^:i'^SjfpS ^■flr ■■^■>,' . CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 3 1924 102 204 645 Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924102204645 In compliance with current Copyright law, Cornell University Library produced this replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard Z39.48-1992 to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. 2006 Huntington Free Library Native American Collection 1 ' '^' i..-^---..- . ... ^.:m^^ ...„i-, CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY HISTORY OF BANKING IN SOUTH CAROLINA, FROM 1712 TO 1900. BY QEO. W^. WILHAMS. Advice to Voung Men. SKETCH OF DANIEL HAND, BY PROFESSOR Q. S. DICKERMAN. New Haven, Connecticut, June, 1900. RELICS OF A FORGOTTEN RACE IN NACOOCHEE, QA., AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. Sketch of the Life of Geo. W. WiUiams, IN THE CYCLOPEDIA OF THE REPRESENTATIVE MEN OF THE CAROLINAS. DECEMBER 1Q03. PRESS or Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co. Charleston, S. C. 1903. Tm HE folio-wing; ADVICE TO YOIJNQ MEN embraces in part the business experience of an old Mer- chant and Banker, who deemed it a fit occasion on the sixtieth anniversary of GEO. W. WILLIAMS & CO., and the tiffi-enty-ninth anniversary of the CAROLINA SAVINGS BANK, and on his eighty-second birthday, to revise and re-pub- lish the advice, hoping; that its publication for g;ratuitous distribution may be useful to the young- men for -arhom he has al-srays felt a deep interest. To them it is respectfully dedicated. A series of letters from NACOOCHEE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS is also added in remembrance of old Georgia friends Charleston, S.C, December''I9, 1902. GEO. ffi. WILLIAMS. HISTORY OF BANKING IN SOUTH CAROLINA, FROM 1712 TO 1900. BV GEO. W. WILLIAMS. Advice to Voung Men, SKETCH OF DANIEL HAND, BY PROFESSOR Q. S. DICKERMAN. New Haven, Connecticut, June, 1900. •RELICS OF A FORGOTTEN RACE IN NACOOCHEE, QA., AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. Sketch of the Life of Geo. W. Williams, IN THE CYCLOPEDIA OF THE REPRESENTATIYE MEN OF THE CAROLINAS. DECEIVIBER 1Q03. PRESS OF Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co. Chableston, S. C. ESTON, b. C. 1'-^ History of Banking in South Carolina, BY GEO. W. WILLIAMS. The early colonists of Carolina were from Great Britain, rnany of them of the better class but in moderate circum- stances. The inducements to emigrate were so strong, that each brought new adventurers from every portion of Europe J and even from far-ofi China. To some of the emi- grants it was an easy mode of getting rid of home debts, and often of criminal prosecutions. The revocation of the Edict of TS'antes contributed considerably to the population by fur- Ijishing some of the best families to the new colony. Caro- lina became a general rendezvous of French Protestants. About the same time quite a colony came over from Ger- many. The Swiss also flocked to Carolina, consequently the population of the new colony was of a heterogeneous charac- ter. The early colonists found themselves surrounded by thousands of enraged Indians, who had been inhumanly treated by Spaniards who had come over from Cuba, and had turned loose Ihe Cuban bh^od hounds upon them, tearing to pieces women and children. In retaliation, the Indians mardered and scalped the colonists. The pirates from Cuba and the West Indies also committed great outrages upon the colonists. With such surroundings, an almost bankrupt peo- ple were not in condition to establish a bank. The irrespon- sible State Government flooded the country with an immense amount of almost worthless currency and bills of credit to carry on the Indian and Spanish Wars, and to meet the other exigencies of the colony. For more than half a century the colonists straggled along without a chartered bank. Great Britain had, from time to time, sent to the colony several cargoes of negroes from Africa, which were sold into slavery. These were employed mainly on the coast and sea islands in the cultivation of rice, indigo and vegetables. As there was scarcely any silver or gold coin, the purchase of the negroes had to be paid for mainly with rice, indigo, furs, skins and the like. A con- siderable amount of coin went to pay fur the imported slaves. A few years of peace enabled the planters to successfully cul- tivate rice, indigo, hemp and other products, with a profit- able business in skins, furs and Ush. The merchants and inhabitants greatly prospered. There was a large advance in the price of real estate in Charleston and on the islands around the city; also in the valae of slaves, which had become an article of merchandise saddled upon the colony by the mother country and the New Eng- land States. t LAND AND LOAN BANK OF THE CAEOLINAS ESTABLISHED. It was believed that the establishment of a bank would stimulate trade and other industries, and would also be an easy mode of obtaining money and supporting the wants of the State Government, as but a small income was derived from the people by direct taxation. The improved condition of things in the Carolinas suggested the feasibility of estab- lishing a bank. The first and only bank organized under the Proprietary Government was in 1712, located in Charles- ton, and known as the Land and Loan Bank of the Carolinas, with a perpetual charter granted by the State Legislature, with the privilege of issuing bills to be forever legal money of the country. Five hundred thousand dollars of currency was issued as fast as it could be printed and loaned out at ten per cent, to such of the inhabitants as could give land or other satisfactory security. This large emission of bank bills doubled the actual value of land, slaves and agricultural products. Bank bills became the circulating medium of the Carolinas. There w^'S a wide difference between the current bank bills and gold and silver coins. The latter never entered into circulation. The bank, however, with all of its abuses and defects, was a great convenience and power in the new, crude colony, furnishing for a period of sixty years current money receivable for all dues^ State and per- sonal. The bank lasted from 1712 to the end of the Eoyal Government in 1775, a period of sixty-three years. It was a great help to the people in building up the colony, but was destroyed by the Revolutionary War. In 1804 by the Act of the United States, the port of Charleston was opened for the importation of slaves. In fonr years 200 vessels entered Charleston with 40,000 slaves. Old England and New England contributed the largest number of vessels and the largest number of slaves. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, Charleston was one of the most important ports on the American Continent. The eight years' war of the Revolution left South Carolina in a demoralized condition. Political anarchy prevailed. The herculean effort to throw oft' the British yoke led her people to endure untold sacrifices. Society was disorganized, and unusual distress prevailed all over the State. The large amount of State and private debts and bank currency was nearly all lost. The law prohibited suits for recovery of debts. When the war was over. South Carolina was left witli her rich lands, good climate, a hardy race of men, with the profitable staples of cotton and rice to restore their wasted fortiines. So great was the political disturbance, it required nearly ten years to establish a stable State Government. Good crops stimulated tr^de, and the peo])le in a few years felt the necessity of banking facilities. l<Vom the beginning of the State Government only State Banks were chartered. The paper money consisted exclusively of the notes of banks organized under State Laws. beginjstijstg of the state banking system. The first era of banking in the new State of South Carohna was in 1Y92, when the Bank of South Carolina was chartered by the State Legislature. In the same year a branch of the Bank of the United States was established at Charleston. Five banks were chartered, viz: Years. Title of Bank. Capital. 1792 Bank of South Carolina $1,000,000 1803 State Bank 1,000,000 1809 Union Bank 1,000,000 1810 Planters' and Mechanics' Bank 1,000,000 1812 Bank of the State 1,000,0(10 Total $.5,000,000 These banks were located in Charleston, which was at that time the capital of South Carolina. The banks were ably and honestly managed by the best merchants and bankers of Charleston. Of the large amount of money deposited in those banks, and the vast issues of currdncy, not a dollar was lost until the Civil War of isti]. THE STATE BASK OF SOUTH CAROLINA. About ISOi the Legislature subscribed !j^300,000 to the bank called tlie State Bank of South Carolina, but subse- quently, in 1S12. to relieve the financial distress then prevail- ing, tlic Legislature chartered the Bank of tlie State of South Carolina. Tliis bank was to receive on deposit all stocks and bonds, and unexpended cash, and all taxes collebted in future. The title was vested in the President and Directors, and the faith of the State was pledged to styjport the bank and make- good all losses. The institution had power to make loans on ° both real and personal security at seven per cent, interest, payable in advance, the loans to i)e renewal )le for periods up to ten years. The bank was to pay the interest on the State debt, and its charter was to run until 1S36. The hank realized upon the assets turned over by the State, and its effective capital was in 1S19, 11,372,500. In 1830 the charter was renewed until 1856. In ],830 its available assets vrere 13,768,292, and at this time it had paid |215,000 of the principal of the State debt; which, however, had been largely increased by means advanced by the State for internal improvements. In 1 834 , by the apparently brilliant prospects opened by the completion of railroads and the rise in the price of cotton, the Legislature was induced to charter the Charleston, Louis- ville and Cincinnati Kailroad Company, with a capital limited to 136,000,000. The State took *800,000 in stock, and advanced $200,000 in cash, and endorsed the bonds (.f the Company for $2,000,000. In 1838 a great part of the City of Charleston was destroyed by fire, and an extra session of the Legislature was called, which authorized the Bank of the State to negotiate a loan of two millions of dollars for the benefit of the sufferers, and the Bank obtained the money in England. lu 1852 the charter was extended until 1871. The Civil War did not destroy the Bank, and in 1867 it still held a large amount of assets, some of which had been ren- dered of doubtful value, belonging to the State. In 1868 the first llepublican (or negro) Legislature passed an Act to close the Bank, and in 1870 it was placed in the hands of lieceivers. In 1820 there were five Banks in the State: The Bank of Soutii Carolina, chartered in 1792, with capital of §1,000,000; the State Bank of South Carolina, chartered in 1802, with capital of $l,000,0u0; the Union Bank and the Planters' Bank, both chartered in ISiO, and each having a capital of $1,000,000; and finally, the Bank of the State of South Carolina, having at that time a capital of $1,123,157. This last Bank was the fiscal agent of the State. It received all taxes, paid all demands, negotiated all loans, and received all ihe assets of the State. There were in South Carolina, as in other States, two opinions about the expediency of conduct- 8 ing all the financial operations of the Siate through an insti- tution of this kind. No objection, however, seems to have been made to its copstitutionality before the Courts. The views of the opponents of thits institution are indicated in tho following quotation from Governor Seabrook's message, 1849: " The Bank of the State of South Carolina is a dangerous institu- tion, anti-Republican in its character and tendency, and the evils inevitably arising from the connection of a moneyed corporation and the t^tate, increase and ramify the longer the rights and privi- leges of the former are extended. The political history of South Car- olina has so long presented the anomalous spectacle of its constituted authorities pertinaciously upholding a State corporation, while it denounced any union between a bank and the Federal Government, I also desire in this place to express my settled conviction that the Bank of the State was founded on a false and pernicious principle; that to grant to the members of a community almost exclusively devoted to rural pursuits, unusual facilities for commanding money, is to inflict on them and their posterity an unmitigated evil." On the other liand, we find in a work on South Carolina recently published by the State Board of Agriculture, the following summing np of the liistory of the Bank. Speak- ing of the closing of the Bank in 1870, the authors of the work remark: " Thus passed away a powerful institution, which fnr more than half a century had exercised e.sclusive control of the fiscal affairs of the State. Its friends claimed that it had saved, consolidated and made profitable the funds of the state, that it had furnished relief to many citizeus, and added to the general revenues of the State, im- proving and developing the towns of the interior. Its profits were employed in paying the interest and in reducingthe principal of the public debt. It preserved its capital entire, and its funds safe, main-* taining the character and the credit of the State in Europe and at home without blot or suspense. Its most violent opponents admitted the ability and integrity displayed in its management, and declared that the abiding confidence of the people in it was a high liut dan- gerous compliment to the purity of the public characters of the State." « The constitutionality of the paper issues of the Bank of the State of South Carolina cannot be questioned after the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Briseoe vs. The Bank of the Commonwealth of -Kentucky; but this question does not appear to have been raised in South Carolina. NOTABLE BANKS AND BANKERS OF THE STATE. Among the public men of South Carolina as Itegislator and banker^ none was better known than Langdon Cheves^ Judge of the South Carolina Supreme Court^ Member of Congress, Speaker of the House ^ and President of the United States Bank. During his Presidency of the United States Bank, a branch bank was in successf nl operation in Charleston, which did a profitable business in sterling and domestic exchange. Mr. Cheves' father lost everything by the war of the devo- lution. He apprenticed his son, Langdon, when only ten years of age, to a shipping merchant in Charleston, The large and wealthy private banking house of James Adger & Co., correspondents of Brown Bros. & Co., of Liverpool and London, did an extensive and successful busi- ness in sterling and domestic exchange. It was for half a century the leading private banking house in South Carolina. James Adger the senior partner of the firm, was one of the most successful business men that Charleston ever had. From a small beginning he amassed a large fortune. His three sons were his partners. At the close of the Branch Bank of tlie United States, there arose the necessity of a bank with a large capital to take its place. The old banks in Charleston had not accus- tomed themselves to handling, to any extent, foreign ex- change ; they were very conservative in their business. The great staples for Carolina of cotton ^ tobacco and rice were chieily sold for foreign exchange. 10 THE BANK OF OHABLESTON CHAETEBED. About this tiiJie Henry Gourdin was one of the leading merchants and bankers in Charleston. It was mainly through his influence that the Bank of Charleston was estab- lished. He was a Director in the Union Bank, of which Henry Eaveno.i was President. In 1834 Mr. Gourdin was elected a Member of the State Legislature. It was not known generally that a charter for a bank was to be applied for. There was great opposition to creating a new bank. Judge Colcock, then President of the Bank of the State, was violently opposed to chartering a i)ank with the proposed large capital. He contended that it would destroy the old banks, and have a monopoly of the banking i)usiness of Charleston and ol the State ; he propose! to increase the capital of the Bank of the State. An that bank was fast falling into the hands oi ring politicians, tiie propo- sition was rejected, and the Bank of Charleston was char- tered, with a capital of S3, 000, 000. The petitioners for its charter were Ker Boyce, L. M, Wiley, H. W Conner, Robt. Y. Hayne and Henry Gourdin, all leading merchants and bankers of Charleston. They bought the United States Bank building on Broad Street, and began business in 1835, with Gen. James Hamilton as President, and Arthur Pose as Cashier. With such ofRcers and a strono; Board (if Directors, the Bank of Charleston revolutionized the banking business in South Carolina. A close alliance was made with the Bank oi Liverpool, the relations of the two banks becom- ing most intimate and confidential. In a few years the Bank i)f Charleston ranked irj commercial circles of Europe among the foremost institutions of its kind in the United States. Samuel Smith was Manager of the Bank of Liverpool at that time. The Bank of Charleston succeeded to the large busi- ness of the Branch Bank of the United States, and with its lai-ge capital and good management, the bank enabled the merchants to build up the jobbing trade of Charleston, which 11 sooti extended to nearly all of the Southern States. The shipping business also greatly iuereased. When the war began in 1861, the Bank of Charleston was on the high road of success. Its bills passed currently in every State in the Union. Alas ! War leaves nothing but ruin in its ravages The Bank of Charleston paid all of its depositors and bill holders in full, and was one of the few banks in the South that survived the war. Only meagre and unsatisfactory bank reports were published in the State until after the panic of 1837. In 1813 there were five State banks, with an aggregate capital of $5,000,000, which was increased to 18,800,000 in 1835, by the organization of (lie Bank of Charleston, with $3,000,000 capital, and the Southwestern Kailroad Bank, with i?800,000 capital. All these banks were located in Charleston. In 1839 there were twelve banks, with $11,600,000 capital, $5,000,000 in circulation, and $2,500,000 deposits, and by 1S59 the capital had increased to $15,000,000, the circulation to $12,000,000, and the deposits to $5,250,000. At tlie beginning of the War in 186], there were t\venty- two State banks in South Carolina, with an aggregate capital of $18,000,000 ; circulation, $10,000,000 ; deposits. i^l2,000,000. The banks were so carefully and successfully , managed, tliat there has not been a failure of a bank in South Carolina since the close of the Revolutionary War, in 1783. Enrly in the War of 1861, C. G. Memmingei', Secretary of the Confederate Treasury, a Charleston banker, called upon the banks for $10,000,000 of their bills, which were to be returned as soon as the Confederate notes could be printed. The writer of this sketch was a director iu the Bank of South Carolina, the first bank tliat was chartered after the War of the Revolution by the State Legislature. He had bought $100,000 of the stock of the Bank of South Carolina, with a eiew of taking the Presidency^ as Mr. William Birnie was nearly eighty years old, and was 12 desirous of retiring as President. The bank had a circulation of less than $100,000. Mr. Williams told the Board of Directors that instead of issuing one million in bank notes, to invest $500,000 of the assets of the bank in sterling exchange at about par, and issue no more bank notes; that the bills of the bank, which were considered better than Confederate notes, -.yould be hoarded. A majority of the Directors, however, voted for the issue, which resulted in the destruction of the hank. SOUNDNESS OF THE STATE BANKS. The State tiaiik system in the Southern States before the war was popular, and as perfect as anything could be outside of National Banks. The laws regulating banks in South Carolina gave satisfaction throughout the country affording, MS they did, a sound currency and ample accommodation to the people. A bank of Charleston note was current from Maine to Texas, and even circulated in England and on the Continent of Europe. Bank capital in South Carolina was exempt from taxation by State or municipal authorities. This enabled them to declare satisfactory dividends, and make loans at lo^v rates of interest. The majority of the banks in South Carolina were located in Charleston. They were banks of issue, and all specie-paying. DESTRUCTION WKOUGHT BY THE CIVIL WAR. The disastrous War of 1861-65 was a political earthquake tiiat shook the Southern States from centre to circumference, resulting in loss of lives and property beyond computation. The slaves alone of the South represented a money value of three thotisand millions of dollars. As many more millions in currency, bank capital, bonds and miscellaneous debts were destroyed by the surrender of Lee. In 1861 a terrible fire swept over Charleston, from Ashley to Cooper Rivers, and destroyed six million dollars worth of property. 13 Columbia,, the State capital, was literally destroyed hj tire in 1865, when Sherman's army visited that city. As the war began in Charleston, her trade and commerce were the first to sufEer its effects, from which it has never fully recovered. When the Confederate authorities evacuated Charleston in 1865, a small force of mounted men was left to burn the cotton, gunboats, provisions, and other Confederate property. The burning of the cotton at the Northeastern Depot resulted in a terrible calamity. A large quantity of powder was stored there, which ignited and blew up the depot, burying in the ruins two hundred men, women and children, who were at the depot to get the provisions stored there. The fire spread across the city, destroying millions of dollars worth of property. The shelling from the Federal gunboats prevented any one living below Calhoun street. In this crisis the Mayor appointed Alderman George "W. "Wil- liams and W. H . Gilliland to be the bearers to Morris Island of the following communication: "To the General Commanding the Army of the United States at Morris Island : Sir — The military authorities of the Confederate States have evacu- ated this city. I have remained to enforce law and preserve order until you take such steps as you may think best. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, CHARLES MACBETH, Mayor. Charleston, S. C, February 17, 1865." The Aldermen met General Bennett and delivered the Mayor's letter. The services of the Federal troops were secured in extinguishing the fires in various parts of the city. Provisions enough were saved from the flames to feed 20, 000 people, whites and blacks, for four months. As soon as the war was over, the firm of George W. Wil- liams & Co resumed business, and without delay erected fifteen large brick warehouses in ihe burnt districts for the storage of cotton, merchandise and fertilizers, at a cost of $100,000. They rebuilt the Charleston Iron "Works, that 14 gave employment to 200 men and a large cotton press, which has compressed millions of bales of cotton. They also re-established the banking house which at once made arrange- ments with Drexel, Morgan & Co. , New York; Brown Bros. & Co., of London; Bank cf Liverpool; and Drexel, Harjes & Co., Paris, to handle their sterling exchange, which amouQted to five million dollars per annum. They also did a large business in domestic exchange. So carefully was business done in Charleston, that of the large amount of sterling exchange bought, there was not a dollar lost. Soon after the war cotton, which \^as the great Southern staple, was shipped to Charleston and sold at fifty cents per pound. This stimulated trade and created a heavy demand for currency. This was needed to move the cotton. Only National Banks could furnish currency. Geo. W. Williams & Co. decided to establish a National Bank, with a capital of $500,000. They had bought sterling exchange in 1861 with Confederate money at 103, and sold it in 1865 at 225. Their New York bankers sold six hundred thousand sterling exchange for ihem, and invested in Government seven per cent, bonds at less than par. As there was not a Bank in South Carolina, Geo. "VV. Wil- liams & Co. arranged at Washington to establish the J^irst National Bank of Charleston, with a capital of $500,000; their senior partner was to be President. There was, how- ever, such a demand tor his time and services in the mercan- tik business, that he could not accept the office, but became Vice-President. Mr. Andrew Simonds was elected Presi- dent. It has been a most successful institution. In December, 1865, the People's National Bank was chartered, with a capital of $500,000, afterwards increased to $1,000,000. In 1872 the Bank of Charleston was reorganized as the Bank of Charleston National Banking Association, with a capital of $600,000. The capital has been reduced to $300,000, but the Bank still has the largest capital and busi- 15 ness of any Bank in the State. The three National Banks in Charleston have all heen successful. In 1875, ten years after the war, there were three National Banks in Charleston, with combined capital of $2,100,000, and a few old State banks winding np, not having capital enough to continue business. The capital of new State banks chartered from 1865 to 1876 was less than one million dollars. In 1874 Geo. W. Wilhams & Co. established the Carolina Savings Bank at Charleston, with an authorized capital of $500,000. The low rate of interest on Government bonds is causing a reduction of National banks. After the premium paid, they will not yield more than 2^ per cent, interest. The constantly increasing number of trust companies are also serious rivals of the banks. ' South Carolina has for the past 100 years been distin- guished for sound banking. As has been stated, from 1783 to 1861 there was not the failure of a bank chartered by the State. From 1865 to 1898 there have been comparatively few bank failures. Perhaps no State bank in the Union has a better record for sound banking. In 1898 the sixteen National institutions had an aggregate capital of $1,943,000, and the eighty-seven State banks (including Savings banks) a capital of $3,501,000. The surplus of these banks was $2,668,000, and the deposits $26,335,150. Fonrteen of the State banks and three of the National banks were located in Charleston. The writer of this sketch has bad an experience in banking embracing a period of more than half a century, and has passed through numerous wars and panics. He lias never found it more difficult to use money pruiital.ly than at this time. The Savings banks have found it necessary to reduce the rate of interest paid depositors in consequence of the difficulty in making satisfactory investments and loans. Rates of interest on approved securities generally approximate to those charged by the New York banks. December 19th, 1900. GEO. W. WILLIAMS. GEOEGE W. WILLIAMS. SENIOE MEMBER OF THE BANKING HOUSE OF GEO. W. WILLIAMS * CO., AND president of the carolina savings bank. Ohaeleston, S. 0., December 19th, 1903. ADVICE TO YOUNG MEN AND A SKETCH OF NACOOCHEE, QEORQIA, AND ITS SURROUNDINGS, BY GEO. W. WILrLrlAMS, OF CHARLESTON. S. C. 8UC0E8S DESIRED BY ALL, I desire to give to the young men of the South, in a sseries of short talks, some of nay hard-earned business experience. I say hard-earned^ for 1 began business in Augusta, Ga. , in 1842, in a financial crisis, and have since that day passed through many commercial storms and frightful panics, which not only tried men's pockets, but their honesty and integrity too. To the young, just beginning life, there is no question of greater importance to them than HOW TO SUCCEED. Success is an object of almost universal desire, and can only be attained by the exercise of good judgment and well-di- rected energy, combined with habits of industry, economy, skill accuracy and perseverance. Determine to succeed, and let nothing discourage you, but use your best efforts. There is no glory like the glory of success. 2 18 The problem of "success" has been to me a life-time study I have read the biographies and studied the characters of many of the most successful men of the Old and JSTew World , and have gone to the wisest man of ancient times to receive his testimony. It has been my custom in life to use my eyes and my ears, and to observe closely the conduct of those with whom I have transactions, and I have watched with no small degree of interest, the causes which led to failures of so many, hoping thereby to avoid the rocks on which they were wrecked. Strive by a prudent and well regulated life to preserve your health, for health gives you strength to meet the ills and disappointments of life, and is one of the greatest earthly blessings, and is essential to success. A correct life is con- ducive of health. Life without health is scarcely worth the living. By a wise attention to the laws of nature there is no reason wliy you should not live in the enjoyment of health and activiry until you have reached your three score and ten. Bat the belles and the beaux, in this fast age, starl out on their nightly dissipations at eleven o'clock, and frequently dance in crowded and close heated rooms all night. Is it any wonder that many young women are nervous and hysterical at twenty ? or that young men are feeble dyspeptics ? This reversing the order of things ruins many a constitution. But what will not the fair sex endure to be in the fashion ? The men, of course, are but their slaves. "A sound mind in a sound body" is of inestimable value in the way to success. Dr. Hall says: Health, wealth and religion are the three grand duties of life. Apart from an attack of yellow fever, in 1852, I have not lost by sickness one month from business since I left my Na- coochee home in 1838. During that long time of eighty-two years my life has been one of activity, work, toil and struggle. My friends insist that I am killing myself by "overwork." Work sel- dom kills people ; it is worry and idleness that do the mis- 19 chief. It is infinitely better to wear out than rust out. Let me say to the boys by way of encouragement, who desire health, happiness and independence, that the writer never spent an idle day, never took a chew of tobacco, never smoked a cigar, never danced, or played a game of cards or billiards, he joined the Washington Temperance Society, and the Methodist Church in his fourteenth year. When urged to ''retire from business," his reply is, that an ''idle brain is the workshop of tlie devil." 1 am sure we are all happier for having a pursuit that will actively employ both mind and body ; many a young man owes his success to his conflicts with difficulties. An easy, luxurious life does not elevate a man morally, mentally, or physically. No man will succeed unless he possesses resolution and an earnest desire to excel, whether he be in pursuit of wealth, knowledge or lame. Never rely upon chance to give you wealth or position ; rather be the architect of your own for- tune. A writer has compared the way to fortune to the milky way in the sky, which is a meeting of myriads of small stars, not seen asunder, but giving light together; so are there a number of little and scarcely visible virtues, or traits and habits, which make the successful man. It is common for the world to ascribe good or bad luck tO' Providence. I ad- mit that the heavens and earth are governed by an overruling and all-wise Providence, but the young man who habitually neglects his duty and relies upon Providence to do for him what he should do for himself, will not succeed. Life is full of troubles, trials, disappointments and JifBculties; you must learn to fight its battles bravely, energetically and manfully — from the cradle to the grave. SUCCESS THE EBSULT OF WOEK AND SAVING. In speaking of success, I do not wish it to be understood as advancing the idea that the only success in life to be 20 coveted, is to make money and get gain. Many of the most successful lawyers, divines, statesmen, physicians, authors and warriors, in ancient and modern times lived and died poor. But I do say, very few men- succeed in any pursuit or pro- fession who do not work, toil and struggle for success. You should noi be satisfied with being a mere anima*!, but strive to be a man among men. Yon are made in the image of God, with brains and intellect; if you have but one talent use it to the best of your ability; be not like the slothful servant who dug a hole in the ground and buried his talent because he was not blessed with two or more. While upon the subject of saving and making I wish to say to young men that there is no royal road to success. Success is attaired through a multitude of difficulties. Those who make a daily saving, however small, can rarely come to want. All should learn to save when young, that they may have money to spend when they are old. Be a willing worker. If a young man looks upon every service that de-volves upon him as a biiior to be submitted to rather than a duty to be cheerfully performed, he will drag in his work and will hot be advanced in the estimation of his employer. Let all the interests and duties entrusted to you be as sacredly performed as if they were wholly your own. The father of the lichest man in America began life without money or family influence, but by making and saving he accumulated a fortune of fifty millions of dollars, besides making liberal gifts to colleges and churches. Let an honorable ambition stimulate you to use the talents God has given you to the fullest extent. It is true all men are not equally qualified for getting and saving money, but I think if the young men will examine carefully the little sums they spend unnecessarily, they will see wasted in tobacco, cigars and the like, an amount sufiicieTit to make a respectable deposit in a savings bank, or to aid an aged father or sick mother, who may be struggling in poverty, or a sister who is striving for an education. Saving at first may be irksome, but by practice it becomes a 21 a pleasure. An important lesson of life is to learn to mve ; begin by small savings, rather than not begin at all; and begin at once. You will not be likely to make your way from poverty to riches unless you learn to economize in small things. One of the happiest days of my life was when I had saved my first dollar, and when hj perseverence, industry and economy I had accumulated ten dollars, I felt I was on the road to success. Let me urge you to keep an account of your receipts and expenditures, however small, and at the close of each day, see wliat you have spent that could have been avoided. Acquire the habit of making and saving and it will be a wonderful help in the journey of life. It is as important for parents of wealth to teach their children habits of economy as it is for those of moderate moans, for if the young do not learn the value and use of money when they get it either by work or inheritance, it will slip through their lingers liki^ water through a sieve. Obey the advice of the great founde'- of Methodism: " Make all you can, save all you can, and give all you can." The human family is ever in search of happiness. Idleness is not happiness. [Neither is it perfect rest. Success when accompauied by wealth brings with it cares and responsibilities that few can realize. It is more difficult to use money wisely than it is to make it. Too frequently it is the custom of men of wealth to hide away their gold, as it were, with the delusive hope of making benevolent uses of it when about to enter the cold stream of Jordan, forgetting that it is more difficult for a man "who trusts in riches" to enter the kingdom of Heaven "than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle." Money, however, possesses a magnetic power, and stirs tlie world from centre to circumference, influencing as it does the destinies of nations as well as that of individuals. It is the object which has engrossed the mind and affections of all ages, and has and ever will give an impulse to trade, commerce and manufactures. 23 You should cultivate habits of attention, and be on the alert for opportunities. Do not fold your hands like Micawber, and always be waiting for something to turn up. If you have no business, make it. Idleness is the parent of poverty, want and sin. Work is an essential element in happiness and success. If you accomplish anything, it will be by industry and patient thought. Help thyself and Heaven will help thee is a promise worthy to be cherished and remembered. Those who work with their hands or brains are far happier than the idle, for sweet is the bread earned by the sweat of the brow. Industry and enterprise are more important to success than brilliant talents. It is surprising how much one of comparatively moderate talents can accomplish by persistent efforts, and patient, perseveriag energy. Honest success is salutary not only to individuals, but to tb.e whole country. If you possess energy of character, it will often excite and encourage energy in others. I have long since learned, that anything worth having is worth working for. Spurgeon says: He that has work to do has, less temptation to doubt, that the man tliat is idle and has nothing else to do but to doubt. Idleness is just as injurious to women as it is to the men. Work that brings honest accumulation is honorable. We should all work while we live and make a diligent use of life while any power remains. How distressing it is to see in an age of progress, and in a land that yields so readily to the hand of the industrious, so much poverty, distress, and want. Even the anf "which hath no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest." To be a successful merchant, banker or farmer you must be industrious and economical in beginning life. A great many troubles and wants of life arise from a careless discharge of your duties, and a wasteful expenditure of money. 23 It is indeed bad for a man who has a large family to be poor and not understand the value of time and money. A good fellow they call him, but alas he does not know how to provide for his wife and children, poverty is a depressing thing. We must begin our work with the morning sun; the day was made for work and the night for rest and sleep. One of the first things that drew my attention to Charleston, as a business place, was the late hours at which the merchants began their day's work. I concluded if they could make a living beginning the day's work at 9 o'clock, I could make more than a living by starting some hours earlier. As important as a college education may be to young men, and I admit the importance of parents besi owing the best possible education upon their children, yet it may not be a misfortune in the present condition of the country that the counting-house should be the boys' college, and the domestic duties of home the girls' seminary, for there they are taught the useful, if not the ornamental branches of education. All brain work does nor pay; the physical must be cultivated as well as the mental. In the school of toil and industry they learn a knowledge of the world, the value of time, of money and character. The young man whose salary is one thousand dollars per annum, and saves one-tenth of that sum, is on the road to wealth, while be who receives double that amount and spends twenty-one hundred dollars, is sure to fail. An important lesson of life is to learn to save ; begin by small savings, rather than not begin at all, put your weekly net earnings in a savings bank, where it will draw interest and be ready for a rainy day. Never have an idle hour or an idle dollar. Let the young of both sexes lay up the amount they are in the habit of spending in superfluities, and they will be happier and more independent for so doing. If you cannot grow rich, there is no reason why you should not make yourself at least comfortable. 2i OHAEACTEE THE COENEE-STONE OF SUCCESS. la a country like ours, where the road to wealth is open to all, it is not titrange that the love of money, and money making should be predominating traits. But money, with all of its uses, power, and influence, is as naught when com- pared to Character. A sure means of building up character is to practice the virtues of honesty, temperance and frugality. Wealth is a blessing or curse as it is used for good or evil. Yoii should combine with uprightness of character a determination, to succeed, and a disposition to do right under all circumstances. Character is not an inheritance, it is not an estate to which one is born heir to, but requires almost superhuman efforts to fully establish it, and to keep it. Character forms the groundwork of a happy, useful and successful life. Let me impress upon you the priceless value of character. It is one of the noblest possessions a maa can have. Build upon it, for it carries with it a power and influence that al- ways tells. No money can measure its value, and no man can rob you of it without your own consent. Success, in its general acceptation, is almost valueless without character. I esteem the spotless character bequeathed to me by my hon- ored parents more than if they had left me great wealth; houses and lands may be lost, but character lives after mar- ble monuments crumble with time. A good name is one of the heritages of character ^ and is more to be desired than riches. Then strive to make for yourself a name free from reproach ; if you value a good name and the respect of the virtuous, avoid bad company. "Enter not into the path of the wicked, and go not in the way of evil men." Character tells in all relations of life. A man of bad character has a debasing influence upon his companions. ''That which is born of evil begets evil;" so shun the bad and vicious as you would a serpent. Young men should see to it that they sow good seed. 25 "tVLatsoever a man soweth, that also shall he reap."' If you sow tares you will reap tares. If the young would but consider how much their parents and friends are interested in their welfare and happiness, they would be stimulated to live correct lives, and to make for themselves Character above reproach. The humblest person in the land has father, mother, sister, or some one who feels an interest in his or her welfare. Have an ambition to do right, and you will be respected and honored by the good and virtuous. Remember, young man, that in all of your wanderings, the eye of God is constantly upon you; remember, also, that your actions, whether good or l)ad, are scrutinized by those from whom you seek employment. A youth who is seen with the idle and dissolute of either sex, will not find favor with business men of correct principles. Remember men are known and estimated by the company they keep. A sober youth can not associate with the intemperate and dissolute without becoming contaminated. I have known some noble boys who were ruined by wicked, intemperate associates. Alas! our cities and towns are filled with such characters; few young men can withstand the temptations of city life. Intemperance has long been the curse of the land. No man who habitually gets drunk cau be trusted with important in- terests, for in the time of greatest need he will utterly fail; his intentions may be good, and he may strive to do right, but if he drinks to intoxication he loses self-control, and is on the broad road to ruin. There is little or no hope of re- forming him. The habit of drinking, when formed in youth, is one that is almost incurable. Then, ''look not upon the wine when it is red ; at the last it biteth like a serpent and stinsreth like an adder." Remember that the hand of the diligeut maketh rich, but the glutton and drunkard shall come to poverty. "We scarcely take up a newspaper without being shocked with accounts of deadly conflicts, often between friends, originating in drinking and gambling saloons. 26 A writer in speaking of the effects of intemperance, pays: "It shall visit your limbs with palsy; it shall extinguish the pride of man; it shall make the husband hateful to the wife; and the wife loathsome to the husband; it shall annihilate the love of offspring. It shall disgrace the Judge upon the bench, the minister in his sacred desk, and the senator in his exalted seat. It shall make your food tasteless, your mouth to burn as with a fever, and your stomach to tremble as if with disease. It shall cause the besotted mother to overlay her new-born, unconscious that it dies beneath the pressure of her weight. The son shall hide his face, that he may not behold his father's depravity; and the father shall see the object of his fondest hopes turn to a foul and bloated car- cass, that hurries to the grave. It shall turn the children of men into raving maniacs; and the broken ties of blood and affection shall find no relief but in the friendly coming of Death. Of all the evils in tlie world whiskey drinking is probably the greatest. We read of men crazed by liquor, who return to their homes and brutally murder their wives and innocent children. Young men do not require stimulants, but it is not difficult for them to imagine that the addition of brandy to water improves its quality. In this way, habits of intemperance are imperceptibly formed, and the youth becomes a confirmed drunkard before ho is aware of it. _brom a bright young man, once the pride of his family, he becomes a drvmken sot, and a nuisance in society. Temptations to dissipation are always increased by idleness; no brain can stand total stag- nation; the body and mind must he employed to be healthy and happy. Too frequently the idle resort to tobacco, opium, or whiskey. Thus fearful, pernicious habits are formed. 1 have long been of the opinion that the use of tobacco, considered by many so harmless, is the first step to dissipation. It is said that the dryness of the mouth caused by smoking, excites an artificial thirst which requires frequent 27 draughts of liquid. Water becomes insipid, and brandy is added. In this way dissipation often begins, which ends in ruin both to soul and body. This warning is intended as much for the minister of the Gospel who smokes and chews, as for the youth just beginning life. I do not consider any man innocent who makes himself a slave to tobacco or whiskey. , ECONOMY . Economy, which is so important to the human family, seems a hard lesson for our people to learn. I do aot mean that economy which only looks to a saving of money, but economy which includes a prudent manage- ment of all the means bv which property is saved or accumu- lated and more especially to a saving of time. Remember that economy is the parent of honesty, of independence, and of contentment. In my visits to the Old World , I made careful observations of the manners, customs and habits of the people, both in Groat Britain and on the Continent. I was impressed with the economy, order and system practiced, not only in the commercial and banking houses, but by the people in all pursuits of life. With our young men the temptation to sjicnd is unfortu- nately greater than the inclination to save; this is one of the reasons why we see so much misery and poverty. It requires more force oi character to save money than it does to make it. In the public houses of Europe you order and pay for what you want, while at our live dollar hotels you pay more for what you waste than for what you eat. As an evidence of the economy with which business is conducted in Europe, I would state, that our firm kept a large account with a banking house in Liverpool. By an oversight a three cent instead of a six cent postage stamp was placed on a letter. 2S The omission was called to our attention, and the three cents postage was charged to our account. These same bankers had a messenger at Queenstown to look after our baggage, and pass it through the custom liouse^ making no charge for the services renaered. That was civility, while the postage stamp was strictly business, such as is practiced by Ihe best bankers in Europe. On the strength of this experience — whichj to the prodigal American^ looked like a srnall trans- action — I had a postage account opened, and we were all surprised to see how soon items of one, two aud three cents swelled into dollars by the thousands. The inhabitants of the Old World do not forget that if you take care of the shillings the pounds will take care of themselves. It is the petty items wasted that often consume the profits of the store, the farm, and the income of the professional man. He who wantonly wastes his own fortune, will not be careful of the fortune of others. The frugal Germans and French will live comfortably on what we prodigal Americans waste. Avoid extravagance, or living beyond your means for the sake of show. If you do not your life will be a perpetaal struggle, and you will find a short road to disgrace and ruin . Making money is one thing, but the secret of saving when made is what you must learn. Perhaps the strangest problem in my business experience is to see some men exhibit extra- ordinary talents in making money but somehow, they utterly fail in keeping the fortunes made. A young man's business habits and chances of success are improved by marrying young, provided he makes a judicious selection of a wife; a good wife and health are a man's true wealth. Very much of your success in life depends upon the kind of a wife you get; a pritdent wife considers the comfort of her husband and cliildren. Do not take the responsibility of a family until you have reasonable prospects of making an adequate support. When you do marry, let 29 me beseech, you to have the moral courage to iuform your family that you can not live in the same style that some of your neighbors do, without incurring debt or being dishonest. Far better never marry, than to bring disgrace upon your wife and children by extravagant living, which often leads to spending money that does not belong to you. I am sure that the majority of our self-sacriticiiig women will do their part faithfully in supporting a family. The spirit of industry and economy which we have seen practiced by them since the war^ is worthy of the emuialion of the most resolute men. 1 have seen delicate ladies of education and refinement, who in other days were accustomed to ease and luxury, teaching negro schools, nnd cheerfully perform- ing the most menial duties rather than eat the bread of de- pendence. There is, indeed, hope of a country that furnishes such women as are to be found all over these Southern lands. God bless them! They will truly be helpmates. I have a tender spot in my heai-t'for women who are struggling to earn their living. I have been pained to see delicate women try- ing to support lazj^, vagabond husbands. PUNCTUALITY. Young men who are desirous of establishing correct busi- ness habits should be punctual. Nothing begets confidence in a young man sooner than habits of punctuality, sobriety and accuracy. No one who is habitually dilatory and inaccurate will be tolerated in a well regulated counting-house. Accu- racy is a mark of good training. Let me urge the young to concentrate their efforts and not waste their time by engaging in a varietv of pursuits, mnking themselves as it were "Jack of all trades and good at none. " Find out what you are fitted for and having chosen a business, however humble it may be, stick to it, and go to work with a will and deter- mination to succeed. Some people are always resolving, but fail to put. their resolutions into execntiun. I will do it to- 30 morrow, never accomplishes much. Decision of character is of the utmost importance; to be constantly changing your plans is evidence of a weak, vaseillating mind. Learn to iiuish well and promptly whatever you undertake. Punctuality is an important business habit; a punctual man always regards the time of others. Punctuality should be made a point of conscience, as well as duty. Some good men have their names associated with various boards, but give very little attention to the trusts assumed. Diligence is said to be the mother of good luck, and is an important business trait; it is the active employment of mind and body, and often brings to the possessor knowledge, wealth and fame. When a thing is to be done the puactual man does not hesitate, but goes to work and accomplishes it. The Spartan youth that told his mother his sword was too short, was ordered to add a step to it. If we feel that our talents are insufficient we must add to them by industry and diligence. You should not only be punctual, accurate and industrious, but you must also be prudent. "A prudent man looketh well to his going;" he wil^ not involve himself in debt until he has carefully considered the means of discharging the same. Speaking of punctuality ^ my friends will pardon me in this connection for saying, that in varied business transactions, amounting to more than two hundred million dollars, our house has never failed to meet, to the hour, every pecuniary obligation, whether written or verbal, except fur a short period during the war, when their remittances were inter- cepted, but were paid in full when the war was over. Do not be allured from your legitimate work and engage in business enterprises in which you have had no previous experience. Better let well enough alone. Never leave tor to-morrow what should be done to-day; nor for another to do what might be done by yourself. 31 POLITENESS. 1 feel that I cannot too earnestly impress upon the young the importance of cultivating habits of politeness. Good address and courteous manners are liigh recommendations to the young man seeking employment or starting in business. They are almost as important as the possession of capital. Americans are not distinguished for politeness and reverence. The young should always be attentive and respectful to the aged. When some of us old boys were lads, if we were permitted to sit at the table with our seniors, we did not, as many of the youth of the present day, monopolize the conversation. If we vrt3re satisfied in unr own minds that we knew much more than oar parents, for prudential reasons, we took good care to keep the information to ourselves. I will not deny that this generation is wiser than that which preceded it, but we have been taught that modesty is a virtue, and that good manners should be carried to tlie festive board, house of divine worship, and into the domestic cirtle. The indecent practice that many thoughtless young men have fallen into, of placing themselves in lines and groups on the walks lead- ing to and from churches and public promenades, making jesting remarks, and gazing at the ladies as they pass, cannot be too much condemned. While upon the subject of polite- ness I have a word to say to the young girls, who crowd gray-haired men out of their seats, and see them stand for hours, without offering in return the slightest thanks. These same young ladies too frequently conduct themselves in pub- lic places in a manner to elicit unfavorable remarks. The young should conduct themselves, at all times and in all places, whether at home or abroad, with modesty and pro- priety, if the humblest person does you a favor, it is your duty in some way to acknowledge it. Washington, when questioned about returning the salute of a colored man, re- plied that he could afford to be as polite as a servant. 32 Pleasing manners and good address have laid the founda- tion of many a young man's success in life. The art of pleasing is certainly a gift-to be prized. Politeness is said to be benevolence in small things, is sunshine, in darkness, and is an embodiment of the golden rule, do unto others as they would be done by. Politeness and civility are essential to success. The toils and struggles of many a youth have been made the lighter by encouraging words and little atten- tions from his employer. Business men should always mani- fest an interest in their clerks; and, in return, clerks should study their own interest, not merely doing what they are obliged to do, but they should also be watchful in promoting the interest of their employers. From the day that I began business in Augusta, Ga. , in 1842, it has been my pleasure to reward the clerks with the best possible salaries, and to advance them to positions of trust and partnerships whenever opportunity oEEered. Politeness has helped scores of young men in my emploj' to lucrative positions. In large estab- lishments, numerous clerks are required, all differing as much in character^ address and disposition, as in their like- ness to each other. 1 have often been pained to see exhib- ited, even in well regulated establishments, petty jealousies and dislikes among the clerks, frequently without any real cause; also an indisposition to lend a helping hand when it could be done without interfering with their own work. I know there are trying and irritating circumstances arising almost daily in all pursuits, and that east winds will blow upon feeble and dyspeptic constitutions, but there is such a thing as yielding to ill temper, sour looks, and an unaccom- modating disposition, until nearly all the sweets are taken out of life, and until we are no comfort to ourselves or others. A polite, kind, accommodating disposition, coupled with pa- tient and serene manner and temper, are virtues which go a long way in smoothing the rugged pathway through life. 1 am sorry to say that llie counting house and workshops are not the only places where you do not find perpetual sun- 33 shine. In the domestic circle, around tho family fireside, ah! even among brothers and sisters, and, shall I add, be- tween husbands and wives, are sometimes to be found bick- erings, jealousies, contentions, ill-temper, misundertanding and strife. Alas! that such things should be. There is, however, a great deal of the Adamic nature left in man even in this advanced period of the Christian era. Eemembcr that bind words. and kind acts live after one is dead. Some men are as polite, smiling and courteous as Chester- field in company, but are real porcupines in their own homes. ''Home, Sweet Home," is the place of all places in the world where the courtesies of life should be practiced. HONESTY. My advice to the young is to let all of their transactions be fair, just and honorable. If you would succeed in life adhere scrupulously to the truth; cultivate truth and honesty, and always be upright in your dealings. ''Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord; but they that deal truly are His delight." Dare to do right, for it is said fortune favors the brave. It pays to be honest, truthful and upright. I am convinced from long and careful observation, of the truth of the old maxim, that ''Jionesty is the best policy," even it your aims are no higher than to make money and get gain.. Should your accouutability not extend beyond the grave, still you should be honest and faithful in all accepted trusts. Defraud not the orphan or the widow. An honest man is truthful and reliable. A writer has said that of the qualities that combine to form a good character, there is not one of more importance than reliability. The word itself embraces both truth and honesty. The reliable man must be truthful and honest; he is a man of good judgment, not frivolous, but is careful, prudent and thoughtful. What he says may be relied on. You feel safe with your property or ■ 3 ■ 34r the administration of your a£Eairs in his hands. When quit- ting this world your last hours are made more peaceful at the thought of leaving wife, children and money to the care of an honest, reliable man. Pope says : "An honest man is the noblest work of God." It is not honest to take the advantage of another, or to be careless or negligent in matters of trust. Strive as near as poor human nature will allow "to do unto others as jou would have them do unto you. ' ' Establish a reputation for uprightness, promptness and fair dealing, and you are in the road to success. Strive to bo true and honest in all the relations of life. Let all of your transactions be based on integrity, and make your word as jfood as your bond. "He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in much." It is better to be honest than rich. The young man who leaves his home, and goes out into the world in search of a fortune, encounters many trials, temptations and difGculties. Remember there is much in making a right beginning. One false step often mars the prospects of many a young man for life. Whatsoever duty may be assigned you, if it be sweeping the office, let the work be well done. Yonr salary is a small part of your compensation. In well conducted houses in Europe, parents often pay for situations furnished their sons. Let your aim be to inspire confidence; confidence is a plant of slow growth ; to make it grow, it requires toil and sunshine. A single adverse breath may destroy it forever. Many persons do not succeed in life because they lack honesty, pluck and energy. If you wish to succeed, you must be honest, and do your duty faithfully to God and man. ALL MUST WORK WHITE AND BLACK. If we do not succeed in the South, it will be our own fault. Of course the disorganization of our entire labor system has, and will for many years, retard our prosperity 35 but I have felt sure that not only tne ireedman will worK, but the whites also. Immediately after the late war, 1 began to build warehouses for the storage of cotton and merchan- dise. My friends thought I was doing a very unwise thing. They predicted that cotton could not be produce by white labor, and that the negroes would not work. I did not believe any such doctrine. I have found that a dozen ware- hou«es would not accommodate the cotton receipts of one Charleston firm. Another source of considerable wealth to the South has arisen from the discovery of immense beds of phosphate rock and fossil bone in South Carolina. These remarkable deposits, both on land and in the navigable streams, attracted the attention of geologists more than a century ago; but strange to say, their commercial value was not known until after the close of the war. These immense deposits, which will last for ages, have added greatly to the commerce of South Carolina. Thousand of cargoes are annually shipped from Charleston and Beaufort to foreign and domestic ports. The manufacture of fertilizers from these rocks and fossils has added much to the wealth and trade oi Charleston. The capital now employed in mining phosphate rock and manufacturing fertilizers exceeds the whole banking capital of the State. Land which was con- sidered almost worthless, has been brought to the highest state of productiveness by the use of chemical fertilizers. Is it possible that these rocks and fossil remains which have been found so important to the fertility and fruitfulness of the earth, were deposited on the banks and in the streams of the Ashley and Cooper Elvers many centuries ago by chance? Let us rather believe that they were placed there by our Heavenly Father, who&e love and providential care is ever over His children in their time of greatest need. CAUSE OF FAILUEES AND THEIE REMEDIES. Failures often arise from a want of tact, application, enter- prise and business talent. Not one man in a thousand is 36 what you call a "born merchant." Overtrading, endorsing and running in debt are fruitful sources of failures; the practice of endorsing is liable to great abuse, and too fre- quently leads to ruin. Want of system, neglect of business, and trusting too much to others, often lead to failures. Many do not succeed for the want of health, and a want of health is often caused by our own imprudences, and over- indulgence in eating and drinking. Those who generally succeed make themselves merchants or business men by unceasing application and toil. "What- soever their hands find to do, they do it with all their might. " It is a lamentable fact that not ten per cent, of tliose who engage in commerce succeed. The wonder is, when wo see so many shipwrecked in mercantile pursuits, that there are any so bold as to venture . in trade* The new methods of business are not improvements upoQ tbe old ways; trickery and adulteration is the curse of the land; nearly every article of merchandise is adulterated, and nearly every business is run into colossal trusts. Most of the beginners are unwilling to follow in the slow road of toil and struggle which leads to fortiine. By some fortunate speculation they hope to step from the bottom round to the top of the ladder. I have a directory of Augusta, Ga. , published about the time I began business in that city. In the long list of firms, , banks and insurance companies that were in existence in ] 842, I do not believe one survived the war. Yery few of the merchants retired with fortunes, and only a limited number with even a competence. As distasteful as it is to the majority of our people, it may be necessary, as well as advantageous, for our young men to go back to first principles, and devote themselves to agriculture. When our first parent was driven from the Garden of Eden, he was commanded to till the ground, and earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. Now, when we consider 37 that tlie fruits of the eartli have been, and ever will be, the source of all v^ealth, then why do not more of our young men cultivate the soil instead of flocking to towns and over- crowded cities to engage in pursuits which scarcely give them an humble subsistence ? God made the earth to be cultivated, and not to be choked with thistles, for want of laborers. There is no life so independent as that of a farmer; and it is astonishing to see how soon an industrious young man, blessed with a thrifty wife, can, on a small farm, surround himself with the comforts of life; for, after all, our wants are more imaginary than real. Many vainly think that to be happy, we must have great wealth; it is true that money, wisely used, is a good thing, and brings with it comforts and independence; but the farmer, who has his green pastures, flocks and herds of sheep, cattle and horses, and nis barns* filled with the product of the land, such a man is truly one of the lords of the soil. But, should he bo lazy, and have an extravagant, gad-about wife, the home will soon be in the hands of the sheriff, and his children in rags. The Greeks and Romans placed agriculture among the divinities of their religion. I do not ask so much for it, but I do ask that it be considered as one of the respectable occu- pations of life, to be a farmer. While I regard the pursuit of agriculture as the safest and surest road to success, yet I consider the merchant, banker, and the artisan as active co-laborers, and almost indispensable to the tillers of tlie soil; for without the aid of the merchant, much of the surplus products of the farm would go to waste in the hand- ling of them. The feverish excitement of a commercial life makes me enjoy all the more the few months 1 spend each summer amidst the green pastures and fertile fields of my quiet Nacoochee home. 38 ENVY. ' If you would succeed and be happy, crush out the s jirit of envy. There is scarcely a trait in the human heart more to he detested than that of envy. It is the parent of malice, revenge and hatred. "We are told that "a sound heart is the life of the flesh, but envy is the rottenness of the bonss." The eye of envy never sleeps, but gazes with demoniacal malignity upon a rival. An envious man has a tongue as poisonous as a serpent; he takes yoa into his coniidence only to sting you like an adder. He is never happy so long as a Mordecai sits at the king's gate. Envy magnifies your fail- ings, depreciates your virtues, and seeks every opportunity of slandering and defaming your good name. Such a character receives, indeed, small dividends for the wrongs he inflicts. It wa^ through envy that sin and death entered the world, and it was the same satauic spirit that caused Cain to slay his innocent, but more favored brother. An envious man is in pain on occasions which should give him pleasure. He is not only incapable of being happy in another's success, but exults over his misfortunes. This pernicious passion, if long indulged in, becomes an incurable disease. Unhappily it has an abiding place in too many hearts, and too many h^mes. ™ Then how important it is that parents should carefully guard against this odious and sinful disposition in their children. Youth is the period for cultivating humane and benevolent affections. The young should let a sense of right and justice guide them io all their intercourse with men, and never regard with envy the honestly attained success or advancement of another. If you or I succeed by honest efforts, the whole community will share in our prosperity. It is evidence of a contracted mind that looks with envy upon the honest success of a neighbor or competitor. The best thing in the world is a tongue that speaks no evil, and the worst thing in the world is a slanderous, tattling, envious tongue. It is full of a deadly poison. 39 Eovy tends to make men hard-hearted, selfish and cruel; to destroy even natural affections, and to awaken the most malignant passions. HEAR WHAT SAM JONES SAYS ABOUT A SLANDEEOUS TONGUE : "Many a woman will stand by the side of her husband when he is dead, and with a bleeding heart ask the Lord to forgive evei-y unkind word she had ever spoken to him. I have myself spoken unkindly to my wife, and I am sorry for it. She said it was my dyspepsia but it was my own down- right meanness. Never say a thing, unless you know it is true. Nevei- saj anything unkindly of any one. Never say anything behind any one's back you would not say to their face. If you do, you are a slanderer. The man that steals my m^ney is a gentleman and a Christian beside the one who, with a slan- derous tongue, smirches the character of some one. Let us watch this tongue business. We talk too much. I wish we could get our tongues like that of Christ. He had a word of comfort for every one. Wl'ong no man with your tongue. The best way to keep from wronging any one is to keep your mouth shut. Husband, when you see your wife's dander is rising, just keep your mouth shut. It'll nearly kill her, but it is the best thing you can do. The worst gossipers in the city are not women, by any means. They are men. Say amen, sisters. [A loud and hearty amen shook the tent.] Sisters, never say a word on earth, that yon can't say in heaven. There are a dozen ladies in a parlor, and when they go home their cheeks are burning. They have said something they are sorry for. They wish 'now they had not said it. Sister, let's never do anything that you would not have your children do. I'll tell you the kind of a mother that's a fine example. The mother that goes to the theater; and another who loves the yellow back novels better than she loves her husband; and another who 40 is on the street all^ the time. They are pretty examples for mothers. ' ' I commend to you the sentiments contained in the follow- ing beautiful lines -: "Nay, speak no ill: a kindly word Can never leave a sting behind ; And oh. to breathe each tale we've heard, Is far beneath a noble mind ; For oft a bettei seed is sown, Sy choosing thus a kinder plan; For if but little good we know, Let's speak of all the good we can." Let the above lines be indelibly impressed upon your hearts, and make it a rule of your life to speak of all the best you can. I feel that I cannot too earnestly impress upon the young the value of time, and the folly of misspending it. Tour success in life will very much depend upon a proper use of time. It is one of the first lessons a young man starting in life has to learn. Gather up the fragments of time, so that nothing can be lost. Time, patience and industry will con- quer the world. There is literally not a single moment in life that we can afford to lose. Youth is the period for un- wearied application. As fortunes are wasted in numerous small expenses, even so is precious time, by failing to econo- mize minutes and hours. The inclination is so great to, post- pone from day to day, and week to week, waiting for a more convenient season to do what should be done at once. Time must be usefully employed if we hope to succeed, and tliereby reap the fruits of our labor. The value we set on time is shown by the use we make of it. It should be employed not only for our own good, but also for the good of others. True happiness consists in doing our duty to God aud to man. Life is a struggle with most men, and fortunate are they who. sue- 41 ceed in procnring, from year to year, food and raiment for their households. I am conTinced from careful observation that the majority of the human family make but a bare support) even if they toil early and late. A portion of each day should be employed in the improvement of the mind with useful knowledge. Read the most useful books, not overlooking the Bible. It is the best book ever published, aside from its Divine teachings. Ignorance and idleness are the parents of much of the vice and immorality which abound in the world. Men engaged in commerce, agriculture, or the arts, must not forget that knowledge is power. By devoting an hour each day to careful reading, study and self-culture, you will im- prove the mind, and thereby become well informed on most important subjects. Make good use of the minutes and the days will take care of themselves. . Young men should waste neither time nor money. Remem- ber that "time and tide wait for no man." Time is your estate; an estate, however of little value without cultivation and improvement. Many young men waste valuable time at billiard saloons, clubs, and at the gaming table; time that should be devoted to work or the improvement of their minds. It is as impor- tant to learn the lesson of economizing time as it is to save money; for if you lose your money, you may regain it by industry, but golden hours lost arc gone forever. Thirty minutes to-day, an hour to-morrow, and two hours next week saved, will enable the studious and industrious youth to lay the foundation of a good education. LABOK. Labor, either with the hands or the brains, the application of our gifts to some beneficial result, is the basis of improve- ment and happiness, and the means of subsistence. "If a man will not work, neither shall he eat," is one of the im- mutable "laws. Labor is both honorable and helpful; the 42 man who by his labor makes two blades of grass grow where only one grew before, is a benefactor. Talents are of little use if we have aot the energy and ambition to put them into practice. Many persons seem willing enough to work^ but are lamentably deficient in method and system. Nothing is done at the proper time or in the proper way. Perseverance and energy, combined with moderate ability will show better results than great talents combined with laziness and indiffer- ence. Indolence is often taken for pa+ienee. It is better to have a wife that will scold fret and work, than one who does nothing but hold her idle hands. If you would gather fame, riches and honor, you must labor, toil and work; "for the diligent hand waxeth strong and mighty," In youth habits of industry are most easily acquired. Man, if he would be happy, must have some useful object to look forward to something to aspire after. I have been convinced that there is no resting place this side of eternity, and that it is our duty to be actively employed as long as we are blessed with health and strength to labor. One of the great benefits of employ- ment is that it acts as a cheek upon the temptations which beset on every side an unoccupied man or woman. Work purifies our fallen nature. If cleanliness is next to godli- ness, industry is closely allied to religion. Carlyle says:* "Show me a people energetically busy, heaving, struggling, all shoulders to the wheel, and I will show you a people to whom all manner of good is certain, if their energy endure.'" LOSSES BY THE LATE WAR. It does seem as if our people will never fully recover from the effects of the late war, which Avas a political earthquake that shook the Southern States from centre to circumference. It is seldom a people experience such a reverse of fortune as befell the Southern States. The slaves alone of the South represented a money value of three thousand millions of dollars, and as many milhons of dollars in currency, banking 43 capital, bonds and the like were swept out of existence at the surrender of Lee. . In 1860 the banks all suspended specie payments. Their bills, however, were regarded better than Confederate notes, and were consequently hoarded, but not to much profit. The merchants and others who had their lifetime earnings in gold obligations were compelled to receive in payment Confederate money, or to be regarded as disloyal to the Confederacy. This currency, from year to year, became from bad to worse, until it was of no more value tlian cart loads of waste paper. Let me advise those starting out in life to put forth their very best efforts. If a young man's talents are good, indus- try will improve them. If only moderate, then he must work the harder, and be content with le?s of this world's goods. We must all be prepared to meet with difficulties and losses, and disappointments. Never grieve oxer what can not be helped. It is the common lot of man to fall short of his desires and expectations; but whatever troubles we encounter, must be met with unflinching fortitude. My experience is that the school of adversity turns out the most successful men. I have known many clever boys injured by too much indulgence, too much money, and by too many advantages. Many men are poor all their lives because they do not begin to save when they are young. Avoid specula- tion, and do not be impatient to be rich. Yon are not swre whether you would be a happier or better man if you had the wealth of an Astor. The richest man in the land receives only his clothes and board for the toils, anxieties and worry of mind. You hear of Stewart, Vanderbilt, Astor, and other rich men leaving almost countless millions, but you do not hear of their taking when they die, one dollar with them. Many of them, I fear, do not save their own souls, which is to them of more importance than all the money in the world. Then do not complain because you have not riches and prosperity. If misfortunes did not now and then befall us, we would be exposed to evils that we little dream of. Instead u of repining, we should all be thankful for the manifold blessings God has bestowed upon us fror« childhood to the present hour. Immediatelj after the war the South was flooded with adventurers from all sections, known as ' ' carpet baggers. ' ' Many of these men had but little more character or reputa- tion in their own homes than the " tramps" of the present dav. They were mere political adventurers, and took as partners in their profession, the most corrupt and ignorant class of the freedmen. These men came into our homes and told our former servants that they would not be "loyal" if tliey remained with their old masters, even if they were com- pensated for so doing. Thus it was that the life-time rela- tion between the white and colored races became hostile and unsatisfactory. These political emissaries taught the freed- men that all those who in any way favored the rebellion, had forfeited their homes and their fortunes, and to take from the "rebels" was not stealing; but, as loyal citizens, it was their duty to do so. These Jacobin teachers managed not only to rob the Municipal and State Governments, but also to rob the too credulous colored people. The Freedmen's Bank, established apparently under the protection of the^ United States Government, was a huge machine for robbing the poor negroes of their hard-earned savings. These de- luded people should be reimbursed by the United States Gov- ernment. 1 am happy to say that the relation between the whites and their former slaves have greatlj^ improved ; the colored people are learning that their old masters are their best friends. They are also learning to save money, and to provide homes for their families. Several of the freedmen are making handsome deposits in Savings Banks, and are so- licitous for the education of their children. The public schools for the colored people in Charleston are regarded the best in tlie South. We owe the freedmen a de'jt of grati- tude for their humane consideration of the wives and children of our soldiers diiring the late war, who were left mainly to 45 their mercy. Their subsequent conduct has been equally creditable, especially when you consider their sudden eleva- tion from ignorant slaves to enfranchised citizens. For our cotton, rice and sugar estates, there is no labor equal to that of the freedman. I do not think that we shall get a more quiet and law-abiding labor for domestic service than the negro. I am pleased to know that the ill feeling which was at one time so bitter between the Worth and South no longer exists. Their unbounded^liberality to the cities afflicted with the yellow fever scourge and distressing earthquakes can never be forgotten. Immediately after the war there was such an overturning of society, that I was not sure the South would be a desirable place in which to live. The welfare of my children was, of course, paramount to every other consideration. As you are aware, I travelled extensively in the Old and New World, making the tour of Europe twice, and extending my travels North, and in the far West to the Rocky Mountains. After a careful survey of the different portions of the country that I have visited, my convictions are that the section embraced in the "Confederate States" is tbe most desirable portion of the habitable globe! and that the most abused State in the Union, in spite of bad legislation and disorganized society, is, in many respects the '■'■Eden'^ of the South; and were ray life-time earnings in gold dollars, I would unhesitatingly convert them into just such securities, real and personal, as we now possess, and cast my lot with her people. I am con- vinced that there is more in the man than in the place. If I had a dozen sons, it would be my desire that they should always make the South their home. The Southern States have a future that is beyond computa- tion, embracing as they do an area of nearly one million square miles, or more than six hundred millions of acres of land, with a population greater than that of the United States when I was a boy. The natural resources of the South are equal to those of any other portion of the globe, while the 4:6 climate is unsurpassed. Just oue product of the soil, the past j-ear, will yield nearly three hundred%iillions of dollars; and the day is not far distant when the production of cotton in the Southern States will amount to ten million bales, worth Hve hundred millions of dollars, and our sons will live to see more of this great staple manufactured into yarns and cloth in the Southern States than is now consumed in North America. The South possesses all the natural resources for her true independence. Alas! onr people ^have ranch to learn and endure before they will break the shackles which have bound them so long to the North and West. If we keep our corn cribs in Ohio, our smoke houses in Illinois, our hay stacks in Maine, and our machine shops in Lowell, we may dream of freedom, but will never realize it. God has given us rich lands on which we should raise everything we eat, whether it be of animal or vegetable origin. The lemon, orange, sugar cane, rice, and the famous sea island cotton, flourish. Our forests are almost exhaiistless — valuable not only for timber, but also for tar, pitch and tur- pentine. We have also a broad extent of territory valuable for upland cotton, grain, grasses and cereals, while our min- eral resources, especially in coal and iron ore, startle the, imagination. Then why should we despoud ? "There is life in the old lana yet." Indeed there is. My heart is in the cause of immigration — and no one will welcome more heartily than I a steady influx of the right kind of immigrants — either from our own or foreign lands. We want brains as well as muscle — capital as well as mechan- ical skill. We want a cessation of political agitation, peace at home, and peace abroad. My closing advice to the young men is to stand by their native South. EFFECTS OF THE WAK. The late war left the South in an impoverished condition. Wealth and capital perished in the desolating track of our terrible domestic strife. 47 The business interests of onr entire country have been, for many jears, passilig through a transformation; new rules, new laws and customs are forcing themselves upon our peo- ple, old channels of trade are broken up by new railroads. Cities are fighting with each other for the monopoly and control of trade. The South, however, has her rich soil left, and inexhaustless mines of iron, coal, and her seven millions of emancipated slaves are working far better than we had a right to expect. Now, ,that the system of labor is changed in the late slave States, the people should adapt themselves to the new state of things. The large landed estates should be divided into small farms, as in many, parts of Europe, and immigration from all quarters invited. I am convinced that ill the strictly cotton, sugar and rice sections of the South, there is no labor equal to that of the descendants of Ham. The negroes' habits are simple, economical and cheap; they are adapted to our climate, and should be encouraged to remain with us. It is for their interest, and for our interest, that they should abandon the idea of emigrating to Liberia, or to any other country. Kind treatment, with proper care and oversight, is what tbey require, and what they should receive at our hands, as well for past as for future services. Their education must not be neglected; give them a chance to show what they can do for themselves, morally, mentally and physically. I have faith in their future, and of their great value to the South. I cannot believe, as many do, that education will hurt the negro, any more than it does tlie laboring white man, but will elevate him, and make him more useful to the country, even as laborers. Let them substitute labor for political agitation, and find their better pleasure and profit in making potatoes that Presidents. This done, and wo shall once more become a more prosperous Nation. Politics, as now administered, are too degrading, even for the negroes to indulge in. The South has ever been, and ever will be, a power behind the throne; her soil and climate furnish the choicest productions known to man. 48 In addition to her rich and cheap lands, she has splendid harbors, not only to receive and export her own products, but also for the agricultural staples of the great West, which must iind the shortest outlets to Europe through Southern ports, by means of railroads and steamships. It cannot bo disguised that the South has suffered greatly in her com- merce, in consequence of railroad discriminations in favor of the North. Water must find its level. If we do our duty, trade will, sooner or later, be restored to the Southern States and Southern cities. The South must control more railroads. The war destroyed nearly all of our banks. For a number of years there was a demand for money at 12 and 15 per cent. J!^o business could long stand such high rates as were charged, mainly in consequence of the hazard in loaning, and uncertainty of repayments. Soon after the war cotton, which is the great Southern staple, sold at fifty cents per pound. People from all sec- tions saw a golden harvest in its production. Capital and labor which had been otherwise employed, were applied to the cultivation of cotton, resulting in over production. The. returns of the farmer are only annual. There must, there- fore, be heavy outlays before anything is realized from the crops; and as many of the planters were stripped of their property by the war, they had to begin life without means, and were compelled to contract debts. Poorly cultivated crops, unfavorable seasons and low prices have, in too many instances, embarrassed both planter and merchant. If our people are ever to succeed, they must learn to economize, both in farm and household expenses. It was told me in London that the distingnished philan- thropist, Greorge Peabody, would walk two squares to save a penny. If Peabody had not learned to save and economizg to such a degree as to be called by some "'mean" and "stingy," he never would have been able to make the munificent donation of two and a half million dollars to the poor of London, or to give for education in the South twc 49 million dollars. "Would that we had more economical men like George Peabody to help the struggling poor. HARD TIMES. Commercial despondency seems to liave taken possession of our people, and the cry of Hard Times has become a stereo- typed lament. It is on the lips of nearly every man. woman and child. Let us look into this important subject, in which the welfare of so many is involved, and see if we can ascer- tain the causes which have produced the hard times so much complained of. Our people have been reading — perhaps not without cause — the Book of Lamentations, and crying wolf! wolf! until the hungry animal has appeared, alas! at too many doors. That there are scores of individuals and families in all the towns and cities who are witliout employment, cannot be denied, and that the competition for places in commercial, mechanical and professional pursuits is so great as to leave but a scant remuneration even to those who are so fortunate as to tind work. Wages must still decline, as few concerns are more than makmg expenses. Some writers are of the opinion that in consequence of the great improvement in macinery, that the production of goods far exceeds the wants of the world, thereby reducing the prices of manufactured commodities, and also the price of labor, hence the suffering and hard times among the working classes. Men and women are worked to the verge ot endurance, and far beyond it, so far as health is concerned, in order to keep soul and body together. The question may reasonably be asked, why, then, do so many flock to the cities ;ind towns, almost to perish, when tliere is to he had so mucti cheap and uncultivated land ? Perhaps when our people fully understand chat all human wants are supplied from the soil, then, and not till then, will they turn their attention to agriculture, the first and best employment of man. Before the late Civil War, the planters 4 50 of the Southern States, as a class, were both prosperous and happy. Alas! how many homes have been made desolate, and families reduced to poverty, by that cruel war. In the footprints of war are scattered the seeds of famine, pestilence and death. War in all ages has not only been a source of misery, but also of crime. The very ground seems cursed by war, and ''brings forth thorns and thistles." Man's brief life on earth is at best a sorrowful one; often beset with'troubles from the cradle to the grave, and these troubles are intensified by war. One way to overcome troubles and "hard times" is to meet them with a resolute will and un- tiring perseverance. 1 was in Europe in 1866, during the terrible conflict between the Prussians and Austrians, and passed through the lines of the two armies during the armistice, numbering a million and a half of men. In a few months two hundred thousand Austrians and Prussians were killed in battle, or died from disease. As I rode in ambulances through the battle-field of Konigratz, the roadside was strewn with the dead, and the houses were filled with the sick and the wounded of both armies. Forty thousand brave soldiers fell on the battle-field of Konigratz. Long trenches were dug, into which were thrown, indiscriminately, men and horses. I saw hundreds of women working in the fields, and repair- ing the railroads which had just been torn up by the con- tending armies. Thus it is that war not only drives the women into the fields to cultivate the soil, but also into the workshops to fill the places of the men who are engaged as soldiers in the armies. If any one has a doubt of the depravity of fallen nature, let him visit a battle-field, where myriads of his fellowr creatures have been slain by their neighbors and relatives. Xo wonder the Crown Prince of Germany exclaimed : "What an awful sight! How dreadful war is, after all! " when he saw the poor wounded soldiers by the thousand crawl- ing to the brook to drink water and die. 51 Five years later I witnessed the disastrous defeat of the French by the Prussians. King William was crowned Emperor of G-ermany in the great capital of the French nation. We had to get permission from the German com- mander to enter the sacked city of Paris. The Royal Palace and other public buildings were still smouldering from the destructive fires kindled by the infuriated Communists. Oh, the horrors of war! Who can measure its baneful effects ? It robs nations of their wealth, and parents of their sons. I am convinced that most of the troubles of life, and the hard times we endure, are caused by wars and intemper- ance. Then, if we would have success, let us cultivate peace, temperance and unity. WHBEE THEEE IS A WILL, THERE IS A WAT. Most of my young friends have seen or heard of Charles- ton, the "City by the Sea;" but few have looked upon Venice, the "City in the Sea." Let me tull them of an adventurous friend of mine who, in his eighteenth year, became restless in his pent-up Nacoochee Valley home, and resolved in his own mind to visit Venice, Florence and Rome. But how was this long and expensive journey to be performed by a mountain boy, with only ten dollars in his pocket ? The lad firmly believed that ' ' where there is a will, there is a way," and that almost anything can be accomplished by perseverance and well directed energy. He knew that Italy was far, far away, but he did not slop to count the cost, or to grow weary before he had encountered the fatigues of the journey; neither did the lions on the highway frighten him. His rule in life was not to cross a bridge until he came to it; his father possessed horses, bug- gies, money, and a beautiful farm, but as his adventurous son was leaving home in his teens, he concluded not to offer him any facilities, imagining that he would return the sooner to the paternal roof. 52 When he started out on this long and perilous journey, there was only ten miles of railroad iu the State of Georgia, and but a few hundred in the whole South, Had there been thousands, they would have been of no avail to him. He, however, adopted the best plan for one with a capital of ten dollars, who has resolved on sueing Italy. He began his journey on his two sta'ong feet, propelled by a resolute will and untiring perseverance. To lessen his expenses, he made a bargain 'with a kind-hearted man, who was going with his wagon one hundred and fifty miles, to A.ugusta, Ga., on the road to Italy. The boy was to assist the old man in cooking and scotching, for his board. The fare, of course, was rpugh, and the lodgings at night on the ground; but this out-door life developed the muscles, if not the brains of the youth, and was an important training to one who had to cross the Atlantic and climb the Alps before he could look upon f:Lir Italy., One liniidred and fifty miles of the journey was performed at an expense of only one dollar! It will b* seen that our friend's original capital was uearly whole when he had accomplished that much of his journey. He was now among strangers, and could not proceed further until his means were increased; but Italy he was determined to see. He herefore went to work witli Mr. Hand, at a salarv of liftv dollars per annum. This was, indeed, a microscopic view of the Italian skies and lakes. But his efforts were in the right direction. Years rolled on, and our friend continued to cherish the desires of his childhood. After long years of toil and struggle, he took a portion of his family and resumed his journey, crossing the boisterous Atlantic Ocean, and climbing the snow-clad Alps. This time he did not cease to travel until he was safely landed on the banks of the Grand Canal in beautifQl Venice. We saw him as he triumphantly stepped into a gondola. A few moments more and he was sailing up the Grand Canal, amid splendid palaces and towering old churches, and now he is 53 safely landed at the Royal Hotel Daneili. Hei-e we will let him, after his long and fatiguing jouTney, rest. IN VENICE. We left our friend at the Royal Hotel, but he is not yet at the end of his journey, and it is not his habit to tarry long, even at first-class hotels. We next see him in the historic halls of the Palace of the Doges ; he ' peeps into the deep, dark dungeons, and then at the Bridge of Sighs, and now he enters the renowoed Cathedral of St. Mark, which is one of the richest churches in the world. As it is his custom to investigate the numerous objects of interest thoroughly, he stops and looks with wonder and admiration upon historic illustrations, the work of many centuries ago. Here we will leave our friend, for we think after so long a journey, and so many years of toil and struggle, he is richly entitled to remain amidst these blissful scenes, and realize the dream of his childhood. I have giveti this sketch of the mountain boy to encourage the young, and to teach them that where there is a will, there is a way, they must learn that to succeed in anything of importance, perseverance and self-denial are necessary. If they are poor, and desire to travel and gain information, they must work hard, and begin early to add a little each year to their means. It is not important, or even expected that all should look upon Italy, but there are beautiful scenes in our own sunny land to be visited, and domestic homes to be made comfortable, wliich requires both money and per- sonal effort. Life is a journey and pilgrimage. Very few starting out realize the trials and temptations that lie in their pathway. Much of the success of life depends upon one's own exertions. Young man, whatever may be your position, your purposes or pursuit, aim to act well your part, for "therein the honor lies." Make up your mind promptly what should be done, 54 and what yoa are titted for, and then do your part faithfully, to God and man. Vacillating and hesitating men rarely succeed. EEOEOSSING IHE ALPS. Our adventurous youth recrossed the Alps, and visited Berlin, Brussels, Paris, Glasgow, London, and Liver- pool, before returning to his Charleston home. He is now 82 years old, in perfect health, living in his advanced ago an active, happy, useful and contented life, surrounded by his children, and eighteen grand-children. As he still feels a deep interest in the young, he revises and republishes "Letters to Young Mea" — hoping that the publication at this time for gratuitous distribution may be helpful, both to the young men and young women. During his long life lie has always felt an interest in the young, knowing from experience how hard the most of them are' compelled to struggle for a living. DANIEL HAND. OLD PAETNEE OF GEORGE W. WILLIAMS. SKETCH OF DANIEL HAND, Founder of the Daniel Hand Educational Fund ($1,500,000) for Colored People Old Partner of Geo. W. Williams. THE DAOTEL HAND EDUCATIONAL FUND AND ITS OEIGIN. By Professor G. S. Diokerman, New Haven, Conn., June, 1900. It is nearly twelve years since an October day in 1888 when the friends of education were made glad by the news that a gentleman of wealth had given a million dollars for a fund to maintain common schools among the colored people of the South ; and it is over eight years since the further announcement was made that this gentleman had added half a million more to this fund by bequests of his will. The gratification caused by these announcements was enhanced, as many will remember, by an account of the way in which the estate had been accumulated and secured to the donor of the fund; and here the name of another gentleman was heard, whose fine sense of commercial honor in the care of a business trust called forth expressions of universal admiration. In view of the fresh and widely extending interest now shown -in the practical education of the colored people, it seems an opportune time to review the story of the Haad Fund, and observe how the proceeds of this great charity are applied to the people for vyhom it was established. The story is of a property made in the South, by Southern busi- ness men, in the exercise of business sagacity, and finally devised to go back to the South in such a way as it was hoped would best promote the interests of the whole Southern people. 56 "'" Daniel Hand was the son of a New England farmer. He was born in Madison, Connecticut, July 16, 1801, and grew up on the farm till he was sixteen years of age. He then went to Augusta, Georgia, in the year 1818, and became a clerk in the store of his uncle, Daniel Meigs, who was an old merchant of that place, and of Savannah". Augusta was then a small place of about 1,500 inhabitants, but afEording the special business advantages of a thriving center in a new and fast developing region. The young man made the most of his position, and in due time succeeded to his uncle's busi- ness. For a number of years he was in partnership with Erastus C. Scranton who also came from Madison^ and afterward returned to CJonnecticut where he was the Mayor of New Haven in 1865. It was during tiiis partnership, and in the fall of 1838, that a boy of seventeen made his appearance at the store in Augusta, Ga. , and asked for employment. He had come on foot a hundred and tlfty miles, from his Naeoochee home in the mountains of Northern Georgia, had been seven days on the road, and had spent less than one dollar of the ten with which he had started. Such boys usually get the place they are after, and he did. This was George SiV^alton Williams who was henceforth to be associated with Mr. Hand in a personal intimacy that was to continue for over fifty years. Mr. Williams was born in Burke County, North Carolina, December 19th, 1820. His father. Major Edward Williams, was a native of Easton, Massachusetts, where he grew up to the business of a farmer, but, "becoming tired of the cold cli- mate," went in 1799, at the age of twenty, to Charleston, South Carolina. Two years later he removed to the mountains of Western North Carolina, and went into business there with Mr. Daniel. Brown, a Pennsylvania Quaker, whose wife was a Virginian. Soon afterwards he married Mary Brown, his partner's daughter, and of their children, George W. was the fourth and youngest son. In 1822 the family removed to Georgia, where Major Williams purchased an extensive fertile farm in the beautiful valley of Nachoochee, Georgia, and this was the home from which the son went to Augusta. Mr. Williams was a clerk for four years, till he reached the age of twenty-one, when he bought Mr. Scranton's inter- est, and the firm became Hand & Williams. At this junc- ture the young partner became convinced that the sale of intoxicating liquors, a lucrative part of the business, was wrong, and ought to be given up. Mr. Hand thought that such a step would be very hazardous, but after considerable discussion assented to it, and the sale was abandoned. So far from losing by this cliange, the profits steadily increased, and continued to do so for ten years. Then, witli the sur- plus of capital at their disposal, it was decided, in 1852, to open a house in Charleston, under the name of George W. Williams & Co. This was the first wholesale grocery busi ness established in Charleston upon temperance principles. Mr. Hand now lived in the North, and attended to those transactions which needed to be carried on in New* York, while Mr. Williams remained in the South, and had the direct management of the Cliarleston business. This was the situation in the years immediately preceding the War between the States. As that event drew on, Mr. Hand, being opposed to secession, and sfraid of the results of the war, decided to remain in New York, and in 1861 withdrew from the firm. His life-time earnings, however, were in Charleston, and had to take the chances of the war. With the progress of hostilities, gold debts due the firm by the million went into Confederate money. The Seques" tration Act was passed, and, as Mr. Hand was no longer a citizen of the Sonth, measures were taken by the authorities in power to sequestrate his interest in the firm of George W. Williams & Co. It was Mr. Williams' problem to guard the fortune of his old partner, which had been left in his care. With cliaracteristic sagacity and promptness he put Mr. Hand back into the firm, and proceeded with the busi- ness on the old basis ; then he despatched a messenger to the North, urging Mr. Hand to come to the South without delay. The summons was obeyed. Failing to get through the lines 58 at Baltimore, Mr. Hand took the "Western route, and suc- ceeded in reaching New Orleans. There he was arrested and imprisoned as a "Lincoln spy." Mr. Williams telegraphed the Louisiana Governor as follows : Chaelbston, November 14, 1861. Governor Moore, New Orlecms, La. : Deae Sie — Mr. Trenholm's dispatch was based on a conver- sation Mr. Hand had with another party ; he has not seen him for years. I feel sure that T can satisfy you that Mr. Hand is not a Lincoln spy or black Republican. See that he has every comfort and protection. I am a native Southerner. Geo. "W. Williams. Mr. Hand was allowed to go, under promises to report at the headquarters of the Confederacy in Richmond. On the way there he stopped at Augusta to spend a night, when a mob was raised about the hotel, and the Mayor, who was his friend, took him to jail for safety. This brought Mr. Wil- liams up from Charleston to share the jail with him till a re- lease could be effected. Arriving at Richmond he was con- fined in Libby Prison for nearly a month to await his trial as a spy, and finally having received a fair hearing, he was set free, with the one only condition that he would not go beyond the lines of the Confederacy. Meanwhile a suit was entered upon in Charleston to seques- trate Mr. Hand's interest in the firm of George W. "Williams & Co. The best counsel was employed by Mr. Williams for the defence, and after a sharp contest, which lasted several days, the case was decided in Mr. Hand's favor, thus saving his property from confiscation. A.S South Carolina at that time did not afford a congenial atmosphere for a man of Union sentiments, it was thought best for Mr. Hand to go to the mountains of Western North Carolina to await the movement of events. Mr. Williams divided with him what gold he had, and Mr. Hand gave over to Mr. Williams all his personal property, as well as his real estate, to be held, managed and considered as if it were his 59 own. The senior partner tlieri went to Asheville, and lived there in seclusion till the end of the war. With this retirement of Mr. Hand to the mountains, the whole responsibility for the business passed to Mr. Williams, and this for that long war period of trying exigencies. During the early stages of the war, JSTorthern and Western houses sent to the firm large quantities of goods, with full knowledge that the laws of the Confederacy were against collecting such debts. They relied entirely upon tlie honor of the firm. Two cargoes of coffee were imported from South America by the firm, one of which succeeded in ruuniug the blockade, though chased by Federal gunboats to the gates of the city. Mr. Williams drew one check on the Bank of Liverpool for fifty thousand dollars in gold, to buy clothing for the soldiers of the South, and was paid in Confederate currency. He also distributed provisions to the soldiers furnished for a period of five years. Upon the surrender of Charleston to the Federal Troops, Mr. Hand immediately went down from Asheville to confer with Mr. Williams, and then, leaving everything to his care, departed for the North, where he passed the remainder of his life. He never returned to the South again, even for a visit, but his thoughts wete there constantly, and he watched the movement of events with untiring interest in the welfare of the Southern people. As an effort was made to break his will, his correspondence with Mr. Williams from 1866 to 1889 was sent to Gov. Morris, Mr. Hand's attorney. Mr. Hand's surrender of his business interests to Mr. Williams was most complete. In a letter to Mr. Williams, of December 10, 1866, he writes: "I am entirely content to place my interests in your individual charge and protection; do for me as you do for yourself, and as if I were your brother." Again, in the January following, he says: "You are so much better acquainted with our affairs, and all that pertains to them, than I am or ever can be, it would be folly for me 60 to pretend to advise. I know jo\i will use your best judgment. ' ' Similar expressions occur often in a correspondence of twentj-five years, which bears on every page the proof of mutual confidence and unvarying personal esteem. When- ever 'Ar. Hand wished for f nnds, either for his own use, or for the many generous expenditures tie continually made in behalf of others, he wrote for Ihe sums required, and they were at once sent, but the bulk of what he had originally left in Charleston remained absorbed in the business, and in investments of uncertain value. The close bond of friendship between these two business men may be explained perhaps in part by the fact that Mr. Haad was bereft of his wife and only surviving child at very near the time when young Williams entered his employ. It was quite natural in his loneliness that he shonld have turned to the attractive young man for companionship, and that this attachment should have ripened with the vicissitudes of later years. A letter of March 29, 1881, intimates the desirability of a division of their property, as follows : "In rtigard to the business suggestions in my last letter^ they were chiefly made on your account, rather than my own. As I view it, the whole matter is practically with you alone. No one else can form any adequate or just estimate or opinion in the case, not excepting myself. Were all the statements and items in your books before me, I could make no use of them, to any good purpose. So I wish you to continue to do at present and in future as in the past; act for me as you do for vour- self, and as you deem best in all cases, that I may receive in due time what you regard as fairly coming to me from our joint assets. At your convenience will you give me your own irresponsible estimate of the probable outcome in the future ? This need not embrace any catalogue of the ityms. as I cannot judge of those. I shall be happy to wel- come you here at any and all times, as may consist with your 61 business leisure and convenience. As regards iny health I do not realize any dangerous disease, but my powers are lowered, weakened, and in a large measure have left me; especially my legs and feet, my head, ears and ej es ; my deafness separates me from society almost entirely." A few weeks after receiving this letter, Mr. Williams was in Guilford to show his account. It was nearly forty years after the partnership was formed in Augusta^ when the eortibined fortunes of the two merchants were less than $5,000. It was twenty years since the breaking out of the war, the resumption of the divided partnership, the suit in Court, and ^'he committal of the senior partner's affairs to the younger partner. And now this merchant of the South stood before his old employer to make a settlement. He showed between a million and a half and two million dollars in solid securities standing to Mr. Hand's account. 'Mr. Hand was amazed. An eye witness describes the sceae. The call of Mr. Williams happened to be at the time of a family gathering. The two friends greeted one another at the porch, and conversed together for a while, and then the old gentleman came in to tell the family circle what he had heard. Reverting to the war times, he exclaimed : ''I never expected to receive a cent. I always knew Mr. Wil- liams would do the best he could, but this is the most extra- ordinary thing I ever heard of." Previous to this interview, Mr. Hand knew of course that he would receive a considerable estate from his investment, 'but he had no idea of the amount. He had made a will in 1872, bequeathing sums amounting in the aggregate to some $600,000, of which $100,000 was uncertain. This indicates his estimate of the estate at that time. Probably this esti- mate was not greatly changed till the interview with Mr. WUliams. The reinstating Mr. Hand in the firm of Geo. W. Williams & Co., showiag in the profits, made a difference in Mr: Hand's estate of more than a quarter million dollars, besides saving his entire fortune from conliscatiou. 62* ^ The original will was altered from time to time by the addition of codicils to the number of fourteen, the last of which was written January 12, 1899. The document, there- fore, covers a period of over sixteen years, and enables us to trace the development of Mr. Hand's purpose as finally embodied in his philanthropic bequest. His habit of mind was that of a political student, and his daily companion to the close of his life was the New York Tribune. His letters show as already intimated, that he was intensely interested in the progress of the South. He writes, December 23, 1883 : "The great common interest of the South is a vast and engrossing subject, and also the reasonable probabilities of the colored people there for the future. I do not see that either party has any plan or policy on the subject. Yet there is no subject of more importance before the American people. The Government, having made them citizens, will protect and guide them as such. The late decision of the United States Court, limiting their supposed rights, is of the utmost importance to both sides, and especially to them. They are wholly dependent upon the white people of the States where they are, and must continue su for a long time to come ; and there is no real conflict of interests. They are to remain the peasantry of the South, and are invaluable as such. A few will rise above that, but not many." Again he writes in 1889, the year following his gift of the Fund : '"My interests in the South, and my attachment to the Southern people, are inseparable from my life I was there in trying times, but not an unkind or injurious word was spoken to me in all those dreadful years, I see it stated that Georgia has recently doubled its common school term from three to six months, and that it applies to all whicli is above all praise and all price. The color question will solve itself slowly, but surely, and to the advantage of all. Its security is in the Christian religion and the humanity of the people to all, for all." » 63 This is the language of Mr. Hand's last letter to Mr. Williams. The will as first drawn contained charitable bequests to the amount of $450,000 or more, to fonnd six scholarships, to be called after his name; one assigned to the Presbyterian Church, to educate young men for the Ministry, three to as many New England Colleges for a like purpose, and the others to two institutions in the South, to train colored pupils to become "Public Teachers." Two years later these be- quests were greatly modified, and the new feature was intro- duced of a fund in support of primary or common school education for the colored people of the Southern States. Finally, all of the whole property, excepting certain incon- siderable legacies to members of his family, passed to the fund last named. The original intention was for the North to share in the beneficence more than the South, and white students more than colored, while the aid was specifically for students in advanced courses. But in the end, the whole was given for the colored race, and was defined as for elementary educa- tion. We can easily believe that Mr. Hand was led to these changes by the feeling that a property secured to him in such a way should be returned to the South, and that it would do the most good there, if employed in the manner proposed. An endowment like this is of value in more ways than one. Its pecuniary value to the cause of education is manifest, but it has a moral value reaching to all phases of human life. It tells of what wealth can do, but it tells of a manhood that is above wealth, that uses wealth as a tool, and casts it aside in a moment rather than suffer a shadow to fall upon the glistening raiment of personal integrity. In a country like ours, and in a period of engrossing material pursuits, no lesson is more needed than this, and it is beyond all price that this fund, in its perpetual ministry of instruction, is to stand as a memorial of the relations for half a century of these two business men, Daniel Hand and George W\ Williams. 64 , The administration of the Hand Fund is by the Execntive Officers of the American Missionary Association, a Board elected by Congregational Christians, who meet each October in an annual meeting. It is a suggestive fact that while Mr. Hand was a member of a church belonging to the Southern Presbyterian Body in Augusta, Ga., and Mr. Williams was, and is still, a member of a Southern Methodist Church in Charles- ton, the custody of this fund is given prautically to a body of churches whose m(imbership is almost wholly in the North. Under such circumstances there is no little danger that appropriations- may be made in ways which are not the wisest or most effective for the accomplishment of the ends in view. People whose whole life has been passed in the .North, cannot be the best judges of how to promote general edu- cation in the South, especially among the negroes. The knowledge which comes from having lived in the South is indispensable; and in every Southern community there are high-minded men and women who are quite as deeply inter- ested in the welfare of their colored neighbors as the best people of the North. Their interest is deeper, because it is personal, not theoretic and far away. They have been facing the facts in the case all their life, and they have been doing their best to deal with them in a common sense way, and in a Christian way. Northern people who wish to do the best possible service for the negroes, cannot wisely proceed with- out the counsel and. participation of such companions as these in their work. This is especially true in the employment of such a trust as the Hand Fund involves. If it is possible to conceive of conditions inhering in a trust which should carry the pro- foundest moral obligations of absolute confidence in the integrity and sound judgment of Southern Christian men, those conditions all meet in this case. It was by a re-estab- Ushment of formal partnership that Mr. Hand's estate in Charleston was saved to him by the Southern merchant ; and can this fund, proceeding directly from such a source, be •65 returned in the wisest beneficences to the Southern people with no intimations ever being received from George W. Williams and men like him as to, how it may be most jadi- cioasly applied ? The language of Mr. Hand's letters to Mr. Williams may be wisely recalled as offering a suggestion of perpetual signifi- cance to the holders of this trust. "I am entirely content to place my interests in your individual charge and protec- tion; do for me as you do for yourself, and as if I were your brother. " " You are so much better acquainted with all our affairs, and all that pertaiup to them than I am', or ever can be, it would bo folly for me to pretend to advise. I know you will use your best Judgment. ' ' The event shows that Mr. Hand's confidence in Mr. Wil- liams was not misplaced. Can the executors of his bequest do better than to heed his example ? There are some who believe that such a partnership in beneficent work for the colored people would increase its effectiveness a hundred fold. THE VALE OF NACOOCHEE. Some of the Chaems oe Georgia's Happy Valley. MENT — OONVEETING AND COUETING THE HEATHEN. Naooochee, Ga-.-, August. Some sixtj years ago tlie Hon. Henry R. Jaekson Minis-, ter to Mexico, visited Nacoochee with his beautiful bride. It was their first visit to these mountain wilds. Oh that occasion he wrote the following poem: *THE VALE OF NACOOCHEE. Wh^re Yonah lifts his bald and reverend head. The humbler Alleghany peaks above ■ Beneath its shadows, pleasantly is spread Nacoochee's Vale — sweet as a dream of love. Cradle of peace! mild, gentle as the dove, Whose tender accents from yon woodlands swell. Must she have been who thus has interwove Her name with thee, and thy soft, holy spell, And all of peace which on this troubled globe may dwell. Naooochee— in tradition, thy sweet queen — Has vanished with her maidens; not again Along thy meadows shall their forms be seen; The mountain echoes catch no more the strain Of their wild Indian lays at evening's wane; No more where rustling branches intertwine. They pluck the jasmine flowers, or break the cane Beside the marshy stream, or from the vine Shade down, in purple showers, the luscious muscadine. Yet round thee hangs the same sweet spirit still ! Thou art among these hills a sacred spot. As if shut out from all the clouds of ill That gloom so darkly o'er the human lot On thy green breast the world I quite forgot^ ^ ♦Nacoochee signifies, in the expressive Jangaage of tlie fndlan, "The Evening Star." 67' Its stern contentions— its dark grief and care— And I breathed freer, deeper, and blushed not At old emotions long, long stifled there, Which sfjrang once more to life in thy calm, loving air. I saw the last bright gleam' of sunset play- On Yonah's lofty head ; all quiet grew Thy bosom which beneath the shadows lay Of the surrounding mountains; deeper blue Fell on their miehty summits; evening threw Her veil o'er all, and on her azure brow A bright star shone; a trusting form I drew Yet closer to my side ; above, below, Within were peace and hope, life may not often know. Thou loveliest of earth's valleys! fare thee well! Nor is this parting pangless to my soul. Youth, hope and happiness with thee shall dwell. Unsullied nature hold o'er thee control, And years still leave thee beauteous as they roll. Oh! could I linger with thee! yet this spell Must break e'en as upon my heart it stole. And found a weakness there I may not tell — And anxious life, a troubled future claim me! Fare thee well! Heney R. Jackson. Yonah is one of the grand natural curiosities of Georgia, and is made famous by legend and traditional associations. Amid this world of mountains old YonaU maintains its isolated grandeur — this stupendous pile of granite, many times larger than Stone Mountain, and equal to the famous Winnsboro granite for buildings and monuments. Under the shadows of old Yonah, which is the centre of the gold belt, De Soto, the Spanish General, established the headquarters of his array. There he enjoyed the finest climate and most beautiful scenery in the world. The much coveted gold fields being discovered, active preparations for working them on a large scale was begun. In the meantime the strict- est discipline was kept up. To impress the natives with the superiority of the white man, a sham battle was fought. The roar of the cannon echoed from mountain to mountain, and the charge of the c'avalry, mounted as they were on their 68 spirited Cuban horses, filled the natives with awe and wonder. The news of the arrival of the marvellous people spread far and wide. Thousands and thousands of the natives flocked here to see them. De Soto and Wahoo were on the most friendly terms. The army was bountifully supplied by the Indian Chief with provisions and game. There were in De Soto's army a number of self-denying Christians, who had volunteered as missionaries to labor among the heathen. Prayers and thanksgiving were offered for their deliverance and great success in finding a land of health and plenty. The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in accordance with the custom of the Roman Catholic Church, was participated in by the soldiers, and by a number of natives who had received baptism, and become converts to the Christian religion. Echoee being one of the most enthusiastic and devoted of the number, gave much of her time and means to religion which promised so much. She also had her four children baptized, and they were faithfully instructed by the priests in their Christian duties. Wahoo, while he did not object to Echoee's new religion, and while he had the utmost confidence in her virtue and faithfulness to him, yet he did not approve of the marked attention of the Spanish ofBcers to his wife. He had it whispered to him that these white men were a very unreliable and treacherous people. As polygamy was practiced among the natives, they readily consented to the selection of fifty of their handsomest women — whether mar- ried or unmarried — to be the wives of the Spaniards. The officers highest in rank, having the first choice, presents were, given to the husbands or parents for the women thus obtained. The Indian Queen, being of remarkable beauty, of high char- acter, and having by hereditary usage' the custody of the treasures of the nation, it was not surprising that she should be the particular attraction of Lorenzo, a brave officer but a man who had deserted a wife in Spain, two in Cuba, and robbed a chief of his wife in Tallahassee. Lorenzo fell desper- ately in love with this young Indian Queen, and was not spar- i"_g of his, presents and of his attentions to Echoee. [To the Charleston News and Courier.] RELICS OF A FORGOTTEN RACE. THE SPANISH GENERAL DE SOTO ARRIVES AT NACOOOHEE "oLD town" with his AEMT ME. GEORGE W. WILLIAMS TOUCHES UPON THE TRADITIONS OF THE PAST THE MOUND BUILDERS IN NORTHERN GEORGIA A BURIED TOWN AND A WALLED SEPUL- CHRE, WITH A FLOOR OF POLISHED STONES THE ADVENTURES OF DE SOTO AND HIS WIDE DOMINION. Nacoochee has a history as thrilling in interest as the tales of, the Arabian Nights. This valley, which was walled in by the Blue Ridge, Yonah, Sail's and Lynch's Mountain, was doubtless for ages one vast lake. The fretful waters of the Chattahoochee, Duke's Creek and Sautee finally cut a channel through the rocks at the east end of the valley, and the great lake was drained, leaving a beautiful and fertile valley some seven miles in length, and in width, including Sautee, three miles ; with the Chattahoochee River winding through its green meadows. The valley is irregular ; a portion of it is shut in by precipitous mountains to a few yards in width, giving it. great natural advantages against the invasion of an enemy. The red man, who have been mercilessly treated by the white man was, for many ages, monarch of these fertile valleys and lofty mountains. The Cherokees, one of the most powerful and warlike of the aboriginal tribes, selected this quiet and safe retreat for the capital of a populous nation. ''Nacoochee Old Town," as it was originally called, became the chief and largest town in the Cherokees nation, being sit- uated in the best hunting grounds of the New World, and in the richest gold fields in the South. At one time it must have been the centre of ancient civili- 70 zatioD. Here the, Cherokees or some other warlike race, surrounded themselves with long lines of fortifications, ex- tending through ISTacoochee Yalley, froni mountain to moun- tain, with here and there huge mounds thrown up, and the tops of the high hills levelled so as to strengthen their military lines of defence. On the summit of those hills, which afforded much more space than the mounds, the chiefs securely resided, surrounded by as brave knights as ever cast a lance. Many relics have been for the past seventy-five years found in this valley, and there are evidences of hard fought battles, where shot and shell were used. When the writer was a bo}', his father, who was one of the original settlers here about the time the Indians were driven away, owned a large portion of Nacoochee Valley, taught his sons the science of farming ; they ploughed up gunlocks, swords, broken shells, bullets, tomahawks, arrows, human bones and the like. In 183i, when the miners were digging a canal for the purpose of washing the beds of the streams for gold, a sub- terranean village was discovered, containing some forty houses in number. These were buried ten feet in depth. The logs were hewn and notched as in the present day. This village was covered by a heavy growth of timber, denoting its great antiquity and a powerful flood which submerged it. There was also found near this buried village under a tree fifteen feet in circumference, which must have been five hundred years old, a double mortar, ten inches in diameter, perfectly polished. It was made of quartz, partly transparent. Some of the mounds contain human bones and implements of war. This subterranean village was doubtless built by De Soto in 1539. More recently a discovery was made in Nacoochee Valley that interested me very much. A ploughshare, near an Indian mound, struck a hard substance. On examination it proved to be a portion of regularly walled sepulchre ; the bottom was paved with polished stones ; the tomb contained many skeletons, one of immense size, also conch shells, pipes, and many curious pieces of workmanship, also a piece of inwrought copper. As the natives were ignorant of the art of working in copper, and never buried in walled sepulchres the n question naturally arises when these huge men lived. A learned historian of Copenhagen says that America was dis- covered in the year 985 by Biaske Horjuefsen. It is also said a colony from Wales settled in this country in the tenth cen- tury. It is more than probable that those early European adventurers were exterminated by the vast tribes of Indians. I'heir history comes to us mainly by tradition. The walled sepulchre was probably built by the Welsh colony from Wales in the tenth century. Perhaps "Nacoochee Old Town" was in its primitive glory when the adventurous Spaniards, Ponce de Leon and De Soto, were planning their adventures to Florida. De Soto was of royal blood, in the prime of manhood, just wedded to the beautiful Donna Isabel, the petted daughter of an earl, whose father made her husband for life Captain General of Cuba, the fairest land on earth. A time for quitting home and native land was fixed, a bright spring day in April, 1538. Amid the sound of trumpets and the roar of cannon, and the shouts of the multitude, De Soto, with his young bride, and a thousand gay knights, with seven ships, set sail for Cuba. Less than a month later they arrived in the Queen of the Antilles. De Soto spent a year in Cuba organizing the gov- ernment, and preparing'for further and more hazardous ad- ventures. But when did the lust for fame, power and gold satisfy man? Even the possession fails to do so. Being the Governor of Cuba, rt'as almost enough to gratify any man's ambition. But for more glory De Soto was ready to give up his lovely Isabel. Making her Queen and Governess of Cuba, the dar- ing De Soto bid a last and final farewell to the young bride ; with his braves he sailed for Florida. In May, 1539, he landed at Tampa Bay. It will be remembered that Florida at that time extended west to Mexico, and north to New foundland. It embraced the whole of the present United States and Canada. De Soto was now Governor of Cuba and Florida. What vast possessions ! There were landed at Tampa Bay 1.200 knights and soldiers, 24 priests and monks, many workers in wood, iron miners and assayers, 400 thor- 72 oughbred Cuban horses, 500 hogs, droves of cattle, and a score of bloodhounds to hunt the natives. This was the mot- ley crew who were to teach the poor Indians the Christian religion. As will be seen, De Soto did not find Florida a bed of roses. No sooner had he landed, than he encountered five thousand enraged Indians. He did not find a day's peaceful rest until he reached the rich gold fields of "Nacoochee Old Town." THE STORY OF NACOOCHEE. De Soto's Discovert of the Garden Spot of Georgia. ME. GEORGE W. WILLIAMS TELLS OE THE CHARACTER AND CON- QUESTS OF DE SOTO THE FATE OF PONCE DE LEON — FIGHT- ING IN FLORIDA FOUR HUNDRED TEARS AGO THE FIRST MARCH TH: SOANDAL- The excitement that prevailed in Europe upon the discovery of America by Columbus nearly four hundred years ago, can at this day scarcely be realized. New life, energy and enter- prise were infused into the life of the Spanish race. Avarice, ambition, religious zeal, and a love of adventure and conquest, took possession of the Spanish nation. So restless was the spirit .of adventure, it is said, that it was difficult to restrain the more ignorant from jumping into the sea that they might swim to the New World. The Spanish nation was literally Florida mad. De Soto, a man of great wealth and worth, before appearing at the Court of (Charles the Fifth, had attained distinction and success by his conquests in Peru. Two hundred thousand golden crowns was his share of the plundered treasures. Tall, commanding in appearance, hand- some, and brave as a lion, he looked as if he were born to command ; he was full of missionary zeal. What a queer compound is poor human nature. There was De Soto, a favorite at Court, rich in' treasures and olive plan- tations, with a lovely bride to preside at his palace at Seville. One would think with all these he should have been content to reign at a Spanish Court. Not so. He had gained glory and renown in the army of Pizarro. His ambition was fired, and a troop of gallant knights, who had fought under his ban- iier in Peru and shared in the rich spoils of that country, were u ready to follow him to success or death. All were animated by the enthusiasm which glowed in the bosom of their brave leader and ready to iight under the banner of the Cross. in my last letter I spoke of Ponce de Leon, who preceded De Soto to Florida. It was this brave old warrior who gave the name — Florida, Land of Flowers— to this new' country. Ponce de Leon, bowed down with age, covered with scars and wounds received ou many a hard fought battlefield, left Cuba in search of the crystal waters which he vainly hoped would give him renewed youth, riches and life eternal. Poor Ponce de Leon was shot by an Indian with a poisoned arrow. The old man returned to Cuba after great suffering and died of his wounds. His career in Florida was short and inglorious, fully realizing in his checkered life " that a man born of woman hath but a short time to live and is full of misery." Strange to say, the finest hotel in America has been built at St. Augns- tine, and will perpetuate the name of the old Spanish hero. De Soto, on landing at Tampa Bay, found himself sur- rounded ,by thousands of enraged Indians. The inhuman Narvaez was, perhaps, the most barbarous of the Spaniards who preceded De Soto. After professing great friendship for the natives he ordered the fierce Cuban bloodhounds to be turned loose upon them, and upon the mother of a chief, and the dogs soon tore her to pieces. He then commanded the nose of the chief to be cut off. N"o wonder the Indians had learned to associate the Spaniards with cruelty and barbarism. Those of them who were not killed in battle, or in cold lalood^ were sent to the West Indies and made slaves. De Soto was a different sort of man; noble, generous and high spirited, and from his standpoint, dealt generously with the Indians. The natives having been so frequently' deceived by the Span- iards were suspicious of the whole Spanish race. De Soto, after months of fighting, his men often in water up to their waists, decided to quit the dismal swamps of Florida, which neither furnished him bread, health nor gold. The army spent the winter in Tallahassee, where a number died of fever. Here he was joined by forty Spaniards of former expeditions, who had wandered into the mountains of the Blue Ridge and 75 had there intermarried with the natives. These men being well acquainted with the country were gladly received by De Soto as gnides and interpreters. They informed De Soto that twenty days march would bring them to a land of health and plenty, filled with buffaloes, deer and wild game in abund- ance; where there were also pearls, gold, copper and other precious metals. The army was now further strengthened by 3,000 friendly Indians who joined it, and 4,000 natives, who had been cap- tured, and forced to carry the forage and baggage. Weary and worn, they stopped a few days on the banks of the Savannah River, near where Augusta now stands. Ten days they marched through a muel* improved country, inhabited by tribes of comparatively friendly Indians, for these had not been slaughtered by the Spaniards, and torn to pieces by fierce bloodhounds as were those who lived further South. The army, enfeebled by the inhospitable climate of Florida, hungry and dispirited, now reached tlfb high lands around "]S"acoochee Old Town," where a goodly land is found. Here De Soto and his wearied soldiers rested, for they greatly needed it. Shut in on three sides by mountain walls, some of them towering 5,000 feet in the air, in quiet and peaceful repose, lies NACOOCHEB. "Child of the Chattahoochee ! Hid in the hills afar ! Beautiful Kacoochee, Vale of the Evening Star." "Hushed in the mountain shadows, With the May dew on her breast ; Her breath Is the breath of meadows, And her very name sighs 'rest !' " "The voice of a loved one calling The feet that have wandered far ; Come, for the night is falling ! aest ! with the Evening Star." 76 De Soto now looked with admiration upon the beautiful, plentiful and peaceful N"acoochee. Although the capital of a warlike nation, there were no evidences of anything but peace and quiets As was the custom of the Cherokees, the gates or entrances to their capital were closed. No stranger, however distinguished, was permitted to enter without a permit from the ruling chief. De Soto now caused an im- mense cross to be erected on a hill overlooking the "sweet vale of Naeoochee." Morning and night prayers were offered up to the one invisible God, the Creator and Ruler of the Universe. The showy dresses of the priests, the images of Christ and the Virgin, made a deep impression upon the sav- ages, especially upon the womfe. De Soto was particularly desirous of making friends and Christians of the Cherokees, as they possessed such wealth, power and influence over the neighboring tribes. He enjoined upon his men not only to refrain from acts of hostility, but to win them, if possible, to iiis cause. Unfortunttely, there was in this Garden of Eden an "Eve." Echoee, the beautiful and virtuous wife of Wahoo, King of the Cherokees, became a zealous and an enthusiastic convert to the new religion, as it was taught by the Spaniards. Like Mother Eve, Echoee was sorely tempted. Of this temp- tation and of the Naeoochee gold mines, in my next. TROUBLE IN THE VALLEY. A Spanish Seepent in the Indian Eden. *_ DE SOTO FINDS GOLD AND FOUNDS A TOWN THE WICKED LOEENZO AND HIS CUNNING ADVISEE — A DEEP-LAID PLOT AND A LECTUEE ON MAEEIAGE WAHOO PUTS ON HI8» WAE PAINT. Echoee, the innocent young Nacoochee Princess, was a mere child in the hands of the libertine Lorenzo. But her intuitive powers of right and tlie religious impressions recently made upon her, restrained her from doing wrong. Of course, she would be pleased with a present, as a child would with a toy. Among the presents most prized by Echoee, was a iine Cuban horse and Spanish ponies for her little daughters, Eola and Nacoochee. The Indian Queen gracefully rode on her spirited steed boy-fashion through the Valley, with Eola and Nacoo- chee following on their ponies. It was their habit to make frequent visits to Yonah. They could be seen winding their way to the mountain, stopping at the base of an almost per- pendicular cliff. Dismounting and following a narrow, dan- gerous and almost perpendicular path, Echoee and her daugh- ters are soon lost sight of in a dark cavern in Ifce side of Yonah Mountain, and are now in the very bowels of the earth; going for some distance between rocks just wide enough to admit one person at a time, then opening into a court sufficiently large to accommodate an army. Turning abruptly to the west a stone is removed under an overhanging rock and the sunlight and air streams in upon them. Below is a perpendicular wall of one thousand feet. From this win- dow in the heavens a beautiful scene is spread out before them. Beneath is Ijie peaceful, lovely valley of Nacoochee g,nd the picturesque Sautee Valley ; there is tlie populous 78 capital of the Cherokee nation, with its myriads of inhabitants; beyond are mountains piled upon mountains until the loftiest are almost hid in the blue sky. In a hidden recess in this mountain cavern Echoee cautiously removes another stone, a hasty look, and Echoee is assurpd that the treasures are all right. Carefully replacing the stone, Echoee and her little daughters retrace their steps, and again mounting their horses, after an hour's gallop they are safely at the guarded palace of Wahoo. Lorenzo again and again makes love and costly presents to Echoee but to little purpose. She remains faith- ful to her marriage vows. As rain drops will make an impression upon the hardest granite, the attentions of a handsome Spanish officer will sooner or later gain upon the affections of an untutored Indian Queen, unless sustained by an Omnipotent power. De Soto, finding the mines in ISTacoochee very rich in gold, built houses and began to lay out a town known as De Soto. Several thou- sand natives and Spaniards were employed in mining. As his health improved and now being prosperous his thoughts very naturally returned to his Queen in Cuba; his love for Isabel was as fresh as the day he sailed for Florida. De Soto, unlike Cortez and other Spanish officers, refused to take an Indian wife ; he submitted reluctantly to his officers and men who had wives in Spain marrying the natives. De Soto now began to make arrangements for bringing to this part of the New World his faithful wife and son, born a few months after he, sailed from Cuba. Wlio to#rust with this important matter was a serious ques- tioa. One-half of his array would gladly have volunteered- for this service. One hundred tried soldiers and two thousand friendly Indians were to form the expedition, among them Lorenzo. A man who will rob even a savage of his wife is- not to be trusted. Lorenzo had a boon companion, a subtle, cunning, deceitful man, who had deserted his wife in Spain and married a native in Nacoochee. He had lived here many years before the arrival of De Soto, and was well acquainted with the habits and customs of the natiffes. He had all the cunning of the Indians and knavery of a depraved Spaniard. 79 This fellow secretly informed Lorenzo that there was hid away in the deep caverns of Yonah Mountain vast quantities of pearls, diamonds, copper, gold and other precious metals, the spoils of wars and accumulations for ages of the wealth of the Cherokees, and that these vast treasures were, in accordance with hereditary custom, in charge of the wife of the reigning chief. To possess Echoee would give Lorenzo this vast wealth. This corhpanion in crime was to share in the spoils. Echoee was to be won by fair means if possible but was to be possessed at all hazards. Garillo, for that was the assumed name of Lorenzo's friend, informed Echoee that her refusal to become the wife of Lorenzo had greatly disti-essed him and had dis- pleased the Great Spirit. He further told her that Lorenzo was so much grieved that lie had determined to quit ISacoo- chee never to return. Echoee now began to realize how much of her life and happiness depended on having Lorenzo remain here; she could not bear the thought of losing one who had lavished upon her both his affections and gifts. Garillo, the serpent in the garden, further told Echoee that if she would cro with Lorenzo and take with her all of the treasures that she would be made a great queen in a most beautiful country and that her daughters, Eola and Nacoochee, would be educated and when grown up would marry kings and be made queens. Of course this fine story quite turned the head of Echoee but before eating" the forbidden fruit she had an interview with her spiritual advisers. Echoee was told by them of Adam and Eve, who" were placed in the Garden of Eden, more beautiful even than her home in Nacoochee Yalley; and of Bre's temp- tations, just such as she, Echoee, was exposed to» at this time, and of Eve's fall, and of the sin and misery broiiight upon her and upon mankind by the disobedience of our iirst parents; and of the wickedness of man since that daj ; and that we are all tempted and prone.to do evil, and that continually, even when we know that it will prove our destruction, if we do not repent of our sins. Echoee innocently asked if Lorenzo was in the Garden of Eden! She did not comprehend time or dis- tance; her heart was»touched with the story of the cross. It was. impressed. upon. .Echoee that marriage is a union for life 80 between one man and witli one wonaan. This was a new revelation to the Indian Princess, who had been accustomed to the idea of a plurality of wives. Echoee lost no time in telling her husband of Adam and Eve; of their disobedience and fall; of Christ, who was born of a Virgin, suffered on the cross, was crucified, and died for our sins. Wahoo listened patiently, answering only with a savage, guttural grunt; but when Echoee told him of Garillo's proposition, for Lorenzo to take her and their beautiful children to a beautiful country, <£lled with great cities, whose streets were paved with pure gold, with gates of pearl, and that she, and Eola. and JSTacoochee were to be made queens, Wahoo imme- diately put on his war cap, summoned one hundred of his brave chiefs, and retired with his cabinet into a deep cavern under Yonah Mountain. HOW THE SPANIAEDS ATTEMPTED TO STEAL THE CHBEOKEE TREASUEES AND THE QUEEN EOHOEE THE FIEECE CLASH BETWEEN THE INDIANS AND THE SPANIARDS. Wahoo's council of war resulted in a powerful alliance with the various tribes of Indians from the seacoast to the Mississippi Eiver. The harsh and cruel treatment of the natives by the Spaniards, who preceded De Soto, embittered them against the white man. They were glad of an oppor- tunity of iiniting with so powerful a nation as the Oherokees, to exterminate the hated Spaniards. They regarded the Spaniards as robbers, murderers, and despoilers of their families and homes. When this alliance was consummated, one hundred thousand brave men were ready to fight at the tap of Wahoo's war drum. Wahoo was not only the ruling chigf of the Cherokees, but was complete master of numerous tribes of Indians. In his day the Cherokee nation covered a vast and populous territory. Wahoo was a war- rior, patriot and hero. He and his wife, Echoee, sprang from a race of kings and queens. When De Soto reached 8t Nacoochee, ."Wahoo was in the prime of manhood, tall and commanding in appearance, and looted ae if he was born to rule. He possessed almost magic power over his people, and was known, respected and feared from the seacoast to the mountains. No other chief possessed such a beautiful capital, or one so fortified by Nature, as was "Nacoochee Old Town." nature's grand castles. • There still stands the great Appalachian chain of moun- tains, rising three to five thousand feet, forming an amphi- theatre some twenty miles in circumference, capable of hold- ing an army of half a million of soldiers, with only here and there openings, which were easily fortified and defended. In the centre of this chain of mountains is the Valley of Nacoochee, of irregular proportions, from a mile in width to seven in length, with foot hills rising above the valleys from one hundred to five hundred feet, a£Eordiiig beantiful sites for homes, being sheltered from the cold northern winds by the lofty mountains that surround them. It was the custom of the Indians to level many of these hill tops to make secure and pleasant homes for their chiefs. Wahoo's soil was pro- ductive, a7id his hnnting grounds, almost boundless, teemed with the buffalo, deer, elk, bears, panthers, and with game of nearly every description; wilh a climate unsurpassed for health and comfort, and cold springs of water gushing from nearly every hill and raountaiu^^side. No wonder Wahoo felt proud of his home, of his unconquered warriors, and of his beautiful Queen and lovely children. His valleys and plains, all beautifal with flowers, fruits and maize, and a territory embracing many of the present States, rich in mines of gold, copper, iron and coal. All these he and his mighty hosts were ready to defend to the last extremity. , THE INDIAN QUEEN. ™' Echoes looked like a Spanish Queen. She was tall and well proportioned; her long, waving hair falling to her feet; 6 . 82 her complexion was bright, and somewhat of the olive cast; her eyes sparkled, and were of -Italian blackness. The homes of the Cherokees were mainly in the Appalachian Mountains, extending from Yirginia to the Mississippi Eiver. Their whole country was the most beautiful and romantic in the world. The men were brave, tall and robust, and much larger than the Indians further south. Their complexion was also brighter, and the women fair and handsome. The Oherokees, in their dispositions and manners, were grave and steady, dignified in their deportment, and tenacious of their liberties. When De Soto reached Nacooehee with his small * army, they were looked upon as objects of curiosity, and not of fear. In valor, the Cherokees were equal to any people, but they did not know of the fearful and destructive weapons of the Spaniards, and of their great skill in war. The day was fixed for Lorenzo and his comrades to depart for Cuba. Some of the best men and fleetest horses were selected for the expedition. Echoee rejected all overtures made by Lorenzo. She was grieved, however, beyond expression, to part with her Spanish lover, but neither bribes, threats nor persuasion could induce Echoee to prove unfaithful to Wahoo, or to her people. Garillo knew her every mov^ement, and to this serpent in the garden was assigned the duty of gaining her consent, or planning her destmction. He was as familiar with the cJherokee language as with the Spanish. THE SERI*ENT AT WOEK. Garillo, who was skilled in all sorts of mischief, informed Lorenzo that at a certain hour Echoee and her daughters would visit the cavern in Yonah Mountain. This was the custodian of the vast treasures of the Cherokees. It was a week before the time fixed for the departure of the Cuban expedition. It was agreed, when they accomplished their fiendish work, they would leave immediately, without the consent or knowledge of De Soto, and before they could be attacked by the natives. It is about as diificult to reach the 83 end of a rainbow, as it is to catch an Indian napping. Wahoo, the chief, was thorcfaghly aroused, and informed of all the uiovoments of the Spaniards. He had his faithful warriors stationed on every hilltop, and at a preconcerted signal, they kindled fires on the mountain tops to summon the warriors. In this way they could communicate with the neighboring tribes with almost telegraphic swiftness. Lorenzo, Garillo, and party in dark deeds, stealthily followed Echoee, Eola and Ifacochee to Yonah Mountain. Just as they were entering the cavern, they were stopped by this robber band. Lorenzo made his last appeal to Echoee to accompany him to Spain, and be his wife and queea. He did not only covet her treasures, but he was passionately in love with the beauti- ful Indian Queen. Echoee indignantly refused to accept his proposition. She was seized by Garillo. In an instant he fell dead at her feet; a sharp dagger, which she drew from her bosom, and which had been presented her by a Spaniard, found its way to the treacherous Garillo's heart. She had been warned of her danger, and was prepared for him. Echoee could have dispatched Lorenzo, but she hesitated. She and her daughters were taken prisoners. Lorenzo told Echoee that she was a murderess, and that farther resistance was useless; that her only safety was in fleeing with him; that unless she did so, and deliver him the treasures, she would be thrown from a high precipice and killed. Echoee's eyes flashed defiance. She preferred death rather than betray her trust. PLAYING ON A MOTHEe's LOVE. Lorenzo knew Echoee's love for her children. He ordered them to be bound with strong cords; he further directed that, unless Echoee instantly yielded to his requeSt, to cast the children down a deep precipice. Echoee would readily have sacrificed her own life, but when she saw that her pi-ecious children were to be destroyed, she was overcome by M a mother's love, and promised if Eola and Nacoochee were spared, she would give up the hidden treasures. The liber- tine Lorenzo was not satisfied with the vast treasures, but forced Echoee, notwithstanding her sci-eams and entreaties, to spend several hours with him in the cavern of Tonah Mountain. WAE ON THE TEEACHEEOUS SPANIAEDS. When the news reached Wahoo that Echoee and his daughters had been captured by the Spaniards, and the treasures stolen, Wahoo was kindled with rage. War was immediately begun. The yells and war cries were heard from valley to valley, the bright fires flashed on a thousand hills and mountain tops, signals for the warriors to assemble. A furious a.ttack was made on the Spaniards at every point. De Soto, with a strong guard, was some miles away, at the new town of De Soto, which he had built for those working in the mines. He little suspected Lorenzo's treacherous schemes. The hideons yells and war songs of the savages were the first intimation De Soto had of the deadly conflict. The Indians, now by the tens of thousands, poured into Nacoochee with tomahawks, clubs, rude arms and poisoned arrows. War was begun with frightful havoc. It now became a hand to hand fight. Wahoo, the war chief of the Cherokees, at the head of his brave army, fought desperately. THE OPPOSING WAEEIOKS. De Soto, the hero of many hard fought battles in Mexico and Peru, concentrated his little army in the centre of "Nacoochee Old Town."' His men had great advantage over the natives, as they were provided with helmets, breast- plates, shields, and coats of steel to repel the arrows of the Indians, while the natives only had furs, bear skins, with shields of hide, to protect them. They seized whatever implements they could find for weapons. They even grasped 85 the pots from the fire, emptyiag their contents on the head of the enemy; besides tables and billets of wood became instruments of war. The Spaniards made death charges of artillery. The roar of the cannon only maddened the natives. They were mowed down by the thousands with grape shot. The mailed cavaliers rode through the streets, cutting to pieces men, women and children. The Cherokee warriors, and their allies from afar, constantly increased in numbers, filling the air with yells of defiance and rage. THE FATE OF LORENZO. Lorenzo, after securing the vast treasures, amounting to many millions of dollars in value," attempted, with his com- rades in crime, to escape to Cuba, with Echoee and her daughters as prisoners. Just before reaching the Chattahoo- chee River, demoniac yells and war cries fell upon their ears, as the Indians came like an avalanche down the mountains. They sprang like tigers upon the treacherous Spaniards. Lorenzo was the fii'st victim of their vengeance. He fell, pie^rced by a thousand swift arrows, and was immediately tomahawked and scalped. The stolen treasure, the accumu- lation of ages upon ages, were all regained, and the queen and her daughters set at liberty. Poor Echoee was crazed with drugs, administered by Lorenzo in the mountain cavern, and although innocent of intentional wrong, she realized that an ignominious death awaited her for surrendering the treas- ures. Clasping her daugliters to her bosom, whom she loved better than life itself, imparting a mother's fond and farewell kiss, in deep shame and desperation, she carried them in the dashing waters of the Chattahoochee. They were instantly washed over the rapids of the swift mountain stream. The warriors ceased their fight to save their queen and her beauti- ful little daughters from a watery grave. A boy of sixteen, the son of a (Jhoctaw chief, reached Nacoochee as she was sinking. Echoee and Eola were drowned. Thus perished 86 the beautiful Christian Indian Queen, Echoee — the Morning Star. The tragic death of Eehoee, Wahoo's Nacoochee Queen, was the signal for renewed hostilities. The Indians, almost numberless, rushed down from the mountains upon the Spaniards. The enraged Indians seized the slain Spaniards' swords and sharp lances. A terrific havoc ensued. De Soto was in the thickest of the fight. The sword which made him illustrious in Peru, was now crimsoned with the blood of the Cherokee Indians and their allies. The Spaniards were finally overpowered by numbers, and made a hasty retreat, followed by the infuriated savages. A horrible carnage ensued. Nacoochee Valley was strewn with the dead and dying. The wounded Spaniards crawled to the banks of the Chattahoochee River to slake their intense thirst; many were thrown into the swift mountain stream and were drowned. Darkness put a stop to the horrible massacre. When the morning sun arose, the Spaniards were many miles beyond Tonah Mountain, on the unmarked road to the great Mississippi River. De Soto's army was hounded from day to day by the infuriated Indians. A year was consumed in marching to the Father of Waters. De Soto, the hero of a thousand battles, from the day he landed in the swamps of Florida, met with disasters and disappointments. His home in Naeoochee Valley was the onlj' bright sp()t in his three years march through a wilderness country inhabited by millions of ferocious savages. But for the treachery of his officers, he would have amassed great wealth in Naeoochee and its surroundings. The quantity of gold and other min- erals hid away in the valleys and mountains of the Cherokee nation is past computation. Harassed and disappointed, that great? man's spirit forsook him, and in 1542 he sickened and died on the banks of the great Mississippi. Thus ended the life of Hernando De Soto, one of the greatest generals of any age. To conceal sr. De Soto's death, his body was placed in a rough box, and sunk in the ruddy waters of the Mississippi Eiver. He was the first white m-^n to find a grave in that deep and turbid river. De Soto's devoted wife. Donna Isabel, spared no pains or expense in searching for her long absent husband. When the sad intelligence was reached in Havana of his death, disheartened by long anxiety, she died of a broken heart. ISTacoochee, Ga. Geoeoe W. Williams. NAOOOCHEE, THE DAUGHTER OF WAHOO, THE INDIAN CHIEF OF THE CHEROKEE NATION, ELOPED WITH SAUTEE, SON OF THE CHOCTAW CHIEF. It will be remenibered that Lorenzo was an officer in the Spanish Army, who betrayed Echoes, the Indian Queen. De Soto knew nothing of Lorenzo's treacherous schemes. After securing the vast treasures, amounting to many millions of dollars in value, Lorenzo attempted to escape to Cuba with the Indian Queen and her two lit*le daughters as prisoners. Just before reaching the Chattahoochee River, one mile from Touah Mountain, the Indians sprang like tigers upon the treacherous Spaniards. Lorenzo fell, pierced by a thousand swift arrows. The treasures were regained. Echoee was crazed with drugs administered by Lorenzo in the mountain cavern. Clasping her daughters to her bosom, she dragged them into the Chattahoochee, and they were instantly washed down the swift mountain stream. An Indian youth of sixteen, the son of a Choctaw chief, reached the little girl, ISTacoochee, as she was sinking The mother and sister were drowned. ISTacoochee, the only daughter of Wahoo, was saved from drowning by a boy of the Choctaw Nation, grew up to be a girl of remarkable ^auty and grace of manners. She was wooed by many a gallant Cherokee youth, but was won by the brave young warrior, Sautee, of the Choctaw Nation, who rescued her from drowning in the Chattahoochee. One dark night Nacoochee disappeared from her vine-clad palace; she had eloped ■with Sautee, son of a Choctaw chief. The father of Naeoochee summoned a hundred stout warriors to go in pursuit of his erring daughter. The valleys and mountains echoed the terrific war-whoop, as they were searching every hill and dale. Days and nights passed, but Sautee and the black-eyed Indian girl could nowhere be found. • The enraged father refused to eat or sleep. He believed that the lovers had sought refuge in the caverns of Yonah Mountain. Renewed and more diligent search was made. Sautee had selected a bridal chamber for his young prin- cess (which was amply supplied with venison and wild turkey) amid the rocky fastnesses of Mount Yonah. lie regarded the rugged cliffs rising in their native grandeur around him as secure from the intrusion of friend or foe. Nacoochee's new home must have been a second Eden. Before her stood out a world of mountains, rising one above another, until their lofty peaks were lost in the clear blue sky, while at her feet nestled the lovely valleys of Nacoochee and Sautee, covered with fragrant forest flowering trees, and brilliant rhododendrons and azaleas. I'Vom the crevices in her granite palace gushed forth pure, perennial streams, which are joined by a thousand mountain springs that constitute the head waters of the picturesque Chattahoochee River, and which, like the rivers that run out of the Garden of Eden, abound in gold. The cies of the wolf and night-hawk disturbed not the slumbers of the youthful lovers. But Nacoochee and Sautee could no more successfully conceal themselves from the revengeful warriors, than could Adam and Eve hide from the presence of the Father of the great human family, after having listeilted to the beguiling serpent, and eaten of the forbidden fruit. A savage shout of dctory announced the capture of the foe who had dared to rob the old chief of his daughter. 89 Hasty judgment was prouounced — Saiitee was to be thrown, iu the presence of Nacoochee, from the highest precipice of Mount Yon ah. Before the sentence was executed, the warriors engaged in a death song and v/ar dance around the strongly guarded prisoner. This was kept up until the setting sun had dropped behind the western mountains, and the evening star was looking down upon the tragic scene. At a signal from the old chief, four strong warriors seized Saiitee, and with one terrific yell, hurled him headlong into the deep chasm beneatli. Quick as thought Naeoochee sprang from the strong embrace of her father, and shouting, "Sautee! Sautee! " threw herself from the overhanging precipice. Their mangled remains were found side by side in the valley. The terrific shock well nigh broke the heart of the aged father. He directed that Nacooehec and Sautee should be buried on the banks of the Chattahoochee, in one grave, and a mound raised over them to mark the spot. This has been planted in vines and blue grass. The cypress, ivy and rhododendron cover the grave of Nacoochee and Sautee. The valleys of Nacoochee and Sautee, which unite just below my Nacoochee home, were named to perpetuate the memories of the Cherokee girl and her Choctaw lover. George W. Williams. DISCOVERY OF QOLD IN " NACOOCHEE, GEORGIA, AND ITS SURROUNDINGS." De Soto and the Indians did not take all the gold out of JSTaeoochee and its surroundings. After De Soto was driven out of Nacoochee by the Indians the gold remained in its snug deposits for a period of three hundred years. In 1828 an old woman was doing her washing on a small branch that empties into the Chattahoochee Eiver, which runs through Nacoochee Valley, she stumbled over a lump of gold worth $5,000. Those who owned "forty-acre lots" dreamed of fortunes, very few of which were realized. The excitement was greatly increased by the discovery of another lump of gold worth $20,000. This was the largest nugget of gold that was ever found at the South. It is not an uncommon occurrence to find nuggets here weighing from one to three pounds. People flocked to this new El Dorado from all sections of the country. Even the great Calhoun did not escape the pre- vailing epidemic. Your correspondent, then a small boy, knew every by path through the mountains of Georgia; and to him was assigned the honor of piloting the Carolina states- man and others to Yonah, the mines and other places of interest. It was the year the "abominable" Tariff Act was passed and about the time Mr. Calhoun resigned his position as Vice-President under the hero of ISTew Orleans. Ee left his home in Pendleton, some sixty miles from ISTaeoochee, for rest and recreation. i I shall never forget how much Mr. Calhoun was excited. He would walk the floor for hours in the deepest meditation, frequently passing his long fingers nervously through his hair, which stood almost erect on his head. The great mind of Calhoun penetrated the future; he saw that political events which were then transpiring North and South would result 91 either in a dissolution of the Federal Union or a desolating civil war. Mr. Calhoun seemed to dread the one as much as the other. While he regarded many acts of Congress odious, unjust and oppressive to the South, yet he was not at that time in favor of a dissolution of the Union ; he stood firmly upon the Constitution handed down to us by our forefathers. The political fever, however, had not taken so entire pos-* session of the great Carolina statesman as that he should escape the gold mania ; he had studied political economy enough to know that gold was the only true representative of all values and the great leveller of social distinctions. It was the custom of miners and speculators who had "deposits or veins" for sale to prepare them for "testing." My father warned Mr. Calhoun against sleight of hand which was practiced by many of these Wall street adventurers; but the"" man who was wondrously wise in politics and books heeded not the advice, and was a child in the clutches of the rude miners. I accompanied Mr. Calhoun to the mines said to be worth millions. To be certain that there was no deception, Mr. Calhoun would select a piece of ground untouched by the spade, stand by and see the small trees removed, then the earth, until the gravel and slate were reached, which was washed before our eyes. If unluckily, they did not succeed in finding gold, not a few were unscrupulous enough to have it concealed about their persons, which was by the sleight of hand transferred into the pan. This was what was called "sp,lting/' and there were many victims to this mode of "cornering." Mr. Calhoun paid ten thousand dollars for a mine not worth as many hundred; he, however, purchased a vein of ore which proved to be of immense value. The gold was embedded in a stratum of rocks; there could be no deception practiced in such mines. Since that day thtsre have been great improve- ments in working the mines. The old boxes and long troughs have given place to the hydraulic process and all the latest improvements in machinery have been introduced. 92 The Wacoochee Hydraulic Mining Company was estab- lished just before the late war, mainly by enterprising l^ew Englanders. The water is carried in a canal twelve miles in length, which cost some forty thousand dollars. The canal has its source in the Blue E-idge, and is carried ' on the side of the mountain. With its branches, which spread out on the ridges, thousands of acres of land cau be irrigated and washed. Deposits and veins of gold extend the entire length of the canal and its branches. The Nacoochee Company own, and have under lease ^ eight thousand acres of the best mining ground in Georgia. It is surprising to see with what force the water passes through the pipes, washing down the hills almost as easily as if they were so many banks of snow. . When and how the rich deposits and gold-bearing rocks were formed, is a mooted question between learned geologists who have given much attention to this interesting branch of science. When the Tonah Mountain and Blue _ Ridge, for nine hundred miles, were elevated by volcanic action, the true veins were formed which made the placei'S or deposits of the rich mines that have produced millions of dollars in and around Nacoochee, Ga. A million or more years ago, when this world was created by a Divine Power, it was as level as the Atlantic Ocean, but volcanic eruptions, which threw up the Alps and the great chain of mountains from the ISTorth to the South pole, distributed millions and billions of gold in the long range of mountains and valleys. It is thought there is more gold in JSTacoochee, Ga., and its surroundings than there is in the vaults of all the banks in the United S'Lates. How much it will cost to remove it from the present snug deposits remains to be seen. The mines have been worked without cessation since 1828. I was then a boy of eight years old. 93 Gold is fhe most precious metal in lie -world. Tr tbe second chapter of Genesis ^ we are told that a river went out of the Garden of Eden where there was gold. And the gold of that land was pronounced good. Gold exercises a greater influence over the human family than all the Kings and Queens. In peace or in war it represents the true value of all the commodities of the earth. Gold from youth to old age is coveted. A large number of miners were engaged in digging for gold which they brought to my brother's store in Nacoochee and exchanged for merchandise, gold or silver coin. At that time in the mountains of Georgia eight ten cent pieces of silver passed currently for one dollar. Although a mere lad, I knew enough of arithmetic to see that a profit of twenty per cent, could be made by buying the gold dust and carrying it to the mint near by and have it coined and exchanged for new silver dimes. It was in these mountain wilds, that 1 got some of my first experience in the "exchange business." I slept on my brother's counter to guard it from robbers, and received 6^ cents each night! Seeing the miners pick up nuggets of gold' worth two and three hundred dollars each, it is not surprising that I should get the "gold fever" up to one hundred degrees Fahrenheit — I prevailed on my father to embark in mining. To my great delight he promised to begin operations the next morning. That night visions of gold dazzled my wakeful eyes. 1 was inipatient for the coming of morning. At the break of day I was with my father in the barnyard ; he told me to put the plow harness upon "old Dick," a favorite horse he brought from ITorth Carolina. In a short time Dick was harnessed, and I was directed to hitch him to the plough. I thought this a new mode of digging gold, but as my father's orders were never questioned, I silently obeyed- My fattier selected a broad corn field on which to initiate me in the mysteries of mining. Carrying me to the field, he said ''now George, you see this corn ; plow four furrows 94 carefully between each row. This field is a sure gold miue — one that has never failed me. We will make corn to sell to those men who spend all their time hunting for gold." At one dollar per bushel. I followed "old Dick" and my father's orders to the letter. When the hard day's work was over, I took for supper corn bread, rye mush and milk. That night I was too tired and too little fanciful to dream ; by morning the gold fever was cured, I have never had a return of it. But I have had an inkling for gold! GEO. W. WILLIAMS. . ISTacoochee, Georgia. Sketch of the Life of George W. Williams, " [In the Cyclopaedia of Representative Men of the Carolinas.] Senior member of the Banking House of George W. Wil- liams & Co., and President of the Carolina Savings Bank, of Charleston, S. C, is an eminent business man who, from the smallest of beginnings, and by virtue alone of indomita- ble strength of v?ill has fought his way against powerful con- tending influences, to the front ranks of his calling. George Walton Williams was born in Bnrke County, N. C, Decem- ber 19, 1820. The Williams family are of Welsh descent, having emigrated to America on account of religious perse- cution. In 1T99, Edward Williams, an enterprising member of the family from Easton, Mass., came South and located in Charleston, S. C. A few years later he removed to the moun- tains of North Carolina and formed a partnership with Daniel Brown, a successful farmer and merchant. He soon after- ward married Mary Brown, daughter of his partner, and, of their eight children born, George W. Williams is the fourth and youngest son. When three years old his father, Major Edward Williams, removed from North Carolina to the more general and fertile regions of Nacoochee Valley, Ga., where he purchased a large and valuable tract of land, and here, on the very border of civilization, inhabited principally by Chero- kee Indians, Mr. Williams's childhood and early youth were passed. His father was a man of great energy, and through his untiring exertions the fertile valky was brought into a high state of cultivation. Major Williams first introduced herd's grass, timothy and clover, and established cheese dai- ries, shoe factories and like improvements, and in this way did much to advance the agricultural and industrial interests of Northeast Georgia. Major Williams appreciated the value of character, and trained his sons to habits of temperance, industry and self- reliance, setting before them in his own life a worthy example. 96 as did his most excellent wife, a woman of great energy, piety and benevolence. The subject of this sketch, in his fourteenth year, lost his good mother — a severe loss to one who was so much indebted to her for his earlj' training, and consequently home lost much of its attractions to him. Hav- ing a penchant for trading, his natural instincts led him to regard the commercial world as his proper sphere of action ; he determined to try a wider field to develop his pent-up en- ergies. Major WilHams possessed horses, buggies and money, but as his son insisted on leaving home in his teens, the father declined to offer him any facilities, imagining that the inex- perienced youth would return the sooner to the paternal roof. Nothing daunted, the boy set forth on his journey of 150 miles to Augusta, Ga., in October, 1838. The young adventurer believed that "where there is a will, there is a way." He started on his*two strong ^feet, propelled by a resolute will and untiring perseverance. At that time there were but ten miles of railroad in the great State of Georgia, and hut a few hundred in the whole South. Had there been thousands they would not have availed a boy with only ten dollars in his pocket. To lessen his expenses, he made a bargain with a kind neighbor, who was going with his wagon loaded with the mountain products to Augusta, Ga. He assisted in cooking and scotching for his board. The board, of course, was rough, and the lodging at night on the ground, but this out-door life developed tlie muscles, and was an important training for a boy starting out in life with a determination to succeed. The journey of one hundred and fifty miles was made in seven days, at an expense of less than a dollar. He was now among strangers, in a strange land. Fortunately, he secured a situation with Mr. Daniel Hand, in a wholesale grocery establishment, at the nominal salary for the first year of $50 and board. He was prompt, active and industrious, did whatever he undertook to do well, and was ever watchful to promote the interest of his employers. Mr. Williams's genius for business rapidly developed. At the age of twenty-one he purchased the in- terest of Mr. Scran ton, and became a partner, the name of 97 the firm being changed to Hand & Williams. One of the first acts of the young merchant, on becoming a member of the firm, ■was characteristic of the man. He had been tanght by his good father that it was wrong to traffic in spirituous liquors. One- half of their stock in trade consisted of such goods. He persuaded his partner to abandon that branch of their business. It was predicted that they would lose the most profitable part of their trade by this course. Mr. Wil- liams would not allow pecuniary gains to turn him from a course that he believed to be right. With a firm trust in Providence he continued to prosecute his biisiness with his accustomed energy and forethought. So far from losing by his bold step, there was, from year to year, a handsome in crease in the profits. Our young moralist was encouraged in this honorable Christian course by his old friends, George F. Pierce, Bishop Andrew, James E. Evans and William M. Wightman, gen- tlemen high in the Church. Mr. Williams is a zealous, though not a bigoted member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. There is nothing narrow in his religious opinions and feelings ; he has accepted various official duties in religion and education. He is a Steward and Trustee of Trinity Church, Charleston ; a member of the Joint Board of Finance in the South Carolina Conference, and Trustee of WofEord College, to which, as well as to Emory C'oUege in Georgia, he has made liberal eontributious. Mr. Williams has been twice married; first to Louisa A. Wightman, in 1843, sister of Bishop William M. Wightman, a lady of deep piety, possessing many of the characteristics of her brother and of her sainted mother. His second wife was Martha E. Porter, a daughter of John W . Porter, of Madison, Ga., a lady of rare qualities of heart, mind and person. This marriage took place in November, 1856. They have four promising children, two sons and two daughters, and eighteen grand-children. Mr. Williams's domestic tastes are paramount; his little 7 98 ■world of home is Ms earthly paradise. Here he finds time to devote himself to books, the studies of which he quietly pursues without pretension or ostentation.. He has procured from time to time a library of several thousand volumes, and his picture gallery is filled with choice paintings. We have reached a painful period in our country's history, that which found two powerful sections on the eve of civil war. The United States Government was concentrating all its vast military and naval power against the States of the South, which had united in the formation of an independent Con- federacy. South Carolina having, as it were, struck the first blow, the strong arm of the United States was directed against her metropolis. The effect of this action was immediately felt by the business houses of Mr. Williams, the wheels of which could not be stopped in a day or in a month, as it was largely engaged in foreign and domestic trade. To build up the foreign trade of Charleston the house had arranged for the importation of sugar and molasses from the West Indies, coffee from South America, and bagging from India. They had chartered two ships, which were loading with i-ice and lumber for the Kio market during the bombardment of Fort Sumter. These vessels were to bring return cargoes of coffee. As it required six months to make the round voyage, Mr. Williams ordered, in the event of the blockade of Charleston, the H. P. Kussel to proceed to New York with her cargo of 6,000 bags of coffee, marked G. W. W. & Co. The vessel was sailing as fast as wind and tide would carry her into the very jaws of the enemy. In the meantime the United States Government had passed the "Confiscation Act." On arrival in jSTew York both vessel and cargo were attached. Mr. Williams had previously taken the precaution of drawing the exchange with bills lading attached, on Brown, Shipley & Co., of London, thus saving the cargo of 6,000 bags of coffee, which was sold at a profit of |30,000. The brig "West India" was to run the gauntlet and enter Charleston 99 if possible; this she did successfully in October, 1861. Under a raking lire of the blockading fleet the Confederate soldiers were thus furnished with 3, 000 bags of the best Eio coffee. At this time the great game of war was desolating the South. Five of Mr. Williams's partners were in the Confed- erate Army, and all of his clerks in service. Food of every description became scarce, and prices became higher from day to day. In this condition Mr. Williams no longer had a heart for trade. As Mr. Williams was an Alderman of the City of Charleston, and Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, Mayor Macbeth needed his services in Charleston to aid in managing the finances. The State Legislature had appointed Mr. Williams commis sary to procure provisions for the soldiers' families, and he was appointed by the City Council of Charleston manager of the subsistence stores to procure supplies for the poor of Charles- ton. Mr. Williams, having correspondents in all of the South- ern States, at once adopted measures to procure the needed supplies, which were issued under his personal supervision, without charging one cent for his services, or for rent on the buildings that were occupied. Mr. Williams, with his usual skill, promptness and energy, threw himself into this labor of usefulness, and through his exertions thousands of the destitute and suffering were sup- plied with food daily to the end of the war. The friends of Mr. Williams regarded this beneficent enterprise and lal)or as the crowning achievement of his life. The gigantic undertaking, under the most trying circum- stances, shutout by land and sea with its endless details of duty, its cares, trials, difliculties and responsibilities was of an exhausting character, and proved almost beyond his power of mental and physical endurance. Nevertheless he held his ground, and stood steadfast at his post to the last. The very day that the city fell, he issued rations to some ten thousand people, all grades and colors, from his private residence located near Hampstead, in the northeastern part of 100 the city ; he had lemoved from George Street, in consequence of the bombardment. So great was the pressure the daj of the evacuation, that it was necessary to barricade the doors of the dwelling, and distribute the provisions through the windows, for everything in Charleston was in the wildest state of confusion. At one moment, when the crush was greatest, a terrible explosion toot place at the Northeastern Depot, by which it was said several hundred persons had lost their lives, and it was be- lieved that the immense powder magazine in the Half Moon Battery, near his dwelling, had been blown up. The panic occasioned by this dreadful catastrophe beggars all description. It will be seen from these details that Mr. Williams was in Charleston when the city was evacuated by the Confederate forces. Through his appeal to the retiring Confederate General the day before the surrender, he obtained an order written by K. C. Gilchrist, the General's Private Secretary, for all re- maining supplies and stores of the Confederate Government. These were destined to the flames, but were thus saved by his prompt action. The fires caused by the burning of cotton, the gun boatsj and in part by incendiaries, were then raging fiercely, and threatened to lay the city in ashes. In this crisis Mr. Williams called on the Mayor to urge upon him the necessity of surren- dering the city, especially as the fire department was disor- ganized, in consequence of its members being arrested by the small squads of Confederate soldiers, who had been left in Charleston for that purpose. Mayor Macbeth appointed Aldermen. W. H. Gilliland and George W. Williams to be the bearers to Morris Island of the following communication : To the General Commanding the Army of the United States, at Morris Island : Sir : The military authorities of the Confederate States have evacuated this city. I have remained to enforce law, and preserve order, until you take such steps as you may think best. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, (Signed) Oeaeles Macbeth, Mayor. 101 In the meantime Mr. Williams, learning that the Uniteu States troops, under Colonel A. G-. Bennet, were landing on Atlantic Wharf, in the rear of the old Exchange, he proceeded to that place, and had an interview with Colonel Bennett. Mr. Williams informed him of the disorganized condition of things in Charleston, and asked for assistance to aid in extinguishing the fires. This assistance was fur- nished by Colonel Bennett. After the interview the subjoined reply was sent to the Mayor's note : Headquarters United States Forces, Charleston Harbor, North Atllntic Wharf, February 18,1865. Matoe Chaeles Maobeth : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com- munication of this date. I have, in reply thereto, to state that the troops under my command will render every possible assistance to your well-disposed citizens in extinguishing the fires now burning. I have the honor to be, Mayor, very respectfully. Your obedient servant, (Signed) A. G. Bennett, Lieut-Col. Commanding U. S. Forces, Charleston. The navy took possession of Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney, and a volunteer party of ten men from Mnrris Island planted the United States flag on Sumter. The soldiers took possession of the Citadel and Arsenal. Mr. 'VP'illiams procured from the Federal military authorities a guard to protect the several mills and warehouses in which the provisions had been stored, and thus saved from the devouring flames food enough to sustain twenty thousand people for three months, which he issued to the citizens after the fall of Charleston, when they had neither money nor the means of procuring a support. White and black were thus rescued from great want and suffering. Twenty-three years had come and gone since Mr. Williams left his Nacoochee home. He had, by his superior business talents, accumulated a larger capital than could be used to advantage, even in their extensive Augusta house . . 102 Having been for some years favorably impressed with Charleston, he visited that city in 1852, and established the wholesale grocery house of George W. Williams & Co., on strictly temperance principles. The sales in the Augusta and Charleston houses were soon increased to two million dollars per annum, and- the profits from one hundred thousand to two hundred thousand dollars per annum. Mr. Williams was elected a Director in the State Bank of Georgia, at Augusta, at the early age of twenty-three. It was in this well-managed institution that he gained his first knowledge in banking. Just in the prime of vigorous manhood, at the breaking out of the War between the States we find Mr. Williams at the head 'of two of the largest commercial houses of the South, an Alderman of the City of Charleston, Chair- man of the Committee of Ways and Means, which position he held during the entire war ; director of the Bank of South Carolina , also of two railroad companies ; the financial coun- sellor of a host of friends ever ready to engage in all public works and enterprises which looked to the prosperity of his adopted City and State. During the war, through his untir- ing exertions, thousands of the destitute poor were supplied daily with food. On the landing of the Federal troops, Mr. Williams secured their services in extinguishing tiie fires then raging in various parts of the city. He thus saved from the flames, and distributed, food enough to feed 20,000 people four months. It was not Mr. Williams's intention, at the close of the war, to engage again in the mercantile business, but to establish a bank. Mr. Williams went to Washington in 1865 and procured the charter for the First National Bank of Char- leston, capital $500,000, intending to be President, but his old friends and customers desired him to return to his old busi- ness, and his was the first house to resume business in Charles- ton after the war. He at once commenced the erection of large warehouses in the burnt district for the storage of cotton and fertilizers and his extensive stores on Hayne street were filled with merchandise. He also opened a banking house and in a short time was fully immersed in business. His firm re- ceived as much as 75,000 bales of cotton in one season, in cash - 103 value about |5,000,0'00, besides doing a grocery and fertilizing business of many millions. Some fifty partners have been associated with him in his long business career, many of them having been brought up from the humblest office grade and many have retired with fortunes. Mr. Williams has divided, including interest, profits arising from his various firms since he began business in Augusta, Ga., in 1842 to the present time, more than twenty-five million of dollars. This will show what ten dollars will do when handled by one of Mr. Williams's push, thrift and energy, and is a valuable lesson for the youth just starting in life. The banking department of George W. Williams & Go's business increased to such an extent that they found it necessary to sScure larger accommodations for that branch, and in 18Y5 Mr. Williams purchased the fine brown stone building, 1 Broad street, which had been erected by the State Bank of South Carolina, at a cost of $100,000. *To this eligible location he removed the Carolina Savings Bank and the Banking Department of George W. Williams & Co. Since then Mr. Williams has devoted himself almost exclu- sively to banking and in winding up his old mercantile and- fertilizing firm. His object in establishing the Carolina Sav- ings Bank, in conjunction with 'the banking business of Geo. W. Williams & Co., was to afford persons of moderate means an opportunity of husbanding their resources. He felt that a Savings Bank, properly conducted, would tend to encourage frugality, industry and thrift among the laboring classes, white and black, and also teach the young the habits of saving and economy. It also gave him an opportunity of training his sons to strictly business habits. Before closing this sketch, we desire to record one of the noblest acts of Mr. Williams's life — pure conduct of a typical Southerner. I refer to his steadfast ^and unfiinching friend- ship for his old partner, Mr. Daniel Hand, in the trying and perilous times of the late war. When it was announced at the [North that a large sum of money, the accumulations of a war trust, had been paid to Mr. Daniel Hand by a Southerner, it was flashed over the wires, headed, " Komance of Finance.' The marvel was that a Southern man could be found who 104 would turn over a million and a half of dollars without being asked to do so. Telegrams were sent to Charleston inquiring into the particulars of the transaction ; for it was understood that Mr. George W. Williams was -the Southerner alluded to. As has already been stated, Mr. Williams went from his home in JSTccoochee, Ga., to Augusta, and in his eighteenth year procured a situation as clerk with Mr. Daniel Hand. So energetic and faithful was the mountain boy, that he was made a full partner at the age of twenty-one. It was then and there that the foundation of Mr. Hand's fortune of two or more millions of dollars was laid. At that time Mr. Hand was not worth $5,000. Mr. Williams was the chief manager in Charles- ton. Mr. Hand being opposed to secession, and afraid of the results of the war, withdrew from the firm in 1861, and de- cided not to corae South, but to remain in New York. His lifetiine.earnings, however, were nearly all in Charleston and had to take the chances of the war. In the meantime the war between the North and South raged, gold debts due the firm by the million went into Confederate money. Each section , passed the Sequestration Act. As Mr. Hand was no longer a citizen of the South, and was known to he a Union man, the Confederate authorities took measures to sequestrate his interest in the firm of George W. Williams & Co. Mr. Williams finding that his old friend's interest would be confiscated, if he remained at the North, sent a messenger to Louisville, Ky., requesting his immediate return. This was fearlessly done, notwithstanding Mr. Williams was informed that if he brought Mr. Hand to Charleston, his house would be destroyed by a mob. He also reinstated Mr. Hand as partner in his firm, at a cost of 'more than a quarter of million of dollars to himself. Mr. Hknd failing to get through the lines at Baltimore, took the West- ern route. On arriving in New Orleans he was arrested and imprisoned as a "Lincoln spy." Mr. Williams telegraphed to Governor Moore of Louisiana, vouching for Mr. Hand's in- tegrity. He finally succeeded in getting Mr. Hand out of prison, but he was sent under guard to Richmond, then the seat of the Confederate Government. While passing through 105 Augusta, Ga., his old home, the Mayor found it necessary to send Mr. Hand to jail to protect him from a mob ; the Mayor was his old friend, and accompanied him to the jail. Mr. Williams went to Augusta at once, and shared Mr. Hand's quarters in the cold walls of the jail until his release was secured. After much vexation , trouble and expense, Mr. Hand was sent to Richmond and confined in the Libby Prison nearly a month awaiting his trial as a spy. In the meantime a vigorous suit was commenced in Charleston to sequestrate Mr. Hand's interest in the Charleston firm. Mr. Williams employed the best of counsel, and after an exciting contest, which lasted for several days, the suit was decided in Mr. Hand's favor, and his interest in the firm of George W. Williams & Go. was saved from confiscation. The Court and jury decided that Mr. Daniel Hand had not forfeited his estate by change of residence, or by any "treasonable act against the State or Confederate Government." As South Carolina at that time was not a comfortable home for one suspected of Union sentiments, Mr. Williams divided his last gold dollar with his friend, and advised him to go to the mountains of North Carolina to await the issues of the war. Before leaving Charleston, Mr. Hand confided all of his personal property to the man who had stood by him under suctf trying circumstances, to be held, managed and consid- ered as his own. The real estate was already in Mr. Wil- liams's name, and needed no transfer. Having been so se- verely dealt with by the Confederate authorities, he decided to go ISTortli the first opportunity, never to return, which resolution he carried out to the letter. During the early part of the war. Northern and Western houses furnished Mr. Williams's firm with large quantities of goods, with a full knowledge that thelaws of the Confederacy were against collecting such debts ; they relied entirely upon the honor of the firm for their pay. All debts of honor Mr. Williams felt his duty to pay. He started money North via. Atlanta and Louisville, Ky., but it was intercepted by the vigilance committee forbidding money paid to the enemy, threatening criminal prosecution if it was 106 done. Mr. Williams being determined to provide for the payment of these debts, remitted $400,000 sterling exchange to Liverpool and London. When the war was over, the debts were paid in full, with interest. As the war progressed, Mr. Williams's fortune, and that of his partner, was fast going into Confederate money and Confederate securities, with a prospect of almost total loss. In this emergency, Mr. Williams naturally looked around for other investments, hoping to save something out of the general wreck. He learned that cotton could be bought in Greorgia and Alabama at 7 to 10 cents per pound. Prompt measures were taken to secure 25,000 bales, storing the cotton in the most secure places he could find ; he also saw that there was a panic at the North in Southern State and city securities ; they were being forced in the market at. 33 cents on the dollar ; believing that those secuiities would be worth nearly par when the war was over, he invested in them $500,000. Confederate money continued to decline in value, while the price of cotton rapidly advanced. Heal estate could still be bought with Confederate money ; thinking there would be less risk in holding real estate than cotton, he sold cotton at 20 to 40 cents per pound, and invested in farm lands in Georgia, and 100,000 acres of well timbered lands, at $1 per acre. He also purchased in Charleston and iiiftlie interior of the State $500,000 worth of real estate. It was in such investments, including the purchase of sterling ex- change, with a very large volume of Confederate money that had been collected in for gold debts due, the firm were in a measure saved from total loss. And it was in that way that Mr. Hand's fortune, of which he recently gave one and a half million dollars for the education of the "freed slaves" of the South, was saved. Mr. Williams still keeps up a correspond- ence with his old friend, Mr. Daniel Hand, who, is now ninety years old, quite feeble, but sound in mind. Mr. Daniel Hand, who gave one and a half million dollars for the education of the colored people of the South, was an earnest member of the Presbyterian Church, and was Super- intendent of the Sabbath School of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta for thirty years. 107 The gift which will principally illustrate Mr. Hand's phil- anthropy is known as the "Daniel Hand Educational Fund for Colored People," amouuting to more than a million and a half dollars in interest bearing securities, to be held in trust by the American Missionary Association. Mr. Hand died in Guilford, Connecticut, in 1891. His old partner, Mr. George W. Williams, is still actively engaged in business in Charleston, S. C, now in his eighty-second year. Mr. Hand did not live long enough to see the practical work- ing of his munificent gift, but generation after generation of the people of the South, both white and black, will rise up and call him blessed. Mr. Williams is endowed with strong will-power, great tenacity of purpose, is quick in perception, fertile in resources, is active and energetic, with a tough, wiry, rather than a ro- bust frame, enjoying uniformly excellent health. His life has been one of devoted industry, and earnestly practical results. Inured from youth up to close application to some useful occupation, Mr. Williams is as actively engaged as at any former period of his life. He rises at 6 o'clock, and is af his Bank promptly at 8.30 A. M. In his business transactions he does not waste time or words, but acts, as it were, by intuition, rarely stopping to reason, but reaching his conclusions by his firSt impulse. ("Instinct," he says, "is honest, while reason is subject to a thousand influences, and is often unreliable.") Mr. Williams has allowed himself few seasons of repose or recreation, but has found time to visit Cuba, Canada, various portions of the United States, and has made the tour of Europe twice. An example of the wonderful versatility of Mr. Williams is found in his literary works. Amid the tur-^ moil of a commercial career, and during the busy years through which he has passed to the honorable position he now holds, he has found leisure to present to the world in literary form, some of the results of his vast experience. From time to time he has written, modestly, without effort or pretension, yet with an ability which would do credit to some of the practiced pens of literature, a series of letters upon topics of high interest. His "Letters to Young Men," (twenty thousand 108 letters to young men have been gratuitously distributed in the past twenty years) "Success and Failure," '-Making and Saving," may be perused with profit by all who wish to emu- late the worthy example of a worthy man. He has also pub- lished a volume of 500 pages, "Sketches of Travel in the Old and New World." There is no citizen in the South, who, by his teaching and example, and by the introduction of wise and beneficent measures, and by the foundation of a financial institution for the encouragenfent of the young, by building and founding commercial houses, has been of more benefit to the city and State of his adoption, than George W. Williams. IFrom the Charleston News and Courier. 'i QEORQE W^. WIUUIAMS «& CO. THE THIRTY-SECOND ANNIVERSARY, MAY, 1874. A EEMAEKABLE AND INTEEESTING CELEBRATION — INADGDEATION OF THE OAEOLINA SAVINGS BANK A GEAND OOMMEE- CIAL BANQUET THE EEMAEKS OF MESSES. WIL- LIAMS, BUIST, ANDEBWS, T. T. SIMONS, THE EEV. J. T. WIGHTMAN AND 0THEE8. Seldom has Charleston known a more pleasant and inter- esting gathering around the festive board, than that which met on Saturday afternoon, to celebrate at once the 32d anni- versary of the great mercantile and banking house of George "W". Williams & Co., and the inauguration of "The Carolina Savings Bank," an addition to our banking facilities, which is the offspring of the energy of the distinguished head of the firm, and for which it is safe to predict a career as won- derfully prosperous as that of every other business enterprise launched under his auspices. The name of George W. Wil- liams & Co. , long before the war, had become as familiar as household words to the commercial community of Charleston, The history of the house is a record of spotless probity, in- domitable energy, remarkable tact, and success that has been as unvarying as it has been brilliant. Even more remarkable has been the individual career of Mr. Williams. He is em- phatically a self-made man. For more than the third of a century that he has guided the fortunes of the firm, he has had no less than twenty-five partners, many of whom have retired with fortunes, while all have acquired a competency. 110 The hoiise to--day occupies a proud position among the great business iirms North and South. It is worthy of note, tliat all of Mr. Williams's partners began as clerks in his house. The main establishment is on Hayne street, but the immense business of the lirm requires the use of over a dozen large wai chouses, many of which have been built since the -war in difierent sections of the city. Such a business, of course, gives employment to a large clerical force, besides twenty drays, and about one huadred colored laborers The Carolina Savings Bank, the inauguration of which was celebrated May 2d, 1874, was chartered at the last session of the General Assembly. Tlie Bank is situated in the rear of the Hayne street establishment and has a new and handsome front on Church street. At 2 o'clock, Saturday, a company of several hundred, including some of the most prominent citizens of Charleston, the clerks in the firm of George W. 'Williams & Co., and a number of invited guests, assembled in and near the private office of the senior partner. Among the guests were lawyers, doctors, merchants, bankers, brokers, factors, architects, and representatives from the ministry the army, the Bench, the press and the field of letters. The young men of the estab- lishment assembled in the same room, and to them and to his guests, Mr. Williams delivered the following address: REMARKS OF MR. WILLIAMS. Friends and Fellow-Citizens : This being tlie thirty-second- anniversary of a long business career, and the time fixed for the opening of the Carolina Savings Bank of Charleston, I have deemed it a fit occasion to invite you to unite with the partners and employees of our firm in celebrating the day. You must not imagine, because your speaker has been for more than the third of a century engaged in commerce, that he is an old man. Far from it. The truth is, he began business in his teens, and it is difficult for him to realize, up to. this day, that he is anything but a boy! Young or old. Ill he bas made up his mind that his work is nearly accomplished; and that in a few brief years the young men around him must take his place in the busy marts of trade. It is his earnest desire to see them, not only successful merchants, but making for themselves names honored in society. It is a happy provision of Providence that we are permit- ted to take only a retrospective view of life. If I had known thirty -six years ago what toils are necessary to secure even a moderate degree of success, perhaps I should not now be striving to do the work of a dozen men, but would be pur- suing the occupation of a farmer in the peaceful and fertile Valley of Nacoochee, Ga. I have not, my young iriends, as you may well imagine, found life a bed of roses, neither will you; there is, however, much of real pleasure in the daily discharge of one's duties, especially when we can see that our efforts are being crowned with success. As each of you, doubtless, desires to learn something of the secret of success, perhaps I shall not have a better oppor- tunity than the present of giving you my hard-earned busi- ness experience — beginning, as I did, in a financial crisis, and passing through many periods of commercial storms, which not only tried men's pockets, but their honesty and integrity too. The problem of success has been to me a life-time study. I have read the biographies and studied the characters of imany of the most successful men of the Old and New World, and have gone to the wisest man of ancient times to receive his testimony. I have also been a close observer of the con- duct of those witli whom I have had business transactions, and have watched with no small degree of interest the causes which lead to the failure of so many. By this precaution, I have avoided the rocks on which they were wrecked. I say, with health and the blessings of Heaven upon your labors, there is no reason why eYerj young man present should not succeed. 112 Honest success is salutary, not only to individuals, but the State. A firm composed of twenty partners acts as much upon the principle of competition as if there were but two. One of the advantages of a copartnership embracing many partners is, that the head of the firm selects from his clerks and acquaintances men who can fill certain departments of the business better than he could himself; when, perhaps, if the same men were left to manage for themselves, ten out of twelve would fail. To aid you in this good work before us, we have invited our friends to meet to-day not only to celebrate the anniversary of an old commercial house, but to witness the christening of one of its children. The Caeolina Savings Bank of Chaeleston. Having been for many years the financial adviser of numer- ous friends, 1 have long felt the necessity of establishing a Savings Bank in which my friends could, with safety, deposit their money, receiving for the same a fixed semi-annual interest. Such an institution we to-day inaugurate. Your speaker reluctantly stands Godfather to this new-born — he feels the responsibility — he is used to responsibilities, an d hav- ing assumed this, his best efforts will be exerted to make this daughter of Carolina a success and useful to the whole com- munity. His character, and the character of those associated with him, are pledged that the money deposited in the -V CAEOLINA SAVmOS BANK '7> shall be as secure as if invested in United States Bonds or English Consols. • My friends will pardon me, in this connection, for saying that in varied business transactions, amounting in the aggre- gate to more than one hundred million of dollars, our house has never failed to meet, to the hour, every pecuniary obli- gation, whether written or verbal, except for a short period during the war, when their remittances were intercepted. 113 It should be the aim of those of small means to seek safety rather than high rates of interest; it is seldom that the two go together. A Savings Bank, properly conducted, tends to encourage frugality, industry and thrift among the young and laboring classes, affording them the opportunity of hus- banding their resources. Many of you remember the great benefits derived from the old '"Charleston Savings Institu- tion," which was destroyed by the war. We need more banking capital to build up the waste places of Charleston; the high rates of interest have been a hind- rance to the Commercial, Manufacturing and Agricultural interests of the City and State. The late war was a political earthquake that shook the Southern States from centre to circumference, laying waste the finest portion of creation. Three thousand millions value in slaves, and as many millions of dollars in currency^ banking capital, bonds and the like, were swept out of existence at the surrender of Lee. While these misfortunes were overwhelming to the old men, their sons must not succumb, but struggle manfully to restore the country to its former prosperity. The old and middle aged have not, as a general thing been able to adapt themselves to the changed state of affairs; despondency has laid its frigid hand on them, paralyzing their energies. Some young men are averse to slow accumulations, their heads are filled with scheming speculations. "Hundreds and thousands" are in- significant in their eyes; they look for a few lucky turns of the wheel of fortune to make them millionaires ; they hope to cope successfully with Stewart, Astor and Yanderbilt. A few words more and I have done. A crusty old bache- lor friend of mine felt it his Christian duty to warn young men to beware of widows, my word of caution to you is to beware of lawyers. Lawyers, yoii know, must live,; that fact I discovered in my youthful verdancy. My friend intormed me that there was nothing like the Charleston Bar in talent, integrity and virtue, this side of Boston. Said he, there is my attorney, Petigru, you can trust him" not only with your 114 SOUL, but with your MONEY too. Indeed, jou cannot go amiss in selecting from the old members of the Charleston Bar. But, Mr. Williams, selecting an attornej- is a very serious thing — very. And remembering my Augusta expe- rience, I groaned a responsive amen. It is, Mr. Williams, almost as important as choosing a wife; and you know, Mr. Williams,' if you were in search of a wife, you would not be likely to select from among the old ladies, however clever they might be. Another amen from me gaye my friend to understand I appreciated fully his touching words of counsel. I summed him up thus: In choosing a wife, I must select from among the youthful, and the same rule must govern in the selection of a legal adviser. I followed his advice to the letter; and from among the large number of the then promi- nent young men at the Charleston Bar 1 chose one in whom I have ever since confided, and of him I will say to-day, that he Las been faithful as a friend as he has been able and suc- cessful as an advocate. He is with us now. Gentlemen, permit mo to introduce the Hon. Henry Buist. LETTER FROM DANIEL HAND, MR. WILLIAMS' EAELY FRIEND. New Haven, May 20th, 1874. Mr. Geo. W. Williams, Charleston: Deak Sie: I regret that I could not be with you on the happy occasion of the thirty-second anniversary of your house and the inauguration of the Carolina Savings Bank. You know I have had a long, diligent, and laborious life. Yet I feel that I am in a great degree, if not mainly, indebted to you for the favorable results finally attained so unexpectedly, and so gratifying and so fortunate to me. How little did I antici- pate any such results when you first became a, party to our 115 then laborous and moderate business. 1 have known some- thing of the business of Augusta for more than half a cen- tury, and I am confident in all that rime there has been no other instance of success in any department at all compared to yours. Yon are yet in the prime of life, and may reason- ably hope for many years of health, vigor and eminent use- fulness to yourself and others. I hope your family may long be spared to you, and you to tliem; and that the divine blessing may be upon you and abide with all during all your lives. Ever your friend, DANIEL HAND.