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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




HANDBOOK 



KIYEK PLATE EEPUBLICS. 



COMPEISING 

BUENOS AYRES AND THE PROVINCES OF THE ARGENTIJfE EBP0BLIC 
- AND THE EEPUBLICS OF UEU&UAY AND PAEA6UAY. 



BY 






M. G. AND E. T. MULHALL, 

PROPRIETORS AND EDITORS OP THE BUENOS ATBES ' STANDARD.' 



LONDON: 
EDWARD STANFORD, 6, 7, & 8, CHARING CROSS. 

BUENOS AYEES: 
M. G. & E. t. MULHALL, 118, SAN MAETIN. 

1875. 



f 

I Sir 



TABLE OF OON' 




PAOE 

Intboduotion 1 



CHAPTEE I. 

BrvBB Plate Kepcblics .. .. II 

Argentine Eepublio 11 

Bepublio of Uruguay 12 

Republic of Paraguay 13 



CHAPTEE II. 

Argbntimj Republic jg 



CHAPTEE ni. 

Rio DE LA Plata AND Tbibdtaeibs 24 

Buenos Ayres to Matto Grosso 25 

River Paraguay 32 

TJp the Uruguay .. 36 

I and Vermejo 42 



CHAPTEE IV. 

Colonies OT THE Argentine Republic 45" 

Esperanza 47 

San Geronimo 48 

Las Tunas j. 4g 

Frank 48 

San Augnstin . . ; 48 

San Carlos 49 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Corondina 49 

Orond .. ' 50 

Guadalupe .'. 50 

Cavour 50 

Humboldt , 50 

GruetU 51 

Emilia 51 

San-Justo 52 

Oonde 52 

Helvetia / 53 

Bstaucia Grande 54 

Prancesa 54 

New Califomia 54 

Welsh 55 

Bloisa 56 

Alexandra 56 

Bemstadt 57 

Oaroarani > 58 

OaBada Gomez 58 

Tortugas 59 

Hansa -. . .. 59 

Germania . . . . , 59 

Nueva Italia . . /. 60 

Jesus-Maria 60 

Candelaria .. .. 61 

Villa Urquiza 61 

San Jose.. .. ' 62 

Hugues 62 

Baradero 62 

Concordia 63 

Chuput 63 

Chivilooy 63 



CHAPTER V. 

BaILWATS AND PUBUO WOBKS 64 

Argentine KepubUc 64 

Republic of Uruguay 69 

Eepublio of Pajaguay .. .. , 69 

Telegraphs .. 70 

Public Works 70 

Tramways .. 71 



TABLB OF CONTENTS. V 



CHAPTEE VI. 

PAGE 

The CrrY OF Buenos Aybes , 73 

Theatres 76 

Banks .. '. ' 76 

Plazas ' 78 

MarMs, Public Buildings, &o. 89 to 96 

Suburbs 97 



CHAPTEE- VII. 

Province OF Buenos Aybes 101 

Riverine Partidos 113 

, Northern Partidos 116 

North and West Frontiers 118 

Western Partidos 122 

South-Westeru Districts .. .. .. 128 

Southern Districts 132 

South Coast 135 

The Far South 139 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

PEOvmoE OF Santa Fe 154 

CHAPTEE IX. 

Pbovinoe of Cobboba 169 

CHAPTEE X. 

Peovinoe op San Luh ' 186 

CHAPTEE XI. 

Pbovinoe of Mendoza 195 

CHAPTEE XII. 

PEOvmoB of San Juan 207 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

PAGE 

PaOVINOE OF BlOJA 215 

CHAPTEE XIV. 

PjBOviNOE OF Oatamaboa 221 

CHAPTEE XV. 

Pbovinoe of Jcjjuy 239 

CHAPTEE XVI. 

Pbovince OP Salta 245 

CHAPTEE XVII. 

Pbovinoe of Tucuman 257 

CHAPTEE XVIII. 

Pbovinoe of Santiago .. .. 266 

CHAPTEE XIX. 

Pbovinoe of Coseibntes 273 

CHAPTEE XX. 

Pbovinoe op Entee Rios 293 

CHAPTEE XXI. 

Tberitoeies of Ohaco, Misiones, Pampas, and Patagonia .. .. 305 

CHAPTEE XXII. 

Eepublic of Ubuguat 310 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEE XXIII. 

PAGE 

CiTT AND Department op Montevideo 333 

CHAPTEE XXIV. 

BcEAL Depaetments 350 

Oanelones 350 

San Jose ■ ■ ■ 352 

Florida .. 353 

Durazno 355 



Minas 
Maldonado 
Cerro Largo . . 
Taouarembo . , 
Salto 




.. .. 356 
.. .. 357 

361 

. .. 365 

367 


Paysandu 
Soriano . 
Colonia . . 

Pabagtjat .. .. 


CHAPTEE XXV. 


370 

. .. 376 
.. .. 378 

. .. 385 



CHAPTEE XXVI. 

Falkland Islands 401 



APPENDIX. 



Historical record 405 

Works published on the River Plate . . . . '. . . . . . . . 407 

Argentine trade (1873) 408 

Growth of exports (1853-1873) 409 

Qrowth of revenue in ten years (compared with Chile) . . ' . . . . 410 

Progress during five years of President Sarmiento's administration . . 410 
Foreign capital in public debts and joint-stock companies in the 

Biver Plate 411 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

, weights, measures, and distances 412 

Comparative Table of Time 416 

Land law at Buenos Ayres 416 

Tariffs at Buenos Ayres 417 

Argentine agents abroad 418 

Foreign Ministers at Buenos Ayres 418 

■ Argentine Customs duties 418 

Englisb clergy in the jRiver Plate 418 

Salaries of Argentine officials 419 

Buenos Ayres tramways 420 

Municipality of Buenos Ayres 420 

Central prisons, Buenos Ayres . . . . 421 

Table of wages, Buenos Ayres 421 

Immigration 422 

Cordoba Exhibition of 1871 .. 423 

Carolina Mine 425 

Buenos Ayres new gas works : 426 

Statistics of the Kepublic of Uruguay 427 

The New World 432 



HANDBOOK 

OP 

THE RIVER PLATE. 



INTEODUCTION. 



The Eiver Plate offers a fine field for immigrants, as is proved 
by the thousands of Europeans here who have gained fortune 
and position during the last twenty years. It is, however, 
absolutely necessary to bear in mind the classes of emigrants 
most needed in a new country : — 

1st. I'arm servants ; unmarried men, of strong constitutions, 
accustomed to country life, will find immediate employment at 
801. per annum, being found in house, provisions, horses, &o. 
After two or three years, they usually get a flock of sheep with 
third profits, and ultimately become independent farmers. 

2nd. Cooks and housemaids ; unmarried women at once get 
situations in native or foreign families, at 351. to 551. per annum. 
They often get married to the above class of sheep-farmers. 

3rd. Young married couples ; when unencumbered with family, 
this class is in greater demand than any other. The husband 
as sheep-peon or gardener, and the wife as cook. If they hire 
on an estancia in Buenos Ayres their joint wages may be 
calculated at 50Z. to 601. per annum, but if they go to Banda 
Oriental, Entre Eios, or the other provinces, they will earn 
much more. 

No passport is required on landing in the Eiver Plate, but if 
the emigrant has no friends here, it would be well for him to 
bring a certificate of baptism or other document showing his 
name and nationality. In receiving letters at the Post Office, 
taking out a marriage licence, receiving money from home, &c;, 

B 



■i HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

positive proof of identity is required, and as passage tickets are ' 
often lost, an official document is more valuable. 
There are fifteen, lines of steamers : — 

1. The Boyal Mail Company dispatch a steamer on the morning 
of the 9th and 24th of every month, from Southampton. Pares 
— 1st class, 35Z. and upwards ; return tickets, available for twelve 
months, issued at a fare and a half ; 2nd class, 25Z., good accom- 
modation. Bed, bedding, plate, and utensils provided for both 
classes. A reduction of one-sixth is allowed for families of 
four or more persons travelliiig first-class. The steamer calls 
at Lisbon, pape Verdes, Bahia, Pernambuco, and Eio Janeiro. 
The voyage takes twenty-eight days to Montevideo, and twenty- 
nine to Buenos Ayres. For regulations about luggage, &o., apply 
to J. M. Lloyd, Esq., 55, Moorgate Street, London, E.G. 

2. JTie Messageries Maritimes, or French mail line from 
Bordeaux, established in 1861, also carry a fortnightly mail, 
leaving Bordeaux on the 5th and 20th. Few Englishmen come 
by this line, but if a person wishes to visit Paris en passant he 
can reach Bordeaux from London in two days. The vessels 
call at Lisbon, Dakar, Bahia, Pernambuco, and Eio Janeiro : 
they are similar to the Eoyal Mail steamers. ^ First cabin, 
including wine, 50Z, Second cabin, 20Z. Office — Messrs. 
Fletcher and Co., Liverpool, and Messrs. Home, 4, Moorgate 
Street, iondon. 

3. The Liverpool and Biver Plate Mail Company dispatch a 
mail steamer from Liverpool on the 20th of each month, calling 
at Lisbon, Bahia, and Eio Janeiro, besides other steamers of this 
line every fifteen or twenty days. The treatment and accommoda- 
tion on board are excellent. The line was established in 1863, 
and in 1868 obtained a mail charter from the British Government. 
First cabin, 35Z. Second cabin, 25Z. Steerage, 16Z, The 1st 
and 2nd classes are found in everything; steerage passengers 
get rations on the emigration dietary scale. Agents — Messrs. 
Lamport and Holt, 21, Water Street. Eeduction for families. 
Eeturn ticket, for twelve months, at a fare and a half. 



INTEODTTCTION. O 

4. The Pacific Navigation Company dispatch a fortnightly 
steamer from Liverpool for Valparaiso, calling at Eio Janeiro 
and Montevideo ; the voyage to the Eiver Plate is made in 
twenty-six days, the vessels being constructed for great speed. 
The Company was established in 1868, and has a subsidy of 
12,000Z. per annum from the Chilian Government. 

Besides the above, there are two lines from Glasgow, two 
from Havre, one from Hamburgh, one from Bremen, three 
from Genoa and Marseilles, and one from Naples. 

We advise the emigrant to provide himseK with an abundant 
supply of light clothing, not only for the voyage, but because 
they cost here three times their value in England, and may be 
introduced duty free." They must be londfide for personal use. 
A gun or revolver, saddle and equipments, should not be 
omitted. ' 

Emigrants bringing money should obtain a letter of credit 
through, any bank in England, Ireland, or Scotland, on the 
Loudon and Eiver Plate, 'Mercantile, or Maua Banks of this 
city and Montevideo. 

The voyage is usually made in thirty days, the distance 
being about 7800 statute miles. The outset is often disa- 
greeable in crossing the Bay of Biscay, but the rest of the 
voyage is generally delightful, and rough weather is exceed- 
ingly rare between Lisbon and Eio Janeiro. 

Lisbon is reached in four days from England. The entrance 
to the Tagus is highly picturesque. The panorama of the 
city is most attractive ; a crowd of steamers, war-vessels, and 
shipping line the quays. We land at the Custom House, in 
the Terreyro do Pago, or Black-horse Square. The streets of 
the new town are spacious, the houses six or seven stories high, 
and all built of stone. The three principal streets, Eua Aurea, 
Eua Augusta, and Eua da Prata are on the site of the earth- 
quake of 1755, when most of the old town, with 40,000 inha- 
bitants, was destroyed. 

Englishmen usually stop at the Hotel Braganza, which 

B 2 



i HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

surmounts one of the seven hills, and is situated close to the 
Opera House, in the aristocratic quarter: charge, 8s. a day. 
It may give some idea of Lisbon to say that it comprises 
355 streets, 281 travessas or causeways, 12 plazas, 52 plazuelas, 
5 public parks, 6 theatres, 200 churches, and 36 public foun- 
tains. It contains. over 300,000 inhabitants, and enjoys a fine 
climate. The traveller should visit the Cathedral, the Abbey 
of Belen, the Paseo da Estrella, the Aqueduct, and the Opera 
House. In the coffee-houses may be had capital port wiue at 
2s. a bottle. The English book-store is in Eua do Carmo. If 
the steamer delay more than one day the traveller should take 
the tramway out to Cintra, 17 miles, one of the most charming 
spots in the universe. There is now railway communication 
from Lisbon to Paris, and some people come this way to avoid 
the Bay of Biscay. The route is this — Paris to Bordeaux, 
12 hours ; Bordeaux to Madrid, 20 hours ; Madrid to Badajoz, 
16 hours ; Badajoz to Lisbon, 15 hours. Between Madrid and 
Lisbon the traveller had better carry provisions. 

Pour days from Lisbon we pass the Canary Isles, the Peak 
of Teneriffe risiug to a height of 11,000 feet. The late 
Marshal O'Donnell was bom here. The islands produce good 
wine and fruits. Lord Nelson fought one of his battles here. 

Lamport and Holt's steamers sometimes call at Madeira, a 
very pleasant halt for passengers. 

The Cape Verde Islands are made in seven days from Lisbon. 
San Antonio is fertile and mountainous ; opposite to it is the 
Island of St. Vincent, the most 'barren spot on the world's 
surface ; sundry bold ranges of mountains, but not a particle of 
vegetation. The port is spacious and secure ; on one side a 
small port flying the Portuguese flag ; on another, the summit 
of an adjacent mountain bears a resemblance to the head of 
Washington. Mr. Miller has a cottage a little above the town, 
which is a straggling collection of about, a hundred houses. 
On the beach is the grave of an English colonel's wife, who 
died returning from India. The water is so clear and blue that 



INTRODUCTION. 

the natives will dive for a shilling, and catch it before it 
reaches the bottom. The boatmen sell mats and inlaid work- 
boxes, which come from Madeira. There is a good supply of 
fruit from the Island of San Antonio. The garrison of the place 
consists of a company of Portuguese soldiers. The natives are 
all black, and occupy themselves in coaling the steamers. 

From St. Vincent to the Brazils the sea is always as smooth 
as a mill-pond, and the heat is of course intense, crossing the 
Line. You see myriads of flying-fish, and now and then a 
shark, or a shoal of porpoises, or the tiny little nautilus. At 
night the sea is phosphorescent, and the constellation of the 
Southern Cross reminds us that we are in a new hemisphere. 
Passengers should beware of catching cold, and on no account 
sleep on deck. If they continue their usual morning bath they 
win find it very relarLug, the sea-water being actually warmer 
than the atmosphere. 

Fernando Noronha is sighted on the seventh day from St. 
Vincent. It is a small rocky island, used by the Brazilians as 
a penal settlement, and has a lighthouse. As we approach the 
coast of Brazil we see numbers of birds, and the first Jand 
visible is Cape San Koque, a bold headland, 200 miles north of 
Pemambuco. 

Pernambuco is the worst port in the world. The mail 
steamers lie out far to sea, and there is a nasty reef near the 
shore. When the weather is at all rongh, passengers are 
lowered over the side in an arm chair. There are sudden 
changes in the weather about 1 p.m., which render it difficult 
and dangerous for passengers to return aboard. Bathers had 
better look out here, for sharks are numerous. The city has about 
100,000 inhabitants, including a few English, and does a great 
business with England and other countries in coffee, cotton, &e. 

From Pernambuco to Bahia the voyage occupies thirty-six 
hours. The overland journey would take as many days, there 
being no road through the forests. The distance is imder 500 
miles. In these waters we meet a number of " catamarans," the 



6 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVEE PLATE. 

strangest kind of craft ; tiey sometimes venture over 100 miles 
from shore. 

Bahia, or San Salvador, is the oldest city in Brazil, and next 
in importance after Eio Janeiro. The bay is very fine ; the 
city stretches along a hill-side, vdth numerous churches and 
other massive buildings. The suburb called Victoria is the 
residence of the English merchants, embowered ip gardens, and 
enjoying the fresh breeze from the Atlantic. On landing the 
traveUef finds a host of palanquins ready to carry him up the 
hill. The heat is so great that the best plan is to take a coach 
and four mules. Drive first to the Botanical Gardens, whence 
a splendid view is obtained. Then see the old Jesuit Cathe- 
dral, the Government House, Eailway Terminus, and Post 
Office : if you have time to drive to the head of the bay, near 
the Portuguese hospital, it will repay the trquble. More than 
three-fourths of the inhabitants are coloured, and the city is so 
filthy that foul odours assail one on, all sides. There is an 
excellent coffee-house opposite the Post Office. There is an 
English cricket club here. Bahia boasts the largest oranges 
and the fattest black women in South America. 

Eio Janeiro is about 800 miles from Bahia, and the voyage 
takes nearly three days. The entrance to the Bay of Eio is 
the grandest picture that ever delighted the eye of man : grand, 
solemn, and imposing. At every instant, as the steamer ad- 
vances into the bay, the scene changes like a kaleidoscope, the 
mountains seem to move one behind the other, and to change 
entirely in shape, till we get in full view of the city, with the 
Organ Mountains in the back-ground, and the middle distance 
occupied by sundry islands bristling with batteries. 

The Sugar-loaf is the most striking feature. The peak of 
Santa Cruz is on the right, overlooking a fort of a hundred 
guns. All the navies in the world might ride at anchor in this 
bay, which is 100 miles round. Small steamboats are plying in 
all directions, to the suburbs along the water-line. 

The steamer comes to her moorings alongside Coal Island. 



INTRODUCTION. I 

The landing-place is close to the market. In coining ashore we 
notice the Arsenal, where some of the ironclads were built for 
the Paraguayan war. The houses are high, the streets as 
narrow as those of Genoa, and the shops very small, but rich. 
The vehicles are drawn by mules. Black Servants in livery 
abound. The best hotels are the Exchange, Carson's, and Estran- 
geiros. The Plaza Constituoion is a very handsome square, 
with fountains, and in the'centre is an equestrian statue of 
Peter I., the founder of the Brazilian monarchy. A little 
farther is another plaza, where the Lyric Theatre, Senate House, 
and other buildings claim notice. As we get to the outskirts 
we see the reservoir of the grand aqueduct of Tijuca. The 
pleasantest excursion from Eio is to Tijuca, situate in the 
mountains, about twelve miles inland, by tramway from San 
Francisco Square every half-hour. Numerous charming cot- 
tages, among gardens and orange-groves, occupy the line of 
route as we ascend towards Tijuca. The road winds round 
a succession of precipices, discl9sing at every point the most 
enchanting views. The English Hotel is at a great height; 
the proprietor is Mr. Whyte. It would be difficult to find 
anything to surpass the neatness and comfort of this house. 
Mr. Whyte gets up pic-nic parties to all the finest points of 
scenery in the lovely neighbourhood. After seeing Tijuca, 
make a trip to Petropolis : in steamboat, 14 miles across the 
bay ; the Baron Maua's railway, 16 miles, and the rest by 
diligence. The ascent of the Sierra da Estrella, a branch of 
the Organ Mountains, is most picturesque. The road is a 
triumph of engineering, the mountain side being almost per- 
pendicular. Petropolis, embosomed in the mountains, at a 
height of 2600 feet above the sea, is the supimer residence of 
the BrazUian Court and aristocracy. The Emperor's palace is 
not unlike an Italian viUa. From Petropolis drive to Luiz da 
Fora. Eeturn to Eio by Entre Eios railway. 

The great attraction in Eio is the Botanical Garden, with an 
avenue of palms that has no match in the world. The drives 



8 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

around by Botafogo, Larangeiras, La Gloria, &c., are very 
beautiful, and tramways ply every half-iour from the Sfl[uare 
adjoining the Emperor's palace. In the shops of Eua Ouvidor 
wUl be found feather-flowers; beetles, jewellery, and such like 
articles. The English Consulate, is in the Eua Direita, Consul 
Mr. George Lennon Hunt, who is also agent for the Eoyal Mail 
' steamers. The Exchange and Post Office are in the same street 
as the Consulate and Exchange Hotel. 

Erom Eio to Montevideo takes four or five days, according to 
the weather. Pamperos.are not uncommon on this coast. Ear 
out to sea, before seeing land, we can perceive the efiect of the 
waters of the Eiver Plate, changing the colour of the ocean. 
Maldonado is situate at the mouth of the river, and a profitable 
seal fishery is carried on at Lobos Island. 

Montevideo, capital of the Eepublic of Uruguay, as seen from 
the bay, looks to advantage, the towers of the Matriz Church, 
and the Custom House and Caridad Hospital being conspicuous. 
The best hotels are the Oriental and Americano, charge 83 ,per 
day. Strangers are admitted to the Club. The Eev. Mr. Hoskin 
reads Divine service at eleven o'clock on Sundays, at the English 
, church. Major Munro is British Consul. 

The steamers leave Montevideo in the evening and arrive at 
the outer roads of Buenos Ayres by daybreak. The minarets, 
church towers, and cupolas give a light and fantastic appear- 
ance to the city, which, seated some 80 feet above the western 
shore of La Plata, extends about 2 miles along the water's 
edge. 

Passengers are usually landed in a little steamboat, but faUing 
this it will be necessary to take a whaleboat (McLean's are the 
best), and be sure to bargain with the boatman before leaving 
the ship : his charge wiU depend on the wfeather, say K20 to ^50 
a head. On no account let any of your luggage be separated from 
you. You will be assailed by an impetuous gang of porters ; pick 
out one of them, count for him the number of your trunks, and let 
him get others to help him if he like. At the Eesguardo, near 



INTEODUOTION. 3 

the end of the mole, open your trunk for examination; you will 
find the officials most polite. If you have cigars, sUt, jewellery, 
or firearms, declare the same. On arriving at your hotel, if 
you have any difficulty with the porters about your luggage, ask 
the landlord to settle with them. You will find the hotels very 
cheap and good, the charge for bed and board not exceeding 
eight sliillings a day. Lock your room whenever you go out, 
leaving the key with the porter : lock it also at night. If any 
of your, trunks have been detained at the Eesguardo or sent to 
the Custom House, lose no time to employ Mr. McLean,, or 
some other broker, to clear them fdr you. 

The change of climate will oblige you to be careful as to 
your manner of living. Eise early, take a cold bath every 
morning, beware of walking about much in the sun, and re- 
member that there are frequent changes of temperature even in 
one day. Flannel singlets, light clothing, and a straw hat are 
advisable in summer months. At all seasons the -mornings are 
frequently cold, necessitating warm clothing. Be very careful 
of a cut finger or other trifling wound, which must be kept 
closely bandaged : many cases of lockjaw occur from a mere 
scratch not attended to. It is very bad to drink much cold 
water. The most wholesome drink at breakfast or dinner is 
Trench wine, for which no charge is made in- the hotels. As 
soon as convenient after arrival you may call at the Standard 
office, 118, Calle San Martin, where the editors will give you 
any advice in their power. Letters from home may also be 
directed to their care free of charge. Poor emigrants looking 
for employment have advertisements inserted gratis. 
' The currency in Buenos Ayres is ^122^ to the 11. sterling, 
making the paper dollar equivalent to 2d. : the National Bank 
money is in hard dollar notes of 50d. each. In the upper pro- 
vinces the currency is Bolivian dollars, worth 3s. English. In 
Montevideo the dollar is worth &2d., the sovereign changing 
for g4 70c. Distances are reckoned by the Spanish league, 
nearly 3^ miles English. Weights, by arrobes of 25 lbs. 



10 HANDBOOK OP THE BIVEB PLATE. 

English, or quintals of 100 lbs. weight, and measures are alike 
aU over the Eiver Plate, but in Paraguay the league is only 
5000 varas, or about 2^ miles. A square league of ground is 
nearly 6600 acres : in Buenos Ayres it is divided into 1660 
manzanas or cuadras (say 4 acres each), and in Eanda Oriental 
into 3600 cuadras of less than 2 acres each. 



( 11 ) 



CHAPTEE I. 

THE BIVEE PLATE EBPUBLIOS. 

The Eiver Plate Eepublics are three in number, viz. : tlie 
Argentine Confederation (or La Plata, properly so called), 
Uruguay or Banda Oriental, and Paraguay. These immense 
territories, formerly comprehended in the viceroyalty of Buenos 
Ayres under the Spanish regime, cover nearly 1,400,000 square 
miles, with a scanty population not reaching three millions, or 
two inhabitants per square mile. The mineral and agricultural 
resources of these countries are perhaps equal to those of the 
United States, and the water system is almost unrivalled, the 
affluents of the Plate ramifying one-half of the Continent. The 
climate is the healthiest on the face of the globe, the inhabitants 
are very friendly to foreigners, civil and religious liberty pre- 
vail in the fullest sense, and treaties of amity and commerce 
have been concluded with aU. the great Powers. Trade relations 
and new enterprises of importance have brought the Eiver 
Plate into close contact with Great Britain and the Lond,on 
capitalists, and there are few countries which offer more induce- 
ments to English emigrants than these, or few foreign nations 
viewed with more respect, by Argentines, than Great Britain. 

The Argentine Bepuhlic is for the most part an unbroken 
plain, bounded on the north by Bolivia, on the west by the 
Cordillera of the Andes, on the south by Magellan's Straits, 
and on the east by Brazil, Banda Oriental, and the Atlantic. 
It is divided into fourteen provinces, some of which are little 
deserving of note, but others have attained a high degree of 
civilization ; and also comprehends Patagonia and the Gran 
Chaco. 

The province of Buenos Ayres is nearly equal to all the 



12 HANDBOOK or THE EIVEB PLATE. 

rest collectively, in importance, wealth, and population, being 
moreover the great centre of foreign immigration. The city of 
the same name is the seat of the National and Provincial Go- 
vernments, and one of the principal seaports of South America. 
In the refinement of its society, progressive spirit of the people, 
and activity of trade and industry, it yields to no other city in 
the Continent, and has earned the title of " Athens of South 
America." Entre Eios and Santa Fe have of late attracted 
much notice as sheep-farming countries. Cordoba, the heart 
of the interior, has received a great impulse from the Central 
Argentine Eailway. San Juan and Catamarca are remarkable 
for their mineral wealth. Mendoza, at the foot of the Cordillera, 
formerly the chief city of the Cuyo provinces, has emerged 
from the ruins of the earthquake of 1861. Santiago and the 
other northern provinces have been hitherto so isolated as to 
be almost valueless, but the navigation of the Vermejo, and the 
new narrow-gauge railways will unite them, through Cordoba 
and Eosario, with the river Paran4, the great artery of the 
Eepublic. The provinces called Literal, from being adjacent 
to this river, have an immense advantage over the rest, possess- 
ing cheap freight and easy transit to Buenos Ayres and the 
commercial world. The population of the Eepublic by the 
census of September, 1869, was 1,836,490, but is now much over 
that estimate. The established religion is Eoman Catholic, and 
the language Spanish, from which nation the original settlers 
were descended. 

The Repvhlic of JJrugnay, or " Banda Oriental," is separated 
from the last -mentioned country by the Eivers Plate and 
Uruguay: the Plate, opposite Buenos Ayres, being 28 miles wide. 
It is very different from the sister state, in being intersected 
with numerous chains of mountains, called here Cuchillas or 
Sierras. Its extent is 63,000 square miles, or larger than 
England by one-eighth. Many of the general features are 
similar to those of La Plata, the country being eminently 
adapted for sheep and cattle farming, and, moreover, free from 



THE BIVBK PLATE EEPUBLICS. 



13 



Indian incursions. The capital, Montevideo, is favourably 
situated near the mouth of the Plate, and its commerce is almost 
equal- to that of Buenos Ayres, from which port it is distant 
120 miles. The next towns of importance are — Salto and 
Paysandu, on the river Uruguay ; Canelones, Tacuaremb6, and 
Minas, in the interior ; Mercedes, on the Eio Negro ; Colonia, 
abreast of Buenos Ayres; and Maldon^do, on the Atlantic. 
The country is thickly wooded in parts, and presents a beauti- 
fully diversified appearance. Of late years there has been an 
influx of immigrants, and several Buenos Ayrean land-owners 
also possess estancias on this side. The population was quin- 
tupled in the forty years from 1824-64, and is now returned as 
454,000. During past years the country was desolated by civil 
war, but everything now seems satisfactorily settled. 

Paraguay is not always coimted one of the Eiver Plate 
Eepublics, being over 1000 miles inland, but it was formerly a 
part of the viceroyalty of La Plata. It is the country least 
known of this Continent, and yet had made great advancement 
in the years just preceding the late war. Up to 1840 it was 
entirely closed against foreigners, under the rule of the sangui- 
nary tyrant, D. Gaspar Francia. EaUways, telegraphs, arsenal, 
dry docks, and other splendid works sprung up under Lopez, 
employing a large and efficient staff of English mechanics.! 
The Eepublio covers about 70,000 square miles. The census 
of 1857 gave a population of 1,337,449, which was probably 
exaggerated : the destruction caused by the war was such, that 
there are now hardly 100,000 inhabitants. The climate is warm, 
the country hilly and picturesque, and the soil fertile. The 
- inhabitants are the most industrious in South America, the 
amount of land under cereals, cotton, and tobacco formerly 
amounting to half a million of acres. The chief product of the 
country is yerba-mate or Paraguay tea, which, in time of peace, 
is annually exported (mostly to Buenos Ayres) to the value of 
200,0002. The cultivation of cotton was begun in 1863, but 
interrupted by the war. The capital, Asuncion, is a town of 



14 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBK PLATE. 

25,000 inhabitants, in weekly coimnmiication by steamer with 
the Eiver Plate. Villa ' Eiea is the most important town in 
the interior, and those next in order are situated on the river 
Paraguay. The language of the country is Guarahi, most of the 
people being descended from that race of Indians by inter- 
marriage with the Spanish settlers. 



( 15 ) 



CHAPTEK II. 



THE AKGBNTINE EEPHBLIC. 



Among South American nations this country is second only to 
Brazil in extent and importance, being far ahead of all the sister 
republics in trade, commerce, railways, telegraphs, revenue, 
literature, schools, and the number of European settlers; it 
likewise surpasses BrazU in all but the returns of trade and 
national revenue, while its climate and soil are the most favoured 
of thfe habitable globe. Although emancipated from the Spanish 
yoke in 1816, the real independence of the country may be said 
to date from the fall of the Dictator Eosas in 1852, and the 
progress made during the last twenty-one years is hardly sur- 
passed by any of the most flourishing nations of the present day. 
' The Eepublic comprises fourteen provinces, with an aggregate 
population of 1,736,923, according to the census of 1869, and an 
area of 600,000 square miles ; besides three vast territories ex- 
tending over an equal area, and whose population is roughly 
estimated at .100,000, chiefly Indians. 



PKOVUfOES. 

Sq. Miles. 

Buenos Ayres . . . . 45,000 

Cordoba 70,000 

EntreEios .. .. 40,000 

Santiago 35,000 

Corrientes 40,000 

Tuouman 20,000 

Santa F6 36,000 

Salta 50,000 

Catamaroa 76,000 

Mendoza 50,000 

Carried forward .. 462,000 



Population. 

495,107 

210,508 

184,271 

182,898 

129,028 

108,958 

89,117 

88,983 

79,962 

65,413 

1,534,185 



1'6 



HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 



, Peovinces — continued. 



Brought forward . . 

San Juan 

San Luis 

Kioja 

Jujuy 



Sq. Miles. 

462,000 
33,000 
40,000 
35,000 
30,000 



Teeeitokies. 
GranChaco .. .. 150,000 

Pampas 150,000 

Patagonia 300,000 



1,200,000 



Population. 

1,534,185 
60,319 
53,294 
48,746 
40,379 



.. 50,000 
.. 30,000 
.. 20,000 

.. 1,836,923 



Some of the above provinces have doubled their population 
in less than twenty years, as Buenos Ayres, Entre Bios, and 
Santa F^ ; the others in less than thirty years ; the returns of 
the Census Commissioners putting down the following estimates, 
exclusive of Indians : 

1849 935,000 inhabitants. 

1859 .. 1,804,000 „ ^ 

1869 1,736,923 

Of the last number one-eighth were forei^ers, and if the 
children of these were included it would appear that foreign 
residents formed one-third of the entire population. The official 
returns class the various foreign nationalities thus : 

Italians 71,442 

Spaniards 34,080 

French 32,383 

English 10,709 

Germans and Swiss 10,857 

S.Americans 42,112 

N. Americans ./ 1,551 

Various 8,859 



211,993 



In some of the upper provinces there is but one inhabitant to 
the square mile ; the proportion in Cordoba is three, in Tucuman 



THE AEGENTINB EBPUBLIC. 17. 

five, and in Buenos Ayres ten. Taking the fourteen provinces 
together, there are three inhabitants to the square mile ; but if 
we include the total area of the Republic it will be only IJ, or 
a hundred times less than is usual in Europe. 

The Argentine Republic, extending from the foot of the 
Andes to the Atlantic, and from the limits of Bolivia and Brazil 
to the Straits, of Magellan, presents for the most part an un- 
broken plain, with every variety of soil, where fruits of the 
tropical or temperate zones are readily cultivated, the country 
being traversed for thousands of miles by the great riverine 
systems of the Parana and Uruguay, with their numerous tribu- 
taries. These also form convenient highways for commerce, 
the Parand and its afSuents being navigated by steamers in a 
straight line for over two thousand miles from the niouth, near 
Buenos Ayres, to Matto Grosso. The Gran Chaco is said to 
possess more timber than the whole of Europe. The mineral 
resources of Catamarca, Eioja, San Juan, San Luis, Mendoza, 
and Cordoba are inexhaustible, especially in silver, lead, and 
copper, which wUl become staple articles of export as soon as the 
railways now in construction open up the interior. The products 
of mineral or industrial interest sent to the Paris Exhibition of 
1867 were rewarded with no fewer than nineteen medals. 

Wool, hides, and tallow constitute the staple products which 
we export to foreign countries, the sheep-farms of Buenos Ayres 
alone counting 60,000,000 sheep ; the annual yield of wool is 
more than 200,000,000 lbs., bfeing somewhat higher than the 
total clip of Australia. The growth of this business during ten 
years is shown as follows : 

Lba. 

1862, export of wool 58,153,575 

1866 - „ 116,494,970 

1872 „ 203,610,000 

The shipments from Buenos Ayres in 1873 showed an increase 
of 24,709 bales over 1872.* 

* Note. — The latest statistics for 1873^ wiU be found in Appendix. 



18 HAMBBOOK OP THE EIVBE PLATE. 

The gross trade of the country doubles ia less than ten years ; 
the aggregate value of imports and exports having risen from 
^45,000,000 in 1862 to ^66,000,000 in 1866, and ^105,000,000 
in 1872, this last sum being equal to 21,000,000?. sterliug. The 
British Board of Trade returns show that English commerce 
with the Elver Plate has increased, twice as rapidly as with the 
British Colonies in general. 

The balance of trade has steadily improved of late years, as 
the figures show : 

Imports. Exports. 

S ' s 

1870 46,624,776 .. .. 26,753,203 as 9 to 5 

1871 39,893,000 .. .. 23,442,543 as 5 to 3 

1872 60,229,143 .. .. 45,743,192 as 4 to 3 

There was a falling-off in 1871, caused by the yellow fever; 
but since then the growth of trade has been steady, the returns 
fqr 1873 showing considerable excess over the previous year. 
The bulk of our imports comes from England and Fiance, the 
figures being as follow : 

» 

From England 19 millions. 

„ France 16 

„ Spain 4 

„ Brazil 3J 

„ United States 3| 

„ Italy 3 

„ Belgium 3 

„ Germany 2 

„ Various 6 



60 millions. 



Belgium takes the foremost rank among customers for our 
produce, as we ship most of our wool to Antwerp. Sheepskins 
go chiefly to France, hides and tallow to England and North 
America, jerked beef to Brazil and Cuba, live cattle to Chile. 
These various items represent the following values : 



THE ABGBNTINB EEPUBLIO. 



19 







$ f uei-tefi. 


Woo^ 


203,610,000 lbs. .. . 


. 16,352,122 


Sheepskins 


72,970,000 lbs. .. . 


. 4,158,864 


Ox aod cow hides .. 


3,121,758 .. . 


. 10,571,710 


Jerked beef 


916,220 qq .. . 


. 2,110,914 


Tallow 


1,182,240 qq .. . 


. 7,427,901 


Live horned cattle . . 


162,428 .. '. 


. 1,600,609 


Other animals 


58,856 .. . 


335,799 


Minerals 


13,540 qq .. . 


310,179 


Bones, skins, horns . . . 




. 2,718,206 


Hay, tobaoeo, flour, &o. . 




156,888 



45,743,192 



The returns of 1872 stow 41 per cent, more wool than in 
1870, and 24 per cent, increase in the number of hides. 

The Customs report shows that Buenos Ayres stands for 82 
per cent, of the Eepublic, Santa Fe 11, Entre Eios 5, and the 
other provinces 2 per cent., as regards revenue. The growth of 
our revenue in ten years has been much greater than in Chile : 

Argentine. (Thile. 

1863 .. .. 6,478,682 .. .. 6,700,659 

1866 .. .. 9,568,551 .. .. 6,097,111 

' 1869 .. .. 12,676,680 .. .. 11,484,806 

1872 .. .. 18,172,379 .. .. 13,843,000 

The movement in shipping shows a still more surprising 
increase ; the returns of tonnage in arrivals and sailings of sea- 
going vessels are : 

1870 1,520,706 tons. 

1871 1,217,175 „ 

1872 2,151,640 „, 

" The last is nearly one-fifth the gross tonnage returns of all 
the French ports (11,921,000 tons), whereas France has eighteen 
times our population. There are thirteen regular lines of 
steamers from Europe to Buenos Ayres : 

Eoyal Mail 6 steamers. 

Lamport and Holt 26 „ 

Belgian 12 „ 

Glasgow .. .. 2 „ 

Hamburg 5 „ 

Three Qenoa lines 12 „ 

Five French lines 25 „ 

2 



20 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE. 



Besides the foregoing are the Liverpool Pacific liners to 

Montevideo, which bring us thousands of passengers. 

The Budget for 1874 amounts to ^23,500,000, nearly 

5,000,000Z« sterling, and is made up thus : 

Interest on public debt .. 7,801,602 equal to 1,560,000 

Floating debt 3,500,000 „ 700,000 

Customs officials 1,452,215 „ 300,000 

President and Cabinet.. .. 210,369 „ 45,000 

Congress . 490,088 „ 100,000 

Army '. 5,178,515 „ 1,040,000 

Navy 298,437 „ 60,000 

Indian subsidies 223,556 „ 45,000 

Legations abroad 158,149 „ 33,000 

Federal Court .. .. .. 150,036 „ 31,000 

Ecclesiastical grant . . . . 182,588 „ 38,000 

Schools and libraries .. .. 1,500,519 „ 310,000 

Finance offices 376,816 „ 80,000 

Bailways 219,070 „ 45,000 

Immigi-ation 226,225 „ 46,000 

PostOfficd 352,220 „ 72,000 

Telegraphs 252,660 „ 52,000 

Slibsidies to provinces . . . . 225,000 „ 45,000 

Public works, &c 623,328 „ 130,000 

$23,421,392 „ £4,732,000 
The ways and means consist of : 



Import duties 15,750,000 

Export ditto 2,700,000 

Warehouse fees 600 000 

Stamps 350,000 

Post Office 180,000 

Telegraphs 100,000 

Lighthouses, &c 100,000 

Interest on Varela loan funds 420,000 

Ditto on C. Arg. EE. shares 232,000 

Treasury bills 2,989,392 



$23,421,392 



equal to 8,200,000 

550,000 

130,000 

75,000 

38,000 

21,000 

21,000 

90,000 

47,000 

560,000 



£4,732,000 



THE AEGBNTINE EKPUBLIO. '21 

In 1873 President Sarmiento congratulated Congress on a 
surplus of ^4,778,449, or nearly 1,000,000Z. sterling, the revenue 
having yielded ^2,000,000 over the estimates, and the expen- 
diture being less. 

The National Debt in January, 1874, stood thus : 
1st. The Home debt, commenced in 1863, amounted to 
g20,933,976 ftes., equal to 4,186,795Z. sterling, viz.: 

$ftes. 

Total emissions to date , 25,995,423| 

Amount amortized 5,061,417 

Actual Home debt 20,933,976J 

The following table shows the items thus : 



3sion, Amortized. Balance. 

$ ftes. $ ftes. $,fte8. 

Buschenthal.. .. 2,674,823i 1,007,059 1,667,764| 

National Bonds .. 21,714,600 3,968,388 17,746,212 

Koads and bridges 1,248,000 86,000 1,162,000 

National Bank .. 358,000 .. 358,000 

25,995,423i 5,061,447 20,933,9761 



The amount paid for interest during eleven years was 
^8,853,924, say 1,770,785Z. sterling. 
2nd. The Foreign debt, as follows : 

£ 

London loan of 1826 1,770,100 

Ditto of 1865 2,209,100 

Ditto of 1871 5,688,698 

Foreign claims 351,523 

£10,019,421 

Thus the total debt is 871,000,000, or about ^35 per head of 
the population, which is much less than the annual average 
of exported produce. 

The regular army of the Eepublic consists of 9000 men, em- 
ployed mostly on the Indian frontiers at Mendoza, Eio Quinto, 
Kojas, Azul, and other stations, besides a small garrison at 



22. HANDBOOK 01' THE EIVEB PLATE. 

Buenos Ayres, and others scattered through the provinces. 
The National Guards are seldom, called out, but their muster- 
roll numbers 150,000 men, of whom 40,000 are in the province 
of Buenos Ayres. The navy consists of some newly-constructed 
ironclads and a few old steamers. 

Public instruction has made wonderful progress, the late 
President Sarmiento and his minister Avellaneda having almost 
doubled the number of schools : the returns show 1645 public 
schools and 103,000 children attending school, the largest pro- 
portion in any country of South America. The above figures 
include* 4000 boys receiving university education at the 
national colleges. The provinces of San Juan and Mendoza 
have sudcessively won the Congress prize of ^10,000 for having 
one-tenth of their population at school. The census of 1867 
showed that 312,011 inhabitants could read and, write, or about 
one-fourth of the adult population. In Buenos Ayres the ratio 
is four times greater than in Santiago del Estero, three times 
greater than Tucuman or Jujuy, and about double the rest of 
the provinces, of which the highest are Santa Fe, Entre Eios, 
San Juan, and Cordoba. There are 120 free libraries in the 
Eepublic. 

The farming stock of the fourteen provinces may be roughly 
set down at fifteen mUlion homed cattle, four million horses, 
and eighty million sheep. Buenos Ayres stands for three- 
fourths of the sheep, and half the cows and horses. Santa Pe 
and Entre Rios come next in importance. The value of all this 
live stock cannot fall short of 30,000,000?., yielding about 
9,000,000Z. per annum in exported produce. 

Immigration and agriculture have increased so rapidly in the - 
last ten years that we do not any longer import American flour 
or other cereals, but raise enough for our entire population. 
Immigration now averages 90,000 arrivals yearly, and the 
■prosperity of immigrant settlers is shown by the ratio of 
depositors according to the various nationalities in the Pro- 
vincial Bank of Buenos Ayres. 



THE ARGENTINE BBPUBLIO. 23 

Depositors. Amount. 

Argentines 18 .. .. 27 

Italians 30 .. .. 20 

Englisli 4 .. .. 14 

Spaniards 13 .. •■ 10 

Basques 13 .. .. 9 

French 9 .. .. 8 

Germans 4 .. .. 6 

Various 9 •■ •• 6 

I 100 .. .. 100 

Thus it is seen tiat of 17,000, depositors nearly 14,000 are 
European artisans or settlers, the average deposit to each being 
about 300Z. sterling. 

There are ten railways open to traffic, with an aggregate 
length of nearly 1000 miles. 

There are also five lines in active course of construction, 
making up 636 miles ; without counting many already con- 
ceded, to a length of nearly 3000 miles, but not yet commenced. 
There are 6000 miles of telegraph through the provinces. 

The city of Buenos Ayres has over 80 miles of tramways, 
besides short lines in most of the principal towns of the 
Eepublic. 

The form of government is similar to that of the United 
States. The President resides at Buenos Ayres, and each pro- 
vince has its own governor and local legislature. There are 
eighteen towns of note in the provinces, viz. Cordoba, Bosario, 
Tucuman, Salta, Corrientes, Santa Fe, Parand, Gualeguaychii, 
San Juan, Mendoza, Santiago, Gualeguay,Concepcion, Catamarca, 
Concordia, Eioja, San Luis, and Jujuy, with their respective 
banks, national colleges, free libraries, and other institutions. 



24 HANDBOOK OF THE RIVER PLATE. 



CHAPTER III. 

EIO DE LA PLATA AND TRIBUTARIES. 

The Eiver Plate is one of the greatest rivers in the world, 
including its two great tributaries, the Parand and Uruguay. 
Suffice it to say that' the traveller can take steamer at Monte- 
video and ascend . without interruption to the capita], of Matto 
Grosso, a distance of over 2000 miles. At Montevideo the 
river is about 65 miles wide, but the water is brackish: at 
Buenos Ayres the water is quite fresh, and the river is 28 miles 
wide. Twenty miles above Buenos Ayres we arrive at the 
junction of the ParanI, and Uruguay. The Lower ParanA is 
about 900 miles long from its embouchure, near San Fernando, 
up to the Tres Bocas, above Corrientes : the Upper Faran4, 
from the Tres Bocas to the Salto de Guayra, is only navigable 
for small boats. The Paraguay river, which debouches into the 
Parana at Tres Bocas, is navigable as far as the Cuyaba : on this 
latter stream is built a city of the same name, residence of the 
Brazilian authorities of Matto Grosso, about 1100 miles above 
the city of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay. The Uruguay is 
ordinarily navigable only as high as Salto, but in flood times the 
steamers ascend the rapids and go up to Uruguayana and San 
Borja, in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande. The Rio Negro 
is one of the chief affluents of the Uruguay ; the Salado of the 
Parana ; and the Vermejo, Tebicuari, and Pilcomayo fall into 
the Paraguay. 

The average depth of the River Plate is 18 feet, greatest 
36 feet, with a bottom of fine sand. The tide rises and falls 
regularly at Buenos Ayres, although the river is sometimes 
affected by strong winds. The South Atlantic tidal wave, twice 
every 24 hours, ascends the Plata and is perceptible for over 



KIO DE LA PLATA AND TKIBTTTABIES. 



23 



100 miles up tte Parana and Uruguay. It travels 258J miles 
in 11 hours 45 minutes ; it is ahout 16 inches at Buenos Ayres, 
the medium depth of water to Las Palmas being 10 feet, dis- 
tance 64 miles, and ascends the Palmas 55 miles at the rate 
of 19 miles an hour : average depth of Palmas 38| feet. At 
new or full moon it is always high water at Buenos Ayres ; 
generally when the moon is on the horizon it is high' water, and 
low when she passes meridian. Soundings in the port of Buenos 
Ayres vary from 15 to 22^ feet. The mean current of the 
Eiver Plate seems to be 118 feet per minute on the surface, 103 
at four feet depth, and 41 at the bottom. 

a?HE PARANA. 

Buenos Ayres to Matto Orosso. 

There is a regular Brazilian monthly mail-service from Monte- 
video to Cuyaba, making the trip in ten to twelve days. Various 
companies have steamers running from Buenos Ayres to Cor- 
rientes and Paraguay. The scenery has much of interest for the 
traveller, although at times the coast is low and marshy. The 
Parana has a larger volume of water than all the rivers of 
Europe put together. 

If we leave the roadstead of Buenos A3rre8 on a fine morning, 
nothing can be more charming than the panorama of the city 
and suburbs. We pass, in succession, Palermo with its planta- 
tions to the water's edge ; Belgrano, seated on a gentle acclivity ; 
Point Olivos, a handsome promontory, where a new town has 
been projected ; San Isidro, with its deligjitful country-seats ; 
and San Fernando, at the head of the estuary of La Plata. 

We enter the Parana by one of its many mouths, the best 
known of which are the Guazii and Palmas : the latter is the 
shorter route, used by small steamers which touch at Zarate 
and San Pedro. The delta of the Parana comprises a multitude 
of fertile and picturesque islands, planted with fruit trees ; and 
if the traveller halts at San Fernando or the Tigre, he can 



26 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVEE PLATE. 

amuse himself for several days by boating in the Conchas and 
Lujan rivers, or making an excursion to the Carapachay islands. 
These islands are termed the Argentine Tempo ; they teem with 
wild-fowl and the richest fruits, and a number of Italian char- 
coal-burners are the principal inhabitants. We do not get a 
glimpse of , the mainland till reaching Campana, the estancia of 
Dr. Costa, who has built a fine house on the blufif. Here is the 
terminus of the Eiver Parana or Port Campana Eailway, in 
course of construction. 

Zarate is a straggling village of 1000 inhabitants, with a 
small trade in grain, firewood, and vegetables. There is a new 
church, also a tolerable Basque inn, and two public schools.' 
During the Paraguayan war this was the chief port for ship- 
ment of horses. 

Baradero : this is another small port, compjising 105 houses, 
a church, and school-house. The place derives some importance 
from a flourishing Swiss colony. 

San Pedro is a better town, and looks well from the river ; it 
has a new church and two public schools. Mr. Eevy made 
Government surveys here for a port, the Parand forming a kind 
of lagoon with an anchorage area of 312 acres, the minimum 
depth 18 feet at low water. Vessels drawing 20 feet can at all 
times ascend from the Atlantic to San Pedro. 

A little above San Pedro is the pass of Obligado, where the 
English and French cut the chain placed across the river by 
Eosas. Higher up is the fine estancia of Llavallol, at a point 
of the river called Eincon de Las Henuanas, after which we 
pass the Eincon Eamallo. 

San Nicolas, 40 miles above Obligado, is the last town in the 
territory of Buenos Ayres; it is a place of some importance, 
having received the rank of " city," with a population of about 
8000 souls. It has 300 rateable houses, besides Mr. Armstrong's 
valuable mill. It is the centre of a district which comprises 
sixty-five estancias, and a number of chacras under wheat. 

At San Nicolas the river is 4787 feet wide, 72 feet greatest - 



KIO DE LA PLATA AND TRIBUTABIBS. 27 

depth, current 255;J feet per mimite (say three miles an hour), 
the Parana being here an undivided stream. 

Bosario is 35 miles above San Nicolas, or 202 from Martin 
Garcia, being the largest town on the Parana, 80 feet above the 
river. Vessels drawing 15 feet can always ascend this far. The 
river often rises here 12 feet, this- rise being permanent at least 
three months, sometimes for two years in succession. It is a 
well-built town covering 150 cuadras or blocks, with a popula- 
tion of 23,169 souls. The plaza, parish church, Custom House, 
market-place, and Jardin de Eecreo, are worthy of notice : the 
theatre was recently rebuilt. The railway terminus and work- 
shops at the north end will repay a visit. The town also pos- 
sesses two mills, three saladeros, two cemeteries (for Catholics 
and Protestants),' a public hospital, an American chapel and 
school, tramway, and gas-works. There are some good hotels 
and coffee-houses. Mr. Perkins, superintendent of the central 
Argentine colonies, will give strangers any information they 
may require. Mr. Lewis Joel is H.B.M. Consul. Excursions 
may he made by rail to the colony, of Bernstadt, or on horse- 
back to the fine English estancias in the valley of Pavon. 

About six leagues above Bosario we sight the edifice of San 
Lorenzo, with its large convent. Diamante, 70 miles above 
Eosario, is the beginning of the mainland on the Entre Eios 
side, forming a bluff 200 feet high called Pijinta Gorda, from 
which the delta of the Parang downwards begias. For hun- 
dreds of miles this bluff continues, while on the opposite, or 
Santa Fe, side are innumerable islands in succession. , The 
Entre Eios bluff shows the three geological strata, of which the 
upper or Pampean is encrusted with fossils of giant mammalia. 

The approach to Parand is highly picturesque — towering bluffs 
of red sandstone, here and there relieved by a wild furze of deep 
green. There are several Hme-kilns along the Entre Eiano coast. 

Parand was the capital of the Argentine Eepublic during nine 
years, from the fall of Eosas tiU the battle of Pavon (September 
17, 1861). The Custom. House is at the foot of the " barranca," 



28 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE, 

and a steep road leads up to the town : the population does not 
exceed 8000. The Grand Plaza is very pretty, the buildings 
having been constructed under Presidents Urquiza and Derqui. 
The former Legislative Chambers occupy the north side : the 
President's palace also merits attention. 

Parana is 35 miles above Diamante, and is accessible at all 
times to sea-going vessels of 12 feet draught. The bluff of the 
Entre Eios line is 120 feet high. 

A steamer plies across the river to Santa Fe city, remarkable 
for its antiquity and many fine churches. A number of islands 
intervene, completely shutting it out from view. 

Five leagues from Parand we sight the colony of Villa 
Urquiza, where great efforts were made to plant cotton in 1864. 
Two hours' sail brings us to a place called Conchillas. 

The river now breaks into a variety of channels. We cannot 
see the Gran Chaco, from which we are separated by numerous 
islands, teeming with tigers and small crocodiles ; the latter 
are called caymans, and resemble what naturalists term the 
" iguana." Tradition says that the first Spanish expedition to 
Paraguay passed more than twelve months in exploring the long 
and tortuous course of the Parana, for although the direct dis- 
tance is only 1000 miles, the Way is rendered very much longer 
by the necessity of crossing and re-crossing from one side to the 
other. 

Feliciana, 69 miles above Paran£, brings us 'to a wild part of 
the river ; islands, sand-banks, and submerged rocks, with whirl- 
pools, rendering navigation difficult from the currents, although 
the rocks are so many fathoms deep as to offer no danger. 
Fifteen miles above Feliciana, or five from the last rapids, there 
is a second ledge of rocks across the Parana with deep water 
and strong current. 

About twelve hours' sail from Parana is La Paz, near the 
borders of Corrientes : the town is a poor place, but some leagues 
inland is a fine estancia belonging to Mr. Haycroft. La Paz is 
101 miles above Parand : all towns now are on our rigM (that is 



EIO DB LA PLATA AND TEIBUTAEIBS. 29 

the river's left bank), the other side being Chaco or Indian 
territory. About 25 leagues above La Paz we come to the 
mouth of the Arroyo Espinillo, which is the frontier line be- 
tween Entre Eios and Corrientes, On Captain Page's map it is 
marked Sarandi or Guayquiraro: it is not navigable. Again 
there is a humber of these delightful islands, revelling in all the 
beauty of tropical vegetation, with palmetto trees, and a plant 
bearing golden leaves, easily mistaken for oranges. The savages 
of the Chaco never come down here, as they have plenty of 
means to pursue their occupations of hunting, fishing, or wood- 
cutting on the mainland. The cofist of Corrientes is low but 
well wooded, and yonder is a little hut, elevated on poles, and 
with a tile roof, which answers as the Capitania del Puerto for 
Esquina, this town being half a league distant on the mainland. 
Esquina, 58 miles above La Paz, is a well-built town, of 
1794 inhabitants, situate on an eminence at a bend of the river 
Corrientes, near its confluence with the Parana. It possesses a 
good church, public schools, juzgado, and other edifices, extend- 
ing along the crest oi, the hill for about a mile, most of the 
houses having azoteas, with wide verandahs. The surrounding 
country is remarkable for its excellent pasture, and the inhabit- 
ants are wealthy cattle-breeders, sheep being comparatively 'few. 
Mr. Hayes, the son of an American, is the only foreign resident 
in the town. There is an abundance of tigers about here ; and 
abreast of us is the thriving Alexandra Colony of Thomson, 
Bonar, and Co. Here you find in the midst of the Chaco 500 
hardy Europeans with steam-ploughs, threshing-machines, flour- 
mills, &c. 

The Parana now gets very wild, this being the worst part, up 
to the Taguarete pass (22 miles below ^Goya), with islands 
varying from 5 to 30 square miles in extent, and shifting sand- 
banks. 

Six leagues above Esquina we pass Costa Tola, where the 
stream attains an enormous width. Carpinchos or sea-hogs 
show themselves on the river bank. Higher up on our left, a 



30 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEB PLATE. 

short distance inland, are the ruins of two Jesuit missions, Con- 
cepcion and St. Jeronimo, the second near a stream called 
Arroyo del Eey. 

Goya is 141 mUes above La Paz. About the commencement 
of the present cpntury, the site now occupied by the town of 
Goya was a cattle farm occupied by a Portuguese whose wife 
was named Gregoria, contracted into Goya. Here the ships 
passing used to call for beef. Gbya is capital of the richest dis- 
trict in the province, and one of the finest towns on the Parana. 
The houses are of brick, and the population is 4233, including a 
large foreign element of Italians, Basques, and French. The 
principal trade of the place consists in hides, wool, cheese, and 
oranges. Orange groves are frequent, but the business is dimi- 
nishing, while the excellent cheese is finding its way to the 
various ports " aguas abajo," a large quantity being sent to 
Buenos Ayres. / 

After a couple of leagues we pass a very picturesque locality, 
known as Eincon de Soto. Here is a large saladero, and a fine 
bay admits vessels of some burthen to come close to the esta- 
blishment. Not far inwards, about two leagues from Goya, is 
the ancient village of Santa Lucia, founded by the Jesuits. 

We pass several rivulets with Indian names, none of which 
are navigable, although wide as European rivers, with luxuriant 
vegetation overshadowing their banks. 

The red sandstone bluff now ahead of us is Las Cuevas, where 
the river at low tide is hardly 100 yards wide. The Para- 
guayans erected a battery here in 1865, which inflicted serious 
injury on the Brazilian ironclads in "forcing the pass. Yonder 
is the orange grove of Mr. Henry Hall, with its dark green 
outline against the horizon. 

Bella Vista, 54 miles above Goya, is seated on a gentle slope, 
in the midst of tropical foliage, a most charming picture. It 
was first peopled by a settlement of convicts, sent hither 
under General Ferre in 1826. It now contains about 1000 
inhabitants. 



BIO DE LA PLATA AND TEIBUTAKIES. 31 

Passing Empedrado, -which is half-way between Bella Vista 
and Corrientes, we reach the mouth of the Eiachuelo, famous 
for the great naval battle fought here on 11th June, 1865, 
between the fleets of Paraguay and Brazil. The former was 
much less than the latter in ships and weight of metal, but was 
aided by a shore battery of forty guns. The struggle lasted 
from daybreak till nightfall, and ended in the utter defeat of 
the Paraguayans, who displayed great bravery : over 2000 men 
perished in the battle, the Paraguayans losing four steamers 
and the Brazilians having three vessels Jiors de combat. The 
vicinity of the Eiachuelo is said to produce good tobacco ; and 
now we come abreast of Don Domingo Latorre's famous quinta, 
with its 5000 orange trees. 

Corrientes covers a plateau elevated 60 feet over, the water 
level, so that we can see little but the church towers. A 
tanning establishment and timber yard form the centre of the 
picture, with the Custom House, Casa de Gobierno, several pahn 
ranches, and a sprinkling of orange trees to fill up the whole, 
giving a strange and not unpleasant aspect. The streets are 
about 50 feet wide. The plaza is much the same as it was 
three centuries ago. Corrientes is suitable for an arsenal 
because conunanding the two great rivers which unite at Tres 
Bocas ; one of these, the Paraguay, is navigable^ for over 1000 
miles. Timber for ship-building abounds. Corrientes is ac- 
cessible to vessels drawing 7 or 8 feet, and at flood times up to 
12 feet. The important island of Cerrito is 17 miles above 
Corrientes, or 702 from Martin Garcia. 

On leaving Corrientes we can distinctly count the seven 
currents, which give the city its name ; they are formed by as 
many projecting points of land above the town. We now 
approach the Tres Bocas,^the confluence of the rivers Paraguay 
and Upper Parana. The scenery about here is very fine. 

The Upper Parana, from Tres Bocas, is bold and picturesque, 
with a rocky coast on either side. At the faUs of Apipe, 150 
miles above Corrientes, we find the islands of Apipe and 



32 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBE PLATE. 

Yaureta a ledge of rocks from Apipe to the Corrientes main- 
land, another from Yaureta to the Paraguayan shore, forming 
the rapids. In flood seasons small steamers can pass by the 
Apipe side. Magnificent scenery of hiUs and forests intervenes 
until we reach the ruins of Itapua, with those of Candelaria on 
the opposite bank, 186 mUes above Corrientes, the river being 
here only half its ordinary width. 

The Falls of Guayra are among the most remarkable in^ihe 
world. In 1863 Lopez sent Colonel Platino to explore them, 
and his report was as follows : 

"At a distance of 30 miles a noise is heard like thunder. 
Even 3 mUes off it is difficult to hear anyone speak. Some 
settlements had to be abandoned because the inhabitants became 
deaf. The whole region is in the hands of the wildest class of 
savages, a miserable race of Indians." 

The falls are 150 leagues above Corrientes, and the river a 
little higher is 13,000 feet across, having more water than aU 
European rivers taken collectively. This great mass narrows 
to 200 feet, and falls 56 feet, causing a kind of earthquake. 
Mrr Eevy computes a million tons of water per minute, and a 
current of 40 miles an hour. 

Little or nothing is known of the Parana above the Guayra 
Falls, except that it drains chiefly Brazilian territory. At 
Corrientes Mr. Eevy says it drains a basin of 500,000 square 
miles, and gains nothing afterwards in volume, as it loses by 
evaporation all it gains in tributaries. 

EIVEE PAEAGUAY. 

Entering the Paraguay river at the Tres Bocas, we pass the 
Guardia Cerrito, and in a few hours reach Curupaity, where the 
Allies sustained a great, reverse on the 22nd of September, 
1866. Every inch of groimd was here disputed with immense 
sacrifice of life during more than two years, tiU the Para- 
guayans finally abandoned Humaita in July, 1868. A bend of 



MO DE LA PLATA AND TEIBTITAKMS. 33 

the river reveals to us this formidable position, which was 
defended by casemated batteries, torpedoes, and chains across 
the river. This place was the key to the upper rivers, and the 
garrison, before the war, usually numbered 12,000 men : the 
fortress was constructed by Trench engineers ia 1854, under 
the regime of the first Lopez. 

A little above Humaita, on the Chaco side, we come to the 
mouth of the Kio Vermejo, which is about 300 yards wide, and 
bordered by a dense thicket. Some of the Chaco Indians may 
often be seen about here, spearing fish. 

Villa Pilar is a pretty little town, with numerous orange- 
groves and a handsome church, about a mile from the shore. 
It is the chief town of a district which showed a census return 
of 160,000 inhabitants. Under the rule of Francia it was the 
commercial emporium of Paraguay, the city of Asuncion being 
shut to all foreigners. 

An hour's sail takes us to the mouth of the Tebicuari, a large 
river which rises in the Yerbales or maie-fields of Misiones, and 
after a course of 400 miles falls into the Paraguay at this place. 
Just before the war President Lopez had sent to Europe for 
two light steamers to navigate the Tebicuari. 

Villa Franca is a village of no importance : the surrounding 
district has only 10,000 inhabitants. 

Villa Oliva is another small place, with a church and public 
schools : here the steamers often take beef and firewood. And 
now we may observe shoals of alligators on either bank — some- 
times as many as a dozen basking together in the sun, a few 
measuring 7 or 8 feet in length." They lie motionless, like a 
log of wood, with their jaws extended, showing two alarming 
rows oi teeth. The body is scaly like a tortoise, with four 
short fin-like legs, and they glide into the water with great 
ease. Carpinchos may be seen in close proximity, apparently 
on good terms with the " Yacares," for this South American 
crocodile confines his tastes to fish. 
/ Villeta is a difficult pass of the river, about 7 leagues below 

D 



34 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

Asuncion. At times tlie water is so low that no vessels drawing 
over 18 inches can pass. The banks on the Paraguayan/ side 
rise as we proceed up stream, and the Paraguayans nsed to have 
a battery of a few guns commanding a bend of the river. The 
scenery is very diversified and tranquil, with stately palm-trees 
that stand forth at intervals to remind us of the tropics. 

The peak of Lambare is enchanting, with its cone-like eleva- 
tion clad in luxuriant foliage, raising its lofty form to the 
clouds. The adjacent village of Lambare is a suburb to the 
capital, remarkable for its church and cemetery. 

On the left bank is the mouth of the Pilcomayo, which rises 
in Bolivia, near the city of Chuquisaca, traverses the Gran 
Chaco, and after a course of 1500 miles, here falls into the 
Paraguay. 

There are two batteries at the turn before we get view of the 
arsenal and city of Asuncion. 

Asuncion, the Paraguayan metropolis, is a town of some 
30,000 inhabitants ; it was founded by a Spanish captain named 
Ayolas, on August 15, 1536. There are some splendid public 
buildings, and excellent hotel accommodation is found at the 
Club. The shops are poor, and all imported articles very dear. 
The railway to Villa Eica runs through a country imsurpassed 
for scenery. The traveller will find many delightful rides in 
the environs of Asuncion, and he should take a bath before 
sunrise at the Chorro. A description of the city and people 
will be given at full in tlie section of this work devoted to 
Paraguay. 

Ascending the river to Matto Grosso, the first place beyond 
Asuncion is Yilla Occidental, on the Chaco side, where a 
French colony was established by Lopez, but resulted unfortu- 
nately. We next pass the towns of EoSario and San Pedro, 
and the mouths of the Oonfuso, Jejuy, and Tpape rivers, 
arriving at Concepcion, 180 miles from Asuncion. The depth: 
of the river varies from 20 to 70 feet, its width being from half 
a mile to a mile, and the banks usually about 15 feet high. 



RIO DB LA PLATA AND TRIBtTTAKIBS. 35 

Concepoion is a town of 2000 * inhabitants, and the great port of 
the yerba-mdte trade. 

Salvador is 70 miles above Concepoion, and has a population 
of 1000 souls. From Salvador to Eio Apa is nearly 100 
miles, the scenery being very beautiful near the ranges ' of 
Itapucu Guazii, and the country inhabited by warlike Indians. 
Here begins the disputed territory, which extends 80 miles 
north, as far as Eio Blanco, and is claimed by both Brazil 
and Paraguay on account of the important position of Fort 
Olympo. 

. Fort Olympo is 420 miles above Asuncion, standing 45 feet 
above the river, which is here 600 yards wide : it forms a 
square of 100 feet, with bastions for cannon, the walls being 
14 feet high and 2J feet thick, without embrasures. It was 
built by the Spaniards in 1798, garrisoned by Francia in 1822, 
abandoned by Lopez in 1850, again occupied in 1856,' and after- 
wards seized in turns by Brazil and Paraguay. Before reaching 
Olympo' is the picturesque mountain called Pan-de-azucar, and 
5 miles above the fort is Bahia Blanca, at the mouth of the 
Eio Blanco; 

We enter Brazilian territory at Salinas, and here the left 
bank is claimed by Bolivia, while the right forms part of the 
province of Matto Grosso. 

Fort Coimbra, in lat. 19° 55' 43'^ and long. 57° 52' 32", stands 
on a hill of the same name, which slopes to the river : it is 40 feet 
above the water level, and is a solid stone structure, completely 
commanding the river, which is here 600 yards wide. The 
officers' quarters within the fort consist of small stone, houses. 
All supplies are obtained from Albuquerque or the neigh- 
bouring Indians. The low land& for some distance above 
Coimbra are subject to inundation, but there are also some 
pieces of firm lajid, covered with excellent woods and never 
overflowed except in seasons of extraordinary rise. The moun- 
tains are small insulated peaks or short ranges, probably spurs of 
the Bolivian sierras. The surrounding country is held by the 

D 2 



36 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

Guayouni Indians, whom the Brazilian Government treats with 
much conciliation. Coimbra is 33 miles above Tort Olympo. 

Albuquerque is an insignificant village of seventy houses, 
only useful for supplies of provisions, and 47 miles from 
Coimbra. Passing the mouth of the Tacuari we reach Corumb4, 
60 miles from Albuquerque, and 560 from Asuncion. This 
place sprung into importance with the introduction of steam 
traf&c : it produces some good cotton. 

From Corumba to Cuyabd is nearly 400 miles, the course 
changing in lat. 18°, long. 5J° 30', from the Upper Paraguay to 
the river Cuyabd. The city of CuyabS. is capital of the province 
of Matto Grosso, residence of the President, Bishop, and other 
Brazilian functionaries, and a place of much importance. This 
is the highest point navigable in a steamer. Captain Bossi, 
in 1862, attempted to cross over to the head-waters of the 
Amazonas, but failed. The distance overland to Eio Janeiro 
is 1200 miles, practicable on mules in about sixty days, but 
much infested by Indians, passing through a country of woods 
and mountains. The early Spaniards are known to have made 
the journey. A Brazilian expeditionary force left Eio Janeiro 
in 1865 ; most of the men perished on the route, the rest de- 
serted to the woods. 

UP THE UHUGTJAT. 

The scenery of the Uruguay is the finest in these countries, 
and there is almost daily communication between Buenos Ayres 
and Salto : the steamers are elegant and commodious, and make , 
the trip in thirty-six hours. 

As we cross the La Plata to ascend the Uruguay, the fine 
estancias of Martin Chico and San Juan are pointed out on the 
Banda Oriental coast. Passing the Cerro San Juan we sight 
the island of Martin Garcia, the Gibraltar of the Eiver Plate. 

Carmelo is the first town we sight, and looks very pretty, 
seated on a bend of the river, but a good view is not obtained 
till we pass upwards. A small steamer calls here in connection 



BIO DE LA PLATA AND TEIBUTAEIBS. 37 

with. Colonia or Higueritas. The next thing we see is an old 
convent, now used for an estancia-house. 

The scenery improves as we advance, the Entre Biano coast 
being much lower than the Oriental. 

Nueva Palmira or Higueritas is on the eastern bank ; it is a 
small place, and has few attractions, except that it offers a con- 
venient landing-place for passengers for the interior. 

At the mouth of the Bio Negro a small steamer meets us to 
take the passengers for Mercedes. Higher up we meet the 
Gualeguaychu steamer, forming another branch line of the 
Uruguay service. 

As we proceed up the river the scenery is of varying beauty. 
The Uruguay at times rivals the Parand, but often sinks to 
comparative insignificance. It is of remarkably uniform depth, 
averaging 27 feet in February and 45 feet in October. The 
sectional area at Salto varies from 25,000 square feet at low 
water to 71,200 at periodical rise, or 126,800 at October flood. 
It is two and a third times as rapid as the Parana abreast of 
Bosario. 

Higueritas is 3 miles above Punta Gorda, where the 
Uruguay joins the Eiver Plate. Three miles above Higueritas 
the river expands into a lake 6 miles wide and 56 miles long 
without any islands. The delta of the Uruguay begins at Fray 
Bentos, 58 miles above Higueritas, and numerous islands suc- 
ceed for 67 miles, till approaching Paysandu. From this place 
upward the banks become solid rock, 100 feet high, and the 
Entre Bios shore displays numerous palm-groves. The naviga- 
tion of the river terminates at Salto, 200 miles from Higueritas. 
The Uruguay is here 2500 yards, wide, 18 to 30 feet deep, and 
the fall is 25 feet. In the streams and along the rocky coasts 
the sand is richly interspersed \^th pebbles of cornelian, agate, 
chalcedony, onyx, and jasper, all more or less pure, and some of 
them of great beauty. 

Fray Bentos is a new town on the same side of the river, 
chiefly noteworthy for the famous Liebig Extraqtum Carnis 



38 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBK PLATE. 

Factory, wMch was established by the late Mr. Giebert, in 1864, 
at a cost of 200,000Z. It gives constant employment to 600 or 
800 persons, and can kUl 500 head of cattle per day. The 
maohiaery was made in Glasgow, and cost 4:5,000L ; it is the 
most complete and elaborate that can be imagined. The beef 
extract is made up in boxes of 100 lbs. each, for shipment to 
Europe, where it is sold a-t 11. sterling per 1 lb. weight, chiefly' 
for hospital use. 

Moman is the name of a landing-place, and also of a saladero 
near it, about 70 leagues from Buenos Ayres. The saladero is 
owned by Don Felipe Iglesias, and the town is little else than a 
group of irregularly built houses to accommodate the workmen. 
It is usually midnight when the steamer calls at Concepcion, 
the chief town of Entre Eios, which we shall visit on our return 
down the river. By daybreak we are at anchor in the port of 
Paysandu. 

Paygdndu, 80 leagues from Buenos Ayres, contained before 

the civil war 7700 inhabitants. So great has been the activity 

of business since the restoration of peace, that it is believed the 

j)opulation now exceeds 10,000. New houses are seen in all 

directions, and these are of a better class than the old ranches 

battered down in the bombardment. In the Department of 

Paysandu are five saladeros, two of these are in the city, one at 

Oasa Blanca, one at Boman, and one at Fray Bentos. At each 

of these there are kOled annually 40,000 to 50,000 animals. 

The beef is salted and dried in thin, large slices, and finds 

a market in BrazU and the West Indies. Hides are salted and 

go to Europe, chiefly to Antwerp and Liverpool, and the tallow 

to England. There are no manufactories in Paysandu, but 

sundry stores, and shops of shoemakers, tailors, wagon-makers, 

blacksmiths, &c. Hotels,, La Paz and La Francia; charge 

SIJ per day. Labour is dear both for house and farm service 

the poorest labourer receiving, at the lowest, ^20 per month 

Don Miguel Horta, the principal shopkeeper, is Spanish Vice' 

Consul, and his house is the rendezvous of all English estancieros 



EIO DB LA PLATA AND TEIBUTAEIES. 39 

Some pleasant excursions may be made to the neighbouring 
estanoias of Messrs. Mundell, Peile, Hughes, and Bell, to' the 
saladero at Arroyo Negro, to Williams' saladero, and by boat to 
the Swiss colony across the Uruguay. 

From Paysandu to Salto is the finest part of the river : the 
scenery is varied and beautiful. At the Hervidero we pass a 
large establishment : it is a two-story house, built over twenty 
years ago by a company, of which Mr. Lafone formed part, and 
had a saladero, now in ruins, and an estancia with over 100,000 
cows and sheep. The Mesa de Artigas is a bold headland, just 
over the river. Here General Artigas encamped his army in the 
War of Independence, and tradition says he threw his Spanish 
prisoners hence, sewed up in hides, into the river. After passirig 
the estancia" Deljcias and other valuable establishments belong- 
ing to foreigners, we reach the dangerous pass of Corralitos. 
This reef of rocks has but one narrow and tortuous channel, and 
is impassable by night. Sailing vessels cannot pass but with the 
most favourable wind, and we see coasting craft at anchor in 
front of the old port of Concordia, which is nearly a league below 
that town. In high water the Corralitos are covered, but often 
the river is so low that the buoys are high and dry. You cannot 
see Concordia from here, but there is a " casilla" at the new 
port, and coaches are in waiting to convey, passengers to the 
town. We have now a fine view of Salto at the head of the 
river, about 3^ miles above, covering three or four hills, with 
large white edifices, and apparently a town of great extent. 

Salto (Hotel Concordia) is 110 leagues from Buenos Ayres; 
it is a very flourishing place, with 9000 inhabitants, one half of 
whom are Italians. 

' The town has a bustling aspect, new buildings going up on 
all sides. The view is very picturesque in every direction. The 
city stretches out much to the north, the new town laid out by 
Mr. Coleman being already thickly settled. The situation is 
charming, the Uruguay bathing the decKvities of the " cuchillas,^ 
which run down in almost parallel lines, the white buildings 



40 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBE PLATE. 

studding the hill-sides, and clumps of, brushwood fringing the 
outskirts. It is the head-quarters of all frontier traffic to Eio 
Grande and Corrientes, and the railway in construction by 
Messrs. Clark, Punchard, and Co., of London, will terminate at 
Santa Eosa, on the frontier. The Salto Chico is about a mile 
above the town, and sometimes quite dry; the Salto Grande, 
higher up is a barrier to navigation in almost all periods. A 
little below the town is a tanyard, and farther down was the 
Brazilian encampment in 1865. Salto is reputed a very healthy 
place, the only epidemic ever known being small-pox. The 
water here, as in aU other parts of the Uruguay, has a melli- 
fluous taste. Mr. Eichard WiUiams, one of the oldest British 
residents in the Eiver Plate, hits a handsome residence, com- 
manding a view of the Uruguay, and Concordia on the opposite 
bank. 

In times of very high water, a steamer (drawing 3 feet) goes 
up the falls to Uruguayana : the distance is about 150 miles,, 
and the scenery well repays the journey. 

After passing the falls we coast alternately the shores of 
Entre Eios and Banda Oriental, on both of which there are 
many large cattle estancias. Sortie leagues above Concordia is 
the Arroyo Yuqueri, where General Mitre established his head- 
quarters when the Paraguayan war first broke out. A range of 
hills called Puntas de Mandisobi, 12 leagues from Concordia, 
was subsequently General Flores' rendezvous before the battle 
of Yatay. Not far hence is the village of Pederacion, and 
nearly opposite, in Banda Oriental, is another, called Con- 
stitucion. 

A stream debouching on our left, called the Mocoreta, is the 
frontier line between Entre Eios and Corrientes; and 10 
leagues higher, on the right, we come to Santa Eosa, at the 
frontier of the Brazilian province of Eio Grande: this place ' 
is 30 leagues above Salto, and has vis-a-vis the Correntino' 
village of Monte-Caseros. 

Twenty leagues farther is the important town of Uruguayana, 



EIO DE LA PLATA AND TRIBUTAKIE8. 41 

at a pass of the river, called Paso de los Libres. It was 
fouBded in 1843, and was a thriving frontier town previous to 
the war ; it had about 10,000 inhabitants : it was the centre of 
the trade of this part of Eio Grande. In 1865 the Paraguayans 
took it and held it for some time, tUl the allied generals closely 
invested the place, and the Paraguayan commander surrendered 
to Dom Pedro in person. The town was found to be in a 
dreadful condition ; but it is now fast recovering its prosperity. 
The Uruguay is here half a mile across. 

Twenty leagues higher up is the Correntino village of La 
Cruz, and 2 leagues farther, on the Brazilian shore, stands the 
town of Itaqui, which was also taken by the Paraguayans in 
their descent on Eio Grande. A battle occurred near a rapid 
river above the town, in which the BrazilianB were worsted, 
obliging them to abandon Itaqui. 

Twenty-five leagues farther on are the towns of Santo Tome 
and San Borja. The former is in lat. 28° 20', and long. 58° 10' : 
it is the chief town of the Misiones of Aguapey (Corrientes). 
Exactly opposite is San Borja (Eio Grande) : the country 
around is rich and populous. The distance across Misiones 
to Itapua on the Upper Parana is 38 leagues. 

We have now ascended 100 leagues from Salto, and the 
traveller may still continue his explorations in Misiones. The 
return voyage from San Borja to Salto will occupy a day and a 
half. 

If we cross the Uruguay river below the falls from the 
eastern to the western side, we shall find Concordia, an Argen- 
tine city of the province of Entre Eios, and nearly opposite 
Salto.' There is at Concordia one saladero which uses about 
50,000 animals in the "faena"' (cattle and horses). This is 
the property of A. Benites and Co. : the city counts about 5000 
inhabitants, and is a place of considerable business. Eents and 
wages are high, and good houses are not easily found to rent. 
The Eastern Argentine Eailway starts from here, and is being 
actively pushed forward into the province of Corrientes. 



42 HANDBOOK OF the" eivbe plate. 

Gohnia de San Jose, 24 leagues, below Concordia, is a colony 
of Swiss and German immigrants, numbering about 2500 per- 
sons. The town itself is only ^tbie few bouses needed at the 
landing, for the people are agriculturists, raising wheat, maize, 
potatoes, i&c. 

Ooncepcion del Uruguay, 9 leagues lower down the river, is 
at present the capital of the province of Entre Eios. The 
anchorage of steamers is near the shore, but the landing is so 
far away from the city as to leave but little opportunity to see 
the town from the steamer. There are said to be 5000 inhabit- 
ants. The princely residence of the late General TJrquiza is 
7 leagues distant, at San Jose. At Concepcion are two sala- 
deros, but there are no manufactories. 

THE SALADO AMD VEEMEJO. 

These two rivers belong to the Gran Chaco territory, and are 
generally considered navigable, although many obstacles have 
been met with in the expeditions sent for their exploration. 

The Kio Salado rises in the upper provinces, passes through 
Santiago del Estero, and falls into the Parana just above Santa 
Pe city. A Spanish gentleman named Esteban Bams Kupert 
devoted many years and ' a large amount of money to the 
scheme of canalizing this river. His first expedition was at 
the close of 1862. 

Baron Maua provided funds, pending the formation of a 
company in England, and Mr. W. H. Cock began the works in 
1863. The Baron, however, found it impossible to get up the 
company, owing to the Flores revolution of April, 1864, and 
after a year (December, 1864) Mr. Cock received orders to 
suspend operations. 

Mr. Eams had some iron lighters built by Marshal of Bar- 
racas, and was almost ready to start for the Salado, when he 
was cut off by cholera, in April, 1867. The enterprise, how- 
ever, was not suffered to fall- through, but in the following 
month Mr. Seiiorans started from Buenos Ayres. - 



EIO DE LA PLATA AND TKIBUTAEIBS. 43 

After a voyage of three months and a half he returned to 
Santa Fe with his expedition, having reached a point some 
hundred and eighty miles above Monte Aguara, at which latter 
place the river Salado takes a great bend to the west, just 
before entering into the province of Santiago del Estero. Mr. 
Senorans thus examined and went over that part of the river 
which Captain Page was unable to explore, owing to his 
steamer drawing too much water. The river, during the whole 
time occupied by the expedition, was pretty high — 16 feet of 
water often being found, so that the theory of the navigation of 
the Salado by small steamers towing " chatas '' was thus fully es- 
tablished, and even if this navigation be only practicable during 
six or seven months of the year, it is still of the very greatest 
importance, as it will facilitate the settlement of the lands oh 
either side of the river. Mr. Senorans was sucoess&l in gain- 
ing the good will of the various tribes of Indians on his route. 
All the caciques of the river came to visit him, and he made 
treaties with many of them. 

Since the return of this expedition (September, 1867) no 
other has gone up the Salado. ' 

The Eio Vermejo rises in Bolivia, and, after a tortuous course 
of 1200 miles through the forests of the Ghaco, falls into the 
river Paraguay near the fortress of Humaitd. The first expedi^ 
tion to navigate its waters was in 1826, when some Englishmen 
and Buenos Ayreans successfully descended the river : they 
were, however, taken prisoners by Francia, tyrant of Paraguay, 
and kept in captivity for many years. In 1856, Jose Maria 
Arce, a Bolivian, accompanied by ah Irish sailor named William 
Martin, safely descended from Oran to Corrientes. SeSor Arce 
made four voyages afterwards, the last in November, 1863, on, 
this occasion losing two men, killed by Indians. He brought 
150 tons cargo and ten passengers, including his brother. 
Dr. Arce (with two secretaries), who had credentials from the 
Bolivian Government as Minister Plenipotentiary to the Argen- 
tine and Paraguayan cabinets : his principal business being to 



4:4 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEB PLATE. 

make treaties for the navigation of the Pilcomayo. President 
Lopez would not make any treaty on the subject, as he declared 
the Vermejo and PUcomayo belonged exclusively to Paraguay. 
Arce, in his last voyage, found the Vermejo nowhere less than 
5 feet deep, his vessels drawing only 27 inches : but in many 
places the boughs of trees obstructed the navigation. 

In February, 1863, Lavarello's expedition started from 
Buenos Ayres, on board the steamer ' Gran Chaco.' , ' 

The course of the river changes five or six times every league, 
so that Captain Lavarello reckons one thousand bends from 
Esquina Grande to the mouth, of the Vermejo. The Indians 
also rendered essential services by assisting to cut and load 
wood, and by hauling the vessel loose, with ropes, when occa- 
sionally stuck upon sand-banks. 

At last they reached Eivadavia colony in July, and the 
expedition returned to Buenos Ajrres early in 1864. Just then 
President Lopez sent to Europe for two small steamers, to 
navigate the Vermejo and Pilcomayo, but the war soon after 
ensuing the enterprise was prevented. 

In November, 1868, a petition was laid before Congress from 
Messrs. Lezica and Lanuz, in connection with the Vermejo. A 
subsidy was granted, and the enterprise passed into a joint- 
stock company, on whose behalf Captain Page ascended the 
river in 1871, and in 1874 the canalization of the Teuco having 
been effectecl by Mr. Eoldan, the Vermejo is now navigable to 
steamers of light draught, two of which, built in the United 
States, have recently arrived. 



( 45 ) 



CHAPTEE IV. 

COLONIES OF THE AE6ENTINB EBPTTBLIO. 

The report of Mr. Secretary Wilcken verifies the assertion that 
the Argentine Eepublic is the poor man's El Dorado. 

There are 3185 families scattered over the thirty-four colo- 
nies of Santa Fe and Entre Eios, owning farms and cattle to 
the value of ^11,186,216 Bol., equal to 1,864,359Z. sterling, 
which will give a proportion of 585Z. per family ; most of these 
families having arrived here within the last eight or ten years 
without a dollar. 

Special attention is due to the Central Argentine colonies, 
begun only three years ago, numbering already 3000 souls, 
with 50,000 acres under crops. 

The statistics of the thirty-four colonies are summed up 
briefly as follows : 

1st — Population. 

Swiss 5,857 

Italians 4,157 

French 1,889 

Germans 1,483 

English 486, 

Native born 2,364 

Various .. 442 

16,678 

2nd— Stock. 

Head. 

Oxen 11,767 

Cows 33,561 

Horses 11,958 

Pigs 5,457 

Sheep 4,625 

Value of above, $767,000 bol. 



i6 



HANDBOOK 0¥ THE EITEB PLATE. 



Srd — Farms. 

Area occupied 75 sq. 1. 

' Under tillage 500,000 acres. 

Farm implements $1,056,820 

Houses, sheds .. - 2,305,600 

Crops of 1872 1,383,196 

Value of farms 2,023,600 

Stock, &c., capital 4,417,000 

$11,186,216 

The reader will find a general view of the colonies in the 
table which follows, expressing the date of foundation of each, 
the present population, and the number of fanegas in the last 
crop. 



Name. 



Date. 



Population. 



Crop, 



Esperanza 

San Jose 

V. Uruguay 

S. Geronimo 

S. Carlos .. ,. 

Guadaloupe 

Helvetia 

California 

Fraucesa 

Cayasta . . 

Corondina 

Tunas , 

Emilia 

Eloysa 

Cavour 

Humboldt 

Gruetli 

S. Justo 

Welsh 

Alexandra 

Germania 

Jesus-Maria 

Candelaria 

S. Aguatin 

Prank 

Bernstadt 

Carried forward 



1856 


1,856 


18,0C0 


1856 


1,991 


19,976 


1858 


800 


,4,700 


1858 


958 


13,000 


1858 


1,992 


33,007 


1864 


425 


3,800 


1865 


800 


20,000 


18,66 


72 


2,750 


1867 


70 


1,400 


1867 


303 


5,350 


1867 


220 


2,801 


1868 


244 


3^762 


1868 


298 


2,588 


1868 


14 




1869 


165 


730 


1869 


685 


7,424 


1869 


49 


957 


1869 


150 


800 


1869 


44 


750 


1870 


130 


.. 


1870 


65 


1,600 


1870 


950 


15,000 


1870 


392 • 


5,800 . 


1870 


4.37 


6,587 


1870 


162 


2,000 


1870 


2,000 


- 8,500 



15,272 



181,282 



COLONIES OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



47 



Name. 


Date. 


Population. 


Crop. 


Brought forward . . 

Cafiada Gomez 

Carcaraua 

Tortugas 

Hansa i 

N.ItaHa 

Hugues 

Est. Grande 

Orono 


1870 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1872 


15,272 

335 

510 

262 

40 

80 

60 

85 

30 


181,282 
3,000 


■ 


16,674 


184,282 



This shows that every man, woman, and child in the colonies 
represents an annual production of nearly 12 fanegas of grain ; 
or, if we divide the area under tillage among the different 
families, we shall find that each family cultivates a farm of 
157 acres, say 40 cuadras. The crops are found to give thirty 
or forty fold on an average, but in some oases only fifteen to 
twenty fold. However, Mr. Thomas Moore, of California Colony, 
obtained in 1870 as much as fifty-five for one. 

Bsperanza is on the right bank of the Salado, 7 leagues 
N.W. of Santa Fe. It was founded in 1856, and is in a most 
flourishing condition, most of the settlers being worth from 
500Z. to 2000Z. each : they are about one-half Swiss, one-third 
Germans, with a sprinkling of French and Italians. The land, 
which was at fitrst worth 2s. an acre, has risen to '21. per acre. 
The colonists have built a bridge at Paso Miura yhich cost 
2500Z., and the projected railway will connect the colony with 
the port of Santa Fe. There are 3 steam-mills — those of 
Maurer, Trombere, and KeUe — and a brewery belonging to 
M. Schneider ; also 5 brick-kilns, 27 shops, 2 saw-yards, 4 inns, 
and 386 brick houses. The Catholic school has 132, the Pro- 
testant 75 pupils. The colonists have 5000 head of horned 
cattle, which yield 10 tons of butter for exportation. The 
annual profits of the colony are estimated at 30,000Z. The 
plantations count 100,000 fruit trees. 



48 HANDBOOK or THE EIVEB PLATE. 

The wheat crop gave 15,000 fanegas. 

The colonists are 1856 in number, comprising 362 families, 
of which 282 are Catholic and 80 Protestant. There are 210 
farm lots of 80 acres each. 

San Geronimo is 2 leagues from Esperanza, towards Sunchales, 
founded in 1858 by Swiss families from the Valais canton. The 
sons of the colonists are a hardy race, and rear a good deal of ' 
cattle. M. Eodemann has made periodical visits to Switzer- 
land, bringing out new settlers every time. The school is 
managed by the priest of the colony, and attended by eighty- 
five children. 

There are 196 farms, inhabited by 958 settlers, all of whom 
are Catholics except two. There are 13 shops, 133 houses, and 
42 sheds, but no mills. The implements comprise 250 Ame- 
rican ploughs, and 42 Buckeye reapers. An imfenced farm lot 
may be had for 60Z. The last wheat crop gave 10,000 fanegas. 
Las Tunas was marked out in 1868 into 184 lots, at iOl. each, 
equal to 10a. per acre. This colony has been a great success. 
Only eight of the lots are yet tmdisposed of. It lies east of San 
Geronimo, and counts 244 settlers, of whom 165 are Catholics 
and 79 Protestants. Four-fifths are Swiss, the rest Italians 
and Germans. They have 874 head of cattle and 2500 acres 
under crops, but neither church nor school nearer than San 
Geronimo. The colonists are models of industry and sobriety. 
Frank Colony is called after its founder, Mauricio Frank, 
whose estancia is 2 leagues from Santa Fe. Farm lots of 
80 acres for 80Z., payable in three years. It was founded in 
1870, and its success has surpassed Mr. Frank's expectations. 
Of 228 lots, there are 81 occupied. The settlers are mostly 
Italians, with a sprinkling of Swiss and French, in all num- 
bering 161, of whom 127 are Catholics and 35 Protestants. 
The crop was 2000 fanegas, the area under tillage being 
2300 acres. 

San Augustin, belonging to the London and Eiver Plate 
Bank, was founded by Mariano Cabal, near San Carlos, in 1870, 



OOIiONIBS OF THE AEOBNTINE EEPUBLIO. 49 

and sold to the bank in 1871. It is 6 leagues S.E. of Santa Fe 
city, in a picturesque, rolling country. There are" 376 farm- 
lots of 80 acres at 65i!. each, payable in four years, with 10 per 
cent, interest. The manager for the bank is Don T. Lubary, 
who has sold most of the lots to speculators, chiefly from the 
neighbouring colony of San Carlos, the soil being the best in 
Santa Vk The population is 437, mostly Italians, and all 
Catholics. The live stock numbers 2274 head; the crops gave 
6600 fanegas; and there are 5600 acres under tillage." Mr. 
Lubary speaks well of the colonists. 

San Garloi is 6 leagues S. of Bsperanza, and was esta- 
blished in 1857 by Messrs. Beck and Herzog. It is the most 
prosperous of all the colonies, and is almost equally composed 
of Swiss and Italians, the proportion of Catholics ahd Pro- 
testants being as 3 to 1. There are 2 churches and 2 schools, 
3 steam-mills, 1 doctor, 2 apothecaries, 2 breweries, 55 shops, 
184 brick houses, and 2 inns. Nothing can exceed the neat- 
ness and flourishing aspect of the colony. Farm-lots that were 
sold last year at 50Z. (^300) have risen to 80Z. The wheat 
crop is doubling every two years, and the-exports last year 
reached 60,000Z. worth. The colonists have 224 wagons, 
478 ploughs, 110 reaping and threshijng machines, and 6000 
cows and horses, besides 135,000 fruit trees. The cultivation 
of silk-worms progresses favourably : 50 lbs. of silk were raised 
last year. Area under "tillage, 20,000 acres. The colonists 
count 1492 Catholics and 500 Protestants, the churches of each 
pprsuasion being very handsome. The taxes collected last year 
amounted to ^4205. Among the richest of the colonists is 
Battista Goetschi, who arrived in 1859, and is now worth 6000Z. 
sterling. The best mill is that of Prank and Bauer, Whose 
flour took a gold medal at the Cordoba Exhibition. The 
colonist Laprada has three steam threshing machines. 

Gorondina, three hours' riding, S.S.W. from San Carlos, and 
close to the old village of Coronda, was founded by Governor 
Orono iii 1867, each settler receiving 2 oxen, 2 horses, 2 eows, 



50 HANDBOOK OP THE BIVEK PLATE. 

and the material for a house, with a farm-lot of only 20 acres. 
There are 67 lots, which cost the Government ^35 each, and 
are now worth from ^200 upwards. The site is close to the 
Salado : population 220, comprising 56 families, of whom 3 are 
Protestant. The, settlers are Italians and Swiss. There are 68 
houses, 5000 trees, 700 head of cattle, and some silk-worms. 
The school is attended by 26 children. Last year's crop gave 
2000 fanegas. The port of Coronda is advantageous. 

Orono, 2 leagues W. of Coronda, was founded in 1872 hy 
Senator (formerly Governor) Orono. Farm-lots of 100 acres 
each at 651., payable in four years without interest, or 501. cash. 
Six Italian families were the first settlers, and Signer Boccicio, 
of Coronda, is authorized to sell lots. 

Guadalupe consists of German families from Brazil, the first 
having come in 1864. They supply Santa Te with fowl, vege- 
tables, &c., besides raising Corn, tobacco, and other products. 
They are well-to-do people, and have splendid plantations, with 
farm-lots of 80 acres well fenced round. At first the settlers, 
who are nearly all Hanoverians, suffered many reverses, and the 
Government had to give them horses and oxen. They have 
only 2000 acres under grain, but they make a comfortable 
living' by fruits and vegetables. The population is 425, in 97 
families, of whom 73 are Catholic, and 24 Protestant ; one-fourth 
are Italians. The school has 25 children. 

Cavour, founded in July, 1869, 8 leagues &om Santa Fe city. 
Farms of 80 acres for 40Z. Population 169, chiefly Italians 
and French, who raise great quantities of vegetables, and sell 
as many as 30,000 water-melons in a year. The founder, 
Lambruschini, allows them to cut wood gratis. There are 99 
farm-lots occupied, and last year's crop gave 730 fanegas. 
There are 25 ploughs, 10 wagons, and 40 houses, besides 68 
pair of oxen, and 1030 head of other cattle. All the settlers, 
except 22, are Catholics. 

Humboldt, commenced in July, 1869, by Beck and Herzog ; 
concessions of 80 acres for 80Z. Population 685, chiefly Swiss, 



COLONIES or THE AEGBNTINE BEPUBLIO. 51 

who hs,YS under tillage 4000 aeres. Crop 7489 fanegas. Treep 
12,000. This is one of tlie colonies which sho^s the most 
rapid and surprising progress. It is 2J leagues from Esperanza, 
in a beautiful country bounded by the Chaco forests. Of 282 
farm-lots there are only 20 yet to be disposed of. The colo- 
nists have 164 American or German ploughs, 100 wagons, 19 
reapers, 3532 head of cattle, and 168 houses ; 525 settlers are 
Catholics, 160 Protestants. 

Oruetli, founded in 1869 by San Carlos colonists. Farms of 
80 acres for 80Z. Population 49, chiefly Swiss. The colony 
comprises 5 square leagues, sold by Mr. CuUen to Mr. Gessler. 
It lies west of Esperanza and 13 leagues from Santa Pe. The 
lands are wild, wooded, and exposed to Indians, and in 1870 
two Americans who had joined the colony were murdered by 
the savages, which almost caused the settlement to be aban- 
doned, only thirteen families remaining. In February, 1872, 
ten families from Suhchales came to reinforce the settlement, 
which is now the farthest outpost of civilization in this direc- 
tion in the heart of the Gran Chaco. A wooden bridge has 
been placed across the Arroyo de las Prusianas. Two-thirds of 
the settlers are Catholics. The crop gave 957 fanegas. There 
are 18 houses, 38 ploughs and harrows, 4 reapers, 11 wagons, 
and 370 head of cattle. 

Emilia is on the Salado, 13 leagues N. of Santa Pe, in a 
delightful locality, surrounded by the richest -timber^ It was 
founded in 1868 by Governor Cabal ; 121 eighty-acre lots, 
which were at first given gratis, but now cost 40Z. Cabal made 
advances to poor settlers, and gave them free use of the timber. 
The crop gave 3000 fanegas of wheat. Excellent tobacco is 
also raised, 60 plants giving an arrobe worth 30s. : this is 
better than wheat. There are 298 settlers, of whom two-thirds 
are Italians, with several French, Belgians, and Swiss, besidfes 
a few natives and 5 Paraguayans, forming 71 families, all 
Catholics. There is a fine steam-mill, also a barn used as a 
church, 72 houses, a brick-kiln, 80 American ploughs, a steamr 

K 2 



52 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBB PLATE. 

thresher, and 2700 cows, horses, and sheep. The er6p gave 
2500 fanegas, the colonists selling at Cabal's agency at the same 
price as in Santa Fe. The agent's offices and steam-mill are a 
league from the colony. Cabal still offers 50 farm-lots at 401. 
each, payable in three years, and will advance oxen, flour, and 
beef to poor settlers. In March and April of 1872 there were 
five births, twins in every case. 

San Justo, another of Cabal's colonies, lies 21 leagues N. 
of Santa F6, and was marked out in 1868 into 500 lots, at first 
given gratis, but now worth 30Z. each. There are 27 families, 
who live mostly by cutting timber and raising tobacco from 
Habana seed. Cabal helped poor settlers at the outset, and the 
farm-lots were of 80 acres each. In 1869 the colony counted 
300 souls, but it has fallen off to one-half, Cabal being obliged 
in 1871 to transfer it to the Lopdon and Eiver Plate Bank at 
the price of K4000 per league. Since then it has been going to 
ruin, and on all sides are seen abandoned houses and gardens, 
as well as English machinery scattered about. There are still 
150 settlers, Swiss, French, and Italian. The last crop of 
wheat was only 800 fanegas, a fire having destroyed 200 acres. 
The school counts about a dozen children. The settlers dispose 
of their produce at the neighbouring colony of Emilia. 

Conde is still farther in the Ohaco, being situate between the 
rivers Colastine and San Javier, 10 leagues from Calchines and 
20 from Santa Fe. It derives its name from Count Tessi&res 
Le Boi de Bertrand, who came out here in 1867, and prevailed 
on forty Swiss families of the San Carlos and San Geronimo 
colonies to settle down with him in the Gran Chaco. The 
Count has a charming residence in a wood opening on a hiH 
that commands the river Colastine, where he tas a cattle-farm 
independent of the colony, the Government having ceded him a 
league of land. The colony is properly called Cayasta, from 
an old mission of that name, and may be reached in eighteen 
hours by steamer from Santa Fe. There are 45 farms of 80 
acres, and the low grounds are in common for grazing cattle. 



COLONIES OF THE AKGENTINB EKPDBLIC. 53 

Tte crop was 5500 fanegas. There are 12 shops, 97 houses, 
2600 head of cattle, 76 ploughs, 4 reaping machines, 39 
wagons, church, school, municipality of 7 members, town-hall, 
priest, &c. Steamers and sailing vessels take produce for 
Corrientes, E. Eios and Santa Fe. The colonists are 303 in 
number ; one family is Protestant. 

Helvetia is on the San Javier river, 25 leagues N. of Santa 
Fe, and was founded by Dr. Eomang in 1865. The concession 
has 4 leagues &ont on the San Javier river, and lots of 100 
acres are sold to settlers at 8Z. to 24Z., according to situation ; 
137 lots are imder grain. The cultivated lots are valued at 
701. to lOOZ. These colonists number 125 Swiss, German, 
Italian, and French families. Last year's crop gave 12,000 
/ fanegas of wheat, besides 8000 fanegas of maize, and a quantity 
of beans, potatoes, &c. There are 70O0 head of cattle and 800 
horses. The settlers drive a brisk trade in cutting timber, and 
a steamer calls three times a month, plying to and frOm 
§anta F6, besides numbers of sailing craft. This is the most 
flourishiug of the colonies on the San Javier. The fipst settlers 
were from Esperanza, and had much trouble from Indians. The 
growth of this colony will be seen by these figures : 

1S10. 18V2. 

Colonists 500 800 

Stock 3,000 7,000 

Crop, fanegas 6,000 20,000 

The colony is growing so fast that the settlers have begun 
buying the Quiroga and Frank estanoias adjoining. Dr. Eomang 
says some of them own 500 head of cattle, all are very indus- 
trious, and they have paid him so honourably that there is not 
6001. due to him in the colony. Good smiths, carpenters, shoe- 
makers, and tailors are wanted. The colonists count 492 Pro- 
testants, who have a neat chapel, and 308 Catholics, who attend 
the Cayasta church. The municipality comprises 7 burghers, 
the parson, doctor, and tax-collector. There are 25 shops, a 
steam-mill, hotel, 5 brick-kilns, a school attended by 30 



54 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

children, 159 houses, 343 ploughs and harrows, 101 wagons, 
13 patent reapers and threshers, a Justice of Peace, and three 
policemen. The colonists make sugar from "sandias," and 
cotton grows well. Freight, by water to Eosario 1 real and 
Buenos Ayres IJ per arrobe. The port is becoming important 
and houses are going up, but as there is no Customs officer the 
colonists have to send a chasque to Santa Fe, at ^15 each time 
that a vessel calls. The duties last year gave ^1280, against 
^480 the previous year. 

Estancia Cfrande, also on the San Javier river, 30 leagues 
overland, or 48 hours by steamer from Santa Fe, was founded 
in 1871 by OuUen and Cabal. Lots of 80 acres at 40Z. each, 
payable in four years, have been taken up by 18 Swiss, German, 
and French families, but the Elia family dispute Cabal's title, 
and the colony is in a precarious way. 

Francesa was founded by M. Convert, from Esperanza, in 
1867. There are 91 lots, of which 20 are under cultivation, 
and the rest will be given gratis to comers. There are 14 
families, and last year's crop gave 800 fanegas of wheat. The 
lots are of '80 acres each, the present settlers being mostly of 
the Valais canton. The 6olony is 9 leagues north of Helvetia, 
and 1 south of the town of San Javier. The colonists have 
little encouragement in so remote a place, but Mr. Convert has 
a first-rate camp-store, for which the Oalifornian and Thomson . 
Bonar's colonists give him good custom. There are two smithies 
and carpenters' shops. i 

New California was founded in 1866 by some Califomian 
families, who bought IJ league of land from the Santa Fe 
Government, at 501. per league ; it is nearly opposite La Paz, 
on the Parana: Each family has 600 yards front on San Javier 
by 9000 deep. Last year's crop gave 2750 fanegas of prime 
wheat. The colonists have Kentucky rifles and the most 
approved implements of agriculture. In 1869 thp chief of the 
colony, Mr. Alexander McLean, solicited from the National 
Government a grant of 20 leagues of land beyond El Eey, in 



COLONIES OF THE ARGENTINE EBPUBLIO. 



5^ 



order to establish there 200 American families on lots of 640 
acres gratis, but his petition was refused. The colony com- 
prises 13 families, mustering 72 persons, all Protestants. They 
have 5 Gang ploughs, 5 Wood's reapers,' and Mr. Wilcken says 
their lands are the best cultivated that he has seen. They are 
their own smiths and carpenters, and aid each other, living like 
one family, the women attending to the dairy and teaching 
the children. They live well, but their houses are mere huts, 
since the frequent inroads of Indians and iUiberality of the 
Government had almost induced them to return to the United 
States; but now that the Alexandra colony has been formed 
they are less troubled with Indians, and have begun making 
bricks to build comfortable homesteads. Their cattle comprises 
1500 cows, 60 oxen, 70 horses, and 300 pigs, which they keep 
in an island facing the colony. They find ready market for 
their products with dealers from Entre Eios and Corrientes, who 
touch at intervals. Each cottage is surrounded with five or six 
acres of* fruit plantation, the trees having grown prodigiously 
in five years. The steam-thresher of Eansomes' and Sims, as 
well as Thgmson's road-steamer belonging to Alexandra colony, 
made their successful debut at this colony. Their reaping 
machines will cut each ten acres of wheat daily. The colonists' 
names are McLean, Moore, Henry, Hurt, Mounts, Thompson, 
Smith, Schneider, Bennett, Wasp, and Barkly, all of whom, 
according to Mr. Wilcken, have good returns for the little 
capital they brought with them to the country. 

The Welsh colony, a league beyond the Californian, consists 
of laborious settlers who left the Chupat colony in Patagonia, 
in 1869, and obtained a grant of a square league from the 
Santa Fe Government. They have over 240 acres under culti- 
vation. Their crops have turned out very well. The present 
number is 44, all Protestants, who have their " ranches " in a 
group for protection against the, Indians. They are surrounded 
by thick woods. Their stock comprises 200 cows, 30 oxen, 40 
horses, and 20 pigs. The settlers are Moulsdale, Hughes, 



56 HANDBOOK OF THB EIVEK PLATE. 

Eoberts, Davids, Morgan, Pugli, Eeed, Price, Jones, Griffith, 
Burrell, Davies, and Williams. 

Eloisa is also on the San Javier, 2 leagues farther north than 
the Welsh. It comprises a grant of 20 leagues to Mr. Wornes, 
who arrived with fifteen families in August, 1869, and they 
raised tobacco with much success, selling various consignments ; 
in Santa Fe at ^10 [30 shillings] per arrobe. In 1870 the 
colonists numbered 160 souls, but partly owing to bad manage- 
ment and still more to attacks from Indians, who killed two 
colonists and plundered the place, the manager running away, 
the settlement was gradually abandoned, and there are now but 
three families remaining. They have a mUl and some houses 
strongly fenced in. Henriet has 7000 tobacco plants, which 
gave him last year 2500 lbs. Of maize and wheat the crop has 
been 330 fanegas. 

Alexandra, between the rivers San Javier and Saladillo 
Amargo, is north of Fort San Javier, in the Gran Chaco, form- 
ing part of an area of 22 square leagues, which Messrs. Thom- 
son, Bonar, and Company, of London, obtained from the Santa 
Fe Government. Farms of 100 acres for 62Z., payable in four 
years, without interest, or iOl. each. Advances of 50Z. worth 
of cattle, seed, &c., to poor settlers, to be repaid in three years, 
at 10 per cent, interest. There are 9 leagues of fine high lands 
for agriculture; the rest is swampy. There are three settle- 
ments marked out A, 100 English colonists ; B, 250 Waldenses 
arrived in August, 1872, from Piedmont ; C, 150 Swiss fami- 
lies. Only one-fourth Catholics ; they are in a kind of village 
close to the agency-offices, which cover a site of 4 acres, sur- 
rounded by a palisade. The colony was marked out in 1870 
(whep Mr. Weguelin was killed by the Indians) ; an area of 600 
acres has been fenced in. In April, 1872, Colonel Obligado 
was sent to garrison a fort on El Eey, so that now the colony 
will be less exposed. It is 46 leagues overland from Santa Fe. 
The colonists are admirably supplied with everything — steam- 
boat, lighters, traction-engine, steam-mill, machines for plough- 



COLONIES OF THE ABGBNTDfB KBPUBLIO. 57 

ing, reaping and brickmaking, camp-store, forge, bakery, car- 
penter, butcher, &c., and 430 head of cattle. It is proposed to 
plant sugar-cane and rice. 

Berfstadt, so called from the Swiss settlers, is at the Eoldan 
station, 4 leagues by rail from Eosario. It was the first of the 
Central Argentine colonies. The first batch of twenty-five 
families arrived from Switzerland in March, 1870, and found 
houses, wells, farming implements, &c., in readiness for them on 
the ground. A second batch arrived three months later ; and the 
colony now comprises 385 families, who have 394 farms under 
cultivation. The Company advanced most of them, free passage 
from Europe, farm implements, food, houses, &c., repayable in 
two years. The farm-lots are of 80 acres, which are sold at 
^ IZ. per acre, or rented 11. per cuadra (one shilling per acre). 
The colonists have 394 houses, 30,000 trees, 2100 horses and 
cows, a school-house, &c. One of the colonists,' who arrived in 
March, 1870, sold his whe^at crop for 1400 Bolivian dollars — 
240/!. sterling. The rate of sowing was 15 quintals per acre 
(60 per quadra), and the yield was up to 35 for 1. The colony 
raises abundance of butter, cheese, eggs, and vegetables, for 
the Bosario market. The schools are attended by 80 children. 
Two chapels, Catholic and Protestant, are being built. Besides 
the Swiss there is a sprinkling of English, Germans, and French. 
A municipality is formed for the village in the centre, where 
there are already good brick houses. Colonists who wish to 
buy, instead of renting their land, are allowed four years to 
pay, without interest. Excellent water is obtained at 10 or 12 
feet deep: The soil is admirably suited for cereals. The 
colony has an area of 4 square leagues (2600 acres), of which 
three-fourths are settled on. Mr. Perkins, the manager, speaks 
highly of the colonists, who are about 1500 Catholics and 500 
Protestants. There are 174 farm-lots yet to be disposed of. 
This colony possesses two extraordinary advantages, in its entire 
security from Indians and the easy access to Eosario, that 
market . being less than an hour's journey by railway. At 



58 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE. 

Bernstadt the Company have established a model-farm of 330 
acres for accHmatizing plants and trees A small new colony 
is at San Geronimo, 2 leagues farther along the railway : area 
800 acres. Although little over four years old, its population 
exceeds that of any other colony in the Eiver Plate, and the 
colonists have already 40,000 acres under tUlage. 

Garcarand, on the river of the same name, '9 leagues from 
Eosario, is another of the Central Argentine colonies, offering 
the same conditions and advantages as Bernstadt. It covers 
8 square leagues of fine, rolling country, on either side of the 
river. WeU water is good, hut 60 feet deep. Favourable soil 
for wheat and potatoes. A town is projected near the railway 
station i building lots of 50 feet front are given gratis. The 
colony is only a year old, and there are already 168 farms imder 
cultivation, 400 more remaining to be taken up. The popula- 
tion is 510, including 100 Protestants: 89 families are occu- 
pied in farming, and 13 in the village. They are mostly 
French and Swiss, with a few Italians and English, It is 
thought this colony will even beat Bernstadt, the lands being 
higher and better, and the settlers first-class French farmers. 
The Company is forming a model-farm of 1000 acres on the 
far side of the CarcaraSa river. 

Canada Gomez is a first-class English settlement. The first 
settler, Mr. Paul Eiell, has 830 acres fenced in under tillage, ■ 
and reaped last year 9000 quarters of wheat and maize. The 
formhouse and agricultural machinery are probably unrivalled 
in the country. The other farms are in lots of 400 acres each, 
chiefly under wheat, but Messrs. Hope plant flax on a large 
scale. Mr. West reaped in 1870, 120 acres of wheat and 100 
of maize. Not far removed are the admirable farms of Las 
Lomas and Las Eosas, belonging to Englishmen, who have 
spent large fortunes in importing prize horses and cattle, supe- 
rior machinery, &c. Garrett's threshing machine, which took 
the prize at Cordoba, a steam-plough, and other first-class 
farming implements are in use at Canada Gomez. The Cricket 
Club counts 60 members, the Central Argentine Company 



COLONIES OP THE AEGBNTINE EKPUBLIO. 59 

having given the ground free. A site of 400 acres is marked 
out for a town, 130 quintas of 4 acres each around it. The 
ground is high and commailds a fine view. Water exceUent, 
varying from 15 to 40 feet. Wheat gives 30 for 1. Flax also 
yields splendidly. The colony forms the third station on the 
raUway, and is 14 leagues from Eosario. There are 181 farm- 
lots of 100 acres, sold or rented to English, German, and 
other settlers; the total population being 335, of whom 200 
are Protestants. Mr. HeUand, of Mecklenburg, who came out 
, in 1866, was three years in charge of Krell's estate, and has 
now a farm of 800 acres of his own. His improvements in 
planting, &c., are wonderful, and although he landed here with- 
out money he is worth over 2000Z. Mr. Krell has expended a 
large sum on steam-plough, steam-thresher, patent reapers, &e., 
besides importing blood cattle. His stock comprises 2000 
cows and horses and 4000 sheep. The Krell estate covers 
6000 acres. Near the old village of Canada Gomez the Com- 
pany has rented out 1000 acres among thirty native families. 
There are 200 farm-lots of 100 acres to be disposed of. 

Tortugas, the fourth Central Argentine colony, is on the 
feontier line of Santa Fe and Cordoba. It was formed in 1871 
of thirty-four families imported from Lombardy and Piedmont, 
who have thirty-nine farms under tillage. The land is the best 
on the route to Cordoba, the plains remaining green even in dry 
seasons. The manager's house is surrounded by the others, 
each occupied by a family. The settlers are all Catholics, and 
there are 529 farms yet to be disposed of: the colony has an 
area of 4 sq^uare leagues. 

Sansa, founded in 1871 by Messrs. Tietjen, of Eosario, at 
the Totoral, 4 leagues N. of Canada Gomez, has an area of a 
square league. Farm-lots of 80 acres at 50Z., payable in three 
years, the owners also advancing cattle, implements, and food to 
the settlers, who must be Germans or Scandinavians ; all Pro- 
testants, occupying about 800 acres, and raising cbeese. There 
are seventy lots to be disposed of. 

Germania, founded in 1870 by Mr. Nordenholz, German 



60 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

Consul, 6 leagues north of Canada Gomez. Lots of 100 acres 
for 601. payable in three years, the settler having to fence in 
the land and plant 500 trees. Thirty farms are occupied by 
German and Scandinavian settlers. At present the colony fita 
in a square league, but Mr. Notdenholz proposes to enlarge it 
to four : he has put up a steam-mill and got machinery and 
farming implements of the most improved kind, besides, which 
he gives new settlers food, seed, cattle, &c. The Germania and 
Hansa colonies are within easy reach of Canada Gomez railway 
station. 

Nueva Italia, 4 leagues from Eosario, on the road to San 
Lorenzo, was founded by the Italian Consul, Luigi Fetich, in 
1871, on a slip of land with 600 yards frontage on the Parana, 
and 1^ league in depth. The settlers got garden lots of 12 
acres, \?ith advances of oxen, ploughs, and food, paying hack 
same, besides 65Z. for their lots, and interest at the rate of 1 per 
cent, a month. Fifteen Italian families have settled here, all 
Catholics, and they are likely to do well, as there is demand for 
market-garden produce at Eosario. 

Jesus-Maria, founded at the close of 1870, on Grondana's 
camps, by Cullen and Aldao, is 8 leagues from Eosario, on the 
banks of the Parand,, with a port suitable for vessels. The 
first settlers from Piedmont and Lombardy arrived in No- 
vember, 1870, and more have been engaged. The situation, 
soil, &c., are excellent. 

The colony has an area of 6 square leagues, and is cut up in 
500 farms, which are sold at 120Z. each lot of 80 acres, the 
same payable in three years, without interest, or 80Z. cash. 
Each settler has to give one fanega in 100 of wheat, towards 
school fund. The coast line on the Paran4 extends 15 miles, 
and offers every facility for shipping. Since the foundation 
(November, 1870) there have been 6 deaths, 6 marriages, and 
80 births. The colony has its own steam-mill, drug-store,, 
grocery, priest, manager, and justice ; and a handsome chapel. 
The colonists, 950 in number, are all Catholics, chiefly Italians, 



COLONIES OF THE AEGBNTINB REPUBLIC. 61 

and Tery prosperous. Last year's crop gave 17,000 fanegas. 
There are 1900 cows and horses, 505 ploughs and harrows, 
80 wagons, 25 reaping or threshing machines. 

Candelaria, founded in November, 1870, by Mr. Charles 
Casado, of Eosario, is 9 leagues from that town. It comprises 
1000 farm-lots of 60 acres each, price lOOZ. each, payable in 
three years, without interest ; 324 farms have already been 
taken up by English, French, Swiss, and Italians, and some of 
the settlers are of those who came out for the Henly Flax 
Colony. The of5cial representative of Mr. Casado in Europe 
is Mr. P. Albarracin, Antwerp ; and in Buenos Ayres, Mr. A. 
Albarracin, of 261, CaUe San Martin. Those settlers who prefer 
to take farms as tenants will have to pay a rent of lOZ. a year 
for a 60-acre lot. There are 111 houses, 268 ploughs, 960 
cows and horses, some carpenters' and blacksmiths' shops, and a 
grand agency built by Mr. Casado, with spacious offices. The 
land is reputed the best in Santa Pe. Last crop, 5800 fanegas. 

Villa Urguiza was founded in 1858, about 2 leagues above 
the town of Parana, in lots of 20 acres, which are found too 
small, obliging many of the colonists to move over to Santa Pe. 
The settlers are half native, half foreigners, and raise 5000 
fanegas of wheat : tobacco grows well, and cotton was tried, but 
abandoned after two years. There are many well-built houses, 
fine plantations, a chapel for Protestant settlers, a windmill, a 
steam-mill in construction ; 3 schools, attended by 130 boys 
and 50 girls, who learn French, German and Spanish : there 
are also 14 shops, 5 brick-kilns, an inn, lime quarries, smithies, 
carpenters' shops, &c., besides 618 wagons, ploughs and harrows, 
3000 cows and horses, and 2000 sheep, A handsome church 
and town-hall are being built. The Protestant chapel is closed, 
the congregation depending on rare visits of the pastor of Hel- 
vetia colony, in Santa Fe. The Legislature of Entre Eios has 
at last ceded 20,000 acres (3 square leagues) towards allowing 
the colonists more room, in farms of 56 acres each. There are 
800 settlers, in 132 families, one-half being Protestant. 



62 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

San Jose, with a port called Colon, opposite Paysandu, wag 
founded by General Urquiza in 1856. The colonists got free 
passage from Europe, seed, implements, food, cattle, and land- ■ 
grants of 124 acres, on condition of giving in return one-third 
of their crops for the first five years. The colonists soon paid 
up everything, and the settlement was so well managed that 
they are all now very prosperous ; the cultivated lots are worth 
lOOZ. to 300Z. Nearly one-half are Swiss, and the rest French 
or Italians, besides four German and four American families; 
they have two churches and three schools, the latter attended by 
300 children. Their stock comprises 4020 horned cattle and 900 
horses ; they have 44,000 fruit trees, and their crop last year, 
including 20,000 fanegas of wheat and maize, realized 30,OOOZ. 
The average price they obtain for wheat is ^10 Bol., and 
through their port of Yilla Colon they export large quantities 
of butter, poultry, vegetables, &c. A fence 6 leagues in length' 
has recently been put up to protect the farms from stray cattle. 
There are 522 farms under cultivation, and 50 new lots of 64 
acres may be had for 50Z. each. The executors of General 
Urquiza intend to establish another colony 2 leagues W. 
of Concepcion. The San Jose colony counts 1991 souls, not 
including 1000 in the port of Colon. In 1871 there were 133 
births, 13 marriages, and 29 deaths. There are 418 houses, 
14 shops, 1 steam and 2 wind mills, also 130 beehives. The 
taxes in 1871 gave ^2776. Benites' saladero is near this 
colony. There axe 150 Protestants in the colony. The ex- 
ports in 1872 included 7 pipes of rum and wine produced on 
the spot. 

Sugues, a private colony, founded about a year ago a little 
south-west of San Jose. Farm-lots of 65 acres for 50Z., pay- 
able in four years. There are 63 farms yet to be disposed of. - 

Baradero colony was established in February, 1856, the 
municipality giving free land-grants of 12 acres to ten fanulies, 
who were joined by eight others the following month, npw com- 
prising 816 chacras of 8 acres, and 275 quintas of 2 acres, the 



COLONIES OF THE AEGENTINB EEPUBLIO. 63 

latter paying 5s., the former 15s. (^90) rent per annum. A law 
has been passed to sell the holdings to the present occupiers at 
300 paper dollars per cuadra, or 12s. per acre. Two-thirds of 
the colonists are Swiss and the rest are Basques, Italians, and 
natives. Cultivated lots are sold at 2Z. per acre. The crop 
produced over 33,000Z., and the value of the houses and plan- 
tations is estimated at 50,000Z. The returns show 145,000 
fanegas of grain and potatoes, besides 18,000 dozen eggs, 60,000 
arrobes wool and 35,000 arrobes tallow. The stock comprises 
24,000 sheep, 12,000 cows, and 600 horses. 

Concordia, 25 leagues W. of Bragado, is a new colony in 
the Pampas, under the direction of D. Feliz Brizuela. The 
first twenty-five families who settled there in 1872 received free 
farm-lots of 200 acres, garden lots of 8 acres, and building lots 
of 2 acres. Each family is provided with cattle, seeds, imple- 
ments, &c., for which they are allowed three years to repay, 
without interest. 

Chuput, the Welsh colony in Patagonia, was founded by 
Mr. Lewis Jones in September, 1865, the settlers numbering 
180 souls. The National Government 'spent 2000Z. in supplies 
for their use, but in 1867 they were on the point of abandoning 
the place. They have 30 houses, a chapel, 200 milch cows, 
and 100 horses. They raise wheat, maize, &c., trading with 
Buenos Ayres and bartering with the Pehuelches Indians for 
ostrich feathers, skins, &c'. They live on excellent terms with 
the Indians, who have often helped them with provisions. At 
present there are 120 colonists. 

Chivilcoy can no longer be counted among the colonies, as it 
is now the most important department in Buenos Ayres. Popu- 
lation, 16,000; area under crops, 150,000 acres; crop as by 
railway returns, 250,000 fanegas of wheat and maize. 



64 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEE PLATE. 



CHAPTEE V. 

RAILWAYS AND PDBLIO WORKS. 

There are over 1000 miles of railway in actual traffic in the 
Eiver Plate, consisting of 12 lines in the Argentine EepuhHc, 
2 in Banda Oriental, and 1 in Paraguay. There are also 7 
Argentine and 2 Oriental lines in construction, making up 
another 1000 miles; besides a dozen concessions, in the aggre- 
gate 2000 miles, not yet commenced. 

Argentine Bepuhlic. 

1. Central Argentine, Eosario to Cordoba, length 245f miles, 
cost at 6400Z. per mile, say 1,600,000Z. ; net profits equal to 5 
per cent. Constructed in 1863-70 by Brassey, Wythes, and 
Wheelwright. Stock held mostly in England. Company has 
land-grant of a million acres, and flourishing colonies. Govern- 
ment guaranteed 7 per cent., and paid from 1867 to 1874 the 
sum of 272,000Z. on account of same. 

2. Villa Maria to Eio Cuarto, length 82 nules, cost 5200Z. per 
mile, say 420,000Z. ; constructed in 1870-3 for the National 
Government, by Mr. Peter Stuart. Branches off from Central 
Argentiae. Gross receipts only 3 per cent, on cost of con- 
struction. 

3. Western, Buenos Ayres to Chivilcoy, 102 miles, cost 
10,000Z. per mile, say 1,020,000Z.; carried 820,000 passengers 
and 152,000 tons in 1873 ; working expenses 62 per cent. ; 
profits equal to 83 div. First line made (1857-66) in these 
countries ; belongs to Provincial Government of Buenos Ayres, 

4. Western branch to Lobos, 42J mUes, cost 4200Z. per mile, say 
180,000Z. ; carried 40,000 passengers and 11,000 tons; working 



ARGENTINE RAILWAYS. 

A HuiQos Ay res Western, to Chivilcoy, liH miles. 

a Branch to Lobos, 42 miles. 

B Uuenos Ayres Northern, to Tigre, 20 miles. 

Hnenos Ayres Great Southern, to Dolores, ViO 
miles. 

D lir.inch to Las Flores, 75 miles. 

E Rosario to Cordoba, Central Argentine, 24G 
miles. 

F Villa Maria to Rio Cuarto, 82 miles. 

G Buenos Ayres to Ensenada, 37 miles. 

H Concoi-dia to Federacion, East Argentine, 'Mi 
miles. 



/» Construction 

K Buenos Ayres to Rosario, 185 miles. 

k Branches to Rojas, Pergamino, &c., 240 miles. 

Ii Buenos Ayres to Port Campana, 40 miles. 

M Central Northern, Cordoba to Tucuman. S3(> 
miles. 

N Aniline, Kio Cuarto to Rio Quinto, 76 miles. 

Kederaciou to Caseros, East Argentine, oj miles. 

P Chivilcoy to Bragado, Western, 30 miles. 

P)-ojected or Conceded ^=== 



Transandinc, Buenos Ayres to Mendozn, San 
Juan, and Chili, 900 miles. 

Bragado and Planchon to Chile, 650 miles. 

Rioja to Copiapo (Chile), 300 miles. 

Totoralejos to Rioja (branch of Great Northern), 
200 miles. 

Parana to Concepcion, 155 miles. 

Siiuta Ke to Swiss Colonies, 17 miles. 

Las Flores to Azul and Tandil, Great Southern, 
130 miles 

Corrientes to Mercedes, 138 miles. 

Caseros to Mercedes, 91 miles. 
X 2 Bahia Bl-inca to Tandil, 140 miles. 
Z 2 Las Heras (Lobos line) to 25 de Mayo, 75 miles. 




REPUBLIC OF URUGUAY. 

Open. 

Monte Video to Durazno, Central Uru- 
guay, 135 miles. 

In Construction. 

Branch of above, from Santa Lucia to 
Higueritas, 140 miles. 

North-Western, Salto to Santa Rosa, 110 
miles. 

Monte Video to Minas, 90 miles. 



PARAGUAY. 

Open. 

Asuncion to Villa Rica; open 40 miles, 
to Paraguary. 



RIO GRANDE. 

Open. 
Port Alegre to New Hamburg, 26 miles. 

Pr<g'ected. 

Rio Grande to Uruguayana, 400 miles. 

Bai-on Maua's Surveys for a Line to 
Bolivia, 800 miles. 



CHILE. 

Open. 

Valparaiso to Santiago, 80 miles, 

Santiago to Curico, 140 miles. 

Concepcion to Chilian, 120 miles. 

Caldera to Copiapo and Chanorcillo, 100 
miles. 

Coquimbo to Serena, 15 miles. 

In Constntction. 
Chilian to Coricd, 70 miles. 



London M'.Ci .»r,v A. iHnut.Stjmdbr-d KitT-t^ i Ouiruig Cross 



^taidvrd^ Oec^of^icnlSstabluhmjmi^Chwmali , 



EAILWATS AND PUBLIC WOBKS. 65 

expenses 18 per cent, over earnings ; constructed in 1869-71 by 
the Provincial Government. 

5. Western branches to Chaorita, &c., 6J mUes, cost 6000Z. per 
mile, say 37,000Z. ; receipts much inferior to expenses. The Cha- 
orita line was made in 1871 to carry the dead to the new cemetery; 
the Basura line is for taking the city dust-carts towards Barracas. 

6. Northern, Buenos Ayres to Tigre, 18 miles, cost 16,500Z. 
per mile, say 300,000Z. ; carried 542,000 passengers and 15,000 
tons ; working expenses 56 per cent., leaving profit 8f per cent, 
on cost; constructed by a London Company in 1862-4, with 
guarantee of Provincial Government. Shares usually at a high 
premium. 

7. Boca and Ensenada, 37 miles, cost 18,000Z. per mile, say 
670,000Z. ; carried in 1873 512,000 passengers ; working ex- 
penses 70 per cent. ; constructed by Brassey, Wythes, and 
Wheelwright in 1863-71, without guarantee. Punta Lara pier 
opened for service of Ensenada port in 1874. 

8. Great Southern, to Chasoomus, 74 mUes, cost 10,000Z. per 
mUe, say 740,000Z. ; carried 311,000 passengers and 87,000 tons ; 
working expenses 54 per cent., profits equal to 7 per cent. div. ; 
constructed in 1864-5 by Peto and Betts, for an English 
Company, with guarantee of 7 per cent, by Provincial Govern- 
ment. Before branches were made profits reached 10 per cent. 
Shares always at high premium. 

9. Southern branch to Salado and Las Flores, 75 miles, cost 
4500Z. per mile, say 340,000Z. ; this brsinch was opened in 1873. 

10. Southern extension from Chascomus to Dolores, 61 miles, 
the above Company receiving a bonus of 30,000Z. from the Pro- 
vincial Government in lieu of a guarantee. Only recently com- 
pleted. All the above Hnes are 5 ft. 6 in. gauge. 

11. East Argentine, first section opened in 1874, from Con- 
cordia to Pederacion, 34 miles ; second section, to Caseros, will 
be 63 miles; third, to Mercedes (Corrientes), 91 miles, with 
National Government guarantee of 7 per cent, on .10,000Z. per 
mile ; gauge, 4 ft. 8^ in. Stock held in England. 



66 HANDBOOK or THE EIVEE PLATE. 

12. Central Northern, Cordoba to Tucuman; first section 
opened in March, 1874, to Jesns-Maria, 30 miles ; Hue to be 
completed, 336 miles, by September, 1876. Contractors, Telfener 
and Co. ; gauge, 39^ inches ; cost, 4500Z. per mile. This line 
is made for the National Government out of the Public Works 
Loan for 6,O0O,00OZ. sterling in London, 1871. 

13. Andine, Eio Cuarto to Mercedes, 76 miles; begun by 
Eogers and Thomas in 1878 ; 5 J feet gauge; to cost 400,0001.; 
constructed for National Government. 

14. Gualeguay to Port Euiz, 6 miles, at present suspended. 

15. Buenos Ayres to Campana, 42 miles, with Government 
guarantee on a cost of 400,OOOZ. Works nominally begun in 
October, 1872, by Mr. Matti, and actively resumed by a London 
Company in April, 1874. Contractors, Messrs. Thompson, Boyd, 
and Co. ; gauge, 5 ft. 6 in. 

16. Buenos Ayres to Eosario, trunk line, 185 miles, ■with 
National Government guarantee of 7 per cent, on 6400Z. per mile. 
Works commenced by Waring Brothers in 1873, for Mr. BiUing- 
hurst, concessionnaire. Gauge, 5 ft. 6 in. 

17. Branch from the above, to Sarate, 22 miles. 

18. Branch to Baradero, 21 miles. 

19. Branch to San Pedro, 18 miles. 

20. Branch to Giles and Eojas, 94 miles. 

21. Branch to Arrecifes, 20 miles. 

22. Branch from San Nicolas to Eojas, 66 miles. None of 
these branches have guarantee. 

23. Santa l^e and Esperanza, 17 mUes; concession to late 
Henry Zimmermann, with guarantee of 7 per cent, from Santa Fe 
Government on cost of 120,000Z. Works commenced by Waring 
Brothers in 1873, but suspended on Mr. Zimmermann's demise. 

24. Literoceanic, from Buenos Ayres to Junin, Eojas, San 
Luis, La Paz, Mendoza, and San Juan, 724 miles; to coBt 
4,200,000Z. 

25. Trans-Andine, by Los Patos or Uspallata pass, 160 miles; 
to cost 1,700,OOOZ. Both these lines have been conceded to Mr. 



BAIL-WAYS AKD PTJBLIO WOEpS. 67 

John Clark, of Valparaiso (February, 1874) with Argentine 
Government guarantee of 7 per cent, (say 300,000Z. per annum) 
on Argentine side, and a free bonus of 20,000Z. a year from the 
Chilian Government. The main line from Buenos Ayres to 
Valparaiso (not including the branch from Mendoza to San Juan) 
will be about 800 miles ; gauge, 39^ inches ; steepest gradient 
in the Andes, 1 in 25, with a tunnel two miles long at summit, 
12,700 feet over sea-level. It will place Buenos Ayres and 
Valparaiso within 48 hours ; proposed fare, lOZ. 

26. Totoralejos, on the Tucuman line, to connect Kioja, 
Catamarca, and San Juan, 440 miles ; to cost 2,600,000Z. 

27. Tucuman to Jujuy and Salta, 220 miles ; to cost 2,000,000Z. 
Both these are of the narrow-gauge lines ordered by Congress 
in 1871, but not yet commenced. Gauge, 39J inches. They 
will be pushed forward as soon as the Cordoba and Tucuman 
line be completed. 

28. Parand and Concepcion, 155 miles ; 4 ft. 8^ in. gauge ; con- 
cession by Entre Eios Government. This line, not yet begun, 
will traverse Entre Eios and connect the two rivers Parana 
and Uruguay. 

29. Eosario to Santiago del Estero, 420 miles, at 6400Z. per 
mile, passing by the Swiss colonies, and then crossing the Gran 
Chaco; conceded by Congress in 1873. Not likely to be carried 
out. 

30. Corrientes to San Eoque and Mercedes, 138 miles; to 
cost 1,300,000Z. Concession granted in 1874 to Messrs. Fumess 
and Co. 5^ feet gauge. 

31. Buenos Ayres and Luxan Eiver, 40 miles; Eubio and 
Foley's project (1867); estimate, 100,000Z.; apparently aban- 
doned. 

32. Southern extension from Los Flores to Azul and Tandil, 
82 miles; concession without subvention or guarantee by the 
Provincial Government of Buenos Ayres in favour of Great 
Southern Eailroad Company ; surveys made. This line would 
cost about 500,000/. 

p 2 



68 HANDBOOK OP THE EIArBR PLATE. 

33. Southern branch from San Vicente to Canuelas and 
Monte ; concession as above ; length, 40 miles ; approximate 
cost, 200,000Z. 

34. Chivilcoy to Bragado, western extension, ordered by 
Legislature of Buenos Ayres, at cost of the Provincial exchequer. 
32 miles ; 5J feet gauge ; to cost 8000Z. per mile, say 256,000/., 
which it is proposed to obtain by mortgage debentures. 

35. Chivilcoy toChacabucoandJunin,56miles; 5J feet gauge; 
probable cost, 450,000/. Only a project ; not yet surveyed. 

36. Bragado to Nueve de Julio, 34 miles ; to cost 8000Z. per 
mile, say 270,000Z. 

37. Lobos to Saladillo, 51J miles ; to cost 7800/. per nule, 
say 400,000/. 

38. Bragado towards Mendoza, 124 miles ; to cost 6300/. per 
mile, say 790,000/. ' These four projected branches of the Western 
have little chance of speedy realization, as the LoboS branch is 
not paying. 

39. Las Heras to Navarro and 25 de Mayo, 75 miles. This 
is also no more than a project. 

40. Ensenada to Magdalena, 29 nules, projected. 

41. Junin to Eojas, 25 miles, projected. 

42. Concordia to Gualeguaychii, 100 miles, projected. 

43. Azul to Bahia Blanca, 210 miles, now before Provincid 
Legislature. 

44. Bahia Blanca to Salinas Grandes, 150 miles, also before 
Legislature. Both these lines would be of great utility to form 
a secure Indian frontier ; the first would, in connection with the 
Southern railway, form a continuous line of 400 miles from 
Buenos Ayres to Bahia Blanca ; the second would constitute a 
barrier against the Southern Indians, and open up the produtetive 
salt-fields. 

45. San Eoman's railway from Jujuy across the Andes, to 
meet the Copiapo line in Chile ; granted by Congress in 1873. 

46. Hopkins' project of a line across the Gran Chaco to 
Bolivia ; granted in 1871. 



EAILWATS AND PUBLIC WOEKS. 69 

47. Waring Brothers' project of a line over the Andes by the 
Planchon pass ; surveys made by Mr. Eobert Crawford in 1872, 
for the Government of Buenos Ayres, at a cost of 40,000Z. 
Plans show 15 tunnels, 2 viaducts ; steepest gradient, 1 in 20 ; 
sharpest curve, 574 feet radius. Summit, 8225 feet over sea- 
level ; 830 miles from Buenos Ayres, and 274 from Valparaiso. 

Bepvhlie of Uruguay. 

1. Central Uruguay from Montevideo to Durazno, 135 miles ; 
completed by Messrs. Waring Brothers iu 1874. It was begun 
by a local company in 1867, with Government guarantee of 7 per 
cent, on 10,000Z. per mile, 4 ft. 8^ in. gauge, but only 6 miles 
were made ; until in 1871 the business was arranged in London, 
and the works pushed forward so actively that the Santa Lucia 
section was opened in 1872, length 40 miles; and the gross 
receipts showed during 1873 about 12 per cent, on the outlay. 

2. Higueritas branch, conceded in 1873 to Messrs. Waring 
Brothers, with same guarantee and gauge as main line. The 
first section, from Santa Lucia to Colonia, is being constructed. 

3. Montevideo Eastern, to Pando and Eocha, is being con- 
structed by Messrs. Pealer and Co. ; 4 ft. 8^ in. gauge. The 
first section, to Pando, will be 20 mUes in length. Eocha is 
120 miles from Montevideo. 

4. North- Western of Uruguay, from Salto to Santa Eosa, 110 
miles ; constructors, Clark, Punchard, and Co. ; 4 ft. 8^ in. gauge. 
First section, to Arapey, completed in 1874. Government 
guarantee of 7 per cent, on 10,000Z. a mile. 

Paraguay. 

Asuncion to IJaraguari, 40 mUes ; constructed for President 
Solano Lopez in 1860-63, by Messrs. Burrell, Valpy, and 
Thompson, who had 5000 soldiers as workmen. It was intended 
to make the line as far as Villa Eica, 80 miles ; but the fall of 
Lopez intervened. A contract was signed in London in 1870, 



70 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVER PLiTE. 

between the Paraguayan Consul-.General and Messrs. Waring 
Brothers, for the completion of the line ; but the Government 
of Asuncion ignored and cancelled the contract. 

Telegraphs. 

There are over 7000 miles of telegraph lines in tjie Argentine 
and Oriental Eepublics, of which 4000 have been made by the 
Argentine Government, the rest by joint-stock companies, 
almost entirely within the last six years. These lines form a 
network over the whole country, but the longest distances may 
be put down thus : 

Miles. 

Buenos Ayres to Mendoza and Chile 800 

Cordoba to Tucuman and Jujuy 641 

Tuouman to Andalgala (Catamarca) 474 

Buenis Ayies to Corrientes and Paraguayan frontier . . 658 

Eosario to Concordia and Federacion 486 

Mendoza to San Juan . . . .' 100 

Buenos Ayres to Ghivilcoy 100 

Buenos Ayres to Dolores 140 

Buenos Ayrea to Montevideo ,130 

Montevideo to Florida and Salto , 300 

Florida to Brazilian frontier 300 

Salto to Santa Eosa 130 

Montevideo Cable to Chuy, Brazilian frontier . . . . 300 

The construction of new lines in the provinces goes forward 
at the rate of 500 miles a year, and many of the existing lines 
are being doubled. The uniform charge on the Argentine 
Government lines is 25 cents for 20 words. Messrs. Pusoni and 
Maveroff were contractors for most of the Argentine lines (at 
lOOZ. per mile), and Messrs. Lamas for the Oriental. The 
number of messages exceeds 300,000 yearly. 

Public Works. 

In the Argentine Eepublic the most important public works 
in hand are the city of Buenos Ayres improvements, on plans 
made by Mr. Bateman, and for which the province of Buenos 



E4ILWAYS AND PUBMO WOEKS. 71 

Ayres obtained a loan, in London, in 1873, to the amount of 
2,000,000Z. sterling. The contract for making drains, sewers, 
&c., provides for 15,000,000 gallons water-supply and 60,000,000 
gallons drainage in 24 hours. Contractors, Messrs. Newman 
and Medici (backed by native capitalists). It is expected to 
complete the works by 1877. 

The port of Buenos Ayres, as projected by Mr. Bateman, 
would consist of docks fronting the city, and a deep-water 
channel 15 miles long to the Outer Roads. Probable cost, 
3,000,000Z. sterling. 

Montevideo harbour improvement is proposed in a variety 
of schemes ; some for dredging the bay and throwing out piers 
from Fort San Jose and the Cerro, with an entrance midway for 
vessels ; others for constructing a deep-water harbour south of 
the city, between Playa Bamirez and Punta de Carretas. The 
plans of Clark, Punchard, and Co., Waring Brothers, Tuson, 
Burns', &c., are all under deliberation. It is computed that the 
works would cost over 2,000,000Z. sterling, and one-half be 
reimbursed by the amount of land reclaimed. 

Tramways. 

There are 80 miles of tramways in the city of Buenos Ayres, 
20 in Montevideo, and numberless short liues in Paysandu, 
Parana, Eosario, San Nicolas, Asuncion, and other small towns. 

The Buenos Ayres lines carry IJ million passengers per 
month, and some of them earn over 12 per cent, net profits on 
the capital. The oldest is that of Messrs. Lacroze, opened to 
Plaza Once iu 1869 ; it runs cars every two minutes. The 
City of Buenos Ayres Company's lines extend all over the city 
and to Barracas, the stock being mostly held in London. The 
Argentine Hnes of Mr. Billinghurst take in the suburbs of 
Flores and Belgrano, each 5 mUes from town, with double lines, 
and cars running every quarter of an hour. The National lines 
are owned by a London Company, and have a limited traffic. 



72- HANDBOOK OP THE ElVBB PLATE. 

The Boca tramway is owned by a private company. The fafe on 
all the city lines is 8 cents, to Barracas 12, to Mores or Belgrano 
20 cents. 

The Montevidean lines are to the suburbs of Union, Paso 
Moliao, Eeducto, Buceo, and Punta Caraetas, all paying well, 
and held by local capitalists, except that to the Eeducto being 
owned by a Brazilian Company. 



PLAN 



CITY OF BUENOS AYRES. 



A 


Plaza Mayo and Goveiument House. 


L 


Plaza 16 de Novicmbre. 


B 


Plaza Victoria and Cathedral. 


M 


' Standard ' Office and Bolsa. 


C 


Plaza Betiro and Barracks. 


N 


Provincial Bank. 


D 


Plaza Independencia. 


O 


National Bank. 


E 


Plaza Monserrat. 


P 


Mortgage Bank. 


F 


Plaza Lorea. 


Q 


London and River Plate Bank 


G 


Plaza 6 de Junio. 


R 


Central Station. 


H 


Plaza Once de Setiembre. 


S 


Mercantile Bank. 


1 


Plaza Parque. 


T 


Foreign Club. 


J 


Plaza Libertad. 


U 


Progreso Club. 


K 


Plaza Constitution. 







^berti 
Matheu ' 
Picliiiicha 
Pasco 
Bincon 
Sanmdl 

. Los POBOS 
Entre Btos 
SoUs 
Ceballos 
Lorea 
San Jose 
Sgo. del £stero , K 

Lima 

BUEN-ORDEN 

Tacnari 

Piedras 

Cbocabuco - 

Perd 

Bolivar 

Defensa 

Balcarce 

Colon 




5me 






& s e/S.'S u 






■If 



( 73 ) 



CHAPTEK VI. 

THE CITY OV BUENOS ATBB8. 

Buenos Atbes is in many respects the finest city ia South 
America, although second to Eio Janeiro in trade and popula- 
tion. In every other respect it stands first in this Continent. 
Being situated in S. lat. 34° 29', it enjoys a delightful climate, 
and the first settlers called it Santissima Trinidad de Buenos 
Ayres. It covers a superficies of over 2000 acres, forming a 
parallelogram whose longest sides are east and west, and cut up 
like a chess-board, in blocks 150 yards square. When laid out 
by the early Spaniards, the streets were made only 36 feet wide, 
and the houses had no upper story. Since 1860 a rage for 
building has prevailed, and now we see splendid edifices of three 
or four stories in every street. The streets are 83 in number, 
of which 31 run from the river-side due west, and 52 from 
north to south. The city is being provided with drainage and 
water-supply, and is well Kghted with gas. There are eleven 
parishes, containing sixteen Catholic churches, besides some 
chapels of ease, and four Protestant churches. There are two 
J, city hospitals supported by the Municipality, and four of 
foreigners, belongiag to the English, French, Italian, and Irish 
communities. The theatres are five in number, besides a Con- 
cert-hall. Five markets, for the daily supply of the city with- 
provisions, are placed at convenient distances ; and the i^lazas 
11th September and Constitucion are the great wool-markets 
for the north and south district^ of the camp. Hotel accommo- 
dation is cheap and .good, the charge varies from five to ten 
shillings per diem. The stranger finds himself at once at home 
in Buenos Ayres, as he can procure entree by a visitor's ticket 



74 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEE PLATE. 

to all the clubs and societies in the city. There are five 
resident English physicians, and ten or twelve good English 
schools. Most foreign nations are represented by a Minister 
and a Consul, as vessels of all flags and people of almost every 
country are found in this port. 

There are two convents of friars, and two of (native) cloistered 
nuns, which escaped the suppression of religious orders after 
the Independence. The French Sisters of Charity have 
numerous institutes and schools, and the Irish Sisters of Mercy 
have a school and hospital. 

The National and Provincial Governments both reside in the 
city and act in perfect harmony. The Municipality, composed 
of a dozen Argentines and foreign residents, has its town-haU 
at the Policia. 

Each parish has a Justice of Peace, and male and female 
public schools. The inhabitants are well educated. There are 
20 daily papers, 15 Spanish, 2 English, 1 French, 1 German, 
and 1 Italian. Foreigners enjoy the fullest immunities, but 
have of course no voice in the Legislature. 

There are few cities that have made such progress as Buenos 
Ayres in the last few years. In 1860 we had ten miles of 
railway ; at present we have 400 miles. In 1860 there was but , 
one line of ocean steamers ; now there are fifteen lines from 
England, France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy. In 1860 there 
were but two banks: at present there are ten. In 1860 the 
newspaper circulation was 3000 daily; it now amounts to 
30,000. In 1860 the population was 100,000, less than half 
the present estimate. In 1860 there was not a single English 
joint-stock company, nor an insurance oflce, in the country; 
to-day the English investments are put down at 25,000,0002. 
sterling. In 1860, the number of immigrants was 4700 ; at 
present the returns show 96,000 per annum. In 1860 the 
business of the Post Office comprised 400,000 letters and 
papers ; at present it is nearly 6,000,000. In 1860 the Customs 
revenues were about 200,000Z. ; now they exceed 4,000,0002. 



THE CITY OP BUENOS ATRES. 75 

sterling. The same increase is observable in every branch of 
industry or enterprise. 

Tramways are established throughout the city and suburbs. 

The suburbs of Belgrano, San Isidro, San Fernando, Flores, 
Quilmes, Lomas, and Barracas are 'studded with charming 
country seats. The Western Eailway is open (100 miles) to 
Chivilcoy, the Northern (20 miles) to the Tigre, the Great 
Southern (140 miles) to Dolores, and the Ensenada line 
(30 miles) to Ensenada. Pleasant boating excursions may be 
made to Las Conchas, the islands of Carapachay, and the delta of 
the Parana. There is daily steam communication vrith the 
river ports, and diligences ply to the various camp towns. 

Buenos Ayres is the grand centre of communication between 
this part of South America and Europe. The traveller may 
here book himself for any of the river ports in the Parand or 
Uruguay, or for the upper provinces of the interior, or for the 
more distant republics of ifaraguay, Bolivia, or Chile. He may 
even take a steamboat trip 2000 miles up the river, into the 
interior of Brazil, passing Asuncion. Or if anxious to visit the 
Indian tribes of Patagonia, he will find monthly steamboat 
communication with Bahia Blanca and Eio Negro. As a place 
~ of residence for the visitor or invalid, no city in this hemisphere 
has superior attractions. The climate is healthy, and there are 
a variety of public amusements, fashionable and enlightened 
society, a healthy atmosphere of progress, and an almost daily 
mail from Europe. 

Telegraphic communication exists with Chile, messages 
costing ^i, and there are 6000 miles of lines through the upper 
provinces ; at the uniform , cost of 25 cents for 10 words 
you can telegraph as far as 1000 miles, to the confines of Chile 
or Bolivia. The_ cable to connect South Araerica with Europe 
is rapidly approaching completion. The hotels frequented by 
English are, the La Paz, Argentino, Provence, and Europa. 

There are two English, nine German, and three native clubs. 
The Foreign Club, 90, Calle Eivadavia, was founded in 1841, its 



76 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE, 

first president being the late Mr. Thomas Duguid: it has 
reading-rooms, &c., and visitors may obtain tickets gratis for 
three -months. The United Club, 124, Calle St. Martin, is for a 
younger class of Englishmen, and was founded in 1870. The 
German clubs are some musical, some gymnastic, some philan- 
thropic, viz. Germania, Turnverein, Teutonia, Concordia, Sing- 
ing Academy, Heimath, Krankenverein, Hospital Society, and 
Thalia : the first-named dates from 1853. The Club Progreso, 
founded in 1852 by Messrs. Alvear, Posadas, Elizalde, and 
Estrada, gives the most brilliant balls in South America. The 
Plata, founded in 1860, is of a similar character, foreigners 
being freely invited to both these Clubs. The Negros is a 
juvenile club, the members making a grand display at Carnival. 

There are five theatres, viz. Colon, in Plaza Victoria, bmlt 
in 1856, holds 2500 persons, and is usually devoted to the 
Italian opera. Victoria, old and badly constructed, is about 
half the size of the preceding, and devoted to Spanish drama. 
The Opera House of Signor Pestalardo in Calle Corrientes, an 
elegant and commodious theatre. Alegria, near the old market, 
used for Spanish comedy. Variedades, similar to the last. 
There are also Alcazars, or music-saloons. Concerts are occa- 
sionally given at the Coliseum, in Calle Parque, built in 1865, 
and of elegant design. 

There are ten banks, viz. the Provincial, National, Argentine, 
Maua, London and Eiver Plate, Mercantile, Italian, Mortgage, 
Belga-German, and Carabassa. 

The Provincial, 29, Calle San Martin, was founded in 1822 
by a number of English and native merchants, who handed it 
over to Government in 1826, the paper dollar being then worth 
44 pence. Eosas made it a National Bank in 1836, the dollar 
having fallen to 6 pence ; finally it fell to 2 pence, its present par 
value ; its emission now averaging ^600,000,000, or 5,000,OOOZ. 
Deposits range from 6,000,000Z. to 7,000,000Z. sterling, the 
bulk being held by artisans and European immigrants. Since 
the reform of the Bank in 1854 it is dependent on the Pro- 



THE CITY OP BUENOS ATEES. 77 

vincial Government, which appoints a Board of twelve leading 
merchants every year. The effective capital is 2,000,000i!. 
sterling. The usual rate of discount is 7 or 8 per cent. The 
new bank erected by Mr. Hunt is a magnificent structure, which 
cost 90,000Z., equal to two months of the bank profits : it was 
opened in May, 1874 : the main hall is over 120 feet long ; the 
staircase, clock-tower, and decorations are noteworthy. The 
bank hag branches in twelve of the principal camp towns. 

The National, comer of Piedad and Eeconquista, was founded 
by order of Congress in 1873, with a nominal capital of 
20,000,000 hard doUars, of which .2,000,000 were subscribed 
by the Argentine Government. Its notes are now general not 
only in Buenos Ayres but all over the Eepublic, and branches 
are being opened in the various provinces. 

The Argentine, 33, Calle St. Martin, founded in 1867 by 
Messrs. Cullen, O'Shee, Lanus, and other capitalists, has a 
paid-up capital of ^1,800,000 fts., its dividends averaging 
20 per cent, per annum. Its branches at Eosario, Cordoba, 
Santa Fe, Concordia, and Parana, emit paper-money in Bolivian 
currency. 

Maud is the oldest except the Provincial, and does a large 
Brazilian business, besides having branches all through the 
Eiver Plate, Eio Grande, &c. Persons going to the interior 
will find its letters of credit very convenient. The bank edifice 
in Calle Cangallo is of elegant and spacious proportions. This 
was the first Savings-bank opened in the country. Baron 
Maud holds large properties all over the Eiver Plate. 

London and Biver Plate, established in 1863, has a paid-up 
capital of 1,500,000Z., and usually gives from 10 per cent, 
upwards annual dividend. The new bank, buUt in 1867, is a 
fine building, facing the National Bank, and h^^s a London 
clock over the door. The cashiers' counter is 60 feet long. 
This bank has branches at Montevideo, Eosario, and Cordoba. 
The Board is in London, and comprises some persons for many 
years connected with La Plata. 



78 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE. 

Mercantile, formerly Wanklyn and Co., 89, Calle Eeconquista, 
was formed as a joint-gtock company in London in 1872, as 
the Commercial, but has since changed its style to the Mer- 
cantile. 

Italian, founded by a number of capitalists in Milan and 
Buenos Ayres in 1872, occupies the premises formerly held by 
the London and River Plate Bank. Dividends average 10 per 
cent. Paid-up capital. 

Mortgage, better known as the Hypothecary Bank, founded 
in 1872, advances half-value on properties of real estate at 
9 per cent, per annum. The splendid pile of building ia 
front of the ' Standard ' of&ce, in Calle San Martin, is just 
completed. 

Belga-Germajn, 12, Calle Florida, was founded in 1872. Most 
of the shareholders are in Hamburg, Cologne, and other German 
towns. There is a branch at Montevideo. 

Oardbassa's is a private bank of old standing, the proprietor 
being a Spaniard of large mercantile connection. The bank is 
a tasteful edifice with marble front and fine offices, CaUe 
Cangallo. 

The Bolsa is a handsome building, in the best part of the city, 
Calle San Martin. The attendance on 'Change numbers several 
hundred persons. Half-a-dozen languages ■ are spoken on all 
sides, the most general being English and Spanish. The busiest 
hour is about 3 p.m., and strangers can get a visitor's ticket 
through any of the members. Consuls and ship-captains are 
admitted free. 

The Plaza Victoria is the principal square of the city, cover- 
ing 4 acres. In the centre is the column of Liberty. On the 
west side is the Cabildo, erected in 1711, now the seat of the 
Law Courts. The town clock was put up in 1861. The Eecoba 
Nueva, or new arcade, is on the south side of the Plaza, and 
consists of a number of shops. The north side is occupied by 
the Cathedral and the Archbishop's house. At the comer of 
the Cathedral and CaUe San Martin is the foundation-stone of 



THE CITY OP BtTENOS ATBBS. 79 

Buenos Ayres, a.d. 1535, covered with an iron plate. This 
plaza takes its name from the victory over the Engjish in 1806. 

The Plaza 25 de Mayo is separated' from the Plaza Victoria 
by the Kecoba Vieja, and overlooks the river. It has the same 
area as the Plaza Victoria, and the chief objects of interest are 
the Government House and the Custom House, on the site of 
the old fort of Santa Trinidad, erected by the first Spanish 
settlers. Near the corner of Calle Balcarce is the Congress 
Hall, where the Chambers meet daily from May to November : 
it holds 800 persons. The members speak sitting down. The 
policeman at the door will admit no one with a walking-stick. 
In the last century this plaza went by the name of " Partridge 
Square," because the vendors of game and poultry had their 
stands here. 

The Plaza del Beiiro, at the N.E. end of the city, has an area 
of 8 acres. In 1862 the equestrian statue of General San 
Martin was put up : it was made in Paris. The barrack of the 
Ketiro has accommodation for 1000 men. In 1702 a company 
of British merchants established here a dep6t for slaves, and 
built that part of the barrack which looks westward. 

The Plaza Lorea, between Calles Eivadavia and Victoria, 
derives its name from Don Isidro Lorea, who was killed along 
with his wife in the defence of this point of the city against 
General Whitelocke's troops. 

The Plaza Mcmserrat, at the junction of Calles Belgrano and 
Buen Orden, is a small square, deriving its name from the 
adjoining church of Our Lady of Monserrat. In 1808 it was 
ordered to be designated as Plaza de Fidelidad in commemora- 
tion of the fidelity of the negroes, Indians, and cross-breeds 
who formed a volunteer battalion and drilled in this place to 
aid in repelling the English invasions of 1806 and 1807. 

The Plaza del Parque, in the west end, covers 8 acres, and is 
nicely laid out. The Western Eailway terminus is on the east 
side ; and here was started the first railway in the Eiver Platp. 

The Plaza Lihertad, close to the Parque, was laid out and 



80 . HANDBOOK or THE EIVEE PLATE. 

planted in 1862. There are some fine houses, especially Mr. 
Green's. 

The Plam Independencia or Coneepeion, in the south end, 
recently laid out as a public garden, is called after the Inde- 
pendence of the. Argentine Eepublic, proclaimed at Tucuman, 
July 9th, 1816. 

The Plaza GonstUudon,&i the south end, covers about 20 acre?. 
Bullock-carts from the South, with wool and hides, encamp here, 
to the number of several hundreds. The busy wool-season is 
from November to March. 

The Plaza Once de Setiembre, at the extreme west of the city, 
has an area of 12 acres ; it is the great produce market for the 
western and northern districts. During the wool season this 
place is crowded with Irish sheep-farmers. 

The Plaza 16 de Noviemhre is a large square at the extreme 
S.W. point, near the convent of the French Sisters of Charity. 

Plaza Garidad, near the Once Setiembre, adjoins the CaUe 
Belgrano station of the City of Buenos Ayres Tramway Com- 
pany, much frequented on Sunday evenings. 

Plaza 6 de Junio, near the Eecoleta, at the junction of Calles 
Parand and Arenales, is elegantly laid out. 

There are five city markets, each about 2 acres in extent. 
Vegetables and fruit are supplied by the Italian " quinteros " of 
the suburbs; the river always gives an abundance of dorado, 
pejerey, bagre, and other excellent kinds of fish ; the railway 
trains bring in partridge, duck, and domestic poultry ; and the 
" chacreros " of Moron, Qmlmes, &c., raise most of the butter 
and eggs. The city is supplied with milk by a number of 
Basque " lecheros," who come in on horseback every morning 
from Quilmes, Lomas de Zamora, and Moron. The pork 
raised in the country is to be avoided, the pigs being usually 
fed in the saladeros. Grame is always abundant and cheap; . 
poultry is very dear. The best hour for marketing is 5 o'clock 
A.M. The usual market prices are as follows : — Beef, ^2 per 
lb. ; fish, ^3 ; potatoes, gl ; vegetables^ S2 ; partridges, ^10 



THE OITT OP BUENOS ATKES. 81. 

per pair; ducks, KIO; cMokens, ^25; turkeys, BiO each; 
butter, i'lS per lb. ; eggs, ^10 per doz. ; mutton, ^10 per 
quarter ; peaches, ^1 per doz. 

The Old Market, at the corner of Calles Potosi and Peru, was 
rebuilt in its present form in 1864. 

The Mercado del Plata, at the junction of Calles Artes and 
Cuyo, was built in 1859, and called " The New Market." The 
stall-keepers are mostly Italians, and the market is always well 
supplied. 

The Mercado del Oomerdo was erected in 1862, and answers 
for the extreme south end of the city. 

The Mercado de Lorea was opened in 1864, adjacent to the 
Plaza Lorea. It is fitted up with great taste. 

The Mercado de Independencia, at the corner of Calles Inde- 
pendencia and Lima, is an acre in extent. It was opened in 
1866, for the S.W. quarter of the city. 

The Mercado del Norte, in Calle Florida, opened in 1874, is 
in the most fashionable quarter and well stocked. 

The National Government House, m Plaza 25 de Mayo, is an 
irregular edifice : it was twice partially burnt in 1867. The 
President's saloons, upstairs, are fine and airy, with a good 
view of the port. Here the Foreign Ministers are received 
when presenting their credentials. The various departments of 
the Interior, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Instruction, and War, 
have their offices in the same building. Tesoreria and Conta- 
duria are on the ground floor. 

The General Post Office is alongside, built quite recently, and 
has 160 branch Post Offices all over the Kepublic. Letters for' 
Europe are dispatched three times' a week, and pay 5 cents 
besides the English or French postage. The returns for 1873 
showed 6,700,000 letters and papers passed through this depart- 
ment, of which Buenos Ayres stood for 62, and the provinces 
38 per cent. 

The PoUce Department is in Plaza Victoria. The chief of 
police has 2 secretaries, a treasurer, 28 clerks, 2 physicians, a 

6 



82 HANDBOOK OF THE ElVEE PLATE. 

jailer, a watchmaker, 21 commissaries, and 1600 policemen, 
including those of the fire brigade. 

The Provincial Government Mouse was built by Eosas,, and 
occupies half a "cuadra." The entrance. is in Calle Moreno. 
The Governor of Buenos Ayres has his apartments on the 
right : an aide-de-camp receives visitors in the ante-chamber. 
The -Minister of Government, the Inspector of Arms, and other 
officials have offices on the left. The Finance Department is 
in the second " patio." Parties wishing to inspect the Contri- 
bucion Directa books for the city or province can do so free of 
charge : they form a complete register of the various properties, 
their owners, and valuation. 

The State Library is in Calle Moreno, opposite the Govern- 
ment House, occupying seven saloons in the upper story. 
There are 18,740 volumes and 101 manuscripts, most of which 
belonged to the Jesuits. There is also a nxmiber of foreign 
works in all languages. The library is open to 'the public, 
free, on aU week days, from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. The library was 
established by Moreno in 1810. There is a complete collection 
of all newspapers published here and in Montevideo. 

The Chamhers of tJifi Legislature of Buenos Ayres have their 
principal entrance in Calle Peru. The Chamber is small but 
elegant, in the shape of an ainphitheatre. . The galleries for 
the public give accommodation to 400 persons. The Legisla- 
ture is composed of 24 senators and 50 deputies, elected by 
the various partidos or electoral districts 6f the province of 
Buenos Ayres. The HaU of Session was buUt in 1822. It 
occupies the cT)urt-yard of the old Jesuit building, standing on 
the exact spot formerly occupied by the dungeon in which the 
followers of the famous cacique Tupac Amaru were confined 
after their attempted revolution in 1780. 

The Topographic Department, Calle Peru, was founded by 
Eivadavia in 1824, and published in 1866 an admirable map 
of the province of Buenos Ayres, showing minutely every 
estancia and all the natural features of the various partidos. 



THE CITY OF BTJBNOS AYBKS. 83 

It also published ia 1867 a similar map of the city and 
suburbs. 

The State Archives are next door. Here are kept the valu- 
able records of Buenos Ayres since the Conquest, which throw 
such light on the history of the viceroyalty of La Plata and 
the neighbouriag countries of Spanish America. The contents 
. of the archives are 7500 bundles of documents and 8700 printed 
books and pamphlets. Since 1857 Seiior Trelles has published 
twenty volumes of ancient records and statistical reports. 

The National Statistical Department, ■ 64, Calle Belgrano, com- 
piles the various of&eial returns from the fourteen provinces. 
A national census was taken in 1869. 

The Department of Agriculture, under the direction of Mr. 
Ernest Oldendorff, is at the corner of Calles San Martin and 
Tucuman. It foments agriculture, introduces and exchanges 
seeds or plants of other countries, diffuses useful, information, 
and publishes a monthly review. 

The Parqite, or ArtUlery Magazine, situate in the Plaza 
Parque, covers an entire " cuadra."' It was founded by the 
famous patriot Moreno, who served as Minister of War in the 
epoch of Independence. The collection of guns is more re- 
markable for antiquity than tlsefulness, most of them being old 
bronze pieces of the Spaniards, with quaint inscriptions. 
, The Congress Mall, in Plaza Mayo, was erected by President 
Mitre's Government for the first united Argentine parliament 
on the removal of the metropolis to Buenos Ayres, and inaugu- 
rated in May, 1864. Congress is composed of 28 senators and 
86 deputies, there being two senators for each province, and 
deputies in the following ratio — Buenos Ayres, 25 ; Cordoba, 
11 ; Corrientes, 6 ; Santiago, 7 ; Tuouman, 6 ; Catamarca, 4 ; 
Salta, 4 ; San Juan, 3 ; Mendoza, 3 ; San Luis, 3 ; Jujuy, 2 ; 
Eioja, 2 ; Entre Eios, 7 ; Santa Ee, 4. The sessions open in 
the first week of May and close in October. The deputies 
receive a salary of ^4000 per annum : some of them reside 
altogether in Buenos Ayres. 

G 2 



84 HANDBOOK OP THE KITBE PLATE. 

The National Credit Office was organized on 16tli Novembe] 
1863, and commenced its labours on January 2, 1864 : it is i 
the same building as the National Bank. 

The CJapitania, or Captain of the Port's Office, is situate ii 
Calle Mayo, opposite the English church, with another entrano 
by Paseo Julio. All foreign vessels arriving from beyond th 
seas have to send their Bill of Health before being allowed t 
communicate with the shore : the captains have also to declar 
on arrival what cargo they bring, to whom consigned, date o 
departure from home, and arrival here : if they bring passengeH 
a list of same must be entered in the Capitania books, and an; 
letters are handed over to the branch Post Office in thii 
building. 

The Biver Plate Telegraph Company was established in 1864 
and the cable laid in October, 1866. There is a great busiuesi 
done between Buenos Ayres and Montevideo. The head offio 
is at Montevideo, and the central station at Buenos Ayres, CaUi 
Eeeonquista. Messages can also be sent to or from Chile 
Brazil, or Europe. Mr. Oldham is the supenntendent an( 
manager. The offices at Montevideo and Buenos Ayres an 
open on all week days from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m., and on Sunday 
for an hour in the morning and another in the evening. 

The Municipality holds its meetings in a saloon over thi 
PoHcia; its charter dates froni October, 1854, and it is com 
posed of a president and thirteen members, but a reformec 
corporation is about to be instituted. The revenue hardl; 
amounts to 100,000Z., and is insufficient for city wants. Poreigi 
residents are often elected. 

The Archbishop's Palace is a handsome two-story edifice, nex 
the Cathedral : the reception hall, in the upper story, is a mag 
niflcent apartment, with a bust of Pope Pius IX. and som 
pictures. The building was completed in April, 1862, sine 
when the Archbishop resides here, along with his secretarj 
chaplain, and three other clergymen. 

Courts of Law. — There are the ordinary Courts of Primer 



THE CITY OF BUENOS AYEES. 85 

Instancia in the Cabildo, where civil and criminal causes are 
tried. Attached to these courts are the offices of the escribanos 
or notaries, for all judicial proceedings, transfer of property, 
&c. Most of the^escribanias date back many years, and have 
records -from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, being 
used as registry offices in all matters of assignment, mortgage, 
&c. The Tribmial of Commerce is in CaUe JPeru : its pro- 
ceedings are guided by the " Codigo de Comercio.'' The 
Superior Tribunal of Justice is composed of ten judges, and 
sits in the Cabildo, to hear appeals from the ordinary civil, 
criminal, and commercial courts. Each of the judges has a 
salary of ^6000 a month. The public never attend the hearing 
of lawsuits. There is no trial by jury, unless in cases of press 
prosecution for sedition or libel. Witnesses usually give their 
depositions in writing. The Supreme Federal Court, in Calle 
Bolivar, was established in 1863, and consists of five judges.- 
All matters in which foreigners are concerned, either against 
the Government or private parties, or questions between any of 
the Federal provinces, are finally decided by this court, to 
which also there is appeal from all other tribtinals. 

Faculty of Medicine, founded in 1852, at, present consists of 
eight professors. Foreign practitioners, although having di- 
plomas from European imiversities, are not allowed to practise 
without examination by the Faculty of Medicine. The school 
of medicine is opposite San Telmo Church, and was built in 
1858. There are two large lecture rooms, a library, a school of 
pharmacy and natural history, and a small museum; besides 
the grand hall for the conferring of degrees. 

Vaccination and Board of Health, situate next the Provincial 
Chambers in Calle Peru. The first vaccinator in Euenos Ayres 
was the Eev. Saturnine Segurola, and in 1821 Eivadavia esta- 
blished the department, subject to certain municipal regulations. 

The Emigrants' Home provides board and lodging gratis for 
poor, immigrants, untU they find employment, but not rdore thait 
5 per cent, of immigrants seek its refuge. The first iinmigra- 



86 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

tion committee was established in' 1824. The Emigrants' Home 
now in construction below the Eetiro will be a spacious edifice, 
covering 4 acres, and holding 800 persons. 

The Argentine Bural Society, founded in 1866 by Messrs. 
Martinez de Hoz, Newton, and OHvera, counts over 200 mem- 
bers and attends to all farming interest. The club-rooms at 
92, Calle PerUi comprise also a fine library in various languages. 

Public Lands Office, ia the Government House, Calle Moreno, 
established in 1859, open daily from 10 a.m. to 4 p.iii. In- 
formation may be obtained for soliciting land " in enfiteusis," 
renting Government lands, or bujdng same. 

City Prisons. — There are three : that under the Cabildo is the 
principal. The prisoners are allowed to see their friends on 
Sundays and Thursdays. The new jail and penitentiary wUl be 
one of the finest institutions in South America, covering an 
area of 8 acres, with accommodation for 1200 male and 400 female 
prisoners, the whole surrounded with a high wall : it was begun 
in 1872, from Mr. Burge's designs, and is now approaching 
completion, having cost 400,000Z. sterling. 

The Museum, one of the richest in the world in antediluvian 
remains, is managed by the distinguished Professor Burmeister. 
It is opposite the (Did Market. We have a complete " Megathe- 
rium," the hind-part of a " Mylodon robustus," and three 
kinds of " Mylodontes," beside a " Scelidotherium " ; a complete 
" Glyptodon," the head of a " Toxydon," and the fossU. teeth of 
an antediluvian horse from the Salado. The " manuniferi " 
comprise 68 kinds in 110 specimens: the most important is 
the " Pichi-ciego'' or " Chamyphorus retusus." There are 
1500 bird specimens of 500 different kinds. The insects com- 
prise a splendid variety of Brazilian butterflies, which are kept 
in a dark room. In Botany we have samples of the beautiful 
woods of Paraguay, and an " herbarium," of European plants. 
There is a valuable case of minerals from Chile. In the portico 
may be seen a wooden anchor, mounted with lead ; which be- 
longed to the Vermejo expedition of Mr. Cheney Hickman, in ' 



THE OUT OF BUENOS AYEE8. 87 

1852. There are also sundry fragments of a fossil whale.' Dr. 
Bormeister has published a dissertation on PalsBontology, with 
reference to the antediluvian treasures of Buenos Ayres ; he 
is member of 26 different literary societies. The total col- 
lection in the Museum may be summed up thus : zoological 
specimens 1620, samples of mineralogy 1030, coins 2120, 
objects of antiquity and fine arts 30. The Museum 'is open, 
free of charge, on all Sundays and holidays between the hours 
of 10 and 2. 

The University of Buenos Ayres adjoins the Museum, also 
forming part of the block originally built by the Jesuits. 
It was founded on August 9, 1821, by Governor Eodriguez, 
and his Minister, Bivadavia. The studies embrace the usual 
classic and scientific courses, besides modern languages, and 
degrees are given in theology, law, and medicine. 

The Colegio Nacioncd, formerly the Jesuit College, has 
spacious premises adjoining the Church of San Ignacio. Up to 
1863 it was used as an Ecclesiastical Seminary. General 
Mitre's Government converted it into a Head Grammar School : 
each province is allowed to send a certain number of boys for 
education, with board and lodging gratis. The sphere of studies 
is ancillary to that of the University. 

The Municipality maintains forty free schools for boys and 
girls, which are attended by 3000 children of all ranks in 
society. The Government Department of Schools was esta- 
blished in 1852: in 1855 it was entrusted to Don Domingo 
Sarmiento, who established in five years as many as seventy 
public schools. There are at present 142 municipal and state 
schools in the city and province of Buenos Ayres, at which 
80p0 children are^ educated. There are also 125 private 
schools in the city ; the best of these are English, at which the 
usual fees are, for boarders K500, externs ^100 a month. 
The Sociedad de Beneficencia, composed of charitable ladies, 
has charge of 17 free schools for girls in the city, and 45 
in the country districts. The Diocesan Seminary of Arch- 



88 HANDBOOK OP THE KIVEK PLATE, 

bishop Aneiros is situate in Calle Victoria, close to the 
English cemetery. There is a lay college at the Balvanera, 
4irected by French priests who are called Padres Bayoneses. 
Besides the day schools in connection with the English, Scotch, 
American, and- German churches, there are boarding-schools 
attached to the Irish convent, Calle Eio Bamba, and the French 
convent, Calle Cochabamba ; also a day school kept by French 
nuns in Calle Eivadavia. The Jesuit College in Calle Callao 
is, perhaps, the finest in South America, covering 4 acres, with 
noble corridors, class-rooms, dormitories for 300 boys, play- 
ground, and the church of San Salvador attached. 

The Cathedral, in Plaza Victoria, one of the grandest temples 
in this Continent. Don Juan de Graray, in 1550, marked out the 
site, and the first, bricks made in the country were devoted to 
this church. In 1752 it was rebuilt by the architect Bocha. The 
interior is imposing, the nave presenting a brilliant spectacle 
on feast days. The high altar stands nearly under the dome, 
which rises to a height of 130 feet. There are 12 chapels 
in the aisles. The Archbishop's throne is on the right of the 
high altar. The sacristy and baptistery communicate with the 
episcopal palace. On the left side are the halls for use of the 
chapter, and here are the portraits of all the prelates from 
Dr. Carranza down to Bishop Medrano, eighteen in number, of 
whom four were natives of Buenos Ayres (including the brothers 
Arregui). In 1866 the see was created an archbishopric, uitder 
Dr. Mariano Escalada, who died at the Council in Borne in 
1869. The chapter consists of nine canons. 

The Merced, at the corner of Calles Cangallo and Eeconquista, 
was built in 1768, and had formerly a convent of nuns attached. 
The convent- is now a female orphanage : an annual bazaar is 
held for its support. 

San Ignacio, corner of Bolivar and Potosi, is usually called 
the, College church, and formerly belonged to the Jesuits. 

San Francisco, corner of Potosi and Defensa, belongs to the 
Franciscan monastery. The first mention of Franciscans in this 



TKE CITY OP BUENOS ATBES. 89 

city is about the year 1594. In the suppression of religious 
orders, in 1822, this comraunity escaped; it now consists of 
thirty mendicant friars. 

San Bogue is a chapel of ease, adjoining San Francisco, and 
set apart for the especial use of Irish residents. One of the Irish 
clergy celebrates Mass and preaches in English every Sunday 
at 11 A.M. 

Santo Domingo, comer of Defensa and Belgrano, belongs to 
the Dominican convent which was established in 1591. This 
church preserves rare trophies, which are hung from the dome 
on certain feast days : they consist of four English flags taten 
from Whitelocke's army in 1807. In one of the belfry towers 
are seen twenty-four cannon shot, thrown by the English fleet 
from the roadstead, on the same occasion. Some of the Do- 
minicans are very able preachers : this church is also remarkable 
for the splendour of its ceremonials and processions. 

San Telmo, Calles Defensa and Oomercio, dedicated to the 
patron of sailors, is a small church on a high point overlooking 
the roadstead. 

The Concepcion, adjoining Plaza Independencia, is a new 
church, from designs by Padre Marin. 

SanUa Oatalina, in Calle Brazil, is a chapel of ease, built in 
1860, in pursuance of a pious testament, with schools attached. 

San Juan, CaUes Potosi and Piedras, is attached to a convent 
of Capuchin nuns, established in 1749, and has now thirty-six 
nuns. The convent has a large garden. The church is attended 
by French priests. 

Qur Lady of Monserrat, adjoining the Plaza of the same 
name, is a handsome new church : the interior is elegant. 

Las Salinas is a chapel situate in Calles Victoria and Sarandi, 
attached to the Archbishop's college: the latter is under the 
direction of Vicar-Creneral Brid and a staff of professors, in- 
cludiug the Very Eev. Canon Dillon. Another chapel is on 
the site of General Guido's quinta, Calle Fotosi, built by the 
Italian residents. 



90 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

San Miguel, Calles Suipacha and Piedad, stands in the highest 
part of the city. An orphanage was attached to this church, 
and the Jesuit printing-press, from Cordova, was devoted to its 
support : it was founded in 1727 by Don Juan Alonzo Gonsalez,^ 
during the prevalence of a great plague. Gonsalez was a native 
of Cadiz, and after his wife's death became a priest. His son 
succeeded him as director, and died in 1801 ; there is a slab to 
his memory on the right of the altar. 

San Nicolas de Bari, Calles Corrientes and Artes, is the 
favourite church of Italians. 

La Piedad is a fine church not yet completed, at the comer 
of Calles Piedad and Parana. 

La Salvamera is a fine edifice, near the Plaza Once de Seti- 
embre, with a college attached, under the charge of some 
French clergymen. 

El Socorro, near the Plaza Eetiro, is small and unpretend- 
ing. Close to it is a garden that was formerly the British 
cemetery. 

Las Monjas, comer of Temple and San Martin, is a small church 
of some antiquity, 'attached to the convent of Dominican nuns, 
called Catalinas, whose order is very strict. The convent was 
founded in 1744. There are forty nuns, each of whom at 
entering brings a small dowry; for the rest they depend on 
public charity : their garden occupies the whole block. The 
military of the Eetiro attend Mass here on Sundays. 

The Irish Convent of Sisters of Mercy is situate at the corner 
of Calles Bio Bamba and Tucuman ; it has a chapel, schools, 
and hospital, under the patronage of St. Joseph. The first 
sisters were brought out by the late Father Fahy, in February, 
1856, under the superioress, Mother Mary Evangelist Fitz- 
patrick. In 1861, their countrymen built for them the present 
elegant structure. The community consists of about twenty 
sisters, of whom one-half are daughters of Irish sheep-farmers. 
They make the three usual vows of poverty, chastity, and obe- 
dience, and a fourth for the service of the poor and sick. Their 



THE CITY^OF BUENOS AYEBS. 91 

principal task, however, is the education of boarders, the 
daughters of Irish estancieros ; and the gratuitous instruction of 
200 poor native children. They also feed,"clothe, and instruct 
a limited numher of orphans. The boarders are taught English, 
French, Spanish, music, and needlework: no children are 
admitted under five or 'over fifteen years of age. The convent 
covers an area of two acres, and the northern wing consists of a 
hospital for sick and distressed Irish. The sisters also visit the 
sick of the neighbourhood, and did good service during the 
yellow fever. They receive a small subsidy from the State, 
each of the nuns having her own dowry on entering. 

The Becoleta is attached to the North cemetery, about two 
miles from Plaza Victoria : it was built by the Franciscans in 
1720 ; and in 1858 the building was taken for a Poor Asylum, 
which is cared by the French Sisters of Charity. 

There are four Protestant churches : the English, Scotch, 
American, and German. 

The English Church, near the corner of Calles Mayo and 
puyo, is 6apable of accommodating about 700 persons. In 1825 
the Government had the generosity to cede this site gratis for 
an English church, and for the last fifty years a chaplain has 
been attached partly at the expense of the British Government. 
The present chaplain is the Eev. Dr. Smith. Divine service is 
held every Sunday at 11 a.m., and in the evening. Two pews, 
marked A and B, are set apart for ship captains. Attached to 
the church are the schools, attended by about 100 children. 

The Scotch Church, in Calle Piedras, was built in 1838, at a 
cost of 7000Z., and has seats for 300 persons. The first Scotch 
colony came to Buenos Ayres in 1827 with the Messrs. 
Eobertson. There are Scotch chapels at San Vicente, Chas- 
comus, and other parts, with jesident clergymen. The first 
chaplain was the late Kev. W. Brown, D.D., whose successor is 
Eev. James Smith. Divine service every Sunday at 11 a.m. and 
7 P.M. : there is a fine choir. The Scotch school was founded in 
1842 ; the average attendance is sixty pupils, and the curriculum 



92 HANDBOOK OP THE BIVEE PLATE. 

\ 

includeB English, Prencli, Spanish, Latin, &c. The school- 
room is spacious, and sometimes used for lectures. 

The American, or Methodist Church, is in Calle Corrientes, a 
very handsome structure. The actual incumbent is Eev. Mr. 
Jackson, of the American Missionary Society. There is a Sunday 
School, the children of which have a grand annual fete. Divine 
service on Sundays, 11 a.m. ; also in the afternoon. 

The German, or Lutheran Church, is in Calle Esmeralda, 
between Piedad and Cangallo. It has a pretty Gothic fa9ade, 
and holds about 300 persons ; it was built in 1847 by the 
German residents, and is almost too small for the present con- 
gregation. The chaplain is the Eev. Mr. Griesemann, who has 
also charge of the schools attached. Divine service at 11 a.m. 
and 7 p.m. on Sundays. The choir is the best in the city. The 
architect was the late Mr. Taylor. 

ThOjiJIecoZeia Cemetery is now little used ; here the inhabitants 
of the city were interred for three penturies. The mausoleum 
of Bernardino Eivkdavia, the statesman of 1828, is the finest, 
and stands in the central avenue. Opposite to it is a monument 
which will call the attention of Englishmen, as it marks the 
resting-place of the famous Admiral Brown. On a flight of 
marble' steps, covering the vault wherein are deposited the re- 
mains of the gallant admiral and his wife, rises a shaft, with 
Corinthian capital, 30 feet Jiigh. Upon the base are well- 
executed "relievos" of the following naval engagements ; — 11th 
June, 30th June, Juncal and Emperatriz ; also the arms of the 
Eepublic, initials of the deceased, and a graceful epitaph bordered 
with wreaths of shamrocks. The whole of the work was executed 
in Buenos Ayres, from designs by P. Beare, C.E. : the cast-' 
ings weighed over five tons, and were made by E. CaruUa. 

On the north side, against the convent wall, is a niche where 
the lamented Eather Fahy's remains are deposited: he died 
during the plague of 1871. Near the entrance-gate is the monu- 
ment of Colonel Brandsen, who fell in the battle of Ituzaingo, 
in 1827. 

The English Cemetery. — In 1821 the English residents obtained 



THE OITT or BUENOS- A¥BES. 93 

from the Government a charter for a Protestant Cemetery, and 
a plot of ground near the Socorro Church for several years was 
used as their burial-ground; in 1832 Mr. John Harratt pur- 
chased the present site, corner of Calles Victoria and Pasco, 
covering a "manzana" of 4 acres, nicely planted and walled in. 
The Germans have a quarter to themselves, and English, Scotch, 
and Americans occupy the rest. There are some very sad me- 
mentos, such as naval officers accidentally drowned in port, and 
persons killed in civil commotions. The visitor may pause at 
the grave of Mr. Priestly, who was shot at his own door in a 
street riot ; or at a tablet, near the entrance, to the memory of 
Mr. Taggart, an American, who was drowned in rescuing some 
ladies in the Lujan river. 

The Men's Sospital, founded under the patronage of St. 
Martin, in 1611, is maintained by the Municipality at a cost of 
^2,000,000 per annum. It is situate at the corner of Calles 
Comercio and Balcaroe, and attended by twenty French Sisters 
of Charity.. Old and infirm people have also an asylum here, 
and are allowed a little, pocket-money for tobacco and yerba. 
The average number of patients is over 4000 yearly, of which 
11 per cent. die. The proportion of nationalities is — Argen- 
tines 42, Italians 13, Spaniards 11, French 8, Germans 6, Eng- 
lish 2, other nations 18 per cent. The average cost of a patient 
is KIO a day. 

The Women's Hospital, under the patronage of St. Michael, 
was established in 1743, by Padre Juan Alonzo Gonsalez ; it was 
much enlarged in 1823, when it passed under the charge of the 
Sociedad de Beneficencia, which association of ladies still directs 
its management. The hospital is under the care of fourteen 
Sisters, called Daughters of Mary, brought from Italy in 1859 : 
there are branch houses at Santa Pe, Eosario, and Cordoba. It 
has often been proposed to remove it from so central a locality 
to the suburbs, but there are no funds to build a new one. 
The Sisters receive a trifling pension of .K200 a month. There 
are 200 beds, the average number of patients admitted being 
800 per annum, of which 27 per cent. die. 



94 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE. 

The British Hospital, a commodious structure, standing at the 
southern extremity of the city, with a pleasant prospect,' was 
built in 1859, at a cost of 3000Z., the British Government con- 
tributing one-half. The local subscriptions amount to about 
600Z. per annum. There are two wards, one for opulent patients 
at ^50, the other for humbler classes at ^20 per diem. Patients 
are admitted gratis when certified to be distressed British sub- 
jects. The resident surgeon is Dr. Culbourne, and the returns of 
patients, operations, &o., are most favourable. A large propor- 
tion of the patients is made up of sailors and distressed British 
subjects. The committee is composed of H.B.M. Consul, the 
English and Scotch chaplains, and subscribers annually elected. 

The French Sospital, in Calle Libertad, was established in 

1862, and placed in charge of four Sisters of Charity brought 
out from France for the institution. It has accommodation for 
thirty-five sick. During the cholera and fever these nuns ren- 
dered great assistance to the poor ; the first Superioress fell a 
victim to the cholera, and her successor died in the plague of 
1871. During the Paraguayan war they attended the military 
hospitals, both in this city and at Corrientes. 

The Italian Hospital is close to the British, at the corner of 
Calles Bolivar and Caseros. The edifice is large and airy, 
with a handsome fagade : it was' opened on the 27th December, 

1863, the Bishop officiating, and the sponsors including the 
Pope's Nuncio, the Italian Minister, the President of the Ee- 
public, and the Governor. The committee consist of the Italian 
Consul, the Vice-Consxil, and 100 subscribers. 

The Irish Hospital, in Calle Eio Bamba, was established by the 
Sisters of Mercy in 1862, a wing being built to the convent by 
the Irish sheep-farmers. The wards are generally empty ; the 
number of sick among the Irish residents bears no proportion 
to their population. The nuns have A House of Refuge attached, 
where fifteen orphan girls are brought up at the expense of the 
convent. One of the Irish priests acts as chaplain both to the 
convent and the hospital. 



THE CITY or BUENOS ATEES. 95 

The Sanitary Institute, on Calle Buen Orden Hill, now about 
to be used as a Women's Hospital, is one of the finest establish- 
ments in the country. It was opened in June, 1868, by Mr. 
Lassance, as a speculation, in the form of a private hospital, but 
failed, and the founder died of yellow fever, a pauper, in one of 
the city hospitals, in 1871. 

The Gonvalecencia, or Lunatic Asylum, on a hill overlooking 
Barracas, was a hospital foimded by the Bethlemite monks. The 
present building, erected in 1859, is spacious, being the only 
asylum for male and female patients in the country; It is re- 
lated by Pillado that in 1785 there were but seven lunatics in 
Buenos Ayres. The average number of patients is about 400, of 
whom 28 per cent, are cured. The men's quarter is under the 
charge of a manager, a physician, and fourteen keepers : that of 
the women is managed by nine Italian " religieuses,'' called 
" Daughters of Mary." 

, The Cuna, or Foundling Asylum, is situate at the back of San 
Francisco, facing the Debtors' Prison, with the touching inscrip- 
tion, " My father and mother have cast me out, God's pity has 
sheltered me here." Infanticide is unknown, thanks to this in- 
stitution. There is a staff of seventeen nurses, under the direc- 
tion of six Italian nuns ; also a physician and a chaplain. A 
new asylum has been erected near the Gonvalecencia, where forty 
weaned children are cared for. The parents may claim a child 
up to two years, but after this term it becomes the property of 
the institute : at a certain age the children are given out, with 
consent o£ the Juez de Menores. Notwithstanding every care 
given to the poor foundlings from the first moment, about one- 
third of them die; 4 per cent, are claimed by their parents. 
The Cuna was established by Don Jose Eiglos and the Viceroy 
Vertis, in 1779. 

The Female Orphan School, begun at San Miguel church, in 
1755, is attached to the Merced church, under the direction of the 
Sociedad de Beneficencia. Previous to the cholera of 1867 the 
number of orphans was limited to thirty-two, but it is now 



96 HANDBOOK OF THE HIVEE PLATE. 

seventy-five. There are also 100 externa educated in the 
school. 

The Asilo de Mendigos, or Poor Asylum, is situate in the 
extinct convent of the Becoleta, adjoining the cemetery. Buenos 
Ayres has always been almost free from mendicity, although Mr; 
Parish represents a few beggars in his time who used to go 
about on horseback. The Boys' Orphanage and Eeformatory, 
near Plaza Caridad, is a fine institution, opened by Governor 
Castro, after the yellow fever of 1871, with accommodation for 
400 boys, and covers 4 acres. The asylum was established by 
the Municipality in 1858. The average niunber is about 200 
including some foreigners and old soldiers. The treatment they 
receive is very good. 

Los Ejercidos is a kind of female penitentiary at the corner 
of Oalles Salta and Independencia ; it was founded in 1794, by 
Maria Antonia Paz, from Santiago del Estero. There are usually 
100 persons in the house, between nuns and penitents, the 
latter being sent hither by th^ Tribunals. 

Sociedad de Beneficencia. — This society of charitable ladies 
was founded in 1823, to take charge of the Women's Hospital, 
Foundling Asylum, Orphan School, and the State schools for 
girls. It was installed by Eivadavia, partly suppressed by 
Bosas in 1838, and revived under Mme, Grarrigos in 1852. Since 
then if has rendered invaluable service, remodelling the above- 
mentioned institutions and establishing seventy female free 
schools in town and country, which are attended by 5000 
children. 

Deaf and Dumb Institute was founded in 1857 by a philan- 
thropic society called La Eegeneracion, and placed under the 
direction of Mr. Charles KeU. The Provincial Government 
pays a subvention. The children are taught reading, writing, 
arithmetic, drawing, Christian doctrincj &c., but their number 
rarely exceeds half-a-dozen. They afterwards earn a living as 
cigar-makers, boot-makers, &c. 

There are various associations of a mutual and friendly cha- 



THE CITY OF BUENOS ATBBS. 97 

racter, such as the Typographic Society, the Spanish Mutual 
Aid Association, the Cricket Club, the Odd Fellows, the British 
-Clerks, ^;he Philharmonic Society, the Masonic Fraternity, the 
Athletic Club, the Jockey Club, the Italian Benevolent Society, 
the St. Vincent de Paul Confraternity, &o. 

The British Glerks' Provident Association was founded by 
Mr. F. M. Wells on September 1st, 1861. Although limited in 
number it "has been successful in a monetary sense, the annual 
dividends ranging from 12 to 18 per cent. 

During the last five or six years several factories on a large 
or small scale have been established. The traveller should 
visit the great German brewery in Calle Santa F.6, the cloth 
factory at the Eetiro, the Mutual Gas Company's works at Bar- 
racas, the Argentine gas-works at Almagro, the old gas-house at 
the Eetiro, the glass factory in Calle Cochabamba, the shoe 
factory in Calle Belgrano, the artificial coal manufactory near 
the Eecoleta, the Belgrano gas-works, the Hesperidina bitter 
orange distillery, Bieckert's brewery at the Eetiro, the Italian 
brewery in Calle Juncal, the glove factory, the tanyards of 
Bletscher and others, the foundries of Stevens and Marshall, 
the steam saw-mills, the fl,rtificial flag-stone factory, the San 
Isidro brick factories, Demarchi's ice factory, and many others,' 
nearly all driven by steam-power. No less remarkable a,re the' 
workshops of the Western and Southern railways, the Customs' 
.deposits of Seeber at the north and Lanus at the south end, the 
central station where the Northern, Southern, and Ensenada 
railways converge ; the new terminus of the Western at Plaza 
Once is to cost 360,000Z. sterling. 

There are three principal suburbs, Belgrano, Flores, and 
Barracas, connected by rail and tramway with the city. 

Belgrano, 2 leagues from the city by the Northern Eail- 
way, has become in a few years one of the prettiest places in 
the Eiver Plate. It was founded in 1854, on a high ground 
about a mile from the river ; the number of quintas belonging 
to the leading families of the city is very considerable, those of 

U 



98 HANDBOOK OF (CHB BIVEE PLATE. 

Messrsl Beedle, Corti, Kincli, Amorins, Guerin, Matti, Plowes, 
EsteveSi Segui, Gowland, Oliver, Piaggio, Haycroft, Llambi, 
Benn, Sarda, Eossi, Lamas, &c., being among the most remark- 
able. On the hill overlooking the railway is a little chapel, 
and a large church is being erected in the Plaza. On the east 
side 'of the Plaza are the Town Hall and, public schools, built 
in the Grecian style. In winter Belgrano is all but deserted,' 
but at the approach of the hot season, in November, the most 
extravagant rents are demanded; often 2001, or 300Z. for the 
summer months. Watson's hotel, in the Plaza, is a first-rat«i '■ 
English house, good wines and cookery, and on holiday 
mornings parties often come out for breakfast. Adjoining 
the Northern Eailway station is a promenade. A tramway 
now connects Belgrano with the city, rimning along the bar- 
ranca. The partido of Belgrano comprehends a number of 
chacras or farms ; in some we see wheat and vegetables culti- 
vated on a large scale ; in others there are fine breeds of horses 
and. cattle. This district includes Palermo. 

This -place was the residence of Eosas, once surrounded with 
beautiful gardens and plantations, but now it is a miserable 
ruin, the palace used as a military school, the timber cut down, 
and the whole place a scene of desolation. Here Eosas held his 
court for twenty years, till the battle of Caseros, 3rd February, 
1852, resulted in his overthrow. In 1862 it was proposed to 
inake Elysian Gardens here, but the project fell through. The 
Northern Eailway runs through the park, and near the station 
is the English cricket-ground. 

San Jose de Flores is 2 leagues from town by the Western 
Eailway, and takes its name from the founder, Don Juan Diego 
Flores. The church, built in 1831, consists of three naves, and 
here was signed the treaty of 1859 between General Urquiza 
and the city of Buenos Ayres. On the east side of the Plaza is 
the public school, with Grecian front. The village is surrounded 
by the quintas of wealthy English residents. The Italian 



THE CITT of' BUENOS ATHES. 99 

" chacreros " raise beautiful fields of lucerne, which give, 
splendid hay-crops :' they also make much money by fruit and 
vegetables. The district of Fibres is a succession of gardens, 
(nriiAatds, country-houses, &c., from the moment we leave the 
Plaza Once de Setiembre till we reach Ploresta. 

\Barracas is one league south from the Plaza Victoria^ and 
was formerly much frequented by English families. 

The chapel of Santa Lucia, in the Calle Larga, is quaint and 
old-fashioned; the quintas of Krabbe, Nowell, Cambaceres, 
Videla, HavaUot, Ternandez, Atkins, and Senillosa are in the 
vicinity,' as also the orphanage and chapel built in memory of 
Mr. Pelicitas Alzaga. The Banderita is an ancient pulperia,' 
flunous for its horse-races on Sunday afternoons. 

Holterhoff's candle factory, opened in 1856, sent some samples 
to the Paris Exhibition of 1867. 

The village of North Barracas has little to recommend it, 
consisting of sundry "barracas" for storing produce, a few 
liquor shops, and a state-school. At the bridge a toll is col- 
lected from passengers in coaches or on horseback. Most of the 
inhabitants are Basques or Italians : thirty years ago there was 
a large Irish population, employed' in the saladeros of Brown, 
Dowdall, Armstrong, Cambaceres, Downes, &c., but they are 
now inostly estancieros ia the camp. 

The great industry of Barracas consisted in its saladeros, of 
which there were sixteen, until abolished in. the plague of 1871. 
The Saladero is a place fitted up for the killing of cows and 
mares, salting the beef and hides, and boning down the sheep 
and males' flesh to extract the grease. As many as 10,000 cows 
; and mares have been slaughtered in a day, in the busy season. 
Theoelerity with which the saladeros work is so great that 500 
head are slain, cut up, salted, &c., in a few hours, by a compara- 
tively small number of peons. The flesh is first hung in strips, 
to dry in the sun, and then put in an immense salted pile 
previous to shipment. The peons earn from K40 to ^200 a 

H 2 



100 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

day, according to their skill. The kilUng season usually begins 
in November, and ends in May, and the "faena" sometimes 
amounts to 400,000 head of cattle. 

At the Tres Esquinas is the dockyard of John Marshall, who 
built the first steamer in the Eiver Plate in 1863. 

Following the Eiachuelo we pass a number of "barracas" 
where a bustling trade is always going on, baling wool for ship- 
ment, or embarking hides, wool, and bone-ash in lighters for the 
vessels in the roadstead ; till we reach the region of Italian boat- 
bmlders, the Boca, consisting of an assemblage of wooden 
houses. Numbers of coasting craft from the islands of the 
Parana and the Gran Chaco bring cargoes of oranges, vege- 
tables, charcoal, firewood, &c., for the use of the city. The 
whole village is at times inundated. The situation is damp and 
unwholesome, and the cholera made great havoc here. The 
boat-builders use hard woods, such as urunday, algarroba, 
quebracho, lapacho, &c., from Paraguay and the Gran Chaco. 

South Barracas forms a distinct " partido " of the province, 
but is really a suburb of Buenos Ayres. The church is a 
fine building. The railway to Ensenada runs parallel with the 
high road towards Quilmes : the fields on either side produce 
abundant crops of hay. The coast line is low and marshy. 
The traveller should pay a visit to the artesian well in Cam- 
baceres' saladero, 89 yards deep ; the water is brackish, but 
said to possess saline qualities, on which account baths are 
established here. 

The saladeros are now at Ensenada, 10 leagues farther south, 
where a good port can be made at little trouble or expense, and 
Mr. Wheelwright's railway connects the place with Buenos 
Ayres. 



( 101 ) 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PEOVINOE OF BtTBNOS AYKE8. 

The territory of the province is not clearly defined : it is 
supposed to include all the area bounded on the N. by Santa Fe, 
on the W. by Mendoza, on the S. by the Magellan's Straits, 
and on the E. by the La Plata and South Atlantic. Meantime 
the Indians are undisputed owners of immense regions in Pata- 
gonia and the Pampas, and the settled districts of Buenos Ayres 
hardly exceed 50,000 square miles, which is about the extent of 
England, while the Pampas and Patagonia cover a superficies of 
440,000 square miles. Part of this latter territory, at present 
wholly useless, is claimed by the province of Mendoza, and also 
by the Eepublic of Chile. The general appearance of the 
country is that of a vast plain, covered with grass or thistles, 
and almost destitute of trees. In the north there are numerous 
arroyos which fall into the Parana ; these have their origin in 
swamps or " canadas," and sometimes dry up in summer time, 
but the rivers of Del Medio, Arreoifes, Areco, and Luxan are 
permanent watercourses : in the south we find some large rivers, 
viz. the Salado, which runs for 250 miles from west to east and 
falls into the estuary of the La Plata near Cape St. Anthony ; 
and the Colorado and Negro, which may be regarded as the 
Indian frontier-line southward. Among the tributaries of the 
■ Salado are the arroyos of Las Elores, Tapalquen, and Azul, which 
give their names to the districts they irrigate. The Eio Negro ■ 
has its origin in the Andes, crossing the continent from west to 
east, and is navigable almost the whole course. Farther south, 
is the Chupat river, where the Welsh colony is established. 
Among the minor streams of the south are the Chapaleofd, 
Tandileofii, Aapaleofd, Vivorat^, and Arroyo Grande, of sweet 



102 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE. 

water, and tlie Pantanoso, Quequen-grande, Quequen Salado, 
Christiano Muerto, Carmelo, Mulponleofu, and Sauce Grande, 
fwkicli Bate- a brackist taste, being impregnated with certain 
salts. There are numerous lagoons or lakes scattered over the 
various districts ; like the rivers, some of them dry up in the 
hot season,; they are mostly of sweet water, and valuable for 
the use of the flocks and herds : the lakes of Chascomiis, 
Bragado, 25 de Mayo, Encadenadas, Laguna de los Padres, and 
Mar-Chiquitat are the most important. The only lines of hills 
are those in the southern Indian country, viz. the Sierra 
Vulcan, Tandileofu, Tandil, Huesos, Tapalquen, Sierra Tinta, 
Chapaleofu, Azul, &c., which rise near Cape Corrientes, run 200 
mUes inland in a W.N.W. direction, and are lost in the Pampas : 
farther south are the Curra-malal, Guanini, and Sierra Ventana, 
which stretch out about 100 miles. The Sierra Tinta is famous 
for superior marble. Among natural curiosities is worthy of 
mention the great rocking stone of Tandil, 

The population of the province, exclusive of the city of 
5uenos Ayres, is returned as 317,302 souls, in the following 
order — Argentines 245,325, Spaniards 18,332, French 14,594, 
Italians 13,768, English 12,449, Germans ' 2339, Indians 6966, 
others 4000. These returns are pretty correct in an official 
point of view, since they include all foreigners' children bom 
in the coimtry under the classification of Argentines. If, how- 
ever, we be permitted to count the families of foreign settlers 
as belonging to their nationality, we shall find the estimates 
thus: 

Argentines 180,000 

French and Basques 40,000 

Spaniards 30,000 

English.. .. , 35,000 

Italians 30,000 

Germans 5,000 

The natives may be said to occupy themselves exclusively in 
the care of horned cattle. The French and Basques are found 



THE PEOVINCE OF BUENOS AYRE8. 103 

to be innkeepers, artisans, shepherds, brick-makers, bullock- 
driyers, &c. The Spaniards are sometimes shopkeepers, 
sometimes shepherds, chacreros, &c. The Italians are often 
found as pulperos or travelling hucksters, and have little shops 
here and there through the country. , The British subjects con- 
sist of 30,000 Irish and 5000 English and Scotch. The Irish 
have, for over twenty years, formed the bulk of the sheep- 
farming community, and to them is in a great measure due the 
staple wealth of the country ; they are mostly found in the north 
and west, where they own large estancias ; each district has its 
own Iiish clergyman, lending library, and racing club. The 
Scotch have flourishing communities in San Vicente and Chasco- 
mus, originally men of humble fortunes, but thrifty, well-in- 
formed, and laborious. There is a Scotch chapel near Quilmes, 
and another on the Adella estancia near Chascomus. 

In the last century the sole industry of the country consisted 
in killing homed cattle for their hides. Of late years the sheep 
business has sprung up rapidly, and attained colossal dimen- 
sions. The country is well adapted for rearing innumerable 
flocks, and when the frontier is once securely fixed along the 
Eio Negro we may look for further expansion to this industry. 
Agriculture has some drawbacks, particularly that of want of 
hands, but it is making unprecedented progress in those dis- 
tricts connected by river or railway with the capital : the wheat 
crops, especially, are abundant and remunerative. The of&cial 
statistics of stock are as follows : — sheep, 60,000,000 ; cows, 
6,000,000 ; horses, nearly 2,000,000. This gives an average of 
200 sheep, 20 cows, and 6 horses to every inhabitant, a propor- 
tion that will not be found in many other countries of the 
globe. 

As a rule the northern camps are high, and, in dry seasons, 
exposed to drought : in 1859 a million horned cattle perished. 
The southern camps are low and suffer in wet seasons. The 
soil is in general very rich and produces luxuriant crops of 
natural clover. The climate is agreeable, and one seldom sees 



104 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

healthier-looking men than Europeans who have resided long in 
the country, and those of European descent. The spring is' the 
pleasantest season. As summer approaches the heat becomes 
excessive. The thistles, which before looked like a crop of 
turnips, suddenly spring up to a height of ten or eleven feet, 
armed with strong prickles, forming dense jungles impenetrable 
to man or beast. The appearance of the country undergoes a 
complete change in the course of a week or two. About Christ- 
mas (midsummer) the thistles are all in full bloom, and soon 
droop and die. Tropical rains fall in winter, and the earth turns 
green again. Snow may not be seen for a generation, but ice 
is not uncommon, and the wind is often piercingly cold. 

Among the animals peculiar to the country is the " biscacha," 
which is classed by naturalists among the family of Chin- 
chillidre and order of Eodentia. " Biscachas " are an abhor- 
rence to sheep-farmers, as they burrow the land in all directions, 
and there is much danger to persons galloping after dark, of 
the horse stumbling over a " biscachera.'' Another curious 
animal is the " peludo,'' or armadillo, which burrows in the 
ground, but leaves no opening behind it. " Peludos " are con- 
sidered by the natives as a very dainty dish, being cooked and 
served up in the shell. "Mulitas" are almost the same as 
" peludos," and have such powerful claws that if once they get 
their head under ground it is impossible to pull them out. In 
the more distant camps there were formerly wild dogs which 
went about like wolves, in large packs, doing much havoc 
among sheep. The "comadreja" is an animal between the 
weasel and the otter; it is fond of sucking eggs, and has a 
pouch, like the opossum, for carrying about its young. Eats, 
mice, and frogs are abundant in all parts of the country ; and 
among venomous reptiles are found the "escuerzo," a deadly 
kind of toad, and the " Vivora de la Cruz," a small snake so 
called from its having a cross on its head ; the latter is very 
rare. The other animals comprise ostriches, "nutrias," pole- 
cats, and tiger-cats: "nutrias" are much esteemed for their 



THE PEOVINOE OF BnBNOS AT5BE8. 105 

ikins, in wHch tie Indians do some trade. Tiger-cats are 
about double the size of the domestic animal. 

Birds are as scarce as trees in Buenos Ayres, if we except 
game, which is very abundant : the country swarms with wild , 
duck, partridge, and a species of horned plover, called " tero- 
tero" from the cry which it makes. There is a kind of hawk 
or vulture called "chimango," which picks out the eyes of 
young lambs ; the " carancho " is another kind, somewhat larger, 
and both these birds are a kind of scavengers, specially pro- 
vided by Nature for carrying off the carrion that infests the 
camps on all sides. Parrots are often found in large numbers. 
The " Pioa-flor," or hununing-bird, is one of the tiniest and 
prettiest of the feathered tribe ; it is no larger than a bee, of 
the most beautiful and variegated hues, and lives by sipping 
from the flowers, like a butterfly : there is also the " Homero " 
or " oven-bird,'' a little larger than a lark, which builds its nest 
~ of mud on the fork of a tree. 

The botanist wiU find little to interest him in the Pampas : 
nevertheless the " pita " or flowering aloe is a beautiful plant, 
indigenous to the country. It is usually seen forming a fence 
in the suburban quintas, and has a fine effect, springing up to a 
height of 30 feet, and at the base surrounded by prickly leaves, 
7 or 8 feet long, and 5 or 6 inches in thickness. The fences 
formed by these plants have often proved impenetrable against . 
the Indians. The chief ornament of these plains is the " Ombii," 
which affords a cool and refreshing shade, and is invaluable as a 
landmark. Poplars grow abundantly in the south, paradise- 
trees in the north, and peach-trees everywhere ; these last are 
useful not only for their fruit, but for supplying firewood, 
and are cut down every three years. Grapes, figs, and other 
European fruits thrive admirably, as also the vegetables in 
common use in England. In fact nearly all the products of the 
temperate zones and the tropics are reared with little dif&culty 
other than that caused by the ants. Australian gum-trees acquire 
a wonderful height and bulk in three or four years. There are 



106 HANDBOOK or THE BIVEE PLATE. 

many pretty field-flowers, apparently indigenous, but the science 
of horticulture is comparatiTcly new and limited to the com- 
moner kinds of garden-flowers, although the camelias seem 
much finer than in Europe. 

Thirty years ago all travelling in the camp was done on 
horseback, and the natives still make light of galloping 100 or 
even 150 miles in a day. At present there are railways north, 
south, and west, traversing the country for 400 miles, and in 
connection with them a number of " diligencias,'' which renders 
travelling easy and expeditious. Goods and produce are trans- 
ported by bullock-carts, which travel about 20 miles a day. 

The province of Buenos Ayres was an independent republic 
from the fall of Eosas, in 1852, till the reconstruction of the 
Argentine Confederation in 1861 ; it is now one of the fourteen 
united provinces, having its own governor, legislature, and 
local authorities, and being represented in the National Con- 
gress by two senators and twelve deputies. The governor iS 
elected for three years, and has two ministers of state, for the 
home and finance departments. The senators and deputies for 
the provincial legislature are elected by the various districts, 
at the rate of a senator for every 12,000, and a deputy for every 
6000 inhabitants : the first sit for three years, the second for 
two. The judicial authorities comprise a High Court of Justice 
(from which there is appeal to the Federal Tribunal), the 
Tribunal of Commerce, District Courts at Mercedes, San Nicolas, 
I and Dolores, Justices of Primera Instanoia, and the ordinary 
justices of peace for the respective partidos. The administration 
of the laws is necessarily imperfect, owing to the dif&ciilty of 
organizing a proper police force in so extended a country. 
Each partido has its municipal board, to which foreigners are 
eligible, and its cura, with one or two assistant clergymen, who 
are often Italian priests. Public instruction meets with every 
possible favour from Government, and the various camp-towns 
boast handsome state-schools ; meantime the education of the 
rural population offers great difficulties, partly owing to the 



THE PEOVINOB OF BUENOS AYEBS. 107 

distances intervening between the scattered towns, and still 
more to the habits and character of the gauchos. There are 
561 schools in the city and province of Buenos Ayres, attended 
by 32,000 children. The number of National Guards amounts 
to 38,320, and from these are drawn contingents for, the Indian 
frontier: all foreigners are exempt from this laborious and 
unpleasant service. 

The budget for the province may be set down at ^90,000,000 
currency, say 720,000Z. sterling, made up thus : 

Irwome. 

Property Tax, City 23 millions. 

„ Country 7 „ 

Stamps and Licences , 30 „ 

Public Lands 10 „ 

Municipal Taxes, &p 20 „ 

Expenditure. 

Police 30 millions. 

Interest on Debts 25 

Schools 12 

Law Courts 9 

Government and Public Institutions , . 14 „ 

90 „ 
The debt of the province consists of — 

Bonds of 1868 and 1872 102 millions. 

London Loan, 1870 126 

1873 ;; 250 I 

Municipal Bonds 60 

538 „ 
equal to 4,300,000Z. sterling. 

The business of horned cattle is almost entirely in the hands 
of natives, and it formed for nearly three centuries the sole occu- 
pation of the Spanish settlers. Horses and cows were unknown 



108 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBK PLATE. 

before the time of Alvar Nunez, otherwise called Cabeza dg Vaoa 
(cow's head), who brought out the first cattle from Spain, 
A.D. 1541, since which time they have increased prodigiously, 
notwithstanding the slaughter of millions of cows and mares, 
merely for their hides. 

Estancias for horned cattle usually vary from one to ten 
square leagues in extent ; they aboimd in " pasto fuerte " or 
coarse grass, which stands the dry seasons better than the 
meadow grass or trefoil on which sheep are pastured. 

The stock of an estancia often numbers 10,000 head, divided 
into herds of 2000 or 3000 each, which two men can easily 
care. The stock of horned cattle in the province is set down at 
6,000,000 head, and the annual slaughter in the saladeros 
exceeds half a million, independent of the consumption for the 
city markets. In seasons of drought cattle are watered by 
means of a " balde sin fondo,'' which raises water from a well, 
and is worked by a man on horseback ; it can water 2000 head 
of cattle in a day. Cattle-farming until recently was not con- 
sidered lucrative, but when properly attended to it gives very 
fair results, say 20 to 30 per cent, on the capital invested. 
Herds of cattle, from 1000 upwards, may be purchased at ^100 
or ^150 m/c (say 16s. to 25s.) a head. Land is so dear in the 
sheep-farming districts that the cattle estanciero has* to choose 
an estancia in the southern partidos of Pila, Vecino, Monsalvo, 
or Loberia, but he must be aware of the western frontier, which 
is much exposed to Indians. As a rule the business of homed 
cattle does not at all suit foreign settlers, although some have 
in a measure combined it with the care of sheep. 

The rich estancieros usually live in the city, in great fashion 
and luxury, leaving their establishments in charge of a " mayor- 
domo," and going out once or twice a year to see how things go 
on. The " gauchos " live in wretched " ranches," of which the 
sides are plastered with mud, and the roof is of " paja " or reeds 
that grow in the lagoons. The furniture consists of a wooden 
stool or bench, a few horses' or cows' heads that are used for 



THE PEOTtNCE OP BUENOS AYRES. 



109 



seats, and a cowMde stretched on stakes, which serves as the 

family bed. The cooking is done in the open air with an 

"asador" or spit that is stuck into the ground. The most 

iniportant piece of furnitui'e is the "recado" or native saddle, , 

which'is very complicated, and consists of trappings that qften 

serve thp "gaucho" for his bed; the "recado" is a very com- . 

fortable saddle for a long journey, but tires the horse more tjiam 

the ordinary saddle. The business of cattle-farming will receive 

a great impulse, and prove much more lucrative if the project 

succeeds of exporting live cattle from the Eiver Plate to 

England. Hitherto all efforts in Buenos Ayres to export cured 

beef for the Englisl; markets have failed to create a staple 

trade. , 

The province of Buenos Ayres counts 60,000,000 of sheep, 
which give a yield of about 3 lbs. a head, or 180,000,000 lbs. 
imwashed wool. The sheep-farms cover over 40,000,000 acres, 
being 1 J sheep per acre, and the number of shepherds [may be 
estimated at 60,000, of which at least a quarter are Irish or 
Scotch, and the Basques also form a large proportion. Buenos 
Ayres closely competes with Australia for the rank of first 
sheep-farming country in the world. 

Sheep estancias are generally smaller than those for horned 

cattle. Some Irish estancieros have only half a square league 

(say 3000 acres) with a stock of 10,000 sheep; others have 

estates of four or more square leagues, stocked with 100,000 

sheep and upwards. A flock usually counts 1500 to 3000 sheep, 

,Bnd is managed by one man on horseback. The flocks of 

different estancias, and even those of the same estancia, are 

. distinguished by the " senal," or peculiar mark cut in the ear. 

The pastures of the sheep-farms consist of fine grasses, which, 

in summer, are protected by forests of gigantic thistles from 

■. the scorching heat of the sun. Frontier lands are found un- 

suited for sheep, till the coarse grasses have been eaten down by 

cattle. There are certain poisonous herbs, such as "romerilla" 

and "mio-mio," which sometimes cause great losses in flocks. 



110 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

Sheep also die from eating white clay, or getting the leach in 
low, marshy lands. The scab is a great plague to sheep- 
farmers, but of late years the application of extract of tobacco 
is used with much success as a remedy. 

The profits of sheep-farming are a subject that has exhausted 
the calculations of the oldest farmers and the ablest economists 
in the country. At one time it was generally believed that a 
flock of sheep, minded by the owner in person, gave 80 or 100 
per cent, per annum. The increased expenses have brought 
down the estimate to 60 or 70 per cent. 

The class of immigrants by far the most numerous and most 
successful consists of those who land on our shores without a 
shilling. They begin as peons or servants, hiring with some 
estanciero at 30Z. a year (^300 per month) to mind a flock of 
sheep ; they are found in horse and provisions, sleeping either 
at the estanoia house, or in a rancho on some part of the land. 

It often happens that when a man has proved himself to be 
steady and sober, the estanciero gives hitn a flock of sheep 
on thirds, that is, the peon gets one-third the increase of the 
flock and the same proportion of the nett proceeds of the wool. 
Under ordinary circumstances the " tercero," as he is then 
called, becomes owner of half a flock in three or four years, 
and then he goes into partnership as " medianero," on halves. 

Life in the camp has a peculiar charm for young men eman- 
cipated from the office desk. The complete liberty of thought 
and action induces a buoyancy of feeling that compensates for 
all the hardships undergone. Fortunes have been made in the 
camp, and are still to be made in minding sheep : one thing is 
requisite, the shepherd must keep to his sheep as close as 
possible, live economically, and abhor the sight of a " pul- 
peria." We shall now begin our tour through the partidos, 
beginning with the north, and in every instance the distance 
will be calculated to the chief town or centre of the partido. 

The province is divided into seventy-two departments, as 
follows : 



THE PROVINCE OF BUENOS ATEES. 



Ill 



North. 

Area, 
sq. miles. 

Belgrano 20 

SanMartin 44 

San Isidro 26 

San Fernando 18 

Conchas 473 

Zaxate 357 

Baradero 732 

San Pedro .. .. .. 786 

Eamallo 767 

San Nicolas 288 

Pilar 275 

Capilla del Setior 752 

San Andres de Giles . . . . 429 

San Antonio de Areco . . . . 382 

Arrecifes 660 

Pergamino 1,182 

Kojas 1,309 



Population. 
2,860 
2;867 
3,9^5 
4,254 
3,329 
4,231 
4,919 
5,377 
3,140 
9,491 
3,708 
3,970 
3,820 
2,814 
4,245 
7,757 
3,417 



8,500 



74,154 



West. 

S. Jose de Mores 

Moron 

Moreno 

Merlo .. 

Matanza 

Luxan 

Las Heras 

Mercedes .. 

Suipaoha 

Navarro 

Carmen de Arecb 

Lobos 

Chivilooy 

Salto 

Cliacabuco 

25 de Mayo 

Bragado 

Junin 

Lincoln 

9 de Jnlio 



38 .. 


6,579 


69 .. 


3,488 


112 .. 


2,329 


150 .. 


2,469 


148 .. 


3,248 


377 .. 


.. 10,256 


365 .. 


2,303 


397 .. 


8,146 


331 ,. 


1,829 


612 .. 


6,347 


387 .. 


3,815 


635 .. 


7,168 


883 .. 


.. 14,232 


579 .. 


4,143 


947 .. 


6,234 


2,612 .. 


.. 10,385 


1,169 .. 


6,577 


797 .. 


1,929 


2,691 .. 


504 


1,978 .. 


3,879 


15,277 .. 


.. 105,860 



112 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 



Smtn. sqJ^mUes. PopuUtion. 

Barracaa 36 .. .. 8,003 

Lomas de Zamora 91 .. .. 1,723 

Qmlmes 218 .. .. 6,809 

San Vicente 387 .. .. 4,249 

Ensenada 584 .. .. 4,440 

Canuelas 459 .. .. 4,749 

Magdalena 673 .. .. 5,626 

Eivadavia 679 .. .. 2,253 

Eanohos 632 ,. .. 5,616 

Guardia Monte 699 .. .. 4,706 

Chasoomns 1,576 .. .. 9,637 

LasFlorea 1,724 .. .. 7,252 

Saladillo .. , 2,042 .. .. 7,341 

PUa 1,412 .. .. 2,728 

Castelli 755 .. .. 1,655 

Dolores 722 .. .. 7,203 

TordiUo 470 .. .. 705 

Yecino 825 .. .. 2,516 

Eauch 1,522 .. .. 3,591 

Arenales 1,361 .. .. 3,253 

Ayacuelio 1,175 .. .. 2,993 

Tapalquen 2,512 .. .. 2,394 

Ajd 1,058 .. .. 3,381 

Monsalvo 944 .. .. 3,810 

Tuyu 844 .. .. 673 

Azul 1,087 .. .. 7,209 

Mar-Chiquita 1,165 .. .. 2,289 

TandU 1,786 .. ,. 4,870 

Balcarce 2,396 .. .. 4,198 

Loberia 2,022 .. .. 2,901 

Necochea 2,563 .. .. 1,129- 

Juarez 2,223 .. .. 1,610 

Tres Arroyos 5,944 ... 550 

BahiaBlanca 675 .. .. 1,472 

Patagones 1,000 .. .. 3,772 

. . 137,288 



44,261 



17 Northern 8,500 

20 Western 15,277 

35 Southern 44,261 

City of Buenos Ayres . . . . 13 

Total 68,051 



74,154 
105,860 
137,288 
171,404 , 

488,706 



THE PKOVINOB OF BUENOS ATRES. 113 

BIVEKINB PAETIDOS. 

Bdgrano to San Nicolas. 

Belgrano, one of tte suburbs, has been already described. 
Municipal revenue, ^500,000 m/c. Property valuation, 
K25,000,000. State-schools attended by 200 children. Popu- 
lation, 2760. Tillage, 10,000 acres. Largest proprietors: 
Oliver, Saavedra, White, Sebastiani, Plowes, Lebrero, Gon- 
salez, Calderon, Corbalan, Coulin, Torres, Santillan, Castillo, 
Cabrera, Munita, Goya, , Malcom, McDonnell, Moore, Esteves. 
It is connected with the city both by tramway and railway, and 
' lighted with gas. Watson's is a first-class hotel and restau- 
rant. 

San Isidro, fashionable summer residence. Tillage, 10,000 
acres. Population, 3955. Property valuation, ^16,000,000. 
School attended by 270 children. Largest proprietors : Uriarte, 
Aguirre, Azcuenaga, Pacheco, Martinez, Luca, Saenz Valiente, 
Omar, Escalada, Elias, Eua, Marquez, Perez, Castes, Gutierrez, 
Alvarez, Anchorena, Uribelarrea, Elortondo, Mackinlay, Parra- 
vicini, Brittain, McLean, Haedo, Wineberg, Velasquez, and 
Vernet. Village founded in 1706, distant 5 leagues from 
town, on Northern Eailway. There are two good hotels, those 
of Tiscornia and Vignolles. 

San Fernando, at the head of the Eiver Plate, 7 leagues 
from town. Population, 4154. Tillage, 5000 acres. Property 
valuation, ^16,000,000. School attended by 400 children. 
Largest proprietors : Ibanez, Valle, Conde, Castro, Espinosa, 
Justo, Pietranera, Eodriguez, Croza, Crisol, Lima, Villarnel, 
Vela, Almandos, Catelin, Salguero. 

Islands of Brunet, Sarmiento, Pinero, Crabtree, &c., beauti- 
fully cultivated. 

San Fernando wharf has a branch to Northern Eailway for 
conveyance of produce from coasting craft. 

Las Conchas, between the rivers Luxan and Las Conchas, the 



114; HANDBOOK OF THE RIVEE PLATE. 

ancient territory of the Guacunambi Indians. Spaniards esta- 
blished a fort here in 1614, and present village was founded in 
1720. Country-seats belonging to Madero, Garrigos, Tejedor, 
Cobo, Delcampo, Gonsalez Moreno, Balbin, Albarellos, Lynch, 
Majeste, Castellanos, Lawson, Eomero, Martinez, Anciso, Eocha, 
BuUrich, Calzadilla, Carraga, Acuna, Cebey, Castrelo, Alcorta, 
Munoa, Hernandez, Arana, Aguirre, Urioste, Dolz, Uparaguirre, 
Zurueta, Canedo, Vivanco ; besides the farms of Pacheco, Villa- 
mayor, and Milberg. Church was built by Dona Magdalena 
Bonelo in the last century. State-school attended by 150 chil- 
dren. Property valuation, ^7,000,000. English boat-club at 
Tigre, which is also port for steamers to Eosario. Population, 
3329, including 1580 foreigners. 

Zarate, on the Parana, has 60 sheep-farms and 140 agri- 
cultural. Population, 4211, including 147 Irish. Largest 
proprietors : Lima, Latorre, Insua Soler, Saavedra, Fox, Ace- 
bey, Murray, Gelvas, Castex, Pujol, Eomero, Barrios, Conde, 
Anta, Balvidares, Gaetan, Palacios, Sosa, Silvano, Vidal, and 
Zarate. At Las Palmas, the Latorre estancia, the Jesuits had 
an establishment, which has given its name to this branch of the 
Parana. Dr. Costa has a fine estancia at Port Campana, the site 
of proposed docks and railway terminus. Zarate village has 
2020 inhabitants, nearly two-thirds males, and does a large 
coasting trade. Steamers call daily. It is 16 leagues N. of 
Buenos Ayres. Stock: 60,000 cows, 800,000 sheep, 30,000 
horses. Land valued at ^600,000 per league. Total valuation, 
^15,000,000. School of 184 children. 

Baradero, comprising 92 sheep-farms and a flourishing 
Swiss colony. Population, 4919, including 1112 foreigners. 
Largest proprietors : Lynch, Castex, Wallace, San Martin, 
Macome, O'Eourke, Brennan, Casco, Whelan, Murtagh, Gelv-es, 
and Connaughtin. Land, ^400,000 per league. Property valuar 
tion, ^20,000,000. Stock: 80,000 cows, 700,000 sheep, 
20,000 horses. At the Swiss col'ony, founded in 1856, there 
are 1091 farm-lots under tillage, the crop exceeding 33,000/. 



THE PBOVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES. 



115 



sterling in value : some of tte colonists have saved as mucli 
as 8000Z., all being very prosperous. Baradero village, 
27 leagues N. of Buenos Ayres, is a port oh the Parana 
with 1199 inhabitants. It was founded in 1616 by Father Luis 
Bolanos. Steamers call daily. There is a branch of the Pro- 
vincial Bank. Schools attended by 340 children. 

San Pedro, comprising 63 estancias. Largest proprietors : 
Demarchi, Castro, Perez Millan, Obligado, Cobo, Magallanei 
Villalon, Palacios, and Quiroga. Among the principal Irish 
farmers are : Harrington, Doyle, Wheeler, Dogherty, Kehoe, 
Young, McDonald, Cronin, and Finnery. Population, 5377, 
including 253 Irish. Land, ^450,000 per league. Property 
valuation, ^21,000,000. Stock: 200,000 cows, l,4O0,OOO 
sheep, 45,000 horses. At Obligado is where Eosas attempted 
to stop the English and French fleets. San Pedro port, 
31 leagues N. of Buenos Ayres, has 2089 inhabitants, and 
schools attended Ky 245 children. Branch of Provincial Bank. 
Irish chaplain, Eev. Mr. Flannery. 

Bamallo, comprising 70 estancias. Largest proprietors : 
Stegmann, Llavallol, Gomez, Laprida, Obligado, Olmos, Arias, 
Booth. Population, 3140, including 44 Irish. Stock : 108,000 
cows, 960,000 sheep, 34,000 horses. Mr. Lewis Booth, an 
American, has a fine estancia. The school is attended by 
52 children. 

San Nicolas, comprising 170 estancias and 650 grain-farms. 
Largest proprietors : Guerrico, Eamos, Acevedo, Pereyra, Pico, 
Alvear, Eoldan, Fernandez, Pineyro, Mancilla, Eobles, La- 
fuente, Salinas, Garcia, Euiz, Carranza, Aldao, Quiroga, Car- 
doso, Pezzi. Among the Irish settlers are : Hogan, Barker, 
Neale, Barry, Pearson, Stickney, Tait, and Savage. Popula- 
tion, 9491, including 1321 foreigners. Stock : 110,000 cows, 
680,000 sheep, and 24,000 horses. Over 20,000 acres under 
tillage, the chacra land being valued at ^2,500,000, and 
estancia land at ^400,000 per square league. Property valua- 
tion, ^32,000,000. 

I 2 



116 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

The city of San Nicolas de Los Arroyos is a port on the 
Parand, of rising importance, second only to Chivileoy among 
rural towns as regards population. It has 5985 inhabitants, 
with a branch Provincial Bank, 100 shops, 350 good houses, a 
mill, graseria, local newspaper, district criminal court, club- 
house, schools attended by 700 children, barracas for storing 
hides and wool, in the export of which a large business is done 
by Liverpool steamers and other vessels. It is 45 leagues N.W. 
of Buenos Ayres, on the route of the Eosario Eailway now 
in construction. 

NOETHEEN PAETIDOS. 

Pilar to Arrecifes. 

Pilar, area, 28 square leagues, comprising 170 estancias and 
some wheat-farms. Largest proprietors : Pacheco, Poucel, 
Huergo, Ponce, Olivera, Carrion, Egan, and Eobert Kelly. 
Stock: 45,000 cows, 840,000 sheep, and 23,000 horses. Land 
valued from K420,000 to ^650,000 per league. Total valuation, 
^16,000,000. Population, 3708, including 51 Irish. School 
attended by 60 children. Municipal revenue, ^130,000. Pilar 
village, on the Luxan river, 9 leagues N.W. of Buenos Ayres, 
has 1076 inhabitants, a new church, some good shops, and is a 
station on the railway to Eosario. 

Capilla del Senor, otherwise Exaltacion de la Cruz, area, 75 
square leagues, comprises 43 estancias and 50 grain-farms. The 
largest proprietors are : Costa, Culligan, Delamore, Fox, Scally, 
Gaynor, O'Brien, Tormey, Lennon, Lynch, Sosa, Pugh, Diaz, 
Cullen, Harrington, Avalos, Burgueno, Casco, Gutierrez, Ortega, 
Eoldan, and Toledo. The lands held by Irish in this district 
exceed 50,000 acres. Irish chaplain, Eev. Mr. Grennan. Land, 
^500,000 per league. Stock: 36,000 cows, 1,400,000 sheep, 
26,000 horses. Village of Capilla Las 1116 inhabitants, new 
church, partly built by Irish ; state-school attended by 200 
children. Population of district, 3970, including 500 foreigners. 



THE PEOVINOB OF BUENOS ATRES. 117 

San Andres de Giles, area, 43 square leagues, comprises 75 
estancias. Largest proprietors : Tormey, Eodriguez, Butterfield, 
Monsalvo, Bustos, Wheeler, Eiestra, and Salas. Stock : 26,000 
cows, 700,000 sheep, and 16,000 horses. Land, ^500,000 per 
league. Population, 3820, including 520 foreigners. Village 
of GUes, 20 leagues N.N.W. of Buenos Ayres, has 912 inlia- 
bitants, and a school attended by 210 children. 

Carmen de Areeo comprises 30 estancias, the most valuable 
of which belong to foreign settlers, chiefly Irish, viz. Dufiy, Hale, 
Bowling, Murray, Kenny, Craig, Mullen, Wallace, O'Connell. 
The estancias of Piran, Lynch, Lezama, Eocha, Melo, and 
Eomero are also of much extent. Property valuation, 
^22,000,000. Stock: 60,000 cows, 25,000 horses, 1,250,000 
sheep. Land under tillage, about 10,000 acres. Population, 
3815, including 835 foreigners. The estancia Tatay, belonging 
to Mr. Hale, is an American model farm, and covers 25,000 
acres. The estates of Duffy and Bowling are still larger. The 
village of Fortin de Areco, 27 leagues W.N.W. of Buenos Ayres, 
has 1540 inhabitants, church, bank, 20 shops, and a state-school 
of 140 children. The Irish chaplain, Eev. M. Leahy, has a 
library and Literary Society called St. Brendan's. The Irish 
Eacing Club has regular meetings. 

San Antonio de Areco comprises 64 estancias. Largest pro- 
prietors, Duggan, Morgan, Guerrico, Mooney, Lanus, Almagro, 
Casco, Lima, O'Donnell, Chapeaurouge, Hogan, Gutierrez, 
Martinez. Property valuation, ^12,000,000. Stock: 80,000 
cows, 20,000 horses, 900,000 sheep. The Irish residents own 
half the sheep and one-fourth of the land in this department. 
Population, 2814, of whom 488 are Europeans. The village of 
San Antonio, 21 leagues N.W. of Buenos Ayres, has 1001 
inhabitants, including an Irish clergyman and a few French or 
Italian artisans ; it was founded in 1759 by the Areeo family. 
A new churdi was built in 1869. There are two inns. Many 
of the shopkeepers speak English. A good bridge crosses the 
Areco river. The state-school is attended by 160 children. 



118 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVEE PLATE. 

Salto comprises 34: estancias. Largest proprietors : Dorrego, 
Pacheco, Lanata, Bell, Eiddle, Blanco, Ayrala, Michael 
Murray, Patrick Murphy, John Hylahd, 'William Murphy, aad' 
Berruti. The Dorrego estancia covers 100,000 acres. The land 
in this department is valued at ^450,000 per league. Property 
valuation, ^22,000,000. Stock: 100,000 cows, 30,000 horses, 
1,000,000 sheep. Population, 4143, of whom 890 are foreign 
settlers. The village of Salto, 34 leagues W.N.W. bi Buenos 
-Ayres, has 2173 inhabitants, church, bank, 25 shops, inn, ■ 
schools attended by 270 children, Irish club and library, 

Arredfes comprises 60 estancias, the largest being those of 
Stegmann, Molina, Crisol, Lezica, Sarsfield, Saavedra, Cobo, 
Sierra, Ortega, Zapiola, Vinas, Andrade, and Perez MUlan. 
Property valuation, ^32,000,000. Stock : 250,000 cows, 50,000 
horses, 1,000,000 sheep. Population, 4245, including 215 Irish. 
The model sheep-farm of Mr. Stegmann, 4 leagues N. of the 
village, is one of the finest in the province. Arrecifes village was 
founded in the last century by SeSor Penalva, and the present 
church was built by Mr. Stegmann's grand-uncle, Perez Millan ; 
the-situation is picturesque. There are some good shops, a mill 
owned by a Frenchman, and state-schools attended by 200 
children. The village is 33 leagues N.W. of Buenos Ayres. 

NORTH AND WEST FEONTIEES. 

Pergamino to 25 de Mayo. 

Pergamino comprises 192 estancias. Largest proprietors: 
Peiia, Acevedo, Lezama, Moreno, Azcuenaga, Basualdo, Goycotea, 
Quintana, Hale, Trelles, Boer, Hastings, Fitzsimons, Arnold, 
Blanco, Benitez, Bett, Herrera, Mooney, Winton, Vinas, Fox, 
Jacobs, Duffy, and Alvear. Stock : 270,000 cows, 50,000 horses, 
1,400,000 sheep. Land at ^300,000 per league. Property 
valuation, ^23,000,000. Close to Mr. Hale's estancia is Port 
Melincu^, where the provinces of Buenos Ayres, Santa Fe, and 
Cordoba meet. The first sheep-farmer to settle here wag John 



THE PROVINCE, OF IBUENOS ATEES. 119 

Doyle, who was kjUed, by runaway soldiers in October, 1859. 
Population, 7757, including 630 foreigners. The town of 
Pergamino, 42 leagues N.W. of Buenos Ayres, has 3261 inhabit- 
ants, and was a halting-place on the old coach road to Cordoba. 
-It was besieged by Indians so late as 1861. There are several 
good shops, a fine church, barracks, and state-schools attended 
by 520 children. This district is separated from the province 
of Santa Fe by the Cardoso lagoons and numerous small arroyos. 
It is watered by the Pontezuela, or Pergamino river. The 
Arroyo Cepeda, on the Azcuenaga estancia, was the scene of a 
battle in 1859. 

Bojas comprises 50 large estancias, viz. those of Llavallol, 
Cano, Quirno, Eamos, John Hughes, Conesa, Martinez, Sagasta, 
Bollasty, Anderson, Tormey, Moffatt, Carey, Lawler, Geoghegan, 
Quinnan, Mullady, Tobin, Gerraty, Geddes, Dowse, Murray, 
McNeill, Boggins, Murphy, Madero, Eiestra, Saavedrti, Sarlo, 
Ghiraldes, &c. Stock: 180,000 cows, 15,000 horses, 700,000 
sheep. Property valuation, ^12,000,000. Population, 3417, 
including 850 foreigners. Mr. James BoUasty's establishment, 
close to the village, includes both pasture and agriculture on a 
large scale. Mr. Hughes has a fine estancia, and a graseria for 
boiling down sheep. The Cano estancia is well planted, and 
laid out partly under agriculture. Llavallol's is the most exten- 
sive, covering an area of 65,000 acres. The farthest settlers on 
Indian camps are Madero, Irigoyen, and Alsina, at ChanaritoS 
lagoon, 5 leagues from Melincue fort. The village of Eojas, 
43 leagues W.N.W. of Buenos Ayres, has 1508 inhabitants, 
church, shops, schools, cavalry barracks, Irish club and library, 
with stated race-meetings. Mr. Bollasty has long been a leading 
member of the Municipality. The schools are attended by 140 
children. This district suffers constantly from Indians, who 
carry off all the horses. 

Junin comprises 80 estancias, the principal owners being 
Dowling, Murray, Saavedra, Atkins, Conesa, Coffin, Burke, 
Pombo, Alvear, Amezaga, Castro, Medina, Olivera, Escobedo, 



120 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVER PLATE. 

Fajardo, Giles, Villafane, Arza, Lastra, Gomez, Gonsalez, 
Vasquez, Lezica, Irigoyen, Franqui, &c. Ten or twelve years 
ago these were Indian camps, the first to settle here being some 
Irish sheep-farmers in 1863, who were obliged by the drouglit 
to drive their flocks out to new pastures on the frontier. The 
department is well watered by the Eio Salado and the lagoons 
of Chanar, Gomez, and Mar-Chiquita. It is still thinly settled; 
being much exposed to Indians. There are twenty grain-farms, 
with about 20,000 acres under tillage, the largest being those of 
Aparicio, Narbondo, and Eeparas. Mar-Chiquita is 10 mUes 
long by 5 wide ; the Gomez lagoons 20 miles in length. Stock; 
100,000 cows, 11,000 horses, and 150,000 sheep. Property 
valuation, ^3,000,000. Population, 1929, including 230 
foreigners and 100 tame Indians. The village of Junin, 45 
leagues W.N.W. of Buenos Ayres, has 886 inhabitants, 33 well- 
built hbuses, a school with 90 children, and accommodation 
for a small frontier garrison. 

Lincoln, a new frontier department, comprises 30 estancias, 
the chief owners being : Gowland, Chapeauiouge, Murray, 
Atkins, Dowling, Eodriguez, Amadeo, Wiebeck, BulMch, 
Villareal, Frers, Dunkler, Schroeder, Martins, Saavedra, GorchSj 
Delsar, Vivot, Gimenez, and Pereyra ; the last is one of the 
farthest settlers, being 65 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres. The 
new town of Lincoln will be built 10 leagues beyond Fort 
Ituzaingo. No returns of stock. Population, 504, including 
60 foreigners. 

Chacabuco comprises 60 estancias. Largest proprietors: 
Kocha, Perkins, Pacheco, Vidal, Alvear, Duggan, Casey, AUen, 
Murray, Pearson, Dowling, Drysdale, MacLean, Forest, Bell, 
Green, Castro, and Miro. One of the first settlers was Mr. 
Perkins, estancia Esperanza, who has a fine establishment of 
17,000 acres, well stocked and planted. The estate of D. 
Patricio Kocha, at Medano Blanco, is still larger. On Mr. Allen's 
estancia there is an Irish chapel, with library attached. Stock : 
200,000 cows, 50,000 horses, and 1,250,000 sheep. Tillage, 



THE PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYKES. 121 

90,000 acres. Population, 6234, including 530 foreigners. 
Ctacabuco village has 461 inhabitants, a school with 70 
children, and some well-built houses, beiag 36 leagues W. of 
Buenos Ayres. 

Bragado comprises many large estancias, mostly belonging 
to natives. Largest proprietors : Pla, Bians, Unzue, Quiioga, 
Meabe, Beccar, Lanus, Castro, Machain, Smith, Eobbio, Grigg, 
Eamirez, Olivera, Martinez, Arza, Gallo, Lucena, Euiz, Trejo, 
Montier, and Perez. This district has been slowly settled, 
owing to the constant inroads of Indians. The Eio Salado forms 
its north and east boundary. Good water is found anywhere at 
a few feet from the surface, and the pastures are well suited for 
sheep. Stock: 270,000 cows, 50,000 horses, 500,000 sheep. 
Property valuation, ^6,000,000. Population, 6577, including 
700 Europeans. Agriculture has made such progress that there 
are 370 chacras, with 60,000 acres under tillage. Coliqueo's 
tribe of friendly Indians is kept as an auxiliary frontier force, 
receiving rations of tobacco, yerba, and cattle from Government. 
The Cacique dresses as a Major, but his people are squalid 
and repulsive; they move their tents at intervals. Bragado 
village has 2176 ^ inhabitants, church, 20 shops, and school 
of 180 children. It is 42 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres. The 
railway is being prolonged from Chivilcoy, which will bring 
Bragado within half-a-day's journey of the city. 

Nueve de Julio lies south of Lincoln and Bragado, comprising 
Indian territory chiefly settled on by Englishmen, viz. Douthal, 
Darbyshire, Dillon, Neild, Smith, Fletcher, Dowling, Gaynor, 
Dickson, Stephenson, Dick, Batchelor, Kavanagh, Poster, Shaw, 
Mtirray, Lynch, Young, Lewis, Daly, Wallace, BuUrich, Dunkler, 
Carlisle, Wampach, McDonnell, Ares, Seng, and Gillyat, who 
attend both to pasture and agriculture, and have annual steeple- 
chases. Among native proprietors, Messrs. Unzue, Trejo, Lima, 
Agrelo, Vedia, Haedo, Agote, Cazon, and Malbran are the 
principal. The district is studded with lagoons, and thinly 
settled. Until recently the only inhabitants were Coliqueo's 



122 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVER PLATE. 

friendly Indians and an occasional frontier detachment. The 
land produces excellent wheat, there being 135 cbacras, with 
over 5000 acres under tillage. Stock: 200,000 cows, 70,000 
horses, 100,000 sheep. Population, 3879, of whom one-half are 
" friendly " Indians and 580 foreigners. The village of Nueve 
de Julio has 912 inhabitants and a state-school of 70 
children ; it is 50 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, and the farthest 
settlers are about 10 leagues farther out. Deer and small game • 
abound in these camps. 

Veinte-cineo de Mayo was Indian country up to 1864, the only 
settler before that time being Mr. Keen, of Pedemales. The 
other English estancias now are those of Wright, ElUff, Keenan, 
Dickson, and Whelan. But larger than any of these is the 
Unzue territory, covering 130,000 acres ; the next in note being 
Fernandez, Atucha, Peralta, Sosa, Olivera, Villarasa, Villanueva, 
Salas, Montero, Murillo, Galindez, Lezica, Diaz, Eisso, Ghiraldo. 
Stock: 600,000 cows, 50,000 horses, 2,000,000 sheep. Property 
valuation, ^13,000,000. The department shows 512 chacras, 
with 180,000 acres under crops. Mr. Keen's estancia, on the 
banks of the Salado, is the finest in this part of the country. 
The lagoons are full of game, and the pastures good for sheep. 
The neighbours sometimes have trouble from the Indians. The 
village of 25 de Mayo has 1723 inhabitants and 100 good 
houses, besides a church, and schools attended by 190 children. 
It is 35 leagues W.S.W. of Buenos Ayres. The department 
counts 10,385 inhabitants, including 1100 foreigners. 

WESTEEN PARTIDOS. 

Flores to Ghivilcoy. 

San Jose de Flores, the most favoured suburb of Buenos Ayres, 
is remarkable for the elegance of its country-houses, the extent 
of land under gardens and plantations, the salubrity of the air, 
and the number of English residents. The finest quintas are 
those of Wanklyn, Lezica, Ghiraldez, Boyd, Livingstone, Portela, 



THE PROVINCE OV BUESOS ATEES. 123 

Duporfcal, Mulhall, Lamas Monies, and Lopez, at Lambare ; 
Eopes, Pfeiffer, Martinez, Pardo, Zorraquin, Zuberbuhler, and 
Negrotto, at Caballito; Terrero, Basualdo, Dorregp, Delpont, 
Carabassa, Llavallol, Methven, Bell, Fulton, Torres, Eathje, 
Kiestra, Malbran, Bechem, Best, Samuel, Hugbes, Stegmann, 
Silveyra, Olivera, Eom, Sole, Eobles, Estrada, Carlisle, Neild, 
Moore, Wilson, Eunciman, Campbell, Crowtber, Cano, Eepetto, 
and many otbers, about Flores. The village was made a parish 
in 1808, and now contains church, schools, hotel, club, theatre, 
several good shops, an English Protestant chapel, handsome 
cemetery, and tramway and railway to the city. Population of 
department, 6579 ; villages, 2256. The state-school counts 490 
children. Messrs. Negrotto and Eeynolds have a school for 
boys at Caballito. 

Matanzas, sometimes called San Justo, from the village of 
that name, which is 4 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, comprises 
some 300 " chacras " with an aggregate of 200,000 acres under 
tillage. Most of the old estancias are being cut up into grain- 
farms, thus enhancing the value of the land. That of Mr. 
Gahan was lately sold for 40,000Z. sterling. The largest pro- 
prietors at present are : Eamos Mejia, Lagos, Zamudio, Villa- 
mayor, Ezcurra, Barnechea, Almaraz, and Posse. The depart- 
ment takes its name from a " matanza," or slaughter of Indians 
on the bank of the river in 1580, by Juan de Garay, to whom 
the King of Spain granted the land on which the country-seats 
of Eamos, Mejia, Madero, &c., are now built. An English- 
woman, named Hannah Burns, settled here fifty years ago, with 
a dairy farm. The stock of the district consists of 20,000 
cows, 5000 horses, and 200,000 sheep. Property valuation, 
.g31,000,000. 

The village of San Justo has 1001 inhabitants, mostly 
Easques, church, schools, and several good shops. An omnibus 
plies between the village and the railway station of Eamos 
Mejia. 

Saw Martin, another agricultural district, comprises a fine 



124 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE, 

rolling country between San Isidro and Moron. There are over 
100 grain-farms, the finest being those of Lynch, Pereyra, 
Fiorini, Igartua, Aguirre, Despuy, BaUester, Santamaria, Krat- 
zenstein, Fanes, Blanco, Boniche, Luna, Salguero, Miro, Hue, 
and Sanchez. Land valuation, ^9,000,000. Stock : 10,000 cows, 
2000 horses, and 10,000 sheep. The village of San Martin, 
formerly called Santos Lugares, is not far from the battle-field 
of Monte Caseros, where Eosas was overthrown on Februarys, 
1852, by the combined Argentine and Brazilian armies under 
General Urquiza. The population of the village is 1133, 
mostly Italian and French ; the schools are attended by 180 
children. A new college, on a superior scale, has been built by 
some Spanish clergymen. The Eosario Eailway will have a 
station here, about 4 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres. There are 
maiiy newly-built country-houses, that of Dr. Bilbao being the 
finest, and M. Duhamel's nursery is specially worth notice. 
The new village of Billinghurst is a couple of miles farther 
west. 

Moron is a suburban district, chiefly noted for its quintas and 
country-houses, the finest being those of Coffin, Eepetto, Gutier- 
rez, Koch, Kiernan, Laroche, Garcia, Macias, GaviSa, Garbeler, 
Laplane, Gabral, &c. The Eio de las Conchas turns some mills 
and waters a fiine belt of land, there being over 200 grain-farms 
cultivated by Italians and Basques. The price of land varies from 
^1000 m/c to ^6000 per cuadra, say 21. to 12Z. per acre. The 
few estancias that there were have been broken up and sold in 
chacra lots. The total stock of the district does not exceed 
30,000 sheep and cattle. Building sites in the town may be 
had, 10 X 50 varas, from ^10,000 n/c upwards. The streets 
are well laid out, the plazas neatly planted, the schools and 
public buildings commodious. The new church cost 10,000/. 
sterling ; the cemetery, south of the town, is one of the best ar- 
ranged. Moron is reputed the healthiest part of the province of 
Buenos Ayres, and is crowded.in summer : its permanent popu- 
lation is 1429, more than one-half foreigners. It is 5 leagues W. 



THE PEOVINOB OF BUENOS ATEES. 125 

of Bueiaos Ayres, and is, reached in one hour by the Western 
Eailway. 

Las Seras. — We now enter the sheep-farming country, this 
district being a favourite one of Irish settlers, and comprising 
60 estancias watered by La Choza, Paju, and Durazno streams, 
the largest proprietors being Plomer, Casey, Lynch, Correa, 
Dillon, Lamudio, Moore, &c. The stock amounts to 10,000 
cows, 15,000 horses, and 800,000 sheep. The district takes 
its name from an Argentine general; and a village called 
Eodriguez, after another general, is springing up around the 
station of that name on the Western Eailway, two hours from 
Buenos Ayres. The church founded by Governor Saavedra has 
been, dedicated to St. Patrick, in compliment to the Irish farmers 
around. An Irishman named Garaghan has a sheep-bojling 
establishment in view of the station : the latter is 11 leagues 
from Buenos Ayres. 

Merlo, chiefly remarkable for the junction of the Lobos and 
Western Eailways, is an agricultural district, watered by the 
Conchas, and comprising some 200 chacras, cultivated by Italians 
and Basques. The mill belonging to Messrs. Blumstein and 
Laroche does a considerable business. The farm known as that 
of -Mr. Wyatt Smith was long considered one of the finest in 
the province, but has been sold and cut up into chacras. The 
village of Merlo has 456 inhabitants, a Gothic chapel, and schools 
attended by 174 children. It is 7 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, 
being an hour and a half by railway. The value of building 
sites has risen twentyfold in the last five years. The branch 
railway to Lobos is 42 miles in length. Messrs. Dillon and 
Pearson have properties in this district, also Mr. Bernard 
, Coffin, Mr. McLean, and other foreigners. The meat-preServing 
■ factory of Silveyra, in this district, sent some samples to Eng- 
land in 187^ : it also makes artificial guano from the blood of 
animals. 

Moreno, an undulating district beautifully cultivated, with 
20,000 acres under tillage, the largest chacras being those of 



126 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

Carranza, Gutierrez, and Posse. The Alcorta and Alvarez 
properties are also considerable. Tte district is one of the 
smallest, but thickly inhabited, there being few English. The 
village of Moreno, 8 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, comprises 
some fifty houses and a fine new church, the best shop being 
that of Mr. Cesario, an Englishman. An unfinished building in 
the plaza, with round turret, was the work of a Frenchman who 
died before its completion. Labastie's is a good inn, where 
horses may be obtained, or coaches for camp excursions. Moreno 
was for some time terminus of the Western Eailway, and since 
then has declined. Population, 372, including 91 school chil- 
dren : the population of the district being 2329, of which 710 
are foreigners. 

Luxan. — This department belongs almost exclusively to Irish 
sheep-farmers, Browns, Hams, Caseys, Garaghans, KeUys, 
Clavins, Murphys, Maxwells, Cooks, Kennys, Burgesses, Pitz- 
simmons ; there being only twelve native estancias of any 
dimensions. The finest of the latter is that of the Olivera 
family, at the station of that name, which is three hours by raU 
from the city. One-half of the population of the department is 
Irish, there being also many Italians and French. The stock 
comprises 30,000 cows, 20,000 horses, and a million of sheep. 
Land cannot be bought under 12 or 15 thousand pounds sterling 
per square league. Agriculture is making some progress, Italian 
chacreros having some 20,000 acres under tillage about the town 
and district. Villa Luxan, 14 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, 
is one of the oldest towns in the province. A chapel to Our 
Lady was erected here in 1730, and the Viceroy Liniers escaped 
hither in 1806 from the English invaders. The town shows 
signs of decay, but has some good shops, and two resident phy- 
sicians, besides an Irish chaplain, Eev. Samuel O'EeUly. It has 
3393 inhabitants, being the fifth town in the province. The 
school is attended by 210 children. 

Mercedes. — Another fiourishing Irish settlement, of Murrays, 
Maguires, Ledwiths, Lowes, Kellys, Aliens, Mahous, Smiths, 



THE PEOVINCB OF BUENOS AYBES. 127 

Garaghans, Connors, Dillons, Flanagans, Murphys, Martins, 
Keatings, Kearneys, Tyrrells, Flemings, &c. There are twenty- 
two good-sized native estancias, that of Mr. Unzne having an 
area of 60,000 acres. The stock of the department counts 
40,000 cows, 25,000 horses, and 15,000,000 sheep. The " City 
pi Mercedes," 20 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, is one of the 
best-bmlt camp towns, being inferior in population only to 
Chivilooy and San Nicolas. The church, schools, and cabildo 
are remarkably fine, the last-named having a ball-room 100 feet 
long. There is also a Convent of Mercy built by the Irish of 
5uenos Ayres, as well as a branch of the Provincial Bank, an 
Irish school for boys, a small theatre, and a mill on the north 
side of the town. The outskirts are composed of chacras and 
plantations. Mercedes was a frontier outpost in the last cen- 
tury, as Guardia de Luxan. It is three and a half hours by 
rail from Buenos Ayres. The schools are attended by 550 
children. The shop of Messrs. Torroba is an Irish rendezvous. 

Suipacha, 26 leagues W. of Buenos Ayres, is a new depart- 
ment not yet properly organized, there being no village or 
centre of population. It comprehends part of Mercedes, being 
6 leagues W. of that town. The lands are watered by the 
Leones and other streams. 

Ghivilcoy has 300,000 acres under tillage, comprised in 1600 
chacras, cultivated mostly by Italians and Basques. This 
thriving colony was begun by Mr. Sarmiento (after President) 
in 1854, the first settler being Mr. Kranse, a German. The 
splendid estancia of Mr. White may be regarded as a model-farm ; 
■ it runs 4 leagues to the Salado. The Terrero family have a 
still larger territory, but only under sheep ; and midway front 
Ghivilcoy to Mercedes is the Gorostiaga estancia. There is a 
large number of Irish sheep-farmers. Stock: 200,000 cows, 
60,000 horses, and 2,000,000 sheep. ChivUcoy is a thriving 
town of 6338 inhabitants, wide- streets, fine shops, new church 
and schools, club-house, free library, theatre, printing office, 
hotel, &c. It is 31 leagues from Buenos Ayres, the train taking 



128 HANDBOOK OP THE KIVEE PLATE. 

six hoiirs. Coliqueo's friendly Indians often come here. The 
railway is being pushed on to Bragado, 30 miles farther west. 
The schools comit 510 children. Strangers should inquire for 
Mr. Michael Hearne's general camp-store. 

SOUTH-WESTERN DISTBICTS. 

Canuelag to Tapalqwen. 

Canuelas, a district long famous for its " cabanas " of prize 
sheep, but now rapidly changing into agricultural farms. The 
camps are well watered, and their proximity to town induced 
the first English sheep-farmers forty years ago to settle here. 
The estancias of White and McClymont are among the finest in 
the country, and celebrated for their superior breeds of imported 
cows, horses, and sheep. The Scotch pastor holds religious 
service once a month at McClymont's, there being numerous 
Scotch neighbours. The Irish farmers belong to Father Curran's 
district of Lobos. Among the principal estancias are those of 
Alfaro, Villegas, Acosta, Castro, Ball, Thompson, Dickson, Han- 
Ion, and Harilaos. Stock: 20,000 cows, 25,000 horses, 1,000,000 
sheep. The population, of natives and foreigners, is about equal. 
The village of Canuelas, 11 leagues S.W. of Buenos Ayres, 
has 1052 inhabitants, handsome church and schools, several good 
shops, brick factories, &c. It is pleasantly situated, 5 leagues 
from San Vicente railway station, and there is a project of rail- 
way from the Lobos branch to Canuelas. At Marcos Paz sta- 
tion is Mr. Forbes's meat-packing factory. 

Navarro, comprising some of the best pastures in the province, 
has several first-class estancias, viz. — Norris, Gahan, Unzue, 
Casey, Maguire, Kenny, Costa, Almera, Diaz, Papsdorf, Maxwell, 
and Moll. The Irish farmers are numerous and wealthy. The 
lands are watered by streams falling into the Salado or into the 
great lake of Navarro. Stock : 40,000 cows, 25,000 horses, and 
1,000,000 sheep. Land under tillage, 10,000 acres. Although 
heavily stocked these lands are always in good condition, never 



THE PEOVINCE OF BUENOS ATEES. 129 

running short of water. Half the adult population consists of 
foreigners. The village of Navarro, 17 leagues W.S.W. of 
Buenos Ayres, has 1426 inhabitants, church, schools, club, 
shops, &c. It is more than a century old, having been established 
as a frontier outpost in 1744, although the streets have still an 
unfinished look. There is an Irish Eacing Club, which holds 
meetings at stated periods. A coach plies daily to Lobos Eail- 
way station (5 leagues), the journey to Buenos Ayres being made 
in six hours. 

Ldbos, a large, fertile, and prosperous district, with a nume- 
rous Irish population. Among the foreign estancias are 
Murphys, Caseys, O'Gormans, Moores, Livingstones, O'Neills, 
Geoghegans, Lawlers, &c., but the bulk of the lands still belongs 
to native proprietors, such as Carril, Urquiola, Acosta, Burgos, 
ViEales, Kuiz, Casavalle, Gutierrez, Arevalo, and Villoldo. The 
camps are generally fine, though in some places marshy. Besides 
the lake of Lobos there is a larger one called Cubu-cubu, cover- 
ing about 10 square miles. The district is heavily stocked, with 
30,000 cows, 25,000 horses, and 2,000,000 sheep. About half 
the inhabitants are Europeans, and agriculture has made much 
progress, there being several well-cultivated chacras. The town 
of Lobos, founded in 1803, has 1660 inhabitants, church, schools, 
bank, two English shops, English doctor, mill, and several fine 
houses arid shops. The branch railway to Merlo brings Buenos 
Ayres within four hours by rail. The Irish chaplain is Eev. 
Mr. Curran. 

Guardia Monte. — Half this department is held by three native 
proprietors, Terrero, Videla, and Urquiola. There are numerous 
English estancias, such as those of Dillon, McClymont, Boyd, 
Brady, Lyall, Malcom, White, Eussell, Killimed, Hogan, Craig, 
Moran, iSlcLoughlin, Muldowney, Kenny, and Martin. The 
camps are well watered and abound in peach-plantations. The 
poisonous weed, " romerilla," is common, but sheep of the district 
wiU not eat it. Stock : 40,000 cows, 30,000 horses, and 1,500,000 
sheep. In this department the Dictator Eosas passed his early 



130 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVER PLATE. 

years of gaucho life : the natives of Monte used to be considered 
lawless. There are 200 chacras under grain, the Municipality 
selling farm-lots at 2 hard dollars per acre. The village of 
Guardia Monte, with 884 inhabitants, has a church, school, prison, 
and 25 shops, including the camp-store of O'Gorman and Co. 
It was founded in 1774 as a frontier post : the new church of 
St. Michael was built chiefly by subscription, some of the wealthy 
Scotch farmers generously aiding the work. The coach goes 
daily to the Lobos Eailway station. 

Saladillo, a frontier department, extending S.W. from the river 
Saladillo to the Indian country. Being newly settled, it is 
chiefly held by native estancieros, and there are few English 
sheep-farmers. The largest establishments are those of Toledo, 
Carranza, Barrera, Decoud, Castro, Atucha, Acosta, Unzue, 
Albert, Hardoy, Bedoya, Cazon, and Justo. Among the English 
proprietors we find Connors, Cormacks, Butlers, Eoberts, &e. 
Stock: 300,000 cows, 60,000 horses, and 2,000,000 sheep. 
Two-thirds of the inhabitants are natives; the number of 
English does not exceed 300. The lands are watered by 
numerous lagoons and arroyos, the largest of the former being 
Lakes Potrillo, Verdosa, and Ballimanca. Fort Ballimanca is 
on Unzue's estancia, and 5 leagues farther, in Indian territory, 
is the last settler, an Irishman. This is one of the most exten- 
sive districts in the province, and the population is only three 
to the square mile. The village of Saladillo, 33 leagues S.W. 
of Buenos Ayres, has 637 inhabitants, there being four men to 
ttree women. The school is attended by 209 children. The 
department counts 7341 souls. 

Las Flores, a large department beyond the Salado, now rapidly 
improving by reason of the Southern Eailway coimecting it with 
town. The principal foreign settlers are Musgrave, Gebbie, 
White, Eobson, Kelly, Manson, Mason, Beckford, Foster, Brown, 
Luitcher, Seeber, MuUer, Schmarsow, Van Praet, and Weymeyer. 
Land is comparatively cheap, say 3000Z. to 6000Z. per league. 
Some of the native estancias are of great extent, the finest being 



THE PROVINCE OP BUENOS ATBES. 131 

those of Chas, Eamirez, Paz, Kosas, Elizalde, Solanet, Peredo. 
Eojas, and Amadeo. The Southern Eailway has a station at the 
Chas estancia. The village of Carmen de Floras, with 970 
inhabitants, was only founded in 1857. Eight leagues beyond 
the Salado and 130 miles from Buenos Ayres there are 20 
shops, 3 hotels, 2 mills, and schools attended by 110 children. 
The Municipality has marked out chacra lots of 100 acres all 
round the town ; these may be bought for about 3 hard 
dollars per acre. The department is well stocked, counting 
200,000 cows, 100,000 horses, and 3,000,000 sheep. About half 
the population are foreigners. The journey to Buetios Ayres 
by train takes seven hours, via Altamirano junction. Coaches 
for Azul and Bahia Blanca start from Las Plores. 

Tapalquen is still one-half Indian territory, and takes its name 
from the river so called by the Indians. It extends some 80 
miles in a S.W. direction to the mountain range of Quilla- 
lanquen, 200 miles distant from Buenos Ayres. On the Silva 
estancia is the old Indian settlement called Tapera de Tapalquen, 
but the new town is 4 leagues farther north, on Balcarce's 
estancia, near Fort Estomba. It has 1026 inhabitants, sundry 
shops, but as yet neither schools nor church, the place being 
nawly marked out, and much retarded by the dread of Indians. 
It is midway from Buenos Ayres to Bahia Blanca, about 70 
leagues from either. An area of 30,000 acres around the town 
has been set apart for agriculture, and some hundred chacras are 
under cultivation. Population of the department, 2394, being 
one to the square mile : fully one-fourth are Indians. • The 
principal estancias are those of Balcaroe, Pena, Oasares, Sheridan, 
Lezama, Silva, Belgrano, Portugues, Jurado, Pereyra, Barrio- 
novo, Eosas, Spigno, &c. Stock : 250,000 cows, 30,000 horses, 
and 600,000 sheep. About one-tenth the inhabitants are Eu- 
ropeans. Land is worth lOOOZ. per league 



K 2 



132 HANDBOOK OF THE RIVER PLATE. 

SOUTHERN DISTRICTS. 

Barracas to Dolores. 

Barracas del^ Sud is separated from North Barracas, one of 
the city suburbs, by the Arroyo del Eiachuelo. It was formerly 
the seat of the saladero business, but these establishments were 
removed to Ensenada after the yellow fever of 1871, and since 
then Barracas has lost its importance. The slaughter used to 
exceed 500,000 head of cattle each season. The village is still 
a place of some bustle, being the terminus of the City of Buenos 
Ayres tramways, and also traversed by the railways to Ensenada 
and Chascomus. It has a fine church, theatre, shops, schools, 
&c., and is surrounded by 300 chaoras, belonging to Demarchi, 
Nunez, Torres, MacMnlay, Sanders, Suarez, Luniza, &c. The 
land is low and swampy, but good for pasture. Population, 5645, 
mostly Basq[ues and Italians. 

Lomas de Zamora, one of the favourite summer resorts of 
merchants and others, is a small rural department traversed by 
the Southern Eailway. Its green lanes, breezy slopes, thick 
plantations, and numerous country-seats, combine to make it one 
of the most charming of our suburbs. The finest residences are 
those of Green, Temperley, Livingston, Glover, Brown, JacobB, 
Drysdale, Bell, Lanus. 

The village of Lomas, with a few hundred inhabitants, is 
3 leagues S. of Buenos Ayres, has a handsome church, schools 
attended by 80 children, also a Protestant chapel near Mr. 
Green's, an English hotel, several shops and hack-coaches, with 
a municipal council of four members. The famous estates of 
Monte Grande and Santa Catalina are over a league west of the 
village, and were originally founded by Mr. Eobertson's colony 
in 1826. Monte Grande now belongs to Mr. Eair. Santa 
Catalina for many years belonged to Mr. Bookey, and is now a 
Government model farm ; the plantations comprise 2,000,000 
trees. This district is almost entirely agricultural, and land has 



THE PEOVINCE OP BUENOS AYEES. 133 

of late risen to exorbitant values. At the Lanus cliacra there 
is a station of the Southern Eailway, also a race-course. 

San Vicente is partly agricultural, partly pastoral ; some of 
the first sheep-farms having been established here forty years 
ago. It is now thickly studded with Bells, Eobsons, Dalys, 
Kennys, Browns, McGaws, Nelsons, Smiths, Buchanans, Wilkies, 
Gowlands, Fergussons, Sordans, Glews, Harratts, McFarquhars, 
Paulkes, Williams, Freers, Donselaars, and other English and 
German farmers. The camps are low but good for sheep, and 
watered by affluents of the Sanborombon. Stock : 10,000 cows, 
20,000 horses, and 1,500,000 sheep. The only native pro- 
prietors of any note are Llanos, Lopez, Udaquiola, Pena, 
Casoo, and Merlo. The Scotch farmers have a chapel near 
the Eobson estancia ; the L-ish belong to the district in charge 
of the resident priest at Chascomus. San Vicente is a poor 
hamlet of 5G3 souls, but maintains an omnibus in connec- 
tion with the Southern Eailway station, where people some- 
times alight for shooting. It is 10 leagues S. of Buenos 
Ayres, has a church, 7 shops, 42 houses, and a school of 60 
children. 

Banchos, the cradle of sheep-farming ; it was in this partido 
that Sheridan, Harratt, and Hannah made their beginning half- 
a-century ago. The first died in 1844, the second in 1849, the 
third sold his estancia and went home to Scotland in 1869. 
Among the present foreign estaneieros we find Shennan, Krabbe, 
Welchman, Lowry, Gibbings, Harratt, Thorp, Thwaites, Glennon, 
Hunt, Millar, Cowan, Purvis, Jeppener, Pettigrew. The only 
large native estancias are those of Alegre, Videla, Villanueva, 
and Lopez : at the first there is a railway station, between 
Altamirano and Eanchos. The camps are mostly low, often 
flooded, but never exposed to drought, the lagoons being nume- 
rous and permanent. The district is heavily stocked : 33,000 
cows, 28,000 horses, and 1,000,000 sheep. Agriculture is in 
a backward state. There are fine gardens and plantations at the 
Gibbings and Shennan estancias ; the latter was the property of 



134 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVER PLATE. 

Mr. Hannah, who obtained a silver medal at Paris for Negretti 
wool. Eanchos is a village of 910 inhabitants, and much 
improved by the railway. It has a fine new church, schools 
attended by 220 children, and several shops. It is 22 leagues S. 
of Buenos Ayres. 

Chascomus is a large and thicHy-settled district, comprising 
numerous Scotch farmers. The chief estancias are those of 
Miguens, Newton, Gandara, Fair, Bell, Plowes, Calderon, 
Sheddon, Brown, Casalins, Wallace, Wilde, Wilson, Kuf&nan, 
Shiel, Coe, Fernandez, Buchanan, Dodds, Green, Girado, Mul- 
lady, Thwaites, Lacombe, Lezama, Huergo, Johnston, Nowell, 
Maxwell, Graham, Vivot, Anchorena, Frias, Alvarez, Oehoa, 
Alsina, Eobson, and Burnet. The lands are fertile and well 
watered. Besides the rivers Sanborombon and Salado there are a 
dozen large lakes, such as the Enoadenadas, Chis-chis, and Vital ; 
the estanoia Espartillar, of Mr. Fair, is one of the finest in the 
province, comprising 42 sheep-stations or puestos ; it was first 
settled sixty years ago by one Barati, who had two pieces 
of artillery mounted, that are still shown by Mr. Eeid. The 
Newton estancia is another splendid establishment. There are 
two chapels for Scotch residents : one at Jeppener, another at 
Adela. Chascomus is one of the best rural towns, with 3316 
inhabitants ; it is beautifully situated on a large lake, from which 
the railway takes several tons of fish daily to Buenos Ayres, 
the distance being 73 miles. Irish pastor, Monsiguor Carley ; 
Scotch, Eev. Mr. Ferguson. 

Dolores is a small and populous district, comprising some 
200 estancias, of which the principal are those belonging to 
Anchorena, Parravicini, Diaz, Escribano, White, Almiron, Mada- 
riaga, Yates, and Aguero. There are numerous rivers and 
lagoons. The forest of TordiUo lies S.E. of Dolores town, 
covering an area of 100 square miles. Stock : 60,000 cows, 
20,000 horses, and 600,000 sheep. Agriculture has made some 
progress, there being 250 small chacras with 30,000 acres under 
tillage. There are few English settlers, but the extension of the 



THE PROVINCE OP BUENOS ATEES. 135 

Southern Eailway, now completed, will give an impulse to the 
district. The town of Dolores, the best in the south, has 3123 
inhabitants, church, bank, schools, theatre, town-hall, and plaza. 
It is about 7 leagues from the seaboard, the great Anchorena 
estancia intervening. About one-third of the population of the 
department is foreign, chiefly French or Basques. There are 
75 tame Indians. Dolores is 40 leagues S. of Buenos Ayres. 



SOUTH COAST. 

Quilmes to Mar-Chiquita. 

Quilmes, one of the most delightful suburbs, is equally re- 
markable for its fine country-seats, picturesque scenery, thick 
plantations, and model-farms. Latham's cabana of prize sheep 
and horses ; Clark's chacra and woods of Bella Vista ; David- 
son's farm of Santo Domingo ; and Pereyra's grand estate near 
Punta Lara, are in this district and make it famous. The 
Quilmes were a tribe of Indians brought captive from Tucuman 
by the Spaniards and settled here, the last descendant dying in 
1869. Mr. John Clark, now deceased, was one of the earliest 
English settlers, his property extending for miles and being 
tastefully planted. The Pereyra estate, however, eclipses al- 
most every other in the country. The vUlage of Quilmes, 
overlooking the Eiver Plate, boasts some charming quintas, 
and is surrounded by small farms; over 100,000 acres are 
under crops. The quintas of Bagley, Walker, Simpson, Bate, 
Casares, Bernal, Bilbao, &c., are of sumptuous taste. The 
village has 1586 inhabitants, elegant plaza, tramway, church, 
school of 220 children, and distant by rail only forty minutes 
from Buenos Ayres. English physician, Dr. Wilde. Among 
the foreign property holders are Brown, Eobson, Yates, Black, 
Hudson, Young, Watson, Boyd, Barton, Thomson, Sandes, 
Wheatly, Westhoven, Graham, Eoche. 

Ensenada extends along the coast from QuUmes to Magda- 



136 HANDBOOK OP THE KITEE PLATE, 

lena, the land being mostly low and marshy, but good for 
sheep. George Bell's estancia is the finest in the department ; 
the others of note are those of Iraola, PiSero, Ponce, Arana, 
Merlo, Videla, Chaves, Taylor, Cooper, Mahon, Garaghan, 
Gilbert, &c. Near the Southern Eailway is the large farm 
known as Oldendorff's, once famous for agriculture and im- 
proved breeds of cattle. Ensenada is chiefly important for its 
port, which the Spaniards used for two centuries. When the 
bar is dredged away and the piers are finished there will be 
ample accommodation for 1000 sea-going vessels : a temporary 
pier has been erected at Punta Lara, 2800 feet long. Mr. 
Wheelright's railway terminus is abreast of the old Spanish 
fort at Ensenada. There are several saladeros established 
here. The lazaretto station has been removed to Martin 
Garcia. The village is 36 miles from Buenos Ayres, and 
counts 575 inhabitants, including 73 school-children. Stock ; 
50,000 cows, 30,000 horses, and 1,000,000 sheep. 

Magdalena has a coast-line of 22 leagues from Arroyo Pes- 
cado to the mouth of the Sanborombon, passing Point Indio, 
where there is a light-ship stationed. The coast is in many 
places lined with a thick plantation. The camps are in general 
low, but so well adapted for sheep-farming that wool from this 
district fetches the highest price. The principal estancias 
(including also the new department of Eivadavia) are those of 
Pinero, Miguens, Montes-de-Oca, Fernandez, Newton, Eebol, 
Escribano, Simons, Thompson, Eomero, Malcolm, Fink, Hamil- 
ton, Martinez, Bavio, Otamendi, Plowes, lUescas, Chaves, Canal, 
Machado, Elizabe, Achaval, Lopez, Aguilera, Arze, Gomez, 
Moujan, Maciel, Molina, Cajaraville, Villarino, Mulchon. The 
lands are well watered by the Sanborombon and tributaries. 
Agriculture is very backward, except on a few estancias like 
Newton's. Stock : 80,000 cows, 95,000 horses, 600,000 sheep. 
Magdalena village, with 3000 inhabitants, has a school attended 
by 96 children : it is 20 leagues S.E. of Buenos Ayres, and 
runs a daily coach to Ferrari station, on the Southern Eailway. 



THE PROVINCE OF BUENOS ATEES. 137 

It is a league from the seaboard at Point Atalaya, where con- 
siderable saladero produce is shipped. 

Bivadavia, a new partido, formed out of that portion of Mag- 
dalena known as Eincon de Noario, with an area of 68 square 
leagues, beginning at Miguen's estanoia, near Point Indio, and 
taking in the coast-line as far as the mouth of Sanborombon. 
It comprehends the estancias of Pinero, Sisto Fernandez, 
Malcom, Chaves, Hamilton, Otamendi, Thompson, Molina, 
Escribano, and some others. Stock returns included in Mag- 
dalena. Population, 2253, or 3 to the square mile. There is 
no town or village. The Eincon is equidistant (12 leagues) 
from Magdalena and Chascomus ; it affords capital shooting. 

Castelli, another new partido, on the seaboard, formerly part 
of Tordillo. It has a coast-line of 10 leagues from Sanborom- 
bon to Vivoras, and an area of 76 square leagues, of which one- 
half is occupied by the great estates of Martinez-de-Hoz and 
Saenz-Valiente. The former ig remarkable for its Moravian 
Negretti sheep, Durham cows, and blood horses, comprising 52 
puestos with over 100,000 sheep. The Saenz-Valiente or Eincon 
de Lopez has thick woods called Eiojanos. The Alzaga estan- 
oia at Postrera is also a fine establishment. Those of less 
note belong to Islar, Anchorena, Gonsalez, Tapia, Sacristi, 
Alvarez, Botet, Agtiero, Mendoza, Sotelo, Pereyra, Almiron, and 
Eeynoso. At the Martinez estancia there is an orphan asylum 
of 86 boys and girls. 

Tordillo, with an area of 47 square leagues and only 704 
inhabitants, comprises 16 estancias, viz. those of Anchorena, 
San Eoman, Morete, Joseph Butler, Vallejo, William Thomson, 
Peter Crinigan, Madrid, Eamirez, Arance, Alday, Laferriere, 
Boer, John Hardy, Michael Hessiger, and Thomas Davis. The 
Anchorena estanoia, 25 square leagues,' occupies most of the 
department, and stretches along the coast from Vivoras to Ajo, 
low, marshy ground. The forest of Tordillo begins 5 leagues 
from the coast and extends up to Dolores. Stock : 100,000 cows, 
50,000 horses, 300,000 sheep. There is no town or village. 



138 



HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEE PLATE. 



Ajo, witli a coast-line of 20 leagues, is well known for the 
Gibson and Gilmour estancias, besides tbose of Cobo, Pardo, 
Leloir, Suarez, George Bell, Patrick Moran, G. Palmer, Esco- 
bar, Campos, Falcon, Girardo, Diaz, Sancbez, Gorosito, Ibarra, 
Quinteros, Cordoba, Fernandez, Cabrera, Eodriguez, Alvarez, 
Mendez, Blanco, Bello. The country is wild, woody, and 
watered. The port of Tuyu, 2 leagues up the Ajd river, has 
vessels weekly to and from Buenos Ayres, 50 leagues distant. 

Tuiju extends along the Atlantic from Montes Grandes to 
Mar-Chiquita, 12 leagues, with an average width of 8 leagues, 
comprising a dozen estancias and barely 700 inhabitants. It 
was formerly part of Monsalvo, and has no town or village, 
being wholly distinct from Ajo and the town of Tuyii. Land 
is worth ^300,000 m/c per league. The Alzaga and Anchorena 
properties cover 40 square leagues, the rest being divided be- 
tween Aguirre, Leloir, Subiaurre, Lastra, Pena, Trelles, Sigis- 
mundo, Herrera, Serrantes, Gomez, and Villagos. The country 
is wild and thickly wooded, numerous lagoons, coast-line of 
sand-hills, and Montes Grandes famous for the best Creole 
horses. Tuyii department is over 60 leagues S. of Buenos 
Ayres. 

Mar-GMquita, with a coast-line of 9 leagues, derives its name 
from a gulf resembling an inland sea, 5 miles long, and com- 
prises 14 estancias, viz. Anchorena, Aguirre, Gomez, Barbosa, 
Ibanez, Peralta, Eamos, Bernal, Torres, Ezeyza, Sosa, &c. The 
Anchorena estates are 600 square miles, including Loma de 
Gongora, where Dr. Holder and Mr. Eeddy fatten cattle for 
Buenos Ayres. The inhabitants are mostly natives of San- 
tiago, the proprietors rich men who reside in Buenos Ayres 
and visit the estancias rarely. Stock, 840,000 cows, 65,000 
horses, 1,500,000 sheep. Distance from Buenos Ayres 75 
leagues. 



THE PKOVINCE OF BUENOS ATBES. 139 

THE TAE SOUTH. 

From the Salado to Patagones. 

Pila is separated from the Eanchos by the Salado, has an 
area of 141 square leagues, of which more than one-half belongs 
to the Anchorena family, the only other estancias of note being 
Stegmann, Miguens, Elizalde, Agiiero, Girada, Casco, Senillosa, 
Aguilera, Marin, Izurrieta, Casalins, Gamboa, Scott, Barragan, 
Gallo, and Prado. The lands of Anchorena run 50 miles in a 
line to the Vecino. The estancia Stegmann, at Poronguitos, 
obtained a medal for Negretti wool at the Paris Exhibition. 
Camarones, the Agiiero estate, is also a model sheep-farm. 
Land is worth ^300,000 per league. Stock : 220,000 cows, 
90,000 horses, 200,000 sheep. About 35 leagues from Buenos 
Ayres. 

Vecino takes its name from a river which floods the country 
for miles in wet seasons. The principal estancias are Ocampo, 
Agiiero, Pinedo, Ponce, Eodriguez, Fresco, Castano, Iturralde, 
Sosa, Olivares, Pizarro, Garcia, Puyol, Vasquez, Pereyra, Lara, 
Maldonado, Cepeda, and Newton. The lands are low, with 
numerous lagoons, but suitable for sheep. Stock : 100,X)00 cows, 
25,000 horses, 200,000 sheep, the latter of inferior quality. 
About 50 leagues from Buenos Ayres. No town or village. 

Monsalvo occupies a large stretch of country between Dolores 
and Mar-Chiquita, mostly low and swampy, but in part thickly 
wooded. The family of Eamos Mejia own half the department. 
The other proprietors are Alzaga, Pena, Lastra, Pereyra, 
Eodriguez, Areoo, Diaz, Acosta, Gonsalez, Logan, Varela, 
Invaldi, Arosa, Centurion, and Soriano. The forest of Monsalvo 
is of great extent, about 8 leagues from the seaboard. Stock : 
300,000 cows, 60,000 horses, 1,500,000 sheep. Distance from 
Buenos Ayres over 60 leagues. No town or village. There are 
77 English residents. 

Ayacucho lies between the Vecino and Tandil; it is a wild. 



140 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

unsettled country with numerous lakes and streams, about 
midway between the Sierras of Tandil and the Atlantic, the 
nearest point being 13 leagues from the coast. The estaneias 
belong to Castano, Iraola, Girado, Basualdo, Subiaurre, Lezama, 
Monasterio, Ferreyra, Senillosa, Morales, Diaz, Lopez, Garay, 
Burgos, Fernandez, Mayol, Eebol, Miro, Vignal, Gomez, Bargas, 
Bisuarra, Barrientos, Pereyra, Salinas, Henrique. Dolores may 
be reached on horseback in a day, and then by rail another day 
to Buenos Ayres. Statistics are included with TandU. 

Arenales another new partido, between Pila and TandU, com- 
prises 5 large estaneias averaging nearly 200 square miles 
each, viz. Pereyra, Lezama, Diaz Velez, Eufino, and Vela. It 
is a wild, thinly-settled territory, well watered, and skirted on 
the south by the high road from Dolores to Tandil. Among 
the lesser estaneias are Aroyo, Balbin, Iraola, Miguens, Godoy, 
Alvarez, Merlo, Corbera, Eodriguez, Dominguez, Pourtale, 
Palacios, Gonsalia, Eivas. Stock : 600,000 cows, 100,000 horses, 
2,000,000 sheep. Distance from Buenos Ayres, 60 leagues. 
No town or vUlage, There are' 37 English residents. 

Ranch, called after a valiant German officer who conquered 
all these territories from the Indians in 1822. It embraces a 
large tract between Las Flores and Tandil, and is well watered. 
Proprietors : Vela, Diaz Velez, Udaquiola, Casal, Basualdo, 
Portela, Centurion, Eojas, Echeverria, Silva, Licate, Moujan, 
Rodriguez, Alzaga, Martinez, Letamendi, Casalins, Serpa, 
Gonsalez, Geneva, Chiclana, Medrano, Eoldan, Nunez. The 
statistics are included with Azul. There is no town or village. 
Distance from Buenos Ayres, 50 leagues. 

Azul, a fertile, picturesque, and well-populated district, about 
60 leagues from Buenos Ayres, with the following estaneias : 
Anchorena, Aoosta, Llavallol, Rosas, Leloir, Martinez, Pardo, 
Mancilla, Vidal, Botet, Iturralde, Dominguez, UUoa, Lahitte, 
Alcantara, Luques, Planes, Mifiana, Gomez, Alvarez, Barda, 
Roldan, Peiialba, MuSoz, Serrantes, Reynoso, Lawrie, Cox, 
Tucker, Gordon, Freres, Tenor, Grierson, &c. The frontier 



THE PEOVINCE OF BUENOS ATEES. 141 

runs S.E. along a range of hills from Sierra Quillalanquen to 
Sierra la Tinta at the Quequen Grande, about 25 leagues from 
the ocean. Land may be bought for ^200,000 to ^300,000 
per league. Some Englishmen do a lucrative business in 
fattening cattle for the Buenos Ayres market. Agriculture has 
made much progress, there being 200 wheat-farms with 150,000 
acres under tillage. A branch of the Southern Eailway will 
shortly connect Azul with the metropolis. Stock : 1,300,000 
cows, 100,000 horses,, 3,000,000 sheep. One-third of the 
inhabitants are " tame Indians,'' and the district has a lawless 
reputation. The town of Azul, 21 leagues S.W. of Las Flores 
Eailway terminus, is a thriving frontier post and garrison, with 
162 houses, church, schools, bank, town-hall, prison, &c. ; also 
some mills and fine quintas on the Azul river. A large Indian 
trade is done, including stolen hides. 

Tandil, a hilly district on the verge of civilization, remarkable 
for its picturesque sierras and famous rocking-stone. The 
Sierra Tinta abounds in marble of the agate family, varying 
from 12 to 20 feet below the surface, especially on the Vela 
estancia : it assumes various colours according to depth, and is 
found about 10 leagues beyond the town of Tandil. The rock- 
ing-stone, about a league from the town, is a huge boulder so 
nicely poised that a gentle breeze moves it, but Eosas yoked 
1000 horses to pull it down and failed. A superstition was 
attached to this stone a few years ago, when a gaucho fanatic 
assembled a band of 100 followers and murdered forty Europeans 
about Tandil. The sierras give birth to some fine streams, 
such as Huesos, Chapaleofii, Tandil, &c. The lands-are coarse, 
and best suited for horned cattle; the usual price is ^300,000 
per league. Large quantities of wheat are grown on the slopes 
of the sierras, and potatoes also do well, but maize often suffers 
from frosts. Tandil is situated in a pleasant valley lined by 
poplars and willows. It has church, school, bank, hotel, mill 
town-hall, and numerous inhabitants. The journey to Buenos 
Ayres takes three days iiid Dolores or Las Elores. Estancias : 



142 HANDBOOK 01" THE EITBE PLATE. 

Miguens, Vela, Casares, Lumb, Gomez, Saenz- Valiente, Lopez, 
Solanet, Butler, Arana, Fugh, Hinde, Osgood, Crebbis, Good- 
fellow, Burnett, Guinness, Gebbie, McKinlay, Latirie, Leonard, 
McAusland, Harrow, Coony, James, Uriarte, Bamirez, Saavedra, 
Anchorena, Iraola, Machado, and Cordoba. 

Balcarce, better known as Laguna de Los Padres, lies between 
the ocean and tbe Sierra Vulcan, with a seaboard of 15 leagues, 
including Cape Corrientes. The country is traversed by 
streams and hill-ranges, the latter being known as Los Padres 
and Vulcan. It is now perfectly secure from Indians, and 
large estancias of sheep and cattle are held, chiefly by natives. 
The coast abounds in seals. The estancias are Martinez-de- 
Hoz, Peiia, Lezama, Baudrix, Peralto-Eamos, Pereyra, Auld, 
Subiaurre, Saenz - Valiente, Otamendi, Anchorena, Suarez, 
Trapani, Campos, Burgos, Vivot, Llanos, Eeynoso, Sueldo, 
Deodria, Escobar, Castelli, Barragan, Nero, Luengo, Sanchez, 
Amarante, &c. The pastures are so rich that the whole district 
is a kind of fattening farm for the city markets. It is exactly 
midway between Buenos Ayres and Bahia Blanoa, 75 leagues 
from each. 

In 1747 the Jesuits founded a settlement on the lake 
which still preserves their name, situate 4 leagues inland in a 
N.W. course from Cape Corrientes. The site was well chosen, 
being suitable for an agricultural establishment, of easy access 
to the sea, and offering every facility for defence. The Fathers 
were unable to reduce the wild pampa tribes to habits of order 
and industry, and the establishment was abandoned after ten 
years of unavailing labour. Some remains of the buildings and 
the fruit trees planted by the Jesuits still remain. The lake 
covers about 2 square miles in extent, and is surrounded by 
thick plantations. About 3 leagues eastward, at the mouth of 
Arroyo Cardalito, near Loberia Chica, a site has been marked out 
for a town, and there is a port suitable for vessels of some size. 
Don Patricio Peralta Kamos has a saladero here with an iron 
pier, also a school, church, &c., and a town is being commenced. 



THE PKOVINOE OP BUENOS ATBES. 



143 



Necochea stretches from the sierras of Tandil to the Atlantic, 
having a seaboard of 16 leagues between Quequen-Grande and 
Cristiano-Muerto, and extending inland 32 leagues to Fort 
Otamendi. The lands are watered by numerous streams tri- 
butary to the above two rivers. This district was formerly 
included in Loberia : there is not half an inhabitant to the 
square mile, the lands being held by wealthy proprietors. The 
Diaz Velez estancia covers 350 square miles, that of Nepomne 
Fernandez 300, and the other proprietors are Alzaga, 
Anchorena, Areco, Homos, Lanuz, Prat, Ezeiza, Vela, Lopez, 
Iraola, Lastra, Echenegucia, TJdaquiola, Herrera, Perez, Cobo, 
Fulco, Arze, Negretto, Olivera, Kico, Larriba, Chaves, Eoque 
Perez, Viton, Santamaria, Eodriguez, Tobal, Lara, John Cornell, 
Canal, Echeverria, &c. It is proposed to build a town at Paso 
Otero on the Quequen-Grande, in front of Olivera's] estancia 
house. This is 12, leagues from the month, and another ford 
half way down is Paso Galisteo. 

Loheria a wild, thinly-settled district, watered by the Quequen, 
Moro, a,nd other important streams, with a seaboard of 10 leagues 
lined with sand-hills. The pastures are excellent, raising the 
largest cattle in the province. Estancias : thgse of Guerrico, 
Saenz- Valiente, Diaz Velez, Martinez-de-Hoz, Gaynor, Lastra, 
Luro, Peredo, Saavedra, Cuestra, Cobo, Dasso, CastaSera, Nep- 
Fernandez, Maohado, Otamendi, Barbosa, Arruda, Alegre, 
Torres, Casares, Pieres, Eeynoso, Flores, Eico, Sabatte, Suarez,_ 
Gandara, Gainard, Arze, Diana, Galianoj Maldonado, Pita, 
Otero, Picado, Albarellos, &o. Stock: 1,500,000 cows, 150,000 
horses, 1,000,000 sheep, it being remarkable that in this depart- 
ment there are more cows than sheep. Land may be rented at 
g20,000 per league, or bought at ^300,000. The Quequen- 
Grande is navigable for some leagues from its mouth, where it is 
proposed to dredge the bar and form a port for these remote 
camps, 88 leagues from Buenos Ayres and 60 from Bahia 
Blancha. Loberia derives its name from the seals or Lobos 
that abound on the coast. 



144 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE., 

Tres Arroyos' com^Tises nearly 6000 square miles of almost 
uninhabited country, until lately held by the Indians, extending 
for 24 leagues along the Atlantic from Christiano Muerto to 
Sauce Grande, and traversed by the Tres Arroyos and Quequen 
Salado, which run parallel and fall into the ocean. The Sierra 
Pillahuinc6 is the boundary on the side of the Indian pampas, 
being some 20 leagues from the coast; farther south is the 
Sierra Ventana, the highest peak of which is fixed by Fitzroy at 
3350 feet. Estancias: those of Vasquez, Soaje, Olabarria, 
Pereyra, Eohl, Elizalde, Macias, Baigorria,' Dantes, Valdez, 
Aldao, Segui, Lefrangois, Moreno,' Diaz, Sanders, Mird, Machaly, 
Eodriguez, Madero, Casas, Herrera,' Jardin, Viton, Pintos, 
Subiaurre, Garcia, Letamendi, Anchorena, Miguens, Vela, Ochoa, 
Salas, Saravia, Chiclana, Arzac, Alvarez, Orejero, &c. At the 
confluence of the three streams which form Tres Arroyos river 
is the point known as Tres Horquetas, or " three-fork fort," and 
here a new town called Olabarria is being built, 100 leagues 
from Buenos Ayres, and nearly 40 from Bahia Blanca or Azul. 

BaMa Blanca, situate 115 leagues S.W. of Buenos Ayres, may 
be said to have an area of 200 square leagues, taking its limits 
as the following: north, the Sierra Ventana; west, the Eiver 
Sauce Chico ; south, the bay of Bahia Blanca and the Atlantic 
Ocean ; and east, the Eiver Sauce Grande. This part of the 
country, though so remote and little known, offers many advan- 
tages to settlers. In the low grounds the soil is rich and 
alluvial, and well suited for agriculture : irrigation is easily 
obtained. All the quintas of the town are irrigated by a system 
of water-works constructed by Eosas in his expedition of 1833, 
and it still bears the name " Zanja de Eosas." The cultivation 
of wheat is attaining great dimensions. All kinds of fruits 
thrive here remarkably, especially grapes, and from these is 
made the Chocoli wine. Snow is seen at rare intervals, once in 
three or four years. The temperature is dry and windy, and it 
'rains less than at Buenos Ayres. On the high camps the 
grasses are " pastes fuertes," which grows so wide apart that in 



THE PEOVINOB OP BUENOS AYKES. 



145 



wet seasons a soft grass springs up between. The low grounds 
abound in soft grasses, viz.: alfilerillo, trefoil, trevo de olor, 
and gramiUa. 

Timber is indigenous ; willows of the " sauce Colorado " 
species are found on the banks of the Sauce Grande and Sauce 
Chico, suitable for building or firewood. Near Salina Chica, 
about 15 leagues W. of Bahia Blanca, there is an abundance of 
timber, the algarroba being much sought both for firewood and 
for making corral posts. 

This district is one of the most favoured in the province as 
regards an abundance of watercourses. A number of fresh 
water streams flow from the Sierra Ventana through the low 
grounds, never running dry at any season. The salt bed of 
Salina Chica supplies excellent salt, which is gathered in 
summer. 

The town of Bahia Blanca stands 2 leagues from the port. 
The entrance to the bay is easy. The steamer ' Patagones,' for 
which Aguirre and Murga receive a subvention, makes regular 
trips to and from Buenos Ayres. The garrison usually com- 
prises 200 soldiers and 120 National Guards, besides which the 
" friendly Indians '' form a company of 70 lances : these last 
are under the Cacique Francisco Ancalao, who ranks as a 
lieutenant-colonel. The Indians of Salinas Grandes frequently 
come to the town to barter their home-made ponchos and the 
skins of animals and ostrich feathers. 

The history of Bahia Blanca is quite modern. In 1828 the 
fort was founded by Colonel Martiniano Eodriguez, who had 
already founded Tandil. The garrison suffered greatly from 
privation, sickness, and the Indians, till 1833, when Eosas came 
into power. The fort was soon changed into a town, a regular 
service of post-horses was established in all directions, the 
camps were speedily covered with cattle, and r,ll the arable 
lands up to the Sauce Grande laid under grain. The faU of 
Eosas in 1852 was attended with a terrible change ; the Indians 
everywhere spread desolation; they burned the ranches, kUled 



146 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

the, settlers, and carried off the cattle. It was only in 1863 that 
the first efforts were made to re-people the estancias around the 
town. The Naposta valley was the first place settled on, as it 
was suitable for sheep, and these offer little temptation to the 
Indians. Instead of ranches the settlers buUt substantial brick 
houses with flat roof and a parapet all round, a ladder from 
within giving access thereto in case of danger. 

The first sheep-farmers were Sigfior Caronti, a native of 
Como; Messrs. Heusser and Claraz, from Switzerland, wh<>. 
settled in 1864 in the Naposta valley, 4 miles from the town. 
In 1865 came Mr. Arnold, a North American, also in the 
Naposta. The present English settlers are Fred. B. Cobbold, 
John C. Sinclair, James Donner, M. J. Cobbold, Thomas W. 
Smith, C. 8. Broadbend, C. Shuttle, WiUiam Lane, J. Hutchinson, 
Thomas G. Nicholson, G. Shuttle, John G. Walker, Enrique P. 
Cheeke, George E. Catley, Henry John Edwards, Arthur Mildred, 
Thomas E. Wood, John Mildred, H. Linwood, Percy Dobson, 
Brian Smith, H. A. Brackenbury, E. E. Hutchinson, J. E. 
Fawcas, Joseph Eushton, A. W. Parker, Philip H. Holmes, 
A. MoLachlan. There are at present over 200,000 sheep io 
the district. The climate being dry the wools are light and 
not very greasy, but the increase of the flocks is something 
extraordiuary. 

There is at Bahia Blanca an unpretending inn, but English- 
men usually put up at the house of Mr. George Little, a North 
American, who has one of the best shops in the place. The 
Comandante, Colonel Jose Llano, is also very kind to strangers, , 
as well as the Justice of Peace, Don Mariano Mendez, and 
Captain Coronti. The principal wholesale houses are those of 
Francisco Bozano, Mariano Mendez, Galvan and Co., Julian 
Calvente, Miranda, and B. Costa. Parties wanting wagons 
may apply to Santiago Bonfiglio or Manuel Echagues, the first 
a Lombard, the second a Basque : both are worthy of all con- 
fidence, and their charges are reasonable. There are no livery 
stables in the place, but if the stranger wish to make an 



THE PROVINCE OF BUENOS ATEES. 



ia 



excursion lie must look up Hypolito Bramajo, Cayetano Arze, 
or J. Bustos, who tave always fine relays of horses at a rea- 
sonable charge : these men are experienced guides and riiost 
trustworthy. If the visitor wish to push his excursions some 
distance into the Indian country he will do well to hire an 
Indian guide, and the most trustworthy are Pedro Lucero 
and Jose Andres Milipil ; the latter is brother-in-law to the 
Cacique Ancalao. These men also serve as guides in making 
the journey overland to Patagones, a distance of over 40 leagues. 
The traveller must be careful in hiring any other guide than 
the above named, unless well recommended by Mr. Little, 
Senoi Coronti, or the Justice of Peace. 

Bahia Blanca is only 115 leagues overland from Buenos 
Ayres, but the distance by sea is double. The land journey is 
tedious and dif&cult : there is a regular mail-coach service. 
The sea voyage varies according to the weather, and may be 
reckoned at five days. 

The state-schools are attended by 54 boys and 42 girls. The 
port returns show 21 vessels, with 16&5 tons burden. 

Patagones, situate 160 leagues from Buenos Ayres, compre- 
hends the tail-end of the South American continent, from the 
Eio Negro to the Straits of Magellan, between the 41st and 
53rd degrees of south latitude, and 65 and 72 west longitude, 
the eastern boundary being the Atlantic, and the western a 
snowy range of mountains called Cordillera de Nieve, a pro- 
longation of the Andes chain. This vast territory is about six 
times the extent of England: it is as yet for the most part 
unexplored. 

The first impressions of the Eio Negro, as the traveller 
proceeds up the river towards the port of El Carmen, are 
highly agreeable: the bluffs on the north side are about 
150 feet high, and the valley is about 2 leagues wide, the 
river winding its way picturesquely between the cuchillas of 
sandstone. Ascending the cuchilla we come upon a vast plain, 
in some places sandy, in others of argillaceous soil, and again 

L 2 



148 HANDBOOK OP THE PJVEE ELATE. 

covered with small pebbles caUed "piedras chinas." The 
vegetation is mostly of " pastos fuertes " intermiagled ■witli 
" alfilerillo," and here and there a number of thorny shrubs, 
such as "chanar," "piquillin," "algarroba," " mata-perro," 
"una de gato," "maqui de inoienso": this last gives a resin 
which when burnt yields an odour like incense. These shrubs 
seldom grow higher than a man on horseback, although the 
" chanar " trees often give good spade and axe handles. The 
brushwood is no obstacle to horses or cows, but it tears the 
wool off sheep. 

The soil in the valley is of rich alluvial deposits, sometimes 
a little salty, and is fertilized by the river, which has two 
annual floods, one in summer from the melting of the snows of 
the Andes, the second and greater one in winter from the rains 
in the same mountain ranges. Eain is rare, and the climate 
may be called dry. 

It is a pity somebody does not project a joint-stock company 
for farming the beautiful island of Choelechoel, six days by 
steamer from Patagones, up the Eio Negro. Last AprU the 
National Government sent a steamer to explore, which ascended 
390 miles, or 30 miles higher than any previous expedition, 
and the party reported this island to be 60 miles long, with an 
average width of 7 miles, the soil exceedingly rich, the woods 
in clumps on all sides, affording shelter to abundance of 
deer and ostriches. With a steamer of 4 feet draught for the 
Eio Negro, a settlement at Choelechoel of twenty well-armed 
Englishmen would have little to fear from Indians. 

There is no part of the province where trees thrive so well as 
here, and the traveller is struck by the rows of poplars and 
fruit trees on all sides, especially in the islands of the river. 
The vine does remarkably well, and the Chocoli wine would be 
much better if more care were taken with this industry. ■ The 
rivers and lagoons are lined with indigenous willows, called 
" Sauce Colorado " : the wood-cutters make " balsas " of this 
timber, which they sell at El Carmen, as it is very useful for 



THE PKOVINCB OF BUENOS AXKES. 149 

corral posts, building, &o. The river in winding througi the 
valley forms a number of "rincones" of amazing fertility, 
which are easily fenced in for grazing and agricultural purposes. 

Of all the settlements attempted by the old Spaniards on the 
shores of Patagonia, that of the Rio Negro or Patagones is the 
only one now existing. In 1833, when Eosas made his grand 
expedition to the desert, he gave a great impulse to Patagones ; 
he distributed cattle and agricultural implements among the 
poor inhabitants, garrisoned the island of Choelechoel, and 
founded a new town called Guardia Constitucion. The place 
being thus protected, cattle multiplied amazingly, and the salt 
deposits were soon in full work. Salina del Ingles is situate 
near the coast, Salina de Piedra 8 leagues N. of the town, 
and Salina de Espuma 5 leagues W.N.W. of the town, about 
half a league from the river. At the same time the saladeros 
were in full play, wheat was sown on a large scale, and every- 
thing promised well. The fall of Eosas brought a vast 
'change : the Indians devastated the whole country, and the 
Cacique Yanquetruz boasted that he would reduce the wretched 
inhabitants " to live on hares' flesh.'' He kept his word to the 
letter, for the poor people had actually to subsist for a time on 
hares. The present Comandante, Don Julian Murga, made 
peace with the Indians, built a fort called Guardia Mitre, about 
15 leagues above Patagones, brought a stock of 60,000 sheep 
into the valleys, and encouraged settlers. The " salinas " of 
La Piedra and La Espuma are now in full work ; and the wheat 
crop is even larger than at Bahia Blanca. Maize, zapallos, 
melons, potatoes, &c., do remarkably well. Sheep thrive notably. 
There is a group of seventeen Italian families on the south bank, 
opposite China Muerta : they make excellent hams and cheese. 

There are but four English families, viz. Eev. Dr. Humble, 
wife and children ; Mr. John Holmes (war steamer ' Eio Negro') 
and wife; W. Humphreys, Welsh carpenter, wife and four 
children, and a Welsh boatman, named Solomon, with his wife 
and son. 



150 I HANDBOOK OF THE BIVEE PLATE. 

The shop of Mr. Bang, a German, is the Foreign Club of 
the place, and Mr. Bang keeps two vessels trading direct here 
from Hamburg, making two trips every year, which enables him 
to sell goods as cheap as in Buenos Ayres. 

Another English resort is the inn of mine host Bartolo 
Bartolero, a worthy Italian, at whose house all new comers 
should put up. The charge is K35 m/e per day, including 
English spoken, and capital accommodation. 

Colonel Bernal, the Comandante, is most friendly to Englisb-; 
men, and Mr. Atkins wUlj also give them any assistance in 
his power. The fare from Buenos Ayres by sailing vessel is 
^500 ; by steamer ^800 m/o first-class, the latter making the 
trip in four days. The mail-coach from Las Flores, on the 
Southern Eailway, takes the same time. 

There are in Patagones two kinds of sheep ; the pampas are 
large, robust, and long-wooled : they were brought hither by 
the Indians from Chile, and have some affinity to goats. The 
meat is very savoury. The ewes have often twin-lambs, which 
they rear without any difficulty. This race would answer well 
for crossing with smooth-wooled sheep, and Messrs. Kincaid 
are going to cross them with English breeds. The second kind 
of sheep in Patagones is the ordinary mestiza breed. 

The best guide is Cochengo Piedra-Buena, but we can also 
recommend Ureno and Agustin Sosa. Wagons are difficult 
to obtain .unless at exorbitant rates: for the south side apply 
to Solano Alderete, San Javier, or the Italians in front of China- 
Muerta; most of the latter reside in the town. The Eio Negro 
divides Patagones into two distinct towns : the commercial and 
old town is on the north side, comprising the wholesale houses 
of Aguirre and Murga, Abate, Dasso, Mascarelo, &c. On the 
south side lived Mr. SheUer, of the Falkland Islands, whose 
beautiful quinta now belongs to the English Missionary station, 
where Eev. Mr. Humble, M.D., has a chapel, school, and dis- 
pensary. Freight to Buenos Ayres is usually g6 fts. per ton. 
State-school attended by 90 children. 



THE PEOVINCE OF BTJENOg AYBBS. 151 

The town of Carmen is so healthy that no doctor could get a 
living. 

A recent visitor recommends Patagones to new immigrants in 
these words : — " Not only is land offered free to settlers without 
capital, but Messrs. Aguirre and Murga make all advances for 
twelve months of provisions, implements, &c., the only draw- 
backs being a scarcity of hands and the occasional risk of 
locusts." 

The principal estancias are along the banks of the Negro, i 
those on the north being English, on the south side native, situ- 
ated at bends of the river, or " rincones," up to nearly 30 leagues 
from the town of Carmen. The river varies from 40 to 200 
yards in width, the current running about 5 miles an hour. It 
is navigable for steamers drawing 4 feet, all the year, as high as 
Choelechoel, six days' journey up stream. 

The farthest settlers are the four Welsh families who came 

hither five years since from Chupat. These families make 

butter and cheese, which they send by Kincaid's spring cart to 

Patagones, where the retail price of butter is ^12 m/c, or 

- 2«. per lb. 

The fine estancia of Balcleuther belongs to Messrs. Kincaid, 
the first English settlers on the Eio Negro, who came hither in 
1866 with sheep from Azul, and may be considered the founders 
of this thriving little Colony. The estancia house is azotea, 
brick built, like an English farm-house, with all the appoint- 
rnents of farm-sheds, Howard's machinery, corrals made of 
willow and poplar, and some 7000 sheep. Farm-lots on the 
' estancia, which is 2 square leagues or 13,000 acres in extent, 
are held by Captain McGregor (late 93rd Highlanders), the 
brothers Buckland, Mr. Adamson, and a Welsh family named 
Wilson, whose wheat crops this year will make up an aggregate 
pf 600 fanegas. Some of these tenants are only three years 
, established here. 
; Messrs. Kincaid's house is about 18 leagues from the town, at 
a bend of the river, and on the opposite or south bank they have 



152 HANDBOOK OP THE KIVEE PLATK. 

a Pulperia, or camp store for Indian trade : this is in charge of 
the Cacique Hernandez, who has an Indian family around him 
and keeps two boats for crossing over to the estancia, the river 
being here about 200 yards wide. The Indians come at inter- 
vals during nine months of the year, to barter their skins, the 
other three months being their hunting season. The land trafie 
is at present done by carts, which charge ^600 (5Z. sterling) 
each trip, say 20 leagues. Even at this price it will be difficult 
this year to obtain carts and peons to bring the wheat to market, 
as the English have the heaviest crop yet known, fully 4000 
bushels. Farm-labourers can always earn K400 per month, 
besides board, but they are so scarce that many settlers are glad 
to do with tame Indians or gauchos, and on some farms one- 
fourth of the crop has been lost for want of hands. 

The estancia of Messrs. Frazer, Greenstreet, and GreenfeU 
is 3 leagues nearer town than that of Kincaid. Mr. Frazer 
is an Irish gentleman, who served as a lieutenant in the British 
army, and settled here shortly after Kincaid. The estancia San 
Andres, as it is called, covers 2 square leagues, and is stocked 
with 8000 sheep, besides having a wheat-farm that yields some 
1500 bushels. It is little over four hours' ride from toTm, and 
2 leagues inside the fort of Captain Moreno, who has a gar- 
rison of 40 men. Messrs. Frazer and Co. keep about a dozen 
men always employed, and have a fine azotea house, with a boat 
for crossing the river, which is here 200 yards wide. 

On the south bank of the Eio Negro, about 9 leagues from 
town, is the estancia of two Caciques named Miguel and Manuel 
Linares, the former a colonel in the Argentine service, who has 
100 Indians at his call to repel any inroad of marauders: 
this place is called San Gabriel, and the men raise much 
wheat. They are nominally Christians, and have their children 
baptized. 

Aguirre and Murga, whose pasture and tillage farms are 
scattered over 40 leagues, have twenty English threshing-ma- 
chines. They own also the steamer which plies to Buenos 



Th!E PBOVINCE op BUENOS AYEB8. 153 

Ayres, have tlie concession for working the Salinas and con- 
structing a railway thither, and their saladero loads three or four 
ships every month. Mr. Hume and the other engineers began 
the surveys last November for the line to Salinas. 

This railway will traverse 40 miles of level camp, on the 
north side of the river, almost uninhabited, as far as the 
Salinas. 

The export of salt from Patagones varies from 100 to 500 tons 
monthly, chiefly for Buenos Ayres and Eio Grande. A bag of 
150 lbs. salt costs in Patagones Si m/c, or 8d. English. 

Don Domingo Oro's mill, a league nearer than Salina Chica, 
is unable to grind enough flour for local wants. Most of the 
wheat is bought by Aguirre and others, who ship it to Buenos 
Ayres. 



154 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBE PLATE. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SANTA FE. 

Santa F^ was first colonized by Cabot, who founded a little 
settlement in 1527, under tbe name of Sancti-Spiritus, on an 
island at tbe moutb of the Coronda river. The territory of the 
province extends from 29 to 33^ degrees S. lat., having an area 
of 36,500 square miles. The boundaries are — 

North, the Arroyo del Eey, which flows through the Gran 
Chaeo, and debouches into the Parana, in front of Goya. 

uth, the go Arroyo del Medio, which separates the province 
from Buenos Ayres. 

East, the river Parana. 

West, the Eio Salado on the side of Santiago del Estero, the 
Quebracho valley and Tortugas stream on the side of Cordoba. 

When the navigator Cabot ascended the river to Paraguay 
the fort of Sancti-Spiritus soon fell into the hands of the Timbii 
and Quiloaza Indians, descendants of the Guaranis ; but some 
years later, Garay made a second settlement, some of his men 
intermarrying with the Indians. In this manner the city of 
S*» Ee was founded in 1573. 

The province comprises four departments : 





Sq. Miles. 


Public Lands. 


Priv. Prop. 


Santa Fe . . 


. 22,000 


12,600 


9,400 


San Jose . . . 


. 2,100 




2,100 


San Geronimo . 


. 5,000 


40 


4,860 


Rosario 


. 7,400 


1,100 


6,300 



The first is almost entirely in the Chaco, on which side the 
frontier is every day advancing with new settlements. Until 
very recently the northen line of limits was supposed to start 
from San Javier, the Calif ornian colony in front of La Paz, on 



SANTA TE. 



155 



the Parana, and run almost due west by the following forts : — 
Palo-labrado, Cayasta-vieja, Mortero, Chanar, Cerrito, Bisca- 
chera, Nanducito, Canibara, and Monigotes ; crossing the old 
Sunchales route from S'" Fe to Santiago, about 7 leagues N. of 
the colony of Sunchales, which latter was 18 leagues from S" 
Fe city. 

Inside the frontier the camps for the most part are low and 
flat ; those stretching from the Carcarana to the north are in 
many places swampy. At present the land mostly settled on 
are those from the PaYon to the Carcarand, and thereabouts it 
is difficult to obtain estancias, but a little farther out estancia 
lands, well watered, and even in some places with wood, can be 
purchased at from 500Z. to 750Z. sterling per square league, 
say two shillings an acre. Not far from Eosario lands bought 
in 1867 for K2000 are now fetching from ^40,000 to ^50,000 
per square league. Yet the public lands still held by Govern- 
ment cover 15,000 square miles. 

The land laws of S" Fe are very liberal, the Government 
using every exertion to invite foreign settlers. By a law passed 
in 1866 all the territory north of the Salado and west of the 
Parang as far inland as the Saladillo Grande, is set apart for 
immigration purposes. Suertes of estancia, 4500 acres in extent, 
will be sold for the trifling sum of 40Z. ; if the settler be an agri- 
culturist he will receive a grant of 83 acres in fee. Another 
law gives a suerte gratis to any settler who will put 81000 
worth of cattle on the ground, make a well, and build a rancho 
and wooden fort. On the Arroyo San Antonio (12 leagues N. of 
Esperanza) if twenty families club together to settle there they 
wUl receive a free grant, each, of 1600 acres. All the above are 
in the Gran Chaco. The ^ariff prices of public lands in the 
province of S** Fe proper is as follows, per square league : 

$ 
Department of Eosario, witliui 8 leagues of the Parang . . 3000 

Department of Eosario bordering on the OarcaraBa, Pavon, 

or Arroyo Medio 2000 

Department of Eosario, in any other part 1500 



156 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

Depwtment of CorondS, within 8 leagues of the CorondS, $ 

and 4 leagues of the Carcarana 2000 

Department of Oorondd, in any other part 1500 

S'* Fe and San Jose', within 8 leagues of S*" Fe', on either 

sideofSalado 1200 

S** Fe and San Jos^, in any other part 800 

The usual mode of payment is, one-third cash, one-third at six 
months, and one-third at twelve months. 

Attempts are being made to restore the old settlement of El 
Eey, opposite the port of Goya on the Parand^ which was a 
Jesuit mission in the last century, surrounded with fertUe lands 
that produce cotton, tobacco, &c. The territory westward of El 
Eey for 300 miles, in the direction of Santiago del Estero, is 
mostly thick forest, interspersed with swamps, and in many 
places'' open prairies. The chief watercourses are the Salado 
and Saladillo ; on the banks of the former, above Esquino Grande, 
are the ruined missions of San Pedro and Espin ; 70 leagues 
W. of the last-named place is Lake Porongos, where the provinces 
of Cordoba and Santiago meet. 

The province of Santa Fe was until recently the poorest and 
most thinly populated in the Eepublic, but has sprung into 
great importance from its flourishing Swiss colonies and numer- 
ous English settlers, at the same time that the rising commerce 
of Eosario and the Central Argentine Eailway have tended still 
further to develop the resources of this part of the country. 
An idea of the importance of agricultural interests may be 
' formed from the fact that Santa Fe with her thirty colonies has 
433,680 acres under tillage, cultivated by 12,000 able-bodied 
Europeans, and producing 825,000 bushels of wheat, without 
counting maize, vegetables, &c. These colonies are increasing 
at the rate of 2000 new settlers yearly, who pay from ^5 to ^30 
per cuadra, say five to thirty shillings per acre. Farming lands 
for pasture are of course much cheaper ; 200Z. per square league 
near the frontier to ten or twenty times that figure in more 
favoured districts. 

The following list of estancias, in the various districts, is 



SANTA FE. 



157 



prepared from an official map just publisted (1873) by Mr. 
Chapeaurouge, of the province of S*" Fe ; it will be seen that 
Mr. Armstrong of Buenos Ayres is one of the largest pro- 
prietors. 

Arroyo del Medio. — The limit between Buenos Ayres and 
Santa Fe is the Arroyo del Medio, after crossing which we meet 
the Palacios and Armstrong estancias, the former near the battle- 
field of Pavon, the latter extending from Fort Melincue east- 
ward, the fort being at the point where the three provinces of 
Buenos Ayres, Cordoba, and Santa Fe meet. The principal 
property holders in this part of the province are : 



Sq. Leagues. 
Armstrong .. .. 30 

Zubelzu 25 

Urquiza 22 

Clark 10 



Paz .. 

Palacios 
ChjaTarri 



Sq. Leagues. 
6 
3 



Below the Saladillo. — Before reaching the Saladillo we meet 
another large estancia of Armstrong's. The extent of the chief 
properties is as follows : 



Sotomayor 
Santa Grnz 


Sq. Leagues. 
.. 30 
.. 25 


PereyraFiias.. 
Armstrong 


Sq. Leagues 
.. 12 ' 
.. 20 


Saa-Pereyra . . 
Valdez Casco . . 


.. 15 
.. 10 


CuUen .. .. 


5 



Above the Saladillo. — The various estancias between the 
Saladillo and the Carcarana are as follows : 





Sq. Leagues. 




Sq. Leagues 


Urquiza .. 


.. 10 


London Bank.. 


3 


Oastellanos 


5 


Colmau . . 


2 


Leguizamon . . 


4 


Vidal .. .. 


1 


Sotomayor 


4 


Correa . . . . 


4 


Casado . . 


4 


Blyth .. .. 


1 



Carcarana and Canada Gomez. — The district north of 
Carcarana is bisected by the Central Argentine EaUway, adja- 



158 



HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBE PLATE. 



cent to which are colonies of Bernstadt, Canada Gomez, &c. 
The best land is said to be in Canada Gomez, where Mr. Paul 
Krell has also a magnificent model -farm with steam-ploughs 
and all improvements. The estancias north of Carcarana are 
as follow : 





Sq. Leagues. 




Sq. Leagues 


Armstrong 


16 


Oasado .. .. 


6 


Otero .. . 


.. 16 


Peralta .. .. 


., ' i 


Areoaa 


.. 12 


Bayo .. .. 




Friaa 


7 


Medina . . 


3 


Oliva .. . 


5 


Videla Luna . . 


6 


Correa 


. .. 7 


Hue 


3 



San Lorenzo. — Near San Lorenzo we find half-a-dozen es- 
tancias, the most remarkable being that of the Jesus Maria 
colony, belonging to Mr. Cullen, well situated on the banks of 
the Parana : 





Sq. Leagues. 




Sq. Leagues 


Zubelzu .. 


6 


Palaoios .. 


. .. 3 


Cullen .. 


. .. 4 


Irigoyen .. 


. .. 2 


Andino . . 


.. .. 5 


LatoiTe . . 


. .. 4 



San Oeronimo. — San Geronimo is a large district with 50 
estancias, of which nearly one-half belongs to English settlers. 





Sq. Leagues. 




Sq. Leagues 


Lafone 


. 32 


Fratoa .. .. 


5 


Zubelzu 


. 12 


Peyton .. .. 


1 


Gowland 


. 10 


Parfait .. .. 


4 


Chavarri 


. 10 


Ledesma .. 


6 


Verdat 


. 12 


Soharff .. .. 


4 


Vernet and Wilken 10 


Monroe . . 


2 


Scares and Pax 


. 15 


Cookson .. 


2 


Brant 


8 


Congi-eve . . 


2 


Talbot 


7 


Aldao 


6 


Winthrop 


5 


L. Fernandez.. 


6 


Bollaert 


4 


TraU .. .. 


2 


Thomas 


4 


DeYoto . . 


4 


Colman 


2 


Simpson ,. 


4 


Arzae 


4 







SANTA ri. 



159 



Corondd. — This district comprises : 



Newton . . 
Armstrong 
Freyre 
Bergara . . 
ToiTes 



Sq. Leagues. 
. 20 



Madariaga 
CuUen .. 
Irigoyen .. 
OroEo 
Fraga 



Sq. Leagues. 
6 
4 
4 
3 
6 



Santa Fe. — The department of tlie capital is cMefly remark- 
able for the agricultural colonies of Franco-Swiss and German 
settlers. There are also 40 estancias, the largest being — 



Aldao . . 


Sq. Leagues. 
.. 20 


McDonald 


8q. Lea 
2 


Saavedra . . 


18 


Brant .. .. 


2 


Znbelzu . . 


.. 18 


Peterson .. 


2 


Navarro . . 
Saa-Pereyra . . 
Eodriguez 
Cabal .. .. 
Beck Herzog .. 
Marin Salas .. 


.. 10 
.. 10 
.. 12 
.. 10 
8 
8 


Lubary . . 
Lopez 
Benitez . . 
Nougnier . . 
Coqueteaux . . 
Oasado . . 


2 

7 
4 
4 
4 
7 


Palacios .. 


8 


Orono 


3 


Foster .. .. 


3 







This takes us up to the limits of the Gran Chaco. 
Santa Fe took the following prizes at the Cordoba Exhibition 
1872: 

W. Wheelwright, furniture, &o. : two gold medals. 

W. Perbina, Eosario : grand gold medal. 

Provincial Conmiittee, skias, honey, &c. -. one gold, and one bronze 

medal. 
L. Gazzo, macaroni : gold medal. 
Devoto and Scala, cabinetwork : silver medal. 
G. Oaccia, seal-engraving : silver medal. 
J. Caballero, maps : silver medal. 
San Carlos Colony, flour : two silver medals. 
J. Berney, tanned hides : bronze medal. 
J. Jardel, tiles : bronze medal. 
Mme. Videla, lacework ; bronze medal. 
H. Boss, machinery : two bronze medals. 

The medal to Mr. Perkins was for his labours in promoting 
agricultural colonies. 



160 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

In 1873 a railway was conceded to Mr. Henry Zimmermann, 
46 miles, to connect the Swiss colonies with the port of Santa 
r^, but the death of the concessionnaire stopped the works, 
which had been begun by Messrs. Waring Brothers of London. 
Another concession, for a railway from Eosario to the said 
colonies and then across the Gran Chaco to Santiago del Estero, 
has also been granted, but not yet commenced. 

The province 'of Santa Fe raised a loan for 300,OOOZ. in 
London, early in 1874, to establish a Provincial Bank. 

The province is well watered, by the rivers Salado and 
Carcarana and a number of Arroyos. The Eio Salado rises in 
the snow-clad range of Acay in the Cordilleras, flows throngli 
the province of Salta, under the name of Juramento or Pasaje, 
and after receiving numerous affluents from the Sierra Lumbreras 
passes the ruined town of Esteco and the sites of the old Jesuit 
missions of Miraflores, Ortega, Balbuena, Pitos, and MacapiUa, 
where some estancieros have now established themselves ; after 
traversing salt plains near Miraflores the water becomes so 
brackish that the river takes its name of Salado. In many places 
the river bed at some seasons remains almost dry, the current 
being lost in swamps, and in the 29th degree of latitude at the 
Boquerones there are channels supposed to communicate with 
El Eey, but this part of the Chaco is unexplored, being held by 
untamed Indians. At certain seasons also the overflowing of 
Lake Viboras and the Arroyo Palmares forms a connection 
between the Salado and Eey, the latter of which falls into 
the ParanS in front of Goya. The mouth of the Salado is close 
to Santa Pe city, and the bluff on which the latter stands is being 
gradually eaten away by the current. Attempts have been made 
to render the Salado navigable, in which the late Estevan Earns 
Eupert vainly spent enormous sums of money : large concessions 
of land have been offered by Government, with the hope of 
opening up the trade of Eioja, Catamarca, Salta, Tucuman, and 
Santiago, but the difficulties seem insiiperable. In 1862 an 



SANTA F]S. 161 

expedition was made along the Salado by land, in whicli Mr. 
Consul Hutchinson, Mr. Coghlan, and others took part, the whole 
company suffering much from want of water. It is remarkable 
that most of the lagoons and arroyos which have their origin in 
the Chaco are salty or brackish, the banks being covered with a 
white salt of bitter flavour. The principal lagoons are Viboras, 
Crista], and Setubal, the last named pressing close on S" Fe city. 
The Arroyos Malabrigo, Colastine, San Javier, and Eey fall into 
the Parana. 

The CarcaraSd or Tercero rises in tlie mountains of Cordoba, 
passes the town of Villa Nueva, and after traversing the camps 
of Santa Fe falls into the Parana above Eosario. It is highest 
in summer from the melting of snows in the sierras, and is at 
all times navigable as high as Saladillo (province of Cordoba), 
where it receives a tributary of that name which gives a brackish 
taste to its waters. Flat-bottomed boats of 2 feet draught can 
ascend to Frayle Mu«rto and even Villa Nueva ; but the navigation 
of this river would be much improved by canalizing a bad pass 
some 40 miles from the mouth. The Arroyo Tortugas, boundary 
between this province and Cordoba, falls into the Carcarafia 
near Cruz Alta. Among the minor streams are the Cululu, 
which falls into the Salado not far from Esperanza colony ; the 
San Lorenzo, with a village of the same name at its confluence 
with the Parana; the Saladillo, which turns two flour-mills 
about a league south of Eosario and then disembogues in the 
Parand ; the Pavon and Medio, which fall into the same river, 
the first remarkable for the battle-field of September, 1861, the 
second forming the boundary with Buenos Ayres. 

Santa Fe has no mountains, but on the borders of Santiago 
del Estero there is a range of hills called Los Altos, separating 
the waters of Lake Porongos from the Salado. The river-bank 
of the Parana is about 70 feet high all the way from Eosario 
down to the Arroyo Medio. There are splendid forests in the 
Chaco, suitable for ship-building or cabinet work, and in the 



162 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

branctes of the trees is a kind of spider which produces excellent 
silk ; wild honey is also found in large quantities among the 
thickets of the Parana : the islands are chiefly useful for firewood, 
in which a great traffic is carried on, besides charcoal, most of 
the wood-cutters and charcoal-burners being Italians. These' 
islands are Sometimes the refuge of deserters from the army or 
fugitives from justice ; and at intervals tigers are seen that 
have come down from Corrientes or the Chaco on the floating 
islands, called Camelotes, which the stream forms of trees, 
rushes, &c. •> 

Before the Spanish oonqxiest the inhabitants consisted of three 
Guarani tribes of Indians, viz. Timbii, Quiloaza, and Ghana. 
In the time of the Jesuits there were some flourishing Missions, 
which fell away on the banishment of the Tathers (1765) so 
rapidly that in 1797 the five Missions of Inispin, Cayasta, San 
Pedro, San Javier, and San Geronimo counted only 3130 reduced 
Indians ; near the ruins of San Javier, which was the largest, 
are now settled a dozen Californian families, who have raised 
some thriving farms, in spite of annoyance from Indians and 
other drawbacks. At the close of the last century the province 
may be said to have consisted of three districts, the population 
of which was put down by Azara as follows: Santa Fe 4000; 
Eosario 3500 ; Coronda 2000 ; total 9500. In 1825 it had 
risen to 15,000, but the long and wasteful civil wars of thirty 
years prevented much increase : in 1857 General Urquiza made 
a census of the Eepublio, and found this province to contain 
41,261 inhabitants, of whom 4304 were foreigners. Judging 
the population by the parochial registers it would appear that 
between the years 1839-49 there was a decline of 14 per cent., 
but during the last twenty years there has been a steady 
increase of 10 or 12 per cent, annually. There are 81 schools 
attended by 4208 children, and according to Post Office returns 
this province represents 14 per cent, of the intellect and 
commerce of the Eepublic, or as much as 10 per cent, of the 
other provinces. 



SANTA FE. 



163 



The census of 1869 gives tlie following returns: — 

Department of Santa Fe 21,392 

„ San Geronimo 11,44:8 

„ San Jose' 6,785 

Eosario 49,492 



Total 89,117 

This number includes 13,939 foreigners, of whom one-third 
are Italians, one-third Swiss or Germans : among the remainder 
are 766 English. 

The first department includes the capital of the province, 
most of the Swiss colonies, and that part of the Chaco territory 
watered by the Salado and its tributaries. 

The quaint old city of Santa Fe, 32 leagues above Eosario, is 
situated at the confluence of the Salado and Parana : although 
now in ruins, it is venerable from its old associations, — eccle- 
siastical and historical. The original city of Santa Fe de la 
Vera Cruz was founded in 1573 by Don Juan de Garay. The 
old Jesuit chapel in the Plaza here was erected in a.d. 1654. 
Connected with it is one of the best arranged and most 
numerously attended of the Jesuit colleges in the Argentine 
Confederation. In the Plaza we find likewise the Matriz church. 
The other chapels here are those of San Francisco and Santo 
Domingo. On the side of the Plaza, opposite the Matriz, is the 
Cabildo or government house. 

A Convention of all the provinces was held here in 1852, and 
again in 1859. 

The census gives this city a population of 10,670, including 
1192 foreigners, of whom 18 are English, the Italians, French, 
and Spaniards predominating. 

The port of Santa Fe, which is the outlet of the colonies, 
shows that the value of exported produce in 1871 was ^830,821, 
the tonnage representing an aggregate of 39,698 tons; and the 
Customs receipts ^91,788, or 50 per cent, over the year 1870. 

The revenue of the province is put down at ^325,000, or 

M 2 



164 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEE PLATE. 

nearly three times what it was in 1863 (gll6,000). One-half 
is derived from property-tax and patentees or licences, the rest 
from stamps, matadero tax, &c. 

The total valuation of the province is as follows : — 



Twenty million acres at $li .. .. 25 millions. 

Town property 12 J „ 

Cattle 4 

Various 4 J „ 

46 

San Geronimo. — The department of San Geronimo may be 
reached from Santa Fe, coming southwards by a road crossing 
the Salado over a wooden bridge erected by Messrs. Porster 
and Co. in 1856. At 8 leagues from the capital we meet the 
village of Coronda, which, in olden times, produced cotton of a 
superior quality. This village has 1245 inhabitants, including 
200 foreigners, mostly Italians, only two English. About 10 
leagues farther south, at the mouth of the Colastine river, are 
the ruins of Fort Sanoti-Spiritus, just where the Carcaraiid 
empties its waters into the Parana. 

San Jose. — Northward from Santa Fe lies the department of 
San Jose, along the swampy margin of the Parana, as high as 
El Eey, 70 leagues N. of the capital, and extending inland to 
the Saladillo Amargo, in the heart of the Gran Chaco. This 
department includes the colonies of Calchines, Cayasta, Helvetia, 
California, Alexandra, and many others ; besides the settlement 
of Mbocovy Indians at San Javier, which was founded by 
Colonel Beron in 1856, and now numbers a thousand red-skin 
inhabitants, dealers in skins, wax, and honey with the opposite 
townfolk of La Paz, in Entre Eios, for whom also they cnt 
timber in the Chaco. 

Bosario. — The department of Eosario, surpassing all the rest 
of the province in population and importance, occupies the 
southern part, from the Carcaraiia to the frontier of Bnencs 



SANTA PE. 165 

Ayres, and comprises the city of Eosario and towns of San 
Lorenzo and Las Piedras. 

San Lorenzo, on the bank of the Parana, about 7 leagues 
above Eosario, is a village of 1367 inhabitants, including 190 
foreigners, mostly Italians, and not a single Englishman : it is 
chiefly remarkable for its ancient convent and a brisk trade in 
water-melons, of which it exports one and a half million yearly. 
The traveller should not fail to visit the old convent of San 
Carlos, built by the king of Spain in 1791 ; it is so large that 
General Mansilla on one occasion quartered 4000 men within 
its walls. Close by is a monument erected by General San 
Martin to his servant Cabral, who saved the General's life at the 
cost of his own. There are at present some 20 Franciscan friars, 
mostly Italians. 

Los Piedras, otherwise called Villa Constitucion, which has 
often been proposed for the seat of the Federal Government, is 
a village on the Parana bank, near the boundary line of Buenos 
Ayres ; it has a population of 610 souls, including 37 foreigners, 
mostly Italians and Spaniards, but not a single Englishman. 
A few leagues off is the battle-field of Pavon, where General 
Mitre, the Governor of Buenos Ayres, beat the army of the 
Argentine Confederation under General Urquiza (Sept. 17th, 
1861) and reconstituted the Eepublic, overthrowing President 
Derqui. He removed the Argentine seat of Government from 
Parana to Buenos Ayres, and was elected unanimously by all the 
provinces as first President of the remodelled Eepublic. 

Eosario, the great outlet of the trade of the interior, is a city 
of 22,437 inhabitants, coming next after Buenos Ayres and 
Cordoba in population. It is said to derive its origin from some 
Calchaqui Indians brought hither in 1725 by Don Francisco 
Godoy, but it continued an obscure village (not mentioned by 
Sir W. Parish in 1852) till General Urquiza made it the port of 
the upper provinces in 1854, since when its growth has been 
rapid. Steamers from Liverpool and other transatlantic ports 
maintain an active commerce; vessels drawing 18 feet can 



166 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBE PLATE. 

come up to tte river-bank and discharge their cargo. The 
town stands 65 feet above the beach, and is built as usual in 
chess-board fashion ; the gas, paving, &c., giving an European 
aspect. There are several banks and newspapers ; ataong the 
former the London and Eiver Plate, Maua and Co., and the 
Argentine. The Protestant community have chapel, school, and 
cemetery for themselves. The mills and saladeros employ both 
steam and water power. The Hotels de La Paz and UniverBal 
are first-class establishments. The church and other public ' 
buildings are not remarkable. Consuls reside here for all the 
European powers. The railway to Buenos Ayres when finished 
will reduce the distance to ten hours, or half the present time 
by steamer. The proposal to move the capital hither from 
Buenos Ayres passed Congress last year, but was vetoed by the 
President. 

The growth of Eosario is on a 'par with the increase of the 
province in other respects ; the Customs returns show that 
the amount of duties recovered in the province has doubled in 
four, and trebled in seven years, viz. : — 

$ 

1863 539,852 

1867 1,244,450 

1870 1,502,529 

The port of Eosario stands for ^1,408,575 or 93 per cent, of 
the trade of the province ; the commerce in transit, at Eosario, 
with the upper provinces, is estimated at ^3,170,438. The 

total trade of the port represents — 

I 

Imports, 1870 9,814,682 

Exports, „ 5,680,841 

This shows an increase of 15 per cent, over the trade of 1869. 
The tonnage of Eosario, between arrivals and sailings, thus— 

Vessels. Tons. 

1868 1,817 .. .. 155,525 

1869 2,205 .. .. 233,627 

1870 2,651 .. .. 335,928 

1871 2,889 .. .. 386,817 



SANTA PE. 167 

The countries with which the trade is carried on, in propor- 
tion of tonnage, are as follows : — 

Coasting trafBo 62 

England 8 

Paraguay .. .. H 

Banda Oriental 6 

United States 3 

France 3 

Italy, Germany, and Brazil i 

100 

Eosario possesses numerous schools besides those directed by 
the Sisters of Charity and those attached to the English and 
American chapels. It has also German, Italian, Swiss, French, 
and Spanish beneficent societies. There is daily communication 
by steamer with the river-ports of the Eepublic, and by railway 
with Cordoba and Eio Cuarto. 

The Central Argentine Eailway is the greatest work ever 
completed in the Eepublic, and a lasting monument of its con- 
structor, the late Mr. William Wheelwright : this distinguished 
American (friend and townsman of Mr. Peabody) was the first 
to introduce railways and steam-navigation on the West Coast. 
In 1853 he obtained a concession from General Urquiza, Presi- 
dent of the Eepublic, for the proposed line, but civil wars 
intervening, it lay in abeyance till 1862, when Congress gave a 
new concession, viz. 7 per cent, guarantee for forty years on 
6400Z. per mile as cost of construction ; a free grant of a league 
of land on either side of the line for its entire length (say 
1,600,000 acres) ; the line to be finished in six and a half years. 
Messrs. Brassey, Wythes, and Wheelwright took up or disposed 
of most of the shares in London, the capital being l,6OO,O0OZ. 
in 201. shares. The Argentine Government took 3500 shares, 
General Urquiza 1000, and the leading foreign residents of 
Buenos Ayres about 5000 more. The first sod was turned, at 
Eosario in April, 1863, and in spite of the Paraguayan war and 
numberless difficulties the line was opened to public traffic aU 



168 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE, 

the way to Corcloba in May, 1870 ; it gives over 5 per cent, per 
annum on the capital, after deducting working expenses. The 
length is 247 miles, trains leaving Eosario at 6 a.m. and reach- 
ing Cordoba at 9 p.m., which places the latter city within thirty- 
six hours of Buenos Ayres. The first-class carriages are fitted 
up with every comfort requisite on so long a journey, and 
excellent restaurants are established at Bell-Ville and Villa 
Maria, where the train halts half-an-hour for refreshments. 
The country traversed by the Central Argentine is for the most 
part uninteresting, a level plain of grass, until the algarrobo 
woods of Cordoba begin, near Frayle Muerto. The line after 
leaving Eosario passes a number of country-houses, one of the 
prettiest being that of Captain Thompson. Approaching Eoldan, 
the Swiss colonies of the " Central Argentine " begin ; they are 
managed by Mr. Perkins and count about 3000 settlers, who 
have great tracts of lands under tillage. The next place worth 
notice is Canada Gomez, where Mr. Krell's model-farm shows 
a vast expenditure of money and labour. Some 10 leagues north 
of the station is the estancia of Captain Kemmis, at Las Eosas, 
famous for prize cattle. Tortugas is the boundary between 
Santa Fe and Cordoba ; these camps, before the railway, were 
Indian himting-grounds, and we see little or no cattle or habi- 
tations till we reach Frayle Muerto, now called Bell-Ville in 
honour of the first Englishman who settled here some ten years 
ago ; there are now about 100 English settlers. ViUa Maria, 
in the midst of vast woods and swamps, is the junction with the 
Eio Cuarto line (82 miles in length) for travellers going towards 
Mendoza. If we keep on the main line for Cordoba we cross 
the Eio Segundo by a magnificent iron bridge 1300 feet long, 
in thirty-two spans ; this river is generally shallow, and now 
we begin to have a fine view of the sierras of Cordoba. The 
city is in a valley and only seen a few minutes before reaching 
it, but the panorama is exceedingly picturesque. 



( 169 ) 



CHAPTEE IX. 

COEDOBA. 

CoEDOBA, the teart of the Eepublic, and one of tlie most impor- 
tant of the Argentine provinces by reason of its extent, popula- 
tion, and undeveloped resources, is making great progress of 
late years. The Central Argentine Kailway brought it into 
connection with the seaboard in 1870, and the National Exhibi- 
tion in the following year caused a renewed activity. Never- 
theless the Post Office returns show the province of Santa F6, 
with less than half the population of Cordoba, stands for three 
times as much intellectual activity. This province is bounded 
on the north by Santiago and Catamarca, on the east by Santa 
Fe, on the south by the pampas of Buenos Ayres, and on the 
west by San Luis and Eioja. 

The western portion is traversed by a sierra which runs over 
200 miles from north to south, with an average width of 20 to 
25 miles. These mountains are of granitic formation, and con- 
tain veins of gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, marble, chalk, &c. 
The rest of the province is level and may be described as one- 
half wood, one-half pampa : the subsoil is argillaceous, the 
vegetable loam varying from 10 to 20 inches in depth. The 
climate is temperate, in general excessively dry, partly owing 
to the distance inland and relative height over the sea, partly 
to want of rivers or lakes. Drought freq^uently occurs, but the 
rainy season usually begins in September, and again in March. 
The driest time is about mid-winter (June), when fogs are 
common. Humboldt accounts for this by supposing that the 
sea vapours dissolve into rain near the coast in winter, and 
come inland to the mountain heights in summer. 

There are four principal rivers —Primero, Segundo, Teroero 



170 HANDBOOK OF THE JIIYEE PLATE. 

and Cuarto, with numberless arroyos, which are so many torrents 
in the rainy season, and if the water were collected by means 
of canals it would serve to irrigate and utilize vast tracts now 
of no value. The irrigation system at the old Jesuit mission of 
Santa Catalina in the sierras may serve as a model for the rest 
of the province. 

The fauna of Cordoba comprise all the useful animals of 
Europe imported by the Spaniards, which multiplied exceed- 
ingly, but degenerated in kind, being suffered to run wild in the 
pampas, for the climate is so benignant that they need neither 
housing nor attention. 

Cordoba counts several million goats and sheep: the former 
will prove highly valuable when crossed with Angoras ; as re- 
gards sheep they are much neglected. Swine would suit admi- 
rably if attended to, as they could be fed in peach plantations, 
which would give their flesh a fine flavour. Horses are so 
numerous that droves of mares are exported annually to Peru : 
the breed, especially in the sierras, is small. Sportsmen would 
find abundance of game ; tigers, wild boars, wild cats, foxes, 
hares, rabbits, weasels, polecats, wild goats, guanacos, ostriches, 
deer, lions, ant-eaters, hurones, ampalaguas, aguaraces, cor- 
zuelos, &c. 

Agriculture is destined to be the great wealth of Cordoba, but 
hitherto it has been disregarded, notwithstanding the favourable 
soil and climate ; a little maize and wheat are raised, but most 
of the flour used is brought from San Juan and Mendoza. The 
yield of maize is prodigious, often three hundredfold, but as the 
grain is so cheap and bulky as not to be worth exporting it would 
suit to fatten pigs as they do in North America. Tobacco, lin- 
seed, flax, sweet potato, and " mani " thrive amazingly. From 
linseed and " mani " may be extracted superior oil, the second 
being equal to best olive. Sweet potato can be used for pro- 
ducing sugar, and the husks fatten swine. 

Fruits of every kind thrive in various places : the peach only 
misses about once in eight years ; the apple, pear, fig, cherry, 



CORDOBA. 



171 



plum, damson, quince, walnut, yield abundantly, as well as 
grapes of different classes, and a fruit called "nopal," from 
which molasses and brandy are made. Figs dried and badly 
put up are exported to the seaboard. 

The forest wealth of Cordoba is considerable, comprising such 
valuable woods as algarrobo, quebracho, moye piquillin, albar- 
ricoque, chanar, mistol, tintita coguyacan, and coco. The moye 
and algarrobo barks are good for tanning. 

Among the establishments most calculated to attract the tra- 
veller's notice is the great Angora goat-farm of Messrs. Barker 
and Co., at Las PeSas, 7 leagues from Totoral station, on the 
Eio Cuarto Eailway, and 20 north of the town of Eio Cuarto, 
within a day's journey of the port of Eosario. Mr. Barker 
arrived &ona Cape of Good Hope in 1864, with 360*goats of the 
Angora breed, of which 20 died on the road to Las Penas. None 
of the original goats now remain, but there are 800 descendants 
as pure as the first, besides 2000 of various crosses. The hair 
is twice as valuable as wool, realizing 21 pence per lb., at Brad- 
ford, each fleece averaging 2' lbs. Native goats are bought at a 
Bolivian dollar each, three shillings ; herds are paid six dollars a 
month. The estancia covers 230,000 acres in a valley 30 miles 
wide, and comprises ten puestos or stations, besides the estancia 
house. There are 10,000 acres walled in, and 120 under crops. 
The Penas and Leones streams afford permanent water, besides 
some lagoons that are full only in the rainy season, which is 
summer. The climate is healthy, generally tempered with 
breezes, but sometimes up to 100° Fahr. in the shade. Wood 
and horned cattle abound, and the proprietors offer land and 
goats on halves to settlers. Messrs. Barker and Kaulen obtained 
a gold medal and 40?. at the Cordoba Exhibition. Not far from 
Las Penas is the estancia of Bamett and Winterbotham, where 
there is capital shooting of big game. 

The eastern part of the province is at first a sandy plain, 
with a few salt lakes ; then come pampas, interspersed with 
clumps of algarrobos; next a zone of hilly ground, thickly 



172 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEB PLATE. 

wooded, after whicli we reach the first sierra, culminating in 
a sharp ridge, with steep descent on its western side. The 
sierras run almost due north, under the general name Sierra de 
Cordoba, but may be said to form five distinct chains conseen- 
tively, viz. those of Lutis, San Xavier, Achalas, Punilla, and 
IschiHn. They vary in character, some being barren and pre- 
cipitous, others ascending in verdant slopes to the summit ; as a 
rule the lower part of the range is thickly wooded, the upper 
covered with good pasture. The beautiful valley of Punilla, 
sometimes called Cosquin, is of great length and about 20 
miles wide, watered by the San Francisco and other tributaries 
of the Eios Primero and Segundo. Beyond this the Grand 
Sierra separates us from the Pocho valley, and on the western 
side of this is the last mountain chain on the side of Eioja. 
These mountains present a most interesting field for the 
geologist : they were much explored by the late Dr. Gordon 
during a residence of forty years, but his researches and manu- 
scripts have not been given to the world. The samples of white 
and variegated marble are equal to Carrara, the minerals are 
abundant but little worked. In some places we see indications 
of a volcanic nature. The climate varies according to elevation 
or locality, from that of Sicily to one resembling northern lati- 
tudes. Persons with pulmonary afiections find the air of the 
sierras most salutary, and even European physicians have sent 
patients hither ; but it is difiicult to obtain good accommodation 
in the moimtains. The Eio Primero, which waters the city and 
suburbs of Cordoba, is not navigable, although rapid and dan- 
gerous in flood seasons, and after a course «f nearly 100 miles 
it loses itself in the desert, near the salt lakes of Mar-Chiquita. 
The Segundo runs parallel with the Primero, about 30 miles 
apart, is wide and shallow till lost near the salt lagoons above 
mentioned. The Tercero has a course of 300 miles, passing the 
towns of Villa Nueva and Frayle Muerto, receiving the waters 
of Eio Cuarto at Saladillo, entering the province of Santa Fe at 
Cruz Alta, and then taking the name of CarcaraSa, till it disem- 



OOEDOBA. 



173 



bogues in the Parang above San Lorenzo. The Tercero might 
be made navigable for small vessels. The Cuarto, after watering 
the town of Eio Cuarto, runs through the desert till apparently- 
lost in lagoons, then reappears as the Saladillo, and falls into 
the Tercero. The Quinto is more properly a river of San Luis, 
although finally lost in the Indian coimtry, south of Cordoba. 
The salt lakes of Porongos and Mar-Chiquita, in the north-east 
of the province, receive the Eio Dulce and minor streams, but 
have no outlet. 

The province comprises 21 departments, viz. : — 



Sq. Miles, 

Cordota 300 

Anejos 2,500 

CalamucMta 1,800 

San Alberto 1,680 

SanXavier 1,260 

Pocho 1,000 

Minas 800 

Punilla 1,400 

Cruz del Bje . ... 2,100 

KioPrimero 1,800 

EioSegundo 1,400 

SanJusto 3,000 

Eio Tercero (Upper) .. 1,920 

Villa Nueva 1,800 

FrayleMuerto .. .. 6,960 

Eio Cuarto 24,000 



Eio Seco 
Sobremonte 
Totoral .. 
Tulumba .. 
Isehilin . . 



3,080 
2,400 
3,840 
2,400 
4,200 

69,640 



Inhabitants. 

34,458 

12,596 

9,193 

10,082 

13,041 

6,168 

8,109 

6,823 

12,252 

14,884 

11,289 

5,156 

5,226 

6,573 

5,041 

10,995 

4,989 

6,110 

6,981 

7,085 

13,457 



210,508 



The census of 1869 shows only 1 per cent, foreigners ; 
including 396 Italians, 262 French, 174 English, 84 Germans, 
19 Americans, and 802 others. The population is about three 
to the square mile, there being a preponderance of women, viz. 
478 males to 522 females. One-fifth of the inhabitants can 



174 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

read, and 10,030 children attend 76 schools. The Post Office 
returns give Cordoba- the fourth place, or 5 per cent, of the 
intellectual activity of the Eepublic. 

CITY OF COKDOBA. 

This quaint old cathedral city was founded in 1573, by a 
Spanish expedition from Peru, under Luis Geronimo de Cabrera, 
and is thus seven years older than Buenos Ayres. For nearly, 
a century it suifered periodical inundations from the Eio 
Primero, until in 1671 a "rampla'' was built for its protection. 
The city preserves a medieval appearance, although much 
change is observable since the opening of the railway in 1870. 
It is the only place in the Eepublic with venerable associations, 
having been for two centuries the seat of learning and head- 
quarters of the Jesuits. It pertained to the viceroyalty of 
Peru until 1776, when it was transferred to the dominion of 
Buenos Ayres. Dean Funes writes flatteringly of the schools 
of Latin and Philosophy in the University of San Carlos, 
founded here by Bishop Trejo in 1613, and subsequently 
approved by Pope Gregory and Philip III. The adjacent 
college of Monserrat, founded in 1686, was another Jesuit 
institution, and after the expulsion of the Fathers, in 1764, by 
Governor Campero, the splendour of these establishments passed 
away. At the time of the expulsion the Jesuits are said to have 
numbered 135 Fathers, and possessed 370 slaves, besides valuable 
farms at Alta Gracia and other parts in the sierras. Most of the 
men of note, from the tyrant Francia down to the senators of 
the present day, have studied in Cordoba, even in its period of 
eclipse, but President Sarmiento has infused new life into the 
University by bringing out some eminent German professors to 
teach applied sciences and modern languages. Monserrat is 
now the National College, a branch of the University. From 
the azotea is obtained a fine view of the sierras. The cathedral 
is a Moorish structure in the Plaza, on the same side as the 
Cabildo, which is also of antique style. The new church of 



COEDOBA. 175 

Santo Domingo is in the boulevard of Calle Ancha, attached to 
an old Dominican convent, where there are a dozen friars, 
including Father Burke, the only English priest in this part of 
the Eepublic. There are ten other churches or chapels, mostly- 
attached to convents or charitable institutions. The Carmelite 
orphanage, founded by Bishop San Alberto in 1780, is attended 
by Carmelite nuns and kept in good order, the children making 
beautiful work in embroidery. The orange trees in some of these 
convents are of wonderful size and production. The traveller 
should not omit to visit the library attached to the University, 
where some books in Quichua, Guarani, and other Indian lan- 
guages, printed by the Jesuits, are still preserved, although a 
large portion of the works has been stolen from time to time, 
and the late Dr. Gordon rescued some valuable ones from the 
chandlers andgrocers of the city. 

The old people relate that there are numerous subterranean 
passages which cannot be explored, owing to the mephitic 
vapours. The architecture of the old buildings is exceedingly 
massive, especially the Jesuit college and church ; the latter 
was closed for a century, but the ceiling of carved wood is beau- 
tiful as ever. The glory of Cordoba is its Alameda, called after 
the Viceroy Sobremonte, who laid it out. An artificial lake of 
4 acres, which is used as a city reservoir, is surrounded by 
trees, under whose shade the Cordobeses loiter on summer 
evenings or by moonlight, when this place has peculiar charms. 
The water-supply is drawn from here by means of " acequias " 
or smaU canals, which flow through the middle of each street. 
The cholera of 1868 was dreadful in its ravages, as was 
believed, owing to the fact that the Municipality had made a 
new cemetery above the town, just where the water is drawn 
from the Eio Primero : this is now partly remedied. The city 
is subject to most intense heat in summer, when most of the 
families retire to the sierras. Physicians complain that heart- 
disease is very prevalent, which they ascribe in some manner to 
the numerous revolutions, and also to the want of vegetable diet 



176 HANDBOOK OF THB EIVBK PLATE. 

and the inactive habits of the people. A foreigner who resided 
here many years thus describes the Cordobeses : " The character 
of the people is different from that of any other part of the 
Eepublic. They are more primitive in their customs, more 
difficult of access, but their acquaintance once formed they are 
generous and obliging. The better class of families are as 
intelligent, liberal people as anyone would wish to be ac- 
quainted with ; but the lower class, which is far too much in 
the majority, is very ignorant and superstitious." 

The National Observatory, under the direction of the dis- 
tinguished Professor Gould, from Massachusetts, is on the 
heights overlooking the park, where the Exhibition of 1871 
was held ; the Observatory was established three years ago, and 
Mr. Gould is at present making a map of the Argentine heavens, 
for which the clear atmosphere of this city offers special 
facilities ; he reports 7200 stars visible to the naked eye, 
against 6000 in the northern hemisphere. The TJranometria 
Argentina will soon be completed : it wUl comprise 1700 maps, 
of 50 stars each, say 85,000 stars, one-third being hitherto 
unknown to the astronomical world. 

The census of 1869 gave the city a population of 28,523, which 
entitles it to rank next after Buenos Ayres : there were 4 women 
to 3 men, and education seemed pretty general, 13,456 persons 
being able to read, and 3344 children attending school. There 
were 626 foreigners, including 159 French, 124 Italians, and 28 
English. There is daily communication with Eosario by rail- 
way, and the first section of the line to Tucuman was opened to 
Jesus-Maria (30 miles) in March, 1874. Travellers going to 
Mendoza can proceed to Villa Maria by train, and there take the 
branch line to Eio Cuarto, which is being prolonged towards San 
Luis. A number of pleasant excursions can be made on horse- 
back or in carriage from Cordoba. Saldan, at the foot of the 
sierras, is charmingly situated on an affluent of the Primero ; it 
is the residence of Senor AUende, and has a walnut tree imder 
whose shade some hundreds of people could sit down. The 



COKDOBA. 



177 



sportsman will find pumas in these tills. Crossing the Cosquin 
■ range, in the San Francisco valley, we find Mr. Gordon's estancia. 
Higher up in the sierras are Tauticuche and Sinsacate, resorted 
to by people with weak lungs. The Jesuit ruins of Santa Catalina, 
Alta Gracia, and Jesus-Maria are also worth visiting, and show 
what advanced industry the Fathers kept up in these remote 
regions. Calera is a pretty bathing village, about 12 miles from 
the city, and a railway is projected : an English hotel was built 
here in 1871. The Tablada, close to the city, is a table-land 
on which two battles have been fought. The view from here is 
unrivalled: on one side, the church-spires and turrets of the 
city ; on the other, the grandly diversified range of the sierras, 
often capped with snow. A little above the city is a village of 
primitive Indians, called El Pueblito,the inhabitants of which are 
now Christians. Cordoba is the residence of the Governor, Bishop, 
and Other chief authorities. There are 4 hotels, the best being 
Hotel La Paz in the Calle Ancha, and that of Paris in the plaza. 
The distance by rail from Eosario is 246 miles, Cordoba being 
almost equidistant from the Atlantic and Pacific, and 436 miles 
from Buenos Ayres. Travellers will find the manager of the 
London and Eiver Plate Bank ready and able to give them ad- 
vice on all matters. Mr. Bouquet, proprietor of the great flour 
and saw mills, is also very obliging. 

Anejos 
Forms properly two departments, near the capital. North 
Anejos comprises Calera, Ceballos, San Vicente, and Canas, the 
first-named district deriving its name from excellent lime quar- 
ries, in a picturesque locality, where there is also an English 
hotel for summer visitors in quest of bathing or shooting. 
South Anejos extends from the suburbs of Cordoba to Alta 
Gracia and Eio Segundo, along the slope of the sierra and 
taking in a part of the pampa. It comprises Carela, Molinos 
Alta Gracia, Potrero de Garay, Tagunilla, San Antonio. San 
Cosene, and San Isidro. In the lower districts traversed by Eio 



178 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEK PLATE. 

Primero we find cattle-farms ; in the tipper parts are nnmerons 
woods and tilled grounds. The Jesuits had a fine establish- 
ment at Alta Gracia. The department extends as far north as 
the Arroyo Ascochingas, where D. Miguel Aguero's model-farm 
is supplied with the best agricultural implements. 

CalamucMta 
Is watered by the Segundo and Tercero, and takes in a part of 
the sierras with the table-land of Lutis. This department 
comprises the well-known copper mines of Tio, Minotauro, and 
Tacuru, as also the establiehments for refining' the metal. 
Wooded hills and fertUe valleys render it one of the most 
charming districts in Cordoba. 

iSia« Alberto 
Comprehends the hilly country on the western- slopes of the 
Sierra de Cordoba, as far as the boundary of San Luis, taking in 
the plain of San Pedro, the Nono table-land, and sundry popu- 
lous and well-cultivated valleys of charming scenery, especially 
those of Chaquinchuna, Ambul, and Panaolmo. This depart- 
ment, until recently, formed part of the adjoining one of Saa 
Xavier. The village of San Pedro, on the Arroyo de la Canada, 
is 1700 feet above sea-level, and 15 leagues S.W. of Cordoba ; 
the intervening sierra rises in some places to 7700 feet. 

San Xavier 
Is only separated from San Alberto by the Arroyo Canada, 
and takes its name from a hamlet on the western side of the 
sierra, 2700 feet over sea-level. The principal place of the ■ 
department is Dolores, a village opposite San Pedro. The in- 
habitants follow both pastoral and agricultural pursuits. 

Pocho 
Consists of a table-land between the sierras of Cordoba and 
Eioja, overlooking the desert which marks the frontier between 



COEDOBA. 179 

these two provinces. Northwards extends the hill-range of 
Guassf-pampa, including the extinct volcanoes of Yerba Buena, 
Agua Tala, Cieriaga, and Salsacate, with a medium height of 
3000 feet. In many places abound marble, copper, and lead; 
iron is also said to exist. Some of the inhabitants raise cattle, 
• others are occupied in the mines ; in the vicinity of the latter 
are always found small plantations. The climate in the hills is 
mUd and healthy. Pooho is a village with a chapel and school, 
20 leagues due west of Cordoba. 



Until recently, formed part of the department of Pocho, and 
is only remarkable for its mining industry, at Argentine and 
San Carlos. 

Punilla 

Occupies the Dolores valley between the Cosquin and Pupilla 
ranges, north-west from Cordoba. Orchards and small farms 
abound where the mountain sides have been cleared ; including 
the districts of San Eoque, San Antonio, Alejos Wood, and 
Kosario. Mr. Gordon's estancia . is in this valley, which is 
famous for fruits and wild parrots. 

Cruz del EJe 

Comprises the valleys on the_ north-western side of the. 
Punilla range, which produce much wheat and a variety of 
fruits. Southward is Guayco, where mines of lead and silver 
exist. Candelaria, a ruined Jesuit establishment, is in the 
wildest part of the mountains, surroimded by rich marble quar- 
ries. The hamlets of Pichana and Higuera also belong to" this 
.department. The village of Cruz del Eje is 30 leagues N.W. 
of Cordoba, by a mountain-path only practicable for mules. 
In the centre of the village is a large wooden cross, which for- 
merly marked the spot where the Viceroy Liniers was murdered. 

N 2- 



180 HANDBOOK OP THE KIVBR PLATE. 

Bio Primero 

Takes its name from the river which flows through the capitfd, 
and comprises fine pasture lands till reaching the large 
salt-lake of Porongos or Mar-Ohiquita, which covers nearly 
3000 square miles, forming the boundary between Cordoha, 
Santiago and Santa Fe. The town of Santa Eosa or Eio Primero 
has 2869 inhabitants, and is 20 leagues N.E. of Cordoba. 

Bio Segwndo 

Includes all the country between the Segundo and Tercero 
rivers from the town of Bosario to the limits of Santa Pe. It 
is a populous department, the inhabitants dividing their atten- 
tion between cattle-farming and agriculture. The town of 
Eosario or Eio Segundo has 1181 inhabitants, there being 
6 women to 5 men. It is 15 leagues E. of Cordoba, on the 
old coach-road for Santa Fe. The railway bridge over the Eio 
Segundo is 1300 feet long, built of iron, in 32 spans, resting 
on iron pillars 14 inches in diameter, the minimum height being 
25 feet. 

San Jiisto, 

Better known as El Tio, lies along the Eio Segundo, south 
of Lake Porongos, comprising several cattle-farms and some 
little agriculture. The village of El Tio, otherwise called 
Fort Concepcion, is 30 leagues E. of Cordoba, and about haK 
that distance from Fort Sunchales on the Santa F6 frontier. 
Arroyito and San Francisco on the Eio Segundo belong to this 
department. 

Upper Tercero 
Takes in the slopes of the sierra in which the Tercero takes 
its rise, and comprises the villages of Salto, Pampayaste, and 
Capilla de Eodriguez, which are met with between Villa Nueva 
and the Sierra de Cordoba, 



OOBSOSA. 



181 



Villa Nukva, 

Sometimes called Tercero Abajo, is an extensive department, 
the inhabitants dividing their labours between cattle-farming 
and wood-cutting. The Central Argentine Company have an 
establishment for cutting and sawing lumber at Yucat. The 
Indians sometimes carry off much horned cattle, which checks 
the business, although the pastures are good. There are few 
sheep, and of inferior quality. The soil would do well for 
agriculture, but the inhabitants are too apathetic for such 
pursuits. The women are industrious, making soap, candles, 
and preserves. Water is found on digging a few feet, but 
generally brackish. 

Villa Maria, the haK-way station on the railway between 
Eosario and Cordoba, is a straggling village with three wooden 
hotels and numerous ranches, surrounded by dense woods and 
perennial swamps. It suffers from a lack of good water, and 
the cholera of 1868 carried off most of the inhabitants. The 
heat in summer is excessive, the woods allowing no ventilation. 
This plafie was fixed on by Congress in 1870 as the capital 
of the Argentine Eepublic, but President Sarmiento vetoed 
the bill. 

VUla Nueva, on the other side of Eio Tercero, is an impor- 
tant town of 3345 inhabitants, being the third in the province, 
and seat of a considerable trade. Its exports in hides, wool, 
timber, cattle, and preserved fruits are estimated at 60,000Z. 
sterling per annum, and its imports almost as much in 
European goods. There are 30 wholesale shops, besides 
several carpenters', blacksmiths', bakers', &c., and one inn; 
sometimes there is no doctor. The Indians used to make 
inroads so close as to be visible from the roof of the church 
but not since the commencement of the Eio Cuarto Eailway in 
1870. The town has a poor appearance, as most of the houses 
are built of adobes or mud, with straw roofs; the river is 
generally low, but in flood tim.e often threatens the town. It is 



182 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

about half-a-league hence to Villa Maria, an iron bridge having 
recaitly been put ovpr the Tercero. 

The railway for Eio Cuarto and Mercedes starts from Villa 
Maria, branching off the Central Argentine. The journey to 
Eio Cuarto takes about five hours. 

Frayle Muerte, 
Sometimes called Union, or San Geronimo, was formerly 
included in the department of Villa Nueva, and covers a vast 
extent of country, for the most part exposed to Indians. The 
soil is equally suitable for pasture or agriculture, and a number 
of English farmers have formed a settlement within a few 
leagues of the town of Frayle Muerto, which is officially called 
Bell-viUe in honour of the first settler, Mr. Bell. The town ib 
built on the Eio Tercero, and has a population of 2754 souls. 
It is one of the principal stations of the Central Argentine 
EaUway, being about five hours' journey from Eosario. The 
department includes also the dependencies of Ballesteroa, 
Saladnio, and Cruz Alta, three wretched hamlets on the Eio 
Tercero,. very much exposed to Indians, especially the last- 
named, which is on the Santa Pe border, at that place where the 
Tercero changes its name, and becomes the river CarcaraSd. 
Cruz Alta is about 15 leagues N. of Fort Melincue, the point 
where the provinces of Cordoba, Buenos Ayres, and Santa Pe 
meet. The whole of this department was, xmtil recently, no 
better than Indian territory ; the present population is less 
than one to the square mile. The English settlers number 
109 men and 14 women. President Sarmiento paid a visit to 
the English colony in 1870, accompanied by several of the 
Corps Diplomatique. 

Bio Cuarto 
Occupies an immense area of the pampas, between the rivers 
Cuarto and Quinto. It forms nearly haK the province, this 
department being almost as large as Ireland. A project was 



OOEDOBA. 183 

started by SeSor Echegaray, in 1863, to bring out 10,000 families 
to settle here, the .Government having granted him 650,000 
acres. The comitry suffers much from Indians, who have more 
than once besieged the town of Eio Cuarto, aQd obliged the 
women to remain for some days shut up in the church ; but since 
the Quinto frontier is better guarded and the railway pushed 
forward, we hear less of their inroads. 

Rio Cuarto, otherwise Concepcion, is the second town in the 
province, and contains 5414 inhabitants, of whom there are 
4 women to 3 men. The situation is picturesque, on the river 
of the same name, from which canals are drawn to irrigate 
the suburbs. A garrison is maintained here, as also at Achiras, 
the southern point of the sierra. The town of Eio Cuarto is 
40 leagues S. of Cordoba, and by railway within a day's journey 
of the port of Bosario. 

Bio Seco, 
The most northern department of Cordoba, touches the 
frontiers of Catamarca and Santiago, and derives its name ■ 
from the aridity of its soil, except in the vicinity of Lake 
Porongos, were there are fine pastures. The village of Eio 
Seco, otherwise Santa Maria, has 452 inhabitants, there being 
3 women to 2 men. 

Sdbre Mamie, 
Formerly part of Eio Seco, near the Santiago frontier, along 
the eastern base of the Sierra de Cordoba, mostly covered with 
fine pastures. The village of San Francisco del Chanar is 
30 leagues N. of Cordoba on the high road to Santiago, 
standing 2400 feet over sea-level. The hamlet of Calniniaga, 
on the west side of the sierra, also belongs to this department. 

Totoral, 
On the eastern side of the sierra, includes some fine valleys and 
lowland, the district of Sinsacate being admirably cultivated. 



184 HANDBOOK 01" THE EIVEK PLATE. 

The village of Totpral counts 779 inhabitants, witli 3 women 
to 2 men, and is nearly 20 leagues N. of Cordoba. A district 
called Macha, another Candelaria, are both in this department. 

Tvjlumha 

Embraces a large range of hill' country, composed of five dis- 
tricts, in which the inhabitants devote themselves to the care of 
cattle. The village of Tulumba has 1140 souls, and farther 
north, on the high road to Santiago, are those of San Pedro and 
Santa Cruz, the latter at an elevation of 3000 feet. Southward 
of Tulumba are the ruins of Santa Catalina and Jesus-Maria, 
where the Jesuits had fine establishments. The Tucuman rail- 
way passes through Jesus-Maria and Tulumba. 

There is a Government property called Estancia de Caroya, 
with a massive buUding, to which is attached an estate of 
50 square leagues (or 334,000 acres), situate about 10 leagues 
from Cordoba, on the route of the railway to Tuctiman ; its value 
js about ^100,000. This would be an admirable place for the 
establishment of a School of Agriculture ; it has water-power 
to turn a mill, besides wood and pasture, and poor natives who 
might be employed as peons. 

IscMlin. 

Another extensive and mountainous department, between Cmz 
del Eje and Tulumba, suitable for cattle-farming, and thickly 
inhabited. The village of Ischilin is 5 leagues W. of Tulumba 
and 15 N. of Cordoba. The districts of Copacabana, Eio Pinto, 
and Quilino belong to this department. The number of persons 
over 100 years in Ischilin and Tulumba is remarkable, being 
respectively 7 and 4 out of 28 in the whole province. The hill 
range from IschiUn to Cruz del Eje and Soto is apparently 
rich in minerals. In 1871 an English company at Soto got a 
crushing-machine from Eansome and Simms, but the yield of 
gold was too small to pay expenses, viz., 38 oz. from 45 tons 
of quartz. 



COEDOBA. 185 

The prizes taken by this province at the, National Exhibition 
of 1872 were 13 gold, 13 silver, and 12 bronze medals ;— 

Genaro Perez, oil painting : gold medal. 

Female Orphanage, embroidery : one gold and one bronze medal. 
Kosario Alba, needlework : gold medal. 
Ledesma Brothers, Angora goats and hair : two gold medals. 
P. Crespo, dyed fabrics : gold medal. 
Messrs. Stow, farming implements : gold medal. 
M. Argnello, butter, and Durham bull: one gold, one silver, and one 
bronze medal. 

F. Cordero„ native wines : gold medal. 

B. Broussaint, tanned goat skins : gold medal. 

Barker, Kaulen, and Co., Angora goats and hair : two gold and two 

silver. 
James Temple and Co., machinery : one gold and one bronze medal. 
Mdlle. Velez, embroidery : silver medal. 
M. Taspuir, starch : silver medal. 
M. Vasquez, cheese : silver medal. 

G. Allio, marble ornaments : silver medal. 

C. Bocco, landscapes : silver medal. 

Dr. Oster, medicinal herbs : silver medal. 

M. Echeniqne, fine arts : silver medal. 

Tulumba rugs, marble samples, &c. : three silver medals. 

Mme. Benites, embroidery : bronze medal. 

Mme. Martinez, silk ditto : bronze medal. 

Mme. Benavides, needlework : bronze medal. 

M. Pefla, poultry : bronze medal. 

M. Castellano, native wine : bronze medal. 

M. Jaudin, engraving : bronze medal. 

E. Bedat, terra-cotta flguies : bronze medal. 

N. Podesta, liqueurs : bronze medal. 

H. Poerzler, cabinet-work : bronze medal. 

showing that Cordoba came next after Buenos Ayres in indus- 
trial development. 



186 HANDBOOK or THE EIVEK PLATE. 



CHAPTEE X. 



This province ranks twelfth in point of population, and is in a 
very backward condition. Its area is put down at 40,000 square 
miles, which, includes a large portion of pampa territory occu- 
pied by Eanqueles, Pehuenches, and other Indian tribes. It is 
a wild, mountailious, and, in some parts, a wooded . country, 
between the 32nd and 35th parallels of south latitude, and 
enjoys a delightfjil climate. It is bounded on the north by the 
Salinas desert, which forms the boundary with Bioja and Cor- 
doba ; on the west, by the Desaguadero river, on the side of 
Mendoza and the Quijadas lakes towards San Juan ; on the 
south, by the Eio Quinto and the Pampas ; on the east, by the 
Sierra Estanzuela branch of the Oordobese Sierras. 

San Luis formed a part of the old Spanish province of Cuyo, 
but separated from Mendoza in 1820, at the same time as San 
Juan : all this country had belonged to the jurisdiction of Chile 
imtil 1776, when Cuyo was passed over to the Viceroyalty of 
Buenos Ayres. Ever since the Independence this province has 
suffered from civil wars and Indian forays, but for which its 
cattle-farms would have proved highly profitable. The only 
river of any importance is the Quinto, which takes its rise in the 
Sierra Pancanta, 6500 feet ; but the want of streams is com- 
pensated by frequent rains. Lake Bebedero, which receives the 
Desaguadero, is famous alike for its fish and for the salt which 
is used throughout the province. The Sierra de San Luis is like 
a branch of the Cordoba system, the highest points, such as San 
Francisco, Pancanta, Monigote, and Tomalasta varying fifom 



SAN LUIS. 187 

5000 to 7400 feet. Pasture and timber abound in the valleys 
and table-lands. 'Gold is found at Carolina and other places ; 
also copper, lead, and antimony. The heat in summer is exces- 
sive, but the rest of the year is agreeable. AH European fruits 
thrive, especially grapes. The poverty of the inhabitants 
appears from the return of only 120 houses (other than mud 
ranches) in the city and province. As a general rule the natives 
are well formed, robust, healthy, intelligent, and of a brave and 
generous disposition. The women are pretty, amiable, and 
virtuous, and of a careful, thrifty, and laborious disposition; 
they generally make excellent wives and mothers. In the towns 
they soon become corrupted and vitiated, but in the camps they 
are usually innocent and unassuming. The men are steady and 
intelligent, and many migrate in search of better employment. 
In the country they are simple and uncouth, but in the towns 
they are distinguished for their civility, and usually get on well 
in business. 

Volcanic agencies are visible in Tomalasta and other peaks, 
and an earthquake shock was felt in San Luis, in 1849, so 
severely that some old houses fell down. 

The province is so poor that the revenues hardly exceed 
^40,000, and would be wholly inadequate but for the subsidy 
from the National Government. At the same time the public 
lands will prove of much value when European immigration 
gets so far inland. 

Sportsmen will find pumas and guanacos on the mountain 
slopes. 

The founder of this province was nephew of the famous 
founder of the Jesuit order, and, having been sent out as Vice- 
roy of Chile, married the native princess Clara Beatriz Coya, 
daughter of the Inca Sayri-Tupac, and last descendant of that 
royal race. San Luis gave some of the best isavaby regiments 
. in the War of Independence : in 1819 the Spanish officers taken 
prisoners at Maypu were massacred by the populace. 



188 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE. 

The province comprises 8 departments, viz. : — 

Population. Sq. Miles. 



San Luis 7,049 

Saladillo 5,038 

Morro 4,000 

Eenoa 6,418 

Santa Barbara . . . . 7,891 

Piedra Blanca- .. .. 8,126 

San Francisco . . . . 9,332 

Nogoli 5,440 



6,400 
6,300 
5,900 
3,000 
3,100 
5,300 
5,000 
5,000 



53,294 40,000 

The proportion of sexes is as 7 women to 6 men, probably 
owing to the wars, for which reason also we find only 128 
Europeans in the whole province, but there are 380 Chilians. 
The number of persons that can read is returned at 7142 ; there 
are 3815 children attending 84 schools. The tables show that 
of 25,908 children there are 8780, or more than one-third, ille- 
gitimate. There are 627 adults unfit for labour by reason of 
wounds received in the wars, and 3703 orphanSi 

The province of San Luis is now connected with Eosario by 
the railway via Eio Cuarto and VUla Maria, which is being 
actively pushed forward by Messrs. Eogers and Thomas to 
Mercedes, on the Eio Quinto. This wiU give a great impulse to 
the country by inducing Europeans to settle here. For sheep- 
farmers and agriculturists the points which offer the most 
striking advantages are the Eio del Eosario, in the partido Canada 
del Moro, which stretches for an immense distance across an 
almost unpopulated country. The Eio Quinto is by far the 
most picturesque stream in the province, its banks are of a rich 
and fertile soil. The Sierra de Varela has also its advantages, 
and here, on the bank of the river, might be established a. small 
farming colony ; at Plumerite also, a little to the south-east of 
Varela, a flourishing little agricultural town may be formed; 
the same may be said of the camps of PantaniUo or Punilla, as 
also those to the south-east of Morro, which are watered by 



SAN LUIS. 189 

large streams, ttus providing an easy conduct for all the pro- 
duce of the surrounding country. A little capital judiciously 
employed here would produce great returns ; besides this, steady 
active men will always find lucrative employment, such as black- 
smiths, carpenters, turners, tailors, shoemakers, &c. The best 
meat only costs 4 rls. Bol. the arrobe, a chicken 2 rls., 
and so on. Although now so thinly populated, San Luis, from 
its central position, must at no very distant day become a place 
of considerable importance;^ 

The hill country is very suitable for invalids ; a gentleman 
writes as follows : — 

" I am living at present in the Carolina, in the Sierra de San 
Luis, in quest of a favourable climate for my complaint — lung 
disease — and I find this climate more suitable to my case than 
any I have tried yet. 

"The Sierra forms a mountain region complete in itself, 
independent of the neighbouring sierras, and completely so of 
the Andes, extending about 60 leagues from south to -north, and 
10 leagues from east to west, nearly in the latitude of Santiago 
de Chile, and in the longitude of San Luis de la Punta. 

" Carolina is situated 4903 feet above the sea, right at the 
foot of the Tomalasta, the biggest mountain in this sierra, 
which rises to a height of 6000 feet over the sea. 

" Potatoes, milk, butter, cheese, and meat are cheap, as there 
are many little ohacras with irrigation in the valleys, which 
might soon produce on a larger scale, if the men were not pre- 
vented from working by the illegal military service on the 
frontiers, which they dread more than joining the robber bands. 
So they hide away, and leave their chacras in charge of the 
women. 

" There is not a tree or bush to be found in the whole sierra, 
except a few poplar trees near the house where I have rented 
my room. 

" The temperature is very agreeable, varying between 60 and 
70 degrees from morning to night, and after sunset it remains 



190 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVBE PLATE. 

warm for a long time, sinceHhe bare rocks deliver up the heat 
they received during the day from the sun." 

San Luis took the following prizes at the Cordoba Exhibition, 

1872 :— 

Hides, dye-woods, and cheese : two bronze medals. 

This province occupies the lowest rank, all kinds of industry 
being in a back-sp^ard condition. 

City of San Luis, 
Founded in 1597 by Martin Garcia de Loyola in a locality then 
known as Punta de los Venados, or Deer Point, from which 
circumstance the natives have always borne the nickname of 
" Pointers," and. in the civil wars the Puntanos invariably figure 
as excellent light cavalry. Nothing can be more picturesque 
than the situation of this city, at a height of 2550 feety com- 
manding a view of the whole province, and taking in iiie snow- 
capped stmimits of the Andes, one of which is supposed to be 
Aconcagua, 23,900 feet high, which is distant 216 geographical 
miles. Immediately over the city is the final point of the Sierra 
de San Luis, which has an elevation of 4550 feet. The stratum 
of rock or sand has invariably a layer of 3 feet of soil, watered 
by the Chorrillos stream, and all about the city you find gardens, 
where oranges, grapes, poplars, and willows grow in luxuriance. 
San Luis boasts a Governor, Ministers, Legislature, &c., but is a, 
poor place, irregularly built, and having only 3748 inhabitants, 
of whom there are 4 women to 3 men. The municipal division 
consists of 4 wards, and the schools are attended by 558 children, 
one-half of the inhabitants being able to read. San Luis 
is in 33° 17' S. lat., 8 leagues from Mendoza, and 120 W. from 
Buenos Ayres. The railway now in construction will bring 
i^ into immediate connection with the rest of the Eepublic, 
and make it a halting-place for travellers from Buenos Ayres 
to the Andes. The suburban districts are called Chomillos, 
Chalante, and Chosines. At present San Luis is attracting some 
notice by its runloured gold veins. 



SAN lUIS. 



191 



Carolina, Canada Honda, Cerritos Blancos, and the other 
central parts of this proTince are rich in mineral wealth, which 
up to the present, for want of capital and the proper machinery, 
has been little worked. In the Cerros del Gigante and Quijadas, 
gold, silver, and lead are foimd in large quantities, but owing 
to want of experience among the native miners and the primi- 
tive tools with which they are provided, until now little trouble 
has been taken to turn to good accoimt these natural advan- 



Last year was published an ofScial report, drawn up by an 
engineer named Eamon de la Sierra for the Government of San 
Luis, in which the Sierra Carolina is thus described :— 

" The Carolina mine is situated 2^' leagues W. of Canada 
Honda, and tradition says that in former times immense quan- 
tities of gold have been taken out, the name or period of its first 
discovereri being lost. In the neighbouring hills are numerous 
mines that have been partly worked and then abandoned, the 
nature of ,the works showing how ignorant the miners were 
of geological science or the proper method of working. Buena 
Esperanza is stUl being developed by Messrs. Anton Schmidt 
and Co., who began last February and have invested a capital of 
1600Z. sterling in the works ; they have sunk two shafts, piercing 
some very rich veins of metal; one shaft is 240 feet deep and 
3 in diameter, and was begun some years ago by Sr. Puebla, 
who had to give it up for want of capital. The other is 16S feet 
deep, with much water, and was originally sunk by Sr. Pinero, 
who extracted much gold and went to Buenos Ayres to buy 
machinery, but was murdered in that city; this caused the 
works to be abandoned. It gives an average of 4 ounces gold 
to the " oajon" of quartz. The present owners are putting up 
sheds, machinery, &c., and the staff comprises the two pro- 
prietors, 12 miners, and 8 other employes. Claims have been 
, made in the same hUl range by Messrs. Trederic Euler, Henry 
Lapage, Alexander Olses, and German Lallement, who are about 
' to start similar works. 



192 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVER PLATE. 

" At Cerrillos, north of Carolina, Messrs. Eobert'CIark and Co. 
are about to recommence a mine which Don Juan Bravo aban- 
doned two years ago. At Los Pajaros there is another impor- 
tant mine, west of Carolina, where D. Nemencio Guevara was 
working till 1868. 

" At the Estancia hill, east of Carolina, D. Bonifacio Velas- 
quez extracted gold, but gave up the works some six years ago, 
about the same time that Claudio Terejia, gave up his diggings 
in the same range. Eight years previous D. Baylon Jofrey.was 
forced by the water to abandon a mine near that place from 
which he had taken gold quartz and galenas of a silver character. 
The latest worker in the Estancia hiUs was Sr. Zabala, who 
gave up gold digging so -late as 1870. 

" At Santa Bosa, south-west of Carolina, there is a mine which 
was worked with profit by Eusebio Lucero till 1856 ; and in the 
same hills D. Felix Valdivia worked tiU. 1862. A friar, named 
Thomas Parody, along with Liberate Miranda, carried on 
diggings until four years ago. 

'•'To the north and south of Carolina there are numerous 
mines now abandoned, the owners of which I could not discover, 
the oldest neighbours being unable to tell me." 

Sdladillo, 

This department is alike remarkable for its mineral, pastoral, 
and agricultural importance, and derives its name from a salty 
stream which falls into the Quinto. All the slope of the Sierra 
de San Luis, for 20 leagues, as far as Carolina, is pretty thickly 
settled, and the inhabitants raise grain which they grind at one 
of the old mining mills. The lower grounds afford excellent 
pasture for horses and cows. Two gold mines exist at Carohna, 
which have been worked at various intervals, and one is now in 
active operation under an American company : there are also 
a gold and a copper mine at Santa Barbara. The village of 
Saladillo has a school and 96 inhabitants. 



SAN LUIS. 



193 



San Jose del Morro 

Lies between Saladillo and the Cordoba frontier : its northern 
part towards Eenca is watered by tbe Quinto : its southern 
limit is lost in the pampas. At one period extensive cattle 
farms existed as far as Paso de Leohuzo, 15 leagues down the 
Quiato, on both sides, but the Indians devastated this country 
so often that now it is a wilderness, although wood, water, and 
pastures abound. 

San Jose del Morro, seat of the local authorities, stands at an 
elevation of 3400 feet. 

Villa Mercedes, sometimes called Fort Constitucion, the most 
important town in San Luis, although inferior in population to 
the capital and to Luxan, was founded in 1856, and promises to 
be the centre of the railway system in the Andine provinces. 
A wide-gauge railway is it* construction from Eio Cuarto, to 
connect Mercedes with the port of Eosario ; and a narrow-gauge 
line from Buenos Ayres passes by here to Mendoza and San 
Juan. Mercedes has a church, schools, and 1596 inhabitants. 

Cvichate, a hamlet of 373 inhabitants. 

Menea 
Comprises the fertile valley of Concaran, between the sierras 
of Cordoba and San Luis, from which descend many precious 
streams that are tributaries to the Quinto. There are two 
villages, Eenca and Dolores, which do a good business in wool, 
wheat, maize, &o. Eenca is in the centre of the department, 
and counts 904 inhabitants, who have fine plantations of fruit- 
trees. Dolores has 490 souls: both have public schools, at- 
tended by 289 children. 

Santa Barbara 
Lies west of Eenca and south of Saladillo: it is a moun- 
tainous district, almost exclusively pastoral, though possessing 
mineral wealth. At the mouth of the defile of Santa Barbara 



194 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

is the village of that name, with 228 inhahitants and a school 
of 74 children. There is another village called Eincon del 
Carmen, with a school of 67 children. 

Piedra Blanca 

Occupies the north end of the Sierra de San Luis, and touches 
the provinces of Cordoba, Eioja, ajid San Juan. It is well 
wooded and watered, especially on the eastern slopes, where 
vegetation is luxuriant, and grains of gold are found in the 
river Quines. Some agriculture exists in the north-west. The 
village of Piedra Blanca has 821 inhabitants and a public . 
school. 

San Francisco 

Lies between the ranges of San Luis and Quijadas, and is 
famous for the gold deposits at Tomolasta. "fhe town of 
Luxan, second in the province, counts 2334 inhabitants : and 
the village of San Francisco, at a height of .2600 feet, has a 
population of 1414, 3 leagues from the gold mines. Saladas is 
a district of cattle-farming. 

Nogoli. 

A mountainous district between Gigante and Socoscora, well 
wooded, and irrigated by streams that descend from the Fan- 
canta range. 



( 195 ) 



CHAPTEE XI. 

MBNDOZA. 

At the foot of the Andes, this fertile and favoured province 
covers an undetermined area of about 50,000 square mUes, being 
bounded on the north by San Juan and on the east by San Luis, 
but its southern limit is lost in the pampas of Patagonia, In 
population Mendoza ranks tenth among the provinces, the 
census of 1869 giving 65,413 inhabitants, including 6144 
foreigners, mostly Chilians. The climate is mild and peculiarly 
adapted for persons suffering from pulmonary affections. Over 
10,000 square miles of land are irrigated by the rivers Mendoza, 
Tunuyan, Desaguadero, and Diamante, the crops ranging from 
sixty to one hundredfold. Cereals and fruits are grown in 
some districts, while others are devoted to fattening cattle for 
the Chilian market. The white wine of Mendoza is well 
known : some years the yield of grapes is so abundant that the 
growers cannot afford to buy casks, but lose the vintage, there 
being no market, since the cost of freight to Buenos Ayres is 
enormous. Dried fruits are exported on mule-back to Chile. 
Flax is cultivated with success, as weU as tobacco and silk. 
The first sUkworms were introduced by Mr. Andrew Thorndyke 
in 1839, to the number of 874, and in less than six years their 
number increased to two millions. The first tobacco was 
planted a few years before by a Spanish prisoner from the 
battle of Maypu, to whom the authorities presented a gold 
medal and a life-pensiop for this service. Poplars are largely 
grown for general purposes, often reaching over 100 feet in 
height. The province has not prospered so much as it ought to 
have done : for many years it suffered prolonged civil wars, and 
when on the point of improvement, in 1861, it met with the 

2 



196 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVER PLATE. 

disastrous earthquake which ruined Mendoza city, destroying 
nine-tenths of the inhabitants. 

Mendoza takes its name from the Viceroy of Chile, Garcia de 
Mendoza, in 1559, who having subdued the Araucanian tribes 
sent Captain Pedro Castillo over the Andes to annex the 
dominion, afterwards called Cuyo, to the colonies of the Spanisli 
crown. The native tribe of Guarpes, unlike the warlike 
Calchaquies of Gatamarca, was of a patient and industrious dis- 
position, readily submitting to the conquerors on condition of 
being left undisturbed in the cultivation of their fields. After 
two centuries, in 1776, the province of Cuyo, of which Mendoza 
was capital, was transferred from the Viceroyalty of Chile to 
that of Buenos Ayres. Cuyo was one of the 13 United Pro- 
vinces which proclaimed Independence in 1816, but four years 
later it was dismembered, San Juan and San Luis forming dis- 
tinct provinces. 

The Pehuenches Indians at present hold all the country south 
of the Diamante, Fort San Bafael being the farthest settlement 
on the side of the desert and about 60 leagues S. of Mendoza 
city. Governor Segura in 1854 projected a line of semi-military 
colonies by San Eafael, Punta Monte, Chacay, Malargiie, and Eio 
Grande, where wood and water abound, as well as rich pastures : 
the scheme might have been carried out but for the disaster of 
1861. European immigration must necessarily be slow, as this 
territory is a thousand miles inland from Buenos Ayres : mean- 
time the construction of a railroad across the Andes, as surveyed 
recently by Mr. Eobert Crawford, over the Planchon pass, 
would bring these lands on the high road from Buenos Ayres to 
Chile. The melting of the snows contributes to fertilize the 
plains, and the head waters have rise here which go to form the 
rivers Negro and Colorado that flow across the continent into 
the Atlantic ocean. 

The mineral wealth of the country is said to be varied and 
inexhaustible. A petroleum spring on the Planchon route, 70 
leagues S. of Mendoza, gives 40 per cent, of pure kerosene, 
according to the statement of the census commissioners ; there 



MENDOZA. 197 

are numerous apertures through which the liquid exudes, and 
" under the action of a hot sun it runs over the ground and then 
hardens into a compact mass. A similar deposit of bituminous 
stufT, which is said to be kerosene, is met with at 10 leagues 
from Mendoza, Some of the mountains are extinct volcanoes, 
others abound in marble, lime, pumice stone, flint, quartz, agate, 
amethyst, cornelian, and sapphire ; the discovery of coal-beds 
has often been reported, and mines of iron, lead, and copper are 
in many places, though few are working. The best known are 
the Paramillo mines, from which the Spaniards took large 
quantities of silver in the last century, situate 23 leagues 
westward of Mendoza, on the Uspallata road to Chile, about 
10,000 feet above the level of the sea ; in 1867 works were 
resumed here by Villanueva, an Argentine, and Del Canto, a 
Chilian miner, who use bituminous earth mixed with firewood 
in their furnaces and extract copper and silver. Valuable 
minerals are supposed to~ exist in the Indian country, some 
specimens of which are reported by Major Eickard to possess 
70 per cent, of copper combined with antimony. The ParamiUo 
range, a branch of the Andes, rises to 10,000 feet : behind this 
the valley of Uspallata is found, some .5500 feet over sea-level. 
The snowy peak of Tupungato reaches 21,000 feet of elevation, 
and of lesser height are the summits called Iglesia, Plata, Lion's 
Peak, Juncal, San Francisco, Arbola, Cruz de Piedra, Portillo, 
San Lorenzo, Mineros, Planchon, San Jose, Maypo, and Tin- 
guiririca, some of which reach 17,000 feet. 

In th6 far south are the ranges of Nevado and Payen ; the 
former appears volcanic, from the lava on its sides and the 
smoke often observable around its peaks, as weU as from reports 
like thunder heard by the inhabitants of San Eafael. The 
Payen range is much visited by miners, who also cultivate 
patches in the fertile valleys that look down on the river Chali- 
Lehu and the opening plains of the pampas. The Pehuenches 
Indians give much trouble by stealing cattle, which they drive 
across into Chile. Of the original Guarpe tribe which inter- 
married with the Spaniards not a trace remains. 



198 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

The province comprises 12 departments, as follows : — 

City and suburbs 14,583 inhabitants. 

Guaymallen 8,128 „ 

San Vicente 4,439 „ 

Maypu 4,603 „ 

Luxan 4,960 „ 

San Carlos 3,824 „ 

Junin 7,495 „ 

San Martin .. .." .. .. 8,046 „ 

Kosario 2,060 „ 

San Bafael 1,361 „ 

Tupungato 2,357 „ 

LaPaz ' 3,057 „ 

65,413 „ 

One-sixth of this nmnber can read, and there are 104 schools 
attended by 7485 children, of whom two-thirds are boys. The 
proportion of illegitimate children is 22 per cent. Goitre is so 
prevalent that 3 per cent, of the population suffer from it; 
malignant pustules are also common. Six persons have reached 
over 100 years, the oldest being Petrona Blanco of San Martin, 
aged 120. The earthquake of 1861 cost the province 15,000 lives; 
the previous census of 1857 gave a population of 47,478. At 
present nearly one-tenth of the inhabitants are natives of Cluls. 
The total number of Europeans is only 283, of whom 36 are 
women. The area of cultivated land is 300,000 acres, of which 
nearly two- thirds are under alfalfa, for fattening cattle; the 
vineyards cover more than 10,000 acres. The trade with 
Chile averages '200,000?. yearly, of which nearly two-thirds are 
exports to that country. 

The province of Mendoza toot the following prizes at 
Cordoba : — 

F. Crespo, dried fruits : gold medal. 

C. Segovia, marble : silver medal. 

C. Calle, native cotton : silver medal. 
M. Videla, wines : silver medal. 

Mendoza Committee, coal, oil, &c. : two silver and one bronze medal. 
H. Lemaistre, hams : bronze medal. 
M. Lespinasse, brandy : bronze medal. 

D. Hudson, porcelain : bronze medal. 



MENBOZA. 



199 



This province acquitted itself pretty fairly, considering how 
thinly it is populated. 

Mr. Clark's proposed railway to Chile will pass through 

Mendoza, uniting Buenos Ayres with Valparaiso, and bringing 

them within 48 hours' journey. The estimated cost of the line 

is 6,000,000Z. sterling, length 800 miles, steepest grade 1 in 25, 

with a tunnel 2 miles long at the Cumbre, 12,000 feet above 

sea-leveL 

City of Mendoza. 

The present city was begun after the dreadful earthquake 
of March 20th, 1861, on almost the same site as the ruins 
of that 'which had been founded by Captain Pedro Castillo 
300 years before, and which counted 15,000 souls previous to 
the catastrophe. The number of victims has never been ascer- 
tained, but probably exceeded 12,000, including the French 
geologist Bravard, who had predicted that before long the), 
place would be destroyed in this manner. The loss of life was 
greater from the fact that the townspeople were assembled in 
the churches at thg devotions of Lent when" the earthquake 
occurred, at eight o'clock in the evening : the forty.-eight blocks 
composing the city were instantly destroyed, but the suburbs, 
which extended some miles, partially escaped. Fires raged 
for eight days, and numbers of marauders from the country 
districts occupied themselves with plunder instead of rescuing 
survivors from the ruins. Don Domingo Oro and a few others 
were extricaited from the ruins. So complete was the destruction 
that even the course of the streets could not be traced. The 
shock was felt at Buenos Ayres, a distance of 700 miles, the 
pendulums of some clocks being observed on the evening in 
question to stop for a few seconds. 

Mendoza enjoys an admirable situation for trade with Chile 
or for picturesque effect. Under the shadow of the Andes, 
close to the Uspallata pass, it was a favourite halting-place 
with travellers before steamers were established* between 
Europe and Chile, and old writers tell us of pleasant evenings 



200 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

on the Alameda with Mendozina beauties, or extol the grand 
panorama in which Tupungato with its eternal snows forms so 
striking an object. Few people now-a-days, unless for pleasure, 
cross the Andes, although the TJspallata pass is so easy that 
from November to May it may be effected even by ladies with- 
out much danger : the Argentine Government has erected huts 
of refuge along the route. When the Eio Cuarto Bailway 
reaches Mendoza, bringing this place within three days by rail 
from Buenos Ayres, it is likely the journey over the Andes 
will again attract travellers. It usually takes four days from 
Mendoza to Santa Rosa in Chile, and mules may be hired for 
^10 : the scenery is of course unrivalled, the highest poiat of 
the pass being 12,956 feet over sea-level. 

The approaches to Mendoza are much admired, the traveller 
passing through long avenues of poplars for many miles between 
irrigated farms and meadows. The Zanjon, sometimes called 
Guaymallen's canal from the Cacique of that name who ruled 
here at the time of the Spanish conquest, is a canal drawn from 
the river Mendoza near Luxan, and constructed by the Indians : 
it traverses the city, and small aqueducts branch off in all 
directions to water the houses and gardens, except in the higher 
suburbs on the western side, where a reservoir is kept, from 
which the neighbours draw their suppKes. North-east of the 
city is the cemetery of El Eosario, surrounded by farms, and at 
a distance of 3 leagues from Mendoza we find a thermal spring 
called Borbollon, 26 degrees centigrade all the year round, 
from which flows a stream that waters the Carpinteria and 
Jocoli districts. There are sundry outlying hamlets, such as 
Chimba, Alto de Godoy, Plumerillo, Panqueja, SapaUar, and 
Algarrobal, the inhabitants living by agriculture. South of 
Mendoza is the pleasant suburb of San Nicolas, with country- 
houses. In summer time the citizens go to a bathing-place 
called Challao, in the mountains. There are excellent mineral 
waters at the defile of Villa Viceneio, 15 leagues from town, on 
the UspaUata route : these are close by a village and mines of 



MENDOZA. 



201 



silver, lead, and copper, but the works have been abandoned 
since 1861. The still more famous bath^s'of Puente del Inca 
are near a natural bridge called after the Incas, higher up the 
pass, and the waters are feputed of much efficacy. The villages 
lying eastward of Mendoza are Tortugas, Aoequias de Gomez, 
Pedregal, Cruz, and Eodeo del Medio, the last-named being 
some miles in length : all irrigated from the river Mendoza and 
highly cultivated. South-east are the hamlets of Cruz de 
Piedra, Villa Seca, and Desagiie, also occupied by agricultural 
peasants. The department counts 14,583 souls, but the city 
has only 8124, there being 4 females to 3 males : the schools 
are attended by 553 children, and nearly one -fourth of 
the popula,tion can read or write. Mendoza is the seat of a 
Governor, Legislature, Federal Judge, &c., and is 700 miles W. 
of Buenos Ayres, communicating by telegraph with the capital, 
and also with Chile. 

San Vicente. 
This department lies southward from Mendoza, the village of 
San Vicente being in fact a suburb of the city, after you pass 
the hamlet of San Nicolas. Vineyards and fat pastures cover a 
large area, this district possessing excellent irrigation from 
the Guaymallen canal. Another farming district is the 
Chacras de Coria. Although the southern portions are sterile, 
thay might easily be rendered productive if irrigated from the 
rivers Mendoza and Tunuyan. The village of San Vicente has 
781 inhabitants. 

Luxan, 

The richest grazing department in the province, lies 4 leagues 
S. of San Vicente, on both banks of the river Mendoza. It 
is much frequented in the summer months, for its mild tempera- 
ture and the bathing in the river. The districts of Compuerta, 
Vistalva, Paraiso, and Cruz de Piedra are well watered and 
cultivated, but the larger one of Sulunta, which stretches away 
to the Uco valley and the Andes, is poor and thinly settled. 



202 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEE PLATE, 

V 

San Martin. 

The village wliicli gives name to this department was founded 
by General San Martin, the hero of Independence : the site was 
unluckily so swampy that the village has not prospered, and 
counts only 541 inhabitants. The department is one of the 
most advanced in agriculture ; the traveller passes , along good 
roads lined with poplars, through the districts of Eiojita, Isla, 
Eetamo, Independencia, Monte Caseros, Santa Eosa, MaUea, 
and Dormida, all which are watered by means of canals drawn 
from the Tunuyan and Mendoza rivers. San Martin is eastward 
from Luxan and San Vicente. 

, La Paz, 

Lying near the Desaguadero, on the San Luis frontier, is so 
favourably situated along the Tunuyan river that numberless 
canals serve to irrigate its well-cultivated lands, which are 
chiefly used for pasture. A canal 40 miles in length unites the 
Tunuyan and Desaguadero, which will permit all the interme- 
diate country to be devoted to farming as soon as the Indians 
become less troublesome on the right bank of the Tunuyan. 
The village of La Paz, of recent date, promises to attain some 
importance, being exactly half-way between Mendoza and San 
Luis. The surrounding woods are used to pasture cattle. The 
districts of Chacarita, Barrial Grande, and Eamadita are likewise 
pastoral. 

Lagunas. 
The lagoons of Huanacache comprise a semicircular area 
from the river of Mendoza to tte head waters of the Desaguadero, 
on the San Juan frontier. The inhabitants are descendants of 
the original Guarpe Indians, and avail themselves of the 
periodical overflow of these lakes to raise abundant crops, while 
they also devote much of their attention to fishing, making 
weirs for the purpose. At the same time a few herds of cattle 
subsist on the aquatic plants of the lagoons, and good drinking 



MXITDOZA. 



203 



water is always obtainable by digging wells a few feet deep. 
The village of Kosario, on the lake of that name, is the chief 
town of the department, and hamlets with chapels are also 
found at San Miguel, Ascencion, San Pedro, and Alto Grande. 
In the districts bordering on the Mendoza river the inhabitants 
draw canals thence to irrigate their lands, but the Indians 
prefer planting in the low grounds adjoining the lagoons. 

San Carlos, 
Along the slope of the Andes, between the rivers Tunuyan 
and Diamante, occupies half the Uco valley, and is luxuriantly 
watered, well cultivated, possessing a numerous population and 
considerable trade with Chile, The department takes the name 
from a fort built by the Spaniards in the last century, near the 
foot of the Portillo pass, which is open from November to 
March ; but travellers to Chile prefer the Uspallata. The fort 
and village of, San Carlos are 25 leagues S. from LuxAn, and 
30 from Mendoza, at the junction of two streams. A small 
settlement of Chilian immigrants, called Chilecito, is met 2 
leagues S.W. of San Carlos. Sundry spurs of the Andes 
display rich marble, as yet undeveloped, and bituminous soil 
exists in the lower grounds. The districts of Carrizal, Arboleda, 
Melocoton, and Totoral pertain to this department, the total 
population of which is 3824, including 8 Europeans. There 
are 52 children attending the public school. 

San Bafael, 
The most southern department in the province, occupies the 
rest of the Uco valley, southward from the Diamante to the 
river Atuel. Fort San Eafael stands 60 leagues S. of 
Mendoza city, and is the last outpost of civilization, surrounded 
by some well-tilled chacras. The Pehuenches and Auca Indians 
often come hither to sell their skins and other wares, living on 
friendly terms with the Christians. A regular traffic is carried 
on, especially in stolen cattle, between the southern Indians and 



204 HANDBOOK OB' THE EIVEK PLATE. 

the CMlian province of Arauco, by means of the low passes of 
Peteroa, Sazo, and Planchon, which hardly exceed 10,000 feet 
over sea-level, and are often open most of the year. The 
petroleum spring is 10 leagues S. of San- Eafael. All the 
country below San Eafael is held by the- Indians, but the nomiaal 
limit of the province is supposed to be the Eio Grande, after- 
wards called Colorado. A military expedition once reached 
Mount Limen-Mahuida (" whet-stone peak "), near Curra- 
Languen, or the "bitter lake." All these parts are flooded 
when the snows melt, and Lake Nahuel-Huapi is iu the midst 
of fine scenery, where the Eio Negro of Patagonia takes its rise. 
About 3 leagues W. of Fort Eafael is found a greenish 
alabaster, and all tne hilly country is said to abound in silver, 
especially at a place 10 leagues N. of the fort. The banks 
of the Tunuyan are thickly wooded : here tigers are found, and 
vicunas and guanacos on the mountain slopes, as well as the 
majestic condor. 

Passes of the Andes. 

There are twenty-seven known passes over the Andes into 
Chile, but only two or three are much in use, the rest being 
either held by Indians or too difficult for travellers. 

Nahuel-Hiiapi, the most southern, is used by Patagonian 
Indians going to Port Montt or Valdivia; the highest point, 
called Pedro Eosales, is reported by Messrs. Fonck and Hers as 
only 2770 feet over sea-level, and 30 leagues from Montt colony. 

Arica, Einihue, and Villarica, communicating with Arancania. 
The Indians say they are practicable all the year round, and the 
eastern slopes covered with apple-trees. 

Pena-Blanca, Antuco, and Parqui-Tanquen, also used by 
Indians. Antuco is only 6900 feet high, and here Cruz passed 
in 1806, when he came from the Pacific to Buenos Ayres in 
47 days. The Indians take cattle and salt by this route to 
ChUe. 

Planchon, used by Eanqueles cattle-lifters. Mr. Eobert 
Crawford surveyed this pass in 1872, for a railway to Chile. 



MENDOZA. 



205 



Highest point, 8225 feet; steepest gradients, 1 in 30 on 
Argentine, 1 in 20 on Chilian side ; sharpest curve, 574 feet 
radius; 15 tunnels, in all 2200 yards long; 2 viaducts, the 
highest 190 feet high and 660 feet long. The summit is 
830 miles from Buenos Ayres, and 59 from the nearest railway 
station in Chile. 

Damas, Peteroa, and Cruz de Piedra, also Indian passes. 
The first was so called by Souillac in 1805, because, he said, 
ladies could cross at any season. Pissis states the Cruz pass to 
be 11,360 feet, but one of the shortest and best. 

Portillo, described by Darwin and Dr. Gillies, is 13,240 feet 
high, difficult, and often shut with snows ; it reduces the distance 
to 80 leagues from Mendoza to Santiago. 

Uspallata, or Cumbre, 12,870 feet, is the usual overland route 
to Chile, and proposed by Mr. Clark for his Transandine railway. 
Couriers cross it all the year, but travellers only from November 
to April inclusive. The only dangerous part is the Cumbre, 
which should be passed before 10 a.m. to avoid the high wind. 
The journey can be made in three days, but is usually done in 
six, viz. : Mendoza to VUla-Vicencio, 15 leagues ; to-^sp9,llata, 
15 ; to Punta Las Vaoas, 15 ; to the Pie del Cumbre, 10 ; to 
Guardia Vieja, 12 ; to Santa Eosa, 13 ; in all, 80 leagues. 

Potrero-Alto separates from the last at Punta Las Vacas, is 
shorter and more difficult. 

Horcones, formerly used by smugglers. 

Los Patos, by which General San Martin led his army into 
Chile in 1817, takes its name from the abundance of ducks, and 
is used by San Juan traders to Valparaiso, the distance being 
128 leagues. 

Calingasta, Tocota, Agua-Negra, Coconta, Colangue, Deidad, 
and Dona-Ana are passes between Sap Juan and the ChUian 
provinces of Aconcagua, Coquimbo, and Atacama, much used for 
the traffic of fat cattle into Chile, as well as by muleteers. 

Three passes, called Pircas, Pulido, and Come-cabaUo, connect 
Oopiapd with San Juan, and are much frequented in summer 



206 EAITDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

the distance being 200 leagues : they are high, and exposed to 
frequent storms. 

From Salta to Copiap6 there are the routes of Fiambuld, San 
Francisco, and Autofagasta, passing through much desert 
country ; distance about 200 leagues, taking 15 days ; height, 
10,000 feet. 

Despoblado, from Salta to Cobija across deserts, takes 20 
, days. 

To Bolivia there are two excellent roads always practicable : 
the old high road from Salta to Peru, well supplied with mulsB, 
and the Humahuaca road, from Jujuy to Suipacha. 



( 207 ) 



CHAPTER XII. 

SAN JUAN. 

This proAnnce ranks eleventli in the Confederation, having 
only 60,319 inhabitants, or 10,000 less than De Moussy's 
estimate in 1859. It is, however, the most progressive in the 
interior, anc|. has for successive years earned the prize given by 
the Argentine Congress for the province which shows the 
largest relative nnmber of children attending school. There 
are 62 schools, attended by 6907 children. It has also pro- 
duced a variety of learned and distinguished men, including 
President Sarmiento, Dr. Eawson, and others. Its agricultural 
and mining industries are more advanced than in any other 
of the provinces. There are half-a-million acres under alfalfa 
pastures, where cattle are fattened for the Chilian market, and 
this occupation as well as the care of vineyards absorbs one- 
third of the entire popiilation. The land artificially irrigated 
often gives crops a hundredfold, especially maize, wheat, and 
beans. But for the scarcity of capital much more land might 
be irrigated and brought under cultivation. 

The only river of any importance is the Eio San Juan, which 
has its source in the Cordilleras, passes by the city and is lost 
in some lakes in the southern part of the province. The climate 
is healthy, dry in winter, and very hot in summer, with short 
raias occasionally. Grapes, oranges, and peaches thrive in 
great abundance, but the fig and oKve have deteriorated. 
Foreign trees are acclimatized at the Government Quinta 
Normal, which is under the direction of a German. Timber 
for firewood is found all over the department. Coal exists at 
Marayes, and excellent samples were obtained by Mr. Klappen- 
bach, but the locality is too remote to be of much use, and 



208 HANDBOOK OF THE EITEE PLATE. 

Congress refused Mr. Klappenbach's application for the premium 
of discovery, as these coal-beds were certainly known before. 
Silver mines are so numerous that they are said to cover an 
area of 10,000 square miles ; many of them are very rich, and 
as soon as the railway, now in constrnction, opens up this pro- 
vince, mining will form a principal industry. The best known 
mines are at Tontal, Jachal, Guayaguas, San Padro; Iglesia, 
Marayes, Morado, Guachi, Gualilan, and Huerta ; the works of 
the Anglo-Argentine Co., of London, are at Gualilan. The 
Tontal silver mines, 100 miles S.E. from ■ the city, are reputed 
the richest. In other places are said to exist copper, iron, and 
marble. 

The province may be said to consist of three great valleys— 
Tulan, in which the city of San Juan is situated ; Jachal, with 
a town of the same name, and Valle Fertil. The census of 
1869 gives the population as follows : — 

San Juan 28,192 

Jachal 12,040 

Valle Fertil 2,055 

Pozitos 4,158 

Angaco 5,479 

Cauoete 3,221 

San Martin 5,174 

60,319 



It is the only province which shows no increase of population 
during the last ten years, and this is owing to the incessant con- 
vulsions of which San Juan has been the scene. The aboriginal 
inhabitants were Guarpe Indians, as in Mendoza, who inter- 
married with their conquerors, and at present in many of the 
rural departments this mixed race is plainly observable, but 
not in the city. De Moussy gives the area at 33,000 square 
miles, but the San Juaninos claim 96,000; the province lies 
between the 30th and 32nd parallels of S. lat. on the eastern 
slope of the Andes. 



SAN JTJAN. 



City of San Juan. 

It was founded in 1561 by CaptainB Castillo, Jofr6, and 
Mallea, on the banks of the river which bears its name, and 
from its position on the northern extremity of the Cuyo terri- 
tory was known as San Juan de la Frontera. In 1776 it re- 
ceiToda Deputy-Governor from Mendoza, and continued even 
after the Independence to be considered as a part of the pro- 
vince of Cuyo, until 1820, when it declared itself a separate 
State. The city, which stood originally at the place now called 
Pueblo Viejo, about 4 miles northward, had to be removed 
owing to inundations from the river ; its present population is 
8353, there being 4 women to 3 men, and it counts 115 Euro- 
peans, of whom 9 are English, besides 319 Chilians. The town 
is watered by means of acequias or canals, one of which runs 
through each block. The principal square is nicely planted ; 
the public buildings comprise a cathedral, 3 churches, and 
7 schools, the most remarkable of the latter being the Sarmiento 
Model School, with Grecian fa9ade and accommodation for 600 
boys. Most of the houses are built of "adobes." An active trade 
is maintained with Chile, the leading merchants being Quiroga, 
Zavalla, Merlo, Carrie, Lloveras, Moreno, Eodriguez, and 
Aguiar. The journey to Chile takes five or six days by the 
Uspallata pass, which is open from 1st November to 1st May. 
The exports consist of fat cattle and dried fruits ; the raisins 
are of superior quality, although the native-grown wines are 
badly prepared. The Governor and principal authorities reside 
at San Juan. 

The suburbs comprise Concepcion, Desamparados, Santa 
Lucia, and Trinidad, with an aggregate population of 20,000 
souls. The first occupies the site of the old capital, and offers a 
picture of superior cultivation. The second is on the Marque- 
zado route, passing the Murallon or dyke of 1000 feet in 
length, to prevent inundation : the hills abound in marble of 
various colours, and this district counts numerous limekilns. 



210 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

This road also leads to the picturesque watering-place of Zonda, 
in a valley watered by a river of that name, famous for its 
fruits, at a medium elevation of 3300 feet over sea-level : hither 
the principal families repair in the summer months. Santa 
Lucia is beautifully irrigated, and produces wheat, fruits, and 
alfalfa in abundance, as also the districts of Chacritas, Eincon, 
and Cercado. The village of Trinidad, on the Pozitos road, has 
country houses and gardens of charming appearance. The 
usual yield of wheat is twenty-five fold, but in some places it 
has given 100 for one. 

The city of San Juan is 120 leagues from Cordoba, part of 
the way being desert. The new road passes over the Cordoba 
hiUs, through San Pedro, skirting the south point of the Llanos 
range, and by Guayaguas and Caucete to San Juan. 

Pozitos 
Is a populous and well-cultivated department, forming as it 
were a series of gardens, with rows of poplars between, and 
artificial irrigation. The Acequion and ParamiUos valleys are 
specially remarkable for the well-cultivated farms known as 
Durazuo, Barros, Acequion, Pedemal, and Quebrada de Montano. 
'The road to Uspallata passes here. Eastward along the slopes 
of the Zonda, on the Mendoza route, are Caypiateria, Canada 
Honda, and Uuanacache : the first is useless from lack of water, 
but the two others yield fine wheat and grapes. At Cerrillos 
and Oochagual the industry is pastoral. The village of Pozitos 
is 3 leagues S. from San Juan, and in 1861 a battle was fought 

here. 

I Caucete, 

East of San Juan, extends from the foot of the Palo moim- 
tains to the lagoons of Huanacache and the sand-deserts which 
form the boundary with Eioja. In 1825 a company, was formed 
to cultivate a part of this district, but the civil wars prevented 
any efforts for more than thirty years, tiU. 1858, when canals 
were made, lands divided into farms of 40 cuadras each, and a 



SAN JUAlf. ■ 211 

prosperous state of affairs inaugurated. Wheat, grapes, and 
poplars have enriched the first settlers, and the village of 
Caucete, which is about 7 leagues from San Juan, on the 
eastern bank of the Rio San Juan, is now the centre of a flourish- 
ing region of farms, which extends even up the slopes of Sierra 
de Palo, overlooking the high road from San Juan to San Luis. 
The Sierra Guayaguas, on the borders of Bioja, has a silver mine 
and some grazing farms. 

Angaco, 
Sometimes called Salvador, lies N.E. from San Juan, ^between 
the VUlicum and Pie de Palo ranges. A canal 20 miles long is 
drawn from the San Juan river to Punta del Monte, affording 
irrigation to the whole department, which is carefully cultivated. 
Angaco village, with a church and 808 inhabitants, is about 
6 leagues N.E. of the city. The village of San Isidro is also 
in this department. Beyond Punta del Monte the high roads to 
Valle Tertil and Eioja are devoid of water for over 100 miles. 

San Martin 
Occupies" a pleasant valley beyond the Eio San Juan, facing 
the city, having on one side the Sierra Villicum, and on the 
other that of UUum ; it also comprehends the CaKngasta valley, 
which is traversed by an Andine stream that falls into the Rio 
San Juan. The village of San Martin, sometimes called Tapias, 
is near the last-mentioned river, and surrounded on all sides by 
smiling farms, as far as Tapiecitas, Barrial, and Pachaco. Five 
miles inland from the village, on the Villicum slopes, we find 
mineral waters of a sulphuric character. 

' Valle Fertil 
Lies midway on the route from San Juan to Eioja, consisting, 
as its name indicates, of a fertile vaUey, cut off from the rest of 
the province by an uninhabited desert extending 100 miles in 
the direction of San Juan, and offering much difSculty to tra- 

p 2 



212 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

vellers. It Ib proposed to obviate this by establishing post- 
houses along the route, which is in places wooded and with 
pasture, up to a distance of 12 leagues from Valle FertO, when 
the numerous cattle-farms of this fine valley commence. The 
village of VaUe FertU has only 467 inhabitants, but the district 
is populous on the eastern or Bioja side of the sierra, and a sub- 
delegate with two justices of peace reside in the village. The 
sierra abounds in mineral wealth, especially about La Huerta, 
where mines have been in working for many years. Coal is 
found at Marayes„of excellent quality. Wood for mining fur- 
naces abounds. 

Jackal. 

An extensive valley to the north-west : the lower or southern 
part is arid, but the upper is well watered, and numerous smaller 
valleys converge into that of Jachal, each irrigated by an Andine 
stream : these streams swell the Eio Jachal to a good volume of 
water, which fertilizes the country for miles. The town of 
Jachal, with 981 inhabitants, is pleasantly situated in a zone of 
gardens and plantations. It is the residence of a sub-delegate 
and the usual district authorities, and maintains a brisk trade 
with the Chilian ports of Coqiiimbo and Huasco, sending thither 
across the Cordillera large quantities of fat cattle, and receiving 
in exchange European manufactures. It has but little trade with 
San Juan, from which it is distant 150 miles N.W., a desert of 
nearly 40 miles intervening from Eio San Juan to the Jachal 
valley. Parallel with this last is the Pismanta valley, the 
lower part of which is desert, but the upper well cultivated and 
famous for its sulphur springs, as well as for its gold mines »t 
ChHca, and those of silver at Antecristo. The Gualilan gold 
mines, belonging to a London company, are also in the Pismanta 
valley, at the foot of the Jachal range. Bodeo and Iglesia are 
two hamlets farther north, also in this department. In the 
mountainous country between the Jachal and Guandacol ranges 
are the mining districts of Pescado and Guachi-guaco. The 
desert and valley of Mogua lie south-east of Jachal ; the valley 



SAH JUAN. 



213 



is irrigated by the Moquina river, along which numerous water- 
mills are met with, and agriculture is in an advanced condition. 
Close to the town of Jachal are establishments for extracting 
ore from the minerals. 

If this province had pea<!e and an influx of population it 
would rapidly assume great importance, both on account of its 
mineral wealth and its advantageous trade in fat cattle with 
Chile. A canal has been spoken of to connect San Juan and 
Mendoza, rendering cultivable a tract of 150 miles, now desert. 
The Kio San Juan, sometimes called Los Patos, from the defile 
of the Andes in which it takes rise, irrigates a large portion of 
country ; its length is 300 miles, its width about 250 feet, 
and during the summer months the melting of Andine snows 
gives it such volume of water that it is navigable from Caucete 
to the lagoons of Portezuelo or Huanacache, in which it loses 
itself. An inundation in December, 1833, laid waste 10,000 
acres of arable land, and even threatened the city ; a dyke was 
then constructed, causing such floods to cover the opposite bank. 
The Huanacache lakes are formed by the rivers Mendoza and 
San Juan, and from them the Desaguedero takes its rise. In 
summer their level is much heightened, and the water almost 
potable ; but in other seasons it is salty and brackish. The 
"various mountain-ranges are spurs of the Andine system, their 
medium height being 15,000 feet, and the only remarkable 
peak Aconcagua ; the ranges are rugged and bare, free from 
volcanoes, and in many places rich in minerals. The census 
commissioners report the actual number of mines working as 
14 of gold, 10 of silver, 12 of lead and silver, 1 of copper ; 
besides 2 smelting establishments for gold and 5 for silver. 

The province of San Juan took the following prizes at 
Cordoba : — 

S. Elappenbaeh, minerals: gold medal. 
P. Sarmiento, embroidery : gold medal. 
M, Lailga, wagon : silver medal. 
M, Bodriguez, dried &uits : sUver medal. 



214 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

M. Doncel, wines : silver medal. 

M. Castro, nrale : silver medal. 

Prov. Committee, lace-work, &c : one silver and three bronze medals. 

Gov. of Province, gold lace : bronze medal. 

Videla Brother^, oil-paintings : two bronze medals. 

M. Albarracin, poncho, &c. : two bronze medals. 

This province came off fourth, being next after Tucmnan. 



( 215 ) 



CHAPTEE XIIL 



The thirteentli province in point of population, there being only 
one less ( Jujuy) in the whole Confederation ; it is also of small 
extent, its area not exceeding 35,000 square miles. It lies 
south of Catamarca, along the eastern slope of the Andes, 
between the 28th and 82nd parallels of south latitude, and 
bounded on the east and south by the Salinas desert, which 
separates it from Cordoba, San Luis, and San Juan. The 
mineral and agricultural resources are almost inexhaustible, but 
the country suffered so long from civil war that it was compara- 
tively desolate until the pacification of 1863, and is even now 
only slowly recovering. The chain of the Andes averages here 
a medium height of 13,000 feet, some of the ancillary ranges 
being still higher ; the most elevated point of the Sierra Fama- 
tina is Nevado, 20,600 feet, and Cerro Negro, in the same range, 
is 15,000 feet. The Sierra de Eioja, sometimes called Velazco, 
is about 10,000 feet ; Jagiie and Vinchina are nearly as high. 
The valleys are exceedingly productive, famous for oranges and 
wine, which find their way to the lower provinces notwith- 
standing the want of roads. 

The primitive inhabitants were the same as.in Catamarca, of 
the brave tribes of Calchaquies, who fought against their Spanish 
conquerers from 1590 to 1655, when the former were at last 
subdued and this territory put under a Lieutenant-Governor 
subject to the Governor of Tucuman. About the close of the 
eighteenth century agriculture was commenced, the products 
being sent down to Cordoba and Buenos Ayres. Subsequently 
the mines of Tamatina attracted still greater notice, until the 
civil wars, in which the tyrant Quiroga played such a part, 



216 HANDBOOK OF THE EITEB PLATE. 

began in 1822 and lasted over forty years. General Penaloza, 
nicknamed the Chacho, was an independent chief of the Llanos, 
who defied alike the tyrants and the laws, until his death in 
1863. The inhabitants now seem intent on the arts of peace, 
and while public instruction is making great progress, there are 
no less flattering signs ia the number of mining and other enter- 
prises projected, besides the railway in construction to unite 
Hioja with Cordoba. 

The Spanish census of Eioja territory in 1814 showed a total 
of 14,092 inhabitants, of whom one-third Creoles, one-fourth 
Indians, and the rest slaves or coloured people. Since then 
the census has been twice taken, in 1855 and 1869, the figures 
being as follow : — 

1856. 

Eioja 4,985 

Famatina 8,579 

Upper Llanos . . . . 6,531 

Lower Llanos . . . . 4,084 

Guandaool .. .. 1,777 

Vinchina 2,789 

Arauco 5,686 

34,431 





1869. 




5,632 




10,668 




6,196 




12,083 




2,669 




3,308 




8,190 




48,746 



The last census shows the number of women to exceed that 
of men by 2155, or as 14 women to 11 men, of the adult popu- 
lation, doubtless owing to the incessant civil wars. Education 
is well attended to, there being 53 schools, attended by 4157 
children. Of the adult population one-fourth can read and 
write. 

About 27 per cent, of the children are enrolled as illegitimate, 
and the number of orphans under fourteen years reaches the 
astounding figure of 3422, or 16 per cent, of the total number. 
There are five persons over 100 years, the oldest being Jose M. 
Origaen, teacher, a native of Peru, aged 120; and Francisco 
Herrera, of Costa Alta, aged 114. The census of 1855 gave 
only 39 foreign residents, but now there are 253, of whom, 
however, only 35 are Europeans, the rest being mostly Chilians 



EIOJA. 217 

engaged in mining. The mines in active working are 2 gold, 
7 silver, and 2 copper ; there are 11 smelting works between 
Chilecito and Famatina. At the foot of the Cordillera are 
found carbonate of soda, nitrate of potash, and various salts. 

The province of Eioja took the following prizes at Cordoba 
in 1872:— 

S. Gtarcia^ minerals : silver medal. 

M. Villafafie, native brandy : silver medal. 

Bioja Committee, fruits and ponchos : two silver medals. 

Mme. Eeyes, woollen fabric : bronze medal, 

Mme. Vega, vicufia shawl : bronze medal. 

It was one of the lowest on the list. 

EIOJA CITY. 

The city of All Saints of New Eioja was founded in 1591, 
and stands at an elevation of 1780 feet, in 29° 20' of south lati- 
tude, 970 miles N.W. of Buenos Ayres, with which it is connected 
by telegraph. The suburbs are beautifully cultivated for an 
area of 9 or 10 square miles by means of artificial irrigation, and 
if the traveller proceed by the defile of Sanogasta to an Indian 
vUlage in the mountains he will pass by numerous chacras, 
wh^re grapes and wheat are successfully reared. Orange groves 
are also frequent. The white vnne of Eioja, not unlike sherry, 
is known all over the Eepublic, and might be much improved by 
better attention to this industry. Among the woods that cover 
the slopes of Sierra Velazco are farms of cattle, horses, and 
sheep, but in some places water is so scarce that the only supply 
is obtained from wells. 

The population of the city is 4489, there being an excess of 
543 women. Only 141 persons can read, and the number of 
children at school is 179. The only Europeans are 3 Spaniards 
and 1 Frenchman. 

FAMATDJA. 

This is by far the most important section of the province, and 
extends from Catamarca on the north to San Juan on the south. 



218 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE. 



forming a magnificeat valley between the Nevado and Velazco 
ranges, and two smaller valleys at tlie Cerro Paiman. The 
latter are separated from the Famatina valley by the Aguadita 
pass, 9300 feet high, from which the traveller descends to the 
plain and chapel of Carrizal, before reaching Famatina, which 
is a continuous village 10 miles long, watered by the streams 
that fall from the Nevado. A ride of 40 miles takes us to 
Chilecito, otherwise Villa Argentina, which is chief town of the 
department, and a place of more commercial importance than 
the city of Eioja. 

OMlecito has 1406 inhabitants, a school attended by 38 
children, some good shops, and is connected with Buenos 
Ayres by telegraph. It stands at a height of 3700 feet, and 
the suburbs comprise plantations of olives, oranges, grapes, 
pomegranates, and cereals, watered by Nevado streams. Mines 
in this district produce silver, which is sent to Chile or Cordoba. 
The villages of Pituil and Tinimuqui are in a fine arable soil, 
but suffer from lack of water. 

Nonogasta, famous for its wine, and Bichigasta at the mouth 
of the Guachin defile, are well situated ; the second produces a 
confection of algarrobo in great request, and is on the high road 
to Vinchina across the Famatina range. 

Campanas, a village in the valley of that name, near Sierra 
Paiman, takes its name from the metallic rocks hereabout, which 
when struck with a piece of iron give forth the sound of a bell ; 
this valley is famous for its apples, and also produces cereals ; 
its elevation is over 3000 feet. 

Angulo, another agricultural village in a valley at the foot of 
Paiman. 

LLANOS. 

This wild, wooded, and uneven territory, whose name signifies 
"the plains," is intersected by hill ranges and valleys, where 
wood and water abound. Some few scattered hamlets are met 
at long intervals, the inhabitants raising fruits and vegetables, 
or tending cattle. Guayama and other notorious bandits infested 



EIOJA. 



219 



the Llanos for many years, and travellers usually go well armed 
and in company. 

Upper Llanos are tte western side ; Costa Alta is a village of 
684 inhabitants, with a school attended by 62 children. 

Lower Llanos, or the eastern side, comprises Independencia, 
Belgrano, and San Martin, with small vUlages, which do some 
business ia hides, tallow, wool, and cheese. 

Mines of silver and copper have been found in the extremity 
of Sierra de los Llanos. 

GTJANDAOOL. 

This department occupies the elevated valleys south-west of 
Vinchina and bordering on San Juan. Some wheat is raised, 
but the chief industry is fjittening cattle for the markets of 
Huasco and Copiap6. 

The village of Guandacol counts 1303 inhabitants, almost 
pure Indians, one portion of whom spend most of the year 
hunting guanacos, vicunas, and chinchillas, the other devoting 
themselves to agriculture and the care of large potreros for 
fattening cattle. 

The principal plantations of grain are to be met with at 
HomUlos and Paso del Medio. In this department there are 
4 schools,! attended by 52 children. 

VINOHINA. 

Comprising three extensive valleys, viz. Hermoso, Jagu6, 
and Vinchina, between the Sierra Famatina and the Andes, all 
occupied in fattening cattle for the Chilian market. A stream, 
called the Bermejo (not that which crosses the Chaco), takes its 
rise at Nevado del Bonete, and waters these three valleys, the 
third of which is remarkable for its fine plantations of cereals 
and fruit-trees. 

The only villages in this department are Bujras and Sano- 
gasta, on the western slope of Sierra [Famatina ; and Jugiie at 
the foot of the Leoncito range. There is a school attended by 
34 children. 



220 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVER PLATE. 

ABAUCO. 

This department is remarkable for its plantations of oHves, 
first begun under Governor Davila in 1822, and now a source 
of great wealth to the inhabitants. It comprises the slopes of 
Sierra Velazco, which look towards the Salinas desert of Cata- 
marea. The valleys being well watered produce excellent 
grapes, cereals, and fruits. 

Concepcion de Arauoo is a town of 3237 inhabitants, there 
being i women to 3 men ; there are 4 schools in the depart- 
ment, at which 568 children attend. The villages of Kttle note 
are Sances, Mezan, Augallan, Michigasta, and Pasinche. 



( 221 ) 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

OATAMAECA, 

The nintli province in order of population, is one of the largest 
in extent, for although De Moussy gives it only 35,000 square 
miles (and this is about the inhabited portion) the official registers 
take in a large area of mountain territory, making in all 7753 
square leagues. It is an exceedingly rich and fertile country, 
irrigated by numerous small rivers : the physical aspect presents 
snow-capped mountains, luxuriant valleys, great plains, and ex- 
tensive forests of varied and valuable timber. Peach plantations 
are so common as to be public property ; most of the fruits of 
tropical and temperate climes are also found in abundance. On 
the plains the people gather annually large quantities of cochineal, 
and many of them cultivate saffron and aniseed. The climate 
varies according to locality, but in general the summer is hot, 
with frequent rains, and the winter is temperate. Intermittent 
fevers occur in some departments, ague prevails in certain wet 
districts, and smaU-pox is not unknown ; but persons of careful 
habits find the climate most healthy, and travellers always 
speak in flattering terms of the people, soil, and temperature of 
Catamarca. 

Its limits are : on the north Bolivia and the province of Salta, 
on the north-east Tucuman, on the east Santiago del Estero, on 
the south Bioja and Cordoba, and on the west the Andes. It 
measures 320 miles from north to south, and 300 from east to 
west. In the centre rises the peak of Aconquija, the summit of 
which is covered with perpetual snow, its height being 15,800 
feet; the range of which it is the principal feature occupies 
two-fifths of the province. There are 12 departments, as 
. follows: — 



222 



-HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 



Population. 

Catamarca 5,718 

ValleViejo 5,858 

Oapallan 4,974 

Piedra Blanoa 8,916 

Alto 9,449 

AndalgaM 7,035\ 

Foman 3,695/ 

Santa Maria 5,390 

Belen., 7,845 

Tinogasta 10,324 

Anoaste SiSOS"! 

San Pedro 5,250/ 



79,962 



Sq. Miles. 

8,500 

5,000 
6,000 

11,250 

11,780 

9,000 

15,000 

11,000 
77,580 



The mineral wealtli of the Atajo mines is so great that the 
annual yield of bar copper from Mr. Lafone's " Eestanradora " 
and Senor Carranza's "Eosario," amounts to several hundred 
tons yearly. The former was discovered in 1849 by Senor 
Espeohe, in a locality known as Capillitas, but there are proofs 
of its having been worked by the Calchaquies and afterwards. 
by the Jesuits ; from the latter the tradition had doubtless been 
handed down to the old man who revealed the spot to Senor 
Espeehp, and it has proved a fortune to many. Mr. Lafone 
employs here from 80 to 100 men, at an outlay of about lOOOi. 
a month, the engineers and mechanics being English, and the 
establishment having a chapel and a general store attached. 
Besides copper, this mine yields some gold and silver. The 
Bosario belonging to Messrs. Carranza, Molina, and Co. is near 
the above, and employs about 70 men, the engineer, as usual, 
English, with commodious of&ces; the minerals are sent 25 
leagues on mule-back to the establishment at Pipanaco. Mr. 
Lafone's " ingenio " is at Pilciao, 15 leagues by mule-back, from 
his mine. The winter in these regions is very severe. The 
Pilciao establishment is in a forest of algarrobos, 5 leagues S. of 
AndalgaM, with 555 inhabitants, between operatives and their 
families, covering an area of 20 acres : the houses and offices 
are well built, and the utmost order prevails; there are in 



CATAMAEOA. 223 

constant work 3000 mules, 220 oxen, and 290 asses, which are 
maintained partly on meadow grass, partly on the fruit of the 
algarrobo. The Pipanaco factory is almost equal to the Eilciao, 
standing at the foot of Mount Amhato, where wood abounds 
but water is scarce : it counts 311 hands, and has a large 
supply of mules and oxen ; the yield is of course less than at 
Lafone's. There are 200 mines of less note in the province, 
mostly abandoned, such as the Ortiz, Santa Clara, Argentina, 
Catamarguena, Mejica, Esperanza, Bandera, Salvador, &c., but 
as soon as the new narrow-gauge railway reaches Catamarca, 
and places this province in' communication with Cordoba and 
Kosario, we may expect to see a general revival of mining 
interests. Silver is foimd at Ambato and Tinogasta, gold at 
Santa Maria and Culampaja ; also white and red marble at many 
places, and rock salt near Belen. Forests form a principal 
feature, covering more than 350 square miles, the largest being 
those of Ancati and Capellan, with cedar, quebracho, algarrobo, 
walnut, lapacho, poplar, &c. There is a desert of 400 square 
miles at Pozuelos. 

Public instruction has made great progress of late years: 
in 1865 there were but 6 schools in the whole province, now 
there are over 70, attended by about 4000 children ; the official 
returns for 1869 showing that 11,733 persons could read (or one- 
seventh of the population), and that 7531 children were assisting 
,at 103 schools. The first Free Library was established at 
Catamarca in 1869 by Judge Quiroga, and another has since 
been opened at Bilismano. 

The great drawback is the want of roads, coupled with its 
remote situation. The tables of 1869 show that 16 of the in- 
habitants were over 100 years of age, the oldest being Marcial 
Garpio, a mendicant, native of Kioja, aged 130, and Josefa 
Molina, seamstress, also of Eioja, aged 125. 

The principal merchants in Catamarca are the Seguras, 
MoUnas, Olmos, Navarros, Lobos, Correas, Canos, O'MiUs, 
Gigenas, Maubecins, Alvarez, and Velazcos. 



224 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

The province of Catamaroa took the following prizes at 
Cordoba : — 

M. Malbraa, Vicuna shawls : gold medal. 
/ Sam. Lafone, wines : gold medal. 
Catamaroa Committee, minerals, &c. : one gold and one silver mSdal. 
Molina Brothers, embroidery : one silver and one bronze medal. 
M. Angier, wines : two silver medals. 

M. 'FigiierToa, taimed hides, &c. : one silver and one bronze medal. 
J. Tyrell, hams ; brpnze medal. 
M. Nunez, dried fruits : bronze medal. 

The province came off fifth in the number of prizes. 

CAPITAL AND SUBTJEBS. 

San Fernando de Catamaroa is situated in 28° 12' south 
latitude, on a table-land 1750 feet above sea-level, at the 
foot of Sierra Ambato. A spacious valley opens out to Sierra 
Anoaste, and the city has a picturesque appearance on the banks 
of the Tala, which waters the orange plantations and gardens 
all around. Although 200 years old, the city has a scanty 
population of 5718 inhabitants, the women being to the men 
as 4 to 3. The present city was founded by Governor 
Mendoza, from Tucuman, in 1680 ; but more than a century 
previous (1558), a Spanish officer, named Zarita, by order of 
Philip 11., had founded a town called London, in honour of 
Queen Mary, of England. The Calchaquies, a tributary people 
of the Incas of Peru, disputed the Spanish sway for many years, 
and destroyed London, which was rebuilt sixty-two years later, 
and again destroyed. The native tribes were at last overcome 
in 1694, and the civilization of the country begun by the 
Franciscan friars. In 1776 Catamaroa was annexed to Salta, 
under a Lieutenant-Governor, as part of the Viceroyalty of 
Buenos Ayres. It suffered dreadfully in the civil wars sub- 
sequent to the expulsion of the Spaniards, and the tyrant 
Quiroga left his mark here. The last revolution occurred in 
1866, to overthrow Governor Maubecin, since which time 
things have begun to improve, under the Galindez-Fjgueroa 
administration. 



OATAMAKOA. 



225 



At the west end of the city is the Alameda or public walk, 
around an artificial lake of 2 acres in extent, and 10 feet 
deep, where the waters of the Tala are kept for' the supply of 
the city. The Cabildo, in the Plaza, is a two-story building 
of modern style, and contains all the public ofSices, such as 
Governor's quarters, prison, law-courts, and barrack. The 
Plaza is tastefully laid out with rows of orange trees, and on 
Sunday and Thursday evenings a band plays, when all the 
beauty and fashion of the place attend. The Matriz is a very 
fine church, with nave and aisles 220 feet long by 90 wide. The 
Orphan Asylum for little girls, under the charge of Carmelite 
nuns, was founded by Bishop Sarialberto, of Cordoba, in 1784 ; 
it covers an entire block, having a church attached, and has 
^been richly endowed, possessing some farms at Paclin. 

The convent of St. Francis, now counting a dozen friars who 
keep a public free school, was for nearly two centuries a kind of 
university where Latin and philosophy were taught ; but its 
importance has diminished since the opening of the National 
College in 1868. The convent covers a block, and the church 
is being rebuilt ; it is endowed with a well-stocked estancial. 
The National College was formerly a grammar-school, in the 
suppressed convent of Merced ; the founder was Dr. Manuel 
Navarro, an agent of Eosas. The college covers half a block, 
having an upper, lower, and mining school, with good labora^ 
tory, library, and printing office : it possesses farms at Paclin, 
_ Andalgala, and Ambato. Strangers will find two good hotels, 
a club, free library, two billiard rooms, two printing offices and 
book-stores ; a local paper called ' La Voz del Pueblo ; ' five 
flour-mills, a tannery, sundry shops, and 985 houses, of which 
258 are tile-roofed and 650 thatched. The ladies are famous 
for their embroidery and took several prizes at the Cordoba 
Exhibition. Catamarca is 962 miles N.W. from Buenos Ayres, 
and connected by electric telegraph. Mail-coaches ply weekly 
to Cordoba, with which city a narrow-gauge railway is in 
construction, to be finished by 1879. There are only 411 



226 HANDBOOK OP THE BIVEE PLATE. 

foreigners in the whole province, and 63 of these are in the 
city, including 2 English and 5 Germans. 

Cholla, an Indian village about a mile north of the city, has 
an industrious population of Calohac[ui descendants and half- 
breds, who raise vegetables for the city market, and feed cows 
and goats on the slopes of Ambato. The houses are built of 
" adobes." Hard by is the city cemetery. 

Chacarita, a mile west from town, is famous for its vineyards 
and gardens of figs and oranges, surrounded by poplars and 
willows. This charming district is watered by the Eio del 
Valle, and supplies alfalfa and barley. 

AngaLi, half a league southwards, produces fine crops of 
wheat, being irrigated by the Tala. 

La Toma in like manner yields an abundance of fruit and 
cereals ; it lies westward, and the traveller may go on to the 
chapel and farm of the Franciscans, or to Ojo de Agua and 
Los Angeles. 

CAP ALLAN. 

Area 3250 square miles. It is bounded on the north by 
Valle Viejo and the suburbs of Oatamaroa; on the east by 
Ancasti ; on the west by Sanjil ; and on the south by a desert 
plain in the direction of Cordoba. This district comprises the 
greater portion of the Valley of Catamarca, 20 leagues firom 
north to south, and 15 from east to west. Its great fertility 
enables it to export flour to Tucuman, besides maintaining vast 
meadows for the troops of Eioja mules. It takes in the eastern 
slopes of Ambato, from which descend numerous streams, and 
vineyards form a leading branch of industry. The population 
of the department is 4974 souls, distributed among 730 houses, 
chiefly tUe-roofed. There are roads practicable for vehicles to 
Gordoba and Eioja, but most of the traffic is on mule-back. 
The only road westward is by the C^bila, between Ambato and 
Mosan ; some farming establishments in the Ambato are 
almost inaccessible. Los Fozos is the name given to a portion 
of the desert southwards, because for a stretch of 28 leagues 



OATAMAEOA. ' 227 

wells Lave been dug at stated distances along thp coacli-road to 
Cordoba. 

Villa Prima, chief town of this department, has 1945 
inhabitants, including 1 Frenchman. It is the seat of the local 
authorities, at the foot of the Ambato, most of the people being 
engaged in agriculture. 

CapaUan, a village with church and school. 

Goneta,. only 4 leagues S. of Catamarca, has a number of 
" adobe " houses around the Plaza, in which stands a chapel ; 
and the outskirts consist of grain farms as far as Miraflores, a 
league farther south. 

San Pedro, a village with chapel and school. 

Concepcion, a pretty farming hamlet at the mouth of the pass 
of the same name. 

San Pablo, a group of farm-houses 1 league E. of Con- 
cepcion. 

■ Ghumhieha, 21 leagues S. of Catamarca, is on the Eioja 
frontier ; fresh water is scarce. 

The eastern side of this valley is formed by the slopes of 
Ancasti, where the only water is that obtained from weUs. 
Zancas, the farm of D. Francisco AcuSa, is worthy of notice, 
and distant 5 leagues S. from Catamarca city. 

VALLB TLEJO. 

This department is sometimes considered an appendage of 
the capital, and embraces a portion of the beautiful valley which 
is formed by the Sierra Ancaste on the east and .the range of 
Ambato on the west, and^ is watered by the Eio del Valle, a 
stream of trifling note in dry seasons, but which at times over^ 
flows its banks and causes such inundations that the city of 
Catamarca had to be moved in the seventeenth century to its 
present higher ground. 

Valle Viejo, a well-built town of 2687 inhabitants, has 
schools attended by 344: children, and one-haKof the population 
can read or write. There are three villages, called San Isidro, 

Q 2 



228 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEE PLATE. 

Sjunalado, and Porco, near the banks of the Eio del Valla ; three 
others, Santa Kosa, Guaycamos, and Santa Cruz, at the foot of 
the Sierra Ancaste ; and the hamlet of Fortezuelo at the 
entrance to the valley of Paclin. 

PIEDEA BLANOA. 

A productive district of 500 square leagues, comprising two 
valleys, which are designated by the Mexican term of " canon," 
owing to their precipitous sides. The Canon de Piedra Blanca 
is formed by the Sierra Gracian on the east and the Ambato 
on the west : the Canon of Paclin runs nearly parallel, between 
the Sierra Gracian and the Totoral. 

Piedra Blanca valley is more properly two; the first part, 
5 leagues long and barely a league wide, stops at Quebrada 
de la Puerta, after which the valley widens a little and termi- 
nates 14 leagues higher up at the peak known as Naivaez. 
Nothing can exceed the fertility of the soil, which produces 
cereals, wine, cotton, and tobacco : the second part of this valley, 
generally called Canon de Pucarilla, is famous for its rich 
pastures, irrigated by the Nacimiento, Guanomil, and Ambato 
streams. The farmers do a lucrative business by fattening 
cattle in the " alfalfares " at ^3 to ^4 a head per month. 

Paclin is sometimes considered a distinct department: the 
valley begins at Portezuelo, close to Catamarca, and terminates 
at Malpaso on the llucuman frontier, being watered by the 
rivers Paclin and Balcosna. The products are the same as 
above enumerated, besides cochineal, and the timber in this 
valley is so suitable for cabinet-work that large quantities are 
cut and sent to Catamarca. The women are glever at weaving 
cotton and woollen fabrics, also vicuna ponchos. The cotton 
has been pronounced in England equal to Sea Island, but the 
cultivation has declined since English cotton goods have been 
imported cheaper than home manufacture. The sportsman wQl 
find pumas in the mountains. 

San Jose de Piedra Blanca, 4 leagues N. of Catamarca, has 



OATAMAKCA. 229 

3474: inhabitants, a church, Bchool, two hotels, sugar-factory, 
flour-mills, and several good shops. It exports tons of dried figs 
yearly to Tucuman and Santiago, and large quantities of oranges 
to Gordoba. Its suburbs comprise Old San Jose, ^ league N., 
with church and gardens; Collagasta, 1^ league N.W., with 
chapel and flour-mill ; Hospicio, eastward, with pretty country- 
houses ;. and San Antonio, a league S., with school and shops. 

Amadores, 8 leagues N. of Catamarca, is the only -village in 
the valley of Paclin. 



Bounded on the north by Tucuman, on the east by Santiago, on 
the south by Ancasti, and on the west by Piedra Blanca. It 
produces fruits, cereals, and tobacco : also sugar-cane on a 
small scale. The inhabitants are very industrious. Cochineal 
is collected in some places. Tigers and pumas frequent the 
woods. The want of roads is much felt, especially over the 
Santa Cruz mountains to the city of Catamarca, 15 leagues 
westward, whither the farmers have to convey their oranges, figs, 
and sweet potatoes. 

Alto is a town of 2022 inhabitants, of whom 2 are North 
Americans. One-half can read of write, but the public school 
is only attended by 42 boys and 26 girls. In the Plaza are the 
church, town-hall, coffee-house, and principal shops : the largest 
dealer is SeSor Segura, and sugar is imported from Cordoba, 
because that which is produced at Aligilan is not enough for 
the local consumption. The town is surrounded with gardens 
and well supplied with water. It is on the route for Santiago 
del Estero, and distant 15 leagues from Catamarca. 

Bilismano, 6 leagues from Alto, is midway to the town of 
Ancaste, and possesses a chapel, school, and several houses, on 
the banks of the Arroyo Bilismano, in the mountain district. 

Guayamba, also in the hilly country, has an important 
tannery and two mills. Gold has been lately discovered here, 
but no serious mining efforts have been made. 



230 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBK PLATE. 

Ganos, a village' on the mail-coach road, in the midst of a 
fertile plain, is a convenient resting place where the traveller 
may obtain supplies. 

Alijilan, famous for its sugar factory, also produces wheat, 
tobacco, and fruits. 

At distances varying from 5 to 7 leagues from Alto are fotmd 
minor villages, such as Manantial, Quebrada, Quimilpa, and 
Abanto, all productive and weU-watered districts. 

AMBATO. 

This is a new department, formed out of a slice of Piedra 
Blanca, extending from the Valley of Paclin on the east to Port 
Andalgala on the west, and as far north as the Tucuman 
frontier. The principal industry is fattening cattle and export- 
ing dried fruits. The village of La Puerta sends out yearly 
^15,000 worth of dried figs. The road over the Siaguil 
mountain is dangerous for travellers, being very slippery after 
rains and exposed to violent gusts of wind ; the frequent rains 
render ague common. After crossing the picturesque valley of 
Pucarilla, you can cross the Sierra Ambato by Carrizo, 5 miles, 
or by Chilca, 3 mUes ; the first is the better.' At the foot is the 
pretty village of Chilca, 40 leagues from Catamarca and 6 from 
Fort Andalgala. Mules can- easily be obtained. Farmers suffer 
some injury from the condors and pumas. 

Puerta, a village of 1300 souls, is the seat of the local autho- 
rities, and has a church, a public school for boys, a private one 
for girls, a mill, several shops, and well-built houses on either 
side of the river which flows through the place. Vines, fig-trees, 
and plantations of apples and oranges give a very pleasant 
aspect. 

Singuil, 22 leagues N. of Catamarca, possesses a valuable farm 
belonging to Messrs. Molina and Navarro, for fattening cattle ; 
it is well fenced and watered. Tobacco and grain are also 
produced, and there is a flour-mill on the premises, besides a 
well-built house and ranges of peons' huts. 



CATAMAROA. 



231 



, Bodeo, a village 3 leagues from Puerta, is much frequented in 
summer by wealthy families from Catamarca, being famous for 
its pure moxmtain air, its peaches, and potatoes. 

FOBT ANDALGAlI. 

This department derives its name from a fort constructed 
here by the Spaniards, to repel the attacks of the Andalgalas, 
one of the most warlike tribes of the Calohaqui Indians. It 
comprehends a large tract of country between the southern 
slope of Aconquija and the desert of Salinas; the vaUey of 
Atajo being equally remarkable for its mineral resources and 
advanced state of agriculture; The Salinas desert covers 4000 
square miles, and is surrounded by mountains, with an opening 
at Quebradillos, 1150 feet high, on the side of Eioja. The mines 
of Bisbis, Amanao, and Cholla produce large quantities of 
copper; in fact, this department is probably the richest in 
minerals of all the Argentine Eepublic. Mules and asses are 
exported to Peru and Bolivia ; hides, wine, and dried fruits to 
Tucuman. Most of the traffic is on mule-back, the mountain 
tracks being so difficult ; each mule carries 300 lbs. weight. 
The women make fine vicuna ponchos, bed-quilts, &c. Sports- 
men will find tigers, pumas, guanacos, hares, foxes, and ostriches. 
In the valley are wood-cuttings of algarrobo and chanar. The 
natives are mostly rough, but laborious. The winter is cold and 
dry, the summer only hot in the valley. Many places are so 
badly off for water that it is proposed to make Artesian wells. 
At Poman, on the western slopes of Ambato, cattle are fattened 
on algarrobo leaves. 

Fort Andalgald and the country around present a most 
striking picture at the foot of Aconquija, whose peak is crowned 
with perpetual snow, giving origin to numerous streams that 
irrigate the valley. The soil is found very suitable for grapes. 
The town is the largest after Catamarca, having a populatioin of 
4450, and covering nearly a league of ground, including the 
gardens of the outskirts. The barrack in the centre is spacious ; 



232 1 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 

the church is being rebuilt, but most of the buildings are of 
" adobe.'' Over 300 childrea ■attend the schools. There are 
sundry shops, an hotel, and- billiard-room. West of the town, 
near the cemetery, is a tannery. The trade of the town keeps 
5000 mules in constant traffic. 

Pucard, at the foot of Sierra Chilca, preserves the remains of 
an Indian fortification. 

Poman, chief town of a new department, has 1595 inhabitants. 

Amanao, 7 leagues from Port AndalgaM, is a pastoral village. 

Chaquiago, 1 league north, has chapel and schools. Not far 
from hence is Guazan, famous for its vineyards; and Choya, 
8 leagues west, is inhabited by people -who work at intervals in 
the mines. 

SANTA MAEIA. 

Bounded by Bolivia on the west and north, by Salta and 
Tucuman on the east, and by the departments of AndalgaM and 
Belen on the south. Area, nearly 12,000 sq[uare miles, of which 
one-third is in the moimtainous region, and two-thirds consisting 
of two valleys almost parallel. The first valley is 43 leagues in 
length from north to south, between the Aconquija range and 
the Andes, but is thinly inhabited. Some estanoias exist, and 
the gauchos are much given to duels with the knife. The 
second valley, 26 leagues long, is famous for its cold, dry 
atmosphere, so favourable for consumptive people that many, 
especially from Tucuman, come hither, and go away cured. 
This valley is thickly populated for about 20 miles along the 
banks of the Santa Maria river. The naturalist and botanist will 
find plenty of interest in the hill ranges, as also the sportsman. 
Medicinal herbs and dye-woods abound ; gold has been found in 
many places ; marble crops up plentifully, as also rock-salt ; of 
the latter you may cut blocks as big as a mule can carry. 
Among wild animals are the vicuna and guanaco; there is a 
large species of snake, and a spider about the size of a tortoise. 
Sugar and articles of import are obtained from Tucunjan, in 
return for cereals, dried fruits, and aniseed. Fat cattle are sent 



CATAMAECA. 233 

to Chile, mules to Bolivia, and cheese and rock-salt to other 
places. Hunting parties go out every Easter to kill vicunas, 
the skins whereof are a valuable article of export. The mines 
have been abandoned for the last fifteen years, and the smelting 
works of Mr. Lafone, of Montevideo, which were situate 3 leagues 
S. of Santa Maria town, have been removed to Capillitas. 
The sandy desert of Pozuelos, 50 miles across, intervenes south- 
ward on the road to Belen ; the rest of the department is very 
fertile, producing wheat, maize, potatoes, apples, pears, and 
superior pasture for cattle. 

Santa Maria, 80 leagues N. from Catamarca city, by way of 
Andalgala, is a town of 1877 inhabitants, surrounded by quintas 
and gardens; it has a church and SQhool, most of the houses 
being of " adobes." Fuerte Quemado, Puesto, and Oaspinchango 
are agricultural villages near. The coach-road to Salta is 80 
leagues ; that to Belen, 40 leagues. 

San Jose, 4 leagues S. of Santa Maria, on the banks of the 
same river, with church, school, and amateur band, is remarkable 
for the poUteness of its inhabitants. The Balastro smelting- 
works are 6 leagues southward, and here the first copper mines 
were opened. Two villages, named Cajunchango and Ampajango, 
are at the foot of the mountains. 

BELEN, 

Equally remarkable for its favoured soil and climate, the 
industry of its inhabitants, its picturesque scenery, valuable 
productions and numerous gold-veins, is bounded by Bolivia on 
the north, the Abides on the west, Tinogasta on the south, and 
AndalgaM on the east. The Blanca valley is occupied by men 
who tend cattle and hunt guanacos. The other districts, such 
as Gualfln, London, and Cienaga, are partly agricultural, partly 
pastoral. A large business is done in buying mules from 
Santiago, Eioja, and Cordoba, fatteniilg them afterwards for ex- 
portation to Bolivia. The women weave handsome ponchos of 
vicuna wool, besides producing dyes in large quantity, and a 



234 HANDBOOK OP THE KIVEE PLATE. 

certain home-made cloth called "cordillate de Belen." Cereals 
are exported, also dried fruits, and native wines find a market in 
Bolivia. Gold-bearing quartz is so common at Oulampaj4 and 
Santa Catalina that the country people often go to the foot of the 
sierra, pick up pieces pf stone and take them home to break and 
extract gold in small quantities to meet their daily wants. Senor 
Espeche's mine is one of the richest. Flocks of llamas and 
goats are met with in places ; the chinchilla, guanaco, and vicuna 
feed on the mountain pastures. The woods contain many valu- 
able kinds of timber, suitable for upholstery. Some trade is 
done with Copiap6, in Chile, in fat cattle and ponchos. 

Belen, a town of 3822 inhabitants, is 70 leagues W. of 
Catamarca city, with which communication is kept up by a 
weekly courier-a-cheval, by way of Fort AndalgaM : there is 
a fortnightly one from Salta, passing through to Chile. The 
town is situated on the bend of a river, a,t the foot of a lofty 
mountain, and surrounded by quintas and vineyards with fences 
of poplar, willow, or rose-trees. The church is being rebuilt : 
there are 2 schools, one attended by 170 boys ; also 3 nulls, 
several distilleries, a coffee-house, and club. 

London, 3 leagues S. of Belen, is an insignificant village, 
but was founded by order of Philip 11. and so called in honpur 
of his wife. Queen Mary: the original walls are still seen. 
The upper village has a handsome church built by the Kivas 
family : the lower village has also its Plaza, church, and school. 

San Fernando, 9 leagues N. of Belen, on the Culampaja river, 
with church, shops, and mill. 

Crualfin, 3 leagues N. of San Fernando, is a village only re- 
markable for its mineral springs. 

Corrcd-Qiiemado, 2 leagues farther north, is close to Espeche's 
smelting-works. 

TINOGASTA, 

The largest department in the province of Catamarca, stretches 
alpng the foot of the Andes and maintains a brisk trade with 
ChUe: its population exceeds that of any other division of 



OATAMAECA. 



235 



the province, and owing to contact with Chile the inhabi- 
tants are more industrious and progressive than elsewhere. 
Some mines are owned by Chilian speculators, but the chief 
business is raising fat cattle for Copiap6 arid other Chilian 
markets. The department also exports yearly 2000 bushels of 
grain, of which Andalgala takes one-half. In the numerous 
fettile vaUeys it is calculated that 5000 cows and 3000 sheep 
are yearly fattened, besides mules for Bolivia. Eoads are much 
wanted : there are hardly any but mule-paths. Imported goods 
come mostly from Chile. The inhabitants use clothes made by 
the women of the country. The northern district of Singuil 
borders on Bolivia, and is a prey to the Zonda wind, which 
prevails during winter until November, destroying the crops 
and pulling up trees. The inhabitants are fond of hunting 
guanaco and vicuna ; the flesh forms a principal part of their 
food, and the skins are exported. Copper and silver abound in 
the hills : the Hoyada silver mine was worked for some time 
successfully. There are two main high-roads to ChUe by Bar- 
rancas Blancas and San Francisco. 

Tinogasta, the second town in the province, has 4568 inhabi- 
tants, church, schools, hotel, shops, an dwell-built houses : it is 
rapidly improving, thanks to the active, enterprising spirit of 
the townfolk, and lies 62 leagues W. of Catamarca city. The 
distance to Copiapd, in Chtfe, is 133 leagues by the most fre- 
quented of all the Andine passes. The road by FiambaM is 
the shortest to Bolivia, but very difficult. The new road over 
Zapata to Belen is 22 leagues, but if you want to go on wheels 
the lower road, is 34 leagues. 

Fiamhald, a village famous for thermal springs, is north of 
Tinogasta. 

Gopacabana, 3 leagues S. of Tinogasta, has school and shops : 
also some establishments for fattening cattle, especially that of 
Sefior VUlegos. 

San Jose, a hamlet and chapel, on the route to Chile. 

Cerro-Negro, 9 leagues E. of Copacabana, is an Indian village. 



236 HANDBOOK OF THE EITEE PLATE. 

■whose inhabitants raise donkeys, collect algarroba, and go to 
work at seasons at Belen. 

The minor villages are Costa Eeyes, Colorado, Puesto, 
Caohiyuyo, Santa Cruz, Barrial, Arana, Puntilla, Carrizal, and 
Singuil. 

ANCASTE. 

Bounded on the north by Alto, on the east by Buen Eetiro, 
on the west by the Catamarca hills, and on the south by the 
frontier of Cordoba. Its mineral wealth will prove considerable, 
as soon as the roads begin to offer facilitieB for mining esta- 
blishments. The face of the country is highly diversified: lofty 
peaks, ranges of hills, low grounds covered with brushwood, the 
latter producing anibuUo, an excellent substitute for indigo. 
Some districts are so moist that ague is common. At the foot 
of Sierra Ancaste is a plain about 100 miles long by 30 wide, 
here and there studded with woods of quebracho, chanar, and a 
shrub called Sebil, very useful for tanning. Large numbers of 
mules, cows, sheep, and goats are met with in the luxuriant 
pastures. The inhabitants are represented as rather uncouth 
and wild, but they are good .tanners, and also occupy themselves 
in plaiting bridles and weaving ponchos; they import dried 
fruits from Piedra Blanca in exchange for fat cattle, which go 
as high as 20 hard dollars a head. More than lOOOZ. sterling 
worth of lime is exported from Ancaste yearly. The minerals 
are silver and copper. 

Ancaste, the chief town, is 14 leagues E. from Catamarca 
city, and has a church, schools, tanneries, shops, &o. It sends 
8000 tanned hides yearly to Cordoba and San Juan, exports 
5000 fat cattle to Chile, and supplies Catamarca with cheese 
similar to that made at Tafi in the province of Tucuman. 

Within 2 leagues of town are met the villages of Anquin- 
cila, Episca, Tunas, and Totoral, some famous for tanning ; and 
at farther distance, on the lower mountain slopes, are Eosario 
and San Vicente. 

Lower down in the plain are the agricultural hamlets of 
Divisadero, Jumial, Aguadita, Peiias, Icafio, Angulio, and Toma. 



CATAMAECA. 237 

BUEN EETIEO. 

San Pedro del Buen Eetiro was formerly a dependency of 
Ancaste, formins the eastern portion of the territory which lies 
. between the south-eastern spurs of Aconquija and the frontiers 
of Cordoba and Santiago. The principal business is fattening 
cattle, and a considerable trade is done with Cordoba. Eain- 
water is kept in lagoons, to compensate for the lack of rivers. 
The climate is so healthy that no epidemic has ever been known, 
except the cholera of 1868. 

The town of San Pedro has only 574 inhabitants, but pos- 
sesses a church, schools attended by 34 children, and some 
shops where the traveller will do well to procure necessaries 
before beginning the journey across the plains. It is situ- 
ated on the great northern high load of the Republic, and will 
probably be connected by rail with Cordoba in three or four 
years. 

The minor villages of Santo Domingo, Quiros, Esquina, 
Liebres, Palmitas, and Eamblones are of no importance. 

The value of the annual productions of the province appears 
by a recent return as follows : — 

Quantity. Y?^- 

Wheat .. . .. almudea 261,010 67,672 

Indian com „ 313,500 70,422 

Tobacco , arrobes 19,500 15,600 

Wine „ 90,320 74,656 

Spirits „ 29,410 46,930 

S'ruits „ _ .. 13^280 

Dried frnita „ 208,490 83,040 

Cheese 11,700 24,920 

Horses 3,030 8,600 

Mules .. .. 3,160 14,352 

Asses 5,460 2,424 

Horned cattle 45,040 73,000 

Goats and sheep 62,525 26,809 

Wool arrobes , 3,500 4,200 

Tanned hides .'. 7,750 15,800 

Copper quintals 16,800 247,800 

Carried forward 790 505 



238 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE. 

Quantity. ^f 

Brought forward . . . . . . 790,505 

Gold contained in the copper ounces 2,500 25,200 

Silver contained in the copper „ 134,400 80,640 

Other articles . . 68,400 

Fattening cattle for export . . . . . . 193,760 

Total 1,158,505 

The live-stock comprises the following : — 

Horned cattle 182,122 

Horses 37,457 

Males .. 14,217 

Asses .. . ' 24,205 

Sheep ' 75^300 

Goats " 120,530 

Hogs .. .... : .. 2,470 

Llamas 392 



( 239 ) 



CHAPTEE XV. 



JUJTTT. 



This is the least of the Argentine provinces as regarcls popu- 
lation, and also one of the smallest in area, while it is the most 
remote from Buenos Ayres, being on the frontier of BoUvia. 
The original inhabitants were a warlike tribe called Huma- 
huacas, who valiantly opposed the Spaniards from the first inva- 
sion in 1592 until the middle of the seventeenth century, when 
their conquerors transported them to Eioja, bringing in their 
stead reduced Indians of Famatina to people the valleys of 
Jujuy. In this manner the Spaniards secured free communica- 
tion between La Plata and Peru, this beiag the only practicable 
high road, and for the same reason, when the War of Indepen- 
dence broke out Jujuy became the scene of many hard-fought 
battles between the Spanish and the Patriot armies. In 1824 
peace dawned on Jujuy, and ten years later it was admitted as 
one of the 14 Argentine provinces, having before formed part of 
Salta. 

The trade with Bolivia and the Pacific is considerable, mostly 
in fat cattle, gold dust, vicuna and chinchilla skins, wool, soap, 
potash, and salt ; besides which the province produces tobacco, 
sugar-cane, petroleum, silver, copper, and a variety of timber 
suitable for cabinet-work. The roads are merely mule-paths, 
viz. by Despoblado to the port of Cobija, by San Francisco to 
Copiap6, by Puna to the interior of Bolivia, and by Cortaderos 
to Potosi and Peru : llamas are principally used for conveying 
merchandise, the whole system of the country, except the plain 
of Puna, being a portion of the Bolivian Andes. Herds of 
guanacos and vicunas abound, as also the chinchilla, and there 
is some idea of breeding and taming in the Zenta valleys large 



240 HANBBOOK OF THE EIVBH PLATE. 

numbers of alpacas and vicunas, the wool whereof is so valuable. 
The San Francisco, sometimes called Eio Grande, waters the 
province for nearly 400 miles, describing a half-moon, and 
receiving 18 affluents from the mountain ranges, after which it 
debouches into the Eio Bermejo : the affluents are named 
Humahuaca, Carmen, San Antonio, Calilegua, Tacoraite, Parma- 
marca, Tumbaya, Leon, Tala, Eeyes, Cianso, Alisos, Lavayen, 
Negro, Ledesma, San Lorenzo, Sara, and Piedras, all which 
become impetuous torrents in the wet season. 

The soil is fertile, the climate healthy but tropical, the 
mineral wealth considerable, and only means of commimication 
are wanting to raise Jujuy to relative importance. The inhabi- 
tants are reputed industrious, and raise cereals and fruits : 
among the latter the banana, orange, olive, apple, pear, peach, 
and chirimoya or custard-apple grow in profusion. 

The exact area is imknown, De Moussy stating it at 30,000 
square mUes, and the local authorities claiming 44,000. The 
province is separated from Bolivia on the north by the Bermejo 
river, the Despoblado range, and the eastern spurs of the Andes ; 
on the south, and east it is bounded by Salta ; and on the west 
by the Andes. 

Offlcial returns of the population are as follow : — 

Jujuy 7,629 

Ledesma 5,248 

San Pedro 3,228 

Perioo Carmen 3,170 

San Antonio 976 

Tnmbaya 1,64,S 

Tilcara 2,157 

VaUeGrande 1,403 

Humahuaca 3,590 

Puna 12,335 

40,379 



Nearly one-tenth of the inhabitants are Bolivians, who come 
here either for purposes of trade or to estepe the civil wars in 



J0JUT. 241 

their own country. There are only 28 Europeans in the whole 
province, 2 being Germans, and no English. There are 38 
schools,, attended by 1600 boys and girls. 

The annual export of salt exceeds 2000 tons. An effort to 
work the petroleum springs was made in 1866, but without 
success. Before the opening of the Cordoba railway the price 
of freight from Jujuy to Eosario was 200 silver dollars, per ton, 
the journey taking four months. If the navigation of the Ber- 
mejo be carried out it will give a great impulse to this province. 
The value of exports is as follows : — 

Quantity. Y"'™' 

Horned cattle 10,136 .. .. 41,440 

Horses 703 .. .. 5,624 

Mules 3,933 .. .. 47,196 

Asses 4,476 .. .. 22,380 

Goats and sheep 2,300 .. .. 2,902 

Hides .. .. 1,382 

^ Spirits— mule loads . . . . 80 . . . . 3,213 

Grain, fruits, &o 10,400 . . . . 3,222 

Other articles 3,163 .. .. 6,373 

133,732 



CITY OF JUJUY. 

San Salvador de Jujuy, 1077 miles N. from Buenos Ayres, 
was founded by Juan Eamirez de Velazco in 1592, and although 
nearly three centuries old its population seems never to have 
reached 5000 souls ; the census of 1869 gives 3072, including 
19 Europeans, of whom 9 are Italians. The city is pleasantly 
situated on the right bank of the San Francisco (24=° 20' S. lat.), 
4000 feet above sea-level, and safe from the inundations that 
often occflr in the valley. There are 4 churches, 3 schools, and 
a large Plaza where weekly fairs are held, to which the Bolivian 
dealers come in numbers ; in the churches are some good paint- 
ings by Indian neophytes from Lima in the last century. The 
town comprises 33 blocks ; most of the artisans are Indians or 
cross-breeds, who display much skill, and are so fond of chicha 



242 HANDBOOK OP THE KTVEE PLATE. 

thai one of the chief products is maize, used in fermenting this 
liquor. The Jujenos also export chicha to Bolivia and Peru, 
The Governor, Legislature, Federal Judge, and other authori- 
ties of the province reside in this city, which is connected with 
Buenos Ayres hy telegraph (nearly 1500 miles), and a narrow- 
gauge railway is being constructed to Cordoba. The distances 
by road, or rather mjile-track, are as follow: — To Salta, 18 
leagues ; to Quiaca on the Potosi route, 74 ; to the nearest 
point of Bolivia, 54 ; to Oran, 75 ; to the port of Eosario, 392 
leagues. The outskirts of Jujuy are highly picturesque, com- 
prising ranges of wooded hills, well-watered valleys, and culti- 
vated farms, especially in the localities of Eeyes, Yala, Sauces, 
and Leon. Cattle, sheep, and horses are tended in the moun- 
tains. At Quebrada de Eeyes there is a thermal spring of great 
efficacy in curing chronic rheumatism. 

, , The mineral wealth of the province is remarkable; includjng 
gold-washings at Puma, Einconada, and Cochinoca, silver, copper, 
lead, iron, antimony, marble, jasper, rock-crystal, &c., besides 
the inexhaustible salt-fields of Casabindo, and the bitmnen or 
petroleum near Eio Negro. Extinct volcanoes are evident in 
some places, and a shock of earthquake was felt in 1858. 
According to Dr. Zegada, as. much as .^54,000 in gold-dust is 
exported in a year from Jujuy city. Most of the iahabitants 
still speak the Quichua language of the aborigines, and Spanish 
is not much understood outside the city. 

Ledesma. 
A rich and productive department, bordering on Salta, Oran, 
and the Gran Chaco : it is watered by the San Francisco 
and numerous tributary streams that fall from the Calilegaa 
mountains. The woods on these mountains abound in valuable 
timber for upholstery, as also the yerba-mate tree, Peruvian 
balsam, dragon- wood, &c. The Mataco Indians are very usefiil 
in clearing the forests to make room for plantations of rice, 
tobacco, coffee, sugar-cane, coca, and cotton, all which are raised 



JTTJTIT. 



243 



with great success : large sugar establishments give constant 
employment to numbers of the Chaco Indians. Tropical fruits 
are found to thrive, the summer being always very rainy, autumn 
and winter dry, and frost almost unknown. Cattle-farms are 
met with at Santa Barbara and east of San Francisco. Bitu- 
men and petroleum exist in the foot of the sierra ; besides lead, 
copper, and iron, as yet unexplored. The traveller ought to visit 
ihe siigar plantations of San Pedro, Eio Negro, Eeduccion, Le- 
desma; San Lorenzo, and Las Piedras. 

The town of Ledesma is the largest in the province, having 
3149 inhabitants, or 77 more than the city of Jujuy ; it counts 
367 Bolivians and 3 Europeans: the sexes are ill-propor- 
tioned, there being 4 males to 3 females. Nearly one-tenth 
of the townfolk can read or write, and there are 2 schools 
attended by 71 children. It was founded in 1628 by Martin 
Ledesma, Governor of Salta. In the vicinity is Mr. Ovejero's 
establishment, which employs 350 Mataco and Chiriguano 
Indians, covers 200 acres, and produces 100 tons of sugar 
and 800 barrels of cana yearly. San Lorenzo, belonging to 
the Villar family, also employs a large number of Indians, 
chiefly -Chiriguanos. Las Piedras, founded in 1857, is another 
great establishment ; as well as San Ignacio, where the Jesuits 
'had a Beduction, and the church is still standing. Of late 
years the establishment begun by Soria and his companions, 
- before descending the Bermejo, in 1826, has been revived. The 
Araoz family have a fine sugar plantation at St. Pedro, 20 leagues 
from Jujuy, employiag a great number of Mataco Indians. 

Puna, 
This irregular plain, comprising four departments, Cochinoca, 
Einconada, Santa Catalina, and Yavi, is broken here and there, 
by hills that are often covered with snow, such as the Zenta and 
Castillo. It contains two great lakes, Casabindo in the north 
and Toro in the south, the first being an inexhaustible salt mine, 
which supplies most of the surroimding provinces and part of 

B 2 



244 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBR PLATE. 

Bolivia : the salt is conveyed in blocks on mule-back and llamas. 
All the inhabitents of these plains are Indians, who mix little 
with the rest of the world, but tend flocks of sheep, goats, llamas, 
and vicufias, near the four villages that give name to the above 
departments. They also pick up gold-dust at Einconada, aboirt 
3000 ounces annually. Oangrejillos, near Tavi, is a village on 
the high road to Peru. There are some fine farms at Puestos de 
,Marquez. » 

The other departments have nothing of interest. Humahuaca, 
with 460 inhabitants, is the last Argentine town which the tra- 
veller passes through en route for Bolivia or Peru. Perico 
Carmen, population 550, is the centre of an agricultural district 
on the river Lavayen, sugar plantations being found as high as 
3000 feet. Valle Grande, with the hamlet of San Lucas, oc- 
cupies a portion of the San Francisco valley at the foot of the 
Zenta. San Antonio has grazing farms in the high lands of 
Castillo and Eio Negro, which average 6000 feet. Tumbaya 
has an extinct volcano called Pedregal del Volcan: the soil 
is . too salty for agriculture, but supports cows, sheep, and 
llamas. Tilcara, with a village of 450 souls, is well watered, 
and produces fine crops of cereals. San Pedro is a place of 480 
inhabitants. Each of these villages has 2 public schools. 

The province of Jujuy took the following prizes at Cordoba, 
in 1872 :— 

L. Pizarro, alpacas : two gold medals. 

Prov. Oommittee, vicuaas : silver medal. 

M. Ansoateguy, sugar : bronze medal. 

Mr. Pizarro was awarded a grand gold medal for the intro- 
duction and acclimatization of the alpaca breed from Bolivia. 



(245 ) 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

SALTA.' 

This is one of the northern provinces bordering on Bolivia, 
and formerly included Jujuy, feom which it is now separated by 
tributaries of the San Francisco. It is bounded on the east, by 
the Bermejo; on the south by the Eio Las Piedras, which 
separates it from Tucuman ; and on the west by a lower range 
of the Cordillera, called Santa Barbara. The first inhabitants 
were Calchaqui Indians, who spoke the Quichua tongue, and 
intermarried with their Spanish conquerors ; but at present the 
only traces of mixed blood are to be found in the remote and 
moujatainous districts, the people of the towns being mostly 
white. Thfe Argentine Congress of 1825 estimated the popu- 
lation of this province at 40,000, and the census of 1869 gave 
88,933, or nearly 2 to the square mile. 

Population. 

Salta 16,877 

Caldera .. .. 1,627 

Cerrillos 4,g70 

Eosario de Lerma 5,973 

Chicoana 3,304 

Guaohipas 5,588 

Cachi 2,694 

Payogasta .. 3,325 

Molinos 5,409 

San Carlos 5,565 

Cafayate 3,711 

SanJoB^ 4,146 

Eosario de Frontera 5,014 

Candelaria 1,809 

Anta 4,228 

Campo Santo 3,233 

Kivadavia 1,622 

Oran 10,638 

88,933 



246 HANDBOOK OP THE BIVEE PLATE. 

Tbe returns of farming stock are : — 

Homed cattle 253,469 

Horsea 46,749 

Mules 15,736 

Asses 33,192 

Sheep 147,510 

Goats 93,582 

Hogs 2,465 

The province suffered mucli from civil wars, and still more 
&om its isolated position, the population having apparently 
fallen off 13 per cent, in the last ten years. The Saltenos are 
very industrious, and numbers of them leave home to seek their 
fortune in other provinces. The want of local capital and of 
means of commimication is a fatal obstacle to development. 
' Cotton and indigo grow wild ; sugar is largely cultivated,, the 
Mataco and other Indian tribes coming at certain seasons from 
the Gran Chaoo to work, often to the number of 20,000, but 
these are not included in the last census as belonging to this 
province. The climate varies with locality ; earthquakes occtir 
at rare intervals. Oran has tropical heat, while the western 
mountain parts are intensely cold, some having an elevation of 
9000 feet ; but the central valleys enjoy an agreeable tempera- 
ture, and here the bulk of the population is to be found. These 
valleys are, moreover, fertUe, being watered by the mountain 
stream from which the Bermejo and Salado take their risei 
Little attention is given to the sheep of Salta, although they 
are a remarkable breed, long-wooUed, and the largest in South 
America, a fleece averaging 12 lbs., or more than double what 
is usual in Buenos Ayres. 

One of the most interesting establishments in the province is 
the factory of Mr. Palacios at Las Piedras ; in 1864 he began 
cotton planting, and two years later got an Englishman, named 
Whittaker, to put up a watermill, which ginned 50 lbs. daily. 
Since then the establishment has steadily progressed, notwith- 
standmg a plague of caterpillars in 1867. The proprietor, 



SALTA. 247 

Laving visited England, obtained macliinery of 30-liorse power 
from Ernest Eeuss of Manchester, which lie hds put up at a cost 
of dOOOZ. The mill employs 40 hands, and has no steam power, 
as the Kio Piedras never runs dry. It turns out 250 lbs, of 
manufactured woollen or cotton textures daily, besides the finest 
vicuna ponchos, which are sold as low as '20 silver dollars. 
The mill is 240 miles north of Tucuman and 108 south of Salta. 
Mr. gtuar, an old German resident, reports the soU and climate 
peculiarly adapted to cotton, which is largely cultivated by the 
Indians, about 40 leagues below Oran, on the Bermejo, the 
shrub averaging 5 feet in height. 

i^Iducation is beginning to make progress, there being 85 
schools, attended by 4063 children. 

The province of Salta took the foUovring prizes at the 
Cordoba Exhibition : — 

M. Lairan, tauned hides : gold medal. 

M, Palaoios, home-made cotton : gold medal. 

M. Eennedi, native wines : gold medal. 

M. Guaymaii, ponchos : silvei medal. 

Salta Committee, blankets, coffee, &c. : one silver and five hionze medals. 

M. Echeveiria, tanned hides : silver medal. 

S. Brachery, dried fruits : silver^medal. 

M. Comejo, sugar : silver medal. 

M. Ojeda, lace-work : bronze medal. 

This province was among those that came off creditably, 
although its remoteness is a great bar to industry. 

There are mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and other 
metals. Those in best repute, but not working for want of , 
hands and capital, are the copper mines of San Antonio. There 
are also silver mines at Poma, gold-washings on the banks of the 
Acay, copper mines at Cafayate, lead and silver in the defiles of 
Guachipas, copper and silver in the Cerro de Lumbrera. Erom 
Oran we have some beautiful samples of silver. In Iruya 
and Victoria there are minerals of gold and silver. Captain 
LavaieUo discovered some silver deposits at Santa Eufina, 
10 leagues distant from Salta city. A kind of natural pitch 



248 



HANDBOOK OF THE BIVBE PLATE. 



suitable for ship-building is found in large iijuantities on the 
right bant of the Eio Grande and at the confluence of this river 
With the Bermejo. Salt of a good quality exists in many places 
in abundance. 

The annual value oi products is set down as follows : — 





Quantity. 


Value. 

Jf. 


Wheat .. .. 


.. fanegas 60,140 


. .. 288,672 


Indian corn . . 


.. „ 134,274 . 


. .. 268,548 


Eice 


.. arrobes 8,000 


. .. 6,000 


Potatoes, &-C. .. 


„ 146,000 


. .. 73,000 


Cheese . . 


.. „ 15,000 . 


. .. 37,500 


Tobacco .. 


„ 35,000 


. .. 143,000 


Wool .. .. 


„ 30,000 


. . . 72,000 


Sugar . . . . 


„ 14,000 


. .. 39,000 


Sj)irits . . 


.. barrels 2,200 


. .. 24,200 


Wine .. .. 


„ 6,800 


. .. 47,500 


Fruits, &o. .. 


Total 


. ., 34,000 




. .. 1,0.S3,620 



City of Salta. 

The first settlement was made here by a Spanish officer, 
named Abreu, in 1582, who called the place San Clemente of 
New Seville, but the site was ill-chosen, and two years later 
Hernando de Lerma founded the present city, imder the name 
of San Felipe de Lerma, in the pleasant valley of the same 
name, which it takes from the above captain, who, however, 
called the city after his master, Philip of Spain. Subsequently 
it took the name of Salta, and exercised jurisdiction over Jujuy, 
Tarija, and Oran. The Bolivians in the period of independence 
sent General O'Connor to occupy Tarija, and never afterwards 
gave it back. Jujuy became a distinct province in 1834. Oran 
stiU remains a dependency of Salta, being under the rule of a 
Lieutenant-Governor, appointed every two years by the Governor 
of the province. 

Salta is a neat town, of 11,716 inhabitants, including the 



SALTA. 249 - 

Governor, Bishop, Federal Judge, and otter principal authorities ; 
the census shows 2 men to 3 women. The Government House, 
cathedral, and other huildings form the principal square. The 
situation is considered unhealthy, the Arias and Silleta streams 
sometimes inundating J;he suburbs, causing marshy exhalations 
which breed intermittent fevers. Goitrous swellings are very 
common. There are 900 Bolivian residents, chiefly persons 
escaped from the civil wars of their own country ; also 110 
foreigners, including 2 English. The traveller should inquire 
for Mr. Fleming, an Irish gentleman long resident here. Salta 
is 1000 miles north-east from Buenos Ayres, 60 south of. Jujuy,, 
and 200 from the nearest point of the Bolivian frontier. It was 
the scene of a victory over the Spaniards in 1812, the Patriot 
army being led by General Belgrano. The city is 3700 feet 
above sea-level. The Arias, which waters the suburbs, threatens 
a portion of the city unless embankments be constructed; it 
falls into the Silleta 5 miles lower down ; and the latter, in the 
year 1830, left its old channel and opened a new one much 
nearer to the city. The department has an area of 250 square 
miles, including the picturesque suburbs of Buena Vista, Ve- 
larde, La Cruz, Costas, and Lagunilla. The ^anals or -tagaretes 
around the city are pestilential. The city possesses, among 
other institutions, a good female orphanage. It is 1026 miles 
from Buenos Ayres, and connected by telegraph. 

Galdera occupies the upper part of the Lerma valley, beyond 
the Eio Vaquero, adjoining the Jujuy frontier. Agriculture is 
much attended to, and at Getemani is found a species of clay, 
called Kaolin, suitable for making porcelain. This department 
abounds in wood, water, and cattle, but is thinly populated. 
' 'The village of Galdera, with 168 inhabitants, is the residence 
of the local authorities, and has six dependent districtSj, the 
area of the department being 600 square miles. The village 
, stands 4600 feet above sea-level and is watered by the river 
Vaquero, which afterwards changes its name to Mojotoro, one of 
the affluents of the Bermejo. 



250 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEfe PLATE. 

Gerillos,. ia the same valley of Lerma, but south of the city, 
has an area of 600 square miles, and takes its name from 
numerous hills, whose medium elevation is little over 3000 
feet. • The inhabitants mostly devote themselves to agriculture, 
especially raising sugar, although this crop often suflfers from 
frosts. There are numerous lime-quarries in the hills : and 
some considerable estancias of horned cattle. San Jose de 
Cerrillos is a place of 912 inhabitants, carrying on a brisk 
trade, about 5 leagues S.W. of Salta, 3700 feet above sea-level. 
The village of San Augustin is a dependency of this department. 

Biosario de Lerma is an extensive department watered by the 
Eio Toro, taking in the Tastil and Toro ranges, which form the 
boundary with Jujuy. It is thickly settled, with cattle-farms in 
the hills and agriculture in the lowlands, irrigated by means of 
canals drawn from the Carbajal and Silleta. Eosario is a town 
of 1132 inhabitants, 5 leagues W. of Cerrillos and 10 from Salta. 

Ghicoana is a plain of 700 square miles, taking its name from 
a village of 782 inhabitants on the Escoipe stream. It also 
comprehends the agricultural hamlets of Pedregal, Osma, and 
Siunalao, the surrounding hills having several cattle-farms ; and 
copper ore is so abundant that in 1858 nine mines were opened 
and profitably worked, until political troubles closed them. 
Tobacco is much cultivated in the lowlands. The village of 
Escoipe in the defile of the same name, at an elevation of 6000 
feet, is remarkable for the production of woods much used for 
cabinet-work and building. 

ChmcMpas is an extensive valley of 1000 square miles, south 
of the foregoing departments, producing excellent grapes, and 
all the fruits of ^the temperate zone. It is watered by the Rio 
Guachipas, which takes the name of Juramento after leaving 
this valley, and subsequently is known as the great river Salado. 
The village of La ViSa derives its name from the numerous 
vineyards; it has 456 inhabitants, and is the capital of the 
department, there being also chapels and small groups of habi- 
tations a,t the estancias of Puerta de Diaz, Vichimi, and Tunal. 



SALTA. • 25l 

Cachi, sometimes called Oachi-pampa, is a table-land 10,000 
feet over sea-level, separating the Chicoana plain from the 
Galchaquy mlley.. The snow-clad peaks of Cachi and Acay 
helpng to the Bolivian Andes, lying on the route for Cobija or 
Oruro. The village of Cachi, chief of the department, has 
413 inhabitants, two-thirds males, and is on a river of the same 
name, which washes a rich mineral country where silver and 
copper were for some- time obtained; but the works have been 
abandoned, owing to a want of hands and the great severity of 
temperature. It is over 40 leagues W. of Salta. Mr. Ledger, the 
famous breeder of guanacos and alpacas, on his return from Aus- 
tralief, in 1867, settled here with some merinos, and has a fine farm. 
• Payogasta, a wild, mountainous region north of Cachi, with 
two dependencies called Poma and San Antonio, where fruits 
and potatoes are cultivated. Payogasta is less elevated, and 
grows some wheat, the village having 981 inhabitants, and being 
about an hour's journey from Cachi. 

Molinos, a populous and fertile district, south of Cachi, in the 
mountainous country between Salta and ChUe, irrigated in 
many places for agriculture, and also containing cattle- farms in 
the Amaicha, Luracatao, and other valleys. The village of 
Molinos, 477 inhabitants, at an elevation of 6300 feet, is the 
entrepot of all trade between Salta and the Chilian port of 
Oopiapd. The hamlet of Siclanta, also in this department, 
stands 400 feet higher than MoHnos. The estancias of Ibar- 
guren and Gomez are among the best. 

San Carlos, in the lower part of the Calchaquy vaUey, is 
watered by the same river that traverses Cachi and Molinos. 
The village of San Carlos, 50 leagues S.W. of Salta, is surrounded 
by gardens and vineyards admirably irrigated; population, 456. 
Merced is another agricultural village, and the rest of the depart- 
ment is chiefly devoted to pasture, except Animana, famous for 



Gafayate, celebrated for its native wines, occupies the em- 
bouchure of the Calchaquy valley, touching on the Tucuman 



252 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

(frontier at the foot of the snow^ range of Los Quilmes, on the 
western side of which Mr. Ledger prepared his establishment of 
alpacas before exportiiig the breed to Australia. Goats and 
sheep thrive along the Calchaquy valley, especially on the 
slopes of Oachi-pampa : mules are also abundant for mountain 
travelling, and the wheat of the valley is of supeiio:? quality. 
From Cerro Acay at the head to Tolombon at the foot the 
valley is 250 miles long. Tolombon algarrobo forest borders 
with Tucuman. The village of Cafayate, 6 leagues S. of San 
Carlos, has 567 inhabitants, and is surrounded by vineyards. 

^an Jose <fo Metan, on the high road from Tucuman to Salta, 
is a village giving name to the department, which includes also 
Conches, Gralpon, and Las Piedras. The village of San Jose 
has some agriculture, and. is over 20 leagues 8. of Salta. The 
cloth factory of Senor Palacios at Las Piedras is in this depart- 
ment: it is close to the ruins of Esteco, a village which was 
destroyed by an earthquake in 1692. 

Bosario de Frontera, a populous, hilly department, watered by 
the affluents of the Juramento or Salado, and producing large 
quantities of sugar and tobacco, as well as cheese similar to 
that of Tafi, for which the adjoining province of Tucuman is 
so famous. The village of Eosario is remarkable for mineral 
springs, close to which a hospital has been erected by a grateful 
Salteno gentleman who recovered his health here. Two leagues 
distant are the ruins of Esteco. 

Candelaria, south of Eosario river, adjoins the Tucuman 
. frontier, taking in the plain of Mogotes and the Yarami hills. 
It produces sugar, tobacco, and cheese. The village of Cande- 
laria is 30 leagues 8. of Salta, close to the Tucuman frontier. 

Anta is an extensive department, composed of ten districts, 
bordering on the Gran Chaco, between the Salado and Bermejo, 
with large cattle-farms, and a few scattered groups of huts 
around the chapels of the Missions of olden time, or the ruined 
forts that formerly protected the frontier. The chapels are still 
standing at Miraflores, Piquete, and Goanacos, the last-named 



SALTA. 253 

being the most southern settlement in the direction of the 
desert. The Indians come regularly to' work at the estancias. 
The village of Anta is 30 leagues E. of Salta, at the foot of the 
Anta hills. 

Campo Santo, a. delightful country, separated from the suburbs 
of Salta by -the afSuents of the Lavayen, which water the whole 
department ; and as the medium elevation does not exceed 2300 
feet, all the fruits of temperate or tropical climates thrive abun- 
dantly. The coffee is said to be equal to that of Yungas in 
Bolivia, which latter is far superior to the finest Mocha or 
Brazilian ever grown. Sugar is largely cultivated, the Matacos 
Indians affording cheap labour at the required periods. Among 
the feuits are the chirimoya and coca, the latter being much 
used in Bolivia and other mountainous countries, where the 
natives chew the leaves when going a long journey. The 
village of Campo Santo, on the Lavayen river, is about 8 leagues 
E. of Salta. Another village, called Cobos, is on the high road 
to Peru. Cornejo's sugar plantation, at San Isidro, is a fine 
establishment. 

Bwadavia is situate on the north-east bank of the !Bio 
Vermejo, about i leagues below Esquina Grande, in the pro- 
vince of Salta, up to which point there are no impediments to 
navigation. It is bounded on the north by the grant belonging 
to the missionary Fathers, on the south and east by the Arroyo 
Teuco, and on the west by the Eio Vermejo. It covers a super- 
ficies of 200 square leagues (1,300,000 acres), extending 6 leagues 
in breadth from N.W. to S.E., and 40 in length. The soil is 
mostly alluvial, being periodically inundated by the Vermejo. 
The colony was established in December, 1862, and it counted 
54 families with an aggregate of 550 souls. Since then, 
numerous " suertes " have been allotted to new settlers, and the 
colony is now much larger. Each family receives for ever a 
donation of a " suerte " of estancia, 2500 yards front by the 
same depth (about 1200 acres), between the rivers Vermejo and 
Teuco, or double that area if the lands have not frontage on the 



254 



HANDBOOK. OF THE EIVEB PLATE. 



above rivers ; also a building lot, 15 yards by 60, on the site 
of the proposed town ; and a chacra of 4 acres for cnltivation. 
The chief industry of the colony is in homed cattle, the stock 
amounting to 20,000 head. The soil is fertile, and large plant- 
ations have been made of cotton and tobacco ; but at present the 
difficulty of transport seems insuperable. President Mitre's 
Government was authorized by Congress to expend all necessary 
sums for the construction of a road from Corrientes,to Esquina 
Grande ; the project has been allowed to fall into oblivion; but 
the road, when made, will pass through the colony and meet the 
high road of the northern provinces somewhere on the frontier 
of Salta and Tucuman. Most of the settlers are poor Bolivians 
from Tarija, or Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and they sometimes 
employ the Chaoo Indians as peons. There is a fort here with 
three pieces of cannon, to protect the place against Indian foray. 
Mr. Eoldan having established in 1874 a regular steamboat 
service on the Bermejo by means of light steamers bmlt in the 
United States, these remote districts will make niuch progress. 
Esquina Grande is 40 leagues from Oran, and 100 from Salta 
city. 

Oran is a dependency of the province of Salta, comprising 
three departments under the direction of a Vice-Governor, who 
is appointed by the Governor of Salta, out of three names pro- 
posed by the constituents, and holding power for the same term 
as the Governor. Its territory embraces both banks of the 
^Bermejo, the limits being described by its founder the Marquis 
de Pizarro (in 1794) as — south, the Eio de Piedras ; west, the 
peaks of Humahuaca, in the Zenta chain ; east, the Gran Chaco ; 
and north, a line drawn from the Quiaca stream to the Tarija 
jurisdiction, which begins at 30 leagues from that city. The 
population of the three departments, according to the recent 
census, is as follows : — 

Oran 4,592 

Iruya 2,668 

Victoria 3.278 

10,538 



SALTA. 255 

Along the banks of the Bermejo there are many valuable 
estanoias and farms, besides gome Indian Beductiopis, such as 
Ininaculada Conoepcion, composed of some hundreds of half- 
civilized aborigines. Sugar-cane, tobacco, mandioca, maize, and 
bananas grow in many places, and the woods near the town of 
Oran yield excellent timber for ship-building or upholstery. 
The town, before the earthquake of November, 1871, contained 
2345 inhabitants ; the village of Iruya, 456, and Victoria, 480. 
The census report describes Oran (in 1869) as a new, well-built 
town, watered by canals from the Eio Menta, and separated from 
the Bermejo by a forest of 10 miles ; at a distance of 30 miles 
from the confluence of the San Francisco and Bermejo and 120 
from Esquina Grande. 

The chief importance of Oran is, that it is the key to all 
traffic between Bolivia and the Bermejo, being the highest point 
navigable on this river. Here it is customary for traders who 
descend the river to make rafts for floating down trunks of 
cedar, as Jose Arze and others hjive done in recent times, dis- 
posing of their merchandise at Corrientes. Oran is 240 miles 
froip. Salta, 200 from Jujuy, 150 from Tarija, 600 from Santa Cruz 
de la Sierra, and 100 from Humahuaoa by the San Andres valley 
and gap of Zenta. The high road to Tarija follows the bant' 
of the Bermejo, and is often impracticable in seasons of flood. 
The San Andres valley for 80 miles offers a scene of magnifl- 
cent tropical vegetation, but as we ascend to the village of the 
same name, 5000 feet over sea-level, we enter on a region where 
snow rules supreme for a great portion of the year. The gap 
of Zenta is the highest part of the road leading to Humahuaca 
a,nd Bolivia, being 15,000 feet above the sea. 

The department of Iruya lies west of Oran proper, in the 
slopes of the Sierra Zenta, with an area of 186 square leagues, 
chiefly devoted to the raising of cows, sheep, goats, llamas, 
mules, and asses. The village of Iruya was formed into a. 
parish in 1839, and counts 456 inhabitants ; it is situated at a 
great elevation in the mountains, which are a ramification of the 
Andes. 



256 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVER PLATE. 

The department of Victoria is north of Ifuya, and bounds 
the Bolivian frontier ; it has an area of 80 square leagues, the 
lower part of which is watered by the Bermejo. The village of 
Victoria is on the Arroyo Pucara, where the natives obtain gold 
by washing the sands ; and in various places are found deposits 
of gold, silver, and copper. The village has a population of 
480 souls. The ranges of Humahiiaca and Zenta abound with 
beautiful crystallizations and calcareous stones of various 
colours. 



( 257 ) 



CHAPTEE XVII. 



TircTnaAN, 

The Garden of South America, well deserves its name, whether 
we consider the richness and variety of its products, the genial 
climate, the charming scenery, or the many other natural gifts 
which make the province of Tucuman the most favoured spot 
in the Argentine Eepublic, or perhaps in the whole continent. 
The country is magnificently wooded and watered ; fields of 
sugar-cane, wheat, rice, and tobacco alternate with orange- 
groves, aroma trees, and flowering plants in rich profusion, and 
the tSll moTintain peaks of the Andes form a prominent feature. 
Martin de Moussy found laurel trees measuring as much as 
28 feet around the trunk, or 10 feet in diameter, which he 
considers older than the time of Columbus. 

The area of the province is 28,350 sciuare miles, and the 
population less than four to the square mile, the various districts 
being as follows : — 

Sq. Macs. 

Tucuman 3,600 

Famaylld 770 

Monteros 600 

Chieligasta 1,260 



Eio Chioo 
Graneros .. 
Tr^noas . . 
Encalilla .. 
Burrn-Yaoii 
Leales 



. 1,400 
. 2,640 

■| 13,600 

. 2,800 . 
. 1,680 



28,350 



Population. 
37,559 
10,198 
14,181 
11,960 
8,687 
8,534 
/3,670 
\1,461 
5,500 
7,203 



108,953 



The original inhabitants were the Lules and Calchaqui 
tribes, subject to the great Indian Emperors of Cuzco. They 



258 ' HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

resisted the Spaniards for nearly a century, but were finally 
overcome, the territories now known as Tucuman, Catamarca, 
and Salta being settled by adventurers from Peru, about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. The present boundaries of 
Tucuman are: the river Tala, separating it from Salta on the 
north ; the Eio Salado and Gran Chaco on the east ; the Eio 
Hondo or boundary-line with Santiago del Estero on the south ; 
and the Aconquija and Ambato ranges on the western side, 
towards Catamarca. 

The city of San Miguel de Tucuman was founded in 1564, 
by Diego de Villaroel, at the confluence of the rivers SaH and 

' Monteros, but frequent inundations caused the inhabitants to 
remove to the present site in 1585. It stands on a table-land, 
commanding a wide prospect, and loots pleasing to the traTeller, ; 
the houses being surrounded with orange-gardens : .its height 
over the sea is 1430 feet, and it is about 25 feet over the river 
SaH, from which it is distant a mile, and about 4 miles from the 
foot of the Andes; 26° 52' south latitude, and 68° 20' west lon- 
gitude. ■ In population it is the fourth town of the EepubHc, 
copiing next in order after Eosario, and having 17,438 
inhabitants. The women are reputed handsome, the men active 
and intelligent ; the disproportion of sexes is very great, there 
being 4 women to 8 men. The city is built in the same 
chess-board form, with narrow streets, as other Spanish towns ; 
most of the houses are of brick, with spacious court-yards ; a 
few have upper stories. The Cathedral and National College 
are the only public buildings; there are numerous schools, 
and the proportion (82 per cent.) of persons who can read or 
write is above the average. There are only 207 foreigners 
in the town, mostly French, Italian, or Bolivians, and but 2 
Englishmen and 3 North Americans. Tucuman is called 
the Cradle of Independence, because the solemn declaration of 
the thirteen States of La Plata throwing off the Spanish yoke 
was published here on July 9th, 1816. It will be the terminus 
of the Grand Trunk Eailway, Messrs. Telfener and Lumb being 



TUOUMAN. , 259 

at present constructing a line from Cordoba to this city, which 
may be regarded as the continuation of the Central Argentine. 
Within a radius of 10 miles around Tucuman city may be 
counted over 40 sugar establishments, which turn out annually 
. 30,000 barrels of aguardiente, and 1000 tons of sugar, repre- 
senting a value of more than 100,000Z. sterling. De Moussy 
says that the sugar-cane was introduced about seventy years ago 
from Peru into Oran, and a priest named Colombres was the 
first, in 1820, to try its cultivation in Tucuman, which proved 
most successful. During the civil war of 1841 many of the 
fitigar-fields and factories were destroyed, but of late years 
increased attention is devoted to this industry. The old mills 
moved by oxen have, in many places, given way to modern 
machinery, such as at San Francisco, Las Piedras, Ledes- 
mas, &c.; the sugar mills brought out from Liverpool, and 
conveyed a thousand mUes overland in bullock-carts have, in 
many instances, cost 800Z. or more, but they effect a gain of 
25 per cent, more juice extracted, besides working so much 
quicker and better. At San Javier, 15 miles from town, you can 
enjoy the frigid zone ; in the suburbs you can raise excellent 
wheat, and a few miles farther, coffee, sugar, and tobacco, proper 
to hot climates. 

The city of Tucuman is 822 miles N.W. of Buenos Ayres, 
according to the telegraph route, whereas the distance by 
the old coach-road was reckoned 858 leagues, or nearly 1100; 
miles ; and the journey was one of several weeks, the buUock- 
Carts usually taking a year in the round trip to and from 
Eosario. At present the traveller can easily proceed from 
Buenos Ayres to Tucuman in seven days, and the railway whea 
cotapleted will reduce the journey to four days. Telegraphic 
communication exists not only with Buenos Ayres, but also 
with the remote provinces of Catamarea, Eioja, Salta, and 
Jujuy. 

. Tucuman furnished a large contingent to General San 
Martin's army before crossing the Andes, and' some of her 

B 2 



260 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBE PLATE. 

best citizens died on the victorious fields of Maypii and 
Chacubuco. A monument at the Oiudadela, one nule from 
town, marks the spot where another distinguished General, 
Belgrano, beat the Spaniards under General Tristan, on 
September 24th, 1812. But for the constant civil wars of 
half a century, and utter isolation of this beautiful province, 
its advancement would have been more in ratio with its splendid 
natural endowments. Nevertheless the people are kindly and 
hospitable, with a keen appreciation of the value of European 
improvements. The Mamelucho, or gaucho of the plains, still 
follows the pastoral life of his ancestors ; he is generally good- 
humoured, with few wants; his wife makes his clothing; his 
cattle are the finest in the Eepublic; and the soil gives him for 
the slightest labour a bountiful return of grain, fruit, &o. 
The mineral resources of the country are almost untouched, 
although Parish says the Aconquija range abounds in veins of 
gold, silver, copper, and lead ; these peaks rise to a height of 
15,000 feet, and are covered with perpetual shows. 

Famaylld, including Lules, is a picturesque department south 
of the city, aboimding in rich pastures watered by numerous 
mountain streams, forests of valuable timber which give occupa- 
tion to numerous woodcutters, and fields of maize, rice, sugar- 
cane, wheat, tobacco, &c. The village of Famaylld has 
228 inhabitants; besides the hamlet of Lules, at the foot of 
the mountains. The gigantic laurels mentioned byDe Moussy, 
as 70 feet high, are found at Fronterita, in this department. 
Senor Posse has a great sugar factory at Lules. 

Monteros is separated from Famaylla by the river AraniUa, 
and is famous for its numerous water-mills, chiefly used for 
sawing timber. There are also several tanneries, sugar esta- 
blishments, and distilleries, ' and a good deal of household 
furniture and cabinet-work is made here. Fat cattle are 
exported to the markets of Chile, Catamarca, Bioja, and San 
Juan. The soil produces, besides the staples common to the 



TUOUMAN. 



2S1 



province, a fine quality of cotton, which the women weave into 
embroidered cloths. The hill-range known as Sierra de Quilmes 
reveals layers of silver, copper, and iron. The town of Monteros, 
next after the capital in population, has 1432 inhabitants, the 
women exceeding the men by one-third : it is a station on the 
Tucuman and Catamarca line of telegraph. 

Bio Chico adjoins Monteros, and comprises a large but thinly- 
settled department. It is considered the most picturesque part 
of the province, taking in the slopes of the mountains, with 
valleys, rivers, waterfalls, forests, and ■ country-houses. The 
establishments of the Molino and Iltico families, in the valley 
of Arcadia, are worth a visit from the traveller, wfco may then 
push on through the wood-clad hills and spurs- of Aconquija 
which intervene on the route to Andalgala, the frontier post of 
Catamarca. Cedar, quebracho, walnut, laurel, guayacan, &c., 
are found in endless variety. Agricultural and pastoral pur- 
suits occupy most of the inhabitants. There is no village with 
even 100 inhabitants, but five small hamlets at the various 
churches of Quiasca, Naschi, Medinas, Eio Chico, and Nio- 



Ckidigasta, south of Eio Chico, resembles that department, 
but has more extensive plains. The sugar is the best in the 
province, and large quantities are exported through the village 
of Medina, besides dry hides and tobacco. Santiago also 
receives oranges from here, and a good business is done in 
cart-wheets, for which the wood of the district is most suitable. 
The Hondo and Arcadia rivers are famous for fish. The 
hamlet of Chicligasta stands on the Eio Sail. The women are 
remarkable for their industry, making fine needlework and 
ponchosj which they dye with native roots. There is a telegraph 
station at Medina. 

Graneros, the most southern department, borders on the 
province of Santiago, from which it is separated by the San 
Francisco river. The town of Graneros, the third in the 



262 HANDBOOK or THE BIVEE PLATE. 

province, has 1006 inhabitants, and is situate on the Eio 
Maropa, with some patches of agriculture around. Higher up, 
near the mountains, is the district of La Cocha, where the ?oil ,' 
is richer, and timber abounds. 

Lealeg lies farther east, on the Ilio Sail, comprising a level 
coimtry, suitable for flocks and herds. On the banks of the 
river the facilities for irrigation have given rise to several 
grain farms. The hamlet of Leales has less than 100 inha^ 
bitants. 

Tramas occupies a vast extent of hilly country in the north- 
west, taJdng in also the districts of Vipos and Tala. The 
inhabitants are thinly scattered and very poor, only able to eke' 
out a subsistence as squatters or labourers, and less in number 
than De Moussy's estimate showed in 1863. The village of 
Trancas has a good church and 684 inhabitants : it is a tele- 
graph station. The hamlet of Colalao adjoins the chapel of 
that name. 

Surru-Tacii, a northern department adjoining Salta and 
Santiago dfel Estero, is traversed for much of its length by low 
hill-ranges, such as Medina, Campo, Eamada, and Eemate, 
which alternate with numerous limpid streams. The southern 
part consists of rich pastures, famous for fat cattle. Salt springs 
are found in one place which yield enough salt for the country 
round, and give occupation to 200 persons. Marble, chalk,^ 
and limestone abound in a hiU-range 60 miles long. Among 
the various kinds of timber are some the bark of which is used 
■ for tanning. This department includes Timbo. The village of 
Burru-Tacii is a small place on a stream called Uruena. 

Encalilla, a south-western department of vast extent and 
small population, is only remarkable for the Tafi cheeses which 
have a South American reputation. The hamlets of Encalilla 
and Taff have parish churches. The country is very broken 
and irregular. 

The estancias of the Laguna and Silva families, in the 



TUOUMAS. 263 

charming vale of Tafi, dispatch yearly to Buenos Ayres about 
8000 arrobes, say 100 tons, of this exquisite cheese. The other 
products of this fertile province are estima,ted as follows : — 

' • Value. 

s 

150,000 arrobes sugar 370,000 

25,000 barrels rum 350,000 

200,000 arrobes tobacco 300,000 

50,000 tanned hides 280,000 

12,000 dry hides 50,000 

100,000 arrobes rice 80,000 

10,000 saddle-cloths 50,000 

$1,480,000 

To the above must be added at least as much more, for 
timber, maize, wheat, oranges, &c., of which no returns have 
been made out. Tte tanned hides are preferred in foreigii 
markets to those of Salta or Paraguay. The mountain-sides 
are clad in timber of the richest varieties, as high as 8000 feet. 
Mulberry abounds in many places, and the experiments for raising 
silk-worms have proved most successful. Although large 
quantities of produce are exported to Chile and Bolivia the 
trade of the country is incapable of much development until 
better roads be made. The.Aconquija passes to Tafi, Colalao, 
■^Santa Maria, a,nd Andalgald are only practicable to mules. The 
road to the western provinces of Catamarca, Eioja, San Juan, 
and Mendoza is pretty good, except in the part known as 
Totoral. Yolcanic agency is perceptible in some places, and 
this province was visited by an earthquake in 1844, which 
shook very much the city of Tucuman. The animal and mineral 
kingdoms are among the richest in the Eeptiblic : the sportsman 
will find lions, condors, guanacos, &c., in the hilly parts. The 
traveller ought to visit Posse's indigo establishment, which was 
founded in 1865, and covers several acres; the indigo is found 
wild through extensive tracts in the neighbourhood, and is 



264 HANDBOOK 01' THE BIVBE PLATE. . 

reported equal to that of Central America. The retvirns of live 
stock in the province are as follows : — 

Homed cattle 269,715 

Horses ... .. 82,300 

Mules 11,870 

Asses 6,430 

Sheep 88,450 

Goats 24,200 

Hogs 12,900 

The prizes awarded to this province at the Cordoha Eshibition 
were as follow : — 

Garcia, sugar : gold medal. . 

Teran, tanned hides : gold medal. 

Lopez, embroidery : gold medal. 

Erdman, sugar : gold medal. 

Tucuman ladies, silk banner : silver medal. 

Posse, indigo : silver medal. 

Araoz, sugar : silver medal. 

Maranon, rice : silver medal. 

Eodriguez, samples of wood : silver medal. 

Avellaneda, ponchos : bronze medal. 

Garcia, brandy : bronze medal. 

besides 11 medals awarded to the Committee of the province for 
tobacco, starch, embroidery, walnut furniture, &c. The total 
prize list of Tucuman showed 5 gold, 9 silver, and 6 bronze 
medals, putting this province third on the scale, coming next 
after Cordoba. 

In soil and climate Tucimian possesses such advantages as 
are destined to raise this province to much importance: at 
present it holds sixth place in the Confederation, coming next 
after Corrientes. Its population has nearly doubled in twenty- 
three years. Dr. Gondra's census of 1845 showing 57,876, and 
that of 1869 giving 108,953, inhabitants. Intermittent fevers are 
very common, and 602 persons are reported as suffering from 
goitre: otherwise the climate is exceedingly healthy. There 
are very few foreigners in the province, the total nxmiber in' 



TtrcuMiN. 265 

1869 being only 351, chiefly French, Bolivians, or Chilians, arid 
Bome few Italians. I'here are eight persons living whose age 
exceeds 100 years, all natives, and two of these hav^ reached 
,the age of 115. The number of those who can read or write is 
returned at 12,800, or one-eighth jof the population, and there 
are 6317 children attending 101 schools. The census of 1869 
gave five deputies to this province, instead of three, the previous 
number. Among many eminent men this province produced 
the famous historian Dean Funes, and Dr. Avellaneda. 



266 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIYEE PLATE. 



CHAPTEE XVIII. 

SANTIAGO. 

This is the fourtli of the Argentine provinces, having a 
population of 132,898, and coming next in order after Entre 
Eios. It is situated on an extensive plain, between the 26th 
and 30th degrees of latitude, and has an area, according to - 
De Moussy, of 35,000 square miles, all thickly populated, 
showing an average of four persons to the square mile. The 
province, however, also claims nearly 70,000 miles of Chaco 
territory, at present uninhabited. 

It is generally called Santiago del Estero, from a large 
swamp near the capital, and the boundaries of the provintie may 
be described thus. • On the north, Tucuman and Salta ; on the 
east, the Gran Chaco ; on the south, Santa Ee and Cordoba ; on 
the south-west and west, Catamarca and Eioja. The chief rivers 
are, the Dulce and Salado. The soil is prSductive, famous for 
its wheat, which often gives eightyfold ; also for its fat pastures, 
'and for its abundant yield of cochineal, algarroba, muscatel 
grapes, melons, figs, and prickly pears. The climate is so 
healthy that fevers are unknown, the temperature being mild in 
winter, but excessively hot in summer, sometimes going up to 
103 in the shade. A liquor called chicha, distilled from the 
algarroba, is much in request among the inhabitants, who are 
usually very indolent, and pass most of their time sleeping on 
the groimd or smoking native tobacco. The women, it should 
be said, are industrious and make good ponchos, which fetch 
five or six silver dollars each. The ancient Quichua language is 
widely spoken ; the Jesuits of Peru published a grammar and 
dictionary of it, now very rare. This province has fallen away 
■ since the time of the Jesuits, when it exported cochineal and 



SANTIAGO. ' 267 

cotton on a great scale ; cattle farms now occupy the site of vast 
cotton plantations in the last century. The sheep are remark- 
able for their long wool. Cattle and horses are far from plentiful. 
The native cotton-tree is perennial, yielding in abundance for 
. ten years, but now the industry is almost abandoned since the 
introduction of cheap cotton goods from England. Various 
kinds of timber abound, suitable for cabinet-work, also dye- 
woods, gums, wild honey, indigo, carbonate of sodaj and a soap 
made from a bark called Jume. The inhabitants are of pure 
Indian blood, except in the towns, where there is a cross of 
Spanish. There are only 95 Europeans in the province ; there 
are 68, schools, attended by 3812 children. Ophthalmia prevails 
in some districts. 

The Eio Salado, which traverses a portion of the Gran 
- Chaco, waters a great part of this province, although it is 
generally known by the name of Juramento, taking its rise in 
the snow peak of Acay, among the Andes of Salta. All efforts 
to render it navigable from Santa Ee' through the Chaco have 
proved fruitless. The Eio Dulce is formed of a number of 
Btreams descending from the Sierra de Aoonquija, receiving the 
Eiarte, otherwise Tala, at the point where this river marks the 
frontier between Salta and Tucuman; passing through the latter 
.province, where it receives six affluents, and under the name of 
Eio Hondo indicating the limit between Tucuman and San- 
tiago. In the plains below Santiago cdty it loses its rapidity, 
and its waters, having left their old bed in 1825, now get lost in 
the Salinas marshes, the only outlet whereof, the Saladillo, 
overflows annually. This stream is so impregnated with 
chlorure of soda that if a man falls into the -^^ater he cannot 
sink. From Paso Mistol the Dulce resumes its course, by 
Abipones, to the Porongos and Mar-Chiquita lakes, and returns 
to its old bed at Salavina. The bed now dry, above aUuded to, 
shows 190 feet in width by 10 in depth. Northward is a small 
river called Horcones, which rises in the hills of Tucuman, and 
in wet seasons is tributary to the Salado. 



268 HiNDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

The province comprises the following departments : — 

Santiago 8,498 inl^abitants. 

Banda 4,903 „ 

Eobles 4,597 „ 

Silipica 9,695 „ 

Loreto 13,152 „ 

Sooonoho 6,348 „ 

8alaviua 10,164 „ 

Sumampa 9,088 „ 

Matara 19,963 „ 

Gimenez 17,496 „ 

Guasayan 3,072 „ 

Choya 4,212 „ 

Eio Hondo 8,260 „ 

Oopo 15,450 „ 

134,898 „ 

City of Santiago. 

Santiago del Bstero was founded by Francisco de Aguirre in 
1553, on. the right bank of the Dulce, in 27° 47' south latitude, at 
a height of 520 feet over 'sea-level, although in flood-times the 
city is often seriously menaced. In dry weather the river is 
about 300 feet wide and 3 feet deep. Exuberant vegetation is 
maintained by channels drawn from the river, called " acequias,'* 
for which a tax is levied of two dollars on each garden per 
annum, giving to the city and outskirts an abundance of 
oranges, wheat, maize, sugar-cane, grapes, and other fniits. 
There are fig-trees of 10 inches diameter ; peaches and pome- 
granates also thrive. The city has 7775 inhabitants, 4 women 
to 3 men, and presents an aspect of decay, with deserted houses, 
silent streets, and only an occasional movement at the arrival or 
departure of a train of bullock-carts. The trade of cotton aud 
cochineal haying died out, the principal products now-a-days are 
ponchos and wooden stirrups. There is a well-built Government 
House of bricks, with spacious apartments, one of which is hung 
with the portraits of distinguished Argentines. There are 
3 churches and 2 schools, attended by 653 children. Most of 



SANTIAGO. ' , 269 

the houses and one of the churches are built of " tapia," or sun- 
dried bricks, several feet long by two or three in thicbaess, 
which crumble away in time by the action of saltpetre. 

Santiago is 728 miles from Buenos Ayres, with which it is' 
connected by telegraph. The old Jesuit church and college are 
falling to decay. There ie an orphanage for girls, founded in 
1840 by a charitable lady, named Taboada. In the convent of 
San Francisco is shown the cell of St. Francis Solano, apostle of 
Tucuman and Paraguay, who drew the Indians to him by his 
skni in playing the violin, as represented by his statue in the 
church. 

The province of Santiago took the following prizes at 
Cordoba : — 

Eamases and Parody, tanned hides : gold medal. 

Governor of province, indigo : silver medal. 

L. Didier, counterpanes : bronze medal. 

P. Sanjonus, flour : bronze medal. 

Except San Luis, this was the province which made the 

poorest figure. 

Banda. 

A department of little note, on the left bank of the Dulce, 
with sundry wheat plantations, and fine pastures where the 
natives fatten cattle. There are four hamlets : Eincon, Mara- 
villa, Quiroga, and Velez. 

Matard. 
Famous for sixtyfold wheat, raised in the low grounds bor- 
dering on the Salado or Juramento, after the periodical overflow 
and retiring of the waters. Thick forests abound, especially on 
the left bank of the Salado, which is infested by Mocovi Indians, 
and these often cross the river, making incursions on the peaceful 
inhabitants. Many fords are known to the Indians and hunters 
of wild honey. Fort Bracho is an important frontier outpost, 
founded by the late General Taboada ; a road hence leads to 
Campo del Cielo in the Gran Chaoo, where there is a prodigiouS^ 
mass of meteoric iron. 



270 HASTDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE.' 

Copo. 
Another department periodically flooded by the Salado, and 
remarkable for its fertility : the soil is undulating, and alike 
suited for pasture or agriculture. Many farms occur on the 
right bank of the river, in a rich vegetable soil. This depart- 
• ment borders on Salta. The inhabitants are tame Indians, de^ 
scended from those converted by the Franciscans in the last 
century. 

Qimenez. 

A wooded district bordering on Tucuman, with cattle farms 
where water is so scarce that the herds depend on wells for their 
supply. The villages of Gimenez, Tipiro, and Eemes are sur- 
rounded with small grain, farms. 

Guasayan. 
A mountainous district, where the inhabitants subsist on some 
scattered flocks of sheep and goats. 

B,io Hondo 
Takes its name, "deep river," from that portion of the Eio 
Duloe which is unfordable, where it receives the Maropi fropi 
the Aconquija mountains. It is eminently agricultural, pro- 
ducing wheat and maize, besides having good pastures north- 
ward. The village of Eio Hindo has 684 inhabitants and a 
school of 52 children. There is a hamlet called Sotelillos, 
famous for its sulphur springs, which are much frequented. 

Choya 
Lies between Salinas and Catamarca; it is in parts wooded, 
near the spurs of the Ancaste and Aconquija ranges, and has 
numerous rivulets running down from the hills, especially the 
Albigasta, which is the frontier line between Santiago and 
Catamarca. A village at the southern extremity of the Sierra 
Guasayan goes by the name of La Punta. Another is called 
Guaptayan ; both insignificant. 



SANTIAGO, 



271 



Bdbles, 
East of Santiago city, on the banks of the Dulce, is famous 
for its sugar plantations, but most of the department is covered 
with dense woods (the name Eobles signifying oak), which have 
to be cleared for agriculture. The sugar factory of Mr. Liiis 
Frias ,is one of the finest in the province. 

Silipica. 

South-east of Kobles, and along the Dulce : the lands near the 
river are devoted to agriculture, the more distant to pastoral' 
industry. The village of Silipica has a chapel; so have the 
hamlets of Tuama and Sumamas ; with schools counting 77 
children. 

Loreto 

Is met with stUl descending the Dulce, where wonderful wheat 
crops are raised every year after the waters retire. ^The more 
remote lands are so scarce of water that cattle are supplied from 
wells, but even these are so brackish that the villagers cannot 
use the water for drinking purposes. The town of Loreto, with i 
1368 inhabitants, was a place of some importance in the last 
century, being on the high road from Buenos Ayres to Peru : at 
that time the Dulce passed close by, but now the townfolk have 
to keep a canal from the river to supply their wants. It does 
some trade in wool. 

Soconcho 

Produces excellent wool, and rears a fine breei of long-wooUed 
sheep. Wood and water are scarce, the soil being in many 
places salty. The village of Soconcho has a chapel, school, and 
1325 inhabitants. A smaller place called Atamisqui, on tjie ■ 
load to Peru, derives its name, " sweet village," from the abun- 
dance of wild honey. 



This department closely resembles Loreto in every .particular. 
The town of Salavina is the largest in the province, having 8352 



272 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVBE PLATE. 

inhabitants, or nearly 600 more than Santiago city. The sheep- 
breeding establishments of Chilqnita and Salinas are worth the 
traveller's notice : the flocks are pastured on plains covered with 
the Jume soap-tree. San Cristobal is a village at the confluence 
of the Dulee and SaladUlo : the water here is brackish, except at 
flood-times. 

Svmamjpa 

Lies southward, bordering on Cordoba, the inhabitants devot- 
ing themselves to sheep, goats, and agriculture at the foot of 
the sierras, and homed cattle in the plains. The villages of 
Sumampa, Ojo de Agua, and Quebrachos are near the Eio- 
-Dulce. 



( 273 ) 



CHAPTEK XIX. 



COBKIKNIES. 



This is the fifth province in point of population, and it holds 
the sixth rank ia reference to the proportion of foreign settlers, 
who form about 7 per cent, of the inhabitants, or half as 
numerous as in Entre Eios. The boundaries are : north and 
west, the Parana; south, the Guayquirard and Moooretfi, which 
mark the Entre Eios frontier; east, the Upper Uruguay and 
Misiones. The aboriginal inhabitants were of the Caracara, 
Dagalasta, Jaunete, Fronton, and Ebiraya tribes, of the great 
Guarani family. The first Spanish settlement was made by 
Capt. Hector Eodriguez and eighteen followers, in 1588. They 
came down from Paraguay and landed at Arezati, nearly half a 
league below the present city of Corrientes. Some pretend that 
this city was founded by Juan de Vera, who gave it the name of 
San Juan de las Siete Corrientes, from the seven currents here 
formed in the river by as many projecting bluffs of solid Tock, 
25 to 30 feet high, plainly visible from the landing place. The 
Guarani Indians fought the invaders with implacable fury, until 
an event, which the former accepted as supernatural, induced 
them to lay down their arms, 6000 of them becoming Christians. 
The scene of this occurrence is a little outside the city, where 
the eighty Spanish invaders had erected a cross in the midst of 
their palisade. The Indians kindled an immense fire, which 
coneumed the palisade, the cross still standing ; and when the 
savages made a rush to cut it down, a volley from the arque- 
busiers seemed like a thunderbolt, laying several of them lifeless, 
whereupon they came with their wives and children to submit, 
their Caciques, Canindeyn, Payaguary, and Aguar^Coemba, 
making obedience to the Spanish commander, Alonzo de Vera, 



274 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEB PLATE, 

nephew of the Governor of Paraguay, in whose name the settle- 
ment was made. Since then the two races have been so blended, 
that Spanish is less spoken than Guarani, and three-fourths of the 
inhabitants reveal an admixture of Indian blood. The only- 
pure-blooded Guaranis may be seen crossing from the Chaeo in 
canoes laden with grass or firewood, a sc[ualid and wretched- 
looking people, that we can hardly believe to be the descendants 
of the valiant tribes of 300 years ago. 

The province of" Corrientes has suffered so continuously by 
civil wars, that of the natives there are 113 women for 100 men, 
whereas in the neighbouring province of Entre Eios there are 
2 per cent, more males than females. In point of public instruc- 
tion, Corrientes ranks sixth among the provinces, having half 
the proportion of literate persons that Buenos Ayres shows per 
100 inhabitants, and twice as many as Santiago, Owing to the 
unsettled state and other causes, the proportion of illegitimates 
is larger than in any other province, being 29 per cent.,' whereas 
the general average of the Eepublic is 21, or little more than 
one-fifth of the total births. The proportion of deaf, dumb, bli&d, 
&c., is very high, being over 1 per cent., while orphans represent 
5 per cent., and invalids from war and accident nearly 1 per cent, 
of the population. The total number of foreigners is 8825, 
including 3823 Brazilians, 1473 Paraguayans, 1513 Italians, 
462 French, 432 Spaniards, 245 Germans and Swiss, 100 English, 
13 North Americans, and the rest refugees from Banda Oriental, 
&c. The Brazilians are viostly in Misiones, the Italians at 
Corrientes and Goya, the French on the Upper Uruguay, the 
English and Germans at Goya ; Paraguayans are found in all 
the departments, The population doubles in less than thirty 
years, the increase being nearly 8 per cent, per annum. Azara's 
estimate of 1797 shows 9228 inhabitants ; the census of 1854 
gave 84,570, including Misiones ; the national census of 1869 
returned 129,023, without counting some 3000 woodcutters em- 
ployed in the Gran Chaco. There were 24 persons whose ages 
varied from 101 to 130, all natives of the province, except 1 



COKBIBNTES. 275 ' 

Paraguayan, 1' Brazilian, and 1 negro. The oldest was DoSa 
JeUpa Ojeda, of Lomas. One-sixth of the entire population can 
read or write, and 6569 children attend 125 schools. There 
are 6 inhabitants to each house, the proportion of straw ranchos 
beiag as 2 to 1 with wooden or brick buildings. Of the foreign 
iesidents 19 out of 20 are males. Taking 100 inhabitants, we 
find 45 are children, 20 married persons, 5 widowed, and 30 un- 
married adults. The number of children attending school 
Bhould be more than five times what it is. Of every 100 
cliildren 34 are illegitimate. 

This province abounds in wood and water, the forest of Pay- 
Ubre being a continuation of that of Montiel in Entre Eios, and 
stretehing up to Misiones. Groves of tall palm trees are met 
with frequently, and in many places orange trees are raised in 
thousands, yielding one of the staple crops of the country. 
Black laurel, lapacho, algarrobo, yvarird, urundey, peterivi, and ' 
■y7era.puita afford excellent timber for ship-building ; while red 
quebracho, tatane, cedar, Sandubay, and timb6 are more suitable 
for rafters or door-frames ; and the most beautiful cabinet-work 
can be made of guayivi, rosewood, mulberry, nangapiru, iguavir^, 
gnayabo, ivarir6-pir6, aguai-guazii, peterivi, and white quebracho. 
It is worthy of note that the names given by the Indians to 
indigenous trees convey the chief quality or character of each. 
The palms are divided into four families : coronday, pindo, yatay, 
and bocoyd. The first flourishes in marshy ground, and the bark 
is used for tiles in roofing huts. The pindo is a kind of date 
tree,. yielding a savoury yellow fruit, called by the Indiains 
"iba-pita": this tree only grows in the midst of thick foliage, 
as it cannot stand the hot sim. The yatay seldom grows as tall 
as the others, being usually found in a sandy soil, with a thick 
trunk and bluish leaves ; the fruit is good for fattening cattle, 
and produces also a kind of brandy, the kernels yielding oil. 
The bocoya is only remarkable for a fruit that is much in 



The sportsman wiU find a great variety of game and wild 

T 2 



/ 276 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

beasts : the yaguar or Mexican tiger, the caray^s or monkeys, 
■which abound on the banks of the Parand ; the nutria or quiyd, 
the anguyatutii, a kind of mole ; the wild boar, the carpincho or 
river-hog, the ant-eater, the aguara-guazii or red fox, deer of 
many varieties, the yacare or cayman, the lagarto, a kind of 
immense lizard. The only deadly reptile is the " vivora de la 
Cruz,'' not much bigger than an adder, with a, cross on its head, . 
and called by the Indians " mbucuruzii." Ostriches are very 
numerous, also the tuyuyu, a bird with a black head, standing 
5 feet in height, and the yabir4, so called because at a distance 
he looks like an Indian fishing. Birds of prey are common near 
lagoons, and in the woods D'Orbigny speaks of birds that have 
a peculiar mournful chant at night. 

Lake Ibera is the most remarkable feature in the province, 
having an area of 2000 square miles. The word in Guarani 
signifies " glittering water." It comprises a number of lakes, . 
islands, marshes, &o., and gives rise to the rivers Corrientes, 
Batel, Santa Lucia, Ambrosio, San Lorenzo, and MLrinay, all 
of which fall into the Parana, except the Mirinay, which is 
tributary to the Uruguay. The interior of Ibera has never 
been explored, owing to the difficulty of penetrating the swamps 
and brushwood ; but there are fairy tales of a race of diminutive 
creatures, no other it seems than ants, whose dwellings are about 
3 feet high. The tacuara, a kind of bamboo cane, grows to a 
height of 30 feet, and the banks are infested with the yacare or 
South American crocodile, while the thickets shelter tigers. 
The islands are said to be full of wild horned cattle. In one 
place a man named Mantilla has established an estancia. Besides 
Lake Ibera, there is a remarkable chain of swamps, to which the 
name of Las Maloyas is given, having an area of fully 100 
square miles, in the department of San Luis del Palmar. 

Travelling is at times rendered very difficult in rainy seasons, 
by reason of the rivers having, with . one or two exceptions, no 
bridges. The Eio Corrientes traverses the country for 120 miles 
before falling into the Parana, and is noted for its floods, but 



COEEIENTES. 277 

in ordinary seasons is easy to ford ; the Indian name is Aruhai, 
pr "water of the brave," because -the valiant Charricas tribe 
used to dwell on its banks. The Batel is another considerable 
wat^-course, debouching near Goya. The Guayguiraro serves 
as frontier with Entre Eios, separating Esquina from La. Paz : 
the name signifies " house of the fat boy." The Moooretd is 
the boundary on the side of the Uruguay, and the word is. inter- 
preted " home of the Mooobis." Another affluent of the Uruguay 
is the Mirinay, " our little water." The Misiones territory is 
watered by the Aguapey, " river of floating islands." 
'■ , The territory of Misiones is often treated as if distinct from 
Cor^ientes, but in reality forms part of this province, the 
authorities residing in Santo Tome being appointed by the 
Governor of Corrientes to look after the whole of that rich and 
. beautiful country, now nearly uninhabited. The Jesuits had 33 
flourishing missions here, the most notable being Candelaria, 
Santo Tome, San Javier, Concepcion, Santa Maria Mayor, 
Martires, San Jos6, San Carlos, Apostoles, Santa Lucia, San 
■ Miguel, Itati, &c. The advanced condition of those settleraents 
is attested by the Spanish and Guarani books stiU extaint, that 
were printed there, and for more than a century and a half they 
excited by_ turns the jealousy and admiration of Spanish states- 
men, till the Jesuits were finally expelled in 1767. The Jesuit 
Governor used to reside at Candelaria with two assistants, and 
each mission wae under the immediate care of two Fathers, who 
were aided by a local council of a corregidor, 2 alcaldes, and" 
several regidors, in directing the estancias, plantations, factories, 
and general industry. Each village had schools for reading, 
writing, dancing, music, and for the various callings of carpen- 
ter, cabinet-maker, blacksmith, silversmith, watchmaker, turner, 
shoemaker, and tailor. Every morning at sunrise all the 
villagers, preceded by the CabUdo or council, assisted at Mass. 
. AtmghtfaU the bell again summoned them for the Eosary and 
evening prayer, and the Cabildo kept a list of such as were not 
present, who afterwards expiated their fault by fasting or con- 



278 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVBE PLATE. 

flnement. Twice a day the Christian doctrine was explained 
t6 children, who sang the same through the streets. All goods 
were in common, except the little plot of land for each family. 
The Jesuits had large warehouses for receiving yerha,' tobacco, 
and other products, which they sent down in their own boats 
to Buenos Ayres," receiving European imports in return. Each 
mission had a well-armed militia, which went through drill on 
Sunday and holiday afternoons, having to be constantly on the 
alert against the savage Paulistas of Brazil. Even so the 
Jesuits had to abandon some settlements near the Guayra Falls, 
owing to the implacable Paxdistas. 

The late eminent French botanist, Amadee Bomplimd, 
endeavoured to induce the Government of Corrientes to restore 
the mission of San Javier under his management, with the view 
of cultivating the yerba-mate, as he remarked that the yield of 
the deserted plantations of the Jesuits was superior in quality to 
that of the wUd yerbales of Nyuguazii, Piquiry-guazii and San 
Antonio Guazii, near the frontier line of Brazil. He only asked 
for 15 Guayano Indians, two canoes, and a supply of provisions 
and implements to establish a model-farm at San Xavier. Some 
years after Bompland's death his project was taken up, in 1864, 
by a number of English and other merchants at Buenos Ayres, 
but the enterprise. was not successful, and the Paraguayan war, 
in 1865, may have been one of the causes. A good deal of 
yerba now comes from there, being of medium quality between 
Paraguayan and Brazilian : the want of a proper system of cul- 
tivation, such as ynth tea in China, is much to be deplored. 
Whenever the Upper Parand can be rendered navigable, Misiones 
will offer a splendid country for immigration, possessing such 
advantages of soil and climate as no other part of the Eepnbhc 
(except perhaps Tucuman) can rival ; but at present the falls of 
Apip6 are a great obstacle. 

The Eastern Argentine Eailway, now in construction, from 
Concordia to Mercedes, will open up some fine districts suitable, 
for European settlers of either pastoral or agricultural pursuits. 



COBRIENTBS. 279 

land is comparatively of so little value that the native estanoieros 
wUl gladly give settlers small farms for tillage, with a few cows 
and all necessaries for the first year, the tenant giving in return 
half his crop. 

Corrientes took the following prizes p,t the Cordoba Exhibi- 
tion, 1872: 

M. Daggorret, tanned hides : silver medal. 

M. Echevama, marble, &o. : two silver medals. 

M. Boibon, wood samples : silver medal. 

Prov. Committee, various products : bronze medal. 

This province was one of the lowest, taking only 6 medals 
out of more than 200. 

The province lies between 27° and 30^° south latitude, and 
59° and 62° west longitude, having an area of 42,000 square 
. miles. It comprises 22 departments, viz. : 

Sq. Miles. Population. 

Corrientes 20 .. .. 11,218 

Lomaa 400 .. .. 3,230 

Empedrado 1,400 .. .. 5,300 

Bella, Yista 1,000 .. .. 5,462 

LavaUe 600 .. .. 4,277 

Goya 2,000 .. .. 10,907 

Esquina, 3,000 .. .. 8,028 

Curuzii-Cuatl&.; 4,250 .. .. 10,386 

Monte Caseros 1,400 .. .. 3,731 

Paso de Los Libres .. .. 1,500 .. .. 5,974 

La Cruz 2,800 .. .. 3,463 

Santo Tome' 10,000 .. .. 5,278 

Itati 700 .. .. 2,229 

SanCosme 400 .. .. 3,620 

San Luis 1,750 .. .. 6,765 

Caa-Caatl 1,500 .. .. 8,211 

San Miguel 2,200 .. .. 3,326 

Yaguaiete Cor^ 1,200 .. .. 3,766 

Mburucuyii 450 .. .. 4,155 

Saladas 750 .. .. 4,444 

Mercedes 3,500 .. .. 9,912 

SanEoque 1,000 .. .. 5,341 

41,820 .. .. 129,023 



280 ]^,4NDB00K OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 



OOBBIENTIiS. 



The city of Corrientes, including the suburbs, has a popula- 
tion of 11,218 souls, and is the sixth in the Eepublic. The 
Indians gave it the name of Taraguy, expressive of the abun- 
dance of lizards. The toTm has a very ancient look, most of 
the houses having corridors on the exterior to keep oflf the sun's 
rays ; the streets, drawn in the usual chess-board plan, are about 
a mile long. At sunrise the market-place presents an animated 
spectacle : women of various complexions seated on the ground, 
all smoking and talking Guarani, some selling their wares, 
others suckling infants, others singing strange melodies ; their 
feet, arms, and bosoms bare, except a piece of native lacework 
over the breast : the Placita is also at that hour the rendezvous 
of Gruaycuru Indians who have come over from the Chaco with 
grass. The Matriz church, as its name indicates, is the oldest 
in the city, and seems to date as far back as the memorable 
1588 : the belfry and town-clock stands apart ; the interior and 
exterior of the church are equally devoid of interest or beauty. 
The Merced is a small chapel at the corner of the Flaza. 
The convent church of San Francisco is the only one of merit, 
and possesses a fine organ, made by one of the friars; the 
bell-tower commands a splendid view of the country around, 
the Parana, and dark fringe of timber which marks the Chacb 
outline on the far side of the river, here over 2 miles wide ; the 
city itself has a strange and beautiful aspect, from the thick 
grouping of houses and orange-groves. The Cabildo was built 
in 1812 by Governor Luzuriaga at cost of the citizens. The 
Government House was the old Jesuit College, well built on a 
commanding position, with spacious quadrangle and court-yard. 
The National College was for some years directed by the late 
Dr. Fitzsimons, whose son is the present Kector. The favourite 
promenade of the citizens is known as La Eateria, a mile north 
of the t6wn, at a point where a battery formerly commanded the' 
river ; the view is charming, and the site is surrounded on the 



UOEKIKNTES. 281 

land side by dense thickets. This place was the scene of a hard 
fight, in 1865, between,Paraguayans and Argentines : there iff 
a barrack contiguous. 

The traveller should not omit to visit the beautiful quinta of 
Mr. Billinghurst, about 3 miles from town. There is a grove of 
10,000 orange trees. Going thither, one passes close to the 
Cruz del Jlilargo, erected in 1828, on the spot where tradition 
says the Spaniards planted the Cross in 1588. The column is 
26 feet high, surmounted by a globe : on one side of the pedestal 
" is the inscription-^" The people of Corrientes, in gratitude to' 
the 'Almighty for His wonderful protection of the first settler?, 
on the memorable 3rd of April, 1588." On the western side is 
read — " To the memory of our 28 iilustrious ancestors of April, 
1588." Prom this point there is an extended and picturesque 
view, and the obelisk of the Cross is the first object seen by the 
traveller as he approaches Corrientes, ascending the Parana.' A 
BmaU chapel has been buUt hard by, and in former times the 
anniversary was celebrated by a kind of fair in the Plaza in 
front. The Government and Municipal Council still go in pro- 
fession on that day to the chapel. In a gap of the river-bank, 
marked by a large tree, is shown the spot where the first 
' Spaniards under Vera or Eodriguez landed. In 1854 Monsieur 
Bompland undertook to form a museum, having made a collec- 
tion of 3000 plants for the purpose. This eminent botanist, 
who had been gardener to Josephine at Malmaison, came to this 
country in 1816, and had resided here nearly half a century at 
his death. Corrientes is 658 miles N. of Bnenos Ayres. A rail- 
way has been conceded to Messrs. Pumess and Co., to connect 
Corrientes with Mercedes, where the East Argentine from Con- 
cordia will terminate. 

Lomas. 

This department is remarkable for the French colony esta- 
hlished here, in 1855, by Dr. Brougnes, under the auspices of 
Governor Pujol, at a distance of 20 miles from the capital. 



282 HANDBOOK' OF THE EIVBE PIiATR 

Some, of the colonists still remain, but the land ceded to them 
was too small to allow of their thriying ; they eke out a liying 
by taking firewood and vegetables to Oorrientes. The soil is 
rich and produces sugar-cane, tobacco, maize, mandioca, sweet 
potato, &c. Cotton was successfully grown here in 1863, but 
the difficulty of gathering it was too great. Oranges and 
other fruits are found in great profusion. There is no village 
or hamlet in this department. One-tenth of the inhabitants are 
foreigners, chiefly Brazilians or Paraguayans. Only 7 per 
cent, of the population can read or write, besides 154 children - 
attending school. The district abounds' in wood and water, 
Lake Brava being noted for its beauty. 



On the banks of the Parana, lies between Oorrientes and Bella 
Vista, and has a port for small vessels at the mouth of the 
arroyo from which the department takes its name. The in- 
habitants occupy themselves as woodcutters or cultivators of 
small chacras, in which maize and tobacco are the chief products. 
There are only 126 foreigners, mostly Italians or Brazilians. 
The village of Empedrado, sometimes called CapUla del Senor^ 
bas 1157 inhabitants. The river-bank between here and Oor- 
rientes is about 50 feet high: abreast of the Biachuelo was 
fought the great naval battle of June 11th, 1865, in which 
the Paraguayan fleet was almost annihilated by the Brazilian, 
after a combat of twelve hour^, the Paraguayans exhibiting the 
most heroic bravery : over 2000 men perished in the fight. Em- 
pedrado is 14 leagues from Oorrientes, and the same distance from 
Balla Vista. The schools are attended by 352 children; and 
the J)ebple of the department are so well instructed, that 18 per 
cent, can read or write. There are eight arroyos which 
debouch into the ParanA, from the Sombrero, 5 leagues below 
Oorrientes, to the San Lorenzo, which separates this department 

■IVriTYi "RoIIq "\7iafQ 



OOEEIENTBS. 283 

BeZZa Vista 
Takes its name from the pictutesque village founded by 
General Ferre, 30 leagues 8. of Corrientes, on a hill-side, 
which rises to a height of 100 feet, overlooking a wide bend of 
the Parand. It is a port of some traffic, being the outlet of four 
departments, San Eoque, Mourucuya, Saladas, and Caa-caati, 
The village has 1984 inhabitants, there being 5 women to 4 
men, and the latter sometimes acting as woodcutters in the 
Chaeo. Boating traffic employs 12 saiHng vessels. There are 
355 children attending school, and one-seventh (896) of the 
population of the department can read or write. One-sixth of 
the inhabitants are illegitimate, and the proportion of insane, 
blind, and dumb persons is hearly 1 per cent., or double the 
ratio of the rest of the province. It seems tthe first settlers at 
Bella Vista, in 1826, were convicts, though now many respect- 
able people are found here. Foreigners number 289, about 
5 per cent., being mostly Italians and Paraguayans. Mr. Henry 
Hall's orange plantation is a couple of miles below the town, on 
the river bluff. General Ferre tried a coffee plantation in this 
department, but failed ; and a little above Bella Vista are the 
remains of an American cotton farm. Captain Page says this 
place is 688 miles up the river from Buenos Ayres and 87 below 
Corrientes. The islands and coast of the Chaco are frequented 
by tigers and alligators. 

Lavalle. 

* Better known as Santa Lucia, from the old Jesuit Mission 
which existed here, and of which a fine church, built of stone, 
and a hamlet of 545 inhabitants still remain. The department 
runs inland from the Paran4, being bounded by Bella Vista on 
the north and Goya on the south. It is one of the most favoured 
parts of the province, and has 7- inhabitants to the square 
mile, being double the average ; foreigners are only 2 per cent., 
or -81 in number, mostly Italians and Paraguayans. The old 
hamlet of Santa Lucia is on the river of that name, 3 leagues 



284 HANDBOOK 01' THE ElVBR PLATE. 

from its moutli on the ParanI, ; it exports some hard-wood 
rafters and cheese. The department returns show ihat one- 
eighth of thei inhabitants can read or write, and 163 children 
attend school. It is proposed to found a town, called LavaUe, 
on the bank of the ParanI,, near Eincon de Soto, where an 
excellent port might be formed. In 1864 the Government- 
offered this site as a settlement for distressed Manchester 
operatives, but the offer was not accepted. 

Goya, 
Famous for cheese, is the most important district in the , 
province, its inhabitants being reputed very wealthy, and 
, generally industrious. The town, of Goya takes its name from 
a woman of that name, who had a farmhouse here at the close , 
of the last century, and dates its foundation from 1807, the 
present population being 4233 souls. The place has been . 
ill-selected, for in wet seasons the surrounding country is under 
water, the Batel, Corrientes, and Santa Lucia rivers debouching 
into the Parand within short distances. The trade of the town 
is declining of late years, owing to the difficulty of navigating 
the Eiacho of Goya, which leads from the Parand up to the town ; 
and the deep water channel of the Parand runs about 5 mUes 
lower down than the old port of Goya. Passengers by steamer 
get out at the Eiacho, where a casUla or Custom House is built 
on piles; and here a boat comes from Goya to meet the steamer. 
The to*n is well built, the new church having cost 30,000Z., 
and many houses are of two stories; the schools are four i in 
number, attended by 419 children. The local trade employs 
3 steamboats and 24 sailing vessels, in the aggregate 2630 
tons. 

The population of the whole department is 10,907, or 5J tio 
the square mile, the proportion of foreigners being 7 per cent., 
and these mostly are Italians, with a sprinkling of French and 
Spaniards, besides 42 Germans and 35 English. One-sixth of 
the population can read or write. This department is remark- 



- COKEIBNTES. 285 

able for the graceful Yatay palms. Land may be bought at 
^4000 per square league, the Government valuation being about '• 
^2400. The usual price of stock is $1 each for sheep and ^4 
for cows. 

The town of Goya is 126 miles S. of Corrientes; steamers 
touch here almost daily, this place being little more than half- 
way from Buenos Ayres to Asuncion, and about two days' 
voyage to either. Some English families have recently settled 
down as sheep-farmers on the banks of the Batel, 20 leagues 
inland. Goya is 532 miles from Buenos Ayres. 

Esquina. 

A frontier department, only separated frem La Paz, in Entre 
Kios, by the Guayquirard stream ; it extends inland from the 
Parand,' and is one of the largest divisions of the province, but 
thinly inhabited. It is separated from Goya by the river 
Corrientes. The land is good, and some Germans have begun 
cattle-farming ; but the drawback to frontier departments is that 
they are usually infested with " matreros " or bush-rangers. The 
■ population of the department is under 3 to the square mile: there 
are 215 foreigners, chiefly Italians, Paraguayans, or Brazilians. 
Over 11 per cent, of the inhabitants can read or write, and 423 
children attend school. The principal occupation of the 
inhabitants is cattle-farming : wages average ^10 a month. 

The town of Esquina, with 1794 inhabitants, is well built on 
an eminence overlooking the confluence of the Eio Corrientes 
with the Parana. All the steamers usually touch here, the 
approach to the town being pretty much as at Goya. Strangers 
will obtain any information from Mr. Daniel Hayes, an American 
resident. 

Ouruzu-Guatid. 

The name of this district signifies in Guarani ''a painted, 
cross," a souvenir of the old Jesuit missions. It lies inland from 
Esquina, and comes down to the frontier of Entre Eios at the 
Mocoretd, having Mercedes on the north, and the Mirinay and 



286 HAITOBOOK OP THE EIVEB tlATE. 

Uruguay on the east. The camps afe famed for rich pastures, 
and the cattle fetch superior prices at the saladeros of Concordia, 
Goya, &c. It is the largest department (except Santo Tome) in 
the province, but thinly settled : only 2 J inhabitants to the 
square mile. This part of the country is high, and free from 
lagoons ; it will be traversed by the Eastern Argentine Eailway. , 
There are in this department only 364 foreigners, or 3 per 
cent, of the population. About 14 per cent, of the inhabitants 
can read or write, and 392 children attend school. The town of 
Curuzu-Cuatia has 1824 inhabitants. 

Monte Caseros, 
On the Uruguay, takes its name from the battle-field near 
Buenos Ayres where the Dictator Eosas was overthrown, this 
being a newly-formed department. It possesses rich pastures 
like those of Curuzu-Cuatia, and is in many places thickly 
wooded and well watered. It exports timber from the port of 
Monte Caseros, a village of 672 inhabitants, abreast of the town 
of Santa Bosa, in Banda Oriental. 

The department counts 282 foreign residents, chiefly Brazilians 
or refugees from Banda Oriental. The schools are attended by 
370 children. The East Argentine Eailway is being prolonged 
hither from Pederacion. 

Paso de Los Lihres, 
Another riverine department, is better known as Eestauracion, 
from the village of that name, founded in 1844, in front of the 
Brazilian town of Uruguayana, on the other side of the Uruguay.' 
The lands are high and well suited for cattle, being intersected 
by numerous rivers, and the scenery is rendered picturesque by 
the graceful Yatay palms which form so prominent a feature, . 
The battle of Tatay was fought here in 1865, between the 
Paraguayans and the Allies. There is a brisk, trade in live 
cattle via Eestauracion for the Pelotas saladeros, in Brazil, every 
head paying a dollar export duty to the Argentine customs. 



CORRIBNTBS. 



287 



At the same time a considerable coaBting traffic with Misiones 
is carried on by small boats, which bring down yerba-m^te, 
wood, and oranges. The population of Eest'auracion amounts to 
1806: that of the whole department to 5974, including 924 
foreigners, mostly Brazilians, Paraguayans, or Italians. One- 
fifth of the inhabitants can read or write, and there are 181 

children at school. 

La Cruz. 

This is perhaps the only one of the oH Jesuit Missions that 
remains in its integrity. The stone buildings of the last century 
are Still inhabited by an indigenous population, 'on the same 
spot where the Jesuits made the settlement in 1657, at the foot 
of three peaks which overlook the Uruguay. It is about 14 
leagues higher up than Paso de Los Libres, and exactly in front 
of the Brazilian town of Itaquy. The town of La Cruz has 
1711 -inhabitants, and in this department we also find the old 
Jesuit settlement of Yapeyu, where Gen. San Martin was born. 
Until recently the house was standing, with a palm tree in the 
court-yard, where the hero first saw the light, whose sword 
liberated three of the present Spano-American Eepublics. The 
department counts 3463 inhabitants, including 237 foreigners. 
Near Yapeyu a French colony was established in 1860, which 
counts, by the census of 1869, 70 adults (44 men and 26 women) 
.besides children. There are several Brazilians and Paraguayans 
in this department. About 12 per cent, of the inhabitants can 
read or write, and 273 children attend school. 

Itati. 
An old Indian settlement on the Upper Parana, dating its 
origin from 1588, when Spaniards and aborigines mingled, but 
their descendants retain more of the Indian type. The inha- 
bitants are famous for the manufacture of earthen vessels, and 
some business is also carried on in timber, such as lapacho, 
quebracho, palm, &c. The country is mostly low and swampy, 
especially near the Maloya marshes on the south, but the soil is 



288 HANDBOOK OP THE RIVEE PLATE. 

SO rich as to yield abundant crops of sugar, maize, tobacco, 

mandioca, and oranges. ' Lpcal records say that the present 

village of San Antonio de Itati was founded on December 7th, 

1615, and the church built three years later by Padre Luis 

Bolanos ; it was rebuilt in 1853. The population of the village 

is 1306, that of the department 2229, including 59 foreigners. 

About 8 per cent, of the inhabitants can read, and 56 children 

attend school. 

San Cosme. 

This department is often called Ensenadas, and comprehends 
a charming tract of country from the banks of the Parana to the 
suburban district of Lomas, near the city of Corrientes. It is 
interspersed with woods, lakes, farms, orange-groves, sugar plan- 
tations, &c., and is the most favoured and thickly populated 
district in the province, having 9 persons to the square mile. 
About 10 miles from Corrientes is a group of French colonists, 
where a settlement was made some years ago called San Juan, 
but most of the settlers moved to La Cruz or elsewhere : it was 
adjoining the hamlet of Guacaras, or Santa Ana, where a 
Mission was founded in 1633 by Padres Pedro Eomero and 
Cristobal de Mendoza. The village of San Cosme is delight- 
fully situated, and dates from 1760 ; it commands lovely pano- 
ramic views. Population, 1014. There are only 163 foreigners 
in the department, or less than 5 per cent, of the inhabitants. 
There ^re 5 schools, attended by 263 children, and the grade 
of public instruction is very high, nearly one-fourth of the 
population being able to read or write. 

San Luis. 
'' San Luis del Palmar is famous for the swamps and lagoons 
called Las Maloyas, which coyer a great portion of its area. 
The soil produces oranges, sugar-cane, tobacco, and mandioca, 
besides which woodcutting' occupies a number of the inhabi- 
tants. This department lies south of Ensenadas and Itati ; there 
are only 89 foreigners, or little more than 1 per cent, of the 



COKKIENTES. 289 

population. One-eiglith of the inhabitants can read, and 284 
children attend school. Seven leagues from the city of Cor- 
rienteS stands the village from which the department takes its 
name. Population, 705. 

Gaa-Caati. 

Agriculture is more advanced here than in any other part of 
the province, the inhabitants raising large quantities of maize, 

• tobacco, sugar-cane, honey, and aguardiente. The country is 
beautifully diversified with wood and water, the traveller 
meeting sometimes a chain of continuous lakes, or anon a belt 
of luxuriant timber or cluster of Yatay palms ; the fruit of the 
latter is good for cattle. In this part of the country drought is 
unknown. The town of Caa-Caati, which has 2722 inhabitaiits, 
and received municipal charter in October, 1852, is situate about 
10 leagues from the banks of the Parana, the intermediate country 
being mostly swamps. This department is twice as thickly 
populated as the rest of the province, showing nearly 6 inha- 

, bitants per square mile ; the only foreigners are a few Italians, 
Paraguayans, and Brazilians, in all 96. One-seventh of the 
inhabitants can read, and 427 children attend school. 

San Miguel, 

Situate between the Parana, Tranquera de Loreto, and Lake 
Ibera, is very thinly populated, most of its area being swamps 
or marshes, which, however, are not entirely unprofitable for 
pasturing cattle. The territory of Misiones may be said to 
begin at the Tranquera de Loreto, running N.E. along the 
upper Parana; the Paraguayans had command of this pass 
before the recent war, and prevented the Correntinos from 
penetrating into Misiones to cut rosewood, morosebd, tatane,- 
nrunday, cedar, quebracho, and other valuable timber with which 
the country abounds, and which must soon form an important 
trade. The village of San Miguel, founded in 1667, counts 



290 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVEE PLATE. 

807 inhabitants. The department has only 48 foreigners. 
One-tenth of the inhabitants can read, and 84 children attend 
school. 

Taguarete-Cord 

Takes its name from the abundance of tigers or yaguars infest- 
ing the woods and swamps of the Iberd and Batel, which cover 
so large a portion of the department. This may be termed the 
heart of the province. The village of Yaguarete-Cor^ is 50 
leagues from the city of Oorrientes, the population not exceed- 
ing 423 souls, of whom nearly two-thirds are women. There' 
are some very expert tiger-slayers, who carry on a business 
in the skins of these animals. Most of the inhabitants (3766) 
of the department occupy themselves in tending cattle, and 
droves of fat kine are dispatched two or three times a year to 
the saladeros of Oorrientes and Entre Eios. There are only 
48 foreigners, chiefly Paraguayans, with a sprinkling of French. 
One-sixth of the inhabitants can read, and 244 children attend 
school. 

Mburucuyd. 
San Antonio de Mburucuya is a small and thickly-settled 
district, with 9 inhabitants to the square mile, lying between 
the rivers Ambrosio and Santa Lucia. The country is well 
wooded and watered, and on the banks of the Ambrosio the 
Caranday palm grows in abundance, the bark serving for a roof 
like shingles. The soil is well suited for agriculture, and no 
fewer than 635 families have patches of land under cultivation. 
The tobacco is considered the best in the province. There are 
50 foreigners, chiefly Italians or Paraguayans. The village 
of Mburucuya has 495 inhabitants, and a school attended by 226 
children. 

Salados 

Is another thickly settled department, touching the banks of 
the Parand below Empedrado, and stretching out inland between 
Mburucuy^ and the river Santa Lucia. It is traversed from 



CORBIENTES. 291 

'north to west by the Ambrosio, and in the parts bordering, on 
the Parana the country is impassable with swamps and thickets. 
It is the most picturesque part of the proyincej ahd seems to 
enjoy a, perpetual spring. Fruits and cereals rotate with endless 
variety; besides the usual products, such as maize, mandioca, 

: sugar-cane, potatoes, and tobacco, there have been excellent 
samples of cotton grown herci The town of Salados is charm- 
ingly situated amid groves of never-failing orange trees, about 
25 leagues from Corrientes ; it has 2032 inhabitants, the popu- , 
lation of the department being 4444, including 56 French, 
Itahans, &c. The schools are attended by 246 children. - 

Mercedes. 
A large department in the centre of the province, chiefly 
famous for the forest of Pay-Ubre, which abounds in tigers, 
leopards, carpinchos, and formidable reptiles, and seems a con- 
tittuation of the Montiel forest of Entre Eios : this belt of ' 
timber also traverses Misiones, till lost in the territory of 
Brazil. This department touches northward on the swamps 
and lagoons of Iberi,, but the rest of its area consists of high 
ground, good for pasture or agriculture, and watered by nu- 
merous " arroyos." Large quantities of hides and tallow are 
conveyed by bullock-carts to the port of Concordia, but the 
Eastern Argentine EaUway will soon be ready for this traffic. 
The agricultural products are sugar-cane, tobacco, maize, and 
mandioca. Population 9912, including 328 foreigners, but of 
these latter only 95 are Europeans, the rest being Paraguayans 
,or Brazilisins. The town of Mercedes or Pay-Ubre is 60 leagues 
from Corrientes, and has 1950 inhabitants; the schools are 
attended by 761 children. 

San Boque. 
Another central department, more thickly settled than the 
average, lying between the rivers Santa Lucia and Corrientes,^ 
and traversed by the Batel. Pastoral is almost the sole occupa- 

V 2 



292 handbook' OF the eiveb plate. 

{ion of the inhabitants, who send troops of fat cattle several , 
times yearly to the Entre Eios saladeros. Population, 5341, 
idcluding 60 foreigners, of whom 13 are Europeans. The 
village of San Eoque has 1076 inhabitants, and is distant 30 
leagues from Oorrientes, standing on the steep bank of the 
Santa Lucia, which river is sometimes navigable for small craft 
from Goya and the Parana. The schools are attended by 211 
children. 

Santo Tome. 

The vast territory forms one-fourth of the province, em- 
bracing nearly the whole of that portion of Misiones which 
belongs to the Argentine Eepublic. Here were many of those 
flourishing Jesuit settlements of the last century, the wonder.and 
admiration of all who have visited or studied them. The 
ruined churches or rare books in the Guarani tongue are all that 
remain. The expulsion of the Jesuits by order of the King of 
Spain took place in 1767, and since then Misiones has become 
a desert, the Indians have relapsed into barbarism, and' the 
labours of the Jesuits have been frustrated. The present entire 
population of a country as large as some kingdoms in Europe ■ 
is only 5278, made up in this way: — Natives, 2921 ; Brazilians, 
1939; Paraguayans, 259; Orientals, 47; Spaniards, 29; Ger- 
mans, 26 ; French, 26 ; Italians, 18 ; various, 13. One-eighth 
of the inhabitants can read ; their chief occupation is cutting 
timber or gathering yerba-mate. The village of Santo Tome, 
with 1188 inhabitants, is situate on the bank of the Upper 
Uruguay, abreast of the Brazilian town of San Borja ; it is the 
residence of the authorities of Misiones, and has a school, at 
which 90 children attend. The hills of Aguapey, inland, are 
famous for an inroad made here by 'the Paraguayans in '. 
when the whole coimtry was devastated. 



( 293 ) 



CHAPTBK XX. 

ENTRE BIOS. 

This province takes its name from the fact that it lies " between 
the rivers" Uruguay and Parand. Its area is 40,000 square 
mUes, about the size of the kingdom of Portugal, and in 
population it stands third among the Argentine provinces, 
ceming next after Cordoba. It lies between 30° 30' and 34° 
S. lat., and is separated from Corrientes on the north by the 
Guayquiiard, which falls into the Parand, and the Mocoreta, 
which disembogues in the Uruguay. 

Its first inhabitants were the Minuan, Chand, and Charrua 
Indians. The earliest Spanish settlers crossed over from Santa 
Fe in 1728, being descendants of those adventurers of Fort 
Sancti Spiritus who had intermarried with the natives; they 
routed the allied Indian forces at Matanza (now Victoria) and 
secured this fine country for farming purposes. The river 
Gualeguay, which falls into the Parana, divides Entre Eios 
into two' almost equal parts : the eastern was a dependency of 
Buenos Ayres, the western of Santa Fd, until 1814, when the 
province of Entre Eios was created. The Director Posadas 
made Concepcion the capital, but in 1821 General Mansilla 
succeeded Eamirez in power and removed the seat of Govern- 
ment to Parana, formerly called La Bajada, which was moreover 
capital of the Argentine Confederation under General Urquiza, 
until the battle of Pavon, in 1861, removed the metropolis to 
Buenos Ayres, and left Concepcion again capital of Entre Eios. 

The growth of this province of late years has been amazing. 
At the close of the last century Azara estimated the population 
at 11,600, and m 1825 Nunez put it down at 30,000. The first 
census was taken by General Urquiza, Governor of the province, 



294 



HANDBOOK OF THB EIVEE PLATE. 



in 1849, ani showed 47,631 inhabitants. In a term of twenty 
years the population trebled, the national census of 1869 giving 
134,271 souls, of 'which number 18,304 were foreigners. The 
number of those who could read or write, or were attending 
school, comprised 62,327, almost half the population. There are 
104 schools, attended by 5077 children. Among natives there 
are 1515 more men than women, and among foreigners 7276, 
showing a total of 8791" males over females. Entre Eios con- 
tracted a London loan for 200,000Z. in 1871. 

Entre Eios is divided into twelve departments, which, with 
the date of their foundation and number of inhabitants are as 
follow : 

Department. a.d. 

Parana 1730 

Conoepcion de Uruguay . . . . 1778 

Gualeguay .. .. 1783 

Gualeguayohii .. .. .. .. 1783 

Nogoy^ 1793 

Victoria 1810 

Concordia 1831 

Diamante 1836 

La Paz .. .. 1836 

Tala or Eosario 1865 

Villaguay 1865 

Colon 1869 



Population, 

18,649 

11,307 

15,158 

18,397 

9,006 

10,515 

17,262 . 

3,875 

11,614 

5,568 

8,172 

4,748 



These departments may be classed in the following three 
groups: 

1st. Parana, La Paz, Diamante, Victoria, and Gualeguay; on the 

river Parana. 
2nd. Concepciot,' Gualeguaycliii, Colon, and Concordia; on the 

Uruguay. 
3rd. Nogoyd, Tala, and Villaguay ; in the centre of the province. 

Parana. 
This department has an area of 4000 square miles, between 
the Arroyos Hemandarias and Paracao, and extending inland 
from the banks of the Parand to the hills of Nogoyd and 
Villaguay. The river-bank is famous for its lime, which is 
exported to Buenos Ayres, and higher up is also found an 
excellent kind of chalk. The clay of the " barancas " or blu& 



ENTKB BIOS. 295 

is often of a peculiar consistency, and answers admirably for 
soap. Marine shells and fossils have been discovered in many 
of the lime-beds; some ten years ago the editors of the 
'Standard,' with permission of Government, sent two vertebral 
fossil remains of a whale (which when alive must have measured 
close on 100 feet) as a present to the Irish Academy of Science : 
they were discovered many feet below the surface, 600 miles 
from the sea. 

The department comprises nine districts: Paracao, Manga, 
Espinillo, Quebracho, Conchas, Tala, Maria Grande, Antonio 
Tomas, and Teso, in all of which the chief occupation is cattle- 
farming, except in the agricultural colony of Villa Urquiza, 
founded in 1853, on the banks of the Arroyo Conchas. 
i- The woods abound in valuable timber, such as nandubay, 
tala, espinillo, willow, laurel, guayabo, mistol, and ceibo, the 
bark of the last-named being useful for tanning purposes, 
lildigo and cochineal are indigenous, and cotton was found to 
thrive so well that small quantities were raised and exported in 
1S64-5, but the industry died out from the deamess or scarcity 
of hands. Tobacco also does well ; but the chief articles of 
agriculture are wheat and maize. Good land varies in price 
from 4000 to 10,000 Bolivian dollars per square league, say 
2s. to 5«. per acre. 

Paran4 has still some traces of her former grandeur, when 
capital of the Argentine Confederation, and the Plaza is very 
elegant. The old Government House, Legislative Chambers, 
and President's Palace still remain. There are two good 
churches and some schools. The population is 10,098, this 
being the largest town in the province : it is 315 miles from 
Buenos Ayres by the line of Government telegraph, which has 
a cable across the river from Santa Fe. 

Goneeipcion, 
Sometimes called Uruguay, and in former times Arroyo de la 
China, has an area of 2000 square miles, watered by eight 
streams, which give name to as many districts, viz. — Molino, 



296 HANDBOOK OF THE BITEB PLATE. 

Tala, Potrero, Sauce, Genaoito, Geni, CaM, and MoBcas. This 
, department is bounded on the north by Colon, on the south by 
Gualeguaychu, on the east by the river Uruguay, and on the 
west by Yillaguay. One-fifth of the population is composed 
of foreigners, iaoluding 78 English. In the time of- the late 
General TJrquiza most travellers visited this department, for 
the purpose of seeing the palace of San Jose, and eiperienemg 
the hospitality of its princely owner, or taJdng part in some of 
those periodical fetes which attracted hundreds of guests. 
Here General TJrquiza was murdered in March, 1870, since 
which time the palace has been deserted. He used to say that 
he had expended 400,000Z. on the place ; he imported fruit 
trees from France at considerable cost, and used to send 
10,000 plants yearly to his friends out of his extensive gardens. 
More than 200 men were engaged for some years in making the 
artificial lake hard by, and he had a number of servants engaged 
in oaring for the aviaries, fish-ponds, wild beasts, steam machinery, 
farmhouse, bee-house, &c. Madame TJrquiza used to send wax 
candles, 40 lbs. weight, made by herself and daughters, to the 
principal churches as presents. The court-yards have frescoes 
of TJrquiza's battles, and at the grand entrance was the family 
chapel, with cupola painted in oil, marble floor, and finely 
carved wood-work : the altar and vestments cost 3000Z. : the 
vestry contained a christening font of Carrara marble, elegantly 
designed. The General's estates were said to be about the area 
of the kingdom of Belgium, the stock much exceeding 1,000,000 
head, between cows and sheep ; and ostriches were very abun- 
dant, as the General preserved the breed. ' 

Ooncepcion is the capital of the province, and has 6513 
inhabitants. Steamers up and down the Uruguay ply almost 
daily. The saladero of Santa Candida is one of the finest in 
the country, and was built by Urquiza. There are several 
schools and a National College, but the most remarkable build- 
ing is the Matriz church. It is 514 miles from Buenos Ayres 
by the telegraph line. 



BNTEE HIOS. 



297 



Giialeguay. 

Area, 1200 square 'miles ; between Nogoya and Tala on the 
north, Gualeguaychii on the east, Victoria on the west, and the 
river Paranacito on the south. The camps are admirably suited 
for sheep and cattle ; the department comprises eight districts : 
Capilla Vieja, Punta del Monte, Eincon Nogoya, Costa Nogoyd,, 
Viseachas, Cuchillas, Medanos, and Albardon. In population 
this is one of the most important departments; the foreign 
residents number 1807, or nearly one -eighth, being chiefly 
Italians and Spaniards, with a sprinkling of French and 
English. 

The town of Gualeguay is the third in the province, coming^ 
even before the capital, and having 7235 inhabitants ; it is built 
on the Gualeguay river, 7 miles from Port Euiz, with which it 
is connected by railway. The saladeros kill over 100,000 head 
of cattle yearly, and a considerable commerce is kept up by 
steamers and sea-going ships. Besides the churches, schools, 
and Government offices, the town possesses a club, a theatre, three 
Boap factories, a tannery, two banks, several hotels and coffee- 
houses, a steam flour and cloth mill, two cemeteries (one being 
for Protestants), a free library, and sundry billiard-rooms. 
Westward is the river Cle, famous for the splendid estancias in 
the vicinity, especially Las Cabezas, of Mr. James Black ; La 
Llave, of Messrs. OgUvy ; Isabel, formerly belonging to Baron 
Maua, San Guillermo, the property of an English joint-stock 
company; San Henrique, of Haymes and Thompson; James 
McDougall, and Hugh McDougall, on the banks of the Cle ; 
Calderon Brothers, at Santa Eosa; Leonardo Millan, at Las 
Flores ; Duportal, Benites, Crespo, &e. Mr. Duportal's father 
took a silver medal for wool at the Paris Exhibition. Most 
of these estancias have " graserias '' for boiling down surplus 
sheep. Land varies from 1200Z. to 3000Z. sterling per square 
league. 



298 HANDBOOK OF THE ftlYBE PLATE. 

GualeguaycM. 

Area, 6000 sejuare miles, of,wliicli more than half is swamp, 
including the low grounds bordering on Paranacito, Tinta, 
Palmas, Ibicuy, and other streams which make up the delta of 
the Parang, where woodcutters and charcoal-burners are the 
pole occupants, and at intervals gather the bitter orange and wild 
peach, which are so abundant. There is also a tract of about 
1000 square miles of profitable swamp between the rivers 
Nancay, Paranacito, Gualeguay, and Ibicuy, where the^ rank 
pasture is, good for fattening horses or homed cattle, hut not for 
sheep ; here the farmers often put stock in the winter months, 
but as heavy floods occur some years they are then obliged to 
drive the Cattle to the nearest high grounds, and in this manner 
much loss occurs. The high grounds are well suited for either 
pasture or agriculture, the valleys being watered by arroyos, 
fringed with tala, espinUlo, algarrobo, Sandubay, and other woods. 
This department is famous for its bees, and exports large quan- 
tities of honey and wax to Buenos Ayres and Montevideo. 
Among natural products may be mentioned limestone, which is 
found in many places ; chalk, on the banks of the Gualeyancito; 
and argillaceous loam, on the Paranacito and Ibicuy. There 
are eleven districts: Sarandi, Costa Uruguay, Dos Hermanas, 
Alarcon, Cuchilla Eedonda, Talitas, San Antonio, Pegnajo, 
Perdices, Ceibas, and Ibicuy. The population exceeds that of 
any other department except La Paz, and more than one-fourth 
are foreigners, including a number of English estanoieros. 

The town of Gualeguaychii is the second in the province, and 
counts 9776 inhabitants ; it dates from the last century, being 
built on a tributary of the Uruguay, and distant 150 nules from 
Buenos Ayres, with which there is communication three times 
a week by means of first-class steamers. It is a very thriving 
place, with a large provincial and foreign trade, the principal 
importers being Galbino, Piaggio, Manasco, Pratt, and Tirade.' 
There is a bar at the mouth of the Arroyo, which obliges sea- 



BNTKB BIOS. 299 

going vessels to load or diseliarge 20 miles lielow, abreast of 
Fray Bentos, by means of baifges. Mr. Benites has a large 
saladero and Extractum-carnis factory; the paper-money of his 
bank circulates freely through the province. The late Mr. 
Timothy O'Brien, in 1863, was the first of a number of English 
settlers in this department, whose number in a couple of years 
rose to fifty, including Messrs. Arbuthnot, Burr, Barker, Golding, 
Bookey, Clode, Dalglish; Edminston, McDougaU, MaoNamara, 
Shand, Forrest, Browning, O'Dwyer, Taylor, Beckwith, Belles, 
Bowring, Chapman, Byrne, Campbell, Engltod, Elliott, Ferguson, 
Gow, Grierson, Gilchrist, Gregory, Halliburton, Hughes, Haywood, 
King, Lindsay, Lacome, Moon, Massey, O'Shaughnessy, Peart, 
iReid, Eeeves, Eisdon, Stevenson, Wesley, White, &c., who main- 
tained [for some years a first-rate racing-club, under the patron- 
.age of the late General Urquiza. There are hardly a dozen of 
the above gentlemen now remaining. One of the oldest English 
■estancias hereabout was that of the late Mr. Appleyard. The 
English Vice-Consul at Gualeguaychii is Dr. Wells. Before the 
recent Entre Eios war the price of land in this department 
averaged 1500Z. to 2000Z. per square league. 

Nogoyd. 

Area, 2000 square miles. This department is in the centre 
of the province, and derives its name from the Arroyo Nogoya, 
which rises in the forest of Montiel, and after a course of 90 
miles falls into the Paranacito. There are numerous valuable 
farms, stocked with cattle and sheep, spread over the six districts 
of Algarrobitas, Don Cristobal, Crucesitas, Chiqueros, Sauce, 
and Montoya, there being everywhere abundance of excellent 
water. Besides the Nogoya river there are smaller streams : the 
Arroyo Medio, or Durazno, for 20 miles marks the boundary 
with Villaguay on the north, and has two tributaries, called 
Piedras and Tunas ; the Don Cristobal rises in the Cuchilla 
Grande and falls into the Nogoyd ; the Obispo marks the 



300 HANDBOOK OT THE EIYBE PLATE. 

limit with Tala, and falls iato Arroyo Chiqueros. The census 
gives 314 foreigners in this department. 

The town of Nogoyl, dates from the last century, and counts 
2118 inhabitants, the proportion being almost 4 women to 3 men ; 
in the whole department there are 300 more females than inales, 
which disproportion is not found in any other part of Entre 
Eios, although often met with in Cordoba and other provinces 
that have suffered from civil wars. 

Victoria. 
Area, 1300 square mUes ; between Diamante, Nogoyd, Guale- 
guay, and the swamps bordering the Parand. This department 
was the first occupied by the Spaniards, who defeated the Indians 
with great slaughter (1728), and hence the place obtained the 
name of Matanza (until a few years ago it was changed to 
Victoria) : the Charrua tribe was driven across the Uruguay 
into the Banda Oriental, and the less warlike Minuanes con- 
formed to the rule of the conquerors and intermarried with them. 
The town of Victoria, built in 1810 on the Paranacito, a northern 
branch of the delta of Parana, is chiefly remarkable for the 
■exportation of lime, the river being navigable for steamers and 
sailing vessels : it has a population of 4650, including the usual 
local authorities. The department comprises seven districts: 
Eincon Nogoya, LagunaTescado, Oorrales, Quebrachitos, Pajonal, 
Eincon Doll, Montoya. The soil, like the rest of the province, 
is rich and fertile, but agriculture is very limited, the chief 
occupation being pastoral. Of the entire population one-tenth 
are foreigners (1124), and one-half of these are Italians. 

Concordia, 
Area, 6000 square miles ; bounded on the north by the Mocoreta 
Arroyo, which is the frontier with Corrientes ; on the south by 
the Arroyo Grande ; on the east by the river Uruguay ; and on 
the west by the stream Feliciano, which separates this department 
from La Paz. There are thirteen districts: Ayuy, Yuquery, 



ENTEE RIOS. , ' 301 

Yerna, Compas, Moreira, Federal, Diego Lopez, Alencio, 
Feliciano, Federacion, Tatuty, Mandigoby, and.Gualeguaycito. 

Concordia is a thriving town of 5498 inhabitants, the men 
being 15 per cent, more numerous than the women. It is a port 
of the Uruguay nearly opposite Salto, and has much trade, 
notwithstanding a dangerous reef of rooks called Oorralitos. / 
The old port of Concordia was a league lower down. The local 
trafic of Concordia is represented by 6 steamboats and 13 sailing 
vessels, in the aggregate 1774 tons, being greater than any other 
port in the province except La Paz. The general traffic is so 
great that a railway, called the East Argentine, is now in con- 
' Btruction to facilitate the commerce of the Upper Uruguay and 
interior of Corrientes, which seeks outlet at Concordia for the 
produce of about 120,000 inhabitants. The first section to, 
Federacion was opened to traffic (34 miles) in March, 1874. It 
■is hoped this line will be the means of bringing immigration 
iato the fine territories bordering on the Uruguay. The second 
section, to Caseros, will be 63 miles long. 

Federacion is a village of 1656 inhabitants, males 20 per 
cent, over females ; it is on the Upper Uruguay, near the Man- 
disoby lulls and almost in front of the village of Constitucion 
ia the Oriental Eepublic. 

The department is thinly populated (17,262), and shows 
3037 foreigners, including some English estancieros, especially 
Messrs. Philips, of Estancia Philippi. 

Diamante. 
Area, 1500 square miles ; situate on the Paran4 bank between 
Arroyo Paracao on the north and the embouchure of the Doll 
on the south, and extending inland till the CuchUla Grande 
marks the limit with Nogoyd. The village of Diamante stands 
on Punta Gorda, a bluff 250 feet over the Parand ; it is the resi- 
dence of a Gefe Politico, Justice of Peace, Eeceiver of Customs, 
Commander of National Guard, and 882 other inhabitants. The 
department comprises four districts: Salto, Palmar, Costa 



302 . HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE. 

Grande, and Isletas. In population (3875) this department is 
th^ lowest of the twelve composing the province, and counts only 
75 Europeans. s 

La Paz. 

This frontier department is separated from Corrientes by the 
Guayquiraro ; its area is 5000 square miles, including a large 
portion of the forest of Montiel, and it is watered by the 
Feliciano, Giiayquirard, Hernandarias, and Alcaraz, all tribu- 
taries of the Parana. Cattle-farming is the sole occupation, and 
the country is sparsely settled, the districts bordering on the 
frontier being at times infested by matreros, or vagabonds who 
hide in the woods. 

There are eleven police districts, viz. Tacuaxas, Feliciano, 
Alcaraz, Yeso, Hernandarias, Estacas, Banderas, Basualdo, Mar 
nantiales, ChaSar, and Mulas ; the first seven depending from 
the Gefatura of La Paz, the others from' San Eeliciano. 

In 1836 the village of Caballu-Cuatia was founded about a 
quarter of a mile from where the town of La Paz, begun ten 
years later, now stands on the bank of the Parand. This is a 
river port of some importance, where the steamers call ahnost 
daily, going up or down, and for its own immediate trafSo it 
maintains 3 steamboats and 15 sailing vessels, in the aggregate 
3219 tons. 

; The population counts 3438, or one-third of the whole depart- 
ment, which latter includes 696 adult foreigners. The large ' 
cattle-farm of Mr. Haycroft, called Esperanza, with an area of 
22 square leagues, is in this department. Agriculture is almost 
unknown. Cochineal, indigo, and quinine are spontaneous, as 
also " granadUlo," from the leaves of which the poorer people 
obtain a kind of tea. 

The village of San Jose de Feliciano has 552 inhabitants. 
Limestone and chalk are abundant, as well as varieties of 
excellent timber. 



EKTKB BIOS. 803 

Tala, 
' Otherwise called Eosario, has an area of 1600 square miles, 
,in the heart of the province, comprising four districts, viz. 
Tala, Cley Eajces, and Sauce, which take their names from 
arroyos flowing through them. The river Gualegnay,' which 
forins the eastern boimdary, is fringed with nandubay, algar- 
roho, red willow, &c. This department and the adjacent one of 
ViUaguay are of recent formation. The camps are in much 
request for grazing-farms. The village of Tala has 1197 
intabitants. The department is one of the smallest in popula- 
tion, and counts only 288 foreigners. 

Villaguay. 
Area, 5000 square miles, between La Paz on the north, 
Concepoion on the south, Concordia on the east, and Tala on 
the west. This is the thinnest populated part of the province, 
less than 2 inhabitants per square mile; it includes a great 
portion of the Forest of Montiel, which covers 7000 square 
miles, or nearly one-fifth of the entire province. The houses 
are nearly all ranches with thatched roof. There are only 184 
foreigners, chiefly Italians and French, in the department, 
which comprises six districts, viz. Bergara, Lucas, Sauce, Luna, 
Mojones, and Eaices ; . these are watered by numerous streams, 
such as San Gregorio, Curupy, Eaices, Ortiz, and Adivinos. 
The village of Santa Eosa de Villaguay contains 1061 inha- 
bitants, and is the residence of the departmental authorities : it 
stands on the left bank of the Arroyo Villaguay. 

Colon, 

Area, 1100 square miles, lies north of Concepcion and south 
of Concordia, and comprises five districts, viz. San Jose, Arroyo 
Grande, Pospos, Puntas Gualeguaychii, and Arroyo Urquiza. 
This department was formed so late as 1869, on account of the 
growing importance of the San Jose colony, founded by General 



304 HANDBOOK pP THE EIVBE PLATE. 

yrquiza in 1856, on the bank of the Uruguay opposite Pay- 
' sandu, in a picturesque locality, embraciag 30 square miles of 
a settlement, where the village of Port Colon now stands, with 
702 inhabitants. 

The population of the department is 4748, of which nearly 
one-half is made up of Swiss, French, and Italian colonists. 

Entre Eios took the following prizes at the Cordoba 
Exhibition : — 

M. Duportal, ■wool : gold medal. 
Benites and Co., meat extract : gold medal. 
A. Biraben, meat extract : gold medal. 
M. Tahier, tanned hides : silver medal. 
A. Peyret, potatoes : bronze medal. 

M. Duportal obtained a medal at the Paris Exhibition, 1867, 
for wool. 



( 305 ) 



CHAPTEE XXI. 

TEKBITOBIBS OF CHACO, MIBIONES, PAMPAS, AND PATAGONIA. 

Gran Chaco covers an area of 150,000 sciuare miles, and the 
scattered Indian tribes are put down for a population of 50,000 
souls, whicL. is probably above tbe reality. It extends from tbe 
confines of Bolivia to the province of Santa Fe, along the 
western bank of the Parand and Paraguay rivers, and is watered 
by the PUcomayo, Bermejo, Salado, and minor streams. It is a 
diversified country of forests and prairies, mostly fine land 
except in the swamps along the Parand, and has been so little 
explored that much uncertainty prevails as to its natural features 
and inhabitants. In 1863 the Argentine Government commis- 
sioned Mr. P. C. Bliss to make a journey through the Chaco, and 
this gentleman reported five Indian nations, distinct in language, 
but alike in habits and physical appearance : the Mocovis and 
Abipones frequent the frontiers of Santiago del Estero and 
Santa Fe, while the Tobas, Ocoles, and Mataqos inhabit the 
■ valleys of the Bermejo and Piloomayo. , The three last tribes 
are said to number 20,000 souls. The Matacos are very in- 
dustrious, being the best peons on the frontier estancias of 
Salta, and in the sugar-fields of Salta and Jujuy. During much 
of the year the Indians live on the fruit of the algarroba and 
the "yuchan," or palo-boracho ; fish also supplies them with 
food. They have no agricultural or farming implements. 
Formerly most of the tribes had cattle and "sheep, but the 
animals seem to have been carried off by a pestilence. The 
Indians suffer great mortality from want of clothing and proper 
habitations : they are very superstitious, have a great fear 
of the Gualiche (or evil spirit), and some confused idea of a 
future life. Their barter trade is very limited : they sometimes 



30'6 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVER PLATE. 

bring to the frontier settlements a few skins of pumas, jaguars, 
foxes, otters, &c., but they collect wild honey in considerable 
quantities, as also ostrich feathers and the resin of "palo- 
santo." The Matacos and Ocoles could easily be domesticated, 
if they were furnished with farming implements, seeds, and a 
few head of cattle. 

Eemains of the Jesuit settlements are found at San Xavier 
in front of La Paz, San Geronimo in front of Goya, Concepcion 
on the Bermejo, and bther places, where ruined churches and 
cotton or sugar plantations attest the advancement of the Indians 
in the eighteenth century. There are still five small Missions 
under the charge of a vicar paid by Government, the inhabitants 
being " tame Indians," of whom Padre Eossi reports unfavour- 
ably: they are Santa Eosa, Cayata, San Javier, San Pedro, 
and San Geronimo, each having about 600 inhabitants. 

Villa Occidental, the residence of the Governor of the Chaco, 
is above the Pilcomayo mouth on the -Paraguay river, some 
6 miles higher than the Asuncion, and contains 500 inhabit- 
ants. It has been annexed by the Argentine Eepublic since 
the' late war, having been originally settled by Lopez as a 
French colony in 1853, under the name of New Bordeaux, when . 
many of the colonists died in the woods, attempting to escape. 
There are at present 12 tillage "chacras," belonging to 5 Italians, 
4 Spaniards, 1 Brazilian, 1 Argentine, and 1 Paraguayan, in the 
aggregate 1200 acres, under. oranges, mandioca, tobacco, sugar- 
cane, &c. Messrs. Guebeler have a large steam saw-mill. The 
garrison comprises 80 men. There are two good shops, but no 
church or school. 

Misiones is a small, fertile, and thinly-inhabited country of 
10,000 square mUes, between the Upper Parand and Upper 
Uruguay, and is usually included in the province of Oorrientes. 
It has been proposed to break it up into 100,000 &rm lots of 
60 acres each, to be given free to immigrants, as the soil, climate, 
and riverine facilities peculiarly fit it for settlers. The census 
shows 5278 inhabitants, including 1178 in the village of Santa 



TIEBITOKIES OB OHAOO, MISIONKS, PAMPAS,, ETC. -307 

Tome, the seat of Government. Only two-ttirds are natives, 
there being 1940 Brazilians and 112 Europeans. The soil 
abundantly produces cotton, tobacco, mandioca, potatoes, oranges, 
&c. The woods in places are so thick that it is necessary to 
burn them feeveral days when making a clearance. Terba-mate 
: :gi;ows wild. The only drawback is that parrots are so numerous 
they often eat up a whole plantation. The sportsman will find 
' plenty of carpinchos, wild boars, wood- turkeys, mulitas, tatus,,^ 
and sometimes a tiger. There is an unpleasant number of snakes 
and crocodiles, besides regiments of monkeys. The Jesuit 
copper mine of Candelaria is abandoned, as well as their quar- ' 
ries of tabatinga cement and ferruginous stone. Agate is plen- 
, tifnl. The Jesiiits used to raise excellent wine, and D. Juan 
Perego has an Italian model-farm where grapes are largely 
grown. Santo Tom6 is on the Upper Uruguay, 200 miles 
overland from Corrientes city. 

The Pampas form an unbroken plain in the centre of the 
I Eepublic, covering an area of 150,000 square miles, from Eio 
Quinto on the Cordobese frontier to Eio Negro in Patagonia, 
and from the western camps of Buenos Ayres to the limits of 
•llendoza. They are the undisputed hunting ground of numerous 
Indian tribes, which often devastate the frontier farms, these' 
tribes being supposed to number 30,000 souls^an exaggerated 
figure. Some of the tribes are employed as auxiliaries, and 
there are at present seventeen Caciques on the Pampa or 
Patagonian frontiers drawing subsidies from the Argentine 
Gkivemment. The Cacique usually ranks and dresses as a 
colonel, and the supplies quarterly for his tribe coinprise so 
many hundred live cattle or mares, so many quintals of sugar, 
?rioe, tobacco, &c. Coliqueo's tribe near Bragado have some 
agriculture, and the Government has a church and two schools 
for the Indians near Azul. As the tide of settlers and civilization 
proceeds westwards from Buenos Ayres towards Mendoza the 
Pampas will gradually be converted into cattle and sheep farms. 
The pasture is coarse and water is scarcej but wells are 

X 2 



308 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

easily made. In the last century the Pampas included all 
the western camps now so thickly settled with Irish sheep- 
farmers. 

Patagonia includes all the territory south of Eio Negro,. from 
the Atlantic to the Andes, as far as the Straits of Magellan. 
Its area is roughly estimated at 300,000 square miles, and the 
supposed population of 20,000 Indians is over the mark. The 
Chilians claim that part south of Santa Cruz river along the." 
Atlantic to the Straits of Magellan. 

The whole coast-line is a wilderness, swept by powerful winds 
in every moiith of the year. The farthermost settlement of 
Buenos Ayres is Carmen de Patagones, at the mouth of the Eio 
Negro, in 41° south latitude, 400 miles south of Buenos Ayres 
city, Going south 100 miles farther, we reach the site of the 
colony of La Piedra, founded by the Spaniards in 1779. 

The Welsh colony, founded in 1865 on the river Chubut, 
sometimes called Chupat, received lands from the National 
Government. This place is nearly 300 miles from Carmen. 

At 48° is Port Desire, visited by Viedma in 1780 ; this officer 
built a fort at San Julian, 70 miles farther south, and in the ' 
same year (1781) made an expedition inland to Lake Capar, 
now better known as Lake Yiedma, 300 miles from the seaboard. 
Old maps erroneously trace the river Gallegos as taking its 
source here, but the Santa Cruz certainly se'ems an outlet from 
this lake. 

' The Santa Cruz river was ascended by the officers of H.M.S. 
' Beagle ' for 245 miles in 1834, but they do not seem to have 
reached the lake discovered last Christmas by Lieutenant 
Feilberg, 300 miles above Eouqueaud's fish-oil factory. This is 
apparently the same we have already alluded to as Lake Capar- or 
Viedma, and the river which Viedma took to be the Gallegos was, 
doubtless, the Santa Cruz. Lieutenant Pielberg tells us a steam- 
boat can ascend at all seasons to this lake. This territory would 
prove of great importance, if the rumoured coal-beds and gold- , 
dust be realities. 



TBEBITOEIBS OF OHACO, MISIONBS, PAMPAS, BTO. 309 

. Captain Piedra Buena had for some years a fort on an island 
in Santa Cruz river, where he traded with Indians for skins. 

The mouth of the Santa Cruz is in 50° south latitude, and so 
far back as 1864 the Chilians laid claim to all parts of Pata- 
gonia between this river and the Straits of Magellan. The 
late Captain Smyly, of the Falkland Islands, knew the country 
well, and considered it rich in minerals, with easy approaches 
by the Andes to the Pacific. 

Cfallegos debouches near Cape Fairweather, in 51 J° south 
Platitude, or 70 miles N. of Cape Virgin, which, is the Atlantic 
entrance to the Magellan Straits. 

Serious efforts at colonization must always fail in these 
regions. 

Patagonia will probably be unpopulated for centuries. 



310 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEK PLATE. 



CHAPTEE XXII. 



THE EBPUBLIO OF UEUGUAY. 



The Eepublic o£ Uruguay, more generally known as tte Banda 
Oriental, is the smallest independent State in South America, 
and at the same time one of the most favoured in point of 
climate, soil, and geographical position. It is situated between 
the 30th and 35th degrees of S. lat., and 52nd and 58th 
degrees of W. long. ; its boundaries are as follows : B., the 
Atlantic Ocean ; S., the Eiver Plate ; W., the Eiver Uruguay ; 
N., the Eiver Ouareim, the Cuchilla de Santa Ana, the Ya- 
guaron. Lake Merim, and the Eiver Chuy, which falls into the 
Atlantic. 

The population has undergone a steady and rapid increase 
since the period of Independence; in 1826 it was estimated at 
60,000 ; in 1852 the census gave 131,969 ; in 1860, 221,248 ; 
and at present it is generally supposed to exceed the returns 
given below. These last show an average of 60 inhabitants 
to the square league, a proportion surpassed by no other country 
but Chile on this continent. 

The Banda Oriental comprises an area of 7036 square leagues, 
or more than double the extent of Ireland, and is divided into 
thirteen departments, viz. : 

. Departments. Sq. Leagues. Population. 

Montevideo 25 .. .. 127,704 

Canelones 178 .. .. 48,000 

Florida 4.')8 .. .. 19,900. 

San Jose 432 .. .. 20,115 

Colonia 211, .. .. 22,508 

Soriano 347 .. .. 21,403 

Carried forward .. 1651 .. .. 259,630 



THE KBPUBLIO OF UBUGTJAY. 



311 



Departments. Sq. Leagnes. 

Brought forward . . 1651 

Dvirazno 539 

Minas 554 

Maldonado 572 

Salto 903 

Paysandu 818 

Cerro Lai-go 837 

Tacuarembd 1162 

7036 



Fopnlation. 

259,630 
16,281 
27,163 
18,750 
32,602 
33,052 
33,000 
34,000 

454,478 



The physical outlines of the country present a varied and 
agreeable aspect, in contrast with the flat uninteresting pampas 
of the Argentine Eepublic. Mountains, forests, and rivers 
abound, and the unfailing supply of wood and water is a great 
advantage to settlers, both for sheep-farming and agricultural 
purposes. The principal mountain chain is the Cuchilla 
Grande, which comes from the interior of Brazil and runs 
almost due south ; the ranges of Carapey and Castillos traverse 
the departments of Maldonado and Minas ; those of Terbal, 
Guazunambi, and Palmas are close to the Cerro Largo; and 
between this last and the great Santa Ana chain there are 
several smaller ranges in the vicinity of Tacuarembd. These 
mountains temper the force of winds and contribute to the 
mildness of the climate. The fact also that the country is 
hounded on three sides by the ocean, the Eiver Plate, and the 
Uruguay, accounts for the prevalence of sea-breezes which 
moderate the intense heat of summer. The Atlantic coast-line, 
fi:om mouth of the Chuy to Montevideo, is exactly 200 miles ; 
the seaboard on the Eiver Plate up to ' Point Gorda is 155 
miles; and that of the river Uruguay up to Santa Eosa is 
270 miles ; making in all a coast-line of 625 miles ; while the . 
land frontier, from Santa Eosa to Santa Ana, Lake Merim, and 
the Atlantic, has a length of 450 miles. The land frontier is 
the border line between the Banda Oriental and the Brazilian 
province of Eio Grande do Sul. 



312 HANDBOOK OF tHE EIVEK PLATE. 

The river Uruguay, which gives its name to the Eepublic, is 
1020 miles long, and has its origin in the Sierra do Mar,, a 
range of mountains in Brazil to the west of the province of 
Santa Catalina. 

Its course is at first from east to west through the territory 
of Eio Grande, passing the towns of Santo Tome, TJruguayana, 
Itaqui, and Yapayu, and it receives numerous large tributaries 
till reaching the Cordillera de Misiones ; here it is only 50 
miles apart from the Upper Parana, opposite the Paraguayan 
village of Itapua. The Misiones mountain range of Saata 
Maria diverts the course of the river, which now takes a south- 
erly direction, and emancipating itself from a series of hill- 
ranges and forests, pours forth its stream in a broad bosom of 
GOO yards from side to side, just before receiving the waters of 
the Ibicuy. The confluence of &e Cuareim marks the limit 
between Brazil and Banda Oriental; it is in 30° 4' 15" south 
lat. The Uruguay has here a width of half a mile, broken by 
some woody islands which divide the river into two channels, 
the eastern having 15 feet, the western only 6 feet of water. 

The Cuareim is 160 miles long; it is navigable for about 
80 miles from its mouth, and celebrated for rich strata of por- 
phyry and copper deposits. 

After the confluence of the Cuareim, the Uruguay stretches 
out 1500 yards wide ; the Corrientes shore is high, bold, and 
thickly wooded; that of Banda Oriental is varied and pic- 
turesque in the extreme. At the mouth of the Arroyo Tigre 
there is a reef of rocks, called Eestinga de San Gregorio, where 
troops of cattle are often driven across the river. 

The island of San Gregorio, a little lower down, is never 
inundated. 

The islands of Ceibal and Vacas are not far from the ruined 
town of Belen. Another great tributary is the Arapey ; it has 
a winding course of 140 miles, and empties its waters in front 
of the mouth of the Moooret^, which is the boundary between 
Corrientes and Entre Eios ; the Uruguay is there a mile wide. 



THE BBPUBLIC OF URUGUAY. 313 

The confluence of the Arapey gives rise to numerous chaxm- 
ing islands ; this river is navigable for 20 miles. 

A few miles lower down are the high and wooded islands of 
Herreros, where we already get some indication of the approach 
to the great cataract, by the impetuous currents and distant 
roar of waters. The Salto Grande, while presenting a fine 
picture for the artist, offers an insuperable obstacle to the navi- 
' gation of the Upper Uruguay. The noise of the fall can be heard 
at a distance of 10 miles, and the effect of the sun's rays on the 
cataract is very picturesque ; when the spray clears off there is 
a charming vista of woods and islands of surpassing verdure and 
beauty. In the time of the Spaniards, it was projected either 
to cut a channel through the porphyrite ledge of roots that 
forms the cascade, or else to make a canal inland (on the eastern 
bank) which would communicate with the Arroyo San Antonio 
below the falls. This would throw open 300 miles of the Upper 
Uruguay to vessels drawing 8 or 10 feet of "water. Near the 
confluence of the San Antonio there is a smaller fall, called 
Salto 'Chico, and below this is the flourishing town of Salto. 

The Dayman has a course of about 100 miles, being navigable 
18 miles from its mouth, and falls into the Uruguay near the 
Herridero reef and the remarkable table-land of Mesa de 
Aitigas. 

Two banks are formed at the confluence, but the channels 
give a depth of 25 and 30 feet for vessels. 

As we pass the Arroyos Chapicuy, Capibary, and Guabiyii, we 
find numerous wooded islands. Before reaching Paysandii is 
the jonfluence of the Queguay, a river 150 miles in length, and 
navigable for 30 miles from its mouth. Here there are islands 
•of some extent, but mostly under high-water level. Below Pay- 
sandii is the important Arroyo Negro, which discharges itself 
nearly opposite the town of Concepoion. The Uruguay offers a 
beautiful perspective, its broad breast of waters extending like 
an inland sea ; soundings, 20 to 30 feet. Following the shore of 
Entre Eios, we meet more islands, and pass the Arroyos Isletas 



314 HANDBOOK QF THE KIVEB PLATE. 

and Eoman, where there are numerous islands. Gualeguaychu 
• river gives a large contingent of waters, and next comes the 
port of Fray Bentos on the Oriental coast. 

A little lower down is the mouth of the Eio Negro, the last 
and one of the largest tributaries of the Uruguay. 

Passing the villages of Soriano and San Salvador, the Punta 
de Chaparro, and mouths of the Guazu, the waters of the 
Uruguay unfold themselves majestically to the gaze of the 
traveller, and unite themselves with those of the Parana to 
form the magnificent estuary of the Eio de la Plata. The ordi- 
nary currents of the Uruguay run 1 J mile per hour ; but when 
the south wind has blown for some time, driving the waters 
back, the reactionary current is often 4 and even 6 miles an 
hour. The season of floods is irregular, but usually follows the 
rainy season in the tropics, that is between July and November, 
the water then rises 15 or 20 feet, and steamboats can even pass 
over the Salto Grande. 

The Eepublic is divided into two unequal portions by the 
Eio Negro, which runs from east to west a course of 270 miles. 
The departments north of the Eio Negro are Paysandii, Salto, 
and Tacuarembd. The important river Yi forms a confluence 
with the Eio Negro about 20 leagues above Mercedes; the 
department of Durazno occupies all the intermediate territory 
between the Ti and Negro. 

Between- Eio] Negro and the Eiver Plate we find the depart- 
ments of Soriano, Colonia, and San Jose, watered by numerous 
streams, such as the San Salvador, San Jose, &c. The department 
of Florida lies between the Yi and the Santa Lucia, and south of 
latter river are Canelones and Montevideo. Eastward of the 
head waters of Eio Negro, and following the Brazilian frontier 
and the river Yaguaron as far east as Lake Merim, is the large 
department of Cerro Largo. 

- Coming south we meet Minas, watered by the CeboUati and 
its affluents. Finally, Maldonado lies along the Atlantic coast, 
taking in the (banados) or swamps of India Muerta. The only 



THE REPUBLIC OF UKTJGUAY. 315, 

lake of ariy extent in thexountry is Lake Merim, which is about 
30 leagues long by 2 to, 5 in width ; it is neutral territory 
between Banda Oriental and Brazil. The width of the River 
Plate from Montevideo to Point Las Piedras, on the Argentine 
shore, is 53 miles. 

The soil is invariably rich and fertile, yielding with little 
labour abundant crops of grain, fruits, vegetables, &o. Being 
irrigated by a thousand streams of permanent water, and mostly- 
unencumbered with timber or brushwood, the husbandman has 
only to till the virgin soil and await the harvest-time, without 
fear of drought, locusts, dust storms, or the like ; the depatt- 
ments chiefly devoted to agriculture are Montevideo, Canelpnee, 
San Jos^, and Maldonado. In the time of the Spaniards the 
country produced neither wheat, rye, nor barley, • At present 
corn is raised in such quantities as to keep- 100 steam, wind, 
and water mills in constant work, besides a large exportation of 
' gr^ to Buenos Ayres. In the deipartments of Oanelones and 
San Jose we meet sundry colonies of natives of the Canary 
Islands, all occupied in raising wheat and other cereals; On the 
banks of the Uruguay, above the Eio Negro, experiments have 
been successfully made for the growth of yerba-mdte and 
tobacco, and it is even thought that the climate and soil are 
suitable for the production of tea and indigo. Cotton has been 
growp in Salto and elsewhere, while the plantain and sugar- 
cane may be cultivated in many parts, and the Eucalyptus 
Globulus, or Australian gum-tree, thrives in a wonderful 
manner. 

Priiits of all kinds proper to the temperate zone grow in rich 
and varied profusion ; medicinal herbs are also found near the 
banks of the rivers and in the islands of the Uruguay. The Eio 
Negro, especially, is famed for its medicinal qualities, owing 
to the quantity of sarsaparilla growing along its banks. 

The departments most thickly wooded are Salto, Paysandii, 
Cerro Largo, Soriano, Minas, and Maldonado. Of the trees 
generally known in Europe there are in this country the follow- 



316 

ing: — walnut, wiUow, white cedar, myrtle, mulberry, black 
laurel, orange, lemon, olive, fig, pomegranate, apple, pear, almond, 
peach, plum, cherry, and many others. The wood proper to 
the country are the guava and lapacho, suitable for carpenter's 
work and general uses ; the Sandubay, invaluable for corrals and 
fences ; the ombii, of which the ashes are turned to account ; 
the quebracho, an exceedingly useful tree, both for its timber and 
its bark ; the lignum vitas and taruman, for rafters and coarse 
work ; and the urunday, zocard, juga, and virar6, all very hard 
and durable woods. The quebracho and scarlet willow furnish 
excellent dyes; and nearly all the kinds of timber above 
mentioned are suitable for building vessels. 

Among the medicinal plants we may enumerate the poppy, 
wormwood, . gentian, balsam, coriander, camomile, liquorice, 
marsh-mallow, rosemary, elder, and sarsaparilla. The mineral 
resources of the country are not yet developed ; but it is clear 
that at no distant date this branch of national wealth will cause 
general attention. The supply, of stone for building and paving 
purposes is unlimited, and the marble quarries are numerous, 
varied, and abundant ; the pillars of the new English bank at 
Montevideo are of native "marble, from the departments of 
Canelones and Maldonado. No less remarkable are the large 
and beautiful agate stones found in such profusion, especially 
in the departments of Salto and Tacuaremb6, at Cerro Catalanes, 
and other places. These agates have found their way to 
Europe, and a couple of years ago a German lapidary came 
hither, made a large collection in the interior, and unfortunately 
died of fever on his way down to Salto. At times, however, we 
still find agate figuring in the list of exports. The crystalliza- 
tions and petrifactions are also exceedingly beautiful. 

Alabaster is met with in the western districts, and limestone 
in many places : the latter is, moreover, largely exported to 
Buenos Ayres. 

Although, as a general rule, the discovery of precious metals 



THE EEPTJBLIO OF T7KTTGUAT. 317 

in South Ajnerica has tended little to the advancement or wealth 

of the nation, there is, nevertheless, reason to hope that the 

Banda Oriental will soon derive profit from the gold mines of 

Cunapiru, in the department of the Tacuar?mb6. About ten 

years ago there was some talk of gold washings in the Eio San 

Francisco, department of Minas. Samples were exhibited by 

Chacon and BoniUa, with an average of 22 carats, but they 

failed to enlist public notice. It is, however, quite certain that 

in the middle of the last century the Spaniards found grains of 

gold, and veias of iron, silver, and lead in the hill-ranges of 

Penitentes, Oampanero, Arquito, and Mamicho: the nuggets, 

on being assayed at Madrid, gave a result of 19 to 21 carats 

gold. The town of Minas takes its name from a mine of sul- 

phuret of lead, worked at that period by the Spaniards under 

the impression that it was silver ; on finding their mistake they 

ahandoned the works. 

;' , The gold-fields of Cunapiru and Arecua are situated in the 

department of Tacuarembd, between the 31st and 33rd parallels 

of southern latitude, and extend over the boundary line far into 

Brazil. 

For many years past the existence of the precious metal has 
been known to those residing in the neighbourhood, who have 
at various times devoted themselves to breaking up the lumps 
of quaitz that lie scattered upon the surface, and picking out 
those pieces in which the gold was visible to the naked eye, 
then burning the stone to reduce it more easily, and subse- 
quently washing the dust with quicksilver in a wooden bowl. 
In this rude way considerable quantities of gold have found 
their way into the Montevideo and Brazilian markets. Exceed- 
ingly rich alluvial washings have also been found, and some 
years ago a Brazilian, named Suarez, washed out in a very short 
time over 50 lbs. of gold. There is at all times abundance of 
water in the rivers, enabling the gold seeker to use either 
puddling machines or sluices ; but notwithstanding all this, no 



318 . 1 HANDBOOK OP TfiE KIVBB iPLATB. 

systematic working has ever been carried on, either by single 
individuals or companies, to ascertain the value of these miaes. 
In 1867 Mr. Hubert Bankart, who had spent mtoy years iit 
nearly all the gold regions of the world, came to examine 
personally the extent and value of these auriferous deposits, 
and to see what the probability was of obtaining good results. 
Next year he was sent to England for operatives and maohinery,- 
but after his return difficulties arose with the directors, and the 
machinery was not long since lying on the beach at Salto. 

Mr. Bankart announced that he also discovered large masses 
of magnetic iron in the same department, containing over 70 per 
, ■ cent, of pure iron. 

In the department of Salto, district of Catalanes, besides 
agates of a very beautiful order, there is an abundance of fine 
amethysts. Copper abounds in the vicinity of the Arapey 
river. In the departments of Minas and Maldonado are mines 
of copper and galena, worked imperfectly many years ago. The 
country around abounds in marbles of every colour, besides 
"flagstones superior to those from Hamburg, and within 40 
miles of the city. In this district there is an abundance of 
soapstone. 

Silver has been known since the time of the Jesuits to exist 
in many parts of the state, and Mr. Lettsom, the late British 
Charge d' Affaires, states that he has in his possession some ore 
obtained from a vein running more than a mile in length. Coal 
apparently exists both in Maldonado and Cerro Largo, joining 
the Cohdiota coal-fields in Brazil. The great wealth of the - 
country consists in its pastoral resources and countless herds of 
cattle. The absence of Indians favours this industry in a 
remarkable manner, and hence we find homed cattle compara- 
tively more numerous than in Buenos Ayres. Sheep-farming is 
in its infancy ; nor can there be much progress in this particular, 
until an increased tide of English and Irish settlers set in for , 
this side of the Eiver Plate. The cattle and horses, so numerous 



THE BBPUBLIO Or URUGUAY. . 319 

on the north side of the Bio Negro, are descended jErom those 
first introduced by the Spaniarfs into Paraguay, and from those 
which the Jesuits constantly reared in their Missions. In the 
time of the Charrua Indians there was a Eeduction called Santo 
Domingo, where the village of Soriano now stands ; this was 
plundered by the citizens of Buenos Ayres, who then established 
cattle-farms with the stock taken frdm the Indians, and thence 
the cows and horses descended which are found south of the Eio 
Negro. 

The first sheep introduced into the country were those distri- 
I buted by the Spanish authorities among the early inhabitants 
of Montevideo. In recent years the English estancieros have 
^ largely imiported sheep from Buenos Ayres. Asses, goats, and 
swine were introduced in like manner by the early settlers ; the 
present breed of mules is much valued, and numbers are ex- 
ported to Mauritius, Bourbon, and the Cape of Good Hope. The 
swine of the country are like those in Buenos Ayres, of little 
value, the meat being coarse and ill-flavoTired. 

Estancias o6mbmii(g both sheep and cattle are found mostly 
in the departments of Colonia, Soriano, Paysandu, Florida, and 
Durazno, where there are several first-class English and German 
establishments. The northern and eastern departments are 
almost exclusively devoted to horned cattle, and all along the 
Cuareim, Arapey, Taguaron, and Chuy, the leading estancieros 
are Brazilian settlers, who own over 2000 square leagues of 
land stocked with 2,000,000 cows and horses. Much attention 
has been paid by English and German farmers to the improve- 
ment of the breed of sheep, by importing Negretti, Eambouillet, 
Leicester, and Lincolnshire rams. 

Mr. Hughes and others have also introduced Durham cows 
and bulls with great success; and Baron Maua has essayed a 
similar improvement in the horses of the country, by bringing 
out some pure-blood Arabian sires. The Banda Oriental is the 
richest country of the world in farming stock, there being to 



320 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE. 



each inhabitant an average of 15 cows, 3 horses, and 40 sheep. 
The approximate numbers are : — 



DepaTtments. 


Cattle. 


HorBes. 


Sheep. 


Montevideo 

Canelonea 

Florida 

San Jose 

Colonia 

Soriano " 

Salto 

Paysandil 

, Minas 

Maldonado 

Taeuarembd 
' Cerro Largo 

Durazno 


4,000 

70,000 

800,000 

450,000 

370,000 

440,000. 

710,000 

500,000 

360,000 

450,000 

1,300,000 

1,280,000 

450,000 


3,000 

10,000 

130,000 

50,000 

130,000 

114,000 

330,000 

60,000 

90,000 

70,000 

125,000 

300,000 

45,000 


e,ooo 

340,000 

5,000,000 

1,500,000 

2,500,000 

3,000,000 

1,500,000 

2,500,000 

200,000 

250,000 

136,000 

560,000 

560,000 




7,184,000 


1,457,000 


18,052,000, 



The country is comparatively free from vrild beasts and 
venomous reptiles. Tigers are sometimes seen in the islands of 
the Uruguay, and among the thickets of the mainland bordering 
the same river, but they never cause much annoyance to the 
farmers. Pumas, or native lions, have been foimd at rare 
intervals in the forests of the . Eio Negro : they sometimes do 
much destruction • in the sheepfolds, on which account the 
estancieros hunt them down. 

The carpincho or sea-hog is also found in the Eio Negro : 
the flesh is fat and unfit for the table. Deer and ostriches are 
in some places very numerous, and the smaller kinds of game 
are abundant, viz. partridge, wild duck, parrots, plovers, &c. 
There are no biscachos on this side of the Eiver Plate, but 
instead is a little animal resembling a mole, which burrows 
underground, and often exposes the traveller to an ugly fall : it 
is called the tuku-tuku, from a noise which it makes nearly of 
the same sound. Mulitos and peludos are also found. Toads 
and frogs are everywhere met with : snails were unknown until 
imported from Cuba by Padre Solano of Paysandu. Bogs, as 



THE EBPUBLIC OF UKUGtrAT. 321 

■in Buenos Ayres, are so numerous as to be a nuisance, and of 
a very inferior breed, wLile the cats are generally large and 
handsome. 

The cattle and sheep are much the same as in the Argentine 
lEepubUc, but the beef of Montevideo is esteemed much superior 
to that of Buenos Ayres. A considerable trade is carried on in 
seal-fishing : these seals are sometimes called sea-wolves, and 
may be considered amphibious : the principal fishery is near the 
island of Lobos. Montevideo and Maldonado are especially 
famous for their many kinds of superior fish, such as the 
brotula, pejery, sargo, buriqueta, pescadillo del rey, anchoa, 
palometa, corbina, eongrio, cazon, raya, bagre, sardines, 
oamerones, oysters, &c., all which are cheap and abundant. 

The agricultural returns show that the crops since 1870 

Value, 
S 

Wheat 2,905,000 

Maize 752,000 



$3,657,000 



equal to ^8 worth per head of the population. The mills of 
Montevideo alone produced last year 62,000,000 lbs. of flour, 
or 150 lbs. for each inhabitant. 

The population of the Eepublic is set down, as before stated, 
at 454,000, and may be classified as follows : 



Orientals 250,000 

Italians 60,000 

Basques 30,000 

Spaniards 30,000 

Fienoh 30,000 



Brazilian 20,000 

Argentines .. .. 10,000 

English and German 10,000 

Portuguese ., .. 2,000 

Africans, &o 12,000 



The increase in late years has been wonderful, in spite of the 

-civil wars : 

' ^ inhabitants. 

Census of 1852 131,969 

„ 1860 221,248 

Estimates in 1873 458,000 



322 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVEK PLATE. 

This shows over seven persons to the square mile, about the 
same as Buenos Ayres, and twice as much as in any of the other 
Argentine provinces. 

In the city and suburbs of Montevideo the foreign element 
constitutes fully two-thirds, including of course the children of 
foreign residents, who are, however, by law citizens of the 
Eepublic. Italians, French, English, Germans,' and Basques 
miake up the bulk of the foreign community of the capital. 
Brazilians are very numerous in the departments of Salto, 
Cerro Largo, and Tacuaremb6, where the natives barely figure 
for half the population ; the districts in which native Orientals 
have a large majority are Minas, San Jose, Florida, and 
Durazno, the proportion being about two-thirds. Paysandii, 
Soriano, Colonia, and Maldonado, the proportion is about three 
Orientals to two Europeans. On the whole it will be seen the 
numbers are about equal. 

The general statistics of the thirteen departments which 
compose the Eepublic show 3052 marriages in a year, the pro- 
portion in the city being as 20 foreigners to 10 natives, and in 
the departments 22 natives to 17 foreigners. 

Foreignere. Natives, 

Husbands 1919 .. .. 1133. 

Wives 1232 .. .. 1820 

Which shows that 8 native women marry for 2 native men. 

Public instruction is backward in the departments, but advanced 
in Montevideo, the returns showing : 

Schools. Pupils. 

City, public 58 .. .. 6,688 

„ private 54 .. .. 3,360 

Country, public . . . . 74'1 „ -og 

„ private .. .. 59/ " " ' 

245 .. .. 16,786 



The number of immigrants averages 20,000. The proportion 
is as follows : 



THE RBPtJBLIO OF UEUGUAT. 323 



Italians 9000 

Spaniards 3000 

French and Basques . . 2000 



Brazilian 3000 

Germans .. .. .. 1000 

English and others . . 2000 



Of the total number only 3 per cent, apply at the Emigrant 
Office for lodging and employment, the rest finding instant 
occupation on landing. Wages and the cost of living are much 
the same as in Buenos Ayres, and it follows that an industrious 
man can readily save a little money to improve his condition 
and make a start in life as a shopkeeper or the like. The most 
respectable class of shopkeepers in Montevideo is composed of 
French residents, who exhibit much taste ia the selection of their 
wares and display of same. The only thing that shocks the 
stranger is the total disregard of the Sabbath, all the shops 
being kept open as on week-days, at least until the hour 
approaches for the bull-fight at the Union Circus. The wholesale 
merchants are almost exclusively English or German, who 
always close their houses on Sundays and keep the day just as 
at home. 

The Italians are found in almost every scale of society, both 
in the capital and the chief towns of the departments. In a 
word, the country depends on foreign immigration for the active 
busiaess of every-day life. 

The Government offices, law-courts, medical and military 
professions offer occupation to the native Orientals, many of 
whom are also distinguished for literary talents, or remarkable 
as wealthy capitalists and estancieros. In character and tastes 
the Orientals are exactly like Argentines: the religion and 
■language are also the same. 

The first inhabitants of the country were the Indian tribes 
called Charruas, Chanas, Minuanes, and others. From the time 
of discovery by D. Juan Diaz de Solis the Banda Oriental 
became a Spanish colony, and formed part of the Viceroyalty of 
Buenos Ayres. The Portuguese, however, made frequent efforts 
to annex it to their possessions, and in 1679 founded the city of 
Colonia in front of Buenos Ayres, making themselves masters 

Y 2 



324: HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

of this part of the coast of La Plata : Colonia changed masters 
several times, till it was ultimately lost to Portugal in 1778. 
The Portuguese had likewise established themselves on the 
ground where Montevideo now stands, which they evacuated in 
1724. The country remained united to the Spanish Crown tiU 
the struggle for Independence in 1811. 

With the aid of Buenos Ayres the Spanish power was over- 
throwB, and the garrison of Montevideo forced to capitulate in 
1814. Then was formed the Oriental province, which consti- 
tuted one of the united provinces of La Plata till 1815, when 
Montevideo seceded and formed a Eepublic on her own account. 
It was of very brief duration, for the Portuguese invaded the 
country, took Montevideo, and forced the Oriental Congress of 
1821 to decree the annexation of Banda Oriental to the kingdom 
of Portugal and Brazil. In the same year Brazil became an 
independent empire, and annexed this country under the title of 
Provincia Cis-Platina. In 1825 an expedition of thirty-three 
Oriental patriots from Buenos Ayres raised a revolution ; and 
agaiuj with the aid of the Argentines, the liberty of the country 
was recovered. The Brazilians sustained a decisive defeat at 
Ituzaingo in 1827, and a treaty was shortly afterwards con- 
cluded at Eio Janeiro guaranteeing the Banda Oriental as a 
free and independent State. Brazil, however, remained in 
possession of that part of Misiones belonging to the territory of 
Uruguay. A republican constitution was formed and adopted 
in 1830, with the title of Oriental Eepublic of Uruguay. 

The country began to make rapid progress till troubles arose 
with Buenos Ayres in 1839 : soon after, the Argentine army 
invaded the country, and the siege of Montevideo, which lasted 
nine years, reduced the state to ruin and desolation. At last 
Urquiza's revolution against Eosas, in 1851, restored the Banda 
Oriental to tranquillity for some years. 

The Flores revolution in 1865 resulted in Brazilian inter- 
vention, and the expulsion of President Aguirre, events quickly 
followed by the long and sanguinary war in Paraguay. On the 



THE BBPDBLIO OP UBUGTTAY. 



325 



assassination of General Floras, in 1868, he was succeeded in 
power by General Battle. The country is now beginning, 
under Dr. Ellauri's Government, to recover from these dis- 
astrous and unprofitable commotions. 

The capital of the Eepublic, Montevideo, is indisputably the 
jjleanest, handsomest, and healthiest city in the continent. Its 
population is estimated at 100,000, and the other principal 
towns are as follows : 



Salto 10,000 

Paysandd 10,000 

Colonia 2,000 

San Jose 4,000 

Maldonado 1,000 

Union 5,000 

Mercedes 4,000 

FrayBentoa .. .. 2,000 

Higueritaa 1,500 

Minas 2,000 

Kedras 2,000 

Santa Lucia . . . . 1,000 

Florida 2,000 



Durazno 2,000 

Pando 1,500 

Porongos 1,000 

Artigas 1,000 

Carmelo 1,000 

Melo 5,000 

Santa Eosa 1,000 

Canelones 3,000 

Tacuarembd 3,000 

Eoclia 2,000 

Eosario 2,000 

TreintaTres .. .. '2,000 



Besides these there are ten villages, viz. Soriano, San Sal- 
vador, San Carlos, San Juan Bautista, Tala, San Eamon, Belen, 
Constitucion, Cuareim, and Sarandi, which have a few hundred 
ijihabitants each. Salto and Paysandii are thriving towns and 
river-ports on the Uruguay ; they have a large local and inland 
traffic, besides an active and bustling steam-boat trade with 
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo. 

The best inland town is Mercedes, on the Eio Negro, much 
frequented in summer for the medicinal virtue of the water. 
Colonia is mostly in ruins, and only remarkable for its historic 
;ifl8oeiations and Manton's dry dock. 

San Jose, on a river of the same name, is a telegraph station, 
midway between Montevideo and Colonia ; Fray Bentos is the 
seat of the Extractum Camis Liebig factory, the most impor- 
tant in the country, or indeed in the Eiver Plate ; it is situated 



326 HANDBOOK or THE BIVEB PLATE. 

on the Uruguay, as are also the minor ports of Higueritasand 
.Carmelo. 

The seaport of Maldonado is at the mouth of the Eiver Plate, 
or rather on the Atlantic. Artigas, on the Brazilian frontier, 
does some trade in beef and hides for exportation via, Eio 
Grande. Florida and Durazno are central towns connected 
with the capital by the Central Uruguay Eailway. 

Union is a suburb of Montevideo, and Las Piedras and Santa 
Lucia are pleasant summer residences within easy distance of 
the city. 

The property returns for Contribucion Directa show in the 
city 200Z.J and in country 140Z. sterling for each inhabitant, 
viz,: 

S 

Old city 42,355,335 

New city 34,352,254 

Suburbs 34,503,411 

Country 250,000,000 

$361,211,000 

There are four banks, which show collectively : 

S 

Capital 6,038,452 

Cash 5,362,694 

Emission 4,731,370 

There are 9989 houses of business in the EepubHc, of which 
6663 are in Montevideo, the latter including 8 steam saw-nulls, 
8 foundries, 93 factories, 13 tanyards, 52 brick-kilns, 7 steam 
flour-miUs, 9 saladeros, &c. 

The trade returns for three years were : 

Imports. Exports, 

ft tt 

1870 15,003,342 .. ,. 12,779,051 

1871 14,864,247 .. .. 13,334,224 

1872 .. ;. .. 18,859,724 .. .. 15,489,532 

This shows an increase in two years of 26 per cent, in imports 



THE EEPUBLIC OF UEUGTJAY. 



327 



Cow hides . 





Wool .. . 


. .. lbs. 


Jerked beef. 


.. cwt. 


Tallow.. . 


pipes 


Sheepskins . 


bales 


Sealskins 






and 22 per cent, in exports, the balance of trade being better 
than in the Argentine Eepublic, viz. : 

Imports to Exports. 

Argentine Bepublio 100 to 75 

Uruguay .. .. , 100 to 81 

The exports amount to 81. sterling per head, which is nearly 
5 per cent, higher than in Great Britain, and nearly double the 
ratio of the Argentine Republic, but not equal to Buenos Ayres 
singly. The trade of the Oriental Kepublic doubles in nine 
years. The exports in 1870 and 1871 chiefly consisted of: 

1870. 1871. 

1,087,834 .. .. 1,278,173 

51,842,000 .. .." 67,368,000 

341,725 

17,473 

9,844 

5,749 

The value of exports does not include live cattle driven 
over the frontier into Brazil for the Pelotas saladeros. The 
inorease in the Customs revenue is remarkable : 

1870 4,538,353 

1871 5,312,317 

1872 7,207,907 

The total public debt is ^41,481, 235, the amount redeemed 
since the first debt in 1869 being gl9,542,924. 

Most of the London loan of 1871 went to redeem the paper 
money. A second 6 per cent, loan is proposed, to redeem those 
local debts of 9 or 12 per cent, interest, which will save 
Ij nullion dollars yearly. 

The port of Montevideo is now one of the largest tonnage, 
the arrivals and sailings make up : 

Ships. Tonnage, 

1869 2,610 .. .. 967,057 

1871 2,876 .. .. 1,424,577 

This does not include 306,188 tons for river steamers, nor 
3601 coasting vessels of light tonnage. The gross returns are 
about eq[ual to Buenos Ayres. 



328 'HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBR PLATE." 

The tonnage o£ the Various flags iS in this ratio : 

Tons. Per Cent. 

Engliah.. , .. .. .. 643,885 .. .. 45 

French,.' .; .. .. 253,540" .. .. 18 

Italian .' 141,353 .. .. 10 

Spanish 113,635 .. .. 8 

Brazilian 71,959 .... 5 

German 68,359 .... 5 

United States .. .. 57,163 .... 4 

Swedish .. ,.. .. 35,315 .... 2 , 

Various 39,368 .... 3 

1,424,577 .. .. 100 

In 1872 the tonnage rose to 1,&52,073 tons. 

The bulk of the import and export trade is with England and 
France, which are nearly equal, and together make up 50 per 
cent, of the gross returns. From England are received coal, 
cotton, cloth goods, hardware, and beer ; giving in return salted 
hides, tallow, and wool. From France wine, fancy goods, hats, 
Srlks; boots, hardware, and sugar ; giving in return salted and 
dry hides, wool, tallow, hair, and sheepskins. The balance of 
trade with England is in the ratio of — imports, 8 ; exports, 5 ; 
the trade with France is even. Brazil stands third on the list, 
figuring for about one-eighth of imports and exports ; the former 
consists of sugar, yerba, tobacco, timber, cana, coffee, and farina ; 
the exports to Brazil comprise jerked beef, live cattle, and a 
few small items. Next come the United States, representing 
an equal amount of imports and exports ; the imports consist 
chiefly of pine and kerosene, for which are sent in return dry 
hides and wool. 

Spain and Italy occupy about the same rank: the former 
suppHes wine, salt, oil, and preserved fruits, taking in exchange 
about one-fourth of the value in dry hides. Italy gives oil, 
wine, rice, and macaroni; and takes about three-foxttths the 
amount in dry and salted liides. The Argentine Eepublic 
stands for • about 5 per cent, of the whole trade returns ; the 
imports from Buenos Ayres are mostly tanned hides, yerba, and 



THE EEPtJBLIO OF UBUGUAT. ' 329 

articles of European maaufacture ; the exports are corn and 
flour. Belgium takes a considerable quantity of wool and salted 
and dry hides, while imports from Antwerp are not worth men- 
tioning. From Hamburg, liquors, fabrics, fancy goods, and 
furniture, and nothing in return. The trade with Havana con- 
sists of jerked beef exported thither, for which about two-thirds 
the amount is returned in sugar, cigars, and caSa. Small 
business is done with Holland, Portugal, India, the Mauritius, 
and Chile. Taking a general view of the import tables we find 
that wine figures for 12 per cent., cotton and woollen fabrics 16, 
sugar 6, yerba 3, hardware 4, beer 1, coal 2, and lumber 2 per 
cent, of the gross total. The exports consist chiefly of hides 
and wool, jerked beef and tallow : among minor articles we find 
1,000,000 eggs exported annually, and about 100 tons of agate 
stone. The shipping returns are more than those of Buenos 
Ayres, which is accounted for by the fact that almost all vessels 
entering the Eiver Plate touch at Montevideo, and usually dis- 
charge a part of their cargo there, which is also the great port 
of call for ships going to or coming from the west coast. 

The revenue of the Eepublic amounts to about ^6,000,000, 
of which seven-eighths proceed from the Custom House, the 
duties being nearly 30 per cent, on the total import and export 
values. The average taxation is about ^15 to each inhabitant, 
which is 60 per cent, over that of the Argentine Eepublic, and 
double the average of European States. The budget for 1874 

was: 

Income. I 

Custom House 3,520,000 

Stamps and Post Office; 319,000 

Coutribution direct (city) 450,000 

„ „ (departments) .. 330,000 

Eural taxes 200,000 

Municipal rates 566,796 

Market rents 106,000 

Monte-pio 62,900 

Balance in Public Credit 150,000 

$5,704,696 



330 HANDBOOK OP THE EITEB PLATE, 

ExPENDITtTBE. $ 

W^rOffioe.. .. 2,229,986 

Finance department 1,359,498 

Interest Pacification debt 900,000 

„ other debts 668,550 

„ for BraziHan debt 469,886 

„ for Italian debt 72,000 - 

Junta of Montevideo 686,782 

. ' Departments 1,777,174 

Foreign affairs 48,000 

Government office 72,101 

$8,283,977 

There are 26 newspapers publislied, the greater part in Monte- 
■video, with a gross circulation ol" 18,000 copies daily. Begides 
a public library with 8000 vdlnmeB, there is a, University for 
the upper branches of instruction. The Post Office returns 
for 1872 show 754,185 letters and 818,081 papers : the postal 
receipts amounted to K86,530. 

The police and army of the Eepublio comprise 833 officers 
and 9170 men. There are 47 Catholic and 3 Protestant 
churches in the Eepublic : the Eight Eev. Bishop Vera is 
assisted by 101 priests: there are 4 convents, also various 
charitable institutions directed by Sisters of Charity. 

The form of ' Government is republican, the constitution 
affiirding equal rights to all men and prohibiting slavery. 
Freedom of the press and liberty of conscience are also guaran- 
teed, and foreign settlers enjoy the same rights and privileges 
as native citizens, besides being exempt from military service. 
The President is elected for four years, and has a salary of 
12,000 silver dollars per annum; he has a cabinet of four 
Ministers, who have a salary of K4000 each. The Legislature 
is composed of 13 Senators (one for each department), and 
40 Deputies, the former sitting for six, the latter for three, 
years. 

The Law Courts comprise : — 1st, the Supreme Tribunal, of 
five judges, each with a salary of ^4000 ; 2nd, the two Cri- 



THE REPtTBlIC OF tlKTIGtrAT. 331 

minal Courts ; Srd, the two Civil Judges ; 4th, the Tribunal 
of Commerce ; and 5th, the minor judicial authorities proper to 
each district, for hearing of all petty cases. The ecclesiastical 
authorities consist of a Bishop, whose salary is ^3200, and a 
ProyisorrGeneral. There is a Board of Works, the director 
having ^3000 per annum, and a staff of 28 engineers, assis- 
tants, and inspectors. The municipal boards of Montevideo 
and the principal provincial towns are styled Juntas, which 
have special charge of the roads, markets, and free schools. 
The Juntas have laboured unceasingly to make roads through the ' 
country, especially in the vicinity of the capital ; in this they 
were much favoured by the abundance of stone on all sides. 

There is only one railroad completed in the Eepublic, and 
that is 130 miles long, to Durazno ; a branch is being made by 
Waring Brothers, from Santa Lucia to Higueritas and Colonia. 
The North -Western line from Salto to Santa Eosa is being con- 
structed ; as also Mr. Pealer's line from Montevideo to Pando. 
There are four tramways from the city to the suburbs of Union, 
Eeducto, Paso Molino, and Punta Carretas. Mail-coaches run 
to the various inland departments. The steam-boat service 
affords daily communication with Buenos Ayres and the ports 
of the Parana and Uruguay. Steam-packets to and from Europe 
arrive almost daily, the various lines from England, France, 
Germany, Italy, and Spain, making up twenty-four steamers 
monthly to and from Europe. It is also proposed to establish 
a branch between Eio Janeiro and the Eiver Plate of steam- 
packets for the United States and Brazilian Mail Company. 
The electric telegraph from Montevideo to Buenos Ayres is of 
immense utility to commerce, and the wires now extend to 
Chile. The Mau4 cable, which has just been laid, places us in 
immediate contact with Europe. Montevideo has numberless 
advantages over any and every other city in the continent, both 
as regards climate and position ; it is admirably situated as a 
place of call, and may be considered the only safe port in the 
Eiver Plate. 



332 HANDBOOK OF THE BIVXB PLATE. 

There are eight lighthouses in Oriental waters, between Cape 
St. Mary and Martin Garcia, besides eight in Argentinewaters. 

There are three dry docks; that of Maud-, at Montevideo, 
admits vessels 275 feet long, 45 beam, and 12 draught of water. 
That of Gounouilhou is smaller. Captain Manton's, at Coloniaj 
takes vessels 1000 tons, up to 250 feet in length. , 

The language spoken in Banda Oriental is Spanish ; the Prei' 
sident of the Eepublic, Dr. EUauri, is elected for four years 
(1873-1877). The decimal and metrical system has been used 
since 1864. 



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( 333 ) 



CHAPTEE XXIII. 



MONTEVIDEO. 



The Cerro, or Mount which has given its name to the city, is 
descried by the voyager at a great distance, forming a promi- 
nent feature in the landscape, as the coast-line and suburbs of 
the city break upon the view. The old town stands upon a 
tongue of land jutting into the bay, and many splendid buildings 
are seen here and there, while the towers of the Matriz church 
rise above all. The Hospital de Caridad. and Custom House 
are near the water's edge, and close to the former is Fort San 
Jose, mounting twenty pieces of cannon. The bay presents a 
lively aspect with its numerous merchantmen, steamers, and 
war-vessels, the average clearances from the port being 1,000,000 
tons. Over towards the Cerro is Eat Island, or Isla de Libertad, 
and at the head of the bay the eye ranges over the delightful 
suburbs of Paso Molino, Miguelete, &c., the background being 
formed by the Cerrito, on the summit of which are still visible 
the earthworks thrown up by General Oribe during the nine 
years' siege of Montevideo (1842-51). The saladeros, at the 
base of the Cerro, kill over 300,000 head of cattle yearly, and 
when the wind blows from the west the odour is impleasant. 
The bay is more than a mile wide at its mouth, from Eompe 
Olas, near Fort San Jose, to the foot of the Cerro ; its shape is 
that of a horse-shoe, and it can accommodate 500 vessels 
drawing 15 feet or under. 

The depth of water has diminished 5 feet during the last 
seventy years, and the bay will certainly fill up imless dredging 
be put in practice. The old city comprises 124 blocks, bounded 
by the ocean on the south and east, by the bay on the west, and 



334 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 



separated from the new town on the north by the Calle de la 
Ciudadela and Old Market, where the wall of the city is still 
visible in parts. The new town comprises 186 blocks, of the 
same size as in the old town (100 varas so[uare = 2 acres 
English) ; thus the total area of the city may be put down at 
620 acres, or one-third that of Buenos Ayres. 

Montevideo was founded in 1717, under the protection of the 
Apostles SS. Philip and James, by the Viceroy Lavala, but it 
was merely a military post till 1726, when the first settlers were 
brought from the Canary Islands by D. Francisco Alzeibar. It 
was declared a port by the Eoyal decree in 1778, and a census 
three years later showed its population to amount to 6466 souls. 
So rapid was its commercial growth, that in 1792 its imports 
amounted to ^2,993,267, and its exports to ^4,150,523, its 
population having risen to about 15,000. Since the epoch of 
Independence it has been a constant prey to civil wars, and yet 
its trade and population have gone on increasing in a wonderful 
degree, as shown in the subjoined table : — 





Population. 


Tonnage. 


Immigrants. 


1836 .. 


23,404 


61,148 


5,000 


1858 .. 


60,230 


182,773 


8,359 


1868 .. 


95,856 


783,926 


.. 17,381 


1872 .. 


.. 105,296 
-i? i_i*___ 


. 1,652,073 


.. 20,000 



The estimate of population embraces only the city and suburbs; 
the whole department amounts to 127,704. The toimage does 
not include coasting or river traffic, which represents 300,000 
tons extra. The nmnber of immigrants is probably exaggerated, 
including a large proportion that afterwards go on to Buenos 
Ayres. The city can boast several handsome public buildings, 
such as the Bolsa, Post Office, Museum, English and Italian 
Banks, Hospital, Solis Theatre, Custom House, Matriz Church, 
new markets, &c. The hotels are also very fine, especially the 
Oriental, which is not surpassed in the continent. 

The city and suburbs contain 7164 houses, of which 2528 are 
lit with gas, besides 2292 street gas-lamps, the piping extending 



MONTEVIDEO. 335 

64 miles, and the total number of burners being 20,000. The 
water supply, laid down by,Lezica, Lanus, and Fynn, is brought 
from Santa Lucia, a distance of 34 miles, and the length of 
piping in use is over 95 miles. The meat supply for the city 
markets averages 92,377 horned cattle, and 67,775 sheep per 
annum, being exactly 1 lb. of meat daily per inhabitant. The 
city mortality averages 29 per mil, which is about the average 
of European cities, and 9 per mil more than London ; the 
deaths are 3 males to 2 females, and 93 whites to 7 coloured. 
Such is the mortality among infants, that 42 deaths in every 100 
are of children under two years. 

The first place in all Spanish towns to attract the traveller's 
notice is the Plaza, or principal square; that in Montevideo 
goes by the name of Plaza Constituoion, with an area of 2 acres, 
nicely planted, and ornamented with seats and a magnificent 
fountain. On the south side stands the Matriz church, conse- 
crated on October 21st, 1804, by Bishop Lue, of Buenos Ayres; 
the exterior is grand and imposing, the turrets rising to a height 
of 183 feet from the ground, or 225 feet over the level of the bay; 
the fagade was restored in 1858. On the north side is the Cabildo, 
which serves for the triple purpose of law-courts, senate-house, 
and prison. At the north-west comes in the English club, where 
strangers can be. presented by any of the members and get 
visitors' tickets for one month. 

The Fort or Government House, at the junction of Calles 
Solis and Eincon squares, south of the Plaza, is a shabby- 
looking building, and in 1868 it narrowly escaped being blown 
lip by a modern Guy Pawkes. 

The Old Market, formerly the Citadel, is a most interesting 
relic of the Spaniards : it was built by 2000 Guarani Indians, 
who were seven years at the work and received no pay. This 
massive work had formerly a city wall running east and west, 
forming a complete rampart on the land side, and flanked by 
Bovedas, or bomb-proof batteries, on the water side at either 
end. The Bovedas were removed a few years ago to improve the 



336 



HANDBOOK OF THE EIVER PLATE. 



city, and it was found necessary to use a good deal of blasting 
powder in the operation. The Calle Ciudadela marks the route 
of the former city wall. The Old Market is a complete fortress 
in itself, with quaint stone gateways, north and south : the 
former now opens into the splendid boulevard of " 18 de 
Julio." From 1835 to 1868 it was the chief market place of 
the city, but now it is a kind of bazaar, except when temporarily 
converted into a barrack during revolution. 

Fort San Jose, at the south-west extremity of the old town, 
near Point Eompe Olas, at the mouth of the bay, is another 
relic of the old regime, now used for firing salutes. It has 
about twenty guns en barbette. 

The Hospital de Caridad, in Calle 25 de Mayo, close to 
Tort San Jose, is one of the finest institutions of its kind, and 
managed by Sisters of Charity. It has a street frontage of 
100 yards, covering IJ acre English. It is three stories high, 
and nothing can exceed the neatness of the sick wards, which 
are long, spacious, and well ventilated. The medical attendant 
is Dr. Fleury, M.D., of Dublin. English physicians who have 
visited this hospital say it has few rivals in Europe. 

The average number of patients under treatment at a time is 
300, the number admitted last year was 4655, of whom 3990 
were cured, 338 died, and 327 remained under treatment. The 
revenues are derived from the Beneficencia Lottery and other 
municipal sources. The hospital was founded by D. Francisco 
A. Maiul in 1825. It was handed over to the care of the Sisters 
of Charity on new year's day, 1856. Attached to the hospital is 
a chapel, where English sermons are often preached on Sundays. 
And the Catholic sailors of the English and American war- 
vessels usually attend Mass at 11 a.m. on Sundays and church 
holidays. 

The British, Hospital was first established in 1857, but the 
present airy and commodious building was not erected till 1867, 
at the corner of CaUes Patagones and Buenos Ayres, the funds 
being provided by private subscriptions. The cost was 7200Z. 



MONTEVIDEO. 337 

It has sixty beds, distributed among five wards. The visiting 
physician is Dr. Mullins. 

The Custom House is a fine new building, three stories high, 
with a frontage of 300 yards by 100 in depth ; it has about 
15 acres of flooring for the storage of goods, besides large sheds 
in front of the three wharves for landing merchandise. 

There are steam cranes for hoisting heavy bales, and trucks 
running on tramways up to the Custom House. The trade of 
the port is considerable, the aggregate of imports and exports 
in 1873 being valued at ^30,000,000 (say 6,000,000Z. sterHng), 
the duties of the same amounting to ^6,000,000, equal to 20 per 
cent, ad valorem. 

Passengers arriving from Europe will find the ofScials very 
polite in the examination of luggage. Carts are always in 
waiting outside the gate for the conveyance of baggage to the 
hotels. It would be well in landing to beware of the holes with 
which these moles abound. Besides those of the Custom House 
there are many other moles, such as Capurros, Gowland's, &c., 
and these are a favourite promenade on simmier evenings. Boats 
may he hired at any time for a row in the Bay. Attached to 
the Custom House is the Capitania del Puerto, where the Port 
Captain and his officials may be found. The Port Captain visits 
ships before leaving port, to prevent people running away from 
their creditors. 

The Post Office, situated in Calle Sarandi, two squares south 
of the Plaza, is a handsome edifice, finished by the late General 
Flores in 1866, with ample accommodation for all purposes. On 
presenting your card or passport your letters will be given you 
without any difficulty. 

The Postpaaster-General is Mr. Thales Eucker, who has 
mtroduced many improvements. 

About 2,000,000 letters and papers pass through this office 
yearly. Mails are dispatched daily to Buenos Ayres. and two 
or three times a week to Europe. 

The Museum and Library are in front of the Post Office. The 



338 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVER PLATE. 

Museum contains 76 mammiferi, 654 stuffed birds, 152 fishes, 
154 reptiles, some lusus natursB in bottles, several cases of 
insects and plants, 1540 classified specimens of minerals, petri- 
fications, crystallizations, and shells, 118 fossils, 14 skeletons, 
16 skulls, sundry nests, skins, arrows, muskets, lances, swords, 
banners, and a collection of coins, a nugget from the CuSapini 
gold-fields, and 69 medals commemorative of public events. 
The Library comprises 3653 volumes on science, legislation, 
history, travels, and general literature. It is open on week 
days. The Museum is only open on Sundays and Thursdays. 
The Library was founded in 1830 by Dr. Jose Manuel Perez 
Oastellano, and opened to the public in 1833, and the Museum 
by Dr. Teodoro Vilardebo. 

The Bolsa or Exchange, one of the finest public buildings 
in South America, cost 32,000Z., and is situate at the corner of 
Calles Zavala and Las Piedras. It is almost a counterpart of 
the Bourse at Bordeaux. The exterior is very ornamental, with 
a handsome clock-turret : the interior reveals a splendid hall, 
with the flags of all nations emblazoned on the escutcheons, 
forming the four sides of the frieze. A marble staircase leads 
up to the reading-room and Chamber of Commerce. 

The Commercial Booms, at the corner of -Calles Piedras and 
Solis, one square from the Bolsa, are a favourite rendezvous of 
merchants. The reading-room is well stocked with papers, and 
Senor Buela is indefatigable in getting the latest news by every 
steamer that comes in. He publishes the ' Telegrafo Maritime ' 
every evening, with all shipping and commercial intelligence. 
For ship-captains a more general place of resort is Evans's 
Stores, close to the Custom House, at the foot of Calle Colon, 
Mr. Evans being purveyor to most of the steamers and war- 
vessels that call at this port. 

The Electric Telegraph Office, Mr. John Oldham, manager, 
is near the Bolsa. The clerks speak English, French, and 
Spanish, and receive messages from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. on week 
days, and for an hour in the morning and another in the evening 



MONTEVIDBO. 339 

on Sundays or holidays. The cable to Buenos Ayres was laid 
in October, 1866, and the dividend for some years has been 
20 per cent. 

The Soils Theatre or Opera Mouse, built in 1856 at a cost of 
53,000Z., is one square from the Old Market. It is a very ele- 
gant structure in the Doric style, with a handsome colonnade 
forming a vestibule, from which marble staircases lead up to the 
various parts of the house. On gala nights the house presents 
a dazzling appearance, with tier over tier of boxes full of the 
fashion and beauty of the city, for the Oriental ladies are re- 
markably handsome. There is a suite of ball-rooms over the 
entrance, which are also thrown open during the bals masques 
of the Carnival. On some occasions as many as 4000 tickets have 
been sold, but the theatre will barely accommodate 3000 per- 
sons. The exterior of the building is seen to much advantage, 
as there is an open square. There is generally an opera 
company, or Spanish drama, all the year round, and perform- 
ances are usually on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays. 
The San Felipe, situate between the Government House and 
Calle 25 de Mayo, is an old, ill-ventilated theatre, of small di- 
mensions, where Spanish zarzuela or French bouffes play in 
turns. There are two other theatres, viz. that of Mr. Cibils, at 
the corner of Calles Piedras and Ituzaingo, newly built, capable 
of holding some 1200 persons, and the Alcazar in Calle Treinta- 
tres (opposite Bate's photographic studio), a kind of French 
dancing saloon. 

There are several clubs in the city, to any of which the 
stranger can easily procure admission. The English club, at 
the comer of the Plaza, is supplied with the leading European 
and South American journals, besides having a small library, 
and some good billiard-tables ; from the roof is obtained a fine 
view. Visitors can have a free ticket for thirty days. Foreign 
clergymen, diplomatists, and naval officers are honorary mem- 
bers. The Boaid consists of seven members, including a secre- 
tary. Entrance fee, ^10 ; subscription, ^4 per month. 

z 2 



340 HANDBOOK 01" THE EIVER PLATE. 

The CM) lAhertad, at the corner of 25 de Mayo and Treinta-- 
tres, is the most fashionable in town, comprising the "haut- 
ton," both native and foreign ; it is celebrated for its brilliant 
soirees and masked balls, and has a fine suite of saloons in the 
upper story. 

The German Club " Frohsinn," or " gaiety," consisting of 120 
members, is of a musical and social character, and has very nice 
club-rooms close to the corner of Calles Solis and Washington. 
The reading-room, billiard-room, and conversation hall are well 
arranged. 

The Italians have a club of their nationality, partaking also 
of the nature of a Mutual Charitable Association. 

The Cafe Oriental, in Calle 25 de Mayo, is the best coffee-house 
in the city, fitted up in magnificent style, and crowded every 
evening. 

The London and Biver Plate Banh, situated in Calle Cerrito 
within one square of the Bolsa, is one of the handsomest build- 
ings in Montevideo, and cost about 30,000Z. The pilasters of 
the fagade are of native marble, from Maldonado. The notes 
of this bank have a large circulation. The head house is in 
London, the chief branch being in Buenos A3rres, and there are 
also branch banks in Eosario and Cordoba. 

The Maud Banh, at the corner of Calles Cerrito and Treinta- 
tres, established in 1857, is the head house from which depend 
the various Mau4 banks in all the chief towns of the Eivei 
Plate, viz. Buenos Ayres, Eosario, Paysandu, Mercedes, Salto, 
&c. Here Baron Maua often resides. 

The Commercial Banh, at the comer of Cerrito and Zavala, is 
another edifice of ornament and taste, and cost 12,000Z. Some 
of the wealthiest men in town are shareholders, and this bank 
has always maintained a high name. It was established in 1858 
with a capital of 400,000Z., in lOOZ. shares. 

The Italian Banh, now the Public Credit Office, is a classic 
structure with marble portico and steps, and finished in the 
best Grecian style: it was built in 1864 at a cost of 18,0001. 



MONTEVIDEO. 341 

The Noma and German Banks are also to be noted. 

Maritime Insurance Agency, 149, Calle Piedras. Don Javier 
Alvarez is agent for several foreign and local marine insurance 
companies, and keeps a complete list of wrecks, disasters, &c. 

Metisajerias, or Mail Coaches, 447, Calle 25 de Mayo, run to 
all parts of tlie Eepublic, carrying the mails. Each-coaoli holds 
a dozen passengers. It is often necessary to order a seat some 
days beforehand. 

■ Markets. — There are four, of which the best is the new 
market, close to the Solis Theatre, built in 1867 by Mr. Havers 
for the Municipal Junta at a cost of 80,000Z. It covers 2 acres, 
is well supplied with meat, vegetables, game, fruit, fish, flowers, 
poultry, butter, &c. The usual prices may be stated thus : meat 
per lb., 4 cents; potatoes, 3 cents; butter, ^1 ; fish, 5 cents; 
eggs per dozen, 25 cents ; partridges per pair, 20 cents ; ducks 
do., 40 cents ; chickens do., 60 cents ; turkeys, S2 ; pears per 
dozen, 30 cents. The pears are admittedly the finest in the 
world, and often weigh 1 lb. each. 

The Port Market, adjacent to the Custom House, was built by 
a joiut-stook company for benefit of the shipping. The cost 
was 55,320Z. 

Mercado GMeo, at the corner of Calles Sarandi and Perez 
■ Castellano, with an area of half an acre, serves to supply the 
S.B. quarter of the city. 

Ahundancia Market, near the English cemetery, is intended 
to supply the suburb of the Cordon. 

Oas Works, at the foot of Calle Andes on the sea-shore : the 
buildings cover 2 acres, and are protected by strong walls from 
the sea. Much blasting was done here, and the front of the 
building is of cut stone. The works are under the direction of 
Mr. Cock, C.E. 

Junta Economica, composed of nine town councillors elected 
by the various wards or sections, maintains a number of free 
schools, keeps the streets and roads in repair, and attends to 
charitable institutions and the various other duties of a municipal 
character. 



342 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVEE PLATE. 

Immigrants' Asylum, 79, Calle Colon, was established by Go- 
vernment in 1864 for the protection of distressed immigrants. 
Last year there were thousands provided with employment 
through this office, but the number of estancieros and others 
seeking for farm or general servants at the Asylum was much 
larger. 

University, corner of Calles Washington and Maciel, was 
opened June 18th, 1849 (during the siege of Oribe). It has 
a Eector, Vice-rector, and sixteen Professors, with classes of 
Jurisprudence, Political Economy, Philosophy, Mathematics, 
History, Geography, Latin, English, French, and Drawing. 
Attached to the University is the Faculty of Medicine, which 
gives degrees or passes graduates of foreign universities. 

The Institute of Pvhlic Instruction is a kind of volunteer 
committee for the diffusion of useful knowledge, established 
in 1847 : there are 32 barristers, and a host of attorneys, &c. 

The Banda Oriental used to form part of the diocese of 
Buenos Ayies, but is now governed by a Vicar Apostolic, Dr. 
Jacinto Vera, who is Bishop in joartibus, taking his title from 
Megsera, some ancient see of Asia Minor. The interior of the 
Matriz is not in keeping with its noble exterior. It is gloomy 
and ill-ventilated, but there is a fine new organ by Telford of 
Dublin. The tomb of the unfortunate General Flores is in the 
right aisle. 

The Concepcion, or Basque Church, in the new town, has been 
built almost entirely by the contributions of the Basque 
residents ; the first stone was laid in October 1858. 

Los Ejercicios : this is an old chapel adjoining the University 
at the comer of Calles Sarandi and Maciel. 

In every Spanish city we find an establishment called 
Ejercicios, intended for the correction of refractory women or 
female convicts. 

The Salesas Chapel, attached to the convent of the same name, 
in Calle Canelones, is lofty, well proportioned, and decorated 
with the richest marbles. One of the side altars has been 



MOlfTKVIDBO. 343 

put up by the Jackson family, and tlie altar-piece came from 
Eome. The conYent consists chiefly of foreign religieuses, 
including one Irish lady. The building is large and well situ- 
ated, commanding a splendid view of the sea.. It dates from 
December 8th, 1856, and has a first-class boarding school for 
young ladies. 

The Sisters of Charity convent and chapel, at the comer of 
San Jose and Dayman, form a handsome building : this is the 
head house of the Order of Charity in the Eiver Plate, branches 
of which are found at Buenos Ayres, Cordoba, Mendoza, Sta Fe, 
&c. These admirable ladies have charge of all the charitable 
institutions in the country : they comprise Sisters of Charity 
and Daughters of Charity, the former mostly French, the latter 
mostly Italian, with a sprinkling of natives, &c. The Caridad 
Hospital and chapel, at the comer of Calles Maciel and Wash- 
ington, have been already described. 

San Francisco is a church in course of construction, begun 
in 1863, at the corner of Solis and Cerrito. The old church 
of San Francisco occupied the site where the Exchange now 



The English Church, situated at the Cabo del Sur on the water's 
edge, in Calle Santa Theresa, was built by the British residents, 
the first stone having been laid by Coromodore Sir John Purvis, 
on new year's day, 1845, on the site of a battery taken in the 
assault of the city, in 1807, by Sir Samuel Auchmutys's naval 
forces. The front is a plain Grecian style, with the Ten 
Commandments (in Spanish) over the entrance. Mr. Lafone, 
one of the benefactors of the church, erected a stained-glass 
window in memory of his wife. It is proposed to build a school- 
house in the ground attached to the church overlooking the sea. 
Divine service and an English sermon every Sunday at 11 
o'clock. For many years the Germans have also been allowed 
use of the church on Sundays. 

The Methodist Chapel, formerly a music hall, in Calle 33, close 
to the English church, has been recently established under the 



344 HANDBOOK OF THE felVEE PLATE. 

direction of an American clergyman, wtose congregation counts 
several seceders from the English Church. Controversial 
sermons in Spanish are preached here every Sunday. 

The Campo S(into, or City cemetery, is at the N.E. extremity 
of the new town, close to the water's edge. It has an area of 
8 acres and contains some showy monuments and mausoleums, 
those of the victims of Quinteros and the heroes of Paysandu 
being the most remarkable. The grounds are ornamented with 
trees and gravel-walks, but the place is much too small for the 
requirements of a population of 100,000 souls. In the centre 
is a chapel with frescoes by Verazzu. 

A new cemetery is being made at the Buceo, with tramway 
from town. The mortality of the city averages 8 persons 
daily ; say 30 per mil yearly, the London average being only 
20 per mil. 

The city was visited by yellow fever in 1857, when over 
3000 persons were carried off and by cholera in 1868, but the 
mortality on the latter occasion was not so great. Yellow fever 
in a mild form returned in 1873. 

The British Cemetery, at the end of Calle 18 de Julio, in the 
suburb of the Cordon, has an area of 4 acres. The grounds are 
nicely planted, with a charming view of the sea. 

The Maud Dry-dock, close to the gas-works, was commenced 
by Mr. Cock in 1869, and took four years in construction. It 
admits vessels of 275 feet keel, 45 beam, and 12 draught. The 
depth at entrance is 17 feet, there being great hydraulic power 
capable of piunping it dry in four hours. Among the vessels 
overhauled here in 1873 were a Brazilian ironclad, a Spanish 
war-steamer, and an English gun-boat. 

Ocmnouilhou's Dry-dock, at the foot of Calle 25 de Mayo and 
entrance of the port, was opened in 1870, the proprietor being 
an old French resident; it extends out some 300 feet and is 
constantly busy. 

Besides the hospitals there are other charitable institutions, 
under the direction of the Sisters of Charity. The orphan 



MONTEVIDEO. 345 

asylum has 286 children; the refuge for poor, 156 persons; 
and the lunatic asylum, 181 patients. 

The suburbs of Paso Molino, Figurita, Cerrito, and Union, 
form a delightful zone of quintas and country-houses, pic- 
tm-esquely situated, and ornamented with fine timber, covering 
all the stretch of country from the head of the bay to the little 
fishing port of Buceo on the seaboard. There are four tram- 
ways, running trains half-hourly, which traverse the greater part 
of these suburbs. 

The Union tramway passes through Cordon, a suburb of 
fighting celebrity during the sieges. There is a fine view from 
here over the coast-line of the Buceo and also inwards towards 
Paso Molino. 

As we approach Union we pass some very pretty quintas. 
' The village consists chiefly of a long, wide street and several 
shops. The place may be said to date its existence from the 
nine years' siege of 1843-51, by General Oribe, whose remains 
are interred in the little church of San Augustin, with a flattering 
inscription on the monumental slab. Close to the church is 
the Asylum for paupers ; there is a lofty mixador from which 
a panoramic view is obtained ; the number of windmills is 
remarkable, and Union is also famous for pretty girls. 

The Bull-rin^ is ouiside the village, and here bull-fights take 
place every Sunday, which are attended by thousands of people 
of every class. The bull-fighters are Spaniards. About a mile 
hence is the English race-course, where meetings come off twice 
a year. Between the Union and Tres duces is the English 
cricket- ground. 

The Paso Molino tramway runs down Calle 25 de Mayo to the 
Aguada, which is a thriving outlet that derives its name from 
the fresh-water springs where the shipping formerly took in 
their supply. Ascending the hill called Bella Vista, we obtain 
-a splendid view of the city and bay, and here are the workshops 
of the Central Uruguay Eailway, which is open as far as the 
town of Durazno (135 miles). Tender, on the edge of the bay, 



346 



HANDBOOK OP THE RIVBE PLATE. 



is the Matadero, where cattle are killed for city use ; it is kept 
very clean. There ig a breakwater across the bay which serves 
as a viaduct for the railway, and Messrs. Lezica, Lanus, and 
Fynn have bought from Government all the land that is hereby 
reclaimed from the water. This breakwater was begun in 
March, 1868, being 674 feet thick, 11 high, and its length from 
Calle Eio Negro to the Matadero, 2000 yards. The cost was 
120,000Z., but the land reclaimed, comprising 60 acres, will more 
than cover this amount. The road to Paso Molino passes the 
elegant country-houses of Berro, Gomez, Fynn, and other 
wealthy citizens. 

At Paso Molino there are, besides an hotel, coffee-houses, 
several shops, an old chapel, and a massive bridge. Crossing 
the latter we come upon the quintas of Mr. Eichard Hughes, 
Barnett, and others ; that of Mr. Castro is perhaps the finest 
near Montevideo, with lakes, bridges, lawns, plantations, &c., 
and open to visitors. The branch tramway to the Cerro starts 
from Paso Molino, crossing the railway, and the telegraph wires 
follow the old high road to Las Piedras. 

Buschenthal's Quinta, now an hotel, is about half a mile from 
Paso Molino, in the direction of Cerrito. A magnificent 
avenue, with double rows of Eucalyptuses on either side, gives 
access to this delightful demesne, which covers some hundreds 
of acres. It is only a few- years since Mr. Buschenthal died in 
London, while on a short visit to Europe. In his lifetime this 
quinta was the scene of continual and splendid hospitalities, 
attaining a world-wide reputation. He is supposed to have 
expended 200,000Z. on the grounds. 

In front of Buschenthal's is Mr. Lowry's elegant country- 
house, and near it is that of Mr. John Mackinnon. The 
country hereabouts is of a picturesque and undulating character 
till we approach the foot of the Cerrito. Atahualpa is the name 
given to an unfinished town of elegant design, not far from 
Jackson's new chapel. 

The quinta and chapel of the Jackson family are remarkably 
fine, and surrounded by a large plantation. 



MONTEVIDEO. 347 

The Chwpel is in the style called " florid Gothic," and has at- 
tached a Temale Orphanage of 60 children, maintained by the 
Jackson family, and under the management of Sisters of Charity. 
Mr. John Jackson is the son of an old English resident who 
amassed a colossal fortune, and the family is now reported one 
of the wealthiest ia these parts of South America. 

In returning to the city we may bid the coachman drive us 
round by Margat's famous nursery, where all kinds of fruit, 
flowers, vegetables, and shrubs are grown by the proprietor, who 
is a Frenchman, having devoted many years to bring this place 
into its present condition. 

The Buceo is another pleasant excursion from town by coach 
or on horseback : it is a favourite bathing place, the sea water 
being more salt than near town. It is a shelving coast, but 
the surf at times is so high as to be dangerous even to good 
swimmers. Mr. Hoffinan has buUt an hotel, where lodgings can 
be obtained, as well as in one or other of the dozen houses that 
make up the hamlet. It derives its present name from the 
circumstance that a Spanish merchantman (the ' Luz ') was lost 
here in 1752 and a good deal of her cargo of bullion was 
recovered by diving (huceando). The view along the coast is 
very beautiful. On a clear day we can discern the Cerros de 
Maldonado, 850 to 900 feet high, and about 90 miles distant. 

Flares Island, with its lighthouse 114 feet over the sea-level, 
is now used for a lazaretto. 

Playa Bamirez, the favourite bathing place of Montevideo, is a 
fine smooth strand between the Buceo and town : at times there 
is a fearful current. Bathing boxes are to be had for a few 
coppers, and the tramway runs to and from town, in the season, 
every five minutes from sunrise to 8 a.m. There are coffee-houses 
on the beach. 

Near the Playa Eamirez is the quinta of Mr. Evans, with a 
fine view of the sea, numerous rare plants and strange animals. 
It is on the line of tramway running to Punta de Carretas. 

The Cerro, which rises to 505 feet in front of the city, is 
visible in clear weather from a distance of 12 miles, and this is 



348 HANDBOOK OP THB BIVEE PLATE. 

the best] point from wHcli to get a panoramic view of the city, 
coast, and country. The old castle on the summit, dating from 
the time of the Spaniards, is so strongly built that a dozen 
might hold it against an army. Nevertheless it was Burprised 
and taken by 100 of " Bastarricas ",Jnfantry in November, 1870, 
although during the nine years' siege by Oribe it successfully 
resisted his whole army. The sides of the hill are steep and 
barren, but a few goats contrive to get a subsistence. On the 
top of the castle is a lighthouse, established in 1852, with a 
revolving light visible 25 miles. The garrison usually numbers 
half-a-dozen men, who have charge of fifteen guns mounted on 
the walls; the only access is by drawbridge. One of the 
garrison has a telescope, and signals to the Port Captain in 
Montevideo whatever vessels come in sight. At the foot of the 
hill are fifteen saladeros, and a town is rapidly springing up, to 
which a tramway is being laid down. The steam ferry-boats 
run to and from the city every two hours. The best time to 
ascend the Cerro is in the early morning. The view is the 
finest in the Kiver Plate, taking in a great sweep of coast: 
looking seaward, we can see the peaks of Maldonado and number- 
less bays and headlands, within gunshot of the Buceo. Yonder, 
.H.M.8.' Bombay' was burnt in 1864, when ninety-six officers and 
men perished. The city and port are stretched out at our feet, 
and all the charming suburbs are seen to great advantage, while 
the Santa Lucia, like a fringe of silver, winds its course through 
the low-lying grounds and pours its waters into the Kiver Plate 
near the Panilla Bank, so dreaded by navigators. If the Cerro 
were properly garrisoned and armed it would effectually protect 
Montevideo. Eat Island is also a strong position in the bay, 
and was formerly fortified, but is now used for political and other 
prisoners. 

The stranger will find many other pleasant excursions to 
make in the neighbourhood of the city, by rail or tramway. 
The total number of passengers in 1872 carried by railway, 
tramways, and mail-coaches is returned as 1,636,551 persons, 
representing fares to the amount of 3,500,000 dollars. 



MONTEVIDEO. 849 

Among the model-farms near town are tiose of ,Tomkinson, 
,i)nplessis, Juanico, and Esteves, where the finest fruit of every 
kind is grown in abundance and pears are in season all the year 
round. Another place worthy of notice is W. Lecqcq's Cabana 
for ^climatizing alpacas, guanacos, Angora goats, and other 
strange animals ; it is unique of its kind, and the proprietor has 
spent twenty years in its formation. It is on the line of railway 
to Bufazno, about 8 miles from town. On fine evenings, espe- 
cially holidays, it is very pleasant to take a ride out by Union, 
Paso MoUno, or the strand at the head of the bay, or if you prefer , 
Jlioating there are always safe and comfortable boats at the various 
wharves to take an hour's paseo in visiting one or other of the 
: foreign war-vessels in port, or the mail-steamers which arrive 
almost daily from England, France, Italy, or the West Coast. 

Among the thirteen departments of the Eepublic, that of 
Sflntevideo has an area of 25 square leagues and a population 
of 127,704. It is well wooded and watered, and the various 
^inntas and farms about Paso Molino, Miguilete, Manga, Toledo, 
and other suburbs are in the highest , state of cultivation. It 
■jetnrns a Senator and 12 Deputies to the Legislature. 



350 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBK PLATE. 



CHAPTEE XXIV. 

EUBAL DEPABTMENTS. 

Canelones, San Josi, Florida, Durazno, Minas, Maldonado, Cerro 
■Largo, Tacuarenibo, Salto, Paysamdu, Soriano, and Colonia. . 

OANELONBS. 

This is the first rural department after leaving the capital: 
it has an area of 179 square leagues or 1,150,000 acres, being 
bounded on three sides by the Eiver Plate and the Sta Lucist : 
population, 50,000. There are six {owns, viz. Canelones, Santa 
Lucia, Pando, Piedras, Tala,and Sauce. It is the most agricul-, 
tural department in the Eepublie, the land being admirably 
suited for tUlage, and within short distance of the city markets; 
Large quantities of wheatj maize, potatoes, melons, vegetables, 
are raised, and even some tobacco, the cultivators being mostly 
foreigners, including several from the Canary Islands. The 
boundary line between Canelones and Montevideo is the Arroyo 
de las Piedias, near the town of that name, which is 11 miles by 
railway from Montevideo, and much frequented as a pleasure 
resort : it was founded in 1795 ; the houses are well built, and 
the surrounding country is picturesque and offers good shooting. 
Las Piedras, on the same line of railway, is also called San 
Isidro, and has a population of more than 2000 : some sanguinary 
battles have been fought in its vicinity. Enormous boulders 
are seen here and there which give the place its name, and 
marble is found here. The town of Santa Lucia, otherwise 
San Juan Bautista, is charmingly situated on the left bank of 
the riyer of that name, which is navigable for small vessels, 
and has a current of 4 J miles an hour : this noble river" has a 
course of 100 miles, through the most diversified scenery tUl it 
debouches in the Eiver Plate. Santa Lucia presents a beautiful 
aspect with its numerous gardens and quintas. It is 8^ leagues 



ETJEAL DBPAETMBNTS. 351 

from tie mouth of the Sta Lucia river, and 12 froin Montevideo, 
"being two hours' run by train. The Oriental Hotel offers 
splendid accpmmo'dation, and there are four other good inns. 
The quintas of Laomeva and Magarinos are the finest. Sta Lucia 
dates from 1781, and has been for nearly a century a favourite 
gummer residence. On the other side of the hills, which 
already take the name of Cuchilla Grande, is the town of Pando, 
a brisk little town of 1500 inhabitants, who live by grain farm- 
ing: it lies 7 leagues If.B. of Montevideo, and is about 4 mills' 
from the seaboard, the Arroyo of Pando falling into the sea at 
Playa Sta Eosa. 

Canelones, otherwise Guadalupe, the chief town of the de- 
partment, founded in. 1781, has a population* of 3000, and is 
situated about 2 leagues nearer to the capital than Sta Lucia. 
The Gomandante and other local authorities reside here: the 
National Guards of the department number about' 1700. The 
villages of Tala and Sauce are insignificant. The Cuchilla 
Grande, which begins in this department, is the backbone of the 
entire ijiGuntain system of the Eepublic. The Sta Lucia river - 
'l^ftins a large extent of country, its principal affluents being 
ii&nelones, Tala, Vejiga, Casupd, Soldado, Chamizo, and Virgen : 
its banks are lined with timber, and in rainy seasons it is often 
^passable. Below jts confluence with the San Jose river it has 
a width of several hundred yards: the confluence is about 
12 iniles from its mouth. The new. water-supply of Montevideo 
is taken from Santa Lucia, and the water is exceedingly pure 
and salubrious. The of&cial boundaries of the department are : 
N. and W., the Santa Lucia from Casupa to the Eiver Plate, 
separating it from Florida and San Jose; E., the Arroyo 
:0pnchitas and CuchiUa Grande, on the side of Minas ; and 
S., the Arroyo Las Piedras. The wheat-crop of this department ' 
is more than all the rest grown in the Eepublic. The farming 
stock of this department is estimated at 70,000 cows and 
340,000 sheep. Canelones returns a Senator and 6 Deputies 
to the Legislative Assembly. 

There are four trains daily to Canelones and Sta Lucia; 



352 - HANDBOOK CKP THE EIVEK PLATE; 

coacies to Pando start daily from Hotel Malakoff, • Calle 18 de 
Julio. Pando will be the first station on Mr. Pealer's railway- 
to Minas, Oanelones has more public schools than any other 
department, viz. 13, attended by 598 pupils. There are 767 
licensed traders. Theproperty valuation amounts to 4,500,000; 
property tax, ^18,000 ; local revenue, ^68,000. 

BAN JOS^. 

This department is of much greater extent than the last, 
having an area of 432 square leagues or 2,764,000 acres: 
bounded on the N. by the Eio Ti from the confluence of the 
Maciel to the pass of Villaboas, separating it from Durazno ; on 
the E. by Arroyo- Maciel, Ouchilla de Pintado, and ArriDyo de 
la Virgen, separating it from Florida ; on the 8. by the Eiver, 
Plate ; and on the W. by Arroyo Cufre, on the side of Colonia. 
It is a fine rolling coimtry, equally suitable for grazing or 
agriculture : its proximity to the capital and easy water com- 
munication are a great advantage. The whole department is 
watered by the tributary streams that take their rise in the 
■Cuchilla Grande on the ranges of San Jose, Pintado, and 
Mahoma, and fall into the rivers Yi, San Jose, and Sta Lucia. 
There is a good deal of timber along the streams, and large and 
small game, such as ostriches, partridges, and ducks. The San 
• Jose river is nearly 100 miles long from the source at the Puntas 
de Ojolmi to its confluence with the Sta Lucia, receiving in its 
course the following tributaries: Tapera, Bolas, Sauce, Guaycurn, 
Pintos, Caballero, San Gregorio, Guaybos, Mahoma, OoxoniHo, 
Chamizo, Pachin, Baigorri, ^ Sanjahonda, Caretta - Quemada, 
Valdez, and Mores. 

Some of the finest estancias in the country are to be found in 
this department; about Porongos there is quite a colony of 
foreigners, mostly English, who hold race-meetings twice a 
year, and their sheep-farms are remarkably fine, showing a large 
investment of capital. 

At the confluence of the San Jose and Sta Lucia rivers is^ flie 



KUKAL DEPAETMENIS. 353 

estancia that belonged to the late Mr. Buschenthal, who had 
prize cattle, sheep, and fine plantations. On the other side of 
the riyer is the estancia Cerrillos, belonging to Senor Suarez : 

■ the rocks have a volcanic appearance, and there is a panoramic 
view from the top, with the Cerro of Montevideo in the dis- 
tance. It is proposed to establish a new town here. There are 
numbers of Canary settlers hereabout who raise lajge quantities 
of wheat. 

Between San Jose and Porongos are the fine estanoias of Sienra, 
Herrera, Diehl, Holden, Eoosen, Pilling, McEachen, &c. There 
are numerous other valuable estates in this department, Such as 
those of Johnson, Jefferies, Higgins, Duplessis, Crompton, &c. 

The town of San Jose, founded in 1783, and situated on a 
slope overlooking the river of that name, 25 miles from its 
confluence with the Sta Lucia, is the largest inland town in the 

Republic, having a population of 5000 inhabitants, a good hotel, 
a branch bank of Maua and Co., a telegraph station, a handsome 
plaza, and 500 well-built houses. This department produces 
over 40,000 fanegas of wheat and 10,000 of maize., It returns a 
Senator and 2 Deputies. Stock : 1,500,000 sheep, 50,000 cows, 
50,000 horses. The town suffered much during the civil wars, 

. beiag a convenient rendezvous for Eeds and Whites by turns. 
There is nsually an English doctor resident here. San Jos^ is 
50 miles from Montevideo, and is the centre of three mail- 
coach roads, to Mercedes, Porongos, and Colonia. 

- .VPoirongos, also called Santissima Trinidad, is 60 miles 
N.N.W. of San Jose, in the midst of the Cuchilla Grande, with 
1500 inhabitants. It was founded in 1803, and is built on very 
high ground, to the east of the Arroyo Porongos, an affluent of 
the Yi, and about a league distant from it. 



This was formerly a portion of the department of San Jose, 
and has an actual area of 456 square leagues, or 3,000,000 
acres, with a scanty population of 20,000 souls, but abundantly 

2 A 



354; , HAlfDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATB. 

stocked with sheep and cattle. It is botuided on the north /by 
the Eio Yi, separating it from Durazno ; on the south, by the 
Sta Lucia ; on the east, by the Cuchilla Grande ; on the west, by 
the department of San Jose. Nothing can exceed the fertility 
of the lands watered by the affluents of the Ti and the Sta 
Lucia. The former is a rapid river, 150 miles long, which 
drains a vast extent of country, receiving the following tributary 
streams: Molles, Pescado, Illescas, Monzon, Mansavillagra, 
Timote, Sarandi, Maciel, Porongos. The Eio Ti falls into the 
Hio Negro at an opening between the Cuchilla de Marincho and 
the Cuchilla del Ti, 80 miles above Mercedes. 

The town of Florida, 52 miles from Montevideo, is situated 
on the Arroyo Pintado, an affluent of the Sta Lucia, and has a 
pretty appearance, surrounded by small chacras. It derives its 
name from the verdant foliage of the river-side, and has a 
population of 2000. It is about a mile distant from the Sta 
Lucia, which is deep and rapid, the banks on either side being 
precipitous. This town is also caUed San Fernando, and it was 
here that the first Legislative Assembly of the Oriental Eepublio 
was installed, on August 20th, 1825. In late years it has been 
the scene of c6nstant military operations, which checked its 
growth. The Central Uruguay Eailway passes through this 
town, en route for Durazno. 

The farming stock of the department is' put down at 5,000,000 
sheep, 800,000 homed cattle, and 130,000 horses. It returns a 
Senator and 2 Deputies. 

The Jackson estancias in this department run about 60 miles 
in length and 10 wide, and go by the names of Santa Clara, 
, Cerro Colorado, Timote, Santa Amalia, and TaJita ; they have 
been for many years managed by Messrs. Eicketts and Leared, 
who have sometimes shorn over 300,000 sheep. The property 
was bought by Mr. Jackson's father about 1825, when land was 
worth about ^300 per suerte, say id. per acre. It is a fine 
rolHng country, the estancia houses are well built ; and Timote 
is only six hours' ride from the Florida railway station. Santa 



EUEAL DEPARTMENTS., 355 

Amalia, which is in clTarge Of Mr. Cheevers MacDonnell, is 
even nearer. The Jackson family have also large estancias at 
Monson and Las Flores, near the Kio Negro. 

DUEAZNO 

Is bounded on the north and west by the Eio Negro, on the 
• south by the Eio Yi, and on the east by the head-waters of the 
Yi, the Cuchilla Grande, and Arroyo Cordovez, on the side of 
Cerro Largo and Minas. Area, 539 square leagues, or 3,500,000 . 
acres; population, 16,000. It is watered by the tributaries of 
the Yi, enumerated in the last chapter, and by the streams flow- 
ing from the north side of the Cuchilla Grande into the Eio 
Negro, viz. the Cordovez, Canas, Chileno, Carpinteria, Conchas, 
,&c. The range of the Cuchilla Grande bisects the department 
from east to west. The lands are very rich, but entirely devoted 
to grazing, the stock being estimated at 560,000 sheep, 450,000 
homed cattle, and 45,000 horses. The department contains 
numerous iron mines. 

The magnificent estate of San Jorge, situate on the Eio 
Negro at the " rincon " formed by the Arroyos Carpinteria and 
GMleno, is one of the finest in the Banda Oriental, belonging to 
the heirs of the late Mr. Thomas Fair of Edinburgh, for many 
•years resident in the Eiver Plate. It is 150 miles from Monte- 
'video, and comprises 36 square leagues, or 235,000 acres, being 
larger than thd counties of Huntingdon in England, or Carlo w 
in Ireland. There are thick woods on the banks of the Eici 
Negro, which could easily be made navigable for many miles 
•higher. The Negro and its tributaries abound •with fish. Air- 
plants hang from the trees, •wild flowers cover th,e grouad, and 
the pastures are always rich. This estate was purchased by the 
late Mr. Fair in 1824, and every modern improvement in farm- 
ing has been adopted. There are 50,000 head of horned cattle, 
some of them crosses of the best English breeds, and 100,000 
sheep, refined from the rams of Silesia, Mecklenburg, and Spain, > 
besides numbers of horses and mules. The Fair family have 

2 A 2 



356 HANDBOOK 'of THE KIVBB PLATE. 

, other princely estates, -viz. Espartillar and Monte Grande, in 
the province of Buenos Ayres. 

The town of Durazno, 110 miles N.N.W. of Montevideo, is 
on the Eio Yi, near the mouth of the Arroyo Maciel, well built, 
on a slope of hills thickly wooded, and surrounded by quintas 
and small grain farms ; it has a church, schools, Juzgado, and 
several shops; population, 1500. It is in the centre of the 
Eepublio, and occupies an admirable position for internal trade. 
The Central Uruguay Eailway unites it with Montevideo. 
About the year 1828 a military colony, after the manner of the 
old Jesuit reductions, was formed here out of the inhabitants of 
that part of Misiones which bordered on Brazil, who abandoned 
their homes on the conclusion of the Brazilian war. The 
settlers, however, were not allowed to follow their agricultural-' 
pursuits, but were impressed as soldiers from time to time, in 
every successive revolution ; a few succeeded in gaining their 
former Indian homes, and some stray survivors are also fotmd 
scattered over the country. The late General Flores was one of 
the last of his people. 

This department, although called " Durazno," has anything 
but an abundance of "peaches." It returns a Senator and 
2 Deputies. 

MINAS, 

One of the new departments formed in June, 1837, has an 
area of 554 square leagues, or upwards of 3,'500,000 acres; 
population, 26,000. It is a wild, mountainous territory, and 
the inhabitants are reputed very lawless. It is bounded on the 
-north by the Olimar Grande, which falls into the Cebollaty, and 
forms the boundary with Cerro Largo ; on the west, by the 
Cuchilla Grande and Arroyo Casupd, separating it from Florida 
and Durazno ; on the east, by the Cebollaty and the Cerros de 
Carap6 ; on the south, by the last-mentioned range and the head- 
waters of the Sta Lucia. Agriculture is almost unknown, even 
sheep-farming has made little progress, and the mines of lead, 
silver, and cdpper lie idle, though many of them were worked 



RITEAL DBPAETHIKNTB. 3S7 ' 

by the Spaniards. Azara was of opinion that diamond and 
topaz mines also existed, which Dean Funes seems to confirm, 
on the authority of the mineralogist Petivenil, sent out by the 
Spanish Gpveminent. Gold-beds have recently been spoken of, 
as also coal, but the latter proved merely a bituminous clay. 
The plant Terba-mdte is indigenous. The department is inter- 
sected by the Sierra de Minas, the ranges of Polanco, Carape, 
Sepulturas, AguUa, Aigud, Siete Hermanos, Penitentes, Per- 
didos, Maljabar, &c., some of which attain an elevation of 1500 
to 2000 feet. 

Among the few estancias of note is that of M. Bouvet, a French 
resident, whose establishment is close to the Barriga Negra, in 
the Sierra Polanco ; it was begun in 1863, on 3 square leagues 
of land, and the proprietor has spent over 6000Z. in importing 
rams from Germany. 

The moxmtains form an amphitheatre around the town of 
Minas, which is regularly built, and counts 1700 inhabitants ; 
it is 70 miles N.E. of Montevideo. The Cerro Pelado, or "bald 
peak," is 2050 feet over sea-level. The Penitentes and Perdidos 
have a picturesque appearance. The affluents of the Sta Lucia 
and CeboUaty take their rise in these hills ; the surrounding 
country is fertile. About 30 miles N. of Minas begins the 
Sierra de Polanco, sometimes called Barriga Negra, a wild deso- 
late range ; numerous crosses are met with where people have 
been murderecl. The Sierras de lUescas and Avarias are met 
with before reaching Olimar Grande. 

The stock of this department comprises 200,000 sheep, 
360,000 horned cattle, and 90,000 horses. Minas returns 1 
Senator and 3 Deputies. It raises 55,000 fanegas of wheat 
and 5000 of maize. There is a mill at Minas belonging to a 
Frenchman. 

MALDONADO. 

This department is bounded on the north-east by Brazil, on 
the north and west by the CeboUaty and Sierras de Aigu4, on the 
south and east by the Atlantic. The frontier line with Brazil, 



358 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVBE PLATE. 

accordmg to the treaty of October, 1851, starts from the mouth 
of the Ohuy, then draws a straight line south of Fort San Miguel ' 
of the Arroyo Palmar until its confluence with the San Luis or 
India Muerta, and following the latter to its embouchure in Lake 
Merim or Mini. Area, 575 square leagues, or 3,700,000 acres ; 
population, 20,000. 

The soil is admirably suited for agriculture, as well as for 
the vine and olive, and large forests of date-trees are found to 
produce a spirit of good flavour and quality. Marble abounds, 
and samj^les of coal have been exhibited in Montevideo yielding 
gas. ' At the quinta of Aguilar, near Maldonado, a wine is grown 
equal to canary ; Senor Fernandez, of Eocha, haS manufactured 
excellent tobacco. 

The sea-coast has productive fisheries, especially that of seals,, 
SQ valuable for their oil and skin. Oyster-beds have also been 
discovered. The coast-line is low and sandy, with numbers of 
lagoons, and some miles from the shore high mountain peaks 
rise at intervals. The Arroyo Chuy was the original frontier line 
fixed in the last century between the Spanish and Portuguese 
possessions in 33° 45' S. lat. The Spaniards have put up a stone- 
on the north side of the river, about 70 yards fjrom its mouth, 
with the inscription "E. C. 1784; 'neutral ground as far as 
Tahin." The Portuguese landmark was 21 leagues farther north, 
on the sea-shore, in a line with Arroyo Fahin, thus leaving Lake 
Merim or Mini neutral territory. Fort San Miguel, at the foot 
of Sierra Carbonero, stands 10 miles from the shore, and is in 
ruins. The great fortress of Sta Teresa, also in ruins, is 1 nule 
from the sea-coast at Castillos Chicos ; it stands on an elevflr 
tion, and is a splendid piece of engineering; it was built of 
granite in 1753, to hold sixty pieces of cannon and 400 men. 
Fresh-water springs are found 3^ miles N.E. The coast is very 
dangerous about Castillo Grande, so called from the resemblance 
of this island-rock to a feudal castle. Abouli 30 mUes S.W. we 
meet Cape St. Mary, usually considered the mouth of the Eiver 
Plate ; here the steamer ' Tacora ' was lost in 1872 ; the corre- 



ET7BAL DBPAETMBNTS. S59 

eponding cape on the opposite side being Cape St. Anthony, on 
the Buenos -AyreB Coast, about 160 miles across. Cape St. 

:' Mary is 110 miles E. Of Montevideo. 

' - Numerous shipwrecks occur on the Maldonado coast owing 
to the reihoval of the lighthouses, ."which the fishermen, said 
were iiijurious to the seal-fidiing, as the light frightened the 
seals. The coast was greatly infested with wreckers. Among 
the most striking natural features are the Cerro de DefuntOEi, 
or Dead-men's ^eak, 25 miles S.W. of the mouth of the Chuy, 
and 10 miles from shore ; the Cerro Chafalote, a triple peak 
in the midst of a plain, near Cape St. Mary ; the Sugar-loaf, 
1500 feet high, 5 miles from the coast ; Sierra de las Animas, ■ 
or Solis Grande, 1930 feet high and 4 miles from shore. There - 
are several iflands along the coast, the largest being those of 
Lobes and Gorriti. The first-named is 42 miles W.S.W. of 
Cape St. Mary and 4 miles from the mainland ; it rises to a 
height of 93 feet and is visible from 12 to 15 miles, deriving its 
name from the number of " seals " that frequent its coasts ; the 
only inhabitants are fishermen, the best fishing season being 
.the months of May and June, when the seals are driven by the 
.'extreme cold from Tierra del Fuego,,and come to these shores. 
The sear fishery dates from the year 1782, and the exports of 
the last century show an average of 2000 skins yearly sent to 
Spain, besides the oil. Nothing can be more nauseous than the 
smell that comes from the island ; the seals also utter shrill 
cries. On Gorriti island we find the remains of some fortifica- 
tions of the last century (1777), which were restored by the 
Brazilians in 1825, when they occupied Maldonado. There 
were four batteries, mounting twenty guns, and in the centre a , 
building called Casa de la Compaiaia, where the skins and oil 
of Seals were deposited. The British Admiralty -^vanted to rent 
this island as a naval dep6t, but the Oriental Government 
refused. The island is low and sandy, and commands the 
entrance to Maldonado. 
'f [Maldonado city was formerly a place of some importance, 



360 HANDBOOK OF THE EITBE PLATE. 

where the vessels from Spain sometimes entered instead of going 
to Montevideo; its present population does not exceed 1000. 
It is 30 leagues E. of Montevideo, 18 S.W. of Cape St. Mary, 
and is much recommended for salt-water bathing. It was 
founded in 1762, under the name of San Fernando, by D. Pedro 
Zeballos, who came with several families from Eio Grande, 
being forced to abandon their homes by the Portuguese war. 
1q 1773 it was fortified, and eight years later a batch of 227 
Gallegos arrived, but the Indians gave such trouble that most 
of the settlers removed to Montevideo, 1 mile from the shore 
and 273 feet over the sea-level. There is plenty of good shoot- 
ing in the neighbourhood, and the British Vice-Consul is very 
attentive to visitors. The AguiUa quinta is well worth a visit. 

San Carlos, or New Maldonado, about 6 miles inland, not far 
from Laguna de Potrero, was founded in 1768, and has about 
900 inhabitants. 

Eocha, the best town in the department, was founded in 1793; 
it is situate in the midst of rich and well-wooded pastures, on a 
river the same name 13 miles inland from Cape St. Mary, and 
close to Laguna de Bocha, a lake 10 miles long. It is 40 
leagues E. of Montevideo and has a population of 2000. 

Immense swamps, called Banados de India Muerta, cover a 
superficies of nearly 1000 square miles between the mountain 
ranges near the coast and the northern frontier line of the 
CeboUaty and Lake Mini. 

The stock of this department comprises 25,000 sheep, 450,000 
cattle, and 70,000 horses. The crops average 100,000 fanegas 
of wheat, and 10,000 of maize. Maldonado returns 1 Senator and 
3 Deputies. There are 6 public schools, attended by 403 chil- 
dren. -Mail-coaches ply twice a week from Montevideo to San 
Carlos, Maldonado, Bocha, Solis Grande, Castillo, andChuy. 
A steamer also plies to Maldonado. Mr. Vaillant obtained a 
concession in June, 1870, for a railway to Pando, Solis Grande, 
San Carlos, Maldonado, and Bocha, with a branch to Minas, 
in all 150 miles; but Mr. Pealer is now carrying out this 



BUKAL DBPAKTMBNTS. . 361 

line of railway. This department sent 65,000 head of cattle 
last year to Montevideo. There are 289 licensed' traders. 
Revenue, g32,000 ; value of property, ^4,000,000 ; property 
tax, ^16,000. 

CEEKO lAEGO. 

This department also borders on Brazil. The limits are : 
north, the Eio Yaguaron Cerros de Acegud and head-waters of the 
Bio Negro ; west, the Eio Negro and affluents of Olimar Grande ; 
south, the Olimar and Cebollaty ; and east, Lake Merim, or Mini, 
which is neutral territory between the Eepublic and Brazil. 
Area, 837 square leagues, or 5,500,000 acres ; populatibn, 33,000. 

It is a fine rolling country, well wooded and watered, but 
almost in the same primeval state as when the Minuanos hunted 
over it before the Spanish conquest. The mountain ranges are 
bold and picturesque ; the rivers Olimar, Cebollaty, and Facuari 
dould easily be made navigable from Lake Mini ; the lands are 
of extraordinary fertility ; nothing is wanted but population to 
turn to advantage such a splendid territory. Wherever agri- 
culture has been tried the resiilts are almost fabulous, and all 
thtproducts of the tropics may be raised in the open air. The 
•'woods abound in valuable timber of various kinds, and the 
1 palm-tree gracefully towers above all. 

On the borders of Lake Mini is the Eincon de Eamirez, with 
an area of 99 snertes, or .500,000 acres. It was purchased at 
the close of the last century by an Andalusian, named Jose 
Eamirez (a shopkeeper in Montevideo), for the sum 'of 5000 
hard dollars, and is now worth 200,000Z. sterling. It suffered 
much during the war of Independence and campaigns of Artigas 
and Oribe. About forty years ago the place was so much 
uifested with tigers that a famous hunter, named Tuca-Tigre, 
Mlled 105 in one year, for which he received ^Z a head. After 
the tigers came a plague of wild dogs, going about in packs and 
sometimes chasing men on horseback ; they made great havoc 
among cattle tilliSenor Eamirez offered 25 cents a tail for them, 
and in two years (49-51) tjiere were 5000 killed. 



362 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

The joitit-stook fanning companies, called Cebollaty, Merinos, 
and Mini, bought large tracts of the Eincon. The total stock 
is returned as 160,000 sheep, 60,000 cows, 1500 horses, and 
5000 tame mares. There is fine shooting and fishing, and a 
wayside inn is kept by Capt. Sagrera. About 8 leagues distant 
is the Mini joint-stock estancia, with a coast-line of 6 leagues 
on Lake Mini. 

' Lake Mini, or Merim, as the Brazilians call it, is one of the 
largest in the continent of South America, being 60 miles long 
and 10 wide. It communicates by the river San Gppzalq with 
Laguna dos Patos, another immense sheet of fresh water, which 
has outlet to the Atlantic by Eio Grande. The lake system of 
Eio Grande will be of immense utility to this part of the 
country when these waters are thrown open to steamboat traffic. 

Villa Melo, the capital of the ^epxrtsKiat, is 91 leagues N.E. 
■ of Montevideo, 52 W.S.W. of the port of Eio Grande, 15 E.S.B, 
of -flie Hio Negro, 65 N.E. of Durazno, and 44 S.E. of the 
Cunapiru gold-fields. It was a large and important town under 
the Spaniards, who founded it in 1796, and kept here a frontier 
military station. Its present population is about 5000 ; there 
are some good shops, and a few years ago it boasted 4 banks. 
The civil wars, however, have visited it severely. Some hand- 
some quintas surround the town ; one of them belongs to Mr. 
John B. Lockett, who has 100 acres under wheat, maize, potatoes, 
beans, melons, &c., which he disposes of in the markets of Melo 
and Taguaron. Land for agriculture is given by Government 
at a dollar per cuadra (2s. an acre), or can be purchased of 
private parties at ^3 per cuadra. 

Artigas, 19 leagues E.S.E. of Melo, is marked on some maps 
as San Servando ; it was founded in 1832, and stands exactly 
opposite the Brazilian town of Taguaron, in the province of Eio 
Grande. Artigas takes its name from the General who fought 
against the Spaniards : it is a straggling place, with barely 400 
inhabitants, on the south-west bank of the Taguaron river, which 
sometimes overflows and obliges the townpeople to take to boats. 



BUEAL DEPAKTMENTS. ' 363 

It was a great place for smuggling during tile Oribe wars. A 
ferry-boat plies pvery half-hour to Yaguaron, which is a xell- 
^uilt town of 6000 inhabitants, doing a good trade with Eio 
Grande by steamers and sailing craft. The Yaguaron is 200 
yards across, and navigable for vessels drawing 7 or 8 feet 
Vater. iThere is steam communication with Pelotas and Eio 
Grande once or twice a week, and the scenery is highly pic- 
turesque. The leading merchant of Artigas is D. Joaquin 
^Bederos, who has a saladero, soap-factory, bakery, brick-kiln, 
and some dry-goods shops, besides two sailing vessels. There 
are two Englishmen, Mr. Edward Jackson, a resident of thirty 
years' standing, who has a farm and brick-kiln ; and Mr. Flana- 
gan, alias 'Fernandez, a builder. The authorities offer free gifts 
: of 80-aere farms to settlers, on payment of ^20 (equal to 4Z. 
sterling) registry fees, with the condition of occupying the place 
four years. These faTmfi are around the town, and 6000 acres are 
still open for applicants. Wheat gives 1 8 "to 1 -, f arm.«ervantB can 
earn 15 to 20 hard dollars monthly, with board and lodging. 
i'Artigas had formerly 5 saladeros, but now most of the cattle 
are sent across the frontier to Pelotas. The State school is 
attended by 100 children. 

' The mail-coaches between Artigas and Montevideo make the 
journey (110 leagues) in four or five days; some go by Villa 
Melo, others by Treinta-tres, the road making frequent circuits 
to avoid the Cuchilla Grande. The only bridge to be met with 
is that north of the town' of Melo, which was built by a Frenchman 
some ten years ago. Between Cerro Largo and Montevideo 
there are two places well worth the traveller's attention. One 
is the Cerro Campana, where some ledges of granite are balanced 
like rocking stones, and when struck with a piece of ii'on give 
out exactly the sound of a bell. More remarkable stUl is the 
■Cerro de los Cuentos, so called from the beads of various sizes 
and colours which are washed down after rains and picked up 
by the neighbours among the fissures and crevices of the rocks. 
The beads seem a freiak of Nature,, and can be put on a string 



364 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBK PLATE. 

for a necklace or rosary. The natives seem to tkink they are 
not of natural formation, but that probably in the missionary 
times the Indians deposited here a large quantity of heads, 
■which are washed out by the rains feom some subterranean 
hiding-place. In a visit to this mountain in 1869 the writer 
obtained some of these beads of different sizes. 

Treinta-y-tres, called after the thirty-three patriots, is a half- 
built place of 1509 inhabitants, in the midst of fine scenery at 
the foot of the Cuohilla Grande, near the river Olimar Grande. 
The surrounding country suffers much froin brigands. There is 
a free school, attended by 110 boys and girls. The Olimar 
is a rapid stream of 150 yards wide, and the village being on the 
north side was until recently cut off from mail-coach commu- 
nication with Montevideo; but a Basque has now put up a 
" balsa " for passing over coaches, cattle, &c. Formerly canoes 
were used in crossing. Gauchos have often been drowned in 
tryiiig to swim their horses across; the safer way is with a 
" pelota," or cow's hide sewn up like a ball, to act as a Ufe-buoy. - 
The Olimar could easily be made navigable from Treinta-tres to 
Lake Mini, a distance of 20 leagues. The chacras around the 
village are under crops of wheat and maize ; a mill is much 
wanted. Most of the inhabitants are old Spaniards. The place 
was founded in 1857, and each of the streets bears the name of 
some one of the famous thirty-three. There are 92 azotea houses ; 
building sites 25 x 50 varas cost K12J. Farms of 20,cuadras 
(40 acres) may be bought for 6Z. (^30), and Senor Urrutra and 
others offer to give settlers house, food, seeds, cattle, &c., for the 
first year, to work the ground on halves. Wheat gives twenty- 
fold ; potatoes sell for 1 real, or 5d. per lb. Treinta-tres is 
71 leagues N.E. of Montevideo, 27 S. of Melo. Mail-coaches 
ply twice a week from Montevideo. 

The department of Cerro Largo has 7 public schools, attended 
by 488 children. Eevenue of the department, ^34,700 ; value 
of property, ^6,500,000; property tax, ^2 5,000 ; stock: 
500,000 sheep, 900,000 cows, 300,000 horses. It sends 30,000 



EUEAIi DEPAKTMBNTB, ' ■ < 365 

head of cattle to the saladeros of Montevideo, besides larger 
qunntities to Kio Grande. There are 313 merchants or dealers 
who pay licence. Cerro Largo returns 1 Senator and 2 Deputies. 

TAOUAKEMBO. 

This department, occupies one-sixth of the entire Eepublic, 
having an area of 1161 square leagues, or 7,500,000 acres, being 
more than that of the kingdom of Belgium. It is bounded on 
the north by the Sierra Sant' Ana, on the west by the Onchilla 
de Haedo and Arroyo Salsipuedes, on the south by the Eio 
Negro, and on the east by the same river up to its head- waters 
on the Brazilian frontier. Population, 34,000. The country is 
extremely wild and mountainous, and chiefly remarkable for the 
gold deposits found in the Arroyos Corrales and CuSapiru and 
in the country adjacent to Cefro Arecud. The auriferous strata 
,are supposed to extend 10 or 12 miles in breadth and more than 
,150 northwards across the Brazilian frontier. The Cerro 
Areoiia stands 6 miles west of the Cuchilla Taguary, and 250 
' miles north of Montevideo. It is, almost equidistant, in a right 
line, from Salto to Eio Grande. The first gold was discovered 
some fifteen years ago by a Gaucho crossing the Arroyo Corrales, 
who saw something glistening in the sand and found it to be a 
nUgget of pure gold, weighing 3 to 4 oz. The Corrales and 
CuSapiru are affluents of the Eio Tacuarembo, which, after 
a winding course of 80 miles, disembogues into the Eio Negro. 
In 1865 T). Manuel CastrUlen obtained the usual mining right 
over a gold-field at Cerro Aiecua, and got up a joint-stock 
'company, capital 10,000Z. in 100 shares. The samples which 
lie exhibited in Montevideo were found to possess 62 per cent, 
pure gold, 8 silver, J paladio, 5 iron, 2^ antimony, and 22 
sUicious quartz ; the pieces of quartz were opaque, with red 
veins of oxide of iron and bright yellow metallic globules, 
showing the complete character of auriferous quartz. The 
" gnachos " of the vicinity sell the gold to the " pulperos " at 
the rate of 13 hard dollars an ounce. Nuggets have been 



366 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PI,ATE. 

commonly exhibited ia the shop-windows in Montevideo, and an 
English lesident got a dinner-service made entirely of this 
native gold. In 1866 Mr. Jehu Hitchens came out and made 
an elaborate survey of the CuEapiru gold-fields for a London 
company, but the result was not published. In September, 1868, 
Mr. Bankart was sent to England by the Cunapiru Mining 
Company for miners and machinery ; most of the latte:?, with 
wooden houses, &c., arrived the following year, and were sent up 
to Salto for conveyance overland. Some months later Mr. 
Bankart and his staff arrived, but difficulties at once spmng up 
which resulted in Mr. Bankart and his staff returning to England. 
The most successful miner of late years is General Goyo Suarez, 
who has taken out some 20 lbs. in nuggets and gold dust, 
obtaining about lOOOZ. for same in Montevideo : he works bare- 
foot among his niggers. During the last three years a miner, 
named Eogers, of Australian and Californian experience," has 
been working here ; he has two Mexican mills which can crush 
2 tons of quartz in twenty-four hours, the yield being from 
2 to 6 oz. per ton ; he reports the river-washing'poor, but says 
there are thick veins of auriferous quartz at from 40 to 60 feet 
deep. Don Miguel Eicorder, agent for Mr. Jackson of Monte- 
vjideo, buys whatever gold offers. There are about 106 Italians 
or Basques at Cunapiru. 

The majority of estancias on the frontier districts of this and 
the adjoining departments belong to Brazilian settlers, as we 
gather by the following official returns. 

Along the frontier of the Chuy and San Miguel, 36 Brazilian 
estancias of 342 square leagues and 460,000 head of cattle. On 
the frontier of Cuareim, 161 estancias, containing 381 square 
leagues and 420,000 head of horned cattle. At the south of the 
Arapey, 77 estancias, of 227 square leagues and 273,000, head 
of homed cattle. On the frontiers of Taguaron and Bage, 154 
estancias of 832 J square leagues, but the amount of cattle on 
these estancias does not appear. In the department of 
Taeuarembo two-thirds of the inhabitants are Brazilian. 



EUBAIi DEPAKTMENTS. ' 367 ' 

Among the higtest mountains are the Vichadero, 2300 feet ; 
CerroiChato, 1200 feet; Baiovi, Mangrullo, Ombii, and Arecua. 
The chief waterooTirses are theTaguary, Caraguatay, Tacuarembo, 
and their- numberless tributaries, all pouring their waters into 
the Bio Negro. They take their rise in the ranges of Haedo, 
Cafiapiru, Yaguary, and Caraguatay, which run nearly parallel 
from north to south. 

The only town in the department is Tacuarembo, officially 
called San Fructuoso, in lat. 31° 39' south. It stands on a 
table-land over the Arroyo Tacuarembo Chico, surrounded by 
gardens and plantations.. It is well built and has 3000 
inhabitants, doing a brisk business with the frontier districts. 
It is 102 miles east of Salto, 70 south of the Brazilian town 
of Sant',Ana, 71 north of the Eio Negro, and 220 north of 
Montevideo. 

• Farming stock: 150,000 sheep 1,300,000 horned cattle, and 
P5,000 horses. This depsLrtment exports 150,000 head of cattle 
annually to the saladeros of Eio Grande. Tacuarembo returns. 
1 Senator and 2 Deputies. 

SALTO. 

This department is bounded on the north by the river Cuareim, 
iShich is the Brazilian frontier line, and falls into the. Uruguay, 
95 miles north of the Salto ; on the west, by the river Uruguay ; 
on the south, by the Dayman, which falls into the Uruguay 10 
miles below Salto ; and on the east, by the Cuchilla de Haedo, as 
far as the head-waters of the Cuareim. Area, 903 square leagues, 
or nearly .6,000,000 acres ; population, 30,000. The country is' 
diversified and picturesque, abounding in rich pastures and 
unexplored mineral resources. Agate of every variety, as well 
as jasper, porphyry, alabaster, &c., are found in the mountain 
ranges. The valleys are peculiarly adapted for rearing cattle, 
and we .find the stock to comprise 1,500,000 sheep, 710,000 
homed cattle, and 330,000 horses. Medicinal herbs and all the 
fruits of temperate and tropical climates flourish here. Experi- 



368 HANDBOOK OP THB EIVEB PLATE. 

ments in tea, coffee, and the mandioca plant Lave been successful. 
Some cotton samples sent to the London E3diibition of 1851 
were much admired, and again in 1862 were awarded a medal 
and valued at 22d. per lb. ; the cotton-tree lives from ten to 
fourteen years, producing 3 to 4 lbs. annually. 

There are six mountain ranges, viz. the Yacar^ Curuzu, or 
Dead Crocodile, the Pelado, the Cuohilla de Belen (sometimes 
called Santa Eosa), the Arapey hills, CuchiUa de Salto, and 
Cuchilla de Haedo, all of which, except the last named, run 
almost from east to west. The chief watercourses are the 
Cuareim with its tributaries Tucutuya, Tacare Curuzu, Guard, 
Pelado, Tres Cruces, and Catalanes ; the Arapey, which disem- 
bogues 20 miles above the cataract of Salto Grande ; the Dayman, 
which drains all the country between the ranges of Salto and 
Queguay, having for tributaries the Laureles, Blanquillds, Tunas, 
&c. The best varieties of agate are found in the Cerros 
Catalanes, as well as crystallizations of the rarest beauty. 
Considerable quantities of agate are exported every year from 
Salto, chiefly for the German markets. Petrifactions are ofteft 
met with in the streams, which abound also with handsome 
shells and pebbles. One of the finest estancias in this 
department is that of Laureles, belonging to Baron Maua : it 
contains 32 suertes (over 150,000 acres), and is stocked with 
150,000 sheep and cattle. 

The great feature of this department is the cataract which 
gives it its name, 15 miles above the town of Salto, which 
impedes all navigation of the Upper Uruguay, except in seasons 
of heavy flood, when small steamers ascend to Uruguayana and 
San Borja in the Misiones of Brazil. The noise of the Salto 
Grande can be heard 10 miles off. The Salto Chico, or lesser 
fall, is only a couple of miles above Salto. The Corralitas rocks, 
between Salto and Concordia, are very dangerous. 

Salto is the most enterprising town in the Banda Oriental, 
after Montevideo; it is picturesquely situated on three hills, 
well built, clean, bustling, and healthy, with 10,000 inhabitants. 



EUEAL DEPABTMENTS. 369 

'It is the centre of the trade' of -the frontier districts of Brazil- 
and Misiones, which is carried on by ox-carts ; these bring down 
about 600 tons of produce monthly and take back an equal 
amount of imported goods. Attempts were made to do this trade 
by'small steamers on the Upper Uruguay, but failed. Salto has 
the honour of having originated the first joint-stock steamboat 
company in the country, and it was so successful that it paid 71 
per cent, in the first year (1860), and still larger dividends after. 
At present there is great competition, Salto having almost daily 
steam communication with the lower ports. Steamers are built 
at Hardy's foundry, Messrs. Hardy and Eibes having six steamers 
on the river. Mr. Eichard Williams, the oldest resident in 
Salto, has a saladero for curing mutton on the Morgan system. 
There is also a tanyard below the town. The best hotel is the 
Concordia. A granite wharf has been constructed at the watey- 

: side. The view of the opposite town of Concordia in Entre 
Eios is pretty. The Comandancia and church are in the Plaza. 
•The chief business street is Calle Uruguay, in which we find the 
Maua Bank, the Concordia and Plata hotels, and the best shops. • 

_Jfeekly mails are delivered at Cuard, Arapey Chico, Sta Eosa, 
and San Eugenio ; the last two are villages on the Brazilian 

iWtier, founded in 1852. Salto is 310 miles N.N.W. of 
Montevideo, 75 N. of Paysandu, 420 E. of the port of Eio 
Grande on the Atlantic, and 150 S. of Uruguayana on the Upper 

iCruguay. Salto returns a Senator and 2 Deputies. 

-The North- Western Eailway, from Salto to Santa Eosa on the 
Brazilian frontier, now in construction by Messrs. Clark, 
Punchard and Co., wiU be 110 miles long, with a 7 per cent, 
guarantee on 10,000Z. a mile, the stock being held mostly in 
London. It was commenced in August, 1872, and the first 

' section is completed to the Arapey, 30 miles, where a bridge of 

500 feet crosses the river. The gauge on all railways in this 

Eepublic is 4 ft. 8^ in. The steepest gradient on the line is 

1 in 50 ; the sharpest curve has 1000 yards radius. 

There are numerous English residents around Salto: Mr. 

2 B 



370 ' HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBR PLATE. 

Dickenson at Itapeby, 11 leagues out, Messrs. Buist, Mr.Quigley, 
Mr. Kandall McDonnell, Messrs. Leighton of Guabiyu, 12 
leagues distant, Messrs. Lyde and White at Palomas, on the 
line of railway, the three brothers Weston at Tangucrupd, Mr. 
Edgar at Itapeby, Mr. Johnston at Puntas Dayman, Mr. Bird 
near Salto. Besides the railway engineers at Salto, there are 
the following English residents: Eev. Mr. Schmidt, Messrs. 
Armstrong, Joseph Smith, Elsee, Bradley, John Williams, Eeilly, 
and Conyngham. The railway terminus is at Plaza Libertad, 
"on the edge of the town, and a tramway is being constructed to 
connect it with the port. As soon as the railway is completed 
to Santa Eosa it will do a great carrying traffic for the Brazilian 
frontier. Santa Bosa is a town of 1500 inhabitants, including 
Dr. Spence and Mr. Dickenson. 

PATSANDU. 

This department is bounded on the north by the Dayman, on 
the west by the Uruguay, on the south by the Eiq Negro, and 
on the east by the Salsipuedes. Area, 817 square leagues, or 
5,500,000 acres. Population, 30,000. It is beyond donbt 
the most favoured portion of the Eepublie, and has long 
been preferred by foreign settlers, who own a number of large 
estancias, viz. those of the " Bichadero," Young, Wendelstadt, 
Drysdale, Mohr Bell, Wilson, Owen Lynch, Mrs. Cash, Peile 
Brothers, Croker, " Pichinango," "Maciel," McEachen, Jack- 
son, McCoU, Mclntyre, Drabble, Croker, Chapman, Eafael and 
Shaw, Gale, Brown, " El Perdido," Davie, StirUng, Vemet, 
Diehl, Usher, Barton, Heber, " Sta Isabel," Wyatt Smith, 
Gfaynor, Munro, McKinnon, Mundell, &c. 

There is no part of the Uruguay so well repays the trouble 
of a visit as this, and the traveller may make Paysandu his 
head-quarters from which to make excursions of 10 or 20 leagues," 
and taking in a round of English estancias. Paysandu is reached 
by steamer in 86 hours from Montevideo. It is a well-built, 
flourishing place, of 9000 inhabitants. The port is a mile from 



BUBAL DEPABTMENTS. 371 

tiietown, and connected by tramway. The new churcli towers 
above the rest of the town ; it was used as a fortress by Leandro 
Gomez, who held the place against immense odds in 1864, till , 
at last overpowered and put to death with his principal officers. 
The town suffered so much by the Brazilian bombardment, that 
it had to be in a great measure rebuilt. The Gefetura is a 
tasteful edifice with Grecian front, containing the judicial and 
other public offices, with a prison in the rear. Among the most 
popular Gefes who have lately held ofice are Colonel Mundell 
and Captain McEachen ; the former an old Scotch resident of 
the Queguay, whose life has been a romance of war. Another 
old resident, Mr. Williams, of Salto, has a saladero outside the 
town. Don Miguel Horta, agent for the Standard and Vice- 
, Consul for Spain, is the leading trader of the place, and his 
shop is a general rendezvous for foreigners. There is a good 
demand for carpenters, blacksmiths, and bricklayers. The 
Maua and Italian banks are handsome buildings. The best 
hotels are La Paz and La France, the former kept by Mme. 
Sinistri. Mr. Kemsly, the local lawyer, is of English extrac- 
tion, and most attentive to strangers ; his brother keeps a book- 
shop. Paysandii was founded in 1772, and takes its name from 
a missionary (Pay) or Padre Sandii, whose history is now for- 
gotten. Half a century later came the famous Padre Solano, 
with whose name are connected some remarkable ruins about a 
mile from the town. 

Padre Solano Garcia was a native of Spain, and came to 
Paysandii, . as Cura, about the year 1826. He built lime- 
furnaces, cultivated silkworms on a large scale, and raised 
chickens by steam, on one occasion hatching 1500. After 
divine service on Sundays he would mount his ox, which he 
had trained like a horse, with a bridle attached to a ring in his 
nose ; but what astonished the natives more than all was, that 
lie actually made a slate roof to his house. He meddled in 
politics, and was banished to Cuba : on his return he brought a 
breed of snails, things before unknown. His last scheme was a 

2 b 2 



372 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

subterranean saladero, inwMch lie constantly employed from 
30 to 50 men, under an experienced French master-builder. 

Paysandii is one of the great centres of the saladero business, 
over 250,000 head of cattle being MUed annually and exported 
as jerked beef. There are also several graserias for melting 
down sheep ; that of Mr. O'Connor, on the Arroyo Sacra, is 
close to town. The Arroyo San Francisco, 3 leagues out, is a 
favourite place for pic-nics, but sometimes the woods are in- , 
fested with robbers. A pleasant excursion may be made by 
bpat to' the Colon colony in Entre-Eios, nearly opposite. The 
Maud Bank is managed by Mr. Good. The public schools of' 
the department (including Fray Bentos) are 8 in number, 
attended by 476 pupils. Paysandii is 95 leagues N.W. of. 
Montevideo by land, the distance by water being much greater; 
it is 25 leagues S. of Salto, 96 W. of Melo, and 30 N. of the 
Eio Negro. 

Grossing the Arroyo Sacra, a half- hour's ride through fine 
rolling scenery, like that of an English park, takes us to 
Mr. Drysdale's estancia ; the owner has expended over 5O,O00Z. 
sterling. 

-Estancia de la Paz, the property of Mr. Eichard Hughes, 
situated at the junction of the Arroyos Negro and Eabon, comT 
prises 5^ leagues of land stocked with 100,000 sheep and cattle. 
Amongst the cattle is a herd of 1200 which have been crossed 
by short-horn Durhams. The sheep are mestizos, bred from 
Southdowns, Lincolns, and Negretti rams. 

The Saladero of Arroyo Negro is well worth a visit. It is 
5 leagues from Paysandii. The country abounds in game, and 
strangers speak in the highest terms of the kindness of 
Mr. Marion. 

Southward is the estancia Bella Vista of Messrs. Peile and 
Dunsmure. 

Buen Ketiro, the property of Mr. James Mohr Bell, is 
situated on a bluff overlooking the majestic Uruguay. 

Adjoining Buen Eetiro is the estancia known as Herrera and 



BUEAL DEPARTMENTS. 373 

Buselienthars ; close to the remains of an old saladero of the 
last century. The estancia of Messrs. Getting is near the 
Arroyo Eoman, and crossing the stream we come upon the 
extensive Iglesias property purchased by Baron Maud : it 
covers nearly 100,000 acres, but is thinly stocked and settled. 
There is an abundance of deer and ostriches ; an ostrich egg 
will make a dinner for eight persons, and sometimes thirty or 
forty are found in a nest. Baron Maua has a meat-preserving 
factory here. 

Ten leagues farther S.E. is the famous German estancia of 
Messrs. Wendelstadt, with a group of buildings. There is a 
large tract of ground under agriculture : it is a model estancia, 
and evinces the outlay of* a very large capital. - There are over 
100,000 sheep, some of the prize rams from Germany being 
*emarkahly fine. It is distant 10 leagues from Pray Bentos. 
'The banks of the Eio Negro are thickly wooded, and offer great 
attractions for shooting and fishing : the river is full of car- 
ijinchos, a kind of water-hog. Close by is Torre Alta, the 
'estancia of Mr. Eobert Yoimg, whose father was the first settler 
in these camps. Some fifty years ago there were two Scotch 
carpenters in Buenos Ayres, named Toung and Sterling, who 
had saved a little money, and hearing that these lands were for 
sale at ^800 a suerte (about 8d. an acre), came over and 
settled here. They suffered much during the civil wars, but 
Ijravely held their ground, and their descendants are now " lords 
of the manor " ' for leagues around, having sold a portion of 
their estates at twenty times the original cost. From the 
"mirador" at Torre Alta a splendid view is obtained: on a 
clear day Mercedes is visible beyond the Eio Negro. 

The Bichadero is a joint-stock estancia belonging to share- 
holders in England ; the land covers 10 square leagues (65,000 
.acres), and was purchased from the late Mr. Young, who planted 
the magnificent quadrangle of ombus that now stands near the 
house. The stock comprises over 100,000 sheep and horned 
cattle. The estate is managed by Mr. Theophilus Eicketts, 



374 HAKBBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

and ias all the newest appliances and most improved methods 
for cattle farming and agriculture. 

From this point the traveller may cross the Eio Negro, 
through the woods to the pretty town of Mercedes, and then 
drop down the Eio Negro in the passenger steamer, which 
meets the one for up-river at the Boca de Tagnary. 

From Paysandii you may ascend the Uruguay as far as 
Arroyo Malo, where the steamer calls, and there visit the 
splendid estate of the Wyatt-Smith family ; then ride over to 
Las Delicias, the picturesque country-seat of Dr. Wilson; on 
the banks of the Uruguay. 

Another route from Paysandu towards Tacuarembo, inland, 
will take us to the estancias of Mr. -Owen Lynch, Mr. Lietz, 
and the joint-stock English estancia established by Mr. Webster, 
The estancia Bsteban Chico covers 2^ square leagues,' and is 
managed ty Mr. Adolf Lietz for Mr. Herman Eedellien 
(a German who was for twenty-five years in business in Man- 
chester, and since 1863 resides on his estate Gebelzig, in 
Prussia). This estancia was established in 1864:, and has 
30,000 fine mestizo sheep. 

Fray Bentos is a thriving little port, which has recently 
sprung into notice through the factory of Extractum Camis 
Liebig. The nature of this beef-extract is already pretty well 
known : suffice it to say that it contains the soluble matter of 
thirty times its weight of flesh, and 1 lb. of it if boiled with 
potatoes will make broth for 128 men. The factory was begun 
by the late Mr. Giebert in January, 1864. 

The first shipment arrived in Antwerp in November, 1864, 
260 lbs. : it was pronounced by Baron Liebig as superior to his 
most sanguine expectations. Li 1865 the agent in Europe 
made a navy contract for 500 lbs. per month, whilst the demand 
from the general market was 1500 lbs. monthly. 

A joint-stock company, capital 500,000Z., was formed in 
London, and Mr. Giebert in 1866 got new machinery made in 
Scotland. The present great factory was concluded in May, 



EUEAL DEPARTMENTS. ' 375 

1868, and can kill 200,000 head in the season. The net profit 
, in the year 1872 amounted to 81,188Z. sterling. 

The factory is sitnated on a high barranca which overlooks 
the river, about 1 mile south of Fray Bentos. The extent of 
land fenced in around the factory is 6500 acres. The killingr 
ground covers 2 acres. Eighty animals per hour is the rate of 
killing. . The factory is in every respect the foremost one in 
South America. 

There are from 600 to 700 hands employed, who with their 
families number in all 1500 souls. 

The average consumption of coal is about 6000 tons per 
. annum, and about 6000 fanegas of salt are used for salting hides. 

By the old saladero system horned cattle produced only 
$2^ a head, whereas Mr. Giebert makes them yield ^16 to 
820. At the Paris Exhibition, out of 75,000 exhibitors, 
the only one article which obtained two gold medals was tBu 
Extraotum Carnis of this factory. At Vienna in 1873 it also 
obtained the grand gold medal, leaving Australian and others 
far- behind. Mr. Giebert died recently, but the business 
r continues. 

Pray Bentos seems to derive its name from some friar of 
olden time, but the official designation of the place is Villa 
Independencia. It is 38 leagues from Buenos Ayres and 
20 from Paysandii, steamers passing up and down almost daily; 
Last year the aggregate of arrivals and sailings from this port 
was 400 vessels. The statistics show 33 marriages and 88 
deaths for the year. The population is about 1500, and there 
are some old English residents, viz. Mr. Hammett, Mr. James 
Mooney, Mr. Dungey, Mr. James Oliver, &c. There is an 
English Mission under the charge of the Eev. Mr. Shells, who 
has a chapel, parsonage, and school. 

The department of Paysandii has 1,825,000 sheep, 748,000 
homed cattle, and 50,000 horses.* Local revenue, ^86,700 ; 
property valuation ^13,500,000 ; property tax ^54,000. There 

* There are 850 estanoias or cattle-farms, and 7500 acres uader tillage. 



376 ' HANDBOOK DF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

/ - 

are 640 licensed- dealers and sliopkeiepers. Weekly mails are 
sent inland calling at Paso Gutierrez, Algarrobos, Arroyo 
Grande, Corrales, and Quebraclio. The department returns 
1 Senator and 2 Deputies. 

SORIANO 

Is bounded on the north by the Eio Negro ; on the east, bj- the 
Arroyo Grande^ Ojolmi, and Perdido, separating it from San 
Jose ; on the south, by the Cuchilla Grande and Arroyo Sauce, 
separating it from Colonia ; and on the west, by the rivet 
Uruguay. Area, 347 square leagues, or 2,250,000 acres ; popula- 
tion 23,000. This fertile and picturesque department is watered 
by the Eio Negro and its aflSuents, the Bequel6, Cololo, Arroyo 
Grande, Durazno, Pelade, Ojolmi, and Mouzon. The waters of 
the Eio Negro are full of sarsaparilla, and much reconunended 
to invalids. Carboniferous strata are found on the banks of 
the Bequeld and O0I0I6; potter's clay is abundant, and iron 
is known to exist in large quantities. The woods and rivers are 
full of game and fish, but also much infested with " matreros," 
or freebooters. The pastures are very rich ; there are some fine 
estancias belonging to foreigners, especially that of , Baron 
Maua, near the town of Mercedes. 

The Maud estancia has an area of 100 square miles, say 70,000 
acres, with a frontage of 7 leagues along the Eio Negro. The 
stock comprises 100,000 sheep (including Bambouillet and 
other .fine breeds), 14,000 horned cattle, and 8000 horses. /The 
estate is furnished with all the latest improvements in farming 
implements and machinery. The estancia-house is only half a 
league from Mercedes by water, overtopping the surrounding 
woods of the Eio Negro. The h6use is said to have cost 
10,000/., and the of&cia;l valuation of the estancia is ^447,000, 
or, about 90,000Z. Another smaller estancia, belonging to Baron 
Maua, is near San Salvador, comprising 4^ suertes (say 24,000 
acres). If we count also the Laureles estancia in Salto and the 
Eoman in Paysandii, we shall find that Baron Maud's estates in 



eurAl dbpaijtmbnts. 377 

the Eepublic cover aliout 400,000 acres, and are valued at 
more than 250,000?- sterling. 

The tpwn of Mercedes was founded in 1771, and is charm- 
ingly situated on the Rio Negro, which is here a wide aiidi 
rapid river. It is much frequented in summer as a watering- 
place, owing to the medicinal properties of the river. There is 
a^ comfortable hotel, kept by a French Basque. The Maud 

; Bank is a fine building ; there is an extensive view from the 
mirador, following the course of the Negro, which is marked by 
a wiading belt of foliage down towards its mouth. The river is 
here 20 feet deep, and may be ascended in boats for a great 
distance. There is little of interest at Mercedes, unless for 
bathers or sportsmen. A steamer takes passengers up and down 
in connection with the Uruguay line. Mercedes is 64 leagues 
from Montevideo, and mail coaches run daily to and from 
Santa Lucia railway station. 

' , Within a few hours' ride of Mercedes are the fine estanoiais of 
Vernet, Eaphael, IDrabble, Shaw, &c., all on the most improved ' 
plans, and in the best part of Banda Oriental. 

Near Maciel is the Demarchi estancia, once known as Mall- 
mann's, on which over 50,000Z. were expended. 

Nueva Alemania, established by Messrs. Prange in the 
"rincon" between the Arroyo San Salvador and Eiver Uruguay, 
is one of the largest estates in the Kepublic, covering 9 suertes, 
or 40,000 acres, and supporting 150,000 sheep, besides horned 
cattle. The buildings, ofB.ces, puestos, &c., are in the best 
style ; there is a graseria on the bank of the San Salvador for 

'melting down 600 sheep daily. 

Soriano, from which the department takes its name, is an 

, almost deserted village at the 'mouth of the Rio Negro, with 
a few scattered houses, and a church .that reminds us of its 
ancient' importance. This place wag foimded so far Jback as 
1624, by Fray Bernardo de Guzman. It was the first " reduc- 
tion," or settlement of Indians made by the Spaniards at the 
Inouth of the Uruguay ; the site was admirably chosen, in the' 



378 : HANDBOOE OF THE EIVBB PLATK. 

midst of luxuriant pastures, and less than 100 miles from 
Buenos Ayres., Its present population is about 700, Th6' 
islands about the mouth of the river are often infested with 
piratess or " matreros." The steamer goes down the Tagnary ; 
the other mouth, Boca Falsa, is unnavigable. On the opposite 
side of the river is Eincon de Gallinas, where Flores landed 
with three men in April, 1863, when he began the series of 
wars which resulted in Brazilian intervention and the fall of 
Lopez of Paraguay. 

San Salvador, also called Dolores, was founded by Fray 
Bernardo de Guzman at the same time as Soriano, about 3^ 
leagues S.E. of that " reduction," on an arroyo that has taken 
the same name, 2 leagues from the coast of Uruguay. It is a 
thriving town of 1500 inhabitants, with a municipality, justice 
of peace, curate, post-office, schools, &c. The neighbours dedi- 
' cate themselves both to pasture and agriculture, for which the 
land is well suited. Sebastian Cabot founded a town in this 
vidinity, of which all trace is now lost. The Cerro Espinillo, 
above San Salvador, commands a fine view of the TJrugnay; its 
height being 283 feet. 

The department of Soriano has 6 schools, attended by 330 
children. There are 243 dealers who pay licence. The local 
revenue is g38,000. Yaluation of property, ^8,500,000. Pro- 
perty-tax, K32,859. Stock: 2,000,000 sheep, 340,000 cattle, 
120,000 horses. The department returns 1 Senator and 2 
Deputies. 

COLONIA 

Is boimded on the north by the Cuchilla Grande, feoflt Cerros de 
Ojolmi to the mouth of a little Arroyo called El Sauce, which 
disembogues into the Uruguay' near Punta Chaparro ; on the 
east, by the Arroyo Cufre, which descends from the Cuchilla de 
San Jose to the Eiver Plate ; and on the west and south by the 
rivers Uruguay and La Plata. Area, 214 square leagues, or 
1,500,000 acres ; population, 24,000. 

This department derives its name from the Colonia del Sacra- 



BUBAL DEPAKTMBNTS, 379_ 

mento, established in 1679 by the Portuguese Governor, D. 
Manuel Lobo, where the city of Colonia now stands. The 
country is in some farts, sterile and mountainous, but in general 
possesses splendid pastures, watered by the Tivoras, Las Vaoas, 
Juan Gonsalez, San Juan, Sauce, Colla, Pichinango, Eosario, 
and Cufre. It has a coast-line of 40 leagues along the La Plata 
and Uruguay. In the -vicinity of the Cuchilla Grande, near the 

,Cerros de Mahoma and the head-waters of the Pichinango and 
Colonia, are found scattered samples of auriferous quartz, as 
well as iron, lead, and marble. At the London Exhibition this' 
department was represented, among other things, by 53 samples 
of medicinal plants and 51 of timber, besides wool samples of 
superior quality. 

f * , There are some of the finest estancias in the country in this 
department, viz. : Martin Chico, belonging to Mr. George Bell, 
slinost opposite Martin Garcia ; Estanzuela, Mr. White's, near 
Colonia; Pichinango, Mr. Eickett's, on the Arroyo of that 
name ; Newton's, on the Arroyo Miguelete, near the Cerros de 
Ban Juan ; Locker's, on the Sarandi, &c. 

', The Waldensian and Swiss colonies in the neighbourhood of 

ifiosario Oriental claim special notice. La 1857 the first Vaudois 
emigration to Montevideo took place, about 140 leaving Pied- 
mont, impelled by the scarcity of employment in their native 
districts. These were followed, next year, by 100 more. Their 

-gumber now exceeds 1000 sotils. There are three directors 
resident in Montevideo, namely, the chairman, accountant, and 
treasurer. A manager resides at the colony, who has 5 capatazes, 
one for each of the 5 sections. The farms consist of 36 cuadras, 
or 72 acres each, measuring 300 x 1200 yards. Each lot is 
composed of 8 farms, 1200 x 24130 yards, with roads on every 
side, 45 feet wide. The colony has been in every respect a 
great success. The last call on the shares was paid up in 1863, 
and the shareholders received in 1869 a dividend of 33 per cent, 
on the original value of the shares. The company did not pay 
the passage of any of the settlers, but advanced them land, seed, 



380 HANDBOOK OF THE KIVEK PLATE. 

-ploughs, oxen, miloli cows, &c., the settlers giving the (jompany 
one-third of their crops for four years in repayment, the land 
becoming their own at the end of that period. The site pur- 
chased by the company in 1858 was 4 square leagues (26,000 
acres), about 6 miles from the mouth of the Arroyo Bosario, on 
the coast of the Eiver Plate. In 1861 a square league was sold 
for the establishment of the adjoining Swiss colony, and in 1863 
the Swiss took 1^ league more. The land is fertile, wheat 
giving from 14 to 20-fold. The village in the colony goes by 
two names, Eosario Oriental and Villa de La Paz. 

Almost all the farms are surrounded by ditches. There are 
about 500,000 poplar trees, and several vineyards, producing a 
good deal of grapes, and some of the colonists manufacture wine 
for their own use. There are numerous orchards, particularly 
of peaches. The manager's of&ce is in the Villa La Paz, where 
there are, besides, 16 brick houses, among these a steam flour- 
mill and a windmill. 

Almost all the families that compose this colony were inhabit- 
ants of the Alps near the sources of the Po, known as Waldenses, 
and profess the Evangelical worship. For the support of the 
clergyman the colonists give him every year two fanegas of 
wheat for each farm. 

The Swiss colony, Nueva Helvetia, was established in Sep- 
tember, 1861. The basis was to dispose of the farms at ^12 
per cuadra (25«. an acre), then to assist the colonists by loans 
of money to build and buy animals and provisions, &c., with a 
charge of 15 per cent, per annum. The founders of this colony 
were Messrs. Finder and Sigrist, who spent money too lavishly 
at the outset, and failed, after having expended 24,000Z. The 
land was then put up to auction in Montevideo, and fetched 
from ^4 to ^7 per cuadra (8«. to 14s. an acre). Those who 
bought are now able to get from ^14 to K30 per cuadra for the 
same. The present colonists are for the most part good pi^actical 
farmers, except those who make a living as artisans. Every 
year new colonists arrive, and they find it difficult to obtain 



RURAL DEPARTMENTS. 381 

good land either here or in the Waldensian colony at less than 
508. an acre. Don Juan Viotorica had 2800 cnadras adjoining 
the Waldenses, which he cut up into farms and sold to the 
Wsildenses or to new comers in 1869, at an average price of 20s. 
to 25«. an acre. Don Jnan Eamirez had 20,000 cuadras also 
close hy, of which he sold in one year (69-70) more than 8000 
acres at 18s. to 20s. an acre. It is probahle that in a few years 
the whole Einoon del Eey, as the district is called, with its 
,100,000 acres, will be taken up by colonists. The river Eosario 
is navigable for 12 miles, having 10 to 12 feet of water. The 
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo Telegraph Company has a station 
at the colony. 

Colonia del Sacramento is older than Montevideo, and was 
for many years a bone of contention between the Spaniards and 
Portuguese. Sebastian Cabot called the place San Gabriel; but 
it seems Juan Diez de Solis was here before him, and left two 
of his caravels anchored under shelter of the island (still called 
San Gabriel) while he proceeded to explore the Uruguay in a 
smaller craft. The city was founded by Manuel de Lobo, Portu- 
.guese Governor, in 1679, and has since undergone strange 
Imciseitudes. It was occupied by the English in 1807, and is 
•reckoned the best military position in the Eiver Plate. Its 
glory, however, has passed away, and the stranger walks through 
half-deserted streets and ruined buildings that tell of former 
bombardments. The present population hardly exceeds 1000. 
During the recent civil wars the place has suffered much. At 
intervals an Irishwoman, named Kelly (now dead), used to act as 
port captain, consul, postmaster, &o., and her hotel was a 
favourite resort for sportsmen. There is plenty of shooting 
about here, and a little steamer plies every day to and from 
Buenos Ayres in about four hours. The submarine cable of the 
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo Telegraph Company starts from 
here to Punta Lara, on the Buenos Ayres coast, being 28 miles 
long; it was laid down in October, 1866. The port of Colonia, 
according to Admiral Lobo, is the safest in the Eiver Plate, 



382 HANDBOOK OF THE BITEB PLATE. 

being protected by the islands San Gabriel, FaraUon, and Lopez. 
In 1869 Capt. Benjamin D. Manton opeijed his submarine rail- 
way and graving-dock, where vessels of 1000 tons are overhauled 
and repaired with the utmost ease, instead of having to send 
them, as before, to Eio Janeiro. It is proposed to enlarge the 
works, so as to accommodate vessels of 2000 tons. In the first 
four months after opening the dock there were no fewer than 
13 steamers (besides sailing-vessels) overhauled, some of them 
over 500 tons. Messrs. Waring Brothers are constructing a 
railway, branching off from the Central Uruguay at Santa Lucia, 
to connect Colonia and Higueritas with Montevideo, the Govern- 
ment guarantee being 7 per cent, on 10,000Z. a mile. There are 
two good inns at Colonia, one kept by Mr. Murtagh, the other 
by a French Basque. There are a church, schools, Comandancia, 
and a lighthouse ; this last is 120 feet high, with a light revolv- 
ing every three minutes, and visible 10 or 1 2 miles ; it was put up 
in 1857. Whenever the shipping and town of Buenos Ayres are 
visible, it is a sign of bad weather; the shipping sometimes" 
appear upside down in the sky, like the Sicilian Fata Morgana., 
Colonia is 46 leagues W. of Montevideo and 10 N.E. of Buenos 
Ayres. 

From Colonia some pleasant excursions may be made inland 
to the Swiss and Italian colonies, 30 miles distant; to the 
estanzuela of Mr. White, a kind of English model-farm ; to 
Mr. iPetty's ; to Mr. Newton's, on the Miguelete ; in all which 
places will be found a hospitable welcome and plenty of game. 
If preferable the traveller can procure a boat and visit the 
remarkable promontories of stone called Pipas and Barriles 
- (8 miles east), from their resemblance to wine-butts ; or, going 
north, steer for Martin Garcia (30 miles), which is termed the 
Gibraltar of the Eiver Plate. Some remarkable places are 
passed on the coast : Punta de Homos, where the Marquis of 
Casa-Tilly landed in 1777, when he destroyed Colonia. Cerros 
de San Juan (488 feet high), where Trala founded a colony on 
St. John's day, 1552, but which was razed by the Indians ; 



SURAL DEPAETMBNTS. 383 

Martin Chico, where the discoverer, Juan Diaz'' de Solis, was 

, murdered by the- Charruas. 

'i Martin Garcia is a granite rock, almost circular, about 2 mile^ 
in diotuliference, and 215 feet high, with the shape of a truncated 
cone. A smair landing-place is found on the north side. The 
island was a convict depot under the Spaniards, It is now 

; fortified, and has a small Argentine garrison, besides some 

(fishermen, and labourers employed in quarrying stone for the 
street .pavement of Buenos Ayres. The Argentine Eepublic 
took Martin Garcia from the Banda Oriental, to which it natu- 
rally belongs, but by the treaty of 1856 it is stipulated the 

* .position Shall be declared neutral in case of war. Nevertheless, 
as it is the key of the Parana and Uruguay, this stipulation 
would probably in such event be forgotten. The island takes 
its name from a pilot or boatswain of Solis, who fell overboard 
and was drowned here. A few shrubs alone grow on the arid 

•sides. Hell Channel, between the island and the mainland, 
2^ miles wide, has a dreadful current. Abreast of the island, 

Westward, is the Parana-Mini, and farther south-west another 
mouth of the Parana called Las Palmas. Large vessels have 
to go by the Boca de Guazii, which exposes them for 2 miles 
tq a fire froni the batteries of the island. 

•^fiCJarmelo, otherwise called Las Vacas, 13 miles N. of Martin 
Gfarcia, is a small port of increasing importance, at the mouth 
of the Arroyo de Las Vacas, into which flows the Arroyo Juan 
PQUsalez, a little above the town. It was founded in 1816. 
The surrounding camps are of remarkable fertility. Among 
the EngHsh settlers are Messrs. Mc Vicar, Ower, and others. A 
small steamer usually plies to Colonia and Higueritas. The. 

. Guazii mouth of the Parand, is exactly opposite Carmelo. 

: There are mails from Montevideo once a week. The population 
of the place is about 800; there are schools, post of&ce, comi- 

. saria, and some good shops ; the country is thickly wooded. A 

■'couple of leagues farther north is Las Vivoras, where a chapel 
was built about seventy years ago, but the place is now deserted. 



384 HAITOBOOK OP THE KIVEE PLATE. 

Funta Gorda, 20 miles N.N.W.:6f Martin Garcia, is the 
point where the Uruguay pours its waters into the Eivqr Plate 
at the rate, of 150,000 cubic feet per second, according to 
Mr. Bateman's measurement, whereas the Paran6 gives 520,000: 
per second, minimum rate. The Uruguay is here a mile across, 
with a deep-water channel of 86 feet. Punta Gorda is 94 feet 
high and covered with wood. Five miles higher up is Punta 
Chaparro, after which the river widens to 5 or 6 miles in 
ascending towards Fray Bentos. From Punta Chaparro to 
San Fernando (in Buenos Ayres) is the delta of the Parana. 

Sigueritas, or Nueva Palmyra, is midway between Points 
Gorda and Chaparro ; it was founded in 1829, and has 1000 
inhabitants ; it is a place of some trade in small coasting craft, 
with moles for landing and shipping goods. Mr. Gazzan is an 
old American resident. The Uruguay steamers going up or 
down touch here almost daily. The best inn is that kept by 
D. Antonio Berardo. Messrs. Halbach, Fox, and MUler have 
properties hereabout. 

Stock of the department : 1,500,000 sheep, 270,000 catoe, and, 
130,000 horses. Property valuation, ^5,000,000 ; property tax, 
^20,000. Local revenue, ^36,000. There are 364 licensed 
shopkeepers. The public schools, 6 in number, are attended 
by 344 pupils. The department returns 1 Senator and 2 
Deputies. 



( 385 ) 



CHAPTEE XXV. 



PAEAGUAT. 



This beautiful and ill-fated country is in the heart of the 
continent, its capital city being 1000 miles from the mouth 
of the Eiver Plate, thei only outlet connecting with the exterior 
world and civilization. The prolonged war of 1865-69 com- 
pletely destroyed the Paraguayan people, of which only some 
scattered remnants now survive, forming a kind of Eepublic 
tmder the protection of Brazil. 

It is bounded on the north by the Eio Apa, which separates 
it from Brazil, onthe west by the river Paraguay, on the south 
and east by the Upper Parana ; having an area of 90,000 square 
miles, between the 22nd and 27th degrees, of south latitude, 
and the S 5th and 58th of west longitude. The inhabited and 
cultivated portion never exceeded 20,000 square miles ; and 
although a census taken. in 1857 pretended to give 1,337,449 
Wabitants, the real population never could have reached more 
than 500,000 souls, and at present hardly exceeds 100,000. 
The munber of male' inhabitants who perished in the war is 
computed at 100,000, and a still larger number of women and 
cMldren died of exposure and starvation in the woods, the 
survivors in many cases having lived for months on bitter 
oranges. 

The Cordillera of Amanbay bisects the country, the eastern 
half being almost uninhabited, and the various towns and 
villages lying between this range and the Eiver Paraguay. 
The Yerbales or mite fields are principally found along the- 
base of the Amanbay, and on the opposite side of this ridge 
are the sources of five rivers which fejU into the Upper' Parana. 
The Tibiquari is the most important of seven Paraguayan 

2 



38B HANDBOOK OP THE BIVEE PLATE. 

rivers tributary to the Eio Paraguay; and Lopez had sent 
to England to build light-draught steamers for navigating it, 
as the districts on the northern bank are some o£ the richest in 
Paraguay. 

The climate is warm and dry, the soil prolific in all fruits 
and products of the tropical or temperate zones. The hottest 
months are November, December, and January, when the 
medium temperature is 90° in the shade, but it sometimes rises 
to 100°; the average in the winter months, May and June, 
is 50°, but falling at rare intervals to 40°. It is in the same 
latitude as Eio Janeiro, but free from yellow fever, or any 
other epidemics, and Dr. Stewart considers it one of the 
healthiest climates in the world. In the absence of sea- 
breezes — for it is 500 miles from the nearest point of the 
Atlantic, and 900 miles from the Pacific — the temperature is 
influenced by north and south winds, the former having, a 
relaxing tendency, the latter being a precursor of rain and 
storms. 

The appearance of the country is undulating, the vegetation 
luxuriant ; and stately forests, noble rivers, lofty peaks clad to 
the summit, and reflected in expansive lakes, give a charm 
to the scene that neither the bad roads, want of conveyances, 
nor other drawbacks can in the least diminish. Tigers, pumas, 
wild boars, rattlesnakes, tiger-cats, foxes, apes, monkeys, &o,, 
are to be met with in the woods, offering fine field for the 
sportsman or naturalist. The lakes and rivers swarm with 
crocodiles and lizards ; the former more properly of the cayman 
species, often 25 feet long, the lizards from 6 to 8 feet in 
length. Azara counts 448 kinds of birds, the prettiest being 
the viudita, or widow, no bigger than a canary. Bees and 
cochineal are common, and the locust pays periodical visits, 
sometimes devastating a whole district. 

The mineral resources have never been sufficiently explored. 
Just before the war Lopez brought out Mr. Twite, an eminent 
geologist, and other scientific men from Europe. Mr. Twite 



PARAGUAY. 387 

found precious metals in different places, and iron in great 
abundance. An old Swedish doctor of the time of Francia 
discovered medicinal herbs of great value, and Bompland made 
an extensive collection of flora, which was sent home to the 
French Government. Forests cover a large portion of the 
country, and Du Graty enumerates 51 different kinds of timber, 
especially suited for building, some as hard as iron, and of such 
specific gravity that they sink when thrown into water ; these 
kinds are much used in Buenos Ayres by builders. Copper 
is found in some places, iron in many parts; the iron of 
Caapucii and Quiquio yields from 30 to 36 per cent, pure iron, 
and the iron-works of Ibicuy, which employed over 100 opera- 
tives, were useful to Lopez during the war. Still more useful 
would have been salt, the want pf which cost Paraguay thou- 
sands of brave soldiers, as their constitution was so enfeebled 
tlmt their wounds would not heal. 

Government monopolies greatly interfered with trade imder 
the Lopefe regime ; the chief products were bought by govern- 
ment agents, and all freedom of trade was unknown. Never- 
theless the commerce of Paraguay showed a wonderful develop- 
ment in the ten years succeeding the fall of Eosas in Buenos 
Ayres, who had kept Paraguay hermetically shut in by closing. 
the rivers. The following returns for the decade show aa 
increase equal to seven-fold up to 1860 : — 

Imports. Exports. 

1851 230,917 .. .. 347,616. 

1855 431,835 .. .. 1,005,900 

1859 1,539,648 .. .. 2,199,678 

1860 885,841 .. .. 1,693,904 

The excess of exports over imports in ten years amounted to> 
.83,850,014 (the dollar being about 3s.) or 577,502?. sterling,, 
which was expended in the arsenal, railway iron, arms, and 
educating youths in .|3urope; The Custom duties in I860' 
produced ^289,653 (say 44,000?.), of which two-thirds were on 

2o 2. 



388 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVER PLATE, 

imported goods and one-tMrd on exported produce, the former 
paying 20 per cent., the latter 5 per cent. , ad valorem. Yerba 
belonged to the Government and paid no duty, but gold or 
silver coin even introduced by travellers paid 10 per ceni 
leaving the country. Duties were paid and transactions made 
on the principle of one-third in gold or silver, and two-thirds 
in paper-dollars, which^ fluctuated from about 30 to 36 pence 
English. 

The trade returns for 1860, when Charles Antonio Lopez, 
commonly called Lopez I., was at the zenith of his power, 
showed how little Paraguay depended on the eisterior world for 
the necessities or comforts of life, her exports aniounting to 
double her imports, viz. : — 

Impoets. 

Silks $31,285 

WooUens 133,656 

Linens and cottons 340,053 

Hardware ... ,. 29,851 

Wines and spirits 79,016 

Groceries .. 155,665 

Haberdashery and shoes 56,353 

/ Miscellaneous .. 59,962 

885,841 ^ , 

Exports. 

Yerba-mate $1,093,860 ' 

Tobacco 292,833 

Dry hides 187,787 

Tannedditto 22,858 

Bark for tanning 22,474 

Oranges .. 23,465 

Timber .. .. 14,799 

Miscellaneous 35,828 

1,693,904 

' The territorial division under the Lopez dynasty consisted of 
twenty departments, viz. : 



PAKAGUAT. 389 

Asuncion. Guazucua. Villa Eica., 

San Salvtidor. Desmochados. Cuazapd. 

Concepoion. Igatimi. Mieiones. 

San Pedro. Cupuguaty. Yuti. 

Kosario. Estanislao. Bobi. 

Oliva. San Joaquin. Eucamaeion. 

Villafrauca. Cordillera. 

Each had a town or village with Ipcal authorities, such as 
Oomandante, Justice of Peace, and Curate : the police adminis- 
tration was the most perfect imaginable, and a system of 
espionage pervaded the whole country. Crime was so rare that 
murders or robberies were unknown, and the traveller might go 
unarmed through the wildest forests of the interior. There 
were no public conveyances, and it was difficult to travel unless 
by order of Government, when changes of horses were obtained 
everywhere, and the Justice of Peade provided such hospitality 
as is foimd in other countries in inns. 

When Lopez II. succeeded to power the standing army, on 
jeace footing, was 12,000 men, including horse, foot, and 
artillery, besides a reserve or militia of 46,000 well-disciplined 
men. The army and fortifications counted 200 pieces of 
cannon, some of the heaviest having been made at the Asuncion 
arsenal. The soldiers were often employed as navvies ; at one 
time 6,000 were at work on the railway to Villa Eica. 

Notwithstanding the military conscription the agriculture of 
the country was well attended to, the women taking a great 
part in the labours of the field. The quantity of land under 
tillage in 1863 (one year before the war) was stated in official 
registers at 28,000,000 "linos" or 650,000 acres, viz. : 

Indian corn 240,000 acres. 

Mandioca 110,000 „ 

Beans 75,000 „ 

Cotton 32,000 „ 

Tobacco 23,000 „ 

Sugar-cane 25,000 „ 

Mani 11,000 „ 

Eioe, vegetables, &e 34,000 „ 

550,000 „ 



390 HANDBOOK or THE BIVEE PLATE. 

There were very few landed proprietors, three-fotuths of the 
country being Government lands, Mostly confiscated from the 
Jesuit Missions in the last century, when the Fathers were 
expelled : the Government granted the lands at a nominal rent 
to the cultivators, and small "copueras" of maize, mandioca, 
tobacco, and cotton were met with every mile along the high- 
roads during the prosperous times before the war. After the 
fall of Lopez a survey was made by the new Government in 
1870, when the public lands were found to comprise : — 

Sq. Leagues. Sq. Miles. 

Arable lands 7,100 .. .. 42,600 

Mountains and forests .. .. 4,500 .. .. 27,000 

Yerbales 840 .. .. 5,040 

Public lands 12,440 .. .. 74,640 

Private ditto 2,560 .. .. 15,360 

15,000 .. .. 90,000 



The Paraguayan league being only 5,000 varas or 2^ miles, 
the square league is only equal to 6 square miles. The arable 
lands are still devoted chiefly to agriculture, although the want 
of hands is such that the best districts are not half cultivated. 
The tobacco plantations look very pretty when nearly ripe : the 
plants are put down in September, like cabbages, and trans- 
planted in November : the gathering commences in January, 
the leaves are hung out to dry, until the " acopiador " or broker 
comes round to buy. The best kinds of tobacco are known as 
Canela and Pard, the former often fetching J dollar per lb. 
The cigars called Peti-Hobi and Peti-Pard are largely exported, 
especially by Messrs. Zambonini, who have a large factory near 
Asuncion and an agency in Buenos Ayres. The home con- 
sumption of tobacco is large, as men, women, and children all 
smoke. It gives three crops a year: the home consumption 
used to be estimated at 15,000,000 lbs. annually, besides 
6,000,000 lbs. exported. At the Paris Exhibition of 1855 a gold 



PABAGTTAT. 391 

medal was awarded to this tobacco. The statistics for 1870, 
show 3,500,000 lbs. exported, representing a value of 8150,000. 

Maize and mandiooa form the chief support of the in- 
habitants, who raise little or no wheat. Maize is a sure and 
prolific crop, giving often 150 for one, and mandioca is as 
gpneral as potatoes in Ireland or macaroni in Italy, the people 
being eminently vegetarians, and using a bread called " ohipa " 
of oily flavour but not disagreeable. Sugar-cane might be cul- 
tivated more largely and successfully if there were machinery : 
a considerable quantity of molasses is produced, and Paraguayan 
cafia is a liqueur equal to Chartreuse or Eosolio. Eiee is 
grown for home consumption, similar to Carolina, and yielding 
as much as 250 for one. Mani is a kind of nut, esteemed a 
delicacy all over South America. 

The forests have numerous varieties of stately trees, most 
useful for building, the samples at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 
attracting much notice : there are also several Mnds of bark 
suitable for tanningi The forest that extends to Paraguari to 
Yaguaron arid Ita covers several square miles, and is only about 
30 miles from Asuncion, with good roads and easy access to 
Ytagai, whence there is a railway to the city. The orange 
plantations are so nimierous all over the country that the fruit 
has oply a nominal value. 

The yerbales, which cover about 3,000,000 acres, are far in 
the interior, and were worked for many years by the Indians of 
the Jesuits, through whom the yerba-mate became known all 
over the continent, and "used instead of tea or coffee. It is con- 
sidered wholesome if taken in moderation and without milk or 
sugar, being usually sucked through a' silver tube from a small 
gourd which gives its name to the beverage. Of late years the 
use of mto has much diminished in Buenos Ayres. Lopez 
used to pay the " acopiadores " ^1 50 cents, for 25 lbs., and 
sell it to exporters at double that price, but it has since risen 
to 2s. per lb. in Buenos Ayres. The exportation in 1870 is 
said to have reached 4,500,000 lbs. (probably an exaggeration). 



392 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVBB PLATE. 

representing a value of 290,000Z. sterling. The exported value 
under Lopez never exceeded 160,000Z. per annum (in 1860), 
when the -quantity exported was 4,463,425 lbs. 

Asuncion, the capital and centre of commerce, is situated on 
the left or eastern bank of the river Paraguay, in 25° 16' 29" 
south lat. and 57° 42' 42" west long., at an elevation of 
182 feet over the city of Buenos Ajnres, from which it is distant 
970 miles. It was founded on the feast of the Assumption of 
the Blessed Virgin, August 15th, 1536, by Commander Ayolas 
at the head of 300 Spaniards. It is therefore much older than 
Buenos Ayres, but preserves to-day much of its mediseval 
character, and during the last three centuries its population has 
perhaps never exceeded 30,000 souls, although Du Graty 
estimated it in 1860 at 48,000 ; at present it is barely half this 
number. The situation is picturesque, about 50 feet over the 
river, which is here 605 yards across: the depth of the Eio 
Paraguay varies from 20 to 72 feet, with a current of 2 nules 
per hour, and Commander Page registered a fall of 13J feet 
between October and February. The arsenal is the first part of 
the ciiy which is seen on approach ; it was built for Lopez by 
Messrs. Whitehead and Grant in 1861, and for some time occupied 
300 men, including the saw-mill attached. There were 30 English 
mechanics, besides a few French or Germans, the rest being 
natives: in three years they constructed seven mail-steamers 
which used to ply to Montevideo, besides cannon, stoves, bells, &c. 
The public' buildings are very fine, especially the Government- 
house, cathedral, railway-station, Lopez's palace, custom-house, 
theatre, &c. The streets are, as in all Spanish towns, chess- 
board fashion, the city being cut into blocks of 80 yards square, 
with streets 15 yards wide, often impassable from sand. There 
is a tramway to the river-side, owned by an English merchant of 
Buenos Ayres. The market-place is an interesting sight at day- 
break, crowded with country women selling their tobacco, fruits, 
&c. The shops are poor, but some beautiful gold purse rings 
are made, like those in China, which the traveller should buy. 



PABAGUAT. 393 

The arcades around the market are used for shops. The houses 
aie not flat roofed, but mostly tiled, as was common in the 
seventeenth century, with wide corridors. 

The railway from Asuncion traverses a most delightful 
country for 40 miles, as far as Paraguari. On leaving the city 
the first object to attract notice is the house wherein the tyrant 
Prancia lived and died. Close by is the quinta which belonged 
to the unfortunate Dr. Berjes, minister of foreign affairs, shot 
by Lopez ; here was a fine collection of exotics and rare plants, 
and at the foot of the cliff overlooking the river is the Chorro 
waterfall, a favourite bathing-place. The Trinidad church 
marks the place where old Lopez was buried, and after crossing 
Campo Grande we find ourselves amid mandioca plantations, 
succeeded by orange and palm groves as we approach Luque, 
10- miles from town. Soon we get sight of the Cordillera, clad 
to the summits in luxuriant vegetation, and now bursts upon 
the traveller's view the magnificent lake of Tpacaray (covering 
an area of 40 square miles), which begins at the village of 
Aregua. Now the line skirts the lake for some miles, passing 
the glorious peak of Ytagud, at the foot of which was the 
summer-palace of Mrs. Lynch during the Lopez regime. The 
"cajon," or valley ef Pirayu, offers a charming spectacle, 
wooded Mils rising up on either side, and appearing to close it 
in at the further end, where the Cerro Mbatovi lifts its head in 
the clear sky. There is a belief among the country people that 
St. Thomas the apostle dwelt in a cave in this mountain, where 
a small chapel now exists. We pass Cerro Leon, where Lopez - 
had his head-quarters when preparing for the war in 1865, that 
was to cost him life and Sceptre on the field of Aquidaban four 
years later, and to leave his country a wilderness. His father 
began this railway in 1859, under the engineers Burrell, Valpy, 
and Thompson, who made it as far as Paraguari, when it was 
stopped, midway to Villa Eica, by the war. Paraguari is a 
small village, only remarkable as one of the great Jesuit 
establishments in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; they 



394 HANDBOOK OF THE ElVEB PLATE. 

had farms herewitL. 30,000 iead of cattle, and the old registers 
show the names of English or Irish fothers. Near Paraguari is 
the Cerro Porteno, where a Buenos Ayrean army under General 
Belgrano was defeated in 1811. The route of the railway to 
Villa Rica would pass Gerro Acay, but the line will hardly be 
prolonged unless purchased from Government by an English 
company. 

Villa Bica was a place of considerable trade and population, 
and famous for the manufacture of cigars, being situated in the 
midst of a fertile coimtry between the rivers Tibiquary and 
Tibiquary-Mini, the former navigable for small vessels. It 
stands 323 feet above Asuncion, from which it is distant 108 
miles. The situation is picturesque, surrounded by tobacco 
and mandioca farms, with hills running east and west covered 
with noble forests of morosimo, tatayba, and other woods, like 
mahogany, very suitable for furniture. The old Jesuit church 
and college were destroyed by Francia. The population was 
about 2000, and it ranked as the second town in Paraguay. 

Pilar, formerly known as Nembucu, is in front of the 
Bermejo, a little above Humayta, where Lopez had his great 
fortress. It was the only part in Eranoia's ,time open to com- 
merce ; and no strangers were allowed to penetrate farther into 
Paraguay. It stands about 20 feet above the river, the houses 
being mostly roofed with the trunks of palm trees, divided and 
the pith taken out, which lasts for over 30 years as an excellent - 
roof. 

Villa Franca, 59 miles above Pilar, is the chief town of the 
district of that name, which is separated from that of Pilar by 
the river Tibiquary. The lands of Villa Eranca are among the 
best in the country. 

Oliva, 12 miles above Villa Eranca, is another " chef du 

' departement," but only a village, remarkable for the fine forests 

of lapacho, quebracho, urunday, catigua,. &c., on the opposite 

banks of, the Chaco side. Lope^ had " guardias" every league 



PAEAGUAT, 395 

along the Paraguayan bank, to watch Indian marauders from 
the Chaco, the river varying from 600 to 1000 yards in 
width. 

Yilleta is a pleasant village 62 miles above Oliva, commanding 
the approach to the capital, this being the most difficult pass in 
the river. A few miles lower, the worst part of the pass is called 

'Angostura, and here Colonel Thompson held at bay for some 

' months the whole fleet and array of the Allies. Between Villeta 
and the capital is the magnificent peak of Lambare, a conical 
hill of basaltic formation, wooded to the summit, rising abruptly 
from the river's edge to a height of 312 feet, and called after a 

^ valiant Cacique who fell fighting against the S|)anish invaders, 
and is supposed to be buried at the base. 

■ Villa Occidental, about 10 miles above Asuncion, on the op- 
iposite side of the river, was founded by Lopez in 1854 with a 
number of French settlers, who gave it the name of Nouvelle 
Bordeaux, being situate just above the delta where the Pilcomayo 
falls into the Paraguay. The first settlers attempted to escape, 
but most of them either perished in the Chaco or were re- 

i captured and imprisoned, until the survivors were released at the 
instance of the French Government. After the faU of Lopez 
the place was occupied by the Argentine Government and de- 
dared capital of the Chaco territory, with a Governor and mili- 
tary garrison. There are about 600 inhabitants, some of whom 
raise oranges and sugar-cane, and Messrs. Gebeler have estab- 
lished a steam saw-mill. 

The Pilcomayo was four times partially explored,- by Father 
Patino in 1721, by Casales in 1735, by CastaSares in 1741, by 
Thompson and Magarinos in 1844. It is still imperfectly known, 
the latest exploration in these regions being that of Captain 
Cmiey's party, who in 1873, after four months of hardship, reached 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, the nearest town in Bolivia ; both Cilley 
and Thompson were Americans, but the latter is not the same as 
the defender of Angostura, who is an Englishman. The Pilco- 



396 HANDBOOK OP THE BIVBE PLATE. 

mayo rises in ike Andes north-west of Potosi, and after receiving 
the Caohimayo and other tributaries descends in a south-east 
direction to the river Paraguay, where it debouches almost in 
front of Asuncion. 

Romrio is a village about 90 miles above Asuncion, situated 
in a charming country of woods, guyayava groves, yarumus, &c. 
Near this was the great estate of Oaprepomo, belonging to 
Lopez, and the country abounds with game. k 

San Pedro, just above the confluence of the Jejuy and Para- 
guay ; the former rises in the Paraguayan cordiUera, traverses 
the Yerbales, and affords easy freight for the yerba. The rivers 
here abound in pacii and other fine fish. 

I Goncepcion, about 200 miles above Asuncion, was a flourish- 
ing town, deriving much importance feom the yerbales, 70 mUes 
inland. Some 30 miles higher is the mouth of the Aquidaban, 
on the banks of which stream Lopez fell in March, 1870. 

Salvadoc, 70 miles above Concepcion, is the last town of any 
importance in Paraguay before reaching the Brazilian frontier, 
about 100 miles higher. It is 520 miles from the confluence of 
the Paraguay and Paran4 at the Tres Bocas, and Captain Page 
found 15 feet of water all the way. The inhabitants manufac- 
ture ropes from the Caraguatay filaments, of the aloe tribe. In 
the time of the Jesuits they wove it into cloth, and Father 
Pobrizhoffer mentions that the stockings made of its thread 
were sent to France and pronounced superior in strength and 
softness to silk. • 

There is no town or place of note on the Upper Parand, 
except Itapica, formerly one of the most flourishing missions, 
but since used only for a military outpost on the Argentine 
frontier of Misiones.' The remains are seen of a stone church, 
once rich with statues of the twelve apostles in silver and fine 
wood-carving, which was first stripped by Francia, and pulled 
down by Lopez in 1846 ; the dimensions are stated by Captain 
Page at 320 feet long by 80 wide. The old Jesuit college is now 
used by the Comandante of the district, as found also in many 



PAEAGTTAT. 397 

of the other ruined missions through Paraguay, the buildings 
being uniformly as perfect as when occupied by the Fathers. 

The first Jesuit settlement was made' by Fathers Field and 
Ortega, in 1557, and in seventy years the missions extended along 
tte Upper Uruguay. But the Paulistas, having commenced a 
slaye trade, made descents upon the peaceful Misioneros, and 
Captain Page says that 60,000 Indians were sold in Eio Janeiro 
marfeet-place, in two years (1628-30). Some of the Jesuits 
perished in defending their missions. Father Montoya col- 
lected 12,000 survivors of the Guayra missions and moved down 
to Loreto on the left bank of the Paran4, abandoning San Jose, 
Los Angelos, San Pedro, San Pablo, San Cristobal, Jesus-Maria, 
Sant' Ana, San Joaquin, Santa Theresa, San Carlos, Apostoles, 
and San Nicolas, where 100,000 converted Indians had perished 
\or been carried oS captives by the Paulistas. A new Ghristain 
Eepuhlic was now established out of reach of the Mameluco 
slave-hunters. Each mission was built in a uniform style, with 
a great plaza in the centre, and here were erected the church, 
college, arsenal, stores, workshops of carpenters, smiths and 
weavers, all under the Fathers' immediate care. Every Monday 
the male inhabitants went through drill, infantry and cavalry 
prizes being given for the best musketeer marksmen. 
,: Church ceremonies were regularly performed every day, the 
cMldren beginning with morning-prayer, followed at sunrise by 
Mass, at which the whole population attended. Baptisms took 
place in the afternoon ; vespers were sung every evening as a 
close of the day's work. Marriages were celebrated on all 
holidays or festivals. Charlevoix describes the processions on 
grand fete days as magnificent. The Indians were excellent 
musicians and singers. The dress of both sexes was of native 
cotton, the men wearing shirts and short trousers, the women 
caps and loose gowns. The schools and workshops were admir- 
ably managed, and the wood-carving of the Misioneros of olden 
time still excites the wonder of the traveller. The language 
spoken was Guarani, and printing-of&ces were established at 



398 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

Santa Maria and San Javier in the seventeentli and eighteenth 
century, from which issued many works, the following being stUl 
extant. 

4 

' Temporal and Eternal,' by P. Nieremberg, 1705. 
' Jesuit's Manual for Paraguay,' 1724. 
' Guarani Dictionary,' 1724. 
' Guarani Catechism,' 1724. 

'Sermons and Examples,' by Tapaguay (probably a native Jesuit), 
1724. 

Two of the above are in possession of the priest at Villa Bica. 

The total population of the Jesuit reductions in 1740 was 
ascertained to be over 140,000 souls. In 1767 the jealousy of 
the Spanish Government decreed the expulsion of the Fathers, 
who offered not the least resistance. In 1801 a census was 
made by Soria, and the survivors of the thirty missions only 
numbered 43,639, having lost two-thirds of their population 
during thirty-four years. Many of them had taken to the 
woods ; the plantations were abandoned ; cattle, sheep, and 
horses were destroyed, and the traveller cannot but view 
with regret the crumbling remains of the fine monuments that 
once were the glory of a happy and progressive people under 
the Jesuit Eepublic. 

An interval of about forty years occurred from the expulsion 
of the Fathers to the overthrow of the Spanish authorities, and 
then began the iron rule of Dr. Gaspar Francia. At the death 
of Francia, the supreme authority was seized by Carlos Antonio 
Lopez, the latter on his death-bed transmitting the power to 
his son, Francisco Solano, commonly known as Marshal Lopez. 
The Government was nominally a republic, but as absolute 
as under the tyrant Francia. Nevertheless, during twenty 
years, great progress was made, and if the ambition of Lopez II. 
had not blinded him the country would have rapidly risen to 
importance. 

Not content with the title of Marshal President, he aimed at 
proclaming himself Emperor, and conquering adjacent territories. 



PAEAGUAT. 



399 



In December, 1864, he made a descent on the Brazilian province 
of Mai to Grosso, meeting little or no resistance. In April, 
1865, he invaded the Argentine province of Corrientes, and 
shortly afterwards marched 10,000 men into Eio Grande. 
Neither the Argentines nor Brazilians were prepared for this 
sudden aggression, and as Lopez had over 60,000 well-equipped 
troops, he might have over-ran half the continent, if his energy 
were equal to his ambition. But he did not head the army in 
person, and his generals allowed the allies to collect armies 
while the Paraguayan columns remained inactive. Thus one 
Paraguayan corps d'armee was cut to pieces at Yatay, in 
Misiones, while another under Estigarribia surrendered in 
TJruguayana to the Emperor of Brazil commanding in per- 
son. These disasters were followed by the destruction of the 
Paraguayan fleet at Eiachuelo, in a battle of twelve hours' dura- 
tion, with a superior force of Brazilian iron-clads (June 1866), 
The evacuation of Corrientes followed, Lopez now assuming a 
defensive warfare, and assembling all his strength between the 
fortress of Humayta and the Tres Bocas. After some dreadful 
battles, such as the Boqueron, in which some days of fierce 
fighting resulted in a victory claimed by both sides, the Allies, 
under General Mitre, attempted a combined attack by land and 
water on the position of Curupaity (Sept. 1866), and were 
defeated with such slaughter that the campaign was on the point 
of being abandoned. Lopez refused very advantageous terms, 
although disease and privation had begun to make havoc among 
his gallant troops ; he still held conmiand of the river, Humaytd 
remaining impregnable. In February, 1868, a great flood 
enabled the Brazilian iron-clads to pass the fortress, which was 
soon afterwards evacuated as untenable. This decided the fate 
of the war, although Lopez continued to maintain a desperate 
defence. Angostura, with a small garrison under Colonel 
Thompson, held out for several months, keeping at bay the 
whole allied army and fleet, tUl forced by hunger to surrender, 
with all the honours of war. After a useless and protracted 



400 HANDBOOK OF THE EIVEE PLATE. 

struggle in the mountains of the interior, Lopez was at last 
overtaken and killed at Aquidaban, in March 1870. 

Since the fall of Lopez the name of Paraguay has only been 
heard in connection with two London loans, and sk disastrous 
attempt to establish an English colony. The first loan, in 1871, 
was for 1,000,000?. sterling ; the second, in 1872, for 2,000,000Z. 
bearing 8 per cent, nominal interest, the scrip falling after a 
time to 25. The proceeds were to go for pubUc works, espe- 
cially prolonging the railway to Villa Eica, which has not been 
done. Messrs. Eobinson and Fleming got up the expedition of 
what were called "Lincolnshire farmers," about 800 people of 
all kinds, of whom 160 died of privation and hardship at ltd 
and Paraguay, two were murdered by natives, and the rest, after 
a few months, were removed to- Buenos Ayres at the expense, 
and by the charitable efforts, of H.M. Charge d' Affaires, 
Mr. F. St. John, the St. Patrick's Association, and the foreign 
bankers and merchants of Buenos Ayres. 

The internal condition of the country has been a hopeless 
state of anarchy. During the first year of President Jovel- 
lano's being in office, there were three revolutions, the rebels 
shutting up the Government in Asuncion. At last, natives and 
foreigners were so wearied of this state of things, that they 
begged the Brazilian garrison to afford some protection. The 
Brazilian troops marched out (April, 1874) and beat the rebels, 
since which time Paraguay is virtually under a Brazilian pro- 
.tectorate, and enjoys some peace. 



( 401 ) 



CHAPTEE XXVI. 

THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

These islands properly belong to Buenos Ayres, being 2 SO 
miles from the coast of Patagonia and 300 in an E.N.E. direc- 
tion from the Straits of Magellan; they form the only 
considerable cluster in the South Atlantic, having a total area 
of 7600 square miles. They were discovered by Davis in 1592, 
visited by Hawkins two years later, and successively held by 
French and Spaniards. After the Independence the Govern- 
ment of Buenos Ayres established a colony there in 1820, under 
the late Mr. Vernet; but some American cruisers burnt the 
settlement in 1831, and in 1833 the British Government seized 
the islands for the purpose of offering a refuge to whalers or to 
vessels that might have sustained injuries in doubling Cape 
Horn ; they form at present the most southerly colony owned by 
Britain, and enjoy a most healthy climate. East Falkland has 
an area of 2,000,000 acres. West Falkland 1,500,000 acres ; 
besides these two principal islands there are 100 small ones. 
Port Stanley is much resorted to by vessels rounding Cape 
Horn, and is the seat of government and trade; there are 
several sheep-farmers in East and West Falkland, the total 
population in 1871 being 812 souls, but now about 1000, The 
highest peak is Mount Adam, 2315 feet over the sea; and 
another is called Mount Viale, after an Italian of that name in 
Buenos Ayres, who gave up his own life in the loss of the 
'America' (December 25th, 1871), to save Madame M, Del 
Pont. 

The Government is vested in a Governor and Executive 
Council, appointed by the Crown, the present governor. Colonel 
Daroy, being an officer of long and hazardous services on the 

2 D 



402 HANDBOOK OP THE RIVER PLATE. 

West Coast of Africa. The exports, cMefly wool, are alinost 
double the imports, the returns for 1872 being — 

Imports £24,737 

Exports 38,353 

Eevenue and Expenditure 12,000 

There is a regular mail service by means of the pilot-boat, 
' Foam,' to and from Montevideo, by which communication is 
kept up with England; and at intervals British war-vessels 
lying in the Eiver Plate visit the FaUdands. 

We are indebted to Henry Byng, Esq., Colonial Secretary, 
for the following notes on the condition and prospects of these 
islands. 

Up to the year 1867 sheep and cattle farming had been 
confined to the East Island, and one or two of the small islands 
adjacent to the West Falklands. The principal sheep-farms 
were those belonging to the Falkland Islands Company; and 
others, on a smaller scale, were owned by Capt. Packe at , Port 
Fitzroy, Mr. Dean on Pebble Island, Mr. Littlejohn on New 
Island, and the South American Missionary Society, at their 
station on Keppel Island. The chief owners of cattle are the 
Falkland Islands Company, Captain Packe, Mr. Bonner, and 
Don Andrez Petaluga ; but as the outlet for beef was small, 
being confined to the supply of the limited market at Stanley, 
the business was not found to be lucrative. Cattle are decreas- 
ing in numbers rapidly, and the opinion has gained ground that 
sheep properly looked after are the most payable investment to 
be had. 

In the year 1867 the first settlement was made on the West 
Falkland Island, and so rapidly was the land taken up that the 
whole was absorbed in the course of the next two years. At the 
same time large additional tracts of land have been occupied in 
the East Island, and but little of any consequence on eith^ of 
the larger islands is now available. ' ' 

The chief drawback experienced by sheep-farmer£ has been 



TB;I! FALKLAND ISLANDS. 403 

the scab ; but it is, fortunately, so far exterminated that several 
estancias are perfectly free from it, while in others it has been 
to a great extent put down. The grasses of the Falklands 
possess the most remarkable fattening properties as far as 
sheep are concerned ; a wether in ordinary condition seldom 
weighs less than 70 lbs. dressed for market, while 100 lbs. and 
even llGlbs. are no uncommon weight. Wool grows well, and 
in some flocks exceeds an average of 8 lbs. per sheep ; it has a 
tendency to grow coarse, which is the effect of the peculiar 
climate. 

The principal stockholders are the Falkland Islands Com- 
pany, who have, since their establishment in the year 1802, 
spared no expense to develop the resources of the islands ; their 
chief settlement is . the camp at Darwin Harbour, on the 
isthmus which divides their freehold of Lafonia (so called 
from one of the principal founders of the Company, the late 
Samuel Lafone, Esq., of Montevideo) from the rest of the island, 
and 70 miles distant from Stanley. Their sheep land extends 
to within 15 miles of Stanley, along the northern shore of 
Choiseul Sound, and by Mount Pleasant and Port Titzroy on 
the one side, and by the southern shore of Choiseul Sound as 
far as Low Bay on the other. Their sheep number between 
'50,000 and 60,000, and are of the Cheviot breed, with a slight 
admixture of South American, of which the original flock con- 
sists. Their last clip of grease wool realized lid. and llJtZ. 
per lb., and as a combing wool has for some seasons been much 
approved of ijn Bradford. 

- The Company has also " rodeos " of tame cattle, amounting to 
over 4000, and on their freeholds wild cattle, variously esti- 
mated in number from 15,000 to 25,000, which from their hides 
form a source of income. 

There are no other farms of any extent as yet in either 
island, although the West bids fair to show a good account of 
wool in the course of a year or two. 

2 D 2 



404 HANDBOOK OP THE EIVBR PLATE. 

LANDHOLDERS. 

East Falelanss. 
Falkland Islands : — acres. 

Freehold 800,000 

Leasehold 132,000 

932,000 

Captain E. C. Packe 74,000 

Mr. John Bonner 61^000 

Don Andrez Petaluga 98,000 

Mr. E. Greenshields 42,000 

Don Jose Llamoso 12,000 

Messrs. Sharp and Eobson 24,000 

„ Felton Brothers 32,000 

„ E. and G.Cobb Lively Island. 

Mr. C. H. Williams Speedwell Island. 

West Falklands. 

Messrs. Packe Brothers .. .. 118,180 

„ Baillon and Stickuey 148,790 

„ Bertrand and Holmested 171,120 

Mr. J. L. Waldron 103,920 

„ J. MoClymont 100,000 

„ C. H. Williams 124,680 

„ W. D. Binney 21,0p0 

„ G. M. Dean 90,400 

Messrs. J. M. Dean and Son Pebble Island. 

„ Bertrand and Holmested . . . . New Island. 
South American Missionary Society . . Keppel Island. 

GOVBENMENT OFFICIALS. 
Colonel George D'Arcy . . . . Governor, 

I Colonial Secretary, 
Shipping Master, and 
Postmaster. 
Edward Eoger Griffith . . . . Stipendiary Magistrate'. 

Arthur Bailey Sarveyor^General. 

Horace N. Watts, M.D Colonial Surgeon. 

Charles Conyngham Turpin . . Clerk of the Courts. 

George Travis Collector of Customs. 

Eev. Charles BuU, M.A. . . Colonial Chaplain. 

Harbour Master Charles Melville. 

Lighthouse Keeper .. .. William Brown. 

Assistant ditto George Biggs. 

Eight Eev. Waite Hockin Stirling, D.D., Bishop. 

MiLITABT. 

Lieut. I. Drury Eoyal Marines. 

John Fisher, E.N Garrison Surgeon. 



( 405 ) 



APPENDIX. 



HISTORICAL EECOUD. 



1515. River Plate discovered by Juan Diaz de Soils. 

1527. Setastian Cabot explores the Paranii and" Uruguay. 

1530. Buenos Ayres founded, under invocation of the Holy Trinity. 

1531. The fort and settlement destroyed by the Indians. 

1535. Second foundation by Pedro de Mendoza : also destroyed. 

1537. Asuncion del Paraguay founded by Ayola. 

1544. Irak greatly extends the Spanish dominions. ' 

1553. Santiago del Bstero founded by Aguirre. 

1555. Arrival of the first bishop, Francisco la Torre. 

1559. Garcia de Mendoza founds Mendoza and San Juan. 

1565. Villaroel founds Tucuman. 

1573. Cabrera founds Cordova. 

1573. Juan de Garay founds Santa Fi city. 

1580. He marks out the city of Buenos Ayres, June 11th. 

1582. Lerma founds Salta. 

1588. Corrientes founded by Alonzo de Vera. 

1591. Velazco foTinds Eioja, and, in 1592, Jujuy. 

. 1596. Loyola founds San Luis. 

1609. Jesuit missions of Paraguay founded by Padres Mazeta and 

Cataldini. 

1622. Jesuit missions along the Upper Uruguay. 

1628. Paulista Indians carry off 60,000 captives from Misiones. 

1680. Colonia founded by the Portuguese. 

1726. Montevideo founded by Zavala, Governor of Buenos Ayres. 

1730. Spain cedes Misiones to Portugal ; Indian settlements broken up. 

1767. Expulsion of the Jesuits ; destruction of the Misiones. 

1776. Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres created, under Pedro de Zeballos. 

1782. Census : Buenos Ayres ' territory, 170,832 inhabitants ; and 

Paraguay, 97,480. 

1806. English invasion undei: General Beresford, who capitulates. 



4.06 APPENDIX. 

1807. Second invasion, under General Whitelooke, who also capitulates. 

1808. Liniers named Viceroy. 

1810. Eevolution of Buenos Ayres, May 25th. 

1811. Belgrano invades Paraguay, and capitulates. 

1812. He beats the Spaniards at Tucuman and Salta. 

1814. Spanish garrison expelled from Montevideo. 

1815. Campaign of Artigas in Banda Oriental. 

1816. Declaration of Argentine Independence, at Tucuman, July 9th. 
1818. General San. Martin beats the Spaniards at Maypu, and eman- 
cipates Chile. 

1821. He liberates Peru, and enters Lima in triumph. 

1821. Banda Oriental annexed to Brazil. 

1825. Revolution of Lavalleja and thirty-two others, against Brazil. 

1826. Buenos Ayres declares war against Brazil. 
1826. Admiral Brown chastises the Brazilians. 

1826. Eivadavia introduces many reforms. 

1827. Alvear beats the Brazilians at Ituzaingo. 

1828. Brazil gives up Banda Oriental, and makes peace. 
1828. England guarantee the independence of Banda Oriental. 
1830 to 1852 Civil wars, and tyranny of Eosas. 

1852. Eosas overthrown by TJrquiza. ■ 

1853. Urquiza expelled from Buenos Ayres. 

1856. Introduction of gas. 

1857. Western Eailway inaugurated ; the first in these countries. 

1859. Battle of Cepeda : Buenos Ayres capitulates. 

1860. Buenos Ayres re-enters the Argentine Confederation. 

1861. Dreadful earthquake at Mendoza. 

1861. Battle of Pa von : gained by General Mitre. 

1862. General Mitre unanimously elected President. 

1863. Plores invades the Banda Oriental. 

1864. Brazil invades the Banda Oriental. 

1865. Paraguay declares war. 

1866. The Allied army (Argentines, Braziliaus, and Orientals) invade 

Paraguay. 

1867. Siege of Humaitd. 

1868. General Plores murdered at Montevideo. 

1868. Don Domingo P. Sarmiento elected President. 

1869. First Census of Argentine Eepublic taken (1,836,490 pop.). 

1870. Conclusion of Paraguayan war ; death of Lopez. 

1870. Assassination of General Urquiza. 

1871. Plague at Buenos Ayres; Public Works Loan (6,000,000Z.). 



APPENDIX. 407 

1872. Eailways, telegraphs, and free libraries through the interior. ' 

1873. City of Buenos Ayres improvements commenced. 

1874. President Sarmiento succeeded by President Avellaneda. 

WOBKS PUBLISHED ON THE EIVEB PLATE. 

Schmidel's Conquest of La Plata, in 1534. Nuremberg, 1559. 

Alvar Nunez's Commentaries. Madrid, 1560. 

History of Paraguay and La Plata. By Buy Diaz de Guzman. 1573. 

Jesuit Missions. By Oharleroix and Guevara. 

Eelation of E. M.'s Voyage to Buenos Ayres, &c. London, 1716. 

Muraturi's Missions. (English translation.) London, 1759. 

Father Faulkner's Patagonia, in Latin. England, 1774. 

Letters from Paraguay. By John C. Davie. London, 1805. 

Travels from Buenos Ayres to Lima, &c. By A. Z. Helms, London, 

1806. 
Vice-Eoyalty of Buenos Ayres. By Samuel H. Wilcocke. London, 

1807. 
Whitelocke's Expedition. By an Officer. London, 1808. 
Eio de la Plata. By Felix Azara; Paris, 1809. 
Dean Fimes's History of Paraguay, &c. Buenos Ayres, 1816. 
Provinces of La Plata. By D. Vicente Pazos. New York, 1819. 
Captain Head's Eide Across the Pampas. London, 1828. 
Humboldt's Travels in South America. Price, 12s. 6d^ London, 1831. 
The Chaco and Eio Vermejo. By Arenales. Buenos Ayres, 1833. 
Castlenau's Expedition to South America. Paris, 1836. 
Plata — Staaten. By Kerst. Berlin. 
Eobertson's Letters on Paraguay. Edinburgh, 1838. 
Pedro de Angelis's Eecords of Buenos Ayres. Buenos Ayres, 1839. 
Eobertson's Prancia's Eeign of Terror. London, 1840. 
Id,, Letters on South America. London, 1843. 
Eesearohes by Fitzroy and Darwin. London, 1844. 
M'Canu's Adventures in the Paiapas. Dublin, 1846. 
Colonel King's Souvenirs of Buenos Ayres. New York, 1847. 
Buenos Ayres, from the Conquest. By Sir W. Parish. London, 1852. 
Map of the Eepublic of Uruguay. By General Eeyes. Montevideo, 1853. 
Mansfield's Paraguay and Eiver Plate. London, 1854. 
La Province de Buenos Ayres. Par Heusser et Claraz. Zurich, 1854. 
Commander Page's La Plata. New York, 1856 ; new ed., 1873. 
Celebridades Argentinas. Buenos Ayres^ 1859. 
La Confederation Argentine. By M. de Moussy. Paris, 1860. 
The Argentine Eepublic. By Colonel Du Graty. Brussels, 1861. 



408 APPENDIX. 

Eepublio of Paraguay. By the same. , Brussels, 1862. 

M'OoU's Guide to Montevideo'. London, 1862. 

Hinchcliif s South American Sketches. London, 1862. 

Handbook to the Eiver Plate. By M. G. & E. T. Mullhall. 1863. 

Rickard's Journey Across the Andes. London, 1863. 

Historia Argentina. By Dominguez. . Buenos Ayres, 1864. 

Burmeister's Travels in £he Provinces. Berlin, 1864. 

Alberdi on the Argentine Eepublio. Paris, 1864. 

Pillado's Guia de Buenos Ayres. Buenos Ayres, 1864. 

'Hutchinson's Argentine Gleanings. London, 1866. 

PalUSre's Eiver Plate Album. 52 plates. Buenos Ayres, 1866. 

An Account of Paraguay. By Oh. Quentin. London, 1866. 

Map of Province of Buenos Ayres. Topographical Department. 1866. 

States of the Eiver Plate. By W. Latham. Price, 12s. London, 1867. 

The Argentine Alps. By Boss Johnston. London, 1867. 

Modem Paraguay. By M. Pouoel. Paris, 1867. 

Map of City of Buenos Ayres. Topographical Department. 1^68. 

Eandom Sketches of Buenos Ayres. Edinburgh, 1868. 

Life in the Argentine Eepublic. By D. P. Sarmiento. Price, 8s. 

New York, 1868. 
Hadfleld's Visit to La Plata. Price, 10s. Qd. London, 1868. 
Hutchinson's Parani and La Plata. London, 1869. 
Burton's Battlefields of Paraguay. London, 1869. 
Col. Thomson's War in Paraguay. London, 1869. 
Mastermann's Seven Eventful Years in Paraguay. London, 1870. 
Washburn's History of Paraguay. New York, 1871. 
Musters At Home with the Patagonians. London, 1872. 
Beck Bernard's Emigrant Guide to La Plata. Berne, 1874. 
Eickard's Eesources of the Argentine Eepublic. London, 1871. 
Seymour's Notes on Camp Life. London, 1869. 
Guinnard's Three Years' Captivity in Patagonia. Paris, 1870. 

Aeqentinb Trade Ebpoet for 1878. 

Imports. Exports. 



England 19,344,143 

France 18,255,138 

Belgium .. .. 2,967,586 

United States ' .. 5,167,616 

Italy 3,784,384 



9,894,007 
8,677,819 
13,891,508 
3,032,945 
1,487,925 



Carried forward 49,518,867 36,984,204 



APPENDIX. 



409 



Imports. 

s 

Brought forward 49,518,867 

Spain 2,952,600 

Chile 1,444,182 

Brazil .. ..' .. 2,968,953 

Uruguay .. .. 2,735,299 

Germany .. .. 3,228,015 

Holland .. .. 1,611,616 

Other Countries .. 1,999,341 



$66,458,873 



Exports. 

36,984,204 

1,231,697 

2,365,475 

769,464 

992,949 

449,597 

226,204 

2,100,515 

$45,122,105 



(These figures may be reduced to £ sterling by dividing by 5.) 
If we take the years 1872 and 1873 together, we find the exports 
about 20 per cent, less than imports in the same period, viz. : — 

Exports of 1872 cmd 1873. 



363,725,000 lbs. of wool 
181,300,000 lbs. of jerked beef 
205,902,000 lbs. of tallow . . . 
128,070,000 lbs. of sheepskins 
5,661,000 03C and cow hides 
Horse-hides, bones, metals, &c. 



Imports for 2 years 



Excess of imports 



; Value. 

S 

38,530,000 

4,120,000 

12,872,000 

9,916,000 

12,322,090 

12,322,000 

99,002,000 
121,093,900 

$22,091,000 



By comparing the import returns of 1873 with those of 1870, we 
find that the imports from England and France have increased 50 per 
cent., from United States 80, from Grermany 110, from Belgium. 150, 
fi-om Italy 120, from Spain 35, from Holland 30 per cent. There is a 
decline of 10 per cent, in Brazilian merchandise. 

Geowth of Expoets in 20 Yeaes (1853-1873). 



1853. 


I860. 


1870. 


1872. 


Salted 03c-hides .. 400,831 


420,525 


774,806 •> 
1,824,895 , 




Dried „ .. 604,868 


1,241,968 


3,121,758 


Horse-hides .. .. 129,905 


278,613 


102,250 


208,509 


Wool .. ..bales 20,514 


42,275 


160,369 


210,000 


Sheepskins .. „ 1,398 


10,715 


67,294 


49,021 


Jerked beef .. qq. 275,000 


424,839 


647,532 




Value in £Bt £1,400,000 


£4,240,000 


£8,200,000 


£9,100,000 



410 



APPENDIX. 



Growth of Kbvenue in 10 teaks (compared with Chile). 





Argentine. 


Chilian. 




« - 


% 


1863 .. . 


6,478,683 


6,700,659 


1864 .. . 


7,005,328 


6,574,918 


1865 .. . 


8,295,071 


7,301,043 


1866 .. . 


9,568,554 


6,197,111 


1867 .. . 


12,046,287 


.. ' 9,756,838 


1868 .. . 


12,496,126 


10,694,974 


1869 .. . 


12,676,680 


11,484,806 


1870 .. . 


14,833,905 


11,537,781 


1871 .. . 


12,682,155 


11,681,032 


1872 .. . 


18,172,379 


13,843,000 


1873 .. . 


20,160,380 


15,392,557 



Progeess during 5 tears of Presidbnt Saemiento's 
Administeation. 

President Sarmiento in opening Congress for the last time in May 1874 
reviewed the progress made by the country since he ascended to power in 
1868. Trade and revenue doubled, public schools quadrupled, 5000 . 
miles of telegraphs constructed, 500 toiiles of railway completed, immi- 
gration risen to 100,000 souls yearly, and many other features of 
national development. The administration will also be remembered 
for havingHaken the first census of the Kepublio, held an international 
Exhibition at Cordoba, established an astronomical observatory, opened 
140 free libraries in the Provinces, and contracted a loan of 6,OOO,O00Z. 
sterling for public works. For the first time in history the Argentine 
Government saw its stock reach par on the London Exchange; and 
- each year President Sarmiento opened Congress he had to announce 
that the increase of revenue exceeded the estimates. In 1873 the 
receipts reached 20,160,000|f, say 4,120,000Z. sterling, or 50,000Z. 
over the estimates last year for Canada, which has just double our 
population. The increase of 1873 over the preceding year was 
2,000,000, equal to 11 per cent., and the excess of receipts over esti- 
mates 1,000,000, while the ordinary expenditure was 3,500,000 less ; 
all these flattering results were neutralized by the Entre Eios 
rebellion which cost 16,000,000 dollars between the two revolts of 
1870 and 1873. 



APPENDIX. 411 



1 

Foreign Capital in Public Debts and Joint-Stock Companies , 
IN THE EivBR Plate. 

Argentine Government. ^ ^ 

Eiestra Loan, 1865 2,138,000 

Public Works, 1871 5,71&,100 

Hard Dollar Loan, 1872 1,224,000 

Total due on 1st of March 9,079,100 



jBtteraos Ayres Government. 

Loan, 6 per cent. 1824 819,400 

„ 3 „ „ 888,200 

„ 6 „ 1870 1,001,800 

„ 6 „ 1873 2,040,800 

Total due on 1st of March 4,750,200 



Entre Sios Government. 
Loan, 7 per cent. 1872 214,900 

Santa Fe. 
' Loan, 7 per cent. 1874 300,000 

Bepublic Uruguay. 

Mont, 6 per cent. 1864 640,000 

1871 3,360,000 

Total due on 1st of March 4,000,700 

JParagiiay. 

8 per cent. Public Works, 1871 . . . . 973,400 

8 „ „ 1872 .. .. 1,958,800 

Total due on 1st of March 2,932,200 

Total National debts Eiver Plate £21,277,100 



412 APPENDIX. 

Prom the same authentic source we take the capitals of foreign 
companies in the Eiver Plate. 

/ £ 

Buenos Ayres and Ensenada Railway 350,000 

Buenos Ayres Great Southern 997,200 

„ Dolores Extension 332,800 

„ 6 per cent. Debenture Stock 119,300 

Central Argentine .. .. 1,300,000 

„ 7 per cent. Bonds J 364,500 

, Centl-al Uruguay 7 „ „ 300,000 

„ 7 „ Preference Shares .. .. 942,000 

East Ai-gentine 7 „ ' 640,000 

Northern of Buenos Ayres 140,000 

„ „ Deferred 55,000 

Ordinary 40,000 

North- West Montevideo 7 per cent. Mort 600,000'. 

London and River Plate Bank 200,000 

„ „ „ New Issue 400,000 

Mercantile Bank 399,600 

GermanBank 200,000 

Buenos Ayres National Tramway 140,000 

Central Argentine Land Company 130,000 

City Buenos Ayres Tramway 350,000 

Liebig's Meat Factory 357,200 

Montevideo Gas Company .. .. ." 500,000 

Anglo-Argentine Mining Company 60,000 

Platino-Brazilian Company 90,100 

„ „ ■ First Mort 100,000 

City Buenos Ayres Tramway Debenture Stock . . . . 95,000 

Uruguay and Higueritas 7 per cent. Mort ' . . 600,000 

North- West of Montevideo Mort 300,000 

10,092,700 

National debts Eiver Plate 21,277,100 



Total 
nies 



foreign capital in National debt and Compa-'* 

i on Mai-ch 1st, 1874 j~dl,d69,800 



Moneys, Weights, Mbasuees, and Distances. 

Bv,enos Ayres. 

In Buenos Ayres the basis of the currency is the paper dollar or 
" peso," worth 2i^ English, 25 " pesos " being equal to a hard dollar, 
such as used in North America. In all fexchange operations, and the 



APPENDIX. 



413 



like, only specie is used, the sovereign being taken for |4: 90c. silver, or 
for $122i paper. The gold coins of .England, North America, France, 
,gpain, and Brazil are a legal tender throughout the Eepublio, at the 
following rates : — 



Twenty francs 
Chilian condor 



SUver. 

$ 
4-90 
3-90 
9-25 



Paper. 

$ 
122J 

97J 
231i 



Twenty milreis . . 
United States eagle 
Doubloon 



Silver. Paper. 

$ $ 

11-00 275 

10-00 250 

16-00 400 



In the upper provinces almost all transactions are earned on in 
Bolivian silver, the value of which slightly fluctuates at times. - The 
Bolivian dollar averages about 3s. English, or twenty-one to the 
doubloon. 

The weights and measures are — 



1 vara, equal to 34 English inches. 

1 cuadi-a „ .. 150 varas. 

40 cuadras „ . . 1 league. 

6000 varas „ . . 1 „ 
1 sq. league, equal to 6500 Eng. acres. 



1 arrobc, equal to 


.. 25 lbs. 


4arrobes „ 


.. 1 quintal. 


20 quintals „ 


1 ton. 


80 arrobes „ \ 


.. 1 „ 


00 lbs. ' „ 


.. 1 „ 



In calculating distances, twelve cuadras may be estimated as an 
English mile. The superficial ouadra covers about four acres, and is 
also called a "manzana": there are 1600 "manzanas" in a square 
.'league of land. A "suerte" of estancia usually measures li leagues 
long, by half a league wide, comprising 27,000,000 square varas : a 
square league of land contains 36,000,000 varas. 



Montevideo. 

Smce the redemption of the paper money (11th November 1872), 
the currency is fixed on the basis of a dollar worth 52i. English, or 
4 per cent, more than the North American dollar. 



Mexican dollar 



Montevidean $. 
0-96 



Sovereign 



Montevidean ^ 
4-70 



The weights and measures are the same as in Buenos Ayres ; but 
the cuadras are only 100 varas square, so that a league is said to be 
60 cuadras long, and a superficial league to contain 3600 manzanas : of 
course, the league is exactly the same length as in Buenos Ayres. 



ili 



APPENDIX, 



Paragiiay. 

The table of weights is the same as in Buenos Ayres. The land 
measure is very different — 

1 league, equal to . . 5000 varas. I 1 manzana, equal to . . 1| Eng. acres. 
1 sq. league „ 3600 manzanas. | 1 «q. league „ 4500 „ 



Table of DisTAircES from Buenos Atees. 



Spanish 
Leagues. 

London 2500 

Lisbon 2200 

Cape Verde 1550 

Pernambuco .. .. 850 

Bahia 700 

Rio Janeiro 450 

New York 2300 

St. Thomas 1800 

Para 1250 



Cape San Roque . . 
Rio Grapde do Sul 
Montevideo .. 
Bahia Blanoa 
Welsh Colony 
Falkland Islands . . 
Magellan's Straits 
Cape Horn . . 



Spanish 
Leagues. 

920 

150 
40 

200 

350 

450 

600 

680 



Rosario (S. FS) 
Santa ¥6 
Parana .. 



Biver Parana. 



75 
117 
185 



La Paz . . 

Goya 
Corrientes 



160 
210 
260 



Tres Bocas . . 

Humaita 

Rio Vermejo, mouth 

Asuncion 



River Paraguay. 



265 
275 
278 
340 



Pan de Azucar 
Fort Coimbra 
Curumb^ 
Cuyaba . . 



460 
510 
555 
640 



Paso la Patria 
Falls of Apip^ 



Upper Parana. 

270 I Tranquera de Iioreto . . 315 
310 I Salto de Guayra .. .. 450 



Eiver Uruguay. 



Fray Bentos.. 
Rio Negro, mouth 
Gualeguaychii 
Concepcion .. 
Paysandu 



20 
40 
50 
70 
80 



Salto .. . 
Santa Rosa . 
Uruguayana 
San Borja . 



110 
140 
160 

*.,20|^ 



APPENDIX. 



415 



Upper Provinces. 
Spanish 



Frayle Muerto 
Eii'Cuarto .. 
Cordoba 
San Luis 
Mendoza 
The Andes . . 
San Juan 



100 
130 
150 
170 
225 
240 
245 



Rioja 

Catamarca . . 
Tucuman 
Santiago del Estero 

Salta 

Jujuy .. .. .. 

Oran, Rio Vermejo 



SpaniBh 
Leagues. 

250 

260 ; 

270 

220 

310 

330 

350 



CaSuelas 

San Vicente . . 

Lobos 

Navarro .. 

Guardia Honte 

Kancbos, . . 

Gbascomus 

25 de Mayo . . 

Las'Flores 

Dolores ., 

Ensenada 



Province of Biienos Ayres. 
(Soutk) 



11 

10 
18 
17 
19 
20 
24 
35 
32 
39 
10 



Tuyu 

Tandil 

Azul 

Mar Chiquita . . 
Cape Corrientes 
Laguna los Padres . 
Kepochea 
Tres Arroyos . . 
Bahia Blanca . . 



19 
46 
60 
55 
66 
78 
74 
80 
98 
115 



(North.) 



Pilar .. 
dapilla -. . 
Zarate . . 
Giles .. 
San Antonio 
Baradero 
San Pedro 
Obligado . . 
Bamallo .. 



10 
14 
16 
20 
21 
27 
31 
35 
44 



San Nicolas . . 
Arroyo Medio 
Arrecifes 
Carmen de Areco . . 

Salto 

Pergamino 

Eojas 

Fort Melincue' 



45 
46 
33 
27 
34 
42 
43 



Lujan 

Mercedes 

Chivilcoy 



(West.) 



13 
20 
31 
39 



Chacabuco 

Junin 

Nueve de Julio 

Saladillo 



36 
45 
48 
33 



416 



APPENDIX. 



Comparative Table of Time. 
When it is noon at Buenos Ayres it is at — 

Hours. 

Montevideo 12 

Bio Janeiro 12 

Pernambuco 1 

Valparaiso 11 

New York .. ■ 10 

Cape de Verde Islands . . . . 2 

London 3 

Paris 4 

St. Petersburg 5 

Berlin 4 

Constantinople 5 

Borne 4 

Lisbon 2 

Calcutta 9 

Pekin 11 

Sydney ■ .. 1 

Cape of Good Hope 5 



Minutes. 


Scqonds. 


8 


43 P.M. 


42 


57 „ 


34 


9 » 


7 


50 a.m. 


58 


35 „ 


43 


32 P.M. 


53 


13 „ 


- 2 


57 „ 


54 


50 „ 


47 


11 „ 


29 


46 „ 


43 


25 „ 


17 


2 „ 


46 


57 „ 


39 


31 „ 


58 


30 A.M. 


7 


31 P,M. 



Land Law at Buenos Ayees. 

Government price. Is. per acre. 

The law passed on 3rd August, 1871, contains the following 
clauses : — 

1. Public lands on the frontier to he put iip for public auction twice a 
yearj viz. January and June, after three months' notice in the journals. 

2. Lots to be of 8 square leagues, say 13,300 acres. 

3. Minimum price as follows : — 

5001. per league outside the frontier of 1858, and not contained 

in the partidos hereinafter named. 
580Z. per league in Lincoln and Nueve de JuUo on the western 

frontier, and Tres Arroyos on the seaboard. 
650Z. per league in Necoohea on the seaboard, and Bragado 

Junin and Eojas on the west and north frontier. 

4. Fractions under 2 square leagues will be sold to private parties at 
the above rates, without auction. 

5. Payment in all cases to he made in eight years in this manner : — 

10 per cent, in cash on receiving deed of sale. 

90 per cent, in eight yearly instalments, free of interest. 

6. A year's grace allowed for any instalment, charging 1 per cent. 



APPENDIX. 417 

interest per month. ; if unsatisfied after twelve months the land to he 
again put up to apction. 

7. If the Indians carry off the cattle the Governmeilt will ^Uow 
double .the term for the instalments, and without interesL 

8. If lands were previously occupied the buyer must take improve- 
ments at a valuation. 

, 9. The districts of Bahia Blanoa and Patagones are excluded from the 
present laws. , ' 

10. If the purchaser wish to pay ca^h instead of taking eight years 
for payment he will be allowed discount and 6 per cent, per annum 
(reducmg the price by about 150Z. per square league). ■ ■ 

Note. — The price therefore (at eight years) of the above lands is from 
lid. to 2s. per acre, or paying cash say 13d upwards. The distance 
from Buenos Ayres city varies from 50 to 100 leagues. 

TARIFFS AT BUENOS ATKES. 

, Post Office. 

Letters by British mail-steamer leaving Buenos Ayres on the 9th and 
15th of each month pay Is. postage either here or in England, but 
must have an Argentine stamp of 5 cents. 

By French mail-steamer twice a month, 8i. and Argentine stamp. 

By Southampton steamer leaving Buenos Ayres 30th, or other 
steamer than the four mentioned above, the English postage is only erf. 
'.' liewspalpers go free through South America, but the British post 
office charges \d. Eegistering a letter costs 25 cents extra. 
i: Unclaimed letters are advertised in lists hung round the courtyard. 

Hackney Coaches. 

'■> Fromi one part to another of the city, $20. 
By the hour, iirst hour, $25, afterwards, $20, 

WJialeboats. 

Imier roads, $60, outer, $150, if party does not exceed five persons ; if 
more, each person pays $10 and $25 respectively. If carts are used, $30, 

if row-boats, $10. 

Street Porters. 

Any distance not exceeding 10 squares, $10, and $1 per square extra 

for each trunk. ' 

Livery Stahles. 

Horses may be had for $50 a day, but on Sundays $100. 

■2 B 



418 APPENDIX, 

Telegraph Messages. 
Through the Argentine provinces 25 cents, to Montevideo 1 hard 

dollar, to Chile 3 dollars. 

I ■ 

ABGENTINB AGENTS ABKOAD. 

His Excellency D. Mariano Balcarce, Minister Plenipotentiary at Paris 
and London. 

His Excellency D. Manuel Garcia, Minister Plenipotentiary at Wash- 
ington. 

His Excellency D. Felix Frias, Minister Plenipotentiary in Chile. 

His Excellency D. Luis L. Domingu'ez, Minister Plenipotentiary in 
Peru. 

His Excellency Dr. Uriburu, Minister Plenipotentiary in Bolivia. 

FOREIGN MINISTERS AT BTTBNOS ATRBS. 

His Excellency Hon. Lionel Sackville West, Great Britain and Ireland. 

His Excellency M. Ducros Auhert, France. 

His Excellency M. Le Maistre, Germany. 

His Excellency Baron Araguaya (Magalhaes), Brazil. 

His Excellency M. Blest Gana, Chile. 

His Excellency General Oshorn, United States. 

His Excellency M. Hofer von Hohenfels, Austria and Hungary. 

His Excellency Dr. Irigoyen, Peru. 

ARGENTINE CUSTOMS DIJTIBS. 

1. Books, printing materials, and paper, plants, fruits, ice, tobacco for 
sheep, gold and silverj also articles for church use, scientific instruments, 
machinery for steamboats or new industries, furniture and effect? of 
immigrants are imported duty free. 

2. Ploughs, coal, iron, lumber, salt, silk, vprought gold or silver, steam 
thrashers or reapers pay 15 per cent. 

3. Precious stones pay 8 pei- cent. 

4. Ail other articles pay 25 per cent, ad valorem. 

5. Hides, wool, sheepskin, beef, tallow, feathers, and bone-ash pay 
6 per cent, ad valorem export duty. 

6. All other articles are exported duty free. 

7. Allowance of 10 per cent, for leakage of wines, &c. from Europe. 

ENGLISH CLEKGT IN THE EIVBE PLATE. 

*Eev. Canon Dillon, Irish Chaplain General, Buenos Ayres. 
Eev. Dr. Smith, Church of England, Chaplain, Buenos Ayres. 



APPENDIX. 



419 



- • Eev. James Smith, Soots' Cliuroh, Buenos Ayres. 

Eev. J. Jackson, American Methodist Church, Buenos Ayres. 

Eev. N. Lett, Assistant English Chaplain, Buenos Ayres. 
*Eev. Samuel O'Eeilly, Irish Chaplain, Luian. 
*Eev. M. Lynch, Irish Chaplain, Mercedes. 
*Eev. Michael Leahy, Irish Chaplain, Carmen de Areoo. 
*Eev. John Leahy, Irish Chaplain, Eojas. 
*Eev. John Plannery, Irish Chaplain, San Nicolas. 
*Eev. J. MuUady, Irish Chaplain, San Antonio. 
*Eev. P. Grennan, Irish Chaplain, Capilla del Seiion. 
*EeT. James Curran, Irish Chaplain, Lohos. 
*Eev. Monsigndr Curley, Irish Chaplain, Chascomus. 

Eev. J. Gehbie, Scotch Chaplain, San Vicente. 

Eev. M. Ferguson, Scottish Chaplain, Chascomus. 

Eev. J. Hoskins, English Chaplain, Montevideo. 

Eev. J. K. Law, Assistant Chaplain, Montevideo. 

Eev. Mr. Sheils, Assistant Chaplain, Entre Eios. 

Eev. Mr. Coombe, Assistant Chaplain, Eosario. 
*Eev. Father Burke, Santo Domingo, Buenos Ayres, 
*Eev. Father Davis, Irish Chaplain, Montevideo. 
*Eev. J. MacNamara, Irish College, Mercedes. 
•Eev. Dr. Miller, Parish Chaplain, Belgrano. 

%* Those marked with an ast&risk are Catholic clergymen. 



Salaries of Aeqbntine Officials (reduced to English Money), 

Per Ami. 
£ 
.. , 4000 
2000 



President 

Vice-President 

Cabinet Minister . . .. 1800 

Sub-Secretary .. .. '500 

Ai-chbishop 1000 

Bishop 700 

Canon ' 220 

FederalJudge .. .. 1700 

Sectional „ ■ ., .. 600-1200 

Brigadier-General .. ' 650 

General 600 

Senator 700 

Deputy .. .. .. 700 

Postmaster-General . . 7,50 

Inspector of Telegraphs , 750 

Chief of Eogin. Depart. 1000 



Chief of Depart. Agrio. 
Envoy Extraordinary . . 
Secretary of Legation . . 
Receiver of Customs . . 
Captain of Port . . 

Admiral 

Colonel 

Lieut.-Colonel 

Major .. , 

Captain 

Lieutenant 

Rector of Nat. CoUegi . . 
Professor .. .. ' .. 210-270 
Navy Captain . . . , 240 

Army Surgeon . , . . 600 

Port Doctor .. 250-600 

2 £ 2 



Per Ann. 
t, 

600- 

2400 

750 

1000 

1000 

500 

480 

280 

200 

150 

100 

320 



420 



APPENDIX, 



Buenos Ayres Tramways. 




The tramway traffic in 1873 


was as follows : — 






Passengers. Miles ran. 


Journeys 


City of Buenos Ayres . . 


5,161,074 616,427 


179,636 


Central (9 months) . . 


1,807,570 273,580 


54,716 


Argentine 


2,221,041 (500,000) 


60,491 


Belgrano (J year) 


770,444 185,474 


37,302 


Boca (9 montlis) , , 


1,043,926 232,855 


39,745 


National 


1,146,607 . 359,175 


65,879 



Proportion for months | , gg^ggg 
omitted ) 



354,452 



50,000 



13,838,271 2,521,463 487,770 





Men. 


Coaches. 


Horses. 


City of Buenos Ayres . . 


273 


46 


700 


Lacroze Central 


60 


18 


199 


Argentine 


137 


33 


370 


Belgrano 


107 


23 


350 


Boca 








National 


94 


17 


275 



Municipality of Buenos Ayres. 

The Mumoipal receipts in 1873 were.: — 

$m/c. 

Weights and licences 3,476,485 

Street lighting ■ 3,534,481 

Markets 1,096,000 

Funerals and graves 533,430 

Mataderos .. , .. 367,499 

Coach-stands 530,500 

Fines, fees, &c 989,405 

$ 10,527,800 

The expenditure was as follows : — 

i 

Hospitals 2,066,358 

Scavenger service 3,359,940 

Free schools 1,714,916 

Prisons, health comm., &c 2,812,909 

Public works and paving , , . . 3,434,262 

Lighting, &c 3,105,015 

$ 16,493,400 



APPENDIX. 



421 



There are 326 billiard-saloons, 77 ball-courts, 2 cock-pits, 384 carriages, 
210 hack do., 132 tilburies, 3751 carts, and 7248 dogs paying licence. 

Central Prisons, Buenos Ayres. 

There were 631 delinquents admitted during the year : — 

252 Argentines. 
154 Italians. 

90 Spaniards. 

45 Freijch. 

30 Montevideans, 

14 English. 

36 various. 



631 

There were 287 liberated, and 318 condemned, to hard labour or sent 
to penal stations. No fewer than 226 were cases of attempt to kill or 
of actual murder, and 227 of robbery. 

Table of Wages at Buenos Ayres. 



Farm-servants 
Gardeners . . 
Coachmen . . 
Men cooks . . 
Bakers .. 
Shopmen ^ .. 
Apothecaries 
Teachers 
Housemaids ., 
Nurses or cooks 



£ £ 

30 to 50, with board. 

40 „ 100 

40 „ 60 

40 „ 120 

40 „ 70 

20 „ 200 

80 „ 150 

60 „ 100 

30 „ 60 

40 „ 80 



Operatives per Day. 



Carpenters .. 


. .. 6 to 12, without board 


Blacksmiths 


. .. 6 „ 10 


Stone-cutters 


. .. 7 „ 10 


Lithographers 


. .. 7 „ 20 


Watchmakers 


. .. 8 „ 11 


Tailors .. . 


. .. 7 „ 11 


Saddlers 


. .. 6 „ 10 


Bookbinders 


. .. 5 „ 10 


Painters 


. .. 5„ 8 


Shoemakers 


. .. 4 .. 7 



422 



APPENDIX. 





Immigration. 


, 


The returns' for 1873, 


as compared with previous years, show thus : — 










Immigrants. 


1868 








29,234 
37,934 
41,058 


1869 




, 




1870 








1871 








21,758 
41,002 


1872 








1873 








79,712 




Total ia 6 years 
onalities was :- 


•• 






250,698 


Tlie proportion of nati 








1872. 




18>3. 


Italians 


56 


pel' cent. 




56 per cent. 


Spaniards . . 


17 


» 




.. 19 „ 


French 


17 


jj 




16 „ 


British .. .. 


4 






3 „ 


Germans 


3 


)» 




5 „ 


Various 


i2 
100 


)» 




1 » 

100 


The sexes were : — 






Malep. 


Females. 


In 1872 


,', 




80 


to 20 


„ 1873 


.. 


• >■ 


65 


„ 35 



A statistical table compiled from auctioneers' books, pscribanos' regis- 
ters, and banking houses in the city, shows that the amount of property 
purchased by foreign settlers and of money remitted in small drafts to 
their friends at home in 1873 reached the enormous figure of 2,600,000/. 

sterling, viz. : — 

f 

Public lands bought .. .. ■ 45,460 

Returns of 24 auctioneers 1,280,000 

Foreign investments at Kosario .. .. .. 240,300 

Small drafts to Italy .. 405,000 



Spain 

France ., , 

Basque country 

Great Bfitain and Ireland 

Switzerland 

Germany 



203,600 
182,400 
99,000 
84,200 
39,500 
24,000 

£2,603,460 



423 



CoBDOBA Exhibition op 1871. 

ENOLISH AND NOETH AMERICAN PBIZE LIST. 

Gold Medals. 
Wheelwright & Co., Eosario, farm implements and furniture (2). 
Stow Brothers, Frayle Muerto, „ „ 

Collins & Co., New York „ „ 

William Perkins, Eosario, labours for immigration. 
Gwynne & Co., England, pumps. 
Samuel Lafone, Catamarca, native wines. 
Eushton and Proctor, England, machinery. 
John Grey, England, steel ploughs. 
James Livesey, England, railway model. 
Handyside & Co., England, metal fountains. 
Barker & Co.,'.Cordoba, Angora goats and wool (2). 
James Temple & Co., Cordoba, large number of e:shibits. 
Walter A. Woods, Patent American reaper. 
Wilfrid Latham, Buenos Ayres, racehorses. 

Silver Medals. 
Wilfrid Latham, Buenos Ayres, prize cattle and wool -(4:). • 
J. E. Atkinson, London, perfumery. 
W. Parody, Buenos Ayres, short-hand system. 
Moretoii & Co., England, bedsteads, pumps, &o. (3). 
Mulhall Brothers, Buenos Ayres, various exhibits (2). 
Beokford & Co., Cornwall, candlewiok. 
Barker & Co., Cordoba, shawls and horses (2). 
Kevr and Clark, London, thread. 
Garrett and Sons, England, steam-harrow. 
Eushton and Proctor, England, road-engjnes, &c. (2). 
B. Eeed & Co., England, patent sower. 
Wood's patent mower. New York. 
John Howard, England, steel ploughs. 
Jack & Co., England, patent reaper. 
Fawcet, Preston & Co., England, sugar mill. 
Gwynne & Co., England, vertical engine. 
Ashby and Jeffry, England; vertical engine. 
W. B. Douglas, New York, fire-engine. 
Louis M. Murray, Boston, preserved fruits. 
Portlahd Packing Company, preserved salmon. 



424 APPENDIX, 

Davis and McKean, Philadelphia, sugar samples. 
Mitchell & Co., horse or steam oorn-sheller. 
Comwin & Co;, Americam hand-enghies. 
Knot's patent American plough. 
Buckeye's Combined American reaper. • 
J. H. Tieman, indigo and colours in powder. 
Arthur Shaw, Cordoba, architect of annexes. 
, James Anderson, best ploughman. 

Bronze Medals. 
R. Ross, iron castings. 

W. Kelsey, Buenos Ayres steamboat model. 
H. Eo^, Santa Fe, machinery. 
M. S. Bagley, Buenos Ayres, Hesperidina liqueur. 
W. Tatham, Buenos Ayres, Durham cow. 
Gibson Brothers,'Buenos Ayres, Leicester sheep. 

F. Younger, Buenos Ayres, Berkshire sow. 
David Smith, England, cloth of River Plate Wool. 

G. Magnus, England, enamelled tiles. , 
Wood's Cpmbined American mower. 

Temple & Co., Cordoba, Dodge's reaper. 
Hornsby's saws and mowing machines (2). 
Garrett and Sons, England, hand wiimower. 
BurJick's patent straw-cutter. 
Ransom and Simms, England, patent barrows. 
Orosskill & Co., England, cartwheels, &c. (2). 
Woven wire beds, Hartford Company, United States. 
C. Lightfoot, New York travelling chairs. 
Willmore and Belcher, New York, hand com-shellers. 
Ames & Co., United States, harrows, &c. (2). 

MONTEVIDEO AT THE VIENNA EXHIBITION. 

M. Giebert, Liebig's Extractum Carnis, gold medal. 

Baron Maua, preserved beef, medicinal herbs, &c. 

Edward McEaohen, wild honey. 

Richard Hughes, native flax. 

Lucas Herrera-Obes, preserved beef. 

Paulet & Co.,' and Antonio Ferreyra, artificial saladero guano. 

Luis Latorre, native wines and liqueurs. 

Robert Davison, collection of wool samples. 

Luis Podesli, flour and macaroni. 



APPENDIX. 425 

Joaquin Suarez, collection of T^oods. 

Bernabe Mendoza, skins and feathers. 

Gervasis Burgnefio, native marble. 

Dr. Ordonana, medicinal herbs.- 

John Mitchell, and Leon Domecq, dried beef. 

Josd Ortega, Guillenno Ponjade, and Gianelli Brothers, wheat. 

John F. Fisher, tanned hides. 

Koeing and Acenedo, glue. * 

Perfect Giot, Eambouillet wool. 

Euperto Las Carreras and Lorenzo Kieto, native woods. 

Torcuato Marquez and Miguel Eovira, honey. 

Henry Beaulieu and Santiago Bertelli, native silk. 

Xavier Vianna, native tobacco. 

Alitonio Molfino, cabinet work. 

Jorge Acevedo, ropes made of vira-vira. 

Victor Jacod, ostrich feathers. 

Ignacio Urtubey, wool samples. 

Luis Eocha, native wax. 

Morcino and Liaro, wheat. 

Eemijio Castellanos, medicinal herbs. 

Dr. BoUine, Vienna wool. 

Domingo Mora, statue of a Gaucho. 

Pedro Bemat, woods. 

Alfred Herrera, Alpaca wool. 

Lezica and Fynn, Sta Lucia water. 



Miking in the Aegentini! Gonfedbeation. 

The Carolina mine " has lately changed hands, and is now under the 
firm of 

SOMIDT, Teendelbtjeg, & Co. 

"Mr. A. S. Bower, son of Mr. Geo. Bower, the London contractor, 
has lately inspected these mines, and his report is very favourable. 

"More Chilian mills have been ordered, and under the management of 
the new firm great expectations may result. Mines we have in plenty, 
but the machinery generally used in them is of the rudest description." 

The " Carolina " has given great results in the past, and is likely to be 
still more productive in' the future. 



426 appendix, 

Buenos Atkes New Gas Works. 

One of the most important public works hitherto completed in Buenos 
Ayres has been the Mutual Oas Company's, which we believe is the 
largest in South America. The works are situated in Calle Defensa, 
near to the Ensenada line of railway and close to the Boca ; a site well 
chosen, as it is at the lowest level of the city of Buenos Ayres, and close 
to the town of Barracas, which, with the Boca, will be lighted by this 
Company by the end of 1874. Up to the present Buenos Ayres is far 
behind Rio Janeiro in gas lighting, the former city having 5200 lamps, 
while at present Buenos Ayres has only 2200, representing about one- 
third of the city district. At Bio every lane and comer is lighted ; even gas 
is found at the top of the Tijuca mountain, having a charming appear- 
ance, surrounded as it is by splendid quintas ; while Buenos main street is 
only lighted half-way up with gas ! The last numbers taken from the 
municipal books were 2240 gas lamps and ;2860 kerosene lamps, and 
the district not lighted by either equal to another 1000. The Mutual 
Gas Works will be found well worth a visit; the' buildings and 
machinery stand upon 18,000 square acres of land, which cost, even in 
this part of the outskirts, nearly 7000Z. The retorts and ovens number 
about 200, and are capable of making 1,000,000 cubic feet of gas per 
day ; the gasholder is the largest in South America, and contains when 
full 500,000 cubic feet, the dimensions being 125 feet x 40 feet ; the 
scrubbers, condensers, engines, &c., are all on the most improved prin- 
ciples, and the works contain the usual stores, blacksmiths', carpenters', 
and other workshops. We noticed many applications of machinery so 
as to diminish hand labour. The front has a very handsome appearance, 
containing the manager's house, offices, stores, &c., the whole being 
finished off in Eoman cement. The coal store measures 300 feet x 100, 
and contains about 8000 tons of coal when full ; tramway lines run all 
over the works, and the whole fabric has the appearance of everything 
being well and completely done. The mains vary from 18" down 
to 2", and are laid in about 500 square blocks, representing a length 
of about 110 miles. The Mutual Gas Company hold the-municipal 
contract for ten years, from 15th June, 1874, for not fewer than 4200 
lamps, which number it is expected will be increased to 6000 this session. 
The price paid for the public lamps is at 110 paper dollars per month, 
or say equal to.lOZ. 15s. per lamp per year, which must be considered 
a fair 'price, taking into consideration the lamps are only 28 yards apart. 
The whole of the goods were imported free of duty, but coal has to pay 
• about 8s. per ton. The quantity used per year is expected to be about 



APPENDIX. 427 

I 

10,000 tons. Coke finds a ready sale at about 31. 15s. to 4Z. 5s. per 
Spanish ton. Tar has not a good sale, and will be bnmt at the works 
under the retorts so as to save coke. 

The whole of the works were Carried out by Mr. George Bower, of 
Saint Neots, London, who has also erected several large gas works in 
South America, including Eio Grande, Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and 
Olinda, in Brazil, also the town of Belgrano near to the city of Buenos 
Ayres. If the new Mutual Gas Company will carry out the whole of 
their programme they will confer a benefit on the inhabitants, increase 
the value of property, reduce crime, and there can be no doubt 'their 
dividends will be satisfactory, judging from the profits of the old Buenos 
Ayres Gas Company, the Rio or the Montevideo works. 

Statistics of the Beptjblic op Ubuguat. 

M. Adolphe Vaillant, who published in 1873 an important statistical' 
work on the Republic of Uruguay, estimates the total population in 
that, country at 450,000. Since 1860 the, increase has been at the rate 
of 120 per cent, in the Metropolitan Department of Montevideo, and at 
the rate of 100 per cent, in the remaining twelve departments. In ten 
years, 1860 to 1870, the increase in the Department of Montevideo was 
at the rate of 93 per cent. ; whereas in the province of Buenos Ayres in 
the neighbouring Republic, the increase in the same time was 53 per 
cent., and in the United States 6f North America 34 per cent. , In 
regard to density of population, the Republic of Uruguay, being relatively 
of small extent, is more thickly peopled per square mile than Brazil or 
the Argentine Republic, but less so than Chile, In the Department of 
Mcsitevidqo there are 165 inhabitants to the square kilometre ; and in the 
other departments only H, As M. Vaillant observes, the Platine States 
are not peopled ! That, he says, is the secret of a rapid development 
which from time to time appears little less than magical, as with abound- 
ing space and a fruitful soil a few thousand immigrants will in each decade 
multiply the resources of the country out of all ordinary proportion 
to their number ; and often in spite of the opposing accidents of war, 
epidemics, and monetary crises. 

■ Compared with South American states in general, and indeed with all 
others excepting its neighbour, the Argentine Republic, the character 
of its population forms the most hopeful element in the future of ' 
Uruguay. It is singular in possessing no indigenous races. As stated 
in the text of this work, there is not a single Indian in the territory of 
the Eepubhc. Moreover, the Afrjcans which were originally imported 



428 APPBNBIX. 

as slaves, and till lately formed a large proportion of the soldiery and 
lower grades of the labouring population, are gradually disappearing. 
Even the " mestizos " of mixed Indian, Negro, and European races, who 
still compose the bulk of the native population in the country districts, 
are mysteriously diminishing. According to the calculations of M. Vail- 
lant the foreigners form about one-half of the whole population of the 
EepubUc ; and in Montevideo there are 480 foreigners in every 1000 in- 
habitants. But the foreign population of the Eepublic is not exclusively 
European. A large proportion in the northern departments is Brazilian. 

The European immigrants who remain in the country cannot at pre- 
sent be estimated at more than from 3000 to 5000 yearly, as the greater 
portion who arrive have latterly proceeded to Buenos Ayres and other 
Argentine ports. But such is the demand for labour, as M. Vaillant tells 
us, in all branches of industry, rural and urban', it is difficult to over- 
estimate the probable increase. In one year of average prosperity (1872) 
we have seen the number of immigrants augment at once 50 per cent, 
compared with the previous year. 

M. Doazan, the French charge d'affaires in Montevideo, estimated the 
amount of imports of Uruguay in 1869 at 4,744,393?., and the exports 
at 4,107,077?., giving a total of 8,851,470Z. 

These calculations are based upon the market value of the articles. 
The official values upon which the export and import duties are charged 
are about 27 per cent. less. The market value is, nevertheless, the true 
value, when it is a question of estimating th'e resources of the country 
independently of fiscal considerations. In a review of the trade of 
Uruguay, which for commerce is conveniently situated between two 
large countries, Brazil and the Argentine Eepublic, we have to take 
into account the " transit trade " and the " contraband trade." It is not 
easy to estimate the amount of one or the other. By the rough method 
of comparing the official returns of the exports of England, Prance, and 
Brazil to the Eepublic of Uruguay, with the amount of imports from 
those' countries given by the Montevideo customs, we find in the latter 
an enormous deficiency, amounting in 1868 to about 40 per cent. Cal- 
culating for all countries in the same proportion of deficit shown by 
England, France, and Brazil, the total deficiency would amount to 
81 per cent. " Now if we are asked," says M. Vaillant, " what propor- 
tion of this deficit must be placed to the account of the transit trade, 
and what to contraband, we should be puzzled to reply." 

Making every allowance for contraband, both ifi the cattle trade on 
the Brazilian frontier and in the general trade through the Montevidean 
Custom House, the intimate connection between the foreign mercantile 



APPENDIX. * 429 

houses in Montevidep and Buenos Ayres, the constant transhipment of 
goods according as the market is more favourable in one place or the 
other, would account for the greater part of the difference alluded to. 
But no kind of correct estimate of the transit trade could he made, 
unless based on a number of years. Naturally, in the years when the 
Montevidean market was most depressed, the export transit trade would 
be the heaviest, the converse being true in regard to imports. 

In 1862 the total imports and exports amounted to $16,956,245 ; 
and in 1872 to $34,349,256, official values. This increase of more 
than 100 per cent, took place in a period of ten years, in which the 
iJlepublio suffered from foreign and civil war, pestilence, and commercial 
crises. Those conditions were slightly relieved by, the extra trade the 
transit of provisions, troops and materiel from Brazil afforded during 
the war with Paraguay. ' Such adventitious aids to commerce are usually 
much overrated. The broad result of the Paraguayan war, one year 
with another, was to check the trade of Montevideo. 

A sufficient proof of that fact is in the statistics given by M. Vaillant. 
In the last three or four years of the war, the exports and imports 
fluctuated between twenty-eighfe and thirty millions. After a slight 
deoMne, they rose again three years afterwards, in 1872, to thirty-four 
millions, when commerce had returned to its old channels. 

From the latest returns of the Custom House we can safely estimate 
the exports and imports for 1874^5 at 25 per cent, over those of 1872. 
E Owing to the tastes and habits of the native inhabitants, and the 
large immigrations from the Basque provinces of Prance, the trade of 
Uruguay with that country is very important. M. Vaillant gives 
some interesting details in its regard. 

So far back as 1868 the relative values of the exports from France 
to different countries in America were as follow : — 

Millions of Francs. 

Argentine Eepublio 79 "1 

Uruguay 41*6 

(River Plate Republics) 120- 7 

United States 162-1 

Brazil 76-1 

Chile 34-6 

New Grenada 28 • 

Peru 27-8 

Venezuela 4'4 

Guatemala 1*5 

Ecuador ,. ,. 1'4 

Bolivia ^ .. .. 0-0 



430 APPENDIX. 

M. Vaillant observes, tliat " the export trade pf France with the 
Eiver Plate is 60 per cent.,more important than that of Brazil; and 25 
per cent, more than that of the united trade of the seven states of the 
Pacific mentioned above. The imports from Fran<!e of the Bepublic of 
Uruguay alone are 20 per cent, more than that of Chile." He tells us 
also "that the inhabitants of the Bepublic of Uruguay consujne more 
French articles than Frenchmen do in France. In French wines, the 
two Bepublios of the Eiver Plate consume in quamtity double as much 
as is consumed in England, four times as much as is consumed in the 
United States, and seven times as much as is consumed in Brazil." 

These are important details in favour of the powers of consumption 
of a country which cannof! be estimated by the mere number of the 
population, but by the general ' welfare of the masses and the money 
they can afford to spend in luxuries. 

Whether the paying powers of the inhabitants of Uruguay have not 
been overtaxed is a serious question for its patriots_ and public men to 
decide. But the fiscal arrangements are temporary, and subject to 
readjustment and improvement, whereas the increase of the resoprces 
of the country may be looked upon as a constant in calculations for the 
future. 

The Customs revenues of Montevideo increased 333 per cent, in 
about ten years, from 1861 to 1872. The expenditure has unfortu- 
nately kept pace with that increase. In 1869, 38i per cent, of the 
revenues were appropriated to the payment of interest on the public 
debts of the country. In 1870 the proportion rose to 49 per cent. ; and 
in 1871 to 54 per cent. ; that is to say, about one-half of the whole 
Customs revenues. 

M. Vaillant remarks that the deficits which occur in the financial 
budgets of these countries arise from want of order and method in the 
fiscal arrangements.' Sooner or later the deficits disappear, because 
" the revenues of the State exceed all anticipations." " The economists 
of Europe," says the ' Courrier de la Plata,' a French journal published 
in Buenos Ayres, " should begin to accustom themselves to seeing the 
Bepublics of South America prosper with an annual deficit." 

The proportion of the public debt of the State of Uruguay to the 
number of its inhabitants is larger than in Chile or the Argentine 
Bepublic. It amounts to~f92 for each inhabitant, whilst in the 
Argentine Bepublic the proportion is only |44. But to the latter we 
have to add a large percentage for local and municipal debts. Corre- 
sponding items are included in the State budget of Uruguay. In the 



APPENDIX. 431 

insignificant State of Costa Eioa the proportion is $120 for each inhabi- 
tant ; in France $116 ; in England $113 ; and in Holland $104. 

" The proportion of $92," says M. Vaillait, " which corresponds to 
each inhabitant of the Eepublic of Uruguay, ceases to arrest attention 
when we see that the inhabitants have paid, without the slightest 
effort, a tax of $77 per head during the last fourteen years for the same 
object." 

Referring to the table under the heading of " The New World " 
in this appendix, p. 432, we find that the Eepublic of Uruguay, one 
of the smallest in regard to area and population, takes a high rank in 
[ commercial importance amongst the twenty States of America.' Esti- 
mating their relative positions by the amount of exports and imports, 
Uruguay stands eighth in the list. 

Trade. 

United States £253,225,123 

Brazil .. .. , 41,500,000 

Canada 38,400,000 ' 

Argentine Republic 21,500,000 

Chile ., 11,200,000 

Peru 11,100,000 

Mexico , 9,500,000 

Uruguay 6,500,000 

Columbia .. .: 4,000,000. 

Hayti 3,100,000 

Bolivia 2,600,000 

Venezuela 2,200,000 

Costa Rica 1,400,000 

Salvador 1,200,000 

Ecuador 1,000,000 

Guatemala 800,000 

S.Domingo 300,000 

Paraguay 200,000 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 



432 



APPENDIX. 



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LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADYERTISEE. 

MAUA BANK, 

101 — CALLE CANGALLO — 103. 



THE Public is informed that the following transactions are 
carried on in currency and specie in this Bank : — 

Billa and obligations with good signatures are discounted on conventional 
terms. 

Money is advanced on mercantile and other securities approved of by the 
Manager. 

Accounts Current are opened with merchants or other parties who may 
prefer depositing endorsed and transferable securities, against which they 
may draw up to an amount previously convened, imder conditions established 
for such class of operations. 

Money is received in account current, bearing interest from day of deposit, 
which is accumulated in favour of the parties every three months, the 
depositors being allowed to retire at any time by means of cheques — part, or 
the full amount, at their wish — save when the quantity exceeds three hundred 
doubloons, or one hundred thousand dollars currency, in which case forty-eight 
hours' previous notice is required to he given at the Treasury of the Bank. 

Bills or Letters of Credit are drawn and taken on Montevideo, Salto 
Oriental, Paysandii, Mercedes, Kio Janeiro, and other places in Brazil, London, 
Paris, Antwerp. 

Finally, the Bank undertakes and executes all legitimate transactions 
within the orbit of banking operations. 

The Establishment is always open from 10 a.m. till 3 p.m. 

Pp. MAUA, 

E. DE LAS CAEEEEAS. 

Buenos Atkes, 31st July, 1874. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISER. 



LONDON & RIVER PLATE BANK, 



lilMITKD. 



LONDON, BUENOS AYRES, MONTEVIDEO, 
EOSARIO, CORDOVA. 

AUTHORIZED CAPITAL £2,000,000 

SXrBSCRIBED CAPITAXi 1,500,000 

RESEEVE FXrUD 175,000 



Receives Money in Current Account and in Deposit, payable g.t sight or at 
fixed dates. 

Buys and sells Bills of Exchange on all the principal cities of the world, 
issues Letters of Credit, and does every class of Banking business. 



WM. JOHNSON & Co., 

BALLAST AND WATER SUPPLIED. 



CORNER CALLES COLON Y LAS PIEDRAS, 

M©ISTE¥I®EQ). 
J. DE BOER, 

SURVEYOR, OF "BUREAU VERITAS," 

International Eegister for Classification of Vessels, 

AGENT FOR THE INSURANCE COMPANIES OF AMSTERDAM, ANTWERP, 

BREMEN, BORDEAUX, ELBEEFELD, FRANKFURT 0. M., GENOA, HAMBURG, 

HAVRE, HEILBRONN, LYONS, MARSEILLES, PARIS, 

ROTTERDAM, VIENNA, &c. 

Office-55, COERIENTES, BUENOS AYEES. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 



JifltiuEnl ^HSHtnnre Ciini|ianie0, 

Iwa:.A.2Sr-A.<3-EI?,: F- F. 3sa:oi?,Eisro. 

No. 112|, OALLB FLORIDA— Second Story. 



1st. The ARGENTINE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Capital £400,000 sterling. Established in 1859, for Insurance 
against Fire, or Loss by Sea. Chairman : Thomas Armstrong, Esq. 
Vice-Chairman : Don Mariano Casares. Directors : Messrs. Jacob 
Parravicini, Bernardo Iturraspe, Ambrosio Plaoido Lezioa, and 
Martin Iraola. Maritime Inspector : Luis Sardi. Fire Inspector : 
W. Schindler. 

2nd. The ESTRELLA FIRE AND NAVIGATION 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Capital £400,000 sterling. Established in 1865. Chairman : 
E. Oohoa. Vice- Chairman : Henry N. Hart. Directors : Thomas 
Armstrong, George Temperley, Alexander Sivori, F. Bustamante, 
and P. Senillosa. Maritime Inspector : Luis Sardi. Fire In- 
spector, W. Schindler. 

3rd. BIENHECHORA DEL PLATA MUTUAL 
LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Established in 1864, under Government sanction. The sums 
subscribed are invested in the Home Consols of 6 per cent., or in 
Scrip of the Mortgage Bank, as subscribers may choose. Directors : 
E. Basabilvaso, Julio Sanchez, E. T. Mulhall, Jayme Llavallol, 
and Juan Lezica. Government Inspector : E. Del Campo. On 
May 31st, 1874, the Company had emitted 5501 Policies in 
National Bonds, the subscribed capital being equal to £1,158,408 
sterling ; the amount of National Bonds held was £392,080 ster- 
ling ; besides 12 Policies in Mortgage Scrip representing £5901 
sterling. 

Office Hours for the above Companies, from 10 to 5. 

a 2 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 



Oriental Telegram Agency. 

OFFICES— 

6 7, SAN IS^'AHTIN, 

OPPOSITE THE BOLSA, 



MOTIOE IS HEREBY GIVEN, that Messrs. 
LANUS and Co. are definitely installed by the 
Head Office, London, as Agents of the above Tele- 
graphic Agency, in the River Plate. 

Merchants, Bankers, and others are invited to 
register their names without delay. Registration 
gratis, after which the names and addresses of firms 
and their correspondents count as ONE word only. 

The Registration Book is now opened, and we 

earnestly request those intending to register to come 

early, so that the lists may be ready for the first 

steamer. 

EXAMPLE. 

Eldeb & Co., London. 

YrvALDi & Co., Paris. 

-n o <-i Feeeeiea & Co., Havre. 

T,; no T rfs ^°^°''°'' * ^^^ ^^^''P°°^- 

^ ■ Johnson & Co., Manchester. 

Smith, C. E., Glasgow. 

^ViAEiNi HiJOT, Lisbon. 

Each of the above Correspondents has a number. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISEK. 



HOUSE COAL, 

FOR COOKING AND DOMESTIC PURPOSES, 

Eeceived direct from the best Mines in England, and 
always on Sale at Lowest Market Prices at 

V. & L. CASARES' YARD, 



«>^«>„ « 



OBDEBS BECEIYEB at— 

No. 4, OALLE BALCAECE. 
THE DEPOSIT m BAREAOAS,nearS. Esquinas; 

OB AT 

THE HEAD OFFICE, m the PLAZA ONCE. 

• N.B.~NO CHARGE FOE CARTAGE. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEKTISEE. 



•KODOLFO NEWBEKY, BROTHERS, 

jf^l^^IH-RXGJ^l^ IDBHSTTISTS 

(Formerly of Montevideo), 
Associated with Don TOMAJ COQUET, 

108, CALLE MAIPU. 

We have received an immense quantity of the moat beautifully-carved 
Artificial Teeth, comprising thousands of different shades and forms, from 
which, with our long practical experience, we can match any style or feature, 
complexion or expression, with such artistic niceness that detection is impossible. 
Tlie Plate we use for the atmospheric pressure is the Whalebone Eubber, the 
lightest and strongest known. 
We have been using Nitrous Oxide Gas for the painless Extraction of Teeth 
for nearly fourteen years, and have administered it over 

20,000 TIIYIES, 

2140 times, in this City alone, since August, 1873, 

and recommend it as the safest anesthetic known. It is nothing new ; as it has 
been tested by thousands of Dentists and hundreds of thousands of people. 

Persons from the Camp and neighbouring Towns can have their Sets of Teeth 
made in time to return the same day, by making an appointment beforehand. 

RODOLFO NEWBERY, BROTHERS, 108, CALLE MAIPU. 

CHAS. A. DAVIS, 

EECEIYED EX THE 

SUPEEIOE COURTS OF JUSTICE, 

Being duly authorized, undertakes to arrange all Questions of Heirship and 
Legacies, the Liquidation of Societies, whether public or private, in Bank- 
ruptcy or otherwise; to Audit the Books of Companies; and to Adjust 
Averages of every description. 



COBEBSPONDENTS IN ENGLAND : 

Messrs. CLARK, SON, and PUEDAY, 

14, LITTLE TOWEK STEEET, LONDON. 



117 — CALLE POTOSI — 117. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVBETISEB. 



ft 



'%\t immth ixmX 



ESPECIALLY ESTABLISHED IN THESE 
CAMP TOWNS 



SALE OF EVERY ARTICLE 

AT 

CITY PEICES. 

NO SECOND PEICE. 

TORROBA BROTHERS, 

MERCEDES '& CHIVILCOY. 

&^Eir€¥ WBR 'STJlHBAIB.' 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 



MOCKFORD'S 

SHEEP A^A.SH. 



The excellent properties of this "Wash for the 

Extermination of Scab, and for Purifying the 

Skin and Stimulating the Growth 

of Wool in Sheep, 

Are already widely known and appreciated by the 
Flockmasters of this and other countries. 



The Reduced Price at which it is sold since the 
Duty was abolished, on petition of the chief Con- 
sumers of this "Wash, makes it the cheapest and most 
effective Remedy ever produced. 



AGENTS IN TEE BIVEB PLATE, 

ZIMMERMANN, FAIR, & CO., 

BUENOS AYEES AM) MONTEVIDEO. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVBKTISEE. 



BEANDY BITTERS. 



TONIOO AM^RGO. 



These Bitters are held in the highest estimation for 
their virtues in giving an appetite if taken an hour 
before a meal; and as an excellent Remedy in all 
Diseases of the Stomach arising from Debility, as 
Nausea, Flatulency, Indigestion, Spasm, Heartburn, 
6fc. ; also in Nervous Affections, Faintness, General 
Debility, and Lowness of Spirits. 

A Tahlespoonful to be taken for a Dose, either 
with or without an equal quantity of water, and 
repeated two or three times a day if required. 

PEEPAEED ONLY BY 

BOTIGA DE 8. BISHOP, 
BUElSrOS AYHES. 



10 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 

JOHN FINDLAY & CO., 

19, CAIiLE POTOSI, BUENOS AYHES, and 
10, liATJBENCE POUNTNEY LANE, LONDON, 

Ofifer for Sale a Complete Assoktment of Machineey of the following 

Classes : — 
Brick and Tile MacUnery. 
Saw-Mill and Wood-Working Machinery. 
Pumping and Hydraulic Machinery. 
Engineers' Tools and Steam Fittings. 
Printing and Lithographic Machinery and Utilities. 
Engines from 2 to 20 horse-power — Horizontal, Portable, and Vertical. 

Plans, Specifications, and Estimates furnished for aU kinds of Machinery 
to bona-fide applicants. 

JUAN FINDLAY & CIA., 

19, DALLE POTOSI, BUENOS AYKES, y 
10, LAURENCE POUNTNEY LANE, LONDBES, 

Tienen siempre en venta un Magnifico Subtido de Maqtjinaeia de todas 

clases : — 

Maquinas para hacer ladrilloa y baldosas. 

Cerruchos y maquinaria para cortar madera. 

Toda clase de Bombas y utiles de hidraulica. 

Utiles de ingenieros y de estableeimientos a vapor. 

Maquinaria de imprenta y litografia. 

Maquinas a vapor desde 2 hasta 20 cabaUos de fuerza — sistema hori- 
zontal, portatil, y vertical. 

Los interesados pueden pedir, gratis, loa dibujos, precios y toda claae de 
detalles, en nuestra caaa, No. 19, Calle Potosi. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEKTISER. H 

ALFREDO JONAS & CO. 

HATE 

REMOVED THEIR OFFICES 

TO 

655 & 657, RIVADAVIA. 



THE FIRST ARGENTINE 

I00T &®B UMBM l'Jb€¥0Ml 

A. JONAS & CO.,' Peopeietoes, 

KECBITB OBDEES FOB 

EVEKT DESOKIPTION OF BOOTS AND SHOES 

AT THEIE OFB'ICB, 

655 & 657, RIVADAVIA. 



WANTED— 20 \VOMEN OR MEN, 

TO WOEK BOOTS AND SHOES ON SEWING MACHINES., 
MOYED BY STEAM-POWER, 

Apply between 4 and 5 p.m. at the 

FIRST AEGENTINE BOOT & SHOE FACTORY, 



ALFREDO JONAS & CO., Proprietors. 



12 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISEE. 

Prepared by S. TOEEES & CO,, Druggists. 

GUARANTEED INFALLIBLE FOR THE CURE OF SCAB IN SHEEP! 

After loDg experiments and innnmerable triak we have succeeded in pre- 
paring the above Sheep Dip, by the use of which we guarantee the thorough 
eradication of Scab in Sheep. Besides cheapness and easy application, it has 
the great advantage over all other similar preparations of being complddy 
soluble in water, a circumstance which admits of our liquid penetrating to the 
very surface of the skin without spotting the wool or making it adhere. 

METHOD OF USING IT "WITH THE BEUSH. 

Mix one part of the Dip with (8) eight parts of water and apply it to the 
affected part with a brush. 

METHOD OP USING IT AS A DIP. 

Mix one part with twelve of water — warm water is better — and bathe the 
animal therein. 

The cure may be effected by means of battling during the shearing, but it is 
preferable to delay the same for one or two months after, as it can be done 
more carefully then, although the partial cure with the brush ought to be 
practised every time a sheep is observed to be affected. 

A second application will cure the most inveterate scab totally, and impede 
the spread of this serious evil. This we guarantee on the authority of many 
of our principal estancieros. 

Prepared and sold exclusively by 

S. TOUIRES & CO., 

65, 67, & 69, DEFENSA, BUENOS AYRES. 

N.B. — We likewise sell the well-known Kemedy for the Cure of Foot Kot 
(Morrifia), the use of which will destroy the maggots produced b^ this disease 
in the hoofs of sheep ; and it is proved to be the best preventive for the 
inflammation caused after castrating stallions. One application vrill save a 
valuable animal. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 13 

PETER EBBEKE & Co., 

AUCTIONEEES, 

80, CALIjE FEEA. 



This old-established Firm undertakes the Sale or 
Purchase of 

REAL ESTATE, 

HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE, 

LIVE STOCK, 

SOFT GOODS, &c., &c., 

On the most favourable terms, which a lengthened 
experience of men and markets can alone supply. 



14 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEKTISEB. 



WILLIAM MARTIN, 

PEOFESSOE OF LANGUAGES AND DEAWING, 

Eefeeences— ' STANDAKD ' OFFICE, 



T. A. FUND & CO., 

MEOHAISriCS AND EnSTG-HSTEERS, 

MANUFACTURERS OF SEWING MACHINES, 

213, 215, 217, CALLE CHACABUCO, 



Offer to the Public a large assortment 
of all kinds of Sewins Machines— a 
variety of the hest makers, such as 
Wheeler & Wilson, Grover & Baker, 
Singer, Howe, Little Wauzer, and 
others, all original manufactures, as 
also different kinds of their own, at 
the Lowest Prices. 

Every Machine will be specially 
guaranteed by them. 

Eepairs speedily attended to and 
cheaply executed. 

Old Machines taken in payment 
for new ones. 



Beg to offer their Establishment for 
every kind of Mechanical Wokks 
and Enginery, possessing the neces- 
sary utensils for the manufacture of 
Machinery and Mechanical Instru- 
ments. 

To Builders and Architects they 
particularly offer their services for 
the working of Railings for Balconies, 
and similar articles. 

Muskets, Revolvers, and all kinds 
of Fire-arms repaired at lowest 
figures. 



<^tJES^^J>^^ Ac IBXJLIilCH, 



57-CALLE CANGALLO — 57, 

Undertake the Sale ok Purchase of 

'gmU, ^mm, lurnitttw, Carriages, faiilj frflka, k., h. 

CASH ADVANCED ON THE ABOVE GOODS, ORiVALUABLES, 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEP. 15 



TEinOIT IGEiei 

OF 

PAEZ & CO., 

No. 44, CALLE EIVADAVIA. 



The Finest and most Commodious Steamers in 
the Kiver are Daily Despatched for 

ROSARIO, 

PARANA, PARAGUAY, 

CORRIENTES, MONTEVIDEO, 

PAYSANDU, 

SALTO, GUALEGUAYCHU, 

&c., &c. 



All kinds of CUSTOM-HOUSE "WORK done with 
promptness and dispatch. 



16 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVBETISEE. 



LA POPULAR AUGENTINA. 



SAVINGS BANK. 

Deposits in account current are received from ^250 m/e to the 
largest sum. 

Interest at 8 per cent., capitalized every three months. 

Depositors will receive a Pass-hook, showing how their account 
stands. 



DEPOSITS AT FIXED DATES. 

The sum deposited must not be less than 100 hard dollars. 
Depositor will receive a Bond signed by the Government Delegate, 
the Administrator, and a member of the Vigilance Committee. 
The interest can be collected every three months by means of 
Coupons attached to the Bond. * 

At 6 months .. * .. .. 10 per cent. 

At 9 „ 11 „ 

At 12 „ 12 „ 

For more than a year — at rate to be agreed on. 

The Bonds and Coupons when due will be paid in any Town 
in America or Europe, to be named when depositing the money. 

The Head Office, and all the Branches throughout the EepubHc, 
give Drafts on Europe. 



ADMINISTRACION GENERAL, 

2131 Calle Piedad. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEB. 17 

ESTABLISHED 18^1. 

MAC LEAN & CO., 

No. 1, CALIE EEC0NQDI8TA, BUENOS ATEES 

(Opposite the Colon Theatre, corner of Plaza Victoria). 



UNDERTAKE THE CONSIGNMENT OF GOODS ON 
COMMISSION. 



SHIP AGENTS ON SPECIAL TERMS. 



CUSTOM HOUSE BROKERS, FORWARDING AND GENERAL 
COMMISSION AGENTS. 



SPECIAL AGENTS FOR THE TRADES OF PATAGONES, 
BAHIA BLANCA, AND RIVER PORTS. 



PACKAGES FOR THE INTERIOR OF THE REPUBLIC 

FORWARDED IMMEDIATELY AND DELIVERED 

THROUGH OUR PROVINCIAL AGENTS. 



INVOICES COLLECTED AGAINST DELIVERY OF GOODS. 



AGENTS FOR THE PRINCIPAL COLONIES. 



CORRESPONDENCE IN ENGLISH, ITALIAN, FRENCH, 
AND SPANISH. 



AGENTS FOR THE PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN AND 
AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

b 



18 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISER. 

J08E PEDRO LUZZETTI, 

ENGINEER AND AECHITECT, 

BUENOS AYRES. 

THE COLOMA DOCK. 



THIS DOCK IS IN FINE WOEKING ORDEE. 



YESSELS HAULED IN- IN 25 MINUTES. 



FOE PARTICULARS INQUIRE OF 

RUBIO & FOLEY, AGENTS, 



40 — CALLE CANGALLO — 40. 
HOARD, LOADER, & CO., 

iva:o3srTE-viiDEO. 

Agents for Messrs. 0. Gaden & Klipsh, Bordeaux ; P. Gabnibb, Noyon, France ; 

Geoege Cubling & Co., London; Db Venoge & Co., Epemay; 

The Oommebcial Union Fibe Insdeancb Company, London. 

H., li., & Co. occapy themselves in the Disposal of Consignments, 
Purchase of Produce, and Commission Business generally. 



' LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 19 

FELIPE SCHWARZ & BRO', 

MECHANICAL AND CIVIL ENGINEERS AND 
CONTRACTOES, 

CALLE SAN LUIS, 6, CASA AMARILLA, BUENOS ATEES. 



FOTJISTIDTI-^ UVEETsT. 



SHIP'S REPAIRS AND MILLWORK OF ALL KINDS. 

F. S. & BEO' being well and favourably known to mostly all 
the best Machine Makers in Europe, are prepared to take Orders 
for all the most improved 

ENGINES AND BOILERS. 

AGRICULTURALi IMPLEMENTS. 

PRINTING PRESSES. 

FLOUR MILLS AND WATER WHEELS. 

HYDRAULIC PUMPS AND PRESSES. 

SHEEPSHEARS AND FIRE ENGINES, &c., &c. 



NAVAL AND TERRESTRIAL ARCHITECTURE. 



F. S. and BEO' have everytliiiig imported direct from the 
European Markets. 

CALLE SAN LUIS, 6, CASA AMARILLA, 
BUENOS AYRES. 

62 



20 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISER. 



AUTHORIZED CAPITAL, jei,500,000. 
SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL, A'1,000,000. RESERVE FUNDS, £50,000. 

Offices in London - - Ho. 6, Lombard Street, E.G. 
Offices in Buenos Ayres - No. 85, Calle Eeconquista. 
Offices in Monte Video - No. 202, Calle Misiones. 



In England. 

JuLTUS Beer, Esq. 
Edwabd Ashworth, Esq. 
Ed. J. Halset, Esq. 
Frederick J. Isaac, Esq. 
A. J. Lambert, Esq. 



DIRECTORS. 

t In South America. 

Ambrosio p. Lezica, Esq. 
Sabittel B. Hale, Esq. 
Charles P. Lttmb, Esq. 
A, Ure Mackiklat, Esq. 
James Scarnichia, Esq. 



Managring Director in Buenos A3rres. 

Frederic Wakkltn, Esq. 



MANAGERS. 



In London. 

Charles Raphael, Esq. 



In Montevideo. 

Wm. Flowerdew, Esq. 



Current Accounts opened with Commercial Firms and Private Individuals. 
Deposits received for Fixed Terms. 
Bills, Public Funds, Coupons, &c., received for Collection. 
Bills Discounted at Conventional Kates. 
Bills of Exchange purchased at Current Rates. 
Circular Notes issued to Travellers. 

Letters of Credit issued on the Head Office in London, and on Paris, Antwerp, 
Genoa, New York, &c. Commission charged only on amount used. 

Letters of Credit payable in Buenos Ayres or Montevideo at the Current 
Kates of Exchange, can be obtained by persons desiring to remit or bring 
money to the River Plate, from the Head Office in London, from the National 
Bank in Ireland, and from the other Agents of the Bank. 
Bills of Exchange issued on the Head OlBfice : 

London and County and other Banks in London. 
Most of the Provincial Towns in England. 
The National and other Banks in Ireland. 
The British Linen Company and other Banks in Scotland. 
Also on 
Frankfort, 
Baden-Baden, 
Bremen, 
Amsterdam, 
Madrid, and all 
Agents of the 
Bank of Castile, 
Barcelona, 
Vigo, 
Corufia, 
Gibraltar, 
Lisbon, 
A complete list of Agents may be seen at the Offices of the Bank. 

(Signed) F. WANKLYN, Managing Dibectob. 
BuEsos Aykes, May 20th, 1874. 



Montevideo, 

Kio de Janeiro, 

Lima, 

Valparaiso, 

Paris, 

Bordeaux, 

Havre, 

3Iarseilles, 

Lyons, 

Toulonse, 

Dieppe, 

Pan, 



Antwerp, 

Liege, 

Genoa, 

Turin, 

Venice, 

Naples, 

Florence, 

Milan, 

Berlin, 

Cologne, 

Dresden, 

Hamburg, 



Oporto, 


San Francisco, 


St. Petersburg, 


Montreal, and 


Stockholm, 


Branches of the 


Constantinople, 


Bank of Mon- 


Alexandria, 


treal, 


Bale, 


Bombay.and other 


Berne, 


Branches of the 


St. Gall, 


Chartered Mer- 


Zurich, 


cantile Bank of 


Lausanne, 


India, London, 


Geneva, 


and China. 


New York, 





LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISBE. 21 

ARGENTINE BANK, 

31, 33, AND 35, SAN MARTIN. 

BANKIM HOURS from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

|Ksikirt— BEENAEDO YEIGOYEN. 
§mdax-§mxzl--T>. ANACAESIS LANUS. 

The Eate of Interest from the date, until further notice, 
will be — 

Allows— ^On Account Current . , 7 per cent per annum. ^ 

Thirty Days 8 „ 

Sixty to Ninety Days .. 9 ,, „ 

Charges — On Specie and Currency, 15 per cent, per annum. 

Money Advanced on Current Account. 

Bills and Pagaees Discounted on Conventional Terms. 

SAVINGS BANK, Open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
On Specie and Currency, 6 per cent, per annum. 

MAE CO BEL PONT, Manager . 

Buenos Atbes, June 1, 1873. 



22 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 



ARGENT NE NAT ONAL TELEGRAPHS. 


The Uniform Eate of 25 cents. 


is charged for 


each 10 Words 




between the following Of&ces : 




Buenos Ayres. 


Ojo de Agua. 


Eioja 


Empedrado. 


Belgrano. 


Loreto. 


Chilecito. 


Corrientes. 


Zarate. 


Santiago. 


Tinogasta. 


Diamante. 


Baradero. 


Tuouman. 


Belen. 


Victoria. 


San Pedro. 


Traiicas. 


Andalgala. " 


Gualeguay. 


San Nicolas. 


Eosario Froutera. 


San Lorenzo. 


Gualeguaychu, 


Hosario. 


Metan. 


Coronda, 


Conoppcion. 


Belleville. 


Campo Santo. 


, Santa-Fe. 


Colon. 


"Villa Maria. 


Salta. 


Rlncon. 


Concordia. 


Cordoba. 


Jujuy. 


Parana. 


Pederacion. 


Jesus Maria. 


Atamisque. 


Antonio Tomas. 


Nogroya. 


Biviaadero. 


Salavina. 


La Paz. 


Tala. 


Tuluraba. 


Monteros. 


Esquina. 


Villaguay. 


San Pedro, Cordoba 


.. Medina. 


Goya. 




Ohaiiar. 


Catamaroa. 


Bellavista. 





TELEGBAMS ARE ALSO FORWARDED TO CHILE. 



Buenos Ayres, 1874. 



CHAELE8 BUETON, 

DmECTOK-GESEBAIi. 



EDWARD CASEY, 

118 — SAN MAETIN — 118. 



BILLS OF EXCHANGB ON IRELAND. 



Parties about to leave lEELAND for the EIVER PLATE can, 
by applying at the Bank of Ibeland, Dublin, obtain Drafts on 
the above-named, payable in Buenos Atbes; the best and most 
secure way for Emigrants and others coming to the Plate to 
hold their money. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 23 

BANCO NACIONAL, 

32, RECONQUISTA. 



CAPITAL, 
v^20,000,000 = ^4,000,000 Sterling. 



DIRECTORS. 

lasiknt.— JUAN ANCHOEENA. 

iixst ma-pzsx)3txd—'E-MI110 CASTEO. 

inanH tm-|asiknt.-DALMACIO VELEZ SAESEIELD. 

MAEIANO CASAEES, 
JUAN EEIAS, 
FELIX BEENAL, 
JOSE F. LEDESMA, 
NOEBEETO DE LA EIESTEA, 
FELIPE A. LLAVALLOL, 
NAECISO MAETINEZ DE HOZ, 
ANGEL M. MENDEZ, 
LEONAEDO PEEEIEA. 

gemtarg— JOSE M. GUTIEEEEZ. 
^xcspdax-J. PEDEO DE SOUZA. 



BANKING HOURS. 

10 A.M. to 4 P.M. 



24 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 

GEO. BOWER, 

GAS AND WATEB WORKS 
ENGINEER, 

AND 

CONTRACTOR FOR PUBLIC WORKS, 
ST. NEOTS, 



Mr. BOWEE has already manufactured and erected 
more than 

500 Gas and Water Works, 

In nearly all parts of the Grlobe ; including a large 
number supplied to the 

British, French, Eussian, Spanish, and 
Italian Governments. 

As an Engineer, Mr. Bower will design and carry 
out Gas or Water Works on Commission ; or, as 
Contractor, supply and erect them complete, with all 
the most modern practical, inventions, for a fixed 
price, in any part of the World. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISBE. 25 

Mr. BOWER has supplied and fixed a large number 
of Gi-as Works in South America, including the 
whole of the Mains and Buildings complete for the 
following Cities: — 

BUENOS AYRES MUTUAL GAS COMPANY, 

Capable of making 1,000,000 cubic feet per day. 

ARGENTINE GAS COMPANY, 
■^orks for 200,000 cubic feet per day. 

BELGRANO GAS WORKS, ARGENTINE 
REPUBLIC. 

RIO GRANDE GAS WORKS, BRAZIL. 

PORTO ALEGRE GAS WORKS, BRAZIL. 

PELOTAS GAS WORKS, BRAZIL. 

OLINDA GAS WORKS, BRAZIL. 

Mr. BOWER also undertakes the entire equipment 
of Tramway Companies, constructs Bridges, Fountains, 
Sugar Machinery, and General Engineering Work, 
to Order. ^ 

The great experience in Continental Trading enables Mr. Bowbk 
to execute orders on the most favourable terms to Purchasers ; and 
being thoroughly conversant with the requirements of most Foreign 
Markets as to Custom House Declarations, Packing, &c., his expe- 
rience in these matters will be found of great advantage. 



All inquiries should be addressed to ST. NEOTS ; or to the 
South Ambbican Agent, 

Mr. c. h. smith, 

235, Calle Victoria, Buenos Ayres. 



26 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 

BANCO DE ITALIA Y EIO DE LA 
PLATA. 

74— CALLE PIEDAD — 74. 



Subscribed Capital, £1,500,000 hard Dollars, 

(This is divided into 15,000 Shares.) 



BOAED OF DIRECTORS. 

^Ksibtnt.— MARCOS DEMARCHI. 
©ite-f rtsiknt.— AGILES MAVEROFP. 



ANTONIO DEVOTO. 
PABLO MARENGO. 
NICOLAS SCHIAFFINO. 



BARTOLEME VIALE. 
LUIS EAMINr. 
EDUARDO FALCON. 



Until further notice the rates of Interest will be as follows : 
Allows — Account Current, 7 per cent. Fixed periods, conventional. 
Chakges — Account Current, 15 percent. Discounts, Promissory Notes, and 
other Documents, conventional. , 

BILLS AND LETTERS OF CREDIT 

Issued on Londok, Fbance, Belgium, and all the Chief Cities of Italy, viz. : — 



Rome 


.. Banco Genbrale di Roma. 


Genoa 


„ EI Genova t Banco Italico 


Milan 


„ Lombaedo. 


Turin 


„ DI Toeing. 


Venice 


„ Venetg. - 


Padua 


„ Venetg. 


Iiecco 


„ DI Leoco. 


Savona 


,, DI Savona. 


Paris 


.. M. FOCLD & Co. 


Bordeaux . . 


.. PlGANEAU FILS, LafABGUE & Co. 


Marseilles .. 


. . Pascal pels. 




Also Direct on London. 



Drafts likewise given or taken on Cordoba, San Juan, and Tucuman. 
The Bates of Exchange on Italy are always posted up in the Bank for 
public view, whether at sight or on time. 

The Bank gives Letters of Credit for Shipment of Goods or Passengers from 
any of the above ports of Italy. 

BANKING HOURS. 
From 10 to 4 p.m., and until 5 on Saturdays. 

S. POLLININI, Manages. 
Buenos Ayees, Julio 1, 1873. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 27 

GOVERNMENT MOETGAGE BANK, 

Offices— 111, OALLE SAN MAETIN. 

This Bank will be open to the Public on all business days from 10 a.m. to i p.m. 

It advances on real estate to be repaid at long dates. 

It pays Mortgage Certificates (Cedulas Hipotecarios) for the amount of the 
loan it advances, which bear an interest equal to that collected by the Bank. 

The value of property offered in Moitgage shall not be under two thousand 
patacons, nor the loan be less than 500 fuertes. 

No loan can excetd half the value of the property mortgaged. 

The Mortgagor shall bind himself to pay an annual sum so long as the 
Mortgage lasts, said sum to represent the interest on the sum lent the amor- 
tization fund and commisston to the Bank. This yearly sum shall be paid 
quarterly or half-yearly. 

Series A — duarterly.— Mortgage for 20 years ll7 days, 8 per cent, 
interest, 2 per cent, amortization, and 1 per cent, commission. 

Series B — Quarterly. — Mortgage for 27 years 270 days; 8 per ceht. 
interest, 1 per cent, amortization, and 1 per cent, commission. 

Series C — Half-yearly. — Mortgage for 20 years 190 days, 8 per cent, 
interest, 2 per cent, amortization, and 1 per cent, commission. 

Series D — Half-yearly.— Mortgage for 28 years 5 days, 8 per cent, 
interest, 1 per cent, amortization, and 1 per cent, commission. 

Upon the full payment of the yearly sums stipulated in the Mortgage, both 
property and Mortgagor shall be freed from all further obligation. 

The Mortgagor thall be at liberty to anticipate the payments and to dis- 
charge the Mortgage, all or in part. 

Applications for Mortgages must be made in writing, specifying the property 
offered, accompanied by the title deeds^ the receipts of the Contribucion 
Direota tax, and setting forth that the property is free from all incumbrance, 
or if not the incumbrance that exists thereon, and which is to be paid off by 
the Mortgage. The Secretary of the Bank will supply applicants with the 
forms necessary, as also the tables for amortization. , 

Quarterly Mortgagors shall pay from 8th to 15th of each January, April, 
July, and October, and half-yearly Mortgagors shall pay between the 8th and 
15th of each January and July. 

With the amortization fund, mortgage certificates (cedulas) shall be redeemed 
at par by quarterly and half-yearly drawings. 

The Mortgage Bank pays the interest on the quarterly cedulas or mortgage 
certificates between the 31st December and 6th January, the 31st March and 
6th April, the 30th June and 6th July, tlie 30th September and 6th October 
every year, and on the half-yearly cedulas from the 31st December to 6th 
January, and from 30th June to 6th July. 

The Mortgage Bank can act between the capitalist and mortgagor, free of 
charge, in the way of realizing the cedulas, and for this purpose will receive 
deposits without interest, which will receive a preference, and which sums will 
be deposited in the Provincial Bank. 

On and after the 15th February, 1872, the Mortgage Bank wiU be open to 
the pubUc. JOSE M. LA FUENTE, Seobetaet. 

Ill — CALLE SAN MARTIN — lU. 



28 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEK., 

NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT OFFICE, 

121, CALLE MAYO. 



This Institution, created by the National Government, 

under the superintendence of the Immigration 

Committee, has for its chief object to 

PROVIDE LABOUE aEATUITOUSLY 

for all applicants, more especially 

FOE EUEOPEAN IMMIGEANTS, 

for whom the undersigned Chief of the Office has ever 
an especial care. 

All Languages spoTcen, and no Fee or Commissions of 
any kind whatsoever charged. 

FREDEEICK GOWLAND. 

Buenos Atees, Sept. 1, 1873. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEK. 29 



THE LABOUE OFFIGE. 



Decree of the National Grovernment. 



/CONSIDERING- the advantage to Immigrants of 
an Office where they would be supplied with 
work on landing, and there being funds enough at 
the disposal of the Immigration Department, as 
shown by the last Annual Report, the President of 
the Republic hereby 

DECREES : 

Art. 1. Let an Office be created under the name 
and title of "Labour Office," under the 
direction of the Immigration Committee. 

Art. 2. The Staff shall consist of a Head Clerk, 
with salary of one hundred and fifty 
patacones per month, with an Assistant 
at fifty patacones per month, another fifty 
being also allowed for Office expenses. 

Art. 3. Let it be communicated, published, and 
entered in the National Register. 

SAKMIENTO. 

DAL MA.CIO VBLEZ SARSFIELD. 

ED. FOX, Secretary. 



30 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 

DEUTSCH-BELGISCHE 

LA PLATA BANK, 

Cologne and Buenos Ayres. 

Authorized Capital :— Prussian Silver Thalers, 20,000,000. 
Subscribed Capital :— Prussian Silver Thalers, 10,000,000. 



OFFICES TS. BXJBNOS AYEES : 

SO — CALLE FLORIDA — 20. 



CUEEENT ACCOUNTS opened with Commercial Firms and Private 
Individuals. 
MONEY EECEIVED on fixed Deposit at conventional rates. 
BILLS DISCOUNTED at conventional rates. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE purchased at current rates. 
DEAFTS issued on the following places : 

Montevideo Cologne Antwerp 

Kio de Janiero Hamburg Genoa 

New Y^ork Bremen Madrid 

London Paris Lisbon 

Berlin Amsterdam 

And all the principal places of commerce on the Continent of Europe. 
LETTEES OF CREDIT issued available for purchase of merchandise in 
all parts of the world, on terms to be ascertained on application to the Bank. 

AD. ALTGELT, U. LOCHEE, Managbes. 



Deutsch-Belgische La Plata Bank. 

From the 1st Julio, 1873, and till further Notice, the Eate of Interest allowed 
and charged by the Bank will be as follows : 

INTEREST ALLOWED. 

On Deposits in Account Current, in both Currencies, 4 per cent, per annum. 

Ds. on a fixed term, at 30 days 4 per cent. 

" 1) 60 „ 5 „ 

i> ji 90 ,, 6 „ 

At longer dates at conventional rates. 

INTEREST CHARGED. 

On Debit Balances in Account Current, in both Currencies, 15 per cent. 
For Discounts — Conventional, according to circumstances. 

Bank hours from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and on Saturdays to 5 p.m. 

AD. ALTGELT, U. LOCHEE, Makageks. 

B0BNOS Atbeb, August 12, 1873. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISBE. 31 

IS THE 

BEST TONIC FOR CONVALESCENTS. 



IS aOOD FOR EVERYONE. 

IT GIYES AN APPETITE 

TAKEN BEFOBE MEALS, 

AND ASSISTS DIGESTION 

IP TAKEN AFTEK. 



Is Pure and Gennine' only when the Labels, Capsule, 
and Cork of each Bottle have the facsimile of the 
Proprietor's Signature, 

M. S. BAGLEY. 



32 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISER. 

A MACHINE FOR RAISINa WATER FROM ANY DEPTH, 

Peotbcted bt letters PATENT gkanted bt the NATIONAL 

GOVERNMENT to Eugenio Filipe Caeberas. 



"We beg to call the special attention of Sheep-Fabmees and Ageioultueists 
to the advantages gained by the use of this machine, especially as regards the 
simplifcity of its working and the ease with which the bucket is manipulated. 

The qualities which are most notable in this machine are the following, 
viz. : 

SOLIDITY OF CONSTRUCTION ; being whoUy of iron, well put 
together, and painted. 

SIMPLICITY ; as it can be placed over, or fitted to, almost any well (or 
jagUel) without the assistance of machinist or mechanic ; can be removed 
from one part of the establishment to another with the greatest ease ; 
and, above all, does not requii-e rods or brickwork either in or about 
the well. 

FACILITY IN ■WORKING ; as with the aid of a boy and a horse 
large quantities of water can be raised in a very short time. 

DURABILITY. It will last for years, and is very difficult to get out of 
order. 

CHEAPNESS ; the price being only $3000 m/c, delivered in Buenos 
Ayres. 

CONVENIENCE. The motive power can be attached to either end 
without changing the position of the receptacle for the water, as by 
passing the rope over the small wheel and ovee the pulley above the 
discharging trough (or canaleta) the horse can draw from the opposite 
end to that shown in the engraving which accompanies every machine. 

For further particulars apply to the. Proprietors, 

E. F. CAEEEEAS & CO., 314, Maipu. 



TA.ICE NOTICE. 

Extract translated from the Patent Law. See Paragraphs Nos. 53, 54, 56, & 60. 

No. 53. The infringement of patent rights will be Judged as a criminal act, and punished 
with a fine of from 50 fts. to 50O fts. (gold dollars), or with from one to six months' imprison- 
ment, and the confiscation of the counterfeit articles ; the infliction of which will, however, in 
nowise interfere with the right of the patentee to sue the counterfeiter for damages. 

No. 54. Those who may aid and abet the counterfeiters, either by selling, appropriating, 
introducing, or affording infoi;mation concerning the counterfeit (knowing it to be such), will be 
liable to the same punishment. 

No. 56. The fact of the counterfeiter having been in the employ of the patentee, or having 
obtained a knowledge of the details under false pretences, will be considered an aggravation of 
the offence. 

No. 60. The fines imposed upon the delinquent will be divided between the Fiscal and the 
Inforueb. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISBE. 33 

HOUSE & LAND AGENCY, 

130 -SAN MAETIN-130. 



,We do a Large Business in the Purchase and Sale 
of JjAnded Properties throughout the Argentine 
Republic, and especially in the province of Buenos 
Ayres. 

Letters from parties in G-reat Britain and Ireland 
who wish to invest in this country will be answered 
by return of post. 

We collect Eents, remit the money, and give 
previously security for the same. 

We buy Properties for established Houses, or for 

parties who send satisfactory references, paying the 

purchase-money in advance, which we recover on 

■ depositing the title-deeds in any bank of Buenos Ayres 

that the purchaser shall indicate. 

DENNEHY & MIROLI. 

Note. — We collect Interest on National Bonds, 
Mortgage Bank Cedillas, ^c. 



34 LA PLATA HAJfDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 

BRISTOL'S SARSAPARILLA, 

IN LARGE BOTTLES, 

The G-reat Purifier of the Blood, 

Particularly recommended for use during Spring and 
Summer, 

When the blood is thick, the circulation clogged, and the humours of the 

body rendered unhealthy by the heavy and greasy secretions of the winter 

months. This safe, though powerful detergent, cleanses every portion of the 

system, and should be used daily as 

A DIET DRINK 

by all who are sick, or who wish to prevent sickness. It is the only genuine 
and original preparation for the 

of the most dangerous and confinned cases of Scrofula, Old Sores, Boils, 
Tiunours, Ulcers, Abscesses, and every kind of Scrofulous and Scabious Erup- 
tions. It is also a sure remedy for Salt-Eheum, Bingworm, Tetter, Scald 
Head, Scurvy, SyphiUs or Venereal Disease, White Swelling and Neuralgic 
Affections, Nervous and General Debility of the System, Loss of Appetite, 
Languor, Dizziness, and all Affections of the Liver, Fever and Ague, Bilious 
Fevers, Chills and Fever, Damp Ague, and Jaundice. 

Guaranteed to be the most powerful and purest preparation of 

GENTIINE HONDtTRAS SAESAPAKILLA 

that is put for Sale. 

It is the very best, and, in fact, the only sure and reliable cure of all. dis- 
eases arising from a vitiate or impure state of the blood, or from excessive use 
of mercury. 

The aMioted may rest assured that there is not the least particle of mineral 
or any other poisonous substance in this medicine. It is perfectly harmless, 
and may be administered to persons in the very weakest stages of sickness, or 
to the most helpless infants, without doing the least injury. 

Full directions how to take this most valuable Medicine win be found 
around each bottle ; and, to guard against counterfeits, see that the written 
signature of LANMAN and KEMP is upon the blue label. 



PEEPAEED ONLY BT 

Lanman & Kemp, Wholesale Druggists, 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISER. 35 

THE "STANDARD," 

ESTABI^ISHED 1861, 

PUBLISHED EVEKY MORNING. 

SUBSCRIPTlON-130 PER MONTH. 

THE "WEEKLY STANDARD," 

EVERY WEDNESDAY. DOUBLE SHEET. 
$20 PEE MONTH, oi $200 PEE AHNUM, m ADVANCE. 

PACKET EDITION, 

FOETOSriGrllTLY, FOR EJiTG-LISII MIAILS. 
£2 PEE ANNUM. 



The total List of Subscribers comprises 3000 names. Over 20,000 copies pass 

monthly through the Post OfEoe for the United Kingdom, 

European Continent, North America, &o. 

Editors and Proprietors— M. G. and E. T. MULHALL. 



LQNDON—M.R. GEOEGE STREET, 30, Cokhhill. 
SOUTHAMPTON— Mb. J. C. SHAEPE, Eeutee's Tem;gbaph. 
MONTEVIDEO— G. BEHRENS, 103, Calle Zavala. 



Subscribers in the Rural Districts may order their Correspondence from 
Europe to be directed to the Standard OiBce, whence it viSl be despatched 
gratis to the Agents without delay. Advertisements for poor immigrants 
inserted gratis. 

"Standard" Court, 116 & 118, Calle San Martin. 

c 2 



36 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISER. 

PROVINCIAL BANK OF BUENOS AYRE8. 

BUSINESS HOURS, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 



DEPOSITS of not less than than gdOO m/c and 16ftes. received. 
These deposits will not be entitled to interest if retired before the 
expiration of sixty days from the date of such deposit ; after sixty days they 
will be entitled 'to interest from the date of the deposit. All interest not 
' collected shall at the end of each year be capitalised. All deposits at interest 
shall be entered' in a book which the Bank will deliver to the depositors, in 
which all payments of interest and capital shall be entered, and all interest 
shall be payable after the first of the month, or on returning the deposit. 

The Bank discounts bOls with two signatures, having from seven to ninety 
days to run ; it also discounts mercantile bills of from seven days io six 
months, on the condition that at maturity they are paid in full. 

The Bank draws at three days' sight upon the following Branches, charging 
only ^ per cent, commission : — 



CHASCOMUS, 

TANDIL, 

25 DB MAYO, 

EXALTACION DE LA CEUZ, 

SAN PEDKO, 

PERGAMINO, 

LAS FLORES. 



SAN NICOLAS, 

CHIVILOOY, 

MERCEDES, 

LOBOS, 

SALTO, 

AZUL, 

DOLORES, 

BARADERO, 

- The Branches also draw upon the Central Bank at sight, and at the same 
rate ; and upon each other at eight days' sight. 

The Bank pays commission to Brokers on the first discounting of bills and 
promissory notes. 

LOANS TO THE WORKING CLASSES. 
The Bank lends to artizans and operatives sums from Three to T'wenty ^ 
Thousand Dollars, on their own signature, taking as security a document 
with any well-known signature. 

CREDITS IN ACCOUNT CtTRRENT. 
1st. The Bank opens Accounts Current or Commercial House. 
RATES OF INTEREST. 
ALLOWS 
Private Depositors, 6 per cent, per annum m/c. 

' „ „ „ specie. 

To Private Depositors, in account current 4 per cent, per annum do. 

JJ J) M )) *^'^^- 

CHARGES 
Discounts in currency, 8 per cent, per annum. 
„ in specie, 8 „ „ 

E. V. ZAMUDIO, Secretaet. 
July 1,IS73. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISBE. 37 

THE LAEGEST AND BEST ASSOETED 

LIBRARY, STATIONERY, and MUSIC STORE 

IN MONTEVIDEO. 



lOlA, CALLE DE ZAYALA, MONTEVIDEO, 

HAS CONSTAHTLT ON HAKD A LAEGE ASSOETMENT OP 

'$i{aixq, BsmMc, ^btttrfionsl, anir €hmal "Moth m 

ENGLISH, 
FRENCH, 

GhERMAISr, 

SPANISH, 

ITALIAN, AND OTHER LANGUAGES. 



LAEGE STOCK of the best ENGLISH STATIONEEY. 



i W S I €, 



/a 
MuTHOrS, EXBEOISES, AKD FANTASIAS OP ALL CLASSES FOB PlANO, ViOLHI, 

Flute, HABMONroM, &o., &c. 

Complete Opeeas foe Voice, Piano, Violin, and Flute. 

English Songs. 



.A.Gr-EKTC'Z' FOU TUB ST-A.Isrr>.A.I?,ID.' 



The latest Publications are leceived by each Hail, 



38 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISBE. 

HOTEL DE PROYENCE, 

MONTEVIDEO. 



Pbopbietobs: Messrs. J. PfiEES & CO. 

Banquets of all kinds, Balls, Suppers, Picnics, Soirees, &c. supplied in the 
most recherclie style. 

Apartments for FAMILIES at Moderate Prices. 

Board and Accommodation by tlie Day, for Travellers passing thrDngh the 

City, 60 ps. 
Monthly Board, 750 ps. per month. 

An Assortment of the finest Wines, of all classes. 



25 TEARS ESTABLISHED. 



The Best, Fastest, and most Commodious 

I?,IVER 8TEA.MER8 

are daily despatched for 
ROSARIO, 

SANTA FE, 
PARANA, 

PARAGUAY, 

C0RRIENTE8, 
And all the Ports of the Urttguay, 

From the Agency of MATTIE & PAEEA, 

No. 30, CALLE CANGALLO. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVBKTISEE. 



J. DEFRIES & SONS' 

TABLE GLASS AND EAKTHENWAEE, LAMPS, 
OHANDELIEB S AND FOUNTAIN S FOR INDIA. 

By Appointment to Her Uajesty, and Contiaotors to Government. 

CRYSTAL AND BRONZE CHANDELIERS 

FOR GAS OE CANDLES, FOB INDIA AND THE COLONIES. 

ivEJTT ii,am:e» for, evdia. 

J. DEFRIES & SONS, Estimates for Lighting Streets, Towns, Railways, and Mannfactories 

with a Light equal to Gas at a much less cost. 
CONTRACTS taken, and experienced men sent out If required, aa for HIS HIGHNESS THE 

NIZAM, Secunderabod, India, THE SULTAN, and VICEROY OF EGYPT. 
'- ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS FREE. 

**• Cata^gitAS can behad tm a^licatum at the Office of this Eandbooh. 

I^OIDBRA^TOB .A.ITI3 OTHBE, T^AJ>a.-FS FOR. HvTOl-A.. 

JUGS, WITH SEPARATE CHAMBERS FOR ICE. 

GILT DINNER SERVICE, 102 PIECES (CRESTS EXTRA), S.Z 108. 

OUT AND ENGEATED, 

HfJjj gaoratimts for % Jitiinjf, ^fMv.^, mH ^all |l»flm. 

DEFRIES & SONS, Manufacturers of Storert PATENT PERPETUAL AND PERFUME 
CRYSTAL TABLE POITNTAIN, which, when complete with Flowers and Fruit, forms 
the most elegant Ornament for Dining-rooms, Ball-rooms, Drawing-rooms, and Conservatories. 
They are portable, most elepant and new in design, and rich in appearance. Also the 
COirSBEVATOEY FOUNTAIN, which is quite independent of a service of water- 
pipes, tanlcs, and other expensive accessories, and, having no mechanism, cannot possibly get out 
of order. MOST WONDERFUL INTENTION OF TEE DAT. 

FOUNTAINS! FOUNTAINS!! FOUNTAINS!!! 
In great variety, from £3 17s. to 100 Guineas. In Crystal and Gilt, for the Dining-room 
and Drawing-room. In Crystal, Electro Plate, or Gilt, for Conservatories. For the Sick-room 
can be used with every kind of Perfumed Water. Chemists, Druggists, and Perfumers can make 
satisfactory arrangements for the Sale of Storer-s PATENT PERPETUAL AND PORTABLE 
TABLE FOUNTAINS by applyhig to the Manufacturers, 

J. DEFRIES & SONS, 

ALSO MANUTACTUEEaS OF 

TABLE GLASS, CHINA AND EARTHENWARE, SILVER AND ELECTRO-PLATE, 

Crystal, Bronzed, and Ormolu Chandeliers, Mirrors, and Wall Lights, 
ENGLISH AND FOEEIGN CLOCKS, MUSICAL AND SINGING BIRD BOXES, 

WOKKS: LONDON, BIEMINGHAM, AND PAEI8. 

PRINCIPAL DEPOT, 147, H0UND8DITCH, LONDON (ESTABLISHED 1803). 
MEDALS : International Exhibition, 1862 ; Paris Exhibition, 1867. 

Patters Books of Eveht Deschiption. 
%* Orders must be acctmpa/n-Ud by a BemittaiKe or Beference to a Firm in EngXtmd. 



40 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVERTISER. 

SAYORY & MOORE'S 
HOUSEHOLD MEDICINES. 

PANCREATIC EMULSION AND PANCREATINE 

(G-E3SrTJI3SrE). 

, IN" CONSUMPTION, WASTING, LOSS OF THE POWER OF DIGESTION AND 
ASSIMILATION, the Pancreatic Emiilsion and Pancvealine are the most potent Remedies. 
AVliere Cod Liver Oil ftiils, or cannot be tolerated by the stomach, the Pancreatic Preparations 
are the only Remedies that supply its place. 

PEPTODYN-THE NEW DIGESTIVE, 

Digrests all kinds of Pood. 

The FARINACEOUS, FIBRINOUS, and OLEAGINOUS, being a combination of the active 

principles of the several digestive secretions, Peptic, Pancreatic, &c. 

Peptodyn (powder) sold in Bottles, from 2s, to 21s. 

BEST FOOD FOR INFANTS. 

« THE INFANT PRINCE THRIVES UPON IT AS A PRINCE SHOULD."— i)r. Richardsm. 
"RESEMBLES MOTHER'S MILK AS CLOSELY AS POSSIBLE." 

Ur, S. BarJcer on " Bight Foods." 
This Food is rich in Flesh-forming and Bone-forming Constituents, and supplies in a greater degree 
than any other kind all that is needed for the healthful growth and development of Children. 

JEEEMIE'S SEDATIVE AND ANTI-SPASMODIC, 

Por Cholera, Diarrhoea, Spasms, &c. 

Diminishes Nervous Excitement, Allays Pain, and Produces Sleep without any of the objection- 
able symptoms which attend the employment of other Sedatives. In India and other tropical 
climates it is regarded as a speci/ic for Diarrhoea, Cholera, Dysentery, and Nervousness. 

"DATURA TATULA," FOR ASTHMA AND BRONCHITIS. 

" Of great efficacy in Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis." — Dr. Mc Veagh. 
" I have never known an instance in which relief was not obtained." — Gen. Alexander. 
" It is a remedy of great power and usefulness." — Dr. Barker on Diseases of Respiratory Organs. 
As Tobacco, in tins ; Cigars and Cigarettes, in boxes ; and as Pastilles for inhalation, in boxes. 

ETHERODYNE— Superior to Chlorodyne. 

(This Title is Cc^yright.) 

ETHERODYNE is an elegant substitute for Chlorodyne, and far more convenient for use. 
Its therapeutical properties are Diaphoretic, Antispasmodic, and Sedative. It is a clear, bright, 
fluid, pleasant to the taste, and readily miscible with water, or any suitable meiatnmm. 

DR. JENNER'S ABSORBENT LOZENGES 

Speedily and effectually correct Heartburn, Flatulence, and other evils attendant on an Excess of 

Acid ia the Stomach. They are eminently serviceable in relieving that form of Heartburn so ' 

common with ladies during pregnancy. 



SAVORY Sc MOORE, 

Cliemists to B.M, the Queen. ff.R.R. the Prince of Wales. H.I.M. Napol&m III. 
Sis Highness the Khedive of Egypt^ &c. 

143, NEW BOND STREET, LONDON. 

Snlir bg all C^jmiats, gurjjgists, ■sitis StetketpErs. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEKTISEK. 41 , 

THE FAMILY 

GROCERY STORE. 



THE GREATER PART OF OUR 

STOCK 

IS RENEWED SEMI-MONTHLY. 



Importations, direct per Steamer, especially for this 
Establislunent. 



60-CALLE SAN MARTIN -60. 

OPPOSITE TEE PBOVINCTAL BANK 



42 LA PLATA HANDBOOg: ADVEETISEE. 

CORRALON 11 DE 8ETIEMBRE, 

Oalle de Eivadavia, Esquina Eio. 



SPKA6UES' MOWING MACHINES, 

At 200 PATACONES each. 

JOHNSTON'S CLIPPER YOUNG EAGLE GUTTING MACHINE. 

COLLINS' STEEL PLOUGHS, IRON PLOUGHS, HOWARD'S 

PLOUGHS, LANDMARKS, SLATES, IRON TILES, 

BALDOZAS, &c., &c., &e. 

SIX DIFFERENT KINDS OF CORN-SHELLERS, 

HAY-FORKING MACHINES, CORN-CRUSHING MACHINES, 

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN RAKES, 

ROLLERS OF ALL KINDS. 

PIG-IRON, WIRE, NANDUBAY POSTS, 

KITCHEN AND FORGE COAL, GALVANIZED IRON 

AND ZINC ROOFING, ROMAN CEMENT, LIME, STONE 

PITCH, ROCK SALT, NAILS, SACKS, SHEARS, 

SHOVELS, TWINE, PAINT, SACKING, 

POLES, &c., &c., &c. 

AMERICAN CARTS AND CARRIAGES. 



The above Articles on Sale at the COEKALOK 11 DE SETIEMBBE, or 
at our Deposit in Barracas (formerly Llavallol's Estaqueadero). 

N.B. — Goods delivered, free of charge, at the purchasers' private houses, the 
Railway Stations, or at the Boca and Barracas, 



V. L. & E, CASARES. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEKTISEE. 43 

Diego C. Thompson & Ca., 

71 - RECONQUISTA - 7i 

UNICOS AGENTE8 EN BUENOS AIRES 



DB LAS TAMOSAS 



DB LA TABEIOA DE 

CHUBB, 

GAEANTIDAS CONTRA INCENDIOS Y LADEONES, 

y QUE HAN SIDO PEEMIADOS EN VAELA.S ESPOSICIONES 
DE EUEOPA. 



IIEL.OJ-BS IDE OliO 



DE LA BIEN OONOOIDA FABEIOA DE 



R S K E L L. 



44 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEKTISEB. 

EMILIO HANSEN, 

OFFERS HIS SEBVIOES 

FOE THE WINDING-UP OF ESTATES, 

SETTLING HEIESHIPS, 

ADJUSTMENT OF MAEINE AVEEAGE, &o. 

Correspondent in Ireland, E. M. OAETHT, Esq., Cork. 

AT THE ESOEIBANIA DE L. M. GONZALES, 
FIBST PATIO, FROM 3 TO 5 P.M. 

LIBEERIA EUROPEA, 

HS^OISTTE-VIIDEO. 

LIBRERIA INGLESA. DEUTSCH BUCHHANDLUNG. 

LIBRERIA ESPANOLA. LIBRAIRIE FRANCAISE. 

Books in aU Languages. Account Books. Plain and Fancy Stationery. 
Music. Agency for European Newspapers and Magazines. Bazaar. 

PRO BONO PTTBIilCO.— LETTERS ftom any part of Great Britain or the United 
States of America for private parties in the River Plate, may be addressed to Messrs. BEARD 
BROTHERS, Libreria Europea, Casilla 72, Montevideo, Sonth America, where particular care 
will be taken of them till called for. 

I^OVBLS ! N"0"VE!LS ! 



BEARD BROTHERS. 



LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 45 

MUEBLES 
NORTE AMERICANOS, 

DE 8ALA, DE COMEDOR, Y DE DORMITORIO, 

PIEZAS DE FANTASIA Y DE GUSTO. 

JUEGOS DO COMEDOB, HOGAL DE 16 PlEZAS E 

Pesos 4600 m/c. 



JuEGOS DE SaLA DE 9 PlEZAS FOEEADOS EN EepS DE LaMA, 

Pesos 5000 m/c. 



JuEGOS DE DOKMITOBIO, 10 PlEZAS DE PeBOS 2000 m/o, 

Pesos 10,000 m/c. 



JUBGOS DE DORMITOEIO EITOAJONADOS, TODO EN UN CAJON OOMO PABAAKA 
AEMAELOO EN 

Pesos 1600 el juego entero. 



CASA INTBODUCTOKA NOETB AMERICANA 

BAILEY AND GOMEZ, 

76 -SAN MARTIN -76 



46 LA PLATA HANDBOOK ADVEETISEE. 

HOTEL ORIENTAL, 



Proprietors— T. and E. FEEMNDEZ. 

This Hotel, the finest in South America, buUt at a cost of £40,000, in the 

business quarter of Montevideo, near the Port, and adjoining 

the Bolsa, or Exchange, has Apartments with 

the; jslXtki^d^nch! is fa.tjl,tlisss. 

the aocomm:or)-a.tioi^s -a-re sttperb. 

the cttisine excellent. 

BOARD and ROOM, ^3 per Day. 

HOT AND COLD BATHS ON THE PREMISES. 
CAERIAGES FOR EXCURSIONS IN THE SUBURBS. 



At Sabta Lucia there is a Bkanoh of this Hotel, much frequented by 
Families in the Summer Season; it covers a large quadrangle, near the 
Railway Station, and is only two hours (40 miles) by rail from Montevideo. 

WILLIAM B. CRANWELL & Co. 

(Late mCHARD CBANWELL & Co.) 

€%pxt ^xn^^mb mln §tmxnl "^m^uU, 

2 & 3, TOWER EOYAL, CANNON STREET, 
LONDON, E.G. 



LONDON ; 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET 

AND QUAKING CB0B6.