Skip to main content

Full text of "Arabic grammar; paradigms, literature, exercises and glossary"

See other formats



■>*, V 






g ^§= - 4v^^»y 





ys M ? 


n in7&4. 


-'^^^^»B? g=^J 

-j-*to»=ee^^— f 


3 1924 100 477 425 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 








Hebraioae, Phoenioiae, Biblioo-Aramaicae, 

Samaritanae, Targuraioae, Syriaoae, Arabioae, 

Aethiopicae, Assyriacae, Aegyptiacae, Copticae, 

Armeniacae, Persicae, Turcicae, aliarum 

studiis academieis accomvnodaverunt 

J. K Petermann, H. L. Strack, E. Nestle, A. Socin, F. Fraetorius, 

A. Merx, Aug. Mueller, Friedr. Delitzsch, C. Salemann, 

Ad. Erman, V. Shukovski, Th. Noeldeke, 

G. Steindorff, B. Bruennow , Dav. H. Mueller , Q. Jacob , aui. 












D R. A. § O C I N 




Eev. arch. E. 8. J5:ennedy d. d. 





All rights reserved, 
including that of translation into other languages. 



The aim of the following pages is to furnish intend- 
ing students of classical Arabic with the most import- 
ant rules both of the Accidence and of the Syntax 
in the briefest possible form. The present edition, the 
second in English, is a translation of the third German 
edition of 1894, to which, save for a few corrections 
and additions, it in all respects corresponds. Its 
German counterpart has been considerably altered 
compared with the second edition because of the 
publishers' intention to issue a separate chrestomathy 
of Arabic prose. Professor R. Bruennow, a scholar 
of approved ability, was entrusted with the prepara- 
tion of this work which appeared in the year 1894. 
The connected narratives which formerly composed 
the chrestomathy of the grammar were, according to 
arrangement, incorporated in Bruennow's work, and 
consequently had to be dropped from the new edition 

YI Pkbface. 

of the grammar. On the other hand the latter was 
now extended, more particularly in the part dealing 
with the syntax, with the result that it will now be 
found, with few exceptions, to be sufficient for the 
understanding of the new chrestomathy. At the same 
time, the fact must again be emphasised that the 
present work does not pretend to take the place of 
any of the larger treatises ; the English student who 
wishes to advance beyond the elements of Arabic must 
have recourse to the latest edition (the third) of 
Wright's excellent grammar. For this reason the 
author has deemed it his duty to adhere to his former 
view and to decline, in a book intended for beginners, 
to enter into the technical terminology of the Arab 
grammarians — which may safely be left to the larger 
grammars; still the Arabic specialist will easily dis- 
cover that their views have been taken into account 
even in the present elementary work. The best intro- 
duction to this department of study will be found to 
be the reading of the'Agrumiye, which Bruennow has 
printed in his Chrestomathy. 

In order to lighten the first lessons in grammar, 
the exercises consisting of short sentences and anec- 
dotes have been increased by the addition of a few 
short stories, by means of which a sort of stepping 
stone is provided to the prose chrestomathy. 

Preface. VII 

The passages for translation into Arabic have been 
retained unchanged along with the appropriate 
glossary. Experience has shown that this part of the 
chrestomathy has unquestionably been of service; and 
although I am strongly of opinion that this class of 
exercises is of real value in such systematic instruction 
as is necessary at first, I am in no wise blind to the 
difficulties which the correction of such exercises entails 
even on the teacher of Arabic. In order to meet such 
difficulties, I have selected single sentences and anec- 
dotes from Arabic authors, and have so arranged both 
notes and glossary that the student, who in any case 
will have to make diligent use of grammar and dic- 
tionary, is so to say compelled to reproduce exactly 
the Arabic original. From what has just been said, 
it is clear that this part of the book, at least, presup- 
poses a teacher, for I am convinced that the grammar 
of Arabic as a whole, and the syntax in particular, 
can only be mastered with extreme difficulty by self- 
instruction. I would add, however, that translation 
from English should be taken at first in the smallest 
possible doses, and even in this way only after the 
student has read a part of the Arabic texts. 

The synopsis of Arabic literature has also been 
extended. Strictly speaking, this section is out of 
place in an elementary work; still it may afford a 

Vm Peeface. 

stimulus to a beginner here and there, and supply an 
occasional hint to those pursuing the study of Arabic 
by themselves, or at a distance from the larger seats 
of learning. 

The present English edition is an entirely new 
translation. This difficult and tedious work has been 
undertaken by Professor Archd. K. S. Kenkedt of 
Edinburgh University. To him and to his late assistant, 
Mr. W. B. Stevenson B. D., Vans Dunlop Scholar in 
Semitic Languages of the same University, who has 
rendered us great assistance in the reading of the 
proofs, I cannot omit to express here my warmest 
thanks for their co-operation. 

A. SociN. 


I have only to add to the foregoing, that my 
responsibility as translator does not extend to the 
English-Arabic exercises and the relative glossary. 
A few verbal changes excepted — chiefly where the 
"violence done to the Queen's English" (p. 57*) was 
greater than seemed absolutely necessary — these 
have been reprinted from the first edition. I have 
also inserted an additional reference here and there, 
and in the bibliographical section I am responsible 
for one or two additional entries. 

I wish also to express my personal indebtedness 
to Mr.Stevenaon, without whose generous co-operation, 
owing to my absence in the East, the book would 
not have been ready in time for this winter's work. 

20*11 September 1895. 

A. R. S. K. 






§ 1. Consonants . . 1 

§ 2. Long Towels 6 

§ 3. Short Vowels, Nunation, Gezma 8 

§ 4. Hamza 9 

§ 5. Tesdid 11 

§ ,6. "Wasla . . 12 

§ 7. Medda 15 

§ 8. The SyUable 16 

§ 9. The Tone 17 

§ 10. Pause ... . 18 

§ 11. The Arabic Cyphers and Contractions 18 

II. ACCIDENCE (§§ 12—96). 
Chap. I. The Pronoun {§§ 12—15). 

§ 12. Personal Pronouns 19 

§ 13. Demonstrative Pronouns . 21 

§ 14. Eelative Pronouns 23 

§ 15. Interrogative Pronouns 24 

Chap. II. The Verb (§§ 16—54). 

§ 16. Grroundform .... ... .... 24 

§ 17. Conspectus of the derived Stems 24 

§ 18. I. Stem 25 

§ 19. II, Stem 26 

§ 20. in. Stem 26 

§ 21. IV. Stem 27 



§ 22. V. Stem 27 

§ 23. VI. Stem . 28 

§ 24. VII. Stem 28 

§ 25. VIII. Stem ... 28 

§ 26. IX and XI. Stems 29 

§ 27. X. Stem 29 

§ 28. The Stems of the quadriliteral Verb . ... 30 

§ 29. The Passive . 30 

§ 30. The Tenses 30 

§ 31. The Moods 31 

§ 32. Imperative .... 32 

§ 33. Inflexion for Person and Number 33 

§§ 34—36. Verbs mediae geminatae . . . . 34 

§§ 37—38. Verba hamzata . . ... . . 36 

§ 39. Weak Verbs 38 

§ 40. Verba primae ^ et i_5 . . . 38 

§§ 41—44. Verba mediae ^ et ^ . . 39 

§§ 45 — 48. Verba ultimae ^ et ^^ 41 

§ 49. Doubly weak Verbs ... 44 

§ 50. The Verb J^ 45 

§ 51. Verbs of Praise and Blame 46 

§ 52. Forms of Admiration 46 

§ 53. The Verb with Pronominal Suffixes 46 

§ 54. Sign of the Aoousative 47 ' 

Chap. III. The Noun (§§ 55-90). 

a. Tormation of Nouns. 

§ 55. Primitive and derived Nouns 48 

§• 56. Sunmiary of the simple Nouns 49 

§ 57. Nouns with Preformatives 49 

§ 58. Nouns with Afformatives 50 

g 59. Quadriliteral Nouns 50 

§ 60. Participles 50 

§ 61. Infinitives 61 

§ 62. Verbal Adjectives 53 



§ 63. Intensive Forms 54 

§ 64. Nomina loci, instrumenti, speolei 56 

§ 65. Nomina relativa 56 

§ 66. Nomina deminutiva 57 

§ 67. Nouns from Stems mediae geminatae 57 

§ 68. Nouns from Stems with Hamza ... ... 58 

§ 69. Nouns from Stems primae ^ 58 

§ 70. Nouns from Stems med. ^ and ,_$ 59 

§ 71. Nouns from Stems ultimae ^ and i_$ 60 

b. Gender of Nouns. 

§ 72. Masculine and Feminine Gender 62 

§§ 73—74. Formation of the Feminine 63 

c. Inflexion of Nouns. 

§ 75. Number and Case ... 65 

§ 76. Formation of the Dual and Plural 66 

§ 77. Case-endings of Singular. Triptote and Diptote Nouns 67 

§ 78. Diptotes 68 

§ 79. Inflection of the Determined Noun 68 

§ 80. Shortening of Dual and Plural in the Construct State 69 

§ 81. Inflection of Nouns in in and an from ult. ^ and ^ 70 

§ 82. The Noun with the Pronominal Suffixes .... 71 

§ 83. Vowel Changes in the PluraUs Sanus 72 

§ 84. Proper Names compoimded with (^1 73 

§ 85. Vocative 73 

§ 86. Collective Nouns . . 74 

§ 87. Broken Plurals 75 

§ 88. List of the principal varieties of the Broken Plural . 76 

§ 89. Broken Plurals from Quadrihteral Nouns .... 78 

§ 90. Nouns of irregular Formation 80 

Chap. lY. The Numerals (§§ 91—93). 

§ 91. The Cardinal Numbers 83 

§ 92. The Connection of the numeral with the thing numbered 85 

§ 93. Ordinal Numbers and Fractions 86 

Contents. XIII 


Chap. Y. Particles (§§ 94—96). 

§ 94. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions 88 

§ 95. Inseparable Particles 88 

§ 96. Prepositions and Particles with Suffixes .... 89 

III. SYNTAX (§§ 97 — 160). 

Chap. I. Tenses and Moods (§§ 97—104). 

§ 97. Perfect and Imperfect 90 

§ 98. Use of the Perfect 91 

§ 99. Use of the Imperfect . 92 

§ 100. Subjunctive .... 94 

§ 101. Modus apocopatus . 95 

§ 102. Modus energicus 95 

§ 103. Passive 96 

§ 104. Participles 96 

Chap. IL Government of the Verb (§§ 105—117). 

§ 105. The Verb and its Compliment 97 

§ 106. Accusative 97 

§ 107. Accusative after verbs of coning &o 97 

§ 108. Verbs with two Accusatives 97 

§ 109. The Absolute Object 98 

§ 110. The Accusative as Predicate 99 

§ 111. Accusative with 'SI 100 

§ 112. Accusative with ^ of Concomitance 101 

§ 113. Accusative of nearer Definition 101 

§ 114* Accusative in Exclamations 102 

§§ 114—116. The Verb with Prepositions 103 

§ 117. J in Dates ... 104 

Chap. III. Government of the Noun (§§ 118—184). 

§ 118. The Noun with the Article (Determination) . . 105 

§ 119. Apposition • . . 106 

§§ 120—122. Qualifying Adjuncts 107 

§§ 123—130. The Genitive Belation 109 

XIV Contents. 


§ 131. The Construction of the Infinitive 112 

§ 132. The Participle and its Object 113 

§ 133. The Nomen Begens undetermined ... . H4 

§ 134. Improper Annexation 114 

Chap. IV. The Simple Sentence (§§ 135—151). 

§ 135. DistiQction bet. Nominal and Verbal Sentences . 116 

§ 136. The Verb in the Verbal Sentence 115 

§§ 137—138, Indefinite Subject 117 

§ 139. The Predicate in the Nominal Sentence .... 118 

§§ 140 — 146. Connection bet. Subject and Predicate . . 119 

§ 147. The Particles 'inna and 'anna 122 

§ 148. Subordinate Sentences 123 

§ 149. More than one Predicate 125 

§ 150. Negative Sentences 125 

§ 151. The Particle of Exception 126 

Chap. V. Compound Sentences (§§ 152—161). 

§ 152. Co-ordinate Sentences 127 

§§ 153—156. The Relative Clause 128 

§ 157. The Circumstantial Clause 131 

§ 158. The Temporal Clause 132 

§ 159. The Conditional Clause with the Perfect ... 133 

§ 160. The Conditional Clause with the Apoo. Impf. . 134 

§ 161. The Particle <_3 in the Apodosis 134 

Computation of Time (Names of the Days of the Week, the 

Months &o.) . . . . .... . 136 


A. Bibliography 139 

B. Introduotioij and general . . 144 

C. Chrestomathies 144 

D. Grammars . . I45 

Contents. XV 


E. Lexicography 147 

P. Koran, Islam, Life of Muhammed, Bible &o. . . . 150 

G.- Jurisprudence I53 

H. Philosophy 154 

I. Natural Sciences and Medicine 156 

K. History, Biographies 157 

L. Cosmography, Geography, Ethnography, Travels . . 163 

M. Poetry 166 

N. BeEes Lettres, Ethics, Bomances 169 


I. Suffixes and Prefixes for the Conjugation of the Verb 3* 

IL Strong triliteral Verb Act. 1 4* 

III. Strong triliteral Verb Pass. 1 6* 

IV. Quadrihteral Verb, derived Stems 7* 

V. Strong triliteral Verb, derived Stems 8* 

VI. Verbum mediae geminatae Act. 1 10* 

VII. Verbum mediae geminatae Pass. 1 11* 

VIII. Verbum mediae geminatae, derived Stems . . . 12* 

IX. Verba hamzata 13* 

X. Verbum primaQ radicalis 3 et (_$ 14* 

XI. Verbum mediae radicalis ^ Act. 1 15* 

XII. Verbum mediae radicalis 1^ Act. 1 16* 

Xin. Verbum mediae radicalis ^ vel (_$ Pass 17* 

XIV. Verbum med. radicalism et (_$, derived Stems . . 18* 

XV. Verbum tertiae radicalis ^ (/jjii) -A-ot. I. . . . 19* 

XVI. Verbum tertiae radicalis y^ ( J-»i) ^'*'- I. ■ . . 20* 

XVII. Verbum tertiae radicalism vel 1^ {^\sS) Act. I. . 21* 

XVIII. Verbum tertiae radicalis j vel ^ Pass. I, . . . 24* 

XIX. Verbum tertiae radicalis ^ vel i^, derived Stems . 22* 

XX. Nomen generis masculini 25* 

XXI. Nomen generis feminini 26* 

XXII. Nouns in "in" and "an" 27* 

XXIII. The Noun with Pronominal Suffixes 28* 

XVI Contents. 

Page , 

I. Exercises on the Grammar 

A. For practice in Reading ^- • 30* 

B. Exercises on the Accidence 32* 

C. Exercises on the Syntax 35* 

II. Connected Extracts 48* 

III. For Translation into Arabic .... ... 57* 


A. English-Arabic 79* 

B. Arabic-English 104* 






(§§ 1-11). 

The Consonants. The Arabs at first used the Syriac 1. 
characters and the Syriac alphabet, in which the order °" 
of the characters is the same as in Hebrew. A relic 
of this earlier order is still preserved, in the employ- 
ment — afterwards seldom resorted to — of the letters 
of the alphabet as cyphers (cf. pages 4 — 5). At an 
early period, however, the Arabs distinguished by 
means of diacritical points a number of sounds which 
were not so distinguished in the older alphabet. 
By a process of curtailment, moreover, a number of 
characters became so like each other that they had 
to be distinguished by similar diacritical signs. The 
next step was to group together in the alphabet the 
characters which in this way had come to resemble 
each other. Hence the Arabic alphabet now consists 
of twenty-eight consonantal signs, the usual order and 








1-5 P. 



a » 

s ^ 







1 -i 


, itlAlif* 




cf. §§ 2 an 













glj Ta 









gU Tha 





English hard th as 
in thing -^ ' 
\ orig. g hard; later 
> g in Italian ^ior«o ; 
j English j 




|VA». Jim 









gLl Hha 





"1 strong h. with fric- 
> tion of larynx as if 



J wheezing 




sLL Kha 

J|5 Dal 

s _ 





ch in Scotch loch 




' 9 

JI5 Dhal 
il) Zai- ; 




soft th, as in this 


Z as in zeal\ soft s 
as in rost 





i^juj/ Sin 





hard S 




G * _ 

(J^ Sm 









* The termination s i. e. 
as in the modern Arahio 

wn, (see § 3 b) is neglected in the 




Form , Value 





■a a 









iUfl Sad 





emphatic S 



SLi Dad 





1 emphatic d(tongue 
pressed against the 

emphatic t 




^Lb Ta 








%\Jd Za 





emphatic z 

■\ produced byatight- 




ij^ Am 





I ening of the vio- 
j leutly compressed 
J glottis 



i^^JLft Ghain 





guttural r 



gli Fa 













deep emphatic k 













IS Lam 









j^A>o Mim 









^^^i Nan 









jL^ Ha 









JI5 Waw 


















forms of which are exhibited on pp. 4 — 5. These 
signs are written and read from right to left. Some 
are joined, to the letters preceding or following, others 
are not, as indicated in the table referred to. 

b. "When s (No. 26), at the end of a word, indicates 
the feminine termination (§ 73), two dots are placed 
over it to show that it must be pronounced as t (Nr. 
3) ; thus : H. 

c. Very frequently, especially at the beginning of 
words, certain letters, instead of being written along- 
side of each other, are placed one above the other 
this is particularly the case with the letters _, _, ^ 

(Nos. 5—7), e. g. ^ for .sj^j (Nos. 2 and 6), S: (Nos. 
5 and 6) for s3^, :^ (Nos. 18 and 5) for :ss^ &c. 
Instead of LJ (Nos. 23 and 1) the Arabs write ^ or "li 
(the Lam in the latter form beginning at the left 
of Alif). 

2. The vowels, how indicated. In the earliest times 

the Arabs indicated only the long vowels a, t, u, and 
the diphthongs au, ai (whose second element they 
regarded as a consonant); this was done by employing 
the sign | (No. 1) for a, ^ (No. 27) for u and (with a) 
au, (No. 28) for i and (with a) ai. In cases where 
and ^ indicate the sounds au and ai, which we pronounce 
as diphthongs, Sukun (see § 3 c) is ordinarily placed- 



over these letters, to denote that they have no vowel 
of their own. Examples; JU" kdla, ^tM sJra, (..-w 

sukun, «jo bai'un, ^yj naumun. 

In the oldest writing, the long a was not uniformly 5. 
represented by t, but was occasionally left unrepre- 
sented. This omission has continued to be observed 
in a series of very common words; in such cases, 
however, an upright stroke is usually placed over the 
consonant that is to be pronounced with the long a, 

e. g. \tys> (for I6L») hada, xJ| Hldhun (God), ^jt^\ 
rahmdnu. Frequently, however, in our printed editions, 
we find this long a represented by a simple _1-, thus: 

\^jb hadd. 

In a few words a . after an a does not indicate c 
the pronounciation au but a long «, originally no doubt 
an obscure a; in this case, too, the upright stroke is 

the usual sign, e. g. iy^^ (alongside of sLt^.) haydtun 
life (but I with Suffixes: xSLys. haydtuhu his life). 

At the end of many words ^ is likewise employed d. 

to represent a long d; in such cases (like the ^ in c) 

it does not receive the Sukun (§ 3 c), e. g. ^^ (or 

^>) ramd (he has thrown); in the middle of a word, 

on the other hand, \ takes the place of this ^ ; thus 

• with a suffix sL<i« ramdhu he has thrown it. 


Note a. In a few rare cases, in the middle of a word, we 

^ I 
find a denoted by 4 _!_, as in the foreign word ijjjJ taurdtun Torah. 

Note b. Should ^^ " be preceded by a i, ( is written for the 

former in order to prevent two ^g coming together; e. g. UJ>J 

dunya world fiir ^^'j (§ 74 a). 

e. Occasionally an ( is added to a final u or au, but 

it is entirely left out of account in the pronunciation ; 
e. g. \yjjf kataM, Ijjo. ramau (§§ 33 and 53). 

3. The short vowels were originally, as a rule, left 

"" unrepresented^; afterwards the following signs were 
employed to represent the short vowels, and (in con- 
junction with the signs discussed in § 2) the long ' 
vowels as well: , 

1) JLsii Fatha^ (also ^IjS Fath) 1_ for a (in 
certain cases to be pronounced like e in men, also 
like German a in Manner), e. g. J^XS katala, JU kdla. 

2) 'iyj^S Kesra (also wvLJ Kesr) __ for i, e. g. J. ^p 
gadiba, «juj yaWu. 

3) X+^ Damma (also ^ Damm) _i_ for u, e. g. 
^jjJo yaktuou; «yj^ yafutu. 

h. When these signs for the short vowels are written 

' Many books, particularly those printed in the East, are 
printed without these vowel signs. 

2 The terminations 8—, K-^ are here represented in the trans- 
literation by a, as in modern Arabic. 

4. HAMZA. 

twice at the end of a word, they are to be pronounced 
with a final n (called by the Arabs ^?>j^IS Tanwin, 
by us frequently Nunation, from the letter niin), e. g. 
^jM+*i lamsin, J^. ragulun. The Nunation «w receives 
as an additional indication the letter |, but the pro- 
nunciation remains unaffected, e. g. !S)Lo malan. This 
I is omitted only when the Nunation accompanies the 

J, . . . . * J 

leminme termination S (see above § 1 &), e. g. '\iSJa 
markiibatan , or in cases where the word already has 
a final |, or in its place a ^^ quiescing in a, e. g. Ljj 

rWan, ,^jJo hudan (§ 2d). The same holds good in 
most cases after Hamza (§ 4). The vowel of the Nu- 
nation is always short. 

When a consonant has no vowel of its own, this c. 

is indicated by the sign _1^ x^y=»- Gezma (also called 

^^Xlw Sukiin [Rest]) e. g. «yj.iLl sdfartu, OLjyiiuo ma- 
saita (cf. § 2). On the omission of this sign see § 5. 
k consonant which is thus pronounced without a 
i^owel following is said to be "resting". 

Hamza. In order to distinguish the cases in which 4. 
was employed to denote a (§ 2), from those in which °" 
t had (as originally in Hebrew) its proper force as 
I consonant, the Arabs gaye it the additional sign 

10 4. HAIIZA. 

iiyijo Hamza ^ (in form a modified c 'Ain). I accord- 
ingly denotes the closure of the larynx by which the 
breath, engaged in voice production, is turned on or 
off, according as the Hamza precedes or fellows a 
vowel. It is best heard in English before the. second- 
of such pairs of words as "sea eagle", "mine eyes". 
Its effect may also be noted by comparing the two 
following pronunciations of Kuran, viz: Ku-ran and 
Kur-'an (the latter with Hamza). In the translitera- 

tion we indicate | by ' except at the beginning of a 
word where no indication is required. The sign ^ is 
placed under the |, when followed by an e-sound. 
Examples yo| "amrun, Jj| HMun, ^\ 'umamun; JLI 
sa'ala, ^\. ra'-sun; SJi\ik-ra\ In the last two exam- 
ples Hamza closes the syllable. 

Before or after an i- or w-sound, the signs , and 
1^ are generally employed instead of | as the bearers of 
the Hamza, in which case ^ is written without the two 
dots: e. g. ^^^j bahisa, Li^^ yu'taru, '^\J yu'ataru] 
lii^As. gi'ia, ^^Xfo sa'iba, (^sLaj yuldr^u. 

After a long vowel, and in most cases after Suktin, 
Hamza as a rule has no bearer, but is written on or 
above the line, thus: %\S6A 'irddhin, glS (or ill) 
iarun. After a vowelless consonant in the middle of 

5. TESDID. 11 

a word, Hamza with its vowel is placed over the 
connecting stroke (except, of course, when no such 
connection is possible, as after . in 'it-yX^ mamlu'aiun), 
thus: x_Aiii&. hatVatun; in the same way L_-ul sai'an; 

On the other hand, in cases like 'S-LiaJ^ Hmdd'an no 
Alif is written at the end, cf. § 3 &. 

Tesdid. That a consonant is to be sounded twice 5. 

G " ^ a. 
is indicated by the sign of doubling ", named Jojuii 

Tesdid or Jui Sedd (from the initial ji of this word 

O - G^ ^, 

the sign " has been derived), e. g. ^_^mi sabba, (j-s^Ji 
tarahhulun. This doubling of a consonant is either due 
— as in the examples just given — to the essential 
nature of the form, nominal or verbal (as for example 
the verbal forms corresponding to the Hebrew PPel 
§ 19), or is the result of assimilation. 

When one consonant is assimilated to another, the h. 
assimilation is further graphically represented by the 
removal of the Sukun from the assimilated consonant. 

This applies to the I of the article Jt, when the latter 
precedes one of the following consonants: yy, yij, t>, 
i^' ;> )' LT' LT" Lr°' u*' -'=' ^' ^' O (*'^^* ^®' <i^°*^ls, 
sibilants and r, /, n). Examples: ws^UcJI attdgiru, ^JUJI 

attalgu-i fju.4M*i\ assamsu, (the sun), but j.+aJ| alkamaru 
(the moon). From the fact that the two last examples 

12 6. WASLA. 

are stereotyped those consonants that may be assimi- 
lated are technically called solar letters, those that 
do not admit of assimilation, lunar letters. 

Note a. The word iJj, 'ildhun, God, when joined to the article, 
drops the first syllable and becomes 4U| (§ 2b) allahu. 

Note b. The words ^ mm, ^ 'an, ^\ 'an (and ^1 'in), when 

foUowed by a few words beginning with » m or J ? are usually 
combined with them into one word, the final ^^ n being at the 


same time assimilated to the following consonant, e. g. U* mimma 
from U ^ min md, 2) I 'alia from 1! ^1 'an Id. 

6. Wasla ". A word beginning with two consonants 

receives in Arabic either a full helping-vowel prece- 

ded by Hamza in accordance with § 4a (e. g. ^jJs^i I 
Plato), or merely a vowel which is heard only when 
the word is standing alone , but which must be given 
up when the word in question comes to stand after 
another word in the sentence. Thus in the latter 

case we find JJcjil uktul instead of JuCi" ktul. The I 
which is prefixed in this and similar cases is, however, 
still written although the helping vowel accompanying 
it is given up, and it then receives over it the sign 

jLLo, n^asla e. g. ^svlJI ^y-ij bintulwazlrl. The two 



3- g- ^^^ 

words thus united together are also to be pronounced 
as if they formed a single word. Such an Alif JJ'aslatum 
or Wasla-bearing Alif is called a connective Alif in 

6. WASLA. 13 

contradistinction to a disjunctive Alif, that is, an Alif 

hamzatum or Hamza-bearing Alif (cf. § 4). 

Note. The sign " is a modification of jo; wasla or sila deno- 
tes "close connection". 

When a connective Alif has to be employed at 6. 

the beginning of a sentence, a full vowel must be 

pronounced, but, as written, only the proper vowel 

sign may accompany the Alif, never a Hamza. Thus 

we have J^JI arrasUlu, --vi-i uhrug but i~-y=>\ JLs 
pronounce kdlahrug. 

In the last example the division of the syllables c. 
is now ka-lah-rug. If the vowel preceding a connec- 
tive Alif is long, it must now be pronounced as a 
short vowel, since it stands in a shut syllable (see 
§ 8). Thus vdHlfiJ, properly fl-lfulki, has now the 
following syllables /?/-/M/-/t2; so too xJUi ^^^ rida-llahi 
(§ 2 (?) = ri-dal-ld-hi, tj*^ I f^5 (§ 2 e) da-ia-hul-irvazza. 

If the word before a connective Alif ends in a d. 
consonant which has no vowel of its own, the conso- 
nant receives a helping-vowel. The most natural 
vowel in such a case is i, e. g. Ju,*JI oo>-«o dardbati- 
VaMa (for ooZ^); so Jll£Xwl istikhalun with the ar- 
ticle j|: jCal3l alistikhdlu, in syllables thus: a-lis- 
tik-id-lu. In certain cases original final vowels that 

14 6. WASLA. 

have been dropped reappear before the connec- 
tive Alif, e. g. ;^^li\33\ 'fSf hu-mul-kd-fl-ru-na. The < 
first word is otherwise uniformly Isa hum (§ 12«). — 
The Nunation (§ 3 &) is also treated as if it ended in 
a consonant; the favourite vowel in this case is z, e. g. 
«-»-*l J^) pronounced as if written n^tMA ^j-^) ragu- 
lunismuhu, in syllables: ra-gu-lu-nis-mu-hu. 

Note. Before a connective alif the preposition ^c "away 
from" becomes ^, the preposition ^, "from" "becomes ^, tiut 
before the article ^. 

e. The same rule applies to a word ending in a so- 

called diphthong (cf. § 2) ; the consonant (. or ^) 
forming the second part of the diphthong must receive 
a helping vowel before a connective Alif, which vowel 
is M or i according as the consonant in question is , 

or ^. Thus we have xJUl yJiSaSajo mus-ta-fa-rvul-ld-M 

in place of «<Ul JdiMSjo, sjujf J^z^yrig-la-t/il-ba-ka-ra- 

ti for ifSjJ t ^^^y (So, too, with the termination |. " 

NoTE. The particles jl "or" and y "would that!" take i as 
helping vowel. 

/. The connective Alif is altogether omitted in the 

following cases: 

7, MEDDA. 15 

1) In the article J|, when it receives as prefixes 
the particles J li or J /a; e. g. ^^1^)3, lil-hak-ki for 

(3siJ!i|, tXsv+JLf lal-mag-du for Ji^sj.^5(. 

s ^ 

2) In ^jjI son, in apposition to the proper name 

of the son and followed in the genitive by the name 
of the father; e. g. tUJpl JjJ ^jJU mus-li-muh-nul- 
wa-E-di Muslim, the son of al-Walid. At the beginn- 
ing of a line, however, even in this case we must write 

3) In the word ^\^ ismun^ name, after the prepo- 
sition ;_, M in the oft recurring formula sJJ| |Va»o bis- 
mil-ld-M, in the name of God. 

Medda. Inasmuch as the Arabic orthography 7. 
cannot tolerate two Alifs side by side, in such a case "" 
only a single Alif is written, over which is placed a 

S iS ^ _ 

'id-^ Medda or Medd (a sign derived from t\xi). At 
the beginning of a word or syllable the Medda carries 
with it the force of a Hamza; the vo wel sign Fath is then 

also dropped, e. g. Jkil ^a-ki-lun for J.^^! !, ^j\Ji kur-d- 

nun for (jHjJ'; so ^\ 'a-ma-na for ^\ |, since the ■ 
Hamza of the second Alif disappears as explained 
§ 38 «. 


Note, ^^\j ra'd may be taken as an exanaple of the rule just! 
given. With suffixes it ought to appear, according to §_ 2d, as 

SIlj, which, however, is written Sf) in syllables ra-'a-hu. 
b. Since a *- after a long a H_ is written on the line 

(§ 4 c) without receiving an Alif as bearer, the | pre- 
ceding the Hamza in such cases likewise receives 
Medda, as a rule, although the latter has no effect on 
the pronunciation of the word, e. g. *L&. ffd-'a (for 
lUi), iJsUS ta-fd-a-lu\ and the same where . or ^ 
appears as the bearer of Hamza s. ULs-f a-Mb-ba-u- 
Am, JoU" ka-i-lun. 

Note. Arabic orthography has also an objection to two Waws 
appearing side by side, if the first has a Damma (even though 
the first may be only the bearer of a Hamza, as expained in § 4 c). 

Thus 1^55) TU usnn is often written j*;;. 

8. The Syllable. An open syllable ends in a vowel 

short or long; a shut syllable ends in a consonant. 
Every syllable begins with a single consonant, not 
with two or more (cf. § 6). A short syllable consists 
of a consonant with a short vowel, as in the second 

syllable of icjUo ma-td (with two open syllables); a 
long syllable consists either 1) of a consonant with a 
long vowel, like the open syllable md in the above 
example, or 2) of a consonant, a short vowel and a con- 
sonant (shut syllable) e. g. both the syllables of 

9. THE TONE, 17 

J,AJ( kat-lun (ao too uy^ mau-tun § 2«) |^ sar-ran, 
or 3) of a shut syllable with a long vowel. This last 
variety, however, is only found (exclusive of pausal 
effects § 10) when the following consonant has been 

Go ^ 

doubled (§ 5) and is preceded by a long a, as in xj|o 

dab-ba-tun (rarely after ai as in XAjiii du-rvaib-ba-tun 
which is derived according to § 66 from ddbbatun). 
Such a syllable may be described as doubly long. 

Other syllables of this sort are shortened as J^ib yakul 

from JjJLs yakul\ o^xij ramat from cjLx» ramat. 

Note. A word cdnsisting of but one short syllable, if it stands 
alone, either receives an addition at the end (see §49 a 6), or is 
joined to the following word. The latter method is adopted in a 
series of particles (see § 94), which notwithstanding the connec- 
tion are still regarded as more or less independent words. The 
principal stress, however, rests on the words with which the par- 
ticles are connected. 

The Accent or Tone. The accent in Arabic is thrown 
backwards towards the beginning of the word till it 
meets a long syllable, or if there is no such syllable, 
till it reaches the first syllable of the word. A simple 
long syllable at the end of a word, however, does not 
receive the accent. Examples of words with a final 

short syllable: Zj'XSo daraba, lX]i£w] istdnkara; with 

a final long syllable: UjC++j tamdmiuma, Cyi fdrdun, 

RJCL^.^ mdmlakatun, Ijjj-to ddrabu, SjJ Udatun. 

Socin, Arabic G-rammar.* 2 


Exceptions: A syllable with a connective Alif (§ 6), 
as in Jill (see § 6a), cannot receive the accent; the 
pronunciation is therefore uMtL In the same way- 
monosyllabic inseparable particles, like ^ and o (cf. 
§ 94), prefixed to words, do not affect the accentuation 

of the latter ; e. g. ,-m^ famdsa. 

10. In pause iinal short vowels are dropped. Also 
the Nunation un and in; the Nunation an is changed 
to ff, the feminine termination xJL to sJL (with the h 
sounded): thus ^JJ^b ndzilun for rjJsLj naziluna; 
J^a."^ ragul for Ji4>) ragulun; LI^j,jo marhabd for U.a»yo 
marhdban; is^^\S Fdtimah for R^isLi. 

11. Numerical Signs and Abbreviations. The usual Arabic 
cyphers are the following: 

V t, f, t", I', 6, 1, V. A, "1 
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 
The tens, hundreds &c., are written to the left of 
the units &c. as i") 19, IaIo 1895. 

The following are a few of the most frequently 
occurring abbreviations: 

«-) (vXi = *^LIJI xLL£'«toiAe-s5«/(mt«Peacebeuponhim! 

»,slXj£i = rv^j ^^^ ^'^l 1^^ salla-lldhu "alaihi 
rvasallama God bless him and give him peace (said of 

12. THE PRONOUN. 19 

11. ETYMOLOGY (§§ 12—96). 
Chapter I. The Pronoun. (§§ 12—15.) 

The personal pronouns are either independent or 12 
suffixed. The independent or separate personal pro- ^' 
nouns have the following forms: 

Sing. Plur. Dual 




masc. ooi 


fem. oo 1 

S ^ 

(''■■■% "'A \ 




1 masc. yc 
fem. ^ 


Note 1. The second syllable of the pronoun of the first pers. 
singular, although written with I, is short. — The forms in pa- 
rentheses (2'"* and 3'''' pers. plural) are used particularly before 
"Wasla (§ 6d); these final vowels are originally long. 

Note 2. When joined to j and ^J (see § 95) the pronouns of 

the 3"''* pers. sing, may lose theii- first vowel e. g. jAj , ^^. 

The suffixed 'personal pronouns^ which joined to a 6. 
noun indicate the genitive, joined to a rerb, the ac- 
cusative, are the following: 


20 12. THE PRONOUN. 

Sing. Plur. Dual 

I. Pers. j ^i^^ ^ouns ^— q_ 

I with verbs ^ — 

f masc. li) — i;^— \ 

masc. s — i55 — 

fern. Ls> — 


c>*— J 

Before a connective Alif (§ 6 d) the sufiix pron. of 
the 1. pers. singular may receive as helping-vowel the 
a which belonged to it originally; thus we may write 

LjUX!!i ^J.'-^*' °^ i-jUx)! ^_jLkc|. After a, t and 
ai the nominal suffix of the 1. pers. sing, has the form 

^ ya. Occasionally (in the Kur'an particularly) the 
suffix of the 1. pers. sing, is indicated by a simple ?, 
of which the sign is Kesr , as Cjj my lord! In 

the same way the corresponding verbal suffix may 
be only ^ ni. 

After an immediately preceding i or ai the suffixes ; 

8, U», 1*^, J^ substitute the vowel i for u, thus 

assuming the forms s, U», ^, ^-^ e. g. JLo instead 

of xJLi. Before the connective Alif lic generally 

becomes '^». — The suffixes ^ and ls& resume 


their original forms j^i^and jvff before a connective 

For further information regarding the affixing of 
these pronominal forms see § 82 and the table of 
paradigms No. XXIII. 

The reflexive pronoun, when carrying a certain e. 
amount of emphasis with it, is generally expressed 

by the word ijusj nafsun soul, to which the proper 
suffixes are appended. In many cases, however, the 
personal pronoun suffices to express the reflexive. 

The demonstrative pronouns are the following (with 13. 
their inflexion compare § 76«). 

The simple pronoun (rare) o- 

Sing. \'o ^b, s6; ^^, aj"; Uf 


} Gen. Ace. 

^ *^ ■ — i 

Plur. (1,1 (uld) or ©^,1 {ula'i) 

This simple pronoun combines: 

(1) with the demonstrative particle \s>, generally 

written defectively {s^ or less correctly ss § 2 &). The 
result is the usual demonstrative pronoun to indicate 
that which is near at hand {this, these): 




^5^, s6; 1^', aj' 

Nom. ...16 


1 Gen. Ace. ^ib 








jjo i^j^) 






The simple demonstrative combines (2) with a 
suffix of the second person. Only in the older Arabic, 
particularly that of the Kur'an, however, does the 
suffix vary according to the number of persons ad- 

dressed (e. g. plur. lj3c>, dual UxJii), elsewhere it 
appears uniformly as d. There is also a form with 
(^ before d. The result is two forms of the demon- 
strative pronoun to indicate that which is more remote 
(that, those): 

Masc. Fern. 

Sing. dtS, vdji (JJiS, JijS) dU (JLo) viiJb 

Nom. viljta, ^ilo dbU, >iI)LS 

Gen. Ace. aUjo, ^iJ^,c> ^^i^, ^^' 


- i 

Plur. ^^^^1 (d^.]), rarely dJ'3^\ 

d. Among the demonstratives we must also place the 

article J I (see § 5 &). When the noun, in the circumstances 


detailed in § 6 /" 1, begins with a J, this letter has a 
Tesdid placed over it and the J of the article is drop- 
ped. Thus we get kilij for xJUdW; so too Jj for 
M (§ 5 note). 

The relative pronouns are the following: 14. 

i^iXi\ who, which, that, — originally a compound a. 

demonstrative with the article as one of its elements 
(hence the connective Alif) — declined as follows: 







Dual I 

Gen. Ace. 



^:1m, ^rjS\ 

/US (indeclinable) 
0, those who. 

one who, such (a one) as, he 6. 

Lo (indeclinable) that which, s 

lomething which. 

Among the relative pronouns may also be included c. 

^^1, fern, jbl he who, she who. This word is declinable 
in the sing., but the masc. often takes the place of 
the fern. It also combines with the prons. in b above 
to form \^\ every one who, whosoever; and Uj| 


15. The interrogative pronouns are : 
^ -who? 

Uo what? Frequently strengthened by the addition 
of the demonstrative Id: Id Lo what then? 

^t, fern. jLsl what sort of? which? 

Note. \a after prepositions is shortened to f e. g. fJ why? 
With this interrogative U is also connected the interrogative 
particle p" how much? 

Chapter II. The Verb. (§§ 16-54.) 

16. The great majority of Arabic verbs have three 
radical letters ; only a small minority have four radi- 
cals. The ground-form of verbs, according to which 
they are arranged in grammar and dictionary, is the 

third person singular of the perfect. The verb JJii 

(to do) is used as a model paradigm. 

Note. Since all Arabic dictionaries give the verbal and no- 
minal derivatives under their respective root-forms, it is necessary, 
in order to find the three radicals with ease, to note carefully what 
consonants are employed in the formation of verbs and nouns as 
prefixes and affixes to, and as infixes in, the stem. 

17. From this ground-form or root, which is named 
by grammarians the first stem, other stems are deri- 
ved by a series of uniform changes, represented by 


modifications of the verb JJii, but usually referred 
to by their respective numbers in the series. Thus 
we speak of "the eighth stem", (indicated in the dic- 
tionary simply by VIII) not as in Hebrew and Syriac 
of the Piel, the Afel &c. The following stems, the 
order of which must be carefully noted, are those 
most frequently met with: 

I Jii 

^ 0* 

IV j^t 

VII Joiili 

X JjtaJLwj 

•^ cs -* 

II Joii 

V J,%x 


XI JUij 

III jili 


C5 Cr 

IX J^l^ 

Note a. 

Of these No. 

IX and especially N 

0. XI are of less 

frequent occurrence; still more rare are XII Jej*i|, XIII j)**l, 

XIV JJL*«il , XV ^JU»i|. Which of these derived stems are formed 

from any given verb, and to what extent the meaning of the ground- 
form is modified by them, will be found in the dictionary under 
each verb. 

Note h. In many cases the verb is used to express the idea 
that some one wishes to do something or has something done; 

thus iisi "he killed him'' may also signify "he wished to kill him", 

and «a:c wj^ "he cut off his head (prop, neck)" may mean "he 
had {ewrmiit) his head out off." 

G^ - 

The ground-form I, in the majority of verbs, takes 18. 
the form J^ii, e. g. J^^i* to kill; there is also— mostly 
with intransitive verbs — a form Jju (cf. 153), e. g. 
-j-yi to be sad, ju^ to do (transitive), and also a 

26 19, 20. THE II. AND III. STEMS. 

form i}!al (cf. p'Q) , confined to intransitive verbs, as 
, r\J^ to be beautiful. Sometimes both the transitive 
and intransitive forms, J.ii and Jk*i or J.»i, are 
found side by side in the same verb. One and the 
same verb, again, may have both the forms J.»i and 

19. The I I. ste m J,ii (corresponding to the Hebrew 
Pi"el) usually denotes a greater intensity of the action 
expressed by the simple verb. This intensification 
may affect the subject, object or qualifying adjunct, 

as Joi' to kill many people^ to massacre (intensi- 
fication of the object). In the majority of verbs, 

however, the II. stem is causative as lj.£ to know, 

iXft cause to know, to teach. It is also declarative — 

as in LjjJi to lie, i^Ji'to take one for, declare one 

to be, a liar — and denominative, as in ^i.^^^. to collect 

an army (jilAs*). 

20. The III, stem J.fiLi expresses an attempt or effort 
to perform the action of the simple verb on some per- 
son, to influence some person or thing. Thus Jocii to 
kill, but Joli to try to kill, to fight with ; ,2>^to 
write, v^'Lj to correspond with (with accusative of 

21, 22. THE IV. AND V. STEMS. 27 

the person corresponded with). This stem also means 
to exercise some abstract quality on a person or thing, 

e. g. ij^ to be soft, gentle, jT*.j'i( to exercise gentleness 
on some one, to treat one kindly. 

The IV. stem jjii| (the Hebrew Hiph'il) has a 21. 
causative signification, as ,^JUa to be in good condi- 
tion, ^Jl.ol to bring into good condition. Very 

frequently we find, with this stem, denominative verbs 
which appear to us as intransitive, but to the Arab 
as possessing an implicit transitive force, and which 
express the idea of action in a certain definite direction, 

as ^Mj.^\ to do good. Frequently, too, verbs of this 
stem convey the idea of going to a place, of entering 

upon a certain period or condition; e.g. CjIcI to go 
towards the West, a,a^| to enter upon the period of 
the morning, to be something in the morning, Oj-cil 
to reach the top^ to be high; ILisI (from ^Ls rise up, 
stand) to halt, to stay. 

The V. stem JJS^ (Hebrew Hithpa''el), a soft of 22. 
middle voice is formed from the II. stem and has both a 
reflexive and a reciprocal meaning, e. g. IaXJ to make 
one's self great, liij to let one's self be taught, to 
learn. Sometimes a verb in the V. stem conveys the 

28 23, 24, 25. THE VI., Vn. AND VIII. STEMS. 

1 • f =-' 

idea of giving one's self out as something, e. g. L»-o 
to give one's self out for, to conduct one's self as, a 

23. TheJVLstemjJ^J^-, derived from the III. stem, is 
the reflexive form of the latter, and has a reflexive or 
reciprocal signification, as 11 L2 to show one's self bold; 
J-jUj to fight one another (usually in the plural). 
Another signification is seen, for example, in J,\Ju, VI 
form of !ikx to be high, which means to exalt one's 
self and then simply: to be exalted. 

24. The VII. stem Jii.!] (the Hebrew Niph'al with 

the connective Alif ace. to § 6a), derived in most cases 
from the I. stem, is a middle or reflexive form of the 
latter. Its signification may also be described as 

quasi-passive, e. g. jmS^ to break lljCit, to break or 

be broken in pieces. 

25. The VIII. stem Jixif, (with connective Alif § 6a) 

is likewise a middle and reflexive form, for the most 

part of the I. stem, as ^lx£.l , to oppose one's self, 

object to; sometimes also with reciprocal signification 

as jviOAirkj, to dispute, contend with each other. 

Note. In the case of verbs wliose flrstiTadical is ja, je, h 
or 15, the Cj of the VIII. stem is changed to the emphatic fa, and 

26, 27. THE IX. AND X. STEMS. 29 

is even assimilated to the first radical, when that letter is a dental 
as ^^l instead of j*si| from j^; "^^ or '^1 for IlSBI from 
^; O is sometimes assimilated also to a preceding o, e, g. c«^l 
or cwl from St^ properly c»*SjI; after J, J and J il» is changed 
into the soft J, e. g. JIJ3I for 0U3I from JlJ; ^jjl for ,i>Nj..j|. 

S _, O C3 Ci 

The IX. stem Joii| (as also the XL stem JL*il,26. 
both with connective Alif) is used of verbs which 
denote the possession of inherent qualities such as 
colours or bodily defects, e. g. from the stem yjL>o: 

wi^t to be or become yellow; from the stem .^■. .let 
to be one-eyed; from the stem j.*;^ : jU^I to be red. 

The X. stem JJUx^J, (with connective Alif) is 27. 

primaril5i__a reflexive of the IV. Jixit (otherwise a 
reflexive, formed on the analogy of the VIII. stem, from 

a stem JJlLw with a prefixed 5), as from the stem jL^^ 

IV*. (jSi^.l to grieve: X. ^J^^yjA to grieve (one's 

self). Very frequently the X. stem denotes also to 

wish or to beg something for one's self, e. g. from .Jia\ 

to pardon, X.: waAZ*!. to ask for pardon; or to think 

that something is so, as ^^s-. to be necessary, IV: 

J^°,| to make necessary, X: ^^yci«[ to consider 

something as necessary for one's self. 


28. The quadriliteral stems are denoted, for tlie verbal 
and nominal forms, by the paradigm JJjii (that is 
by the addition of a fourth radical to Jjti), and con- 
sist for the most part of two stems, of which the first 
may be said to correspond to the second stem of the 
triliteral verb (for Joii is in reality J^juii), and the 
second jjjiij to the fifth, e. g. ^Xl> to overturn, 
cast down, .UCaJo fall down. 

Note. The stems III JJUtnil and IV JJWI (the last corre- 
sponding to the IX. stem of the triliterals) ai'e rare e. g. ^^Uiol, to 
be quiet, from a stem jjWs. 

29. In addition to the active, the Arabic verb has a 
passive voice. This passive is formed in the perfect 
in such a way that in place of the a-vowels of the 
active we have the order u-i-a {i with the second, a 
with the third radical) ; thus the act. of stem I. is 

Jjii, the pass: Jjti. The additional formative syllables 

of the derived stems also receive the vowel m, e. g. 

pass. V. JuiAJ", VIII (JkaJCil (with connective Alif). 

30. The Arabic verb has two principal tenses, 2^. perfect 
"■ which, generally speaking, denotes a completed action, 

and an imperfect which in general denotes an uncom- 
pleted action. 

31. THE MOODS. 31 

The imperfect is formed by adding the prefix j,ya. lb. 
for the active of the I, V., VI., VII., VIII., IX. and' 
X. stems, and the prefix j yu for the active of the 
II., III. und IV. stems, and for the passive of all the 
stems without exception. 

In the case of verbs of which J,ii is the type, the c. 
second radical, in the impf. act. of stem I., may receive 
one or other of the vowels u, i, a. Which of the three 
must be used for a particular verb will be found 
indicated in the dictionary under that verb (e. g. J.Xs 
impf. u) and should be taken careful note of. Those 

verbs, on the other hand, of which J*.«i (with e-vowel) 

is the type, together with all passives point their second 

radical with a only, thus impf. act. I. J.*ij; pass. Jk*Aj. 

Those verbs, finally, of which J^ai (with w-vowel) is the 
type, take u with the second radical for the imperfect. 
As regards the active imperfect of the derived stems, 
the second radical takes i throughout, with the excep- 
tion of stems V. and VI. where it takes a; thus impf. 

II. J^jb hut V. JoLa3L). 

In the imperfect various Moods are distinguished, 31. 
namely the ordinary mood which we call the indicative, 
the dependent mood or subjunctive, and a modus apo- 
copatus (sometimes called the jussive). These are 


distinguished as follows: in the indicative the last 
radical, when final, always takes m, as impf. I (.mlsj, 
III. J-fi-Lftj; in the subjunctive always a, as (Jjlsj, 
while in the apocopatus the third radical is vowelless. 
In addition to the above there is a double modus 
energicus, which is formed by appending the syllables 
anna or an (in some forms only n) to the impf. as 

ij-l*jij or ^jXiLAi. 

Note. As the modus energicus is of comparatively rare 
occurrence, it is given in the tahles of paradigms only in the case 
of the ordinary strong verb. From the examples there given it 
may easily be formed for the other verbs. 

32. The imperative agrees with the apocopated imper- 
fect as regards vocalisation and termination, except 
that the prefixes ya or yu are wanting. In the imper. 
of the I. stem a helping vowel (therefore with connec- 
tive Alif § 6 a) is prefixed in all cases where the first 
consonant is without a vowel of its own. This vowel 
disappears, however, in pronunciation as soon as the 

word ceases to stand alone, e. g. Jjiit but >^| JLi- 

The same applies to stems VII. — X. The imperative 

has the same energetic bye-forms as the imperfect. 

Note. In the imper. of stem I the prosthetic vowel is u when 


the second radical has u, as J«l, but i when it is pointed with 
a or i, as Jatil, ^jl. 


Note b. In the imper. of the IV. stem the prosthetic f, which 
is characteristic of the stem, is retained, although it disappears 

after the prefixed i of the impf. Hence impf. Jstij (for J*»l>), 

hut imper. J*JI. 

In the perfect, imperfect and imperative, there 33. 
are, in addition to the singular and plural, dual forms 
for the second and third persons. Verbs are inflected 
by the addition of modified and abbreyiated forms 
of the personal pronouns, and of the dual and plural 

terminations of nouns, to the ground-forms J^ii and 

Ji.**j (for the terminations ani and Una of the' impf. 

indie, vid. § 76 «). The terminations just named, along 
with the ending ma of the 2. pers. fem. sing., 
drop the syllables ni and na in the subjunctiye, the 
apocopated imperfect and the imperative. The t, which 
appears in the paradigm after the final , _L. in the 
perf. and in these shortened forms of the impf. and 
imper., has no phonetic value (of. § 2e). 

As to the prefixes of the impf., it is to be noted 
that in place of the prefix j of the 3. pers. masc, we 
have J as the prefix of the 2. pers. sing, and plur., 
and of the 3 pers. fem. of the sing., | to indicate the 
1. pers. sing., and j the 1. pers. plur. 

The affixes employed in the inflexion of the verb are given 
in paradigm I. 

Socin, Arabic Grammar^. 3 


Note a. In the V. and VI. forms of verbs whose first letter 
is a dental or a sibilant, the formative prefix occasionally drops 
its vowel and is assimilated to the first radical of the verb, in 
which case the perf and imper. have a helping vowel (§ 6) prefixed 

e. g. )J Jl wrap one's self up, impf. yJ^iJ. 

Note b. In the impf. of these two stems, the prefix J may 
he treated in such a way that instead of the two syllables 57 

only 5 remains, e. g. from Js5 2. pers. msc. impf. V. jsi? for JsiSJ. 

Note c. In the impf. VII. and VIII. stems the tone remains 

on the sarne syllable on which it falls in the perf., contrary to 

the rule laid down in § 9 ; thus J^^Sij JSAi^ yankatilu, ydktatilu. 

For the conjugation of the strong verb with three radicals 
see paradigms II, III and V, for that of the quadriliteral verbs 
see paradigm IV. In the paradigms the participles and infinitives 
are also given, although the discussion of these forms has been 
deferred to §§ 60 and 61. 

34., Among the ordinary strong verbs must also be 
reckoned the so-called verbs mediae geminatae, i. e. 
verbs whose second and third radicals are identical. 
A contraction of these last two radicals takes 
place in all those cases in which 
a. 1) the first, second and third radicals have each 
a short vowel; in this case the vowel of the second 
radical is always dropped, e. g. Zi (to flee) contracted 
from Tli (which statement is not to be understood 
as implying that a form Tli once really existed in 
Arabic) 3. p. perf. pass. I. ^i from .^i; 3. p. impf. 
VII. ^jLu from ^ vIaj ; 


2) When the first two radicals have each a short, h. 
and the third a long, vowel, e. g. 3. p. dual masc. 
perf. Ci from iTli; 

3) Generally also when the first radical has a long c. 
«, e. g. 3. s. m. perf. of the III. stem vU contracted from 
>,Ls (which is also found), passive \\^- 

When the first radical is vowelless and the second 35. 
has a short vowel, then contraction takes place and 
the vowel of the second radical passes over to the 

first. Thus 3. pers. impf. act. ^jj for \Jl2; pass, m 

from .laj. 

When the third radical is vowelless, there is no 36. 
contraction in the body of the word: e. g. 2. pers. sing. 

masc. perf. act. liywi; 3- pers. plur. fem. impf. act. 
'jjyij. But when the third radical stands at the end 
of a verbal form with no vowel following, as in various 
forms of the apocopated impf. and the 2. pers. sing, 
masc. of the imper., we find the full forms >vij) yyi\ 
only in the dialects. As a rule contraction takes place 
and an additional vowel is assumed at the end in 

order to preserve the doubling of the radical; thus 

. . - „ =.- . i' 

we have >iLs, ji, from j». imper. Oy 



Note. In the case of verbs of the forms J*i and Jx^ the 

vowel of the second radical ajjpears only in the uncontracted form 

■e- g- J* to loathe, 1. pers. perf. cMm; hence the vowel a of the 

impf. J«J. 

For the conjugation of verbs mediae geminatae see paradigms 

Nos. VI— VIII; model verb '^ to flee. 

37. Those yerbs that have a Hamza » as first, second 

or third radical are for the most part regular, as lj| to 

, _i, it,, _ ^^'^ 

make an impression, impf. *jLj; Li' to read, impf. |liu. 

In certain cases we find, according to § 4&, . or ^^ 
(without points) as bearers of the Hamza, or ^^ may 

stand without a bearer, thus 3. s. m. perf. act. ^1*25' 
to be sad, (w-«j to be brave; 3. s. m. impf. passive of 
jj|: jjj.j; 3. sing. masc. perf. act. ^JaL. to err, fern. 
owXk^; 3. s. m. impf. act. of jCj] to ask: JsJlj. Oc- 
casionally an j takes the place of two Alifs, according 
to § 7; e. g. 3. s. m. perf. III. of pf: pT for 3tf; VI. 
of l^f (bind up a wound &c.) Is^'. 

38. While in all these cases the ^ may easily be distin- 
guished as the third radical of the verb, there are a 
few forms in which the verba hamzata are more diffi- 
cult to distinguish, inasmuch as the ^ sometimes 
entirely disappears; from this point of view these 
verbs ought rather to be reckoned among the weak 


verbs (§ 39 ff.). The most important of such cases 
are the following: 

1) After I, I, t (also after a connective Alif |, |, | a. 

at the beginning of a sentence) *. gives up its power 
as a consonant (cf. § 7) ; hence, in place of '«', V, Y 

simply 'a, 'm, % e. g. 3. s. m. perf. IV. of ^3\ : -j| for 

>.jlt; 3. s. m. perf. pass. IV., of A\ is 'i, | in place of 

jj. I. So also imper. I. wijj for yiSt. 

2) In the imper. of the I. form the verbs Jv.^! *• 
take, Jki'l eat, .jol order, drop the > altogether: j^, 
Jk^ yvo ; in the same way, from JUL to ask, the impera- 
tive is either JLwj or J^^ &c. 

Note. Should y or > come to stand as inseparable particles 
(§ 87) before one of the imperatives under a, the prosthetic Alif 
is dropped and the radical Hamza reappears, receiving, as its 

bearer, an Alif on account of the preceding Fath, as in yjj. The 

same holds good in the case of two separate words: thus ^yvjl 

3. =. m. perf. pass. VIII of ^\ connected with a preceding word 

becomes y*?}! ^^jJI elladi-'tumina. 

3) In the VI. form the >- of verbs primae ^ is c. 
sometimes changed to ., as C^IIj in place of CoLj" 

4) In the VIII. form the •> of the verb tXLl is d 



assimilated to the following j, the result being j", as 

jC^'t instead of an original j^^Si, impf. lX^Jj hut 

from j.;c|, to order, I^XjI. 

For the conjugation of the verba hamzata see paradigm IX. 

The Weak Verbs. 

39. The weak verbal stems are those having a . or 
a ^ as first, second or third radical; under inflection 
these semivowels in some cases resolve themselves into 
full vowels, in others they are treated as consonants. 

40. The Ver'bs primae , and ^ differ from the strong 
verbs in the following points: 

a. 1) In the impf. and imper. of the I stem a number 
of verbs primae . surrender their first radical and 
take the vowel i with their second (cf. ib^), as jj^ 

Jo ^ 

to bring forth, impf. jju, imper. jj. 
6. 2) Under the influence of a guttural a few verbs 
take a in place of i with their second radical, drop- 
ping the ^, however, like the others, as li' to lay, 

impt. ^j; so «j^ to fall, ^_^js, to give and others 
(see the dictionaries). 
c. 3) In verbs primae ^, jj_ is changed to ?7, e. g. 
the impf. IV of 'ih'Li to be awake, properly Ja£^, be- 
comes Ja.i"yj. 

41, 42. VERBS MEDIAE 3 AND ^5. 39 

4) In the VIII. stem the first radical of verbs d. 
primae . and ^ is assimilated to the following i^j, 

e. g. from oS". to promise, JuLi'l for (>.ij"jt (cf. § 38 d). 

Note. A few verbs of the form J*J also give up tlie first 

radical in the imperf. as li^j to inherit, impf. >i»^ (cf. § 18). 

Por the conjugation of the verbs primae j and ^5 see para- 
digm X where will be found the principal forms of the verbs 

J^oj to arrive, e Jj to leave, ^j to be dirty, Ja-j to he anxious, 
i^j to be sleepy, ymJ, to be easy. 

Verbs mediae . and ^. In the II., III., V., VI. 41. 
and IX. stems, . and are treated as consonants, 
and the inflexion is the same as that of the strong 
verb; thus 3. s. m. perf. II of JLS" (to say) med. ^: 
jlS, 3. s. m. perf. Ill of TLl (to travel) med. (^ : IjLI. 
In the other stems these verbs are inflected according 
to the following rules: 

Long a takes the place of the middle radical: 42. 

in the perf. active of the I., IV., VII., VIII. and a. 

X. stems, as Jli', JlS'lj JLajI, JUaj, Jux»/t; 

in the impf. passive ofthe same stems, as jUij, JUL;, 6. 

in the impf. active of VII. and VIII., as JUaj, Juiij ; c. 
in the impf. active of the I. stem of verbs of the d. 

form joJ e. g. oLi. to fear, impf. ^\jd. 

40 43, 44. VERBS MEDIAE J AND ^J. 

43. Long t takes the place of the middle radical: 

a. in the perf. passive of the I., IV., VII., VIII. and 

X. stems as J^aj, J^ajI, J.aajI, (^-v^'ij J>^^aX«'I 5 
J. in the impf. active of IV. und X., as J-^aj, (J-tEAA«j ; 
c. in the impf. active of verbs med. ^, as j.-u**j.- 

The corresponding form of verbs med. ,, on the other 

hand, takes long u, as J Jij. 

Note. The nature of the phonetic changes just detailed will 
be more readily understood from the standpoint of the strong/ 

verb if it he noted that j , J , j , i ; j , i pass 

into a; j , j , ^ , i into i; » into ti. It is not 

meant by this that the corresponding strong forms were ever 
really found, in these verbs, at any period of the language. 

44. The whole of the long vowels mentioned in 
§§ 42 — 43 are shortened (§ 8) in a shut syllable, e. g.: 

2. s. m. perf. act. IV. of JLi" and TLl : i.iJj" f and 

3. sing. masc. apoc. impf. pass. I JlL, llo (with 
the tone on the last syllable as if contravening § 9). 

2. pers. masc. sing, imper. I. of oLi&. (§ 42<?): 

i_ttis. (but plur. !jjL~»); 

2. pers. masc. sing. perf. pass. JUj ; 

3. pers. sing. masc. apoc. impf. act. IV. Jjij ; 
2. pers. sing. masc. imper. I: y^^ ^. 

43, 46. VERES ULTIMAE j AND ^. 41 

In the perf. active of I, verbs med. . take m where 
we should expect a, (cf. riaj?) as i;.JLs, while verbs 
med. ^ take «, as i^i^^ ; « is also found in verbs of 
the form Ji.*i, as o*.*^ from oLi» (for a theoretical 

Note a. Instead of the apocop. impf. ^i &c. from j^Vjtobe, 
■we sometimes find the still shorter form ^. 

Note b. Prom a few verbs med. j and ^^ strong forms 
are found in stems I., IV., VIII., X.; e. g. IV. kJ^' compel; X. 
'^^•a^4u\ to find correct, a denominative form from '-j\yo correct. 

For the conjugation of these verbs see paradigms XI — XIV. 
Ver'bs ultimae . and ^. Verbs ultimae . pass into 45. 
ultimae ^ in all the derived stems, and in the perf. 
and impf. passive of the 1 stem; thus from .y^ we 

have 3 s. m. perf. II (^Lc^ The same applies to the 

active of stem I of the form J^jii; thus'^.o^ becomes 

l.or (to have pleasure in). 

If the second radical has «, this vowel is changed 46. 
in every case into a long final a. In order to distinguish *' 
the stems ult. ^ from those ult. . this final a is in the 
former case indicated by (^, in the latter by | (this 

applies only to the 3. s. m. perf. act, I). Thus JoC to 

throw, -lye carry on a war; but II. ^N, ^5ye&c. Similarly 

42 46. VERBS TJLTIMAE j AND ^^. 

in the imperfects (cf. § 45), e. g. indie, and subj. pass. II 
^ll (in place of a theoretical ^^o^j and ^^J~^ ! ™pf' 
act. I of i^\, ^e^^^f■>^ ™pf- act. V. ^^^oyo- 

Note. With the same reservation as under § 43c note, we 

would call attention to the fact that the combinations j ^ ^ — , 

] , ^ all pass into long a. 

b. In all the cases mentioned in the preceding sub- 
section, a diphthong (§ 2 «) appears before the in- 
flectional additions that begin with a consonant. Thus: 

2. sing. masc. perf. act. I ci».A^>; from lyi: ^'y^', H 

c. In the case also of the inflectional additions u, 
una, ma (and its shortened form z), the a of the second 
radical, (after the elision of the third radical) unites 
with their initial vowel to form a diphthong. Thus: 

3. pers. masc. plur. perf act. I. iJoj, I.Ccj do. impf 
pass. II. ^jjoJj, subj. L-oCj; do. act. I. r\y^yl, V. 
ijyOvXj; 2. pers. fern. sing, of the last -\^lx^_, subj. 

d. Before the dual terminations a and dni the last 
radical of this class of verbs is treated as a strong 

letter, e. g. 3. pers. perf. act. I. \Jixsy iryS ; impf. pass. 

II. (jLl'flvJ &c. By the addition of the termination at, 

47. VEEBS ULTIMAE j ASD ^^. 43 

the 3. pers. fern. sing, of the perfect must originall}^ 
have ended in at; this ending, however, has now become 
at in accordance with § 8, as ^^'; ^^p^. According 
to the analogy of the above is also formed the 3. pers. 
fern, of the dual; thus we find Lxo'v, ISyl (where we 
should expect LiUoj, LSlyt). 

In the impf. active of stem I, verbs ult. . of the 47. 

form Jjb take an u, those ult. ^^ an i, the third 
radical quiescing in these vowels. The ending u of the 

imperf. is lost, e. g. .yij, ^s^yJ- The imperfects active 
of the derived forms (with the exception of V and VI) 
are formed on the model of the last mentioned forms, 

as II ,-^5-Sj (3y*J ^'Hd so on. 

Note. "With the same reservation as under § 43 c note, it 
may he pointed out that j passes into u, ^ into i. 

Affixes beginning with a consonant are appended h. 
in every case to the i or the u just mentioned, as 3. pers. 

fern. plur. impf. I. ^/jo^j, (j.-ou; similarly in the 
petf., e. g. 2. sing. masc. perf. pass, 'o^axv ; do. from 
J.*i I. oyya\ ; from J>»i I t:i5.j.Au. 

If the second radical has i or w, the third radical c. 
is dropped and the terminations u^ una, ina added to 

the second, e. g. 3. plur. masc. perf. pass. Lxl^ (not 


t^s), t^yi; 3. plur. masc. impi. act. ^y>J) (J^j*:?) 
(not ^^-w!j, ;j^_^Cij); 2. pers. fem. sing. impf. 

d. Before the dual endings a and d?ii, as also before 
the terminations a of the 3. sing. masc. perf., at of 
the 3. sing. fem. perf., ata of the 3. fem. dual perf., 
and a of the subjunctive, the third radical is treated 
as a strong letter, if the second has i or u. Exx: 3. pers. 

masc. perf. act. ^1^''^,'',J^; do. pass. ^», (3>.e; 3. pers. 

fem. perf. ^^.^r, i;yjww; 3. pers. masc. dual LLov; 

fem. LicLoT; 3. pers. subj. act. I ^-fyJi ^y*^; 3. pers. 

dual impf. ^[Icyj, ^\yykj. 

48. In the apocopated impf. and in the imper. every 
final a, i and u is shortened, as 3. pers. sing. masc. 

apoc. impf. jjllj, j,o, Lij; 2. imper. (_^j], |.J], 'Jki 

Por the conjugation of these verba see paradigms XV — ^XIX 
where various forms are given of the verbs lye to carry on war, 
U*j to throw, ,^j to be content, ^y**' to carry out, accomplish. 

49. Of verbs doubly weak the follov?ing are the 
principal varieties: 

a. Verbs primas . and ultimas ^^, as Jr to take care 

of; impf. according to §§ 40 and 47 io, apoc. (Sj. 

50. THE VERB j*>J. 45 

The imper. is properly ^ , for which, however, when 

the word stands alone, i. e. in pause, we write x3. 

The verb j^L to see, which in the impf. elides b. 
the Hamza, throwing back its vowel a to the first 

radical. Thus ^5JJ yara for ^^|jj yar'd; 3. pers. pi. 

'j.jj; imper. t (ace. to a s'l), fem. ,^7. The IV. form 

in the sense of 'to show' is similarly inflected: ^A 

for (jivl, impf. ^^^ for (^bvj; perf. pass. ,^.1 for 

(^e.| and so on. 

The verb :^ to live, properly ^^^ ; impf. LI^ (cf. c. 
§ 2 <? note) like a verb ult. ^^ or ;^ like a verb mediae 
geminatae; perf. IV U^l, perf. X Aiiuul^ or LajsLw] 
also contracted ,^sL^t (be ashamed). 

The verb J^ 'there is not' (compounded of the 50. 

negative ^ and an obsolete Arabic noun corresponding 
to the Hebrew ^i) is inflected as follows : 




3. masc. 
3. fem. 


2. masc. 
2. fem. 
1. com. 

- -r 1 


5 -r 


51. The verbs of praise and blame, 1*J to be good 
and (jIaj to be bad, which are rarely conjugated, are 
written as above. 

52. The Arab grammarians adduce as special forms 
the so-called admirative forms, that is, forms expressive 
of admiration. These are strictly the 3. s. m. perf. 
and 2. pers. imper. of the IV. stem, but have assumed 
a special signification; so ltXj\ Jodii Lo properly 'what 
has madeZaid excellent', and JojJ J^^I prop, 'make 
Zaid excellent' both mean: how excellent is Zaid! — 
The verbs mediae . and (^ may in these forms take 
the inflection of the strong stems (§ 44 note V) as 

ttX» i2)j^' '-^ ^°^ ®^®y this is! 

53. The addition of the pronominal suffixes (§ 11&) 
alters the form of the verb only to a slight extent. 

a. The 2. pers. fem. sing. perf. with a suffix receives 

a long final vowel as ^UajIo. 
h. The I, standing after ._L m (§ 2 e), is dropped as 

s^Axs from I Jujj with the suff. of the 3. pers. sing. masc. 
c. The ending ^ of the 2. pers. pi. perf. becomes j^' 

(cf. § 12ff, note 1), as ^y;id^s from ^jdiS with the 

suff. of the 1. pers. sing. 
A- Before the suffixes to the 1. pers. sing, and plur., 


^j and Li, the final na of the 2. fern. sing, and 3. 

and 2. masc. plur. impf. is sometimes dropped (so that 
these foi'ms become identical with those of the sub- 

junctive and apocopated moods).Ex.: ^Low«a.j alongside 

of the more common ^AAAjwAaJ" thou (fem.) strikest 

me; Ljjjwtdj alongside of the more common liSjjw»fl.j 

they strike us. 

When the object of an active verb consists of a 54. 
personal pronoun, and this object is, for the sake of "'• 
emphasis, made to precede the verb, then instead of 
the ordinary suffixes appended to the verb the sign 

of the accusative LI (ns, n«) is employed with the 
suffixes of the noun (with the suff. of 1. pers. sing. 

The Arabic verb may have two suffixes appended 6. 
at the same time, in which case the pronoun of the 
I. person precedes those of the 2. and 3. persons, 
and the pronoun of the 2. person that of the third, 

as XAjUict he gave it me; frequently, however, in 
place of the second suffix— more particularly when both 
pronouns are of the third person — we find the above 
mentioned periphrasis with Gt^as L^L»[x=.^\ he married 
him to her. 

48 55. THE NOUN. 

Chapter III. The Noun. (§§ 55—90). 

a. The Formation of Nouns. 

55. Nouns in the wider sense comprise 1) substantives, 
2) adjectives, 3) numerals (§§91 — 93), and 4) pronouns 
(§§ 12—14). The noun, in the narrower sense, is 
limited to substantives and adjectives. 

Primitive substantives is the name given to such 
substantives as cannot be derived from a verb. Accord- 
ing to the usual arrangement of Arabic dictionaries, 

it is true, the primitive noun ,^^^1*, head (un affix) for 
example, is found under the verb jllj, but this verb 
is in all its significations denominative. On the other 
hand, it may fairly be maintained that a noun like 

ijj,!. goes back to ahypotheticaltriliteralroot. + t +^. 
— In contrast to these primitive nouns^ we find a 
large number of nouns which are derived either from 
verbs or from other nouns, that is, which are either 
deverlals or denominatives. All the forms of the noun 
are indicated by paradigms from the root Jjti (cf. 
§ 15 ff.); thus we say of .1\'. as of the deverbal in- 
finitive (JJcj- killing, that it has the form J^. 

Note. The numerous foreign words which have found 
their way into Arabic, adapted from Persian and Aramaic, and 
indirectly from Greek and Latin, have also, to some extent, been 
reduced to Arabic nominal forms. 


A number of nouns do not show the full complement 56. 

of (three) consonants (see §§ 16 and 90), as *5 blood; 

•with the feminine termination (§ 73) : jwl a slave-girl; 
to this group belong also nouns with a prefixed vowel 


(connective Alif) as ^^m^ name, which accordingly must 
be sought for in the dictionary under ^. 

Extremely common are the nominal forms with b. 

c* ^ <t « f* 

one short vowel, like J^aU, Jjii, Joii, e. g. Jka., foot, 
according to the form Jjti. There are also nominal 

G,, 0, S,^ 0^ 

forms with two short vowels: J^xi, Jk*i, Jji*, Jkii, 

J^xi, (Jk*i, e. g. Jta*', a man, NF. Ji.jJ; wxTold age 

NF. J^. 

Next in order we may put nominal forms with a c. 

long vowel either with the first radical J^eU or with 

G^__, G^ ®^5 ^J,^ ^99 ^ -T- 

the second JL**, ^i^, JLii, J^, Jyii, (i^i or 
with both J^Ls. 

Nominal forms with doubling of the second radical d. 
are such as ijc^ja. chick-pea NF. Jii; JLxi (§ 63 a); 

Note. By their mode of formation these nouns have been » 
i-aised to the rank of quadriliterals like those in §§ 57 — 58. 

The preformatives employed in the formation of 57. 

Socin, Arabic Grammar.^ 4 


nouns are the following (whose vowels vary according ; 
to circumstances): a) * cf. §§ 60 and 64. h) j" cf. § 61. 
c) J as .yAki_ fugitive NF. J^xiy from ysu to flee, d) | 
(cf. §§ 62c; 63&), e. g. U^d^\ story NF. xJjj^l from 
the stem iiytX^.. 

58. The afformatives or formative additions used in 

the formation of nouns are: a) ^J and i| (see 

§ 74). h) ^\ (for substantives) or ^| (often to 

form adjectives) e. g. ^Uiiis. palpitation of the heart 

NF. ^"^-J^i from (J-fti^ ; ^^SS^ drunk NF. ^^^iUti from 

yjCl. c) liij. (not originally Arabic) as i^yjCLo 

kingdom NF. icyJlii, which takes the masc. gend. 
in Arabic. 

59. The quadriliteral nouns are denoted by the para- 
digm (JJ,xi (§ 28) as ^jlflA scorpion NF. jd*i; ^jydlti) 
box NF. J5.-l.j1i; ySCLxx military camp NF. JJJiix; 
tL!w.AA~^ a species of beetle NF. i!iLi*i. 

60. From among the rich growth of nominal forms in 
Arabic a few deverbals and denominatives may be 
singled out for special attention. Such, of the former 
class, are the participles and infinitives, whose forms 
will be found among the paradigms of the verb. 


The participles — the active is generally named a. 
nomen agentis, the passive nomen patientis — take 


the form J^^Li for the active of the I stem, and for 
the passive the form J^kijS. In all the derived stems 
the participle is formed by prefixing the syllable 
A\ in the active the second radical takes i, in the 
passive a (see below). As a rule, however, the active 
and passive participles of the derived stems take the 
vowels of the active and passive imperfs. with the 
exception of stems V and VI. 

In addition to the participles there is a class of 6. 
so-called verbal adjectives, which are in part treated 
as participles; they might be called quasi-participles, 

as ij-aIs.. beautiful, from ^^^mi^. 

The Arabic participles do not in themselves convey c. 

s ^ 
any suggestion of time; hence Jijls, for example, may 

mean 'one who has killed' as well as 'one who is killing', 

JyXRi 'one who ought to be killed' i. e. interficiendus 
as well as interfectus. 

The Infinitive (nomen verbi) assumes various forms 61. 
in the I stem, and is therefore specially noted in the "'■ 
dictionaries under each verb. One of the most common 

forms is jJU, as jJii* killing. The infinitives of Jjii 



verbs (§ 28), as a rule, take the form Jjti, e. g. from 
J^Miic, ^1-tdfi the being angry. Jyts and JLii are 
also common forms from intransitive verbs, as ^j*/»Aa. 
a sitting, from u^.)^; *!iL*/ health, from *-L*,- In- 
finitives are also found with the prefix ma, as Jj^o 

or Jiia. Joo (for the same verb has frequently more than 
one form of the infinitive, sometimes with different 

meanings) from Jl^o to enter. 

6. The infinitive of the II. stem has the form JowxAJi 

or RJIjiAj (cf. § 57&); the inf of the III. stem the form 

jL*i or xJLftLLo (which last is identical with the fern. 

of the passive participle). The infinitives of IV., VII., 
VIIL, IX. and X. are formed by the insertion of a 
long a before the last radical; before this a every 

short a of the perf. becomes ?, as in the IV. stem Jljiil. 


The infinitives of V. and VI. take u after the second 

G j;,^ 

radical, as V. jJiAi. 

c. The Arabic infinitives do not contain the idea of 
time and may be used both in an active and in a 

passive sense. Thus JJj denotes the circumstance 
that some one has killed or has been killed, the idea 
of killing or of being killed. 


Synopsis of participles and infinitives 

Partop. Act. Partcp. Pass. Infin. 

I. J^Ls JyXJuo cf. § 61« 

G^-, Go,, S, o, G c 

III. J^Uvo J.fiLaA) SXcUx jLii 

Goj G^o, G,„ 

IV. Jjiix) J.JLL« JLiil 

G'-j G,,^, S, — 

VI. J,£L*A/i J^LaXx! JlcLaj' 

S ^ti , G,,o, G^o 

VII. JmIuo JJLftA^ JULajl^ 

G^o, G, ,0, G^o 

VIII. JjLXa/) JJiXfco J\SLXi\ 

S .0, 6^0 

IX. Jjiixi JiL*il 

Go,(,, G^cr^g, G^g^ 

G ^ G,^ G, O ^ ^ ^ 

Quadr. I. (jjJuJe Jkiii/i J^*i jLUULs 

Go-,, G,^,,, G^t,,, 


As regards Verbal Adjectives (cf. § 60 c), the follow- 62. 
ing forms may be specially noted: 

G , . 

The form (^^^3, which occurs in both an active a. 

G , _ g , _ 

and a passive sense; as JoUi' killed, iXj;.g.w a witness, 


Luas. one who disputes with another (in the sense 
of |V.tflLis? part. act. of III). 

b. Jj,*i, e. g. i^.j^y (often an intensive form) given 
to lying. 

c. (JJii I, a form denoting colours and physical defects, 

as llja\ yellow; Zy£-\ lame; .^t (with ^ as a strong 
letter) one-eyed. For the formation of the feminine, 
see § 74 &. 
63. Arabic has the means of expressing a heightened 
or intensive form of the root idea. Of such intensive 
forms the following are examples: 

a. JL*i intensive form of JlcQ and other verbal 

adjectives, as i_j|<>.^ (habitually) given to lying. As 
a denominative this form is in frequent use to denote 

G a ^ 

trades or professions (nomina opificum) as ; LaI* baker 
from yAj=» bread. 

b. Very frequently there is derived from adjectives 

the form JoLs t in the sense of an elative (generally 
so named because including both comparative and 

superlative), as ^^ww^ beautiful, elative : ^..vls.. I more b., 

G -- J "a ^ 

most b.; y-tjuo small, young, elative: j^t smaller, 
younger; smallest, youngest. The elatives, when stand- 
ing in the predicate, do not admit of inflection for 


gender and number, as ,j«LJI J^t *iO they are the 
most excellent of men. When used in a comparative 
sense, they are mostly undetermined (§ 76 &c), and are 
followed by the preposition i\je in the sense of our 

"than" (properly 'at a distance from', 'measured from*). 

Used as superlatives, on the other hand, they are 

generally determined. For the feminine formation 

see S 74 &. 

Note. No special elative is formed from the words y*i. good 

and fSi bad, ■whioli are used as elatives in the form just given. 
As a matter of fact, the positive of other adjectives as well must 

sometimes he rendered by our superlative; thus j».UI| ^j*) signifies 

the (absolutely) greatest of men. 

To the class of deverbal nouns belong further: 64. 

Nouns of place and time formed with the prefix a. 
X ma, as _sH]x! the place where one writes, the school; 
also with the fem. termination as s^lijix a buryingplace. 

Note. Nouns of place and time from the derived stems take 

the form of the pass, participle, as ^;^m (from the IT. stem of ^^ 

to go out, of which IT. ^fA caus.) the place to which or the time 

at which something is brought out; lojS* (from T. stem) the 
place where the ritual washing is performed. 

Nomina instrumenti, formed with the prefix k mi, 6. 
as JjLaS milk-pail, from ^.^J^ to milk; _LxLe key, 
from ^Xi to open. 


c. Nomina specie! of the form xJJii , as sm^ the 
^ manner of writing, one's "calligraphy''. 
65. To the class of denominatives belong especially 

the nouns of relation and the diminutives. 

a. By means of the termination ^^ (corresponding 

to the Hebrew i , fern. r\\ and n^^-) there is derived 

from nouns a group of other nouns which, following 
the example of the Arabic grammarians, we call nomina 
(adjectiva) relaiiva, i. e. nouns of relation. Thus — o>l 

Go* 3 * - . 

belonging to the earth djo. |), earthly; j^L^ belonging 
to J, Li (i. e. Syria), a Syrian. The feminine termination 
is dropped when this ending is added, as "^Zo (from 
xJCo) an inhabitant of Mecca; occasionally we meet 
with certain changes in the vowels of a word, e. g. 

^ Jlx! an inhabitant of Medina, from jixjiXiJI Medina; 
^Ji a Koreishite^ one of the tribe Ji^^. 
h. By the addition of the feminine ending to nouns 
of relation there are formed feminines, as jUxLi a 
Syrian woman, but more fi-equently abstract nouns; as 
s^^l divinity from "^!if| divine, (from sSJ^ God); 
Jui.^L^ heathenism from ^soLi heathenish, (from 
(JjuL^ ignorant). 


Note. It is usual to indicate the nomina relativa by 
paradigms from JaiJ ; tiius we say that ^jl is a form ^J*>, sJLiiU. 
a form 4*Jlfili. 

Diminutives from triliteral nouns take the form 66. 

J,A*i, as tX^AA a little slave, servulus, from tX^i slave. 

From quadriliteral nouns the form is JuLl*^) ^^ OvliLe 

a little scorpion, from o Jie (so v1a4j..«s diminutive 

from ^jw^Lo companion). From quadriliteral nouns 

with a long vowel between the third and fourth radi- 

cals the corresponding form is JkA^Axi, as (^jjJa^ 

G ' o ? 

diminutive from ^x. Ja^ a box. Diminutives are not 
unfrequently derived also from proper names, as 

xJUt tX{U-ft 'udaiduUdM alongside of idJ\ tX^c 'abdullahi 


The formation of nouns from stems mediae gemi- 67. 
natae and from those with a hamza or the semi-vowels 
presents many irregularities, for a general idea of 
which we must refer to the inflection of the corre- 
sponding verbal stems. In addition to what is there 
given the following particulars deserve attention. 

For the formation of deverbal nouns from stems 
mediae geminatae (see § 34 ff.) the following points 
may be noted: 

The second and third radicals are of course con- a. 


tracted when the second is without a vowel of its 
own, as ys irom j^i. 

i. If the first radical has a, and the second i or a, 

contraction takes place in the participles and infini- 
tives, e. g. part. act. VII of li : IxXa contracted from 
yyiXjo; pass, also ^.j^Uo trom s^aXxi. ihere is no con- 
traction, however, with nouns of the form JJii, as ^*j3 
inf. to be hairy. 

c. According to the rule given in § 35 b, from .yjue 

we get j.Ax; from sJix: Juo. 
cl. The act. participle of I is tU from ~!.Li cf. § 8. 
e. Contraction does not take place when a long 

vowel stands between the last two radicals e. g. jlli, 

G ^ G J u^ ^ ■'' 

68. The orthographical rules which apply to the in- 
flection of the verba hamzata (§§ 37 ff.) hold good 
for the formation of nouns, e. g. J^.^ something asked 
for; Jl^ a question, from JLl to ask; the part. act. I 
of Ji I, to make an impression, is jj| for lS"|| ; '■Cj^ NF. 
nomen mstrumenti jujiixi from ^"1 &c. 

69. The primae ^ stems, which according to § 40 lose 
"■ their first radical in the impf., lose it also, as a rule. 


in the nomen verbi ; as compensation the latter receives 
the feminine termination (§ 73), as from Jk.£j to pro- 
mise nomen verhi stXe; from ci>j to allow: x^O. 

w after the vowel i (. ) coalesces with the latter b. 

to form 2, as inf. IV of Is: fall: cUbl^ for cLi.t; i>iLy« 
time of one's birth NF. Jlxix, for Ci'^yx from Ji.Jy 

J passes into u (§ 40 c), e. g. part. IV of ^« c. 

to be awake: iaJs^ia for iaJij^jo- 

In the infs. of the IV. and X. stems from stems 70. 
med. . fl!w<Z ^ the middle radical disappears; the *' 
feminine termination is added as compensation, e. g. 

IS^l for Jlpt. 

In the act. part, of stem I the m of verbs med. , 6. 
becomes y and j («/?) is changed into 'i (3) ; as J.jLS" 
for J^li, ^Ll for ^U (for Medda see § 7). 

A characteristic formation from these stems is JJU ; c. 
thus from the stem oL« med. ^ we get d^ master, 
lord; from the stem oUs med. ^5, ^Jda good. 

Nouns formed on the model of Jjii contain diph- 3,. 

S„, Go^ 

thongs (§ 2 «), as jy>', ^jy.w. 

The place of the second radical (see § 42) is taken e. 
by a long a in the act. participles of stems VII. and 


VIII. and in the pass. part, of stems IV., VII., VIII. 

S 9 

and X.; e. g. part. pass. IV. *LLo, part. act. or pass. 
VII. |,LsLo (from a hypothetical active f»JiJ^ pass. 
-jJLuo). Also in numerous nominal forms, as .|o (from 
a hypothetical .:o) house, from »|t> med. . ; NF. JJlLc 
from JU is JL^, from a hypothetical JjLc. 
/. The place of the second radical (see § 43) is taken by 

G G ^ 

a long Hn nouns of the type of Jo« and XjLks from med. 
^ and ^^ e. g. ^^.J from ^^ med. ^^ to be gentle ; x£yo 
(§ 64 c) for jLsyo mode of death from med. .; in the 
form JJLs from med. ^, e. g. ijk^ for ^J^ white 
(plur.) ; (Js»A;o in the forms from med. ^, e. g. lu«.c, 
walk for j.aa«.x ; in the part. act. of the IV. and X. stems 
from verbs mediae^ and ^, e. g. ^-lL^, lu.«lli; in 
the part. pass. I from med. ^, e. g. %^ from cLj, 
to sell (mediae ^^) for X jaL<- 

if. The place of the second radical is taken by long 
u in nouns of the type of J^ki from med. as ! J 
light from "^15; u may also arise by contraction from 
rvii in the pass. part, of the I stem of verbs med. 
^, as J^jio for JjyAjo. 

7i. In the case of nouns derived from verbs ultimae 


J and ^ those forms in which the second radical is 
vowelless are treated like forms from strong stems, 

Go ^ G o ^ . 

as y^, ^^ mf. 

If the second radical has a, there results (cf. § 46 a) b. 
at the end of words a long d (from hypothetical awu, 
ayu) which is written L-l. ox ^^ (ace. as last rad. 

IS ^ or 1^), e. g. LaiJI the stick, iox yCL»i\\ ^c^y^JI 
the pasture, from l"! to feed, for a hypothetical 
^^pjf; Jii\ NF. JJiit for ^1, elative of ^ gener- 
ous, liberal (§ 63&). The same applies to all the pass, 
participles of the derived stems. "With the nunation, 

these forms appear as L.oi, ,-^5^1 j-«y/>(ptc.pass.IV) 
in which the original long final vowel, now standing in 
a syllable closed by the n of the nunation, must be pro- 
nounced short (§ 8): '«s«w, mar'an, murman. Long a 

appears before the feminine termination (cf. § 70 e) as, 
Sljii morning for 'iZd-^; sUj death for iUij. 

If the second radical has short i, from iyu arises c. 
a long t (cf. § 47 «), e. g. ^c^Ol part. act. I in place 
of a hypothetical ^LJ|; and so in the act. participles 
of the derived forms. If the nunation is added, the 
result is *L, rdmin &c., in which the ^5 is dropped 
even in the written form of the word, uyu is changed 


to iyu, and consequently with the nunation it likewise 
becomes m; e. g. inf. V. ^^^^t for jc^r^'' (•7^' ^O"" 
^IS'. In the act. part, of stem I from yerbs ult. . 
irvun is changed to iyun, and consequently with the 

nunation further to in, e. g. (^)LaJI for j)LiJI, (^vLaJI; 

with the nunation \L£. Before a and « (cf. § 4,1 d), on 

the other hand, the third radical retains its conso- 
nantal Talue ; thus the inf. of stem II, according to 

the form most in use with yerbs med. , and ^ viz. 
S-r "- . s, „, s, „, 

JUAfij (§ 61), is: Jijuowi", JoyiJ- 

(?. After a, yu and wm become 'm; j/mw, and wim be- 

come 'un, in each case with the hamza, e. g. i-tllJl 
for A12J\ with the nunation glCL inf. I of .^w to be 
noble; «.L«,!i!i for ,cC«s!^l, with the nunation gLo»t inf 
IV for ^Ujl 

e. If the second radical has a long m, the forms from 
verbs ultimae ^ are formed regularly ; thus the pass, 
part. I of lui is ^yix (for ^^y*^) magzuwun. From 
verbs ultimae ^5, on the other hand, uyun is changed 
to lyun, e. g. ^^yi (from (^yili) manmyun, so from 
j^^ go away inf. ^^^^ for l^y^ NF. jj-jLj. 

/• If the second radical has a long I, the forms from 

72., 73. THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 63 


verbs ultimae ^ are formed regularly, e. g. NF. JkAxi 

from (Jj : J^ saint (for ^ii) rvaliyun. From verbs 

ultimae ., on the other hand, Imun is changed into 

g ^ ^ 

««/««, as Ji.A 'allyun high from j-yLe. 

J. The Gender of Nouns. 

Arabic has two genders, a masculine and a femin- 72. 
ine. A number of vyords are sometimes masculine 
sometimes feminine, in other vrords are of the common 
gender. Words which denote female beings, collectives, 
countries, cities, winds, parts of the body occurring 
in pairs, and others, are in themselves feminine with- 
out requiring the feminine termination. The gender 
of such words is in each case noted in the dictionaries. 

As an outward and visible sign of the feminine 73. 

s ^ ' , a. 
we find most frequently the ending s atun (or is 

atu § 79), e. g. XJli'b (NF. XJUli), fem. of Jg'U killing ; 

S^ , G^ _ ' 5 ^ G^ ' 

x)CJLx! (NF. JL<L*i) queen, from vilJLo; Jw-*?') fem. of masc. 
i_^ir (§ 71c) content, gUci (NF. asJUi) maid, from ^ 
(§§ 71 & and 2d) youth. Many substantives are found 


only with the feminine ending, as xa=. an orchard. 

Note. As a rarity, the feminine ending is found, particu- 
larly in the Kur'an, written with Cj, e. g. UJI iS***" the grace of 
God (for Cw). 


6. A number of masc. nouns are found with the 
feminine ending, as xa-J^ Caliph, ji^is Talha (proper 
name of a man, see p. 8, note 2). On the other hand, 
there are nouns which, as being essentially feminine, 
do not require the feminine termination, as jjLc. barren 
(referring to a woman). 


c. The feminine ending H-I_ is occasionally appen- 
ded to common or class nouns in order to indicate a 
single individual (nomen unitatis), as jliiii a gold 
piece, from v^^sso gold; jixiLi^i. a dove, from |.Ua. 

doves (collective). The termination S_l- is also used 
for the formation of the so-called nomina vicis, i. e. 
nouns that express the doing of an action once, as 

s jJls a single sitting down, from jJu to sit down. 

d. The feminine termination, again, serves to form 

substantives from adjectives, as kli'llu conduit-pipe, 

water-channel, from the part. I of .JLm to water. Con- 
nected probably .with this is the feminine ending which 

G, o ^ 

forms intensives, as jLoi^ a very learned person, from 

the adjective J^k^ § 63 a. 

e. Collective nouns are also formed by means of the 

G ^ 

feminine termination, e. g. from mcLJ* a courier, coll. 

P__os G^ 

juol^* ; ^^yo (§ 05 «) Sufi (mystic), coll. 'ilsya. 


Other feminine terminations are: 74. 

The termination ^—•, it goes to form feminines a. 
of the type ^xi, e. g. ^IXL fem. of ^^1X1, drunk, 
(§ 58&); feminines of the nominal form (NF.) Ji 
from elatives (§ 63 &), e. g. ^^IJo fem. of Xa I smaller, 
^^^1 from J . ( the first, and substantives like Lajo 
world (§ 2 note), which is properly a feminine to the 
elative j^jiil, that which is nearer at hand; also fem- 
inines of the NF. J,ii, e.g. from tl^f one, fem. ^54X^1 ; 
subst. i^Jih remembrance. 

The ending if ; it goes to form, more especially, &• 

adjectives of the NF. iiUii from Jjii t (§ 62 c), e. g. 
i-\yL>a fem. yellow; ^K«a fem. one-eyed, but also 
substantives, as *C^? desert. 

e. Inflection of the Noun. 

Arabic has three numbers: singular, dual and 75. 
plural. Of the last, there are two different kinds; 
the one, the ordinary plural, properly so called, also 
known as the pluralis sanus or the outer plural, which 
originally denoted rather a number" of separate persons 
and things ; the other, the collective plural, also called 
the inner or broken plural (see §§ 86 ff.), which denotes 

Socin, Arabic G-rammar.^ 5 


rather a continuous mass, in which the individual 
member is not distinguished. At present we shall deal 
only with the first-named. Arabic distinguishes three 
cases: Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative. 
76. The terminations of the dual and the pluralis 
^- sanus are as follows: 

Dual nominative ^1 — (cf. § 33) 

„ genitive and accusative ^jj — (cf. D';^) 

Plural mascul. nominative ',. (cf. § 33) 

gen.-accus. ^^-- (cf. d^— ) 

„ femin. nominative i:i)| (cf. ni) 

„ „ gen.-accus. i:y|-l- 

Before these terminations the flectional endings 
of the sing, are dropped ; the is of the feminine ending 
is changed to cj before the dual termination, (as it is 
before the pronominal suffixes appended to the sin- 

gular), e. g. xj^Ls., dual ^UcSjL^. 

b. By the addition of the terminations exhibited 
above is formed the plural of many adjectives, in 
particular, and also of a number of substantives. In 
the formation of the plural we find substantives with 
the feminine ending taking the sign of the masculine 

plural (as iU^ year, plur. r^y^M,); much more fre- 


quently, however, substantives without the sign of 
the feminine in the singular are found forming their 
plural by means of the feminine termination, e. g. 
JL=» condition, plur. ^^jlSfLi., %.[^ heaven, plur. ol.U-l 
(with the original waw restored § lid), also written 

As regards the case inflection of the singular, it 77, 
is necessary to distinguish between the so-called no- 
mina triptota or triptotes, i. e. nouns which are in- 
flected for all three cases, and the so-called nomina 
diptota or diptotes, i. e. nouns which cannot be thus 
fully inflected. The latter never receive the nunation, 
and unless they are determined by the article or by 
a following genitive, they are inflected for only two 

The following are the case-endings of the triptote a. 
noun : Nom. sing. _1 un, Gen. sing. — in, Ace. sing. 
\— an. With the feminine termination _!_ only is 
written instead of S— as !iV.4>-s, but iLLsi\xi; so ^jai 
and {„tcus. (cf § 3&). 

The case-endings of the diptote noun are: Nom. b. 
sing. _L M, Gen. and Accus. Sing. J_ a. 

In the dictionary the triptotes are distinguished 
from the diptotes by being always written with the 


nunation, as J^^") ^ ™^^^' "^^^^^ ^he latter are always 
without it, as Oj^i black. 

78. Whole classes of nouns are always diptote. Such are 

a. 1) all proper names that are either feminine or have 

'=' ' '"- J. 

the feminine termination, as JUx, •^^.^ as names ot 

women; jCLli as name of a man. To these must be 
added the majority of such proper names as are of 
foreign origin, e. g. »aj5Lj|^ Abraham, i-iw^ Joseph, 
^J) Moses (but monosyllables like _^^ Noah are 
mostly triptote). 

b. 2) Many so-called broken plurals ; cf. § 88 Nos. 18, 
19, 20; § 89 Nos. 23 24, 25, 27, 29; 

c. 3) adjectives of the form JJii I (§ 62c; § 63b); 

d. 4) adjectives of the form ^S^xi (§ 58 b), which form 
their fem. like jJts, e. g. ^Lyii; angry, fem. ^eA.<al- 

e. 5) Feminines formed by the terminations ^5— or 

i.t__ (§ 74). Cf. also the broken plurals referred to under 
b, §§ 88,19 and 89,29. 

79. The inflection of the singular of all nouns and 
of the plural of feminines varies according as a noun 
is determined or undetermined. 

a. All proper names are in themselves determined 
as L^tr^ muhammadun Muhammed; (^V ( -^ t ahmadu 


Ahmed; such proper names are treated either as trip- 
totes or as diptotes according as their form and the 
custom of the language may determine; many of them 
always take the article, as <ijjGi|. 

Common or class nouns are determined: 

1) hy the article; as ^^i a horse, ^juIaJI the horse, h. 

2) by the addition of a following genitive, which c. 
may be either a noun or a pronominal suffix, whereby 

the nomen regens is put in the construct state; as (uali 

J«s.Jt the horse of the man, x^li his horse. 

The case-endings of a noun determined (1) by the 
prefixing of the article, or (2) by a genitive following 
— and the same applies to proper names with the 
article — are distinguished as follows from those of 
the undetermined noun: 

Singular nom. , Gen. , Ace. _I_. 

Plural fem. nom. , Gen. -Ace. 

i. e. the nunation is always dropped. These endings 
are assumed not merely by all triptotes, but also by 
the diptotes, when determined by the article or a 

genitive following : e. g. Nom. ^^.^S, Gen.- Ace. dy^S ; 

J, 0*0- ,0*0' ^^o*"- 

but Nom. o^!i( I, Gen. Oj.*wiy I, Ace. c>yJ3 1. 

Before a following genitive (which ace. to § 79 c 80. 
may be either a noun or a pronominal suffix) the 


terminations ^ of the dual and ^j of the plural are 

dropped, thus: 

Dual Nom. of J^: ^ItUc, but^vy t ltW the two 

slaves of the Vizier. 
Dual Gen. -Ace. ^j.j4>.xe, but w^x. ^5cX^ o*.J>-«i> J- have 

beaten the two slaves of Omar (before a cortnective 

_^o^ ^ o ^ 

Alif thus: vJS^t i^Jy.^) cf. § 6e). 
Plural Nom. of oLJ^' butcher, executioner ^jj^L/ai", 

but dULUl ^.jLaS the executioners of the king. 
Plural Gen.-Acc. 'voL^S, but yiLL^Ji ^^jLtcLs o^jK I 

have seen the executioners of the king. 

Tor the inflection of the noun see paradigms XX and XXI, 
■where will be found the forms of the masculine triptote »->UaJ an 

executioner, the masculine diptote ^1 another, the feminine triptote 

S- - is' 

4eU< hour, and the feminine diptote «;« Mayya (name of a woman). 

81. In the case of nouns derived from stems ultimae 
"• . and (^ when the second radical has a short vowel 

the nunation, ace. to § 716 c, is taken by this vowel 

of the second radical. 
6. Nouns ending in an or a are unchangeable for 

all three cases; those in in or F, on the other hand, 

take the an of the nunation, as well as the simple a 

(§ 47 rf) as LlolJ, ^^tpj. 


Before the dual terminations (cf. § 4:6 d) the last c. 
radical is treated as a strong letter, as ^\1m1., ^Llelo, 

In the plural the last radical is dropped before d. 
the terminations una and ma, which^ when joined to 
an a of the second radical, produce diphthongs (§ 46c); 

thus from ^-xiyxi: ^yoyjo, ^j^ajOj./); if the second radical 
has i, the terminations are added immediately to the 
former (§ 47 c), as ^^^;J|J, ij^fy 

For the inflection of these nouns see paradigm No. XXII, 
where -will be found the forms of the triptote jolJ judge, the 
triptote ^^aa/oM (ult. ^5) chosen one (often as a proper name), the 
triptote Use (ult. j) a stick, the diptote i^ji'j remembrance, and 
the diptote Uij world (vgl. § 74 a). 

For the forms of the pronominal sufiixes see 82. 
§ 12 6— <f. 

Before the pronom. suffix of the 1. pers. sing, the a. 
short case-endings of the construct state are dropped, 

as ^LaS". The said suffix after a final a, I or at be- 
comes ^ (?/«), as with the nom. dual j^LjUaSs with 
^Xj: (^Laj (§ 2<:?; 81 a); with the gen.-acc. plur. AJ^ls; 
with j^U (§ 81 fl): ^_^li; with gen.-acc. dual ^Lai". 


s , 
Note. In the case of words which end in ^ , the suffix 

may either he attached in the usual way, e. g. from ^, ".soniiy", 

,^, or appended to the shortened form ^5 , e. g. ^, from ^, 

and |_5. 

6. The final u of the construct state of the plural 

masc. is changed to l before the ai^pended ^ (cf 

§ 71 e), thus j.jLJki' becomes jL^aS, and then with 

the suffix of the 1. pers. sing. ^1^3^ (no longer to be 

distinguished from the genit. and accus. plural). The 
same applies to the ending au from stems ult. ^ (see 

parad. XXII), e. g. Jiia.«fl-o becomes J^a^toja, with the 

suffix Jtiojo^ (also identical with the genitive-accu- 
sative form). 

For the union of the noun with the suffixes see paradigm 
XXIII. For the change before suff. of final » into Cj see § 76 a. 

83. In the pluralis sanus of substantives of a masc. 
or fem. nominal form with one short vowel (that is, 
of any of the following types J,ii, jJu, jL*i and xJL«i, 
XijLJ , x<L*i) the second radical frequently receives a 
complementary vowel which is either identical with 
that of the first radical or isshort a. Thus ^Ji\ I earth, 
plur. r^yja.\, more rarely ,..^J, and y^jLo.'!, more 
rarely ^[jS. I; it^ifl darkness, plur. liUJJs alongside 

84. ^^J, 85. VOCATIVE. 73 

of c^LJJb and v;ymic. This is a favourite method in 

the case of the plural of the form £L*i, as xXxi: 

(§ 73c) a single thrust or blow; plur. ^iUiJo several 
thrusts or blows. 

G o 

'Before ^[_ a son, a proper name loses its nuna- 84. 

5 o 

tion m the case mentioned § 6/" 2, and ^j| is itself 

written without the prosthetic |, e. g. iXfJ'jJ \yli IXUa 

musUmu-hnu-lwalidi Muslim, the son of al-Walid. 

wCw (JjI tX.j\ zaiduni-hnu Wschrin (§ 6e) means, on 

the other hand, Zaid is the son of Bishr (nominal 

After Lj the particle of address, the simple noun 85. 
follows in the nominative without the nunation, as 

txXsP Muhammed, SZ^ L^ Oh M. ! JX-J Lj Oh man! 
(by which a definite person is hailed). But should 
anything of the nature of a complement (a genitive, 
for instance) be added to the noun in the vocative, 
the name of the person addressed must be put in the 

accusative, as jjjt jJlc: xiJi Ju-a Lj o Abdallah!(Oh 

servant of God!); sJaS" aj Lj Oh Banu Kinda! i. e. 

members of the tribe of Kinda (here ij cf. § 80 and 

90 & is the constr. state of (Tj-aaj)- If an Object follows, 

the noun stands in the accus. with the nunation, as 


stplrilrtr Lj oil thou that ridest the red mare! — 
The particle Lgjf (before which we may also have G) 
is always followed by a nominative with the article, 

as UJ.UJ t I4jf Lj Oh ye people ! 

Note. After I3 , which serves as the expression of pain and 

sorrow, a, long o is appended to the noun; in pause SI , as 

«Si1 15 Oh mother! 
86. There are, in Arabic, a mass of words which, 
though singular in form, have a collective signification. 
The following varieties may be singled out under 
this head: 

a. Simple collectives (masc. gend.) such as ^Ji, which 
denotes not merely '« people' collectively, but also 

'people' as individuals ; jCle an army and also the 
individual soldiers thereof. From such words broken 
plurals may be formed. 

b. Names of the inhabitants of a country, as liJ^S 
the Jews, often coinciding with the name of the country 

itself, as JulgJI the Hindus; a single Jew or Hindu is 

called ^5<^^^_, jJiXAff § 65 a. 

0. Class names (masc. gend.) from which are formed 

nomina unitatis (§ 73 c) as -U.^ doves. 
d. So-called quasi-plurals (masc. gend.), from which 

no nomen unitatis is formed, as JjS^\ a company of 


horsemen (a single one Z^]^) ; ^6^ the domestics 
(oneof whichislt>Li.); "Ia*^ a number of asses (one 
ass «Ua,.); tXAAA slaves (from jLla). 

The so-called broken plurals (plurales fracti in the 87. — 
language of the native grammarians — by German ^' 
scholars by preference called 'inner plurals' because 
due to changes in the body of the word) are also 
strictly speaking nothing more than collectives. Hence 
they are treated in Arabic as singular nouns of the 
feminine gender and construed accordingly. Thus 

's£ysXjii ust^ t different gates, where '^\yi\ is the broken 
plural of i_>Lj (on the model of JLiif), and the par- 
ticiple act. V. of ,_vli is put in the fern. sing. — These 
broken plurals, further, take the same inflection as 
the singulars, discussed in § 77 ff. 

As a rule the broken plurals are given in the 6. 
dictionaries alongside of the singular of their respective 
nouns ; when this is not so, it is to be presumed that 
the word either has no plural or takes a pluralis sanus. 
Sometimes we find from one and the same word more 
than one plural; in such a case, not unfrequently, a 
word varies its plural as its meaning varies. Certain 
of the broken plurals are, as a rule, confined to certain 
specified singulars. 


88. From nouns regarded as containing three con- 
sonants the following broken plurals may be formed: 

1. Joii from (JJiil (§ 62 c) and its fem. ijJij 
(§ 74&), as ^^ from 1^1.1 red; SyL (cf. § 70 5-) 
from c>*-w| black; (jdAj (for (joaj cf, § 70/) from 
udjol white. 

2. Jjus from various singulars, as ^jjcS' from 
loLx^ book. 

3. (JJii from sing, gj^xs, as «iis from Rikji piece. 

4. JJii mostly from sing. x>L*i, as ^^ULa from 
jUXc box; f^ioS from RxjI people; occasionally from 

° r " - *' /J S , ' G,e , 

ju*3, as ^wi" (for j^jj" ace. to g 71 &) from jLs^j' place. 

5. jLLki, as isyi^l from -I brother. 

6. jLlii esp. from sing. jLaLi, as ioUi^from Jooiy 

G„^ ' G 

perfect; but also from J^^i § 70 c, as s5H (for 
stX-iAu) from tX-y*, lord. 

7. Xijii (rare) as SS^j from t>3 monkey. 

''r-'' J. ^^ r ^' Q -' G, ,5 

8. xAjii from jLtU ult. ^^, as sLaii (for jouis 

§ 71 1) from ^li judge. 

9. JLii very common, from various singulars, as 

G I Go 

_|jU from _Jo arrow. 


G , J 

10. Jyjti very common, also from various singulars, 
as i>» from jj^ band of soldiers; ^IXj (for (^JCj 
see § 71 e) and then (with change of m to i) jCj from 
dlj weeping. 

11. xJLii (rare) as SsL^ from ^^ stone. 

12. iUjjii (rare) as X;oj.tx from I^ uncle. 

Gjjj G- ®03 ^.^ 

13. Jii from Jk^U, as J^ from (Jjou an un- 
branded she-camel. 

Sj-j 0— gS? G-" 

14. jUii from Jk^U, as uUs from v.^li' scribe. 

15. J.*il from various singulars, as J-^-vl from 


J^s.) foot. 

16. xJL*it from various singulars, as Sac J from 
(.Xtftj a cake, '^iJ] (§ 67c) from vIaaa^ beloved; x^\ 
from lUol president; JLgJt from s!i)| God. 

17. JLxit very common, from various singulars, 
as tlLxif from pax rain; iLLil (always without the 
nunation) from %^ thing. 

18. *.ij»it esp. from Jw^, as ^.b^M from >_^^a 
relative; ill*ll from ^ rich. 

19. J.*i (rare), as ^5^^ from ^^ wounded. 


20. i>)kks, as itpi^ from j^Lo poet. 

21. |j^!i^, as ^Loi from ^^Xi youth; (jl^us. 

G ^f G -- 

(for ijl)^^ ^^- § ^^^) fj^om »L^ neighbour. 

22. ^ilxi, as ^jljJj from JJ^ district; ,jLw^ 
from iJjvLi rider; ^jlt)***, negroes from l>1«,I black. 

Note. Forms 5 and 15 — 17 are used, as a rule, 011I3' of a 
number of objects not exceeding ten (hence called pluralia 

J9. From nouns with more than three radical con- 

sonants (cf. § 56<? ff.) are formed plurals in which the 
first consonant takes «, the second a and the third ;. 
Such plurals are diptotes with the exception of all 
those derived from stems ult. ^ (or with an additional 

t^— in the sing. § 74 «) which take the nunation i?i in 
the nominative and genitive, but not in the accusative 

which ends in ^ The forms of the singular of 

Nos. 24 (cf. also ._j^y.^ § 66) and 25 are regarded 
as quadriliterals. No. 29 ends in long a and is diptote. 
The following are the principal varieties: 

23. JJLii as ooli;^ from CiSlL (NF. JjL*i) 
locust. This form is also found from nouns that are 
only in a special sense quadriliterals, inasmuch as 
they are really triliterals with the addition of a 


formative consonant; examples of this group are: 
a) J^Lil, as Joob! from jlUjI (NF. jLUil) fingertip; 
also from elatives used as substantives, such as 
-jLS'I the great ones from SiSS elat. of jaaT; b) J.eLftj 

^' , ^-r. G^ or. G- °' ' ' 'i '^ 

as LJ^L^' from JUj.s! (NF. xLiaj) experience; c) Jk^LAo 

as (Jolyo from SJjyxi (NF. xLiaa!) dung-heap; ^ji-jljui 
(with J, not with 2) from s-cijow (NF. X-Uax) livelihood ; 
i^Ujo (acc. ^^Ljw) of ^^ijw (NF. JJLax) idea. 

,^, G'' B^ 

24. JkftO especially from jiXtU and J^U (used 
as a substantive), as ^j^l^^o from xiiftLo thunder-clap; 
(_^Jli from ^Xi rider; ijal^i* (for (j«a>tal^ § 67 &) 
from ^Li.. person of distinction; X^ (acc. ^-S^s^ 
from JbsL^ a female slave. 

25. JoLii from such nominal forms with a long 
vowel after the second radical as have a feminine 

3 -^ G, ^ 

form or signification, as a) ySQs^ from svU=» funeral 
obsequies ; b) JoL^ from Xl^ miracle ; c) ^i\y& 
from (j^jv^ bride. 

26. JLii as jUci from ^5yci (N. F. J.*i) decision. 

27. JyJLii from quadriliteral nouns with a long 

» 1 -'■ « 6 'o J 

vowel before the last consonant, as juJiLs^ from c>^iiA 


(N. F. J^i»i) bunch of fruit; this form is also found 
with nouns derived from triliteral stems, of which the 

following are specimens: a) Ju^^UI as oooL^t from 

Xj^tki.1 (NF. JU^I) story; b) J^-v^Uj as oiJvLaj 

from ^jy^J (infinitive J^jiij* used as a noun) turn; 

' -''-• ^ -"' G^"^ G,ft^ 

c) J^Li^ as ^joLjLo from .^tXJLo (participle Jutii 
used as a noun) fate; but also J^A^Iyi (cf. No. 24) as 
fj^j^\y>. from jjj^Ls* (NF. JyS^li) spy. 

G -- -- 

28. JLULii, from quadriliteral nouns denoting 

G-- G B -• ^ Cg -" 

living beings, as s^jLIs. from .Lla. (NF. JLii) a 
mighty man; RasLwI from i_jiiL*ul bishop; ii j^!^' from 
cXa+Ij pupil; HjtoUtj from ;^t>|ji.ij a native of Bagdad. 

29. jLii, as (5^1^ from i\'.^ desert; Lj|cXi 
(for (^jtXi § 2 <? note &) from xl(^i0 (NF. £L*i from 
ult. ,^) present. 

90. The following nouns (arranged in alphabetical 
order) are more or less irregular in their mode of 

a. oi father, -I brother and ^ father-in-law take 

the following forms in the construct state and before 
suffixes beginning with a consonant: 



^1, ^t, ytJ^ 

Genitive ^|, ^|, ^^ 
Accusative LI, L^l, 1V~- 

The Dual of lol is ^oI*jI (i- e. the two parents), the 
plur. eLjI (§ 88 No. 17). The vocative singular with 
suff. of the 1. pers. sing, of i^| is ._Xj| Ls, ooI L>, 
oo I L ; from ■ I : ^i.| ; with suffix of the 2. pers. masc. 
sing. (J^l, d^|. 

^1 son; plur. sanus has nom. ^jv^ (construct 6. 
jju) , gen.-acc. r^sjjl (st. constr. Jj) ; broken plur. 
gUj;? (§ 88,17). 

^•\ brother, see a; broken plur. is^i*.]^, ijl<-^|. ''• 
(§ 88,5. 21). 

G o ^ G ^^ -^ 

o^ia.| sister; plur. i:!}!,.^.!. ^• 

gyol or .w;o|^ (also gl«) man; gen. i^Cxih ace. SyA. e. 

slyot woman; plur. from another root gLwuJ, /■ 
S^ or j!,!^ (§ 88,9. 5. 21). 

1 1 mother ; plur. i:i>L^ I or oL/i I- ^- 

j^UUt man, human being; plur. ,j«U|, collective A. 

Sooin, Arabic Grammar.^ " 

82 90. raEEGULAE NOUNS. 

i- o^AJ daughter, frequently also jUjI (with con- 

nective Alif); plur. <yLij. 
*• )^.'> dinar, gold-piece; broken plur. irregular, 

i- .0 (only in the st. constr.) possessor of . . . .; 
gen. ^(j>, ace. li; fern. udIo; dual nom. \lc>; plur. nom. 
..O (gen.-acc. ^5.l3) fern, cjt.3; for the plural J.| 
(m/m), gen.-acc. J.| is used. 

»w- XJUM year; plur. nom. ij^-* (^^ (jr**")' g^n.-acc. 

«• .y+ft 'amrun, 'Amr, proper name of a man. A . , 
is added to the written form of this word in the nom. 

and gen. (jv+i) to distinguish it from l^c 'umaru (a 

diptote). Ace. |CZe ; followed by ^^J it is written ,1^ 
and pronounced 'amra-hna. 

0- *i or s^ mouth; st. constr. usually nom. »i, 
gen. ^, ace. li; broken plur. (§ 88,17) »Q|. 

p. J. J night; broken plur. (from the root JoJ) JUL! 
(§ 89,23). 

?. gU water; broken plur. sLl« or st^!;;^! (§ 88,9.17). 


Jo hand; broken plur. (§ 88,15) Jo I from j^Jol »"■ 
(cf. §71c). 

|,jj day; broken plur. |,Ljt from -Ij-sl (§ 88,17). s. 

Chapter IV. The Numerals. (§§ 91—93.) 

The cardinal numbers have the following forms: 91. 

Masc. Fem. 

is ^ - 

J.s»|; id^y^ inflected 

2 ij'-^^'l lo^-*^' (inflected as a dual) 

3 ^%:-, (eJo) xj^J (xiJb) inflected 

4 «jj j«jj )1 



y a: 

6 >OA>wu 20Uu 

^ G ^ " 

8 ^Lij(seep.27*),jUjLij „ 

G __ S^ o 

9 !'^*'^ x jLMhi ,! 

10 >.Mti£ s^<&.£ « 

11 I^i Jk~.| »*^ i5''^^i indeclinable 


Masc. Fern. 

12 wCi.A Uj] 'iyi»A UajJ gen.-acc. "^ ^j, 

" -'1. 

13 Icii Xj!^' slwii lijS^' indeclinable 

14 wC*£ 24*^)1 Swii^ »J^ f » 

16 ww.£ &Xu> 8wim£ 0«~w n 

^ - ^ ^-a ^ T'"- '"-- 

- ' ' r.' " . '.^ ° ' ' ° 

20 ^.>_(iLA inflected, like all the tens, as a 

pluralis sanus. 

'."T'T 9^0'^ JO-' ^i 

30 ij^'^') 40 ^ytjj I, 50 jj...« ^ , 60 ^yu-, 
70 i^yiAAi/, 80 ij^Uj, 90 jj^jlwaS 

100 julx (also written &1«, and always so 

pronounced, mfatun, the | having no effect on the 


200 ^^LBLo, 300 xSLo ^LlS*, 400 xSLo gjt, 500 
SjLo J^, 600 xSLo vLa*,, 700 sSLo i^, 800 ^^Q 
kSUo, 900 XjLo «a»o. 

JjI, 2000 ^liJt, 3000 oSiT lii-SG (;!jSf7 


?, -c? 

is here a broken plural of the form JULsl § 88 No. 17) 
&c. 11000 llll lii S^\, 100000 v^'F&SU, 1000000 

The following are the leading points to be noted 92, 
in joining the cardinals to the names of the objects 
numbered : 

The numerals for one (Jk.^1;) and two are adjec- a. 

tives; the numbers from 3 — 10, on the other hand, 
are substantives, and take the word indicating the 
objects numbered in the genitive plural. They may 
also, however, be placed in apposition after the noun. 
Whatever their position relative to the substantive 
may be — even, in fact, when the latter is altogether 
omitted, or when they stand as the predicate of a 
sentence — the construction is such that nouns of the 
masc. gender take the fem. forms of these numerals, 

* Often written SJUjUj &c. 


and vice versd nouns of the fern, gender take the masc. 
forms. Thus: ^j-yo xj!^ (Xi'^' (jj-*j) three sons, 

i^Uj «j«| («jJ yyUo) four daughters. Also before 

broken plurals of which the singular is masculine, 
we find the fern, forms of these numerals (3 — 10), as 

JL&A xj^' 3 men. 

6. The numbers from 11 to 99 are followed by the 
word indicating the objects numbered in the accusative 
singular, as !i^-4-) joyJ^J 30 men. 

c. The numbers from 100 upwards take the thing 
numbered in the genitive singular as J^j jLsLo 'flS 
400 men. 

d. In the compound numbers the nature of the 
construction depends on the last numeral. The 
particle ^ is used to join the numbers together; the 
units and the tens may stand either before the 
hundreds, or after the thousands and hundreds. Thus 
the year 1895 is either ^f^ ^Lo ^^Ui^ ^^i'^ J*U> 

xa^ or sXm ^jAjmJ^ ij x t '^ j xjLo ^Ui'j i_aJ I. 

93. The ordinals have, for the most part, the form 
a- of the act. part, of the I stem, as may be seen from 
the following: 


Masc. Fern. Masc. Fern. 

>a* ^ i- S ^ ^ ^ " 

I. J^l, first J^l 6. fj^iAL Jol,(>L«- 

3. ^iJLS XaJLj 8. j^LJ xJuoU 

4. «^|^ jotjL 9. ,^b XjLwLj 

5. (jwjoLa«. JLwfc^oL^ 10. wiiiLc SwwLe 

II. wCi-a 15^1-^ Hj.-cLft JuoL:s. indeclinable 

12. y^hA ^^jLj SyAitt JUjLj „ 

13. wA-a viJli SwCii XiiU' and so on. 

The ordinals of the numbers from 20 upwards 
are expressed by the corresponding cardinals, as 

^Ji!k!i^ oJLS thirty-third; when larger totals have 

to be expressed, the cardinals are used even for the 
lower numbers. In dates, as a rule, the cardinal 

numbers are used exclusively, as SwCOlc yi)!xj 'iXM ^ 

s^-sJ-^Jl ^\yj) ^'5 ^^ 4)^'^ in the 1313 th year of 

the Hegira (which began on the 24th of June 1895). 

G o J 

Fractions are usually expressed by the form Juii, 6. 


as viyJi' a third. 

88 9i, 95. PARTICLES. 

Chapter V. The Particles. (§§ 94—96). 

94. The adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions cannot 
here be given in detail. The prepositions, like many 
adverbs, are still for the most part recognizable as 
nouns of three radicals originally, which have preserved 
the accusative ending without the nunation. Preposi- 
tions therefore always govern the genitive case in 
Arabic and may also stand in the genitive in depen- 
dence on other prepositions. Thus ^ijj above, with 
a subst. JkAil liyi up on the hill. 

Note. A few adverbs end in ii (which in this case has 
absolutely nothing to do with the nominative termination) as 

j*j afterwards; so J*^ ^ in the same sense; but as prepositions 

j*» or SKj ^ after. 

95. The following particles (in alphabetical order) 
because written with a single letter are inseparably 
joined to the following word, cf. § 8 note. 

a. I (n) interrogative particle, as Jai't did he kill? 

Before the connective Alif: dLi-*t for I + dUAul is thy 
name . . . ? 

^- i_j (a) preposition 'in'; with suffixes thus: 1. ^ 
in me, 2. masc. liL, 3. masc. jo (§ I2d) &c. 

'■• «ij particle of asseveration, as jJJLi' by God. 


U« shortened from o^, a particle whicli gives d. 

to the impf. the sense of the future, as jJc£^ he 
will kill. 

o, then, denotes a less close connection than :. e. 

d (3) like, as. f, 

J a corroborative particle before verbs, especially g. 

in oaths, as ^jJLxJuJ he will certainly kill; it also 

stands before nouns, especially after the particle ".I 
(§ 125 a note). 

J (b) preposition and conjunction ; before suffixes h. 
(except in 1. pers. sing, j) it becomes J, as dU 
to thee. 

J (1, 1) connective particle; as a particle of »• 
asseveration it takes the gen., as jJUK by God. 

As regards the addition of pronominal suffixes 96. 
to the prepositions and conjunctions, the following 
points may be noted in addition to what has been 
said under § 82. 

Before the suffixes of the 1. pers. sing., the final a. 
vowel or vocalic auslaut is dropped as is the case 

with the noun; thus jju 'after' with the suff. of the 

1. pers. sing. i^JotJ, but djjij &c. 


h. In the prepositions J>.£ upon, and J( towards, 
the final ^ is sounded before suffixes (contrary to 
§ 2 d), e. g. 
with suff. of the 2. pers. masc. dUXc, dLul 

!) 11 11 ^- 11 11 ^tV^J f-frl. 

11 1, 1, 1- 1, 11 ^, III (see § 82 a) 

c. The prepositions ^!wo and A..a double the n he- 
fore the suffix of the 1. pers. sing., as _Lo. 

d. ^jl^ behold, truly, and ^| that, become 

with the suff. of the 2. pers. sing. masc. >iJbt and ^ilLjl 

" " " " ^- " " isi^i °^ csii' 

11 n 11 „ 1- 1, plur. oil or iJt, 

Qi1 or Lit 

in. NOTES ON SYNTAX. (§§ 97—160). 

Chap. I. Moods and Tenses. (§§ 97—104). 

97. The perfect expresses a completed action, the 
completion of which falls in the past, present or future, 
or is thought of as falling in one or other of these 

98. THE PEBFECT. 91 

periods. The imperfect expresses an uncompleted 
action, which may likewise fall in each of the same 
three spheres of time. 

The perfect is, in the first place, the tense of 98. 
narration (perfectum historicum), when an action com- "" 
pleted in the past is spoken of, and may, as a rule, 
be rendered by our past tense, as Juv s.Ls> Zaid came. 

By the perfect the idea is expressed that an action 6. 
or a state has continued from the beginning, and still 

continues, as iUJjiJt t^„ftJLcis.j the learned (always) 

disagree (gnomic aorist); JLiS' \JU| God, he is exalted 
(from the beginning). 

When the perfect expresses an action completed c. 
in the present, it is to be rendered by our present, 

as |JlS5 viJLAjLk^t I present you with this (the affair is 
at this moment concluded). 

In a sentence containing an oath or a wish, the A. 
perfect expresses an action which, in the mind of the 

speaker, is completed in the future, as xJUt xJL*J God 
curse him; also with ^ 'not', as jJJ| x,-^. '^ may God 
have no pity on him; oJ.*i !^ J-^l^ ^J ^^^ ^ ^^ 
it not! 

When the particle tXjj stands before the perfect, «• 
the latter may in most cases be rendered by our per- 


feet (either the present or the past perfect), as tXi 
b j^'S we have (just) mentioned, or we had mentioned. 
The perf. with JLs may also be used in the sense given 
under sub-section c. 

f. When the verb ^J^ (to be) stands before the per- 
fect (with or without JkS), we must render as a rule 
by our past perfect (pluperfect), as ^^y^ 3Jy Q 
jUL^f jJc£> ^ys:li Zi\ JLi- JjLT when Moses was 
born, Pharaoh had (just) commanded to kill the little 

Note. Instead of the above verbal sentence (§ 134), ^^ 
may be follovi^ed by a compound nominal sentence (§ 138 c?) as ^ 
. . . yol ji ^^^. 

g. Our conditional is expressed in Arabic by the 
perfect, that is, it is represented as something already 

accomplished, as i^jiji, Ishouldwish, i:iJt>3'I opJs'(tXs') 
I should have wished. 

h. For the perf. after til and in conditional sen- 
tences see §§ 157, 158. 
99. The imperfect indicative is to be rendered accord- 
ing to circumstances by our present or our future, 
sometimes also by our past progressive (imperfect). 

a- If the future is to be expressed with greater pre- 
cision than by the Arabic imperfect alone, the latter 


has prefixed to it the adverb v^L», (end), which may be 
shortened to m and is then inseparably joined to the verb 
(see § 95<?), as J^^*I*j op« ye will know (it); '^^yXL 
(49 &) we shall show you. 

By the imperfect is expressed an action which 6. 
accompanies another action completed in the past, 
or which is still in the future from the stand point 

of the latter, as (j^XJ-j (V»L I t. L^ they came to their 

father weeping (of. § 157 &); ^yi^, ij^l (c^'l 
came to the spring to drink. 


The imperfect can also express the continuance e. 

of an action in the past; JjJLj'LftAj may also mean 
'they were fighting for a considerable time', or 'they 
fought repeatedly, with each other'. More frequently, 
however, this continuous imperfect is expressed by 

a combination of ^Lj with the impf, (cf. § 98/". and 
note); sometimes we can render such a combination 

by our 'was wont to' or 'used to', as j.^j J^ij i^=^. (j'-^ 
Itfljii xi^j he used to receive every day three 

If tXi' stands before the imperfect, a certain in- 3,. 
definiteness is the result, as ^^. cXi" 'it will most 


likely be that . . .', an idea which is not unfrequently 
found in the imperf. without 0<s. 

Note a. The impf. also stands in direct subordination to 
Other verbs, as w'^.al cJj l« I ceased not to drink (cf. § 110); 
j^WI ^i J*a. he began to speak with the people; J*J| jjJl U 
liiTl cannot do such a thing. 

Note b. Before several verbs (perfects or imperfects) joined 
together with j, it is sufficient to write ^jU" once, and so with 

S>, ^yn and ^ju. 

Note c. ^J,U'(see note to § 98/") is frequeotly followed by a 

compound nominal sentence, as ^IS*II ^j^ |^U.*c \^ Osman was 

wont to visit the graves (the cemetery). 

100. The Subjunctive is found in certain kinds of depen- 
dent clauses introduced by a conjunction, the action 
of which is to be represented as one to be expected 
as the result of the action of the principal clause, 
and hence as one that is only likely to occur in the 
future. Hence this mood is frequently (not always) 

used after the conjunctions ^jl that, !ii( (from !5f jjl) 

that not, (^Xa^ until, o (and I) that, and always after 

J, ^ ij^ i'^ order that, XJ (made up of "3 ^S) 

in order that . . not, ^t in the sense of 'except that', 

'until', as ^..yiJ -A^ he came in order to visit me; 

wI"aJo ^t Sj./)! he commanded him to write (that he 


should write). In like manner the subj. is used after 
^jJ (,j| ^) it will not be (the case) that, as jJLull Jj 
I shall not send him. 

The modus apocopatus (or jussive) is found: 101. 

1) in positive commands, generally with the particle a. 
J prefixed, as J^JcCiJ let him write. 

Note. When such a form is further preceded by j and j 
(which is sometimes the case, without any special stress resting 

» >« — ^ 
on these particles) J generally loses its vowel, as 4U| ^Jlfij 

jj)jA«j*l| JfyUli and in God let the believers (then, therefore) trust. 

2) in negative commands with if, as Jjii" '^ say not, 6. 
thou shalt not say. The imperative can never take 

a negative. 

3) always after l^^ not as a prohibition but as ne- e. 
gativing a completed action, as i_5w«ij li he did not 
strike, (as the negation of CJ-So) ; in like manner after 
mj in the sense of 'not yet'. 

4) in the protasis and apodosis of conditional sen- d,. 
tences, see § 158. 

The modus energicus is usually found in assevera- 102. 
tions, and particularly in connection with an oath 

and the corroborative particle J, as xAjwo^I xJLJI. by 

God, I will certainly strike him; this mood is also 

used with the prohibitive ^. 


103. The Passive is employed in those cases in which 
the agent, for some reason or other, must not be 


mentioned. Hence a sentence like Ji.j\ JuCi' means 

'Zaid has been killed (by some person unknown or 
who may not be named)'. Our 'Zaid has been killed 
by 'Amr', the Arabs express by the active construction. 
The passive is frequently found in an impersonal sense 
(see § 121 «). 

104. With regard to the employment of the participles 
the following points are to be noted: 

a. The participle (especially as predicate of a nominal 

sentence § 122 «) frequently expresses our "to be about 

to", as dL<JI ^o\js Qt I am about to come, on the 

•• e r- 

point of coming, to you. 
6. The passive participle is also used impersonally 
in Arabic; starting from the sentence xiuLa le*^ ^® 
fainted (literally: it was covered over him) we can 
also say xllc (5-4^'^ ^ ^^ ^^^ fainted , fern. ^, 
L^jyLc (-.lioLo. In such constructions the impersonal 
part. pass, may be inflected for all three cases and be 
determined by the article, as jcLCc ,ZcioLo i^Lli '^°yt^ 

I passed a man who had fainted; ^^-ivkiJ? 'iS°Sj\ ^\\ 
Lg.jyJ^ I saw the woman that had fainted. 


Chap. II. The Government of the Verb. (§§ 105—117); 

In Arabic the verb may take as its complement 105. 
either an accusative, or a preposition with its case. 
The numerous combinations of the latter sort, in 
which the preposition with its case is sometimes the 
necessary complement of the action denoted by the 
verb, sometimes merely accessory (such, for example, 
as specifications of place and time) cannot here be 
given in detail. See, however, §§ 114 ff. 

The accusative is the case depending immediately 106. 
on the verb. We distinguish here the cases in which, 
the accusative stands a) as object, p) as predicate, 
and y) as limitation or more precise definition, generally 
called by grammarians, the accusative "of nearer 

a) Certain classes of verbs, as for example, verbs 107. 
of coming and going, take as direct object the goal 

to which the action is directed, e. g. o/JuJI JlLo 
he went into the house. 

Note. On the other hand C«*-Jt ^^j, Jij denotes primarily 
the direction of the action toioards the goal; c*^) ^ Ji-J 
he went into the house and stayed there. 

The following take two accusatives: 1) The causa- 108. 
tive forms of transitive verbs with one accusative in 
the I. stem, as lit to know; cans. ssI^aJ! au-Lc he 

Sociiij Arabic Grammar.- ' 


taught him reading; 2) verbs that express the ideas 
of filling or giving, of making into, of considering or 
recognising as, of naming, and many others: e. g. 
[IQ Jdj,^'\ idil d^ God made the earth (into) a 
carpet ; \d^ jUjT ^4^ he named his son Muhammed. 
When a verb of this class is put in the passive, the second 

C5--? J'o? 

accusative remains, as \SZ^ s-i..?! (e*-"/ his son was 
named Muhammed; \^.c> ^'^T he was presented with 
a dirhem, from the active L+ffst> sLjI he presented him 
with a dirhem (for suff. see § 107). 

Note a. The two accusatives of such verbs as express the 
idea of finding one to be, or considering one as something, stand 
to each other, strictly speaking, in the relation of subject and 

predicate (§139); thus a sentence like U-^ Isui 4Jj>a-j may also 
be translated 'I found that he was a gentle old man'. As second 
object we may have a verb instead of a noun, as i^SeViaJ IjJ^j 
2^1 blijj they found their payment to be something which was 
returned to them = they found that their payment was &c. 

Note b. Verbs expressing not an intellectual but a physical 
perception are also frequently found with two accusatives. The se- 
cond, indeed, is generally regarded as an aco. of condition (§ 

113i), but sentences like l*A{ I^*c c-''fn, it must be admitted, 

may also be translated: I heard 'Amr weeping, i. e. I heard how 
'Amr wept. 

109. For the purpose of strengthening or of more 

precisely defining the idea conveyed by it, every verb 


may take a so-called absolute object. This absolute (or 
internal) object consists of an infinitive, a nomen speciei 
(§64'c) or other noun. Usually this object is itself more 
precisely defined either by some qualifying word or 
phrase (§ 120) or by a genitive, as LLl^ LLoLS joi^I 
he educated him with a good education, i. e. well; 
^A*s>.| Ljwo ^et^>^^ he struck him with a stroke 
which pained me (for the relative sentence, see § 155); 
8 J^ ^y*:^ >iLA.AO he walked in the way of his grand 
father. More rarely the absolute object is found with- 
out any qualification, as Ljw«3 xS>J6 he struck him 
with a stroke, as much as to say, he struck him a 

blow, and what a blow ! |.wo Swo he wrapped it in 
(so many) parcels ; here the absolute object expresses 
rather the result of the action. 

Note. Sometimes the place of the infinitive is taken by the 
mere qualification, as Uijls jl-< he journeyed long, for U^jfa \y>^ jL- 
he journeyed a long journey, or by some other form of nearer 
definition, as \s^Le ^^jiJl c^, ijlc iJUl ^5* God allowed him to 
capture Jerusalem peacefully = ^Irf ^S*. 

P) The accusative stands as the predicate with verbs 110. 
which express the idea of being or becoming some- 
thing, and is especially common with the verb "^JS 
(med. .). This verb signifies either 1) to be in the 


sense of to exist, as Ijxl ^Lf" there was (there lived) 
a vizier, or 2) to be something (in particular); in 
the latter sense it takes its predicate (to adopt 
the nomenclature of the native grammarians) in 

the accusative, as !^L^ «jfyo| c:oLs his wife was 

pregnant. The same construction is adopted by all 

verbs of similar signification , such as _*«.x| to be 

something late, _^s-yol to be something early, oLc to 

be or become something a second time, 1\S to remain, 

to last, JK to cease to be something, jLo to become 

something, ^j«lj not to be something. The place of 
the accusative in the predicate may be taken by a 

preposition with its case (cf. § 114 ff.), as JoC ^^^i' 
v^y.juJ( ^ Zaid was in the house; u^-Alt ^Ajs ooLs 
\jay^\ d^Xo jjifct i\yj^ the kings of Persia belonged 
to the most powerful sovereigns on earth. The con- 
struction of jjLT and the others with a finite verb 
(§§ 98/"; 99 c) must also be understood in this way, 
that is, the predicate in such cases consists of a verbal 
sentence (§ 135), as \^ ji ^\jf\ IJ-^t the people 
had already (prop, early) become weary. 

111. The accusative, further, stands in the predicate 


after the negatiye Sl, when the latter, as the Arabs 

say, expresses a general negation. The accus. after ^, 
which is always undetermined, drops its nunation, as 

xJUl ^t^ jJ[ !Sf there is (absolutely) no God but Allah. 

The accusative is used after the conjunction ; to 112. 
indicate concomitance, especially in verbal sentences 

(§ 135), as dUI. o^jui-o Uo what hast thou and 

thy father done? J-aDI. jjla«I oJv Lxi I ceased not 

to go with (along) the Nile; also without a verb Lo 

|ju\^ •A) what hast thou (to do) with Zaid? 

y) The accusative of nearer definition is employed 113. 
in the following cases: 

1) To give details of place and time, as LXuj 3aj a. 
^L+4'I he looked to right and to left of him; L^^i 'XL 
he journeyed a parasang; sLAa t.L^ they came late 
in the evening; JoUt^ isjoo >iJLJ3 Ji-.fc jiiwt be con- 
tinued faithful thereto during his life-time. 

2) Very frequently the accusative, as a rule un- 6. 
determined, appears in verbal (rarely in nominal) 
sentences as the accusative of state or condition, 

as iXiCC^\ J| Lg.&.yoo ^L*, he journeyed, taking the 
direction of Medina; lI:J^lj III* outai I met 'Amr 


Note a. "With the accusative of condition the student 
must be careful to note to which of the nouns in the sentence it 
applies; in the last sentence above, for example, it might refer 

* - e 

to the subject pronoun implicit in Ct^ instead of to Amr. 

Note b. Two nouns in the accusative of condition are 
often placed beside each other without a conjunction (asyndeton) 

as ljjS«i lojj-o \^M pji.) (God said to Satan) ; Go out of it (pa- 

radise, fem.) as one cast off and despised (for Ujj.* see § 76 note). 
Note c. In some rare cases an infinitive is used (in place 

of a participle) to denote a qualifying circumstance; Ija<o JU he 

= ^ o ' 

was killed bound (i. e. while bound) = \yyyoj». 

c. 3) The accusative of specz^cff<io«(=accus. of respect), 
also in most cases undetermined, expresses a more 

precise reference, as iZiLi^yuo oUai*^ it (paradise) is 
beautiful with reference to staying (there), i. e. as a dwell- 
ingplace ; this accus. is especially common with elatives 

(§ 63 b) of a more general signification, as isy4,a. Juil 
stronger with regard to the colour red = redder. 

d. 4) The accusative of nearer definition is also em- 
ployed to indicate the motive or purpose of an action, 
in which case, also, it is mostly undetermined, as 

LaLs. IjJy* tl^sy flsd from cowardice ; aJ L^llS't omJ 
I stood up to do him honour. 
114* The accusative may also stand in cases, parti- 
cularly in exclamations, where a finite verb can be 
supplied, as iLgiu. ibcl welcome! Here we must 


sipply 10UJ&.. and the meaning of the phrase comes 

to be: thou art come to relatives and a smooth (i. e. 

pleasant) place; ^Ljx slowly! to be taken as the 
absolute object of an imperative understood. 

Of the numerous constructions of the verb with 114. 
a preposition attention need only be called to the 

Many prepositions are still treated as nouns, in 
accordance with their original signification (see § 94), 

as ^'Ui!^!. )j^jJI ,j.>o yjw he distinguished between 

(prop, the distance, difference of) males and females. 
Very frequently we find (cf. § 110) the partitive ^ 

used in this way as object, e. g. |.LilaJ| ,^ J^n he 
ate of the food. 

A few verbs are construed, with but slight differ- 115- 
ence of meaning, now with a direct object, now with 

i_j, as jtiJLe'he knew it, au iJLi he knew about it. 
Frequently t_) serves to introduce an object, to which 
the action of the verb extends only indirectly, as 
l(>.JV viou he sent Zaid; t_juXJb liyju he sent the 
writing (i. e. some one with the writing); cXajiJI oou 
he sent the slave, jJjiJL viou, same meaning, but 


with the understanding that the slave travels unde/ 
escort. Verbs of going construed with (_> take tte 

sense of bringing, as jj.iLj IJo\ J>l he brought Zsid 
the news. — This lo may also accompany an impera- 
tive as a periphrasis of the first person of the dual 
and plural, as Uj (j^ajol let (thou) us go. Lis ^yojo^ 

let (ye) us go. 

116. The meaning of many verbs is often so altered 
according to the preposition with which they are 
construed that a sense quite the opposite of the 
original, according to our idiom, is the result; thus 

sJ Le5 is properly: he called (to God) in his favour, 

i, e. he blessed him, xaXc Lc3 he called (to God) 

against him, i. e. he cursed him; ^ilL JjiX^I he 

occupied himself with the affair; but with Jwc (which 

contains the idea of separation) yo!^l ^.r. JjLAUi! he 

was occupied so that he put the affair in question 
aside, could not attend to it. 

117. Of the various uses of the preposition J (see 
§§ 130 ff.), we may call attention to its special use in 
dates, particularly in specifying the days of the month, 

as j»w^ ij^ XA-0 J^i! in the first (literally: tothefirst) 
night of (the month) Muharram. ^"^LL JLJ «IU 


^jLa**6 (J^ or with the omission of JLJ (§ 90 p) 
ij^Xia. ^«AA^J at the time of seven nights, which (cf. 
§ 155) had elapsed of Sa'ban, i. e. when seven nights 
(or days) of S. had passed; >l^j>^^ i.'^) »v^ ^;^ 
^JLaxl^ ^^ when still fourteen (nights) were left of 

Chap. III. The Government of the Noun. (§§118—134). 

A noun may take with it a) the article, p) a permut- 118. 
ative (noun in apposition), y) a" qualifying (attribu- 
tive) adjunct, 8) a genitive. 

a) When a noun is preceded by the article, it is said 
to be determined (§ 79&). This determination may be 
stronger or weaker: 

A very strong determination is found in certain a. 

words which contain the idea of time, as jLtLuLtl this 

hour = now, -vyi this day = today. In these cases 
the article has the force of a demonstrative. 

By means of the article a single definite object is 6- 
indicated, which the speaker has in mind, or which 

has been already mentioned: by J^*- Jf is meant some 
particular known man. Proper names furnished with 
the article (see § 79 a) were originally appellatives 

with the determination, as ,j_w*if. 

106 119. APPOSITION. 

c. The determination by the article often serves 
merely to denote the species or class to which some- 
thing belongs, as vLU-T d-h? y^ ^^ ^^ ^^^® ^^ ^^®' 
This use of the article is named the generic. 

119. 8) From among the cases in which a noun follows 

another noun in apposition, the following may he 
singled out as worthy of note : 
a. A substantive may have in apposition words 
expressing a) size, b) resemblance, c) the parts and 
d) the material of which a thing is made up. Thus 

a) cK6 oIj a dress an ell long (lit. a dress, an ell); 

b) Joj Jji.5 (J4m a man like (lit. the likeness of) 

** _ ^ ■£■6 

Zaid; c) iIjLo'J J4=> a rope made up of rotten pieces; 
d) tVjcXil AJ'Lii the iron finger-ring; when undeter- 
mined preferably with ^^ as v_^ j ^j^ ^x^ an idol 
of gold. For the last, the genitive construction is 
also found viz: >_^jJi |vi-«o. 
6. The word J^J totality is construed either with the 
noun following in the genitive, or stands in apposition, 

with a suffix referring back to the noun, as y^UJI Jii 

or |V.gJj (jj^UlJI all men. (Note that Jjbeing a substan- 
tive always remains unchanged as regards gender and 


f) A substantive may be qualified 1) by an adjective, 120. 
2) by a preposition with its case, or 3) by a relative 
clause (§§ 155—6). 

1) The qualifying word may be an adjective^ as a. 

Jt^Lc -Let an honest Imam; in this case if the 

substantive is determined the adjective must also 

receive the determination, as Jt)LiJ| -Uo!i)|, the honest 


The adjective follows its substantive; to this rule 6. 
the demonstrative pronoun forms an apparent excep- 
tion, in as much as it generally stands 'before (like the 
article § 118), less frequently after ^ the substantive 

which it qualifies. Thus we find (.i^wiJI \ds> this slave, 

alongside of | jijs ^iV^Ll I. 

The adjective must agree with its substantive in c. 

gender and number, as &Lu^ '^-*:^ ^ pretty girl. 

Among the exceptions is the word ^iS'much, which 

generally remains unchanged, like a noun in apposi- 

S ' s ^ 
tion, even after the plural, as ^Ai^^JL=.^, many men. 

That the broken plurals take their adjectives in d. 
the feminine has been already noted (see § 87 a); the 
adjective, however, may also take a broken plural, as 
|!|3' JL^M noble men. The plur. sanus, moreover, is not 


unfrequently found especially if the adjective qualifies 

words denoting living beings, as r^^UJl tU ^ I the 

ancestors that were of old (part, of ^e-^)- ^^ the same 
circumstances the collectives (§ 86 a) may also take a 

plural adjective, as i!i>^ I »j' miserly people, jj^Us ^Ji 

violent people. The preceding pronoun often stands 

then in the plural, as j*,uJ| e^yS> these men; but 

with fem. plurals that do not denote living beings 

generally in the fem. singular, as iiyl JLiJi » jjo these 

deserts; before broken plurals also in the fem. sing., as 

AaW ^tH 5 jjo these slaves. 

2) From those cases in which a preposition with its 

121. noun is dependent on a verb (§§ 114 ff.) or its equi- 

"■ valent, must be clearly distinguished those in which 

they form the qualifying attribute of another noun, 

as ^yZJ\ji ^Lo ,J<& k^iLwJjs^ I sat down beside a 

goldsmith (who was) in the bazaar; oJjJu ^.» dLxj.i 

thy posterity (that will be) after thee. 

Sometimes this attribute does not stand next to 
6. the word qualified; so particularly with the relatives 

^jx and L«, as oJiJI jTjjo -LoJI Jk^o \x those of 

the Arabs that advanced into Syria; Ci\Jo \Jo \j£S\ 


eUujJI ^jo *X! marry of the women whatever seemeth 
good unto you. 

Should several attributes qualify a single substan- 122. 
five, the connecting conjunction is usually omitted 

(asyndeton), as |VAk«JI J^jiJI jJUl the high and mighty 

God; JOjJiJi L-itjjl ^0-* (**"'5 '-'^ ^ y^iAe gate of the 

gates of the town; sXki' xauI, ^^ x+iJ-o iwUfi 

a thick cloud over his head which gave him shade. 

8) One noun, when in dependence on another, is put 123. 
in the genitive case — the function of which is to deter- 
mine more exactly the application of the preceding 
noun. As the result of the close connection subsisting 
between the second noun and the first, the latter, now 
said to be in the construct state (§ 79 c) and therefore 
without the article, is regarded as determined. There- 
fore ^vLaJI -3»«j is 'the (particular) spear of the 
(particular) horseman', and so with the suffixes, as 
s.^. his (particular) spear. When the dependent noun 
(nomen rectum) is undetermined, the governing noun 
(nomen regens) is only defined in a generic sense 
(§ 118 c), or is specialized in a way resembling the 
generic definition, as dLLe oJl? a daughter of a king 
= a king's daughter. 


Note. More rarely, in the latter case, the generic article 
may be attached to the nomen rectum, as ^-*-iJ| J^ harley bre ad 

124. The genitive cannot be separated from the go- 
verning word (nomen regens); adjectival and other 
additions must therefore stand after the genitive, as 

«AulJI dLL+JI o»,/.j the spacious house of the king. 

When, according to our idiom, a genitive belongs to 
two substantives, in Arabic it is made dependent on 
the first of the two, and represented with the second 

by a personal pronoun, as xjo^j. jJ.JI 5Ua.v the mercy 

and blessings of God. 

125. Substantives conveying the idea of time sometimes 
receive a specially strong determination by the addition 

of suffixes (cf. § 118 a), as jdJj Ji>.o he prayed his 
night, i. e. the particular night in which he then was. 

126. The close connection of two nouns thus standing 
in the genit. relation makes sometimes possible their 
fusion to one idea, although only the first component 
admits of inflection. Thus 2JJI jjj; (gen. jJJI iXa^; 
ace. sJJI Ju.£) the servant of Allah, as a proper name, 
conveys but a single idea. Further illustrations will be 
found in the numerous examples of composite proper 
names, of which one of the elements is one or other of the 

Go G'^ Go S^ 

words ^jj| son, i_,| father, o^ daughter, ^| mother. 


As the Arabs have no family names, properly so-called, 
the name of a man or woman receives for distinction's 
sake an addition by the help of the above words, as 

Joyj ^ tX+^ Ui;H'»''f *-?! (observe the order). Very 
frequently a name thus made up has become the 
principal name, as that of the first Caliph ^Jo jj|, 
for example, or that of the savant xLoi' ^i\ ; names 
of tribes, too, like ^^S j^, are in the same way 

simple notions (Einheitsbegriffe). 

Not unfrequently an adjective which in our idiom 127. 
would be made to qualify its substantive, is in Arabic 
raised to the rank of a substantive, on which its proper 

substantive is made to depend ; thus xJiJLi. *.Jj,S' the 

noble(ness) of his character = his noble character; 

(wU.J| yiS\ most men. The same construction is found 

with elatives also, as Xx^a ,j**I t^-wL* they lived 

the easiest life (cf. § 109). 

A species of explicative genitive is found in cases 128. 
where a general conception is more explicitly defined 

by a following proper name, as ^j^\ uojl the land 
of Yemen. — Under this head may be reckoned the 
suffixes appended to numerals, as ^^^xiH the three 
of thenif 

112 129. CLAUSE AS GEN. 130. PEEIPH. Or GEN. 131. CONS. OF INFIN. 

129. A few words contaming the ideas of time and 
place may have, instead of a genitive, a whole clause 
depending on them, as JlXj> *^ on the day on which 
he was killed. 

130. When a noun on which another noun is in the 
proper sense (cf § 134) dependent must remain absolu- 
tely undetermined (see§ 123), the usual genitive rela- 
tion of nomen regens and nomen rectum is inadmissible, 
and the connection of the two must be expressed by 
a preposition, as jS^ -I a brother of yours, where 
^ is attrib. adjunct to • I (see § 121 «). 

131. Infinitives may govern their object according to 
the laws either of verbal or of nominal government. 
In the first instance their subject is subordinated in the 

genitive; Jo; Jjci' accordingly means: the circumstance 

that Zaid has killed. If no subject is named, the object 
may likewise stand in the genitive, so that the same 

expression Jo j JsJCs may also mean : the circumstance 

that Zaid has been killed, the fact of Zaid's being killed. 
When both subject and object are present, the former 
is treated as a subjective genitive ; the latter remains 
in the accusative or J with the genitive is used as a 

periphrasis for the accusative, as y^\ Cj^m sJCo^ltX-o 


the circumstance that he was constantly drinking 
wine; y^-sJ ,ela- the circumstance that I am fond 
of wine. J also stands after an undetermined infinitive 
(e. g. in cases like § 113 d and others) as UolyS"! oufji 
tXjCJ I stood up to do honour to Zaid. 

In the case of the participle, the ohject of the 132. 
verb appears as the objective genitive, and when the 
part, has the sense of the perfect it is determined by 
the genitive following, as ^jOy^S i^JL^ «-UI God is 
he who has created the earth = the creator of the 
earth. With a present or future sense the governing 
participle is not determined, as ^Jii\ 'xJ£>\C) (j^.aJ d^ 
every soul is one that will taste of death; ivJ^aj^ jhj|^ 
he is one that will meet with you. If the participle 
is in itself determined, the object stands in the 
accusative or is expressed periphrastically with J, as 
ivJL*jU ^iJUaJI he who strives after knowledge; the 
same applies when the participle is strictly undeter- 
mined, as awjf ^lJ v^^Lb one who wishes to take 
blood revenge for his father; |,iLwiU La^ oJ\ Lo I 
have not ceased to love Islam. 

S 0,0 in, Arabio Grammar.^ ° 


133. A special idiomatic use of certain generic words 
is their combination with a following genitive. They 
are determined or undetermined according to the 

context, 6. g. .<> he who has, possessor of (cf. § 90/), 

(JLo .0 the possessor of wealth, a rich man; ,_^-b.Lo 

companion, owner, jJii ,_;w:s.Uis the man of sense; j^isl 

people, UbjJi J^lpeopleoftheworld=worldlypeople; 

(j,d*j portion, e. g. sUJjiJI (jojij one, some of the 


learned; ^yc prop, change, then 'another than', as 
»wA£. s Joij viJUUi dLXJ! i^yLo the king died and another 

" G ,* 

than he reigned after him; similarly Jk„&.| one, as 
[vJS tX^t one of them; finally ^1 son,in certain common 
idioms, as jLi..w JwVj!iU ^\ thirty years old. 

134. A special kind of genitive relation is presented 
by the so-called improper annexation, by which a 
participle or a verbal adjective (see § 60 &) is more 
strictly limited or defined by a following genitive, as 

x=. Jl jj««Ai&. J4>) ^ va.2sa beautiful of countenance. 
This construction is best rendered by a relative clause, 
the subject of which will be the word that more clearly 
defines the governing idea, in other words the genitive 
of the Arabic will be the nominative of the English, 
a man whose countenance is beautiful. In such a case 

135, 136. THE VEEBAL SENTENCE. 115 

the governing word is not determined by the following 
genitive; should the latter require to be determined, 
it may receive the article (contrary to the rule in 
§ 123) as JiL'yi\ ^jlAS (Jk=»irt the man of the beautiful 
countenance, i. e. whose countenance is beautiful. 

Chapter IV. The Simple Sentence. (§§ 135—151). 

Sentences in Arabic are of two kinds, verbal and 135. 

The chief characteristic of a verbal sentence is the 
fact that it always contains a finite verb ; in fact, a 
verb of this kind with its inherent (subject) pronoun 

is in itself a complete verbal sentence, as ool^ thou 
hast struck. This type of sentence always expresses 
the commencement of some activity ^ understood in the 
widest sense. If a special exponent of the idea con- 
veyed by the subject of the verb is added, it follorvs 
the verb in the case appropriate to the subject, viz. 

the nominative^, as Juv i_jy.«s he has struck, Zaid (has) 
== Zaid has struck, whereby Zaid is singled out as 
the agent. 

In the verbal sentence, the finite verb does not 136. 
always agree in gender and number with the following 


subject. The following are the chief points to be 
noted in this connection: 

a. The verb stands in the masculine singular before 
sound or outer plurals, and generally before the masc. 
forms of tbe dual. 

b. The verb stands in tlie feminine singular 1) before 
a sing. fem. if it follows the verb immediately, 2) be- 
fore sound plurals feminine, 3) before the fem. forms 
of the dual, and 4) before broken plurals (of. next 

c. The verb stands in tbe masculine or feminine singular 
1) before a sing. fem. not immediately following the 
verb, 2) before collectives, 3) before broken plurals 
denoting male persons ; if these plurals do not imme- 
diately follow the verb, the latter in most cases takes 
the masc. singular form. 

d. Once the subject is introduced, the verbs following 
agree witb it in gender and number, as jJL^. Jov sLs> 
tJLs. xJJl cXlc. there came Zaid, Halid and'Abdallah 
and they said. After collectives also the verb, in such 
a case, often takes the plural, as mSyxlxl ...LjLiJt cy-<aJo 
the young people set out to follow him. So too after 
words like ^^i" and others. Still it is always possible 
for the verb to remain in the singular, as u«j*s« 


jUmjj&. ^^ ^DpiXS ijjo ijujj^ and the Kuraishites 

(the tribe Kuraish) imprisoned whomsoeYer they 
could imprison. 

A subject unknown, or purposely left unnamed, 137. 
is treated as follows (cf. French on dit, German man 
sagt) : 

1) The verb is put in the 3. pers. sing, of the a. 
passive (see § 103), as xlJ|^ )L1j they journey to him. 
It is to be noted that this impersonal passive can 
never stand without a complement (here xaJI). 

2) Or in the 3. pers. plur. of the active, as | Jli 6. 
they said. 

3) Or in the 2. pers. sing, (or plur.) of the active, c. 
e. g. in the Kur'an ooKl or *j:jiJ dost thou think? 
do ye think? where it is not any particular persons 
that are addressed, but people in general, as much 

as to say 'could any one suppose that ....?' Jjjii" one 
might say (cf. Eng. 'as you might say'). 

4) There may be added to the verb a subject d. 
(participle) formed from the same root, as JkjLs JU or 
JkjUJI JLi" some one said; xAi* u^'r" '^'5 i*-* t-^" 

a castle, the like of which had never been seen. 

Note. The case of an undefined complement of a verbal 
action being expressed by a substantive derived from the verb is 


not unfrequently met elsewhere than in the above construction, 
e. g. lUsJ J55 aliquem (interfectum) interfecit, ^J)> iUjJ i^jJlsw 21 
they did not fear the reproof of any reprover. 

138. Occasionally, out of something that has been 
mentioned, a story or the like, there arises an in- 
definite subject corresponding to our "it", which is 
usually expressed by the feminine of the verb; for 

example, after a fable or the like, ^£o o^^cXi, and 
it (i. e. this story) passed into a proverb. 

139. The nominal sentence^ in contrast to the verbal 
sentence, expresses a state or condition of the subject. 
This last as a rule stands at the head of the sentence 
in the case appropriate to the subject, viz. the nomina- 
tive ; in most cases it is determined while the predicate 
is undetermined. The predicate may consist of one 
or other of the following : 

G -- G f — 

a) a simple noun, as JLa J.jv Zaid is wise; 
&) a preposition and its case, as jljJt ^ J^wi the 
man is in the house; 

c) an adverb, as U-gJo jtXJl di>^ 'Abdallah is here. 

d) a complete sentence, which may be either a) a 
verbal sentence, or p) a nominal sentence; the whole 

now becomes a compound sentence. Exx.: a) ^Ji^ Jov 

Zaid (he) is ill; s^| ^^ Joj Zaid, his father is 

140, 141. NOMINAL SENTENCE. 119 

ill; P) ,j-w^ s^l Jo; Zaid, his father is aged (i. e. 

Zaid's father &c.). The sentence constituting the 
predicate must contain a pronoun referring back to 
the subject. The subj. thus placed at the head of 
the sentence has been wrongly named the nominative 

Note. The difficulty we feel in distinguishing between •^yio 

OJ j and ^yo J.J j Zaid has struck, may he explained in this way. 
In the first of these two expressions it is the act of striking that 
is uppermost in the speaker's mind, and the enquiry as to the 
subject or agent from whom the act proceeds is answered with 

Zaid, on which the logical emphasis now rests. In ^yo 0.43, on 
the other hand, we start with Zaid as a given subject or agent, 
and the question as to what is to be predicated regarding this 

subject or as to what this agent has done is answered by ^■ji, 
on which in its turn the logical centre of gravity, so to say, 
comes to rest. 

Between subject and predicate, when both are 140. 
determined, there ought to stand the pronoun of the 
3. person, but this rule is not always observed, as 

^it Jb xJUt God is the living One. — Sometimes, 

also, this pron. merely serves to emphasize the 


In negative and interrogative sentences the predi- 141. 

G ci^ , cr- 
eate stands before the subject, as Jo\ ^\ where is 

Zaid? "^^ lye ls3 U ye have no helper (in which 

case the subject li,". receives the addition of ^ 


(= French du, &c.) as strengthening the negation). In 
the same way a predicate consisting of a preposition 
and its noun, or of an adverb, stands before the subject 
when the latter is undetermined and is not more 
precisely defined by any qualifying word or phrase, 

as !sL;ot «|JJ| ^ in the house is a woman; ^^ t*-g-<^ 

l£.\ among them are some who maintain. 

Note. A predicate of this sort may even stand before a 
determined subject, but in that case the logical emphasis is on the 

*o- • „ . , o So- 

subject, as i»ij k5J"^, Zaid is with me, -while in ^^jJic j.jj the 

logical stress is on the predicate: Zaid is with me. 
142. Verbal adjectives (§ 60&), in virtue of the verbal 

idea inherent in them, sometimes stand as predicate 
hefore the noun in the place of a finite verb, as tXjv 
fj„fi. s^l i-J)^ Zaid, his father struck Amr = Zaid's 
father &c. The predicate, thus placed in advance, 
frequently agrees in gender and number with its subject 

following, as ^^Aj itiJ^^JI whose hearts have been 
inclined (to Islam), but in respect of case it agrees 
with the word on which this kind of sentence is 
generally dependent, as jjijj lotXi *~aj with a mouth, 

whose saliva is sweet; l^itpl £lU^ Ci\yS UjIC we 
found animals, the species of which differed from each 
other, of different sorts. A circumstantial accusative 

143, 144, 145. NOMINAL SENTENCE. 121 

(§ 113 &) may also, in this way, refer to a following 
subject, although it is really dependent on the preced- 
ing verbs, as s^| \S^C jLjC %[^ Zaid came, while his 
father rode. 

When the subject of a nominal sentence consists 143. 
of a demonstrative pronoun, the latter agrees in gen- 

der with the following predicate, as JOsLi- 5 j^ this 

is a female slave. 

The predicate of Lo not (often also that of jlll 144. 

§§ 50 and 110, and of JjLS'§ 110 when occurring with a 

negative) is introduced by i_» as dUUj | jije Lo this is 

no king. 

In the relation of subject and predicate (cf. § 119«) 145. 
may stand in Arabic: 

A thing and its dimensions, as L^K<3 i^-*^ t>***JI a. 
the pillar is thirty cubits (high). 

A thing and that which it resembles, as J*jc^ «xJ I 6. 
Lipl selling is the likeness of (is like) usury; and so 
with liJ (§ 95/}, which likewise may stand in any of 
the three cases. 

A thing and its parts, as <^\Jj^ «jv I ^JiiS J^Xo c. 
the kings of the Persians fall into four divisions. 


122 146. KOM. SENT. 147. NOM. SENT. WITH mnu, aiitia. 

d. A thing and its material JotXi* %ASo'^\ oa*J 
jj-"^ \_^JJS',. one part of the toes was of iron and 
another of clay. 

146. In certain cases a pronoun has to be supplied as 

subject of a nominal sentence, as d^^ «J JUu it is 
said of him "he is Muhammed", i. e. he is called 

Muhammed, prop. = d^4<s ^. 

147. The particles ^j^ (nan) behold, and ^t that (of. 
§ 96<?), the compound particles ^Xf (Jv^^) never- 
theless, (jli'as if, ^i! because, and other combinations, 

and also JJiJ perhaps, v^aJJ would that, are all follow- 
ed by a nominal sentence the subject of which stands 

G " ^ u^ M 

in the accusative, as *JjS' IJoj jjI behold (truly) Z. 

is generous. The predicate of the nominal sentence 

following ^t or .1, if it should consist of an adverb 
or a preposition with its case (see §§ 139, 141), may 
stand before the subject, which must still be in the 

accusative, as ^s-j La.» ^\ verily (only in the rarest 
cases translatable) here is a man; \j^ X*JLftJt ^ m' 
in the citadel is a prison. 

Note. Sometimes a qualifying plii-ase consisting of a preposi- 
tion and its case appears, in addition, before the subject, as ^J jjjl 
i^\^ iUJJ I have a request (to make) of thee. 

148. KOMiNAL SENT. WITH Hnna AND 'anno. 123 

The corroborative particle J(§ 95 g) is frequently b. 
prefixed to the predicate after a preceding "^t^, as 
JiLo _rJ LjLI ijI^ truly our father is in error; or 

even to the subject, as j" a*J >iUi ^ jjHruly there- 
in is an example. 

After the particles above mentioned, the pronoun c. 
of the 3. pers. sing, masc, as the so-called pronoun 
of the fact, is sometimes used as the subject of a 
nominal sentence; the predicate, in this case, consists 
of a complete sentence (cf. § 139d), as ^JLaj 51 joI 
^jyOj.k!sJI of a truth (= the fact is), the evil-doers do 
not prosper; J^ .j.f iXt-kJ J^o xj f J.xs it is rela- 
ted that M. had four female slaves. 

While ^f introduces a new and independent sen- 148. 

15* a. 

tence, one introduced by ^j\ always forms part of 

another sentence, as g^xo i^ J^ aJjf ^\ JLij" *JI 

G ^ 

wjtXS knowest thou not that God is mighty over all; 
here the sentence beginning with ^| is really the ob- 
ject. In (c^-ct &ji (j vii-Aij *J there has never been 
any doubt that he is blind, the sentence with ^| is 

^ a— JO* ", 

virtually in the genitive; in ^JS jol ^5AiXJ it has 
reached my ears that he is married, it represents the 

124 148. SENTENCES WITH 'an und md. 

Verbal sentences introduced by ^^1 also form in 
this way an integral part of the principal sentence; a 
distinction must be made, however, between two va- 
rieties of this construction. If the sentence beginning 

with ^1 asserts that something is now going on, or 
that it has now ceased, the verb in the subordinate 

clause remains in the indicative, as ^| ^j^ oJ^ 

(or simply ^|) J»,£ ^^ I am surprised that he takes 

the field against me, Li'Lo ^1 ^l dJi!> I^Jjiii and 

they did this until they died; if, on the other hand, 
something is conceived as falling in the future and 
therefore still uncertain, the subjunctive (cf. § 100) 

is required, as f Jo Joiij ^jl dU it falls to thee to do 

so, jL^\yAi\ 'ya stXi' (j! ^c*^. it is fit and proper 

that thou shouldst guard against shameful actions. 

Note. Sometimes the preposition which indicates the relation 

of the two parts of the sentence is omitted before |ol and ^ol, as 

a* - ! == - .1 

jjjl Jiiyi = jjjU liUj this -was for the reason that, and it was so, 

because &c. 

In the cases discussed in the above sub-section 
an infinitive may take the place of ^t with the finite 
verb. Quite as frequently as ^.j in such cases, we 
find Uo with the finite verb (of course always in the 


indicative), as Ij^) viJCi Co ^^ I am surprised 
that thou hast struck Zaid = Ij^v iSJ'j^ ^V- The 
use of this so-called infinitive-?wa is very common; 
thus we have it in U^ (as)— made up of t^and Lx — 
with a verbal sentence: ^^^ CiJi U^J^j Cy^ Zaid 
was beaten as 'Amr was beaten' 

When more than one predicate is required in a 149 

nominal sentence, they generally follow each other 

without a conjunction (cf. §§ 122, 113 &, note b), as 

s - ** - ^ 

IvaIa ia-Jtfta^ ^\ I am attentive and well-informed. 

The same is the case with the predicates of the verb 

J^LT (which frequently occurs as the substantive verb) 

and the verbs akin thereto (see § 110), as xXjCUlf 'LS 

Vg » nry ^ ^^yJ Lg-tdju 'iJiXiJ<S 'ihXpU^ v^Jt j^l jjyaj" 

i_AA*.o the kingdom will in the latter days become 

mixed and a prey to dissension, and one of which 
one part will be strong and another weak. 

In negative verbal sentences we find Uo with the 150. 
perfect, as i_jj^ Lc he did not drink, or J with the 
apocopated impf. (jussive, cf. § 101 c). 

With the impf. indicative Lo is used, as i-jlxio Ljo 6. 


he does not drink, or !^ with the same tense i— >>-cio ^ 
he does not, or he will not drink. 

Other uses of Si are («) with the apoc. impf. (cf. 
§ 101 &) and (h) with the perfect (cf. § 98 d). As negatir- 
ing an act in the past "3 can only stand before the per- 
feet when two perfects come together, as I^f^ (^'tJ^-o "3 
J^^ he neither believed nor prayed, or after sentences 
with other negatives. 

Note. A preceding negative, even in the same sentence, is 
frequently resumed by means of 2), as 4*^ Us lij Hiyi}] J-sv J lie 
did not find the village nor yet his friend again. 

151. After the exceptive particle !S)t that which is ex- 
cepted stands in the accusative when a positive sentence 

precedes, as IlVjj !iil jjwLJI sLi. the people came, ex- 
cept Zaid; when a negative sentence precedes that 
which is excepted is less frequently in the accusative, 
but rather, as a rule, in the same case as the word 

to which the limitation or exception applies, as Lo 
tXj\ yi^ r*y^' *^ ^^^ people came not, except Zaid; 
t)oj !y| t>.s>Lj '^)fo l-^ I passed no one except Z.! 
|w+£ iit^ ttX.:s-t ooy^ Lx! I have struck no one, except 
'Amr. Very frequently in such cases it is the exception 
that brings us the necessary logical complement, as 


Juwj ^ft lo^>JO Lo I have not passed (anyone) except 
Zaid, i. e. I have passed only Zaid. 

J«j to ^1 - 

Note. Also in the sentence iHS 2(J iJJ 2) (§111) there is no 
God but Allah, the last word is in the nominative, because it is 
the logical subject (there is no God, if not Allah; but Allah is). 

• •= a <^' 

In the sentence *iH3j| ^^jWI 4JUO 2)| Kj^ 2)3 J^ a there is neither 

power nor strength except (in union) with Allah, the high and 

mighty One, the ideas of power and strength (SjJj J)*") niust 
logically be supplied before the exception. 

Chapter V. Compound Sentence. (§§ 152—161). 

Co-ordinate sentences are as a rule joined together 152. 
by a copulative particle. Thus a simple co-ordinated 

sentence is usually introduced by ; (§ 952'), as J.i.0 

JUl Jo\ Z. entered and said, o (§ 95 e), on the other 
hand, is used when the connection of the two sen- 
tences is less close, when, for example, the second event 
follows the first only after a certain interval, as \jo-.xi 
"^Ixs Jov Zaid was ill; soon after he died, o, according- 
ly,is often used when the subject is changed, as lNj\ *Ls> 
«J oJlks Zaid came ; and so I said to him. ^jU with 
a following nominal sentence expresses the motive of 
the action and is to be rendered by 'then', 'therefore'. 

128 153, 154. BELATIVE CLAUSES. 

Note a. In lively narrative prose the connective particles 
are often dispensed with, particularly when the story is told in 
dialogue form, the words of each speaker being then mostly intro- 

' duced by a simple J\3, 

Note b. As illustration of the omission of the connectives 
(asyndeton) must not be quoted certain combinations of two verbs 
(of. § 99 note a), in which the second verb denotes rather the 
end to which some more general activity is directed; such, for 
example, is the imperfect with verbs denoting a beginning. In 
other cases, a perfect may be made to depend on a perfect, an 
imperfect on an imperfect, an imperative on an imperative, as 

IjJUIaJ lyoU they arose and fought with each other; Xj M k I 3 

arise and woo her. 

Note u. Among the connective particles ,jXa. may also, in 
a certain sense, be reckoned, when it does not introduce a 
result expected in the future (§ 100), but denotes the actual 

completion of an action, as in the sentence «X.o JJj ^-Sa. ■Xm he 
jom-neyed until he alighted at Mecca = he journeyed and at last 

alighted &c. In such cases ^^Sa. may also be followed by an imperf. 

indicative or by ^\ with a nominal sentence. 

153. Relative sentences or clauses are of two kinds, 
those which do not accompany a noun and those 
which do accompany and qualify a noun. As regards 
the asyndetical connection of several qualifications, 
the latter class is subject to the same treatment as 
the qualifying adjuncts discussed in §§ 120 — 122. 

154. Those relative sentences that do not depend on 
or qualify a noun are introduced either by ^SS\ (see 
§ 14 «) he that, that which, whoso, &c., which is 


declinable and always determined, or by tbe indeclin- 
able pronouns ^^.i (he that, one that, whosoever, those 

that, such . . . as) and G (that which, a thing that, what). 
The former is sometimes determined, sometimes unde- 

termined. Exx: xxiLi^JI ijL^pI *.» UjLjL l^wftT^j.j jJI 
those that reject our revelations, they will be the people 
of the left hand (^^^ jJI is here in the nom. as being 
the subject); Ujyb oJiiia. ,j^ dJsiW (the devil said:) 
Shall I fall down before one whom thou hast formed 
of clay (jj.<o is here in the genit.) ? jv^l^L jj^yy 
I^JUu (uLJ Uo they speak with their mouth what 
is not in their hearts (Uo is here accus.). 

A relative clause is made to follow and qualify 155, 
a substantive by means of ,j jJt only when the sub- 
stantive in question (the antecedent) is determined; 
with it (CtXJI agrees in gender and number, as y^^jwo 
*L». (< jJt J^ Jl I struck the man that came. The 
explanation of this is that ^jJI is originally not a 
relative in our sense of that word, but a demonstra- 
tive, and as such it is always determined. The above 
sentence, for example, means, strictly speaking: I 
struck that man there, he came. On the other hand 

Socin, Arabic Grammar.^ " 


the relative clause is appended without ^^ jJf when 

the antecedent is undetermined, as tU&. ^=>-> i,:iOj_to 
I struck a man who came (prop. I struck a man, he 

Note, (^jJI is also dispensed with when the antecedent is 
only determined in a general sense (i. e. when it has the generic 
article see § 118c), as I^UmiI J*»w jUsUI J.*«J like an ass that 
carries books. 

156. The relative clause, which we have seen to he 
strictly speaking merely a verbal or a nominal sen- 
tence subordinated to an antecedent noun, ought by 
rule to contain a pronoun referring back to this an- 

tecedent, as ^^ »yjt ^d^\ J^JI the man whose 
father is rich; \Ck^ ^^^ ^\ xj ^[fhe had a son, 
who was named M. (in this case the pronoun is im- 
plied in the verb); J».ji jj JLL Jo^C a man who is 
named Z. (prop, of whom it is said: [he is] Zaid, cf. 
§ 146). The pronoun which in this way points back 
to the antecedent may stand in any part of the rela- 

tive sentence; thus in the sentence lAJ^t saJI ljvJ Jo 
Jlaxj juI i^jJb (J jJl the army had come up close to 
him , regarding which he thought that it was still at 
a distance, it does not appear till we reach the sen- 
tence which is subordinated by ".! to the verb ^^Jj5. 


Collectives which denote living creatures (cf. § 136 d) 
may he followed here also by a plural verb, as 
ij^.A-«fc5 *jj people that believe. 

Note a. The omission of the pronoun, however, is not un- 
frequent, especially when it would merely consist of a suffix of 

the 3. person, as C»I> lo ,j1b c^^ for 4515 I regret what I said. 

Note b. In certain cases the antecedent may be repeated in 
the relative clause; indeed, this is the favourite construction with 

Jr as »_>ur «J i^ J.JJ Jr ii^ ^\S3 jX«> SL. ^irthe (idoi) 

Hubal had seven arrows (for casting the lot), of which each single 
arrow had writing upon it. 

A special kind of subordinate sentence is the 157. 
circumstantial clause. Such a clause may consist: 

1) Of a nominal sentence introduced by the particle a. 
., the subject of which may have been already men- 

tioned or may be something quite new, as jLul ooLo 

SDCo (^t x«;^K , J8. Amina died while she was return- 

ing to Mecca; wufe^o jUjI. Jov ^:l>\jo Zaid died while 

his son was still young; with a compound nominal 

sentence JUjtX+JI Joajb yo. »L« he journeyed taking 

Medina as his goal. A sentence, whose predicate con- 
sisting of a preposition and its case comes before 
its subject, ace. to § 141, may stand as a circumstan- 

tial clause, without ., as ^Ji i£^. li(^) ^^y^y^ I 
went out with a bow in my hand. 


b. 2) Of a verbal sentence frequently; in this case the 
imperf. either stands alone or is preceded by jLs^. 
When the sentence is a negative one, the negative is 
'3 or UoT; or the verb may stand in the apoc.impf. with 
"J or pr (as the negation of the perf.). We may 
also have the perfect with jJl or ^L?^j when negative 
with Lo,; thus we get the following: *iA.^Sj Jov *Ls» 
Z. came laughing; ooLs. -i^^ J U^^- is^ ' '^'^ 
Uxft JXJI ^ ooiJLj tXs^ MU ^5J,fv<ll (Zakariya) 
said: how shall I have a male child, seeing my wife 
is barren and I have reached too great an age; i^^'ii 
Ji.£ |Jl1wJ '3 JilliS he entered the room without 

greeting me. 

Note. In contrast to the stiffer accusative of condition 
(§ 113 6) the verbal circumstantial clause expresses the commence- 
ment of the action; there is very little difference, however, 

between ,£Xs\mj^ .jjj lU. and lXa.l<o ^y lU.. 
158. In temporal clauses (also in conditional clauses) 

which are formed with the particle lit when, if, we find 
in the protasis as well as in the apodosis the perfect 

in the sense of our present or future, ^^ (jitT lit 

xjULo oJ6 w«^t when John takes the thing in hand, 

its difficulties are easily surmounted. 



NoTe a. The imperfect maj' also stand after I jl if the action 
takes place repeatedly. Should I jl be followed hy a compound 
nominal sentence, as d'f^ »*svsOT I Jl when hell is heated, it is 
considered that this is but another way of writing what we should 
expect to find expressed in a verbal sentence (and so with j^l). 

Note b. A sentence with lit may also be inserted between 
two closely related words, or rather it is to be regarded as form- 
ing with its apodosis a complete unity. Thus : IsCW I j^ \^}^, WgJW 
Ulij (J there were two gates, which when they were opened 
could not be shut (again). In the apodosis to I jj a perfect is found 
where we should expect an imperfect (cf. § 99 e), as Ij^I l>5| \y^ 
UUoU IjJa. IjSIkU U^j they were wont, when they captured a 
man and then released him, to cut off his front lock of hair. Very 
frequently a sentence like this, with I jj, is inserted between j^Sa. 
(§ 152 note c) and its proper verb, as jIjJT Ja.j IJ^ ^^Sa. 45**? 
liSSyi\ I followed him until I overtook him as he entered the house. 

Lo in the sense of 'so long as' takes the perfect, as 6. 
^Li lit ^^0) Lo so long as I live I shall be thankful. 

In sentences containing the notion of a condition 159. 
which is the case after ^|^ if, ^ if anybody, L« if 
anything, I ^g^ whatsoever, \Ji.^-, Lo v_ftjo'how, how- 
soever, jjcx when &c. the perf. is used in the sense 
of our present or future, and so too in the apodosis, 

as vilXu> dU<!> ^.%i (j1 if t^o^ <io6st that, thou 


wilt perish; Jb JU* ^ whoso seeketh, findeth (if 
any one seeks, he finds). 

Note. If the perf. is meant to retain its proper force in the 
protasis, the verb jjU" is placed after ^J, as ^^ lii i-aj^ ^^ ^[ 
jiij-oJ J-5 if his camisole is torn in front, she has told the truth. 

160. The particles above mentioned may also take the 
' apoc. impf. in protasis and apodosis alike, as l^r*^^' ^ji 

Ijo) IT^lV-Ij if ye wait patiently, God will help you. 

J. The apoc. impf. also stands in the apodosis after 

an imperative (with conditional force) in the protasis, 

as LXJ.^ "[^ iXii" ^^ live contentedly (i. e. if thou 

live &c.) thou wilt be a king, 
c. An apoc. impf. in the protasis may be followed by a 

perfect in the apodosis, as nywiio >-«jaj ,j|_ if thou 

wait patiently, thou wilt gain the victory. If the clauses 

are both negative, we have Ij with the apoc. impf., 

as ^S |J --vAJ |vJ m' if ^^ "io^s not go away, I am 

not satisfied. 

Note. Occasionally the apodosis of a conditional sentence 
is •wanting, e. g. I jjb jjVT ^\ if this is so — supply : then it is well 
(Arab. l«*i). 

161. Before the apodoses of conditional sentences, 
other than those discussed in § 159 — 160 we find the 

particle o, which is employed: 


1) When the apodosis is a nominal sentence, as a. 

kj (J^j^ ■-"' ijt^ if he is refractory, then alas for 

him! Also before sentences with ,."«! and before 
interrogative sentences. 

2) When the apodosis is a verbal sentence, of which b. 
the perfect is intended to retain its force as a perfect 

(cf. § 159 note), especially, too, when J*J> (cf. § 98 e) 
is employed, as Ipy; ^^^ tjjujol <XHi I^Ull ^^ 
ci^JJt liJUJ^ '-♦^^ if *^^y become Moslems, then have 
they come to the right way, and if they turn aside, 
then thou hast but to announce the message. 

3) When the apodosis is a verbal sentence that con- c. 

tains an impf. with one of the particles OylL, ^^ J^, 
or that expresses a command or a wish, as o-i^^t 
l^^jbt jj J!(jLs>.Li ^Ii> jj if thou findst thyself among 
people, milk into their pail. 



a. Names of the Days of the Week. 
In the following list the various names may also 
he used with the word for day, ^.jj omitted. 

1. 4X^.5(1 j.^ (1st day) Sunday. 

2. ^jJSlSJ ^^ (2nd day) Monday. 

3. eliiliir |1^ (3rd day) Tuesday. 


4. sLsuj yi -jj (4th day) Wednesday. 

5. ij«Ji^l *^J (5th day) Thursday. 

6. xilil -1j (day of assemhly) Friday. 

7. i,::;wAA«Jt -yj (Sabhath) Saturday. 

6. Names of the Months. 

In the names of the months the word wg^i, month, 
may be prefixed in the constr. state throughout; 
indeed, as the following table shows, some of the 
names are always so written. 


1. ^y£S^\ al-Muharram. 

2. wAao Safar. 

3. J^ii| «^. ^_g^ the first Rabi'. 

4. j^jLaJI «AJ^ w^xo the second Rabi'. 
5- ti^lill (^i^Us. the first Gumada. 

6. s^!i(l ^3Lija. the latter Gumada. 

7. >_as»^ Ragab. 

8. ^jLajLco Sa'ban. 

9. (jLfljoT Ramadan (the month of fasting). 

S = ' V 

10. Jlj.^ Sawwal. 

11. StX*iL)| .6 Du-lka'da. 

12. X^l ^(i Du-lhigga (month of the pilgrimage, hagg). 

c. The Year. 

The Moslems reckon by lunar years of 354 days; 
their first year is usually considered as beginning 
at the date of the Christian era given below. In 
calculating from one era to the other, it may be 
reckoned that 33 eolar years are equal to 34 lunar years. 



In the works of European scholars it is customary, 
by means of comparative tables, to give the precise 
day of our era with which each Moslem year begins 
(see the Bibliography). The following short table will 
be useful in helping to a rapid approximation of the 
date required. 
The Moslem year 

1 ■ 


16. July 622 A. 




24. July 719 „ 




30. July 816 „ 




7. Aug. 913 I, 




15. Aug. 1010 " 




22. Aug. 1107 n 




29. Aug. 1204 « 




6. Sept. 1301 « 




13. Sept. 1398 « 




21. Sept. 1495 „ 




8. Oct. 1592 „ 




15. Oct. 1689 >. 




24. Oct. 1786 . 




2. Nov. 1883 n 




24. June 1895 v 



A history of Arabic literature as a whole, or even of particular 
parts of it, does not exist, for the work of Hammer-Purgstall (Litteratur- 
geschichte der Araber, von ihrem Beginn bis zu Bnde des zwolften 
Jahrhunderts der Hidsohret. 7 Bande. Wien 1850 — 56. 40.) must 
be described as premature and as useless by reason of its numerous 
mistakes. An acquaintance with Arabic literature must therefore be 
got partly from works by Arabs on the history of their literature, partly 
from European catalogues. In the course of the present century 
numerous works, including not a few specimens of the eai-lier litera- 
ture, have been printed in the East, especially in Cairo (government 
press in Bulak), Beiriit (where there is an excellent press managed 
by the Jesuits) and Constantinople; also in Persia, India and the 
island of Java. We must, in particular, mention the great quantity 
of valuable Arabic manuscripts that still await pubUcation both in 
European and eastern libraries. A synopsis of such catalogues of 
these MSS. as have hitherto appeared will be found below. 

In the following selection, books of special importance are marked 
with a star, those recommended to beginners with a dagger. 

I. Printed Works. 

u, Written by Orientals. 

*Kitab al-Fihrist (by Ibn oK Ya'kiib an-nadim; wrote in the year 377 
H., beg. 3. May 987) mit Anmerkungen herausgegeben von Oustav 
Fliigel. Nach dessen Tode besorgt von Johannes Bodiger und 
August Mailer. 2 voU. Leipzig 1871 — 2. 

♦Lexicon bibliographicum et encyolopaedicum a Mustapha ben Abdallah 
Katib Jelibi dicto et nomine Haji Khalfa {Haggi HaUfa \ 1658) 
celebrate compositum. Ad codicum Vindobonesium Parisiensium 
et Berolinensis fidem primum edidit latine vertit et commentario 
indicibusque instruxit Oustavus Flugel. Leipzig-London 1835 — 
1858. 7 voll. 40. 

140 Literature A. 

P Written by Europeans. 

Bibliotheca arabica. Auctam nunc atque integram edidit D. Ohristianus 
Fridericus de Schnurrer. Halae ad Salam 1811. 

f Bibliotheca orientalis. Manuel de Bibliographie orientale. I. conte- 
nant les livres arabes, persans et tares imprimes depuis I'invention 
de I'imprimerie jusqu'a nos jours tant en Europe qu'en Orient etc. 
par J. Th. Zenker. Leipzig 1846. — Bibliotheca orientalis. 
Manuel de Bibliographie orientale. II. contenant 1. supplement 
du premier volume. 2. Littfa'ature de I'Orient chretien. 3. Litte- 
rature de I'lnde etc. Par J. Th. Zenker. Leipzig 1861. 

t(Euting) Katalog der kaiserlichen Universitats- und LandesbibUothek 
in Strassburg. Arabische Litteratur. Strassbm-g 1877. 4". 

Bibliographie des ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux Arabes publies dans 
I'Burope chretienne de 1810 a 1885 par Victor Chauvin. I. Pre- 
face. — Table de Schnurrer. — Les Proverbes. Liege 1892 
(is being continued). 

Wissenschaftlicher Jahresbericht fiber die morgenlandischen Studien, 
von 1844 an in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft Leipzig 1847 ff. The annual reports on works 
published up to 1868 appeared in the Zeitschrift, those for the 
years 1859 — 61, 62 — 67 (one part), autumn 1877—81 appeared 
as independent publications. 

Bibliotheca orientalis oder eine voUstandige Liste der im Jahre 1876 
in Deutschland, Prankreich, Eugland und den Colonien erschie- 
nenen Biicher, Broschiiren, Zeitschriften, u. s. w. iiber die Sprachen, 
Eeligionen, Antiquitaten, Literaturen, Geschichte und Geographie 
des Ostens, zusammengestellt von Karl Friederici. Leipzig. 
8 years (to 1883). 

Bibliography for 1883—85 (not completed) in the Literatur-Blatt fiir 
orien^alische Philologie unter 3Iitwii-kung von Dr. Johannes 
Klatt herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Ernst Kuhn. 1883 — 85. 

*Orientalische Bibliographie . . . herausgegeben von A. Miiller, now 
E. Kuhn. Berlin 1888 ff. 

Katalog der Bibliothek der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 
I. Druckschriften und Ahnliches. Leipzig 1880 (a new and 
largely augmented edition will appear in a year or two). 

A. 6. Ellis, Catalogue of the Arabic books in the British Museum 
Vol I. A-L. London 1894. 

Eor works from oriental presses an important guide is: E. J. Brill, 
Catalogue periodique de livres orientaux I— IX, Leide 1883 ff. 
(To parts I — VII Index de noms d'auteurs et de noms de livres, 
ib. 1889). 


II. Manuscripts. 

(Die Handsohriftenverzeichuisse der konis;lichen Bibliothek in Ber- 
lin. Vols. 7 £f.). Verzeicliniss der arabischen Handschriften 
von W. Ahlwardt. 40. 1. Band. Berlin 1887; 2. Bd. 1889; 
3. Bd. 1891; 4. Bd. 1892; 5. Bd. 1893; 6. Bd. 1894. A 7th 
and last vol. will appear soon. 

[Balle) Katalog der Bibliothek der Deutsohen Morgenlandischen Ge- 
sellschaft. II. Handschriften u. s. w. Leipzig 1881. 

Verzeichnis der orientalischeu Handschriften der Bibliothek des 
-HaZ^e'schen "Waisenhauses von ffr. Aug. Arnold und Augvst 
Muller. (Programm der Lateinischen Hauptschule). Halle 
1876. 40. 

(University Library, Leipzig) Die Befaiya. Von Prof. Fleischer: 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen GeseUsohaft. 8, 
S. 573—584. 

(Municipal Library in Leipzig) Catalogus librorum manuscriptorum, 
qui in bibliotheca senatoria civitatis Lipsiensis asservantur, ed. 
Naumann. Codices orientalium linguarum descripserunt H. 0. 
Fleischer et Fr. Deliizsch, Grimmae 1838. 41. 

Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum orientalium Bibliothecae regiae 
Dresdensis. Scripsit et indicibus instruxit H. O. Fleischer. 
Lipsiae 1831. 4". 

Die arabischen Handschriften der herzoglichen Bibliothek zu Gotha. 
Verzeichnet von Wilhelm Pertsch. 5 Biinde. Gotha 1878 — 1892. 
(Also w. the title: Die orientalischen Handschriften der h. B. 
zu G. Dritter Theil). 

Die arabischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in 
Miinchen, Toesahriehea^ on Joseph Aumer. Miinchen 1866. (Cata- 
logus codicum manuscriptorum Bibliothecae regiae Monacensis. 
Tomi primi pars secunda.) 

(Tubingen University Library) Catalog arabischer Handschriften in 
Damaskus gesammelt von J, G. Wetzstein. Berlin 1863. 

Catalogus librorum manuscriptorum orientalium in bibliotheca aca- 
demica Bonnensi servatorum adornavit Joannes Gildemeister. 
Bonnae 1864—1876. 4°. 

Katalog der hebraischen, arabischen, persischen und tiirkischeu Hand- 
schriften der kaiserlichen Universitats- und Landesbibliothek zu 
Strassburg. Bearbeitet von S. Landauer. Strassburg 1881. 4". 

Die arabischen, persischen und tiirkischen Handschriften der kaiser- 
lioh-kbniglichen Hofbibliothek zu Wien. Von Gustav Fliigel. 
3 Bande. Wien 1865—7. 40. 

(Copenhagen) Codices orientales Bibliothecae regiae Havniensis enu- 
merati et descripti a N. L. Wesiergaard etc. II. Codices hebr. 
et arab. Hafniae 1851. 

142 Literature A. 

Codices Orientales bibliothecae regiae universitatis Lundensis recensuit 
Gurolus Johannes Tornberg. Lundae 1850. 

Codices Arabici, Persici et Turciei bibliothecae regiae universitatis 
Vpsaliensis. Disposuit et descripsit C. T. Tornberg. Upsaliae 
1849. 4°. 

(Paris) Catalogue des manuscrits arabes de la Bibliotheque Nationale 
par le Baron de Slane. Pr. Fascicule. Paris 1883. Sec. Fasc. 
1889. Trois. Fasc. 1895. 40. (To be continued.) 

Catalogue general des manuscrits des biblioth^ques publiques de 
France. Departements. Tome TI (p. 437—482). Marseille. Par 
M. I'abbe Albanks. Paris 1892. — Tome XVIII. Alger. Par 
E. Faynan. Paris 1893. 

[Leide) Catalogus codicum orientalium Bibliothecae academiae Imgduno 
Batavae I. II. auctore E. P. A. Dozy. III. IT. auct. P. de Jong 
et M. J. de Goeje. V. auctore M. J. de Goeje. VI. auctore 
M. Th. Houtsma. Lugduni Bavatorum 1851 — 77. — Editio se- 
cunda. Vol. I auctoribus M. J. de Goeje et M. Th. Houtsma. 
Lugduni Bat. 1888. 

(London) Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum orientalium qui in Museo 
Britannico asservantur. Pars secunda codices arabicos amplectens. 
Londini 1846. fol. 

[London) Supplement to the Catalogue of the Arabic manuscripts in the 
British Museum (By Charles Bieu). London 1894, 4". 

[London) A catalogue of the Arabic manuscripts in the library of the 
India Office. By Otto Loth. London 1877. 4". 

( Oxford) Bibliothecae Bodleianae codicum manuscriptorum orientalium, 
videlicet hebraicorum, chaldaicorum, syriacorum, aethiopicorum, 
arabicorum, persicorum, turcicorum, copticorumque catalogus a 
Joanne Vri confectus. Pars Prima Oxonii 1787. — Partis se- 
cundae volumen primum arabicos complectens confecit Alexander 
Nicoll. Oxonii 1821. fol. 

[Cambridge) Catalogus Bibliothecae Burckhardtianae cum appendice 
librorum aliorum orientalium in Bibliotheca Academica Canta- 
brigensitis asservatorum — confecit T. Preston. Cantabrigiae 
1853. 4C. 

Catalogue of the Oriental Manuscripts in the Library of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. By Edward Henry Palmer: Journal of the 
Boy. As. Society of Gr. Britain and Ireland. New Series III. 
105 ff. 

A descriptive Catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Turkish Manu- 
scripts in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. By E. H. 
Palmer. Cambridge and London 1870. 

(Escurial) BibUotheca arabico-hispana Escurialensi sive Librorum 
omnium Mss. quos Arabice ab auctoribus magnam partem Arabo- 
Hispanis composites Bibliotheca CoenobiiEscurialensis complectitur 

Literature A. 143 

recensio et explanatio opera et studio Michaelis Casiri etc. 2 tomi. 
Matriti 1760. fol. — Les manuscrits arabes de I'Bscurial dfecrits par 
Sartwig Derenbourg. Tome premier. Paris 1884. 
Catdlogo de los Manuscritos Arabes existentes en la Biblioteca Na- 

cional de Madrid [F. 9. EoUes). Madrid 1889. 
{Florence) Bibliothecae Mediceae Laurentianae et Palatinae Codicum 
manuseriptorum orientalium catalogus, Steph. Bvod. Assemanus 
recensuit. Morentiae 1742. fol. 
(Venice) Catalogo dei Codici manoscritfci oriental! della Biblioteca 
Naniana, compilato dell' abbate Simone Assemani. 2 Part. Pa- 
dova 1787—1792. 41'. 

Eemarques sur les manuscrits orientaux de la Collection Marsigli a 
Bologne suivies de la liste compUte des Manuscrits arabes de 
la meme collection par le Baron Victor Rosen. Roma 1885 (atti 
della K. Academia dei Lincei. Serie 3". Tol. XII). 

(Milan) Catalogo dei Codici arabi, persiani e turchi della Biblioteca 
Ambrosiana (Hammer-Purgstall): Biblioteca Italiana t. XCIV, 
pp. 22 and 322. 

Cataloghi dei codici orientali di alcune biblioteche d'ltalia. 5 fasc. 
Piienze 1878—1892. 

Catalogue des manuscripts et xylographes orientaux de la BibliotliSque 
Imperiale publique de St. Petersbourg. St. Petersbourg 1852. 

{St. Petersburg) B. Dorn, Catalogue des ouvrages arabes, persans et tures, 
publics a Constantinople, en Egypte et en Perse, qui se trouvent au 
Mus6e asiatique de 1' Academie. — Chrouologisches Verzeichniss der 
seit dem Jahre 1801 bis 1866 in Kasan gedruckten arabischen, 
tiirkisohen, tatarischen und persischen Werke, als Katalog der in 
dem asiatischen Museum befindlichen Schriften: Melanges asia- 
tiques tires du Bulletin de 1' Academie Imp6riale des sciences de 
St. P6tersbourg. Tome V. Livr. 5. St. Petersbourg 1867. 

(St. Petersburg) Notices sommaires des manuscrits arabes du Musee 
asiatique par le Baron Victor Rosen. St. Petersbourg 1881. 

(St. Petersburg) Les manuscrits arabes de I'Institut des langues orien- 
tales decrits par le Baron Victor Rosen. St. Petersbourg 1877. 

(/. M. E. Qottwald) description of the Arabic Manuscripts in the 
Library of the Imperial University of Kasan. Kasan (no date) 
[1885]. In Russian. 

(Cairo) Pihrist al-kutub al-'arabiya al-mahfiiza bil-kutubhana al-hedi- 
wiye el-ka'ine biserai derb al-gamamiz. (Under the management 
of Spitta and Vollers.) 7 vols. Cairo 1301—1308. Second 
Edition. Vol. I 1310. 

Catalog der mektebe 'umiimiye in Damascus. Damascus 1299. i". 

Studia Sinaitica No. III. Catalogue of the Arabic Mss. in the Convent 
of S. Catharine on Mount Sinai compiled by Margaret Dunlop 
Gibson. London 1894. 


(Batavia) Friedrich, Codicum arabicorum in Bibliotheca Societatis 
Artium et Scientiarum quae Bataviae floret asservatorum Catalogus. 
Absolvit indicibusque instruxit L. W. G. van den Berg. Bataviae 
et Hagae 1873. 


Borhan-ed-diui es-Sernadji (as-Sarniigi lived at the and of the 12tli 
century of our era) Enchiridion studiosi. Axabice edidit latine vertit 
et lexieo explanavit Garolus Caspari. Praefatus est S. 0. Flei- 
scher. Lipsiae 1838. 40. 

Einleitung in das Studium der Arabischen Sprache bis Mohammed 
und zum Theil spater . . . von G. W. Freytag. Bonn 1861. 

Orientalische Skizzen. Ton Theodor Noldeke. Berlin 1892. Trans- 
lated, with the title 'Sketches form Eastern History' by J. S. Black. 
London and Edinburgh 1892. 

De auctorum graeeorum versionibus et commentariis syriacis, arabicis, 
ai-meniacis persicisque commentatio quam scripsit Joannes Georgius 
Wenrich. Lipsiae 1842. 1845. 


*tJB. Brunnow, Chrestomathy of Arabic Prose-Pieces. Berlin and Lon- 
don 1895. 

•fChrestomatia arabica quam e libris Mss. vel impressis rarioribus 
coUectam edidit Fr. A. Arnold. Pars I. Textum continens. Pars II. 
Glossarium continens. Halis 1853.- - 

•j-Chrestomathie Arabe, ou extraits de divers ecrivains Arabes, tant en 
prose qu'en vers a I'usage des eleves de I'ecole sp^ciale des langues 
orientales vivantes ; par A. J. Sylvestre de Sacy. II. ed. corr. et 
augm. Paris 1826. 3 vol.; Tome IT Anthologie grammaticale 
arabe. Paris 1829. 

fChrestomathie elfementaire de I'Arabe litteral avec un glossaire par 
H. Derenbourg et J. Spiro. 2 cd. Paris 1892. 

Joh. Godofr. Lud. Kosegartenii Chrestomathia arabica ex codicibus 
manuscriptis Paris. Goth, et Berol. coUecta atque turn adscriptis 
vocalibus, cum additis lexieo et adnotationibus explanata. Lip- 
siae 1828. 

Georg. Guil. Freytag, Chrestomathia arabica, grammatica historica in 
usum scholarum Arabicaram ex codd. ineditis conscripta. 8" maj. 
Bonnae 1834. 

Literature D. 145 

tThier und Meusch.vor dem Konig der Genien. Ein arabisohes Mahr- 
chen aus den Schriften der laufceren Briider ia Basra im TJrtext 

herausgegeben von Fr. Dieterici, 2. Ausgabe. Leipzig 1881. 

Arabisch-deutsohes Wbrterbuoh zum Koran und Thier und Menacli 
von Fr. Dieterici. 2. Aufl. Leipzig 1894. 

Brevia chrestomathia arabica. In usum scholarum ed. Joh Bollig 
Koma 1881. 

Chrestomatia ardbigo-espafiola por Fr. J. Lerchundi y Fr. J. Simonet. 
Granada 1881. 

Girffas and de Bosen. Arabic Chrestomathy (in Eussian). St. Peters- 
burg 1875. 1876. — Dictionary to the Chrestomathy and to the 
Koran by W. Girgas. Kasan 1881 (in Russian). 

An Arabic reading-book compiled by W. Wright. Part first, The texts. 
Loudon 1870. 

Magani el-adab fi hadaik el-'arab. 6. Ed. Beirut 1885 ff. Jesuit Press. 
6 vols. Sarh magani el-adab (Notes &c.). 4 vols. ib. 1886 — 8. 


a Written by Orientals. 

*3l-Muzhir fi 'uliJm el-luga, philological Encyclopaedia by Galal 
ad-din as-SuyUtl (f 91l H., beg. 4. June 1505, cf. for as- 
Sujuti Goldziher in den Sitzungsber. d. kais. Akademie der 
WissizuWien. Phil.-histor. CI. LXIX. Bd. 1. S. 7 ff.) Bulak 

*Le livre de Siba-waihi, traitfe de grammaire arabe par Sibouya, dit 
Sibawaihi (f 180 H., beg. 16. March 796). Texte arabe public 
d'apres les manuscrits du Caire, de I'Escurial, d'Oxford, de 
Paris, de St. Petersbourg et de Vienne par Martwig Derenboitrg. 
Tome I, Paris 1881. Tome II, Paris 1889. — SlbawaihVs Buch 
iiber die Grammatik naoh der Ausgabe von H. Derenbourg und 
dem Commentar des Siraii ubersetzt und erklart . . . von G. Jakn. 
1.— 8. Lieferung. Berlin 1894. 1895. 

*A1-Mufassal, opus de re grammatica arabioum auctore Abu 'l-Kasim 
Mahmiid bin 'Omar Zamahsario [az-Zamahsari f 538 H. ,' beg. 
16. July 1 143) ed. J. P. Broch. Editio altera^ Christianiae 1879. — 
Also: Ibn Jdii (f 643 H., beg. 29. May 1245) Commentar zu 

Zamachsari's Mufassal. Nach den Handschriften herausgeg. 

u. s. w. von Dr. G. JaAn. Erster Band. Leipzig, 1882. Zweiter 
Band. Leipzig 1886. 41. 

*AIfijjah, Carmen didactioum grammaticum auctore Ibn Malik (f 672 H., 

beg. 18. July 1273) et in Alfijjam commentarius quem conscripsit 

Ibn Akil {Ibn 'AMI f 769 H., beg. 28. Aug. 1367) ed. Fr. Dieterici. 

Lipsiae 1851. — Ibn 'Akil's Commentar zur Alfijja des Ibn Malik 

Socin, Arabic Grammar.z 10 

146 Literature D. 

aus dem Arabischen zum ersten male libersetzt von Fr. Dieterici. 
Berlin 1852. 

al-Agurrumiyya, Arabic Grammar hyltn Agurrum as-Sinhagi (f 723 H., 
beg. 10. January 1323). Often printed with and without Com- 
mentaries. Cf. E. Trumpp, Einleitung in das Studium der 
arabischen Grammatiken. Die Ajrummiyyah des Muhammad bin 
Daud. Munchen 1876. On this work see Fleischer in Zeitschrift 
der D. Morgenl. Ges. 30 (1876), pp. 487 — 513; reprinted in 
Kleinere Schriften II (Leipzig 1888), pp. 75—106. Text also 
printed in Briinnow's Chrestomathy. 

Kaflya fin-nahu, Syntax by Ibn al-Hdgib (f 646 H., beg. 26. April 
1248). Frequently printed in the East. _ 

Mugni al-labib. Grammar composed by Ihn SiSam al-Ansari (f 762 H., 
beg. 11. Nov. 1360). Another grammatical work by the same 
author bears the title: Katar an-nada wa-ball as-sada; a third 
Suditr ad-dahab. All three works have been frequently printed 
in the East. 

al-Mann's (f 516 H., beg. 16. July 1143)Durrat al-gawwas, heraus- 
gegeben von Hemrich Thorbecke. Leipzig 1871. (On errors of 
speech). With the commentary of al-Hafagi, Constantinople 1299. 
Cf. Le livre des locutions vicieuses de Djawaliki pubhe par 
Hartwig Derenbourg (al-Gawaliki f 465 H., beg. 17. Sept. 1072) 
in Morgenlandische Forschungen. Leipzig 1875. 

Tarika mustahdata fi tashil al-hatt al-'arabi. Calligraphic models 
i2 parts. Beirut 1891. 

P Written by Europeans. 

*Die grammatischen Schulen der Araber nach den Quellen bearbeitet 
von G. FliXgel. Erste Abthl. Leipzig 1862. Abhandlungen der 
Deutschen Morgenl. Ges. II. Band. Nr 4. (This work gives 
a list of grammarians to about the year 1000 of our era). 

f Dr. C. P. Oaspari's Arabische Grammatik. Eflnfte Auflage be- 
arbeitet von August MilUer. Halle 1887. — Grammaire arabe de 
C. P. Caspari traduite de la quatrieme edition allemande et en 
partie remanifee par E. Uricoechea. Bmxelles 1880. — A Grammar 
of the Arabic Language translated from the German of Caspaii 
and edited, with numerous additions and corrections by W. Wright. 
2. ed. 2 vol. London 1874 — 5. A 3^^ edit, is announced. 

Geo. Senric. Aug. Ewald. Grammatica critica linguae arabicae cum 
brevi metrorum doctrina. Lipsiae 1831 — 1833. II vol. 

*Grammaire arabe k I'usage des 6I^ves de I'ecole speciale des langues 
orientales vivantes; avec figures. Par M. le Bf™ Silvestre de 
Sacy. Seconde edition, corrigfee et augmentee, k laquelle on a 
joint un trait6 de la prosodie et de la mtoique des Arabes. 2 torn. 
Paris 1831. — Very important notes and corrections will be found in 


*Fleischer, „Boitrage zur arabischen Spraohkunde": Berichte fiber die 
Verhandlungen der kgl. sachsisehen Gesellsohaft der Wissenschaften 
zu Leipzig. PhHologisch-historisohe Classe. 1863 (p. 93ff.); 1864 
(p. 265ff.); 1866(p. 286ff.); 1870 (p. 227iif.); 1874 (p. Tiff.); 1876 
(p. 44ff.); 1878 (p. 64ff.); 1880 (p. 89ff.); 1881 (p. 117ff.); 1883 
(p. 72ff.); 1884 (p. 272ff.); conf. 1856 (p. Iff.); 1862 (p. lOff.) 
Reprinted io Kleinere Schriften von Dr. S. L. Fleischer, vol. I, 
ist- and 2iici. parts, Leipzig 1886; the two last articles" in vol. II, 
part 1. Leipzig 1888. 

/. Q. L. Kosegarten. Grammatiea linguae arabioae pp. 1 — 688, without 
title and date, incomplete. (Very rare). 

Mortimer Sloper Howell. A. Grammar of the Classical Arabic Language, 
translated and compiled from the "Works of the most Approved 
Native or Naturalized Authorities. Published under the Authority 
of the Government of the N.-W. Provinces. In an Introduction 
and Four Parts. 3 vols. Allahabad 1880. 1883. 1886. 

Grammaire arabe composee d'aprds les sources primitives par le 
P. Donat Vernier, S. J. Tome I. Beyrouth 1891 ; Tome IL 1892. 

Darstellung der arabischen Verskunst mit sechs Anhangen u. s.w. nach 
handschriftlicheu Quellen bearbeitet und mit Eegistern versehen 
von G. W. Wreytag. Bonn 1830. 

Theorie nouvelle de la m^trique arabe precedee de considerations 
generales sur le rythme uaturel du langage par M. Stanislas 
Quyard. Paris 1875 (Extrait du Journal as. 7 ser., t. 7. 8). 

Die Khetorik der Araber nach den wichtigsten Quellen dargesteBt und 
mit angeftihrten Textauszligen nebst einem literatm'geschichtlichen 
Anhang versehen von Dr. A. F. Mehren. Kopenhagen 1853. 


a Written ly Orientals. 

*Sahah al-'arabiyj'e (or as-Sahali) by al-0-auhari (Abii Nasr Ismail ibn 
'Hammad f 393 H., beg. 10.' Nov. 1002). 2 vols. Bulak 1282. 40. 

Lisan al-'arab by al-Mujearram (Ibn Manzur al-Ifriki al-Misri al-Ansari 
al-Hazragif 711 H., beg. 13. May 1311). 20 vols. 40.' Cairo 1308. 

*al-Kainus al-muhit (or al-Kamus) by al-Firuiahddi (f 816 or 
817 H. = 14l'3/"4). 2 vols. Calcutta 1817; 4 vols. Bulak 1279. 
40. id. 1301/2. — With Turkish Commentary 3 vols. Stambul 
1272 and later. — *Commentary to the Kamiis with the title 
Tag-el-'ariis composed by Sayyid Murtadd az-Zubaidi (f 1205 H., 
beg. 10 Sept. 1790). 10 vols. Caii-o 1307. 

Muhit al-muhit by Butrm al-Bistdni. 2 vols. Beirut 1286. (1869/70). 

an-Ni'haya fi' ^arib al-hadit by lin al-AtJr (f 606 H., beg. 6. July 
1209). 4 vols. Cairo 1311 (Dictionary to the Traditions). 


148 Literature E. 

Asas al-balaga (Lexicographical Work, dealing esp. with the meta- 
phorical meanings of words) by az-Zamahsarl (f 538 H., beg. 
16. July 1143). 2 vols. Bulak_1299. 

Fikh al-luga, Synonyms by at-TddUa (f 429 H., beg. 14. Oct. 
1037). (Frequently reprinted; esp. in an expurgated edition 
Beirut 1888). Cf. Fleischer, Kleinere Schriften III, 152. 

'Idldbs (t 291 H. = 904) kitab al-Fasih. Nach den Handschriften 
von Leiden, Berlin und Bom herausgegeben, mit kritischen und 
erlauternden Noten versehen von Dr. J. Barth, Leipzig 1876. 

*Gawaliki's al-Mu'arrab (a work on Arabic loan-words, by al-GawdliU 
t 465 H., beg. 17. Sept. 1072). Nach der Leydener Handschrift 
mit Erlauterungen herausgegeben von Ed. Sachau. Leipzig 
1867. Cf. Z. d. D. Morg. Ges. 33, 208. 

Liber as-Sojutii (f 911 H., beg. 4. June 1505) de nominibus relativis, 
inscriptus Lubb al-lubab, arab. cum annot. crit. ed. P. J, Vefh. 
1—3. Lugduni Bat. 1840—51. 40. 

*Al-Moschtabih auctore Schamso'ddin Abu Abdallah Mohammed ibn 
Ahmed ad-Dhababi (ad-Dahabi f 748 H., beg. 13. April 1347). 
E codd. mss. editus a P. de Jong. Lugduni Batav. 1881. (On 
homonym proper names). 

Kitabo-'l-adhdad sive liber de vocabulis arabicis quae plures habent 
significationes inter se oppositas auctore Abu Bekr ibno-'l-Anbdri 
(t 328 H., beg. 18. Oct. 939) ed. M. Th. Houtsma. Lugduni 
Bat. 1881. 

P Written by Europeans. 

f Cf. W. Freytag, Lexicon Arabico-Latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii 
Firuzabadiique et aliorum libris confectum. Accedit index vocum 
latinorum locupletissimus. IV. Tomi. Hal. 1830 — 1837. 4''maj. 

0. W. Freytag, Lexicon Arabico-Latinum ex opere suo majore in 
usum tironum excerptum edidit. HaUs 1836. 4" maj. 

*Maddu-l-Kamoos, an Arabic-English Lexicon derived from the best 
and the most copious eastern sources comprising a very large 
collection of words and significations omitted in the Kamoos, 
with supplements to its abridged and defective explanations, 
ample grammatical and critical comments, and examples in prose 
and verse: composed by means of the munificence of the most 
noble Algernon, Duke of Northumberland and the bountj' 
of the British Government: by Edward William Lane. In two 
books: the first containing all the classical words and significa- 
tions commonly known to the learned among the Arabs; the 
second, those that are of rare occurrence and not commonly 
known. Book I, Parts 1 — 5. London 1863 — 1874. Ed. by 
Stanley Lane Poole, Parts 6—8 (and Supplement) 1877—1893. 


(Prom the letter k onwards, the book is incomplete; its continuar 

tion is not to be expected.) 
*Snpplement aux dictionnaires arabes par R. Dozy. 2 tom. Leyde 

1881. — Cf. Fleischer, Studien iiber Dozy's Supplement: Be- 

richte iiber die Terhandlimgen der kgl. sachs. Ges. d. Wiss. zu 

Leipzig. Philol.-histor. Classe 1881 — 1887. Reprinted in Kleiners 

Schriften von H. L. Fleischer. Vol. II, pt. 1. Leipzig 1888. 

Vol. Ill id. 
A. KazimiraTci de Biberstein, Dictionnaire arabe-frangais I. II. Paris 

^A, Wahrmund. Handwbrterbuch der deutschen und neu-arabischen 

Sprache. I. Neuarabisch-deutscher Theil I, 1. 2. II, 1. 2. — 

II. Deutsch-neuarabiseher Theil. Giessen 1870 — 77. 
F. Steingass, The Student's Arabic-English Dictionary. London 1884. 
S, Atithony Salmoni, An Arabic-English Dictionary on a new System. 

2 vols. Vol. I Arabic-English ; vol. II English Index. London 1890. 
•fArabic-English Dictionary by the late William Thomson Wortahet. 

Second edition, revised and enlarged, Eeyrout 1893. 
George Percy Badger, English-Arabic Lexicon. London 1881. 
F. Steingass, English-Arabic Dictionary for the use of both Travellers 

and Students. London 1882. 
English-Arabic Dictionary by Mr. J. Aicarius. New edition revised 

and enlarged. Beyrout 1894. 
fVocabulaire arabe-franQais a I'usage des ^tudiants par un pSre mis- 

sionnaire de la Cie de Jesus; 3. ed. Beyrouth 1893. (Arab.: al- 

Faraid ad-durriye.) 
Dictionnaire fran^ais-arabe par le P. J.-B. Belot, S. J. 2 parties. 

Beyrouth 1890. 
*Die aramaischen Premdwbrter im Arabischen. Von Siegmund Frankel. 

Leiden 1886. 
Dictionnaire detaille des noms des vetements chez les Arabes. Par 

E. Dozy. Amsterdam 1845. 
Die Namen der Saugethiere bei den siidsemitischen Volkern. Von 

Fritz Sommel. Leipzig 1879. 
Die Waffen der alten Araber aus ihren Dichtern dargestellt. Ein 

Beitrag zur arabischen Alterthumskunde, Synonymik und Lexi- 

cographie nebst Begistem von Friedrich Wilhelm Schwarzlose. 

Leipzig 1886. 
*Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais derives de I'Arabe par 

B. Dozy et W. H. Engelmann. 2. fed. Leyde 1869. 
Glossario etimologico de las palabras espanolas de on'gen oriental por 

D. Leopoldo de Eguilaz y Yanguas. Granada 1886. 
Dictionnaire fetymologique des mots frangais d'origine orientale par 

Marcel Devie. Paris 1876. — Cf. Eemarques sur les mots 

frangais derives de I'Arabe par Henri Lammens. Beyrouth 1890. 

1 50 Literature F. 


a Written by Orientals. 

Al-Coranus seu Lex islamitica Muhammedis filii Abdallae Pseudo- 
prophetae edita ex museo Ahrahami Hinchelmanni. Hamburgi 

Alcorani textus universus summa fide atque puloherrimis characteribus 
descriptus, in latinum translatus, oppositis notis, auctore Ludovico 
Marracio. Patavii 1698 fol. 

fCorani textus arabicus ad fidem librorum manuscriptorum et impres- 
sorum et ad praecipuorum interpretuin lectiones et auctoritatem 
recensuit indieesque triginta sectionum et suratarum addidit 
Gustavus Fliigel. Bditio stereotypa C. Tauchnitzii. Tertium 
emendata; nova impressio Lipsiae 1869 (I. 1834; recensionis 
Flugelianae textum recosnitum iterum exprimi curavit Gustavus 
Mauritius Bedslob, Lipsiae 1837). (In Fliigel's first edition and 
in numerous oriental editions of the Koran, the enumeration of 
the verses, which is indispensable for reference, is wanting). 

*Concordantiae Corani arabicae. Ad literarum ordinem et verborum 
radices diligenter disposuit Giistavus Fliigel. Editio stereotypa, 
Lipsiae 1842. 

Chrestomathia Corani arabiea, notas adjeoit glossarium confecit C. A. 
Nallino. Lipsiae 1 893. 

al-Itkdn fi 'uliim al-kur'an, a sort of introduction to the Koran by 
as-Suyuti (f 911 H., beg. 4. June 1505); 2 pts. Cairo 1278. — 
Sayuty's Itqan on the exegetio sciences of the QorAn. Edited by 
Mowlawies Basheerooddeen and Noorool-Haqq with an analysis by 
A. Sprenger. Calcutta 1852 — 54. 

al-Kasiaf. Commentary on the Koran by az-Zamahsari (f 538 H., 
beg. 16. July 1143). 2 vols. Bulak 1281. — The Qoran with 
the commentary of Zamakhshari entitled the Kashshaf, an haqaiq 
al-tanzil, ed. by W. Nassau Lees and Khadim Hosain and 'Abd 
al-Hayi. Calcutta 1856. 

*Beidhawn (f 685 H., beg. 27. Pebr. 1286; or 692) commentarius in 
Coranum ex codd. Parisiensibus Dresdensibus et Lipsiensibus edidit 
iudioibusque instruxit S. 0. Fleischer. 2 vol. Lipsiae 1846 — 48. 
4". — Indices ad Beidhawii commentarium in Coranum confecit 
Winand Fell. Leipzig 1878. 

Chrestomathia Baidawiana. The commentary of El-Baidavfi on Sura 
in trans, and expld. ... by X). S. Margoliouth. London 1895. 

*Le Eecueil des traditions musulmanes par Abou Abdallah ibn Ismail 
al-Bokhari (al-Buhdri f 257 H. , beg. 29. Nov. 870) public par 


L. Krehl. I —III. Leydo 1862 — 68 (incomplete). — Oriental 
edition: Sahih al-Buhari. 8 vols. Cairo 1290; also frequently 
elsewhere, with and without commentary. 

Sahih Muslim. Collection of the Traditions of the Prophet, composed 
by Muslim (f 261 H., beg. 16. Oct. 874). With commentary by 
an-Nawavn (f 676 H., beg. 4. Juni 1277). 5 vols. Cairo 1283. 

Masablh as-sunna, composed by Husain ibn Mas'iid al-Farra al-Ba- 
gavii (f 516 H., beg. 12. March 1122). 2 vols. Cau-o 1294. 

Ihya al-'uliim, by al-Gazali (f 505 H., beg. 10. JuU 1111). 4 vols. 
4". Bulak 1289. — (Cf. Richard Gosche, Uber Ghazzalis Leben 
und "Werke: Abhdl. d. kgl. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin 1858). 

' AMu-r-razzaq's Dictionary of the technical terms of the Sufies edited 
by Aloys Sprenger. Calcutta 1845. 

*Das Leben Muhammeds nach Muhammed ibn Ishdk (f 151 H., beg. 

26. Jan. 768) bearbeitet von 'Abd el-Malik ibn Hischam, (f 218 H., 
beg. 27. Jan. 833);hrsg. von if. Wiistenfeld. 2 Bande. Gbttingen 
1858—60. Oriental edition ; Sirat ibn Hisam. 2 vols. Cairo 1295. 
(Translated into German: Das Leben Muhammeds u. s. w. be- 
arbeitet von Q. Weil. Stuttgart 1864). 

Muhammed in Medina. Das ist "Vakidi's [al-WdkidH f 207 H., beg. 

27. May 822) Kitab al-Maghazl in verkiirzter deutscher Wieder- 
gabe herausgegeben von J. Wellhausen. Berlin 1882. 

Sama'il at-Tirmidi (f 279 H., beg. 3. April 892) Traditions respecting 
the Prophet. Cairo 1273; with commentary 2 vols. Bulak 1296. 

Usd al-gaba. List of 7500 persons who knew Muhammed, di'awn 
upbyZJnaZ-kfir(t 630H.,beg. 18. Oct. 1232). 5 vols. Cairo 1286. 

al-Isabe, A biographical dictionary of persons who knew Muhammed 
'by Ibn Hagar (Ibn Eagar f 852 H., beg. 7. March 1448). Edited 
in Arabic by Mowlawies Mohammed "Wajyh, 'Abdal-Haqq, and 
Gholam Qadir and A. Sprenger. Bibliotheca Indica. Tol. I, Cal- 
cutta 1856; vol. IV, Calcutta 1873. Vol. II, fasc. 1—13; vol. ni, 
fasc. 1 — 15. 

Kisas al-'anbiya (Legends of the Prophet), by at-Ta'laU (f 427 H., 
beg. 5. Nov. 1035). Cairo 1297 and often. 

Pillar of the creed of the Sunnites by al-Nasafi, ed. by W. Cureton, 
London 1843. 

Ad-dourra al-fakhira: la perle pr^cieuse de Ghazali [al-OazaU f 505 H., 
beg. 10. July 1111) par L. Gautier. Geneve 1878. — MusUm 

Muhammwianische Eschatologie nach der Leipziger u. Dresdnef Hand- 
schrift zum ersten Male arabisch und deutsch herausgegeben von 
M. Wolff. Leipzig 1872. 

Disputatio pro religlone Mohammedanorum adversus Christianos 
Textum arabicum (composed 942 H. = 1535) e codice Leidensi 
cum varr. lect. edidit F. J. van den Ham. Lugduni Bat. 1890. 


Book of religious and philosophical sects by Muhammed al-Shahra- 
stani {aS-Sahrastdni f 528 H., beg. 29. March 1153). Now first 
edited by W. Cureton. 2 vol. London 1846. — Abu-'l-Fath' 
Muhammad asch-Schahrastani's Keligionsparteien und PMlo- 
sophenschulen. Aus dem Arabischen iibersetzt mit AnmerkuDgeu 
von Th. HaarbriicJcer. 2 Bande. Halle 1850 — 1. 

*{Bible) Kitab al-mukaddas (Old Testament). London. B. Watts. 
1822. (New Testament 1. vol. 1821.) — f Beii'ut, various editions, 
t New York 1867. 

Ai-abic Bible- Chrestomathy with a Glossary edited by Oeo, Jacob. 
Berlin 1888. 

P Written by Europeans. 

Der Koran nach Boysen von Neuem aus dem Arabischen iibersetzt 
mit einer historischen Einleitung und Anmerkungen von Q. Wahl. 
Halle 1828. 

Der Koran. Aus dem Arabischen wortgetreu neu iibersetzt mit An- 
merkungen von L. Vllmann. 6. Aufl. 1862. 

Le Koran, Traduction nouvelle, faite sur le texte arabe par Mr. 
KazimirsM. Nouv. ed. Paris 1854. 

The Koran commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed: translated 
into English from the Original Arabic. "With explanatory notes 
taken from the most approved commentators. To which is pre- 
fixed a preliminary discourse. By George Sale. London 1774. 
Last ed. by E. M. Wherry "with additional notes and emenda- 
tions". 4 vols. London 1882 — 87. 

/. M. Rodwell, The Koran, translated from the Arabic. 2. ed. Lond. 1876. 

The Qur'an translated by E. B. Palmer. 2 parts. Oxford 1880. (The 
sacred books of the East translated by various oriental scholars 
and edited by E. Max Miiller, vol. VI. IX). 

Der Koran. Im Auszuge iibersetzt von Friedrich Biicjcert, heraus- 
gegeben von A. M-iiller. Frankfurt «. M. 1888. 

Die fiinfzig altesten Suren des Korans in gereimter deutscher tjber- 
setzung von M. Klamroth. Hamburg 1800. 

+*Geschichte des Qorans von Theodor Nbldeke. Gbttingen 1860. 

Tiber die Religion der vorislamischen Ai-aber. Eine zur Habilitation 
etc. bffenthch zu vertheidigende Abhandlung von Ludolf Krehl. 
Leipzig 1863. 

*Skizzen und Vorarbeiten. Von J. WelUiausen. Drittes Heft. Reste 
arabischen Heidentumes. Berlin 1887. 

Kinship and marriage in early Arabia. By W. Robertson Smith. 
Cambridge 1885. 

*Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad nach bisher grossten- 
theils unbenutzten Quellen bearbeitet von A. Sprenger. Zweite 
Ausgabe. 3 Bande. Beriin 1869. 


fDas Leben Muhammed's. Nach den Quellen popular dargestellt von 

Theodor Noldeke. Hannover 1863. 
*W. Muir, The Life of Mahomet and History of Islam. 4 vol. London 

1858—61. arcl edition 1 vol. 1894. 
fDas Leben und die Lehre des Muhammed. Dargestellt von Ludolf 

Krehl. 1. Theil. Das Leben des Muhammed. Leipzig 1884. 
Skizzen und Vorarbeiten von J". WeMAoMsem. Viertes Heft. I.Medina 

vor dem Islam. 2. Muhammad's Gemeindeordnung von Medina. 

3. Seine Schreiben, und die Gesandtschaften an ihn. Berlin 1889. 
fWas hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen ? von Aira- 

ham Oeiger. Bonn 1833. 
*B. Dozy, Het Islamisme. Leiden 1863. 2 ed. Haarlem 1880; Essai 

sur I'histoire de I'Islamisme par B. Dozy trad, par T. Chauvin. 

Leyde-Paris 1879. 
*8noucle Mv/rgronje, Het meklcaansche Pest. Leiden 1880. 
Die Mutaziliten oder die Freidenker im Islam. Ein Beitrag zur all- 

gemeinen Kulturgeschichte von Heinrich Steiner. Leipzig 1865. 
De strijd over het Dogma in den Islam tot op el-Ash'ari door Dr. 

M. Th. Soutsma. Leiden 1875. 
Zur Geschichte Abu '1-Hasan al-AS"ari's (f about 324 H. = 935) von 

Wilhelm Spitta. Leipzig 1876. 
Expos6 de la r^forme de I'Islamisme commeuc6e au IIKme si^cle de 

I'Hegire par Abou-1-Hasan AH el-Ash'ari et continufee par son 

fecole. Avec des extraits du Texte arabe d'Ibn Asakir par 

M. A. F. Mehren. Vol. II des Travaux de la 3e session du 

Congr^s international des Orientalistes. 
I. Goldkiher, Die Schule der Zahiriten, ihr Ursprung, ihr System 

und ihre Geschichte. Leipzig 1884. 
*Mohammedanische Studien von I. Qoldzilier. Erster Teil. Halle 

1889. Zweiter Teil. Halle 1890. 
Polemische und apologetische Litcratur in arabiseher Sprache zwischen 

Muslimen, Christen und Juden, nebst Anhangen verwandten 

Inhalts. Von Moritz Steinschneider. Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde 

des Morgenlandes VI, 3. Leipzig 1877. 


al-Muwatta' fil-hadit. Corpus juris composed by Malik ibn Anas 
al-Hi'myari al-MadanI (t 179 H., beg. 27. March 795). Frequently 
printed; also with commentaries, e. g. that of az-Zarkani (f 1122 
H., beg. 19. Eebr. 1710). 4 vols. Bulak 1280. 

Sunan Abi 'Abdallah al-Kazwini, known as IhnMdga (f 273 H., beg. 
8. June 886). Delhi 1282 and 1889. (Legal traditions). 

Sunan AU Dd'ud Sulahnan as-Sigistani (f 275 H., beg. 16. May 
888); freii. printed, e.g. Bulak 1280. 2 vols. (Legal traditions). 


al-Gdmi by Abu isa Muhammad at-Tirmidi (f 279 H., beg. 3. April 
892). Frequently printed. (Legal traditions). 

Sunan Abi 'Abd ar-rahman an-Nasa'l (f 303 H., beg. 17. July 915); 
lithogr. in Kanfiir 1847. (Legal traditions). 

Flugel, Die Classen der hanefitischen Eechtsgelehrten: Abhandluugen 
der k. Sachs. Gesellschaft der "Wissenschaften VIII. Leipzig 

Jus Schafiiticum. At-Tanbih auctore Abu Ishak as-Shirazi {Abi, 
Ishdk aS-Sirdzi wrote the work in the year 452/3 H. = 1060/1) 
edidit A. W. T. JuynboU. Lugduni Bat. 1879. 

Precis de Jurisprudence Musulmane selon le rite Chafeite, par Abu 
Chodja {Abu Sugd' f in the 6*11 cent, of the Plight). PubUcation 
du texte arabe, avec traduction et annotations, par S. Keijzer. 
Leyde 1859. 

Minhadj at-Talibin, le guide des zeles croyants. Manuel de juris- 
prudence musulmane selon le rite de Chafi'i {as-Sdfi'i). Texte 
arabe, publie par ordre du gouvernement avec traduction et 
annotations par L. W. O, van den Berg. 3 vol. Batavia 1882 — 1884. 
(Cf. Snouck Hurgronje in the Indian Gids, 1884 0. Elaborate 

Precis de jurisprudence musulmane suivant le rite mal^kite par 
Sidi Khalil (Halll lived in the 9^"^ cent, of the Plight) public par 
les soins de la Socifetfi asiatique. Quatrieme Edition. Paris 1877. 

Maverdii {al-Mdwardl f 450 H., beg. 28. Febr. 1058) constitutiones 
politicae. Ex recensione Maximiliani Engeri. Bonnae 1853. 


ot Written by Orientals. 

Documenta philosophiae Arabum, edidit latine vertit illustravit Aug. 
Schmolders. Bonnae 1836. — Cf. id. Essai sur les fecoles philo- 
sophiques chez les Arabes et notammeut sur la doctrine d'Algaz- 
zali. Paris 1842. 

Tahafut al-falasifa (the mutual refutation of the philosophers) by 
al-Qazdli (f 505 H., beg. 10. July 1111), Ibn Busd (f 595 H", 
beg. 3. Nov. 1198), Hoga Zdde (f 893 H., beg. 17. Dec. 1487). 
Cairo 1303. 

Die sogenannte Theologie des Aristoteles aus arabischen Haudschriften 
zum ersten Male herausgegeben. Von Fr. Sieterici. Leipzig 
1882 (Abhandluugen des Berl. Or.-Congresses). Cf. Die so- 
genannte Theologie des Aristoteles aus dem Arabischen iibersetzt 
und mit Anmerkungen versehen von Fr. Dzeterici. Leipzig 1883. 

II commento medio di Averroe alia Poetica di Aristotele pubbl. da 
Fausto Lasinio. Parte I. II teste arabo: Annali della Universita 

Literature H. 155 

Toscane. Tomo SII. Pisa 1872. 40. — II testo arabo del com- 
mento medio di Averroe alia retorica di Aristotele, pubbl. da 
Fausto Lasinio. Pirenze 1875. (Pubblicazioni del K. Istituto 
di studi superiori). 

Alfdratn's (f 950 A. D.) philosophische Abhandlnngen aus Londoner, 
Leidener und Berliner Handschriften. Herausgegeben von Fried- 
rich Dieieriei. Leiden 1890. — Id. aus dem Arabischen iiber- 
setzt. Leiden 1892. — Alfdratn's Abhandlung der Musterstaat 
aus Londoner und Oxforder Handschriften herausgegeben von 
F. Dieteerici. Leiden 1895. 

Philosophie und Theologie von Averroes (Z5» BuSd f 595 H., beg. 
3. Nov. 1198). Herausgegeben von M. J. Miiller. Miinchen 
1859. — Aus dem Arabischen iibersetzt. Miinchen 1875. 

Le Guide des Egares. Traite de Theologie et de Philosophie par 
Moise ben Maimoun dit Maimonide (f 605 H., beg. 16. July 
1208). Public pour la premiere fois dans I'original arabe et ac- 
compagn6 d'une traduction frangaise par Munk. I — III. Paris 

Bjfcab Ihwan as-safa ■wa-hullan al-wafa (between 950 — 1000 of our 
era)._ 4 vols. Bombay 1305—1306. — A part of the raaail 
ihwan as-safa has also been printed in Cairo, 1306. — Die 
Abhandlungen der Ichwan Es-Safa in Auswahl herausg. von 
F. Dieterici. 3 Hefte. Leipzig 1883 — 6. 

Statio quinta et sexta et appendix libri Mevakif auctore "Adhad-eddin 
el-I^ (f 766 H., beg. 16. Jan. 1355) cum commentario Gorganii 
ex codd. etc. edidit Th. Sbrensen. Lipsiae 1848 (Scholastic 

Definitiones viri meritissimi Sejjid Scherif Ali ben Mohammed Dschor- 
dsohani (al-Gorgdn% f 816 H., beg. 3. Apr. 1418). Accedunt de- 
finitiones theosophi Mohji-ed-din Mohammed ben Ali vulgo Ibn 
Arabi (f 638 H., beg. 23 July 1240) dicti. Ed. et adnot. critica 
instruxit Otcstavus Flugel. Lipsiae 1845. 

P Written by Europeans. 

Die griechisohen Philosophen in der arabischen XTberlieferung. Ton 
August Miiller. (Festschrift der Franokischen Stiftungen zu dem 
50jahrigen Doctorjubilaum Bernhardy's). Halle 1873. 

Al-Kindi (f ca. 850 A. D.) genannt „der Philosoph der Araber". Ein 
Vorbild seiner Zeit und seines Tolkes. Von O. Flugel. Leipzig 
1857. (Abhandlungen der D. Morg. Ges. 1. Band. Nr. 2). Cf. 
Otto Loth, Al-Kindi als Astrolog, Morgenlandische Porschungen. 
Leipzig 1875, pp. 261 ff. and Sir Wm. Muir, The Apology of 
Al-Kindy 2 Ed. London 1887. 

Al-Farabi, des arabischen Philosophen, Leben und Schriften. Von 


Moritz Steinschneider: Memoires de rAcademie Imp. des Sciences 
de St. Petersbourg. Til. serie, tome XIII, 4. 1869. 4°. 

Ernest Benan, Averroes et I'Averroisme. 3. 6d. Paris 1861. 

Die Philosophie der Araber im X. Jahrhundert u. Chr. aus den 
Schriften der lauteren Briider herausgegeben von Fr. Dieterici. 
Die Naturwissenschaft und Naturanschauung der Araber. Berlin 
1861. — Die Propadeutik. Berlin 1865. — Die Logik und Psy- 
chologie. Leipzig 1868. — Die Anthropologie. Leipzig 1871. — 
Die Lehre von der Weltseele. Leipzig 1872. — Die Natur- 
anschauung und Naturphilosophie. 2. Ausg. Leipzig 1876. — 
EinleituDg uiid Makrokosmos. Leipzig 1876. — Mikrokosmos. 
Leipzig 1879. 


F. Wustenfeld, Geschichte der arabischen Arzte und Naturforseher. 
Gottingen 1S40 (rather out of date). 

Histoire de la medecine arabe par le Dr. Lucien Leclerc. 2 vol. 
Paris 1876 (insufficient). 

Ibn AM Useibia. Herausgegeben von August MiXller. Konigsberg 
i. Pr. 1884 {Ibn Ail Usaibi'a f 668 H., beg. 14. May 1297 
wrote this great work on the history of Ajrab physicians under 
the title: 'Uyun al-"anba' fi tabakat al-'atibba'. For which see 
Vol. II des travaux de la 6^ session du Congres international des 
Orientalistes h, Leide. Leide 1884. p. 257 ff.). 

Hayat al-haiwan (zoological work) by ad-Bamiri (f 808 H., beg. 
29. June 1405). 2 vols. Bulak 1284. Cairo 1305. 

Kitab al-kanun fit-tibb, Theory of Medicine, composed by Abu 'All 
ibn Bind (Avicenna i" 428 H., beg. 25. Oct. 1036). 3 vols. 
V Bulak 1294. 

al-Gami' li-mufradat al-'adwiya wal-'agdiya (On the common medicines 
and foods) by Diya' ad-din Abii Muhammad Ibn al-Baitdr 
(t 646 H., beg. 26. April 1248). 4 vols. Bulak 1231. 

Tedlcire (Science of medicine) by Baud al-AntdId (■}■ 1005 H., beg. 
15. Aug. 1596). 3 vols. Cairo 1294. 

La Chimie du moyen-age . . . par M. Berthelot. Tome III. L'al- 
chimie arabe comprenant une introduction et les traitfe de Crates, 
d'el-Habib, d'Ostan^s et de Djaber . . . teste et traduction . . 
avec la collaboration de M. O. Houdas. Paris 1893. 4". 

Materiaux pour servir a I'histoire des sciences mathematiques chez 
les Grecs et les Orientaux par M. L. P. E. A. SHillot. 2 tomes. 
Paris 1845. 1849. 

Traite des instruments astronomiques des Arabes, ti-ad. par J. J. Se- 
dilloi. Paris 1834. 1835. Memoires sur les instruments astro- 
nomiques des Arabes par J. J. Sedillot. Paris 1841 — 45. 

Literature K. 157 


a Written by Orientals. 

Ibn Goteiba's {ibn Kutaiba f 276 H. beg. 6. May 889) Handbuch der 
GeschichteherausgegebenvonFer(Z."PFMS<CT/eZ(i. Gottingen 1850.— 
Oriental edition: Kitab al-ma'arif. Cairo 1300. 

Abu Bekr Muhammed ben al-Hasan Ibn Boraid's (f 321 H., beg. 
1. Jan. 933) genealogisch-stymologisches Handbuch herausgegeben 
von jP. Wustenfeld. Gottingen 1854. 

*Chronologie orientalischer Volker von Alberuni. Herausgegeben von 
Eduard Sachau. Gedruckt auf Kosten der D. M. Ges. Leipzig 
1878. 4". — Chronology of ancient Nations. An English Version 
of the Arabic Text of the Athar ul Bakiya of Albiruni, or 
"Vestiges of the Past". Collected and reduced to writing by 
the Author in A. H. 390—1, A. D. 1000. Translated and 
Edited, with Notes and Index, by 0. E. Sachau. Published for 
the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Boy 80. London 1879. 

Ibn Wadhih ("Wadih) qui dicitur al-JaquVi (Ya'kiibi) Historiae (composed 
ca. 297 H.). 2 partes ed. M. Th. Houtsma. Lugduni Batav. 1883. 

Anonyme Arabische Chronik Band XI vermuthlich das Buch der Ver- 
wandtschaft und Geschichte der Adligen von Abulhasan aimed 
ben jahja ben gabir ben dawud elbeladori elbagdadi {al-Baladii/ri 
■\ 279 H. , beg. 3. Apr. 893). Autogr. und herausgegeben von 
W. Ahlwardt. Greifswald 1883. 

Kitab al-ahbar at-tiwal verf. von Abu Hanifa Ahmed ibn Daiid ad-Bai- 
nawan (f 282 or 290 H.) hrs. von Wladimir Girgas. Leiden 1888. 

*Annales auctore Abu Djafar Mohammed Ibn Djarir At-Tabari (at- 
Tabari f 309 H., beg. 12. May 921), quos ediderunt J. Bartli, 
Th. Noldeke, 0. Loth (f), E. Prym, H. Thorbecke (f), S. Prankel, 
D. H. Miiller, M. Th. Houtsma, S. Guj'ard (f), V. Eosen et 
M. J. de Goeje I, 1—5; II, 1—3; III, 1—4. Leiden 1879 seq. 

Magoudi {al-Maaudi f 346 H., beg. 4. Apr. 957) Les prairies d'or. 
Texte et traduction par CBarbier de Meynard et Pavet de Gour- 
teUle. 9 tomes. Paris 1861—77. (id. 2 vols. Bulak 1283). 

Bamzae Ispahanensis [Hamza wrote about 350 H.) annalium libri X. 
Edidit J. M. E. Qottwaldt. I. textus, II. transl. Petropoli-Lipsiae 
1844. 1848. 

Pragmenta historicorum arabieorum. Tomus primus continens partem 
tertiam operis Kit4bo '1-Oyun wa 'Ihddaik fi akhbari '1-haddik 
(written after the 11th cent. A-D.) quem ediderunt M. J. de 
Goeje et P. de Jong. Lugduni Bat. 1868. 4". — Tomus secundus 
continens partem operis Tadjaribo 'lOmami, auctore Ibn Maskowaih 
(t 421 H., beg. 9. Jan. 1030)ediditM. J. de Goeje. Lugd.Bat. 1871. 


*Ibn el-Athiri {ibn al-'Atir f 630 H., beg. 18. Oct. 1232) Chronicon 
quod perfeotissimnm (el-Kamil) inscribitur. Edidit Carolus Jo- 
hannes Tornherg. 14 vol. Lugduni Bat. 1851 — 1876. — 12 vols. 
Bulak 1290 and later. 

Oommentaire historique sur le poeme d'Ibn-Abdoun (Ibn Abdun 
t 529 H., beg. 22. Oct. 1134) par Ibn Badroun [Ibn Badrun 
wrote in the same century) pubUe par JR. F. A. Dozy. Leide 1846 
(Ouvrages arabes publies par Dozy). 

Historia saracenica arabice olim exarata a Georgio Elmacino (al-MaBn 
f 672 H., beg. 18. July 1273), edita et latine reddita opere et 
studiis Thomae Erpenii. Lugduni Bat. 1625. 

Ta'rih muhtasar ad-duwal (Outlines of History by Gregorius abu 
'i-Farag Ibn el-'ibri {Barhebraeus f 1286 A. D.) ed. by Salhani. 
Beintt 1890. (The edition by Pococke, 2 tomi 4". Oxonii 1663 
is rare). 

Elfachri. History of the Moslem Empires from the beginning to 
the end of the Califate by Ibn etthiqthaqa (wrote about 1302 
A-D.). Edited in Arabic by W. Ahlwardt. Gotha 1860. 

Abulfedae (f 732 H., beg. 4. Oct. 1331). Annales muslemici arabice 
et latine. Opera et studiis /. J. Reiskii, nunc primum ed. J. G. 
Oh Adler. 5 vol. Hafniae 1789— 94. — 2 vols. Stambul 1286. 

t Abulfedae historia Anteislamica , Arabice e duob. Codd. Paris, 
edidit, vers. lat. notis et indicibus auxit S. 0. Fleischer. Lipsiae 
1831. 4". 

Ta'rih Zain ad-din 'Umar ibn al-Wardi (f 749 or 750 H. = 1348/9). 
2 vols. Cairo 1285. — An excerpt: Aegyptus auctore Ibn 
al-Vardi. Edidit vertit notulisque illustravit Martimis Frdhn. 
Halae 1804. 

Ibn JSaldun (f 808 H., beg. 29. June 1405) al- ibar etc. History of 
the "World. 7 vols. Bulak 1284. — Prolegomenes d'Ebn- 
Khaldoun. Texte arabe par Quatremire. 8 vols. Paris 1858 
(Notices et extraits des mscr. SVI, 1. XVH, 1. XVIII, 1.). — 
Prolegomenes historiques d'Ibn Khaldoun. Traduction par Mac 
Quckin de Slane. 3 vols. Paris 1862 — 68 (Notices et extr. XIX, 
1. XX, 1. XXI, 1). 

The Tarikh al-Kholafa; or history of the Cahphs, from the death of 
Mohammad to the year 900 of the Hijrah by the celebrated Jalal 
al-Dia Al-Osyooti {as-Suyuti f 911 H., beg. 4. June 1505), ed. by 
W. N. Lees und Mawlawi Abd al-Haqq. Calcutta 1857. Another 
edition Cairo 1305. 

*Liber expugnationis regionum auctore Imdmo Ahmed ibn Jahja ibn 

Djabir al-Baladsori [al-Balddun f 279 H., beg. 3. Apr. 892) ed. 

M. J. de Goeje. Lugduni Bat. 1866. 40. 

Ousdtna ibn Mounkidh un emir syrien au premier siecle des Croisades, 

(1095 — 1188) par Martwig Dereniourg. Deuxi^me pai'tie, Texte 

Literature K. 159 

arabe de I'autobiographie d'Ousama. Paris 1886 (cf. Carlo de 
Landberg, Critica arabica II. Leyde 1888). — Ousama ibn 
Mounkidh etc. par H. Derenbourg (French edition.). Paris 1889. 

'Imdd ed-dm el-katib el-isfaham (f 597 H. = 1201) Ccnquete de la 
Syrie et de la Palestine par Salah ed-din. Publie par le comte 
Carlo de Landerg. Vol. I. Texte arabe. Leydo 1888. 

Vita et res gestae sultani AlmaHchi Alnasiri^Saladini auctore Bohad- 
dino P. Sjeddadi {Bahd ad-din ibn Sadddd f 632 H. = 1234) 
edidit ao latine vertit Aliertus SchuUens. Lugduni Batav. 1732 
(1755). fol. 

Kitab ar-raudatain^fi ta'rih ad-daulatain (History of Nureddin^and 
Saladin) by Sihab ad-dln al-Mukaddasi , called Aim Sdma 
(t 665 H. = 1267). Cairo. 2 vols. 1287. 

Kitab al-'ins al-galil bi-ta'rih al-kuds wal-halil. History of Jeru- 
salem and Hebron by Mugir ad-din (f 927 H., beg. 12. Dec. 
1520). — Cf. Histoire de Jerusalem et d'Hebron. Fragments de 
la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-dyn traduits sm- le texte arabe par 
Henry Sauvaire. Paris 1876. 

Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka. Gesammelt und herausgegeben von 
Ferdinand Wustenfeld (I Azraki. II Pakibi, Pasi, Ibn Dhuheii'a. 
Ill Kutb ed-din. IV German edition). I— IV. Leipzig 1857 — 61. 

Hulasat al-wafa bi'ahbar dar al-mustaS (History of the town of 
Medina) by as-Samhudi (f 911 H., beg. 4. June 1505). Bulak 
1285. — Extracts translated by Wustenfeld in den Abhandlujagen 
der k. Ges. der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Bd. IX. 1860. 

*al-Hitat (Geography and History of Egypt) by al-Mal<rizi (f 845 
H'.,'beg. 22. May 1441). 2 Vols. Bulak 1270. — Histoire des 
Sultans Mamlouks de I'Egypte, ecrite en arabe par Taki-eddin- 
Ahmed Makrizi, traduite en franjais et accompagnfee de notes 
par Quatremere. 2 vol. Paris 1837 — 45. 4". 

Abul-Mahdsin ibn Tagri Bardii (f 874 H., beg. 11. July 1469) Annales 
(History of Egypt) I, 1. 2 ediderunt T. G. J. JuynloU et S. F. 
Matthes. 11, 1. 2. ed. T. O. /. JuynloU. Lugduni Bat. 1852—61 

Husn al-muhadara. History of Egypt by as-Suyuti (t 911 H., beg. 
4. June 1505). 2 vols. Cairo. 

'Agaib al-atar fit-taragim wal-ahbar (History of Egypt) by al-Gabarti 
(t 1236 = 1821). 4 vols." Cairo n. d. 

Ahmedis Arabsiadae (Ahmed ibn 'ArabSah f 854 H. , beg. 14. Pebr. 
1450) vitae et rerum gestarum Timuri, qui vulgo Tamerlanes 
dicitur historia. (Ed.) Latine vertit etc. S. S. Manger. 2 vol. 
Leovardiae 1767. 1772. — Cairo 1285. 

The History of the Almohades by Abdo-'l -Wahid al-Marrekoshi 
(wrote in the year 621 H. = 1224) edited by R. Dozy. 2. ed. 
Leyden 1881. 

160 Literature K. 

Historia Abbadidarum praemissis scriptorum Arabum de ea dyaastia 
loois nunc primum editis , auctore B. P. A. Dozy. I — III. Lug- 
duni Bat. 1849. 4". (Deals w. Spain). 

Annales regum Mauretaniae a condito Idrisidarum imperio ad annum 
fugae 726, ab Abu-1 Hasan Ali ben Abd Allah Ibn Abi Zer' 
Fesano, vel ut alii malunt Abu Muha mm ed Salih ibn Abd el 
Halim Granatensi conscrjptos ed. illustr. Carolus Joh. Tomierg, 
2 vol. TTpsaliae 1843. 1846. 

Histoire de I'Afrique et de I'Espa^ue infcitulee al-Bay4no '1-Moghrib 
par Ibn Adh&ri (de Maroc) (Ibn al-'Iddri wrote between 363 
and 366 H.) et fragments de la chronique d'Arib (de Cordoue) 
publics par B. P. A. Dozy. 2. vols. Leyde 1848—51. 

Analectes sur I'histoire et la litterature des Arabes d'Espagne par 
Al-Makkari (al-Makkan f 1041 H., beg. 30. July 1631). Publics 
par B. Dozy, Q. Dugat, L. Krehl et W. Wright. 2 vol. Leyde 
1855 — 61. (Conf. Fleischer, Textverbesserungen in Al-Makkari's 
Geschichtswerke. Kleinere Schrifteu. Vol. II pt. 1. Leipzig 
1888.) — Lettre a M. Fleischer contenant les remarques critiques 
et explicatives sur le texte d'Al-Makkari par B. Dozy. Leyde 
1871. — Cf. The history of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain 
by Ahmed ibn Mohammed Al-Makkari. Translated and illustrated 
by Pascual de Gayangos. 2 vol. London 1840 — 3. 4". 

Bibliotheca arabo-sicula, ossia Kaccolta di testi arabici che toocano la 
geografia, la storia, la biografia e la bibliografia della Sicilia, 
messi insieme da Michele Amari. Lipsia 1857; Appendice, ibid. 

Alberuni's India, an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, 
chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India 
about 1030. Ed. by Edw. Sachau. London 1887. 4?. — Id. 
An English edition with notes and indices. By JB. Sachau. London. 
2 vol. 1888. 

Scriptorum Arabum de Rebus Indicis loci et opuscula inedita rec. 
et illustr. Joannes Qildemeister. Ease. pr. Bonnae 1838. — 
Cf. id., Dissertationis de rebus Indiae, quo modo in Arabum 
notitiam venerint, pars I. Bonnae 1838, 

*Ibn ChalUcan, Vitae illustrium virorum. E codd. nunc primum 
arabice edidit variis lectionibus, indicibusque locupletissimis in- 
struxit Ferd. Wiistenfeld. Gottingae 1836 — 40, 4". — Ibn Hal- 
likan (f 681 H., beg. 11. Apr. 1282). 2 vols. Bulak 1275; another 
edition 1299. — Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated 
from the Arabic by Baron Mac Ouckin de Slant. 4 vol. Paris- 
London 1843—71. 40. 

Eawat al-wafayat (supplement to Ibn Hallikan) by as-Saldh al-KutuU 
(t 764 H., beg. 21. Oct. 1362). "2 vols. Bulak '1283. 


The biographical dictionary of iUustrious men cliiefly at the beginning 
of Islamism by Abu Zakariya Jahya el-Nawawi (f 676 H. = 1277) 
edited by Ferd. Wustenfeld. Gottingen 1842 — 47 (cf. idem for 
the Life and Writings of el-Nawawi, Gottingen 1849, from the 
4*11 vol. of the Abhandl. d. kgl. Ges. d. "Wiss. zu Gott.). 

Nuzhat al-'alubba fi tabakat al-'udaba. Concerning celebrated Men. 
By Abul-Barakat ai-'Anbdri (f 577 H., beg. 17. May 1181). 
Cairo lithogr. n. d. 

P Written hy Europeans. 

fVergleichungstabellen der muhammedanischen und christlichen Zeit- 
rechnung nach den ersten Tagen jedes muhammedanischen Monats 
berechnet. Herausgegeben von J^erd. Wfisiere/eW. Leipzig 1844. — 
Fortsetzung der Wiistenf. Vergl.-Tab. bis 1500 von E. Mahler. 
Leipzig 1887. 

*Die Geschichtsschreiber der Araber und ihre Werke. Von F. Wiisten- 
feld. (From the XXVIII, and XXIX. vol. of the Abhandlungen 
der Kgl. Ges. d. "W". zu Gottingen). GiJttingen 1882. 4». 

*Genealogische Tabelleu der Arabischen Stamme und Familien , . . 
Aus den Quellen zusammengestellt von Ferdinand Wustenfeld. 
Gottingen 1852. q.-fol. — Register zu den genealogischen Ta^ 
bellen der Arabischen Stamme und Familien. Mit historischen 
und geographischen Bemerkungeu von Ferdinand Wiistenfeld. 
Gottingen 1853. 

*Gaussin de Perceval, Essai sur I'histoire des Arabes avant I'islamisme 
3 vol. Paris 1847. 

Geschiohte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sassaniden. Aus 
der arabischen Chronik des Tabari iibersetzt und mit ausfiihr- 
lichen Erlauteruugen und Erganzungen versehen von Th. N'dldeke, 
Leyden 1879. 

f*Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland. Von A. Muller. 2 Bande. 
Berlin 1885. 1887. (AUgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen 
hrsgg. von L. Oncken. Zweite Hauptabteilung. Vierter Teil). 

*Geschichte der Chalifen. Nach handschriftlichen grbsstenteils noch 
unbeniitzten Quellen bearbeitet von Gustav Weil. 3 Bande. 
Mannheim 1846—51. — Geschichte des AbbasidenchaUfats in 
Aegypten. Von Qustav Weil. 2 Bande. Stuttgart 1860—2. 

fGeschiohte der islamitischen Volker von Mohammed bis zur Zeit 
des Sultan Selim iibersichtlich dargestellt von Gustav Weil. 
Stuttgart 1866. 

fGeschichte der Araber bis auf den Stm-z des Chalifats von Bagdad. 
Von Gustav Flilgel. 2. Aufl. Leipzig 1864. 

The Caliphate, its rise, decline, and fall from original sources by 
Sir William Muir. London 1891. New and revised edition 1894. 
Socin. Aiabio Grammar.^ 11 

162 Literature L. 

Handbuch der morgenlandischen Miinzkunde. Von J. O. Stickel. 

2 Hefte. Leipzig 1865—70. 40. 
Catalogue of Oriental Coins in the British Museum, 9 vol. London 

The Mohammadan Dynasties, chronological and genealogical Tables 

with historical Introductions by St. Lane-Poole. London 1894. 
Die Charidschiten unter den ersten Omayyaden. Bin Beitrag zur 

G-esohichte des ersten islamischen Jahrhunderts von B. E. 

Brunnow. Leiden 1884. 
De opkomst der Abbasideu in Chorasan door Q. van Vlooten. Leiden 1890. 
Mfemoires sur les Carmathes du Bahrain et les Patimides par M. J. 

de Goeje. Leiden 1886. 
Die Statthalter von Agypten zur Zeit der Chalifeu. Von F. Wiisteti- 

feld. Parts 1 and 2. Abhandlungen der Kgl. Ges. d. Wissen- 

schaften zu Gottingen. 1875 (4"). Band 20. Parts S and 4. 

ibid. 1876, Band 21. 
History of the Moors in Spain to the Conquest of Andalusia by the 

Almoravides (711 — 1110), by B. Dozy. German Edition with 

additions by the Author. 2 vols. Leipzig 1874. 
Poesie und Kunst der Araber in Spanien und Sicihen. Von Adolf 

Friedrich von Schack. 2 Bande. Berlin 1865. 2. Aufl. 1877. 
*Culturgeschichte des Orients unter den Chalifen. Von Alfred von 

Kremer. 2 Bande. Wien 1875 — 77. 
Das Einnahmebudget des Abbasiden-Reicbs vom Jahre 360 H. 

(918 — 919) von Alfred von Kremer. Denkschiiften der philos.-hist. 

Classe der Kais. Akademie der Wiss. in Wien. Bd. XXXVI. 1887. 
*Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams. Der Gottesbegriff, die 

Prophetie und Staatsidee. Von Alfred v. Kremer. Leipzig 1868. 

Die BaustUe. Historische und teohnische Entwicklung. Des Handbuchs 

der Architectur (von J. Dv/rm) Zweiter Theil. 3. Baud, zweiteHalfte; 

Die Baukunst des Islam. Von Franz Paseha. Darmstadt 1887. 
Prisse d'Avennes, L'art arabe d'apres les monuments du Caire depuis 

le Vile siecle jusqu' a la fin du XVIIIe. 3 vol. fol. 1 vol. 4. 

Paris 1877. — La decoration arabe. (Extrait du grand ouvrage.) 

Paris 1865. fol. 


a Written by Orientals. 

Cosmographie de Chems ed-din Abou Abdallah Mahommed ed-Dimichgi 
(ad-Dimi§ki f 654 H., beg. 30. Jan. 1256). Texte arabe publie 
d'apres I'fedition comniencfee par M. Frahn, et d'apres les manu- 


scrits par M. A. F. Mehren. St. PMersbourg 1866. 40. — Manuel 
de la cosmographie du moyen age, traduit de I'arabe „Nokhbet 
ed-dahr fi 'adjaib-il-birr/wal-bah'r" de Shems ed-din Abou-'Abdallah 
Mohammed de Damas et accompagnee d'eclaircissements par M. 
A. F. Mehren, Copenhague 1874. 

*Zakarija Ben Muhammed ben Mahmiid el-Caewini's (al-Kazmni 
+ 682 H., beg. 1. Apr. 1283) Kosmographie. Herausg. von Ferd. 
Wustenfeld. 2 Bande. Gottingen 1848—9. — id. nach der 
Wustenfeld'schen Textausgabe etc. ubersetzt von Hermann Ethe. 
Erster Halbband. Leipzig 1868. 

Haridat al-'agaib wa-faridat al-garaib, a species of Cosmography 
composed by "Umar ihn al-Wardl (f 749 or 750 H. = 1348 or 9). 
Cairo 1292. 

Specimen e literis orientalibus exhibens az-Zamaksarii, (ae-ZamahSan 
t 638 H., beg. 16. July 1143) lexicon geographicum quod auspice 
T. G. J. JuynboE edidit Mathias Salverda de Grave. Lugduni 
Bat. 1856. 

Al-Sarnddni's (f 334 H., beg. ] 3. Aug. 945) Geographie der Arabischen 
Halbinsel. Nach den Handschr. herausgegeben von David Seinrich 
Milller. Leiden 1884. 

Das geographische Worterbuch des Abu 'Obeid 'Abdallah ben 'Abd 
el-' Aziz el-Bekri (f 487 H. = 1094) naoh den Haudschi-iften 
zu Leiden, Cambridge, London und Mailand herausgegeben von 
Ferd. Wustenfeld. 2 Bande. Gottingen, Paris 1876. 1877. 

*Jacut's (Yakut f 626 H. = 1229) Geographisches Worterbuch aus 
den Handschriften zu Berlin, St. Petersburg und Paris auf Kosten 
der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft herausgegeben von 
Ferdinand Wustenfeld. 6 Bande. Leipzig 1866 — 73. 

Jacut's Moschtarik, das ist: Lexicon geographischer Homonyme, 
Herausgegeben von Ferd. Wustenfeld. Gottingen 1846. 

Marasid al-ittila'i, Lexicon geographicum ed 2'. G. J. Juynboll I — TI. 
Lugduni B. 1850 — 64. (An Extract from Yakiit). 

Geographie d'Aboulfeda (ASui-yitia f 732 H.,beg. 4. Oct. 1331). Texte 
arabe par Beinaud et Mac-Guckin de Slane. Paris 1840. — 
Geographie d'Ismail Abou '1-Peda en arabe publiee par Charles 
Schier. Ed. autogr. Dresde 1846. — Geographie d'Aboulfeda, 
traduite de I'arabe en frangais par Eeinaud I (*Introdnction 
generate a la geographie des Orientaux) 11, 1 Paris 1848; 11,2 
par Stanislas Guyard. Paris 1883. 

*Bibliotheca geographorum arabicomm. Edidit M. J. de Ooeje. 

Pars prima. Viae regnorum. Descriptio ditionis moslemioae 
auctore Abu Ishak al-Farisi al-Istakhri (al-Istahri, of. Zeitschrft 
d. D. Morgenl. Ges. Bd. 25, p. 42 ff.). Lugduni Bat. 1870. 

Pai-s secunda. Viae et regna. Descriptio ditionis moslemicae 
auctore Abu 'l-Kasim lin Haukal fibid.). Lugduni Bat. 1873. 
' ■ ■ 11* 


Para tertia. Descriptio imperii Moslemici auctore Al-Molead- 
dasi (al-Mukaddasi wrote in year 378 the H.). Lus;duni Bat. 1876. 

Cf. Description of Syria &c. by Mukaddasi. Translated from 
the Arabic by Guy Le Strange. (Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society). 

Pars quarta. Continens indices, glossarium et addenda et emeu- 
danda ad part. I — III auctore M. J. de Qoeje. Lu^duni Bat. 1879. 

Pars quinta. Compendium libri Kitab al-boldan auctore Ibn 
al-Faklh al-Hamadhani (wrote ca. A, D. 290). Lugd. Bat. 1885. 

Pars sexta. Kitab al-masalik wal-mamalik (liber viarum et 
regnorum) auctore Abn'l-Kasim Obaidallah ibu Abdallah ibn 
Khordddbeh (Ibn Hordadbeh wrote in the second half of the 
Htli cent. A. D.) et excerpta e Kitab al-Kharadj (K. al-harag 
Taxbook) auctore Koddma ibn DJa'far {Kuddma ibn Ga'far 
wrote about 930 A. D.). Lugduni Bat. 1889. 

Pars septima. Kitab al-a'lak an-nafisa VII auctore Abu AIT 
Ahmed ibn Omar ibn Eosteh (wrote before 301. H.) et Kitab al- 
boldan auctore Ahmed ibn abi Ja'kiib ibn Wadhih al-Katib al- 
JakuVi (cf. p. 157). Lugduni Bat. 1892. 

Pars octava. Kitab at-tanbih wa'1-ischraf auctore al-Masudi 
(cf. p. 157). Accedunt indices et glossarium ad tomos VII et 
VIII. Lugduni Bat. 1894. 
Description de FAfrique et de I'Espagne par Ednsi (wrote 548 
H., beg. 29 March 1 1 53) texte ai-abe publie pour la premiere fois 
d'apres les man. de Paris et d'Oxford aveo une traduction, des 
notes et un glossaire par H.^Dosy et M. J. de Goeje. Leyde 1866. 
The travels of Ibn Jubair (Ibn Gubair end of the 6tli cent.) edited by 

William Wright. Leyden 1852. 
Voyages d'lbn Batoutah (Ibn Batata f 779 H., beg. 10 May 1377). 
Texte arabe, accompagnee d'une traduction par C. Defremery et 
B. B. Sanguinetti (Publications de la Society a.siatique). 4 vol. 
Paris 1853—58; deux. tir. 1874—77. — Cairo 1288. 

|3 Written by Europeans. 

F. Wilstertfeld, Die Litteratur der Brdbeschreibung bei den Arabem. 

Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Erdkunde lirsgg. von J. G. Liidde I, 

1841, S. 24—67. 
Carte generale des provinces europeennes et asiatiques de I'Empire 

Ottoman, dressee par Henri Kiepert 4 feuilles. Deux. ed. en- 

tierement corrigee et augment^e d'un index alphabetique. Berlin 

(Karte yon) Arabien zu C. Bitters Erdkunde, Buch III, West-Asien, 

Teil XII und XIIl bearbeitet von H. Kiepert. Neue berichtigte 

Ausgabe, die Orthographic revidiert von Th. Noldeke. Berlin 18°67 

(D. Eeimer). 

Literature L. 165 

Skizze der Geschichte und Geo^raphie Arabiens von den altesten 
Zeiten bis zum Propheten Muhammad. Auf Gruud der luschriften, 
der Angaben der alten Autoren und der Bibel von Eduard Qlaser. 
Zweiter Band. Berlin 1890. 

Die alfce Geographic Arabiens als Grundlage der Bntwicklungsgeschichte 
des Semitismus von A. Sprenger. Bern 1875. 

Arabien im sechsten Jahrhundert. Eine ethnographische Skizze von 
Otto Blau. Mit einerKarte: Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenl. 
Gesellschaft. Leipzig 1869 (XXIII B.) p. 559—592. 

Arabien und die Araber seit hundert Jahren. Eine geographische 
und geschichfcliche Skizze von Albrecht Zehme. Halle 1875. 

Palestine under the Moslems. A description of Syria and the Holy 
Land from A. B. 650 to 1500. Translated from the works of the 
mediaeval Arab Geographers by Ouy le Strange. (London) 1890. 

Relation de I'Egypte par Abdallatif ('Abi al-Latif al-Bagdadi f 629 H., 
beg. 29. Oct. 1231). Le tout traduit et "enrichi de notes par 
Silvester de Sacy. Paris 1810. 4". (The text of 'Abd al-Latif 
has been published by J. White: 'AbdoUatiphi Historiae Aegypti 
compendium. Oxonii 1800). 

*Beschreibung von Arabien. Aus eigenen Beobachtungen und im 
Lande selbst gesammelten Naohrichten abgefasst von Carsten 
Niebuhr. Kopenhagen 1772. 4". 

Garsten Niebuhrs Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andem um- 
liegenden Landern. 1. Band. Kopenhagen 1774. 2. Band. 1778; 
English edtn. 2 vols. Edinb. 1792. 

f *Travels in Arabia (1814) comprehending an account of those t erritories 
in Hedjaz which the Mohammedans regard as sacred. By the 
late John Lewis Burckhardt. London, 2 vol. 1829. — Johann 
Lttdwig Burckhardt' a Beisen in Arabien, enthaltend eine Beschrei- 
bung derjenigen Gebiete in Hedjaz, welche die Mohammedaner 
fiir heilig achten . . . Aus dem Englischen iibersetzt. Weimar 1830. 

■\*J. L. Burckhardt, Notes on the Bedonins and "Wah4bys. 2 vol. 
London 1831. — Bemerkungen iiber die Beduinen und Wahabi's. 
Weimar 1831. 

Richard Burton, Personal narrative of a pilgrimage to El Medinah and 
Meccah. 2 vol. London 1857 (and frequently, also in the Tauchnitz 

♦Travels in Arabia Deserta by Churles M. Doughty. 2 vol. Cambiidge 
1888. (With new map). 

Adolf von- Wrede's Beise in Hadhramaut, Beled Beny 'Issa und Beled 
el Hadschar. Herausgegeben . . . von S. Freiherr von Maltzan. 
Braunschweig 1870. — Eeise nach Siidarabien und Geographische 
Porachungen im und fiber den siidwestlichen Teil Arabiens von 
Hein/rich Freihern von Maltnan. Braunschweig 1873. 


Mekka von Dr. C. Snouck Hurgronje. 2 Bande. Mit Bilder-Atlas. 
Haag 1888. 1889. 

I* An account of the manners and customs of the modern Egyptians, 
written in Egypt etc. By Edward William Lane. Various 
editions. London. — Lane, Bitten und Gebrauche der heutigen 
Egypter. Ubersetzt von /. Zenker. 3 Bde. Leipzig 1852. 

E. W. Lane, Arabian society in the middle ages. Studies from the 
Thousand and One Nights ed. by Stanley Lane Poole. London 
1883. (Supplement to the "Manners and Customs", containing 
the notes to Lane's translation of the Thousand and One Nights 
[v. infra). 


Delectus veterum carminum arabicorum. Carmina selegit et edidit 
Th. Noeldeke, glossarium confecit A. Muller. Berolini 1890. 

tjber Poesie und Poetik der Araber von Wilhelm Ahlwardt. Gotha 
1856. 4". 

Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Poesie der alten Araber. Von Th. Noldeke. 
Hannover 1864. 

Kitdb al-agdni by Abu '1-Farag 'AJi al-Isfahani (f 352 H., beg. 
30. Jan. 962). 20 vols. Bulak 1285. — Ahi Ispahanensis 
liber cantilenarum magnus, ed. Kosegarten. T. 1. Gripesvoldiae 
1840. 4C. — The twenty-first volume of The Kitab al-aghani 
ed. by Rud. E. Brunnow, Leyden 1888. — Tables alphabetiques 
du Kitab al-Agani par J. Quidi. l^r fasc. Leide 1895. 

Kitab raudat al-adab fi tabakat suara* al'arab by Iskander-Aga 
Abkarius (modern Beyrout scholar). Beirut 1858. 

Bizauat al-adab wa-lubb lubab hsan al-'arab, by '' Ab-daX-Kddir ibn 
'Umar al-Bagdddi (f 1093 H.; beg. 21. Aug. 1629) 4 vols. Bulak 
1291 (A work on poets; on the margin are printed the Sawahid 
al-'Aini). An index to the poets appeared from the pen of Quidi 
in the transactions of the E. Accademia dei Lincei, Eome 1887. 

*The Diwans of the six ancient Arabic poets Ennabiga, 'Antara, Tharafa, 
Zuhair, 'Alcjama and Lnruulqais, ed. by W. Ahlwardt. London. 

Bemerkungen iiber die Achtheit der alten Arabischen Gedichte mit 
besonderer Beziehung auf die sechs Dichter etc. von W. Ahlwardt, 
Greifswald 1872. 

Le Diwan de Nabiga Dhobyani public par H. Dtreniourg. Journal 
asiatique 1868 — 9. 

H. Thorbecke, 'Antarah, ein vorislamischer Dichter. Leipzig 1867. 

Die Gedichte des'j.!fta»??o Alfahl. Mit Anmerkungen herausgegeben 
von Albert Soein. Leipzig 1867. 

Le diwan d'Amro'lkais par le Bon de Slane. Paris 1837. 40. With 


Commentary by al-BatalyiJsi. Cairo 1308. Cf. Amrilkais, der 
Dichter und Konig. Von Fr. Biickert. Stuttgart und Tu- 
bingen 1843. 

■t-*Septem Mo'allakat carmina antiquiisima Arabum, textum etc. rec. 
F. A. Arnold. Lipsiae 1850 (out of print) — "With commentary 
by az-Zauzani (f 375 H., beg. 24. May 958). Cairo 1288. 

A commentary by Abii Zakariya Sahya at-Tihrizi (f 420 H., beg. 
11. Aug. 1108) on ten ancient Arabic poems edited from the Mss. 
of Cambridge, London and Leiden by Charles James Lyall. 
Fasc. I Bibliotheca Indica, New Series, No. 789, Calcutta 1891; 
Pasc. II ib. No. 840. Calc. 1894. 

Der Diwan des Lelnd. Nach einer Handschrift zum ersten Male 
herausgegeben von Jusuf JDijd-ad-dm al-CMlidl. Wien 1880. 
Cf. A. von Krenier in den Sitzungsberichten der phil.-hist. 
Classe der Kais. Akademie d. Wissenschaften 98. Bd. 2 Heft. 
Wien 1881. — Die Gedichte des Lebid. Nach der Wiener 
Ausgabe iibersetzt und mit Anmerkungen Tersehen aus dem 
Nachlasse des Dr. A. JSuber herausgegeben von Oarl Brockel- 
mann. Leiden 1891. 

Die Mufaddalij at (Anthology of the Grammarian al-Mufaddal; f about 
170 H.) Nach den Handschriften herausgegeben von Seinrich 
Thortecke. Erstes Heft. Leipzig 1885. 

*Samaaae carmina cum Tebrisii scholiis integris edidit, indicibus in- 
struxit, versione latina et commentario illustr, G. G. Freyiag. 
2 vol. Bonnae 1828—47 (collected by Abu Tammam f 180, beg. 
27. Nov. 805; at-Tabrizi Comm. f 420 H., beg. 11. Aug. 1108). 
Another edition Bulak 1296. Cf. Hamasa oder die altesten 
arabischen Volkslieder, gesammelt von Abu Temmam, iibersetzt 
und erlautert von Friedrich Biickert. 2 T. Stuttgart 1846. 

The Hudsaolian poems contained in the manuscript of Leyden edited 
in Arabic and translated with annotations by J. G. L. Kosegarten. 
Yol. I. London 1854. 4". — Letzter Theil der Lieder der Hu- 
dbailiten, arabisch und deutsch: Skizzen und Torarbeiten von 
J. Wellhausen. 1. Heft. Berlin 1884. Comp. Z. der D. Morgenl. 
Gesellschaft 39. pp. 104, 151, 411 ff. 

Die Gedichte des 'Urwa ibn Alward. Von Th, Noldeke: Abhandlungen 
der Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen. Hist. -Phil. Classe 11. 

Gedichte und Pragmente des 'Aus ibn Bajar, gesammelt, herausgegeben 
und iibersetzt von Rudolf Geyer: Sitzungsberichte der Kais. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Philos.-hist. Classe. Band 
126. Wien 1892. 

Anis al-gulasa fi diwan al-Sansa (The poetess al-Hansa is said to 
have died A. H. 24, beg. 7. Nov. 644 A. D.) Beirut 1888. — 
Le diwan d'al Hansa' traduit par le P. de Coppier et suivi de 
fragments inedits d'Al-Hirniq. Beyrouth 1889. 

168 Literature M. 

Ibn Hisami(t 762 H., beg. 11 Nov. 1360) Commentarius in Carmen 

Ka^bi len Zoheir Banat Suad ed. Guidi. Lipsiae 1871. 1874. 
Der Diwan des Garwal b. Aus al-Hutefa (f between 68 — 70 H.) 

Bearbeitet von Ignaz Qoldziher: Zeitsehrift der D. Morgenl. 

Gesellschaft Bd. 46, S. 1—53; 173—225; 471—527; Bd. 47, 

8.43 — 85; 163—201. Also in a collected edition. Leipzig 1893. 
Diwan sayyidna Hassan ibn Tdbit (f 54 H., beg. 30. Aug. 683). 

Tiinia 1281. 
Diwan d'al-Ahtal, Texte arabe publie pour la premiere fois d'apres le 

manuscrit de St. Petersbourg et annot§ par le P. A. Salhani 

S. J. Beyrouth 1891. 
Divan de Ferazdak (f 110 H., beg. 16. April 728) recits de Mohammed 

ben-Habib d'apres Ibn-el-Arabi publie sur le manuscrit de Sainte- 

Sophie de Constantinople avec une traduction franjaise par B. 

Boucher. Paris 1870. 4". (incomplete). 
Magmii' mustamil 'ala hams dawawin (an-Nabiga, 'Urwa, Hatim, 'Al- 

kama and Tarazdal;) Cairo 1293 cf. Z. der D. Morgenl. Ge- 
sellschaft 31, 667 ff.' 
Ghalef elahmar^s {Ai&A after 155 H.) Qasside. Berichtigter arabischer 

Text etc. von A. Ahlwardt. Greifswald 1859. 
Diwan al-Buhtun (f 190 H,, beg. 27 Nov. 805). Constantinople 1300. 
Diwan des Abu Nowas nach der Wiener und Berliner Handschrift 

mit Benutzung anderer Handschriften herausgegeben von W. Ahl- 

loardt. I. Die Weinlieder. Greifswald 1861. — Diwan Abi Nuwas. 

Cairo 1277. (Abu Nuwas f about 195 H. = 810). 
Diwan poetae Abu-'l-Walid Moslim ibno-'l-Walid al-Angari cognomine 

Qano-'l-gliawdni (San al-gawdni f 208 H., beg. 16. May 823) 

quem edidit M. de J. Goeje. Lugduni Bat. 1875. 4". 
Al-anwar az-zahiya fi diwan Abi'l-'Atahiya (AbiiV Atdhiya f 221 

H., beg. 26. Dec. 835). Beirut 1886. 2nie fedit. 1888. 
Diwan Abl Tammdni Habib ibn Aus at-Ta'i (f 231 H., beg. 7. Sept. 

845). Cairo 1292.' 
Diwan amir al-mu'minm Ibn-al-Mu tazz nl-'Abbasi (f 296 H. = 909) 

Cairo 1891. Cf. tjber Leben und Werk des 'Abdallah ibn al- 

Mutazz von Otto Loth. Leipzig 1882. 
Mutanabbii (^al-Mutanabbi f 354 H. = 965) carmina cum commen- 

tario "Waliidii primum edidit, indicibus instruxit, varias lectiones 

adnotavit Fr. Dieterici. Berolini 1861. 4". 
Diwan Aii Firds al-Hamdani (f 357 beg. 7. Dec. 967). Beirut 

Abu'l-Alu' al-Maarri (f 449 H., beg. 10 Jlarch 1057) Sakt ez-zind, 

Poems with Commentary. 2 vols. Bulak 1286 and 1302 (Another 

edition Beii-ut 1884). — Luziim ma la yalzam. Bombay 1303. 

4"; Luzumiyat 2 vols. Cairo 1891. — Caroli Rieu de Abul-Alae 


poetae arabici vita et carmiuibus. Bonnae 1843. Cf. Zeitschrift 
der D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft 29, 304; 30, 40; 31, 471 ff. 

Yatimat ad-dahr fi suara' ahl al-'asr, Anthology composed by Abu 
Mansur 'Abd al-Malik a.t-Taalibi (f 429 H., beg. 14. Oct. 1037) 
4 vols. Damascus 1302. 

Anthologie arabe ou choix de pofeies arabes inedites traduites pour 
la premiere fois en frangais et accompagnfees d' observations critiques 
et littferaires par M. Orangeret de La Orange. (Paris) 1828. 


*The Kamil of Bl-Mubarrad (f 285 H., beg. 28. Jan. 898), edited 
for the German Oriental Society by W. Wright. Part. 1 — 12; 
Leipzig 1864 — 92. A reprint appeared in Cairo 2 vols. 1308. 

al-'Ikd al-farid, by Ibn 'Abd-rahbihi al-Andalitsi (f 328 H., beg. 
28. March 860) 3 vols. Bulak 1293. 

Kitab al-Muwassa of Abu 't-Tayyib Muhammed ibn Ishaq al-Waiid 
(lived 860—938 A. D.) edited by JS. Brunnow. Leyden 1886. 

Ibn Arabschah (f 854 H., beg. 14. Febr. 1450) Fructus imperatorum 
et jocatio ingeniosorum edidit Q. 6. Freytag, 2. vol. Bonnae 
1832. 4". ^ Oriental editions with the title: Pakihat al-hulafa' 
wa-mu^kahat az-zurafa'. 

Makamat badi' az-zaman al-Hamaddnl (al-Hamadani, the predecessor 
' of Hariri died 398 H., beg. 17. Sept. 1007) with commentary by 
Seih Muhammad Abdo. Beirut 1889. Other Makamat of Hamar 
dani Constantinople 1298. 

*Les s6ances de Hariri (al-Hariri f 516 H. , beg. 12. March 1122), 
avec un commentaire choisi pao Silvestre de Sacy; 1 ed. Paris 
1822; 2. ed. par Beinaud et J. Verenbourg . ^ 2 torn. Paris 
1847—1853. — "With the Commentary of as-Sarisi (f 619 H., 
beg. 15. Feb. 1222) 2 vols. Bulak 1284. — Makamat (Towelled 
text) 2. Ed. Beyrouth 1886. — The Assemblies of Al-Hariri, 
transl. &o. by Thomas Chenery. Vol I 1867. — Do. Arabic text 
with English notes &c. by F. Steingass 1895. 

*Kitab Adab al-Kdtib (proply. an aid to elegant writing) composed 
by Muhammed Abdallah ibn Muslim Ibn Kutaiba (f in the 
2nd- half of the Srd- Centy. of the Flight). Cairo 1300. 

Kitab al-matal as-sa'ir fi, 'adab al-katib was-sa'ir (Treatise on Style) 
by Ibn al-Attr al-Gazari (f 637 H., beg. 3. Aug. 1239) Cairo 

Basail (Letters) abi'1-Fadl badi' az-zaman a\Samaddni (f 398 H., 
beg. 17. Sept. 1007). Constantinople 1298. 

dl-Maidanl (f 518 H., beg. 19. Feb. 1124) Magma' al-amtal. (Collec- 
tion of Proverbs). 2 vols. Bulak 1284. — Arabum proverbia, 

170 Literature N. 

vocalibus instruxit, lafcine vertit, commentario illustravit G. Q. 
Freytag I, II, III (a b.), BoBnae 1838—43. 

fLes colliers d'or, allocutions morales de Zamakhschari (az-Zamahian 
t 538 H., beg. 16. July 1143) texts arabe suivi d'une traduction 
fran^aise et d'un commentaire philologique par C. Barbier de 
Meynard. Paris 1876. 

All's hundert Spruche arabisch und persisch paraphrasiert von Keschid- 
eddin Watwat, nebst einem doppelten Anbarig arabischer Spriiche 
herausgegeben, iibersetzt und mit Anmerkungen begleitet von 
H. L. Fleischer, Leipzig 1837. 40. 

Sirag al-mulrik (Ethics and Anecdotes) composed by Abu Bekr Mu- 
hammed at-Tartuli al-Maliki (f 520 H. , beg. 27. Jan. 1126). 
Cairo 1289. 

Muhadarat al-udaba wa-muhawarat as-su'ara wal-bulaga, a species 
of Ethics with Anecdotes by ar-Bdgib al-Isfahdm (f in the 
beginning of the 6tli centy. of the Flight). 2 vols. Cairo 1287. 40. 

al-Mustatraf fi kull fann al-mustazraf, a species of anthologieal En- 
cyclopaedia compiled by Ahmad al-IbWii (lived about 800 H.) 
2 vols. Caii-o 1304. 1307. ' 

Siret 'jimteribn Saddad, 32 vols. Cairo 1286. 1307. (another recension 
10 vols. Beirut 1871). Cf. Antar, a Bedoueen romance. Trans- 
lated from Arabic by T. Hamilton. Part. I, i — iv. London 1820. 

Alf laila wa-laila. Tausend und eine Nacht arabisch. Nach einer 
Handschriffc aus Tunis herausg. von Maximilian Habicht I — VTII; 
fortges. von H. L. Fleischer IX— XII vol. Breslau 1825—43. 
(This edition is not suitable for beginners in Arabic, as the 
language is in many parts strongly influenced by the vulgar 
tongue). ■ — The AJif Laila or book of the thousand nights and 
one night, published from an Egyptian Ms. by W. H. Macnaghten. 
4 vols. Calcutta 1839— 42. — 4 vols. Bulak 1279. — Original 
in expurgated edition. Beyrout 1888 — 90. — Following the 
earlier Bulak edition; The thousand and one nights commonly 
called, in England, The Arabian nights' entertainments. Trans- 
lated by W. Lane. 3 vol. London. 1 ed. 1841. Other editions 
by Edw. Stanley Poole (the last 1882). 







Crown 80. Cloth pp. 334, price 8 s. 6 d. 


Carmina selegit et edidit 

Glossarium confecit 

Crown 8°. Cloth pp. 256, price 7 s. 6 d. 

* AN 



Edited by 


Crown 80. Cloth pp. 64, price 2 s. 6 d. 

LONDON: WILLIAMS & NORGALE, 14, Henrietta Street. 
NEW YORK: B. WESTERMANN & Co., 812, Broadway. 

PART n. 




Socin. Arabic Grammar.' 

Exercises in KEADiNa. 31* 

} yf iM. i «aajaJ1 JflJuJ) |^jj.<u»aj *J jj^JL^JI oi-^!o« 5. 

'— .CuC^ O^jO'- ?o?,-' (2 -'p-- ? CJo^ ^'2-' 9 M ^^ 

.^,^S^o^ ^jG^'i^Yi-" "Tl' *•'- H^tr on 

Let>j jl».s.5 (5<X» si>U). JJ |Vg.AJI^ ij^^- (J^-"^'" ■ 

jv^^u ,j.4Js->Ji i^(^*vJi xaJ^ br'^ (5f^ i^;-"*^ 

y^ lyiXXi^t JtX+si (ji.^1. iiXji^JI J.^A*»:| ^A»AJ] 



' . T -- '•" - > ^ ,,o* .--.-.-: ^f'o ^ "• ^ 

16-29. \.j~>^ Fy*'' jj-"*=*- liJr^' '— ';'-^ i«jtXA^|, wCio 

J^ ^■''i r^M ti^Li. (^Jiajl^ «^Ji^l^ v.S^^sxJl 

£)^' (J-^-'' ff^.J"^ J-*«A-*.I JJ^" (jJ-O 1«1AJ JJjI 

y^ol j^UjlXj JoaXc^I tX*=; iU:^ ^vj:i[ ^J^Ju?.^. ^a.I 

'" t-t ' ji".' =?."'> '"J 'f^" .5-0., 0,0, 

^Tf-"^' 07*^. ^fp i54*»' 1*-^^^ '^■i^r'. r'*"^' 

"^ i_a^X/j t^^AAs.! ^j-gj.^_ v^*-*J LXaaJ i^.La\AJ 
irJTir I 'f.T' " O'o'* i-i.' , , -"o , o, 

^sU-«*i^ t^iJ[ U*aX«] j^kl*^- ^v*o I^JoIl "pyOJ 

['"V-l I "'•■:• '^"'" o-.,o,' , ,-> , , o, 

Ls^ '^7*^^l l;t)a-o ^^i- bc£^ l^^f J^^JUI 
iy^ (^tVxi tXjjj v_*^ isSiAj u^i-AAs.! ^Tj-^Mdj LSiiJr 

\\ \ •'\°- K^' — °.' ' "" """- 0,0, o a—o. 

'rf^' ty/*:? '^/^ t^"-^ (J^y r**+» ;yij v:iuJuU«j 

^ t>t>-«aj ^KMJ yyiJtXw w« Jj^ 



Suffixa et Praefixa in flexione 

verbi adhibita. 





3. masc. 



3. fern. 



- S (i) 

2. masc. 




2. fern. 



(^5 ) ,2^. S (i) 


s i 




— t (1) 

3. masc. 


1 ' 

(I') C)'^ ^(^■) 

3. fem. 



(t ' ) u'r ■> 6) 




(1 ' ) ^;,r 3 (i) 

3. masc. 



('^ ')^,' ^. (^ 

3. fem. 



u- ^ (^) 

2. masc. 



(' ' ) i,; ' ^- d) 

2. fem. 


a > 

u ^-(^o 













f S 




:i » — 

"1 "4 "^^4 "4 '^ 

3^ B^ 33 O't) o^ 

^3 :3 :^ ^55 
'-D °-6 ^\ ^^ 


•I' I 



B g 


\-5 v-< , 0-5 0-5^ »-< 




^^ '■p> 


^^ -Ds ^^ 

— I. 


1) ,5 "^ 

'3 'ii 'ii 'J3 ^J3 

3 >i) -^oi. "'t )P 









Paradigma flexionis 

Passivi I verbi sani 






Subjunc- I , 

tivus '^ 

3. masc, 
3. fern. 
2. masc. 

2. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 




o J 


9 9 




9^0 9 


^ 09 


^^0 9 




" ^o 9 
' '"9 





^ s 












v| :i ^ ^ 

»-% ^n^ A ,v4 


\ :d \ :c( \ ? 



\ >-x^ 







*rr •< <e -A-rr - • 

^-6 ^-6 "^ »A \-6 --6 oA o=i 

3 \3; ^i^ "i! "3^ ^= ^lB ":: 



"3 '=.5 '-S* ^=^ ''5^ IH ^" 

\-5 '^\ 0-5 j:^^ ^^ ^-3 "^ •■ 
•^^V) ^"^"^ •"^3 '" 

4 °i 'J2 n^ 4^ v=3 ^^1 «4 

—6 =--6 '■■'-6 ^ --^ i> ^ 
































1 — 1 




1— 1 






—6 »-' 


i^M fit 



^ o 

\ :. 



\ u 






















































1— 1 

1— 1 



H- 1 


1 — ( 




Paradi^ma flexionis 

Activi I verbi mediae geminatae 


3. masc. 
3. fern. 
2. masc. 

2. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 































c; - 
a -' 





C - o 6- 




Paradigma flexionis 

Passivi I verbi mediae geminatae 








3. masc. 
3. fern. 
2. masc. 

2. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 





1'° '• 















1— ( 


1— 1 


^iB ^:§= \3 i;j =^-i f§= r^ ^3 




1— 1 




P^'5 ^^^.rj -\:^s vJ 0^ 





Perfectum Activi 
Imperfectum n 
Imperativus n 
Participium n 
Perfectum Passivi 
Imperfectum « 
Participium „ 
Infinitivus " 




Paradigma formarum selectaniin flexionis 

verborum hamzatorum 

verbi tert. 

Verbi pr. ^ 

Verbi sec. J^ 


I. Perf. Act. 

1*^ v_*.a3 

, it. 

5*"^ js^-- 

i o 

Impf. 1) 


j»^ 'J>-^ 


Imperat. n 



Partic. )) 


Perf. Pass. 



Imp erf. « 



II. Imperf. Act. 


S f^ 


Infin. V 







IV. Perf. Act. 





o 5 

;5 6 ^ 

Perf. Pass. 




- ^a 



VIII. Perf. Act 

'y^l id<m 



Imperf. n 

^ ? ? ^ i,9 

, >0J 

s' ">» 

Perf. Pass. 

)Pi^ ('>^'0 



Imperf. n 






Paradigma flexionis verborum 

primae radicalis « et ^c 

Verbi pr. j 
Imperf. i 

Verbi pr. j 
Imperf. a 

Verbi pr. j sani 

Verbi pr 

1 L5 

I. Perf. Act 




* Imperf. n 

9 ^ 



Imperat. « 

3 ^ J 


(J^j, J^jo 

Imperf. Pass. 


5 — * 

3 ^ 





IV. Perf. Act. 


Imperf. n 


J 3 


Partic. 1) 

S J 


S 5 






G. , '■ 

VIII. Perf. Act. 





Imperf. i, 



Perf. Pass. 




X. Perf. Act. 




«i ' ..', 




Paradigma flexionis 

Activi I Terbi mediae radicalis 











3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 

2. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 






J .- 








' 1" 












? > 














! > 

> 5^ 



f ^ 

! n 









Paradig^ma llexionis 

Activi I verbi mediae radicalis ^ 








3. masc. 
3. fern. 
2i masc. 

2. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 






9 ^ 






























- 5 - 






^0 ^ 


O ' o 



1 ' ' 






9 - 


a — 



TABULA, xrn. 
Paradigma fiexionis 

Passivi I verbi mediae radicalis . vel 










3. masc. 






3. fern. 






2. maSc. 




O ..3 


2. fern. 










3. masc. 






3. fem. 











3. masc. 






3. fem. 



- 1"' 



2. masc. 





2. fem. 



^ o -* 





rnmmfir ^ 

3 ^J 








^ - 



a ^ 

•^ I— I 

g I 

<j © 

c-i ,a 

a J 

a ;2j 



-4 ^ ..,4 '^ '-^ 

~D (.■>—) 


;4 il ^J 34 ^^ ; j= ^J °i ^3= 

'-D J -- ) -» o— , \-f, --o 8)=^ ^,J 

^3^ n ^' ^1^ y 1^ ^' f^ 'f 


: W-:- 

4 ^ „4 ^4 - 




!5- ../| .J .A. ",5- 






























I— ( 





• i-t 





Paradigma flexionis 

Activi I verbi ultimae . JSi 













3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc, 

2. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 





9 0^-^ 

9 0^ 






^ J "' 
^> "' 

^ J "' 






Paradigma flexionis 

Activi I verbi ultimae ^^ JJii 











3. masc, 
3. fern. 
2. masc, 

2. fern. 

3. masc. 
3. fern. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 




o . 

CI ^^ 





o " 
a •" 







Paradigma flexionis 

Activi I verbi ultimae . vel ^ Juii 









3. masc. 




3. fern. 




2. masc. 



^ -^ 



2« fern. 



^ ..- ^ 





3. masc. 





3. fem. 




1 ■''.''.■: 







3. masc. 






3. fem. 





2. masc. 




1--: »' 


2. fem. 


<5 J ^ 






^ -^ 




M .-1 a; 


o.« 0:01 o.n ,!^ ..« o:c „:3 »-a 

^ % ^ i>^ ^l '\ a ^T ^J 









Perfectum Activi 
Imperfectum » 
Participium n 
Perfectum Passivi 
Imperfectum n 
Participium n 
Infinitivus n 




l> 13 I 

a 3 J 

'\ 4, "^ i- >\ - 




-s > 




































1— 1 













Paradigma flexionis 

Passivi I verbi ultimae . vel ^^ 








3. masc. 
3. fern. 
2. masc. 

2. fern. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 

3. masc. 
3. fem. 
2. masc. 
2. fem. 





Qt,* VTI 



^ 9 

> 9 

a 9 9 

^ 9 


^ " 9 
^ ^ O 9 



- ° - ?.' 

• "• •• 

^ ^ o 9 




Pakadiomata. 25 


Paradigma flexionis notninis 

a) generis 


a) triptoti 


cum articulo 

determinati in 
statu construot( 

Sing. Nom. 





1 "' 




'I ''At 


Dual. Nom, 






"'I = r. 

--, C 

Plur. Nom. 




- 1 =r. 

' 1 '='tf 

1 ° '•■ 

P) diptoti 

Sing. Nom. 











Dual. Nom. 








26* Paeadig-mata. 

determinati determinati in 
indetermmati ,. , , , , , 

cum articulo statu constructo 

Plur. Norn. 




Gen. Ace. 





b) generis 


a) triptoti 

Sing. Nom. 











Dual. Nom. 





"7.-1 = iT 


Plur. Nom. 








P) diptoti 

Sing. Nom. 

Gen. Ace. 

oeterum idem 



a) generis masculini in desinentis. 

. , . ... determinati determinati in 

cum artioulo statu construoto 

Sing. Nom.-Gen. ^oU i^^'^ ts^^' 

Ace. y^LS ^er^^l (C^^- 

Dual. Norn. ij^yoLi" ,jUualjiJ| LLa^J' 

Gen. -Ace. |j.jJuaU' ^^tJuoUJl (c*^^' 

Plur. Norn. OY^ "^yi^S wiLs 

Gen. -Ace. j^x^oLs ^juoLiiJt (<!?'^' 

b) nominis in 15—, I— desinentis. 
a) triptoti 

Sing. Norn.- 1 tr " » Tf ■"'jr -rf = ' 

Gen.-Ace.) ^5^^^^ V'i^-J' C5*^^ 

Dual. Nom. ^jLlftliAfljo ^jLIoh yijH Lxiixtfljo 

Gen.- Ace. ^AAila^ioAi jj.AAii3.ia4Jt ^i>Btii»axi 

Plur. ]Som. jj^AJa^ajo ^j^gh,<a».l| yuo-vax 

^o'foj o^^ojOj- o-.-cij 

Gen.-Acc. ^j.At?nvixi ^^^h,v?t>l ^^gh»ixi 

28* Paeadigmata. 

. determinati determinati in 

cum articulo statu constructo 

Sing.Nom.- | ,_^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Dual.Nom. ij'y^-^ (j'r*^' '.T^ 

P) diptoti 

Sing.Nom.- \ --^. ->;('. 'K 

Gen.-Acc.} ^/^ ^/'^' ^/^ 

id. LIj^ H^JJI yy'^ 


Paradigma nominis cum suffixis. 

a) nominis masc. in singulari positi ^jUaj'; fern. iOjla». 
cum suffixo 1. pers. sing. ic?'-^ ^^™* ig^)'^ 

n )i 2. J' -1 masc. >iJLjLaJ> 

1 1) 2. n !) fern. viLsLoJ' 

1 » 3. 1) II masc. joLtaJS (gCQ- sjL^") 

» » 3. 11 II fern. L(2jL«aJ" 

n n 2. n dualis LjoLai" 

" " 3. 11 1) U^jl-^'Cgen. U[.^LaJ() 

1 i> 1. 11 pluralis LLsLai" 

» n 2. 11 11 msc. iJiioLoj 

" » 2. 11 I) fem. ^JoLiij 

3. „ „ msc. ^Lli- (gen. ^ll^^lJii-) 
" 3. „ . fem. J,4^'L-^^(gen.^Cki-) 

Pabadigmata. 29* 

b) nominis in duali positi. 

Nominativus cum 

suffixo l.pers. sing. ,^ljLaS 

n n 


2. „ 


msc. JLjI viV etc. 

Gen.-Aco. „ 


1. ,■ 



1) « 


2. „ 


msc. iiLoL*i9 

I) » 


3. « 


11 iUjLtas 

n :t 


3. « 


fem. Lg.AjLfl,s etc. 

c) nominis masculini in 

plurali positi. 

Nominativus cum 

suffix ( 

3 1. pers. sing. (s^'-»«'* 

1! 1) 


2. „ 


msc. lilol viVetc. 

Gen.-Acc. « 


1. .. 


o 1 a ^ 

)) 1) 


2. « 


msc. ^d/~sLaJ" 

» i) 


3. » 


'i = T. 
msc. jijoLiflJ 

» » 


3. « 


fem. L^AjLaJietc. 

d) nominis feminini in 

plurali positi. 

Nom.-Gen.-Acc. cum su£f. 1. pers 


g. ^\^\^ 

Nominativus » » 2. n « msc. vdi'LiLu 

1) n 11 3. 1) )! 11 xjliLAu etc. 

Gen.-Acc. » n 2. » » » liULiLl 

11 11 11 3. 11 11 II juLeLwetc- 




i_ftXa. Jala:i. y=a.» LxCwt (_J.JU~> wfcJLft (3^5^ '-*-^i 

U^}^ ^Lj ^^ oLb ^^Xw iu.cio ^joLo ^Jd vi>j^' JaJju 
XjL^? liXiL^o ijaXAi sLi Xi^ia. -.>4> i:yL-«h^ 

•4. a. 5^^ (j'V^ -r*-*^ ("^ )>"S"^ £''^ Vr^ 4.^^' 

I '•'■•f .*!'.--. ' ° ' xf "- * ^ '"^ ? »' ' s, o ^ 

y s^'s-^ i_3i|UCuo 3^;^ _^v auj ;5vaJ Jsl^ **Ji->°< 

?,^0- S 9 O^ l'*> 

^ ,Ju»aA.m; (jJuau >«J.t>jJ' f*?-*^ W.'^ 

^ i^^^ diLo fjuj i^^ J^t^ *k? 

Exercises on the etymology. 33* 

UiJJCjJ^^y (j^OU**o tX:SUJ ^j-^y^ '^v« tPL; 37-38 

tty^aj f^Joj^. |VA^»Uio j^AAAwj LXw^ 'y'^T' >-*^' 

' (j'^^y* ts^^. *-**j '^i^ (j^?<^^' '^-^?:'. ^fy^ 

' ' 1°. ' I l'. ' \'t '''' , 'f »' ' ' 
jj-A*A,wO l^o *i'l (VJ'j-» >-o Uw(il j.yij icjji* 41-44. 

(•-^jf ^j^j^ ;j«5 j^t^ 9^ ij^j-L*j ^La^v. «i*^**! 

sLg^ t«AA^i i.^Ms>.jJ> ^IlVj^ ^Lo L:>Aia.i L«JCaj. 

I ' l'°l °' » ''I ' O JO =^ .-«'* ". 'o^ o,. ^« 

>^' L^^J |VJ Uz^UcLO AJ'w^ C^wUsI JutAAuJ I^IJnL^J 

9 o^ y ^ 

J Q 5 J ^ 

5^ O,^^ °-7 °Tl'°'' 30.. o* o.- 

I.,«* ;^(>aXj ouuw (jidxil IJ. tXi. cy-A-iAwoi (e4^. 43-48. 

C .*, . ^ O ^ ° ! J 

^ O J ? O J 

^Juii im.-*Xj l.jJLiil l.jXwt L«A^j (c**i ij'^^*^ 

o ^^ o ^ J s^j o ^o 3 ^ J 0^0^ 3 

^ v:i04> liiO.^^ *.A«j 15^>' ^T^^ *':i^5»^' 'y^)J. 

Socin, Arabic Grammar.' C 




I. ijjjJ '-"—» o«.AJ'| (jt.«^ 4-Luo (^*jaj ^^>-*f!^'' <y^. 

53. !i^4.A5w:& 4^*^H^. 1*5 l.-U=a-l *-g^jj Lg^A-o SLa-V*&. 

^ U^.OU-S jJ.XJ4>^ (^U^JJs 
5 , ^^JG -'03 9 '° ^ ?f'' S,0 5G 'ojS .' 

S"'' S,, S->|'' S f »> S,= 5 ?^| ' S 'OJ G,»,, 

JLaax**.! oLcSfcXlst £'<-^v^' ^'-^ rv-AjCi jLgJbt^ iLlixo 

^ tXiLaXx) >_^yu J^-»jw 

S'OJ £ 3 O.'O u 3.' S'^3 9 '^ G ^ " S ^ 

67-71. tXJ'wo v_fc^ i_jLiXwl w-Li* u»aJiAjo ^jO| (ilUCejt 1.1 

s.""^' i . f.' s.' , 6 ,f^ s a^s; S" c ,„, 

^js.yo L>.^U^ ^jUj^ ^^"^ f-^.' V*' vaJ^**^ O^yo 

?'.^' °i' » 3^' fT"' ^i'"' Tf"! ''"I"' I "' 
lX.xx« ^>~«J^ <^"^^ Ua^^ i^A^.xi EUajI^ ^^\Js gj»t^ 

.00^ 9o^ S .0' 6 o, G. , s ' O.f- o, ''- 

^"'^^ ^ '^^ (*^; iaJij.fl ^.j^mji 6^k*X>M\ 'iJuo 

"'iT ( ^ '\ ''.. ^\'. ' ^ = " ^ol' S. , ° G^l - 9 , 

"■^ e ^.^-<a-' )^-*«''» v-v*'° (vJo ;yy*^l y:?'-^ iVy*^ 

G'- S^oj 9„^ G. ,", G ^, Gi" 9',' 0, 

'-jy*^ p'^'" ^^^ ;^-'^ o^ i^^yi joUiA-oj 

^.'''1'- 0) 9-ojG°' S. ," 9 0', 


S "- 9 <i, r, " . 

jjl.ft (XkXo i^MiJijo %\ukj!3\^ Utt"^ iS"?^ ^) (5*^ 
(_A.e (5^) SUto. £LiAJI_ j^Joo ^aaXwulX) ^^Xi SiOU-is 
^ jtXft j^^ SUu ^^.gjyjo ^^-^j' 15^"^ 
A.2t *J U«aA Jt*A (J>.i=»^ U*'JW (J "'^ ^^ytf*" 

i-UiftI (>^sl i'Lw.s l-tt^^ UyL-OI ^^ iji'')^ XA^*u| 

«jSjc] umjJmi ^.b!^ s^^ (^y^ <^^H^ v^^- r^ 
^5^K*« jLgJl i^bji't oosL** wLftv i^s (^-^ sLfij 

* G )■>* G.-o* o', g'' G ". S -5 'l M " °lt "? 

\ ij-k»J| |»u:j I (jlv^w tj^ l»^^ ^>-***^ liUUjo »Uajot 

S,^ G5> ®|'' *'' 'cT'-' ^l('"f ^ I'?' 

L,L^ _.»M ^jIt>kAw t>fcA« yi'-"*'-* JUi'l ij»*-!'i'r5 
' ^ ^^ s . ^ , ^^ a ,, ^ s > ^^ t-y^ - 

G. r-'c J J s ^.^ 


i_}Lj J,a ^y.^yj\ Jyj ^ 'jJ Lo^i ^^ LJv^ 135-138. 

ju£ ^1^ ^ JLs.lJ| jj.AA,kj xlbolil ^i J-LIaJI 

1 § 130. 2 § 990. 

36* Exercises akd texts. 

^ *-ft-«^ ^I^Xiij !i5 ',v4^ "Job- JUs ^ sf^^l 

jos^aJI c>Jyjf ^ sUXIi t>Lgj=» «.^-^^ u^rt ^r^M^'^ 

jjLkA/*J| 1^ ^Lj "i.^! ^ ^*&A^ Sj.*4A vd)^" 

liJ^ ^"^^.1 viUjf bt Jyij *j $AA^ sUwJI 

Xi^^ 1^^ ^ ''ILL) ULstlil s<Xsi ji l^iot ^ ^j':^\ 

i§ 110. 149. 2 § 136c 2. 3§12i. 4 § 113b. 5§ii8c. 6§l37cl. 
7 § 121a. »§ 101b. 9 § 113d. m § 108. •i§126. 12 § 109. "§110. 
14 § 92b. 15 § 113a, 16 §141. 17 § 108. 18 § 6f 2. 19 § 98ef. 20 § 116. 


> " - ■' ..'"■'. »"--- o«; JO- "'.T -r J ,'-- ton tr 

tXA£^ l^-* 4^-**^ o; <>>■>* JOXj tXAAxJI ^^'^ "• 

iukJI # ^Lif ^^iJI ^^)l ^L*is^ i^^S ,_^f^ 

1 § 147a, 148 b note. 2 § 99a, cf. note b. 3 § 123. 


X-UI ^t^ Sj..«drS? ijOj^l ^>Jj.jiaXs t\./ii &L+-Ut ^^< Jj.j' 

v_A^ xJJI Jl ^ ^^^Jl ^ iUi' c;^ «-Ul (j] 
^ V^AiJl |.^aJ oot vib| ai-Ul b ^ |^jjLAj«.SkJ| 

4^^ ^7^*^ 4^^^ i ui * ^i^^' 4i«^ i ul 

^ ^^jCU ^_^L|t J^;o y0 ftXs> j.At S ^1 &3LljLi 

1 § 134. 2 § 152, 

Exercises on the syntax. 39 

° - . ''' (- - 1= 1 ' " '"ii" ,' ' ' 1° 't t' " ' Ti' 

jj viL*kij <Xc^ c^'^^^ v?Lft ^1^ y^tWl (j (jj 

o^-UuI ^ ^'A^ J-T^r" iwtX.^ **>W' |»^' 
ia. ftjc\ Ji L.g.£\jLix) ^j.AuJ^I. L^iLftiit sLLmJI^ %^;f 

'iJ^\ ^^ 'iLu^AOJ xJJ\ JjL&. ki ^JLiis Sv+aj JoLw 

6 . J 

^jmjUJo. JajO s^LdiJ. aJ«wmJ| ^^^ £^^i ^j^Ls ^^ 

jojUw JU 4^ w^iiJIj ^ii«^^l (jy^ ^ ^ ^y 

1 § 131. ^ § 101 a note. 3 § 152. 4 § 93 a. 5 § 132. 
144. 7 § 141. 

40* Exercises akd texts. 

100. ^^iiuS ^ 5^ f^;4^'S i''/Ji° ''^ B ,^;' 

iU^L,*ajO ^r^^ nIwCu^I SwCuLaX >^AA^ ^t jjLw^^ 

j^^ ^ 5^^^^^ 5:?'*^^ ^^^■^ tj li*^^' ij sLis-l 
^ ^J^t X+JL) »w«£iJ J^j-'l ^>^. ^j' $-U| Jv*";^ XAJ1 ^i^ ijx |v5tX.«aj^ «„**wy»J!^ ^.^ii-f (j 

iT't' » "..f- "f '••''11"° 'i"t - T'f «,,'' 

1 § 151. 2 § 113b. 3 § 157. 

Exercises on the syntax. 41* 

^^ i5^' ;'*^' tS^ ij-^;-^' rt?' Ij I^JLS 154 ff. 

^ fyOL^I j^A^ ^ItX^lill jj.A^*gLiJf (jiUi. Jobs 
bLftJl (Jtyol^ x^jLs. >.^*j (^j"'' 4^' J^ 

xj iiLjLs J-dii (5IJI v5^L«o :^ ^ e)^4Xft 

--O-0 ^Ow,^ ^iS^ . ^•'O '' 61^ 

— 0'£ --CJ^— ww'* ^--'' CS'O ^ Q '$' ^O^ 


^ a -^ ^ t --^ , CJ-N3 ^ ^^ ^ ^ --^^ ? ? £-^ 

^ S ^lJvit Lg.JLot sl^ JUsxJ I ^ ,j^^!jaJb L^L 
158ff. (^JtN-io i_flJt wiXiiAuJ y. ItX^t* l«<Xft (i^A*yo ^ 

Exercises on the syntax. 43* 

■:•'>■: - " ° tt '"■-.'. ^ "> ' , 'T 'ii'.' 

''.'i' '--:»- - - ,-: , >) !-^ j"- -,r ,r, 

Ijt^ xajuIj JkTLlIi |l^IxH Jff iS^ J^pT Jli 

sJL^mO cpL: ^LioJLCuJt lots KAA4JO l-.9ww.AAi ^v^ 

jpUt yA^^ JLiLo j.Lft^ JX) ^ xJU-wJ Oj.AM.J^ 

I^^V-AM/ot^ (^Ij^l |Jt_ |vXj(Xjj(« aXj®*^. l^yXiAwiLi 

v:>.^j^ lit. ^«^*«liLf I ^j ciou. \^AJiJt ^^ cy^^^^ 

(jjuuJI Jj:* UiLXi ijOs ^ I jj oLui . I (j*;.ftj vA*^ 
I4JU! tjiyi j^.^iJl |C^:>I (J^i> til ^ L*A*^ 
|V.g-Uf tM-y-^ fr7^ e^ liU*.^^ V'^' li ^>^' 


J.'O? o^?'', T"--'o.?' ' .'"* 


v:iiwAa»*A.w . (♦••*"S^ '-j'j''?' Ci«JiAc. sL».Av,J1 S^'jJ' 

^ |vS3 ^^ \j^]y 'r*^7^ '>*^^i 

^ ^♦Ai^ifc.. ^Jr^l L^5 *^^ J^tXJ' ,jf (J^ *i).J 

"^'^ a 9 ^ ''^ ^ ' — ■'-- o 9 ^-^ ^ o ^ ""^ ' '^ 

i».fjjj L^ iji^ i^ a-ut^i v_ftAi.ifi i^roLi Ij (34"^!. J-^ 
j^ jjLLiL syb jUi :^Li |l/j.if'L S'y lL, 
iv>->.> 15^^'^ ts<^^*- (♦•JcXs^t ijJyb ^ 4^ ji'-^ 
J.£;j J^^ xijT iQ i^Llj Jr^ xijf tLul 


• " \<-f'-' '.'.'si' " '," ''' '■' 'i7 "I' 
j| locX) L}^ XAXj^Au i,:y.>olO. iOLwJtft ooLb xaJLs. 

'.'' " \y.'. '"I' T' " " ''='' '^u 

^ '.-■'-: I "'i '" ' '"ir ' — >>-o "'t"- 

a-y^ ^y UJ ^ JU« (j^^aAjl CJvftJ^ XAAaJu ouolo^ 

J * ** r '' --^"'^ O^ O i^^w-'? "^ ^ vn 9 

{joju-l J.A£ ^ kjL:s\JCAuxi s^cXJ xaLw Swva/^-k> 

i ,0*f -["'• S'^ S"^ ^u;J^ r'tf "' 

l^jLfibfl t>.*.=? i^y^ VSt^T* (•<iN*» sU-L:if l^JU 

'i>f' .'.r \At 'T m.'' '" !>?.'"' 


- o- ^ o* 

= * -'' 

^^t ^jsj oAjiiJt ^Ui V;^' vJ"^ c>^ U° 

IjjUo J^J4>-i?- >~g.+J *5^i P?*^i ^^^) to-Li. 

^o 3 , 

x-LJt tx^ ^1^ 4^ jQt jTj^y. Ui' ' LCJf jT,^jjJ 

o^o — ^ i 

3 0^ ^ » 

sLj ;^>£ v>-*^ I*-' ''^]. ^ oJLfti K^tX^i auXsLi 
JkxLfi Jk~.4> 1^ Sj^iil vb ;^ v^-<aJ uilXls UjjJt 
LaaIXaiwo stX^ji jUa xiJI |^«3« loUail ijj y^ 

f , iS,3 ..c=^ ' o' 'o'- -J '„ -j- 06 J o3 

i^xs ^4.^ x^io i3:S>J' ^-fi^y^ ^'^^J liLwoU i^jijj" 

Exercises on the syntax. 47 

I -- 9 " "^0 "^ ^^^ "^"9 O— 9 9o-^ >0-» -* 

U xXi^ '^')'^ "b)^ '-'4*^ d^-UJI (j.ajij JLi" 
sL^j xX.«-a^ ,j«t>jLf| xaJI j_tiis3.J V^*^? 5*:?)' 

Jli li> UJ Jli J;Cu!iil J|^ JLs sjcjaJw l^S 4^tpl 
^>X<fl.j LZe xJLLt LsiLs. Laj^^ Lgj ij' 15^*^ 

o4*t> li>t JLs ^ff Li^ JLs xs^Ls. iiUJt^ iX iji 




xJLfc «iaaj! • sJ'r*^' T^ ' <i )*-**^ ^^^ JtyiJI (joiu^. 

Lfjo La^JOo '-g-s^4> i-fljjj xSl^-M £•-''5 ?)'r'? 
^^1 'iXid^S d.ij <Jj»l ^ ^^ tMI 6| &J 

Arabic pkose extracts. 49* 

\-^A 'y^\ "3'^ UJLi. L^Avo J,i5"| ^'^ L4=.^ 14^5 
|V^^ ctliit^Jl Lgj (jJOiU Xs^Str .^^aIsI 5*^ x^lljfl 

r ':■■•& \ ' -- J s- — ' 

I '' "■' (' t ' ' "-"■ I ^P'M > ''■"'I T °' I f'' T "■' 
Lg.A4ju. I.j_(d^. L^S jVjo f . tX^jiwyJ, lii.^ j.i" w^-Ui. >iA.AAj 

J^ 4>L»tX!gJt Oj...fljLi (J^ltXJl v^-iiJI doLxAx^ 
j'.ci^ ''1-°^ ..'i'' '"^ '' ''ir 'i'' I' '11° 

\\^ jkjL^S'f li^li HJ.S. 'iXjiXtJ' vi^olx. (>LxA4~il 

o'l ',- 05- -■-- 0'.. ca,' _ •" \T ' r'°f 

Socin, Arabic Grammar." 

50* Exercises and tests 

^^^- ^/i^i ^i^ii^ £;yi ^tyi^ ^u^^fi, cMJb 

«^ j_aaJ ijL^jLgJI (j^ij ij-4-' ^rM^ o^ Jolwol 
(jA*^ J"''-'^ 5^' y^) *-^ i^'* U^J* v:>**£>-i 

Arabic pkose exteacts. 61* 

kXj\ 'Jy^) J'^*^ U^"T^' /*^^ s'JliLtJ b'jj) |V^ls& i«^^ 

»L>o. stXA*. viAJo ^aJI «3|t>Jt i^J x^tvi i^.£ Li^ 

ij.+Xi s^aaJI J.XS x^f i3-i^j ^li" ujtXJI sLaJI 1^1^ 

jjjf (j.j| iyUii ukXc UlX^jJ jUuLi ijilojj' ooi. x^i 
1 'Tf " >"' ' ' 'i I ■=' ' " r '', o ' f ' y, ' '"^ 

xxUj&. XjiXa v:>-ciwiii£ tXij rLiJI ujLj ^^sS. SySJiyi 

J^*uj «^v=? t^j..<fljl^ tXo.t ^L*JI lt>J» ;j L/o lyUi 

J^l J^-*; Jlj' ^=- U-U xSL^u '"^'^ Vr*:? *ii 
i^Ls -,.L.«3J 5^jJ (*"i'5^ o*.=>-UuJ xslj*« U,Ai I i*-g-*-" 

JU v^.oJ.Jl XivJill ,_*s-L&. ^yj ij^ (5^ 
(J^^ e)"- ^'-*~' owajI^ L^L&- iajvl !^s»^ ool^ U 


^u! illplj ^\Sy stXl^ j!jl jyJalj\ ill ^ 1^*^ 
> } "•'^r' 'T li " "li ''"''' f' I -r"! ." I '• "''I 

-^ IaxI Lj (Jlii L_I^ Lg.A>o |Ixij '3'^^ LiJ iLg^>^U jUaiI 

je^^ jLiJ ^ JLi' Xx«l je^ ^)'^ viAJtl (JJIaX^I 

■^ '-^^ ^ _^y .^ ^ -^ -^ -^ a , ^ ^ .^ o^ ^ ' ■» 

,0* 30-- S , u* 3-- o '' " ' ^O^i- ^ 6, - 

(Jl^t ja£ Jt^x)l 1^4^ vi:ol^ tXi' Xxxit |_^ ^jU 

3 ^^^ _,_ . C53 ^,^ 3 3O ^O^ ^ ^O "^^ ^ ^ ^ „ jO-*. 

^ 0^03 ffi'^ ^ 9^ ^^ 

T,. i'^''!"'' "fsfii'* — I — "' "T' '' 
(>AS Ua yi*j ijl 2*1^ U.*.«*j Lc^ g^^ ^jy^ v^ 

Arabic prose extracts, 53* 

(i (^*^ ;^^ CJ^^ (5^ (**^^ 1^ ij'"'*^^* ' 7^ 

(^ ^5tx; ^ u ^ ill ii| :^ i5jjr Jji^ dlJ^ 

^j^ ^l-^.^ S?^ ' iu^' ij jjjjjlikl ^-^^^ I4XS8 JLji 

^eJU«. SjS'ii (JtXJ' J'-^JI <J^^' *j'^ xvoiLc Jtib JiU 
xj jLfti 8^ jj jtiiJ ij I ,A./o Lsjik. XA-Le LjtXS' xj 

X ^ ^ ^ C3 -« ^— O^ ^^ ^^ f }U ^ ^^ y 9 O^ O'i-^ y ^ ? O -" ^ 

ljOJk.^1 1^1 ij!i^!il| XJ^" XaaS5.. xXAaaI^ XaA i^ySA 

*j.Afl-l+Jt xJ JLiii xaJI^ LgJiii:>l (5r=>l '-il^ I xj^jj 
ij^AXi^+JI yjivol Lj ^^J JU ^yo ^^ o«-^*i L« ;^£ Uo 

A.A*JI IcXjo Jk% v:yok Lx) Jyu 8*5 a L^-o^ xa^ 

54* Exercises and texts, 

^JLJLioLk^.l x^ijiAi jTjB"* jajI tX*j "i*-*-* ^;;^r*-'' 

3 ^ ^ ^ -'^ ^^ o^^'^^ 30--&^^ J^o./« '"''l ^^^ ' '[ ^ ? * 

sjw 1^1^^ xij.jii)t^ (JJisJI^ jfc»^l XAjLil^ ayLkLw 

_. — o*'- Ji"^' ^-^ Go- G *•-•- ^ ' Hi 

J| ^aIT ^I ,21^ jJCcO xl),^ ^'**_} l_r'-r^ '"^ 

^^Ci-* 3 J 

jj./!)J ^*l-i» Jj^ ^yS-d^i ^jU!^!^ |VjJLa^t d^-Lo 

>'-'(,^0-0 ^O '^''-•l «!=0-^ Q?0'-O ^ ^ (j^ 

xXLL+^Jt iLJ.j ^Ji^4- '-=')^ u?)-*^' c^^ J-?'-? (J?) I 
i_^S' U,Ai L^AAs^ 1^ (iUL+iJt jj^?5 L^\tXj' |»for« 
*Lwki ^jy^ *^-& jx^Us ^|l s^cXj (jj-^lj 'i'4^ lij. 
j^xifcj (jiij-ft^l lilAxi. JjLj ijO>I (cJl ic*'^ jtXiX^^t 

-='.' c\' '*»": — 'ir.' ?.' '"I'i rr 

Ch? '-S-f L^° <J"^J) LK';^* U?;' o; ^*-^ |VJ ^*j' 

^^i> ij' "^^ '>?'-? u?;' ii|, ^) ^ '^'»-§"" J^' 

Aeabic prose extracts. 55* 

|vXc^ x*«^j jj^ y«.Aj L+A.i joXe i:yJOL(iU Ji.Aft| 

' f " ' T<-t' sn "'?.' t ='. 'K.r 

&jlr2?l *<JLi.Li xi/o ._joL3 ^tXJl ^irf^X! ij ><XaXa«^| 

^-"Wj |VJ wAi04> ij.^ 'r'^ iS "^T^V^^ SjkA^j s^-iiXi 

Oo »vjy=» (^^ 7^'^'^ ij.JtX/11 ijB L« Sj.^ jjjo J^' I 



^5jJ| i^j-aJI tjjo JUi yi&.| f.Li' |vJ id^aAAj t5tX-l 
!^-J<3 |»»-aJI ^-^^i i54^JI 5^7*""^ '-^■:^*-^ r>^' ^>-^*^' 

tXJ* ^ifc-^i) ^A^Li IwiLw^Xj i( cJ«Ly3 i^v* ^ r^-^' 
LUiiajl. x^yXMj«i ^J^.AX'^NI LaS'wis. JLi'i ^ji*! |»Ls. 

■ o ^ o o-o 



Note. The order of the words in the folio-wing sentences 
has heen adapted, so far as possible, to that required by the 
Arabic translation. In addition, however, the student must bear 
especially in mind the difference of order (§§ 135, 139 — 142) 
which marks the cardinal distinction between verbal and nominal 
sentences (§ 139 note). The square brackets enclose words 
which in translation should be omitted, while those in curved 
brackets give the form of the sentence required by the Arabic 
idiom. — Past and perfect tenses are generally to be rendered 
by the Arabic perfect, present and future tenses by the Arabic 
imperf. The extensive use of the (generic) article in Arabic is 
to be noted. All nouns not in the construct state should have 
the (definite) article prefixed unless qualified in English by an 
indefinite article. — So far as lexical the footnotes to the exer- 
cises are only supplementary to the Glossary. It is, for example, 
only in special or exceptional cases that "oh" is to be rendered 
by \^j instead of by Ij, and the notes draw attention to such 
cases. — The apology for violence done to the Queen's English, 
in the interests of the learner, may be repeated from the first 
edition, from which the following is in the main reprinted. 


A. Nominal Sentences. '■ 

1. The glory of the man [is] his sons, and the 
solicitude of the man [is] his dwelling and his neigh- 
bour. — 2. The elegance of the man [lies] in his tongue, 
and the elegance of the woman in her understanding. — 
3. The liberal [man is] related to God. — 4. The worst 
(of) repentance [is] at the day 2 of resurrection. — 5. The 
love of the world [is] the beginning of every sin. — 6. The 
promise of the king [is] a security. — 7. The learned 
[men are] the heirs of the prophets. — 8. "Wisdom [is] 
for the character 3 like medicine for the body. ' — 9. The 
world [is] the prison of the believer and the paradise 
of the unbeliever. — 10. Contentment [is a part] of'' 
the nature 3 of the domestic animals. — 11. The malady 
of covetousness has no (not is ^ for it a) cure; and the 
disease of ignorance has no (not is for it a) pjiysician. — 
12. The nutriment of the body 3 [is] (the) beverages 
and (the) viands, and the nutriment of the under- 

§§ 139 ff. ' § 113 a. 3 plur. i ^ 5 § 50. 

Translation into aeabic, b. 59* 

standing [is] wisdom and learning. — 13. Money has 
(to money [is]) a difficult entrance and an easy exit. — 

14. Verily 1 God [is] forgiving and 2 compassionate. — 

15. Verily ye 3 [are] in a manifest error. — 16. The 
nobles of ^ Pharaoh's folk said^, "Verily this [is] surely « 
a learned enchanter". — 1 7. Verily in that ' [lies] surely 
an example for the unbelievers. — 18. Flight in its 
[proper] time [is] better than endurance in its wrong 
time (in another than its [proper] time). — 19. There 
is no (not 8 [is there]) strength and no (not 8) power 
except with 3 God, the High and'" Mighty [One]. — 
20. The best of gifts [is] understanding, and the worst 
of misfortunes [is] ignorance. — ■ 

B. The Strong Verb. 

21. Jonah went out from the whale's belly. — 
22. Zaid killed Muhammed. — 23. They gave's (beat) 
Omar a violent beating n. — 24. The direction of prayer 
was shifted 12 from Jerusalem to Mecca. — 25. God 
knoweth (knowing) what i3 ye are doing. — 26. Verily ' 
God provides for every one his sufficiency. — 27. Learning 
and money [they] cover up *•* every fault, and poverty 

• § 147 a. 2 § 149. 3 suffix. * ^. 5 perf. sing. § 136. 
6 §147 6. 7 §147 a. 8 §111. »t_j. 10 §122. 11 §109. 12 §136 6. 
13 Uj, § 56 note a. " dual. §'l36 d. » § 137 &. 

60* Translation into Arabic, b. 

and ignorance [they] uncover i eyery fault. — 28. They 
took him away and put him in the bottom of the 
well. — 29. The brothers of Joseph returned 2 to their 
father. — 30. Why hast thou 3 not* washed thy shirt? 
— 31. The most 5 of mankind are not^ grateful 2. — 
32. They' believe not 8 in 9 the future life. — 33. "We 
made heaven [to be] a [well-]preserved roof. — 34. Do 
not do good out of" hypocrisy, and do not leave off 
[doing] it out of 10 modesty. — 

35. Why do ye render waste the cultivated coun- 
tries ? — 36. Thereupon we sent Moses and his brother 
Aaron with our signs to Pharaoh and his nobles; then 
they declared the two of them n to be liars. — 37. The 
angels said 12, "0 Mary! be obedient to thy Lord and 
"prostrate thyself; verily '3 G-od giveth thee glad 
"tidings of a werd fromi^ him; and hei* [is one] of'^ 
"those 16 who are placed near [to God], and he shall 
"talk to mankind in the cradle!" — 38. It is not seemly 
to hurry (not is good the hurrying), except in the 
marrying of a " daughter, and the burying of a'" dead 
[man], and the entertaining of a is guest. — 39. Glorify i^ 
God in the early morning 20 and [late] in the evening 20. 

' dual. § 136 d. ^ plur. 3 fern. < ^ § 101 e. 5 sing. § 127. 
6 M. ' pronoun. 8 part. 9 i_,. lo § us d. n suffix in the 
dual. 12 § 136 &. 13 § 147 a. n pronoun, is ^^. 1 6 part. 
" § 118 e. 13 § 118 c. 19 plur. 20 indeterm. accus. § 113 a. 

Trahslation into akaeio. e. 61* 

40. Verily the hypocrite has (to the hyp. [belong]) 
three characteristics; his tongue contradicts his heart, 
and his speech his action, and his exterior his in- 
terior. — 41. The men of his people used to sit with 
himi on account of his learning.- — 42. Verily the 
holy war [is] incumhent^ on you. — 43. The vehemence 
of a (the) man 3 [is what] causes him to perish*. — 
44. The head of al-Husain the son of All was brought 
into , the city ^ of Damascus ^ and was placed before 
Yazid.— 45. Verily we' have become Muslims, so 8 
become Muslims ye^ [also]! — 46. Do not talk to one 
another with disgraceful talk! — 47. Every thing has 
(to every thing [belongs]) an indication; and the in- 
dication of understanding [is] reflection, and the in- 
dication of reflection [is] being silent. — 48. We started 
off towards Bagdad to bring an action against one 
another •» before n its 12 governor. — 49. The most ex- 
cellent [kind] of praise [is], "[there is] no '^ god ex- 
cept Grod!" and the most excellent of [good] works 
[are] the five 1* prayers ; and the most excellent [kind] 
of character [is] (the) being humble. — 50. They fought 
with one another four days is, then the Byzantines 

1 ,3^ sing., then subject, thentheverb in the §§89 notee; 
136 d. 2 part. 3 Syo". * nominal sent. § 139 d o. 5 § 107. « § 128. 
7 § 96 ci. 8 ^J. 9 pronoun, w part. § 113 6. " J,U 12 §72. 
'3 § 111. 14 masc. determ. after the noun, § 92a. '* § 113 a. 

62* Translation into Arabic, a. 

were routed'.— 51. What is disliked in 2 the king [is] 
the being devoted to (the) pleasures, and the hearing 
of (the) songs and the spending of (the) time therewith 
(with that). — 52. They said, "0 our father! verily we s 
"went away, running races ^, and left Joseph with^ 
"our baggage; then the wolf ate him". — 53. Observe 
what [is] in the heart of thy brother by means of his 
eye, for^ the eye [is] the title-page of the heart! — 
/54. In the fourth year from the birth of Muhammed 
the [two] angels " cut open 8 his belly and extracted ^ 
his heart; then they cut it 9 [his heart] open and 
extracted ^ from it a black clot of blood ; thereupon 
they washed 9 his heart and his beUy with snow. — ■ 
55. They conversed 10 about the case of the Apostle. — 
56. Verily Grod hath (to (rod [are]) " servants 
whom 12 he distinguishes (he distinguishes them) 
with his favours. — 57. Restrain thyself from meat's 
which 1^ causes thee to acquire an indigestion, and [from] 
an action which 1* occasions thee regret i^. — 58. Thou 
hast fallen in love '^ with a girl, a possessor of beauty 1= 
and elegance ". — ^59. Muhammed said, "Help thy brother, 
"[whether he be] doing wrong i' or wronged''!" They 

' fem.sing. 2 J, sgge ^. <imperf.merely,§ 157 6. 5 Sjji with gen. 
'^ Ci- 'dual. 8 sing. § 136a. 9 dual § 136 d. lo § 137 a. h § 147 a. 
•2 without relative particle § 155. " indeterm. i* without rela- 
tive particle § 155. is indet. 16 § 93 e. n g 113 5. 

Teanslation into AHABIO, 0. 63* 

asked, "0 AiDostle of God! how shall we help him, 
"[if he be] doing wrong i?" He said, "By restraining 
"him from doing wrong!" — 60. Do not turn away 2 a 
beggar! — 61. A man (servant) does not believe, until 
he love for his neighbour (brother) what 3 he loves for 

G. The Weak Verb. 

62. A poor [man] begged of me, so I gave him 
[two] pieces of money*. — 63. Be mindful of death, for 
he 5 takes hold of your forelocks; ife ye fly from him, 
he overtakes you, and if^ ye stay, he seizes you. — 
64. Music [is] like the spirit and wine [is] like the 
body; then through their' coming together is born 
joy. — 65. The Apostle used toS preach to his com- 
panions and to exhort them and to teach them the 
beauties of character 9. — 66. Verily lO our [true] friends 
will'i entrust to us their secrets.— 67. The lust 12 of the 
world entails care and sorrow, and abstinence with 
regard to it restores the heart and the body. — 68. Moses 
mid, "I have brought''' you an evidence from your 
"Lord; so let go '* along with me the Sons of Israel!" 
/— 69. Depend on the Living [one], who does not die! 

1 § 113 &. 2 contracted § 36. 3 1^ § 156 and note a. * dual. 
5 pronoun with foil. part. 6 § 159. ' dual-sufflx. 8 see p. 61* 
note 1. 9pl. determ. >"§ 147 a. ii^§99a. " j,. i3 § gg g. "sing. 

64* Translation into akabic. c. 

— 70. He pleases me, who makes poetry to i show his 
education, not to t make gain, and applies himself to 
singing to i enjoy himself, not to i seek for himself [reward], 
—71. Demand help of the good (people^ of the good), 
and of those that act well (and of the acting well). — 
^72. Choose 3 whichever of the pages thou wilt! — 
73. Supplicate much (make much the supplicating), 
for thou 4 dost not know when s answer « will be given 
thee! — 74. Restrain your tongues and lower your 
glances and guard your continence! — 

75. A (the) kingdom is made flourishing through 
justice and is protected by courage and is ruled 
through [good] government. — 76. [Good] government 
[is], that' the gate of the chief be guarded 8 in the 
[proper] time of being guarded 9, and opened in the 
[proper] time of being open 9, and the gatekeeper 
friendly.— ^7. Jalal-al-din used not to go to sleep i" 
except drunk 1 1, nor (and not) to arise in the morning 
except seedy and tipsy n.— 78. It is not seemly for 
the wise [man], that 12 he address the fool, like as 
it is not seemly for the sober [man], that he address 
the drunken [man]. — 79. People i3 of the world 
[are] like folk in a ship, who '< are carried onwards 

1 inf. § 113 d. 2 § 133. ;, fern. < § 96 d 6 ^^, 6 impf. 
pass, impers. ^ § i48 6. 8 ^;Jlf with part. § 110. 9 61 c. "i see 
p. 61* note 1. 11 § 113 6. 1= § i48 6. " § 133. n §§ 155, 156. 


whilst they are sleeping i.— 80. The evil-doer [he] 
does not consider 2 mankind except [as] eyil, because 
he 3 sees them with'' the eye of his nature, — 81. God 
elected Abraham [as] an [intimate] friend.' — 82. Every 
affair in the world [is] transitory. — 83. Wickedness 
[is] to be feared 5, and no one (noj,) fears it except 
the intelligent [man]; and good [is] to be hoped for, 
and every one s seeks it. — 84. [To] a man (servant) shall 
not 8 be given [anything] more ample than endu- 
rance. — 85. I looked into Paradise, then I saw the 
most of its inhabitants [to be] the poor ; and I looked 
into hell-fire, then I saw the most of its inhabitants 
[to be] (the) women. — 86. He^ whose counsel is 
asked [is] one 10 in whom one confides; and he 10 who 
asks counsel [is] one'" who is to be aided. — 87. Do 
not put offi* the work of to-day till to-morrow 12. _ 
88. Thou dost not ■ ^ find (see) in the creation of God any 1^ 
imperfection. — 89. Little which 'o continues [is] better 
than much which'" is interrupted. — 90. Pharaoh said, 
"We will 15 kill I6 their sons and spare their women." — 
91. A Bedouin looked at a gold-piece; then he said, 
"How small " is thy size and how great" thy value!" — 

^ 1 § 157 a. 2 § 139 (in. 3 suff. * ,t_J. 5 § 60 c. « ^\. 
7 U^ji. 8 ^ § 100 end. 9 part. " 'o part. n § 1016. 
'2 indeterm. " U. u ^ as used § 141. « ^, § 99 a. 

"6 § 19. »' § 52. 

Socin, Arabic Grammar-' E 


92. The envious [man] is not well-pleased with theei, 
until thou diest! — 93. Be [the] tail and be not [the] 
head! for 2 the tail escapes whilst 3 the head perishes. 

D. Various subordinate Sentences, 
94. Muhammed said, "Do not anticipate (begin)'* 
Jews and Christians by the greeting, but when ye 
meet one of them % (then) 6 force him towards the 
narrowest place (his narrowest)". — 95. When comes to 
thy knowledge concerning thy brother what is evil, 
then seek for him excuse; but if thou dost not' find 
[one], then say, "Perhaps he has an excuse." — 96. Ifs 
thou eat little, thou shalt live long. — 97. If s ye talk 
in a good manner (make ye good the talk), ye shall 
enter Paradise. — 98. Ali said, — mayS God be well 
pleased with him i" — "0 ' * mankind ! do not hope except 
for your Lord, and do not dread [anything] except your 
transgressions; and be not he ashamed, who 12 doth not 
know, to 13 learn, and be not he ashamed, who 12 knoweth, 
to 13 teach!" — 99. The subsistence which thou seekest 
is like the shadow (the likeness of the subsistence . . . 
[is] the likeness of the shadow) which moves on along 

' vertal sentence. 2 ^li. 3 s 157 nomin. sent. 

* ^ ? 
4 plur. 5 ^a-\ with gen. § 133 end. 6 § i6l c. J §§ 159, 101c. 

^ § 160 6. 9 § 98 d. » after the subject. " L^.f § 85. '^ ^^. 

" ,^\ with subj. 


with thee; thou i dost not overtake it in pursuing 2 [it], 
then when thou turnest^ away from it, it follows 
thee!* — 100. A man said to the Apostle of God: 
"0 Muhammed, give me thy cloak!"; then he threw 
it down to 5 him; then he said': "I do not 6 want it"; 
then he [Muh.] said, "May' God combat thee! thou 
didst wish to 8 declare me to be niggardly, but 
(and) God has not made^ me [to be] niggardly!" — 
101. Whoso *" longs for Paradise, he is unmindful of 
lusts 11. — 102. That a man 22 give in alms in his life- 
time a drachma (the alms -giving 12 of a man — a 
drachma) [is] better for him than that i3 be give in 
alms a hundred drachmae at his death. 

103. The Prophet — may God bless i* him and save 
him — said, "Whoso i» drinketh wine in this world, [and] 
thereupon do not'^ repent, he shall be forbidden it '6 
in the future life." — 104. If anyone light a lamp in a 
■mosque, then verily " the angels [they] will beg for- 
giveness for him as long as '8 that lamp continues is 
kindled 20. — 105. The reed-pen [is] a tree, whose 21 
fruit [is] the ideas, and thought [is] a sea, whose 21 

1 pronoun. 2 part. 113 6. 3 § 158 a. ^ perf. ^ ^\. 6 U 
with imperf. ' § 98 d. « ^^1 _with subj. 9 § 101c. 
ui § 1S9. 11 determ. '2 inf. 13 ^\ ^ § 148 6 with subj. 
»• § 11 end. 15 ^ §§ 160;C, 101, c. '6 § 108. " § 161 o. " § 158.6. 
'9 § 110. 20 part., pass. § :110., 21 § 155. 223^'. 


pearls [are] wisdom. — 106. Verily the dead [man] and 
he who 1 has no reUgion (he who no 2 religion to 
him) [are] equal 3; and there is no 2 trust in (to) 
him who 1 has no 2 piety. — 107. Every woman 
that< has no^ modesty [is] like a dish that has no^ 
salt. — 108. If anyone's 6 [whoso, his] tattle is much, 
his erring is much [also]. — 109. The anger of the 
noble [man], although his fire flare up', [is] like 
smoke of woods in which [there is] no^ blackness. 
— 110. To the ignorant [man] are forgiven i" seventy n 
transgressions, ere to the knowing [man] is forgiven one. 
111. Be not 12 like the needle, which is clothes 
mankind whilst 1* it [is] naked, nor (and) like the wick, 
which 1* gives light to mankind whilst it is consumed i^. 
— 112. The believer does not escape from the chas- 
tisement of God, until he leave off four things, lying, 
and pride, and niggardhness, and evil thinking (evil 
of the thinking). — 113. It is seemly for the younger 
[ones] to 16 precede the elders in three places; when" 
they travel by night 'S, or wade through a stream, or 
encounter horsemen. — 114. Do not drink (the) poison 
out of reliance" on the antidote which thou hast 

* Cr^. 2 § 111. 3 sing. 4 §§ 155^ jsg. » part.pass. § 110. 
6 §^156. '§169. 8 indeterm. § 155. 9 §111. lo § 136 a. ii§92 6. 
12 M with energ. I. § 101 6. 13§155. " § 157 a. " § 157 „, pron. 
■with imperf. 16 § US. " § 158 a. '8 § 113 a. 19 § 113 d.' 


(that which [is] withi thee of 2 the antidote).— 
115. Paradise is desirous 3 of four [kinds of] folk; the 
first* of them 5 [are] those who have fed^ a hungry 
[man], and the second [are] those who have clothed ^ 
a naked [man], and the third [are] those who fast' 
in 8 the month of Ramadan 9, and the fourth [are] 
those who read i" the Koran. — 116. Socrates was asked, 
"Why hast thou notn mentioned in thy law-code the 
"punishment of him who kills 12 Hs brother?" He said, 
"I know not that this [is] a thing which exists." — 
117. Every thing [it] begins small's, thereupon it be- 
comes great, except misfortune 1*; for it begins great, 
thereupon it becomes small ; and every thing [it] becomes 
cheap, when 15 it becomes abundant, excepting education; 
for 18 when it becomes abundant, it rises in value. 

118. After Moses had returned to the Sons of 
Israel with the Thora (and along with him [was] the 
Thora), they refused to i' accept it and to do according 
to what [was] in it. — 119. God commanded Moses to is 
fast thirty is days and' to purify himself and to purify 
his garments, and to come to * ^ the mountain, that he 
might talk to him and give him the book. — 120. After 

1 iXXs. .2 ^^. 3 part. « maso. * saffix in fern. sing. 
S perf. sing. ' imperf. sing. « § 113 a. 9 § 128. " imperf. 
sin^. 11 § 101 c. '2 § 159, J3 § 113 J. 14 aocus. § 151. 15 § 158 a. 
" with suflf. § 96 d. 17 ^\ -with aubj. 18 § 113 «. 19 J,!^. 



Damascus was taken % much folk 2 of^ its inhabitants 
joined Herachus, whilst* he was in ^ Antioch. — 121. A 
certain one of the wise men said, Nothing (not) repels 
the onslaught of the conquering enemy like^ being 
submissive and giving way, like as ^ green plants are 
safe from the vehement wind through their pliancy, be- 
cause they s turn along with it, as (how) » it turns. — 
122. They disagree i" concerning Waraka; and of i' them 
[therearejthosewho assert '5 that 12 he dieda Christian is 
and did not** reach the appearance of the Prophet; 
and of 11 them [there are] those who are of opinion is 
that 12 he died a Muslim. — 123. [ye two] companions 
of the prison! as to the one of youie, he shall serve 
to his lord wine ", and as to the other, he shall be 
crucified, then shall is the birds eat of 12 his head; the 
affair is decreed i9 concerning which ye inquire! — 
124. The Apostle wrote to chieftains "f of'i the tribes, 
inviting 20 them to become Muslims 2). — 125. A wise 
[man] was asked, "What [is] the thing, which [it] is 
not good that it be said, although it be 22 right?" He 
said, "A man's eulogizing himself23". — ]26. Woe to 

1 fern. § 136 h. ^ j-«i^ co31. » ^^. 4 § 157 a. 6 i_j. 6 ji^ as 
subject, § 145 i. ' ^f>l U^ § U7 o. 8 sing. suff. 9 § 159. '10 § 98 6 with 
i^',^§^137a. ii,?j^. 12 § 147a. 13 §113 6. u § loi c. is §986. 
IS L>^\ w. dual suff. § 133. i7 indeterm. 18 fern. sing. § 136 c, 2. 
13 §98 6. 20 §99 6. 21 infin. determ. 22 ^IT g 159. 23 § 131 ^v. Ace. 


[him] who converses with lying, that he may make the 
people laugh by it! — 127. This (the) world and the 
future life [are] as the East and the West; when thou 
approachest one of them ', thou dost recede from the 
other. — 128. Fear ye God in secret 2 and do not enter 
into what is not lawful for you! — 129. The devotee without 
learning [is] like the ass of the mill 3, who * goes around 
and does not ^ get through (cut) the distance. — 1 30. The 
eye of hate [it] draws forth every fault, and the eye 
of love [it] does not find the faults. 

E. Anecdotes. 

131. An astrologer was being crucified ; then he was 
asked ^ "Hast thou^ seen this in thy star?" Then he 
said, "I saw a raising upS, however I did not^ know 
that it [was to be] upon a piece of wood." 

132. A man knocked at the door of i" 'Amr the son 
of 'Ubaid; so he said "Who [is] this?" He said, "I." He 
['Amr] said, "I do not know (I am not I know ii) among 
our friends (brothers) *2 [any] one i', whose name [is] I." 

133. (The) thieves came" in upon Abu Bekr al- 
Eabbani, seeking is something (a thing), and he saw 

1 dual suffix. 2 determ. 3 § 123, note. ■• § 155 note. ^ § 1576 
^ w. impf. 6 137 a. ^ with interrog. part. J.*. ^ 73 c end. 
9 § 101c. " ij^. 11 J^ § 50 and impf. '2 order § 1316. 
13 i:^\- 11 § 136 a. '5 § 157 6 imperf. alone. 


them going around' in the house. Then he said, "0 
young men! This which ye are seeking 2 in the night 3 
we have* already sought 2 in the day-time, but have 
not 5 found it!" So they laughed and went out. 

134. It is related 6, that^ a certain one of the 
polite scholars eulogized a certain one of the princes; 
so he commanded [that] to him an [ass's] saddle and 
saddle-girth [should be given]. So he took thems on^ 
his shoulder and went out from his presence 10. Then 
a certain one of his companions saw him, then said, 
"What [is] this?" He said, "I eulogized the prince 
with the most beautiful of my poems, then he invested 
me with [something] of ^^ the most glorious of his dresses". 

135. Al-Mugira, the son of Suba said: No one 
(not) 12 has deceived me except (another than) a youth 
of 13 the sons of al-Harit. For I mentioned a woman 
of theirs (of" them), that^^ I should marry her; then 
he said, "0 1* Prince ! [There is] no good ' 5 for thee 
in her." So I said, "And why [not]?". He said, "T 
saw a man kissing 1 ^ her." So I turned from her ; then 
the young man married her. So I reproached him 
and said, "Didst thou not '' inform me that thou's hadst 

T imperf. 2__.,Tith suffix. 3 § 118 a. ^ § 98 e. 5 L«§i60a. 
6 § 98 6. ' ?>\. 8 dual suffix. 9 ^J*. 10 5>>.-U j^. li ^. 

12 101 c. 13 J. n U^y 15 § 111. 16 imperf. n Jjf § 101c. 
^^ (j^i ■with suff. 



seen a man kissing her?" He said, "Yes, 1 saw her 
father kissing her." 

136. Al-Dahhak the son of Muzahim said to a 
Christian, "[How would it be] if i thou wert to become 
a Muslim?" He said, "I have not 2 ceased loving ^ 
Islam 4, except that ^ my love for wine « prevents me from 
it." So he said, "Become a Muslim and drink it !" So 
after he had become a Muslim, he said to him, "Thou 
hast ' become a Muslim, so if thou drink it % we shall 
chastise thee ; and if thou apostatize, we shall have thee 
killed', so choose for thyself". Then he chose Islam and 
his Islam was good. So he had taken ' " him by stratagem. 

137. A Bedouin stole a purse in which (it) [were] 
pieces of money ' \ thereupon he entered the mosque 
to pray 12; and his name was i' Moses. Then the 
leader of prayer recited, "And what is that 1* in i5 thy 
right hand, Oh Moses i"?" So he said, "By God, verily 
thou [art] an enchanter!" Thereupon he threw away 
the purse and went out. 

138. A man claimed the (a) gift of prophecy in 
the days " of al-Ra§id. So after he had appeared 

ly § 502. 2 U witli perf. 3__§ 110 with indeterm. part 

* § 132 end, 5 §§ 147 c, 148 <*->! V^ with foil, verbal sentence. 
6 § 131. ' § 98c with oS. 8 § 159. 9 § 17, note 6. »» perf. 
11 indeterm. 12 § 99 6. ^^ c>'^. " fem. '5 i_-). '6 Surah 20, 18. 
n § 113 a. 


before him [the Caliph], he asked him, "What [is 
that] which is said of thee?" He said, "that Ii am 
a noble prophet." He asked, "But what 2 indicates 
the truth of thy claim?" He said, "Demand what^ 
thou wilt"*. He said, "I wish that^ thou make these « 
beardless slaves , [who are] standing ^ [there] this 
moment § [to be furnished] with beards ^" Then he 
looked down for a while 10, thereupon he raised his 
head and said, "How is it lawfuLthat I make these n 
beardless [ones to be furnished] with beards ^ and 
alter these ^ beautiful 12 forms? but*' I will make the 
bearded ones (owners of beards) beardless in one 
twinkling." So al-E,asid laughed at him and pardoned 
him and commanded a present [to be given] to him. 
139. A person pretended to prophecy 1*; then they 
besought of him in '5 the presence of al-Ma'mim a 
miracle. So he said, "I will cast for you a pebble into 
the water, then it will dissolve". He [al-Ma'mum] said, 
"We are 16 content." So he brought out a pebble 
[which he had] along with him ", then cast it into the 
water ; then it dissolved. So they said, "This is is a 

1 § 96 d. 2 ^^ 31. 3 § 5, note b. ^ perf. § 159. 5 ^1. 
s § 120 d; the dem. in sing., the adj. in broken pi. ' determ. 
§ 120 a. 8 I 118 a. 9 indeterm. 'c § 113 a. n plur. 12 § 120 
fern. sing. " '^jj- "* § 22. is t_J is § gg c. •-- A^ § 121 a. 
18 § 143. 


trick; however, we will give i thee a pebhle of our 
own 2, and let 3 it dissolve!" Then he said, "Ye are 
not* more illustrious s than Pharao and I am not (and 
not 1 6) mightier in wisdom' than Moses, and Pharao 
did not 8 say to Moses, 'I am nets content with what 
thou doestio with thy staif, so that^ I will give thee 
a staff of my own 12, which " thou shalt make [into] a 
serpent.'" So al-Ma'mun laughed and let him pass on. 
140. It is said i* that Abu Dulama '* the poet was 
standing 16 before al-Saffah on" a certain day (a 
certain one of the days). Then he said to him, "Ask 
of me what thou dost want (thy want)!" So Abu 
Dulama said to him, "I want a hunting-dog". So he 
said, "(rive ye it is to him!" Then he said, "And I want 
a horse, oni^ which I may go forth to hunt." He said, 
"Give ye it to him!" He said, "And a page 20, who 21 
will lead the dog and hunt with him." He said, "And 
give ye him a page!" He said, "And a slave-girl 22, 
who 23 will prepare the game and give us to eat of it." 
He said, "Give ye him a slave-girl!" He said, "These, 

1 imperf. 2 Uj^Xs. ^^yi. 3 imper. of. ^>^ w. suff. ; then impf. 
4 ^j^ % 110. 5 §63 6. 6 IJt ^fj. 7 § 113c. 8 § 101 c. p. 
10 § 156. 11 tjXa. with subj. »2 j_$J-U 1^. " §§ 155—56. 
'1 § 98 c. 15 147 a. 16 ^\S with part. § 110. " i},. i' with 
l|i, which stands last, § 54 6. » ^ (after the verb) § 155. 
20 accus. 21 § 155. 22 accus. 23 § 155. 



Prince of the Believers! have need of ([there is] 
no 1 escape for them from) a dwelling, which 2 they 
may inhabit." So he said, "Grive ye him a dwelling, 
which 2 will contain them !" He said, "And if they have 
not (and if not is ^ to them) an estate, then wherefrom 
shall they live ?" He said, "I grant * thee ten cultivated 5 
estates and ten waste estates'." He said, "And what 
[are] the waste ^ [ones] Prince of the Believers?" 
He said, "In which ^ [there are] no plants^." He 
said, "I* grant thee, O Prince of the Believers, a 
hundred 8 waste estates of 9 the deserts of the Sons 
of Asad." Then he laughed at him and said, "Make 
them 10 all of them lo cultivated! i"" 

141. It is related n, that Harun al-Rasid had (that 
to H. was '2) a black slave-girl, of ugly mien i^. Now 
he scattered one day gold-pieces i* among (between) 
the slave-girls; so the slave-girls set about '5 gather- 
ing 1 6 up the gold-pieces, whilst i" that slave-girl stood 
still, looking is at the face of al-Ra§id. Some one 
asked (it was asked), "Dost thouis not pick up the 

1 § 111. 2 g§ 165—56. 3 t^ ^. 4 § 98 c -(vith ..>^. 
^ § 87 a. 6 U and prep, with pronoun at, the end of the sentence. 
'§111. 8§g2c. 0^^. iofem.siDg. ii§98c. i2j(3(s'*jt 
§ 147 t,-. 13 determ. § 134. » indeterm. is § 136 a.' » §§ 152 
note 6, 136 A (impf^ pi. fem.) i" § 157 a with part. is § 157 6 
impf. alone. i9 Sll w. impf. fem. 


gold-pieces?" Then she said, "Yerily what i they 
seek [is] the gold-pieces, hut (and) whati I seek 
[is] the owner of the gold-pieces." Then her speech 
pleased him; so he placed her near [to him] and 
brought good upon her. Then the report got to the 
grandees, that 2 Harun al-Easid was enamoured 3 of 
a black slave-girl. So after that' had come to his 
knowledge, he sent for the whole of the grandees, 
until he had assembled ^ them in his presence K Then 
after he had commanded the bringing in^ of the • 
slave-girls, he gave every one of^ them a goblet of 
chrysolite 8 and commanded it to be thrown down". 
But they declined [doing it] in a body (as a whole »). 
Then the turn came to (the affair got to) the ugly 
slave-girl; but she threw down the goblet and broke 
it. So they said, "Look 10 at this girl, her name [is] 
ugly, and her manner [is] ugly, and her action [is] 
ugly". Then said to her the Caliph, "Why then didst 
thou break ^i it"? Then she said, "Thou didst 12 command 
me to break it '3; so I was of opinion that" ini» its 
being broken [lay] a detriment '^ with regard to the 

1 part. pass, -with suffix. 2 ^h, 3 imperf. < § 152, note c. 
5 »JJ^. 6 (_) with infinitive § 131. ' cy} § 119 a. 

8 detenn. 9 § 113 6. i" plur. " 2nd. pers. fem. perf. w. suff. 
§ 53 a. 12 § 98 e. '3 t_J with inf. " c^l 1= ^J^. 's § 147a. 


treasure of the Caliph, and in its not being broken 
(in the lack of its being broken) a detriment * with re- 
gard to his command; and the detriment with regard 
to the first is fitter to keep intact 2 the inviolability 
of the command of the Caliph. And I was of opinion 
that in its being broken [lay] my being called (quahfi- 
ed3 as*) the crazy [one], and in keeping it intact my 
called being (qualified ^ as*) the disobedient [one]; and 
the first [is] more agreeable to me than the second." 
Then the grandees founds that^ to be beautiful of her 
and praised her for 8 it and excused the Caliph for 9 
loving her. And God knows best ([is] most knowing lo). 

1 § 147 a. 2 § 113d, indeterm. inf. with foUowing J § 131. 
^ § 61 e. ■• (_). 5 § 13S a. 6 at the end. ^ cr*.' » ij*. 
' (^. 1" elative. 


pi. = plural, see §§ 88 — 90. The numbers within parentheses after 
the broken plurals refer to the forms as numbered in these sections. 

Aaron ioiy^^- 
Abraham j^Aff-jK 

abstinence Ssny 

Abu Bekr al-Rabbani yj| 

Abu Dulama sJa'^o o|. 
abundant see much. 

accept (to) Jlw impf. a. 

acquire (to cause to) <_,mS 
IV with two accus. 

act well (to) ^^*-M*a► IV. 

action JJij. See also bring. 

address (to) _Jai^ HI- 

affair ^\. 

after, after that conj. Q 
§ 98/. 

after prep. i_q,i^- 

agreeable to elat. ,_^\ 

with ^\. 

aid (to) ^Ls. med. , IV 
with ace. 

'Ali ^. 

all f^i' with determ. noun 
or suffix § 119 &. 

alms (to give in) ^d^-^ 
V with ^_, of the gift. 

along with prep. «i. 

already JkS" § 98 e. 

alter (to) Xs. med. ^^ II. 

although j2jI j § 159. 

among ^j. 

ample >«^t« «?«<• § 63 &. 


Glossary A. 


§ 90 «. 



angel d^ p/. xlfiLlxi (28). 
anger ^ 


animal (domestic) y |._'_ g > 
pi. JoLii (25). 

Go -' 

another than w^i wzYA /o^- 
loTving gen. 

answer (to give) to ^jLi. 
X med. . with J. 

G ^o 

antidote |jLs.t>. 

Antioch iUS'Lkj I. 

any ^ {prep.), cf. § 141. 

apostatize J. F/7/. 

G ,^ 
apostle Jj^j. 

appear (to) jixi. 

appearance . . g tn. 

apply oneself to (to) I f^o 

approach (to) CJji impf. 

arise (to, in the morning) 

as see like. 

as to Let with nom. and o 
in the apodosis. 

Asad JuLi. 

ashamed (to be) 'la, X 
§ 49 c. 

ask (to) JLj med. . W27A 
J. — to ask something 

of JLku impf. a, with two 
ace. § 38 6. 


ass -l 1^- 

assemble (to) 1^ impf. a. 
assert (to) 1a\ impf. u. 
astrologer t^iJi. 
at (one's house) j^rep. Jcle- 
Bagdad j|t\ju. 
baggage cL£o. 
be, exist (to) ^^JS med. .. 
— not to be (jllj § 50. 

(^ G " 

beard t^L pi. JJti (3); cf. 
§ 71 &. 

Glossary A. 


beardless t^yeSpl. J^*i(l). 
beat (to) C>Y^ impf. i, inf. 


beauty i^^s.. — beauties 

beautiful (j-w^^a. fern. &_; 
elat. § 63 &. — to find 
to be beautiful (j-ww:a. X 

because ^j3 § 147 a. 

Bedouin ^gjlvcl- 

before (of place) = be- 
tween the two hands 
of (dual stat. constr.). 

beg of (to) JL« impf. a, 
with ace. 

beggar part. act. of JLui. 

"begin, begin with (to) ttX? 

impf. a, with ace. 
beginning ^\l (lit. head). 

believe (to) jjol IV; — 

believer id. part. act. 

s ^ 
belly ^jJsj. 

Sooln, Arabic Grammar.' 

beseech of (to) ,_>Xls /// 
with ace. of person and 
i_, of thing. 

best elat. of good, 
better elat. of good. 



beverage C/y&iJo P^- JLeLLe 


birds CO?/. jjJs. 
birth <xCo- 

black ijl«,t /em. § 74&. 

blackness l>|^. 

bless (to) !iLo /i with J^. 

body (\.Ma> pi. JUil (17). 
^JtX^ (no. 67). 

book i_}U5l 

born (to be) jj. F. 

bottom JoU^' 

break (to) ^Jjfimpf. i. 

bring (to) v_5 sUs. OTe<?. (^. 
— to bring an action 
against one another 




^X^ VI- — to bring in 

,^a» IV. — to bring 
into jL=»t> IV. — to 
bring out j^ IV. — 

to bring upon ^"1 IV 

with J.A. 

brother ^\ ^ 90 a, c ; pi. 
§ 88, 5; pi. when = 
"friends" § 88, 21. 

bury (to) ^o impf. i, inf. 

but o. 

by, by means of o; in 

oaths = J w. the gen. 

§ 95 2. 

Byzantines (the) CO/;, -j Jl- 

Caliph SJu^^. 

care Isa. 

carry onwards (to) jLw 

med. 1^, rviih i_j. 
case «A^. 
cast (to) jJs fffjp/". a. 

cease (to) JK »«ed ^ (/or 

J^5§42^, §44). 

certain one (a) \jaju with 
pi. of follow, noun. 

Go, G ^„S 

character isJl-i. _p/. (JL*if 

G, ^ , 

characteristic joo!iLfc. 
chastise (to) J*^. impf. u. 
chastisement k^jl ji^. 
cheap (to become) ya&.) 
mi?/. M. 

chief ijLs^' i?/. ilCii (20). 

choose (to) vU*. med. ^ 

G , , 

chrysolite icy^sU- 

Christian '^SZ^ pi. jLii 

(29); ^JLii. 

claim (to) \^o VIII § 25, 

claim i^ls-S. 

cloak g|5v. 

/ G 

clot of blood XaJLc. 

Glossary A. 


clothe (to) Llf' impf. u. 
city xJbtJoo- 

cognizant of v_} |V-yLft. 
combat (to) JaS 7/7. 

come (to) 'il «ff8p/. i. — 
to come to one's know- 
ledge (concerning) ijb 
impf. u, with ace. {and 
ijx). — to come in 
upon jj».;> impf. u, with 
Jsi. — to come out 
from wis. impf. u, with 

come together -f^ VIII. 

command (to) yo| impf. u. 
— to command anyone 
to do a thing, id. with 

ace. and ^\ with the 
subj. — to command 
anything to he given 
to anyone, id. with J 

of pars, and ;_j of thing. 

— to command any 
thing to be done, id. 
with L_) and infln. 

command yxif. 
companion _j...a>L«o pi. 

JL*il (17). 
compassionate l*:^'y 
concerning ^. 
confide in (to) ^^| F777. 
conquering part. act. of 

consider as (to) Jyid impf. 
u, with ace. 

consumed (to be) iV*.^ 

contain (to) «^ impf. a. 

content (to be) '^'. impf. 

a. — to be content with, 

id. with i_j. 

' G^ ^^ 

contentment jLcLj". 




iph of 


continue (to) 1\3 med. . 

§ 110. 
contradict (to) ^_<t A^ ///. 

converse (to) yycX^s,. V. — 
to converse about, id. 
with i_j. 

counsel (to ask) X^ med. 

country JJLi pi. JL*i (9). dead 
courage 5teLss»ci. death 

Glossary A. 

ad-Dahhak dL^f. 

? CI __, 

Damascus (^j^ciy«<>. 


daughter i^^^ § 90?. 

day ^^.i??. pl4f§§88, 17; 

90s. — one day Lol^. 

to-day *jjJI. 
day-time ^Lgj. 



cover up (to) jXm, impf. u. deceive (to) cJ^ impf. a. 

S o - -. -. . 

covetousness ^jOys^. 

cradle ^Lgjo. 

crazy part pass, of t^ 

/em. X_. 
creation (oJ^. 
crucify (to) ,_jLo ^OTp/l i. 
cultivated part. act. of 

s^£ fern. X_. 
cure slLi. 

cut (to) Jas impf. a. — 
to cut open ^^impf.u. 

decline (to) «JUi VIII. 

decree (to) ^— toji impf. i. 

demand (to) a thing JLu 

2ffj;)/". a, with ^^ § 38 &. 

depend on (to) Ji^ F, 7f «^A 

desert ililii?/. JL*i (26); 

S3 ** 

desirous of (to be) ^vLco 
med. y VIII, Kith J| or 

detriment ^^oJij. 

Glossary A. 85* 

s a, 

devoted to (to he) d+ss dog ,_Jf; hunting-dog 

VIII mm ^. cu^:Js. 

devotee part. act. of ^^ domestic see animal. 


door i_jLj. 

die (to) lijUo med. ,. , ' ' ■ 

Q ^ ^ drachma jvp.t 

difficult ^. ^^^^ f^^^j^ ^^^^ .^ ^^ 

disagree jto) ._a^ F///. ^^,^^ ^^^^ ^ .^^^_ ^_ 

disease eIj- 

!5^C» ^ 

s , dress ^j,*Ajopl. JJLjls (23). 

drink (to) Oj^jo «ff?p/. «. 

r ■ drunk, drunken /j|lCl. 

dislike (to) 'ji^impf. a. dwelling JtS {fern.). 

disobedient part. act. of early see morning. 

15**^' East ij-j-ci^- 

dissolve (to) 616 »«e<?. _,. g^sy llj. 

distance XiLwuo. . „ ^ ',:.f 

^ , eat (to) Jo I 2?wp/, m; 2??y?. 

distinguish (to) ija-^ § 38 &. — to give to 

^"^Pf- "• eat of |V«l5 /FwiYA ace. 

do (to) J^ mi?/. «; jii pers. and J^. 

m;?/". a (no. 139). — to education o^l. — to show 

do according to J^ one's education ool V. 

with i_j. elder yjS\ pi J^UI (23). 


Glossabt a. 

elect (to) ^A^ VIII. 


elegance JL+ss-. 
enamoured of (to be) 

(£*«£ itnpf. a, with ace. 
enchanter j^Lw. 

encounter (to) ^J ///. 

endurance jjJa. 

enemy TtXa. 

enjoy oneself (to) ^Jio V. 

entail (to) yy.. IV. 

enter (to) J^^S impf. u. 
see § 107 note. 

entertain (to) ^^'S impf. i. 

inf. %\Ji. 

entrance J^Joo. 

entrust (to) anyone with excellent JuoLi elat. § 63 b. 

^Oj X with two accus. except '^[{^ ^ ^i) § 151- 
envious part. act. o/J..^. _ g^^ept that' ^f it 

equal g|^. 
ere, cow/. ,jl Jlo" § 100. 

err (to) iaJLc m/". iaJLc. 

^ , 
error JiLo. 

escape (to) L^ impf. u. 

s > 
escape Jkj. 

estate aiLyo i??. JLii (9). 
eulogize (to) ^^Juo m^/. 
«.; id. VIII (no. 134). 
evening (late) ^l^^. 

every J.f w?YA indeterm. 
noun. § 119 &. 

G, ^^ 

evidence JLuo. 

evil (to be) *L1, »je<?. .. 
— to do evil id. IV. — 
evil-doer part act. of 
id. IV. 

evil s 
example is 


§ 147 c. 
excepting "^^ Lo M^eYA «cc. 
excuse (to) T jk* m^?/". ?. 

excuse ^tXc 



exhort (to) iacl impf, i, 
§ 40 a. 

exist (to) ^\Smed. .. 

., s ,<■- 
exit -jJsP. 

exterior jUi^. 

extract (to) ysa. X. 

eye ^jjyc /em. § 72. 

face !Us-m- 

fast (to) ILfl me<?. .. 

father i_>| § 90 a. 


S o. 

§§ 91, 92 a. 

flare up (to) " T F. 


flight v_jj.* 

flourishing (to make) 1^.^ 
impf. u. 

fly (to) from yi impf. i, 

with ^JJa. 

folk ^°yS pi § 88, 17; !iJ 

CO?;, (no. 120). 
follow (to) LaS mj?/. a, 

fault 44^ i,/. .L^; (10). ^°«i ^^'•^ «^' ''^ ^^• 

^ ?.'" , ?- /-QN for iJrep. J § 95 A; cow/, 

favour x+jij pL Jljls (o). 


fear (to) J[L med. ^ impf. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^.^^ ^^ ^^^_ 

a, §42<?. _, . 

one ^w^s. impf, i, with 
feed (to) ^ /r. ^^^ ;r;^, 

fight (to) with one another ^^^^^ ^^^^ » ^^^^_ g 25 

^»^^- note. ^ 

find (to) J^; /mi^/. e, § 40a. ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^;_ j^,p 

fire ^li. (24). 

first J.I. forgive (to) wie impf. i. 

fit ^^ eZa^. J^l. forgiving J^. 


Glossary A. 

forgiveness (to beg) yii X 

form ''isy£> P^- J-** (4) 
four ^;f §§ 91, 92 «. 

friend vl^Lo (see p. 85*). 

— of God = Abraham 


S ^ 

— intimate ^j<>-o pi- 

friendly i_JLJaJ. 

from ^rep. ^/). 

fruit iilij. 

future life see life. 

gain (to make) ^_,mS V. 

game Juya- 

garment i_)^j p/. JL*i (9). 

gate ioLj. 

G a- 

gate-keeper ^Lj. 
gather up (to) W°^ VIII. 
get to (to) ^j F7// wJ^A 

gift 4*^P° -^^- (M'''*^'(2^)- 
see «/so prophecy. 

girl xjsLs.. 

give (to) I ^rir- IV with two 
ace. — to give way inf. 

G > J 

glad see tidings. 

G ^ -^ ®i --o^ 

glance ^„,kj pi. JLiil (17). 
glorify (to) ^j^ II. 

glorious li^Li e?a^. § 63 &. 

glory oli. 

go round (to) \\c> med. ^. 

— to go away C^''> 
impf. a. — to go on 

^^cii impf. i. — to go 

out ' li. impf. u. — 

to let go (Ju*,s IV. 

goblet —tXis. 

god^l; God kill, by God 


Jt. — to get through gold-piece .UjO p/. §90 A:. 

good nOMW «w^ «<?;■. 


Glossary A. 


elat. id. — to be good 

Jwwvk~» impf. u. — to 
make good i_)LSo med. 

government x_«,L_3» or 

- s 
governor ^j. 

grandee dULo i??. § 88, 10. 

grant (to) «ias IV mth 
two accus. 

grateful (to be) IX!^ impf. u. 
great j.juJ. — to be, be- 
come great l^impf. u. 
green (fresh) ^.jJoy 
greeting 1%^. 
guard (to) J^L.o med. ^ ; 

tnf. ^ya- 

i. 5°'. 
guest i_fijua. 

hand tVS § 90 r. 

al-Harit lijvlil. 

Harun ar-Rashid ^JJ\^■^ 



bate (jiflju. 

have (to), 2S expressed hy 
the subject in the dative 
[with J) followed iy the 

object in the nom. (as 

JLo xJ he has money); 
occasionally a form of 

^lyto be stands before 

the subject (as jj ^jlj 


JUo he had money). — 
not to have either as in 
the last example, but 

with jjllj (§ 50) instead 
of '^ ( JL; ^ ^}) 
or Si with folloTving ob- 
ject (§ 111) and dative 

of subject (si JLx ^). 
he Iso § 12 a. — he who 

head ^\y 
hear (to) ^t^ impf. a, inf. 

heart ^IS pi. Jj*i (10). 


Glossakt a. 

heaven gU*u P^- ^y^M 

heir part. act. of ^i;.. pi. 




hell-fire JLl!]. 

help (to) ItaS impf. u. — 

to demand help of ^La 

med. . X with i^. 

Heraclius Jojc. 

high ^. 

holy see war. 

hope for (to) La.r m;>/. u, 
with ace. 

horse jot;>. 


horsemen co//. Jui>" 

, \ Go, 

house v:i^. 

how i_il^ 

however i^i(j fvith follg. 

humble (to be) mjio. VI. 

hungry part. act. of cLs. in prep. ^ 

'^^^- i ^. incumbent on (to be) C>^'^ 

hundred x^lw §§ 91, 92 c. impf i, with J^.^ §'40fl. 

hunt (to) 5Lfl med. (^. — 
to go forth to hunt id. V. 


hunt, chase Joya. 
hurry (to) J^sxr^ //. 

al-Husain ^jl^LM- 

hypocrisy (religious) sL).. 

hypocrite part. act. of 



Ignorance Jljs.. 
ignorant j3ar<. act. nfj.^-.^ 

«=o, ' ,, 

idea ^^ijtxi pJ. JlcLLo(23). 
if ^1 § 159; in hypothe- 


^«ca? clauses J weYA <Ae 
i^er/". — if anyone ^ 
§ 159. 


illustrious J_aJL&. e/a<. 

§ 63 I. 
imperfection inf. of oU 

med. , F/. 

Glossaet a. 


indicate (to) JS impf. u, 

with Jki. 
indication J-J5. 

Q " ^ 

indigestion ^^m^. 

inform (to) ^j-i. IV. 

inhabit (to) ^JXl impf. u. 

inhabitants J^sol. 

inquire concerning (to) 
Xi X with ^. 

intelligent part. act. of Joseph 
interior sls.Ji. 

Islam ^!iH,!^|. 

interrupted (to be) mhs 

rii. ^ 

intimate see friend. 

into prep. jj. 

iuTest (to) anyone with 
*X^ impf. a, with ^^^ 
ofpers, and ace. of thing. 

inviolability 'xjoys,.. 

invite to (to) Li 5 impf. 
u, with ^f. 

Israel JuJCIK 

Jalal ad-din jj^ Jul JSLi^. 

Jerusalem j^jJiJI. 
Jews (the) coll. ^J^\. 
join (to) (^:1 impf. a, with 



joy ;5r-'- 
justice Jj^. 

keep from (to) «I« mj?/". 

fl, with ace. and ^^. 

keep intact (to) ^iu /F. 

kill (to) Jjci mj)/". M. 

kindle (to) <5ij emp/". ?. 

s ^ 
king dUi. 

kingdom 'iXX^. 

kiss (to) J.AJi //. 

knock (to) at the door of 


Glossaky a. 

^5 imjpf. M, with J<ft leave, leave off (to) dJi 
of per s. and ace. of door. impf.u. 

know (to) ^JS impf. a; let (to) £5^ 2»2p/- a § 40 a. 

olt imp. i (no. 132), liar (to declare anyone to 

i^rS imipf. i 



be a) <^dSn. 

knowing part. act. of ^J^; 

liberal 1^. 

elat. § 63 6. 

lie, tell a lie (to) i^jji/ 

Koran i^jllkll. 

m^/. «■; zw/. CidS. 

lack |.jLs. 

life (the future, next world) 

lamp -^1^- 

laugh (to) iJl^ impf. a. — life-time sLIi.. 

to laugh at id. with ^je 

— to make laugh id. 
IV with ^_, of means. 

light (to) y^ IV. — to 

give light to *Lo med. 
, IV, with J. 

law-code xju^ji- 

lawful (to be) Jls.. mp/. 

lead (to) 5LS »«e(?. .. 

leader see prayer. 

le^rn (to) (JLa F. 

learned Lji i?/. f^CxI li'^^e (to) jiLi. med ^. 

(20). living ^. 

learning ^&. long Jo^. 

like (like as)j?rep. li); cow/. 

Li5"(M'«7Ai;«<.),jjt US' 
(worn. sent.). 

likeness Jjci. 

little (JuJi. 

Glossaby a. 93* 

long for (to) ^Li med. ^ antith. to woman (nos. 

VIII, with JJk. 2, 43, 102), § 90 e. 

look at (to) ^ impf. u, "manifest part. act. J^ 

-., ■ med. (C IV 

with^j^y. — to look down 

^ I CQ i' 


^Jo iv. - to look into "la^l^i^d co^^- U-LJ»- 


manner «^, 

JJs F///, with ^ § 25, "^-^"^^^^ Cfy 

note. ^^'^^y (to) ^1) ^^^- i ^• 

lord ^:. ^^^y r^;^- 

meat -• 

love, fall in love with (to) ™^^^ i^- 

4^ /r, W2YA ace. ^^^°^ ^^■ 

love AL. medicine 1^. 


loving «■«/. ju^. meet (to) ^aJ «ffjp/. a. 

lower (to) u,d£ m^)/. u. mention (to) S'^ impf. u. 

lust JUfcj. — lusts ciylj.^. mien -J^ixi. 

make, make to be (to) Jkis. mighty *.^y^ «^«^- § 63 &. 

impf.a, (with two accus.). .,1 *«- 'if 

^ , mill xjj^LSc. 

-to make (poetry) JU ^.^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^-^ ^>r 

met?. ,. . ^ .,, ' 

^ ezwp/. u, with ace. 

malady ^lil. miracle IcJ^. 

al-Ma'mun ^^yoUJI. misfortune Jujuavo p/. 

man J^^'^ i?^- JLii (9); sl« JoLii (25). 


Glossakt a. 


naked ^^LjjA fern. x__. 

G o , 

modesty sUw^. 

moment (this) kcL*Jf. 

money JLxi. — piece of name 1^|. 

money jvS^O i?^- JJUw narrow ;jjto (= t3-uuo) 

nature «^ ^/. § 88, 9. 
near (to place) <^Ji II. 
needle slst. 
neighbour X^. 


niggardly Jui:^. — to de- 
clare anyone to be n. 
J^ II- 

niggardliness Jk^. 

month - (^ •'■: 

^^ G^o J 

morning (early) 5 Jo. 
morrow, to-morrow <Xe. 

Moses ^e-IJjjo- 

G o ^ 

mosque tX^?wo. 
most elat. o/much. 

G^ ^ 

mountain JlL^- 

much y^ elat. § 63&. — 

to be much, abundant ^^S^* O^- 

yS'impf. u. — to make 
much JS IV. 

al-Mugira SldtJI. 
Muhammed tX*..^. 

noble Ij>y! 

— nobles coll. 


not see § 150. 
now conj. o. 


Muslim (to become a) JL« 1 Lj § 85 ; also Lgjt. 
IV. — Muslim id. part, obedient to (to be) ^^ 
act. impf. u, with J. 

Qlossaet a. 


observe (to) jj^ VIII. 

occasion (as a conse- 
quence) (to) v_JiA IV, 
with two accus. 

Omar y+£. 

on acount oi prep. J. 

one as pronoun or adj. 
s , s , 
JLa.!. fern. H ; with 

s ^ * 
pron. suffix Jk^t. 

only till. 

onslaught (j«Lj. 

open (to) 2Si impf. a; 

inf. ^Xi. 

opinion (to be of) ^^K 
m/)/. a, § 49 &. 

or j|. 



overtake (to) d.;) /r. 
owner ,_*a.Lo pi- JLiil 

page boy |.!iLa. 
Paradise iU^t- 

pardon (to) Li* «ff!|)/'. u, 
with J<£. 


part (= some) udnj 

(§ 133). 
pass on (to let) vLs* med. 


pearls coll. JJ. 

pebble sLass.- 

people (Jkjc|. 

perhaps JoiJ § 147 a. 

perish (to) >iJUljo ew!^/. «"; 
— to cause to p. id. IV. 

person (man) ^^LLjt. 

Pharao ^yAys- 

physician v_*.JtAis. 

pick up (to) iaU impf. u. 
piece, see § 73 c. 
piety xjLsO. 
place (occasion) ^jioyjo pi- 

J^U:i (23). 
place (to) «.«S^ i»«p/: a. 

§ 40 a. 


Glossary A. 

plants coll. «iLj (masc). (§ 83). direction of 

please (to) ....^a^ IV. — prayer II^.— leader of 

to be well pleased with s, ', 

prayer |,boi. 

,_aoT impf. a. with °wi. i . /. s ^ r - . 

^') so. ^-^ preach to (to) v_j2i. 2»i;)/. 

pleasure sj^j pi. § 76. ^^ ^nj^ ace. ' 

pliancy jjjJ. precede (to) (,tXj V. 

poem, poetry !jLi p/. JLiif prepare (to) J..o /r. 

poet leLi. 

poison I«. 

polite scholar -.ff s t*' pi. 
iSCii (20). 

presence Sw(da». 
present (gift) SJLo {inf. of 

preserve (to) iiia. ewip/". a. 
pride ^!a^ 

poor Ljii jj?. r^ (20). PJ^ince puo| j?/. ^5Ui (20). 
possessor .6, /em. i:i5|(i prison ^^.^j^. 

§ 90/. 
poverty Jii. 
power Sjj. 

praise (to) Jt*^ m;>/". a. 
praise (God) .Sb- 
pray (to) Xo //. 

S ' , SI 

prayer ■■&%Jm {= gyLa 
§ 43 note) pi. «I,|JLo 

promise Ji^.. 

prophecy (gift of) i^. — 
to pretend to prophecy 
Lj V. 

prophet ^ pi. j.^!. 


prostrate oneself (to) J^ 
m^/". u. 



protect (to) ^IL impf. u, i. 

provide for (to) ^'Jl impf. 
u, with two accus. 

punishment xjjJic. 
purify (to) ^^U II. — to 
oneself id V. 

purse 8-.^. 

pursue (to) aj3 VIII. 

put (to) Jjt^ impf. a. — 
to put off till j.i.T //. 

qualify (to) inf. i^^^. 
raise, raise up (to) iij 

impf. a; inf. Id' 
Eamadan ^La^r. 
ar-Kashid Jkjui J|. 
reach (to) liJ. t> IV. 
read (to) \ji impf. a. 
recede from (to) ji.*j impf. 

a, with ^vvo. 


recite (to) |Ij> impf. a. 

reed-pen ^Jji. 

Socin, Arabic Grammar.^ 

reflection inf. of Jo V. 

refuse (to) ^| impf. a. ■ — 

to r, to do, id. with ^ I 
and subj. 

regard, with r. to \. 

regret pJ*.S. 

relate (to) ^^ impf. i. 

related to ^_>jj.i with ^jo. 

reliance inf. VIII, see rely. 

religion ^^o. 

rely on (to) JkS^ P77/, w?Y^ 

repel (to) (>» impf. u. 

repent (to) oLi" med. ,. 

repentance Xxiljo. 

report j^i*. 

reproach (to) l!^ »je<?. .. 

restore (to) _.U ?we<?. ^ /F. 

restrain from (to) ^J^impf. 
M, wiYA acc. aw<? ^jt. — 
to r. one's self from id. 

sea jsi. 



98* Glossary A. 

resurrection XxiLlS. 

return to (to) is-T impf. i, 

with j|. 

right (due) ;^jj&.. 

right, right hand ^j-a^j- 

riseinvalue(to) "^t impf.u. 

roof i_B.o'w 

routed (to be) j,yjD F//. 

rule (to) (jj^Lw »!e<?. .. 

run races (to) laj-w F7/7. 
■ s, ^„^ 
saddle (of an ass) jlc jo. 

s -^ 

— saddle-girth -lys^- 
safe (to be) LL*, mj?/". «. 

as-Sa£fah Li«J|. 

salt ^jJijo. 

save (to) |vlw //. 

say (to) Jli OTe<?. .. — to «'"i'/"- «' «'«'^ '«"' «cc. 

say of anyone, id. with set about (to) 'XJo med. ^, 
J^. — to s. to anyone, ^^ff^ impf. § 99 note a. 

id. with J. seventy ^^'L. 

scatter (to) ^£ ewijo/. u, i. shadow J^b. 

secret !L, ^/. JL«I 

security ijU-«o. 

see (to) (^IT m;?/'. a, § 49 ft. 

seedy part. pass, of ^^ji.. 

seek (to) ^JJLb zwip/. w. — 
to seek for one's self,id. V. 

seemly (to be) ^Lj VII. 

seize (to) jk^l impf. u. 

self ^jIlS § 12 e. 

send (to) Ju«j /r; for 

t_aJLa> ; with i_). 

serpent ^^,L*j. 

G t. ^ 

servant (i. e. of God) Jla* 

pi. JLii (9). 
serve wine to (to) ^^lu 

Glossary A. 


sliift (to) •^ Ja impf. i. 
ship SiXjfAM- 

G ^ 

shirt (jiOA+ji. 

"' G , 

shoulder i_aaST 

sign jot i?/. § 76. 

silent (to be) inf. o*.*^- 

sin x£j^^. 

singing (art of) sUi. 

sit with (to) (j«Jj=» ///, 
with ace. 

G, , 

size sxiLi". 

slave d JL+jo j»^. J>jLftLftx 

(27). — slave-girl &jvLs. 

i)?. J^ly (24). 

sleep, go to sleep (to) jlU 
med. ,, impf. a; part. act. 
pi. § 88, 9. 

s - 

small JJ^-^a• — to become 

s. yXM impf. a. 
smoke ^L^i>. 

snow Aj- 
so conj. o- 

sober ^«r<. act. of L^. 

Socrates iLjuu. 

solicitude jL^ja. 

son ^jj § 90 & (pluralis 

sanus with names of 


c 5 

sorrow y^ya>. 

spare (to) o. X, § 49 c. 


speech J^j". 

spend (to) (of time) inf. 

spirit ^yy 

staff Lax-. 

stand (to) jili me^?. ^ ; pari, 
act. pi. § 88, 9. — 10 

stand still i_aS^ impf. i. 

star ^. 

start off (to) &a.j V. tv.^l 
stay (to) *Lji med. y IV. 
steal (to) ^yL impf. i. 
stratagem X-L^. 



Glossakt a. 

stream Jla^. ten^^ §§ 91, 92 a. 

strength Jj.^. than ^__ § 63 b. 

Su'ba HuxJi. that pron. dLj3 § 13 c. 

submissive (to be) J j V. that (in order that) J mith 

subj. § 100. 

that conj. ^\ (before a 

verb) § 148 &; ^t {before 
a noun) § 147 a. 

that which Lo. 

then o- 

subsistence ^v.. 

sufficiency xjLa5^ 

supplication ^.L^o. 
surely J (after ^V). 
tail ^j j. 

r -- ^ a ' 

take (to) tXa-t mp/. u. — thereupon Ji. 

(of a city) l^i m;?/: a. tj^ief Jj ^/. j^ (10) 

to t. away ,_^b impf. a. 
with i_j. — to t. hold of 

thing g^ pi. JLiit (17) 
but without the nuna- 

j^l impf u, rvith 
talk to 

tion i-LLil. 

(to) i^iS" //, mith ,,.,.,.= T. . . 

^ ' ^ thmk (to) ..yiim^/.M 

- to t. to one an- ^ ' u^ ^ ^ 

two accus.; inf. JjJo. 
third XJIJ § 93 a. 
thirty j^-iU §§ 91, 92 6. 
this t tX* § 13 6. 
Thora (the) SlJ^l 


other, id. V. 

talk lis. 

tattle iaXl. 

teach (to) Jji //, w«7A two 

Glossary A. 


those who ^ § 14 b. 



3 ^ 

thought y^i. 

trsLnsiiory pai-i. act. o/" ^i. 
travel (to) TLl med. ^. 

three uy^^ §§ 91, 92 a. 

through (by means of) 
prep. o. 

throw away (to) ^J impf. 
i. — to throw down ^sii 

tidings, to give glad tid- 
ings to anyone of a 
thing jAj //, rvith ace. 
of per s. and i_). 

time ^jLxi)- — (proper) time 

tipsy ^j\yi>j- 
title-page fj\y^. 
to {direction) prep. J I; 
{sign of the dative) J. 

tongue ^j\S^pl. 'iXxs\ (16). 
towards prep. Jt^, 
transgression .^li pi- 
J^ (10). 

treasure jtAjyi&.. 

S^ ^ -^ '' 

tree S^sj^.A. 

tribe jcLAJsi?/. JoLii (25). 

trick x-Li-. 

trust XjLiol. 

G o 

truth ij(>»«ffl. 

turn (to) JUo me^?. |^. — 
to turn from ^yt- VI, 
with ^x- — to t. away 
{act.) t>^ impf. u. — to 
t. away from {neut.) J^ 

II, with ^j^. 
twinkling jilai. 
'Ubaid A-u.e. 
ugly ^*j /em. s. — 

unbeliever part. act. of jhS 

pi. § 76. 
uncover (to) ^JiJh^impf. i. 
understanding J.ii£. 


Glossary A. 

unmindful of (to be) ^L*- waste yxLi fem. X-^- — I 

r, miih ^^. 

render waste 



until conj. JX^^ generally water gLo § 90^. 

with suhj. (cf. § 152 c). ^gj^ As.. 

upon prep. ^j^. well-pleased see please, 

used to ^[S' med. , wt7A West ;_>jjLo. 

/b//^. 2'»aj!?/. § 99 c; sw&y. 
ffen. betrv. ^\^ and imp f. 

value x+jui. 

vehemence iijLi.. 

vehement ■_" -^ 1 r - 

verily ^°,| §§ 147, 96 d. 

viand (V*iajop/.xJLeUxi(28). 
violent Ju;\.w. 

wade through (to) ^jiL^ 

/Ke«?. ., wt^A ace. 
want (to) lilv med. . IV. 
want &^L^. 

whale cy^a*. 
what rel. interr. Lc. 
when re?, interr. Jjo ; coh/. 
iSt § 158. 





where, whence ^^ I ^jjo. 

which relat. ^ jJK 

whichever ^f § 14 c. 

while (a) jLcL*,. 

whilst cf. § 157. 

.0- o ^ 

who re/. ^5 jJI; interr. ^jo. 

war (holy) m/l JLii o/" whoever,whoso JJo§§14&, 
jLg^ III. 159. 

Waraka xs' 


whole -'i~^- 

wash (to) JJLc m;?/: i. why? p; why then? |S UJ. 

Glossary A. 


wick XJIJ j. 

wickedness Li. 

will (to) sLxi med. ^^ 

word iCjS. 

wind ^. /em. § 72. 

wine j.4.^. 
wisdom jctXfk 

work Jkii p/. JLiil (17). 
world (the, this) LiSjJI. 
worst Lii § 63 note, 
write to (to) ,_JcS'«»y9/'. m, 
with, J,|. 
wise *aX~» p^. *-!5^oij (20). wrong (to^ to do) IJUo 

Q CI > 

wish (to) o\\ med. ^ IV. impf. i; inf. |JLIs. 

with «xi (in company w.); 

^_j (in union w., hy 

means of), 
without yJu {with gen.). 
woe to! (j Ju.. 
wolf i_^(3. 

woman sljjoj^, SljX. - 

i?/Mr. gLlj § 90 f. 
wood o,*. — piece of youth J^^ 

wood £Lm^- Zaid Ju^. 


ye |»JOl. 

year xju« ^?. § 90 m. 

yes |Ui- 

young ynJuiO elat. § 63 b. 

pi. J^UT (23). 
young man ^Xi pi. ^^^Jii 



Glossary B. 


I pari, interr. often before 
tlie first half of an 
alternative question. 

<^\st.c.yi\ (§ 90 «) father. 
Jot impf. i to stay, remain. 

I Jo I adv. always, for 
ever; with neg. never. 

(^1 impf. i to run away. 

^\ impf. i; c. ace. come, 
come to. c.acc. p. et\^ 
r. to bring, to give 
somethg. to some one. 

wjI impf. u to make an im- 

jS\ ph ylj\ trace, sign, 

ys^\ wages, hire, reward. 

i\^\fefn. ^^Jkja.! one, some 

Xt (§ 90c) _p/.S^| brother, 

j^js,.! mj»/. M to take, to 
g^e, catch hold of. 

VIII to make; w. 2 Ace. 
to adopt, regard (as). 


fs.t //to put off, postpone. 
j.i&.| the last, secpnd, 
Sy^y I the next world. 

vi.l fern. i5j.^l other. 

jij| F to conduct one's 
self with propriety. 

i_3t>l good breeding, 
politeness, education, 
polite reproof. 

Glossary B. 


'ij^i^l vessel for holding !tUXl„!S!t (the Arabs have 
water, made of skins. treated the first two 


jC(>| // to pay (tribute). letters of the name as 

the article) Alexander. 

JLsNtXlCvu^t Alexandria. 

il lo! see! when lo! 

lit conj. when, if; adv. "^ 

& Go 

lo! see! i».^l v. U^. 

j^il impf. a; c. Jpers. et j^_^| ^he root, the chief 
o rei to allow, permit. thing. 

Zto ask permission. ^^iS pi Jlif region, di- 
l.l\pl. ^iSfear. strict. 

^!j'j|m/. /permission, ^i P^- p-^lLil (xXi(i.a) 

region, country. 

iiS\ Fto gather strength, 
become confirmed. 

Ji'l impf. u to eat ; to get 
to eat. 

/// to eat with some 


J^l m/. /eating. 

° ' *•- 

JjS'Lo various kinds 

of food, 
ill jpflfrf. composed of ^^1 

il /Fto injure, molest. 

^4>.yi Jordan, the Jor- 
dan district. 

„ ^% 

[ulJLLLkLTl Aristotle. 

^Sfem. earth, land, coun- 
try, ground. 

Uuj foundation. 

„i impf. i to tie, bind, 
take captive. 



a captive. 




Glossabt B. 

^1 ^^ ^ IJP ^^^^P* 
^§ 151). 

^jjfA»j.^f(§ 14a) he 
that; whoso, who, which. 

i_aJI zffjp/. a to become 
familiar with . . . 

Vlllto be on intimate 
terms , familiarly ac- 
quainted (with). 

Go* S ,_ G ji- 

^_ftJli?/. oill or o^l 

G 3* 


li\ impf. a to feel, suffer 


s * 

ivjJI painful. 

s I ' "'g , _ 
xJI^;?/. s^\ a god. 

2JUI ex Jl e< jj| (the 

true) God, Allah. Julc 

aJUl name of a man. 

^^iji'O God! 
J| jsrep. (§ 96 b) towards, 
in the direction of, to, 
till, as far as. 

Il part, ititerr. or. 

It m/)/. M, to direct one's 
course by something. 

-I i>Z. tfyL^I mother. 


Jwl the people of a 
(particular) religion, 
nation, people. 

jjol impf. u, c. ace. p. et uj 
r. to order; command. 

jjcI command, power; 

affair, matter. ^_a^Lo 

r«y I commander. 
- G * 

jjyol commander, 


^^^-Ox^l jjwithe prince 

of the (true) believers, 
commander of the faith- 
ful = the Caliph. 

^j.a\ impf. a, c. ace. to be 

safe from . . . 
IV to believe. 

G,* __ 

Xxt pi. GL.i( female slave. 
ioyo|Umayya(man's name). 

Glossary B. 


^\ (§ 100, 1486) that. j^l/em. J^| first (<?e<em. 

^^1 (§§ 147, 148 a) that. 
Jjl (§§ 159, 160) if. 

also beginning.) 
J.lgen. and ace. J.| t>. .i. 

j;i (§ 147) lo! truly, verily ^J^a;.^ where? whither? 
(often untranslatable). 

Lil pron. (§ 12) I. 

,:^\ pron.; fern. vi:ot, thou. 

,j*o| imp/", a to have fami- 

liar intercourse with. 

^jll*j| CO?;. y«b man. 


i_ajt nose. 

Uit par<. (composed of 

^1 and Lo) only (refers 
in this sense usually to 
last word of sentence), 

^\'part. whence? how? 

.^\ V c. J^ ret to equip 
one's self, to be prepar- 
ed (for any thing). 
s <, *• 

J^sct coll. one's kinsfolk, 

family, people (cf.§133), 

jjjI J I whither? Jjjo 
ijjI (from) whence? 
where ? 

jLsl sign, revelation. 

Lgj| (§ 85) particle of ex- 

\^ prap. in, on, at; with, by 
means of; for (of price), 
by (in oaths), o yo l<3|_ 
lo! there was . . . 

Jub Babylon, Babylonia. 

(jl,.j impf. u to be brave, 

ijjuU courage,8trengtl), 

So- . 

y^vj sea, great river. 
Iju effjp/. a to begin. 


Glossary B. 

J Jo lie acc. to exchange, 
alter, change. 
X c. acc. et i_j to take 

something in exchange 
for (something else). 

' jj impf. a to go away, 


yij,i II. c acc. pers. et i^ 

r. to tell some one 
something as a piece of 
good news. 

I^ or Imsj to glance, 

perceive ; to understand 
something thoroughly. 

lowest part; the heart 
or secret thoughts of 
a person. 

ii..ij impf. a to arouse, 
awaken; to send. 

t\*J imp/', u or tX*j impf. 

a to be distant, far off. 
VI to be far distant 
from each other. 

Jk.«j prep, after, after 
the departure , death 

of . . . t\«j f\je after 

the death of. 

y^ pi ^L^\ glance, ijaju one (§ 133), part, 
intelligence. portion; some (of). 


,^y to come too late. 
IV to delay. 
X to find that sthg. 
comes too late. 

ijJaj belly; bottom (of a 

kxhj repletion. 

ijaJu impf. a to "hate. 

ijaJu hatred. 
jLidxj id. , state of 
being hated. 
iL.*aj«j hatred. 
^_*j impf. i to seek, strive. 

Glossary B. 


r VII to be necessary, ^ impf. i to build. 

meet, behoove. oT' ■ ^ 

iUb inf. 

JfilyL? Hippocrates. ^j| (ggoj, ^%Qf.2■, 

^j impf. a to remain, re- 126) pi. %\Xi\ son. 

main over, continue in iLol^i^ilL (§ 90 i) daughter. 

***4J P^- tvSL^J animal, a 
Sl^AJ inf. , ]brute beast. 

jXj ^1 Abu Bekr, name i-jLj^/. oLjf gate, door. 

of the first Caliph. "" "' ^.^o* « 

^^ mj9/. i to weep, 
jjj ^/. oi^-j country, vil 

lage(plur. co//.country). 

iij ^w?;?/'. M, c. ace. to reach, 
attain to; to come to 
one's ears. 

^J«.AAXJ Bilkis, queen of 


^ impf. u to try, afflict. 

^^j part, certainly; nay, 
' on the contrary. 

I»j {ex Lij) wherewith? by 

what means? 

lAAj ji)/. *c;Laj J, v:i>^ house, 

family. JLjl o^aj 


cLj iOT/?/". 2 to sell, buy. 

«>o w/. / selling, sale. 

^TjLj OTe<?. ^ IV to be evi- 

jT^j (§ 114) i^rejt?. 
between. . . . ^^tXj ^^^ 
prop. bet. the hands of= 
before, in presence of. 

Li<u cow;', with a nom. 
sentence: while, whilst. 

aUlj evidence, proof. 


Glossary B. 

^ijjjLj" masc. coffin. 

^ JTto be well arranged, 
be in good order. 

ijj impf. a, c. ace. to follow. 

JV c. 2 ace. to make 
sthg. follow, to attach 
sthg. to, some one. 

VIII to follow, en- 
deavour to aquire. 

Ji^' prep, under, ^jo 
vifcs! id. 

s ^' 
olwj earth, morsel of 


djj impf. u to aban- 
don, leave, give up, 

^'yi3 (cf. ^^ fern. (or. 

i^ysS msc.) piety. 
vJ.ij fern. (§ 13 e) that 


Go 8 , , , 

j.A*Jj jo/. Sjyo^" pupil, 


li' ?«jB/. e to be finished. 

i.Lij perfect. 

'iy^ nom. unit, a date. 

xjjjXil (§ 2 (? note.) the 
Torah (five books of 

rU ^ to ask help in se- 
curing (blood) revenge. 

oJo impf. u to be or stand 
firm, to be fixed. 
IV io fix, establish. 

ooU .£'/flf. o^ajI con- 
stant, fixed, firm. 
Jjo /ffij?/. a, to lose a child 

{aec.) by death (said of 
a mother). 

ii)i^ /i?»2. jo^' three. 

HwiikA o^' thirteen. 

aj a<?y. thereupon, then. 

i^o iffi/?/. 2 to bend. 

X to make an ex- 
ception of. 

Glossary B. 


v_}^" garment. 
jiLs-strength of character. 


JoJ*^ new. 

^Jk^ kid. 

LjtXfe. VIII to draw to 

y&. mpf. u to drag, pull. 
1^1;^ impf. i to run, flow. 

^\^pi^r^ (§ 89) 

female slave, young girl. 

soya, island ; Sj-Jji ' Meso- 

i^ya. emp/". i to reward, 

///to pray God to re- 
quite some one for sthg. 

B ^ ^ 

i),.^^ the body. 

Jute. to place ; make, pre- 
pare; c. 2 ace. to make 
to be sthg.; to begin 
(§ 99 note a). 

oi^ impf. i to become dry. 

Li=k impf. u to be rude. 

^Lto 2«/. tyranny. 

Jji. zm/>/. 2 to be great, 
powerful, exalted. 

(J^:i. great, illustrious, 

sound (in judgment). 

xJikji. might, majesty. 

jLLb- impf. i to sit down ; 
c. J to give an audience. 

/// c. ace. to sit down 
by some one, sit with. 

{j^yXc?- inf. sitting. 

(j«.A.Li. pi- i-LlAkXi- 

companion one sits 

s^s. a live coal. 

1^ impf. a to bring to- 
gether, gather, collect. 

with 2 ' to bring 
about a meeting of two 
parties, to have them 
both come into one's 


IV js jjir z^\ 

(also without xjL and 

■with ^1) to decide upon, 
resolve to do sthg. 

VIII to come together, 
to assemble. 

Glossary B. 

" Is> belonging to the 
demons, a demon. 

^U^ VIII to avoid. 

s ", ° . 

>_^2> side. v_^A&. 1^ 


the whole, all 

in comparison with. 
sCU=. pi. y2U&. corpse, 
funeral bier. 

(LjLu.~» as ace. of con- 
dition: all together). 

xrU^ a number, 
party (of people). 

JtC to be beautiful. 

s ^ _ ^ _ 

J^A+s. beautifuljhand- J g~^ impf. a to be igno 

G^ ^^ 
some, elegant, kind. rant. xJL^ ««/". 

4X«.a,. impf.aio take trouble 
about sthg., exert one's 

/// to fight, do battle, 
esp. w. unbelievers i. e. 

^j^ impf. u to cover over, 

Sa^ G ' 

XASk pi ^jU^ garden 
of trees. Paradise. 

G ^ ^ 

^U.^ interior, heart, 
soul, character. 

jj^ coll. demons. Jinn. 

J^Ls. pi. 1^^ igno- 
jUJLssLs^ the state of 

ignorance, i. e. (pre- 
islamic) heathenism. 

jt^^^ hell. 

i_}L&. med. . ir c ace. 

Glossary B. 


pers. et ^\ r. to give or 
grant an answer, an 
audience to some one, 
listen to, promise, con- 
cede one, comply 
I with his request. 

Xto hear, in the sense 
of answer (a petition). 

5Lis. med. . to be generous. 

\L&. med. 5 c. ace. to pass 

in c. ace. to pass 
beyond, exceed, trans- 

cL&. med. , to be hungry. 

ilcys> (nom. unit. § 
73 c) hunger. 

t.[^ med. 1^, c come, 
c. u to bring. 

l^:^ inf. 
(jioa^ army. 
Z>^ IV to love. 

Jifc&. love. 

S o c i n , Arabic Grammar.^ 

,_*AAi {elat. Zt-^\ c. 
i^\ pro dativ. pers.) pi. 

jLa^I dear to some 
one, beloved, friend. 

jU^ love, friendship. 



Lia^ mj9/. u c. ace. pers. et 
Lj rei to present some 

one with sthg. 

^L until; so that; for 
the purpose of; {some- 
times = finally). 


mjo/". M to make the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. 

xs3L:a. i?/. ^sXs. the 
pilgrimage to M. 

s -' 
reason or excuse. 

&.s\^ pi. 


>_AS!ti. impf. a to prevent, 

i^jL^si. curtain, veil. 


Glossary B. 

>^:s>L^ porter, gate- 
keeper, chamberlain. 

kij(>.~. tmpi'. u to be new. 
II c. ace. pers. to in- 
form, relate. 
Xto newly adopt, get 

sthg. new. 


viojes. a story, nar- 
rative (applied esp. to 
the traditions respect- 
ing Muhammed). 

r jk.~. impf. ff, c. ace. vel ^jo 

to be on one's guard 
against . . . 

^iX^ inf. 

i^(X==- impf. a to be clever, 


j.^ (leys w^) impf. a to b e free. 


I free,noble. 


&. /// to make war 

upon, fight with some 

VI to carry on war 
with each other. 

t>j.i impf. i to strive eager- 
ly after. 

c>y^ eagerness, zeal, 
ijOyss^ II c. ^^s- r. to 
incite (to), stir up (to). 


IV to burn, singe. 

U-^ II to move, to stir 
up, agitate. 

lj.s. impf. M, c. Jȣ to be 
forbidden to one, to be 
legally prohibited one. 
// to pronounce un- 
lawful, declare to be for- 
bidden, to prohibit. 

^•f^ to be troubled, sad. 

IV to trouble , make 

vII^aL^ impf. u to reckon. 

i^LL^ reckoning. 

(Xm^ impf. u to envy. 

j^j..w.i^ impf. M to be beauti- 
ful, good. 
IVto do good. 

Glossary B. 


X to find to be good. 

j^-»aaj=» beauty, good- 


beautiful, good. 

^j£a> CO//, suite, servants, 

' ■^^ effi/?/". M, c. «cc. ^ers. 

z;e/ Jk.£ to be present 
with or at. 

IV to bring forward, 
esp. to bring before a 
sovereign or ruler. 

VIII c. ace. to come 
upon one (saidof death). 
Pass, to be near to 

._^> impf. u to surround. 

wAa. impf. i to dig. 

VIII to dig for one's 

lao'^ impf. a to take care 
of, to guard, to be atten- 

VIII c: i_j r. to take 
care, give heed. 

loA- impf. i to be right. 


(£^ truth, certainty; 
right, claim. 

lite. impf. u to be despised. 
X to despise. 

B ^ 



I51&. ra^/. M to decide, give 

jL«X». wisdom. 

*aX~. i?/. 4-L»XLs» wise, 

|vfL.=. i?^- ,.IX=. go- 
vernor, ruler, judge. 
^~» ?OTj?/. i to relate. 

J^ m^/. M to loosen, 
untie; mj^/". i to be al- 

IV or X to pronounce 
sthg. allowed, declare 
lawful, to allow. 
J^i. rto adorn one's self. 


^ (l.pers. 
to be hot 

Glossary B. 
) Impf. a. 


. fern, fever. 

kx)L*;a. pigeon. 

J<i^ impf. I to praise. 

tX.,.^ Muhammed (the 
praised one). 

0t^ m^/". u to be foolish. 

(^♦=»l foolish, stupid. 

Ji>,.^ m^/. i to load, carry ; 

bring ; transport, c. Ji^^ 
to attack; c. ace. per s. 
et J^s. r. to make s. o. 
sit upon sthg.; to in- 
cite to some action. 

viA^a. to commit sin. 

r to purify one's self 
from sin. 

iai^i. // to embalm. 

oJJ.s^!^)| al-Ahnaf, (a man's 

note b) c. Jt^ to compel. 

J'TII c. ^]| to require, 
be in need of. 

X^Ls. c. i_3 need, want; 
c. fi,\ request. 

J,^ prep, round, round 

s _ 
JLia. state, condition, 


i^ls. impf. i, to gather 
together, take posses- 
sion (of everything). 

^-s. impf. § 49 c. to live. 

":L tribe, clan. 

5.jys. life. 

vi>tA^ impf. u to be bad, 

viju^Aia. bad, vile, 
vicious, profligate. 

jj.^ // c. 2 ace. to relate, 
tell some one sthg. 

nil to test, try, 

Glossary B. 



r^^ P^- ^^-i^' infor- forward, to produce, to 

mation, news, affair. expel. 

well informed, -P bring out, draw out. 

_j.^ tribute. 

■y^ imp/', i to make bread, j-yi*- ifnpf. a to be dumb. 

to bake. ,^^ 

, Vj^ impf. I to make a' 

hole in, to pierce. 

VII to have a hole put 
through, be pierced. 

VIII to break through, 
flow through. 

^■jX. impf. u to store up. 


ure , treasure-house. 

■yj^ a cake of bread, 

ivi~» impf. i to seal up, put 
one's seal to. 

x^jsjk^ Hadiga (Muham- 
med's first wife). 

|.J*.i>- impf. u to serve. 

XX (\^ inf. 
s - 


of) servants. 
*iJL&. a servant. 


tVi^ coll. (the staff 15^^ «'"»/'/"- «. ^- «''c- '"• 

to fear sthg. 

ua^ impf. u to be some 
one's special property. 

(jaL^, coW. 'lAj^ an 
intimate friend; persons 
of distinction. 

w^ impf. i to prostrate 
one's self, to fall down. 

i. impf. u to go out. 

come out, go out from, 
depart from. 
IV to bring forth or 

^.^JUlL. impf. i to dye (esp. 
the hair). 


Glossaky B. 

.s. dyed. 

' ^^ IX to be or become 


JqjL impf. a to sin. 

i_jLkE.f al-Hattab (a man's 

i_ftj. impf. I to be light 
(opp. of heavy). 

s , a^f ,. , 

i_aAA~» e?. i_ft~il light. 

jJLia. ?mp/. M to be ever- 
lasting, to remain. 

(jwJja. VIII io appropriate 
to oneself secretly. 

U«al~w // c. ace. pers. et 
^x to rescue, to free. 

(j, escape, way of 

JaAis. F///prop. to become 
commingled; to come 
on (said of the darkness 
in which objects can 
no longer be disting- 

i-aJLL impf. u to be behind, 
to succeed. 
// to leave behind. 

XiA-Ua. pl- iLii~» Ca- 

i^_^Xb>- impf. u to create, 


l^jXi. 1) one's out- 
ward form; 2) coll. 

{^zX~^pl.^j^:^JsA one's 
(natural) disposition, 
character, mental and 
moral traits. 

Jvt'^ m^/. u to go out (of 
fire and light). 

r«^ to ferment. 

y4..i /em. fermented 
drink, wine. 

JLL me<?. ^ (§ 42<?; 44) 
impf. a to fear. 
// to put in fear. 

\^Y^ tear. 
vlX. med. ^ to be good. 

Glossaet B. 


VIII to choose, select "^i^ coll., nom. unit. H^o, 
for one's self. pearl. 

yA^ [also B,s elat.) good ^J^t> IV to attain, reach, 
(adj. and noun) , pro- comprehend. 


JL~» med. ^ II to imagine 

tjla Darius. 

;_};> impf. i to walk slowly. 

jolt> pi- ^_jl.i> beast of 
burden and for riding. 

Ij5 IV to turn one's back, 
go away. 

(jjs^a c. ace. to enter, to 

come; c. Jk.£ to come to 
see one, to consummate 
marriage with (coire) ; 



to interfere. 

IV to bring into, in- 
r. J J 

J^is.0 Ml/". 7. 

Jki.|i> entering,future, 

ivtf j4> J3/. |V^f)iS a dirhem, 
a silver coin. 

(Cj3 mi?/. «' to know. 
IV caus. 

Li (> mp/". u to call, to call 
upon, invoke, c. lo to 

pray to God for some- 
thing, to call to one's 
aid, to name; c. ace. et 

Jt to induce s. o. to do 
sthg., invite, summon. 
VI to call to one an- 
other, c. lo to bring a 
complaint against . . . 

5^£4> prayer. 

«ii> impf. a to push; hand 
over, deliver up. 

LiiS impf. u, c. ^ to come 


120* Glossary B. 

jt> elat. ^o] low, ^c> debt, 

humble, trivial, near; ° ^j ^;. ^ GiSl re- 

pl- i^lol the nearest ligion. 

parts. ;1-Ijj> denar, a gold coin. 

Lllj /-m. world. ,^ ^^Q^_ ^g 13 ^-j ^jjjg^ 

^15 me^. ^ 77 to subdue. , r l; (§ 15) ^^at (then)? 

.t3»«e<?.. C.J to surround. ,\j<3 wolf. 

•So pl. ».o dwelling- ^co impf. a, c. ace. to 

place, house, abode, frighten. 

<^oii''t' Jib impf. u, c. ace. to think 

|.lt> ff?e(?. . to remain, con- of, mention, name, 

tinue, be durable. speak of. Inf. ^j.. 

^^'oprep. on this side of, Ji impf. i to be insignifi- 

below, beneath ; other cant, feeble. 

than, exclusively of, be- Jj^ miserable, 

sides, before. ^^,o ^j.^id. feeble. 

^5J0 mp/. a to be indis- >iJLJ6/ew. viJULj j9ron.(§ 13c) 

posed. that, 

/r to treat medically. J^^ ,-^^^. « to go,go away. 

%\'^S medicine. IV to cause to disap- 

^jl(S ffje«?. ^^ to be in sub- P^ar. 

jection. ljt,% gold. 

Glossaey B. 


.i the (man) of, possessor .^7 pi. cLs house, pi. real 

_ofcf.§§90/, 133. estate. 

cti> med. ^ to become 

known, spread abroad. 
IV to make public, 

U-l; i??- u*'^J^ head, the 
chief thing. 

^ju^sP^. iS-Lu^s leader, 

tS'J impf- <3f. (§ 49 &) 
to see, be of opinion, 
think, believe, consider 
advisable, c. 2 ace. to 
regard or esteem a per- 
son or thing as, hold 

to be. 
IV ^Ac. 2 show. 

(^L insight, counsel, 

C>\ lord, God. 
^j emp/. M to tie, fasten. 
JaAJ^ e/a^. iajul se- 
curely fastened, firm. 

«joJI ar-Rabi', (a 
man's name). 
«jv| /em. xjLJsl tour. 

«is.. mj3/. 2 to turn i 





I^". m^/". M to stone 

».AJs>-^ stoned, accursed. 

\js^. impf. u, c. ace. to hope 
for sthg. 

to be wide, broad. 

// c. i_j to bid anyone 

welcome (LX&.J0). 

Is."! impf. a, e. ace. pers. 

to have pity on, com- 
passion for, some one. 


Glossary B. 

VI to take compassion 
on each other. 


II to set (of jewels), 


t^y loving kindness r^' impf. a to suck (at 
3sp. of God), deed of 'the breast). 

(esp. of God) 

^> fern. mill. 


3j imipf. u to bring back, 
give back. 
VIII to turn back. 

3r m/". I giving back. 

^i\. mjo/". M, c. 2 «cc. to 
present, grant, furnish, 
bless with, give food. 

iVS) food (esp. as given 

by Allah), sustenence. 

jj.jy^ Marzuk, (man's 
JkAuj IV to send. 

J^**-N jt?/. Ju«, mes- 
senger, apostle (esp. of 

IV to give suck. 

l^j impf. a, c. ace. to be 

content with, acquiesce 
in, take pleasure in. 

s-ix. jdJI 


God be 

gracious unto him! 

IV to satisfy, render 

.^v t«/. / pleasure, 

delight (in sthg.). 

tXtv Vlllto shake, tremble. 

^j /»«/?/. a to watch, tend, 

G , J 

ctT J5/. isLft* herdsman, 

JUc, _p/- LsLftj subjects 
(also sewp'. coll.). 

isLfcyo pl.c\yjo pasture- 
ground. "^ 

Glossaky B. 


^_^&l imp/", a to have a 

I strong craving for; c. 

jj^ to give up the 
craving for sthg., to 
shun, relinqi},i^L 

i_aAixj9/. xA^«| (fl^t) caJiS> 
iiT mp/". « to rais6^, lift 

up (the voice); c. Jt to 
bring sthg. before the 
F judge. 

.Ai» high, noble. 

jjjT 7F c. i_5 to be kind, 
gentle vyith . . . 

(3ij-«p/. (^ifwX) elbow. 

^i\ impf. i to be or become 
thin, abject, mean. 

^\ bondage, slavery. 

«jir mj?/". « to mend, patch. 

iiijij patch. 

o^S^ m^/. «, c. ace. to 

mount on horse-, camel- 
back &c., to ride. 

5 V, 


j^f^ m/. stepping 
into,, aboard (a ship). 

^^Lajo. nanje^f a month. 

JO. impf. i, c. i^ r. to 

throw, pelt with. 

_v_A». OT^/. «, c. «cc. ret 

to be afraid of sthg. 

v^aJdK monk. 

c. ace. et 

. of. 

' K IF »«erf. ., 

(^.« to rid . 
f-^^ (for ^^^) /e»?., 

j»/. -,by wind. 

'''».-- 11 

S^l. smell, scent. 

o\\ med. . /F c. ace. to will, 
wish, intend, endeavour 

iK med. . to seek, desire, 

(^r. 2»2p/". 2 to relate. 

i_aa.") 2Vwp/". a to advance 

c^i 2ff?p/. « to sow. 


Glossary B, 

cvj coll. seed, green 
corn, green crop, differ- 
ent sorts of grain. 

cycv to shake violently. 
IT (reflexive). 

*x.> impf. u to assert, re- 

k /we<?. . II c. 2 ace. 

to marry some one to, 
join in wedlock ; c. ace. 
to take in marriage. 
V c. ace. reflex. 

jK med. . impf. u to visit. 
5nL}\ inf. 

Jk med. . ewT?/". a to cease. 
s ,^ 
Jl.vtw/". cessation. Noon 

be good, pure. ' ^'^ afternoon. 

tfc e/«;. ^/-Tpure, i5;y''"^^-«' to ^■eaio^'e. clear 

delicate, dainty. 

v_iv rajD/". M to conduct a 
bride to her husband's 

1^-. ult. . to increase, to 

— .- o ^ 

J'Jv to shake (trans.). II 
to shake (int.), tremble. 

^■dmpf.u to fasten securely. 
s , 
|.Lo» bridle (nose-rein). 

(jUov time, space of time. 

L©\ mjo/. u to shoot up, to 
flourish, prosper. 


kjjKjo?. LjI^v corner. 
t>K merf. 1^ iffjp/". /, c. 2 ace. 
to give more, to add to. 
Juyo inf. ; increase, 
.1 part. § 95<?; 99 a. 

J.A.W impf. a to be or remain 

Glossary B. 
^jL«/ remaining, the ^^ pi. 


rest, all 

JLu impf. a, c. 2 ace. to 
ask one for sthg. c. ace. 

pars, et ^s. to enquire 
for, ask respecting. 

JoLu beggar, 

jULaw-o the asking, a 


ijofjjM masc. or fern, way, 
right way, road. 

g So 

ow«/ fern. jU*« six. 

>A*u impf. u or i to hide, 
shield (e. g. from the 
gossip of the people). 

Ji^aL impf. u, c. J, to 

prostrate one's self 

t>^.iSU*< znf. 

S ti , 

cX^^xi mosque. 

Ill, /F c. Jt pers. to tell 
s. 0. sthg. as a secret. 

j^ p?. >ly*l secret. 

c.y^ IV to be in haste, c. 
jj to make haste with . . . 

it^yjM, elat. Pt-*"'! 

quick, swift, speedy. 

' -- - > 

aj'lww Suraka, (a man's 


ela^ impf. a to spread out. 
^>Ja*u the flat roof of 
eastern houses. 

tXiL*.; jt?/. (Xs^SyM the fore- 
1^^ impf. i, c. i_5 t;e/ ^ 

joers. to lodge informa- 
tion against, denounce. 

jA«; jo^. ^U*«i journey. 

XjUi*!/ ship. 

oJC**, mj»/". M to become 
or be silent. 

^JCw impf. a to be or be- 
come drunk. 


Glossary B. 

(J '7^ 




i^jCw impf. u to dwell, in- 
habit, rest, be quiescent. 

S 5 J 

(jJCu rest, quiescence. 
(ji'Ll p^. ^IC^ in- 
J.A*JLw to put in chains. 

iaXiu m^/". M to be or be- 
come powerful. 

// to make, install as 

A.^ ladder. 

j.^M/ immunity from 
ills, prosperity, wel- 
fare. ^.^LiaJI xaJa 

peace be with him! 
(parenthetically placed 
after the names of high 
religious personalities). 

JLo^Au peace and pro- 

|.iLv*/t (m/. IV) Islam. 

^jLkJu, c. J.S. autho- a-w impf. u to put poison 
rity over, rule; ruler, into anything, to poison. 

|vLm/ impf. a to be whole, 

// to bestow health 
and prosperity; c. J^a 
to greet, salute. 

IV c. xJJ to declare 
one's self resigned to 
to God; to become a 

^Au poison. 
impf. a to hear. 


viU-w pi. 'kSUm.\ fish. 

U-w // c. 2 ace. vel c. ace. 
et i_j to call by name, 
to give a name to. 

O o 

jv.wt (§ 56 a) name. 
eL»-X heaven. 

Glossaey B. 


- O ^ 

>^Z, part. § 95 d; 99 1 
i^Lu med. , to drive. 

ket, bazaar, lane. 

pi. (Jlj.-! mar- 

jj,*« impf. u 1) to sharpen, l^Ll, hour, short space 
2) ordain, institute. of time, moment. 

^^^ tooth, age. 

Go > G ^ J 

hXmj pl. i^^rfUu regula- 
tion, institution, tradi- 
tion (of the Moslems). 

(XCl IV to support. 

'iXMipl. mm. i^U^ (§ 76 6; 

90 ffj) year. 
y^ impf. a to keep awake. 


IV to spoil, corrupt, 
to do ill. 

jJCm med. . to sink into 
the ground. 

5L1 med. . c. ace. to be- 
come lord, ruler, over... 

t>^f fern. iAOyMj pl. 
^^I5^~^«, O^ black. 

G„ , G ^. , 

Jow pl. Si>L*, lord, 
ruler, chief. 

(_5j.A« Vlllto be equal, alike, 

simultaneous vyith. 

sl^^ c. ^^ (quite) 
the same, indifferent to. 

sLau med. ^ impf. i to jour- 

ney, go along, go. ^51 3 

to follow one's track. 


iy^Mja distance travel- 

G o ^ G_ J > G. ' o* 

sword, sabre. 
^Lau FJ to find a bad omen. 


a bad omen. 

/F to satiate, satisfy. 

^^.i, 2»y?/". a to be satiated. 

xaau // to compare. 


128* Glossary B. 

„sv.Ai impf. u to be intri- 

cate, intertwined. 

tj- ^ -- 

j.^\_w wow. M?i2t 5w:S\.Ai 

tree, shrub. 
<5..w 2Vw7?/. M to bind, tie. 

// c. |_^£ to press hard 
on one. 

powerful, heavy. 


powerful; vehement. 

w«i (1. pers. v:dsj.^) eVw/?/". 
« to become bad. 

wi, (e/«t ?■<?.) pi. >lj-«il 
bad, wicked. Mischief, 
woe, war. 

impf. a to drink. 
\^\yjij wine, strong 


Ov.^ m/)/. M to be high. 
IV to be high, lofty. 

G — 

o>.^ height, fame, 

G .- J ^ w >- 

i_ftjj.Ai/)^. olv*il noble, 
aristocratic, respected. 

ijj-ci i»?j5/. u to rise (of 
the sun). 

ii, place of the 

sun's rising = the East. 

dj-ii impf. a c. ace. to be 

one's companion. 

ii)wCi net. 
>iL!y.i, companion,ally. 

^5j.Ai impf. i to buy, sell. 
VIII io buy, negotiate. 
>~ a .* A u m^/". a, c. v_( j9er*. 
be deeply struck with. 
JU*i j9/. sLa.w lip. 

;3i.w IV c. J<£. to be ten- 
derly solicitous for . . . 

yiiii impf. u to thank, be 

[Xm impf. u, to complain. 

VIII to complain. 

o^.*^ lie. ace. to say "God 

Glosbaey B. 


bless you" to a person 
(e. g. sneezing). 

jii fern. sun. 

JU4 left (hand or side.). 

jk.^ impf. a c. ace. to be 

present at sthg., to wit- 
ness, to give evidence. 
Ill c. ace. to see, be 
an eye-witness. 

{^yii impf. i to roast. 

*Ui med. ^ impf. a to will, 

&^(i a matter, thing, 

oLci med, ^ to become 

,_AjUi gray hairs. 

I^aLi pi. lAk wit- t*^ "''^' ^ ^° ^^"''"'^ 

an old man. 


f.': ' T . ,. -^^.A^ old man. 

St>L.g,w testimony, 'r'- 

guarantee , security, a ^liJi i?/. Jj-^^lXi devil, 
bearing testimony. 

j^^i jo/. v.^i month. 
1 g ■•>■ FJ7/ to desire, wish. 

Sj-g-Cu sensual desire, 

^ appetite. 


jL*i CO/;, worn. unit. sLi 

small cattle, sheep and 

goats ; nom. unit, a single 

head of these. 

TLw med. . /F c. ^^t to 
point to, 

Socln, Arabic Grammar,^ 


cL^ med. (^ to spread a- 
broad, become public. 

II to accompany, to 

^^j.^ impf. u to pour, pour 

^e)jJo impf. u to be attrac- 
^tive, good-looking. 

IVto enter the time of 


Glossabt B. 

early morning, c. «cc. be- 
come sthg. early, soon. 

XiL.^ beauty, love- 

ILfl impf. i, c. ^J^ to have 
patience with, to put 
up with, endure. 

kAJo impf. u or a to dye. 

L2o impf. u to be foolish; 

^^gJo pi ijLxIi? little 

A,jo impf. i to be in good 
^ health, sound. 

^^>A^ pl. pX^ elat. 
^««st right, correct. 

^•tfg iwip/. «, c. flcc. to 

keep company with, 
have to do with. 

HI to take for com- 

X to take with one 
as an associate. 

associate; friend, com- 
panion ; owner, inhabi- 
tant of (cf. § 133). 

'iju^ pl. '..i^P leaf. 

Joo m^/". u to turn away 
from, alienate. 

jijjua e'ffjp/". M to speak 
the truth, be truthful, 

// to consider sthg. to 
be true, right, to believe 

V c. Jv.e pers. et t_^ rei 
to give one sthg. as 

(^J_:c\-<0 pl- iXJii^^S 
Owo impf. i to turn from. 
VII to turn, go, away, 
return (home). 

XacUo thunderbolt. 

yuo mi?/. M, to be small, 

Glossaey B. 


jjufl inf. littleness. 
i_a,Aa impf. u to place in a 
row, draw up. 

VIII to arrange (them- 
selves),to stand in a row. 
jjLifl IX to be yellow. 

j.A^I pi. yAj£> yellow. 

iJo VIII to choose. 

^lixAa/) man s name. 

X-Lifl m;?/". a to be good, 
be in order. 

IV to put in order, 
set right. 

G ^ 

SLsvJLo apious action, 

good deed. 
^.,0 // to pray, perform 
divine service, to wor- 

ship. «JLLc jJJt ija 

|vJLl} contracted to 

*il;o § 11. 

G ^ Q I 

!s!iLo, 'iJJo divine 
service, worship, prayer. 

oii.o mjo/". M to be quiet. 

i:y^4..»fl silence. 

»Xjio impf. a to make, 
prepare, to do. 

y^ pl. vLg»ol relation 

(by marriage). 

oLo ?we<?. ^ IV to befall, 
fall to one's share. 

XAA-tajo misfortune. 

G ' 

m)»^ voice. 

i(\^^j»/. .^yo figure, shape, 



' LIo »ie<?. ^^ to cry out. 
VI to shout at each 

5Lfl mei?. (^ to hunt. 

G ° - 

4\A.«a inf. hunting, what 
is caught, game. 

jLo med. ^, c. ace. to be- 
come or be sthg. ; to 
repair to. 

77 to cause to become; 
to appoint, to place. 


Globsaey B. 

«js^ VIII to lie on one's 



,:auo forenoon. 

\^sfj6 impf. i to strike, beat. 

^•Ui med. ^ IV to press 
hard, hem in. 
jLua straits, distress. 
LisUs to sink (trans.). 

VIII refl. to beat 
against each other. 

Owo inf. I striking, 

^_fcJs impf. u or i to treat 

._^,AAis physician, doc- 
L'^ a single blow, ^J;^ jy to cover with a 

F// to be covered up. 

^T; m^/. a to grind. 

^^j-^ts^Jb flour. 

i^Jo impf. u to chase away, 
drive away, pursue. 

i^-Jo IVio cast down one's 

a beating 

i-datA^ impf. ti to be weak. 

i_ftA».^ weak. 

(J^ «m/i/. i to err. 

JL!!iLo erring, error. 

|V.(0 m^/. M to put close 
to, press against, to 

sLo med. . to be clear, 
bright, shining. 

%yJi light, brightness. 
^LIao brightness. 
i_ftA.o /)?. oLuol guest. 

|V*io Mwp/. a to eat. 

/F to feed (trans.). 

j,ljiia in/". / eating, 
taste, a meal, food, a 
(particular) dish. 

Glossaet B, 


^_>Uo impf.u to seek, search 
after; wish for. 

iJilXJo inf. I seeking, 
a search. 



Abu Talib 

cLis merf'. . to obey, be 

SxUo is/., obedience, 

(Muhammed's uncle). 
*JJo impf. u to stand up. 

oUo med. . to go round. 

s ^ ' 

,jLi^ flood. 

get up, rise (of the sun). JUs med. ^ IV io lengthen, 
nil c. Jj. to look protract; to be long 

over sthg. 
Jojis long, lasting 


at, see. 

(SJJs // c. ace. to set free, 
give divorce to. 
IV to set free. 
VII to go away, 

»^Jo impf. a to strive to 
obtain, to covet, sthg. 

*JJo inf. covetousness, 

s gli impf. u to be clean, 

(^ISs impf. i to fold, fold 
up or together. 

t_}Lb »Je<?. f^ to be good, 
pleasant, excellent. 

S w^ J ^ CI ^ 

,_jJdo ^/a#. v_*AJb| good, 
excellent, nice to the 
taste, sweet (scent). 

XaaIs something good, 
a dainty. 

II to cleanse, purify. TUb ff?e(?. ,_5 to fly. 


Glossaey B. 

Ah med. ^^ // to plaster 

with clay or mud {^^}o). 

J^himpf. i to treat unfair- 
ly, injure, do wrong to. 

IV to grow dark. 

x^J-is darkness. 

|.^Ui5 darkness, dusk. 

(.iUs one that acts in- 
juriously, oppressor. 

^_aja impf. a to appear, to 
come in sight. 

soLaa adoration, wor- 

IXe impf. u to cross, to 
pass along (a certain 

iyi^ an example (from 
which to take warning). 

fj^jis. impf. i to look]stern, 

(jlLuLlf al-*^ Abbas, 
(man's name). 

IV to bring to sight. uLs^ mantle, cloak, 

G i , the back, upper i^iift impf. i to be or be- 

part, surface. 

^LSs elat. y-lio] pro- 
minent, striking. 

jJlc. iffj;?/". u to worship. 

So, G , 

iXj^ coll. tXju.* slave, 

g' - 

servant; |)/. oLaa man 
(as the servant of God). 

lid 'O } o ^ 

xJUt lXa^ 'Abdallah (a 
man's name). 

come free. 
IV to free, liberate. 


lixft nobility, high 


g ^ 
taXUs- free, noble, old. 

^jUie ' Utman , (man's 

V^ ^ ^" kl^^ ^^ wonder 
at sthg. 

Glossakt B. 


a wonder, miracle. 
jLS!Lfc // to expedite. 

a -I 

Jki impf. u, c. 2 ace. to 
count, reckon as . . . 

ijHidS lentils. 

JcXa impf. i to be just, 
Ji^Lc just, impartial. 

Ijii impf. a, c. ace. to be 

without stbg. 

Iji^ V cross over, 
go beyond. 

/// c. ace. to treat 
as an enemy, attack. 

^iXcpl. gttXfcl enemy. 

s.tjLft enmity. 

CsiXa //to torture, punish. 

i_9ti\£ torture,punish- 

r<Xe VIII to excuse one's 


\(\£. excuse (in the 
sense of a refusal). 

lovA coll. the Arabs. 

' ® o^ 

^tj^l a Bedouin. 

\jdy£. impf. i to interfere 
with, thwart, offer, 
rto come in one's way. 

o._f impf. i to perceive, 
know, recognize. 

Sij.*xi knowledge. 

o.^jLio a favour, kind 

,sly*J I name of the count- 
ry known to the an- 
cients as Babylonia. 

yt impf. i to be strong, 
powerful (often paren- 
thetically after jJU|: 
he is powerful). 

•j-jya elat. yal strong, 
Jye eVw/?/". 2 to depose. 
VIII to take one's 
leave, be deposed. 


c. ace. et 

Glossaet B. 
rei II xXki pi LjLta^ gift, 

^^yfr c. ace. ei ^j.£. 

to console, comfort. present. 

y:**ft pi. ^\-»^ a body 'l^ i^^f y^ to be or be- 
come greatjlarge ; c.^J^ 
to appear to be great, 

rtf^"" inf. greatness. 
j^jJofc elai. |v:titl great, 
of great account, august. 


of troops, army. 
fji.£. II to build a nest 

y£ft /// to associate with. 
wifc£. /em. Sj^aLc ten. 

s ^ ^ 

tribe, tribesmen. 

wCijwi assembly , the 
whole; those present. 

^ikft e/wp/". z, c. «cc. to 
resist, not obey some 

IUaoa/o p/. ijoL*xi re- 
sistance, revolt, sin. 
yoA member. 

^jiJoA impf. i 07- u to 

Lia*. IV c. ace. pars, et rei 

to give sthg. to some 







wicked, clever demon. 

Lac impf. u, c. ^ja to 
pardon (a person), be 
gracious to. 

I— )^L££ 

i_>Jift pl. 1-3 >Ui* scor- 
pion, a bitter enemy. 

JJl& impf. i. or J^ac 2miJ/. a 
to be intelligent. 


JjLft intellectual abi- 
lity, intelligence; pru- 

Ji 777/ to fall ill. 

Glossaet B. 


SAa illness, sickness. 
^JLft /// to treat. 

1_.^-^ impf. a perceive, 
know, learn (that), c. i_, 
to know something. 

IV c. 2 ace. to acquaint, 
inform one of sthg. 

Go S 3 J 

*J^ pi. |»^JLft know- 
ledge, science. 
jwiLe mark, sign. 

IJLft e/«^. (V-let jo/. 

i-LJLft possessing know- 
ledge, a learned man, 


(»!^Lft very knowing. 
iJLjw teacher. 

5Le mi?/. M to be high. 
VI to be highly exal- 
ted, esp. parenthetically 
after^WaA: He is exalted 
(§ 23). 

Jkii?rep.(§ 96 &) over, 
on the ground of, on, 

upon, at; with verbs of 
entering : chez ; against, 
in the direction of, to- 

wards.g^^ J^£ Ijotobe 
in a state of, to be ac- 
customed to sthg. 

s , ' o* . 

J..& elat. J^l high; 
also man's name 'Ali. 

(JLe. elat. J^r| high, 

prominent, excellent. 

iv& impf. u to be or become 
common; to increase. 


side); liJI JjjJ cousin. 

XJoLi the common 
people (plebs), large 
Ss. II to furnish, provide 


life; in the oath 

^y^ by my life. 

'Sa 'Omar (man's 


Glossakt B. 

.t+£(§ 90 « pronounce 
'Amrun) 'Amr (a man's 

Jn^ impf. a to do, make, 


X to employ one for 
for some purpose, to 
apoint governor. 

Jl^ pi. JUfi^l work, 
act, deeds of piety, 

(JuiLc pi- JU-e a func- 
tionary, vicegerent, 

^^ impf. a to be or be- 
come blind. 

IV to disfigure, make 

^^t pi. ^ blind. 

^^.prep. away from, from 
(hinderance) ; about, 
concerning ; according 
to, on the authority of. 




J^-Ir. preip. by the side of, 

near, with, by (one). 
_Lc med. . IX to be bent, 


5Lft med. . to return, c. 
ace. to visit. 

(iLc. OTe<?. . c. i_j to take 

refuge in . . . 
X to ask for protec- 

tion;tosay: xJUL bySiS 

(Surah 114) "I take 

refuge in God", c. ^jo 

' Lt me^f. . IV c. ace. 

to help, support. 
X to help one's self, 

to help on, succour. 

xj.lio Mu'awiya, the first 

Omayyad Caliph (661 

^A«aA Jesus. 

Glossary B. 


Jjls. med. ^ to live, 
XAaa life, way of liv- 
ing, (§ 64 c). 
ItXc ult. . to come early. 
V to breakfast, to 
refresh oneself early. 

'S-jS. impf. u to set (of 
the sun). 

S o^ 

i_)j.ixi place where the 

sun sets, the West. 
^vc IV to make to sink, 

J|l£ gazelle. 

Juuuc 2»jp/. 2 to wash. 
gukt impf. a to coyer. 

cover, horse-cloth. 
Ji^Ae mi?/. 2" c. flcc. ret et (S^ ^^ *° ^^°S- 

J^ J?, to take sthg. ;Li »Je<?. ^ to penetrate 

yAs. impf. i c. (J pers. to 
pardon, forgive. 

isjii^o pardon, forgive- 

Jotft m^j/. M to neglect. 

JLLfcfc inattention, neg- 

^Jjt mj?/". «■ to be all- 
powerful, victorious. 

(^Xft II et IV io bolt, bar, 

|.!iLft i?/. ^^Uli a young 
man, lad, slave. 

^jl£ impf. a, c. ^^ to be 



.Aft i?/. il-AAftI rich. 

from one unlawfully. 

J^,iflx ?'ot;?/. « to get angry, 

be angry with. ' 

far into, go down. 
jLfc a cave. 
ijcLe »2erf. . to dive. 

140* Glossary B. 

Cil£ med. ^^ to be absent, 
c. ^^ to disappear. 

G ^ G J J 


'iJiiS absence , stay 
among strangers. 

v_Ajtix inf. sunset. 
jLc med. ^ 11 to alter, 

!li (§ 133 with gen.) 
ent from, no (with neg.), 
except; before substs., 
adjs. and parts, it ren- 
ders the converse, like 

our prefix un- or in-; ^^ 


A without. 


oco«/.(§§95e; 152; 161) 
and so, then, and. 

impf. a to open. 

VII to open (intr.). 

VIII to conquer, ac- 
quire for one's self. 

^sSsXj mf. I. 

l.\jd.Apl- ^^Iax) key. 

^^jci" nil c. i_j to be 

struck with emotion, 
bewitched, by. 

Jii a young man. 

" yUi a young woman, 

S^ impf. u to transgress, 
act viciously. 

(- s a 3 

y=.Li pl. ^L^ evil- 

^ impf. a to boast of, 
glory in. 

Ill to give oneself 
airs towards some one. 

j..^ inf. I. 
impf. i to flee. 
ftJt the Persians. 


gjjjLi Persia. 

ijlli a horse, esp. of a 
good breed. 

jijj impf. u to spread out. 

Glossart B. 


U^'^f P'- \J^f carpet, ^.^ bounty, kind- 
cushion, bed. ness, favour. 

U^ili impf. i, c. J^ pers. \j-^ ^'"^Pf- «■ to be clever, 
to impose sthg. on one 

as a duty. 

|wi imp. u, c. ^ to be 

empty, disengaged, 
finished with sthg. 

^jj impf. u, to separate, 
Ill to leave. 
Vin to become sepa- 
rated, to disperse. 

&xhj intelligence. 

(Joii impf. a to do. 

J.*i i>/. JL*il deed, 

act, mode of action. 

tXfli F to miss, enquire 
for, some one. 

wtfti pi. iljJLi poor. 

dLi F// to free oneself, 
to become disattached. 

£^ mi7/. a to get a fright, ^ ^ to reflect. 

be afraid. ^^'^i' '^." 

X.g5^Ls i)?. xj Ijj fruit. 
Jul* m;)/". M to become 

bad, wicked. 

Ai /Fto become happy, 

(>Lli en/, the doing 
of mischief, evil, wrong. 

Jyj 7Fto divulge, publish, 

)JeS impf. u to be or 
remain over, to be ex- 

successful, to prosper. 

S O 3 J 3 

dUi, d.J.i a (large) ship. 
(M^ SO and so, Mr. Such- 

and- Such. 
S^i pi. icjI JU desert. 
^ mouth (§ 90 o). 
^il)Li ?»e<^. . c. flcc. to pass 


Glossakt B. 

by, to expire (of the 
time for some one to 
do sthg.). 

^jLi med. . to excel, be 

/^S prep. above, 
higher than. 

8ji (§ 90o pi. sljjl) mouth. 

jj prep, in, into, at, on, 
among, accompanied 
by, by; with (before a 
quality), in relation to, 
with regard to. 

o^.«Jju pi. 'iA^'^h phi- 

^ji* X to find detestable. 

G o^ 3 5 

yj3 pi. yyj3 grave. 

(jidls mp/". 2 to take hold 
of, take into one's hand. 

(J^* impf. a to accept. 

IV to approach, come 
nearer; be susceptible 

V to receive. 

X to be opposite. 


jjji prep, before. 

J./J> jarep. in the 

presence of, in the 

sphere of . . . sXJJi ^jjo 

on his side, of his party. 
G , ^ 
JyjJs inf. J acceptance. 

xJIaaj tribe, family (in 

wide sense). 

HJLjULo comparison, re- 

Jli' mjs/'. M to kill, make 
away with. 

/// c. ace, to fight 
with, fight. 

G o.- 

JuCi' inf. I killing, exe- 
JutXi" J3?. Ji.Xi> killed. 

kiLsvJs »j| Abu Kuhafa, 
the father of Abu Bekr. 

Glossaet B. 


jj (§ 98 e, 99 d) particle. 

jJ6" impf. i to be able to, 
can, could (also witb 
folg. impf.). c. J^ to 
have power over. 

IV c. Jk* to Tiiake one 
more povyerful than , . . 

. Jo worth, value, due, 
power. jtXiu in rela- 
tion to, in proportion 

f to . . . 

i,Jo impf. a, to advance, 

11 to place before, 
set sthg. before s. o. 

/Fto approach. 

V to go before, pre- 

AjtXs pi. i-LoJJi an- 
cient,old, of a past time. 

'^impf. i to stay, persevere. 

IV to render stable, c. 

1^ rei to confess to sthg. 

X to stand fast, hold 

e ,^ 
jtjj continuance, rest. 

\Ji impf. a to read. 


,t»i' Kur'an or a 

passage therefrom. 

Cj.3 impf. u to be near at 

II to place near, to 

take as intimate friend, 

to offer, set before one. 


,_;oJ> pl. *>Lj Jsl ; elat. 

7 '* ' o 
pl. i_j,Li'l(subst.).c.jj^ 

near, close(to) ; related. 

^ II-'' 
ijiij^ the tribe of the 

Kuraish, the Kurai- 



nom. rel.Si Ku- 


V horn 

,(> the 

two horned (Alexander 


GLOssABr B. 

^'<"- ^> - ' -- «, 

Xjjj pi. ^^Ji place, village. «kj' imp/", a to cut off. 

\J^ ult. . to be hard. 

1^ IV to swear. 

Jc«ai> impf. i, to make for, 
repair to, some one. 

Jc^aJLo the end of a 


VII c. 


to become 

Itof to be short. 

VI to shorten one's 
self, to shrink. 

yjioJi pl. \yoJi castle, 

ydi VII to let one's self 
down, dart down (of a 

^^^' impf. i to decide judi- 
cially; to accomplish, 
finish; to discharge a 

VII to be finished, 
brought to an end. 

fLdi" inf. I payment. 

Jajj adv. ever, with negat. 

parted from ; to cease. 

Juts impf. u to seat one's 
self, sit down. 

Go J ,o* 

Jkia pl. JLasI lock, pad- 

i^impf. i to be small, few. 

/Fto make small, take 
little of. 

Xto deem small, think 
little of, despise. 

JuJj) small, few, scant. 

(_jLs impf. i to turn round, 
to change. 

VII to alter (intr.), to 
change one's mind. 

>_JU' pl. uAs heart. 

•Jj* r7/7 to tear away, 
take away. 

(jia-o mjt?/". i to hunt, catch. 

Uji VIII to procure, pur- 

Glossary B. 

(>li med. , to lead, guide. 
VII to let one's self 
be guided. 

JLs med. . to say, tell; 
often = ask. c. J to 

Jyj pi. Jtyil speech, 

utterance, apothegm. 
s ^^ 
JUw) speech. 

Jji med. . to stand up, 
proceed (to). 

/Ftofix, setup, estab- 
lish; halt, stop, stay. 

JTto be upright, faith- 


*J5 coll. people, one's 
dependants, nation, 

juLajj resurrection. 

S'-^r'. , "='1-.-: t (. 
Jt*jLi jO(. |vjl*-» loot. 

(•La* place, occasion. 

^^jj impf. a to be strong. 

Sjj" strength, force; 

Socin, Arabic Grammar.- 

the means to do 

C. l_5 


i^^ (c. J.£) strong, 


J(§§95/-; 145 & prop, subj.) 
as, like as. 

^S iii is) as if . . . 

y/Simpf.u to be great, large. 
V to vaunt oneself, 
be proud. 

yk^inf. /to be advanc- 
ed in years. 

j.aaS' e/a^. waTI great, 

y_^impf. u to write. 
/// c. ace. to corre- 
spond with. 

L-aLx^p/. w^A^a writ- 
ing, scripture (= writ- 
ten revelation), letter, 

ffXS'impf. u to conceal. 


Glossaet B. 

^jCt^inf. concealing, 
keeping close. 
yif to be much or many. 

IV to make many, 
take much of. 

X to consider much 
or many. 

y^iS elat. Js\ much, 

many (often rather as 
a suhst. in apposition). 

i^d^impf. i to lie, tell lies. 
II c. ace. pers. vel i_> 

rei to charge one with 
falsehood, discredit. 

'^dSinf. I, lying, a 

lie, falsehood. 

i^S impf. M, to cause one 
trouble, pain. 

'&iS grief, distress, 

i^^CiS Tpl. jjmj^LS' divi- 
sion (of cavalry), squad- 

"^^S impf. u to be noble, 

^j>S pi- i-^jS noble, 
high-souled , highly 

sjoy^pl. -vlXoanohle 

quality, generous ac- 

sS'imp/'. a to dislike. 

S VIII to acquire, to 
attain to sthg. 

Simpf. i to eclipse. 

i-A^-.< impf. i, c. ^j^ to 

VII to be uncovered, 
be carried off. 

v^^jd' ankle-bone, a die 
(^/. dice). 

\jtS' III c. ace. pers. et j^ 
rei to requite, recota- 
pense one for sthg. 

yifimpf. u to be unthank- 
ful, to deny. 

Glossaet B. 


^ibT pi xUS'unbeliev- ^j^impf. a to hide one's 

ing- self. 

^jj^impf. u to wrap in a •yjS'pl. ^yi' treasure, 

Ji^impf. i, c. ace. pers. et 
r. to do sthg. in some 
one's place; to protect 
s. 0. from sthg. 

ji'(§ 119 &) totality; be- 
fore determ. subst., all; 
before indeterm., every. 

UJli^as often as . . . 

AS II c. ace. pers. to 
speak with, address one. 
Fto speak, talk, make 
speeches, c. lj to pro- 
nounce, utter. 

jtjjLs word. 

*5k^speech, talk, con- 

(^(§ 15) how much? 
Ur(J + U) as. 

9 ^ 


\jS impf. u to give one a 

surname contg. lot- 

^^ med. , to be, exist. 
(Sometimes the perf. of 
this verb is to be trans- 
lated by our present). 
c. ace. (§§ 110, 149) to 
be something, e. J to 

be translated by "to 

^j^ pl. xjXa\ place. 

.- CI ^ 


J(§§ 95^ ; 147 b) acorrobo- 

rative particle. 
cf prep. (§§ 95 h; 117; 

130; 131'; 182) for; is 
sign of the dative; on 
account of, for . . . sake 
(giving purpose, mo- 
tive); at (the time of), 
J conj. c. stibj. (§ 100) 




in order that; c. mod. 

«i>oc. §101 a. |!^:s)(§ 147) 

'^ (§§ 1016; 111; 150c) 

not, no. %^prep. c. gen. 

without. By means of 

S a preceding negation 
is very frequently re- 

^i, °^ (often ^';) 

nevertheless, but. 

^"i^ (also ^iX^jpl X^IG 

olJ impf. a to tarry, 


(jIaJ impf. a to put on. 
IV c. 2 ace. to clothe. 

(jjj./Xoi> /. ^j«j iL« el th- 
ing, dress. 

[^^/Limpf. a c. i_j or c.acc. to 

tXJ, l.pers. 1:1)0 jJ, mj?/. a 

to be tasty, sweet. 

6 , i -* 

jojj e?«^ jJI tasty, 
delicious, sweet. 

1-J «>wp/". «, c. ace. to 
remain in . . . 

(jLwJi??. jj~UI tongue, 
(^j^ FI/J to cling to. 

■ _ntil 2»!p/". M to be fine, 
slender, kind. 

So 3 

i_aiaJ c. (^ kindness, 
graciousness,to war ds. . . 

L-ajdaJ kind. 
v_^ impf. a to play, sport. 

c ^ - 


jjjiJ ?mj9/". a to curse. 

jUaJ a curse. 

^_jjj II c. ace. pars, et u 

to surname, give a nick- 
name to. 

|v£J impf. a to swallow, 

gulp down. 

jiL^JiJ a morsel. 

jU trn'pf. a to meet, meet 


IV c. ace. to throw. 

X to throw one's self, 
to lie. 

Glossaet B. 149 

U not (cf. § 150). 

p (§ 101 c) not. 

LJ conj. after, when. 

13 part, if, introduces a 
condition, which is not 
likely to be fulfilled. 

3 med. . to blame. 

l^^ pi. ^!jtp| colour, sort, 

to be, to be non-exis- 

Jj, lij pi. JLJ (§ 90p) ^ ^'^i'^- " ^- V t« P^^' ^y- 

;^.Lxi Ma'rib, a town in 
South Arabia. 

G o 

J^ resemblance , like- 
ness ; the like, same ; one 
(pers. or thing) like, cf. 
§ 145 &. 

J^ resemblance, na- 
ture, quality(of a thing). 

\^ impf. a to put to the 

9.-" ■ f 
xj^ %nf. 

town. &AJtXJI = itiJtV 

"Jj\ Medina. 

U, iS U;j^o«.(§15)what? 
(§ 14) that which, what, 
somethg. that. 

U conj. (§ 158 6) so 
long as. 


"time". Sjjo once 

p/. Olo often. 
I^tl* bitterness. 
JlSl (§ 90 e) man. 

yfjjot woman, wite. 


Glossabt B. 

5*.yxi manliness, vir- 
tus, manly virtue. 

^jUvw/o pi. sjvljjo mar- 
grave, prefect. 

\joJo impf. a to be or be- 
come sick, 
(jidjyo sick. 

cyo Fto roll (in the dust). 

(Vjyx Miriam, Mary. 

^t^Mija impf. « c. o to wipe, 
wipe off, away. 

^-<u«^| Christ, the 

viJLA»uo / to take hold of, 
V to hold on by sthg. 

^^ (§ 71 e) inf I. 

siw j»/. xUaxf rain, shower 
of rain. 

Ji^o mj(/. u to defer (a 

(Jdajo ?■«/. 

■XI j9rejt>. with; besides; 
alongside of. 

idMi stomach. 
oiX« m/)/. u to hate. 

liiJLo hatred. 
iXJo Mecca. 

okXxi OTj?/. M to tarry, stay. 
^Lo mp/". a, c. ace. ei ^^ 
to fill sthg. with . . . 
VIII to become filled. 

L^ IV to enter on the >iU-« impf. i, c. ace. to 
eventide; to do some- rule, govern, possess. 

thing late. 

^^*i»jo impf. i to go, walk ; 

^^«jo inf. 

f^MS-jc impf. i to go, betake 
one's self to. 

II to appoint as king. 


viLLo dominion, sover- 
eignty, reign, riches. 

S o 



Glossaey B, 
>iUxi pL J Jlxi king. 

(J!^ ceremony of 

JtCl+x pi. vilJUjo king- 
dom, sovereignty. 

«SXo for d^Lo 2^. under 


eh^ = ^j.x + ,j^ (§5 
note V). 

^ who? (§ 15); he who, 
they that; one that, 
whoso, whoever. (§§ 14, 
154, 159). 

jj..* prep, of (= some of, 

belonging to; with the 
negation it has a streng- 
thening effect, § 141 ; 
consisting of; away 
from, from (separation, 
point of departure); 
hence in comparison = 
than; through(passage). 

(XSjo {from .6 1^) since. 
*Xjo impf. a, c. 2 ace. to 

debar onefromsthg., re- 
fuse, prevent one doing 
sthg.; c. ace. et \je to 

defend one from or 
against sthg. 

VIII to protect one's 

y^ impf. a, c. i_j to be 
skilled, clever, expert, 

j_g» wedding-present, 
price of the bride (paid 
to her father). 

yyLo med. . to die. 

II to 

put \ 

to death. 

S ^ 

inf. death. 


^J^yo M( 


S ^oS 

goods and 






^ (§ 90 q) pi. 5LL0 

ijoLJo pi- Jot^ table, 


■Xjti med. jj // c. i^jo to 

Lj // c. «cc. pers. et ^_j 
rei to give one informa- 
tion regarding. 

Fto give one's self out 
for a prophet. 

xXS VIII to awake up. 

IV causative. 

^.^ pron. we. 

L^ Fto turn aside, to draw 
back, retire. 

So-- ^ f "f 

J^ coll., nom. unit. XJL^ 

|,tXj mp/. a, c. J^ to re- 
pent of sthg., feel sorry. 

^JO 7/7 to be one's boon 

|CjJo pl. i-CotXj boon 

companion, mess-mate. 

^S i^/. ^.C^l fe/ ^^ ^^ jjj ^^j^ ^.^^^ ^_ ^^^ 

prophet. ^Q gg^lj ^Q some one. 

5^_AJ the office, rank, 

of prophet. 

tX^ impf. u to be brave, 

,- o- 

5tX^ courage, magna- 

iv^' i??- -j^ constellation. 

L^ impf. u to become free, 
to save one's self. 

J jo IV to warn. 

cyS impf. i to remove. 
F777 to strip off, dis- 

J-yj impf. i to descend, 

alight, stop , lodge, 

encamp, c. JkA to alight 

at, lodge, stay with. . . 

IV to send down (in 

Glossabt B. 

particular, a revela- 

Jyi/i 'pl. J\Ux dwell- 
ing-place, abode, halt- 

t' A^i im.'pf. a to copy. 
X^^-j pl. j^i-Mjj a copy. 

^wj m^/. a to forget. 

^^UuMJew/. forgetting. 

gLlj (§ 90/) women. 

tXAj /// c. 2 ace. to ad- 
jure by God. 

hMfj imp/", a to be lively, 
in good spirits. 

JflLicj inf. 
^.A^aS impf. u to set up. 

^jjuaj share, portion. 

^_^ i/rep/". « to be a true 

'IjoS impf. u, c. ace. to 
help, succour." 
V (denom.) to become 


a Christian, to live as 
a Christian. 

j^t^,.«3j pi. iJlLaS 
a Christian. 

\ya.i.4j} al-Mansur, 
the second Abbaside 

Caliph 754—775. 

Lis Vin to draw (the 

^jjaj impf. a to butt with 
the horns. 

l^Jiij mj»/. i to talk, 
/r to make, compel 
to talk. 

Joi impf. u to see, look 
at, examine, reflect. 

1*S impf. a to be soft, well 

off, affluent. 


coll. a herd of 


affluence, welfare. 

^ part, yes, yes in- 


Gloss AEY B. 

IaS impf. u vel i c. ^^yjo to 

flee from, avoid. 
^jtjjL> II to cheer, relieve. 
^jj*Aj /em., pi. ^JA».AJ^ 

s " 

lyjyjtj soul (anima ap- 
petens)^ self (§ 12e); 

life. vjy*J u*^ tM* 
iuji.ij the taking of a 

life not for a life, i. e. 
without a murder hav- 
ing been committed. 

iii impf. a to be of use. 
VIII c. u make use 
of, profit by . . . 

jULftAvo pi- >sUx use, 
useful qualities,benefit. 

(HJS into play the hypo- 

Ifti 2»!ii)/. «', c. jj.^ pers. 

to reproach one with 

VIII to avenge one's 


li^ an act of revenge. 
J^ m/)/". M to afflict, 
hurt, injure. 

jUJo affliction,trouble. 
SS impf. i to marry. 

/// id. 

Zid., to wish to marry. 

v^^JLJI _l5o marriage 
with one's stepmother. 

JOo F to be hard, strait, 

yS^ IV to deny. c. ace. r. 
et J^A to find strange, 
to take offence at sthg. 

<Xgi impf. M to be fat, large. 

(Xgj large, aspiring, 
laS pi. jLaj I stream. 

^S m^/. a to forbid. 
Vlllto arrive at, come 
to an end. 


j Noah. 

Glossary B. 


)\S ^\^&re,hell- |jae, fern, sjoo (§ 13 &), 
fire. this, here. 



J!)Iff impf. 

u to flee. 

c^ i??. cllj I kind, species, ICi imp/, i to put to flight, 
different (sort of). F77 to turn and flee. 

a man s name. 

^iyi female camel. 

ILS med. . , mjo/". a to lie 
down, sleep. 

1^ impf. u to part from 
some one. 

Sjj^, Sv^iv!! the re- 
moval of Muhammed 
from Mecca to Medina. 

oL»4X^JI Hadhad, name 
of a king. 

(^ji^ impf. i to lead by 
the right way, to guide 

^j-fS. ii\ \\ al-Mahdi, 

name of the third Abba- 
side Caliph, 775 — 785. 

5 I ' TT V. 

|V-wuo Hasim, man's name ; 

iv^Ltf jAj Muhammed's 

Jk* J9ar^. interrog. 
ivff, AfSa proti.a.pers.plur. 

msc. they (§12 a). 

Ij6 2»!p/. u to intend to do 

X+;o energy. 
JO^I India^ the Hindus, 
jjo pron. he. 

rUo »je<?. . F// to collapse. 
Jjli »«£(?. . to be easy. 

X c. lo to despise. 

^Il^ insignificance. 
(jj^ /ot^/. a, c. ace. to 
fall in love with. 


Glossary B. 

gj^ air, sky. 

jt pron. Ill fern. she. 

J conj. and, also, even. 
Asseverative particle 

w. the genit.: xJUl j by 

God (be it sworn), c. 
ace. with (§ 112). 

jjj i)/. ^jLj^I an idol. 

J]s&.j mj?/. 2 to be neces- 
sary; to be legally in- 
cumbent on one. 
IV to necessitate. 

(;?«r^. act. IV) pi. 
that which 

brings about sthg.,occa- 
sion, cause. 

Jl&.j m;?/. i" to find. 

«^. F to take the direc- 
tion of . . ., set out. 

Jjs.|, one, single. 

j^^ /F c. j[ i?ers. to 
reveal to one, inspire. 

i>. t»jp/". a to love. 

VI to love mutually. 
SiiLiolove, inclination. 

c5j impf.p(}S to set, place, 
leave, let. 

77 to deposit. 

IV c. ace. rei et J I 
jjers. to intrust sthg. 
to some one. 

2uui>^ 7?/. /^\^j pro- 
perty given in trust, a 
deposit (of money or 
its equivalent). 

vij."! impf. i^jyj to inherit. 

VI to receive as one's 

^X^ heir. 

(S^^ tffjp/. 2 to go down, 

jLsT^ Waraka, man's name. 

Glossaey B. 


p)\j pi. iK\^ vizier, mi- 

^s>«;^ impf. a to be dirty. 


i^w. JOTp/, '*Zj^^ to be pos- 
sible, be open (to one). 
IV to bring one into 
a comfortable position ; 
to get riches for s. o. 

'j.^wj impf. a to be sleepy. 

\,jJcl impf. i to describe. 

iJijto description. 

J,.^. impf. i to connect, 
arrive at. -^_^ 

VI to be mutually 
attached to each other. 

^r IV to bequeath by 

".oj executor (of a 

Lay impf. auAJ to lay. 

to appear humbly be- 
fore . . . 

VIII to be humbled, 

«A.«o^ low, ignoble, 


^yd pJ^ /"^ly pls-ce, 
position, dwelling- 

tXi. mj?/. i to make an 
agreement, promise. 

VIII to accept a pro- 
mise, to promise one 

^\jLMO rendezvous, / 
appointed time. 

Jofc. impf. i to warn, ex- 
VIII to suffer oneself 

to be corrected. 
. — s^ „s 
^Lcji?^. k^.lvessel,recep- 


Vic. J to be humble, J^jl impf. i to go forth 


Glossary B. 

to a prince, c. ,J^ to 
come to. 

(iir /// c. ace. to agree 
with, correspond to. 

jj. impf. i to be complete. 
/// c. ace. to come to, 
arrive at. 

F|y, xi'jTsU^-God 
has taken him (the Mos- 
lem) to himself, has 
brought him to a bless- 
ed end. Pass, to die a 
blessed death. 

yLi. dying; a blessed 
oJJ. time. 
iSj mp/". «Aj to fall, fall 

upon, light upon ; c.^^ 
to find some one. 
IV to excite. 

i_?yr «'ffip/". 2 to stop, stand; 

c. J^ to go up to one. 

_i"r F c. ace. to beware, 
be afraid, of sthg. 

nil to be afraid. 

Ji^. 7/ to appoint as OTcr- 

seer. F to trust (in) . 
J^. representative, 

vice-gerent, agent. 

<3J. impf. i to bring forth. 
IV c. ace. to beget. 
X c. ace. to beget (a 
son) by a woman. 

Jj^ i??. i>!5f^l child, 
son, lad. (In the sing, 
also collect.). 
&^', feast, marriage feast. 

(^^ «"»»p/". 

e. ace. to be 

// to turn one's back, 

to turn round; c. ^fi. 
to turn away from. 

^Jj p?. f-UJ^I near; 
esp. 'near to God' = 
saint, helper. 

^iyi i??. (Jtyo client, 

Glossary B. 


-^Aj impf. a to be awake. 

IV to wake. 
X to have one's self 
waked, to awake. 

,j.jUJ on the right, the 
right side, right hand. 

Oj-^l coll. the Jews. 
.«^ Joseph. 


CjJS^"^ impf. J;,^j c. 2 ace. 
to present some one 
with sthg.). 

U part of exclam. (§ 85) 

IjMAj impf. a, c. "jjt to 

despair of . . . 

(VAAj j3/. -IjCjI orphan. 

i_} Jtj Yatrib, name of Me- ^yi pi. -LI (§ 90 s) day, 

dina before Islam. pi- length of reign. Ijj 

1j /em., ^Z. t\l| (§ 90 r) 

1*]1j impf. i to play (either 

with arrows, by wh. lots 

were cast, or with dice). 

IvjwJc play, game,game 
of chance. 

on the day that... (§129). 
L>oj.j one day; rviih suff. 

^ Jo ^ 

e. g. (iU^ thy day 

(§ 125). j;pi(§ii8«) 

to-day, dZjtiyi, (= '1^_ 
61) in that day, then, 
^lijj a Greek. 


pp. 56, 57 for headings as printed read: § 65 Nomina Eelativa; 

§ 66 Nomina Demimitiva. 
p. 68 heading read: § 78 Nom. Diptota. 
p. 93 1. 4, for 'you' read 'them'. 

* ■■ ."■' 

p. 40 4, read q^^i^Jm^, 


p. 42*, 7 read ^V>. 
p. 42*, 15 read Cjya. 
p. 54% 2 read jM-JUsUaw^I. 
p, 55*, 7 read t^yo).