craft from the foot of the steep path 
that leads down from Toledo, a radiance diffused 
itself around the sleeping child and for long 
marked his passage down the broad stream. The 
irate monarch, divining that Dona Luz must in 
some way have disposed of her child, caused a 
census to be taken of all the children born in and 
around the city within the past three months with 
the names of the respective fathers. The number 
of births was recorded at 35,428 — a very surprising 
total for Toledo ! And, which is still more remark- 
able and highly creditable to the city, the parent- 
age of these numerous infants was in every case 
authenticated. What then had become of Dona 
Luz's baby ? Baffled in his quest, the king 
suborned one of his minions, Melias by name, 
to accuse the unfortunate lady of incontinency. 
The penalty for this offence, we are told, was 
nothing less than death by fire ; and for that fate 
Egica bade Dona Luz prepare, unless she could 
secure a defender or otherwise clear her reputa- 
tion. At the eleventh hour, the valorous champion 
appeared in the person of Don Favila, who dis- 
proved the charge made against his lady-love to 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 23 

the satisfaction of mediaeval intelligences, by the 
simple method of running her accuser through 
the body. This, however, did not satisfy the 
sceptical monarch, who insisted on a further 
ordeal by combat. A knight named Bristes, 
cousin of the recreant Melias, was challenger and 
accuser on this occasion, and was quickly 
despatched by the doughty Favila. 

In the meantime the ark containing Pelayo, the 
infant child of Dona Luz and her champion, had 
reached Alcantara, where the little passenger 
almost miraculously fell into the hands of his 
mother's other uncle, Grafeses. This benevolent 
prince took every care of the child, unsuspicious, 
of course, of his origin. Attracted to Court by 
the noise of these scandals and combats, he found 
a handkerchief in his niece's room, the counter- 
part of one which he had discovered in the little 
ark. Dona Luz soon confessed to him the whole 
story, and he endeavoured to intercede for her 
with the king. Egica, probably more exasperated 
than ever, insisted on a third duel between Favila 
and a knight called Longaris. Both combatants 
had been wounded when a holy hermit appeared 
on the scene, and admonished the king as to his 
wickednes;j and hardness of heart. Egica re- 
pented and consented to the public celebration of 
the marriage of Favila and Dona Luz. Here we 
have a fine romantic account of the origin of the 



24 TOLEDO 

heroic Pelayo, the restorer of the monarchy and 
the saviour of the Spanish nation. 

Wilder, more romantic still, and better known 
are the legends clustering round the last king 
of the Goths. The scene of most of these is 
laid in Toledo. Here was held that wonderful 
tournament, to which resorted all the crowned 
heads of Europe — aye, even such potentates as 
the Emperor of Constantinople and the King of 
Poland. A new city of palaces was reared in the 
Vega by the hospitable Roderic to accommodate 
his fifty thousand noble guests. This splendid 
function may have taken place before or after the 
king's strange marriage with the bewitching 
Moorish princess Elyata (re-baptized Exilona), 
who had been washed ashore by the sea on the 
coast of Valencia. Lovely as was his consort, 
Roderic did not, as we all know, remain faithful to 
her. Here enters the mournful and very shadowy 
figure of Florinda, otherwise known as La Cava. 
This peerless damsel was confided to the care of 
the king by her father, the trusty Julian (or 
Ulan), governor of Ceuta. Alas for the maiden ! 
while bathing in the Tagus, her charms were only 
too well revealed to Roderic, gazing from his 
palace windows on the cliff above. A glimpse of 
a shapely leg scarce concealed by a diaphanous 
mantle decided the fate of Florinda — and of 
Spain. What he could not effect by persuasion, 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 25 

the king effected by violence. Perhaps he hoped 
that the proud Julian's daughter would keep 
silence as to her own dishonour. He was 
mistaken. A trusty page, spurring night and day, 
quickly bore the fatal tidings to the father at 
distant Ceuta, and the missive in which the 
wronged Florinda implored vengeance on her 
betrayer. 

To the no doubt conscience-stricken Roderic, 
seated in good old kingly fashion upon his 
throne, appeared two venerable strangers with a 
message of mysterious import. When Hercules 
had founded (as some men say) Toledo, not far 
from the city, among the mountains, he had 
reared a tower, of which these uncouth brethren 
were the guardians, as their ancestors, in an 
unbroken line, had been before them. On this 
tower and on its unknown and fearful contents, 
the demigod had laid a necromantic spell. It 
had been the custom of each of the Kings of 
Spain to affix to the massive doors a new lock, 
and now Roderic was summoned to fulfil this 
duty, for failing this and if any rash mortal should 
discover the secret of the tower, ruin, absolute 
and immediate, must overtake his kingdom. 
Agog with curiosity, with a brilliant cavalcade, 
the king clattered through the streets of his 
capital, and found the wondrous tower in the 
recesses of the hills. The aged custodians 



26 TOLEDO 

besought him to hasten and to affix his seal to the 
enchanted doors. In vain ! it was with another 
intention the impetuous sovereign had come 
hither. He burst open the doors and rushed in, 
where never man since Hercules had dared to 
tread. Before him stood a gigantic statue in 
bronze, which dealt blows with a great mace 
unceasingly to right and left. On its breast were 
inscribed the words, / do my duty. Roderic 
sternly adjured the creature of enchantment to 
let him pass. It obeyed. In the interior of the 
tower the King found a casket of rich workman- 
ship. A legend thereon warned him of the 
doom that would overtake him who should open 
it. Roderic forced open the lid. He beheld a 
fold of linen on which were painted the figures of 
Moorish warriors in battle-array. As he gazed 
the figures seemed to move, to grow larger, to 
assume the proportions of men. He beheld a 
battlefield where Goths and Moors contended for 
the mastery. Breathless, he awaited the issue. 
The Goths were flying, and he saw his own white 
steed, Orelia, galloping through the fray — rider- 
less. Affrighted, the king and his attendants 
rushed to the door. There lay the two ancient 
custodians, dead. Thunder rolled, a storm burst 
over the land, and Roderic and his cavaliers drew 
not rein till they reached the palace of Toledo, 
Next day the stout-hearted Goths reascended to 



THE CITY UNDER THE VISIGOTH 27 

the hills. But as they approached, behold a great 
eagle swooped down from the sky holding in its 
talons a flaming brand ! The tower blazed up like 
matchwood. Then arose a great wind which 
carried the ashes to every part of Spain ; and 
every man on whom a portion of the ashes fell 
was afterwards slain in battle by the Moors. 

These direful portents must surely have pre- 
pared Roderic for treachery, conspiracies, and 
unpleasantness of all kinds. But when Count 
Julian arrived, smiling and deferential, to take his 
daughter home to Ceuta, he seems to have 
suspected nothing, feared nothing. The rest of 
the story — Julian's invitation to the Moors, the 
rout of Guadalete, the disappearance of Roderic 
— relates to the history of Spain generally, not to 
that of Toledo. Dozy believes that Julian 
actually existed, but he seems to have been a 
Byzantine governor of Ceuta, not a Spaniard. 
It is hardly necessary to say that Florinda is as 
much a figment of the imagination as the 
enchanted tower. Yet near the Puente de San 
Martin (above which never king's palace stood) 
some fragments of masonry are pointed out as 
the Bancs de la Cava (Florinda's Bath). They 
are, in reality, but the remains of a Moorish tomb. 

In July 711, King Roderic set out from Toledo, 
never to return. Upon the news of the rout of 
Guadalete, all the magnates and prelates aban- 



28 TOLEDO 

doned the city. Its surrender to the Moorish 
host of the one-eyed Tarik was the work of the 
Jews, who had not forgotten the persecutions of 
Sisebert and Egica. There were Jews in the in- 
vading army under the command of Kaula-al- 
Yahudi. When Tarik appeared before the walls, 
a venerable Israelite was let down in a basket, 
and, approaching him, offered to admit him to 
the city if liberty and the free exercise of their 
religion were guaranteed to his race. The Berber 
joyfully accepted these terms, and on the follow- 
ing day proud Toledo — deserted by its Christian 
inhabitants — was annexed to the Saracen 
Khalifate. 



TOLEDO UNDER THE MOOR , 

Never again was Toledo to attain to the wealth 
and splendour it possessed under Wamba and his 
successors. The invaders, fresh from the con- 
quest of the richest provinces of Africa, were 
dazzled by the magnificence of the spoils that fell 
to them in the dark-browed city above the Tagus. 
The Arabian historians have need of all their 
powers of hyperbole to over-estimate the richness 
of the treasure. There was enough and to spare, 
Al Leyth Ibn Said tells us, for every soldier in the 
army. The humblest troopers might have been 
seen staggering under the weight of priceless silks 
and garments, chains of gold, and strings of pre- 
cious stones. The rude Berbers, fresh from their 
mountains, but ill appreciated the value of the 
loot, and cut the costliest fabrics in two or more 
pieces to adjust their shares. A magnificent 
carpet, composed of superb embroidery, inter- 
woven with gold and ornamented with filigree 
work, and profusely set with gems, is said to 
have been treated in this way by the troopers 
into whose greedy hands it fell. It would be 
interesting to learn the place of manufacture of 



30 TOLEDO 

this carpet, for from the silence 'of St. Isidore 
upon the subject of textile fabrics, it would seem 
that they were not made in his time in Spain. 

But, to credit the Moorish chroniclers, the rarest 
of exotic treasures had been accumulated in the 
Visigothic capital. Here were found the Psalms 
of David, written upon gold leaf in a fluid made 
from dissolved rubies ! and most wonderful of 
all, the Table of Solomon made out of a single 
emerald ! It was brought to Toledo — so runs one 
version — after the taking of Jerusalem, and was 
valued in Damascus at one hundred thousand 
dinars- — equal to about ^^50,000. We are not 
surprised to hear that this unique piece of furni- 
ture " possessed talismanic powers" ; for tradition 
affirms it was the work of genii, and had been 
wrought by them for King Solomon the Wise, the 
son of David. This marvellous relic was carefully 
preserved by Tarik as the most precious of all his 
spoils, being intended by him as a present to the 
Khalifa ; and, in commemoration of it, the city 
was called by the Arabs, Medina Almyda, that is 
to say, " The City of the Table." 

Thus far Washington Irving. With character- 
istic credulity, Ibn Hayyan, the historian, gives in 
the translation of Gayangos a substantially dif- 
ferent account of the treasure : " The celebrated 
table which Tarik found at Toledo, although attri- 
buted to Solomon and named after him, never 



UNDER THE MOOR 31 

belonged to the poet-king. According to the bar- 
barian authors, it was customary for the nobles 
and men in estimation of the Gothic Court, to 
bequeath a portion of their property to the church. 
From the money so amassed the priests caused 
tables to be made of pure gold and silver, gorgeous 
thrones and stands on which to carry the Gospels 
in public processions, or to ornament the altars 
on great festivals. The so-called Solomon's table 
was originally wrought with money derived from 
this source, and was subsequently emulously en- 
larged and embellished by successive kings of 
Toledo, the latest always anxious to surpass his 
predecessor in magnificence, until it became the 
most splendid and costly gem ever made for such 
a purpose. The fabric was of pure gold, set with 
the most precious pearls, emeralds and rubies. 
Its circumference was encrusted with three rows 
of these valuable stones, and the whole table dis- 
played jewels so large and refulgent that never 
did human eye behold anything comparable with 
it. . . . When the Muslims entered Toledo it was 
discovered on the altar of the Christian Church, 
and the fact of such a treasure having been found 
soon became public and notorious." 

Gibbon accounts for the presence of the Table 
of Solomon at Toledo — assuming that there ever 
was such a thing, and that it ever was there at all 
—by supposing it to have been carried off by 



32 TOLEDO 

Titus to Rome, whence it may have been taken 
by Alaric when the Goths sacked the city. Which- 
ever version of the table's origin be accepted, it 
seems strange that it was not carried away by the 
clergy in their flight from Toledo. Of its ulti- 
mate fate nothing is known, unless we can 
accept the little that is revealed in the following 
history. 

Upon Musa approaching the city to supersede 
Tarik, the latter broke off and concealed one of 
the legs of the table. Musa was already incensed 
against his lieutenant for having deprived him of 
the glory of the conquest of Spain, and emphasised 
his reprimands with strokes of a whip. When he 
found that the leg of the table was missing, his 
anger was very great. Tarik assured him he had 
found it in that mutilated condition, and Musa 
caused the missing leg to be replaced by one of 
gold. His subordinate, however, he cast into 
prison, where the One-Eyed One remained till re- 
leased by orders from the Khalifa himself. He 
was amply revenged on Musa, when upon the 
latter presenting the table to his sovereign as his 
own discovery, he was able triumphantly to give 
him the lie by producing the missing leg of 
emerald. And so the wonderful Table of Solomon, 
of emerald, or of gold, or of both, passes out of 
the ken of history. 

We hear of Musa's son, Abd-ul-Aziz (or "Bel- 



UNDER THE MOOR 33 

asis," as he is quaintly termed by old Spanish 
writers) marrying King Roderic's widow, Exilona, 
at Toledo. Abd-ul-Aziz, however, was Governor 
of Seville, where he met his death, and it is not 
unlikely, if he married the queen at all, that 
he did so in that southern city, where she may 
have been left by her first consort to await the 
result of the battle of the Guadalete. If there be 
any truth in the legend that Exilona was of 
Moorish origin herself, the story of this second 
and apparently cold-blooded union seems less 
improbable. Tradition has it that the widow of 
the Goth only consented to the match on Abd- 
ul-Aziz promising to observe towards her all the 
deference due to a Christian queen. He kept his 
promise only too faithfully, and his forcing his 
officers to bend the knee to a woman and an 
infidel, is said to have contributed to bring about 
his assassination in the mosque at Seville. 

The conquerors here, as in other parts of the 
kingdom, acted generously towards the conquered. 
A moderate tribute was levied on the Christians, 
who were allowed to practise their religion and be 
governed by their own laws and customs. Seven 
churches were allotted to their use, the names of 
these being Santa Eulalia, Santa Maria de Alficem, 
Santa Justa, San Sebastian, San Marcos, San Tor- 
cuato, and San Lucas. But these privileges must 
have hardly consoled the citizens for the loss of 

c 



34 TOLEDO 

the town's rank as capital of Spain. It became, 
as it had been under the Romans, " a strong 
place," of which the dominant race valued the 
advantages, but, in consequence of the rise of 
Cordoba and Seville it sank to the condition of a 
provincial town. 

As such its career was throughout stormy and 
turbulent. The spirit of rebellion seemed instinct 
in the grim fortress-like city, and infused itself into 
Mohammedan and Christian, Arab and Castilian 
alike. The two races fraternised well enough. 
They had a common interest : resistance to any 
external authority. This impatience of control 
was characteristic of the Toledans for centuries. 
Its annals during the period of Mohammedan 
occupation are a tedious record of sieges, riots, 
usurpations and massacres. Such events are 
only of interest when studied in the minutest 
detail. A brief resume oi them is, however, indis- 
pensable to a proper knowledge of the town. 

The citizens' first appearance in the troubled 
arena of Muslim politics was as loyalists — an un- 
congenial role ! In the civil wars that distracted 
the reign of Abd-ul-Malik, Toledo was held by 
his son Omeya, and vainly besieged for a 
month by the rebels. On the approach of 
Abd-ul-Malik, the garrison, wishful of glory, 
made a vigorous sortie and completely routed 
the investing force. The townsmen had tasted 



UNDER THE MOOR 35 

blood. It took much to quench their thirsf. 
Knowing their character, in the troubles fomented 
by the pretender Yusaf ben Debri, his partisan, 
Mohammed Abu-1-Aswad took refuge among 
them in the year of the Hegira 142. The place 
was immediately invested by the Wizir, Al Kama, 
and as usual offered a stout resistance. Wearied 
of their ruler, however, the people played him 
false and betrayed the town to the Wizir. Abu-1- 
Aswad was taken prisoner and sent to Cordoba. 

A year or two later the Toledans repented of 
their submission. While the Amir, Abd-ur- 
Rahman, was engaged in preparations for a war 
in the east of Spain, some powerful families, led 
by one Hixem ben Adra al Fehri, rose, seized 
the Alcazar, and put the Wizir to flight. They 
released the notorious rebel, Kasim ben Yusuf, 
from prison, and raised an army of about ten 
thousand men — mostly freebooters and masterless 
men who seemed to have regarded Toledo as the 
best market for their peculiar talents. The Amir's 
appearance before the walls, with a powerful army, 
caused moderate counsels to prevail among the 
insurgents. The citizens were anxious to be rid 
of the undesirables they had invited into their 
midst, and persuaded Hixem to visit the royal 
camp to solicit terms. Abd-ur-Rahman gener- 
ously pardoned him, and once more incarcerating 
Kasim, left the town to itself. 



36 TOLEDO 

He soon had good reason to repent his for- 
bearance. In 763 Kasim escaped from confine- 
ment, rallied the citizens round him, and declared 
the town subject only to the Khalifa of Damascus. 
The siege that followed was languidly conducted. 
The people, we read, were suffered to cultivate 
their fields, and to carry produce into the city 
unmolested. At this rate the siege might have 
lasted as long as that of Candia. Kasim, mean- 
while lulled into a sense of security, abused his 
power, and alienated his unruly subjects. On 
the arrival of the Amir, he was given notice to 
quit. Having seen him successfully elude the 
royal forces, Toledo opened its gates to Abd-ur- 
Rahman. The Amir, despairing of the towns- 
men's temper, exacted from them but a nominal 
obedience, but his successor, Hakam, thought to 
coerce them by a bitter lesson. As Governor, he 
sent them one Amru of Huesca, a renegade 
Christian, " by a condescension," he wrote, 
" which proves our extreme solicitude for your 
interests." The renegade's policy was thorough. 
He ingratiated himself with the people, and posed 
as the champion of their liberties. It was at their 
own suggestion that he raised a fortress in their 
very midst. The place being strongly garrisoned 
and all being ready, the approach of a large army, 
commanded by the Amir's son, Abd-ur-Rahman, 
was announced. At the suggestion of the Governor, 



UNDER THE MOOR 37 

the prince was invited by the nobihty into the 
city ; and he, in return, as if to mark his sense of 
the honour conferred upon him, ordered a great 
feast to be made ready at the Castle. To this all 
the chief men were bidden. What followed is 
known as the Day of the Fosse. The guests were 
allowed to enter only one by one. Behind the 
gate stood a man with bared arm and uplifted 
axe. As each guest entered there was a sweep of 
the arm, a flash of steel, and a head rolled into 
the ditch already prepared. Without, nothing 
was heard, nothing was seen, nothing suspected. 
The episode reminds one of the famous Blood 
Bath of Stockholm. The butchery is said at last 
to have been revealed to those waiting outside the 
wall by the thick vapour issuing from the gate. 
A physician, who had been watching for hours, 
and who had noticed that none of the numerous 
guests who had entered, had issued forth, was the 
first to raise the alarm. " Men of Toledo," he 
shouted, " I vow that yonder vapour is not the 
smoke of a feast, but rises from the blood of our 
butchered brethren 1 " 

This ghastly tragedy occurred in 807, and has 
given rise to a proverbial expression current in 
Spanish — una noche Toledana, applied to a night 
disagreeably passed in sleeplessness or pain. 

The blow struck by the ferocious Amru was of 
the kind that alone met with the approval of 



38 TOLEDO 

Macchiavelli : it not only intimidated, but it 
crushed. For a quarter of a century we hear no 
more of tumults or dissensions in the City by the 
Tagus. Meantime it prospered. Arts and letters 
flourished. In the year 827 we have to record 
the death "of the very learned alfaqui, Isa ben 
Dinar el Ghafeki, a native of that city and a 
disciple of Malik ben Anas. He was a man 
beloved by all — friendly in manner, admirable in 
conversation, and upright of life : such as were 
taught by Isa ben Dinar acquired their learning 
with delight. He was in the habit of practising 
some few observances that were considered 
extraordinary : he made, for example, the prayer 
of the dawn with the preparation and ablutions 
proper to that of the evening twilight." 

The opulence of the Jews and Christians decided 
the Wali, Aben Mafut ben Ibrahim, to increase 
• their tribute. This led to the outbreak of 832. 
A wealthy young citizen, named Hakam el Atiki, 
otherwise known as El Durrete, or "the striker of 
blows," had been insulted by the Wali, and used 
the discontent of the people as a means of aveng- 
ing his injuries. He distributed money freely 
among the more inflammable sections of the 
populace, and collected about him a body of 
lawless followers. One of these was seized in 
the Soko, or market-place (the Zocodover) by one 
of the Wall's officers, and a tumult at once uprose. 



UNDER THE MOOR 39 

In the end the Alcazar fell into the hands of the 
rebels, and the Wali barely escaped with his life. 
Hakam, however, was shortly afterwards obliged 
to abandon his conquest, and spread abroad the 
report that he had left the country. The vigilance 
of the garrison becoming in consequence relaxed, 
he seized the city by a coup de main, and held it 
for some years. He was wounded, taken prisoner, 
and beheaded in 837, by Abd-el-Raf, his head 
being suspended from the gate of Bisagra. 

So far the risings at Toledo had been mainly 
political, and the townsmen had sunk their re- 
ligious and racial differences to make common 
cause against the stranger. The cause of the 
insurrection of 854 was, by exception, an out- 
burst of fanaticism on the part of the Mu- 
zarabes or Christians, who practised the ritual 
of the Spanish Goths. If was at this time that 
the Catholics of Cordoba and Seville, subject 
to some extraordinary aberration, had in great 
numbers earned the doubtful honour of martyr- 
dom by blaspheming Mohammed. To Toledo, 
as the most likely spot at which to create 
a disturbance, came Eulogius and stirred the 
Christians to avenge the " wrongs " of their co- 
'religionists. Under the leadership of Sindola, 
they dispossessed their Moorish governors, and 
carrying the war into the enemy's own country, 
defeated the Amir's forces at Andujar. Ordono 



40 TOLEDO 

King of Leon, now came to the assistance of the 
citizens, who, hitherto, had shown no eagerness 
to call in the help of the Christians of the north. 
Mohammed, the Amir, presently appeared before 
Toledo, and drew the allied forces into an ambush. 
The Christians were totally defeated — almost an- 
nihilated. Nothing daunted, the Toledans, later 
on, insulted their sovereign by electing Eulogius 
to the vacant archiepiscopal see. Mohammed, 
by way of reprisal, inveigled a large force of 
Christians on to a bridge which he had under- 
rained. It was the Day of the Fosse over again. 

In the year 873, vi;e find the independence of 
Toledo, subject to his suzerainty, nominally ac- 
knowledged by the Amir, who was probably glad 
to make any terms that promised peace with 
vassals so turbulent. In the I'eign of the Amir 
Al Mundhir even this faint shadow of outside 
authority was shaken off by the city, which again 
asserted its complete independence, in 886, under 
Ibn Hafsun. The town was besieged by the royal 
forces under the Wizir Haksim. The wily Ibn 
Hafsun, seeing that the stronghold must fall, pro- 
posed to the opposing general that he should 
allow him to evacuate the place and transport his 
army to the frontier of Valencia, on a train of 
beasts of burden to be provided by the besiegers. 
Haksim joyfully assented to this capitulation, and 
on the day appointed, what was supposed to be 



UNDER THE MOOR 41 

the entire army of the rebel chief issued from the 
gates of the city and wended their way, with the 
train of packhorses, eastwards. Leaving what he 
considered a sufficient garrison in Toledo, Haksim 
drew off the greater part of his forces and went to 
Cordoba. Meanwhile the crafty Hafsun swiftly 
retraced his steps, and with the aid of the con- 
siderable detachment he had left concealed in the 
town, put the garrison to the sword, and once 
more hurled defiance at the Amir. Great was 
Al Mundhir's wrath on the receipt of this intel- 
ligence, and before nightfall, the head of Haksim 
lay severed from his body. 

Ibn Hafsun proved a formidable antagonist. 
The Amir lead an army against him in 888 and 
was defeated and killed. Twenty years later 
Hafsun died, bequeathing what was practically 
an independent sovereignty to his son. The 
great Khalifa, Abd-ur-Rahman III., now sat on 
the throne of Cordoba. He determined to put 
an end to the arrogant pretensions of the unruly, 
untamable city. His summons to capitulate 
being contemptuously rejected, he took the field 
in 930. For eight years the siege went on, varied 
by exploits and incidents, which might prove 
matter for a Moorish Iliad. Famine stalked 
abroad in the obstinate city, but the Hafstins 
would not hear of surrender. When at last it 
became plain that the people would yield, the 



42 TOLEDO 

leaders and their partisans, to the number of 
four thousand, made a last desperate sortie. Two 
thousand cavaliers, with a foot-soldier clutching 
firmly hold of each horse's girth, they broke 
through Abd-ur-Rahman's camp, and got cLan 
away. Almost joyfully the townsmen opened 
their gates to the great Amir — to be firmly bitted 
and bridled during the remainder of his reign. 

That the town was still subject to the central 
authority in the year 979, we gather from this 
incident. The Governor, Abd-ul-Malik Ibn Mer- 
wan having some difference with the Wali of 
Medina Selim (Medinaceli), challenged him to 
single combat and slew him. For this, without 
more ado, he was removed from office by orders 
from Cordoba. 

In the first quarter of the eleventh century, 
Toledo recovered her freedom, on the break-up 
of the Umeyyah empire. Under her sultan, 
Ismail, in 1023, she was able to boast that she 
knew no other lord or ruler under the blue 
heavens. After Ismail came Abu-1-Hasan Yahya 
al Raman who reigned till 1075, and was then 
succeeded by Yahya Kadir, who lost his throne 
in 1085. 

Before relating the incidents of the reconquest 
of Toledo by the Christians and its incorporation 
in the steadily expanding kingdom of Leon, we 
will take a glance at the city as it was under its 



UNDER THE MOOR 43 

Mohammedan rulers. Of its affluence, import- 
ance, and strength, the foregoing cursory sketch 
of its history has afforded us some idea. It 
ranked as the metropoHs of the Christian element 
in ihe Amir's dominions, and its prelates early 
obtamed recognition from their Paynim sove- 
reigns as dignitaries of the highest standing. 
Among them were such notable men as Wistre- 
mir and Eulogius. One of the archbishops of 
Toledo, Elipando, embraced the heresy of 
Nestorius, and went the length of excommuni- 
cating his fellow bishops. Upon his death, how- 
ever, an orthodox successor was chosen. The 
Christians were wealthy and arrogant. They 
were classed in congregations, dependent on 
their various churches, each division including 
certain families irrespective of their domiciles. 
Toledo, during the three and a half centuries of 
Mohammedan dominion, never seems to have 
lost the outward character of a Christian town. 
Moorish influence she felt, and it served to 
soften and chasten her rough features, but 
Moorish she never became as did Seville and 
Cordoba. Yet in every corner of the old city 
the guides are prone to point out the buildings 
and remains that they fondly believe to be of 
Arabic workmanship. In reality, very few monu- 
ments of the Mohammedan period have survived. 
It is not by what we see but by what we read 



44 TOLEDO 

that we can form an idea of the city as it was in 
those days. 

It was renowned for its clepsydras or water- 
clocks, invented by Abu-1-Kasim. These are de- 
scribed as follows in an Arabic document : " But 
what is marvellous and surprising in Toledo, and 
what we believe no other town in all the world 
has anything to equal, are its water-clocks. It is 
said that Az-Zagral [Abu-1-Kasim] hearing of a 
certain talisman which is in the city of Arin, of 
Eastern India, and which shows the hours by 
means of aspas or hands, from the time the sun 
rises till it sets, determined to fabricate an artifice 
by means of which the people could know the 
hour of day or night, and calculate the day of the 
moon. He made two great ponds in a house on 
the bank of the Tagus, near the Gate of the 
Tanners, making them so that they should be 
filled with water or emptied according to the rise 
and fall of the moon." The water began to flow 
into the ponds as soon as the moon became 
visible, and at dawn they were four-sevenths full. 
The water rose by one-seventh every twenty-four 
hours, and were full at full moon. As the lumi- 
nary waned, the water fell in exact proportion. 
The exact working of these contrivances was lost 
when an astronomer, deputed by Alfonso el Sabio 
to examine them, broke parts of the intricate 
machinery. 



UNDER THE MOOR 45 

The chroniclers relate wonders of the palace 
of An Naora, so called from its celebrated noria 
or hydraulic apparatus. The apartments were 
so splendid as to rival those of the palace of 
the Amir himself, and " were resplendent as 
the sun at noonday, and the moon at the full." 
In the luxurious gardens was the lake or albu- 
hera, in the centre of which rose a pavilion of 
glass, where Al Raman-bil-Lah, the last sovereign 
of Toledo, used to pass the night. " The clever 
architects " — we quote from the " Monumentos 
Arquitectonicos " — who made the lake, not only 
raised the waters from the river in order to fill it, 
but raised them above the cupola of the pavilion, 
over and around which they flowed incessantly, 
forming around it a diaphanous and crystalline 
mantle. Not a drop could penetrate the struc- 
ture or touch the persons within. With the 
sonorous murmur of these waters mingled that 
produced by the fountains that gushed forth 
from the mouths of the lions in metal guarding 
this wonderful pavilion. Illumined inside with 
lamps of various colours, without it presented a 
fantastic appearance, which was reflected back 
from the waters of the lake, and which the people 
of Toledo contemplated with admiration through 
the dense foliage." 

Of this exquisite pleasaunce, no trace remains. 
Nor is anything left of the other palace of Al 



46 TOLEDO 

Hizem, built by Ismail, the first admittedly inde- 
pendent Sultan of Toledo — afterwards inhabited 
by the Christian kings. The principal building 
in Moorish times was, of course, the Aljama, or 
Chief Mosque. This seems to have been erected 
at the same time as the great Mezquita at 
Cordoba.in the reign ofAbd-ur-Rahman II., and to 
have been richly embellished and enlarged under 
the third and greatest Khalifa of that name. We 
read that in the fourth century of the Hegira, the 
architect Fatho ben Ibrahim el Caxevi built two 
sumptuous mosques, called, the one, Adabejin, 
the other Gebel Berida ; but where these were 
situated, or what was the real Arabic spelling of 
the names, we have no means of knowing. 

Happily a few specimens of the local architecture 
of that epoch remain. Of these one of the learned 
compilers of the " Monumentos Arquitectonicos " 
writes : "In spite of their varying degrees of integ- 
rity, and although greatly damaged and changed by 
later restorations, these works possess an extreme 
importance, and suffice to manifest the peculiar 
physiognomy of the secondary religious edifices 
of this part of the Peninsula at the most glorious 
epoch of the Khalifate — a physiognomy strikingly 
different from that of the principal religious struc- 
tures, or Aljamas, equivalent to our cathedrals, 
and different also from that of the same buildings 
in the south. They show, furthermore, decora- 



UNDER THE MOOR 47 

tlve processes believed to have been unknown in 
Spain at that epoch." 

The most complete and remarkable of these 
buildings is the Mosque of Bib-el-Mardom, now 
known as the Cristo de la Luz. It is situated to 
the north of the city, between the Puerta del 
Sol and the Puerta Bisagra. Here Alfonso VI., 
on entering Toledo on May 25, 1085, halted 
and caused Mass to be celebrated, leaving his 
shield behind him as a memento of the in- 
cident. 

The exterior of this most interesting building is 
unpromising. It is thus described by Mr. Street: 
" The exterior face of the walls is built of brick and 
rough stone. The lower part of the side wall is 
arcaded with three round arches, within the centre 
of which is a round horseshoe arch for a doorway ; 
above is a continuous sunk arcade of cusped arches, 
within which are window openings with round 
horse-shoe heads. The lower part of the walls is 
cut with single courses of brick, alternating with 
rough stonework ; the piers and arches of brick, 
with projecting labels and strings also of un- 
moulded brick. The arches of the upper windows 
are built with red and green bricks alternated," 
Restorations carried out in 1899 brought to light 
a most interesting pierced frieze running round 
the north-eastern fa9ade, and serving as a sort of 
ventilator. Above was deciphered the following 



48 TOLEDO 

inscription in Arabic characters : " In the name 
of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. This 
mosque was rebuilt . . . the renewal of its upper 
part, proposing to render it more beautiful, and 
[the restoration] was finished, with the help of 
God, under the direction of Musa Ibn Ali, the 
architect, and of Saada. It was completed in the 
Muharram of the year 370" [July 17, 979, to 
August 15, 980 A.D.] The whole facade of^the 
edifice has been much disfigured by successive 
reconstructions, coatings of plaster, &c., and has 
undergone much more serious transformation 
than the interior. 

Entering when the eyes have become accus- 
tomed to the obscurity, we make out the details 
of a very small and curious structure. Again to 
quote Mr. Street, the nave is only "21 ft. 7^ in. 
by 20 ft. 2 in., and this space is subdivided into 
nine compartments by four very low circular 
columns, which are about a foot in diameter. 
Their capitals are all different. The arches, of 
which four spring from each capital, are all of the 
round horseshoe form ; above them is a string- 
cburse, and all the intermediate walls are carried 
up to the same height as the main walls. They 
are all pierced above the arches with arcades of 
varied design, generally cusped in very Moorish 
fashion, and supported on shafts ; and above 
these each of the nine divisions is crowned with 



UNDER THE MOOR 49 

a little vault, formed by intersecting cusped ribs, 
thrown in the most fantastic way across each 
other, and varied in each compartment. The 
scale of the whole work is so diminutive that it is 
difficult, no doubt, to understand how so much is 
done in so small a space ; but looking to the early 
date of the work it is impossible not to feel very 
great respect for the workmen who built it, and 
for the ingenious intricacy which has made their 
work look so much larger and important than it 
really is." After the Reconquest, the loftier por- 
tion of the temple, consisting of apse and transept, 
and containing the altar, was added. Looking 
closer into the details of the Moorish portion, one 
is struck by the contrast presented by rude shafts 
and capitals, evidently of Visigothic workmanship, 
with the general elegance and delicacy of the 
whole. On making a careful study of these 
features, it is difficult to resist the conclusion 
(supported, indeed, by tradition) that they formed 
part of an earlier and less skilfully constructed 
mosque, itself merely a restoration or adaptation 
of a Visigothic church. Senior Amador de los 
Rios is of opinion that the existing structure con- 
stituted only the inner portion or maksurah of the 
temple, and believes that the southern wall is the 
only part of the outer or enclosing enceinte re- 
maining. In this he finds traces of the kiblah or 
sanctuary, memhar, and other features peculiar 



50 TOLEDO 

to Mohammedan worship. The mosque consisted 
originally, in all probability, in addition to the 
fabric we now see, of naves extending on each 
side of those still standing, from north-east to 
south-west. Even thus the mosque must have 
been very small. The exact configuration and 
plan of the original building is still a matter of 
great perplexity to archaeologists, and a great 
many more discoveries remain to be made before 
anything can be positively stated under this 
head. 

The newer, or Christian, portion of the mosque 
contains some remarkable mural paintings, dis- 
covered in 1871. They date from about the close 
of the twelfth century, and exhibit pronounced 
Byzantine influence. It seems satisfactorily estab- 
lished that two of the four female figures represent 
Saints Eulalia and Martiana ; and the other two, 
in all probability, the martyrs Leocadia and 
Obdulia. The fifth figure — that of a man — repre- 
sents a prelate. It may be, as Mr. Leonard 
Williams thinks, the Archbishop Bernardo, who 
figures largely in the annals of the Reconquest ; 
or the prelate's patron saint. It is not to that 
archbishop, however, but to one of his successors 
— possibly Don Gonzalo Perez (1182-1193) — that 
the remodelling of the building into a Christian 
place of worship should be ascribed. 

This intensely interesting monument is the 



UNDER THE MOOR 51 

subject of several curious and entertaining legends. 
In the days of Athanagild (and it is not im- 
possible, as we know, that the church may have 
existed at that time) a crucifix, greatly venerated 
by the citizens, hung over the door. Two evil- 
minded Jews, Sacao and Abishai by name, to 
express their hatred for Christianity, drove a 
lance into the side of the figure. Instantly blood 
gushed forth. The terrified Israelites hid the 
miraculous object in their own home, but were 
traced by the stains of blood, and (it is hardly 
necessary to add) torn to pieces. This irritated 
their co-religionists, who, to avenge them, 
poisoned the feet of the statue. This resulted 
in a second miracle, for when a devout woman 
was about to kiss the feet, they were withdrawn 
— to the discovery and undoing, once more, 
of the villainous Jews. The right foot of the 
image remains withdrawn to the present day, 
that all men may know the truth of the story. 

Now we come to the explanation of the name 
" Cristo de la Luz." When the Moors were about 
to take the city, the Christians walled up the 
miraculous crucifix, with a lamp burning before 
it. Three hundred and seventy years passed ; 
and on the glorious May 25, 1085, Alfonso VI. 
and his Christian chivalry came riding into 
reconquered Toledo. Among the cavaliers was 
the Cid, Ruy Diaz de Bivar. The warrior's horse. 



52 TOLEDO 

on passing the mosque, stumbled, or, as others 
have it, knelt. With preternatural acuteness, the 
Cid suspected some unusual circumstance, and 
had the adjacent wall broken down. Then was 
discovered the crucifix with the lamp still burning 
brightly, as when placed there nearly four centuries 
before. The mosque was reconsecrated on the 
spot ; and the King left his shield as a memento. 
There it hangs to-day, above the central arch, 
bearing a white cross on a crimson ground. 
Whether it is authentic or not, we cannot say, but 
below it one may read : Esto es el escudo que dejo 
enesta ermita el Rey Don Alfonso VI., cuando gano 
d Toledo y se dijo aqtii la primera misa. 

The Cristo de la Luz is no longer a church, 
and is now classed among the national monu- 
ments of Spain. 

Hardly less interesting, but very far from being 
as well known, is the ancient mosque in the 
Calle de las Tornerias. It is contained in the 
upper part of the private houses numbered 27, 
29, and 31. The mosque having been built 
against a steep incline, it was raised on a sub- 
structure of galleries, which now form the ground 
floor of the modern houses. The mosque was 
never converted to Christian uses, and retains its 
original physiognomy almost unimpaired. In the 
opinion of Spanish archaeologists, it belongs to 
the same period as the Cristo de la Luz ; but 



UNDER THE MOOR 53 

Street does not share this view, and thinks it a 
later work. Like the other mosque, it is built 
more or less in the form of a square, and has 
likewise Visigothic columns and capitals, pointing 
to the existence of a previous structure. Here, 
also, we find the horseshoe arch and the cupola, 
and evidences of the position of the kiblah. 
Recent restorations have shown that the walls 
are composed of the finest brickwork, unsur- 
passed for smoothness and regularity. But so 
far no trace has been revealed of any texts from 
the Koran, or inscription commemorating the 
architect's name, such as were usual in the 
Mohammedan temples of Spain. 

The Puerta Antigua de Bisagra, or ancient gate 
of Bisagra — not to be confounded with the new 
gate of the same name built by Charles V. — is 
dilapidated and falling to pieces. In Moorish 
times it was the principal entrance to the city. 
The name was probably originally Bib-Sahla. It 
dates from about the beginning of the tenth cen- 
tury, but to the primitive structure only the 
foundations of the gate belong. A reconstruction 
seems to have been carried out at the time of the 
Reconquest, and to that epoch the arch, or gate* 
properly speaking, may be assigned. The upper 
portion of the time-worn fabric belongs to a still 
later period. This is the only one remaining of 
the fifteen gates with which the walls of Toledo 



54 TOLEDO 

appear to have been furnished during the Moham- 
medan occupation. 

The celebrated Puente de Alcantara, as it exists 
to-day, must be regarded as the work of the 
Christians. It took the place of a structure, built 
or restored by the Musulmans, and regarded by 
the writers of their time and nation as one of the 
wonders of Spain: According to an inscription 
on the bridge tower, the work dated from the 
year 997 A.D., and was built by " Alif, son of 
Mohammed Al Ameri, Governor of Toledo, under 
the great Wizir, Al Mansur," With it, no doubt, 
were incorporated the remains of previous Gothic 
and Roman constructions. It was almost entirely 
swept away in a great flood in the year 1258, 
after having already undergone extensive repairs 
and restorations since the Reconquest. Thus 
we may conclude that there can be few if any 
traces of the Moorish bridge in the actual Puente 
de Alcantara. On the other side of the town 
there was probably a wooden bridge or bridge 
of boats, where the Puente de San Martin now 
spans the river. A little below it is a brick 
tower, with open arches, the horseshoe curve of 
which, and other features, bespeak its Moorish 
origin. Legend places here the incident of the 
Bath of Florinda. In later times the work was 
believed to be the remains of a bridge. But an 
Arabic inscription, recently redeciphered and 



UNDER THE MOOR 55 

translated, goes to prove that the tower formed 
part of a very different monument : " In the 
Name of God , the Merciful, the Compassionate I 
Oh, men, believe that the promises of God are 
certain and let not yourselves be seduced by the 
flattery of the world, nor be lured away from God 
by the deceits of the Evil One ! This is the tomb 
of Hosam (?) -ben-Abd. . . . [He confessed that 
there is no other God but] God. He died [may 
God have mercy on him] . . . the year eight 
. . . and four hundred." The Banos de la Cava 
may now be safely regarded as a Musulman 
sepulchral monument of the fifth century after 
the Hegira. 

We have now briefly considered the only 
monuments of interest to any but the most ardent 
archaeologists that can be ascribed, so far as their 
general structure is concerned, to the Moslem 
lords of Toledo. Admitting that the most im- 
portant buildings of that time have long since 
disappeared, it remains clear that the city could 
never have presented the Oriental aspect of the 
Andalusian seats of Islam. 

The history of the city as an independent State 
is soon told. Under Ismail and his son Al Mamun, 
Toledo became the most powerful Musulman 
State in Spain. The lesser principalities having 
been disposed of, a fierce struggle for supremacy 
was waged between Al Mamun and the Amir of 



56 TOLEDO 

Seville. A desperate battle before the walls of 
Murcia decided the issue in favour of the Toledan, 
and gave Valencia into his hands. But, as is 
often the case with men of all ranks, Al Mamun's 
strength and wisdom were undone and rendered 
unavailing by his fatal trait of magnanimity. 

Alfonso of Leon, dispossessed of his kingdom 
by his brother, threw himself upon the protection 
of the Amir of Tolaitola. The noble Muslim be- 
stowed upon the fugitive prince a palace near 
his own, an oratory, and a garden " wherein to 
recreate himself" ; and allowed him to establish 
a miniature Court for himself and his followers 
at Brihuega. Lands were assigned to him as a 
source of revenue, and he became the most inti- 
mate and honoured friend of the Amir. It is said 
that in return an oath was exacted of Alfonso 
that he would assist his host against all men, and 
never war upon him or his son. That some such 
pledge should have been asked for in return for 
such magnificent hospitality seems very probable. 
The Archbishop Don Rodrigo relates that one day 
Al Mamun found himself with his most trusty 
counsellors in a wood from which a full view of 
the city could be obtained. The Moorish sove- 
reign fell to discoursing upon the defences of the 
place and the best means of attacking it. These 
words were overheard by Alfonso, who chanced 
to be by, and who at once feigned sleep beneath 



UNDER THE MOOR 57 

a tree. Here he was presently discovered by 
the Moors, to their great dismay. Some among 
them asked leave of Al Mamiin to slay him. On 
this permission being indignantly refused, they 
dropped hot lead on the Leonese prince's hand 
to see if he were really asleep. Alfonso did not stir, 
which would have convinced most people that he 
was feigning sleep. The Muslims, on the con- 
trary, retired, satisfied that he had heard nothing 
and seen nothing. 

Before returning to his kingdom, the Christian 
prince renewed his vows of loyalty and friendship 
to Al Mamun, with whom personally, indeed, he 
never broke faith. The Moor's son, Yahya, reaped 
the reward of the father's generosity. A weak and 
incapable sovereign, addicted to luxury and des- 
pised for his devotion to superstitious practices, 
he was detested by his own subjects, who on one 
occasion drove him out of the city, to take refuge at 
Cuenca. His authority was restored only with the 
help of his natural foes, the Castilians. Alfonso, 
unmindful of his vow, forgetful of the dead Al 
Mamun's princely generosity, could not resist this 
opportunity of adding to his dominions the old 
capital of the Kings of Spain. For six years he 
laid waste the frontiers of the Amirate, and in the 
seventh year — carefully availing himself, no doubt, 
of the information unwittingly communicated 
by his old benefactor — invested Toledo itself. 



58 TOLEDO 

Famine accomplished what arms could not. 
Yahya asked for terms. They were onerous 
enough. They involved the cession of all the 
Moorish King's dominions, except Valencia, the 
Muslims who elected to remain in Toledo being 
guaranteed the free exercise of their religion, their 
property, and liberty. They were to be subject to 
their own laws and tribunals and to retain their 
mosques. The terms, as remarks Quadrado, were, 
in fact, almost the same as those granted to the 
Christians by the Arabs three hundred and seventy 
years before. Only the Alcazar, the bridges, gates, 
and the garden called the Huerta del Rey, were 
reserved to Alfonso himself. The capitulation 
completed, Yahya and his court took the road to 
Valencia, and Alfonso VI. entered Toledo by the 
Bib-el-Mardom on Sunday, May 25, 1085. 9 

" May God renew her past splendour, and in- 
scribe once more the name of Toledo on the list 
of the cities of Islam ! " This was the devout 
aspiration of a Muslim chronicler, but in neither 
particular has it ever been fulfilled. 



TOLEDO THE CAPITAL OF 
CASTILE 

The incorporation of the haughty city of the 
Visigoths with the kingdom of Castile was, when 
the first wave of enthusiasm had subsided, regarded 
with coldness and misgiving by its people. The 
Toledans were as tenacious as ever of their 
pecuhar customs and privileges which they had 
hoped to maintain intact. Even with the powerful 
assistance of the Cid, whom he appointed Alcalde, 
Alfonso found the ordering of the affairs of his 
new capital a difficult and dangerous task. The 
population included (remarks Don Jose Quadrado) 
" the conquered and resigned Musulman, the 
Israelite ever submissive and industrious, the 
Mozarabe ennobled by his ancient lineage and 
constancy in his faith, the Castilian, proud of his 
conquests, the foreigner rewarded for his prowess, 
or attracted from remote countries by signal 
privileges ; and this multiplicity of races and 
diversity of creeds demanded as many separate 
systems of law and administrations." The Jews, 
Musulmans and foreigners continued subject to 
their own codes and tribunals ; but while the 



6o TOLEDO 

Mozarabe or native of Toledo clung to the old 
Fuero Juzgo or Visigothic law, inherited from his 
fathers, the Castilians and Leonese expected to 
be ruled according to the ruder, rougher code of 
their warrior counts and kings. Alfonso dealt 
with these two peoples of common race and 
language as with the other more widely distinct 
races. Each had an Alcalde of its own, subject, 
however, to the Alcalde Mayor named by the 
king. A compromise, too, was arrived at, the 
Castilians being subject to their own law in civil 
cases, and to the Mozarabe in criminal matters. 
On the whole, the tendency of these measures 
was to conciliate the Toledans. But we find 
evidence of jealousies between them and their 
conquerors or deliverers from the North for 
many years afterwards. 

Alfonso's honour had not gone unstained in 
regard to his taking the city of his old friend and 
benefactor, and the Moors must have been 
sanguine indeed if they looked forward to a 
scrupulous fulfilment of the pledges given them 
by the conqueror while he was outside the walls. 
The clause that entitled the Muslims to the free 
and exclusive use of their mosques was particularly 
obnoxious to the rabid ecclesiastics and crusaders 
who accompanied the king. With increasing 
irritation they compared the noble proportions 
of the Mohammedan mezquita with those of the 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 6i 

humble provisional Catholic Cathedral of Santa 
Maria de Alficem. While Alfonso was absent in 
Leon, he left the city in charge of his queen, 
Constancia, a Frenchwoman, and of her country- 
man, Bernard, now bishop, and formerly a monk 
of Cluny. This prelate took advantage of his 
sovereign's absence to burst one night into the 
coveted mosque with an armed party, and having 
" purified " it, suspended bells in the minarets, 
which announced at dawn the celebration of the 
Christian rite. When word was brought to the 
King of this infamous violation of the treaty, he 
set out for Toledo, announcing his intention of 
burning the bishop alive. Moved either by that 
magnanimity which in the person of Al Mamiin 
had contributed to their downfall, or, as Spanish 
writers say, by a far-seeing prudence, the Moors 
went out in a body to meet the monarch, and 
besought him to forgive the highly placed thieves. 
Alfonso, with a show of reluctance, acquiesced in 
their prayer, and the Christians were most un- 
deservedly confirmed in the possession of a church 
they had no hand in creating. The Alfaqui, or 
headman of the Muslims, was munificently re- 
warded for his generosity, his statue being placed 
in the Capilla Mayor of the new cathedral, which 
was solemnly consecrated in 1087. No nation has 
shown a very nice sense of honesty in respect of 
church property, yet it needs no subtle intelligence 



62 TOLEDO 

to perceive that a church is as much the property 
of the particular sect for whose special use it was 
designed by members of that sect, as any private 
house is of its private owner. 

The sturdy Toledans were attached, not only 
to their laws and customs, but (which was of 
more importance in those days) to their own 
Gothic or Mozarabic ritual. This differs in what 
are considered important particulars from the 
Roman. The host is divided into nine parts, 
representing the Incarnation, Epiphany, Circum- 
cision, Passion, Death, Resurrection, Ascension, 
and Eternal Kingdom of Christ. Of these frag- 
ments, seven are arranged to form a cross. 
Because it is not Roman, English writers are 
fond of extolling the beauty and simplicity of this 
liturgy. It was a stumbling-block to Queen 
Constance and the zealous French bishop, who 
were anxious to reduce all things in Spain to 
Catholic uniformity. The King ordered the 
question to be decided by ordeal of single combat. 
The Mozarabic champion remained the victor. 
The bishop then demanded the ordeal of fire. 
The two missals were accordingly thrown into a 
great blazing pile, and the local favourite, having 
probably been saturated with some incombustible 
preparation, remained unconsumed. Another 
version has it that neither book was injured by 
the flames. Alfonso, after his fashion, clinched 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 63 

the controversy by ordering the Mozarabic ritual 
to be confined to the two parish churches allotted 
to the Christians by their Moorish rulers, whilst 
everywhere else Mass was to be celebrated accord- 
ing to the Roman office. 

Alfonso VI. had to fight hard to keep posses- 
sion of Toledo. The Almoravide invasion had 
burst like a tidal wave over Southern Spain. 
Everywhere the Musulmans were recovering 
their spirits and their strength. The Castilian 
king fled, wounded, from the bloody field of 
Zalaca, with only five hundred followers, leaving 
behind him twenty thousand slain. Toledo could 
have had no pleasant associations for its latest 
conqueror. Here died three of his six wives — 
Constancia of Burgundy, Isabel of France, and 
Zayda of Seville. At Ucles was slain his only 
son, while yet a mere child. " Where is your 
prince ? " asked the unhappy father of the warriors 
escaped from the rout. " Where is the light of 
my eyes and the staff of my age ? " All were 
silent. " He is dead and you live ! " bitterly ex- 
claimed the king. " Yes," replied Alvar Fanez 
sternly, " we live to save the throne, the country, 
and the lands acquired with our blood and 
sweat." But the Alcazar re-echoed to the mourn- 
ful plaint, "Sancho ! Sancho, my son!" till 
Alfonso VI. passed away in July 1109. The 
stones of which the church altars were built had 



64 TOLEDO 

miraculously distilled tears in token of his ap- 
proaching death. Before a year had passed the 
Vega was blackened by the advancing hordes of 
Islam. The Castle of Azeca, the monastery of 
San Servando, fell into their hands ; but the City 
of the Goths, thanks to the leadership of Arch- 
bishop Bernard and of Alvar Faiiez, hurled back 
the hosts of Ali and was held fast for Spain. 

The accession of Alfonso VII. el Batallador 
brought brighter days to his capital, but it was 
assailed during the twelfth century with a succes- 
sion of calamities that might have broken down 
the patience of Job. The year 1113 was marked 
by an earthquake and disastrous overflowing of 
the Tagus ; 11 16, by a fire on a large scale ; in 
1 1 17, the price of wheat rose,to fourteen soldos the 
bushel; in 1 168, the Tagus was again in flood; 
again in 1181 and 1200 ; between 11 87 and 1200, 
all the grocery stores were burnt (how or why, 
we are not told), the Tagus was frozen over in 
1 191, and there was a famine the following year. 
Eclipses of the sun were of the commonest occur- 
rence : we hear of them in 1114, 1162, 1177, 1191, 
and 1207. We can easily imagine the Moham- 
medan denizens shaking their heads and ascrib- 
ing these phenomena, especially the last, to the 
change of government, and extolling the good 
old times of Al Mamun when earth, river, and sun 
kept their places and behaved according to rule. 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 65 

Yet Toledo flourished, and her citizens were 
never more in their element than in the spring of 
the year 12 12, when their town became the rally- 
ing-point and base of the great crusading army, 
destined to achieve the crowning mercy of the 
Navas de Tolosa. The dominant personaUty of 
that time was the Archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez 
de Rada. A writer of history, a valiant soldier, a 
sagacious statesman, princely in his magnificence, 
and angelic in his charity, he was a tower of 
strength in Spain, and especially for Toledo, in 
the dreadful years of famine and brigandage that 
followed the victory over the Moor. His name 
will be for ever remembered as practically the 
founder of the great cathedral which is the city's 
crowning glory and title to fame. 

The century of floods, earthquakes, and eclipses 
passed away, and found Toledo a hotbed of civil 
strife and internecine discord. As in Italian cities 
at the same time, rival families and factions fought 
in the streets, turned their houses into fortresses, 
and set the civic authorities at defiance. The 
hidalgos of Toledo would hurry home from war- 
ring with the infidel to plunge their swords into 
the bosoms of their fellow townsmen. Laras and 
Castros waged pitched battles for the possession 
of the capital of Castile. At last the royal power 
asserted itself, and with terrible effect. We read 
that " the King Ferdinand came to Toledo, and 

E 



66 TOLEDO 

hanged many men and boiled others alive in 
cauldrons. Era MCCLXII. (1224)." This boiler 
of his fellow men is known as Samt Ferdinand. 
His father, Alfonso IX. of Leon, is also mentioned 
as having broiled his rebellious subjects, and 
flayed others alive. But such performances are 
not considered by a certain class of writers even 
now to argue any real depravity of character. 

The sainted king's severity on another occasion 
is more creditable to him. On his entry into the 
town, two young women threw themselves at his 
feet and implored vengeance on their betrayer, 
Fernandez Gonzalo — the Alcalde himself. The 
high rank of the offender did not save him from 
instant decapitation, and his head was within an 
hour gazing down on the scene of his amours 
from the Puerta del Sol. Whether the betrayed 
damsels or any one else were benefited by these 
drastic measures, the panegyrists of the righteous 
king forgot to tell us. 

Still it was an age when strong measures were 
called for ; and recognising this, the citizens 
themselves instituted the famous Santa Herman- 
dad or Holy Brotherhood for the maintenance of 
pubhc order and suppression of brigandage. The 
organisation received the royal sanction, and was 
endowed with many privileges. It supplied the 
place of a regular police force for all Castile for 
at least three centuries, and readers will remember 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 67 

the frequent references to it in the pages of "Don 
Quixote." 

Toledo had not yet become a capital in the 
sense of being the permanent residence of the 
sovereign. Saint Ferdinand and his immediate 
predecessors and successors were essentially 
soldiers. Their Court was the camp, and in the 
unremitting war of reconquest it was necessarily 
transferred from place to place, from one confine 
of the ever-expanding kingdom to the other. 
When at Toledo the king resided at the Alcazar — 
which in Moorish days had been a fortress con- 
structed of tapia (a species of concrete), and which 
was fortified with masonry by Alfonso VI. The 
building was enlarged and embellished, and made 
more suitable for a royal residence by Sancho el 
Bravo (1284-1295). But the state of affairs in 
what may be termed the Epoch of the Reconquest 
(1085-1252), was obviously not favourable to the 
development of the building arts. Toledo pos- 
sesses few memorials of these days, for such 
edifices as may have been founded at or before 
that time have undergone such transformations 
as to render them practically the products of later 
ages. Such supplies and energies as were not 
absorbed by the all-important business of war were 
naturally diverted to the building of the cathedral, 
which was not, as we shall see, completed for 
another two centuries. 



68 TOLEDO 

Mediasval history concerns itself almost ex- 
clusively with kings and princes, battles and 
treaties. Of the life of the people in Spain, as 
elsewhere, we hear very little. From stray 
references in the records we glean the information 
that the streets of Toledo were filthy and unpaved, 
and frequently encumbered with the carcases of 
beasts. Over the gates the heads of malefactors 
were ever rotting, poisoning the already vitiated 
air. We have concise details, too, of no particular 
interest, as to the municipal constitution of the 
city. Beyond this meagre information, we know 
something of the history of Toledo only so far as 
it was also the history of Spain. 

Pedro I., the Cruel (1350-1368), had no liking 
for the gloomy, turbulent town, and during his 
reign Seville might have been called the seat 
of government. However much he may have 
endeared himself to the Andalusians, the ferocious 
king was no favourite with the Toledans. When 
the ill-used queen, Blanche of Bourbon, escaped 
from her prison in the Alcazar and claimed the 
right of sanctuary in the cathedral, the city rose 
in her behalf, and a thousand native blades sprung 
from their scabbards to protect her. An alliance 
was concluded with Talavera and Cuenca, and the 
gates opened to Don Enrique of Trastamara, 
the king's half-brother. It is said that Pedro's 
faction held the bridge of San Martin, expecting 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 69 

the rebel prince to enter that way, while his sup- 
porters introduced his troops into the town by the 
opposite bridge of Alcantara; The Trastamara 
partisans attacked the Jewish quarter, the Israelites 
being especial favourites of Don Pedro, and a 
frightful massacre ensued. Soon the king's party 
gained the upper hand, and the unfortunate 
Blanche was removed from the city, wherein she 
had found such staunch friends, to the castle of 
Sigiienza. 

This is not the first time we read of a massacre 
of Jews at Toledo. Yet the town was for many 
centuries one of the strongholds of Jewry in 
Europe, and a centre of Hebrew culture and 
activity. The story of the Jews of Toledo is, in 
fact, one of the most interesting chapters in the 
history of the city and of Spain. 

Jews were settled in the Peninsula at a remote 
period. The author of " The Moorish Empire 
in Europe" (S. P. Scott) thinks their arrival in 
that country "antedated the Christian Era by at 
least a thousand years." As we know, legend 
actually ascribes the foundation of Toledo to the 
race. This may, we think, be due to a confusion 
of the Israelites with Phojnician settlers. At the 
time of Christ, the Jews of Spain were very 
numerous and opulent. Another legend tells 
how their chief men addressed a letter to the 
Sanhedrim at Jerusalem, protesting against the 



70 TOLEDO 

Crucifixion. A document — altogether spurious, 
it need hardly be said — has been produced in 
support of this story. After the destruction of 
Jerusalem by Titus, there seems to have been a 
large influx of Hebrew refugees into Spain. So 
long as the Visigoths remained Arians, they re- 
mained tolerant ; but Reccared, soon after his 
conversion to Catholicism, levelled the severest 
enactments against the Israelites. He set a bad 
precedent. With Sisebut began the long era of 
persecution. His harsh edicts, forcing the 
Jews to choose between baptism and banish- 
ment, are still to be found in the Fuero Juzgo. 
Swinthila, Kindila, Recceswinth, Erwig, and 
Egica followed the same policy. Among the 
tyrannical enactments of this time is the grotesque 
command that the Jews of Toledo should eat 
pork ! Under these circumstances it is not to 
be wondered that the Spanish Jews beheld 
with dawning hope the successful progress of 
the Mohammedans in Northern Africa. A secret 
intelligence was established with these Semitic 
conquerors of a newer faith, and thanks to the 
constant intercourse between the Jews of Africa 
and those of Spain, Musa and Tarik were fully 
supplied with the most minute particulars of the 
Visigothic State. 

The period of the Khalifate was the Golden 
Age of Spanish Jewry. The numbers of the race. 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 71 

depleted by persecution, were increased by the 
advent of upwards of twelve thousand Yemenite 
Jews, invited by the Moorish conquerors. Never 
since the days of Solomon had the Children 
of Israel known such peace and prosperity- 
Possessed already of a remarkably high degree of 
culture, they communicated their knowledge to 
the Arabs, who showed themselves generous 
patrons and protectors. Nor were the new rulers 
of Spain slow to perceive the advantages to be 
derived from the subject race's commercial enter- 
prise and talent for affairs. Though the versa- 
tality of the Jew at this time was one of his most 
remarkable characteristics, it was above all as a 
physician that he was esteemed by Muslims and 
Christians alike. In this capacity he became the 
indispensable and most trusted companion of 
sovereigns and prelates, and penetrated into the 
very arcana of power. From Court physician to 
Minister the transition in those days of personal 
government was easy, and we find Hasdai ben 
Isaac Ibn Shaprut occupying both positions under 
Abd-ur-Rahman I. 

As far as was consistent with their religious 
beliefs, the Jews of Toledo assimilated themselves 
with the conquerors. The minutes of the con- 
gregation were kept in Arabic down to the end of 
the thirteenth century, and that language was 
sedulously cultivated and almost exclusively 



72 TOLEDO 

employed by the brilliant succession of Jewish 
theologians and humanists who made the city 
a centre of literary and scholastic activity . 

We have it on the authority of Mr. S. P. Scott 
that, under the Muslim dominion, the Jews were 
allowed to elect a king, always a prince of the 
House of Judah, "who, while not openly invested 
with the insignia of royalty, received the homage 
and tribute of his subjects." It is illustrative of 
the respect of the race for learning that the erudite 
Rabbi Moses, when recognised exposed as a slave 
at Cordoba, was immediately elected to this 
dubious royalty. 

The Jews of Toledo must have viewed with un- 
pleasant apprehensions the re-establishment of 
the Catholic monarchy. Yet at first it seemed 
they had no cause for alarm. Alfonso VI., as we 
know, granted to them the liberal privileges by 
which the Muslims also benefited. But in the 
charter confirming the customs of the Mozarabes 
(1091) it was made plain that no penalty would be 
exacted of a Christian for the murder of a Jew or 
Muslim. The result might have been foreseen. 
Seventeen years after, the people rose in savage 
fury, broke into the synagogues and butchered 
the rabbis in their pulpits, burnt and pillaged 
every Jewish house, and slaughtered the luckless 
objects of their animosity without mercy. But it 
was the people, rather than the governing classes, 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 73 

who manifested this violent racial prejudice. As 
in every other land, in spite of persecution, the 
Chosen People grew in wealth and abated not 
their industry and commercial activity. It was 
they who brought to the grim Gothic city the 
choicest products of the East ; they alone who 
could combat the ravages of disease ; they alone 
who could supply the needy king and nobles with 
the coin for which in Italy men paid as much as 
one hundred and twenty per cent, interest. Spain 
hated the Jew, but could not as yet do without him- 

The rule of Alfonso VI. 's successors could not 
have been excessively harsh, for many Jewish 
families, hounded out of Southern Spain by an 
unusual manifestation of Mohammedan bigotry, 
took refuge within the walls of Toledo. Thanks 
to the influence of Fermosa, the Jewish mistress 
of Alfonso VIII., many of her race exercised im- 
portant functions at the Court. But the fanatical 
temper of the populace attributed to the favour 
shown these unbelievers the disaster of Alarcos, 
and the beautiful favourite and her friends were 
murdered in the very presence of the king. 

" At the beginning of the thirteenth century," 
says Mr. Joseph Jacobs, B.A., in the "Jewish En- 
cyclopcedia," "the Shushans, the Al-Fakhkhars, 
and the Alnaquas, were among the chief Jewish 
families of Toledo, Samuel Ibn Shushan being 
nasi [the chief of Sanhedrim] about 1204. His 



74 TOLEDO 

son built a synagogue which attracted the atten- 
tion of Abraham ben Nathan of Lunel, who 
settled in Toledo before 1205. During the troubles 
brought upon Castile by the men of ' Ultra- 
puertos' in 121 i-i 2, Toledo suffered a riot ; and 
this appears to have brought the position of the 
Jews more closely to the attention of the autho- 
rities. In 1219 the Jewish inhabitants became more 
strictly subject to the jurisdiction of the Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, who imposed upon every Jew 
over twenty years old an annual poll-tax of one- 
sixth of a gold mark ; and any dispute about age 
was to be settled by a jury of six elders, who were 
probably supervised by the nasi, at that time 
Solomon ben Joseph Ibn Shushan. In the same 
year papal authority also interfered with the 
affairs of the Toledo Jews, ordering them to pay 
tithes on houses bought by them from Christians, 
' as otherwise the Church would be a considerable 
loser.' " 

A significant phrase ! But not only houses and 
land all over the country were mortgaged to the 
Jews, but also church plate and even the sacred 
vessels. Jewish usurers were said to drink out of 
the chalices used for the Precious Elements. The 
exasperation of the Christians was disregarded by 
Alfonso X. the Learned, who entertained a pro- 
found respect for the erudition and traditions of 
the Jews. A Hebrew, Don Zag Ibn Said, directed 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 75 

the compilation of the famous Alfonsine Tables ; 
and under the patronage of the monarch, Toledo 
became famous for its translations from the 
Arabic into Hebrew, Latin, and Spanish. The 
rabbis distinguished themselves in medicine and 
astronomy. While doing his utmost to draw the 
oppressed race within the fold of the Catholic 
church, the Learned King granted permission to 
the Jews of Toledo to erect that beautiful syna- 
gogue which, under the name of Santa Maria la 
Blanca, ranks to-day among the national monu- 
ments of Spain. 

" The Spanish Jews," says Mr. Scott, " by reason 
of the peculiarities of their situation, the hostility 
of their rulers — which their pecuniary resources 
and natural acuteness often baffled, but never en- 
tirely overcame — and their successive domination 
by races of different origin, faith, and language, 
were impressed with mental peculiarities and 
characteristics not to be met with in their brethren 
of other countries. Their religious formalism was 
proverbial, and the Hebrew of Toledo observed 
more conscientiously the precepts of the Penta- 
teuch and Talmud than the Hebrew of Damascus 
or Jerusalem." Thus we find the Jews of Toledo 
siding against the rationalising theories of the 
great Maimonides, himself a native of Cordoba, 
and whose tomb is a conspicuous landmark on 
the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. 



76 TOLEDO 

Don Amador de los Rios reproduces an ancient 
record for the year 1290, stating the amount of 
tribute payable by the various Jewish communities 
of Castile. Out of a total of 2,801,345 maravedis 
the Israelites of the city of Toledo contributed 
216,500, and those in the entire archdiocese 
1,062,902 maravedis. The pomp of Catholic public 
worship and the wealth of the clergy are partially 
accounted for by these figures. 

Up till then, always the most valuable (from a 
European point of view) and the most prosperous 
element of the population of Toledo, the Jews 
assumed yet greater prominence in the reign of 
Pedro I. That prince was declared by his 
numerous enemies to be the substituted child of 
a Jewess, and his Court was reviled as a Jewish 
Court. He showed favour to the race in many 
ways. His treasurer and confidential adviser was 
the famous Don Samuel Ha Levi. Whether or 
not the Jewish statesman's administration was in 
the interests of Castile, it is too late in the day to 
say ; but there can be no doubt that he was a 
loyal servant of his king and a devoted friend of 
his own people. He it was who caused to be 
erected Toledo's other great synagogue, now called 
the Transito. He was a warm ally of the beautiful 
Maria de Padilla, Pedro's gentle mistress, and for 
years, with consummate astuteness, defended 
himself against the insidious and violent attacks 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 77 

of his innumerable enemies. His enormous 
wealth — honestly or dishonestly acquired — 
brought about his downfall. In the very year 
(1360) the synagogue was completed, Samuel was 
seized at Seville, and, by order of the king, placed 
upon the rack. The haughty Hebrew is said to 
have died of sheer indignation. Pedro shed 
crocodile tears over his ill-starred Minister's fate, 
and greedily confiscated his property. His for- 
tune was found to consist of 70,000 doubloons, 
4000 silver marks, twenty chests filled with trea- 
sure, and eighty Moorish slaves. The property 
of all Levi's relatives was also forfeited to the 
Crown, and was valued at 300,000 doubloons. 
Pedro did not, however, withdraw his favour from 
the Jews as a race. It had been well for them if 
he had. Their loyalty to the Bluebeard King 
earned for them the detestation of the partisans 
of Enrique de Trastamara, and brought about, as 
we have seen, the massacre of 1355, in which 
1200 Jews perished. 

The new king, Enrique, took advantage of a 
riot said to have been excited by the arrogance 
of the converted Jews in 1367, and in which 1600 
houses were burnt to the ground, to impose a 
tribute of no less than twenty thousand gold 
doubloons on the afflicted people. 

It was possibly due to the presence of a large 
Israelite population that Toledo, very much against 



78 TOLEDO 

its will, had been held for King Pedro in 1369. 
It was, in consequence, fiercely assailed by its 
own archbishop, Don Gomez Manrique, while 
Pedro sent an army largely composed of Saracens 
to its relief. The city was a prey to famine, inter- 
necine warfare, pestilence, and to every descrip- 
tion of calamity. The killing of Pedro and the 
accession of Enrique were hailed as an ineffable 
boon by the wretched citizens. But from that 
hour the position of the Jews grew more and 
more pitiable. Their prosperity waned, and with 
it the prosperity of the old city in which they had 
so long been unwelcome guests. 

Their final ruin as a community was effected 
mainly at the instance of St. Vicente Ferrer, the 
Dominican. Visiting the city in 1391 he so in- 
flamed the devout populace with apostolic zeal 
that they burst into the larger of the two Juderias 
or Ghettos, put practically the whole of its in- 
habitants — including the venerable rabbis, Judah 
ben Asher and Israel Alnaqua — to the sword, 
sacked the quarter from end to end, and de- 
molished most of the synagogues. The saintly 
Ferrer reappeared at Toledo twenty years later, 
but there were nominally no Jews left to massacre. 
The Hebrews that remained had been " con- 
verted." The good friar did what he could, and 
induced the Toledans to confiscate the synagogue 
built in Alfonso X.'s reign and convert it into the 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 79 

Christian Church of Santa Maria la Blanca. We 
suggest that it should have been renamed San 
Vicente del Sangre. 

The work of destruction was done thoroughly, 
and henceforward we hear little in the story of 
Toledo of the Children of Israel. But their names 
have not been altogether forgotten. Mr. Jacobs 
gives a long list of members of that luckless con- 
gregation, famous for their learning and science. 
He enumerates theologians, physicians, astrono- 
mers, grammarians, satirists, poets and astrologers. 
Toledo, thanks to these latter, achieved an unenvi- 
able reputation as a centre of the magic art. 
Indeed, this was known at one time as the Arte 
Toledana. " It is said " (we quote Mr. Jacobs) 
" that Michael Scott learned his magic from a 
Toledo Jew named Andreas, who translated works 
on magic from the Arabic." The same writer 
elsewhere says : "The Spanish Jews differed but 
little from the Christian population with regard 
to customs and education. They were fond of 
luxury, and the women wore costly garments 
with long trains, also valuable jewellery ; this 
tended to increase the hatred of the population 
towards them. They were quarrelsome and in- 
clined to robbery, and often attacked and insulted 
one another even in their synagogues and prayer- 
houses, frequently inflicting wounds with the 
rapier or sword they were accustomed to carry." 



8o TOLEDO 

With royal permission a Jew might have two 
wives. 

Deprived of the more legitimate pastime of Jew- 
baiting, the Toledans began to turn their swords 
against each other and their sovereign. " Never," 
remarks Gamero, " had the nobility shown itself 
so arrogant and rebellious as during the reign of 
Juan II." Envy of that great man and powerful 
Minister, Don Alvaro de Luna, was mainly the 
cause of this. The leading families took different 
sides, and the streets frequently were slippery 
with the blood of the citizens. The Alcalde, Pero 
Lopez de Ayala, declared against the great Con- 
stable and held the town as an independent 
seigneurie against the king's forces for five years. 
King Juan had deserved better things of his lieges 
of Toledo, for in 1431 he had entertained them 
on his return from his campaign in Andalusia 
with festivities and pageants of the gayest cha- 
racter. The people took part in bull fights and 
games in the Zocodover, while the knights and 
ricoshombrcs jousted and feasted in the Vega. The 
Alcazar re-echoed to the music of lute and lyre, 
and the songs of the minstrels. But Toledo was 
not to be subdued with kindness. The artisan 
class presently revolted on the imposition of a 
new tax, the tumult being the occasion of the 
saying, Soplara il odrero, y alborozarse la Toledo 
(Let the ironmonger blow and Toledo will rise). 



THE CAPITAL OF CASTILE 8i 

Next, the cruel and miserly governor, Pedro 
Sarmiento, followed Ayala's example, and de- 
manded of the king the dismissal of the noble 
Constable. The royal forces were set at defiance, 
and a pitched battle was fought below the walls. 
The fortune of the day remained with the rebels, 
and Sarmiento was able for a time to dictate to 
his sovereign. He was at last crushed, but was 
able to carry off an enormous amount of treasure 
loaded on two hundred mules. 

These events had produced a permanent feud 
between the families of Ayala and Silva, only 
terminated by the marriage of the heir and heiress 
of the respective houses. Toledo, during the first 
three-quarters of the fifteenth century, was a prey 
to incessant warfare. Sometimes the whole town 
would be contending against external foes for 
or against the king, sometimes it would be the 
nobles contending with the people, or the church 
with the nobles. Toledo, as a whole, supported 
its archbishop, Carrillo, when in 1465 he pro- 
nounced sentence of dethronement on Enrique IV. 
Three years later that unlucky monarch managed, 
by winning over the Ayalas to his side, to make 
his entry into the city. The proud chief of the 
family was himself obliged to flee from the town 
in 1471. The king was besieged in the Alcazar ; 
the balance inclined sometimes to this party, 
sometimes to that. The old animosities between the 

F 



82 TOLEDO 

Ayalas and the Silvas blazed up again from time to 
time ; and under its weak sovereign Toledo had 
its fill of fighting. But those brave days were 
drawing to a close, and in 1474, came one before 
whom even Toledans had to bend the knee and 
whom, recognising in her a stronger spirit, they 
afterwards delighted to honour. The accession 
of Isabel the Catholic on the death of Enrique IV., 
and to the exclusion of the rightful heiress, Juana, 
calumniously nicknamed La Beltraneja, marks the 
beginning of a new era in the history of Spain, 
and therefore of Toledo. 



BUILDINGS OF THE CASTILIAN 
PERIOD 

The earliest specimens of post-Moorish architec- 
ture in Toledo partake more or less of the cha- 
racter of fortifications. For many years, as we 
have seen, after the Reconquest the Christians' 
hold upon the city was precarious, and the first 
efforts of the Castilian kings was naturally towards 
strengthening its defences. The history of the 
walls of Toledo is obscure and confused ; but it 
seems certain that a wall has always extended 
within historic times across the northern side of 
the loop formed by the river. The Conqueror 
Alfonso VI. strengthened and added to this 
defence by the erection of the newer or outer 
wall, inclosing the suburb or Arrabal del Ante- 
queruela. He also appears to have restored the 
inner or Moorish wall, and has left traces on the 
magnificent Puerta del Sol, a Moorish work which 
must have been quite new in his day. Indeed, it 
may possibly have been built by Moorish masons 
after the Reconquest. It is a noble and impres- 
sive portal to the grand old city, and most power- 
fully impresses the beholder. Quadrado will 



84 TOLEDO 

have it that so dignified a monument can have 
been the work only of a ruHng race, in the days 
of its liberty and glory ; it could not have been 
the mere afterglow of the ascendency and taste 
of a nation now subjugated. We may, however, 
be permitted to doubt whether the political deca- 
dence of a people becomes instantly manifested 
in its artistic life. The gateway forms a high 
tower with two flanking turrets, one square and 
abutting on the wall, the other rounded and 
finishing off the enceinte. The portal is com- 
posed of a succession of four arches, all being 
of the horseshoe shape, though the outer arches 
are more pointed than the inner ones. Above 
the outermost arch is a double row of arcades of 
brickwork, the arches intersecting. Over the 
second arch is a circular medallion in relief, repre- 
senting the Virgin offering the chasuble to St. 
Ildefonsus. Another relief in marble is sup- 
posed to represent the summary punishment of 
Fernan Gonzalez by St. Ferdinand, for the seduc- 
tion of two young women. The battlements are 
of a type common enough in Spanish Christian 
architecture, but which Mr. Street thinks was 
derived originally from the Moors. Another 
writer, Mr. O'Shea, remarks : " This gate with its 
warm orange tints, that contrast so admirably 
with the lapis-lazuli azure of the cloudless sky, its 
battlement fringing the top, and opening vistas 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 85 

of most novel aspect, is a treasure for an artist." 
The exceeding quaintness and majesty of this 
gateway have moved many writers to express 
themselves almost too rapturously. Toledo's other 
gates — the Puerta Nueva de Visagra and the 
Puerta del Cambron — date from a much later 
period. 

The rude, dismantled pile of the Castle of San 
Servando, which crowns the height opposite to 
the Bridge of Alcantara, marks the site of a 
monastery, erected by Alfonso VI. in gratitude 
for his escape from the rout of Sacralias (1086). 
It was peopled by Benedictines from Sahagun 
and Cluny. These holy men soon found by the 
defensive works with which their new home was 
provided that their duties would not be entirely 
of a clerical description, Yusuf-ben-Tashfin, the 
Almoravide leader, almost destroyed the building 
during his abortive siege of Toledo, and Alfonso 
subsequently gave the establishment the aspect 
and features of a fortress. As such it bore the 
bruntof the repeated Saracen onslaughts in the first 
half of the twelfth century. It was abandoned in 
consequence by the monks, and was bestowed by 
Alfonso VIII. on the Knights Templars. It con- 
tinued in their possession till the suppression of 
the Order in 1312. It seems to have fallen into 
ruins soon after, and was rebuilt about 1386, on 
the initiative of the great archbishop, Tenorio. 



86 TOLEDO 

It is not a very interesting monument. It is built 
of masonry, with facings of red brick here and 
there. Three of its four sides are standing, and 
the same number of towers. These bear a re- 
semblance to the outer or circular tower of the 
Puerta del Sol. The windows and arches exhibit 
Moorish, or rather Mudejar, influence. The castle 
in its day must have been a fine specimen of the 
mediaeval stronghold. To-day its ruin is com- 
plete. It serves as a home to the owl and the 
bat, and the very ghosts of monks and templars 
seem to have deserted it as uninhabitable. 

The castle is referred to by Calderon and other 
writers, and seems at one time to have been a 
favourite spot for duels. 

The increased importance of Toledo as the 
capital of Castile necessitated the improvement of 
its communications with the outside world. The 
Bridge of Alcantara was, at the time of the Re- 
conquest, the only permanent traject across the 
Tagus, and the bridge of boats on the western 
side of the town having been swept away, 
Alfonso X. (i 252-1 289) decreed the construction 
of a stone bridge now known as the Puente de 
San Martin. It was built of five arches and lasted 
till the reign of Pedro I., when it was blown up 
by that king's partisans to obstruct the entry of 
Enrique de Trastamara. It continued in a 
practically demolished condition for twenty years. 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 87 

when the great archbishop, Pedro Tenorio, deter- 
mined to restore the missing arches at his own 
expense. It is said that the architect entrusted 
with the work found, to his dismay, the night 
before the day fixed for the opening, that, owing 
to some oversight in his calculations, the whole 
fabric would collapse on the removal of the 
scaffolding. He made known the cause of his 
anxiety to his wife ; and she rose at dead of 
night, and setting fire to the whole structure pre- 
served her husband's reputation and, not im- 
possibly, his life. The reconstructed bridge was, 
of course, without fault or flaw. A final recon- 
struction took place in 1690. On the town side, 
the Puente de San Martin is defended by two 
square towers. Above the archway are two in- 
scriptions relating to the works executed by order 
of Charles II. The further extremity of the 
bridge is defended by another square battle- 
mented tower with a horseshoe arch. Its two 
bridges are among the most picturesque features 
of Toledo. 

With the obvious exception of the cathedral, 
the most interesting monuments of what we may 
term the middle age of Toledo are the two 
synagogues, now styled Santa Maria la Blanca 
and El Transito. The Jews, as we have seen, 
everywhere loom large in the annals of Toledo. 

The first-named of these temples derives its 



88 TOLEDO 

actual name from a tradition that a Christian 
church occupied the site in Visigothic times, to 
account for the dedication of which a legend is 
repeated similar to that of Santa Maria ad Nives 
at Rome. It is situated on what was once the 
Jewry or Ghetto, on the western side of the city, 
not far from the Puente de San Martin. Its 
foundation — as a synagogue — is variously ascribed 
to the period of the Reconquest, to the last days 
of the Moorish dominion, and to the latter period 
of the Khalifate. The first date seems the most 
probable. It continued to be used for the Jewish 
worship till 1405, when, as has been already told, 
it was seized and converted into a Catholic 
church. It has long since become a merely secular 
monument. The exterior, approached through 
the most miserable and sordid neighbourhood, is 
very far from reflecting the splendour the Jews 
enjoyed at its foundation. The facade, mean and 
dilapidated like the rest of the exterior, is probably 
of much more recent construction also. Within, 
a strange, fantastic impression is created. The 
phrase, " How are the mighty fallen 1 " involun- 
tarily rises to the lips as one contemplates the 
traces of grandeur and elegance subsisting amid 
ruin and decay. The temple is symbolical of the 
race : exotic, reminiscent of a lost glory, depressed, 
oppressed. There is, however, no trace or sug- 
gestion of the primitive Hebrew architectural style 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 89 

about the building. The traditions of Jerusalem 
were either unknown to, or had been forgotten by, 
those who reared these walls — likely enough 
Moors, whose skill was always at the disposal of 
Christian and Jew. In fact, the synagogue may 
be taken as a fine example of late Saracenic work. 
The plan consists of a nave with two aisles on 
each side. The nave was prolonged in the seven- 
teenth century so as to form a chancel. The 
building is 81 feet long by 63 feet wide. The nave 
reaches to a height of 60 feet, and is 15 feet broad, 
while the aisles measure only 12 feet and rise from 
40 to 50 feet high. The nave and aisles are sepa- 
rated by four rows of octagonal columns, from 
which spring bold horseshoe arches of the true 
Moorish type. The capitals are of stucco and 
elaborately designed with floral devices, in which 
the fir-cone is conspicuous ; there is a vague 
suggestion of Byzantine influence. Mr. Street 
imagines them to be much later than the original 
capitals which they overlay. " All the Moorish 
decorative work seems to have been executed in 
the same way in plaster. This was of very fine 
quality, and was evidently cut and carved as if it 
had been stone, and seldom, if ever, I think, 
stamped or moulded, according to the mistaken 
practice of the present day. The consequence is 
that there is endless variety of design everywhere 
and — wherever it was desired — any amount of 



90 TOLEDO 

undercutting. The spandrels above the arches 
are filled in with arabesque patterns, and there is 
a cusped wall arcade below the roof." All this 
„vstucco work appears to date from about the time 
of_Alfonso__X., or perhaps from a later restora- 
tion. Above the nave is an exquisite frieze in low 
relief, formed of lines interlacing and crossing 
each other. The roof is of pine-wood, and not of 
Lebanon cedar, as at one time alleged. Mr. Street 
thinks " the pavement is very good, but must be 
about the date of the conversion of the synagogue 
into a church. It is divided into compartments 
by border tiles laid down the length of the 
church on either side of the columns. The spaces 
between them are filled in with a rich diaper of 
encaustic and plain red tiles, whilst the general 
area between these richer bands is paved with 
large red, relieved by an occasional encaustic, tiles. 
The latter have patterns in white, dark blue, and 
yellow, and in all cases they are remarkable for the 
beautiful inequality of the colours of the surface of 
the design. Both colour and material are in them- 
selves better than the work of our tile manufac- 
turers of the present day and illustrate very well 
the difference between hand-work and machine- 
work." The Catholics added three altars in" the 
plateresque style, which, it is unnecessary to say, 
do not harmonise with the rest of the edifice. 
One of the retablos is attributed to Berruguete. 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 91 

Comparing this old Jewish meeting-place with 
the other and later synagogue, Miss Hannah Lynch 
remarks : " As a religious temple, as the expres- 
sion of solemn worship rooted in the strange and 
mysterious East, the former is by far the more 
imposing, the more earnest and harmonious. 
Prayer in the Transito seems a matter of graceful 
and artistic dilettanteism ; here it appears a great 
racial cry of the soul." 

The later vicissitudes of this synagogue are 
curious. About the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury it was converted by Cardinal Siliceo into an 
asylum for the professional frail ones of Toledo ; 
but about half a century later the establishment 
ceased to exist — whether because there was no 
more frailty in Toledo or no more repentance, we 
are not told. Subsequently it was turned into a bar- 
racks, and then (O'Shea says) into a dancing-hall. 

The Transito (so called after the Transit of the 
Blessed Virgin, i.e., the Assumption) is situated 
in the same quarter. We have already told the 
story of its foundation by Samuel Ha Levi, the 
powerful treasurer of Pedro I . Upon the expulsion 
of the Jews from Spain in 1492, it was handed 
over to the Order of Calatrava, who dedicated it 
to St. Benedict (San Benito). This synagogue is 
also purely Moorish in style, but of the later or 
Granadan period. Its plan differs radically from 
that of Santa Maria la Blanca. It constitutes a 



92 TOLEDO 

parallelogram, undivided into naves and aisles, 
76 feet by 31 feet, and 44 feet high. The effect 
is simple and graceful. The side walls are quite 
plain up to the height of about twenty feet, 
where a broad frieze of stucco runs round the 
building, with floral and star pattern designs, and 
bordered by inscriptions in Hebrew. Above this 
is an arcade with double shafts, and extremely 
rich capitals. The arches are of the horseshoe 
form, cusped into seven points. Eight of the 
arches contain lattice-work of the most beautiful 
design. Indeed, the whole of the arcading is 
rich and graceful beyond all praise. The western 
wall, where was formerly the Rabbinical chair, 
and is now the altar, is profusely decorated with 
patterns, inscriptions, and coats of arms, down to 
within seven feet of the floor. In the opposite 
wall windows have been pierced, breaking into the 
frieze. The roof is of cedar, and a fine specimen 
of artesonado work. Across it run tie-beams, super- 
fluous in this case, but of which the Moorish 
builders were fond; The rafters slope down 
equally to a deep cornice, which is carried right 
across the angles, " so as to give polygonal ends 
to the roof." 

On either side of the altar are long Hebrew 
inscriptions now illegible, and the precise mean- 
ing of which has been a subject of fierce and 
perpetual controversy. The text on the Epistle 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 93 

side may be translated : " The mercies which God 
hath shown us, raising up amongst us judges and 
princes to deliver us from our enemies and 
oppressors. . . . And we of this land have built 
this house with a strong and mighty arm. The 
day that it was built was great and delightful for 
the Jews, who, attracted by the fame of these 
things, came from the ends of the earth to see 
... if a ruler should be given us who should be 
as a tower of strength ... to govern our 
commonwealth. . . . And there was raised up to 
help us, Samuel [Levi,] and God was with him 
and with us, and who found for us grace and 
mercy. He was a man of peace, powerful among 
all the people, and a great builder'. These things 
were accomplished in the reign of the King Don 
Pedro ; may God be his helper, enlarge his 
dominions, prosper him and succour him, and 
place his seat over all princes. May God be 
with him and all his house, and may every man 
be humbled before him . . . and let those who 
hear his name rejoice to hear it in all the King- 
doms, and let it be manifest that he has been unto 
Israel a defender and a shield." The inscription 
on the Gospel side proclaims the Rabbi Myir 
Abdali as the architect and extols his pre-eminent 
virtues, and pathetically celebrates the return of 
good and prosperous times — times not destined 
to last for the luckless race ! 



94 TOLEDO 

In the neighbourhood of the synagogue exists 
the skeleton of the palace built by the great Jewish 
treasurer. It afterwards passed into the hands of 
the Marquises of Villena, and is associated with 
Don Enrique de Aragon, uncle of Juan II., a very 
interesting personality. He was a man of vast 
learning, and was, probably in consequence, 
reputed to be a magician and in league with 
the Evil One. Indeed, his magnificent library, 
including his own writings, was, in after years, 
burnt by order of the Inquisition. Beneath the 
mansion are still to be found various subterranean 
chambers, which popular superstition declares to 
have been the scene of Don Enrique's conferences 
with Satan and his satellites. This necromancer 
was indeed Marquis of Villena, but it is by no 
means certain that he inhabited this house, which 
afterwards became the property of another family 
(the Pachecos), on whom the title was conferred 
by Enrique IV. The palace was deliberately 
burnt by its owner, the Duque de Escalona, in 
the reign of Charles V., it having been con- 
taminated, as he thought, by the temporary 
residence within its walls of the Constable de 
Bourbon, then in arms against his own country. 
The CastiHan grandee's sense of honour was not 
a mere pose. The building is now the property 
of the Marquis de la Vega, who has tastefully 
restored it. It receives additional interest from 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 95 

its having been, as is now believed, the home of 
El Greco. 

Two ruinous structures are pointed out as the 
palaces of Don Pedro and of Enrique de Trasta- 
mara respectively. The latter probably belonged 
to one of the Counts of Trastamara, not to the 
king who bore that title. It is in the Moorish 
style, with horseshoe arches, friezes, and ajimeces. 
The so-called palace of Don Pedro is of the same 
class of architecture, but has much less to show — 
a horseshoe arch, a dado, and an almost illegible 
Arabic inscription which reads, " Lasting glory 
and perpetual prosperity to the master of this 
house." 

Better examples of the Mudejar (or late Moorish'l 
style are the Casa del Mesa and the Taller del 
Moro. The former is situated close to the church 
of San Roman, and was built soon after the Re- 
conquest by that prominent Toledan, Esteban 
Ulan. The saloon is one of the very best examples 
of this style of architecture. It is 60 feet long 
by 22 feet wide, and 36 feet high. The arte- 
sonado ceiling is thus described by Street: "The 
patterns are formed by ribs (square in section) 
of dark wood with a white line along the centre 
of the soffit of each. The sides of the ribs are 
painted red, and the recessed panels have lines of 
white beads painted at their edges, and in the 
centre an arabesque on a dark blue ground. The 



96 TOLEDO 

colours are so arranged as to mark out as distinctly 
as possible the squares and patterns into which it 
is divided, and the sinking of some panels below 
the others allows the same pattern to be used for 
borders and grounds with very varied effect. The 
reds are rather crimson in tone, and the blues very 
dark." The entrance — of a slightly horseshoe 
pattern — is framed in exquisite and luxuriant 
traceries. So also is the opposite ajimez window, 
but here the designs show Gothic influence. A 
high dado of azulejos and a very deep cornice and 
frieze of delicate workmanship complete the deco- 
ration of this very beautiful hall. 

The Taller del Moro is (quite without founda- 
tion) said to occupy the site of the massacre of 
the Noche Toledana. It was so called because it 
was used as a workshop during the building of 
the cathedral. There is a conflict of opinion as 
to its age, but it probably dates from about the 
time of the Reconquest. The Arabic inscriptions, 
however, imply that it was intended for the 
habitation of a Moor, the Latin texts being 
doubtlessly added by later owners. The Taller 
consists of a large hall, 54 feet long by 23 feet 
wide, and of two adjacent smaller apartments. 
It exhibits the artesonado ceiling, the delicate 
stucco-work and friezes with star-like and floral 
designs we are led to expect in specimens of Mu- 
dejar architecture. Street doubts if the stucco- 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 97 

work dates further back than 1350. The portal is 
in good Gothic style, and was added by Cardinal 
Mendoza. 

As in all other Spanish cities, after their re- 
acquisition by the Christians, in Toledo, for many, 
many years, Moorish architects and masons con- 
tinued to be employed even in the construction 
of sacred edifices. This accounts for the mixed 
Christian and Saracenic style of several of the 
churches, even where these had not originally been 
mosques. The interesting church of San Roman 
had been a Mohammedan temple remodelled to 
the requirements of Christian worship, while the 
tower or steeple is a Mudejar work added by 
Esteban Ulan, and (to quote Mr. Street), "the 
finest example of its class to be seen here." The 
steeple is of rough stone and brick, of a warm 
brown tone, and quite plain for more than half 
its height. The upper stages are pierced with 
windows which exhibit a very ungraceful trefoiled 
variation of the horseshoe arch — then fast dying 
out. Notwithstanding, the steeple has a noble 
and rugged appearance, like most things Toledan. 
The church itself has been so often restored, that 
it is hard to assign it to any one epoch. The 
Capilla Mayor is of the sixteenth century, and of 
the plateresque style. One of the altars has a 
front of black stone, carved at the edges in imita- 
tion of an altar-cloth with embroidery and lace. 

G 



98 TOLEDO 

Here and there traces may be detected of the 
original mosque. The steeples of the churches 
of Santa Magdalena, Santo Tom6, San Pedro 
Martir, San Miguel, Santa Leocadia, and La Con- 
cepcion, resemble that of San Roman, but differ 
greatly in size. 

The minor churches of Toledo are not specially 
interesting. Without the walls, however, is 
one with noteworthy characteristics. The little 
" basilica " of the Cristo de la Vega occupies the 
site of the famous church of St. Leocadia, built 
by the Visigothic King, Sisebuth, in the seventh 
century, to mark the place of the virgin saint's 
martyrdom. Several of the great councils were 
held here. The story is told that the saint 
appeared in person here to St. Ildefonso, in 
the presence of King Recceswinth, and having 
expressed her satisfaction at the theologian's 
masterly defence of the virginity of the Blessed 
Virgin, allowed him, with the royal dagger, to cut 
off a piece of her veil as a souvenir of her visit. 
This event naturally raised the "basilica" in the 
estimation of the devout. It was demolished by 
the Moors, and restored in 1162. It underwent 
many restorations and was finally ruined by the 
French during the War of Independence. The 
present edifice represents little more than the 
apse of the chapel of the Cristo de la Vega. 
There was a miraculous crucifix, attached to which 



BUILDINGS OF CASTILIAN PERIOD 99 

is a particularly silly legend. Two lovers had 
plighted their troth before the image, and the 
man afterwards denied the promise. The girl 
adjured the Christ to bear witness to the truth of 
her statement, and the figure obligingly extended 
a wooden arm while a voice from on high pro- 
claimed, "/ testify." Another version has it that 
the figure testified in favour of a Christian who 
(mirabile dictu)ha.d lent money to a Jew ; and yet 
another, that it expressed approbation of the 
magnanimity of a cavalier who had pardoned his 
enemy under extraordinary circumstances. What- 
ever it may have done, the crucifix has long 
since disappeared. An Arabic inscription de- 
duces that Mohammed ben Rahman, first King of 
Toledo, was buried here, A.D. 743. As there was 
no king in the city of that year, and as the first 
independent sovereign was otherwise named, the 
inscription must be apocryphal or else the word 
" king " must signify in the original merely Vali 
or governor. 

A legend, better known and rather less silly 
than that of the Cristo de la Vega, deals with the 
love affairs of an imaginary Moorish princess, 
called Galiana " la mora mas celebrada de toda la 
moreria," the daughter of an equally mythical 
king, called Galafre. He is linked up with history 
by some writers alleging him to have been the 
nephew of the wicked Count Julian, Galiana was 



100 TOLEDO 

the apple of her parent's eye, and for her delecta- 
tion he built a palace abounding in all conceiv- 
able delights. The young lady had, in some way, 
compromised herself with a gigantic Moor, 
Bradamante by name ; and to rid her of this 
truculent wooer, no less a personage than Charle- 
magne appeared on the scene. All, of course, 
ended happily (except for Bradamante) by the 
conversion of the lovely princess and her 
marriage to the gallant Frank. In the Puerta 
del Rey, outside the town, may still be seen a 
building dilapidated, let out in tenements, which 
is pointed out as the Palace of Galiana. The 
place was a mansion of the great Guzman family 
and exhibits traces of fine Moorish work — horse- 
shoe arches, twin-windows, a defaced inscription 
or two, some tiling, and arabesques — enough, in 
short, to conjure up a splendid Moorish palace, 
which, however, need not have antedated the 
Reconquest. 

The building is the property of H.I.M. the 
Empress Eugenie, and it is somewhat to be 
regretted that her attention has not been directed 
to its present condition and to the chance here 
presented of retarding the decay of a valuable 
monument of antiquity. 



THE CATHEDRAL 

Transcending in importance all the other 
monuments of Toledo and, indeed, of Castile, is 
the Cathedral — one of the noblest specimens of 
Gothic architecture the world affords. The 
metropolitan church of Spain, it is sumptuous 
"without gaudiness, austere without gloominess, 
admirably interpreting the spirit of Spanish 
Catholicism before it withered under the chilling 
influence of Philip II. and the Inquisition. The 
Cathedral of Toledo does not impress the 
foreigner as typically national. Indeed it corre- 
sponds no longer to the temper of the nation. 
And it was raised as a protest against those 
Moorish influences which have passed into the 
life and art of Spain, and without which nothing 
can be taken as representatively Spanish. 

The Cathedral of Toledo, then, is Gothic, and 
may be said to embody the ideals of old Spain — 
of the young fighting nation that looked forward, 
not backward. Splendid as the Mosque seized 
by Archbishop Bernard and converted to Chris- 
tian uses may have been, it was the work of the 
infidel. In 1227 King Ferdinand III. and the 



I02 TOLEDO 

Archbishop Don Rodrigo de Rada were able at 
last to give effect to a determination arrived 
at some years before ; and on August 14 the first 
stone of a new temple, which should never have 
been contaminated by Muslim rites, was laid with 
solemn ceremony. The name of the architect 
continues to be a matter of controversy. An 
epitaph in the sacristy of the Capilla de los 
Doctores affords some clue to his identity. It 
runs as follows : 

Agni : jacet : Petrus Petri : magister 
Eclesia : Scte : Marie : Toletani : fama : 
Per exemplum : pro more : huic : bona : 
Crescit : qui presens : templum : construxit 
Et hie quiescit : quod : quia : tan : mire ; 
Fecit : vili : sentat : ire : ante : Dei : 
Vultum : pro : quo : nil : restat : multum : 
Et sibi : sis : merce : qui solus : cuncta : 
Coherce : obiit : x dias de Novembris : 
Era : de M : et CCCXXVIII (a.d. 1290). 

" Petrus Petri " is interpreted by Spanish 
writers " Pedro Perez," but we incline to Mr. 
Street's view that the correct rendering is 
probably Pierre le Pierre, the architect having 
been, as the name implies, a Frenchman. " This, 
at any rate," continues Mr. Street, " is certain : 
the first architect of Toledo, whether he were 
French or Spanish, was thoroughly well 
acquainted with the best French churches, and 



THE CATHEDRAL 103 

could not otherwise have done what he did. In 
Spain, there was nothing to lead gradually to the 
full development of the Pointed style. We find, 
on the contrary, buildings, planned evidently by 
foreign hands, rising suddenly without any con- 
nection with other buildings in their own district, 
and yet with most obvious features of similarity 
to works in other countries erected just before 
them. Such is the case with the cathedrals at 
Burgos, at Leon, and at Santiago, and such even 
more decidedly is the case here. Moreover, in 
Toledo, if anywhere, was such a circumstance to 
be expected. In this part of Spain there was in 
the thirteenth century no trained school of native 
artists. Even after the conquest the Moors con- 
tinued to act as architects for Christian buildings 
whether secular or ecclesiastical, and, indeed, to 
monopolise all the art and science of the country 
which they no longer ruled. In such a state of 
things I can imagine nothing more natural than 
that, though the Toledans may have been well 
content to employ Mohammedan art in their 
ordinary works, yet, when it came to be a 
question of rebuilding their cathedral on a scale 
vaster than anything which had as yet been 
attempted, they would be anxious to adopt some 
distinctly Christian form of art ; and lacking 
entirely any school of their own, would be more 
likely to secure the services of a Frenchman than 



I04 TOLEDO 

one of any other nation. . . , But however this 
may have been, the church is thoroughly French 
in its ground-plan and equally French in all its 
details for some height from the ground ; and it 
is not until we reach the triforium of the Choir 
that any other influence is visible ; but even here 
the work is French work, only slightly modified 
by some acquaintance with Moorish art . . ." 

The stupendous fabric, once begun, whether 
by French or Spanish hands, ^took_two_hundred 
^ndjbdyj^six_YearsJo_finish. From the death of 
the first architect in 1270 to the year 1425 the 
names of the architects have been lost. During 
this period, the successive styles of architecture 
naturally influenced the original scheme and 
found expression in the building. It was in 
January 1493 that the roof was finished and the 
main structure completed. Certain chapels, such 
as the Reyes Nuevos, Sagrario, &c., were later 
additions. Among the later architects we find 
Rodrigo Alfonso, Alvar Gomez, Martin Sanchez, 
and Juan Guas. The stone employed inside 
(according to O'Shea) was quarried at Oliguelas, 
some nine miles from the city. It becomes 
harder with age. " The external portion is all of 
Berroquena stone, save the ornamentation of the 
portals, which is also of Oliguelas white stone." 

The Cathedral forms an oblong, semicircular 
at the eastern end, and lying east and west. In 



THE CATHEDRAL 105 

width it is exceeded only by the Cathedrals of 
Milan and Seville, measuring 178 feet broad by 
395 feet long. On the north side are the cloisters 
and additional chapels and sacristies. From the 
eastern side project the chapels of the Reyes 
Nuevos, San 1 Ildefonso, and Santiago, and the 
Winter Chapter-room. The plan of the interior 
is easy of comprehension. The nave extends 
from the vpestern entrance to the Capilla Mayor : 
on either side of it are two aisles which are 
continued round and behind this chapel in a 
semicircular sweep. Street extols the skill with 
which this arrangement has been carried out. 
Between the Choir and the Capilla Mayor a 
transept extends across the church, not project- 
ing, however, beyond the outer walls of the 
farther aisles. The eighty-eight pillars which 
support the fabric and mark off these divisions 
are composed each of from eight to sixteen light 
columns, standing on the same base. The capitals 
are moulded in plain foliage. The arches resting 
on these pillars make up the seventy-two vaults 
of which the roof is composed. The aisles rise 
gradually in towards the central nave, which is 
116 feet high. The crypt or substructure corre- 
sponds in its divisions and the number of its 
piers to the edifice above. The pavement is of 
bluish white marble arranged in chequers. 

In the original plan no side-chapels appear to 



io6 TOLEDO 

have been contemplated. But the chapel of Santa 
Lucia was added by Archbishop de Rada in 
memory of Alfonso VI. And, in addition to 
chapels built since the rest of the church, the 
spaces between the buttresses in the outer aisles 
have been railed off so as to form twenty-three 
chapels of various styles and periods. The in- 
terior is lit by 750 stained-glass windows of 
rich hues that delight the spectator. They depict 
episodes from the Scriptures, and are said to have 
been as carefully designed as if intended for 
close inspection. Among the artists were Dolfin 
(1418), De Vergara, Albert of Holland, Maese 
Cristobal, Juan de Campos, Vasco Troya, and 
Pedro Frances. The effect of the light falling in 
rays of richest colour on the pavement and 
columns is magical. The walls are denuded of 
colour and rudely whitewashed. 

The centre of the Cathedral is occupied by 
the choir ( Coro), to the east of which, separated 
by the transept, is the Capilla Mayor. The choir 
is enclosed by walls and cloisters, except on the 
side facing the Capilla Mayor, where it is railed 
in by the magnificent reja, designed by Domingo 
de Cespedes and Hernando Bravo (1548). Like 
the corresponding railing of the High Chapel 
opposite, this work was formerly heavily silver- 
plated and gilded, but at the time of the French 
invasion it was recoated with iron to secure it 



THE CATHEDRAL 107 

from spoliation. Unfortunately, no means have 
yet been discovered of restoring the reja to its 
original state. Among the elaborate ornamenta- 
tion may be noticed the arms of Cardinal Siliceo 
and of the Ayala family, with the interwoven in- 
scriptions Procul esto prophani and Psale et psile. 
The Choir is paved with white marble inlaid with 
dark. The vaulting above the Choir itself rises 
to the height of a hundred feet, the aisle round 
it to ninety feet, and the outer aisle to thirty-five 
feet. In the outer aisle are small chapels placed 
between the buttresses. Mr. Street describes this 
part of the building in great detail and con- 
siders that the original scheme of the Cathedral 
is only to be seen here. The triforium, formed 
of an arcade of cusped arches, in the outer wall 
of the inner aisle exhibits Moorish influence. " It 
would be impossible," writes the authority just 
mentioned, " to imagine any circumstance which 
could afford better evidence of the foreign origin 
of the first design than this slight concession to 
the customs of the place in a slightly later 
portion of the works. An architect who came 
from France, bent on designing nothing but a 
French church, would be very likely, after a few 
years' residence in Toledo, somewhat to change in 
his views, and to attempt something in which the 
Moorish work, which he was in the habit of 
seeing, would have its influence. The detail 



io8 TOLEDO 

of this triforium is, notwithstanding, all pure and 
good. , . ." 

The Choir is enriched by a magnificent screen, 
lecterns, and stalls. The screen, or respaldo, which 
at one time seems to have been continued right 
across the transept, encloses the Choir on three 
sides, and consists of an arcade carried on fifty- 
two columns of jasper and marble, and support- 
ing and enclosing admirable statuary and sculp- 
ture. Above the capitals of the columns is a 
series of fifty-six medallions in high relief, dating 
from 1380, and representing scenes from the Old 
Testament. These reliefs are worthy of close 
study, and are beautiful examples of simple and 
faithful mediceval treatment. The series is 
supplemented by a medallion with a bust by 
Berruguete and the statues of Innocence and Sin, 
by Nicolas de Vergara — works on which Street 
outpours the vials of his wrath. 

Of the wonderful Choir Stalls of Toledo every- 
one has heard. They are unsurpassed triumphs 
of the carver's art. The lower tier, including 
fifty seats, is the work of Maese Rodrigo, and 
dates from 1495. The stalls are of walnut wood, 
and the carving portrays the campaign against 
Granada by the Catholic Sovei-eigns. The carving 
being ' almost contemporary with the events 
illustrated has given these reliefs an historical 
as well as an artistic value. The names of the 



THE CATHEDRAL 109 

fortresses are here and there indicated by labels, 
and the designs are somewhat marred by the 
introduction of fanciful monsters. The whole 
breathes very much of the mediasval spirit, and 
we can, therefore, hardly complain of a certain 
stiffness and lack of variety. They form an 
admirable contrast to the finer, more finished 
work of the upper tier of stalls, executed fifty 
years later by Berruguete and Philip of Burgundy, 
surnamed Vigarni. Thirty-five seats, including 
the Primate's, are the v/ork of the Spaniard, the 
thirty-six opposite exhibiting the skill of the 
Burgundian. " They were wrought," says O'Shea, 
"in rivalry of each other, and finished in 1543; 
and as Cardinal Tavera's inscription runs : 
' Certaverunt turn artificum ingenia ; certabunt 
semper spectatorum judicia.'" The stalls are 
placed in recesses of alabaster, and separated by 
fine red jasper columns, with capitals in white 
marble. Over the recesses is a series of alabaster 
figures in low relief of the prophets and patri- 
archs. The carvings on the stalls themselves 
depict episodes from both the New and Old 
Testaments. The work breathes the spirit of 
the Renaissance, interpreted by Berruguete and 
his colleague with a skill, it has been truly 
observed, worthy of Benvenuto Cellini himself, 
Berruguete was a pupil of Michelangelo. His 
work is more vigorous than that of Vigarni, 



no TOLEDO 

who excels in elegance and softness of outline. 
Street's denunciations of these triumphs of the 
carver's art are a curious instance of the length 
to which an artistic bias may lead a clever writer 
and critic. The reliefs representing the visits of 
the Blessed Virgin to Purgatory and to St. 
Ildefonso are not by Philip of Burgundy, but by 
his brother Gregorio. 

Very fine are the reading-desks, with friezes of 
gilded bronze, executed by the two Vergaras in 
the middle of the sixteenth century. Those on the 
Epistle side are carved in low relief with the 
stories of David and Saul, the Blessed Virgin and 
St. Ildefonso, and the Apocalypse ; those on 
the Gospel side, the stories of St. Ildefonso, the 
Ark of the Covenant, and the Passage of the Red 
Sea. In the centre of the Choir is a magnificent 
brass lectern upheld by a great eagle with wings 
outspread; its eyes are of red stones and it 
crushes with its talons a struggling dragon. It 
was executed in 1646 by Salinas. The pedestal 
on which it stands is older by two hundred years, 
and is thoroughly Gothic in character, with 
buttresses, pinnacles, and statuary. The work is 
said to be German. The pedestal is borne by six 
lions, finely sculptured. 

The northern entrance to the transept, which 
separates the Choir from the Capilla Mayor, 
affords the best and least interrupted view of the 



THE CATHEDRAL iii 

Cathedral. That view impressed the writer with 
its calm majesty and sanctity, but by way of 
contrast it is worth while recording the impres- 
sions of a traveller only lately returned (Mr. 
Stewart Dick) : " My first feeling was one of dis- 
appointment — a feeling that even now has hardly 
worn away. 

" It is vast and cold. A white expanse. Huge 
pillars towering up to a great height. A blaze of 
harsh daylight. In the middle, blocking up the 
view down the nave, the tawdry gilt of the Coro. 
Doors opening and banging all round, people 
promenading, sitting on the bases of the pillars 
and talking with undropped voices. You ask 
yourself with amazement, Is this a church ? The 
form is here, but where is the spirit ? 

" In fact, it is only in the evening that Toledo 
Cathedral comes into its own. It is quiet and 
peaceful then. The promenaders have all gone 
away, the blaring of the organ has ceased, and 
through the open door you hear the twittering of 
birds in the cloisters. The shadows darken 
among the pillars, the beautiful windows begin 
to glow, and a soft light fills the upper part of the 
church. It is like the opening of a flower. 

" Then at last you begin to feel the impressive- 
ness and the dignity of those avenues of mighty 
pillars. The trivialities that annoyed you are lost, 
the efifects are broad, grand, and majestic, and at 



112 TOLEDO 

last the building is a temple ; it seems as if the 
Holy Spirit had entered with the fall of the 
twilight." 

The Capilla Mayor, or High Chapel, occupies 
the eastern end of the nave, the aisles sweeping 
round behind it. The hinder portion was origi- 
nally the Capilla de los Reyes Viejos, the chapel 
in which were entombed Sancho el Bravo, Sancho 
el Deseado, Alfonso VII., and others. In the year 
1498 the two chapels were thrown into one by 
Cardinal Cisneros, who left' the royal tombs for a 
time undisturbed. The High Chapel, according 
to O'Shea, measures 56 feet in length, 50 feet in 
breadth, and 116 feet in height. The piers are 
sculptured with the effigies of kings, prelates, and 
saints, and with "a multitude of angels playing on 
different instruments, and with outspread wings, 
that want but incense to raise them again from 
the spot where they have alighted." The walls of 
the chapel are pierced or of open-work, the stone 
in parts being almost transparent, and thus adding 
to the brightness of the effect. Two rows of 
statuary enhance the beauty of the stone-work, 
which is among the earliest portions of the fabric. 
But these walls, for all their magnificence, are put 
in the shade by the superb reja or railing, facing 
that of the Choir, and contemporary with it- 
This work is thus described by Senor Riano : 
' The reja is 42 feet wide by^ig inches high ; it 



THE CATHEDRAL 113 

rests on a pediment of marble ornamented with 
masks and bronze work upon which rises the 
reja, which is divided horizontally by means of a 
frieze of ornamentation, and this again vertically 
into five compartments. In each vertical division 
there is a pilaster of four sides formed of repousse 
plates, carved with a fine ornamentation in the 
Renaissance style ; this is again terminated with 
life-size figures in high relief of bronze. The 
second compartment rises upon the band which 
divides it in a horizontal sense ; it follows the 
same decoration in its pilastei^s, and is terminated 
by a series of coats of arms, torches, angels, and a 
variety of foliage which finishes the upper part. 
Upon the centre, hanging from a thick chain, 
supported from the roof, is suspended a life-size 
Rood of admirable effect, which completes the 
decoration. In several spots there are labels with 
mottoes in Latin ; in one of them appears the fol- 
lowing inscription, and the date of 1548, when the 
splendid work was finished : 'Anno MDXLVIII. 
Paul III. P.M. Carol. V. Imper. Rege. Joannes 
Martinez Siliccus Archiepiscopus Tolet. His- 
paniae Primat.' The railings of the reja are 
silvered, and the reliefs and salient points gilt. 
The artist who made it was Francisco Villalpando, 
a native of Valladolid ; this model was chosen in 
preference to those of several artists, who presented 
their plans in competition before the ecclesiastical 

H 



114 TOLEDO 

authorities ; it is calculated that ten years elapsed 
before it was finally finished. Villalpando was 
greatly distinguished likewise as a sculptor and 
architect." By him are the gilt pulpits in the 
plateresque style, made from the bronze tomb that 
the Great Constable, De Luna, had caused to be 
designed for himself. On a pier at the extremity 
of the chapel is the statue of the celebrated 
shepherd, Martin Alhaga, who is said to have, 
semi-miraculously, guided Alfonso VIIL and his 
army to the rear of the Moorish forces at Las 
Navas de Tolosa — thus securing the victory to 
the Christians. The king, who alone saw his 
features, is said to have designed the statue. 
Opposite is the figure of the Moorish Alfaqui, Abu 
Walid, whose intercession secured the old mosque 
to the Catholics, in the manner already narrated. 
The splendour of the High Altar, with its 
jasper and bronzes, renders a detailed descrip- 
tion impossible and inadequate. Its magnificent 
retablo, rising to the very roof, is the richest gem 
of the Cathedral. Designed by Philip Vigarni 
(Borgofia), and painted and gilded by his brother 
Juan, numerous other masters contributed to its 
excellences. We may name Maitre Petit Jean 
(of France or Aragon), Almonacid (a converted 
Moor), Copin (a Dutchman), Francesco of 
Antwerp, Fernando del Rincon, Egas, and 
Pedro Gumiel. The retablo is of wood and 



THE CATHEDRAL ii5 

divided into five compartments by gorgeous 
columns. The subjects are from the New 
Testament, and are worked out with immense 
and ornate elaboration. The whole is crowned 
with a colossal Calvary. Behind the High Altar is 
placed that extraordinary example of eighteenth- 
century bad taste, the too famous Transparente. 
The whole architecture, painting, statues, carving 
and bronze is the work of the same person, 
NarcisoThom6 who completed it in 1734. Much 
as we may denounce the taste (or rather the lack 
of it) of this triumph of the Churrigueresque 
style, we are obliged to admire the wonderful 
execution of this misdirected genius. 

The royal tombs lie around the High Altar. 
They were placed in recesses, sculptured in the 
Gothic style by Diego Copin of Holland, by order 
of Cardinal Cisneros in 1507. The arches are 
peculiarly graceful and light. The tombs them- 
selves date from much earlier times. Here sleep 
their last sleep Alfonso VII., Sancho el Bravo, 
Sancho el Deseado, and several Infantes. To the 
left of the altar is the sepulchre, more glorious 
than any king's, of the great Cardinal Mendoza, 
erected by order of Isabel the Catholic, who 
owed so much to him. It was the work of 
Covarrubias, and is all of precious marbles. One 
side is formed by the sarcophagus with its i-e- 
cumbent effigy, the other by an altar. Above this 



ii6 TOLEDO 

last is a medallion representing the Archbishop 
Adoring the Cross. Part of the wall was de- 
molished to make room for this stately mausoleum. 
Beneath the Capilla Mayor is a subterranean 
chapel, not of special interest. It contains a 
Burial of Christ by Copin, deserving of an in- 
spection that in the dim light is well-nigh im- 
possible, and some pictures by Ricci. 

At the eastern extremity of the Cathedral, 
behind the Capilla Mayor and projecting beyond 
the general outline, is the chapel of San Ildefonso. 
Erected by Archbishop de Rada, it remains the last 
important middle-pointed feature of the building, 
though considerably modified by Cardinal Al- 
bornoE in the latter part of the fourteenth century. 
It is eight-sided, and has beautiful traceried 
windows, and arches richly moulded and 
decorated. In arched recesses, beneath gabled 
and pinnacled canopies, are the tombs of Car- 
dinal Albornoz, and several members of his family. 
There is much beautiful detail on the tomb of Don 
Inigo de Mendoza, who fell at Granada in 1491 ; 
and the sepulchre of the Bishop of Avila by 
Tejada is a noble temple of theplateresque. The 
altar is modern. St. Ildefonso was the prelate 
who distinguished himself by his advocacy of the 
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. In 
return he is said to have received signal marks of 
favour from the Blessed Virgin, who invested 



THE CATHEDRAL 117 

him with a cassock, came down to attend Matins 
in his company, and so forth. 

To the north of this chapel is the larger Capilla 
de Santiago, likewise projecting beyond the 
original ground plan, and dating from 1435. It 
was built by order of the Great Constable, Alvaro 
de Luna, to be the place of sepulchre of 
himself and wife, on the site of an earlier chapel 
dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket. The plan 
is similar to that of the last chapel described. 
Outside, the flat-pitched tile roof is finished with 
a battlement and circular turrets at the angles. 
The most conspicuous features of the chapel are 
the tombs, in Carrara marble, of the Constable 
Alvaro de Luna and his wife Dona Juana Pimentel. 
The Constable is shown in full armour, and 
at each corner of his tomb kneels a knight of 
Santiago, of which order he was Grand Master. 
Four Franciscan monks attend on his lady. 
In niches in the wall repose kinsmen of the 
ill-fated Constable, the tombs all having been 
executed by permission of Isabel the Catholic, bj 
Pablo Ortiz in 1488, thirty-five years after De 
Luna's death on the scaffold at Valladolid. The 
tombs designed for the Constable in his lifetime 
were to have been furnished with life-size figures 
in bronze, which, by mechanical contrivance, 
were to have risen each time Mass was celebrated, 
and to have remained during the service in a 



ii8 TOELDO 

kneeling posture. These figures were destroyed 
by the Infante Don Enrique, and the bronze was 
used by Villalpando for the pulpits in the Capilla 
Mayor. The retablo of the High Altar reveals 
the portraits of the founder and his wife by Juan 
de Segovia. "The chapel," says Mr. Street, 
" bears evidence in the ' perpendicular ' character 
of its panelling, arcading and crocketing, of the 
poverty of the age in the matter of design. At 
this period, indeed, the designers were sculptors 
rather than architects, and thought of little but 
the display of their own manual dexterity." 

Passing down a corridor between this chapel 
and that of Santa Leocadia we reach the Capilla 
de los Reyes Nuevos, lying quite outside the 
original plan of the Cathedral. It was founded 
by Enrique II. of Trastamara, and contains 
his tomb, his wife's, and the sepulchres of 
Enrique III., his Queen, Katharine of Lancaster, 
Juan I. and Queen Leonor, and the effigy of 
Juan II., who is buried near Burgos. The chapel 
is a fine specimen of the Renaissance style, re- 
constructed by Alfonso de Covarrubias in 1534. 
The portal is fine, and is guarded by two kings 
armed and bearing escutcheons. During Mass, 
a gorgeously apparelled functionary holds up- 
right a mace, crowned and jewelled, and with 
the arms of Spain. 

The side-chapels of the Cathedral are not, on 



THE CATHEDRAL 119 

the whole, as interesting as one would expect in 
a building of such antiquity and associations 
To the south of the Capilla de San Ildefonso is 
the Capilla de la Trinidad ; next comes the 
entrance to the Chapter House or Sala Capitular, 
an early sixteenth-century work with an arte- 
sonado ceiling in red, blue, and gold, excelling 
anything of the kind in Andalusia. The thir- 
teen frescoes adorning the walls of the Chapter 
House are by Juan de Borgona, who was also 
responsible for the earlier series of portraits of 
the archbishops. Copin's work is to be recog- 
nised in the archiepiscopal throne, the other 
stalls being by Francisco de Lara. Returning to 
the church through a portal in the Moorish style, 
we find on the left the chapel of San Nicolas, 
followed by the chapels of San Gil, San Juan 
Bautista, Santa Ana, and the Reyes Viejos, 
founded in 1290 as the Capilla del Espritu 
Santo, with a fine reja by Cdspedes. The chapel 
of Santa Lucia, founded by Archbishop de Rada, 
is, of course, in the best Gothic style, and has " an 
extremely rich recessed arch in stucco, of late 
Moorish work — a curious contrast to the fine 
pointed work of the chapel." 

The Capilla de San Eugenio contains the ala- 
baster effigy of Bishop del Castillo (1521), and the 
tomb in the Mudejar style of the Alguacil Fernan 
Gudiel (1278). The statue of the saint is by Copin, 



I20 TOLEDO 

the paintings on the retablo by Juan de Borgona. 
Adjacent to the chapel is the colossal figure of 
Saint Christopher, usually seen in Spanish 
churches. This figure is probably coeval with 
the fabric, but was restored in 1638. A primitive 
style of art is also to be seen in the altar-piece of 
the Capilla de San Martin. The next two chapels 
— de la Epifania and de la Concepcion — do not 
present any features of special interest. 

In the south-west angle of the church is the 
interesting Mozarabic Chapel, built in 1504 by 
Enrique de Egas, under the orders of the famous 
Cardinal Ximenes de Cisneros. It is devoted to 
the celebration of Mass and the offices of the 
church according to the Mozarabic ritual, which 
till the middle of the last century was followed in 
six of the parish churches. The Cupola dates 
from 1626, and was the work of Jorge Manuel 
Theotocopuli. The porch is Gothic, and the 
reja in good Renaissance style, executed by 
Juan Frances in 1524. The frescoes, of no 
great value, painted by Juan de Borgoiia, re- 
present the expedition against Oran, in which 
the great Cardinal took part. Miss Hannah 
Lynch gives a vigorously worded account of a 
service in this chapel according to its peculiar 
rite : " The quaint old ritual may be heard every 
morning at 9 A.M., and will be found extremely 
puzzling to follow. The canons, in a sombre, flat 



THE CATHEDRAL 121 

monotone, chant responses to the officiating 
priest at the altar. The sound combines the 
enervating effect of the hum of wings, whirr of 
looms, wooden thud of pedals, the boom and 
rush of immense wings circling round and round. 
After the first stupefaction, I have never heard 
anything more calculated to produce headache, 
nervous irritation, or the contrary soporific effect. 
In summer, it must be terrible." 

At the opposite, or north-west, angle of the 
church is the Chapel of San Juan or of the 
Canons, so called because Mass can be celebrated 
here only by those dignitaries. It was built in 
1537 by Covarrubias in the Renaissance style, 
and occupies the site of the old tower chapel, 
called the Quo Vadis. The ceiling is of artesonado, 
in gold and black, with carved flowers and figures. 
Since 1870 this chapel has been the repository of 
the Cathedral Treasure, styled Las Alhajas, or the 
Jewels. Here is kept the gorgeous custodia, or 
portable tabernacle, made by order of Cardinal 
Cisneros by Juan de Arte, who began it in 1517 
and completed it without assistance in 1524. This 
triumph of the silversmith's craft is in the form of 
a Gothic temple, eight feet high, with all the 
architectural details, such as columns, arches, 
and vaultings, the whole resembling delicate 
lacework. Scenes from the life of our Saviour 
are illustrated in reliefs. There are no fewer than 



122 TOLEDO 

two hundred and sixty statues of various sizes, all 
exhibiting the same skill. The tabernacle was 
gilded over in 1595 by Valdivieso and Merino. 
The viril inside, in which the Host is exposed, was 
made of the first gold brought from America, is 
completely covered with precious stones, and 
weighs twenty-nine pounds. In the Treasure is 
also included the mantle of the Virgen del Sag- 
rario, considered by Senor de Riafio the most 
remarkable specimen of embroidery that exists in 
Spain. It is described in the following manner : 
" It is made of twelve yards of cloth of silver, 
entirely covered with gold and precious stones. 
In the centre is an ornament of amethysts and 
diamonds. Eight other jewels appear on each 
side of enamelled gold, emeralds, and large 
rubies ; a variety of other jewels are placed at 
intervals round the mantle, and at the lower part 
are the arms of Cardinal Sandoval [seventeenth 
century] enamelled on gold and studded with 
sapphires and rubies. The centre of this mantle 
is covered with flowers and pomegranates em- 
broidered in seed-pearls of different sizes. Round 
the borders are rows of large pearls. Besides the 
gems which are employed in this superb work of 
art, no less than 257 ounces of pearls of different 
sizes, 300 ounces of gold thread, 160 ounces of 
small pieces of enamelled gold, and eight ounces 
of emeralds were used." The beautiful dish, 



THE CATHEDRAL 123 

repousse in silver, the designs on which represent 
the Rape of the Sabines and the Death of Darius, 
was believed to be the work of Benvenuto Cellini, 
but is now ascribed to the Flemish artist, Mathias 
M^line. Among the Alhajas are also four geo- 
graphical globes, with large silver figures, gleam- 
ing with gems — eighteenth-century work. Of 
historical interest is the sword, said to have been 
worn by Alfonso VI. on his entry into Toledo, 
and the original letter written by St. Louis of 
France to the Chapter, bestowing sacred relics 
obtained from the Great Emperor : " Given at 
Etampes, the year of our Lord, 1248, month of 
May." Other objects of value are the Cope of 
Cardinal Albornoz and the Cruz de la Manga, 
made in the sixteenth century by Gregorio de 
Varona, a native of the city. Here, also, are 
the archiepiscopal cross, planted by Cardinal 
Mendoza on the summit of the Alhambra in 1492, 
and the Golden Bible in three volumes, dating 
from the twelfth century. It is to be doubted 
if the accumulation of these splendid objects, 
intended for diverse practical uses, in one collec- 
tion, serves to show any of them to the best 
advantage. 

On the north aisle are the chapels of Teresa de 
Haro, Nuestra Senora de la Antigua — where the 
Spanish colours used in the Moorish campaigns 
were blessed — of the Pila Bautismal, with a 



124 - TOLEDO 

beautiful bronze font, and a reja by C^spedes ; 
and the large Capilla de San Pedro, built in 
1442 in the Gothic style by Archbishop de Rojas. 
The founder's fine monument was placed here in 
the eighteenth century. On the other side of the 
Puerta del Reloj is the Capilla de la Virgen del 
Sagrario, noted for a statue of the Blessed Virgin, 
which she is said to have kissed on her visit to St. 
Ildefonso. The statue is of dark-coloured wood, 
and was formerly clothed in a mantle embroidered 
by Felipe Corral; and composed of gold, rubies, 
emeralds, and pearls, now kept in the Treasury. 
In this chapel the degree of doctor is conferred 
on licentiates. The two small chapels of the 
Cristo and of Santa Leocadia are adjacent to the 
entrance to the Capilla de los Reyes Nuevos. 

Adjoining the Chapel of the Virgen del Sag- 
rario are a set of apartments, built with it upon 
the site of an old hospital, by Nicolas de Vergara, 
junior, at the close of the sixteenth century. 
These rooms are the Sacristia, Vestuario, Cuarto 
de la Custodia, and Ochavo. The Sacristia, 
entered through a portal 26 feet high, contains 
paintings by El Greco, to be noticed in the chapter 
on that master ; the ' Betrayal of Christ,' by 
Goya ; and a ceiling fresco by Luca Giordano, 
representing the Miracle of San Ildefonso. The 
Vestuario contains pictures by several Italian 
masters, among them 'Paul III.' by Titian; a 



THE CATHEDRAL 125 

replica of the portrait at Naples ; a ' Madonna ' 
by Rubens ; and a ' St. Francis ' by El Greco. 
The Custodia was till lately the Cathedral Treasury. 
The Ochavo, at the back of the Capilla de la 
Virgen, is richly adorned and contains the collec- 
tion of relics, among them massive silver caskets, 
wonderfully wrought, for the bones of the saints 
Leocadia and Eugenius. 

The vestments preserved here, to the number of 
forty sets, belong mostly to the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries, and are of the most splendid 
description. " Each set [says Riano] generally 
includes a chasuble, dalmatic, cope, altar frontal, 
covers for the gospel stands, and other smaller 
pieces. The embroideries on the orphreys, 
which are formed of figures of saints, are as 
perfect as the miniatures on illuminated MSS," 

The Cloisters to the north-west of the church 
were built by Cardinal Tenorio in 1389. They are 
not, as Miss Lynch observes, to be compared 
with those of Burgos, of Santiago, or of Oviedo. 
The garden they enclose lends a brighter, gayer 
note to the columned and arched galleries than is 
found in those other cathedrals. The frescoes in 
the lower cloister were painted by Francisco 
Bayeu, and illustrate the lives of St. Eugenius and 
the legend of the Nirio perdido. 

We should, perhaps, have described the ex- 
terior of the Cathedral first, but from the sight- 



126 TOLEDO 

seer's point of view the interior is, of course, more 
important. It is a general subject of complaint 
that it is extremely difficult to obtain a good view 
of any considerable part of the fabric from the 
outside, nor does it stand out as conspicuously 
from a distance as its imposing dimensions would 
lead one to suppose. The best view is to be 
obtained from the church of Nuestra Senora de la 
Valle, above the Puente de San Martin. The 
exterior, with its flying buttresses, finials, and 
rose-windows, reflects the Gothic spirit of the 
interior. The west facade is flanked by two 
towers, that above the Chapel of the Canons alone 
being complete. It is 295 feet high, and was 
begun by order of Archbishop Tenorio, in 1380, 
by Rodrigo Alfons, and completed under Arch- 
bishop Contreras in 1440 by Alvar Gomez. On 
the summit is a small spire, surmounted by a 
cross, a vane, and an arrow. Here are hung the 
bells, among them the famous Campana Gorda, 
weighing nearly two tons, and whose note 
reaches to Madrid. The tower also contains a 
peal called the Matraca, worked continuously by 
mechanism from Maundy Thursday till Easter 
Saturday. The view from the summit is far- 
reaching and inspiring. 

Among the finest features of this noble church 
are its eight principal entrances. In the western 
facade are three portals — the Puerto del Perdon 



THE CATHEDRAL 127 

in the centre, flanked by the Puertas de los 
Escribdnos and de la Torre. All date from the 
first half of the fifteenth century and are in the 
Gothic style. The Puerta del Perdon forms a 
noble arch, richly ornamented, and divided into 
two smaller arches by a column surmounted by 
the figui^e of Christ, above which are the Twelve 
Apostles. Above these again is a relief in the 
Renaissance style representing the gift of the 
Chasuble to San Ildefonso. The smaller doors 
are in single arches, and are sculptured with 
statues of angels and patriarchs. The Puerta de 
los Escribanos is so called because through it the 
notaries enter the church to take their oaths. It is 
also called the Puerta del Juicio. Above it is a 
long inscription commemorating the taking of 
Granada and the expulsion of the Jews. Above 
the portals the fagade is adorned with a colossal 
sculpture of the Last Supper, the Saviour and 
the Apostles being seated each in a niche, and the 
table reaching from buttress to buttress. The 
fafade is pierced with a beautiful rose-window 
thirty feet across with a glazed arcade beneath. 

On the south side are the Puertas Liana and de 
los Leones. The former in the classic style, was 
made by Ignacio Haam in 1800. The Puerta de 
los Leones gives access to the transept, and is a 
magnificent Gothic work, erected in 1460 by the 
Fleming, de Egas, and ornamented by Juan 



128 TOLEDO 

Aleman. The sculpture of the portal is perfect. 
The six columns of the atrium are surmounted 
by six lions holding shields. Here are the famous 
bronze doors, wrought by Villalpando and Ruy 
Diaz del Corral in 1545. The wood-carving and 
decoration employed a great many masters, 
among whom maj' be mentioned Velasco, Troyas, 
and the two Copins. Between them was divided 
the sum of 68,672 maravedis. At the opposite or 
northern end of the transept is the Puerta del 
Reloj, dating from the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, and so named from the clock above it. 
The door is of bronze and above it is a fine rose- 
window of about the same period. It is considered 
by Street the best example of stained glass now 
remaining in the Cathedral. West of this, the 
Puerta de Santa Catalina leads into the eastern 
cloister. The decoration is profuse. St. Catharine, 
and the instruments of her martyrdom, are shown, 
with the arms of Spain and the Tenorio family. 
The Puerta de la Presentacion, also leading into 
the cloister, is in the Renaissance style, and 
dates from 1565. Pedro Castaneda, Juan Vasquez, 
Torribio Rodriguez, Juan Manzano, and Andres 
Hernandez are named as the designers of this 
very fine portal. The cloisters are entered from 
the west side next to the tower, by the Puerta del 
Mollete, so called because molletes or rolls were 
or are distributed to the poor here. 



THE CATHEDRAL 129 

The chapel and cloister of San Bias on the 
north side of the cloisters are the most im- 
portant additions made to the structure in the 
fifteenth century. The chapel contains the 
monument of the founder, Cardinal Tenorio, and 
"in the cloister walls," says Street, "a. door 
which, in the capricious cusping and crocketing 
of its traceried work, illustrates the extremes into 
which Spanish architects of this age ran in their 
elaboration of detail and affectation of novelty." 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 

Toledo, up till then hardly distinguished for its 
loyalty to the Crown, loved Isabel the Catholic, 
and on her account, perhaps, rendered obedience 
to her Aragonese husband. The Catholic sove- 
reigns liked the city, and generally held their Court 
there. The magnificent Cardinal Mendoza was 
the prime mover in the expedition against 
Granada, and planted the Cross on the summit of 
the Alhambra. The power of the primacy was in 
no way diminished by the consolidation of the 
monarchy, and Toledo still looked rather to its 
archbishop than to its king for guidance and 
governance. Under Ferdinand and Isabel it 
prospered exceedingly. The arts of peace were 
studied, industries flourished, and the more 
adventurous and restless spirits found an outlet 
for their energies in colonial enterprises beyond 
the seas instead of cutting each other's throats in 
the byways of the city. Toledo became courtly 
and urbane. The luckless princess, Juana, was 
born at the Alcazar in 1479 ; and here the Infanta 
Isabel was married on April 29, 1498, to the King 
of Portugal. Only a few months later her corpse 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 131 

was brought hither from Zaragoza, to be laid in 
the convent of Santa Isabel. 

The death of Queen Isabel, and the proclama- 
tion of Juana and Felipe I, on May 22, 1502, put 
an end to the long spell of peace. Toledo sided 
at first with Ferdinand against his son-in-law, and 
was held by the Silvas against the latter's forces 
under the Marquis de Villena. In the following 
year (1506) the Ayalas, supported by the towns- 
men generally, took possession of the town, and 
resolved to maintain its liberties against the 
Flemish favourites and centralising tendencies 
of the new regime. The Silvas, as a matter of 
course, ranged themselves on the opposite side, 
and the streets ran red with blood. Toledo was 
herself again. 

The accession of the Flemish prince, Charles, 
afterwards emperor, determined the Castilians 
to make a stand for national independence. 
What city had so good a claim to be the head- 
quarters of the movement, the focus of anti- 
foreign agitation, as Toledo the turbulent ? In 
1520 occurred the outbreak of the Comuneros 
movement. At its head were four gentlemen of 
Toledo : Hernando Davalos, Gonzalo Gaytan, 
Pedro de Ayala, and (greatest of all) Juan de 
Padilla. Twenty thousand citizens rallied to the 
cry of "Padilla y Comunidad 1 " and the movement 
spread from the Tagus to Salamanca and west- 



132 TOLEDO 

wards to the frontiers of Portugal. To Juana, 
imprisoned at Tordesillas, herself a Toledan, pro- 
testations of loyalty and devotion were addressed. 
But denounce her son's fraudulently obtained 
sovereignty she would not. Meanwhile Charles's 
forces were not idle. The Alcaide, Clemente de 
Aguayo, held the tower of San Martin, and Don 
Juan de Silva, the Alcazar, against the insurgents. 
But the townsmen were victorious. Padilla, 
however, was defeated at Villalar, and executed, 
with his brave lieutenants, Juan Bravo and 
Maldonado. 

In the Comunero leader's dauntless wife, Maria 
de Pacheco, liberty found a new champion and 
Spain a new heroine. " She was found praying 
at the foot of the Cross," says Miss Lynch, " when 
her servants brought her the news of Padilla's 
defeat and death. She rose, robed herself in 
black, and walked to the Alcazar between her 
husband's lieutenants, Davalos and Acuna, who 
bore a standard representing Padilla's execution. 
They named her captain of the insurgents, and 
found her implacable and violent, but still a 
sovereign commander." For sixteen months 
under this Castilian Joan of Arc the old city of 
the Visigoths held out against the armies of 
Charles V. Routed in a bloody sortie on 
October i6, 1521, by Zuiiiga, prior of San Juan, 
the Comuneros were obliged, ten days later, to 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 133 

abandon the gates to the besiegers. A truce was 
agreed to, while the demands of the citizens 
should be presented to the Emperor. Maria re- 
mained in her own house, as in a fortress, guarded 
by her faithful troops. But on February 3 the 
murder of a citizen brought on a renewal of the 
conflict. Desperate battle waged in every street 
and lane. Maria, assailed and valiantly defended 
in her stronghold, at last cut her way through, and 
retired to Portugal, dying at Oporto years after- 
wards. The townsmen were worsted, and sullenly 
submitted. Toledo had fought her last fight. 

Her day was over. Charles V. forgave her, and 
would come at times to live in the Alcazar. She 
was still the capital of Spain. But her haughty 
temper and the arrogance of her clergy matched 
ill with the policy of Philip II. In 1560 Madrid 
— upstart, provincial Madrid — was proclaimed 
the unica corte. Less important than under the 
Khalifate, Toledo became a mere provincial town. 
But the Church did not desert her. She is still 
the metropolitan see of Spain. 

Let us see what the monarchs of United Spain 
did for the old city, and what monuments remain 
of the days when it was Court and capital. 

The church of San Juan de los Reyes, near the 
Puente de San Martin, was built in 1476 by Fer- 
dinand and Isabel, in thanksgiving for the victory 
of Toro gained over the Portuguese allies of Juana, 



134 TOLEDO 

nicknamed " la Beltraneja." The first architect 
■was a Fleming, Juan Guas, one of the builders 
of the cathedral. The church was intended to 
receive the ashes of the royal founders, but after 
the capture of Granada it was decided to establish 
the mausoleum in that city, and the completion of 
San Juan de los Reyes was delayed till the seven- 
teenth century. In consequence, the architecture 
exhibits the transition from the Late Gothic to the 
Late Renaissance style. " Nothing," remarks 
Street, "can be more elaborate than much of the 
detail of this church, yet I have seen few buildings 
less pleasing or harmonious." The exterior is 
unpromising, and is decorated, if we can use the 
word in such a connection, with festoons of rusty 
chains which fettered the limbs of the Christians 
in Moorish prisons. The chief entrance, to the 
north, was completed by Covarrubias in 1610, and 
is in the decadent style of architecture. It is 
adorned with inferior statuary, and the arms and 
initials of the Catholic sovereigns. 

The interior is composed of a single nave, two 
hundred feet long and from forty-three to seventy 
feet wide. There are four chapels on one side 
and three on the other. At the east end of the 
church is a shallow five-sided apse, forming the 
Capilla Mayor. Over the junction of the nave and 
transept is an octagonal cupola,resting on four fine 
pillars, with a pointed dome and a window in each 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 135 

face. At the west end of the church is a deep 
gallery, containing the choir. The altar dates 
from the Renaissance period, and is brought well 
forward into the nave. It came from the sup- 
pressed church of Santa Cruz. Above it is a blue 
velvet canopy, embroidered with the eagle, the 
symbol of St. John. The whole fabric is enriched 
with statuary, tracery, carving, and heraldic de- 
vices in almost reckless profusion. The yoke 
and the arrows — the devices of the Catholic 
sovereigns — and their coats of arms are repeated 
again and again. Among the inscriptions is one 
commemorating the foundation of the church. It 
runs : " Este monasterio e eglesia mandaron hacer 
los muy esclarecidos Principes 6 seriores D. Her- 
nando 6 Dona Isabel, Rey y Reina de Castilla, de 
Leon, de Aragon, de Sicilia, los cuales senores 
por bienaventurado matrimonio y unaron los 
dichos Reinos, seyendo el dicho rey y senor 
natural de los reinos de Aragon y Sicilia, y 
seyendo la dicha seiiora Reina y senora natural de 
los Reinos de Castilla y Leon ; el cual fundaron a 
gloria de nuestro senor Dios, y de la bienaven- 
turada Madre suya, nuestra Senora la Virgen 
Maria, y por especial devocion que le ovieron." 

Admirable as is the church in its general struc- 
ture, and in the detail and execution of its orna- 
mentation, it is garish and ostentatious. There 
is a superabundance of light and luxury. Here 



136 TOLEDO 

there is no dim religious light, no suggestion of 
mystery or devotion. Prayer would seem incom- 
patible with the whole character of the edifice. 
More favourable was the opinion of Thdophile 
Gautier, who declared that "Gothic art never 
produced anything more suave, more elegant, or 
more fine." 

Attached to the church is the convent, bestowed 
on the Franciscans, and pillaged by the French 
in 1808. It has been converted into a museum, 
which does not contain much of great interest. 
The most important exhibits are fragments of 
Visigothic inscriptions and Moorish tile-work. 

The cloister of San Juan de los Reyes is a gem 
of florid Gothic, and the finest part of the whole 
fabric. There are two galleries, one above the 
other, the lower with traceried openings, the upper 
with large open arches. As in the church, there 
is here an excess of decoration, hardly a square 
inch on pillar, arch, and vaulting being free from 
sculptured ornamentation. There is a bewildering 
profusion of statues of angels, men, and animals, 
of scroll-work and foliage, heraldic devices and 
inscriptions. The whole is dazzlingly white — 
more like a temple of the Sun than a shrine of 
" the pale Galilean." The original effect, perhaps, 
was less crude, for the church and cloisters have 
been recently restored, and, it must be confessed, 
not too skilfully. 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 137 

A most beautiful specimen of azulejo work has 
been built into the north-west wall. It comes 
from the suppressed monastery of the Calced 
Augustines, and is said to have been a part of 
the ornamentation of the ancient palace of Don 
Rodrigo — wherever that may have been situated. 

Before the finishing touches had been put to 
San Juan de los Reyes, the last important Gothic 
work of Toledo, the erection of one of the two 
earliest examples of the Renaissance style in Spain 
had been begun. The hospital of Santa Cruz 
was built between the years 1494 and 15 14 by 
Enrique de Egas, of Brussels, some ten years after 
he had completed the college of the same name 
at Valladolid. The hospital was designed by the 
founder, the mighty Cardinal Mendoza, as an 
asylum for foundlings. He died in 1495, and left 
75,000 ducats to the queen for the completion of 
the work. Isabel it was who chose the site over- 
looking the bridge of Alcantara, where formerly 
the palace of the legendary King Galafre is fabled 
to have stood. Among other stories connected 
with the spot is that of a Leonese princess wedded 
against her will to a Moorish prince, her union 
with whom was prevented by the intervention of 
an angel. As in all the early specimens of Spanish 
Renaissance architecture, the groundwork of 
the building approximates to the Gothic, the 
new ideas manifesting themselves in the deco- 



138 TOLEDO 

ration and carving. The portal is superb. The 
reliefs represent the Adoration of the Cross 
by St. Helena, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the 
founder, Cardinal Mendoza, two pages also 
appearing, bearing mitre and helmet. Other 
reliefs, exquisitely chiselled, have for subjects 
the espousals of St. Joachim and St. Anne, and 
Charity. The four cardinal virtues are shown, 
and everywhere, amidst a maze of ornamentation, 
occur Mendoza's arms and device. The plater- 
esque windows, with their rejas in the local style, 
are deserving of admiration. Entering, we find 
a vast patio, enclosed by a double arcaded gallery 
of marble, and, crossing it, ascend a grand stair- 
case with a fine ceiling of the artesonado kind. 
The chapel, in the form of a Maltese cross, has 
also a fine ceiling, and Gothic pillars, beautifully 
carved, that attest the splendid appearance once 
presented by this dismantled building. Some of 
the columns adorning Santa Cruz were brought 
from the Visigothic church of Santa Leocadia. 

To the same period belongs the Franciscan 
convent and church of San Juan de la Penitencia, 
begun by order of Cisneros in 1514, and finished 
by his secretary, Fray Francisco Ruiz, Bishop 
of Avila. The semi-Moorish palace of the Pantojas 
was utilised in its construction, and the whole 
building bears traces of Arabic, or rather Mudejar, 
workmanship. Entering the chapel by a porch 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 139 

adorned with the great Cardinal's arms and 
foliations in the Gothic style, we find ourselves 
in a sombre edifice of a single nave, revealing 
a curious medley of styles. The roof is a fine 
example of the artesonado. Over the transept, 
which is divided from the nave by a plateresque 
reja, is a cupola with a stalactite roof of the 
Moorish pattern. The principal retablo is early 
Renaissance, and several of the altars may be 
classed as Baroque. The most interesting feature 
of the church is the tomb of the Bishop of Avila, 
who died in 1528. It is in the Renaissance style, 
and was the work of a Lombard artist. It is 
wrought in Sicilian marble, and is thus described 
by Ponz : "Above a large stone divided by three 
pilasters to form three pedestals there are an equal 
number of statues seated, representing Faith, 
Hope, and Charity. Between the pilasters are 
the arms of the Bishop — five castles. In a framed 
recess are the urn, couch, and recumbent figure. 
In front of the urn are seen two weeping children, 
and within the recess four angels draw aside the 
curtains. On either side are two Doric pillars 
supporting the frieze, which is inscribed, ' Beati 
mortui qui in Domino moriantur.' On the edge 
are two antique columns admirably executed. 
Between these columns and pilasters are statues, 
St. James and St. Andrew, and above, the figures 
of children. Over all is a bas-relief of the 



140 TOLEDO 

Annunciation, with the statues of St. John the 
Divine and St. John Baptist, one-half the size of 
the Virtues below." 

The Emperor-King Charles V. had, as we have 
seen, small reason to love Toledo, but he did 
something for the permanent embellishment of the 
city, and the last architectural monuments reared 
on its craggy peninsula belong to his era. 

It is difficult to ascribe the Alcazar, to which 
reference has so often been made, to any one 
epoch. It has undergone so many vicissitudes, 
so many reconstructions, that the name, as we 
have employed it, must be understood to repre- 
sent a site rather than the actual palace. A 
stronghold of some sort has always been here 
— possibly, in Roman times, the Arx, where tra- 
dition avers the martyr Leocadia suffered death. 
The Arabian geographer, Jerif al Edris, writing 
in 1154, describes Toledo as "a town great in 
extent and population, extremely strong, with 
fine ramparts, and an Alcazaba, fortified and 
impregnable." This citadel was doubtless the 
Alcazar, which was strengthened and rebuilt by 
successive Castilian kings, and is said to have been 
the residence of the Cid, the first Christian Alcaide. 
Added to, reconstructed, partially demolished 
and repeatedly restored, it must have presented an 
aspect rude and heterogeneous enough when, in 
1538, Charles V. ordered Alonso de Covarrubias 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 141 

and Luis de Vega to rebuild the palace entirely 
on the lines of the new Alcazar of Granada. The 
Flemish Emperor may, then, fairly be considered 
the founder of the present fortress-palace, though 
it has since his time undergone radical trans- 
formations. It was burnt down during the War 
of Succession in 1710, restored sixty years later, 
destroyed again by the French in 18 10, and 
devastated by a third conflagration as late as 
1887, Since 1882 it has been the seat of the 
Royal Military Academy. 

The northern fafade was constructed after the 
designs of Covarrubias, and looks on the square 
created by Ferdinand and Isabel in 1502. The 
reconstruction was so complete that probably no 
stone of the older fafade was left in its place. The 
fa9ade is severe and majestic, revealing classical in- 
fluence, though not without important traces of the 
plateresque. It is flanked by towers, and adorned 
with a handsome portal — the work of Enrique de 
Egas, brother-in-law of Covarrubias. Over the 
door are the Imperial arms, supported by the 
figures of two heralds or mace-bearers. The for- 
tress-like eastern fa9ade is believed to be a part 
of the original Alcazar as restored by Alfonso X. ; 
the western side of the building dates from the 
reign of the Catholic sovereigns, and the southern, 
with massive Doric pillars and square turrets, was 
built after designs by Juan de Herrera, 



142 TOLEDO 

The inner court, or patio, is described by a 
Spanish writer as "solemn, grandiose, full of 
majesty . . . constructed for the dwelling-place 
of the August Caesar." It forms a spacious 
parallelogram and is enclosed by an arcade in 
two storeys with columns of the Corinthian order. 
Above the capitals are displayed the escutcheons 
of the various kingdoms ruled over by Charles. 
The modern restorers of the palace have adorned 
the court with a statue of the Emperor in the 
Roman costume in which he was so fond of 
being represented. 

The finest feature of the palace must have been 
the staircase, designed by Villalpando and 
Herrera, which has been to some extent restored 
after its destruction by Stahremberg in 1710. 
One of the widest staircases in the world, " it 
ends," says Miss Hannah Lynch " in the void ! " 
In truth, the Alcazar is not to-day a very interest- 
ing building. It is, in'reality, quite impossible to 
identify the scenes of the romantic and historical 
episodes which we know occurred in one or 
other of the successive Alcazars. But the room 
in which Alfonso VI. died and the window at 
which the hapless Blanche de Bourbon wept, 
pace the local guides, must have disappeared to 
the last stone and fragment ages ago. All that 
can be said of the palace to-day is that it forms an 
imposing landmark, and affords from its northern 
terrace one of the finest views of Toledo, 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 143 

To the age of Charles V. (or Carlos I. as in 
Spain he would properly be called) belongs 
the Hospital de San Juan Bautista, styled the 
Hospital de Afuera (outside) in the suburb of 
Covachuelas. The building was begun in 1541 by 
order of Archbishop Juan de Tavera, who died 
on his return from the baptism of Prince Carlos 
at Valladolid. The building was carried on after 
Bustamente's death by the two Vergaras, and 
completed about 1600. The fa9ade dates from 
the eighteenth century and is still unfinished. The 
courtyard, spacious and imposing, is divided into 
two and enclosed by colonnades. A fine Renais- 
sance portal by Berruguete leads into the large 
chapel, which is in the form of a cross and 
surmounted by a dome. The pavement is of 
black and white marble. Before the altar is the 
tomb of Archbishop Tavera by Berruguete. This 
is one of the finest monuments in Spain. It was 
finished by Berruguete when he was over eighty 
years old, in 1561, his death taking place the same 
year in one of the rooms under the great clock. 
His sons received nearly a million maravedis for 
the work. "The Cardinal," says Theophile 
Gautier, " is stretched out upon his tomb in his 
pontifical habit. Death has pinched his nose 
with its strong fingers, and the last contraction of 
the muscles, in their endeavour to retain the soul 
about to leave the body for ever, puckers up the 
corners of the mouth and lengthens the chin ; 



144 TOLEDO 

never was there a cast taken after death more 
horribly true ; and yet the beauty of the work is 
such, that you forget any amount of repulsiveness 
that the subject may possess. Little children 
in attitudes of grief support the plinth and the 
Cardinal's coat of arms. The most supple and 
softest clay could not be more easy or more 
pliant ; it is not carved, it is kneaded 1 " 

The hospital contains some of El Greco's most 
notable work, which will be noticed in the 
chapter on that master. 

To Charles V. Toledo also owes the grand New 
Gate of Visagra, built in 1550, and restored in 
1575. It consists of two separate structures, or 
gateways, enclosing a patio. On the exterior of 
the north gate is shown the double eagle with the 
Spanish arras and a Latin inscription— all in 
sculptured granite. On the inside is a fine statue 
of St. Eugenio, variously attributed to Berruguete 
and Monegro. The statues of Gothic kings, a 
life-sized angel with unsheathed sword, elegant 
capitals and balconies, combine to make this 
gateway one of the finest approaches possessed 
by any city in the world. 

The Ayuntamiento, or town hall, of Toledo was 
erected in the time of Ferdinand and Isabel by 
the corregidor Gomez Manrique, and enlarged 
and restored between 1576 and 1618 by the 
corregidor Juan Tello, under the supervision of 
El Greco. The fa9ade is composed of two storeys. 



THE DECLINE OF THE CITY 145 

the first consisting of nine arches with Doric 
columns which spring from massive pillars, the 
second of as many arches with Ionic columns. 
The edifice is surmounted by two towers, crowned 
with steeples and weather-vanes. On the fine 
staircase may be read in letters of gold on a blue 
ground this admonition to the civic dignitaries of 

Toledo : 

Nobles, discretes varones, 
Que gobernais ^ Toledo, 
En aquellas escalones, 
Desechad las aficiones, 
Codicio temor, y miedo, 
Per los comunes provechos, 
Dejad Ids particulares; 
Pues vos fizo Dios pilares 
De tan riquisimos techos, 
Estad firmes y derechos. 

The Summer Council Chamber is handsomely 
decorated with aznlejos, and contains some battle 
pictures. The portraits of Carlos II. and his 
wife are the work of Carreiio. 

The celebrated Bridge of Alcantara, of which 
mention has so often been made in these pages, 
belongs indifferently to all the epochs of Toledo's 
history, so no apology is needed for mentioning it 
here. " It constitutes to-day as in the past," writes 
Amador de los Rios, " the principal entrance to the 
city, and, constructed very wisely on one of the 
narrowest parts of the river, it is formed of a great 
central arch of more than twenty-eight metres in 

K 



146 TOLEDO 

breadth, resting on the right on a solid pile, often 
demolished, behind which is a smaller semicircular 
arch, which is, in turn, sustained by the bridge 
head, founded on the rock and pierced by a still 
smaller arch oi passage, where several Visigothic 
remains have been discovered." At the outer or 
country end of the historic bridge formerly stood 
a fortified tower, which was in 1787 replaced by 
the existing structure. This is in a pretentious 
style, and is decorated with various inscriptions, 
among them one commemorating the building 
by order of Philip V. The majestic hexagonal 
tower on the town side, with its picturesque 
turrets, dates probably from 1259. Above it is a 
statue of St. Ildefonso, by Berruguete. Over the 
archway are sculptured the badges of Ferdinand 
and Isabel (the yoke and bundle of arrows), com- 
memorating the restoration of the tower, in 1489, 
by Gomez Manrique. A noble bridge is this of 
Alcantara ; old — old as the city — the work of all 
Toledo's rulers, and like Toledo, grim, stern, rude, 
destined, it would seem, to endure for ever. 
Romans, Visigoths, Moors and Castilians have 
lingered on it, triumphed on it, fled across it, 
fought upon it, and across it to-day must walk 
every traveller entering with reverence this great 
temple of the mediaeval and bygone. 



EL GRECO 

BY 

Albert F. Calvert and C, Gasquoine Hartley 

DOMENiKO Theotokopuli,* known to us to-day 
as El Greco, was the first great painter of Spain, 
and in his strange and fascinating art, the Spanish 
School compels for the first time the attention of 
the world. And El Greco was not Spanish. He 
was born in Crete, it would seem about the year 
1548, and died at Toledo in 1614. Learning his 
art in Venice, in his early manner he is a pure 
Venetian, owing much to the work of the Bassani, 
and more to the inspiration of Tintoretto, but in 
Toledo he became Spanish and himself,developing 
there a manner in which the special temper of the 
race finds an expression passionate enough, not 
equalled again, indeed, until the advent of Goya. 
There will always be some men imaginative, 
entirely personal, who, like El Greco, seek to ex- 
press themselves, and in so doing, quite unwittingly 
probably, express the life of their age. Having 

* This spelling of his name resembles most that used by 
himself. 



148 TOLEDO 

the interpretative — creative would perhaps be the 
truer word — genius, their work becomes, as it 
were, a mirror, which reflects not the man alone, 
but the circumstances that have formed his life. 
For, after all, what the artist does is to use up 
what he has seen. 

This is why El Greco seems to chronicle for us 
our impressions of Toledo, and of Spain. 

Surely no other painter has lived in a city in 
such strong agreement with his spirit.^ Think of 
the place — wind-swept, heat-dried, extraordinarily 
austere, yet flushed with colour, ochre-red shading 
to unusual greens ; heaped upon its rocky throne 
above the yellow flowing Tagus, its rugged silhou- 
ette straight cut against a sky hard and clear as 
enamel ; and, beyond, the sierra like a great brown 
sea in which it all stands as an island starting from 
the waves.''' A suggestion of strenuousness seems 
to linger everywhere, a spirit, personal and keen, 
cruel almost as the sword-blades the city fashions. 
The very buildings, placed upon the crags beneath 
the great hulk of the Alcazar, repeat this impres- 
sion, they rise in sharp upward and downward 
lines like an arrangement of swords, and make 
their appeal by the strange strength of their aspect. 
The streets are a tortuous net of steep-rising 
passage-ways. A city strongly itself that has 
suffered no change, fantastic as a city seen in a 
dream. 



EL GRECO 149 

Yei^ to those who know Toledo, the impression 
of the character of the city upon El Greco will 
bring no surprise. His art corresponds perfectly 
with its setting. Everywhere his work is around 
you, for El Greco is one of those painters who 
has but a single home. He built churches and 
other buildings — the classic fayade of the Ayunta- 
miento, for instance, was modelled on his design ; 
he carved statues, he painted pictures, there are 
canvases of his in the museum, in the cathedral, 
and in many of the churches. And in all this 
mass of work, it is the living force behind it that 
is the first impression that you gain ; a kind of 
driving power that fascinates you, just as Toledo 
fascinates you, by reason of its power. El Greco 
was a painter able to create — that is the secret of 
it all. And, be it remembered, the artist does not 
find his matter straight from the springs of his 
brain, what he is able to see he sets down, and 
that is all. His art is great in exact measure 
as it is able to transfer this vision from him to us. 
In this way El Greco, to whom vision seems to 
have been the whole of life, does in his pictures 
transfer to us the entire impression of Toledo, so 
that it is difficult to speak of his art without 
making Toledo the refrain. 

And as we wait with his pictures and note, after 
the first surprise has left us, the qualities of the 
work, throughout they confirm this. The very 



V 



ISO TOLEDO 

form of his composition is moulded upon Toledo. 
Just as its buildings cluster around the Alcazar, 
almost as bees swarming about their queen, so he 
groups everything around a central figureX/Never, 
after he came to Toledo, did El Greco use Italian 
backgrounds. And in his long, lithe figures, so 
fantastic in their hard outlines, sometimes we 
catch that suggestion of the sword that haunts 
Toledo. Then when we come to more tangible 
things, we find to-day El Greco's models in the 
dark peasants of Toledo. Nowhere else can we 
quite believe in the reality of those coldly fervent, 
self-absorbed, ecstatic men, who greet us with 
such fascination from his canvases, their lean, 
long profiles suggesting again that aspect of a 
sword. 

Then, El Greco's colour was drawn from the 
landscape around him. And colour, if we may 
credit the truth of the conversation recounted by 
Pacheco, was to him the one quality in painting, 
form, drawing, all else, being of secondary signifi- 
cance. This, too, was learnt in Toledo, where 
colour has an allurement — illusive and insistent. 
Toledo it was showed him the existence of cold 
tones, and the fascination of its greys and livid 
greens led him to anticipate modern colour, at a 
time when every one else was painting warm tonali- 
ties. In the Convent of San Juan de los Reyes, 
nowthe Museo Provincial, is that 'Bird's-EyeView 



EL GRECO 151 

of Toledo,' the picture in which we have a portrait 
of George Manuel Theotokopuli, El Greco's son. 
At first you will be astonished, it is the strangest 
landscape in the world. But wait with the pic- 
ture — always the danger with El Greco is that 
you will not linger enough. The painter who sees 
for himself must be studied, not dismissed as he 
who but sets down the common vision of things. 
And El Greco does give us the real Toledo in this 
fantastic landscape. Do you doubt this ? Then 
go when night falls upon the city to some such 
vantage-point as the Puerta del Cambon, where 
beneath the dome of the evening sky you will 
see Toledo, heaped roof against roof, tower against 
tower. You will forget the strangeness of the 
picture's statement, as you come to see that it is 
just this effect that El Greco has caught. Now 
you will recognise the reality of those bluish 
whites, those tones of green that surprised you, 
and, in gladness, you will yield to the truth, the 
beauty — are not the two the same? — of the 
painter's vision, and avow how much he has 
taught you to see. 

Always El Greco's pictures leave an impres- 
sion of their own upon the spectator ; and this 
is the test of vital work. It is personality that 
counts in art. Whether he paints the visible 
truth of outward things, as in his portraits — that 
wonderful series in the Prado, for instance, in 



152 TOLEDO 

which he startles us with his revelation of his 
model — or pure fancies of the mind, as 'The 
Vision of Philip II.,' in the Escorial, a picture 
that would seem to have no conscious reference 
to things seen, one feels that he had something 
definite to express. And although his style at 
first may have been formed largely on that of the 
great Venetian painters, of Tintoretto especially — 
a " sort of shorthand of the Venetian," Mr. Ricketts 
calls it — in all his pictures there is but one person- 
ality — that of himself. At the back of his art was 
a force of passionate character — unbalanced ? 
Yes 1 capricious and arbitrary ; a tyrannical need 
that compelled expression. But in spite of his 
singular conventions and, from a theorist's point 
of view, the strangeness and exaggeration of his 
qualities, he does convey his meaning, splendidly 
effective, if not the best. And because of this 
intensity of vision we have those pictures of 
exaggerated statement that give credit to the 
fable of the painter's madness, such as the ' St. 
John the Baptist,' in the Hospital San Juan 
Bautista, a picture which many have found ugly, 
while the few see in its new conception a striving 
for personal utterance, and find many things in its 
Siiggestion. 

El Greco stumbled in his methods maybe, never 
in his purpose, which was, it would seem to us, 
the significance of movement. All his strange 



EL GRECO 153 

skill, the power of his imagination, his new know- 
ledge of colour and light, are used in this service, 
to bring home to us the vision of movement that 
everywhere he saw. Even in his portraits it is 
this that holds us. There is something more in 
them than the outward likeness ; there is a power 
of reaching to and showing us the unquiet spirit 
within. He makes his portraits live and speak. 
This quality is present in all his work. Every 
picture is built up by its effect ; and this effect is 
movement — life. By concentrating on a par- 
ticular passage, by a contempt for detail and 
peddling accuracy, he directs our minds to this 
principal thing. His interest, as it were, compels 
ours ; he realises his vision and makes us share in / 
his imagination. 

But it may be said that in many of these pic- 
tures the effect is forced ; in the ' St. Maurice,' the 
rejected altar-piece of the Escorial, for instance, 
in the * Baptism of Christ ' and the ' Descent of 
the Holy Spirit,' in the Prado, and in many 
pictures in Toledo, easily recognised, in which 
realities are replaced by a series of conven- 
tions. It is not necessary to wait to particularise 
examples. Certainly one does not see in the 
pictures of other painters those greens, those \ 
ashen whites and crimsons, those livid blacks ; --^ 
El Greco's use of colour is unusual and his own. 
Light is not used as he uses it, as a quantity 



154 TOLEDO 

for emotional appeal ; those faces, so elongated 
or contracted, and with such extravagant ex- 
pressions, those figures with hard anatomical 
outlines, do not correspond with life as we see 
it. Yes, this is true. But look longer at these 
pictures. . . . Well, would it be possible to gain 
their effects without the defects 1 If things are 
forced out of harmony it is for the sake of " telling 
strongly." All this search for expression is done 
quite consciously. El Greco throughout was 
strong enough to be true to himself and to his 
imagination. He knew that no system of art is 
final, that the achievements of artists are, in truth, 
the stones wherewith the Temple of Art is built. 
Imagination does not see commonplaces. And we 
recall the statement of Blake — he, too, a painter of 
visions of the mind : " He who does not imagine 
in stronger and better lineaments, and in stronger 
and better light, than his perishing mortal eye can 
see, does not imagine at all." 

El Greco might have said these words. 

And the man ? There is a portrait Domeniko 
Theotokopuli has left of himself now in the 
Museum of Seville. In it we see the long, striking 
profile, with its large, strong nose, restless eyes 
and straight mouth, cruel slightly, framed by the 
great white ruff that forms such fitting setting to 
the fine head. The forehead is high, the dark 
hair scant upon the temples. We may read in 



EL GRECO 155 

the face, and still more in the perfectly shaped 
hands — the left holds a square palette upon which 
are the five primary colours, white, black, yellow- 
ochre, vermilion, and lake, the colours he used 
most frequently — the fastidiousness of the artist, 
the instinct for beauty; we may read a peculiar sug- 
gestion of mysticism and ardour ; self-assertion, 
too, and impatience — both wait in those long, ner- 
vous fingers. It is a face of genius, but of a kind 
restless, unbalanced, decadent perhaps. And we 
understand the driving energy that burned to 
fever, so that at times the balance was lost between 
the painter's aim and the result, and we realise 
that the work of such a man must be introspective, 
experimental, neurotic. 

We know nothing almost of El Greco's life, and 
if external happenings were all, the most original 
painter of Spain would remain an unexplained 
personality. His very name is uncertain, and 
contemporary writers, disregarding the Theoto- 
kopuli, speak of him as Domeniko Greco. We 
do not know the year in which he was born, for 
the information given by Palomino in "El Museo" 
must certainly be questioned, no register of his 
birth as yet having been found among the Cretan 
archives, or in the parochial books of the Greek 
colony in Venice, the city in which it seems 
certain that he lived — a pupil, we may well think, 
of Tintoretto, rather than of Titian ; and this in 



iS6 TOLEDO 

spite of the letter of his friend and compatriot the 
miniature-painter, Clovio,* in which Clovio speaks 
of the young Greek painter's skill, tells of his 
coming to Rome, and, after commending him to 
the patronage of the Cardinal Nepote Farnese, 
refers to his having learnt his art from the greatest 
Venetian. But the testimony of his work gives 
more truth than this statement ; his early pictures, 
their authorship so long unknown, again and 
again have been attributed to Tintoretto, to 
Bassano, to Veronese even, never to Titian. 

That El Greco was a Cretan we know by his 
signature, always in Greek, on many pictures, 
Ao)irjvLKOQ QcoroKOTTovXog KpijaiTTolu ■ — the ' San 

* The exact contents are as follows : 
"Al Card. Farnese — Viterbo. 

" A' di i6 di Nouembre, 1570. 

" E' capitate in Roma un giouane Candiotto discepolo di 
Titiano, che i mio giuditio parmi rare nella pittura ; e fra 
r altre cose egli ha fatto un ritratto da se stesso, che fa 
stupire tutti questi Pittori di Roma. lo vorrei tratenerlo 
sotto r ombra de V.S. lUma. et Revma. senza spesa altra 
del vivere, ma solo de una stanza nell Palazzo Farnese per 
qualche poco di tempo, cio6 per fin che egM si venghi ad 
accomodare meglio. Pero La prego et supphco sia contenta 
di scrivere al Conte Lodovico suo Maiordomo, che lo pro- 
vegghi nel detto Palazzo di qualche stanza ad alto ; che 
V.S. lUma. fard un' opera virtuosa degna di Lei, e io gliene 
terro obligo. Et le bascio con reverenza le mani. 

" Di V.S. Illma. et Revma. humillssimo servitore. 

"Julio Clovio." 



EL GRECO 157 

Maurice,' in the Escorial, is one. And again, 
when called, in 1582, by the Tribunal of the 
Inquisition to act as interpreter in the case of 
a Cretan accused of being a Morisco, he describes 
himself as " Domeniko Theotokopuli, native of 
Candia, painter, resident in Toledo," as we learn 
from a document discovered by Seiior Cossio, to 
whose research, and to that of Seiior Foradada 
and of Senor de Beruete, we owe the few dis- 
covered facts of El Greco's life. 

We know that Domeniko Greco came to 
Toledo some time before 1577, and in that year 
he was at work in the convent of Santo Domingo 
el Antigua, where the Church was built and its 
statues carved by him, and where he painted the 
screens of the fine retablo ; that further, he would 
seem never to have left Toledo ; that he married 
there, and had a son, George Manuel, who was 
architect and sculptor to the cathedral from 1628 
to his death in 1631, and also a daughter, whose 
portrait figures in several pictures — in 'Christ 
Despoiled of his Vestments,' in the cathedral, for 
one ; that he died in Toledo, and was buried in 
Santo Domingo el Antigua on April 7, 1614 * 

* The record of his burial, discovered by Senor de Beruete 
in the register of the parish cliurch of Santo Tom^, is brief: 
" Libro de entierros de Santo T0U16 de 1601-1614, en siete 
del Abril del 1614 falescio Domeniko Greco. No hizo 
testamento, recibo los sacramentos, en teroso en Santo 
Domingo el Antigua." 



158 TOLEDO 

— and that is about all. We have record of much 
work — Toledo still has more than fifty Grecos — 
and there were pictures painted for the small 
town of Illescas, and also for Madrid. We read 
of two lawsuits, one undertaken to compel 
the Cathedral Chapter to pay in full for the 
* Expolio/* the second to vindicate the painter's 
right to sell his pictures without paying the tax 
levied upon merchandise. These lawsuits, his 
pictures, with their dates and signatures, certain 
contracts and receipts, are the few facts to be 
reported. 

It would seem that this strange, self-contained 
life wished to be silent ; for it is perhaps not too 
fanciful to read this meaning into that answer 
given by El Greco when asked, in connection 

* Two judges were appointed to settle the dispute, which 
arose from the introduction of the three Marys into the 
picture. TheChapter objected to their presence. El Greco's 
defence was characteristic enough — What did it matter ? 
and, besides, the women were a long way off. The judges 
disagreed ; whereupon the dispute was settled by Alezo de 
Montoyo as follows : 

" Having seen the said painting which has been executed 
by the said Domenilto, and the appraisements of the judge 
appointed by both parties, and other persons who under- 
stand the said painting, its execution and admirable finish ; 
and the reasons which the said judges have given ; and 
seeing that the said painting is one of the best that I have 
seen ; and that, if it were to be estimated for all its valuable 
qualities, it would be valued at a much higher sum, which 



EL GRECO 159 

with the writ served on him for the ' ExpoHo,' 
whether he had been brought to Toledo to paint 
the retablo of Santo Domingo : " I am neither 
bound to say why I came to this city nor to 
answer the other questions put to me." Here 
we gain hints of certain very real traits of 
character. 

And, if the facts of his life are meagre enough, 
we can find suggestions of this same temper, 
silent, yet passionate, in that visit of Pacheco 
to the Toledan painter when he was old, in 
161 1, of which we have spoken before. Pacheco 
tells us that El Greco was a student of many 
things, a writer on art, a great philosopher 
given to witty sayings, a sculptor and architect as 
well as a painter. He writes of much work that 

but few would care to pay for it ; but, in view of the nature 
of the times and the price paid generally for the paintings 
of great artists in Castile ; and in view of, and taking into 
consideration all the above and all other points that were 
necessary, I find that I must order, and I do order, that for 
the said painting the said Garcia de Loaysa, in the name 
of the said Holy Church, shall give and pay to the said 
Domeniko Theotokopuli three thousand and five hundred 
reals : and above this sum the said Domeniko Theotokopuli 
cannot ask, nor must he ask, for anything more for the said 
painting ; and as regards the judges for the said workers, 
they say that it is improper for the Marys to be introduced 
into the story ; as regards this I am sending the declaration 
of it to some theologians versed in such matters, that they 
may decide upon it." 



i6o TOLEDO 

he saw, and speaks in particular of a cupboard in 
which were models in clay of each picture El 
Greco had finished. The two painters talked on 
many subjects, of colour and its supreme quality 
in painting, of Michael Angelo and his failure as 
a colourist. But in all the account of Pacheco, 
always so minutely laborious, it is significant to 
note in one sentence the impression he formed of 
Domeniko Greco : " He was in all things as 
singular as in his painting." 

Nor will it do to overlook the testimony of 
Giuseppe Martinez, whose " Practical Letters on 
the Art of Painting," though not printed until 
1866, were written a century before. He too 
speaks of Domeniko Greco as of extravagant dis- 
position, and in proof recounts that he engaged 
musicians to play to him that he might " enjoy 
an additional luxury during meals." The prudent 
Aragonese condemns this " too much ostenta- 
tion," but we capture again some fresh clues and 
hints of this strangely effective personality — a 
fanatic of life, a fanatic of painting. 

But we have not settled the account of genius 
when we have called it unusual, fanatic, or de- 
cadent. It is the solution of the dull that genius 
is extravagant consciously. El Greco can have 
had no desire, no power, to repeat the easy, the 
commonplace. If strange, exaggerated even, his 
art is without a trace of affectation. When he 



EL GRECO i6i 

painted a vision he felt it natural to symbolise 
his idea in the way that he did. In colour, in 
form, he painted only what his imagination saw, 
gaining in colour fresh harmonies for himself, and 
a new suggestion of movement in his imaginative 
compositions, to which our imagination must find 
ansv/er. 

El Greco understood all nature as a Living 
Presence ; his art was a series of experiments 
to express this. And every one must be struck 
with the peculiar development of this special per- 
sonality in his art from stage to stage — stages that 
with sufficient accuracy may be divided into 
three periods. 

The first is the pupil's search for truth ; the 
Venetian stage, in which we find a consciousness 
of tradition, showing itself in the still-fettered 
design, in the attitudes of the figures, in the use 
of warm colour, in a flowing quality in the 
paint, and, especially perhaps, in the landscape 
backgrounds, so Venetian with palaces and 
marble-paved piazzas ; yet mingled with all this 
tradition is an emphatic personality, an ardour of 
expression, very difficult to define, seen in such 
early pictures as ' The Blind Man,' in the Parma 
Gallery, or ' The Cardinal,' in the National 
Gallery, both painted before 1577. Over the 
whole Venetian period the influence of Tintoretto 
is obvious ; while the portraits of these years 

L 



i62 TOLEDO 

recall in their method the work of the Bassani ; 
and of the pre-Spanish pictures, as, for instance, 
the ' Cleansing of the Temple/ * now in the pos- 
session of the Countess of Yarborough, and the 
replica of the same subject on a small scale, 
in the Cook collection at Richmond, Surrey, a 
picture of real beauty that testifies to El Greco's 
skill in miniature — these, and many other works, 
were thought until quite recently to be the work 
of the Venetians, the first being attributed to Paul 
Veronese, the latter to Tintoretto, and this in 
spite of their marked character. 

And the Venetian influence remained in the first 
years in Toledo. It is seen in the beautiful Virgin 
in the early ' Assumption,' painted for the central 
altar-screen of Santo Domingo el Antigua, but now 
in the Prado.f But the chief work of this period 
is the ' Christ Despoiled of His Vestments,' still 
in the sacristy of the cathedral in Toledo, for 
which it was painted in 1577. Here, perhaps, in 
the fine simplicity of the grouping, in the dignity 
of the inspired head of the Saviour, in the rich 
and strong colour and in the vivid light and shade, 

* This is another rendering of the same picture ; and still 
another is in the collection of Seiior de Beruete, Madrid. 

f This picture passed into the collection of the Infanta 
Dona Isabel Farnese, and is now in the Museo del Prado. 
The ' Assumption ' in the Church of Santo Domingo el 
Antigua is a poor copy of the original picture. 



EL GRECO 163 

we have the best results of all El Greco learnt in 
Venice. But even in this beautiful picture we see 
the development, or rather the co-existence, of 
his two styles : on the one hand carefully and 
thoroughly worked-out qualities, a balanced art 
remembered from Venice, but with it all a power 
that was his own, that seized the elements in the 
picture and gave them life — his life. And again, 
we have in the excessive height of the Christ, in 
the hands of many of the figures in this picture 
and in the ' Assumption,' first hints of the special 
conventions with which the name of El Greco is 
certainly most associated. - 

We come to the second stage, in which the 
painter, forgetting tradition, seeks to set down 
his vision in his own way ; it is the period of 
experiment, as we see it first in the ' St. Maurice,'* 
painted in 1581, that strange picture, rejected, as 
we may so well believe, by Philip II., who, mis- 
understanding, as many have done since, the 
intensity of feeling that animates the work, 
attributed its exaggerated expression to madness. 
Here, and in other pictures of this time, in the 
seizing 'Vision of Philip II.' and in the 'St. 
John the Baptist ' in particular, we have splendid 

* The picture was painted for the altar of St. Maurice, 
but it was rejected by Philip II., and the commission given 
to a third-rate Italian. To-day the picture hangs in the 
Sala Capitulate. 



i64 TOLEDO 

examples of imaginative work. Maybe the details 
are impossible, perhaps absurd — many have found 
them so — but for others the inspiration of the 
painter triumphs, and the longer they gaze at 
these visions the more they are impelled. For, 
be it remembered, the idea should be the starting- 
point in all imaginative pictures, and should con- 
trol both the design and its treatment, and these 
Greco's are splendid in this respect. Whether 
the imagination is exaggerated and perverted in 
wilful experiment, whether from an uncertain 
technical equipment, or whether it is, as we would 
think, the natural and true expression of intense 
dramatic vision, it is not easy to say. Who shall 
decide whether to call these mad pictures or 
visions that breathe the sublime ? That is a 
question hard to answer in much of El Greco's 
characteristic work. Perhaps the truth is that we 
dislike too readily what we do not easily understand. 
El Greco goes back to first principles and speaks 
in symbols with which we are not familiar. Those 
spectres of human kind that surprise us in so many 
of his pictures in Toledo, in those in the Prado, as 
well as in these two in the Escorial, do not suggest 
life aswe see it; but they are inspired — they do con- 
vey his meaning. This painter's method is a real 
enigma ; he essayed surprising effects by separa- 
ting colour into its original values ; he used light 
as a means of emotional appeal, giving us some- 



EL GRECO 165 

times most delicate harmonies, sometimes dis- 
cordant contrasts. Domeniko Greco had to teach 
his world to see what he saw, and in this way he 
came, it may seem to some, to over-emphasise 
what to him was truth. 

And his third stage was a fevered expression of 
his imaginative vision. We have entered a new 
world of extraordinary restlessness, the restless- 
ness that must exist when spirit struggles from 
the bonds of the flesh. Toledo, the ardent arid 
city, burnt fiercely in El Greco's blood, and, more 
and more, he seems to have felt that it was not 
enough to record facts ; to have cared less to 
give aesthetic pleasure ; but that the object of 
his art should be to clothe abstract ideas with 
life. It is something of all this that we find in 
his later pictures. In each there is emphasis — 
or, if you like, exaggeration — of statement ; 
in the ' Coronation of the Virgin ' in San 
Jos6, for instance, a picture that in a strange, 
left-handed way carries us forward to the picture 
by Velazquez* on the same subject. The ex- 
aggeration is equally visible in the * Assumption ' 
in San Vicente, more beautiful, and the most 
interesting of these rare visions, a picture in which 
we have movement — the very sensation of a figure 

* This likeness is more striking even in another ' Corona- 
tion of the Virgin,' by El Greco, in the collection of Colonel 
P. Bosch, Madrid. 



i66 TOLEDO 

passing through the air as we have, perhaps, in 
no other picture. It is even stronger in the 
group of pictures in Madrid, the ' Baptism,' the 
* Descent of the Holy Spirit,' the ' Resurrection,' 
and the 'Christ Dead in the Arms of God'; it 
meets us again in the ' St. Joseph with the 
Child Jesus,' and in the ' Virgin and Child with 
Saints Justa and Gertrude,'* both in San Jos6, 
the church that is the museum of so much of the 
master's work — pictures all similar in their in- 
tense sentiment^; while emphasis burns to a white 
flame of ardent expression in the famed ' St. John 
the Baptist,' the wonderful picture of which we 
have spoken already. It is there, too, in the 
' Christ Crucified,' one in the Prado, one in San 
Nicolas, surely the most terrible realisation pos- 
sible of that scene of sacrifice, in which the agony of 
spirit so outweighs the agony of the flesh, and sky 
and earth seem to take their share in the struggle. 
It is impossible to translate the effect of these 
animated religious pictures into words. El Greco 
was not content to embody the old myths in fresh 
forms, but he gave fresh forms to the ideas that 
are, as it were, the soul of each myth — that which 
lives when the form of the stories change. Even 
in his pictures with few figures, such for instance, 
as the * Mary and Jesus,' in San Vicente, the 

* Some authorities name these saints Sta. Inez and Sta. 
Feda. 



EL GRECO 167 

'St. Francis,' of which there are four repUcas 
in Toledo, or that earlier picture, a beautiful 
rendering of a difficult theme, ' La Veronica,' 
one of the series painted for the Santo Domingo 
el Antigua in 1575-76, we have this exaggera- 
tion. Then, sometimes, exaggeration, which in 
each picture, after all, only emphasises the idea, 
disappears altogether, and we are given figures 
of singular beauty, as the ' San Martin,' in San 
Jose, or the really fine Madonnas — dark, oval- 
faced angels that surprise us at times with a 
beauty of type we hardly expect from El Greco. 
But, as a rule, in the pictures of this period, 
roughly marked by the painting of that experi- 
mental picture the ' St. Maurice,' there is this in- 
tensity of expression ; and especially we find a 
new, and often strange, use of colour ; colour, as 
well as form, being used as a means of dramatic 
statement, with a result that to many is exag- 
geration. For El Greco learnt first, perhaps, from 
the Venetians, and afterwards certainly in Toledo, 
many new possibilities of colour — that it has a 
quality that speaks, and further that the appeal of a 
picture depends first of all on the tone of its colour. 
It is for this reason he used colour as a means of 
emotional appeal ; it was another quality by which 
to convey his idea to the world. For El Greco 
held truly that the province of art is to interpret, 
not to imitate. Every development of his art 



i68 TOLEDO 

seems to have come from his own mind, hardly 
at all from the work of other painters ; from the 
first he was true to his ideals. And always his 
pictures seem to be more the work of his soul than 
of his hand ; which, in other words, is to say that 
he was greater as an artist than as a painter. 

Domeniko Greco, like so many of the painters 
of Spain, was great in portraiture ; and some of his 
portraits, such as those of Antonio Covarrubias 
and of Juan de Alava, in the Museo de San Juan 
de Los Reyes, that of Cardinal Tavera, in the 
Hospital de Afuera, the whole series in the Prado, 
and many others not possible to name, are as fine 
portraits as have ever been done in the world. In 
his earliest portraits even, in that of Julio Clovio, 
in the Museum of Naples, or that of 'A Student,' 
a portrait, it well may be, of the young painter 
himself, we have the qualities of his later work ; 
always it is the spirit of his model that he seeks. 

And this inward interpretation of life is seen, 
too, in that picture which is accounted rightly the 
most interesting, though not perhaps the most 
typical, of his work, 'The Burial of Gonzalo 
Ruiz, Count of Orgaz,' still in the Church of 
Santo Tom6, where it was painted in 1584. 
Look at this gallery of living portraits, all the 
life of Toledo — the life of Spain — is reflected 
back from those ardent faces. In St. Augustine, 
splendid in ecclesiastical robes, is the magnificent 



EL GRECO 169 

opulence of the Catholic Church ; in the livid face 
of the dead count, in the cowled monk and two 
priests is the fervid piety of a people who have felt 
themselves in mystical communion with God ; 
in the young, warm beauty of St. Stephen and 
the lovely acolyte is the full joy and rich colour 
of Spain ; and lastly, in the long line of mourners 
who stand behind the group of the principal 
figures, and where the painter's own nervous 
face is the sixth portrait counting from the right 
side, you have types unchanged in Castile to-day 
And how mdividual is the rendering of the upper 
section of the picture in which Christ awaits in 
the heavens the spirit of the dead saint. Yes, 
this picture is one of the greatest pictures in 
Spain ; it is always interesting. 



Plate i 




TOLEDO 



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A STREET IN T0LED6 



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A STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 19 




A -STREET IN TOLEDO 



Pl.ATfi 2d 




A STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 21 




A STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 22 




A STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 23 




A STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 24 




A STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 25 



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VISAGRA GATE 



Plate 26 




A, STREET IN TOLEDO 



Plate 27 




A STREET IN TOLEDO 



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REMAINS OF THE ROMAN RAMPART OF THE FIRST 

ENCLOSURE OF THE CITY. (PLAZA DE ARMAS 

DEL PUENTE, DE ALCANTARA) 




RMED INTO A FOUMTAIN 



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OF THE COMENDADORA DE SANTIAGO 



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OF THE PLAZA DE ARMAS OF THE BRIDGE OF ALCANTARA 



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POSTERIOR FACADE OF THE DEFENSIVE TOWER OF THE 
BRIDGE OF ALCANTARA 



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DEFENSIVE TOWER OF THE BRIDGE OF AL.CANTARA. 
ANTERIOR FACADE ,. ' 



Plate 49 




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ALCANTARA GATE , 



Plate 50 




COMMEMORATIVE INSCRIPTION IN THE AVENUE 

OF. THE DEFENSIVE TOWER OF THE BRIDGE 

OF ALCANTARA 



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PERSPECTIVE OF THE BRIDGE OF ALCANTARA 



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TOWER IN THE CITY WALLS OF "THE SUBURB OF SAN 
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Plate 63 




HYDRAULIC MACHINE AND REMAINS OF THE WALLS 

IN THE QUARTER OF THE CURTIDORES, 

NEAR THE RIVER 




WALLS OF THE SUBURB OF SAN ISIDORO 



Plate 64 









ANCIENT GATE OF VISAGRA 



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ANCIENT GATE OF VISAGRA. REMAINS OF THE EASTERN 
FACADE 



Plate 68 




DETAIL OF THE PRINCIPAL FACADE OF THE OLD 
GATE OF VISAGRA 




INTERIOR OF THE OLD GATE OF VISAGRA . 



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CASTLE OF SAN SERVANDO. ANCIENT ENTRANCE IN 
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RUINS OF THE TOWER OF THE OLD BRIDGE OF BOATS, 
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Plate 79 




DETAILS OF THE CONVENT OF SANTA FE. 
ELEVENTH CENTURY 



Plate So 




WEST PORTAL IN THE OLD HERMITAGE, NOW THE INN ^ 
OF SANTA ANA, ON THE SISLA ROAD 



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ALTARJ'IECE OF SAX JUSTO 



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MOSQUK OK THE TORNKklAS. 1':X|-KKIOR 

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ANGLE 



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Pl.ATF. 95 




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u; 't; J 



2: < o 

... 

v; 9 < 

1 9 H 



J; -1^ K 

O m u; 

r: s I 



H°§ 



D O 



Plate 96 




THE MOSQL'E OF BII'.-.ALMAI^DOM, HOKSK SHOE ARCH AND 

i>;i-:mains of tuk uado and littij-: .\Rcm',s .-wu 

WINHOWS IN •I'HIi .\OK1M-I-EASr I'Ai;A1)|'; 
(RIGHT SIDE) 



h.At 



1- 97 




THE MOSQUE OF BIB-AL-MARDUM, HOKSK-SHOF. ARCH 
AND RKMAINS OF THE DAUO OF LITTLE ARCHI-'.S AND 
WINDOWS IN THE NORTH-EAST FACADE iLEFT SIDEj 



I'l.ATi; 




PRINCIPAL NAVE IN TME MOSQUE OK mB-AL-MAKDOM 



I'l.A-ri'. 99 









Id 




*<«^^W 



'^.i^^ ^ 




" -J 
So 



Pi, ATP. loo 




< 

s 

5 
li. — 

a o 

a < 

If! -S 

o "* 




xfe 




(J Li; 




a^ :.^ 




-r < 




' X 




•9 f- 




Sg 




a; 




< J 


u^ 


^ -1 


J 


', <- 





< S; 




m V 




E 








fa Qi 




w 




H 




S ^ 




D " 




si 




^ H 





I'l.AI'K lOI 




□ 



< 



O >< 



X 

u 
< 




Jl 


X 


"^ 


-Y 








<A 


* ^ 


j 


3 


< M 




m a 


■'•J* 




t 


U^ 


«• 






cc; 


• 1 


o 






' ^ 


ii 


t^ 


w 



Pl.ATF. I02 




a^eii&iu:,.^-- 



iT^ 



^-fnTTT 



" 1 © 



BT O D _i 




•R 



hy^ 
^^. 



"d;:; 



MOS(lUE OF BIB-AL-MARDOM 






liie 



s. 



Pl.AlK 103 




•J 



X 



O X 

Q Da 

< '-^ 

< Q 



O O 

g| 

o -* 
(/; _- 

O N 

^. :^ 

i< a 
o a 

w o 
a r- 
< in 

Su 

:/: H 

W ^ 

fe < 

■T I/) 

K .. 

S5 

o 



Plate 104 




O 



CH 



O t 



H 
O 

w 



O 

z 

g 



D o 

25 

u w 

= 

5 ^ 

O < 

'A O 



a _, 






■o5 

a 



5 a; 



]'i, \ n-. 105 




(/) 5 •t- 

w o 5 

C 2 '-r' 

5 rC -^ 

X - O 

I ^ I z 

o o o :< 

^ X ^ '^ 

D= -: i£ 

b b ~ 



'J\ 






Z 









_; 





H 




■yj 


'^• 




— , 


02 






J 


'X 





IXJ 




4. 




<■ 


•T- 






y: 



X 

o 



c ^ 



I'l.Aii-; io6 




):') 















I'LATi: 107 




I'l.AII-. Io3 




WALL-I'AINTINGS OF SANTO. CKIS'l'O VK LA LUZ 



Pr.ATK loy 




CHURCH OF SANTO CRISTO DE LA LUZ 



Pl.ATF. 110 






" " '^' ^^^^^^" ^ 


p'^ 




1^. 




mf 



■r: 

o 








I'l.ATF. Til 




ri 










■l f 



I ^ I 




ANI'IENT MOSOUE, NO\\' THE HERMITAGE OF SANTO 
CRISTO UF LA LUZ 



I'f.A'I'R TI2 






"1 






't^ 





< ' ! M 




'!,>. J 


S 




§ 


■'>it=^ 




!;> 






usa., 



■f 







o 

H 
Q 
2 



D 

-1 



u 

a 

o 

H 

C/3 



t; 



u 

o 

H 
< 



X 

o 

ei 
D 

X 

u 

D 

^9 

O X 

< i 

H O 

ci 

W 

X 



o 
o 






Plate 113 







:^ > 

. J 

W J 

C J 
O 



Plate 114 



?SZSZSZ5Z5Z52SZSZSZ5ZSZSZ5Z5itSZ5Z5Z5Z5ZIJfSZ8gl 



^xrrk\T7'nn'naaT'nnanDy'jiDinjTnnT'i:yi3XD 



>i 






-rA- 



■ V ^^^f 









" i "-. 






m. 



I 




Ik^U^E^ 



'-A 
4.T 






J ,^_-rL-_r 










r.^iEa 



DETAILS OF THE INTERIOR DKCORAITON OF THE CHURCH 
OF THE TKANSITO (ANCIENT SYNAGOGUE) 



Plate 115 



AAASZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZ^iZTsZSZSZSZSZS 



.xrrmn^n'TanfTrau^jnixa^rBMi^iiiwQtiT 



■'-^.. 



".J: 



:^\ 











DETAILS OF THE INTERIOR DECORATION OF THE CHURCH 
OF THE TRANSITO cANClENT SYNAGOGUE) 



Plate iib 




DKTAILS OF THE TRANSITO (SYNAGOGUE) 



Pi, ATE 117 




DETAILS OF THE TRANSITO iSVNAGOGUi: 



Plate ii8 




DETAILS OF THE TRANSITO iSYNAGOGUli) 



Plate uq 



" -^ -= — ^ -c? 



uismi{Mmimw^ 7dm(m'bMj\ikh({;Giiii)A{ 






^ 'L^:'?^ 






■^y////:^ff- ■is.-af' "••■■-*■ ■■-■■■'■■■>- ■'■-■■■■•' ■■ 
I;;;:::::;:; I gi 



nV-' 

IPI 



i:-:.;v;;ii 
I-:-:.:-:-;. ;i 









:i:^;:::::r:Ri '1. ijStagj 



-%. 



KNTRAXCl''. ARCH IN THF. liUILDING CALLICI) I'ALLER 
DI':L .\ioro 



Plate 126 




O 
X 



o 



O 



W 
X 



y 






f- 



Pi.Atr I2t 



--.^ 



Li- -M 



m IS 



ll KB 



O 

O 



c 






: j 



»^ 



Plate 122 







J 



"Kfiiirtnrrr;"" 























o 



Q 



Pl.ATR li>J 







Q 
O 



X 

■J 

O 
H 

< 



o 

-) 



u 






O 
a; 



Pl.ATF. 1S-|. 




I mil 



HJr 11"' 






ti? 



^^1 



4 -f-i 













i I 



u 
r. 






^ ' :■ €:! I .:! i 



' i'\ 1' >?' 



^ 







h 
Z 

< 

X 

fa 
O. 



Q 



Plaii; i2j 






T^- 



:.A? 



61 



-7 



I/' 







o 



o 
z 

a 

o u 

•J < 
< J 

CO ^ 



< 









i 







z 

-< 

/^ 

O 

H 



Plate 126 








J'AKT OF THE LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF THE ANCIENT 

SYNaVGOGUE, NOW THE CHUKCH OF SANTA MARIA 

LA BLANCA 



Plate 127 










E- 



W 



Ki?' V .",''-ii®s*. 






,«»« 




IN'I'ERIOR OF SANTA MAkIA LA I'.LANCA 



Pl.ATIi uS 




INTERIOR OF SANTA MARIA LA BLANCA 



Plaie 129 




INTERIOR OF SANTA MARIA LA BLANCA 



Pl.me 130 




CARCEL DE SANTA HERMANDAD 



Pi. \ IE 13 1 




A (iOTHIC DOOR\\'AY 



I'l.A'lE 132 




A r^OORWAY 



i'l.ATR T33 




SI'. MK'iiAi-.i.'s ix>wi;i.;. i'ouri-i-:i--.ntii ci-.N'rrkY 



I'l.ATF, 134 




I-IOUSK OK TilK TOLKDOS 



Plate T35 




di-:taii.s of a c-ourtn'ard 



Platf. T36 



i'^Cr 



""^-f^^nH 




DF/I'AILS Ol' A CC1UKTY,\RD 



Platk 737 




DF.TAILS OF A COURTYARD 



ri.ATE T3 




DKTAILS 01-' A COURTYARD 



Plate 139 




O 



oi 
D 
O 

U 






Plate 140 




I'lA I li 141 




■Si 



< 



PL. ME 143 




« • 



\'ISI(;OTH (/ROWNS AND CROSSES OF GL'ARRAZAR 



I'l.ATE 143 




VISIGOTH CROWNS ANU CROSSES OF GUARRAZAR 



Plate 1-14 




X'lSIGuril CKOV\-NS AND CROSSES FOUND AT -lOl.l.lnj 
NOW IN 'I'HK ROYAL ARMOURY AT MADRID 



AND 




in 
J 




Pi 



o 
a 



Plate 146 




Pi, ATI". 1^7 




Plate 148 



M 




O 

Q 
O 
•J 
O 
t-J 

w 

a 

< 

a 

X 



o 



N) 

< 

u 



M 
K 



Plate 149 




09* "Ss' 



< 

U 
< 

X 






H 
D 

O 



I'J.A'IE 150 




o 

O 



w 

H 

w 

< 
►J 

a: 






W 
Q 

<; 



O 



Pi. All: 151 




THE ALCAZAR 



LATE 152 




H 
ai 
O 
7, 



'A 
O 



<; 

J 
< 

g 
5 



<: 

< 
u 



Plaie 153 




t;-ie alcazar, east fai/adk, after TH1-; latest 

RES'l^ORATION 



i' 



Plate 154 



'k7#r^ 




< 

<; 

o 

< 



O 






o 



Plate 155 




TH 



li ALCAZAR. THIi PRINCIPAL STAIRCASE 



Plate 156 







THE ALCAZAR. PRINCII'AL NORTH PORTAL 



Plate 157 




Q 
< 



O 

u 



< 

X 
H 



Plate 158 




COURT OF THE ALCAZAR 



Pr.ATi-; 159 




O 






a: 

7. 



D 
O 
-J 



Pl.ATF. l6o 



■l„. 



Si 



■1^ 

— v- 
11-^ 












•j^ I 



-:]a 




ir-i 

. e 

M 







■ i iv 



ri.Aii'. i6t 



-mi 



.1^ i 



< 






a 
Q 
< 



I 
H 
Pi 
O 
2 
a 

X 



'I ■ - 



\rL: 



a 
o 



Pl.ATF, 162 




DOOR OF THE HALL OF THE HOU:^E 01 MES V 




DETAILS OF THE HOUSE OF MESA 



PLATli 164 




i)i-:rAiLS OF Tnii mousk of mesa 



Plate 165 




DETAILS OF THE HCH'SF. OP MESA 



Pi.ATr, i66 







'"^%i ^\ 






V 

;: 



t I, 



(/: 
D 

O 



I 









o 






Plate 167 



iinYT'1;'ii:i]Jiri!ih''1 






SMW-, 










o 



O 

a: 



o 






H 
U 

D 



Plate i68 




















D 
o 



I 
O 



W 
D 



Plati-. 169 




DE'l'AU.S OF TIIF. HOUSF. OF MESA 



Plate 170 





ViT,-; 

















DOORWA',' r)F THE C'OLI.EflE Of THE INI'ANTES. 
SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Pr.ATF. ijr 




DCiORW'AV OF TME PALACI-: OK Till-: MAIMINEZ 



Plate 



r.^i-i»^ wwm^^jl^ 




w 

OS 

o 

a 

Q 

< 

Z 

< 
in 



t-Tl 



o 




C/3 



o 
u 



O 

OS 
W 

o 



O 



Plate J73 




EXTERIOR OF SAN JUAN ].)E LOS REVES 



Plate 174 




SAN JUAN UE LOS REYKS 



Pla-j-e 175 



^".aSSgw.'^^i/SS-^l 




Plate 176 




DOORWAY IN SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate 177 




GOTHIC DOORWAY IN SAN JUAN 1 )E LOS Rl'.YES 



Plate 178 



■ ■ '■■•iSM)!)]!;;* 



IM 



'I t n ■■ ' 

-J5 raf rt n 

"'S ^^ ;r!l T ■■' 



,4, ^ A 






7n 'T^ "TTt 




-fe-a: 



T-' V T T7 r> 7 r~» n /"mt' tt t t7 \ r» r-i 



Plate 179 




INTERIOR OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate tSo 




INTIlRIOR of SAN JUAN UE LOS RKVES 



Plate 181 




INTICRIOR OF SAN JUAN DE LOS RKYES 



Plate 1S2 




jbr^-V^'^^^tl 



I 






-,i«^@^it^ 



1/1 



O 

a 

Q 



-< 
(/: 

o 

X 
u 

D 

u 



O 

z 

o 

b 

< 
g 

3 

H 

3 

o 



Plate 183 




O 

c 

z 
< 



O 




M 

o 
J 

w 

Q 

Z 

< 

Z 

g 

2 

w 

H 

z 



r'LATE 184 




GALLliRV IN SAN lUAN Dli LOS REYICS 



Plate 185 




GALLERY IN SAN JUAN UE LOS REYES 



Platic iS6 




DETAILS OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYLS 



Plati; 187 




DETAILS OF GALLERY IN ,SAN JUAN L)E LO.S REYES 



I'l.ATK l38 




DETAILS OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REVKS 




LOS RKYES. WALL IN THE rRKSIl\ rKRY 



Plate iqo 




." J^. \ ^ r« ' i 



^^ 



A 



,#« 






T^'* k ''4' '^ -i«f J 



ll'l /I'^^i- 






/'I ' 




INTERIOR OF SAN JUAN DF. Lr)S REYKS 



Pl.ATK 191 




INTERIOR OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Platk T92 



7]TiCTffl\ii]W)iiiii miiO!iiT'''''''''';'' ;"';';;; 



T T« w * « *• * " "**^T?!j!n 






W "i 



..a 



:-t ^ ■ .NJi.n> 









Af' 1 -. 



'.f-S^ 










INTERIOR OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate 193 




> 



> 



z 



O 






m 
O 

a 



Plate 194 



!Si: 













o 






Pi 






2 



Plate 195 




DETAILS OF THE TRANSEPT OF THE CHURCH OF SAN 
JUAN DE LOS REYES 



yPLATE 196 



s^-sj?", ' I"-- - ,-r - :i,' ■ ■ ■ -'m ^-y ,iy* a' ^ ..-■"• I—- - ■ "--4 




SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES. INTERIOR 



Plate 197 



A DOME IN SAN JUAN DE LOS REVES 



Plate iq 







c/5 

o 
J 

u 

2 

D 
c/5 



O 

a 






Plate 199 



rr-T-r- 




















#>-, 

;:ij 'v"-- 



^l§ 



if 







' '♦■'.si 



DETAILS OF THE CROSS-AISLE IN THE CHURCH OF 
SAN JUAN DE LO REYES 



Plate 2co 




' f'&z^'y'is^:, — 



\'_ ^i::::v,<::-^^^^ ^•. 










z 
2 



Plate 201 







o 






•y. 



Plate 202 







COPY OF THE ORIGINAL DRAWING OF THE ARCH AND 



/^ n /~i t? o 



Plate 203 




<A 
Id 

IS) 

O 
►J 

w 
a 



z 

— 






o 



o 

H 

c/5 

z 

S 

D 
H 



Z 

o 



Plate 204 




CLOISTERS OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REVES 



Platii 205 




SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES. THE CLOISTERS 



Plate 206 




CLOISTERS OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate 



:o7 




CLOISTERS OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate 208 










^ - l*i 




DETAILS OF THE CLOISTERS OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate 209 




COMPARTMliKT OF THE CLOISTERSOF SAN JUAN DE 
LOS REYES 



PLAII". 2IO 



1^: 


4-J 




H:l 


f 




.UrAJi \) 


i 






V 



irsi;^ 



SAN JUAN DKILOS REYES. DETAILS OF THE CLOISTERS 



Plate 211 



Mi 



















a^^- 




















\ - 




DETAILS OF THE CLOISTERS OF SAN JUAN IJE LOS REYES 



Plate 212 




SAN TUAN DE LOS REYES. DETAILS OF THE CLOLSTERS 



Plate 213 




SAN JUAN DK LOS REYES. DETAILS OF THE CLOISTERS 



Plate 214 




SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES. DETAILS OF THE CLOISTERS 



Plate 215 




SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES. DETAILS OF THE CLOISTERS 



Plate 216 




Q 



a:. 
D 

o 



z 
z 






Plate 217 




COURT IN SAN TUAN DE LOS REYES 




DOORWAY OF THE MUSEUM OF SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES 



Plate 219 




SAN JUAN DE LOS REYES. DETAILS ABOVE DOOR OF 
MUSEUM 



Plate 220 




W 
D 

u 



o 



2; 

o 

Q 
O 

a 
u 

<- 



Plate 21 
2 



i^z:3g^Z^i i?~ :r"=?5^" 



^j^e^^ 






%. 



Ci'iV,aii*»-'^.'^''( 



Jf'f^ t # 






i^^'- 
i®^*-^ 



i— «■"»« 



DETAILS OF THE PALACE OF DON PEDRO THE CRUEL 



Plate 222 




,— *2ii "* '^**\-,vJ' 






FAI'ADE OF THE PALACE OF DON PEDRO THE CRUEL 



Plati! 223 




]X->OR\\-AY OF THE PALACE OF DON PEDRO THE CRUEL 



Plate 224 




DOORWAY OF THE P,VL.\CE OF DON I'EDRO THE CRUEL 



Plate 225 




Pl-ATE 226 









GKNERAL VIEW OF THK CATHEDRAL 



I'l.ATE 227 




THE CATHEDRAL 



Platk 228 



'atn/Waia Mflf 






h f" 






\Mrmm 



i_ ; J ij 1 ! l_U_iii '. 



a 












H! 



I! 






'tei5f«Sfe 






' 1 



SECTION OF THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 229 




< 

a 

X 



u 

; X 

■ ■ o 

2 

O 

u 
w 

J 

' 3 
i => 

■J 3 

i z 

i o 

i -• 



Plate 230 




Ll L r r- 


y— 



I 



o 
q 
u 



i/; 

Pi 



i2 

< 



Pr.ATF. 231 




PRINCIPAL FAf'ADE OF THE CATHEDRAL AND TOW ER 



Plate 232 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAIL OF THE EXTERIOR 



I'l-ATE 233 




THE CATHEDRAL. I'ORTAL OF THE PRINCIPAL FACADE 



I'LAIK 234 




Plate 235 



F3: ■ 










-• ■'*- •■* ■ !>C'' •im%5»P»;>- VV %\ 1^ 




THK CATHEDRAL. THE GATE OF THE LIONS 



Plate 236 




THE CATHKDRAL. PORCH OF THE 1T<INC1P.\L FAi;ADE 



Platk 237 




O 
Q 



o 




is- 



o 

Q 



y- 

o 



Plate 23 




DOOR OF THE CATHKDRAL 



I'l.A-I 



=39 




THE CATHEDRAL. DOOR OF THE LOST CHILD 



Plate 240 




THE CATHEDRAL DETAILS OF THE PUERTA DE LA FERLAi 



'I. \rK 241 




Plate 242 




O 

3 



z 

a: 



Q 



Pla'ie 243 



iiMjyyiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiii}jiiriniiniioii»i>iiiiiTi 





o 

S 



w 
a 

o 

:^ 

o 
J 



o 



H 

<: 

u 



w 
'J 



Plate 244 




O 



g 



> 



M 
Z 



Q 






Plate 245 




1,1 > 



i 



O 






Platk 246 




-JS ^ L ^ 



Plate 



247 




^jb&ii>^ v-^' ~-^'i-'^ ■ 



THE CATHEDRAL. INTERIOR 



Pi. ATE 248 




\\ INDOWS IN THE PRINCIPAL N.WE OF 



Plate 249 








X 
o 

D 






as 



X 



Plate 2;i 




THE CATHEDRAL. KXTl'.RIOR OF THE PRINCIPAL CHAPEL 



Platk 2;2 




THE CATHEDRAL. EXTERIOR OF THE PRINCIPAL CHAPEL 



I'l.ATF. 253 




J 

a- 






O 
m 



a 






Plate 254 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OF THE PRINCIPAL CHAPEL 



Plate 255 




til 
a, 
< 



'A 



O 



^ 

S 



< 



Plate 256 




< 

X 

(J 



g 

3 

a 



a 

Q 



Q 

a 
3: 



a 



Plate 257 




l^LATE 258 




THE CATHEDRAL. ALTAR-PIKCE OF THE PRINCIPAL 
CHAl^EL 



Pi, ATI-; 259 




THE CATHFJiRAL. DETAIL OF THE ALTAR-PIECE OF THE 
PRINCIPAL CHAPEL 



Plate 260 




__.;A:Si_...:. 



■\:- 



X 



THE CATHEDRAL. EXTERIOR OF THE HIGH ALTAR 



Plate 261 




TMK CATHEDRAL. EX'r'ERIOR OF THE 
HIGH ALTAR 



Plate 262 




TIIF, CATHKDRAL. EX'I'KRIOR OF THp: HIGH ALTAR 



Tlate 263 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OE THE AL'I'AK-I'IECE 



bhATE 264 



r -^^ 










»H 









^^■ii 








w 
u 

u 

K 



H 
J 









O 



Q 
W 



X 



Plate 265 




oi 
D 
H 

W 

u 



w 






o 
S 

u 

K 

H 

O 

< 

H 

O 

oi 



Q 
M 

K 

u 
u 
K 
H 



Plate 266 




H 



O 



H 
7. 

O 

I 

H 
O 



t-, 

Q 



X 



I'l.ATE 267 




THIi CATllKORAL. ICXJ'KRIOK OF THE fRINXIPAL CHAPl-.L 



:Plate 268 




PLATli 269 




THE CATHEDRAL. DOME OF THE I-RINCIPAL CHAPEL 



Platt, ?7o 




THE CATlIKUkAL. KXTKKIOR OF THE CHOIR 



Pi. ATI-; 271 




O 
I 

u 



o 
ai 
O 

2 



■A 



Q 
X 

C-i 

'< 
U 

u 



Plate 272 



n^^ \ 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OF THE EXTERIOR OF THE 
CHOIR 



Plate 273 




O 
X 
u 

X 
h 

o 

Di 

o 

3 

H 
W 



a 

< 
u 

td 



Plate 274 




t/3 

O 
X 

u 



a 

X 
H 
< 
U 

X 

H 



Plate 275 








THE CATHEDRAL, CHOIR STALLS 



Plate 276 













THE CATHEDRAL. CHOH< STALLS' 



Plate 277 




ri.ATE 278 




o 



X 



o 

O 



5 



Plate 



>79 




3i 

O 
X 

u 
a 

X 
H 

O 
in 
J 



Q 



a 
X 
H 



Pj.atf. 280 




O 



o 



C 



I 



Plate 281 




THE CATHEDRAL. THE ARCHBISHOP'S THRONE, 

REPRESENTING THE TRANSFIGURATION. 

BY BKRRUGUETE 



Plate 282 




THE CATHEDRAL. \TRGIN OF THE LANEROS 



PLATli 283 




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Pl.A-1 IC 284 




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Plate 28:; 




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Plate 286 




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Plate '288 




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Plate 290 




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Plate 291 




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I'LATE 292 




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Plate 294 




THF. CATHKDRAL. I'PPF.R PART OF THE CHOIR STALLS, 

CAR\'I-.L) \',\ P.I'.RRUOL'I'.TE ANU P.OROOXA. 

SIX'I'KFNTH CENTL'RV 



Plate 295 




^M^w^. ^ ^^^^^&<Qy-^ 






THE CATHEDRAL. I'IM'KK I'M^tT OK TIIF. CllOIk STALLS, 
CAK\'E:j IIV lli:UKL'GUETE ANU B( iK<JC)N A. 
SIXTEENTH CEN TURV 



Plate 296 




the cathkoral. upi'er part of the choir stal 
c;ar\-i;ij rv rerruguete and p.orixjxa. 
six'i'eenth centur\' 



Plate 297 




THE rATIIF.nRAI.. I'PPF.R PART OF THF. CHOIR STALLS, 

C■AR^'l•■,n 1!V P,ERRUGUr-:TE ANMJ llORGOXA. 

SIXTEENTH CEXTl'RV 



Platf. 298 




THF. CATIIF.likAL. Ur'PF.K TART OF THF CIIOTR STALLS, 

CAKX'LU IIV P,LRRL'c;L1:1'L and liOUGUNA. 

SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



1'latf. 297 




THI-: CATIIICDRAL. UPPER I'ART OF THE CITOIK STALLS, 

CARVED 1!Y BERRl'GUEI'E AND P,r)R(;0\'A. 

SLXTEENTII CENTURY 



Pl.ATK 300 




THE CAIIIEDRAL. UI'I'l'.R I'ART OF THE (;ilOIR STALLS, 

CAR\'ED BY I;ERRI/<;1'ETE and r.CiRGONA. 

SIXTKEXTII CEXTL'RV 



Pj.ate 301 




THE CATHEDRAL. MASONRY IN THE CHOIR 



Plate 302 




THE CATHEDRAL. EXT1';KI0R UE THE PRE.SI SY TERN' 



PLATIi 303 




THE CATHliDR.VL. INTERIOR OF THE CHAPEL OK THE NI-:W 
• KINGS WITH THE SEPULCHRES OF DON HENRY 
THE BASTARD AND HIS WIFE 



Plate 304 




THE CATHEDRAL. SEI'ULCHRES OF UON HENRY THE BASTARD 
AND HIS WIFE IN THE CHAPEL OF THE NEW KINGS 



Plate 305 




Till'": CATHEDRAL. SEPUIXHRE OF CARDIKAI, TAVERA IN 
•I'HE CHAPEL OF THE NEW KLN(;S 



f'LATE 306 




THE CATIIl'.DRAI.. SF.PUI.f'I IkF. OF DON JL'AN I. IN THE 
(.■HAI'EL OV \'\]V. NI-:W KINGS 




THE CATIII'.IiRAL. SF.PULCHRF. OF DOXA LEONOR, WIFE 
OK UOX JUAN I., IN THE CHAl'EL OF THE NEW KLXiiS 



Pl.ATF, 308 




TTTE fATIIKDRAT,. rriAr'F.I. OF TIIF. DF.SCF.NT OF TIIF N'lRfJlX 



I 'LA IK 309 




THE CATHEDRAL. >rUZARABlC CHAPEL 



Plate 310 




THli CATIII'.IJRAL. UKTvlLS OK THK CHAI'KI, Ol'' I HE 
VlRtiKN Di; I. A AXTKJl'A 



Plate 311 




THK CATHKUKAL, CHAl'KL UF THK VIRGKX UK L\ 
ANTIGl'A. FOURTEENTH CKN TURV 



I'l.AlE 312 




THE CATHEDRAL. DOORWAY OF THE CHAPEL OF 
THE CANONS 



Plate 313 




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Plate 314 




ALTAR-l'lECE OF SAN'l'A CATALINA 



Plate 315 




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ALTAR-PIECE OF SANTA CATALINA 



PLAl'ii 316 








ALTAR-PIECE OF SANTA CATALINA 




Platf. 317 




CMAPF.I, OF RAKTA CATAI.INA. FOUNDED P,V THE 
COUNia OF CEDILLO 



Plate^'3'^ 




THE CATHEDRAL. CHAPF.L OF SANTIACJO, CONTAINING THE 

SIOI'CLCIIRI'.S OF DON AL\'ARO DE Ll'NA AND THAT OF 

HIS WIFE DOXA JUANA. FIFTIiENTH CENTURY 



Pl.AtE 3tt) 




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Plate 322 




THE CATHEDRAL. SEPULCHRE OF GIL DE ALBORNOZ 
IN THE CIL-^PEL OF SAN ILDEFONSO 



I'j.ATi: 3=3 




THE CATHEDRAL. ENTRANCE TO THE CHAPTER 
ROOM. SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Plate 324 




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Plate 325 




;V \|i/.|Jl \i IV.\.3l.lK'A( |S( ^\\|\i| M / |)u |s\ 
'S.OH.II.I \\ I (Os- Iv'OS.C^KlDN \us f >n T \< )\ i_- 



p5^i?Tii»^^«|i|?PV'^^ 



THE CATIir.DI^AL. VARIOUS PORTRAITS OV CARDINALS 



Plate 32b 




THE CATHEDRAL. VARIOUS PORTRAITS OF CARDINALS 



Plate 327 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS IN THE CHAPTER ROOM 



Pr.ATE 328 




THE CAIIIKDRAL. CHAPTER ROOM 



f'l.ATE 329 




THK CATHEDRAL. DOORWAY OF THK CHAPTER ROOM 



Plate 330 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAIL OF A DOORWAY IN THE 
CHAPTER ROOM 



t'LATE 33! 




THE CATHEDRAL. CUPBOARD MADE P.Y GREGORIO 
PARDO (1549-15511, FOR THE ANTECHAMBER OF 
THE CHAPTER HOUSE 



Platp, 332 







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THE cai-hedr;vL. a rich and gossamer CAR\'EU 

CEILING IN THE CHAPTER HALL 
SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Plate 334 




THE CATHEDRAL. CEILING IN THE CHAPTER HALL 



Plate 335 




THE CATHEDRAL. A CEILING IN THE ANTE-ROOM 



Plate 336 




THE CATHEDRAL CLOISTERS 




THR CATHEDRAL CLOISTERS 



Plate 338 







I'RKSENTATION PORTAL IN THF. CLOISTICR OF Till 
CATHEDRAL 



Plate 339 







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h.ATE 346 




THE CATIUiDRAL. PICTURE BY RAYEU IN THE CLOISTERS 



Plate 341 




PORTAL OF ST. CATHARINE IN THE CLOISTER OF 
THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 342 




THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OF THE GATE OF THE 
PRESENTATION IN THE CLOISTER 



Plate 343 




THE CATHEDRAL. RELIQUARY OF SAN SEBASTIAN 
IN THE OCTAVO 



I'LATE 



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Plate 346 




SEPULCHRES IN THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 347 




SCULPTURE IN THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 34S 




THE CATHEDRAL. BRONZE LECTERN AND BOOKS OF 
HOLY OFFICE 



Plate 349 




TMii CATHEDRAL. A BRONZE PULPIT 



Plate 350 




THE CATHEDRAL, DETAU. OF A PULPIT 



Plate 351 




PULFIT IN THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 352 




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Plate 353 




THE CATHEDRAL. STATUE OF DON JUAN II. FIFTEENTH 
CENTURY 



t'l.ATF. 354 




■J'HE CATHEDRAL. ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI 



Plate 355 







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DETAILS IN THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 357 



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TLATE 358 




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THE CATHEURAU CHALICE AND PATEN 



Plate 360 




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Plate 361 




MONSTRANCE IN THE CATHEDRAL 



P),ATll 362 





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THE CATHEDRAL. SWORD OF .\LFON.SO \T. 



Plate 363 




THE CATHEDRAL. THE ADORATION OF THE KINGS (SILK) 



Plate 364 




THE CATHEDRAL. THE VEIL OF SANTA LEOCADIA (SILK 



Plate 31S5 




THE CATHEDRAL. THE ASSUMPTION (SILK 



Plate 366 




THE CATHEDRAL. THE BEHEADING OF SAN EUGENIO 
(SILK) 



Plate 367 










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THE CATHEDRAL. A DALMATIC EMRKOIDERl'.D IN GOLD 
AND SILK. SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Plate 369 




THJ-: CATHI':DRAL. a CI-IASUliLE EMBROIUERIiU IN GOLD 
AND SILK. SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



r'i.Ari; 370 






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THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OF THE PUERTA DEL RELOJ 



Plate 371 

















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THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OF THE PUEKTA DEL RELOJ 



Plate 372 






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THE CATHEDRAL. DETAILS OF THE I'UERTA 
DEL RELOJ 



Plate 373 









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Plate 374 




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r'LATE 375 




SCULrXURE IN SAN ANIJRKS 



Plate 376 




BANNER OF THE SALA] )0 



Plate 377 




Pi,An E 378 



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PLAN OF THE SANTA IGLI'.SIA TRIMADA 



Plate 379 




SANTA I.SAP,I-:L. SIDE ALTAK-l'IKCK 



Plate 380 




SANTA ISABEL. DETAIL OF AN ALTAR-PIECE 



Plate 381 








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PARISH CHURCH OF SANTIAGO 



Pl.ATK. 382 




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Plati-; 383 




PULPIT IN THE CHURCH OF SANTIAGO DEL ARRABAL, FROM 

WHICH SAN VICENTE DE FERRER PREACHED AGAINST 

THE JEWS 



Plate 384 



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Plate 385 




CHURCH OF SAN TOME 




DETAIL OF AN ALTAR-PIECE IN THE CHUR(;H OF 
THE TRINITY 



f'LATE 387 




SEPULCHRES IN THE CHURCH OF ST. PFTER THE MARTYR 



Plate 388 




DETAILS OK A SEPULCHRE IN TME CHI'RCII OF 
ST. PETER THE MARTYR 



■latk 389 




CHURCH OF ST. PICTKR THE MARTYR. STATUE OF 
A KNEELING CANON 



Plate 390 




CHAPEL IN SAN JUAN IJE LA PENITENCTA, 



Plate 391 




CHAPEL IN SAN JL'AN DE LA PENITENCIA 



Plate 392 




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i„.,t!.jSJimAMssi^i. 'S'^tvetXitMttitii^hSs. 




DETAILS OF SAN JUAN DE LA I'ENITENCIA 



I'LAIE 393 




SEPULCHRh: IN SAN JUAN DE LA PENITENCCA 



Plate 334 







SKI'ULCHRE IN SAN JUAN DE LA PENlTENCfA 



Plaie 395 




DliTAIL OF THE CONVICNT OF SAN JUAN DF LA PENrfFNCIA 



1 'LATt j96 




DETAILS OF THE CONVENT OF SAN JUAN I)E LA PENITKNCIA 



Plate 397 




CON^•ENT OF SANTO DOMINGO 



fLAtF, 398 







CONVICNT OF SAN TO DOMINGO 



l^'LAti'- 399 











CONVENT OF SANTO UOMINGO 




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PLAIli -|OI 



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SANTO DOMINGO EL REAL, PRINCIPAL ALTAR-PIECE 



Plate 402 




DOOKVVAY OF THE CONVENT OF SAN ANTONIO 



Pl.ATK 403 










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I'OKCII OF THE CHUKCH AND CONVENT OF SAN CLFMENTE 



Plate 404 



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PORCH OF THE CHURCH AND CONVENT OF SAN CLEMENTE 



Pr.ATE 405 




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Plate 406 




PORTAL OF SANTA CKUZ 



Pi.AfE 40^ 




PORTAL OF SANl'A CRUZ 



Pl.ATF. 408 




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Pr.ATE 409 




COL'RT CiF SANTA CRUZ 



i'LATIt 416 




COURTYARD OF THE HOSTITAL 



Plate 4Tt 




COURT OF SANTA CRUZ 



Plate 412 




COUR'I- OF SANTA CKl'Z 



Pi.Ario 413 




DETAIL OF THE I'OK TAL OF THE HOSPITAL OF 
SANTA CRUZ 



Plate 414 




DETAILS OF SANTA CRUZ 



Plate 415 




IIUSITIAL OF SANTA CRUZ 



Pla rr, 416 



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Plate 417 













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HOSPITAL OF SANTA CRUZ. PORTRAIT OF THE 
FOUNDER, CARDINAL MENDOZA 



Plate 418 




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HOSPITAL OF ST. lOHN HAPTIST 



I'LATE 421 




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Plate 422 




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Plate 423 




DF.TAILR OF THE HOUSE OF MUNARRIZ 



Plate 424 




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Plate 425 







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I"'!. ATI-'. 426 




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Pr.Ai'i' 427 




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Plate 420 




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Plati; 429 



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DETAIL OF THE COURTYARD OF THE HOTEL CASTILLA 



Plate 430 







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Pi, ATI': 431 







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Plate 432 




CAI'ITAL IN THE .VRCH.I^OLOGICAL MUSEUM 



Plate 433 




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Plate ^34 




NATIONAL ARCr-I.1-:0IX)GICAT. AIUSEUM. DFX'ORAXn'E TABLE 

IN WHITE ALAKHLE, T^ELOXGIXC TO THE ALJ AMA MOSgUE 

OF TOLEDO 










xatioxal arch.l'.ologicat. mlsrlm. decol^ atinmc 
]'-ra(;m1':\t folnd at the " mikadero." i;ar\'I':i) in 

WIHIT: MARl'.LI''. 



Plate 435 







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Plate 436 







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Plate 437 




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ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMKNTS OF THE VISIGOTH PERIOD 
IN THE PARISH CHURCH OF SAN ROMAN 



Plate 438 





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^RClIlTliCTUKAL IMWIiS OF THK VISKiOTII I'KRIUD 
EXISTING IN Till;; CITY 



Tlate 439 






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AkCHI'I'liCrURAL FRAGMKNTS OK THK VISIGOTH I'lCKIOD 



Plate 440 




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Plate 441 







Pla-1'e 442 




CAPITALS IN THE ARCH.EOLOGICAL MUSEUM 



I'LATi; 443 





Plate 444 




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ARCHES OF VARIOUS CHUKCHF.S OF THE FOl'RTEKNTH 
AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES 



Plate ^49 




DENUDATION OF OUR LORD BliFORE THE CRUCIFIXION 

EL GRECO 

SACRISTY OF THE CATHEDRAL 



Plate 450 




THli VIRGIN, ST. AXNE, THE CHILD JKSUS AND ST. |UHN 

EL GRECO 

CHAriiL OF ST. ANNE 




OUR LADY OF SORROWS 

EL GRIiCO 

SACKISI'Y OF THE NEW KINGS, IN THE CATHEDRAL, 



Plate 452 




I'I-:n riicusT 

ilL gri-:co 

church of the trinnv 



Plate 453 




JESUS AND ST. JOHN 

EL GRECO 

CHURCH or-- ST. JOHN THE B.M'TIST 



Plate 




THE ASSUMI'TION 

ICL (iRECO 
CIIAr'EL OF SAN JOSli 



l^LAtE 455 




ST. MARTIN 

EL GRFXO 

CHAPEL OF SAN JOSE 



Pl.Al'E 456 







THE IKiI.V I'A'CIIAKIST. I;V l-.I, GI-:IXO 
ClIURfll OF SAX JOSli 



I'l.ATE 457 




SAN JOS!-: AND TME CHILI) JF.Sl'S 
KL CREf'O 
r.ARISH CHl'RCH OI" THE MAI JDAT.I'.XE 



Plate 458 




THE IXTERMKKT OF COUNT TIK ORGAZ 

]'.L GKI'.CO 

CHURCH OF SANTO I-OMK 



Plate 459 




465 



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I'l.ATi; 464 



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FRAGMENT OK THIi INTEKMKNT OK THK COUNT DK 0KGA2 



Plate 46c 




■RAGMF.XT OF THE IXTERMEKT OF THE COl'XT DE ORGAZ 
EL GRECO 



Plate 466 




i-RA(.;.\n'.Nr oi" rni-: in'tekmi-:\t of thk rorxr pe orgaz 

I'.L GKE' 'O 



Plate 467 




THE ANNL'NCIATIOK 
EL GRI'XO 
PARISH CHURCH OF SAX NICHOLAS- 



Platf, 468 




THE f'Rl'CIFTXIOX 

EL GRECO 

SAN NICHOLAS 




SAN PEURO NOLASCO 

EL GRECO 

IWRISH CHURCH OF SAN NICHOLAS 



PLATIi ^70 




THE ASSUMPTION 

EL GRECO 

PARISH CHURCH OF SAN VICENTE 



Plate 171 




SAN EUGENIO 

KL GRECO 

PARISH CHURCH OF SAN N'lCENTE 



Plate ^72 




ST. PETKR 

EL GRECO 

"ARISH ri-R'R(.;H OF SAN VR-llKTE 



Plate 473 




JESUS ANlJ rilli X'IKGIN 

EL GkECO 

l'.\I<ISH CHURCH OF SAN VICEXTE 



Plate .174 




THE ASCENSION 
EL GRICCO 
SANTO UUMINUO liL ANTIGUA 



Plate ^75 




A SAINT (? SANTO LOMINGO EL ANTIGUA) 
EL GRECO 



Pl.A'l I'. 176 




THE HIkTH OF JESUS 

EL GRF.CO 

SANTO DOMINGO KL ANTIGUA 



Plate 477 




^SI 



SANTA VERONICA WITH TMF. SL'DARIL'M 

EL GRI-XO 

SANTO DOMINGO EL ANTIGUA 



Platf. 480 




AI/rAR-riI?CE OF THE CONVENT OF SANTO DOMINGO 
EL GRECO 



Plate 481 




ST. FRANCIS OF ASSIST 

EL GRECO 

COLLEGE OF NOBLEi LADIES 



Pl.ATli 43 




Tllli liAi'TISM OI' IliSL'S 
IIUSi'II'AL OV ST. lOHN liAI'TIST 



Plate 4S3 




PORTRAIT OP CARDPVAL TA\'1£RA 

EL GRIiCO 
IIOSPPPAL OP ST. lOHN BAPTIST 



Plate 48^ 




1 s£.k ■^:;T-?:li.-n2.i 



VIEW OF TUli HKiH ALTAR OF THE TAVIiUA HOSl'l FAL 
EL GRl-:CO 



^^.•\TI■ 485 











t-* 



Ol-^XF.I^VL \'IEW OF TOI.F.nri (T.KFT MAT.F) 

liL (;kF('0 

l'RO\'INriAI, MUSIU'.M 



Plate 4S6 




(;r':Ni-:kAi, viiiw of tolkho (right half) 

F.r. GKFCO 
J'ROVI V<.'IAL AIL'SI'UM 



Platf. 487 




\'IKW OK TOLEDO 

EL GRECO 

r-ROVINCIAL MUSEUM 



Plate 4S8 




T'OkTRAIT OV ANTCiNIO COWXRRL'RIAS 

EL GRECO 

I'ROVINCIAE Ml'SEU.M 



Plate ^Sg\ 




PORTRAIT OP THE SON OP fOVARRUPI AS 

i:i, GRI.CO 

l'Rr)\'l.NCI.\L MUSIiL'M 



Plate 490 




THE CKHCll'-IXION 

KL GREL'O 

J'RCiVlNCIAL ML'SEL'M 



Plate 491 




ALLEGORY OF THE VirilOIN 

EL GRECO 

I'Rr)VINCIAL ML'SEUM 



PhA-tf. 49^ 





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PORTRAIT OF Jt_IAN DE AVTT.A 

F.L riRl'-.CO 

PROVINCIAL ML'SEUAl 



PLATli 493 




OUR SAVIOUR 

EL GRI'XO 

7'ROVINCIAL MUSEUM 



I'LATK 494 




ST. JOHN 'I'HK KX'ANGKLIHT 

ICL GRECO 

I'KOX'INCIAL MUSKU.M 



I'LAlt ^95 




EL (JKt'.CO 
•;u\'INCIAL MUSEl-M 




ST. MA'iriHAS 

EL CRKCO 

PROVINCIAL ^,UStUVI 



Plate 497 




ST. PHTTJP 
EL GRliCO 

I'ROXMNCIAL MUSKUM 



I'latk. 498 




ST. ANDUEW 

liL GRECO 

1'kt)\'lNCIAL ML'Sia'M 



P],ATF. .|99 




ST. THOMAS 

i-:l CRF.CO 

'K()\'INCI.\I. MfSEL'M 



Plate: 500 




ST. SIMON 

EI. (;reco 

TROVINCIAL MUSEUM 



Plate 501 




ST. MA'1TH1':W 

EL GRECO 

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM 



Plate 5C2 




ST. jL'UE taup:o 

EL GKKCU 
I'R(J\'1NCI.\L MUSEl'M 



Plate 503 




AN APOSTLE 

EL GRECO 

l'KO\'INLMAL MUSEUM 



Plate 504 




AN APOSTLE 

1".L GRECO 

PROVINCIAL'. MUSEU NT 



Plate 505 




AN APOSTLE 

EL GRECO 

PROVINCIAL MUSEUM 



Plate 506 




TriE ANNUNCIATION 
KL GRECO 



Plati-: £07 




THE DREAM OF I'HILIP II. 

EL GRECO 

CHARTER HALL OF THE ESCORL^L 



I'LATE 508 




ST. MAURICE AND THE THEBAN LEGION 

EL GRECO 

CHAPIER HALL OF THE ESCORIAL 



Pi, ATI'. 50Q 




I'ORTkAIT OF KL GREfO P.V IllArSF.LF 
Si;,sfil< A. DI-: HERL'E'i'E, MADRID 



Plate 510 




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x 
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Pi.ATr. 511 







I'dkTRAIT OF A sri'DENT (EL (;i-:I':f'Ci ?i 

I'.L GRECO 

DOX I'ABLO BOSCH, MADRID