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Full text of "Historic ornament, elements of ornament, practical design, applied design"

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GAYLORD 






PHINTED IN U.S.A. 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/cletails/cu31924102731720 



I. c. s. 

REFERENCE LIBRARY 



A SERIES OF TEXTBOOKS PREPARED FOR THE STUDENTS OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS AND CONTAINING 

IN PERMANENT FORM THE INSTRUCTION PAPERS, 

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS, AND KEYS USED 

IN THEIR VARIOUS COURSES 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT 

ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT 

PRACTICAL DESIGN 

APPLIED DESIGN 



11- 5122 



SCRANTON 
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY 

7 



A/K 




Copyright, 1901, 1904, by International Textbook Company. 



Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 



Historic Ornament: Copyright, 1900, by The Colliery Engineer Company. 
Elements of Ornament: Copyright, 1900, by The Colliery Engineer Company. 
Practical Design: Copyright, 1901, by The Colliery Engineer Company. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 
Applied Design, Part 1: Copyright, 1901, by The Colliery Engineer Company. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 
Applied Design, Part 2: Copyright, 1901, by International Textbook Company. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. * 



All rights reserved. 



Printed in the United States. 



CONTENTS 



Historic Ornament Section Page 

Introduction . 3 1 

Ancient Ornament 3 9 

Primitive Ornament .... ... 3 9 

Egyptian Ornament . ... 3 14 

Assyrian Ornament . 3 45 

Classic Ornament . . 3 49 

Greek Ornament ... . 3 49 

Etruscan Ornament . . ... 3 71 

Greco-Roman Ornament .... 3 72 

Roman Ornament 4 1 

The Five Orders of Architecture . 4 2 

The Greek Orders . . . .4 2 

The Roman Orders . ... 4 17 

Romanesque Ornament . . 4 33 

Byzantine Ornament . 4 39 

Asiatic Ornament . 4 59 

Chinese and Japanese Ornament . 4 59 

Indian Ornament .... 4 64 

Arabian Ornament .4 69 

Turkish Ornament ,4 76 

Persian Ornament 4 78 

Moorish Ornament . . 4 80 

Western Art .... 4 95 

Celtic Ornament 4 95 

Gothic Ornament . . 4 99 

Renaissance Art 5 1 

Italian Renaissance . 5 4 

French Renaissance ... 5 24 

German and English Renaissance .... 5 51 

iii 



IV 



CONTENTS 



Historic Ornament — Continued 
Conclusion 

Historic Lettering , . 
Antique Egyptian Alphabet 
Light Antique Egyptian Alphabet . 
Heavy Antique Egyptian Alphabet . . 
Medieval Roman Alphabet . . . 

Light and Heavy French Roman Alphabet 
Gothic Alphabet . . .... 

Old English Alphabet 

Elements of Ornament 

Composition 

Surface Decoration 

Conventionalism 

Ornament . 

Natural Ornament ■ . . 

Conventional Ornament . . . . . 

Classification of Elements 

Geometrical Elements ... 

Architectural Elements 

Industrial Elements . . 

Natural Elements 

Animal Elements . . 

Human Figure .... . . 

Practical Design 

Principles Involved 

Planning the Design 

Drop Pattern 

Turn-Over Method . . 

Variety of Methods . . , 

Borders, Corners, and Stripes 

Applied Design 

Geometrical Considerations 
Arrangement of Details 
Application of Ornament 
Hanging Fabrics . . . 



Section 


Page 


5 


56 


5 


61 


5 


63 


5 


65 


5 


69 


5 


69 


5 


71 


5 


75 


5 


79 


6 


1 


6 


3 


6 


12 


6 


15 


6 


24 


6 


28 


6 


34 


6 


3,4 


6 


35 


6 


40 


6 


41 


6 


43 


6 


56 


7 


1 


7 


5 


7 


12 


7 


19 


7 


24 


7 


39 


8 


1 


8 


9 


8 


18 


8 


18 



CONTENTS ' 




V 


Applied Design — Continued 


Section 


Page 


Wall Decoration . . . 


■ 8. 


20 


Ceiling Decoration . ... ' . 


8 


34 


Floor Decoration 


. 8 


38 


Utensils and Vases ... 


. 8 


41 


Textile Fabrics 


9 


1 


Character of the Threads 


9 


4 


Yarns . . . 


. 9 


7 


Cotton, Flax, and Silk . 


9 


12 


Warp and Weft ... ... 


9 


13 


Double Cloths 


9 


18 


- Jacquard Machine ... 


9 


25 


Carpets 


. 9 


29 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

(PART 1.) 



introductio:n^. 

1. Meaning of "Ornament." — -The term ornament in 
its more limited sense is applied to such elements of decora- 
tion as are adapted or derived from natural forms. These 
differ from what we consider the geometrical elements, inas- 
much as they are organic, and suggestive of life and growth. 
They depend for their expression on the general arrange- 
ment of their branches, leaves, and blossoms, while the 
geometrical elements owe their expression entirely to their 
geometrical form and arrangement relative to one another. 
When simply drawn on paper and in no way applied to any 
object, or used for any purpose other than the expression of 
itself, one of these elements of decoration may be considered 
simply as an ornament. It does not become an element 
of decoration until it is applied to something, and in the 
abstract, the term ornament should not be confused with the 
term decoration, which is distinctly applied ornament. 

2. Meaning of " Decoration." — The term decoration 
signifies the application, or the result of the application, of 
ornament to objects or surfaces. It does not mean the 
simple "sticking on" of an ornament to a surface, but con- 
veys the idea of the adaptation of an ornamental form to 
suit the requirements of its position and the purpose of the 
object to which it is applied. 

§3 

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title paije. 



2 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

The elements of decoration consist of geometrical lines, 
natural foliage, artificial objects, animals, and the human 
figure. All these may be considered as ingredients or com- 
ponents that may be mixed and applied in various propor- 
tions according to certain standard and acknowledged rules 
termed principles. The rule by which any one mixture is 
accomplished determines the style or class of the design. 

3. Principles of Decoration. — The principles of 
decoration, considered separately and distinctly from the 
elements that are used to make up the design, are dependent 
on, and in harmony with, the rules of architectural propor- 
tion. This may be illustrated by considering the subdivision 
of a wall surface into three horizontal bands — the dado, the 
wall, and the frieze — in the proportion of the pedestal, 
column, and entablature of an architectural order. True, 
there are styles of design where these proportions are. at 
variance with any architectural order ; but, with few excep- 
tions, these will be found to exist in styles or periods of 
historic art wherein the orders of classic architecture were 
unknown or misunderstood, as will be considered hereafter. 
This general division of a wall surface, however, may exist 
by the simple placing of horizontal lines to mark the 
heights, this subdivision being purely geometrical. The 
decoration may be extended by applying to the subdivisions 
such natural foliage as leaves and running vines; artificial 
objects, such as the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians; or 
animals, and the human figure, as seen in the Gothic and 
Renaissance work; or a combination of these forms. In 
each case, however, the main subdivisions are in accordance 
with general rules; and the surface covering, though gov- 
erned by less restrictive rules, is, at the same time, sub- 
servient to a definite proportion of ornamented to plain 
surface, different under different circumstances. 

4. Elements of Decoration. — Whatever the theme of 
decoration — whether it be the expression of the invention of 
a new idea, or only the arbitrary adoption of some familiar 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 3 

form — two elementary conditions will always be found to 
exist: first, a decoration produced by an arrangement and 
joining of dots and lines, or by a combination of geometrical 
figures in accordance with the laws of rhythm, regulation, 
and symmetry; and second, a decorative effect arising from 
the attempt to represent objects from the external world. 

The elements nearest at hand for imitation are found in 
organic nature with its plants, animals, and the human form ; 
but inorganic nature also furnishes models, as in the forms 
of crystallization, such as snowflakes, and various phenom- 
ena, as clouds, lightning, waves, etc. ; besides which there 
are rich resources open in artificial objects fashioned by 
man himself, as vases and utensils of daily use. 

5. Combination of Elements. — It may now be more 
readily understood how all kinds of elements may be com- 
bined. Geometrical may be united with natural forms, and 
details and ideas suggested by natural forms may be com- 
bined with creatures of the human imagination to form 
eccentricities that do not really exist in nature, but that man 
has always delighted in adopting as representative of some 
higher or supernatural power. Illustrative of these, we have 
the sphinx, so identified with Egyptian art; the centaur 
and the mermaid in classic art; and the animal bodies with 
human heads, and the combination of beasts or fishes with the 
wings of birds, or with plant life and foliated terminations, 
prevalent in many details of Gothic and Renaissance art. 

6. Symbolio Devices. — In heraldry and armorial bear- 
ings, with which the decorations of the Middle Ages and 
following centuries are replete, there are a number of devices 
with definite names that depend entirely on the combination 
of different characteristics, borrowed from different classes 
of animals, in order to combine in one figure the attributes 
of several natural beasts. For instance, we have the dragon, 
with the body of a serpent and the head of a carnivorous 
bird, and the wings of a bat, combining in the one animal 
the stealth and treachery of the snake, the cruelty and 



4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT, § 3 

passion of the vulture, and the uncanny and silent secrecy 
associated with the nocturnal habits of the bat. 

On the other hand, we have a variation of the form or 
characteristics of an individual animal, in order to emphasize 
those characteristics for the purpose represented. In many 
of the armorial devices of Great Britain is found a represen- 
tation of a lion — never in the true form of the lion, as we are 
in the habit of thinking of him in the jungle, but a lion 
with a long attenuated body, generally with one or both fore 
paws raised from the ground, and always with his mouth 
open and protruding tongue and teeth. The lion is indica- 
tive of power and strength, and, consequently, of sover- 
eignty. The attenuation of his body increases the feeling 
of litheness associated with animals of the cat tribe, while 
the expression given his face and forefeet is indicative of 
firmness, and power for aggressiveness, offensiveness, or 
defensiveness, as the case may require. 

7. Influence of Architecture. — Decoration is applied 
art, and the forms used in decoration become varied accord- 
ing to the purpose for which they are used. Decoration, as 
applied to architecture, consists of the ornamentation of the 
structural features of a building — of the variation in color, 
or proportion of different surfaces that are adjacent, and of 
the introduction of familiar symbols, or objects, to convey a 
definite historical or religious idea. 

To a certain extent, all decoration partakes of the same 
characteristics as architectural decoration. Wall decoration 
is architectural, and consists of the variation in color or 
proportion of adjacent surfaces, or of the same surfaces 
divided. The decoration of silks and tapestries, either in 
the weaving or printing, is a variation of surface that must 
be further considered in its architectural relation, when they 
are hung on the walls, over the doors, or around the windows, 
and seen, not as plain surfaces, but in folds. The treatment 
of furniture is an architectural decoration, both in the orna- 
mentation of its structural features and in the application of 
symbols to portions of its surface. In fact, in all periods of 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 5 

art, it will be found that any attempt at ornamentation is 
governed directly or indirectly by the prevailing tastes in 
architecture and the sister arts. 

8. Conditions Influencing ArcMtecture. — Though 
ornament and architecture have been steadily progressive 
from the days of earliest Egypt to the close of the nine- 
teenth century, there is little resemblance between the 
characteristic ornament or architecture of any two periods, 
except where there has been a deliberate revival of a certain 
style of art. Where the artists of a nation or locality have 
been left to their own devices and originality, they have 
produced a style of ornament suitable to their purpose, their 
period, and their relations, that is in no way connected 
or suited to other surrounding conditions. Although the 
influences that have affected the style and character of the 
ornament of different periods are many, the religious and 
geographical influences are probably the strongest. Political 
influences determine, to a certain extent, the character, 
according to the government and relations of the people, 
and also the profusion and elaboration, and, to a certain 
extent, the quality of execution, of ornament; for the richer 
a nation becomes, the more she expends on her monuments 
of public utility and beauty, and the more elaborate her 
citizens become in the taste and decoration of their house- 
holds. In fact, we find no art progress in any country imtil 
it begins to show signs of amassing wealth. 

9. Influence of Religion. — The effect of religion in 
ornament can be traced through all periods, and thosfc 
nations with whom religious belief was more closely inter- 
mingled with the civic and domestic duties of the day, 
expressed in every detail of their ornament some tribute to 
a superior being. During the laxity of morals and general 
religious fervor toward the close of the Renaissance period, 
we find few religious forms woven in the fabric of any class 
of ornament, except the pagan forms that were borrowed in 
ignorance from an antique religion and an ancient art. 



6 HISTORIC ORNAMENT, § 3 

This free use of symbolic forms, both ancient and modern, 
gives us an unlimited field for combinations in ornamental 
design, which, though practiced through fifty centuries, has 
not exhausted the possibilities for originality. 

10. Decorative Art. — All decoration and decorative 
art, whether carved, painted, or modeled, is the expression 
of the wants, facilities, and sentiments of the age in which 
it is created. All products of decorative art should possess 
fitness, proportion, and harmony of both form and color, in 
order that the result may express what we term repose ; and 
beauty results from that repose that the mind feels when 
the eye, the intellect, and the affections are satisfied, and 
free from any sense of want. As in architecture, construc- 
tion may be decorated, but uuder no circumstances can 
decoration be constructed. Decoration must always form a 
part of the purpose or object with which it is associated. 

It is useless to try to deceive the eye and -intellect by 
carving a natural vine on a stone tablet. No right-minded 
person will ever take the imitation for the real vine, and 
the highest tribute that can be paid to it is that the carver 
was skilled with his chisel and hammer, and the designer 
had failed to understand and appreciate his material. If 
the vine is to be a stone vine, let it be reduced to a form 
that is suitable in stone; if it is to be a woven vine in a 
fabric, let its form be reduced to the limitations of results 
obtainable from the loom ; if it is a vine to be painted on a 
wall surface, let it be a painted representation of the char- 
acteristics of a certain vegetable growth, and not a picture 
or portrait of an object that if real would be highly out of 
place where represented. 

11. Conventionalism. — This proper representation of 
a familiar form according to the position it is to occupy, or 
the material in which it is to be executed, is called conven- 
tionalism, and is the first detail of applied art that the 
designer must learn to comprehend. An old axiom states, 
"That which is beautiful must be true," and we may add 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 7 

to it conversely, "That which is true must be beautiful," 
and on this axiom depends all the beauty of ornament in 
architecture, decoration, and the allied arts. 

Ornamental design is not portrait painting — it is not the 
faithful portrayal of the details of nature for purely pictorial 
purposes. The skill of the artist in this branch of art is 
applied to making something of simple utility an object of 
beauty; whereas, the portraitist is engaged in rendering on 
canvas, or other surface, an absolute portrait of the subject 
before him. 

13. Consistency In Designing. — The decorative de- 
signer must have in mind the construction or fabrication of 
a useful article, with the value and utility of which he com- 
bines his art. The figure portraitist, landscape portraitist, 
or floral portraitist, if we may so distinguish them, has 
before him a subject that he intends to translate in paint to 
a surface that shall have nothing associated with it in the 
mind but the figure, the country, or the fiowers it repre- 
sents. If the decorative designer takes the same subject, 
he does not represent it with the same fidelity, because it is 
applied to a utensil, and the object of the utensil must not 
be lost sight of; and if he decorates the surface of a utensil 
or dress material with a design that claims to be an absolute 
portrayal of the flower or other device itself, he states in his 
decoration that this is nothing but the representation of a 
flower and he draws the mind away from the fact that it 
really is a utensil; this is not true, and, according to the 
foregoing axiom, the result cannot be beautiful. 

13. If, in the weaving of a carpet, or other floor cover- 
ing, the designer attempts to portray natural bunches of 
roses and rose leaves, he is suggesting to the observer that 
this is a picture or portrait of a bunch of roses, executed 
entirely to please the senses as a portrayal of the flowers 
themselves, which is not true; for, if it were, we should 
hang it near the level of the eye, separating it from any 
sense of utility, other than the conveying of a feeling of 



8 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

satisfaction and delight to the affections and to the intellect; 
whereas, as a matter of fact, it is a floor covering decorated 
with an out-of-place design. 

14. General Rules. — In the decoration of a surface, 
the general form is first cared for and subdivided or orna- 
mented by general lines; the interstices may then be filled 
with ornament and may themselves again be divided and 
fully enriched for closer observation. But all ornament, no 
matter how minutely carried out, should be based on a 
geometrical system of construction, as a true proportion will 
be found to exist between all members so based. 

In all surface decoration, a rule to be observed is that all 
lines should be traced back to their branchings from a general 
parent stem, so that each detail of the ornament, no matter 
how distant, can be traced back through its branch to the 
root. This makes the design rational, but the connection 
with the parent stem and root must not be so marked as to 
dominate the spirit of the. design. Another rule requires 
that all junctions of curved lines with other curved lines, or 
of curved lines with straight lines, should be so made that 
they are tangent to each other at the point of junction, if 
they are intended to express parts of the same design. And 
a third rule says that flowers and other natural objects 
should not be used as ornaments in their natural forms, but 
should be conventionalized or reduced to geometrical princi- 
ples that convey the idea of their representation without 
purporting to be a likeness of the original, for the reasons 
heretofore set forth. 

15. Color may be used to assist in the development of a 
form or idea, or to distinguish objects or parts of objects, 
one from another; or color may be used to assist light and 
shade, helping undulations of light and form by the proper 
distribution of several different tints. Color should never 
be used, however, where the exigencies of the case do not 
positively require it. Every design should depend for its 
intrinsic beauty on its form and its proportion, and these 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 9 

may be enhanced by combinations and relations of color; 
but the design is a poor one that depends entirely on color 
for its attractiveness and beauty. 

With this understanding of the facts, let us now consider 
what has been done by our predecessors in the field of orna- 
mental design. 

AISrCIENT ORlSrAMElSrT. 



PRIMITIVE ORNAMENT. 

16. Under primitive ornament, we will consider those 
efforts at ornamental design observable in the works of the 
savage tribes. These peoples had no written history of art 
from which to draw ideas, no theory or rules of proportion to 
govern their conceptions, and, consequently, the expression 
of art as exhibited in their decorated utensils can be con- 
sidered pure and untrammeled. 

IT. Influence of Nature. — From the testimony of trav- 
elers in but partially explored countries, it would appear 
that there is no place on the face of the earth where some 
attempt is not made at ornamentation, no matter how crude 
a state of civilization the people may be in. The desire for 
ornament is present in every race, and it develops and 
increases in importance directly in proportion to their prog- 
ress in civilization. Man appears everywhere impressed 
with the beauties of nature that surround him, with the 
mysteries governing the growths and phenomena that he 
cannot understand; and he seeks to imitate, within the 
limitations of his power, some of the works of his Creator. 
The earliest instinct of man is to create something; no 
matter how powerful he may be as a warrior, how dis- 
tinguished he may be as a tribal leader, or how wealthy he 
may be in the possession of earthly goods, he recognizes h's 
inability to explain the phenomena of nature, and naturally 
attributes it to a being higher than himself. It is at all times 



10 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

apparent that this being, whom he in his primitive way may- 
worship as a god, creates, by some undefined power, devel- 
opments and appearances that inspire him with mystery and 
awe. Consequently, he endeavors, in his own simple way, 
to call into existence creations of his own that shall impress 
those fellow men whom he considers his inferiors as much 
as he is impressed by the works of his mysterious Supreme 
Being. 

18. Origin of Tattooing. — In some savage tribes, this 
desire is expressed in the attempt to increase the facial 
expression by which he expects to strike terror to his enemies, 
rivals, or inferiors, or to create what appears to him a new 
and' mysterious beauty. This he accomplishes by tattooing, 
or sometimes merely with paint. It is a remarkable fact 
that hideous as this practice renders his visage, it is, in most 
cases, exercised with the greatest care that the lines shall be 
so placed as to increase the facial expression and develop, to 
the greatest extent, the eccentricities of his natural features. 
Trivial as this detail may at first appear, it lies at the bottom 
of the fundamental principles of decorative design. The 
savage warrior does not obliterate his own expression and 
cover his face with paint and tattoo marks to create a new 
one, but simply arranges the lines to emphasize the details 
of severity that he already possesses and with which he 
expects to inspire an impression of terror. 

19. Origin of Set Styles. — It can be clearly shown 
throughout all history that in certain periods, an individual 
mind, stronger than those with which it is surrounded, will 
impress itself on a generation and carry with it a host of 
other minds of inferior power. These inferior minds imitate 
what they know to be better than what they can create, but 
do not imitate so closely as to destroy their own individual 
ambition to originate. It is to this tendency that we owe 
the birth and the modifications of styles. 

The efforts of the people in the earliest stages of civiliza- 
tion are like those of children, though lacking in power of 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 11 

expression, they possess a grace and originality rarely found 
in middle age, and never in manhood's decline. The same 
may be found in the infancy of any art, which we will 
endeavor to point out as we go along. When art struggles 
for an existence, it succeeds by creating for itself new forms 
and new ideas, but, when reveling in its own successes, it 
fails. 

30. Effect of Traditional Styles. — The pleasure we 
receive in contemplating the crude attempts at ornament of 
the most primitive trjbes arises from our appreciation of a 
difficult accomplishment. We are interested in the evidence 
of the intention, and are surprised at the simple and child-like 
rudeness by which the result is accomplished. In fact, what 
we seek in their work of art is the evidence of mind — the 
evidence of that desire to create to which we have already 
referred. This evidence of mind, strange to say, is much 
more readily found in the rude attempts at savage ornament 
than in the innumerable productions of a highly advanced 
civilization. 

When art is maniifactured by a combined effort, instead 
of being originated by the efforts of an individual, the true 
instincts, which constitute its greatest charm, are lost. By 
this we mean that the art of the present day is the result of 
the combined efforts of artists and artisans through centuries 
of development, whereas the art of the savage tribes is the 
expression of the mind of an individual warrior, untram- 
meled by tradition. 

31. Expression of Taste in Savage Ornament. — In 

Fig. 1 is shown a reproduction of a cloth pattern, the original 
of which came from the savage tribes of the Samoan Islands. 
It is made from thin sheets of bark stripped from a peculiar 
species of tree, and is beaten out and united so as to form 
one long parallelogram of cloth. Certainly nothing could 
be more primitive as a method of manufacture, yet the pat- 
tern shows the existence of taste and skill, and an ingenuity 
of design rarely found in many of our woven fabrics of the 



12 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



present day. The pattern is executed by means of small 
wooden stamps, and the work, though rude and irregular in 
its execution, conveys the intention at every point. There is 
a skilful balancing of the masses and a judicious avoidance of 

lines that would tend to cause 
the eye to run in one direction. 
This is done by opposing each 
set of lines with others of 
opposite tendency. There are 
many styles and patterns of this 
work, all of which show posi- 
tive genius in their arrange- 
ment and development. 

33. Decorative Theory 
Exhibited by the Savage. — 

The next development in this 
primitive art is found in the 
attempts at wood carving, and 
the most likely place to look 
for it would be on the weapons 
used for the defense of the tribe, 
or in the chase of animals for 
food. The bravest or the most 
skilful of the warriors or hunters 
would desire to distinguish him- 
self somewhat above the others 
by the possession of a weapon, 
not only more useful, but, in 
his eyes, more complicated, and more beautiful. The best 
shape for the weapon he has already determined by experi- 
ence, and the enriching of its surface by carving naturally 
follows. 

The eye of the warrior being accustomed to the geometrical 
forms and details of the stamped cloths, his hand attempts 
to imitate them in the handles of his wooden utensils by 
means of knife cuts, and the paddle shown in Fig. 2 illustrates 
how faithfully this representation has been carried out. 




§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



13 




This instrument is from New Zealand, and the taste exhibited 
in its carving would bear favorable comparison with the art 
works of the highest state of civiliza- 
tion. There is not a line on its sur- 
face misapplied; the general shape is 
most graceful and elegant, and the 
decoration is applied everywhere to 
best develop the form. 

The New Zealander's instinct taught 
him that his paddle should be strong, 
not only in reality, but in appearance, 
and his ornament is so disposed as to 
give an appearance of strength greater 
than it would have had if the surface 
had remained undecorated. The band 
in the center of the length of the 
blade is continued around both sides, 
binding the border that extends around 
the edge, and this latter appears to 
hold in place all the other bands. Had 
these bands run out like the center 
one, they would appear to have a tend- 
ency to slip off, as the center one is 
the only one that can occupy its posi- 
tion around the end of the paddle 
with repose. 










Mm. 






.% 




Fig. 2. 



33. Value of the Study of Ilis- 

forlc Ornament. — These few facts 

lave been pointed out in the prece- 

iing pages, so that the student may 

ully appreciate that beauty of orna- 

tient does not depend on the fidelity 

nth which ancient ornament can be 

copied. The natural tendency of the 

mind will produce good results in 

the application of ornament in nearly 

all cases, if it is allowed to work 



14 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

logically and without influence from stereotyped or his- 
torical forms. 

The study of historic ornament is practiced to familiarize 
the student with what hds been done heretofore, to point 
out to him such parts of the ancient works as have been 
done well, and to show him why they are considered to be 
done well, and also to render him familiar with other works 
of celebrated art periods which, though they may be beauti- 
ful in themselves, are not, as a matter of fact, as high a 
grade of art as our New Zealander's paddle, because of the 
lack of expression of mind in the designs, and the tendency 
to imitate the works of what was believed to be a superior 
mind, rather than to develop a new style along new lines. 

34. Ho-w to Study Ornament. — From what has already 
been said, it will be easily understood that the ornament of 
a people carries in itself the characteristics of that people. 
It must be interpreted, however, by the aid of the history 
of the people as expressed in their monuments. The sub- 
ject of historic ornament should therefore be studied, not 
only with regard to its grace and beauty, but as a key to a 
portrayal of the qualities, characteristics, and disposition of 
the people to whom it belonged. 

In the consideration of the ornament of a country, we 
must first investigate all the details that are likely in any 
way to affect the art, in order that we may better under- 
stand why certain characteristics exist in the ornament of 
one people and are entirely absent in that of another. 



EGYPTIAK OR]SrAME]SrT. 

35. Influence of the Nile on Egyptian Ornament. 

It seldom or never rains in Egypt, except in the delta at the 
mouth of the River Nile, and nature has provided for the 
fertilizing of the land by an annual overflow of the river 
that brings down mud and alluvial soil from the mountain 
regions, and deposits it on top of the old soil, thus enrich- 
ing It. For three months the water slowly rises in the Nile 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 15 

Valley, and, for three motiths following, the river slowly 
subsides and then remains a narrow stream for the rest of 
the year, bordered by green fields of cotton and grass. The 
phenomenon of this yearly inundation of the Nile, Fig. 3, 
slow, majestic, and munificent, naturally impressed the early 
Egyptian with a feeling of mystery and awe. In fact, in 
this inundation lies the key to the wealth of ancient Egypt. 




Fig. 3. 

Dwelling during the dry season on what would appear to 
be a barren plain, the Egyptian saw the provision of a 
Supreme Being working for his g6od when the waters of the 
Nile gradually overflowed, fertilized the soil, and then slowly 
subsided, leaving him to plant his seed. It is not strange, 
therefore, that the Nile and everything associated with it 
should be sacred. In all Egyptian ornament, we find some 
symbol or detail that reminds us of this great beneficence of 
Providence and favor to the Egyptian. The Egyptian was 
an appreciative mortal, and in his art and architecture every- 
where placed some reminder of the fact that he could do 
nothing and would be nothing without the care and watch- 
fulness of this supreme power. 

36. Antiquity of Egyptian Ornament. — In study- 
ing Egyptian ornament, however, we cannot begin at the 



16 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

beginning, as we can with other styles, inasmuch as we have 
no historical records of any beginning. A peculiarity of the 
Egyptian, over all other styles is that the more ancient the 
ornament, the nearer perfection is the art. Architectural 
monuments, erected 3,000 years before the Christian era, are 
built of stones taken from the ruins of much more ancient 
buildings that were really more perfect. We are therefore 
compelled to study Egyptian art during a period of its 
decline, but can accept the style as absolutely original, inas- 
much as we have no record of the existence of an earlier 
nation from whom they could have borrowed it. 

In Egyptian art, there are no traces of infancy, nor of for- 
eign influence, and it is safe to infer that the Egyptian artist 
drew his inspiration directly from nature. The types of his 
ornament are few but perfectly natural, and in the earliest 
period of Egyptian art, the representation is but slightly 
removed from the type ; but the later we descend in history, 
the more we find the original types receded from, until it 
is difficult, in many cases, to discover from what original 
idea the ornament, by successive mental efforts, has been 
developed. 

37. Influence of Religion. — Although the Egyptians 
decorated every article of utility that was in any way asso- 
.ciated with their civil, domestic, or religious duties, we 
depend for examples of their ornament almost entirely on 
the designs and writings executed in connection with their 
complicated form of religion. 

The temples, tombs, and other sacred monuments of the 
most ancient inhabitants afford us the most rational and pro- 
gressive examples of ornament, and it is from these that we 
derive nearly all the information that we have of the man- 
ners and customs of the early Egyptians. In the temples 
are preserved certain stone tablets and other devices, on 
which are records of certain ceremonies in connection with 
their religion, and these records are always executed in their 
peculiar form of hieroglyphs. The word hieroglyph, being 
literally translated, means sacred writing, but in its specific 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



17 



sense is used to indicate the peculiar pictured descriptions 
of the Egyptian religious ceremonies that are found carved 
and painted on the walls of their tombs and temples. 

38. The Egyptian temple consisted of a small sanctu- 
ary, or sekos, as it was called, that was reached through a 
large columnar hall known as the hall of assembly, or some- 
times the hypostyle hall, the latter term meaning covered 
over on columns. In front of the hypostyle hall was a 
large open court, surrounded by high and massive walls and 




Fig. 4. 

entered between two tower-like front walls, called pylons. 
Each of these parts was varied slightly in different structures, 
some having two courts in front of the hypostyle hall, known 
as the outer and inner court, and in many of the temples the 
sekos was surrounded by a number of smaller apartments. 
On the outside of the temple, the entrance was approached 
through a long avenue — often a mile or more in extent — 
lined on each side with colossal sphinxes, and occasionally 



18 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



ending in a large monumental gateway advanced before the 
main entrance to the temple, as shown in Fig. 4. This 
gateway was called a propylon, and it stood alone before 
the main entrance like a silent sentinel. The example shown 
in Fig. 4 is from the temple of Rameses III, at Karnak, and 
from this a fair idea of the magnitude of these great archi- 
tectural details may be obtained. The faces of the propylon 
were always decorated with elaborate hieroglyphic devices 
as shown, and over the top was carved the winged globe, of 
which we shall have occasion to speak hereafter. Beyond the 
propylon stand the two great pylons that form the outer front 
wall of the building, and the entrance between these two 
masses is similar in detail to the gateway advanced in front. 
A better idea of this arrangement can be obtained from 
Fig. 5, which shows a portion of the avenue, the entrance, 
and pylons of the temple of Edfou, in Upper Egypt. In 




FIG. 5. 



this case, the propylon is omitted, and at the end of the 
long avenue of sphinxes stand two great obelisks — one on 
each side of the entrance. The walls of the pylons them- 
selves are decorated in hieroglyphs, the design at the bottom 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



19 



representing a group of prisoners, 
about to be executed by the king. 



taken from Palestine, 



39. Interior of the Temple. — On the inside of the 
temple, these pylons are sculptured in much the same man- 
ner, though the lower part of them is largely covered by the 
roofed passageway around the edges of the court. Fig. 6 is 



j.jy3iiiiic. ' iiw iii ij: 11. 1 1 



yip;i#ij|ijiMLJJ|]IUiijBililE 





*^MEi_-nrf *a-_^j;iirj'-'- ^ 



Fig. 6. 

a reproduction of a photograph taken in the inner court of a 
temple on the island of Philse, and shows the appearance of 
these pylons on the inside, and a portion of the columns 
supporting the roof on the right side of the court. The 
pylons were massive structures, and contained, in their in- 
terior, a number of secret rooms accessible only to the 
priest and members of the royal family. 

An entrance to the interior of one of the pylons is seen on 
the left of Fig. 6, and it will be observed that the general 
treatment around the door and over it is precisely the same, 
but on a smaller scale, as the main entrance to the temple 



30 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



and the general character of the propylon illustrated in 
Fig. 4. 

A better idea of the massiveness of these pylons may be 
obtained from Fig. 7, a photograph of the temple of Edfou, 
showing the taper of the walls from the ground upwards, a 
characteristic of all Egyptian architecture. This illustra- 
tion is taken from above tlje side walls of the temple, so 




Fig. 7. 



that the entrance columns of the hypostyle hall at the 
rear of the court may be seen, and by comparing Fig. 7 
with Fig. 5, both being illustrations of the same tem- 
ple, a fair idea of the state of preservation of this great 
edifice may be obtained, Fig. 5 representing it in its 
original form and Fig. 7 being a photograph of it at the 
present day. "^ 

At the top, the walls of the pylons flared out, forming a 
simple concave cornice, above which gleaming cressets at 
night and flaunting banners by day were carried on long 
iron stocks or staffs, which, combined with the highly 
colored decorations on the walls, gave the building an effect 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



21 



of mysterious grandeur, perfectly consistent with the com- 
plex system of the ancient Egyptian belief. 

The iron stocks carrying the banners, etc. were inserted 
in the recesses shown on each side of the entrance. 



P£f 



y- 



M % k 



■m^*^^Tf^---^j^ I - -;i^ 



4,* 




Fig. 8. 



30. Obelisks. — The obelisks in front of the temple are 
in themselves characteristic of Egyptian art. Each of these 
consisted of a tall stone shaft, quarried in a single piece, 



23 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

and sculptured on four sides with elaborate hieroglyphic 
ornament. A photographic reproduction of one of these 
interesting details is shown in Fig. 8. This was one of a 
pair of obelisks known as "Cleopatra's needles," and is 
shown as it stood in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, for 
nearly 2,000 years. It is 67 feet in height, and 7 feet 
7 inches square at the base. It originally stood with its 
companion before the entrance of the temple at Heliopolis 
in Lower Egypt, but was removed to the city of Alexandria 
after the defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra by the Roman 
emperor Augustus, just before the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era. In the year 1878 it was removed from Alexandria 
and transported to New York City, where it now stands on 
a mound on the east side of Central Park. 

31. The temples differ widely in size and elaboration 
of plan, but the general scheme of arrangement is the same 
in all cases, whether the example is taken from Northern 
Egypt or Southern Nubia. Between the years 1600 and 
1100 B. C, the greatest temples were built. The Pharaohs 




*' Lllll l i" •■••••••1^ ,, 



Fig. 9. 

wanted eternal dwelling places for their deities, and built 
their temples entirely of stone, laid up in blocks so massive 
and so well fitted that they have withstood the ravages of 
time down to the present day. 

In Fig. 9 is shown the plan of the Ramesseum, a temple 
built by, and named after, Rameses, one of the kings of 
Egypt, who reigned about 1600 B. C. Here the sanctuary 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



23 



is shown at A, surrounded by a number of smaller apart- 
ments a, which were used by the priests and members of 
the royal family, both as places for their mysterious devo- 
tions and as royal residences; the king and his immedi- 
ate relatives being considered earthl}!- representatives of 
the gods. The sanctuary contained the shrine, and was 
entered through either of two portals, one from the hypo- 
style hall B and the other communicating with one of the 
sacred apartments a'. 

At B is shown the hypostyle hall, the roof of which was 
supported by two sets of columns, the central ones being 




longer than those on each side, in order to provide a clear- 
story for the admission of light and air. 

This is more clearly shown in Fig. 10, which is an illus- 
tration photographed from a restored model of the great 
hypostyle hall in the temple at Karnak. At a is seen the 
double row of long columns, which are connected longitu- 
dinally by the stone lintels d, in order to receive the edges of 



24 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

the stone "slabs c, which form the roof over the nave, or cen- 
tral portion of the temple. On each side of these are the 
shorter columns d, which are connected transversely by the 
lintels e, and the inside row longitudinally by the lintel /, 
to support the roof slabs ^ in the same manner as over the 
nave. An open space A is thus left to admit light to the 
interior of the hall, and form a clearstory similar to the 
same detail in our mo/e modern cathedrals, of which we 
shall learn later on. 

The spacing of the supports being governed entirely by 
the length of lintel the builders were able to quarry, the 
columns are exceedingly close together. For this- reason, 
large apartments were never entirely roofed over in the 
Egyptian temples, but were open to the sky, either wholly 
or in part, as shown in Fig. 9 at C, which is the inner court 
of the temple, from which the hypostyle hall must be 
entered. 

On each side of this inner court is a double row of columns 
supporting a roof extending from the side walls, while at the 
back is a single row of columns c, and a row of square 
piers d, which carry a portion of the roof that extends over 
from the hypostyle hall. Another row of square piers e car- 
ries the roof over the front end of this inner court, which, 
with the other partial coverings, surrounds the court with a 
narrow projecting roof on all four sides. 

32. The effect of this treatment must have been very 
imposing in itself, but, to add to the impression, colossal 
statues were carved on the inside faces of the square piers, 
and flights of stone steps led up to a galleiy at the level of 
the hypostyle hall, the floor of which was considerably above 
the level of the inner court. The outer, or entrance, court D 
was a comparatively plain enclosure, with columns on each 
side and a single flight of steps up to the floor of the inner 
court above. It was entered through a narrow portal /, 
flanked on each side by the massive pylons E, and served 
merely as an entrance court preparatory to the grandeur 
and solemnity of the more sacred apartments beyond. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



25 



33. The early Egyptian statues were usually colossal in, 
size, and there was no attempt at economy or saving of time 
in any structure that was erected for the purpose of religious 
ceremony or the burial of their dead. The pyramids (see 
Figs. 3 and 11) were erected as tombs for the kings, and 
give a very fair idea of the patience and persistence of this 
ancient people, that would work 100,000 men for 30 years on 
a tomb for the body of their king, at a cost of over $40,000,- 
000. It is a mystery to this day how the stones were quar- 
ried and transported with the primitive tools and machinery 
in use 3,000 years before the Christian era, for this great 
pyramid of Cheops, 800 feet square at the base, and 450 feet 
in height, is the largest structure in the world today. 

34. The Great SpMnx. — Next to the pyramids in 
massive grandeur comes the Great Sphinx at Gizeh. This 
is a statue of the Egyptian god Harmachis, carved out of 
solid rock, making a figure 146 feet long, 65 feet high, and 




Fig. 11. 



34 feet across the shoulders. The body, which has the form 
of a crouching lion, is now entirely buried in drifted sand, 
measuring 28 feet from chin to top, 
; shoulders, are still visible above the 



but the human head 
and the broad, 



26 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § S 

sand drifts, as shown in Fig. 11. Between the forefeet of 
the body is excavated a temple where the god was wor- 
shiped, and, if built at the same time as the sphinx, this 
temple is the oldest architectural monument on record, as it 
antedates the pyramids over 1,000 years. 

35. Types of People. — There were two types of people 
among the Egyptians, varying decidedly in physique and 
intellectual appearance. One type of aristocratic origin 
possessed a refined face, with a moderately high forehead, 
aquiline nose, rather full lips, and rounded chin; the other, 
type was from plebeian stock, with low forehead, short nose, 
heavy jaws, and very thick lips. The former was serious 
and thoughtful, grave, dignified, and religious; the latter 
gay, pleasure loving, light hearted, and good natured. These 
two types are represented in many of their hieroglyphs and 
wall paintings, and are often used as symbols of the very 
attributes we ascribe to them. The lower type have been 
used to express some degraded or inferior people, and the 
more refined type have been used to represent royal person- 
ages and the gods. 

The kings and royal families in Egypt being considered 
earthly representatives of the gods, had privileges in the 
complicated system of Egyptian religious rites that the 
priests themselves did not enjoy. An offering to a king was 
equivalent, under certain circumstances, to an offering to 
one of the gods. The Egyptians worshiped many gods, but 
the chief ones were Osiris, Isis, Horus, and Thoth. They 
also paid religious regards to animals. Cats, dogs, cows, 
hawks, beetles, and monkeys were sacred throughout all 
Egypt, as will be seen hereafter. 

36. The Lotus and Papyrus. — The most conspicuous 
type in Egyptian art is the lotus (Fig. 12), a plant growing 
on the banks of ■ the Nile, somewhat resembling our pond 
lily, but differing from it in coloring. The lotus leaves float 
on the surface of the water at the end of a long stem, in the 
same manner as do the pond-lily leaves, but the blossom 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 27 

stands on a stiff stalk high out of the water, and is of a bril- 
liant purple color on the border petals, with a heart of deep 
orange. The lotus was a sacred flower, and as an offering to 
the gods was conspicuous in the highest forms of worship. 

It is easy to understand the importance of the lotus in 
Egyptian religious theories. The deified lotus stands repre- 
sentative of the homage rendered to the beneficent action of 
water and sun on the sleeping earth. It is the symbol of the 
annual evolution of the seasons, causing generation to suc- 
ceed generation, and the return of life, where everything had 
seemed barren in the immobility of death. 

The papyrus plant was also used largely in Egyptian art 
and associated with the Nile on whose banks it grew, but not 
to such an extent as the lotus. From the papyrus plant a 




kind of paper was manufactured on which the Egyptians 
wrote many of their sacred legends, and it is from the name 
of this plant that the modem word "paper " is derived. 

3*7. The Winged Disk. — The stm itself was also the 
object of direct worship, the ceremony of which was varied 
by the priests in order to make it penetrate more deeply 
among the masses. The disk, as representative of the sun, 
is used in many Egyptian hieroglyphs, and received a certain 



28 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



share of homage owing to its relation to agricultural devel- 
opment after the Nile had completed its inundation. A 
combination of the disk and feathered forms produced an 
ornament generally known as the winged disk, or the winged 
globe (Fig. 13). This consists of the solar disk, supported 




Fig. 13. 

on each side by an asp (the royal symbol of Upper and Lower 
Egypt), and the wide outstretching wings symbolize the 
untiring activity of the sun in its beneficence ; hence, a divine 
protecting power. It is emblematic as a whole of the tri- 
umph of right over wrong, and an inscription at Edfou says 
that Thoth, the god of speech and wisdom, ordered that this 
emblem should be carved over every door in Egypt. It is 
everywhere apparent in Egyptian sacred painting, but varies 
slightly in detail according to the place where it is used. 
Wherever it appeared carved over the doorway of a temple, 
painted on the walls of a tomb, or woven into a fabric of the 
vestments of a priest or king, this emblem was a monument 
of the Egyptian's religious sincerity and 
appreciation of benefits derived from 
his god. 

38. The ScarabEeus. — The scara- 
hsevLS, or beetle, Fig. 14, was identified 
with the rising sun, and typified creation 
and resurrection, or new birth. Its 
exact significance is somewhat com- 
plicated, as are in fact all Egyptian 
emblems; but, owing to the habits of the beetle, slowly 
developing from a grub through various stages to a full- 
grown insect, it is emblematic of progress and evolution. 
In the tombs and ruins of the Egyptian temples are found 




Fig. 14. 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 39 

thousands of models of these beetles that seem to have been 
worn as amulets. 

39. Consistency of Egj'ptlan Ornament. — Another 
type of Egyptian ornament is the palm, from which canopies 
were made, and also the fans and shades that were held over 
the heads of royal personages during ceremonies, to protect 
them from the sun. These few types form the foundation of 
an immense variety of ornament with which the Egyptian 
decorated the temple of his gods, the palace of his kings, the 
covering of his person, and his articles of luxury, as well as 
those articles of more modest daily use, from the wooden 
spoon that fed him in infancy to the mournful boat that 
carried his embalmed body across the Nile to its final resting 
place in the Valley of the Dead. Following these types in a 
manner so nearly allied to the natural form, they observed 
the same laws that the works of nature ever displayed, and, 
no matter how conventionalized their ornament ever became, 
it was always true. The Egyptian artist never violated a 
natural principle, and, on the other hand, he never destroyed 
the consistency of his conventional representation by too 
close an imitation of the type. A lotus flower carved in 
stone, or forming the graceful termination of a column, or 
painted flat on the walls as an offering to the gods, was never 
a lotus portrait, and never impressed the beholder as one 
that might be plucked, but was always the architectural rep- 
resentation of it suited to the material in which it was cut, 
or the colors in which it was rendered. 

40. Conventionalism. — A good idea of the simple con- 
ventionality of their forms can be obtained from Fi^. 15, 
where at («) is shown the conventional representation of the 
lotus blossom, the outside leaves of which, in colored work, 
were usually painted a deep green. The first low of petals 
was also green, but of a lighter shade, while the innermost 
petals were red. The space between the petals was painted 
a deep yellow. At a distance from the eye, the red and 
yellow seemed to blend together and form a deep orange 



30 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

hue with a suggestion of surrounding green, characteristic 
of the general appearance of the lotus flower. 

The transition from [a) in Fig. 15 to the form shown at 
(d) is by no means a difficult matter, the omission of the 
innermost row of petals being the only radical change. 
From {d) to {c) is a simple development wherein the calyx 




FIG. 15. 



of the conventionalized flower has become larger in propor- 
tion to the petals, and from (c) to (d) is but a step in orna- 
mentation, showing the gradual growth of design from the 
conventionalized rendering of the blossom itself to a device 
that is purely ornamental and derived from, though in no 
way representative of, the Egyptian lotus. The further 
development of this form in Assyrian and Greek art will 
show the importance of this line of study. 

41. Classes of Egyptian Ornament. — Egyptian orna- 
ment may be divided into three classes: that which is con- 
structive, or forms a part of the monument itself; that which 
is representative, but is at the same time conventionally 
rendered; and that which is simply decorative. In each 
class, the ornament is always symbolic, and the few types 
mentioned, upon which it is founded, we find are but slightly 
changed during the entire period of Egyptian civilization. 

43. The student of historic ornament should familiarize 
himself with the difference between the terms style, class, 
and type. The term style is used to indicate the period or 
nationality of the ornament, as the Early Egyptian style; the 
term class is applied when we wish to indicate a subdivision 
of some style, as the constructive class of the Egyptian 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



31 



style. The term type is used to refer to the natural form 
from which the ornament is derived, as the lotus type of 
Egyptian ornament. 

43. Constructive Ornament. — Of the constructive 
ornament are the columns and their terminations, and the 
crowning members of the walls. The column base was fre- 




quently molded to represent the root, and the shaft was 
reeded in representation of the stalk, while the capital was 
carved similar to the form of a bud or full-blown lotus 
flower, as shown in Fig. 16, where at (a) is seen the bud 



32 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



capital, and at {b) the capital derived from the full-blown 
flower. All this was symbolic, as the lotus meant much to 
the Egyptian. 

In Fig. 17 are shown two square columns standing in the 
ruins of the temple of Karnak, the one to the left being dec- 
orated with a lotus flower carved in high relief, while the 
one to the right is similarly decorated with the papyrus 




Fig. 17. 



characteristic of 



plant. Thfe plain, severe treatment, so 
Egyptian art, is forcibly illustrated here. 

Another form of column flares out at the top, and has for 
its original type the papyrus or palm tree, as shown in Fig. 18. 
This style was usually placed in the center of the halls of 
assembly, with the lotus-bud columns on each side, as shown 
in Fig. 10. All columns were richly colored and sometimes 
decorated with hieroglyphs. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



33 



Feathers were held by the Egyptians as emblematic of 
sovereignty, and the cornices of their temples were usually 
decorated with ornaments derived from 
a combination of feathered forms. 

44. Representative Ornament. 

The second class of Egyptian ornament 
results from the conventional repre- 
sentation of commonplace things upon 
the walls of their tpmples and tombs. 
In this kind of ornament each repre- 
sentation is not only a detail of the 
wall decoration but is a hieroglyphic 
record of a fact. Sometimes it was 
carved in the surface of the walls, and 
sometimes merely painted ; and occa- 
sionally, it was both carved and painted. 
It was always most conventional, and 
certain details, such as the lotus and 
papyrus, were represented in the strictest 
geometrical arrangement, usually show- 
ingthe bud, blossom, 



and fruit in regular 
order, typifying the 
development of the 
entire plant. 

In Fig. 19 observe the straight, stiff 
stem and trumpet-shaped blossom, the 
sharp-pointed petals of the calyx, and 
the geometrical arrangement of the 
entire plant, with all its distinguishing 
characteristics emphasized to produce 
conventionalism. 

Egyptian carved ornament of this 
character is nearly always in low relief, 
and is sometimes merely incised or outlined in the sur- 
face of the wall, as shown in Fig. 20. On work executed 
in a later period, the background is sometimes cut away, 





Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 



34 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



leaving the carved ornament and figures in full relief, as 
in Fig. 31. 

This figure represents a statue of the queen, Cleopatra, 
upon whose head is supported, between the two horns of the 
sacred cow, the disk, emblematic of the sun. The head-dress 
consists of a representation of the buzzard, a sacred bird, 
whose head protrudes from the fore part of the head-dress, 
and whose wings reach down on each side, as though pro- 





PlG. 80. 



Fig. 21. 



tecting the wearer. The panel or cartouch in the upper 
left-hand corner contains the hieroglyphic characters spelling 
the name Cleopatra. From this figure, a characteristic 
example of Egyptian ornament of this period, we can obtain 
u good idea of the contemporary head-dress, of the habit and 
method of wearing beads and necklaces, and, to a general 
extent, the cast of features and countenance of this race of 
people. It must be remembered, however, that these carv- 
ings are not always portraits, but symbolisms drawn to 
represent the characteristics of the person portrayed. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



35 



45. Decorative Ornament. — The third kind of Egyp- 
tian ornament, that which is purely decorative, is found 
mostly in paintings on the walls of tombs, on mummy cases 
and sarcophagi, on dresses and utensils. 



46. The Egyptians believed in the immortality of the 
soul, and also that the soul would return after death and 
reoccupy the body ; hence, they took every means to preserve 
the body in order that it should be in a fit condition for the 
reception of the soul at the time of its resurrection. Death 
was not regarded by the Egyptian as a 
great calamity, as he looked on his earthly 
life as a mere temporary existence during 
which he made elaborate preparations for 
the preservation of his body after death. 
This accounts for the massiveness and per- 
manency of the tombs, some of which 
were the life work of those that expected 
to occupy them. 

The body was embalmed with great 
care ; a scarabseus was fastened to the 
breast, and the mummy wrapped in cloths 
or bandages bearing hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions. In some cases, particularly with 
the wealthier classes, the mummy thus 
wrapped was placed in a wooden box, 
carved inside to fit the form, and generally 
shaped to conform to the lines of the 
body on the outside, as shown in Fig. 32. 
The box was then carefully sealed and 
the outside painted, or often gilded, and 
covered with elaborate and complicated 
hieroglyphs describing the life and deeds 
of importance connected with the earthly 
existence of the body within. 

The mummy case was then deposited in the tomb, 
frequently in a standing posture, and the walls and columns, 
and other architectural details of the particular chamber 




Fig. 32. 



36 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



where the mummy was placed, were painted with rich 
ornament and inscriptions. The sarcophagus, or stone box, 
in which the mummy was sometimes placed, was richly orna- 
mented both with painting and carving of the same general 
character as on the walls, and it is from examples of this 
kind that the following illustrations are taken. 

In Fig. 23 is a painted wall ornament from the temple of 
Seti I, and it represents the sacred bark, the ceremonies 
connected with which were an exceedingly complicated but 
important branch of the religious devotions of the priests. 
This device frequently appears in the sculpture and paintings 







Fig. 23. 



of the tombs, and usually represents the funeral of one of 
the gods. Everything is arranged in a most orderly man- 
ner, as will be observed, and every detail is placed to convey 
a certain significance. It would be impossible here to go 
into all the explanations connected with Egyptian hiero- 
glyphic ornament, and the illustration in Fig. 23 is given to 
show how completely the walls were covered with an illus- 
trated idea. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



37 



47. The Fret. — Fig. 24 is a fret design, sometimes 
called a labyrinth, and is stated by some to have been sug- 
gested by the plan of a building known as the labyrinth that 
was erected in ancient Egypt about 4000 B. C. This was 




supposed to have been a very complicated structure of many 
hundred rooms, out of which it was practically impossible 
for one to find his way without the assistance of a guide. 
The rosette alternating with the labyrinth pattern was prob- 
ably derived from the full-blown lotus flower. This orna- 
ment is found on many 
mummy cases, and is even 
used for surface decoration, 
for it can be repeated in any 
direction simply by continu- 
ing the lines, as shown at a, 
to form a new pattern above 
and below similar to this one. 

48. It may be said here 
that the rosette form shown 
in Fig. 24 is but one of many 
observed in Egyptian orna- 
ment. In Fig. 25 («) is 
shown a simple circle with 
an inner circle, and the space 
between them is divided 
by straight lines into eight ^'°" ^" 

equal parts. The transition from this form to the form 
shown at {b) consists merely of a notching of the edge of the 




38 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



outer circle where the lines intersect the circumference; 
(c) is the same as (d), except that the dividing lines are made 
in pairs, thus making each segment independent and by 
itself. From [c) to {d) the segments are made narrower, 
until they are very nearly the size of the spaces between 
them, and at (e) we reach the extreme limit where what 
might be considered the petals of the floral device are sepa- 
rated from the center and from one another entirely, and 
become independent elements of the design. Observe that 
the central circle has been becoming smaller in the evolu- 
tion of the device from (a) to (e), and the design has worked 
itself from a purely geometrical form at (a) to a purely floral 
form at (6-) and back again to a purely geometrical form at 
(e), entirely different from (a). This principle should be 
borne in mind, as it is of much importance in the tracing of 
the Egyptian style in European art. 

4:9. In Fig. 26 is shown a border wherein the scroll is 
made use of simply as an ornament, in distinction from its 
character, as emblematic of the waves of the Nile. The 
lotus also appears at the springing of each scroll line, but, 
in this case, purely in a decorative sense, and in no way 





Fig. 26. 



suggestive of a hieroglyphic record. Below is a stiff conven- 
tional row of lotus buds and blossoms, so arranged as to 
form a conventional border and a part of the design above, 
purely for decorsftive purposes. In the hieroglyphs, the 
symbol for the word water consisted of a simple jagged line 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



39 



suggestive of waves, as shown in Fig. 27 (a). This symbol, 
when used under certain conditions, was 
indicative of the Nile also, and in some 
(a) 




of the hieroglyphic ornament it is elaborated into what is 
called the wave border as shown at (3). 

50. In Fig. 38 are shown two borders where the lotus is 
conventionalized, very much on the lines of Fig. 15. It is 

1 








used here purely for decorative purposes, and in Fig. 28 («), 
where the side leaves of the flower intersect, a bud is 



40 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



drawn in order to fill up the intervening space, while at {b) 
the flower is placed in a horizontal position and shows 
another application of the lotus to a border that requires 
little or no explanation, simply being the conventional 
rendering of the lotus blossom applied in repetition on the 
border of a wall surface, and completing the simple geo- 
metrical forms above and below. 

51. Fig. 29 shows an application of the scroll without 
the lotus, while below is a simple serrated band, the type of 




Fig. 29. 

which is suggestive of the hieroglyphic representation of the 
Nile, though its derivation from this origin is by no means 
certain. These few borders show the immense variety of 

detail that the inventive Egyp- 
tian secured from a few simple 
types. When he carried his 
design further, to make com- 
plete surface decorations, he 
did not complicate his designs 
by adding to them any new 
forms. 

53. Fig. 30 shows a wall 
decoration from a tomb at 
Thebes. Here the scroll, simi- 
lar to that used in Figs. 26 
and 29, is applied as a repeat- 
ing ornament in four directions, and, in the space enclosed 
between the lines of the scroll, conventional representations 
of the lotus petal are drawn, thereby simply suggesting the 




FIG. 80. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



41 



existence of an idea of lotus origin. It is not a representa- 
tion of the flower, nor is it intended to be ; it is simply a 
wall decoration, the lines of which, though abstract, owe 
their origin to the Egyptian ever-present association of the 
Nile and the lotus with every- 
day details of importance. 

53. In Fig. 31 we have a 
border, also taken from a tomb 
at Thebes, wherein the lotus is 
used in a most conventional 
manner, but, at the same time, 
not greatly removed from its 
original type. The border above 
and below is a simple rendering 
of bands varied sufficiently from 
one another to destroy the 
appearance of stripes in either 
direction, and at the same time so arranged as to blend with 
the whole general effect and not attract the eye to any cer- 
tain point. 




Fig. 31. 



54. 

ration. 



The Scroll. — The use of the scroll as a wall deco- 
repeating only in two directions, is shown in Fig. 32. 
Compare this figure with 
Fig. 30 and observe that the 
materials used to create the 
patterns are identical in both 
designs. We have the scroll 
and the lotus, and the lines 
of the scroll run from one 
end of the pattern to the 
other, and between the lines 
the space is filled with a 
design from the lotus. Not- 
withstanding this fact, could 
any two designs he more 
piQ. 32. unlike ? The fact that the 




4a 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



scroll lines in Fig. 32 extend and repeat only upwards and 
downwards, would tend to give the pattern the appearance 
of running in stripes vertically ; this is, to a certain extent, 
offset by reversing the directions of the scrolls, giving each 
a letter S pattern, thereby preventing any vertical lines from 
appearing one over the other. 

As an additional element to destroy this feeling of stripe, 
the coloring of the lotus flower has been so arranged that 
the darkest portions will all blend and give the appearance 
of stripes in a horizontal direction, although really no stripes 
exist there. Observe that in each reversed lotus flower, the 
horizontal line that cuts it off at the bottom of the petals is 
about on a level with the lines of intersection between the 
individual petals of the next flower, and this, continued, 
gives a dark stripe alternating with a lighter stripe, running 
in a horizontal direction throughout the pattern. This in 
effect destroys the vertical element. The same result is 
obtained in Fig. 30 by the changing of the direction of the 
figures. Each individual element of the design is placed at 
right angles to the one above and below, or to the one to 

the left and right of it ; a feel- 
ing of continuity is thereby 
avoided. 

55. Another combination 
of lines based on the lotus is 
shown in Fig. 33, wherein the 
wall surface is divided by a 
number of circles, from the 
center of each of which spring 
four ornamental forms whose 
outline is based on the three 
outer leaves of the lotus. 
Another pattern based on a 
combination of the circle and 
the square is shown in Fig. 34. The wall surface is cov- 
ered with tangent circles, exactly as in the previous case, 
but from the centers of these circles spring four leaves in 




Fig. 83. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



43 



vertical and horizontal directions, thereby suggesting rectan- 
gular forms connecting the centers ot the circles. Other 
foliated forms, in the quadrants of the circles embraced by 
each pair of these leaves, outline the three petals of a lotus 




Fig. 34, 

as before, in each quarter of the circle, while the spaces out- 
side of the circumference of the circles are ornamented with 
a figure smaller than, but almost identical with, the one 
springing from the centers. 

A careful analysis of Figs. 33 and 34 will again show that 
the elements, types, materials, and forms of both figures are 
as near identical as it is possible for any two patterns to be, 
and yet no two designs could 
be more unlike in appearance. 

56. Referring now to 
Fig. 35, we have a wall deco- 
ration composed of the wave 
lines associated with the Nile, 
running in different direc- 
tions. Trace any one of 
these lines out and you will 

see that it simply runs across the pattern in a diagonal 
direction from top to bottom, or from bottom to top. The 
line that intersects with it runs practically at right angles 





M 




~~^m^ 


^©Sf^ 


^ 




1 










i^^ 




m 


.^M 



FIG. 35. 



44 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT, 



§3 



to it and intersects at every wave. The small irregular 
figures thus enclosed in the wave line are colored distinctly 
in alternate stripes, and a contrasting figure identical with 
the figure drawn outside the circumferences in Fig. 34 is 
then stamped in them, 

ST. Fig. 36 might be at first considered a double render- 
ing of Fig. 35, but, strictly speaking, such is not the case. 
The heavy black lines of Fig. 36 in general direction run 
vertically and horizontally, and the spaces enclosed by each 
pair of verticals are painted alternate colors, the effect of 

which is not to give that of 
stripes, but of a general blend- 
ing of wall surface. Observe 
that the colored or shaded 
portions of the pattern are 
broad, alternating with a con- 
necting link of narrow color, 
while opposite this connecting 
link, on each side, are the broad 
portions of the contrasting 
color. A study of Fig. 36 in comparison with Fig. 30 will 
show that the effort to prevent continuity or the effect of a 
stripe is the same in each case, and the principle by which 
this appearance is prevented is identical in each case, though 
the patterns themselves are utterly unlike in principle, type, 
and manner of execution. 





Si 




I^N-^ 


1 


^ 


^ 


m\j K 


1 


W 




m 


"^—3 i- 


|(^^^^ o 


o ol 


m^ 


^m 



Fig. 36. 



58. In Fig. 37, taken from a tomb at Thebes, we have a 
combination of the scroll and the lotus as the running ele- 
ments of the design, and the scarabaeus and lotus rosette as 
surface elements or inlays. In this design, five sets of scroll 
lines spring from each center, the two upper ones branching 
out to form the top of an enclosing panel and to form the 
continuity from one scroll to another, while of the three 
lower ones, one connects in a horizontal direction the two 
lower scrolls, and the other two serve to form a bottom of a 
panel and preserve the line of continuity to the scroll below. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



45 




Simple as this arrangement is, it illustrates the ingenuity 
of the designer. From every springing point, the three 
characteristic petals of the lotus flower are exhibited, while 
from the bottom of each pair 
of scrolls the spreading petals 
of the full-blown blossom are 
used to fill the space. In each 
alternate panel, both vertically 
and horizontally, the scara- 
baeus appears in its character- 
istic hieroglyphic form, and in 
each alternate panel between 
is a rosette based on the lotus 
blossom. 

59. It will be unnecessary ^^^ ^^ 

to describe all the character- 
istics of the design in Fig. 38 ; the student will simply observe 
that the scroll here consists of but four springing lines, and 
these are apparently made to serve the same purpose as five 
in the previous case. The panels enclosed between the lines 

of the scroll are of a different 
character, and, though filled 
with devices similar to the 
ones in Fig. 37, the general 
appearance of the design is 
totally different. We have 
one element in this design, 
however, that differs from 
any of the previous ones dis- 
cussed, and makes a portion 
of it belong to the second 
class of Egyptian ornament, 
heretofore described ; that 
is, the hieroglyphic represen- 
tation of a fact, the little devices in alternate spaces being 
hieroglyphic writings descriptive of some of the acts and 
doings connected with the life of the person to whom the 




Fig. 38. 



46 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

tomb was erected. All this ornament was richly colored, 
and the effect of it on the walls was due as much to its 
system of coloring as to the design itself. 

60. It is impossible here to express in each case, without 
means of color, the characteristic appearance of each design, 
but the main point is to exhibit the ingenuity and invention 
of the Egyptian artist in his portrayal of a multitude of 
different designs, all based on exactly the same idea, and 
using less than half a dozen different forms. In spite of 
their simplicity, a careful study of each one of the designs 
here illustrated will always bring forth a new point so subtle 
that, though when once discovered it appears most promi- 
nent, it has for a long time previous remained undiscovered. 

61. Egyptian Coloring. — In general effect, Egyptian 
ornament was brilliant and many-colored. The reason for 
this must be borne in mind : the interiors of the Egyptian's 
temples and tombs were pervaded by a deep sepulchral 
gloom fittingly symbolizing the mysterious character of his 
religious belief, and, in order that the decorations on the 
walls should stand out amidst this gloom, it was necessary 
that the brightest of colors should be used, or the decoration 
would fade into insignificance. 

While the Egyptian ornament may be said to be thoroughly 
polychromatic, there are many cases where it depended as 
much for its expression on carving as on painting. How- 
ever, Egyptian ornament may be considered, in a multitude 
of cases, as being painted ornament. In their rendering, the 
Egyptians used no shades or shadows, and laid their colors 
in flat tints only ; yet they found no diflSculty in conveying 
to the mind the identity of each object they desired to repre- 
sent, without a suggestion of shade or shadow. 

62. The palette of the Egyptian artist contained seven 
depressions for seven colors, arranged in the following order: 
white, yellow, green, blue, red, dark brown, and black. 
There were two kinds of yelloW' — a bright yellow and yellow 
ocher. There were three kinds of blue — an azure blue, a 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 47 

greenish blue, and a dark blue. The reds were made o£ 
burnt ocher, and the general tone of Egyptian ornament 
seems to have inclined more to yellow than to any other 
color. Green was used less than red, yellow, and blue. 
The Egyptian oriental blues are more greenish in hue than 
a strictly normal blue, and their reds partook of an orange 
tinge. They appreciated the fact that colors were affected 
much in their appearance when in juxtaposition to one 
another, and they made use of this detail to emphasize or 
detract from the strength of some particular hue. 



ASSYRIAN ORNAMENT, 

63. Development. — Although the early architecture of 
Western Asia is of little importance so far as its direct 
influence on the styles of later periods is concerned, it must 
be given a certain amount of consideration in order that the 
development and growth of certain subsequent forms may 
be properly understood under the different conditions. 

64. The ornament of Assyria was probably borrowed 
from Egypt, as there are many points of resemblance in the 
two styles. The sculpture of the Assyrians seems to have 
been a development of that of the Egyptians, but descended 
from it rather than advanced in sc^le of perfection. Egyp- 
tian sculpture degenerated toward the end of the fourth 
century B. C. , as it expressed an unnatural swelling of the 
limbs that was at first but lightly indicated and gradually 
became almost exaggerated — the conventiona;! having been 
abandoned for an imperfect attempt at the natural. In 
Assyrian sculpture, the attempt was carried still further, 
and, while the general arrangement of a subject and the pose 
of a single figure was still conventional, an attempt was 
made to express the muscles of the limbs and the rotundity 
of the flesh to an extent that destroyed all conventionalism. 
In all art, this is a symptom of decline. Nature should be 
idealized, not copied. 



48 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



65. Assyrian ornament is not based altogether on the 
same types as the Egyptian, but is represented in the same 
way. In both styles, the ornaments appear in relief, as well 
as painted, in the nature of hieroglyphic diagrams. With 
the exception of the pineapple, and the adaptation of the 
Egyptian lotus, Assyrian ornament does not seem to be based 
on any natural type, and the natural laws of radiation and 




Pig. 39. 

tangential curvature that we find in Egyptian ornament are, 
in the Assyrian, observed more as a traditional or borrowed 
idea rather than an instinct of the people themselves. 
Fig. 39 shows an example of Assyrian sculpture supposed to 
illustrate a scene where the king on horseback is hunting, 
attended by his servants and arrow bearer. The pose of the 
figure and the character of the work is strongly suggestive 
of Egyptian origin, but the attempt to express in stone the 
muscular roundness of the limbs and other parts is indicative 
of a decline in art. 

66. The Assyrian religion differed widely from that of 
the Egyptians, and, though their combinations of forms 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



49 



resembled, somewhat, certain of the Egyptian deities, the 
style in which they sculptured them was below the standard 
of art and practice in Egypt. 

Fig. 40 is an example of this work representing the winged 
deity Asshur, in which may be seen the excessive effort to 




Fig. 40. 

represent the rotundity of muscular developments. The 
attempt to represent the muscular characteristics of this 
figure is exceedingly inartistic, and, though the attempt to 
present an appearance of power and strength is well carried 
out, it is done with much less delicacy and refinement than 
we would expect if the work were an example of Egyptian 
art. Asshur was the supreme deity in the Assyrian group 
of gods, and in the conception of his form there is much that 
is suggestive of Egyptian origin. The hawk head and wings 



50 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



are surely borrowed from Egypt, and the pose of the body 
and Hmbs is strongly suggestive of Egyptian ideas. The 
position of the hands seems to be repeated in nearly every 
example of Assyrian ornament where the figure represents a 
deity, and is similar to certain Egyptian productions of the 
kind, except that the limbs are clumsy and the molding 
possesses much less refinement. 

67. In Fig. 41 is shown the Assyrian rendering of the 
Egyptian lotus, and, in fact, this border, which comes from 




Fig. 41. 



Fig, 42. 



Persepolis in Assyria, might easily be considered an attempt to 
copy the example of Egyptian ornament shown in Fig. 28 {a). 
Fig. 43 shows another example of lotus ornament from the 
same city in Assyria, wherein the detail is almost identi- 
cal with Fig. 41i but the lotus bud between the two blos- 
soms is replaced by a device repre- 
senting the pineapple — a fruit that 
was S9,cred in Assyrian art. The close 
resemblance of these forms to those 
seen in Egypt is almost indisputable 

evidence that they 

were derived from 

the latter country, 

and the rosette form 

shown in Fig. 43, 

while it appears fre- 
quently in borders 

of Assyrian orna- 
ment, must undoubtedly have been developed or adapted 
from the Egyptian device shown in Fig. ^5 (d). A still 





Pig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT, 



51 



cruder adaptation of the Egyptian lotus to carved ornament 
in Assyrian work is seen in Fig. 44, wherein the surface of 
the petals is simply indented in a harsh, crude manner, 
and the outline is carved into seven pointed terminations 
of the leaves. The use of this ornament in borders, in 
combination with another crude ornament, is shown in 
Fig. 45, wherein the outline of the lotus-derived figure 
shows a little more refinement, as its lines are more grace- 
fully curved, but where the connecting lines between it 




and the interposed device are arcs of a circle, making 
the entire composition crude and inartistic. The circu- 
lar forms with the three-leaved blossom on top may be 
representative of pomegranates, the designs of which were 
used largely in Assyrian decoration. However, it is of little 
importance in itself what types were used in this art. The 
lotus and rosette were undoubtedly borrowed from Egypt; 
the latter, both as shown in Fig. 43 and .modified in 
Fig. 46, are easily traceable to designs seen on the banks 
of the Nile. 



68. These few ornaments will suffice to trace the 
art of Egypt into Asia Minor and show in subsequent 
styles how their altered introduction into European coun- 
tries was able to harmonize with the style already 
existing. 



63 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

CLASSIC ORNAMEISTT. 



GREEK ORNAMENT. 

69. Greece and Egypt Compared. — Before entering 
on the study of the characteristics of Greek ornament, let us 
for a moment compare the conditions and surroundings of 
Greece with those of Egypt. Although modern Egypt 
covers a considerable extent of cotmtry, ancient Egypt 
included only the section that bordered on the Nile. In fact, 
as we have already suggested, it may be considered simply 
as the country that was watered by the annual inundations of 
the Nile. The climate here was mild, there being but two 
seasons — spring and summer — and there was very little 
variety in the daily life of the inhabitants, except what may 
have been experienced in the celebration of some national or 
religious festival. 

TO. Greece, on the contrary, presents entirely different 
conditions. It is on the sea, and throughout its long broken 
shores, the tide ebbs and flows and penetrates far inland 
through the long clefts in its coast. Greece has many moun- 
tains, too, and this affected her climate inasmuch as -they 
served as watersheds, carrying the rains down and fertiHzing 
the valleys. The country, however, is far enough south to 
receive a tropical sun, and, although its climate ranges from 
severe cold in winter to a fierce heat in summer, the majority 
of the time its temperature is warm and comfortable. 

71. Character of the Greeks.— The people of Greece 
were brave, active, and athletic; their Olympian games were 
world renowned. Their bodily culture was extremely fine, 
but did not compare with their intellect, which was more 
developed than that of any other nation. The Greek lan- 
guage is rare and complete in structure, and Greek literature 
is unsurpassed. The Greek religion was polytheistic, but 
the Greeks did not devote as much attention to the worship 



§ 3 . HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 53 

of their gods as did the Egyptians. True, they erected vast 
temples and costly monuments to Athena, Apollo, Zeus, 
Erectheus, and other deities, and these temples, exquisite 
in form, proportion, simplicity, and perfect harmony, are 
examples of the finest architecture that the world has ever 
.seen. Notwithstanding this mark of reverence to their gods, 
the Greeks did not embody into every branch of their art 
some detail or reminder of their religious duties and inclina- 
tions as did the artists of Egypt. The form of the Greek's 
worship was, in some respects, almost as complicated as that 
of the Egyptian, but his intellect seemed to be more 
advanced and he was bound less by a superstitious interest 
in the future condition of his soul, and his fancies naturally 
sought ideas that in themselves were beautiful to think of 
and to look at, rather than suggestive of gloom and forebo- 
dings concerning an uncertain future existence. 

The development of Greek art then takes place along an 
entirely different line from that of Egypt, and though it goes 
as directly and intelligently to a point of climax, the result- 
ing forms are totally different in their character, meaning, 
and influence on subsequent styles. 

72. We have seen how the Egyptian artists derived 
their ideas for ornamental design directly from nature, that 
their types were few, and that they remained unchanged 
throughout the entire course of Egyptian civilization, except 
in the degree of perfection of execution; and, in this detail, 
the greatest perfection existed in the most antique examples. 

We have studied that the Assyrian was a borrowed style 
and possessed no characteristics of an inspired art, but 
appeared to have been suggested by the art of Egypt, and 
that the suggestions borrowed from the Egyptian style were 
during its decline, and the Assyrian artist, instead of advan- 
cing on the style, carried that decline still further. With 
Greek art, however, we find a vast difference. It was 
undoubtedly borrowed from both Egypt and Assyria, but 
was developed in an entirely new direction, and, unre- 
stricted by any complicated religious laws, as both Egyptian 



64 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

and Assyrian art seem to have been, the Greek adoption 
rose rapidly to a high degree of perfection. Though the 
. influence of Egyptian and Assyrian art can be traced in 
many details of Greek designs, those influences are entirely 
subordinated to the Greek feeling applied in their introduc- 
tion. Neither the art of Egypt or Assyria can be considered 
to play an important part in the styles of subsequent gener- 
ations, but the art of Greece pervades all subsequent history. 

73. It must be considered, in the study of the Greek 
styles, that the remarkable development vsras due to their 
introduction into Greece at a critical period of the art devel- 
opment of that country. Greek art carried the perfection 
of pure form to a point that has never since been reached, 
and the abundant remains of Greek ornament compel us to 
believe that refined taste was universal, and that the country 
was overflowing with skilled hands and minds so trained as 
to enable them to execute these beautiful ornaments with 
unerring precision and truth. 

The beauty of Greek ornament, however, lies almost 
exclusively in its. symmetry and form. It is lacking in one 
of the greatest charms that should always accompany orna- 
ment, viz., symbolism; and, despite the pleasure we experi- 
ence in its beautiful gradations of form and color, Greek 
ornament is meaningless, purely decorative, never repre- 
sentative, and in few cases it is, in the stricter sense, hardly 
even constructive. 

74. Architecture. — In the architecture, the various 
members of a Greek monument presented exquisitely 
designed surfaces to receive ornament, which at first was 
simply painted and in later times carved and painted, but 
the ornament formed no such essential part of the construc- 
tion as did that of the Egyptians. It could often be 
removed and the structure remain unchanged. 

On the Corinthian capital (Fig. 50), the ornament is 
applied to the surface and is hardly constructed as a part 
of the capital itself. Remove the scrolls and foliated 



56 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

ornament and there still remains sufficient substance and 
material for the pier to carry out its purpose. On the Egyp- 
tian capital, however, Fig. 16, the whole capital is an orna- 
ment, and to remove any portion of it would be to destroy both 
the ornament and structural purpose of the column itself. 

T15. Sculpture. — In addition to the skill of the Greek 
artist as a designer, his unerring truth in the use of his 
chisel renders the work of the earlier periods remarkably 
interesting to us, but the monumental sculpture of the 
Greeks frequently went beyond the bounds of ornament. 
For instance, in the frieze of the Parthenon, Fig. 46, though 
composed of a series of groups of draped figures, the orna- 
ment was so far above the eye that it became a mere diagram 
— an ornamental band around the top of the building, the 
beauties of which are simply astonishing when observed 
more closely. Every detail of each of the panels was as 
minutely wrought as though it were to receive the closest 
inspection. The folds of the garments and the molding of 
the limbs, even on the side away from the eye, that could 
never be seen unless the panel was removed from the monu- 
ment itself, are as carefully modeled as those most prom- 
inently in sight. 

Conscientious as this treatment may appear to be, sys 
tematic and honest as is the execution of a design that was 
dedicated to one of their gods, we are bound to consider 
this an abuse of means as a work of art design, and that the 
Greeks were, in this respect, inferior to the Egyptians, 
whose system of broad conventionalized ornament for mon- 
umental sculpture served its purpose to better effect. 

16. Representative Types. — The examples of Greek 
representative ornament are few. In the earlier wall paint- 
ing, there is a wavy ornament — a fret, somewhat similar to 
the Egyptian, used to distinguish water from land — and a 
few conventional renderings of trees, but nothing of impor- 
tance was done in this line in the later history of Greek art- 
In the decorative ornament of the Greek vases, however, 
there is abimdant material to assure us that we have examples 



\m 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 57 

of every type of Greek ornament in all its phases. The 
types are few, but, in their conventional rendering, are so 
far removed that it is difficult to recognize any attempt at 
imitation. An examination of the wall paintings and vases 
leads to the belief that the forms 
of the leaves of the Greek flowers 
are due more to the limitations of 
brush work than to any direct imita- 
tion of the natural flower. 

The six forms shown in Fig. 47 pjQ_ 4-, 

constitute about all the leaf strokes 

that are found throughout Greek ornament, but these six 
forms were applied to a variety of purposes, the extent of 
which is almost past belief. 

7 7. The Three Great La^vs of Nature. — That the 
Greek artists carefully observed the principle on which cer- 
tain plants grew, and carried that principle out conscien- 
tiously in the execution of their designs, cannot be doubted. 
They were close observers of nature, and although they did 
not copy or attempt to imitate or make true portraits of any 
natural forms, they never violated a natural principle. The 
three great laws of nature — radiation from the parent stem, 
the proportionate distribution of areas, and the tangential 
curvature of the lines — are always obeyed ; and it is the 
unerring perfection with which they are carried out in the 
most humble works, as well as those of the greatest impor- 
tance, that fills us with astonishment at the conscientious 
scruples of the Greek artist. 

Before we analyze examples of Greek ornament, we must 
first consider the architecture. The Greek, like the Egyp- 
tian, spanned his architectural opening with a lintel, and 
though the width of the opening was, like that of the Egyp- 
tian, governed by the length of the lintel that could be con- 
veniently quarried, the Greek's knowledge of statics and 
his highly intellectual mind rendered him more inclined to 
develop artistic proportions, between the support and the 
material supported, than is found in any Egyptian work. 



58 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 




Fig. 48. 



78. Orders of Design. — As before stated, the capitals 
of the Egyptian columns were of but three styles — the lotus 
bud, the lotus blossom, and the palm. These were varied 

more or less in different locali- 
ties, but all being the devel- 
opment of a single principle, 
can hardly be called different 
orders of design from one 
another. In the Greek, how- 
ever, we have three distinct 
orders, or systems, of design, 
the distinguishing character- 
istic of each being the capital 
of the column ; these orders 
are the Doric, whose column is topped with a capital con- 
sisting of a simple slab over a thumb-shaped molding, as 
shown in Figs. 46 and 48; the Ionic, whose capital consists 
of a pair of scrolls, 
or volutes, supported 
upon a thumb mold- 
ing similar to a dimin- 
ished form of the Doric, 
as shown in Fig. 49 ; 
and the Corinthian 
order, Fig. 50, whose 
capital has been before 
referred to. In the 
last named, the top of 
the column is swelled 
out into a bell shape, 
not unlike the palm 
column of Egypt, but is 
decorated with leaves 
and vines and scrolls, 
and other forms based 
on types from the 
vegetable world. The volute, or scroll, of the Ionic capital 
&ome authorities endeavor to trace back to the lotus blossom ; 




Fig. 49. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



59 



other authorities claim that its origin is in Assyria or Persia, 
certain forms of column there being treated with the scroll. 
However, it matters little whence came the idea, inasmuch 




\J\-JvJ\^\^ 



c 



T 



J_ 



as it is so elaborated as to bear scarcely any resemblance 
to its original type. The bottom, or foot, of each of these 
columns differs somewhat from the Egyptian type also. 

79. Bases. — It will be remembered that the Egyptian 
column was usually rounded oft' so that it was smaller at the 
bottom, and painted or carved, representative of the root of 
a growing plant. The Doric column sits flat on the ground 



60 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

or plinth without any molded base whatsoever, and its sides 
are cut in channels, or grooves, each pair of which meet in 
an edge, or arris, that extends all the way to the capital. 
These may have been derived from the reedings of the 
Egyptian columns, imitative of the reeds of the growing 
plant. In fact, it has been practically conceded by nearly 
all authorities that the Doric column is a development of 
a certain form of Egyptian column; but, as said before, 
though the Greeks borrowed ideas from the Egyptians, they 
carried them to a higher state of perfection, and in nothing 
is this more evident than in the columnar elements of their 
architecture. 

The bases of the Ionic and Corinthian columns are regu- 
larly molded, and though it is difficult to trace any direct 
origin to the system of moldings that appear so uniformly 
on these bases, it is simply necessary to bear in mind the 
fact that, in the three orders of Greece, two of the columns 
possess bases, and one of them — the Doric — is without that 
detail. The mathematical proportions of these orders we 
will consider later, when we can compare them with their 
Roman modifications. 

80. Classic Moldings. — In Greek architecture all of 
the moldings are profiled on the curve of some conic section. 

Before analyzing the outlines of these Greek moldings and 
the methods of contouring them, let us iirst give our atten- 
tion to the conic sections from which they seem to have been 
derived. 

81. In Fig. 51 are shown two similar cones abc and 
ade, which are in contact with each other at their vertexes 
a, and whose bases b c and de are circular and at right angles 
to the axes af and af . If either of the cones be intersected 
or cut by a plane, which is parallel to one of its elements or 
sides, as b e, the line of intersection will be a parabola, as at 
ghi\ but, if, instead of being parallel to the side be, the 
cutting plane makes an angle with it, the curve formed by 
the intersection will be either an ellipse or a hyperbola, 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



61 



according to the angle. It will be an ellipse when the cut- 
ting plane is more nearly parallel with the base of the cone 
than it was in the case of the parabola, and pjisses through 
both sides as at 7'/^; and the line of intersection will be a 
hyperbola when the cutting 
plane is more nearly perpen- 
dicular to the base than it was 
in the case of the parabola, as 
shown at / m n and op q. 

83. In the case of the 
hyperbola, the plane will 
always cut both cones, thereby 
giving two branches to the 
curve and these branches will 
be farther apart as the cutting 
plane recedes from the axes of 
the cones. The nearer the 
plane approaches the axes of 
the cones, the straighter will 
become the sides of the inter- 
secting curve, and as the plane 

recedes from the axes, the rounder and nearer circular will 
be the intersection, though no matter how closely the curve 
of intersection may approach the arc of a circle, it can never 
become absolutely circular in form. 

The hyperbola becomes two intersecting straight lines 
when the plane passes through the vertex; these two lines 
are most divergent when the plane is parallel with the axes 
of the cones, and gradually become closer together as the 
plane approaches a position parallel with the side of the 
cone, where the hyperbola reaches its limit in a straight line. 
This straight line is the common limit of both hyperbola and 
parabola, as any deviation from it will produce one or the other 
of these curves, according to the direction of that deviation. 




Fig. 51. 



83. As the plane of the ellipse becomes more nearly 
parallel to the base of the cone, the ellipse approaches the 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



form of a circle, which it finally becomes, when the axis of 
the cone and the cutting plane are perpendicular to each 
other, as at r s t, and as the plane of the ellipse approaches 
the vertex of the cone the ellipse diminishes in size until it 
reaches its limit in a point. From a point to a circle, then, 
is the limit of curvature of the ellipse. 



84. In Geometrical Drawing, methods are given in 
examples 23 and 35 for drawing an ellipse and a parabola of 
any desired proportions, and it i-s only necessary to add here 
the method of contouring the hyperbola. 

To draw a hyperbola of a given width and height, the axis 
a b, Fig. 53, is laid down perpendicular to the width c d, in 
the same manner as for the parabola, and the rectangle c dfe 
is constructed with c d equal to the base of the hyperbola, 
„ and the height ce equal to the 

axis a b. Divide one half the 
base and also each side into any 
number of equal parts, and con- 
nect the points of division on the 
sides with the vertex a by means 
of the lines al, a 2, aS, etc. The 
points of division on the base are 
connected by lines to some point x 
on the line of the axis a b extended ; 
the points of intersection of these 
two series of lines will determine 
points on the hyperbolic curve, 
taking the lines in the order as 
they recede from point c; x can 
be at any distance above a, and 
the curved lines ac and ad will 
approach more nearly the curves 
of the parabola as the point x becomes more remote. On 
the other hand, the nearer the point x is to the vertex a, 
the more a c and a d will approximate to a straight line, 
and when points x and a coincide, the line ac will be a 
straight line. 




1 % S 4: S 

Fig. 62. 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



63 



85. To draw a tangent to any point of the hyperbola, 
first draw a line from the desired point g perpendicular to 
the axis a b, and on the extended axis ax, describe the semi- 
circle akx, with a radius la equal to \ ax\ then, with a 
radius equal to |- /^, describe the semicircle Ikh intersecting 

akx at k; draw k i per- 

pendicular to a x, and 1 1 I i!_ . 

connect ig\ then ig m will 
•be the tangent required. 




,/ 



J 



T 



t 



86. There are, gener- — 
ally speaking, eight mold- 
ings used to separate ~~ 
different members and 
surfacesfrom one another, __ 
and these eight are shown 

in Fig. 53. The fillet A 

is simply a square-edged 

band used to separate 

individual members of a 
group of moldings. The 
cyina recta B is more 
commonly known as a — 
crown molding, as it is 
used in the uppermost — 
portions of a composition ; 
at C is the cyma reversa, 
the contour of which is 
the direct opposite of B\ — 
at D is the cavetto, or hol- 
low molding ; at £ is the 

echinus, or egg-shaped ^^^ oa 

molding ; at /^ is the bead, 

a small molding similar in use to the fillet, but with a 

round, instead of rectangular, section. At G is the scotia, 

the contour of which is practically the reverse of the echinus; 

and at H is the torus molding, used almost exclusively 

around the bases of the columns, as shown in Figs. 49 and 50, 



V^ 



»' 



a' 



84 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



wherein the bases of the Ionic and Corinthian columns each 
consist of two torus moldings, separated by a scotia and 
fillets. In Fig. 48, the principal molding at the top of the 
Doric column, it will be observed, is the echinus. The 
application of the other moldings will be discussed as exam- 
ples of them occur. 

87. Doric Order. — As seen in the illustration of the 
Parthenon, Fig. 46, there is little carved ornament in the 
Doric order, except such as appears in the sculpture of 
figures and animals, and, though in the Ionic order there are 
a few examples of relief ornament, it is in the Corinthian 
order we find the greatest relief and broadest demonstration 
of surface work. 

88. Ionic Order. — In Fig. 54 is shown a frieze from 
the principal Ionic temple in Athens, the Erechtheum, the 

style of which is typ- 
ical of this class of relief 
ornament throughout 
Greek design. It is 
plainly a development, 
in relief, of the brush 
forms shown in Fig. 47 ; 
and the addition of 
scrolls at the bottom, 
and leaves, from which 
the forms appear to 
spring, is due to a conventionalization of the acanthus leaf, 
which first makes its appearance in art through its introduc- 
tion into Greek architecture. 

89. CorintMan Order. — In Fig. 55, however, is shown 
a section of ornament from the choragic monument of Lysic- 
rates at Athens. This is the principal structure of Greek 
origin designed in the Corinthian order. Fig. 55 is an orna- 
ment from the top of the above monument, and shows not 
only the elaboration of ornament characteristic of this order, 
but also a principle of ornamental design that is of the 




ioicicicjaoaaoic 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



65 



utmost importance in its relation to the lack of invention of 
new forms and the restraining influences of certain art 
periods. It will be observed here that the various parts of 




the acanthus scroll grow out of one another in a continuous 
line. This is a principle of design that originated with the 
Greeks, and was continued by the Romans, after which, as 
we shall see, it was abandoned, and the abandonment of this 
simple principle was sufficient to gen- 
erate an entirely new order of forms 
and ideas. 

In Fig. 56 is shown a form of 
the acanthus leaf taken from the 
Tower of the Winds at Athens. It 
is purely conventional in form, pos- 
sessing a broad, bold treatment, nec- 
essary for its execution in stone, and 
following closely the principles of the 
growing plant, as do all other developments in Greek 
ornament. 




Fig. 56. 



66 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



These few examples of Greek constructive ornament 
are most important just now, as they contain the principles 
from which certain later forms were developed, though they 
are of no great importance in subsequent history, except so 
far as they were developed and extended by the more 
voluptuous though degraded art of Rome. 

90. Surface Ornament. — Of the surface ornament, 
purely decorative in character, we have a great variety in 
Greece, though all of it is based on a few simple types, and 
restricted almost entirely to variations of the brush forms 
shown in Fig. 47. The first exceptions to this, however, are 
the fret forms used extensively both in the architecture and 



USMSja 



(a) 




ceramics, of which Fig. 57 («) and (b) are typical examples. 
The meandering line of Fig. 57 (a) is continuous and forms 
the entire pattern, while in (b) the pattern is composed of 
two lines that are carried through the fret parallel, to its 
center, where they cross each other and retrace their steps 
out of the labyrinth. 

91. In Fig. 58 is a portion of a repeating border consist- 
ing of a number of brush strokes in the form of &palniette or 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



67 



anthemion, and then enclosed in a single stroke, by which it 
is joined to a repetition of the same form. This is typical in 
certain classes of Greek pottery, and is 
usually executed in a reddish color on a 
black ground. 

93. Anthemion. — The anthemion is 

one of the most characteristic of Greek 

forms. It exemplifies most perfectly the 

beauty of radiation, of tangential union, 

and of the proportionate distribution of 

areas. In Fig. 59 is shown at (a) an 

ornamental form occasionally met with 

in the earliest examples of Greek work, 

whose identity can be readily traced 

back to the lotus by comparison with 

Fig. 15 (d). The Greek development of 

this form into Fig. 59 {b) is not hard to 

comprehend. The radiating leaves are 

made larger and fewer. The calyx, from 

which they spring, is diminished to a couple of conventional 

scrolls, and a sweeping out- 
line encloses the whole device. 
The figure is sufficiently like 
that in the design shown in 
Fig. 58 to establish the origin 
of the latter; and, in fact, 
numerous cases of the appli- 
cation of the anthemion or 
palmette ornament, both in 

sculptured and painted work, will be met throughout the 

study of Greek art. 




FIG. 58. 




Fig. 69. 



93. Greek Lily. — In Fig. 60 is shown another pattern 
where the palmette is formed of brush strokes in black upon 
a reddish ground, with a form somewhat resembling the 
Greek lily between each pair. The palmette form in this 
figure is rather more densely drawn than the anthemion in 



68 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§3 



Fig. 58, and is representative of the class of ornament usually 
termed the Greek honeysuckle. The conventional form 
between these anthemions just referred to — the Greek 




Fig. 60. 

lily — is traceable back to the old Egyptian lotus form, as 
are many other Greek details. 

Fig. 61 shows at (a) an outline form of the lotus seen in 
many of the hieroglyphs. Variations of the form shown at 
(U) are seen in both Egyptian and Greek work, while at (c) 




is the brush-stroke device, usually distinguished under the 
name of the Greek lily. 

The foliated form between the palmettes in Fig. 60 is 
undoubtedly an adaptation of the lily to fit around the brush 
strokes of the intermediate figures, and the reaching of the 
outward leaves back toward each other is suggestive of 
the treatment of the lotus flower, both as used in Assyria, 
Fig. 41, and in Egypt, Fig. 28 {a). 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



69 



94. In Fig. 63 we have a rosette pattern, repeated at 
intervals in reddish color on a black ground, that is almost 
undoubtedly of Egyptian origin, as shown in Fig. 25, 
although its development on a similar line of thought may 




Fig. 62. 

have been reached in Greek art. It is painted around the 
necks and bases of many vases, however, and is used so 
much in Greek ceramics that we associate it very largely with 
that style of art. 

95. Fig. 63, another pattern undoubtedly of Egyptian 
origin, brings us to the consideration of the scroll in the 
surface decoration of Greek work. This pattern must cer- 
tainly have been borrowed from the symbol of the Nile seen 




^^^;x";;:^4:jS^gffi^^ii;^^8ka^^^ 



Fig. I 



in the Egyptian hieroglyphs, and though there has been 
little change in the idea, we find a refinement of its propor- 
tion and lines, and an improvement in its details from an art 
standpoint, even though it has lost all its symbolic character. 

96. Fig. 64 is another adaptation of an Egyptian idea, as 
may be seen by referring to Fig. 26, wherein the scroll is 



70 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



repeated as growing out from a device of the same kind, and 
a foliated form, slightly suggestive of the lotus, fills the 
space between each pair. The rosette, similar to that shown 
in Fig. 62, is also used as a termination of this scroll, and . 




Fig. 64. 

this combination of the scroll growing out of the scroll and 
terminating in a rosette or flower, is of vast importance in 
Roman art, although on this simple vase border is the first 
place we find it among the Greeks. 

97. GuUloclie. — In Fig. 65 is shown an interlaced 
ornament used almost entirely in carved work on the torus 
moldings at the base of a column. It represents, supposedly, 
the woven bands around the bottom of a shaft composed of 




Fig. 65. 

a bunch of reeds, and serves to bind them together. The 
name of the ornament is a giiilloche, and different forms 
of it, varying in complexity, are found throughout Greek 
art. 

98. Fig. 66 shows examples of raised or relieved orna- 
ment, as seen in the details of the temple of Athena Polias, 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



71 




XJOOffl 




1 



1 



in the Erechthcum at 
Athens. The enrichment 
on the cyma recta j is 
thelotus-ilower ornament, 
and is carved in very low- 
relief; that is, cut so as 
to be raised slightly above 
the surface of the mold- 
ing, and not sunk into it, 
as was customary with the 
Egyptians (see Fig. 20). 
As we examine later 
monuments of Greek 
architecture, we find the 
relief of the carvings 
increasing, until, when we 
reach the Greco- Roman 
period, the stems and 
stalks are in many 
instances so under-cut as 
to be almost clear of the 
molding. 

The waterleaf carving 
on the cyma reversa 
occurs three times in this 
entablature, and is of 
varied form, according to 
its location. Up under 
the corona at «, where 
the shadow is deep and 
dark, the waterleaf is cut 
broad and bold, but imme- 
diately below the cyma 
at b, and above the upper 
facia at c, the lines of the 
leaf are drawn longer and 
narrower, so that the 
moldings appear in more 



72 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

delicacy of outline, where the full strength of the light 
strikes it. The same thing may be said of the bead mold- 
ings under the corona at d and under each of the two lower 
cymas reversse at e and f. The one in the shadow of the 
corona, as at d, is cut into long beads, while the one above 
the corona, as at c, is divided into much more minute 
divisions; and the one on the top of the upper facia, as 
at f, being in the strongest light of all, is turned into 
forms where the bead is simply a tiny sphere between 
two pairs of disks of the same diameter. The egg-and- 
dart ornament of the ovolo occurs here above the corona 
of the entablature at g and under the guilloche and volutes 
of the capital, the only difference in these two examples being 
that the one above the corona is carved upon a straight ovolo 
extending along the top of the corona, while the other is 
carved in the circular echinus surrounding the top of the 
column. The honeysuckle ornament cut on the neck of the 
column is in low relief, the same as that upon the crown 
moldingj. The guilloche immediately under the lines of 
the volute is carved as a thin strap, loosely braided, around 
the top of the column, and the same ornament is cut on the 
upper tprus of the base. 

99. Polychroiny is the term applied to the ornamenta- 
tion of sculptured and architectural works by means of colors. 
In ancient buildings these colors were made to cover both flat 
surfaces and architectural details, while in statues or individ- 
ual portions of the human figure and drapery, and in other 
products of plastic art, separate features of a sculptured 
ornament were colored in a manner characteristic of the 
subject. 

Egyptian polychromy, on columns, bases, capitals, entab- 
latures, wall spaces, and, in fact, almost everything of an 
architectural character, expressed itself in a series of highly 
colored designs in low relief, consisting mostly of figures and 
hieroglyphs, and often of purely decorative ornament. 

In Greek architecture a complete system of color had been 
developed at an early period, particularly as applied to Dorip 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



73 



temples, upon numerous remains o£ which traces of this 
coloring are distinguishable. 

The principal use of color in architecture is to bring out 
decoration. Surfaces may be relieved by a rich play of color 
without actual relief, 
and ideas may with 
facility be expressed by 
colors, when the object 
they embellish calls for 
the widest possible 
range of iitiagination 
and fancy. Still, color 
has its own province, 
and to a certain extent 
its own series of forms, 
and must therefore be treated in its 
own manner. A harmonious inter- 
play of colors, with correct propor- 
tion in the distribution of each, is 
characteristic of a fine work of art. 
In truly artistic periods, color has 
never been made use of to produce 
artificial shadows or to bring out 
artificial depths and reliefs; nor has 
it in any way been employed as a 
makeshift for them. 

100. Figs. 67 and 68 show a num- 
ber of examples of Greek painted 
ornament in which the fret and the 
lotus and honeysuckle ornament are 
both prominent. Red, yellow, blue, 
and green were the principal colors 
used by the Greeks in these decora- 
tions, but they were so toned down and softened that the 
glare, and harshness of such brilliant colors were blended 
into one delightful monotint as one viewed their struc- 
tures from a distance. Fig. 67 is a portion of the capital. 





Fig. 67. 



74 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§■3 



entablature, and pediment of the Greek Doric order, with 
the characteristic polychromatic ornamentation. The fret- 
work on the abacus at a was usually executed in a dark 
red or black, while the groundwork was pale yellow or 
orange. The egg-and-dart ornament on the echinus of the 
capital b was generally printed in red on a dark-blue 
ground. The triglyphs c were nearly always blue, and any 
ornament e on them was executed in red. The metopes /' 
were generally red, and the sculptured figures with which 
the metopes were ornamented were painted in tints that 
represented the color and texture of their garments. 

The fret drawn on the taenia, or fillet, g and those on the 
corona and epitithidas, as at h and </, were usually executed 
in gold, though occasionally in red. The regulae / were 
blue with red drops, or guttas k, as were also the mutules /, 

but the soffit of the corona 
;«, shown in Fig. 68, was 
red. The small moldings 
n forming the finish to 




Fig. 68. 



the corona were generally 
painted in light colors, 
such as red and blue, with 
spaces of white alternating 
between. The honeysuckle 
or lotus ornament, usually found on the cyma recta or ovolo o, 
shown in Fig. 67, when either was the top molding of the 
pediment, was carefully outlined in gold, and was always 
drawn very lightly and_delTcately when used to embellish 
this top member of the entablature. 



101. In Fig. 69 we arrive at a more complicated pattern 
of the honeysuckle ornament, taken from the temple of 
Theseus at Athens. In this example, the palmette forms, 
composed of nine brush strokes, were executed in green, 
and the scrolls and connecting fine lines between members 
of the pattern were worked in gold. The intermediate 
blossom bet-ween the palmettes, or conventionalized floral 
form, was in red, and the whole executed on a creamy 



§3 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



75 



ground. The effect was naturally very brilliant, the red 
and green colors standing out very sharply on the creamy 
ground, and contrasting beautifully with each other. 



0«)0»0(NO(0<N9«IO«)C>»C^^ 




In their colored ornament, the Greeks appreciated the 
strengthening effect of placing one color beside another, and 
in much of their work made use of this combination of red 
and green on account of its superiority of effect. 

In Figs. 70 and 71 are two panels taken from the ceiling 
of the Parthenon. While these at first seem somewhat sim- 





ilar in appearance, and though both are plainly executed 
with purely brush forms, a second examination will show 



76 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

that they are entirely different as a whole, and unlike in 
their detail, except the form of their individual strokes. 
The lines of the pattern itself were executed in gold, that of 
Fig. 70 being on a red ground with a blue border around it, 
while the pattern in Fig. 71 was on a blue ground with a 
red border. This difference of coloring emphasized not 
only the difference in pattern of the two panels, but, at the 
same time, clearly marked the dividing line between them. 

103. In Fig. 73 is shown a frieze ornament wherein the 
entire design is executed in the contrasting colors of red 
and green on a ground of cream. The central stroke of the 
honeysuckle ornament and of the figures on each side are 

green, and each alternate 
brush stroke from them is 
green also, with intermediate 
strokes of red. The genera- 
ting line, which encloses the 
honeysuckle ornament and 
curves into the base of the 
intermediate figure, is green, 
but the triangular stroke at the base of the honeysuckle is red. 
This design, like the two previous ones discussed, is depend- 
ent entirely on the limitations of brush work for the char- 
acter of its form, •yvhile the con.trast of color in the different 
strokes of its composition gives to the design the brilliancy 
of effect in no way obtainable in a pattern executed in a 
monotint. 

103. Anteflxse. — Referring back to Fig. 46, it will be 
observed that all along the edge of the roof are a number of 
small vertical ornaments. .. These are anteflxse, and are so 
placed to close the end of each row of tiles with which the 
roof was covered. Though they were carved in marble, 
and designed to fit the end of the tile, they were modeled 
after the palmette, whose characteristics were governed, as 
is so much other Greek ornament, by the capabilities of the 
brush stroke. 




Fig. 72. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



77 



In Fig, 73 is shown one of these antefixae, the scrolls and 
vertical strokes of which were green, and the space between 
the two scrolls and each alternate stroke 
above them were painted red. 

104. Endless examples could be 
recalled exhibiting one or more of the 
numerous characteristics of Greek orna- 
ment, but, like the Egyptians, their 
types were few, and it is the repetition 
of a single idea, or its combination with 
not more than one other idea, that lends 
what variety there is to Greek ornament. 
There are one or two forms used in later art that undoubt- 
edly had tlieir origin on Greek soil, but they were developed 
to so much greater extent in a later period that their details 
will be considered in the later style. 




Fig. 73. 



ETKUSCAN ORKAMEMTl 

105. The Etruscans were a people inhabiting the middle 
part of Italy from a period of most remote antiquity. It is 
probable that they came originally from the same Asiatic 
race as did the Greeks, and their occupation of Italy seems 
to date from about the same period as the settlement of 
Greece. Their language has never been translated, how- 
ever, and we therefore have no written history to verify this 
belief. 



106. In the settlement of Rome, the Etruscans played 
an important part. They were a highl}? artistic people, while 
the early Roman was a warrior and had no art taste what- 
ever. The Etruscans introduced the arch into the construc- 
tions of public utility, and in that way it found a place in the 
architecture of Rome. Besides their skill as builders, the 
Etruscans were particularly deft in ceramics and goldsmith- 
ery, and, though the character of their designs bears a strong 



78 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

resemblance to those of Egypt and Greece, their style was 
unique, and was developed on independent lines. In designs 
and workings for jewelry, they were original and skilled, and 
Etruscan jewelry was much sought even in artistic Greece. 
Under their skilful hands, every conceivable object was 
worked into the design. Flowers, fruits, figures, vases, 
cornucopia, rose work, crescents, ellipsoidal balls, and chains 
of all sorts and sizes found a place in their jewelry designs. 
They used the emerald a great deal more than any other 
of the precious stones, on account of a superstition that it 
possessed medical qualities, but pearls, glass paste, cameos, 
and intaglios were used also, and the variety and taste in 
this line of ornament exceeded that of any other nation. 

101. There are many objects of Etruscan design that 
are still considered masterpieces of art; and diadems, crowns, 
necklaces, ear drops, bracelets, hairpins, and rings are still 
designed on the lines originated by the Etruscan goldsmiths. 
Scarabaei are very frequently introduced in these designs, 
and are sometimes used as a link to unite two parts. In 
fact, this device appears so frequently in their jewels, uten- 
sils, sword hilts, etc. that it would appear probable that the 




Fig. 74. 

Etruscans worshiped this insect; or associated it with some 
superstitious idea. The scarabseus of the Etruscans differed 
materially from that of the Egyptians, inasmuch as it was 
usually carved of precious stone, or metal, whereas the Egj'p- 
tian device was most frequently painted, though many of 
them were worked in metal and worn as rings and jewelry. 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 79 

108. In Fig. 74 is shown a necklace, the centerpiece of 
which consists of an elaborate piece of goldsmith's work, set 
with precious stones, the central stone being a large emerald 
carved in the form of a face. The connecting links of the 
chain are designed in gold with intermittent precious stones. 
This is characteristic of all Etruscan ornament, and only one 
illustration is introduced here, as it is simply necessary to 
consider Etruscan art briefly, in order to preserve the thread 
of history, that we may better understand the influence of 
these people on the art of Rome. 



GRECO-ROMAN ORKAMENT. 

109. Historical Relations. — In the year 146 B. C. , 
Greece was conquered by Rome, and the progress of pure 
Greek art suddenly ceased. The invasion of Greece and her 
colonies, by Roman workmen, caused the art, after this period, 
to become more and more tainted with the unrefined taste 
of the conquering nation. On the other hand, Greek artists 
executed vast works on Roman soil, and the subjected nation 
became the leaders of fashion in rnatters of art. 

The subtle refinement of the Greek, however, became lost 
in the extravagant demands of Roman taste, and the result- 
ing Roman art possessed none of the finer characteristics of 
the Greek style. Greek art was delicate, refined, and poetic 
— Roman art was voluptuous, vulgar, and extravagant. 
Greek art was an expression of pure beauty^ — Roman art was 
an ostentatious display. 

110. During the period of transition when Greek forms 
were undergoing degradation at home, and conquering 
Roman art abroad, the style assumed a peculiar form that 
was neither Greek nor Roman. This style we will now con- 
sider under the name of Greco-Roman, though in modem 
times it is more often termed Poinpeian from the fact that 
we derive the bulk of our information concerning it from 
the recently excavated city of Pompeii, which was destroyed 
through an eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in the year 79 A. D. 



80 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

111. After Greece came under Roman dominion, the 
ever increasing introduction of Greek art into the Roman 
school caused the productions from Etruria to assume pecul- 
iar characteristics, as the local works of art yielded entirely 
to the influence of the conquered country. The ancient 
Romans possessed nothing of their own worthy of the name 
of art. In their earliest period, they borrowed ideas from 
the Etruscan builders, and it is from them that the use of 
the vault and arch are introduced for the first time in archi- 
tecture. This introduction of a new architectural principle 
naturally wrought a change in the character of the ornament, 
and the workmen from Etruria, under the influence of, and 
association with, the workmen from the Greek colonies, 
naturally combined the art of Greece with the structural and 
engineering devices of their native country. When the gen- 
erals of the Roman army returned from conquered Greece 
and brought back as plunder the objects of art that decorated 
Greece and her temples, they converted Rome into a museum 
of Greek antiquities, the presence of which changed and 
directed the Roman taste. 

113. Mural Painting. — In decorative painting, par- 
ticularly that applied to the walls of dwelling houses, the 
Romans borrowed everything they could from Greece, and 
Greek art became the ruling fashion of Rome. We know 
little of the plan of the Greek residences, and nothing of 
their decoration, but it is safe to assume that the decorations 
of the houses of Pompeii and Herculaneum were patterned 
after the decorations of the Greek dwellings seen by the 
Roman generals in their campaign in that country. These 
two cities were suburbs of Rome, and possessed much the 
same character as a modern summer resort. The decora- 
tions of the walls, ceilings, and pavements are totally differ- 
ent from anything we find in Rome, and, at the same time, 
show elements that must undoubtedly have originated in 
Greece. 

These wall paintings are not all of the same value, and a 
number of them seem to have been executed by inferior 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 81 

artists, but the beauty of others has led to the belief that 
they were copies and repetitions of Greek work of great 
celebrity. 

113. Besides decorative painting at Pompeii, we find a 
more or less imperfect polychromatic coloring in mosaic. 
This branch of Roman art, therefore, became subjected to 
serious modifications. The Romans already possessed a rudi- 
mentary knowledge of mosaic work and they now received- 
examples of it from the hands of the Greeks, in a more 
advanced state; but the inherent love' of luxury in wealthy 
Rome, and the general contempt for matters of expense, 
caused the taste for mosaic work to increase and acquire 
real progress. 

The Romans, however, were not long perverting the nature 
of the art that the Greeks had transmitted to them. The 
exquisite taste possessed by the Greeks, and displayed in 
their distribution of ornament, together with their advanced 
imitative science, would have enabled them to have realized 
charming conceptions in mosaic, and the Greeks would never 
have attempted to place mosaic in competition with the high- 
est prerogatives of painting. 

114. The Greeks are supposed to have designed the 
compartment of their own paved floors to represent such 
ornaments as branches, scrolls, festoons, and interlacings, 
and possibly passed onwards from these capricious forms — 
somewhat of the nature of arabesques — to more significant 
symbols and attributes, such as griffins, chimeras, tragic and 
comic masks, signs of the zodiac, birds, fruits, etc. It may 
even be inferred that the idea must have occurred to them 
to inlay a scene in the center panel of some of their richer 
pavements. At any rate, whatever the Greeks saw fit to 
work in their mosaic, must certainly have been designed in 
temperance, good taste, and with the highest artistic feeling. 

115. It was characteristic of the Romans to carry every- 
thing to excess; and, as the Romans admired mosaics, they 
wished to have them everywhere 



82 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

They were no longer satisfied to floor their courts and 
lower rooms with them, but inserted them in the sides of 
their walls, in the soffits of their arches, and in their ceil- 
ings. In fact, it is probable that they made more use of 
them in the latter positions than in the floors, as they soon 
became to be deemed of too great beauty and value to be 
trampled tinder foot. 

Now, with the introduction of mosaic pictures in the side 
walls, ordinary pebbles, stones, natural or colored marbles, 
paste, and terra cotta were unable to contend with the bril- 
liancy of paintings, especially as the taste of painters seemed 
to be impelled by a mad love of gaudy color and richness, 
so they introduced red, purple, and azure pigments, and 
metallic gold and silver to produce a deceptive glitter and 
striking contrast. Mosaic consequently demanded fresh 
resources, and various precious stones, such as agate, jasper, 
carnelian, sardonyx, emerald, turquoise, and lapis lazuli, were 
pressed into service, in order to produce the required effects. 

Thus, Roman mosaic work became an ornamental untruth. 
Its productions claimed to be portraits of various objects, 
executed solely to please the eye, and of materials best 
suited to the purpose ; while, as a matter of fact, they were 
incapable of portraying natural forms, and the materials 
were more suitable for pavements than for side walls. The 
idea was false, and even if the mosaic worker had had more 
shades at his command, and the painter had had fewer colors, 
the strife would certainly have been much in favor of the 
latter. Mosaic could never rationally supersede painting. 

116. Poinpeiaii Ornament. — The system of Pompeian 
ornament was carried to the very limit of caprice, and almost 
any theory of coloring and decoration could be supported by 
authority from Pompeii. The general arrangement of the 
decoration of the walls in the interior of a Pompeian house 
consisted of a dado about one-sixth the height of the room, 
on which stood broad pilasters half the width of the dado, 
thus dividing the walls into three or more large panels. The 
pilasters were united by a frieze at the top, varying in width, 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 83 

but usually about one-fourth the height of the wall. The 
space above the frieze was frequently left white, and always 
subjected to most delicate treatment, representative of clear 
sky or open air; and on the background were painted fan- 
tastic architectural buildings that form a component part of 
the character of the style. In the best examples there was 
a gradation of color from the ceiling downwards, ending 
usually with black in the dado; but this is far from being a 
fixed law. 

117. The colors used were mostly yellow, green, red, 
and black, and these were used almost indiscriminately for 
the various parts. Black or blue was occasionally used for 
the panels, but, as a rule, these colors were confined to the 
dado. Pilasters of yellow or green seemed to be the more 
popular tints, and red, green, and blue, with an occasional 
example of black, predominated in the panels. The most 
effective arrangement seems to have been a black dado with 
red pilasters and frieze, and with yellow, blue, or white 
panels, the upper part above the frieze being white with 
colored decorations on it. The best arrangement of color 
for ornament on the ground appears to have been masses of 
green and blue, with sparing use of red and yellow on the 
black grounds; white in thin lines and yellow in masses on 
the blue grounds; and white and blue in thin lines on the 
red grounds, with a limited iise of yellow, as this color is 
not very effective on red. The Pompeian yellow approaches 
orange in hue, and the red is strongly tinged with blue. 
The neutral character of the colors thus enabled them to be 
used violently without discord. 

118. The whole style of this system of decoration is so 
capricious that it is beyond the range of true art, and strict 
criticism cannot be applied to it. It generally pleased the 
eye by its novelty, but, though it was not absolutely vulgar, 
it oftentimes appioached vulgarity, and owed its greatest 
charm to the light, sketchy, freehand manner of its execu- 
tion, which is quite impossible to render in any modern 
drawing. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

(PART 2.) 



CLASSIC orname:n^t. 



EOMAK OENAMEKT. 

1. Comparison of Eoman and Greek Art. — The real 
greatness of the Romans seems to be expressed moxe in their 
theaters, public baths, aqueducts, and other works of a 
public character, rather than in the decoration of their tem- 
ples. The latter were but the outward expression of a 
religion they had acquired largely from the Greeks, and in 
which they had little faith, and therefore showed a corre- 
sponding want of earnestness in the art worship. In the 
Greek temple, it is more than apparent that the great 
struggle was to attain a perfection worthy of the gods. In 
the Roman temple, the aim was self-glorification. From the 
base of the column to the apex of the pediment, every part 
of the structure was overloaded with ornament, tending more 
to dazzle the eye by the quantity than to excite admiration 
by the quality of the work. True, the Greek temples 
when painted were as elaborately ornamented as those of 
the Romans, but with a different effect. The ornament 
was arranged so that it threw a colored bloom over the 

For notice of the copyriglit, see page immediately following the title page. 



2 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

whole structure, and in no way disturbed the exquisitely 
designed surfaces that received it. 

The Romans ceased to value general proportions and con- 
tours, and destroyed them by elaborate surface modeling, 
and extensive molded ornament. The chief fault of this 
system of decoration lies in the fact that it does not seem to 
grow naturally from the structure, bi:t is applied directly to 
the surface in the same way that was suggested in connec- 
tion with the foliage on the Greek-Corinthian capital, only 
in the present case it is exaggerated to a greater extent. 



THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE GREEK ORDEBS. 

3. Classic Architecture. — The orders heretofore re- 
ferred to furnish us with a standard of proportion with which 
we can measure all the classic monuments, and by which the 
work of the Renaissance was, and much of the modern archi- 
tecture is still, proportioned. 

As we have already seen, the structures of the classic ages 
were nearly all columnar — either with lintels connecting the 
tops of the columns, as the Greeks built, or with arches, 
according to the Roman ctistom. Now, the architects of the 
classic ages had reduced to an exact system the proportions 
of lengths to thickness in columnar work, and down to the 
present day we have been unable to improve on their pro- 
portions. This system is imiversally known as the "Five 
Orders of Architecture, " and it embraces every combination 
of lines and masses seen in the classic monuments. 

In it we find the fundamental principles of proportion, 
and only by the most careful study of these principles 
can we appreciate the importance of architecture as a 
fine art. 

3. Architectural Meaiiiiis of Order. — In its archi- 
tectural meaning, the term order refers to the system of 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 3 

columniation practiced by the Greeks and Romans, and is 
used to denote the column and entablature together — that is 
to say, the upright supporting piers, and the horizontal roof 
beams or trabeation supported by them. These two divisions 
constitute an order, and so far all orders are alike ; but the 
form and proportions of the subdivisions of both the col- 
umn and the entablature make it necessary to divide the 
original Greek orders into three classes, and when these three 
were adopted by the Romans, they again divided two of them, 
making five in all. Hence, it has become customary, in 
referring to the Five Orders of Architecture, to mean the 
Roman forms. The three original orders of the Greeks are 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, as explained before. Each 
order is an assemblage of parts subject to uniform, estab- 
lished proportions, and is regulated by the office each part 
has to perform. This so called ' ' assemblage of parts " refers 
to the base, shaft, capital, architrave, frieze, etc., while the 
" uniform, established proportions " are the comparative sizes 
of these parts to one another in the same order. "The 
office each part has to perform " governs its size, shape, and 
position, and thus completes the expression of character in 
the order. 

4. Gx'eek-Doric Order. — The general character of the 
Greek-Doric order is expressive of grandeur, dignity, and 
simplicity. Hence, we find it used almost exclusively in 
temples dedicated to the most revered of the Greek deities, 
such as the Parthenon, at Athens. This is the most ancient 
of all the classic orders, and the proportions of its parts vary 
considerably in the different periods of its history. However, 
it reached the zenith of its perfection in the Parthenon, as 
shown in Fig. 46 of Historic Ornament, § 3, and it is from 
the portico of that temple we take the example illustrated in 
Fig. 1. It has already been observed that the Greek-Doric 
column consisted only of the shaft B filling the space between 
the stylobate A and the capital C. The latter is composed 
merely of an echinus molding under an abacus, which is the 
plain square slab upon which the architrave D rests. The 



4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

Greek-Doric order never possessed a base, but stood upon a 
stylobate A , which is the substructure or foundation usually- 
disposed in three steps or divisions that extend entirely around 
the building, and by spreading the ground line of the structure, 



ii_n 




Fig. 1. 



give a proper feeling of solidity and support. In the outline 
of the column, we first observe contraction and then expan- 
sion ; the former where the echinus converges to the neck of 
the column, and the latter where the' column swells out to 
form a firm and substantial support at the bottom, which is 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 5 

larger than the top. With few exceptions, the column of 
the Greek-Doric order is fluted; that is, its surface is 
gfrooved perpendicularly by a series of concave channels that 
touch each other and form a series of ridges, or arrises, upon 
its surface — a mode of decoration that is the direct opposite 
of that practiced by the Egyptians, some of whose columns 
exhibit, not channels, but a series of convex ridges, like a 
bunch of reeds or stems bound together. In the Doric order, 
the number of channels is either sixteen or twenty, though _ 
in the other orders there are usually twenty-four. The 
number varies, but it is invariably divisible by 4. 

Doric flutings are much broader and shallower than those 
of the Ionic or Corinthian orders — broader for two reasons, 
first, because they are fewer in number, and ' therefore 
divide the circumference into larger parts; and, second, 
because there are no separating fillets between them. The 
shallowness of the Doric flutes is due to the fact that the 
arrises, or edges where the flutes come together, would be 
thin and liable to breakage if the- flutes were deeply cut. 
This manner of fluting Doric columns, leaving arrises 
between the grooves instead of fillets, has been retained in 
modern practice as one of the characteristics of the order. 
In the Greek-Doric, every detail is marked by its breadth or 
flatness, or by its sharpness. There are no curved moldings 
or surfaces except the epitithidas (a term given to the upper- 
most member of the corona) and the echinus, the latter 
being almost flat on its under side and finished with a sharp 
turn against the abacus. The breadth and shallowness of 
the channels, and the flat curves in which they are formed, 
are therefore in perfect keeping with the sty^e, as are also 
the sharp arrises between the flutings, which are expres- 
sive of a severe simplicity. The horizontal rings, or annu- 
lets — mere grooves cut around the neck of the column 
to form lines of separation between the capital and the 
shaft — are again expressive of the most extreme simplicity, 
and are in direct contrast to the projecting astragal, or 
convex molding, of the Doric capital as modified by the 
Romans. 



6 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

The echinus is a simple convex molding, and, from its 
shape, is often called a thumb molding. Its form is sug- 
gestive of strength, as it expands to connect the dimin- 
ished upper end of the column with the overhanging 
abacus. 

5. Doric Entablature. — The entablature of the Doric 
order is, like the column, the embodiment of dignity and 
simplicity. Its lowest division, the architrave D, is a plain 
beam, whose height, including the taenia, or fillet, is a trifle 
less than the upper diameter of the column. The middle 
division, ox frieze E, constitutes a very characteristic feature 
of the Doric order, being invariably ornamented with its 
trlglyplis and metopes. The former of these consists of 
upright blocks about one-half the width of the mean diam- 
eter of the column, having their faces grooved with two 
V-shaped channels, and their edges chamfered off with 
two half channels, thus making three channels altogether, 
from which the ornament derives its name of triglyph, 
or three-channeled. A portion of the triglyph, called 
the fillet, extends below the taenia of the architrave, and 
depending from it are six drops, or guttae, which repre- 
sent the heads of treenails or pins used in the early wood 
construction. 

In regard to the arrangement of the triglyphs, one was 
placed over every column, and one or more over the space 
between each pair of columns, but always so spaced that the 
metopes, or spaces between the triglyphs, should be exactly 
square; in other words, the height of the triglyph was 
always equal to the distance between them. In the best 
Greek work, there was only one triglyph between each pair 
of columns, and this arrangement is usually called monotri- 
glyphic, or single-triglyphed intercolumniation. A peculi- 
arity of the Greek- Doric frieze was that the end triglyphs, 
instead of being, like the others, in the same axis, or cen- 
tral line, as the columns beneath, were placed quite up 
to the edge or outer angle of the frieze. This is accom- 
plished by making the extreme intercolumniation less hj 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 




one-half a triglyph than the intermediate ones, thereby 
imparting an expression of strength to the angles of the 
building. 

The triglyphs are thus seen, to govern the spacing of the 
columns, and as the 
spacing or intercol- 
umniation governs 
the diameter, and 
the diameter gov- 
erns the height, etc. , 
we see that nearly 
all the proportions 
of a Doric temple 
can be traced from 
the size of its tri- 
glyph. There is one 
exception to this, 
however, and that 
is the little choragic 
monument of Thra- 
syllus, on the south 
slope of the Acrop- 
olis, at Athens. This 
monument has no 
triglyphs, but a 
series of wreaths 
ornament the frieze in their stead. The guttse are never- 
theless retained, but, instead of being grouped at intervals, 
they are continued across the lower side of the taenia unin- 
terruptedly, as shown in Fig. 2. 



Fig. 2. 



6. The Cornice. — The third and last division of the 
Doric entablature, the cornice F, though extremely simple, 
is strongly characteristic and boldly marked. It is in height 
about two-thirds the height of the frieze, and it is divided 
into three principal parts, the corona, with the mutules 
beneath it, and the echinus above it. The mutules are thin 
plates or tablets worked on the soffit, or under side, of the 



8 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

corona, directly over each triglyph and each metope. With 
the former, they correspond in width, and their soffits, or 
under surfaces, are set with a rake, or slant, which makes 
them parallel with the line of the pediment. They repre- 
sent the under side of the wood roof beams that extended 
over the eaves in the earlier construction. Three rows of 
guttcs, or drops, somewhat conical in shape, ornament the 
soffits of the mutules, each row corresponding in number 
of drops with the guttse on the triglyphs beneath. The 
corona is merely a boldly projecting flat member, not much 
deeper than the abacus of the capital, and examples exist 
where it is even less. 

The uppermost member of the entablature, the epitith- 
idas, was sometimes a cymatium, or wavy molding, con- 
vex below and concave above, or it was— as in this exam- 
ple — an echinus similar in profile to the echinus of the 
capital. The cornice is to the entablature what the capital 
is to the column, the crowning member of the composition, 
completing and ending it in a very artistic and pleasing 
manner. 

t. The proportions of these architectural orders are 
measured in terms of the diameter of the column. Thus, 
the diameter of the column in its thickest part is divided 
into two portions, called modules, and the proportions of 
the order are then measured as being so many modules high 
or wide. A module is then divided into 30 subdivisions, 
called parts, for the convenience of smaller measurements. 
These terms are usually abbreviated to m for modules and / 
for parts, and are so designated on the drawing. For 
instance, in Fig. 1, the height of the column from the stylo- 
bate to the architrave is shown to be 11 modules (that is, 
5^ diameters) and the top step of the stylobate is shown to 
be 17|- parts in height, while in the cornice F is shown 
23 parts ; that is, f|- of one-half the diameter of the column. 

8. The Ionic Order. — The Ionic order is lighter and 
more delicate than the Doric, being expressive of grace and 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



9 



refinement rather than of grandeur and dignity. It was 
used by the Greeks in temples dedicated to deities repre- 
senting the more worldly settlements, such as the temple 




Pig. 3. 

of Victory and the porch of the temple of Athena Polias, 
shown in Fig. 3. 

Although the capital is the distinguishing characteristic, 
every detail of the order differs entirely from the Doric. 
Besides having the addition of a base, the shaft is taller and 
of more slender proportions, and much less tapering. The 
example of the Ionic order shown in Fig. 4 is taken from the 
porch of the temple of Athena Polias, and shows the order 
in the zenith of its perfection. The capital D is not only 



10 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

more complex, but also more irregular than the Doric capital, 




Fig. 4. 



as it has two faces, or fronts, parallel to the architrave above 
it, one of which is shown at D, and two narrower bolster 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



11 




sides beneath the architrave, of which one is shown in Fig. 5. 
This irregularity is considered by 
many a defect, which can be obviated 
only by turning the volutes diago- 
nally, as in some Roman and modern 
examples, or by curving concavely 
the faces of the capital, instead of 
making them planes, thereby obtain- 
ing four equal faces. However, the 
Ionic capital, as used in the Erech- 
theum and in the temple of Nike 

Apteros, or Wingless Victory, on the Acropolis at Athens, 
suits its position as well, and is as perfect an architectural 
feature as is the Doric order in the Parthenon. 

The only objection to the Ionic capital is that in the end 
columns of a portico it exhibits an offensive irregularity, 

because, on the return side of the 
building, the bolster or side of the 
capital shows itself beneath the 
face of the architrave ; yet even 
this is of no great consequence, 
unless the colonnade is continued 
down the sides of the building, 
and the capitals at the extremities 
present their bolster sides to the 
observer, while the intermediate 
ones show the voluted face. The 
Greeks, with their usual inventive 
ingenuity, gave the capital at the 
angle two adjoining voluted faces, 
so that it should agree with the 
other columns both on the front 
and on the flank of the building. 
This was accomplished by placing 
the volute at the angle diagonally, 
so as to obtain there two voluted 
surfaces placed immediately back to back, as shown in 
Fig. 6, which is an angle capital from an Ionic temple 




12 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 




Fig. 7. 



on the Ilissus River, near Athens. At a in the elevation 
(a) is the angle where the volutes 
are turned back to back, shown at b 
in the plan (Jj), and in Fig. 7 is 
shown a view of these two volutes as 
they would appear looking directly at 
the corner. We therefore have two 
volutes and two bolsters, as in any 
Ionic capital ; but the volutes are on 
two adjacent sides c, d, Fig. 6 {b), while 
the bolsters are on the two opposite 
adjacent sides e, f. A voluted face 
was thus kept to the outside on both 
sides of a corner, and the columns could be continued entirely 
around the cella. 

The Ionic order possesses a base that differs in outline and 
moldings according to the locality where the example is 
found. The best examples existed in Attica — the state of 
which Athens was the capital — and the most artistic base, 
and the one best adapted to the order is found here, and is 
known as the A ttic base, shown at B in Fig. 4. It consists 
of two heavy torus moldings, separated by a scotia molding 
and resting on a square plinth, or stylobate. The upper 
torus is sometimes carved with a guilloche ornament, as 
shown, or is left perfectly plain. 



9. The shaft C of the column is grooved by twenty-four 
flutes, each pair of flutes being separated by a fillet. These 
flutes extend from the apophyge, or swelling of the column 
shown at a on the base of the shaft, to the astragal, or fillet, 
around the neck. The neck is enriched with a carved honey- 
suckle ornament, which is carried entirely around the column. 
Above the neck is a fillet and bead, and above this is a small 
echinus, which is carved with an egg-and-dart ornament. 
Resting upon this echinus is a small torus that separates the 
echinus from the cushion-like capital, the ends of which are 
terminated by the volutes. A number of bands are run 
across the face of the cushion and rolled up on each side. 



§4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 13 

The abacus is a flat slab whose molded edge is carved with 
an egg-and-dart ornament. 

The Ionic entablature, as expressed in modules, is greater 
than that of the Doric order; but in proportion to the 
length of the column, the Ionic entablature is less than the 
Doric. For example, the entablature of the Parthenon 
is about 3^ modules high, while, the Ionic entablature is 
about 4^ modules high; biit 4^ modules of a column 18 mod- 
ules high equal one-quarter the height of the column, while 
3^ modules of a column only 11 modules high equal about 
one-third the height of the column, thereby making the 
Ionic order lighter and more delicate than its dignified 
brother, the Doric. 

10. Tlie Ionic Architrave. — The Ionic architrave does 
not differ materially from that of the Doric. Its average 
height is eqtial to the upper diameter of the column, and it 
is usually divided into three surfaces, or courses, caWed/acms, 
which very slightly project one over the other. There are 
a few examples where the architrave is left plain, as in the 
Doric order, and, in such cases, the moldings are not so 
heavy as in this example from the Erechtheum. The Ionic 
frieze, being devoid of triglyphs, and having no other char- 
acteristic member substituted for them, becomes a mere 
plain surface, interposed between the architrave and the 
cornice. This plainness may be relieved by carving thereon 
figures in bas-relief; but as sculpture of that kind does not 
belong to the character of the entablature, it is never taken 
into account in describing the details of the order. The 
Ionic cornice is a simple affair, especially in the Athenian 
examples, being merely a corona, with a cyma recta 
above it and some narrow bed moldings beneath it. The 
soffit of the corona is hollowed out as shown by the dot- 
ted line, and the bed moldings above referred to are left 
when this soffit is so cut, and are here shown dotted 
under the corona. Between the corona and the cyma 
are two small enriched moldings, a tiead, and another 
echinus. 



14 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 




Fig. 8. 



11. The Greek- 
Corinthian Order. — 

The Corinthian order 
is the lightest and most 
delicate of the three, 
but it is almost impos- 
sible to determine for 
what class of builders 
the Greeks considered 
it best adapted, as there 
is but one perfect 
example left for us to 
judge at the present 
day, and that is the 
choragic monument of 
Lysicrates, at Athens, 
shown in Fig. 8. Like 
the Ionic, the prin- 
cipal characteristic of 
the Corinthian order is 
its capital — tall, bell- 
shaped, and richly foli- 
ated, as shown at C, 
Fig. 9. As was said 
with regard to the 
entablature of the Ionic 
order, the capital of the 
Corinthian column is 
higher in proportion to 
the diameter of the 
column than is either 
the Ionic or the Doric; 
but, as the shaft is 
longer and more slen- 
der than either of 
the others, it is able 
to carry a higher 
capital. 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



15 



13. The Corinthian capital has two rows of leaves, 
eight in the upper row, and sixteen in the lower row, so dis- 




FlG. 9. 



posed that, of the taller ones, composing the upper row, one 
comes in the center, beneath each face of the abacus, and 
the lower leaves alternate with the upper ones, coming .both 



16 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

between and under the stems of the latter, so that in the 
first, or lower, tier of leaves there is, in the middle of each 
face, a leaf between each two leaves of the upper row, and 
also a leaf under the stem of the central leaf above them. 
Above these two rows is a third series of eight leaves, turned 
so as to support the small volutes, which in turn support the 
angles of the abacus. Besides these outer volutes, which 
are invariably turned diagonally, as in the four-faced Ionic 
capital, there are on each face of the capital two other 
smaller ones, termed cauliculi, which meet each other 
beneath a .flower on the face of the abacus. 

The abacus itself is different in shape from that of either of 
the other two orders. In the Doric, it is, as we have seen, 
merely a thick slab resting on the echinus beneath it, and 
left absolutely plain; in the Ionic, also, it is square, but the 
sides are molded and sometimes carved, while the Corinthian 
abacus is, strictly speaking, not even square, except in 
general form. True, it has four equal sides, but instead of 
being straight, they are deeply concave in plan, and the 
acute point that would be formed by the meeting of these 
concave sides is iisually cut off straight, thus making the 
abacus an eight-sided figure, four of whose sides are short 
and straight, while the other four are long and curved. 

13. The base A of the Greek-Corinthian column is of 
the Attic type, almost the same as that of the Ionic order; 
and the shaft B, like the Ionic also, has twenty-four flutes 
separated by fillets, but these flutes and fillets terminate at 
the top very differently from the way they do in the Ionic. 
Here we have a row of leaf -like ends curling out from the 
column, with the fillets forming their central ribs. The 
edges of these leaves intersect in an angle, and this angle 
gradually flattens out until it disappears entirely in the 
surface of the flute. Above these leaf -like ends, and below 
the lower row of leaves in the capital, is a groove, cut 
entirely around the column, to emphasize the starting 
point of the capital, and which is said to have originally 
served as a receptacle for a braided band of bronze laurel 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 17 

leaves, contrasting beautifully with the white marble of the 
monument. 

The entablature is very similar to that of the Ionic order, 
with the exception of the cornice, which is larger and some- 
what richer than the uppermost member of the order from 
the Erechtheum. The architrave is divided into three facias, 
as in the previous order, but their surfaces are not perpen- 
dicular. On the contrary, the faces are battered back so 
that the three arrises, or edges, are perpendicular over one 
another, and the offsets are formed by the batter. The 
molding at the top of the architrave is a simple cyma reversa, 
resting on a bead and surmounted by a rather heavy fillet. 
The frieze is shown here with the carved figures in relief, as 
it appears in the original monument, although, as said before, 
this carving does not form a component part of the order itself. 
Above this frieze is a small torus and an ovolo supporting the 
dentil course. These dentils are small rectangular blocks, 
spaced about two-thirds their width apart, and, in all proba- 
bility, are the stone representations of projecting ceiling joists, 
which existed in an early system of wooden construction. 

Above this dentil course is a cyma recta, supporting a 
cyma- reversa bed molding under the corona. The corona 
projects more in the Corinthian than it does in the Ionic 
order ; and the crowning member, instead of being a cyma, 
as in the previous order, consists of a series of antefixm sup- 
ported upon a serrated band, which is separated from the 
corona by a small echinus. 

This completes the general description of the Greek 
orders, a description that has been here given somewhat in 
detail, in order that the student may fully comprehend the 
liberties that were taken with these orders when the Romans 
converted them to their own uses. 



THE EOMAN ORDERS. 

14. The Five Orders of Architecture, according to the 
Italian architect and writer, "Vignola, will now be analyzed 
and described, and the attention of the student is called 



18 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 




Fig. 10. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 19 

particularly to the unrefining influence of the Romans 
expressed in their interpretation of the Greek art forms. 

The Romans were not an imaginative race, and had few 
original ideas in architecture. Their early works were 
copied from the Etruscans, and their later efforts were bor- 
rowed from the Greeks. In nothing is this fact more evident 
than in the first of the five Roman orders, namely, the Tus- 
can, Fig. 10. 

15. The Tuscan order is hut a modified form of the 
Greek-Doric, or, perhaps, more strictly speaking, it is an 
undeveloped form of the Roman-Doric. It takes its name 
from the Etruscan people, who are supposed to be its orig- 
inators, though it is not improbable that the Etruscans 
received their ideas from the same source as did the Greek- 
Dorians, both nations having emigrated from Asia about the 
same time. One thing is certainly true, the Tuscan column 
and entablature bear a closer resemblance to the proportions 
of the Greek-Doric than they do to the Roman-Doric, which 
was admitted to be more or less copied from it; and the 
Roman-Doric resembles more the Tuscan column and entab- 
lature than it does the Greek order, whose name it bears. 
Hence, we see that the Tuscan is a sort of connecting link 
between the Greek and the Roman orders. It contains many 
Greek details that the Roman-Doric does not, while, on the 
other hand, the Roman-Doric possesses many Tuscan fea- 
tures unheard of in the Greek. The characteristics of the 
order are its crudcness and plainness, combined with its heavy 
moldings and lack of refinement in outline. It has, like all 
other Roman orders, a regularly proportioned and molded 
pedestal B, which, though not a specific part of the order 
itself, is generally drawn with it when the order is shown 
alone. 

16. The pedestal is simply a square block B, with an 
apophyge, or escape to the fillet, resting on the plinth A at 
the bottom, and with a cyma reversa and a fillet at the top. 
Upon this stands the base of the column D, which consists of 



30 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

a torus and a fillet resting upon a square plinth. The capi- 
tal F is in some respects similar to the Doric, but lacks both 
the refinement of the Greek-Doric and the delicacy of the 
Roman. It consists of an abacus, ovolo, and necking. The 
abacus is square in plan similar to the Greek-Doric, and is 
composed of a fillet resting upon a plain facia that has an 
apophyge, or curved escape to the fillet. The ovolo is a 
plain molding, often referred to as a quarter round, as its 
section is exactly a quarter of a circle. 

The entablature is subdivided into an architrave G, a frieze 
H, and a cornice /, in proportions nearer to the Greek-Doric 
than is the Roman order of that name. But the triglyphs 
and mutules so characteristic of the Doric order are omitted 
entirely, while the moldings are large and heavy and out of 
proportion to the surfaces they are intended to ornament. 
The shaft of the Tuscan column is never fluted, and no carv- 
ing or enrichment of its moldings or surfaces is ever practiced. 

17. Comparison of Greek and Roman Orders. — 

Before making a comparison of the Greek and Roman orders, 
let us first consider some of the conditions that made alter- 
ation necessary, before the art creations of the Greeks could 
be adopted by the Roman builders. 

The distinguishing characteristic of all Roman architecture 
is the persistent use of the arch. The Greeks spanned their 
openings with lintels — simple stone beams laid across from 
one column to another — and the width of the openings they 
could thus span was limited by the length of the stones they 
could conveniently quarry. But, by means of the arch, the 
Romans could span any width desirable; but the pressure of 
the arch at the abutments was in the character of a hori- 
zontal thrust, which would overthrow any ordinary column, 
and especially such columns as were used by the Greeks, laid 
up in several courses and devoid of mortar or cement. 

Heavy masonry piers laid up in strong mortar with securely 
bonded courses, became necessary, therefore, to withstand 
this thrust, and the Romans, having no structural use for the 
Greek orders, applied them as ornament to their masonry 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



21 



abutments. This is a very important point and should be 
remembered. 

The orders, thus backed up by heavy piers, did not require 
that appearance of sturdy independence that the Greeks 
instilled into their suppoirts, and they were consequently 
drawn out longer and thinner, and embellished with much 
carving and enrichment, as though endeavoring to attract 
the attention to their false beauty, while the piers and 
arches did the real mechanical work of holding up the 
building. 

This will, perhaps, be more clearly understood by refer- 
ring to Fig. 11, which is a portion of the facade of the Thea- 
ter Marcellus, at Rome. The arches resting on the piers 
support all the mason work 
above them, while the col- 
umns and the entablattires are 
applied to the structure sim- 
ply as ornament. Strip these 
columns off, and the building 
will stand as well as with them, 
but in appearance it will be 
simply a structural edifice, 
entirely utilitarian, and in no 
way esthetic. 

Greek designers made their 
architecture beautiful by orna- 
menting the construction itself 
— remove the column, or en- 
tablature, and you remove the 
essentials of the structure — 

but the Romans designed the structure entirely apart from 
the ornament, and the latter might easily be removed with- 
out injury to the strength of the fabric. 




Fig. 11. 



18. Description of the Romaii-noric Order. — The 

Doric column, as used by the Greeks, was from five to seven 
diameters in length, and the bottom of the shaft, being of 
the greatest diameter, it required no base to stand on, and 



32 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 




Fig. 12. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 33 

was beautiful in its simplicity. The Doric of the Romans, 
as shown in Fig. 12, was, on the contrary, eight or more 
diameters in height, and the bottom of its shaft was so 
small in proportion, that a regular molded base became 
necessary to give it an appearance of stability. There are 
instances where the column was used without a base, and 
the first story of the Theater Marcellus, at Rome, Fig. 11, 
is a most excellent example of the struggle to apply the 
Tuscan details to the Greek form. The lower order of the 
Theater Marcellus presents the Tuscan entablature with 
triglyphs in the frieze and guttse under the taenia, while 
the mutules are omitted entirely, and a row of dentils 
and bed' moldings is inserted under the soffit of the corona. 
It will also be observed that in this case the column is 
not fluted, and stands upon the stylobate or plinth with- 
out a base, while the capital is molded after the Tuscan 
model. 

19. In the typical Roman-Doric, Fig. 12, the pedestal 
is higher in proportion to its width than the Ttiscan, and its 
base exhibits more moldings than does the latter. The 
addition of a subplinth serves to raise the die B above the 
ground line without producing too broad a band under the 
base. The cornice moldings of the pedestal are much like 
the members of the Tuscan entablature, and show another 
point of resemblance between these two orders. The base 
of the column D is almost identical with that of the Tuscan 
order, with the slight addition of a bead molding between 
the torus and the fillet. The column is fluted with shallow 
grooves that meet in an arris, as in the Greek order, but, 
unlike the latter, they die out or terminate below the line 
c d, which marks the apophyge of the shaft at the base. 
The capital F of the column is decidedly more Tuscan than 
Greek. It is separated from the shaft by a projecting fillet 
and bead, which in this position is called an astragal. 
Instead of the annulets beneath the echinus, as in the Greek 
capital, we have simply three projecting fillets, and the 
echinus is rounded out until it becomes in section a mere 



M HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

quarter circle. The abacus is square, but has a crowning 
member, and it has panels sunk in the corners of its soffit, 
as shown by the dotted lines. 

30. Doric Entablature.^ — ^There are, in fact, two dis- 
tinct systems of grouping the members of the Roman-Doric 
entablature : one, as in the Greek, with mutules in the frieze, 
and the other — an entirely Roman invention — ^with a course 
of dentils under the corona. 

The mutular Doric is the order shown in the drawing 
plate ; and, as will be at once observed, its entablature bears 
but a slight resemblance to the Greek model. The archi- 
trave G is divided into two facias, the upper one projecting 
slightly over the lower one, somewhat in the manner of the 
Greek-Ionic. The triglyphs of the frieze 1/ are always cen- 
tered over the axes of the columns, and, consequently, the 
metopes, which were always square in the Greek order, are 
often oblong in the Roman, with the longer axis set either 
vertically or horizontally. 

The mutules, which in the cornice of the Parthenon were 
set over each triglyph and metope, existed over the tri- 
glyphs only in the Roman-Doric structures, and the soifit of 
the corona between them was paneled as shown by the 
dotted lines. 

The cornice /" is lighter and more delicate than in the 
Tuscan order, and its epitithidas is a cyma recta instead of 
an echinus. 

31. Roraan-Ionlc Order. — The result of the Roman- 
izing of the Ionic order is shown in Fig. 13, and is scarcely 
more successful than the Doric. The Romans never seemed 
to understand the possibilities of the order from the Erech- 
theum, and, as a consequence, only three accredited exam- 
ples of the Roman-Ioiiic column are known in Rome today. 
These are the temple of Fortuna Virilis, the temple of Con- 
cord, and the second story of the Theater Marcellus. The 
first of these is by far the best, its volutes retaining much 
of the Greek character, while the last is the simplest and 



§4: 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



25 



zr 



7 ^ 






the 




plainest, and also 
the smallest in its 
proportions ; but 
second is remark- 



able for its ugliness in 
general, and the inar- 
tistic arrangement of 
its volutes in partic- 
ular, which spring out 
diagonally so as to pre- 
sent four equal and sim- 
ilar faces. 

The example shown in 
Fig. 13 is taken prin- 
pally from the first of 
those just mentioned, 
with only such altera- 
tions as are necessary to 
bring it down to a gener- 
al type. In it we find the 
pedestal slightly longer 
in the die than was the 
Doric, while the cor- 
nice C and base A of the 
pedestal are more richly 
J molded than in either of 
the previous orders. The 
base D of the column, 
however, is of the famil- 
iar Attic type that has 
already been described 
in connection with the 
Greek-Ionic order, and 
exhibits the first point 
of strong resemblance 
to the Greek ancestor. 
The shaft of the column 
is nearly of the same 



Fig. 13. 



26 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



height as the Greek; and, in many examples, is grooved by 
twenty-four flutes separated by fillets, though in this exam- 
ple there are but twenty. 

By a strange perversity, however, when we arrive at the 
capital, we meet a striking difference from the Athenian 
order. In the columns of the portico of the Erechtheum, 
we have a necking, between the echinus of the capital and 
the astragal of the column; but in the Roman-Ionic, the 
flutes of the shaft extend almost to the eyes of the volutes. 
In their Doric order the Romans inserted a necking above, 
which did not exist in the Greek order and must have been 
borrowed from the Attic-Ionic, or, possibly, from the Tus- 
can ; but when they adopted the Ionic order, they seem to 
have taken especial pains to omit the detail that, according 
to previous appearances, they particularly admired. For 
some reason, they omitted this necking, and the Roman- 
Ionic capital has a flat, crushed appearance in consequence, 
as shown. The Roman- Ionic volute contains but one 
band, while that of the Greeks possessed three, though 
there are instances where a single band was coiled in the 

capital of the Greek 
order, as in the temple 
on the Ilissus River, 
Fig. 6. But the Ionic 
order reached the ze- 
nith of its perfection 
in the Erechtheum, and 
it is with the details of 
that building we must 
compare any subsequent 
Ionic constructions. 

The architrave G and 
frieze H of the Roman 
order are very similar 
to those of the Greek, but between the frieze // and 
corona of T is inserted a row of dentils with upper and 
lower bed moldings, which cast a serrated shadow and 
emphasize the projection of the corona. 




^^n\/^\ ^^/^ 



Fig. 14. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 27 

22. The Ionic capital above referred to in the temple of 
Concord is illustrated in Fig. 14. It is shown here, not on 
account of its architectural beauty, for it has none, but 
because in certain classes of early Renaissance work, this 
style of cap was redesigned by Palladio and used in com- 
binations where its defects were not so glaring. The prin- 
ciple on which this cap is designed is that the volutes a axe 
growing out and curling over the edge of the contracted 
echinus b, while the whole is covered with an eight-sided 
abacus c, strongly resembling the Corinthian. The space 
under the abacus and between the volutes is filled with a 
carved rosette, or, in a few instances, with an animal's 
head. 

33. Roman-Corinthian Order. — We now come to the 
Corintliian, which we may consider a typical Roman order. 
There is but one example of richly foliated capitals in all 
Greek art, and the modern Corinthian order, though prob- 
ably taken from it, bears but a general resemblance to its 
prototype. We have gone into the details of the Greek- 
Corinthian capital, and the Roman style will only be dwelt 
upon where it contrasts with the details of the Greek. The 
Roman- Corinthian capital, shown at F, Fig. 15, has two 
rows of leaves, eight in each row, so disposed that of the 
taller ones composing the upper row, one comes in the mid- 
dle, beneath each face of the abacus, and the lower leaves 
alternate with the upper ones, coming between the stems 
of the latter; so that, in the first, or lower tier of leaves, 
there is in the middle of each face, a space between two 
leaves occupied by the stem of the central leaf above 
them. 

24. Fig. 15 is not taken from any particular edifice, but 
is compiled from a number of different structures, in order 
to get a general type of the order. The shaft here is fluted 
with twenty-four flutes, though in many of the best examples 
it is not fluted at all. The portico of the Pantheon possesses 
one of the handsomest examples of the Corinthian order in 



28 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



Rome, but the granite columns are left unfluted, and their 

surfaces are highly 
polished, to. com- 
pensate for the 
omission. The base 
of the Corinthian column 
varies somewhat in dif- 
ferent examples, but is 
most frequently an en- 
riched variation of the 
Greek-Attic. It is scarce- 
ly necessary to comment 
on the pedestal of either 
the Corinthian or Com- 
posite orders, as there is 
no change from the ped- 
estal of the previously 
described orders, except 
an elongation of the die 
and an increase of the 
number of the moldings 
that ornament its top C 
and base A. The same 
may be said of the base D 
of the column, the only 
change from the previous 
orders being an increase 
of the members between 
the two torus moldings. 
The shaft E of the col- 
umn is but slightly longer 
than in the Ionic order, 
but the increase in the 
height of the capital 
makes the entire column 
'■'"'• ^^- ten diameters high. The 

entablature, however, is very different from any we have 
yet described. The architrave G is divided into three 




§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



39 




nn. 


MJJJ 


JUUjX 


J 


T 









horizontal bands, or facias, as was the Ionic, but instead of 

a plain projection 
of one facia beyond 
the other, they are 
separated by a number 
of different small mold- 
ings, which, in nearly 
every instance, were 
carved and enriched al- 
most to excess. The 
frieze H is here shown 
as plain, but the ma- 
jority of examples show 
it carved in high re- 
lief. The cornice I 
exhibits the greatest 
alteration from the pre- 
vious orders that we 
have yet seen. A row 
of dentils are support- 
ed by a cyma reversa 
immediately above the 
frieze, similar to the 
Ionic arrangement; but 
immediately above this 
we have a heavy ovolo 
supporting a row, of 
course, of modillions. 



35. A modillion is 

the projecting bracket 
supporting the corona 
of the Corinthian en- 
tablature. These brack- 
ets possess a volute 
somewhat similar to 
that of the Ionic capi- 




PlG. 16. 



tal, but curved in the opposite direction. 



30 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

36. Composite Order. — Between the Corinthian and 
Composite orders there is very little difference except in 
the size of the volutes, and, with the exception of the cap- 
ital of the column, there is scarcely any difference in the 
proportions of their parts. Fig. 16 shows the general 
form of this essentially Roman composition, but omitting 
entirely the ornamentation of the frieze and moldings, 
which is as much a part of this order as ' the triglyphs 
are of the Doric. Ornamentation, as a rule, forms no part 
of the order that it enriches, and, consequently, should not 
be considered a part of the structure of the order, but 
the Composite order was invented by the Romans for no 
other purpose than to carry heavy ornamentation; in fact, 
it was the excessive and extravagant ornamentation of 
the Corinthian order that caused the Composite to spring 
into existence, and our example is, therefore, not com- 
plete until it receives such ornamentation as may be 
appropriate to its purpose. The general form is here 
given, and the application of ornament will be discussed 
later, in its proper place. 

The pedestal of the Composite order is almost identical 
with that of the Corinthian, there being but a few slight 
changes in the moldings of its base and its cap, while the 
die is a trifle longer. The base, shaft, and capital of the 
column are the same height as the Corinthian, and with 
the exception of the capital are almost the same in design. 
The architrave, frieze, and cornice have the same rela- 
tive proportions as in the previous order, but are treated 
somewhat more elaborately in the subdivisions of their 
parts. 

The Composite capital is a combination of the Cor- 
inthian and the Ionic capital from the Roman temple of 
Concord, heretofore referred to. It is not an artistic 
combination, but its broad, strong volutes give an unus- 
ual surface on which to carve florid ornament, and, as 
such, it suited exactly the later-day admirers of every- 
thing strictly Roman. It suits its place in modern art 
very well, when in proper handling, but the Renaissance 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 31 

architects were conspicuous in Italy by the interior appli- 
cation of the Composite order in every spot where it did 
not belong. 

37. The Roman Acanthus. — The acanthus leaves 
under the Roman modillions and those around the bells 
of the Corinthian capitals are placed, one before the 
other, stiffly and inartistically ; they are not even bound 
together by the necking at the top of the shaft, but appear 
to have been cut off to rest directly upon it. It will be 
remembered that in the capital of the Egyptian column, 
where the stems of the flowers are arranged around the 
bell, they appear to be continued through the necking of 
the column, and at the same time express a beauty and 
a truth. 

The great facility that the Roman system of decoration 
affords for the application of this acanthus ornament to any 
form and in any direction, is the lamentable cause of the 
invasion of this ornament into most modern work. Its 
design requires little thought and is so easily manufac- 
tured that it has encouraged designers in an indolent neg- 
lect of one of their especial provinces — that of invention. 
In the use of the acanthus leaf, the Romans showed but 
little art. They received it from the Greeks most beauti- 
fully conventionalized, and though they went nearer to 
the general outline of the leaf, they exaggerated the 
surface decoration. The Greeks confined themselves to 
expressing the principles of the foliation of the leaf,, 
and bestowed great care in the delicate undulations of its 
surface. 

38. Character of Roman Ornament. — As said here- 
tofore, Roman ornament consists essentially of one scroll 
growing out of another and encircling a flower or a group 
of leaves, as shown in Fig. 17, which is a characteristic 
piece of Roman ornament. This is the principle of Greek 
ornament, and though the Romans borrowed the principle, 
they omitted the Greek refinement. 



32 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 




FIG. 17. 



The most characteristic method of using the acanthus 
leaf in Roman art can be seen in the Roman concep- 
tion of the Corinthian 
capital, Fig. 15. The 
amount of design that 
can be obtained by 
working on this prin- 
ciple of Roman orna- 
ment — of leaf within 
leaf and leaf over leaf 
— is very limited, and 
it " was not until the 
principle of one leaf 
growing out of an- 
other in a continuous 
line was abandoned, 
for the adoption of 
a continuous stem 
throwing off ornaments on either side, that the pure 
conventional ornament received any development. 

39. Painted Decorations. — The painted decorations 
of Roman art are comparatively few; the style was some- 
what similar to what we see at Pompeii — an adoption from 
the Greek, executed in the hands of the Roman artists. 
The coloring is hardly worth great consideration, as it 
possessed nothing of an original character, and the stu- 
dent should bear in mind that all art forms of Rome are 
borrowed forms. Her construction she inherited from 
Etruria, and combined it with the art obtained in Greece. 
In fact, it might be said that there is no true Roman 
style, that is to say, executed by Romans themselves, for 
the Roman was essentially a warrior and a politician, and 
his art works were designed by the subjugated Greek and 
his structural works put into effect by descendants from 
the Etruscans. 

The transition of Greek ornament into the styles of 
Europe was simply delayed by the conquest of Greece 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 33 

by Rome, and, during the delay so caused, the style 
was degraded, and spread throughout the country in 
that condition. 



ROMAKESQUE ORISTAMKNT. 

30. Development of tlie Romanesque Style. — In 

considering the Romanesque style, it must be borne in 
mind that the Roman Empire covered almost the entire 
continent of Europe, and that Roman art had penetrated 
as far west as Spain and as far north as England and the 
Baltic Sea. After the downfall of the Western Roman 
Empire, the conquering races from the North attempted 
to carry out the Roman style of building as they found 
it in different parts of the countrj^, and the endeavor to 
apply these art forms under a new system of religion, 
and influenced by different conditions of government and 
living, together with the necessity of practicing a rigid 
economy in material, caused an alteration of the original 
Roman style and brought about the style that we now 
consider Romanesque. 

31. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, in 476 
A. D. , therefore marked the beginning of a new architec- 
tural era throughout all Europe (except possibly in the East- 
ern Empire, with its capital at Byzantium), and the so called 
dark ages that followed this event may be considered as a 
formative period of western civilization during which the 
barbaric conquerors of Rome became gradually Christian- 
ized and were subjected to the authority and educational 
influences of the Church. 

Under these conditions a new architectural style was 
developed, founded on the traditions of the earlier Chris- 
tian builders, but modified in different regions by local 
influences. The prevailing characteristics of the style 
were at first essentially Roman, for Rome soon recovered 
her antique prestige as the leading city of Europe, and 
the Roman monuments covering the soil of Southern 



34 ■ HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

Europe were a constant object lesson to the builders at 
that time. 

33. Influence of the Cliurcli. — Romanesque archi- 
tecture was distinctly ecclesiastical. Civilization and culture 
emanated directly from the Church, and the requirements 
and discipline of the religious orders gave form to the 
builders' art. 

Corinthian columns, marble incrustations, splendid mosa- 
ics, etc. were not to be obtained in the forest lands of France 
and Germany, and the priests caused to be erected with 
unskilled labor churches of stone, and the struggle with this 
structural problem underlies the entire system of Roman- 
esque design. 

33. System of Building Under Roman Domination. 

The Romans, when they wished to erect grand monuments 
of public utility, could send to the spot, no matter how 
remote, an army of soldiers, and, by their tyrannical system 
of government, compel the very inhabitants of the locality 
to desist from all their employments and work for the 
emperor of Rome. They thus achieved by a multitude of 
hands those prodigious results that today stand monuments 
not only of their enterprise but also of their despotism. 

Had the builders of the Middle Ages desired to pursue 
this course, where would they have found the army of work- 
men ? In countries not only without stone but without 
money to buy it, without beasts of burden to transport 
material if they could buy it, without even roads over which 
to travel, how could these people make any attempt to follow 
the course of their Roman predecessors? 

Bearing these facts in mind as we study Romanesque 
ornament, we will readily see in the earlier examples an 
attempt to copy Roman art — an attempt that failed as a 
duplication of an antique style, but was eminently successful 
in the development of a new style that was much more 
rational than the one back to which the Middle-Age builder 
had been looking. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



35 



34. In Fig. 18 is shown the capital of a column, the 
moldings of which and the crude formations of whose 
leaves are easily traceable to the Roman-Corinthian order; 



c 











Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 



and the capital shown in Fig. 19, though entirely different 
from that shown in Fig. 18, also illustrates the influence 
of classic art and the Corinthian order in the formation of 
the style at this period. 

More clearly, perhaps, than either of these is the base shown 





Pig. 20. 



Fig. 21. 



in Fig. 20, which dates back to the eleventh centviry. Here 
the moldings are almost identical with those seen on the 
classic columns. In Fig. 31 is shown a base of later date, 
which exhibits a radical departure from the classic lines. 



36 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



35. The frieze shown in Fig. 22 is taken from an exam- 
ple in Southern Germany, dating back to the twelfth century. 




Fig. 22. 




Fig. 23. 




Fig. 24. 

The treatment of the leaf forms there clearly shows a classic 
origin, but the boldness of the treatment shows an inclination 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



37 



to become independent of the traditions of the classic 
style, and in Fig. 23 the ornament, taken from a French 
church of the twelfth century, shows a decided freedom from 
the governing rules of classic design, although the character 
of the curves and proportions of the surface covered is 
strongly stiggestive of the Greek anthemion. In Fig. 24 is 
shown a most independent example, where we have the main 
running stem and the branches from alternating sides, while 
the small pyramid forms cut in the main stem appear here 
and are characteristic of the Romanesque period. 




In Fig. 35 is shown an example of German twelfth-century 
art that shows the possible influence of Celtic work. Observe 
that, complicated as this design at first appears, it is really 
very simple in construction and contains only one leaf form 
arranged in two positions. The entire free flowing lines are 
then woven around these forms 
to produce a most satisfactory 
effect. 



36. In repeating ornament 
and diaper patterns. Fig. 26 
shows a simple arrangement of 
circles from the church of 
St. Denis, at Paris, dating back 
to the twelfth century, while 




Fig. 26. 



38 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



Fig. 27 shows a diaper pattern from the Lincoln Cathedral, 

in England, of the same period, 
showing a radical difference in 
style on account of the remote- 
ness from Rome. 

In Figs. 28 and 29 are shown 
two patterns taken from stained- 
glass windows, the former of Ger- 
man design and the latter French. 
The simplicity of the design in 
each case is its distinguishing 
^'°' ^' characteristic, and, though in ap- 

pearance somewhat complicated, a little study eliminates all 





Fig. 29. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 39 

complications, and shows the geometrical principle on which 
it is constructed to be of utmost simplicity. 

37. Origin of GotMc and Byzantine Ornament. — 

From these few examples, with which the artists of the 
Romanesque period decorated their structural details, we 
see that the application of Romanesque forms was simple — • 
simple from a necessitjr of economy, and simple on account 
of a freedom of mind devoid of any art traditions. 

The builder and designer of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries had no memories of Rome or Greece to follow, and 
no historical forms that had been handed down from genera- 
tion to generation, to copy which was almost required by 
law, and to depart from which would have been a sacrilege 
in the eyes of his country. The medieval builder attacked 
his problem with no other tools than his eye -and his 
brain, and gradually developed the form of art that we call 
Romanesque, and that culminated in two entirely new 
styles, both in construction and ornamentation — the Gothic 
in the West and the Byzantine in the East. 



BYZANTINE ORNAMENT. 

38. Oriental Influence. — In the East, around the city 
of Byzantium, Romanesque ornament was influenced by the 
art of Assyria and Persia. In fact, its entire character 
became tinged with an oriental spirit, and, in the course of 
the next three or four centuries, it developed into a new and 
entirely different style of architecture and art, known as 
Byzantine. The old Roman forms became obsolete and 
gave place to new forms, original, beautiful, and artistic. 

It will readily be understood that there would be a period 
of transition between the slowly developing Romanesque 
and the finished Byzantine style, and it is with such exam- 
ples of ornament as date from this period of transition that 
uncertainty as to their proper classification arises. It is 
more difficult to distinguish between these styles, whose 



40 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. §4 

transition took place peacefully, than between the Greek 
and Roman styles, where the transition was sudden. 

39. The Romans had wealth, ambition, and, to a certain 
extent, taste, but their taste was tainted with vulgarity, 
through their ostentatious display and desire to express their 
power as a nation. Consequently, they seized boldly upon 
the Greek art forms and elaborated them indiscriminately in 
their Roman designs. The refinement and delicacy of the 
Greek style was thus immediately wiped out, and there is 
little diflficulty in distinguishing between the ornament of 
Greece and that of Rome ; whereas, between the ornament 
of the Romanesque and that of the Byzantine period there 
is such a gradual change that distinction is in many cases 
impossible. 

40. Hagia Sophia. — Byzantine art, though spread to a 
greater or less extent throughout the continent of Europe, 
originated in and around the city of Constantinople, formerly 
called Byzantium. The great church of Hagia Sophia was 
built by the Emperor Justinian, in the year 532 A. D., and 
is the earliest monument purely Byzantine in style. A 
peculiarity of this monument and its style is the fact that 
we find so perfect an example of an original style with so 
little transition toward it. 

The emperor declared that he would erect a church, "That 
should be the grandest monument ever built by man," and 
the governors of even the most distant provinces of the 
empire were ordered to ransack all the ancient Roman 
buildings for sculptures, precious marbles, and works of art, 
to be used in this edifice. Eight columns of pure white 
marble were brought from Palmyra, and eight more of deep- 
green marble were stripped from the temple of Diana, at 
Ephesus, and shiploads of costly relics were brought from 
all sections of the empire to become a part of this great 
structure. 

Ten thousand men toiled night and day for six years, and 
the royal treasury and private purse of the emperor were 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



41 




42 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



exhausted by the prodigious expense. But the church was 
built, and is certainly one of the grandest architectural 
monuments the world has ever seen. The plan and con- 
struction of this edifice is no more remarkable than the scale 
and treatment of its interior decoration (see Fig. 30), and it 
stands to Byzantine architecture as the Parthenon stood to 
the Greek. Unfortunately it is now converted into a Moham- 
medan mosque, and the severity of the Mohammedan religion 
required that its beautiful interior decorations should be 
covered from sight by repeated applications of whitewash. 
However, we have been able to secure reproductions of some 
of these great ornaments so characteristic of the Byzantine 
style. 



41. Examples of Byzantine Style. — At Ravenna, 
which was the seat of government of the Eastern Empire 
under Justinian, the church of San Vitale is also a fine 
example of the Byzantine style, and at Ravenna, Byzantine 
art reached its height in this edifice. 

Venice also felt largely the Byzantine influence, and the 
church of St. Mark, built in the eleventh century, is a monu- 
ment patterned largely after the plan and decoration of Hagia 
Sophia; and, extending as far south as Sicily, we have the 
cathedral of Monreale, near Palermo, showing strong Byzan- 
tine influences, but at the same time possessing many details 

that are so strongly character- 
istic of the Romanesque style 
that it is difficult in many cases 
to classify them. 

43. The capital shown in 
Fig. 31 is from one of the 
columns in the first tier of 
arches in the church of Hagia 
Sophia, at Constantinople. The 
scrolls in the upper part of this 
^'"" '"^' column undoubtedly have their 

origin in the Ionic order, and, though the entire capital is 




HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



43 




Fig. 32. 



decomted with the conventionalized acanthus leaf, observe 
how widely different it is from any Roman model. Here 
the block of the capital is sound and heavy, and at its bot- 
tom is a foliated ring that seems to bind it together, while 
the carved leafwork grows 
out of the top of the column 
and enters materially into 
the construction of the capi- 
tal itself. 

Another Byzantine capi- 
tal, shown in Fig. 33, is 
taken from another church 
in Constantinople, built 
about the same time as 
Hagia Soph"ta, but less 
original in detail. Here 
the heavy scrolls project 
from the angles of the capital very much in the same man- 
ner as the volutes in the temple of Concord at Rome, and 
the place usually occupied by the abacus is filled by a heavy 
semipyramidal form on which the ornament seems to be 
applied as a surface decoration more than a component part 
of the construction. 

The effect of this illustrates, however, a radical departure 
from the traditions that lirnitated the architectural designs 

in Roman art ; and even 
when we arrive at Byzan- 
tine capitals of the eleventh 
century, as seen in St. Maik's, 
at Venice, Fig. 33, we can 
still observe the influence of 
Roman art, but thoroughly 
subservient to the Byzantine 
school of design. 

In Fig. 33, the volutes at 
the top of the column, the 
shape of the capital as it 
swells out to the abacus, and the general character of the 




44 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



entire detail are strongly suggestive of its Roman- Corinthian 
origin; but the strictly conventional treatment of the leaves, 
the character of the scroll around the abacus, and the bind- 
ing together of the ornament in 
the construction show plainly the 
influence of the work in the East. 

Fig. 34 is another example of 
Byzantine capital, from Italy, and 
is even more freed from Roman 
influence than that of the previous 
example. The long elliptical 
curves formed by the leaves, the 
sharp-pointed lobes, and the deep 
indentations are all suggestive of 
its Byzantine origin, while the 
little row of dentils so uselessly 
arranged around the top show the difficulty of producing 
any work in Italy without some taint of classic spirit. 




Fig. 34. 



43. The running ornament is illustrated in Fig. 35, 
which example is taken from the same church as Fig. 32, 
where the leaf form is thoroughly conventional, and, though 




Fig. 35. 



tending slightly toward a scroll, is governed by a continuous 
wavy line, from opposite sides of which the leaf forms branch. 
Fig. 36 is an example of geometrically arranged running 
ornament from Hagia Sophia. The main geometrical forms, 
as will be observed, are circles, but these circles are not 
formed complete in themselves, but result from the crossing 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



45 



and intersection of two wavy lines precisely the same in 
general character as the wavy line that forms the governing 
element of Fig. 35. Instead of branching foliage from oppo- 




FlG. 



site sides of the lines, in the latter case, however, geometrical 
figures are arranged within, and foliated forms that have the 
cross of St. George for their guiding element are used to 
form prominent details of the design. 




Fig. 87. 



44o Going back again now to the church of St. Mark, 
built in the eleventh century, we have a wall decoration 



46 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



between two arches, shown in Fig. 37. Tracing out the 
outline of this running surface ornament, it will be observed 
that the same wavy Ime governs its principle and direction, 
as in the case of Fig. 36 ; but a close study will show that the 
branching of leaves from one side is accompanied by a branch 
from the opposite side, so near that the general feeling is 
of a scroll growing out of a scroll, somewhat after the order 
of classic art. Above this ornament, however, the semi- 
circular ring is ornamented by geometrical devices within a 
governing outline, precisely similar to that seen at Hagia 
Sophia, Fig. 36. 

In all these examples, the student will observe that the 
character of the leaf is particularly uniform, that it is in the 
principle of the decoration that we find the greatest variation, 
and that the variation in this character only amounts to a 
greater or lesser display of oriental or classic influence. 




Fig. 38. 



45. Examples of Byzantine art found in Greece are 
usually purer than any found in Italy, as Roman art and 
influence never secured a thoroughly characteristic foothold 
in the conquered country. Byzantine art was built on Greek 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



47 



art in the first place, and examples of it on Greek soil are 
usually of excellent character. Besides this, Greek examples 
have not been mutilated by Mohammedan invasion to the 
extent that we find them in other eastern countries, and the 
color treatment and contrast can be best studied there. 

46. Ceiling Becoration. — Fig. 38 shows an example of 
ceiling decoration from the church of St. George at Thessa- 
lonica. The circular ornament within the border was exe- 
cuted in red on a blue ground, though the hollow-sided 
square in the center of it was gold, as were also the triangles 
at the four corners. The peculiar outline of the device adja- 
cent to the four sides of the interior rectangle is suggestive 
of Arabian origin, and is exceedingly ingenious in its method 
of preserving symmetry and preventing awkward repetition. 
The border around this was executed entirely in gold on a 
blue ground, with the exception of the extreme outside line, 
which was red. 

41. Wall Decoration. — Fig. 39 is an example of wall 




WT^rtVf^ ' ^ ^4 ^^-'^^'-i^^ ■^lag^.j. JW . 11^1 Ica^n^^raBT .iJdm^L'.lsA.;^.^. 1. I. IrT ^IH,,..^ 



decoration from the same edifice, the rectangles and circles 
containing the leaves and crosses, all being worked with a 



48 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



plain gold round, while the figures and half of the smaller 
crosses were green and the outlines of the larger crosses and 
the remaining smaller crosses were red. The effect is very 
rich, and the arrangement of the rectangles and smaller 
circles shows a knowledge of surface division that is well 
carried into effect. The student's attention is particularly- 
called to the fact that the shape of the groundwork between 
the rectangles is also crucial, and that every effort is made 
to bring that symbolic detail into prominent display. 

48. In giving examples of Byzantine ornament, nothing 
could be more characteristic than the stone panels herewith 
illustrated. The style of the ornament itself, the character 
of the carving, and the development of the geometrical pat- 
tern are all details that are shown here in a most character- 
istic Byzantine form. 




Fig. 40. 



49. The pierced screen shown in Fig. 40 is from 
Ravenna, and illustrates the geometrical pattern based on 
an arrangement of circles (somewhat after the style of the 
Celtic ornament), in which is carved the typical Byzantine 



M 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



4d 



leaf. The cross outlined in the center was emphasized in 
the original by a plating of gold, and the spaces around the 
foliage were filled with birds whose peculiar modeling and 
conventional outline is characteristic of the Byzantine style. 
Another characteristic of the style, shown clearly in this 
illustration, is the sharp angular cutting of the leaves, the 
deep circular and elliptical openings between the lobes of 
two adjacent leaves, and the tendency of the whole panel to 
appear in high relief on a dark ground rather than to be 
pierced through entirely. 

In Fig. 41 is shown another screen of the same character, 
where the interlaced bands that form the geometrical outline 




Fig. 41. 



of the foliated ornament were originally gilded, and the leaf 
forms carved between them are similar to those in Fig. 40. 



50. Fig. 42, however, shows a trend in a different direc- 
tion. Here the openings in the screen are larger, the exterior 
portion of it being outlined with a design undoubtedly 
derived' from the Grecian fret, while in the center a large 
Latin cross divides the panel into four smaller rectangles, 



50 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



each filled with a particular device symbolic of Christianity 
and characteristic of the Byzantine style. Observe also the 
running foliage around this panel, and its branching leaves 
and fruit, alternately from opposite sides, and note the diif er- 




FlG. 43. 



ence between this style of treating foliage and that of the 
Roman and Greek artists, where continuous foliage was 
accomplished by growing one spray or stem out of a calyx 
or cup from which a scroll emanated. 



51. The capital of the column shown in Fig. 43 is also 
from Ravenna, and the peculiar looking birds on the upper 
part, as well as the sharply indented foliage, are character- 
istic of this style. Here, also, is seen that same geometrical 
pattern as the governing outline to which we called atten- 
tion in Fig. 40, and also the wandering-vine border line, 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



51 



throwing off its leaves on alternate sides in a similar manner 
to the outline in Fig. 43. 

That the capital of the column is cut in full relief is clearly 
shown by the fact that the light shines through the screen 
work on to the stone interior, as may be seen. This style 
of capital will be found throughout Northern Italy where 







.J 









fell I' ^ '■ / ?t' -- ' ^ feT'-:^'; 





Fig. 43. 



any example of Byzantine style exists. The dark portions 
of it were originally gilded, and must certainly have pre- 
sented a most remarkable effect. 



53. Turning to St. Mark's, at Venice, Fig. 44, we find 
a frieze such as shown in Fig. 45, the lines of which are 
based on identically the same motives as the screens we 



52 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



^u- 




§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



53 



have already studied; but the carving, though in high relief, 
does not pierce the screen, and the border of the panel, as 
well as the treatment of the foliage within the panel, shows 
a highly developed Byzantine feeling. Observe, however, 




Fig. 45. 



the influence of its proximity to Rome on the treatment of 
the scroll forms. In the central part of the panel we do 
not have the running vine, with its leaves branching from 
each side, but a partly controlled tendency to grow one 



54 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



scroll out of another — a tendency that is so well kept in 
submission that it does not materially affect the delicacy of 
the design. 

In the same church, we find the panel shown in Fig. 46, 
the rounded forms of which are not often found in this 
style. Note, however, the severe conventionalism of the 
foliage treatment, and also the independence of the artist 





--^t^-V 







concerning the preservation of absolute symmetry. On 
one side, the vine runs off the panel both at the top and 
edge, and, on the other side, runs off the panel on the 
top only. One of the two central leaves extends over the 
molding of the panel frame ; the other is carved entirely 
within it. 

53. In Fig. 47 is shown a well at Venice, the details of 
which illustrate clearly the strong, bold, outline effect char- 
acteristic of Byzantine carving. The guilloche border around 
the top and the leaves patterned after inverted anthemions 
are suggestive of classic origin, but are treated with such 



§i 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



55 



strong Byzantine 
obliterated. 



effect that the classic taint is fairly 



54. Ingenuity of Byzantine Ornament. — The geo- 
metrical arrangements in Byzantine ornament are exceed- 
ingly ingenious, and especially remarkable in mosaic work, 








y ^ 












J- 



V 

^■i 



y' 



Fig. 47. 

the monotony of which they destroy by well planned and 
complicated constructions based usually upon a variation of 
the straight line and the right angle. 

In Fig. 48 is shown one of the doorways in the cathedral 
of Monreale, near Palermo, around which ihosaic patterns 
are inlaid in the jambs and also in the flanking walls. The 
pattern of this mosaic is typical of examples of that art in 
the Byzantine style, as the Byzantine mosaics can nearly 
always be distinguished from the Roman mosaics by the 



56 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



fact that the geometrical construction forms an integral part 
of the design. There is one style of this mosaic ornament 
that is also typical of the Romanesque period, particularly 



iPil 



(■ 
k, ^ 



i |»#^!#^^^^^^ 









w 




Pig. 48. 



in Italy. This consists of a geometrical arrangement of 
lozenge-shaped pieces of glass in a complicated series of 
diagonal lines, the directions of which are defined and 
terminated by means of pieces in different colors. 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



57 



The examples of this work in Central Italy are much 
simpler than those of the southern provinces of Sicily, where 
the influences of Saracenic art are very much felt; and this 




Fig. 49. 



mosaic work, as observed in the southern provinces, is very 
difficult to classify positively, either in the Romanesque or 
the Byzantine style. 



58 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

55. In Fig. 49 are shown some clustered columns from 
the cathedral of Monreale. One group of four columns is 
richly carved with the interlaced ornament so familiar in the 
examples of Byzantine art, while the adjacent columns, inlaid 
with zigzag lines of mosaic, are more suggestive of Roman- 
esque art, and the capitals and bases of both sets of columns 
are more in accordance with the Romanesque idea than with 
the Byzantine. This, however, may be largely accounted for 
when we consider that both styles were merged together 
in Sicily at about the close of the twelfth century, and the 
examples in Figs. 48 and 49 are here given in order that the 
similarity of styles may be carefully studied. 

56. Sculpture In Byzantine Art. — Pure Byzantine 
ornament is distinguished by broad-toothed and acute- 
pointed leaves, which in sculpture are beveled at the edge 
and are deeply chiseled throughout and drilled with deep 
holes at the springings of the teeth. The running foliage is 
generally thin and continuous. The ground, whether in 
mosaic or painted work, is almost universally gold. Thin 
interlaced patterns are usually preferred to geometrical 
designs, and the introduction of animal or other figures is 
very limited, especially in sculpture, and in painted work is 
confined principally to holy subjects in a stiff conventional 
style, exhibiting little variety of feeling. In fact, in Byzan- 
tine art, sculpture is a very secondary importance. 

57. Sculpture In Komanesque Art. — Romanesque 
ornament, on the other hand, depended mostly on sculpture 
for its effect. It is rich in light and shade, deep cuttings 
and massive projections, and a great intermixture of figure 
subjects of every kind with foliage and conventional orna- 
ment. The place filled by mosaic work in the Byzantine 
art, in the Romanesque is supplied generally by paint. In 
colored ornament, animals are as freely introduced as in 
sculpture, and the ground no longer confined to gold, but 
composed of blue, red, or green. In other respects, how- 
ever, the two styles are very much alike. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 59 

ASIATIC oii:n^ament. 

58. Characteristics of the People. — Before studying 
the style of the ornament of this section of the eastern 
hemisphere, let us consider how different are the character- 
istics of this people from the European nations whose 
ornament we have so far analyzed. Oriental people are 
traditionally immobile in character and unprogressive in their 
methods of business and manufacture. The processes of 
weaving, carving, and other practices of art design are trans- 
mitted carefully and faithfully in the oriental nations from 
generation to generation, and it is therefore practically 
impossible to assign a precise date to any one production, so 
similar are the designs. The study of oriental art is there- 
fore freed from any minute chronological examination, and 
the student is able to consider the subject in a broad sense, 
considering only primary and original styles that predomi- 
nate over lesser divisions and personal modifications. These 
styles can be divided into three general groups : (1) Chinese 
sxiA Japanese, (2) Indian, and (3) Arabian. 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE ORNAMENT, 

59. The Chinese are a nation of great antiquity, and we 
can discover no detail of art training that they have ever 
given to or received from any other civilization. This nation 
has been ever satisfied with itself, and this lack of progression 
and consequent isolation have given it an originality of 
character devoid of any detail that we find of the art works 
of other nations, unless we except those general geometrical 
formations that instinct seems to have implanted uniformly 
in the minds of every known race. 

60. Prlmitiveness of Chinese Ornament. — Chinese 
ornament does not seem to have gone beyond the very 
earliest stages of design that we find among the most prim- 
itive people. They are even behind the New Zealander in 



60 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

their theory of applied art, and are plodding along in the 
creation of fresh designs at a fixed point that is neither pro- 
gression nor retrogression. Like all oriental nations, they 
possess a wonderful faculty of color harmony, but they have 
never expressed an appreciation of pure form — a condition 
that must necessarily be arrived a't by a subtle process and 
result from highly endowed natural instincts, or from the 
development of primitive ideas through successive gen- 
erations of artists, each improving on the work of its 
predecessor. 

In their decorative and woven patterns, the Chinese pos- 
sess only just such talent as might be expected of a most 
primitive people. Their most successful efforts are those in 
which a geometrical pattern forms the basis of a design, and 
even in these they depart from patterns formed by the inter- 
section of equal lines, and seem to have a very imperfect 
idea of the distribution of space. 

Their taste for color, which amounts almost to an instinct, 
enables them in some measure to balance form, but in designs 
deprived of color they seem to be almost helpless. The 
Chinese are certainly colorists, and are able to balance with 
equal success both the fullest tones of color and the most 
delicate shades. They are not only successful in the use of 
the primary colors, but also in the secondaries and tertiaries, 
and they are particularly deft in their management of the' 
lighter shades of pure color, such as pink, light blue, pale 
green, etc. 

61. Lack of Idealism In Chinese Ornament. — In 

their printed paper hangings, the treatment of both figures 
and landscape and of ornament is so conventional that, no 
matter how inartistic we may consider it, we feel that it is 
within the bounds of decoration. In all cases, their instinct 
thus restrains them within the true limit, and although the 
arrangement is generally unnatural and inartistic, they never 
by shades or shadows violate consistency, as is repeatedly 
done in work at the present day. 

In their floral patterns, they always observed natural laws 



§ 4: HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 61 

of radiation from the parent stem, and tangential curvature. 
It could not very well be otherwise with a people like the 
Chinese, whose strongest peculiarity is their fidelity in copy- 
ing, and hence we must infer that they are close observers 
of nature. It is the taste to idealize on this close observa- 
tion that is wanting. On the whole, Chinese ornament is a 
very faithful expression of the nature of this peculiar people. 
Its characteristic feature is oddness. We cannot call it 
capricious, for caprice is a playful wandering of a lively 
imagination ; but the Chinese imagination is disorderly, and 
all their works are wanting in the highest grace of art, 
namely, idealism. 

63. Dearth, of Chinese Architecture. — The extreme 
fancifulness of Chinese ornamental compositions, and the 
lack of order or method in them, is not surprising when we 
take into consideration the fact that the Chinese have never 
developed anything worthy of the name of architecture in 
the true sense of the word. They have no original form of 
construction that would be likely to give rise to a system of 
ornament in which even the most insignificant designs have 
been known to assume character and even grandeur, as is so 
well exemplified in Egyptian style. 

63. The absence of a national architecture renders the 
character and genius of the Chinese easily understood. To 
this people, that seems to occupy itself with naught but 
details in everything, the conception of a monumental 
building is entirely beyond comprehension. Certainly, this 
circumstance is largely responsible for the condition of 
the Chinese today and the rudimentary character of their 
designs. 

The first element of beauty in the Chinese school of art is 
variety, and in their foliated designs we find leaves following 
one after another bearing not the slightest resemblance to 
one another. One panel of a screen painted with a land- 
scape will be set beside another ornamented with metallic 
arabesques. The use of straight lines and right angles is 



63 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

either studiously avoided or so disguised that they will be 
vague or misunderstood. 

64. Chinese Color'ing. — That the Chinese imagination 
is of a disorderly character is shown in some of their curiously 
shaped forms; these are so entirely different from those with 
which we are more familiar, and so completely destitute of 
the elements that cause an impression of grandeur, that the 
interest in their designs is with difficulty maintained. The 
Chinese are apparently ignorant of the simplest laws of 
perspective, and seem in no way to comprehend the effect of 
light and shade. Notwithstanding this inferiority, however, 
the coloring of their ornament is so rich, and their imagina- 
tion is so wild and irregular, that they make a varied and 
charming use of their ornament in particular applications, 
such as ceramics, incrustations, and woven fabrics. Their 
productions are models of color harmony, and are in some 
respects superior to the works of other nations. The very 
defects in their designs form sources of some of the good 
qualities that accompany them, and the capricious activity of 
their minds inclines them to make an ornament of every- 
thing, whether it be a cloud, wave, shell, rock, or form from 
the animal world. The bright-colored butterfly flitting 
among flowers and the Naming thunderbolt bursting from 
the heavens are of equa importance to the Chinese artist 
when applied to a surface as ornament. 

To these rich and varied resources may be added a limited 
number of time-honored figures that, to a certain extent, 
have symbolical significance. We are all familiar with the 
Chinese dragons — those monsters with frightful heads, 
formidable looking teeth, and fearful claws — certain funny 
looking dogs with claws, sharp teeth, and curling mains 
somewhat resembling the lion, grotesque birds, and the 
mandarin duck, all of which are conspicuous in Chinese 
decoration. 

65. Adherence to Standard Forms. — A peculiarchar- 
acteristic of this art is that, though it appears in itself so 



§4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 63 

capricious, its execution expresses such faithfulness of trans- 
mission in the representation of things from generation to 
generation that the lapse of hundreds of years has not caused 
the slightest modification of one of these standard ornaments. 
This may be due to the effect of the imitative instinct of 
this isolated nation that, so advanced in some points and so 
primitive in others, is always consistent in itself. It is 
possible, however, that this fidelity in the observance of the 
form and coloring of some preceding work is due to some 
mysterious rules — some sort of ritual perpetuated through 
various ages. Ancient laws and customs established certain 
rules governing the color of the robes and vestments of the 
imperial court, according to different dynasties ; once it was 
white, afterwards green, and the Tai Tasig dynasty, now 
reigning in China, dresses in yellow. 

Chinese art is a mixture of ideal and imitative elements, 
the latter being used in the rnost conventional manner, the 
coloring of which is also conventional and not in the least 
subject to any imitation of nature. 

66. Japanese Art, though borrowed from the Chi- 
nese, possesses much greater individuality arid is better 
preserved to the present day. The Japanese have devel- 
oped the study of nature, especially in birds, with more 
truthfulness and power of observation than did their ances- 
tors or rivals, and their imitative style is therefore less 
conventional. However, even though their delicate pro- 
ductions have added fresh charms to the old Chinese cer- 
amics, they are not equal to the figures of the work of the 
finest periods. 

One of the principal causes of the general progress of 
Japanese art may be found in the fact that a great profusion 
of examples of design of all sorts, conceived by good artists 
and- carved in wood, are so distributed as to be constantly 
before the general public. Therein lies an element of prog- 
ress, as it cultivates a taste for objects of art among the 
common people and creates a demand. When all objects 
and utensils of service and utility are richly carved and 



64 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

decorated with ornamental designs, the eye is bound to 
become educated and the general taste of the people more 
refined. This is strongly exemplified in the Egyptian 
civilization. 



INDIAN ORNAMENT, 

6'7. Unprogresslveness of Indian Art. — Although less 
isolated than China, and in more frequent communication with 
the rest of the world, Indian civilization has not experienced 
such changes as mark the history of many other nations. 
The social and religious organizations, the priests, and castes 
of people, the sacred books and poetry, and the manners, 
customs, and superstitions remain today much as they were 
among the Hindus hundreds of years ago. 

Art naturally has shared in this standstill, and the siib- 
stance of Indian decoration is still limited to a few general 
features that for many centuries have undergone no funda- 
mental alteration. The most striking of these characteristics 
are the continuity and abundance of decoration. The sur- 
face decoration is usually filled up entirely with a profusion of 
ornamental forms that, if not exactly alike, are very similar. 
The ground color is always warm and harmonious — occa- 
sionally light, though more frequently dark — which serves 
to unite the designs and add greatly to the general effect. 

68. The method of distribution and the admirable feel- 
ing for color procures in Indian decoration a richness and 
calm that gives it an undefinable sense of repose. The 
tendency of the style toward monotony is overcome by this 
powerful unity that leaves no room for desire or need of 
greater variety. The designs are usually based on some 
floral type and are treated in a most conventional manner, 
and though the imitation bears a closer resemblance to 
nature than in most of the styles we have studied, it is by no 
means servile. The type from which an ornament is derived 
can usually be recognized without trouble, and, although 
floral ornament is occasionally seen under the pure art form 



i^ 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



65 



characteristic of the Egyptian style, it is usually treated 
with a pliancy of execution and picturesqueness of idea that 
brings it to a closer resemblance to the modern style. 

69. In the execution, however, Indian art never 
attempts the rounding of a form (a process that is naturally 
opposed to the idea of surface decoration), and usually con- 
fines itself to silhouette drawings, in which the outline is 
shown off by a dark tint on light grounds or by a lighter tint 
on dark grounds. 

70. Characteristics of Indian Ornament. — Indian 
ornament possesses the valuable characteristic of being dis- 
tinctively original. It has been allowed to grow up and 
develop itself without any foreign influence or 
conflicting ideas of religion. In the application 
of ornament to the various portions of an object, 
the greatest judgment is, in this style, always 
shown. In the first place, the ornament is t mJ 
always in perfect scale with the position that it fi:^f|3 
occupies. On the long narrow necks of the 
hookas are the small pendant flowers, as shown 
in Fig. 50, while the swelling form toward the 
base is occupied with larger patterns. 

71. In the' equal distribution of surface orna- 
ment over the grounds, this nation exhibits a 
remarkable perfection of drawing. An exact 
balance is obtained between the various colors 
used, and this balance is carried to such a nicety 
that it is practically impossible to reproduce 
any of their woven or embroidered goods with 
any degree of accuracy. In all their woven fabrics, the 
colors are so fused together that the entire piece of goods 
at a little distance presents no individual coloring, but a 
neutralized bloom. 

73. The following general rules observed in the designs 
of their woven fabrics are of importance : 



Fig. .50. 



.66 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

1. When gold ornaments are used on a colored ground, 
or where gold is used in large masses, there the ground is 
darkest. Where gold is used more thinly, the ground is 
lighter and more delicate. 

2; When gold ornament is used alone on a colored ground, 
the color of the ground is carried into it by ornaments or 
hatchings worked on the ground holors in the gold itself. 

3. When -ornaments in one color are on a ground of con- 
trasting color, the ornament is separated from the ground by 
an edging of a lighter color to prevent all harshness of contrast. 

4. When, on the contrary, ornaments in a color are on a 
gold ground, 'the ornaments are- separated from the gold 
ground by an edging of darker color to prevent the gold 
from ovetpowering the ornament. 

5. In other cases where varieties of color are used on a 
colored ground, a general outline of gold, of silver, or of 
white or yellow silk separates the ornament from the ground, 
giving a general tone throughout. 

73. In Fig. 51 is shown a diaper pattern taken from an 
Indian textile, and exhibits the regularity of repeated form 





iMg^Y>5>r^/^ 


!^ 


^^^S 


"W y^ J\ft^_/^ i*v_7>yv-/j] 


I 




^^^^r^^^ 




■j) we.^ "^2j^^^^*J (•^^^^BjT^^ 


tmj t*^ XLi^ ^^M*^ T^^— ^ 


t 


^^''cl^^^^^^^S. 


^^^^^E^^^^^G 




'Jt*J^^Vii^ "^11*^ yi^^ ^ 




i 



Fig. 51. 



that thoroughly fills up the surface, as heretofore described. 
There is a slight tendency toward a geometrical formation 



4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



67 



observable in this pattern, where 
tangent to its neighbor. This 
not as rigidly carried out, 
however,, as in Fig. 52, 
where the construction lines 
governing the main details 
consist merely of semi- 
circles connected by short 
straight lines, thereby forming 
knees, as indicated at a. The 
style of ornament enclosed in 
the geometrical figures thus 
formed is typical of Indian 
design, and shows a number 
of forms tangent to a general 
stem, all of which may have 
had their origin in brush 
strokes of painted work, or 
possibly in the shape of the 
palm leaf, which they slightly 
resemble. 



the wavy line becomes 
geometrical pattern is 




Fig. 52. 



14. In Fig. 63 is shown a tj-pical example of Indian 
ornament taken from a woolen fabric, many of the details of 




wmmmmmmmmmmm 



Fig. 53. 
which will be found similar to the strokes referred to in 



68 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



Fig. 52. These forms, though more or less foliated, do not 
bear a very strong resemblance to the natural type, but in 
Fig. 54 we have an example of silverware where the chased 
design is a conventionalized form of flower, but in more 
direct imitation of nattire than exhibited in the other 
examples. 

75. These few examples illustrate by comparison the 
different handling of ornament by the Indian designers to 
suit it to various purposes. The patterns shown in Figs. 51 
and 52 are seen more usually in light fabrics, while that in. 
Fig. 63 is woven in heavier woolen goods, and that in Fig. 54 
is executed in metal. 

In objects of low-tone combinations of color, a black gen- 
eral outline is used to separate the ornament from the ground. 
The object always appears to be, in the woven fabric, that 




Fig. 54. 



each ornament should be softly and not harshly defined, that 
colored objects viewed at a distance should present a neu- 
tralized bloom, that nearer approach should exhibit the 
beautiful details, and that a close inspection should divulge 
the means whereby these effects are produced. In this, the 
Indian carries out the same principle of surface decoration 
that we find in the architecture of the Arabs and Moors. The 
ornament in the spandrel of a Moorish arch and in an Indian 
shawl are constructed on precisely the same principles. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 69 

'76. Indian decoration, like the Chinese, is un progressive 
and introduces no new forms in its designs, but repeats 
traditionally generation after generation the same forms for 
the same purposes. 



ARABIAN ORNAMENT, 

11 H. Important as was the influence of Byzantine art in 
Europe from the sixth to the eleventh century, there was no 
people that it affected more than the great and spreading 
Arab race that propagated the creed of Mohammed, and, after 
conquering the finest countries in Asia and Africa, finally 
obtained a footing even in Europe. In the earlier buildings 
executed by them in Egypt, Palestine, and Spain, the influ- 
ence of the Byzantine style is very strongly marked, and the 
tradition of the Byzantine school affected all the adjacent 
countries to a greater or less degree. 

Although the Arabs must have possessed an original art, 
only a few traces of it remain, and these are in legends 
wherein grand buildings are spoken of that date back to 
remote antiquity. 

It is known that the wandering and stationary tribes dis- 
tinguished each other by the name of "Felt people" and 
" Clay people, " and this would lead one to the impression 
that the latter title implied a knowledge of ceramics; but the 
character of the decoration of the pottery of these early 
tribes is at present unknown, as is also that of their arms, 
fabrics, and fixed dwellings. 

78. Development of Arabian Ornament. — On their 
contact with the Greeks, East Indians, and Persians, the 
Arabian people produced a style of ornament that formed an 
important part in the compromise now called by the name 
Byzantine. Subsequently, when Byzantine art had reached 
its zenith, Arabian art, under the influence of Islam, took the 
form under which we now know it, and may have shown in 
some applications a certain Byzantine influence exercised on 
the Arab practice. It is unreasonable, however, to consider 



70 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

Byzantine art, as is sometimes done, as being originally a 
formation of the Arab style, as the latter has too much char- 
acter and unity not to be in itself an original conception. 
There appears to have been a mutual influence exercised 
between the Byzantine and Arabian during the earliest peri- 
ods, as inevitably happens in a contest for supremacy between 
two neighboring styles; but if the Arab received anything 
from the perfected Byzantine, it may be said that they were 
only partly taking back their own from an art that had drawn 
so largely from oriental sources, not only during its forma- 
tion but also up to the period of its greatest development. 

79. Influence of Mohammedanism. — When the 
Mohammedan religion spread with such astounding rapidity 
over the East, the increasing demands of civilization natu- 
rally led to the creation of a new style of art, and while it is 
certain that the early Mohamrnedan structures were either 
an adaptation of old' Roman or Byzantine buildings, or else 
buildings constructed from the ruins and materials of the 
ancient monuments, it is equally certain that the new ideas 
and expression of feelings must at a very early period have 
given rise to' a characteristic form of art. In buildings con- 
structed largely of old materials, the)' endeavored to imitate 
the details borrowed from old buildings, and the same result 
followed that had already taken place in the transition of the 
Roman style to the Byzantine. The imitations were crude 
and imperfect, but this imperfection created a new order of 
ideas; and instead of returning to the original model, they 
gradually' threw off the restrictions, and early in their history 
formed and perfected a style of art peculiarly their own. 

80. With the study of Arabian ornament, we meet the 
first restrictions in the application of certain forms in deco- 
ration. The Mohammedan religion forbids the use of any 
animal or vegetable forms as an element of design. The 
Koran, which occupies the same position in the Moham- 
medan belief that the Bible does in the Christian, distinctly 
states that the follower of Mohammed "Shall make no 



HISTORIC -ORNAMENT. 



71 



images." We therefore find in the Arabian style, as a substi- 
tute for the foliated design we are now so familiar with, a sys- 
tem of constructive ornament, the complicated framing of 
which was fascinating to the geometrical mind of the Arab. 




81. This is shown clearly in Fig.. 55, which is the o.ut- 
side of a staircase in Egypt, the panels of which are entiehed 
by very beautiful geometrical devices — complicated in their 
construction but really simple in their formation when their 



72 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

governing lines are traced out. Take, for instance, the large 
triangular panel, and it will be found that all the figures 
therein are formed by the intersection and crossing of a 
number of zigzag lines, several of which are exactly the 
same in pattern but arranged at different angles. 

This is characteristic of all Arabian and Moorish designs, 
as we shall see hereafter. The continuity of the ornament 
entirely covers the surface in Arabian as in Indian art, and 
nothing can be removed from the design without occasioning 
a feeling of loss. 

The means employed, however, are different, and, while 
the mere repetition of objects frequently suffices in Indian 
decoration, the Arabian ornament, on the contrary, is built 
up and bound together in all its parts. Everything is con- 
nected, and, from the circumference to the center of the 
interlacings in a piece of rose work, there is a continuous 
line that cannot be broken without destroying the design. 
This imaginative construction is sometimes double, that is, 
formed by two complete systems that follow each other to 
an end without confusion, but meet and overlap to produce 
incidental figures, intersections, and alterations. 

83. Arabian Decoration. — Notwithstanding this 
learned complication, Arabian decoration is clear and dis- 
tinct, thanks to the general purity and fineness of the lines 
and the exclusion of all superfluity. This is also due to the 
principle observed in the construction of the "roses," 
wherein the wider spans are reserved for the extremities of 
the circumference, leaving to the radiating center, from 

which they diverge, th-e fine work 
that throws out boldly, thus fix- 
ing the eye on the key of the 
whole composition as the central 
point of a circle. 




8.3. In Fig. 66 is shown 
another example of this style of 
FIG. 56. ornament, taken from a mosaic 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



73 



pavement in a mosque at Cairo, in Egypt. Here the geo- 
metrical simplicity of the pattern can be easily traced, as 
the design consists simply of two horizontally arranged 
zigzag -lines, crossed at regular intervals by sets of diago- 
nally arranged zigzag lines, the patterns of which are all 
identical. 

84. In Fig. 57 we have an ornament generated on a dif- 
ferent system but on a similar geometrical idea. This orna- 
ment, too, is suggestive of the fret pattern, though entirely 
different from any frets we have hitherto observed. How- 
ever, the shape of the enclosed figure abc def, it will be 




Fig. 57. 

observed, is identically the same as the figure ghijkl, and 
the repetition and alternate arrangement of these two pecu- 
liar outlines give us the key to the whole system of orna- 
ment shown in the figure. 

This result is obtained by an arrangement of the simplest 
forms imaginable, but the geometrical and intellectual study 
required to perfect these forms to bring about the result is 
something tremendous, and the student will readily see that 
it really requires more brain work to produce a simple look- 
ing design like Fig. 57, than the complicated arrangement 
of straight lines shown in Fig. 56. 



85. Another pattern is shown in Fig. 68, and consists of 
a number of scrolls of a more or less geometrical character, 



u 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



and, though simple in itself, it is fascinatingly complicated in 
its conception. The design is executed in two colors, and a 
little study will show that the outlines of the two colors are 
identical. The light portions of the design in the upper half 

of the figure are a duplication 
^^JH^JJIBF^Hi^^ '^ the dark portions of the 
f ^^Tf^ JT^lT^^J -sign in the lower half of the 
W*^#S^^J*^Cj|^fC -fiire, and vice versa, every 
f (f^3C^lk^f^#V^^ 't^i^ °^ ^^^ ^^^^ being exactly 

producible in the opposite 
ilor on the other half, and, if 
le figure were sawed out on 
the line dividing the two colors, 
it would produce two outlines 
exactly the same in every respect. We called attention to 
this fact in connection with the Greek frets, but no Greek 
ornament ever carried this wonderful mathematical detail 
to such .3, nicety. 




Fig. 58. 



" '8'6. Arabian Coloring'. — In Fig. 59 we have a ceiling 
taken from a mosque at Cairo. The .repetition of, similar 
forms is clearly marked here, though the geometrical ele- 
ment is largely lost owing to 







the surface covered by the 
fiat decoration. The colors 
here used were a light blue 
for the groundwork, over 
which was laid the general 
design in bright gold, and 
that overlaid with a pale yel- 
low, almost approaching a 
cream tint. Light blue and 
pale yellow are very prominent tints in Arabian ornament; 
red is used but sparingly, and then of a most intense shade; 
while green is introduced in small arabesque figures, scat- 
tered through with others of gold and occasionally of blue. 
The ground colors in nearly all instances are blue, creamy 
yellow, and occasionally red. 



Fig. 59. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 75 

87. Fig. 60 is from an illuminated copy of the Koran, 
and illustrates the' influence of • Byzantine art on that of 
Arabia. The general construction lines of the ornament are 
Byzantine in character, while the filling in is typically Ara- 
bian. The small irregular spaces in the border of the design 




Fig. 60. 

at a are green, the square enclosed spaces at b are a brilliant 
red, and the groundwork that shows through at ^ is a deli- 
cate shade of blue. The ornaments worked on these grounds 
and in these spaces are either a bright gold or white, and the 
filling in of the general outline is a creamy shade of yellow, 

88. In the primitive Arabian style, unmixed with the 
Persian, the flower, properly so called, is never to be found, 
but in its place appear other forms resembling it and are 
apparently inspired directly by nature. This sort of sub- 
ject, half way between imaginary conception and the repre- 
sentation of natural flowers, does not appear simply as a 
termination of scrolls, as among the Greeks, but forms an 
integral part of the decoration and does not break the lineal 
network. 



76 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

TURKISH ORNAMENT. 

89. Cliaracteristics of Turkisli Ornament. — The 

architecture of the Turks, as seen, at Constantinople, is 
patterned after the early Byzantine style, though their sys- 
tem of ornamentation is a modification of the Arabian style. 
In fact, it may be considered as an application of Arabian 
ornament, without any understanding of the meaning, deri- 
vation, or type of that ornament. 

When the art of one people is borrowed by another of the 
same religion but of different character, temperament, and 
customs, the resulting designs are certain to show the defi- 
ciency of intellect or refinement that the borrowing people 
possessed in contrast to the others ; and this is the case with 
the Turks when compared with the Arabs. There is the 
same difference in the refinement, elegance, and judgment 
of the Turkish ornament and Arabian ornament as there is 
between these two peoples. The Turks themselves can 
hardly be considered an artistic nation. They have built 
buildings and executed designs in their cities, but have 
employed foreign artists to do the work. All their public 
buildings, therefore, present a mixed style. It is not at all 
unusual to find in a Turkish building floral ornaments of 
Arabian and Persian origin side by side with details from 
Rome, the Turks having exhibited a tendency to abandon 
the traditional style of their forefathers. 

The Turks are the first of the Mohammedan nations to 
adopt European fashions in architecture, and their modern 
buildings and palaces are the work of European architects 
and artists, and are designed in the most approved European 
style. 

90. The Turkish embroideries give about the only style 
of ornament that we can consider strictly national, as work 
of this character must necessarily exhibit the characteristics 
of the race, and, judging from this, it will be readily seen 
that their art instinct is far inferior to that of India. Indian 
embroidery is perfect in the distribution of its forms and all 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 77 

its principles of ornamentation. With Turkish ornamenta- 
tion, the only examples we have that approach any degree 
of perfection are in the carpets, but these are executed 
mostly in Asia Minor, and are probably not designed by 
Turks. The designs of most of them appear more Arabian, 
and differ from the Persian carpets in being more conven- 
tional in their foliage treatment. 

91. The general principles of the distribution of form 
are the same in Turkish and Arabian ornament, but there is 
a difference in the treatment. In both the Arabian and 
Moresque styles, the surface of an ornament is only slightly 
rounded and the enrichment is secured by sinking in the 
lines, or, where the surface was left smooth, additional pat- 
tern upon pattern was obtained by painting. Turkish orna- 
ment, on the contrary, presents a curved surface, and the 
effect is not as broad as that produced by the sunken-feather 
treatment of the Arabian and Moresque. Another peculiar- 
ity that readily distinguishes Turkish ornament from Ara- 
bian is its abuse of the reentering curve, thus causing all 
its detail to have a feeling of instability and unrest. This 
is also, to a certain extent, characteristic of the Persian 
style. In the Moorish style, however, it appears only 
exceptionally. 

92. It is a very difficult matter, in fact, almost impos 
sible, to clearly explain the differences in styles of ornament 
that have so strong a family resemblance as the Persian, 
Arabian, and Turkish, but, after practice, the eye detects 
them as readily as it does the difference between Roman 
and Greek. The general principles remaining the same, 
there will be found a peculiarity in the proportions of the 
masses — more or less grace in the flowing of the curves, a 
fondness for particular directions in the leading lines, and a 
peculiar interweaving of forms, the general form of the 
conventional foliage usually remaining the same. The rela- 
tive degree of fancy, delicacy, or coarseness with which these 
are drawn will at once distinguish them as works of the 



78 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

refined and spirited Persian, the not alone refined, but 
reflective, Arabian, or the unimaginative Turk. 

93. The most prominent colors in Turkish ornament are 
green and black ; in fact, these form a feature of the orna- 
ment. In modern Turkish ornament, green is much more 
prominent than in ancient examples, where blue was the 
important color. 



PERSIA]^ ORN^AMBNT. 

94. Cliaracteristics of Persian Ornament. — The 

time at which we are. most familiar with Persian art is at the 
period of its greatest splendor. The outlines of the orna- 
ment are generally taken from the conceptions of Arabian 
architecture, but modified by Indian tradition and the 
peculiar genius of the Persian race. The style of Persian 
ornament is less compressed and austere than the Ara- 
bian, and possesses more freedom and elegance, while its 
sources of double derivation give it a greater element of 
variety. 

The floral motive is employed in both its aspects. In 
some examples it is scattered through the decoration with 
apparent freedom, and, in others, inserted in the linked net- 
work and usually placed at the intersection of lines; but even 
in the latter case, it is treated in a manner that is medium 
between the Arab conventionality and the Indian naturalism. 
A consideration of the characteristics of the Persians will 
help us to understand this more fully. 

95. Persian Compared With Arabian Art. — The 

Arabs belonged to the Mohammedan sect of Omar, while the 
Persians had split from this faith, and belonged to the sect 
of Ali, and were great drinkers of wine. They therefore 
attributed to flowers a symbolical language, and did not 
exclude the representation • of flowers in their decoration, 
which is also animated by real and fantastic animals, and 
sometimes, though rarely, with the human figure. The 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 79 

resources resulting from this mixed style are enhanced by 
the manual skill and remarkable fertility possessed by the 
Persians. Bookbinders, potters, embroiderers, and minia- 
ture painters emulate one another in taste and skill. Per- 
sian carpets are still considered the finest in the world, 
and the dishes, vases, and enamel bricks from that country 
are models of taste, and European art seeks them out and 
manufacturers endeavor to equal them by imitation. 

96. Persian Compared "With. Indian Art. — The Indian 
and Persian styles resemble each other in their polychro- 
matic decoration. The rule is usually a silhouette, with 
geometrical outlines relieved by conventional coloring on a 
dominating generating ground. 

9 '7. The Mohammedan architecture of Persia never 
seems to have attained the perfection of the Arabian build- 
ings in Cairo. Although presenting considerable grandeur 
in the main features, the general outlines are less pure, and 
there is a want of elegance in all their- structural details 
compared with the edifices of Cairo. It is not strange, 
therefore, that we find their system of construction much 
inferior to that of the Arabians and Moors. The Per- 
sians, unlike the Arabs and Moors, were free to intro- 
duce animal life, and thus mixing up subjects drawn 
from real life with the inanimate forms of decoration, 
they were led away from the tendency to a pure style 
of ornament. 

98. The great attention given to the illumination of 
manuscripts in Persia, which were widely spread through 
all Mohammedan countries, would naturally tend to spread 
the influence of this mixed style, and the decorations of 
houses at Cairo and Damascus, and the mosques and foun- 
tains of even Constantinople, are tainted with it to a greater 
or less extent. Groups of natural flowers are constantly 
found growing from vases and enclosed in panels of con- 
ventional Arabian ornament. 



80 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



MOORISH OR]S^A]ME>rT. 

99. Derivation of Moorish. Art. — The Moorish style, 
with but a few distinguishing characteristics, is the direct 
offspring of the Arabian. The methods of construction, the 







Fig. 61. 



forms of ornament, and the frequent use of inscriptions are 
common to both styles. However, in Moorish decoration, a 
characteristic feature is the use of a third color, or ground 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 81 

surface, worked over or between two others that serve as a 
framework. This may be seen in Fig. 61, which is a detail 
from the Alcazar, at Seville. Here the geometrical con- 
struction of the Arabian style is everywhere evident, while 
in the soffit of the arch at a is seen the typical relief Moorish 
ornament painted in three colors, as hereafter explained. 

100. Tlie Alliainbra. — In discussing the ornament of 
the Moors, we will confine our illustrations largely to details 
taken from the Alhambra, in Spain, because this is one of 
their chief works of art, and the one in which their system 
of decoration reached its culminating point. In fact, the 
Alhambra occupies the same position in Moorish art as does 
the Parthenon in the Greek, or Hagia Sophia in the Byzantine 
style. Every principle of art that we find in the ornament 
of any other people, we find obeyed by the Moors in this 
erection of the Alhambra. Here are the eloquence of Egyp- 
tian art, the grace and refinement of the Greek, and the 
geometrical complexity and variety of the Byzantines and 
Arabs. 

101. Characteristics of Moorish Ornament. — The 

ornament lacked the charm of symbolism, however, that is 
so characteristic of Egyptian ornament, for this was forbid- 
den by the religion of the Moors; but its place is more than 
supplied by the Arabic inscriptions, which address them- 
selves directly to the eye by their personal beauty, and not 
only excite the intellect by the difficulties of deciphering 
their complex and curious involutions, but also delight the 
imagination when read by the beauty of the sentiments they 
express and the music of their composition. Long fantastic 
letters, interwoven with graceful but intricate geometrical 
patterns, as shown at a in Fig. 62, lead the eye to decipher 
the words, and we find, as a part of the construction of their 
very buildings, sentiments that are ever present and asso- 
ciated with all their daily doings, and ever simple but 
truthful phrases elaborately twisted or intricately woven, 
such as, " There is no conqueror but God." 



83 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



103. The builders of this wonderful structure were 
fully aware of the greatness of their work. It was inserted 
in the inscriptions on the walls that this building surpassed 



r 















^ 




all other buildings. They also state in the glittering eccen- 
tricities of the design that, " He who stops to study 
with attention will reap the benefit of a commentary on 
decoration." 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



83 



103. Decorated Construction and Constructed 
Decoration. — Let us now follow the injunction of this 
inscription and learn some of the general principles that 




Fig. 63. 



appear to have guided the Moors in their decoration. In 
the first place, they always regarded the first principle of 
architecture — to decorate construction and never to construct 
decoration. 



84 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

In Moorish art, the decoration arises most naturally from 
the construction, and the constructive idea is carried out in 
every detail of the ornamentation of the surface, as shown in 
Fig. 63, which is a window opening, around which, it will be 
observed, the ornament is arranged to set forth and empha- 
size the opening as a structural detail. We have already 
said that true beauty results from a repose of mind, felt 
when the eye, the intellect, and the affections are satisfied 
and free from all sense of want. When a building is con- 
structed falsely, and appears to derive or give support with- 
out doing either one or the other, it fails to, afford this 
repose, and therefore can never pretend to true beauty, 
however harmonious it may be in itself. 

The Moors and the Mohammedan races generally have 
ever regarded this rule, and we never find a useless or 
superfluous ornament, or one that does not arise quietly and 
naturally from the decorated surface. The lines grow out 
of each other in gradual undulations; there are no excres- 
cences; nothing could be removed and leave the design as 
good, or make it any better. 

104. The surface in Fig. 64 is entirely filled with orna- 
mentation, but no detail of it can in any way be altered and 
so improve the design. In a general sense, if its construc- 
tion is properly attended to, there can be no excrescences. 
The general forms were first cared for ; these were subdi- 
vided by general lines, the interstices of which were then 
filled with ornament that was again subdivided and enriched 
for closer inspection. (This will also be observed by careful 
study of Fig. 60.) They carried out this principle with the 
greatest refinement, and the harmony and beauty of all their 
ornamentation derived their chief success from this observ- 
ance ; their main divisions contrasted and balanced perfectly. 
The detail never interferes with the general form, and, when 
seen at a distance, the main lines strike the eye and the fine 
detail disappears ; nearer approached, more detail comes into 
the composition, and, on close inspection, all detail of the 
surface appears as a grand powdering of ornament. The 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



85 



effect of this treatment is well illustrated in Fig. 65, where 
the general arched construction is the main consideration. 
The subdivision of the surface into general panels by means 
of ornamental bands is of next importance, and the surface 




Fig. 64. 



decoration of these panels then receives the final considera- 
tion. However, though these may be left to the last, they 
receive the closest attention and a care in their treatment not 
even second to that in the construction of the arch itself. 



105. The Primary Elements. — Harmony of form 
appears to exist in the proper balancing and contrast of the 



86 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



straight, inclined, and curved elements; as in color there can 
be no perfect composition in which either of the three 
primary colors is wanting, so in form, whether structural or 
decorative, there can be no perfect composition in which 




Fio. 65. 



either of the three primary eleinents is wanting, and the 
variety of harmony in a design depends on the predominance 
or subordination of these three forms. 



106. In surface decoration, an arrangement consisting 
of straight lines crossed by other straight lines, as in Fig. 66, 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



87 



is monotonous and affords no feeling of satisfaction. Tliisis 
because only one of the primary elements is present — the 
straight line ; but, if we introduce lines that tend to carry the 
eye toward the angles, as in Fig. 67, the pleasure is increased 
and the figure has more repose. This is due to the presence 






o^ 



o^ 



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\ l / \k N/ 



^O 



9< 








y< 


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9< 




Fig. 07. 



Fig. 68. 



Fig. 



of another primary element — the inclined line. Now, add 
the third element — the curved line — as shown in Fig. 08, and 
the figure expresses complete harmony. In this case, the 
straight line or square is the leading form and the others are 
subordinate, but the same result can be obtained by making 
the inclined line the leading form, as shown in Fig. 69. 

107. It is the neglect of this simple rule that causes so 
many failures in paper hangings and carpets, and more espe- 
cially in articles of dress. The lines of papers generally 
appear to run up through the ceiling most disagreeably in 
one direction only, carrying the eye right through the walls 
of the apartment. 

The study of any design or pattern that has been regarded 
with any degree of satisfaction in ancient times, will show, 
as component parts of its structure, the straight line, the 
curved line, and the inclined line characteristic of the surface 
decoration of the Moors. 



108. Consistency of Moorish. Ornament. — In the 

decorative art of the Moors, all lines flow out from a parent 



88 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. §4 

stem. Every ornament, no matter how remote, can be traced 
to its branch and root. An ornament is so adapted to the 
surface decorated that it often appears to suggest the general 
form rather than to have been suggested by it. In all cases 
where foliage flows out naturally from a parent stem, the eye 
is never offended as is done by modern practice in the random 
introduction of ornament without reason for its existence. 

However irregular the space they have to fill, the Moors 
commence by dividing it into equal areas, and around these 
they fill in their detail, but invariably return to their parent 
stem. They appear in this to work by a process analogous 
to that of nature. 

109. Take, for instance, the leaf of a vine, the object 
here being to distribute the sap from the parent stem to 
the extremities; it is evident that the main stem should 
divide the leaf as nearly as possible into equal areas. So 
again with the minor divisions, each area is then again 
subdivided by intermediate lines that all follow the same 
law of equal distribution, even to the most minute filling 
in of the stem feeders. 

110. The Moors follow another principle — that of radi- 
ation from the parent stem — as may be seen in a chestnut 
leaf, wherein the leaflets all radiate from the parent stem, 
each leaflet diminishes in size toward the extremities, and 
each area is proportionate to the leaf. 

The Orientals carried out this principle with' marvelous 
perfection, as did the Greeks in their honeysuckle ornament. 
A great difference between the Greek ornament and that of 
the Arabian and Moresque, however, is that the former 
grows its ornament scroll out of scroll as before explained, 
and the latter grow their ornaments off from each side of a 
continuous stem. With the Moors, all junctions of curved 
lines with curved lines, or curved with straight, are tangen- 
tial to one another. 

111. Conventlouallsm in Moorish. Ornament. — A 

charm found in the works of the Arabs and Moors lies in 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 89 

their conventional treatment of ornament. Their creed for- 
bade them to represent living forms, and, therefore, they 
could not let their art decline to realism even though they so 
desired. They worked on the same lines that nature worked, 
but always avoided a direct transcript ; they took her prin- 
ciples but they did not copy her works. 

113. Coloring In Moorish Ornament. — The coloring 
of the Moorish ornaments was treated as skilfully as was the 
form. They followed certain fixed principles founded on 
observations of natural laws. The colors employed on their 
stucco work were in all cases a combination of the three pri- 
maries — blue, red, and yellow, the last being represented by 
gold — and the secondary colors — purple, green, and orange — 
occurred only in the mosaic dados. These, being nearer the 
eye, formed a point of repose from the more brilliant color- 
ing above. 

113. It may be remarked here that among the Egyp- 
tians, Greeks, Arabs, and Moors, the primary colors were 
used exclusively in the earliest period of the arts, and, during 
the decadence, the secondary colors were used. Thus, in 
Egypt, the temples of the Pharaonic period were painted 
entirely in primary colors^ while those in the Ptolemaic period 
used the secondaries. The early Greek temples were deco- 
rated in the primary colors, while at Pompeii every varietj' 
of shade possible appears. In modern Cairo, and in the East 
generally, we have green appearing frequently side by side 
with red, where blue would have been used in the earlier 
times. This is equally true of the works of the Middle Ages. 
In the early manuscripts and in stained glass, the primary 
colors were chiefly used, although other colors were not 
entirely excluded, while, in later times, every variety of shade 
and tint is used indiscriminately, with preference for none. 

114. In Moorish art, the primary colors were used in the 
upper portions of the design, and the secondary and tertiary 
colors on the lower portions. This is entirely in accordance 
with natural law. We have the primary blue in the sky, the 



90 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

secondary green -in the trees and fields, and the tertiaries in 
the earth itself. It is also observable in flowers, where the 
primary colors are the buds and flowers, and the secondaries 
are the leaves and stalks. 

115. The ancients always observed this rule in the best 
periods of art; though in Egypt we do occasionally see a 
secondary green used in the upper portions of a temple, but 
this arises from the fact that all ornament in Egypt "was 
symbolic, and if a lotus leaf were used in the upper part of 
a building, it woiild necessarily be colored green. The law 
is true in general, and the aspect' of an Egyptian temple of 
the Pharaonic period usually gives the primaries above the 
secondaries, while, in the Ptolemaic period, the order was 
inverted. In Pompeii, we occasionally find in the interior 
of the houses a gradual coloring, from the roof down, of a 
light to a darker color, ending with black, but this was by 
no means universal. 

116. System of Moorish Coloring. — The system of 
Moorish coloring might be considered absolutely perfect. 
All the surfaces were modeled and proportioned according 
to the color they were to receive, and, in using the colors 
blue, red, and gold, they took care to place them in such 
positions that they should be best seen themselves and add 
most to the general effect. On molded surfaces they placed 
red (the strongest color of the three) in the depths, where it 
might be softened by shadow, and never on a raised surface; 
blue was placed in the shade, but not deep shade ; and gold 
on all the surfaces exposed to strong light, for it was evi- 
dent that by this arrangement alone could their true value 
be obtained. The several colors are either separated by 
white bands or by the shadow caused by the relief of the 
ornament itself, and this seems to be an absolute principle 
required in coloring — colors should never be allowed to 
impinge on one another. 

117. In Pig. 70, the background «, on which the orna- 
ment is placed, was of a deep- red color, while the leaf forms b 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



91 



were colored with the primary blue. All the rest of the 
surface, including the necks of the columns, was gold, and a 
grand harmonious bloom was spread over the whole design. 




118. Blending of Colors. — In coloring the grounds of 
the various diapers, the blue always occupies the largest 
area, and this is in accordance with the theory in optics and 
the experiments that have been made with the prismatic 
spectrum. Rays of light are said to neutralize one another in 
the proportion of 3 yellow, 5 red, and 8 blue. Thus, it will 
be seen that a quantity of blue equal to the sum total of the 
required quantity of red and yellow will produce an effect 
of harmony and prevent the predominance of any one color 



92 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 





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Pig. 71. 



over the others. In the Alhambra, yellow was replaced by 
gold, which tended toward a reddish yellow, and the blue on 

this account was further 
increased in proportion, 
to counteract the tend- 
ency of the red to over- 
power the other colors. 

119. Moorish orna- 
ment is governed by cer- 
tain geometrical patterns 
in its formation, although 
the number of these 
patterns is small. In 
Fig. 71 is shown an in- 
terlaced pattern consist- 
ing, Jirst, of vertical and 
horizontal lines arranged 
in pairs, the distance between each pair being twice the dis- 
tance between the lines composing each pair; second, of diag- ■ 
onal lines drawn through 
the pattern at an angle of k vh h jx jxxi h v v^. 
45°, and spaced a distance 
apart equal to the verti- 
cal and horizontal pairs. 
The diagonal lines are 
arranged so that the set 
of squares formed by their 
intersection will contain 
in their centers the inter- 
section of the vertical and 
horizontal pairs. 

120. In Fig. 73 is 
shown a slight variation 
of this same interlaced 

pattern, wherein the vertical and horizontal lines are drawn 
singly and the diagonal lines are drawn in pairs, but of 




Fig. 72. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



93 



slightly different proportion from Fig. 71. The amount 
of. Moorish ornament that can be developed from these 
two figures is unlimited, and the Moors themselves extended 
even this limit by the variety of coloring in the different 
parts. 

Figs. 73 and 74 are based on the system shown in Fig. 71, 
and Figs. 75 and 76 are developed from the system shown 




Fig. 73. 



in Fig. 72. A slight variation of the systems themselves 
will produce most remarkable results in the figures. 



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nk^ 


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Fig. 74 



131. However much disguised, the whole ornamen- 
tation of the Moors is constructed geometrically. Their 



94 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



fondness for geometrical forms is evinced by the great 
use of mosaics, in which their imagination had full play. 




Fig. 75. 



However complicated may be their patterns, they are all 
extremely simple when the principle of setting them is 




Fig, 76, 



once understood. They all arise from the intersection of 
equally distant lines around fixed centers. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 95 

WESTEKIN^ ABT. 



CELTIC ORNAMENT. 

133. Origin and Character . — ^^In studying the orna- 
ment of Western Europe, we follow a chronological order 
instead of an ethnological one, as, we have been doing here- 
tofore, the history of ornament in this section being pro- 
gressive and free from outside influences except to a very 
limited extent. 

When Byzantine art spread over Western Europe, as it 
did about the twelfth century, it must have found among 
the nations of Celtic origin an indigenous art, arising from 
the peculiar aptitudes of that race. The Celts undoubtedly 
had a spontaneous national art, though its birthplace, 
whether in Scandinavia or Ireland, has never been satisfac- 
torily decided. 

133. Interlacing forms almost the only element of the 
Celtic designs of the earlier period, and this establishes its 
antiquity, for the intertwining ornament is essentially a 
primitive style. Its distinctive mark is the division of the 
surface, decorated by such a combination of lines that the 
development is usually happy, possible, and logical, and 
there is no doubt that the origin of these designs was pro- 
cured originally from interlaced cords. The pliability of 
this original type would account for the curved instead of 
acute angles,' this being a characteristic difference between 
the Celtic and Arabian geometrical designs. 

134. The variety of productions obtainable from such 
simple elements is remarkable. In many of them the com- 
plications prove, by their skilful divisions, and the ingenuity 
of the windings, a practical comprehension of ornamental 
construction. There is lacking, however, in this style, a 
vital element — the element of more extensive representation 
— and its resources were threatened with exhaustion from 



96 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

having used every possible combination of the intertwinings 
of a cord. 

125. Introduction of Animal Forms. — In combi- 
nation with Byzantine art, Celtic ornament advanced in 
style. A portion of the original interlacings was still 
retained, and for the discarded part was substituted the 
stem from which sprang the leafwork and terminated in 
floral spans. 

Having thus attained some decorative richness, the Celtic 
style rose to the level of art; at the same time, the differ- 
ence already mentioned between it and purely geometric 
conceptions, such as are usually found in Arabian decora- 
tions, became more striking, from the frequent introduction 
of the heads of quadrupeds and birds, serving as terminals 
to some of the principal lines that were made to represent 
bodies elongated out of all just proportion or probability, 
and from which emerge feet and claws corresponding with 
the head. Such as they are, these fantastic and grotesque 
images constitute a separate art that the interlacings alone 
could never have reached. 

136. Dlstlngiilshing Characteristics.- — The chief 
characteristics of the early Celtic style consist : first, of the 
entire absence of foliage or other vegetable ornament; sec- 
ond, the extreme intricacy and excessive minuteness and 
elaboration of the various patterns, most of which are geo- 
metrical, consisting of interlaced ribbon work, diagonal or 
spiral lines-7-each of which invariably wove itself alternately 
;,bove and below each successive transverse strand — strange, 
monst-^ous animals, and birds with long topknots and tongues 
'and tails intertwining in almost endless knots. Some of the 
manuscripts have entire pages covered with elaborate pat- 
terns in compartments, the whole forming a beautiful cruci- 
form design, and one of these facing a commencement of 
each of the four gospels. 

The labor employed in such a mass of work must 
have been immense, the care most infinite, as a critical 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



97 



examination with a magnifying, glass does not detect 
an error in the truth of the lines or the regularity of 
the interlacings ; yet with all this minuteness, the most 
harmonious eifect of 
coloring has been 
produced. 

137. Intricacy 

of Design. — Of the 

curious intricacy of 
some of these designs 
an idea may be ob- 
tained by following 
a ribbon in one of 
these patterns, as, 
for instance, in the 
upper compartment 
of Fig. 77. The 
method adopted to 
secure this intricate 

interlacing, so that each strap shall alternately cross above 
and below each following one, can be better understood 




Pig. 77. 




by reference to Fig. 78, where the preliminary arrange- 
ment of a woven pattern is laid out at (a) and the turning 
and joining of its exterior ends are shown at (b), while 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



at (<:) is seen the completed interlacement and complication 
of interior curves and returnings. 




Fig. 79. 



Sometimes two ribbons run parallel to each other, but are 
interlaced alternately, as in Fig. 79. When allowable, the 




FIG. 80. 



ribbon is dilated and angulated to fill up particular places in 
the design, as in Fig. 80. The simplest modification of this 

pattern, of course, is the 
double oval seen in the 
angles of Fig. 81. This 
occurs in Greek and Syr- 
ian manuscript, in Roman 
tessellated pavements, but 
rarely in Celtic manu- 
script. 

138. Symbolism. — 

No symbolic meaning 
seems to have been at- 
tached to the Celtic orna- 
piG. gj. ments, except perhaps in 

the designs so frequently 

found without beginning or end, in which appears what 

might be a symbol of eternity. 




§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 99 

The imion of the Celtic and Byzantine styles did not 
entirely give way to the Gothic style with which it long 
existed. It furnished types for the finest ornamentation 
of glass and manuscripts, that in this period, from the 
eleventh to the fourteenth century, resembles stained glass 
on a reduced scale. 



GOTHIC ORNAMENT. 

139. Evolution. — Gotliic art grew out of and suc- 
ceeded the Romanesque in Western Europe in the same 
manner that the Byzantine did in the East. Each was the 
result of an attempt to adapt a modified Roman style to the 
new conditions caused by political, religious, and geograph- 
ical changes. In Western Europe, however, the Roman- 
esque style failed to develop into a new architectural system 
until about the middle of the tenth century, while the 
Byzantine became a perfect style of art before the close of 
the sixth century. 

130. Iniauence of Religion. — Gothic art in every par- 
ticular was directly opposed to classic art, not only because 
it was developed by the nations that had conquered Rome, 
but because it was a Christian art, in opposition to a pagan 
art, and its architecture was based on an economical system 
of construction, while that of classic Rome was an extrava- 
gant construction. Its greatest monuments were built to 
the glorification of the Supreme Being, while those of 
Roman art were for the glorification of the empire. It is 
not surprising, therefore, to find the best and purest exam- 
ples of Gothic art in localities most distant from Rome, and, 
as we gradually approach the south of Europe, we find 
Gothic ornament tainted more and more with classic influ- 
ence until, in Italy, the examples are so different in feeling 
and expression from those we find m England that they 
constitute almost an entirely different style. In France, 
the style is not as pure as in England, but it contains none 
of the extreme variations seen in Italy, and being patterned 



100 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



more or less after the English examples, derives what good 
it has from that country. 

131. German and English. Gothic. 

In Germany, Gothic art was copied from 
the French, and carried the imperfec- 
tions of the French style to a still lower 
degree, and its entrance into Italy from 
Germany renders its condition in the seat 
of the old Roman Empire so debased that 
it possesses none of the underlying prin- 
ciples of the pure Gothic style. 

English-Gothic ornament may be di- 
vided into three general periods, each 
associated approximately with the cen- 
tury of its greatest development. These 
periods are called the Early English, or thirteenth century, 
the Decorated, or fourteenth century, and the Perpendicular, 
or fifteenth century. , 




Fig. 82. 





Fig. 83. 



Fig. 84. 



Generally speaking, the Early Bnglisli period is char- 
acterized architecturally by long, narrow, lancet-shaped 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



101 



windows arranged in groups of two or three, as shown in 
Fig. 82, the space between the openings usually containing 
a third perforation in the form of a trefoil or quaterfoil 
included under the same dripstone as the window opening. 
The mullions, or bars, separating the window openings 
were, toward the latter part of this period, split to form a 
network in the upper part of the window, called tracery, 
as shown in Fig. 83. This tracery was greatly elaborated 
as the style advanced, and filled the upper portion of the 
window with a complicated series of geometrical forms that 
were frequently richly elaborated with a ball-flower orna- 
ment, as shown in Fig. 84. 

132. The Ball-Flower Ornament. — The ball-flower 
ornament is characteristic of the Decorated period, and 




Fig. 85. 

consists of conventionalized floral forms nearly spherical in 
shape, a detail of which is shown 
in Fig. 85. They were not always 
used to such an excess as is shown 
in Fig. 84, and were inserted im- 
der the dripstone at regular inter- 
vals, as shown in Fig. 86, which 
is a sedile, or seat, sometimes 
built in the interior walls of a 
church. The dripstones of this 
period usually terminated at each 
end in the carved head of some 
person of prominence, such as the fig. 86. 

king or bishop, as shown in Fig. 84. 

As we approach the Perpendicular period, the lines of 




102 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



tracery are still more complicated but arranged more in 

perpendicular pan- 
els, the horizontal 
elements being sup- 
pressed as much as 
possible. 

133. Designs 
for "WindoTT 
Heads. — All these 
designs for window 
heads were worked 
out on simple geo- 
metrical combina- 
tions, as shown in 
Fig. 87, which is a 
window with six 
days, or openings, 
divided in two groups of three each by means of pointed 




Fig. 87. 








I I ! 1 i ' 



FIG. 88. 



§^ 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



103 



arches shown at d a c and c d e, over which a circle is 
struck, with its center at o, whose diameter is equal to half 
the width of the window, and its circumference is divided 
into twelve parts, as shown at I, 2, 3, 4, etc. Within each 
of these parts, small circles, tangent to one another and to 
the circumference of the great circle, are described, and 
form the generating elements of the interior design. 




Fig. 89. 



This example is given with its construction lines simply 
to show how these details are ' geometrically worked out. 
All the elements of the design can be located and executed 
by means of a pair of compasses and a straightedge, without 
any other device to lay off measurements. 

The lower part of these windows on the exterior, during 
the Perpendicular period, as said before, were divided into 



104 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 





o 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



106 



long panels, the total window opening usually being of 
immense area, as shown in Fig. 88, which is the west front 
of St. George's Chapel, at Windsor. This also shows the 
general exterior appearance of the Gothic architecture of 
Great Britain, and, with the west front of Westminster 
Abbey, shown in Fig. 89, will be interesting to compare 




Fig. 93. 

with the Gothic art of other countries, which we will con- 
sider hereafter. 



134. French Wlndo^v Tracery. — In France, the 
progress of window tracery was similar to that of Eng- 
land, but on less systematic lines, and the doors and win- 
dows tend more to rich elaboration on the exterior, usu- 
ally being carved with full-length human figures, as 
shown in Fig. 90, which is one of the entrance doors to 
the church of Notre Dame, Paris, the full front elevation 
of which is shown in Fig. 91. A comparison of Fig. 91 



106 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



with the two examples of English Gothic will be interest- 
ing, showing the tendency of the latter to vertical lines 
more characteristic of the Gothic style, and of the French 
to horizontal lines influenced by its closer proximity to 
classic art. 

135. Gothic Arcliitecture in Italy. — In Italy, Gothic 
architecture is unique, and though the Palazzo Vecchio, 




Fig. 9.3. 

at Florence, shown in Fig. 93, possesses the crude, bold, 
unassuming construction of the early Gothic castles, it 
scarcely represents the fundamental principle on which the 
Italian design is developed. It is in Venice that we find 
more elaborate examples, where window tracery is carried 
to a most fanciful extreme. 

The Foscari Palace, shown in Fig. 93, shows the gradual 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



107 



development of this window treatment, which seems to con- 
stitute the entire idea of the Italian-Gothic style. In the 




Fig. 94. 



lower story we have the plain ogival arch, and in the central 
portions of the second and third stories, small colonnades, 



108 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § i 

connected by pointed arches, and in the upper of the two 
with pointed arches, separated by plate tracery. In the top 
story, this tracery is carried to an elaborate extreme. This 
system of treatment, though based on entirely different 
structural ideas from the Gothic of the North, brought 
about many happy results, however, and the palace of Con- 
tarini Fasan, also known as the House of Desdemona, shown 
in Fig. 94, exhibits how adaptable the style of this Vene- 
tian work is to modern requirements by the careful pro- 
portioning and grouping of its parts and treatment of its 
details. 

It is not in the exterior of these buildings that we find 
the most of value to us in ornamental design, except possibly 
in Venetian work; therefore, the treatment of the interior 
details we will now consider in regular order, having under- 
stood the transition in style that took place from the British 
Isles to the Italian peninsula. 

136. Evolution of Gothic Ornament. — The transi- 
tion of the round arch, characteristic of the Romanesque 
style, to the pointed arch, characteristic of the Gothic style, 
is easily traced in buildings where the two styles are inter- 
mingled, many of these being extant about the beginning ot 
the thirteenth century, as shown in Fig. 95, which is taken 
from an arcade of Canterbury Cathedral, in England. But 
the passage from Romanesque ornament to that of the Gothic 
period is by no means so easily traced. 

All traces of the acanthus leaf have by this time disap- 
peared, and we find a purely conventional style of ornament 
prevalent in all buildings of the time. The nearest approach 
to the acanthus formation we find in the illuminated manu- 
scripts of the twelfth century, where ornamental forms, such 
as shown in Fig. 96, are used, and appear to have been 
derived from some old Greek manuscripts, as Gothic orna- 
ments are formed by a continuous stem throwing off leaves 
on the outer side and terminating in a flower. 

Early English ornament is the most perfect, both in prin- 
ciple and in execution, of all the Gothic period. There is as 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



lod 



mvich elegance in distinct modulations of form as there is in 
tHe ornament of the Greeks. It is always in harmony with 
the structural features of the building, and always grows 




Fig. 9), 



naturally from them. It fulfils every one of the conditions 
that we desire to find in a perfect style of art, but it remained 
perfect only so long as the style remained conventional. As 
the style became less idealized 
and more direct in imitation, 
it ceased to be an ornament of 
structural features, but became 
ornament applied. 

137. Characteristics. — - 

In the capitals of the cokimns 
of Early English architecture, * 
the ornament rises directly 
from the shaft, above the neck- 
ing of which the column splits 




110 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



into a series of stems, each stem terminating in a flower, as 
shown in Fig. 97. This is analogous to the mode of deco- 
rating the Egyptian capital. In the decorated style, on the 
contrary, where a much nearer approach to nature was 
attempted, it was no longer possible to treat a natural leaf as 





Fig. 97. 



Fig. 98. 



part of the shaft, and therefore the shaft is terminated by a 
bell shape, around which the leaves are twined, and the 
more natural these were made, the less artistic became the 
arrangement, as shown in Fig. 98. This method of applying 
ornament reminds us of the Roman-Corinthian capital. 





Fig. 100. 



In the Perpendicular period, the capitals of the columns 
were usually plain, and the shaft consisted of a cluster of 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



Ill 




Fig. 101. 



small columns. In some large buildings, however, the capi- 
tals were carved with shallow foliage of a pronounced 
geometrical shape, as shown in Fig. 99. 

In foliage and running ornaments on bands and moldings, 
the Early English period shows examples where the lines of 
the ornament follow 
the general directions 
of the lines of the mold- 
ing, and the foliated 
work is conventionally 
rendered, but, at the 
same time, is graceful 
and natural, as shown 
in Fig. 100. In painted 
bands, the lines usu- 
ally are easy and flow- 
ing, following the principle of carved work, as shown in 
Fig. 101. 

During the Decorated period, however, there is less effort 
made to continue the foliage in the direction of the molding, 

and the guiding stem fre- 
quently wanders directly 
across the molding, from 
one side to the other, pre- 
serving the governing 
principle of throwing 
leaves off alternately, 
but at the same time 
chopping the molding up 
into a number of sec- 
tions rather than giving 
it a feeling of continuit}^ 
In Fig. 102 is shown 
an example of molding 
from this period, where 
the guiding stem of the foliation crosses and recrosses the 
molding almost at right angles to the line of its direction, 
and though the leaves are arranged to cover up this guiding 



>1?!B91WWW^W«WWW 





FIG. 103. 



113 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



stem to a certain extent, the fact still remains that its most 
prominent sections are seen across the molding, instead of 
flowing with it. 

138. In the Perpendicular period, the system of decora- 
tion is still further removed from that of the Early English, 

and the molding is fre- 
quently divided up into a 
number of rectangular 
panels, each of which is 
decorated to represent 
some specific natural 
form, but so convention- 
alized as to be reduced 
to a pronounced geometrical outline. This is shown in 
Fig. 103, where the leaves of the grape vine are reduced to 




Fig. 103. 




Fig. 104. 



perfect rectangles, spaced evenly along the molding, between 
which bunches of grapes are geometrically arranged. 



139. Spandrels. — In the 

spandrels of the arches, so 
long as the conventionalism of 
the Early English style was 
maintained, one main stem 
was distributed over the panel, 
from which sprang leaves and 
flowers, as shown in Fig. 104; 
but as the style advanced the 
stem ceased to be the guiding 




FIG. 105. 



PIISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



113 




Fig. 106. 



form of the ornament, and, in the endeavor to represent in 
stone the softness of nature, lost all its grace and decorative 
characteristics. Finally, the stem as a leading feature dis- 
appears, and we find the 
spandrels filled with three 
immense leaves, springing 
from a twisted stem in 
the center, and bearing 
no structural relation to 
the panel on which they 
are planted, as shown in 
Fig. 105. 

140. Diapers. — In 

the painted wall decora- 
tions and diapers, the Early 
English artists usually 
divided the surface into a 
number of geometrical forms within which a simple con- 
ventional ornament was introduced resembling tile work. 
The devices covering these ornaments were sometimes 

heraldic and other times 
based on forms borrowed 
from the vegetable world, 
as may be seen in Fig. 106. 
During the Decorated 
period, the wall divisions 
are less naturally divided, 
and circular disks, within 
which are stenciled geo- 
metrical patterns, are 
spread over a wall sur- 
face, and between them 
are arranged shields with 
coats of arms and other 
devices, as shown in 
Fig. 107. Another system prevalent in the Decorated period 
was to divide the wall into a number of bands, each of which 




Fig. 107. 



114 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 




was decorated with a running ornament, as shown in Fig. 108, 
where the character of this running ornament is not widely 
different from that seen in the Early English period, as 

shown in Fig. 101. How- 
ever, introduced with 
this foliation are forms 
from tlie animal world 
that seem to possess no 
relation to the design, or 
the ornament, or the posi- 
tion that they occupy. 

The diapers of the 
Perpendicular period are 
attempts at realism, and 
in , Fig. 109 is shown a 
painted wall in which 
the pointed arch of 
ogival form and the foliations and crockets characteristic 
of the carved work of this period are attempted in the repro- 
duction on the flat surface. This form of arch, with its 
compound curve — con- 
vex below and concave 
above — is a distinguishing 
characteristic of the Per- 
pendicular period, as is 
also the subdivision of its 
under surface into the 
small arches or foliations, 
as shown. Within each of 
these panels (which iu all 
work were long and nar- 
row, giving the style its 
name of Perpendicular), 
the wall was decorated in 
the conventional pattern 
as shown, and executed in 
two colors. Similar patterns were also used for silks, tapes- 
tries, and other fabrics of this period. 




FIG. 109. 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



115 




In Fig. 110 is shown another style of wall treatment of 
the Perpendicular period, where the surface remains flat 
and no attempt is made to depict arches or moldings bor- 
rowed from carved ornament, but details from the vegetable 
world are drawn realis- 
tically against a back- 
ground interspersed 
with conventionalized 
outlines of leaf forms. 

141. Zenith of 
Architectural Devel- 
opment. — In the thir- 
teenth century, beyond 
all others, architecture 
was at its zenith. The 
mosques of Cairo, the 
Alhambra in Spain, 
Westminster Abbey, 
and the Salisbury and 
Lincoln cathedrals, in 

England, all possess the same secret of producing the 
broadest general effect combined with the most elaborate 
decoration. In all these buildings there is a family like- 
ness ; although the forms differ and the forces that have 
called them into existence are totally tmlike, yet the prin- 
ciples that they embrace are the same. They all exhibit the 
same care for the leading masses of composition, the same 
appreciation of the undulations of form, the same correct 
observation of natural principles in the ornamentation, and 
the same elegance and refinement in all the decoration. 

The attempt to produce at the present day a building of 
the character of those in the thirteenth century would be vain 
indeed. Whitewashed walls with stained glass and encaustic 
tiles cannot alone sustain the effect that was arrived at when 
every molding had its color best adapted to develop its 
form, when from the floor to the roof not an inch of space 
but that had its elaborate and appropriate ornament — an 



Fig. ho. 



116 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



effect that must have been glorious beyond conception. In 
fact, so glorious a point, indeed, had the style reached that 
it exhausted itself by the effort ; the light burned out. Not 
only in architecture, but in all decorative arts that accom- 
panied it, immediately there began a decline — a decline that 
never stopped until the Gothic style was dead. 



142. Gotlilc Art In France. — In France, the three 
periods of Gothic art are known by the terms : (1) Early 
French, corresponding in period with the Early English, 
but beginning a trifle later; (2) Rayonnant, meaning radi- 
ating, and corresponding with the Decorated period of 
English art; and (3) Flamboyant, meaning flame-like, and 

corresponding with the 
Perpendicular period of 
English art. 

143. Early Frencli 
Period. — The Early 
French capital, though 
patterned after the Early 
English style, does not 
possess its most impor- 
tant characteristic — that 
of the apparent spring- 
ing of the foliation from 
stems bound together at 
the neck of a column by 
a carved band. The 
capital in Fig. Ill pos- 
sesses the characteristic 
of having its foliage 
spring from the top of 
the column and spread 
out gracefully under the abacus that receives the weight 
from above, but this foliation seems to be planted on a 
surface, rather than to be forming a part and detail of the 
supporting member itself. 




Fig. 111. 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



117 



144. Bayonnant Period. — In the Bayonnant period, 

the capitals of the columns, like those of the Decorated 
period in England, are 
formed of bell shapes 
over which foliage is 
arranged; but, as shown 
in Fig. 112, the French 
arrangement is far infe- 
rior to the English, inas- 
much as no attempt is 
here made to have the 
foliage a part of the sup- 
porting construction. It 
is evident that the bell 
shape does the support- 





ing of the superimposed 
load, and the carved vine is 
simply an ornament laid on 
the surface to break up its 
monotony. 

145. Flamboyant Pe- 
riod. — The Flamboyant 
style, shown in Fig. 113, 
carries this fault to still 
greater extent, and the 
twisted foliation is plainly 
planted on the bell shape, 
growing from nothing, supporting nothing, and apparently 
ready to drop off, as there is no reason why it should be left 



Fig. 113. 



118 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 




FIG. 114. 



there. In Fig. 113 the vine is of a clinging character and 
would naturally appear to attach itself to the capital, 
although it does not appear to grow naturally out of the 
shaft of the column in the manner characteristic of the 
foliage of the Early English capitals. In Fig. 113 the folia- 
tion is not only of no particular character, but it is simply 

"stuck on" with no 

tural relation and con- 
veys no idea of fitness 
or propriety. 

In the running bands 
and moldings we find 
the same characteristics 
as those of England, but 
not so pure in form. 
In Fig. 114 the foli- 
ated forms, it will be 
observed, appear to be 
attached to and grow 
from the top and bot- 
tom members of the 
molding. The line of 
their growth is curved 
toward the center of 
the molding, but, at 
the same time, follows 
the line of the mold- 
ing itself and appears 
continuous with it ; 
while in the Rayonnant 
period, as shown in 
Fig. 115, the molding 
is divided up in sec- 
tions more like the 
Perpendicular period of 
England, and the leaves, though growing apparently from 
the stonework beneath them, are nevertheless stiff and 





FIG. 116. 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



119 



geometrical and do not appear to belong- to the surface on 
which they are placed. 

A characteristic of the Flamboyant style is seen in Fig. 116, 
where the guiding stem of the ornament that is carved 
on the molding is in some places, clear from the molding 
itself, and though it shows great skill in the carving, 
exhibits little art in the 
design. The leaves and 
floral forms are twisted 
so that their ends repre- 
sent forked flames, from 
which the period gets its 
name, and there is no 
structural relation be- 
tween the foliation and 
its moldings. 

146. Early French 

diapers divide the wall 

surface into geometrical Pi^ jj^^ 

forms in a manner similar 

to that in England, and stenciled within these figures are 

characteristic devices typical of the nation and the style. 

In Fig. 117 we have a 
wall divided intolozenge 
shapes by diagonal lines, 
within some of which 
fleurs-de-lis are sten- 
ciled in gilt on a blue 
ground, while a simple 
foliated outline is sten- 
ciled within the others 
on a gold ground. 

In Fig. 118 is shown 
a more complicated de- 
sign based on the inter- 
section of a number of 
Fig. 118. circles whose centers 





130 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§4 



are found at the intersections of evenly spaced vertical and 
horizontal lines. In this case, the ground of the decoration 
is pink, and the outlines of the subdivision and the stenciled 
forms within them are in gold. 

147. The character of surface treatment in the Rayon- 
nant period is best shown in Fig. 119, which is from 

an illuminated manuscript. The 
lines of the foliage and the 





Pig. 119. 



FIG. ISO. 



geometrical ren'dering of the flowers are characteristic 
of this style of work, and the twisted forms are suggest- 
ive of the change that 
is taking place toward 
the Flamboyant period. 
In Fig. 120 is shown 
another example from 
illuminated manuscript, 
where the naturalistic 
treatment of the flower, 
with the foliage reduced 
to a flame-like outline, 
shows the systematic ren- 
dering of all work of this 
period. fig. m. 




§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 121 

148. German-Gothic Details. — German- Gothic de- 
tails were influenced more largely by France, but, at the 
same time, borrowed ideas direct from England. Fig. 121 
shows a wall diaper divided into circles somewhat after the 
manner of the English example shown in Fig. 107, within 
which geometrical forms are stenciled in some cases, while 
in others the conventional brush form of the eagle, emblem- 
atic of Germany, is rendered in light green on a darker 
ground of the same color. 

149. Misinterpretation of Gothic. — As the term 
" Gothic " as applied to architecture is, in the minds of most 
persons, associated almost entirely with ecclesiastical edifices, 
we are all likely to labor under the impression that the 
medieval cathedrals were the only structures built during 
these dark ages. As a matter of fact, however, every build- 
ing erected during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
throughout Western Europe, was built in what we now call 
the Gothic style. In order that we may better understand 
this domestic architecture and its details, from which much 
of our ornament at the present day has descended, it will be 
necessary for us to look into the habits, customs, methods 
of living, and government of the people at this period. 

Kings, princes, earls, and even the lesser nobility, all lived 
in castles during this period, and these structures form a 
most important part of the architecture, as they are undoubt- 
edly the prototype of the modern dwelling house from which 
have descended all those details of house plan that modern 
requirements have brought into service. 

150. reudal System. — At this time all lands were held 
under what is known as the feudal system. When the 
tribes from the North had conquered Rome and overrun the 
entire Roman Empire, the generals or chiefs of the different 
military organizations were given lands for themselves and 
their subjects over which they ruled as kings and princes. 
This system existed throughout all Europe, but with slightly 
varying conditions in Italy, France, Germany, and England, 



122 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

according to the influences of each locality. The general 
principle was the same, however, and we will confine our dis- 
cussion simply to the effect of this system in France, inas- 
much as it reached a most thorough organization there, and 
had a more marked influence on the subsequent art of the 
period of the Renaissance. 

The political organization of a country under the feudal 
system consisted in the bulk of the land being divided into 
states called fiefs, which were held by their owners on the 
condition that they should, when called on, perform certain 
military duties to their superiors or pay them fees in grain, 
wines, cattle, etc. , and in default of such service or payment, 
the land could be -reclaimed. The superior lord might be 
the king of the realm, or some nobleman that held a feudal 
tenure from the king, and who in turn created fiefs by and 
under his own personal rule. 

An important detail of tlie old feudal law was the fact that 
the king or superior lord, from whence comes the modern 
term landlord, was entitled to the fealty of his own tenants, 
but not to that of his subordinate tenants, every man looking 
for rule and discipline only to his own immediate lord and 
master. It therefore frequently happened that one of these 
nobleme.n would build up a community so powerful as to 
feel practically independent of his king, and therefore 
refuse to render to his superior such military service as 
was demanded. The result of this was inevitably the 
same — war between the king and his subject. On the other 
hand, if the subject remained loyal to his king, he was likely 
to depend on the royal influence and encroach somewhat 
upon the fief of some one of his feudal neighbors. This 
would bring about the same result — war between two feudal 
barons. And even if he remained within his own territory 
and was true to his sovereign, the prosperity of his fief or 
his influence with the royal court was sure to excite the 
jealousy of some one of the surrounding nobles and bring 
about war. 

It would thus appear that the feudal barons were at war 
with one another a large part of the time, and these frequent 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



133 



wars required that the medieval castle should be a military 
post from necessity and a domestic household for convenience. 
During the war the castle was the stronghold of the lord and 
his retainers, and during peace it was a house of entertain- 
ment for his guests and vassals. 



151. Castle of Coucy. — In Fig. 132 is shown a plan of 
the castle of Coucy, near Laon, France, the irregular outline 
of which is due to the fact that military engineering required 
that these structures should conform as nearly as possible to 
the top of the hill, on 
which they were usually 
built, thereby rendering 
it impracticable to storm 
the fortress from more 
than one side — -that on 
which the entrance was 
located. 

A large tower, or keep 
— in the French castles 
called the donjon — 
guarded this main en- 
trance and at the same 
time served as a strong- 
hold and point of last 
resort in case other por- 
tions of the castle should 
fall into the hands of 
invaders. The donjon 
of Coucy was 180 feet in 
height and 108 feet in 
diameter, and the walls 
were 34 feet thick at the ^'°- ^^■ 

base. The uppermost of its three stories was the largest, as 
the walls were thinner at the top, and 1,500 men could be 
here assembled in a circular room and receive their instruc- 
tions for the military routine of the day. In the middle 
story was the family apartment for use during siege, and in 




124 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 1 4 

the basement were storerooms for sufficient provisions to 
last 1,000 men over a year. 

The keep was surrounded on the outside by a moat, or 
water-filled ditch, shown at a, beyond which was a large 
enclosure shown at A, called the outer bailey. This was a 
large piece of cultivated land and contained the chapel r and 
the stables s. The interior courtyard d was called the inner 
bailey and was the only outdoor area open to the garrison in 
time of siege. 

These points are of interest, as from them are developed 
many details that are characteristic of the modem house in 
plan, while other details of more decorative value had their 
origin in devices originally invented for purely military 
purposes. 

153. In Fig. 133 is shown a bird's-eye view of the castle 
of Coucy and the surrounding country. Around the top of 
each of its five towers will be observed small projections that 
carry an enclosed gallery. The spaces between these pro- 
jections, or corbels, as they were called, were open through 
the floor of this overhanging gallery, and, in time of siege, 
when the walls of the castle were surrounded by sappers 
and miners endeavoring to disintegrate the stonework and 
gain access to the interior, deadly missiles were shot straight 
down from the floor of the gallery, or quantities of boiling 
oil or molten lead were used to make the base of the walls as 
unapproachable as possible. 

The windows in the castle all opened on the inner bailey, 
no openings being permitted toward the outside except 
small loopholes of sufficient size only to shoot an arrow 
through. The tops of the individual walls enclosing the 
inner bailey were notched, and the rectangular sections of 
wall between the notches — called battlements — each con- 
tained a large loophole, as may be seen in the perspective 
view at j. Behind these battlements was a platform on 
which archers could stand and shoot at an invading force, 
while a similar treatment of the top of the walls around the 
outer bailey enabled the besieged to defend the outer bailey 



§4 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



135 



against the besiegers before finally retiring within the castle 
walls for safety. 

All these details were altered from time to time, as civil- 
ization advanced, and when the invention of gunpowder 




Pig. 123. 



rendered the castellar system of defense obsolete, the 
corbels, battlements, and other details of feudal military 
origin were still retained as ornamental features in many of 
the buildings developed from the castellar plan. 



126 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

153. Mode of Living in Ancient Castles. — Regard- 
ing domestic life -within these castle walls, it is well to 
remember that, previous to the fourteenth century, there 
was not much subdivision in the household apartments even 
of royalty, the king and queen and the servants and retainers 
all usually occupying one room, known as the great hall. This 
great hall is shown in the plan at h, and was to the domestic 
part of the household what the donjon was to the military — 
the main apartment wherein all household duties were per- 
formed. Here the lord sat at his meals with his family, his 
guests, and his retainers; here he transacted all business of 
the day, both financial and domestic ; and here in the earliest 
times he slept at night on a rough couch at one end. 

By degrees, society began to improve and become more 
refined, and the constant daily association with sel-vants and 
soldiers becoming undesirable, the great hall was divided 
into two apartments, one of which was known as the with- 
drawing room, where the lord and his family could retire 
after meals, but the hall was still retained for business and 
dining purposes. However, a further subdivision provided 
another room for the transaction of business, which was still 
called the hall, but in distinction the remaining portion was 
called the dining hall. These three rooms — the hall, the 
dining hall, and the withdrawing room — were the principal 
apartments in the house or castle, and, consequently, the sep- 
arate sleeping apartments, which advanced ideas demanded, 
were crowded into any out-of-the-way corner that circum- 
stances afforded. For this reason, these sleeping rooms 
were often dark, cheerless apartments, and were designated 
by the term chamber — a word derived from the Latin, mean- 
ing a dark vault — and finally, when the bedstead was intro- 
duced as an article of household furniture, the sleeping 
rooms were called bed chambers, to designate them from 
other rooms in the castle of similar character but not for 
sleeping purposes. 

154. Heating of Ancient Castles. — In the earliest 
days, the castle was heated by an immense fire-grate located 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 137 

in the center of the room, the smoke from which passed 
through openings in the roof called louvers. Subsequent!}', 
this grate was removed from the center to the side wall, and 
the louver was replaced by a chimney stack. This neces- 
sitated a separate chimney for each room, and is responsible 
for the fact that nearly every French chateau built in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries bristles with beautifully 
designed chimney stacks above the roof, and nearly every 
room in the French chateau of the Renaissance period pos- 
sesses a fireplace and a distinctively designed mantel. 

155. Heraldry. — Another point of this feudal system 
is the subject of heraldry, which is of vast importance in 
its relation to historic ornament, inasmuch as it is based 
entirely on that important characteristic of all ornament, 
namely, symbolism. It is doubtless true that armorial bear- 
ings were not in much general use until the twelfth century, 
when they were brought into prominence by the crusades — a 
term given to those wars waged by the Christians of Western 
Europe against the Mohammedans around Jerusalem for the 
purpose of rescuing the Holy Sepulcher from the hands of 
infidels. 

The purpose of heraldic devices was to designate one per- 
son from another, as surnames did not exist in those days; 
and though the painted device by which the savage sets 
forth his personality may be considered as heraldic as the 
device borne on the shield of a soldier, it is with the latter 
class that we have to do in ornamental design. 

We have seen in Egyptian art evidences of heraldry, 
inasmuch as the two serpents flanking the sun disk of the 
winged globe are symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt, and, 
therefore, heraldic. But with the twelfth cen tury, we arrive 
at a system of heraldry whereby the heraldic device was 
passed down from generation to generation, in the same 
manner that the family name is transmitted at the present 
day. A heraldic device would be transmitted from father 
to son, on the death of the former, with few alterations, so 
that in our study of the history of subsequent styles, we can 



128 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

locate and date many details by our familiarity with the 
insignia associated with certain royal families. 

156. Tile Fleur-de-lis. — T)iq fleur-de-lis haseverbeen 
emblematic of France, because Hugh Capet, the first French 
king, carried it on his shield as the insignia of his family, 
and subsequent rulers used this same emblem as an indica- 
tion of royalty, while they coupled with it some other device 
to more clearly establish their own personality. In subse- 
quent periods, as we shall see, the initial letter was fre- 
quently used by royalty on works of art erected by them 
during the period of their reign ; but this is not of so much 
importance to us as the heraldic devices, as several sover- 
eigns of the same name ruled many years apart. The 
importance of these heraldic devices cannot be overestimated, 
as will be pointed out when we study the ornament of the 
subsequent periods in the Renaissance. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

(PART 3.) 



RENAISSANCE AKT. 



I^TTRODUCTIO^r. 

1. Origin. — Although the medieval style of art and 
architecture prevailed throughout all Europe for at least six 
centuries, it is still a difficult matter to draw a line at certain 
dates when the influence of the ancient classic art utterly 
ceased and the revival of that classic art after the Medieval 
period took place. In fact, if the two subjects were studied 
separately and independently, it is not unlikely that traces 
of revival of classic art could be discovered even before the 
classic style itself had become extinct. 

It must be borne in mind that Italy, in the extreme 
southern part of Europe, was the seat of the original Roman 
government, and the country wherein the classic style devel- 
oped to its greatest voluptuousness. The Roman people 
spread all over civilized Europe and established their monu- 
ments everywhere, but no place so profusely as in Italy 
itself. 

After the conquest of Rome by the barbarous hordes from 
the North, the Latin-speaking people were largely confined 
to the Italian peninsula, and though a new style of architec- 
ture was developed by the conquering race — a style since 
derisively termed Gothic by the artists of the Renaissance 

§5 

For notice of the copyrig-ht, see page immediately following the title page. 



2 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

period — the original Romans at home still endeavored to 
adhere to their ancient traditions and styles of art. If this 
point is thoroughly understood, there will be no difficulty in 
tracing the progress of Renaissance art from Italy through- 
out Europe. We have seen that the farther north we go 
from the site of the Roman Empire, the purer was the style 
of the Gothic art that prevailed, inasmuch as it was less 
hampered by the tradition of classic art. 

3. Revival of Classic Style. — Now, when it comes to 
a revival of the classic style, it is not strange that that revi- 
val should take place first in Italy, where the Gothic style 
never secured a prominent foothold, that the revival should 
spread from Italy to France — a people made up largely of 
Latin extraction — and that, lastly, it should extend from 
France to England, but in a very imperfect form, as the 
English people were not Latins and had no sympathy with, 
nor tie to, the original Latin style. Bear in mind also that 
the Celtic ornament, of which we have studied, originated 
among the earlier inhabitants of the British Isles and natu- 
rally influenced any importation from a strictly foreign coun- 
try, as was Italy. 

3. Scope of Renaissance Period. — In describing 
Renaissance art, we will commence at the period of its 
infancy and continue under this heading down to the present 
day, inasmuch as there has been no new style evolved and 
no revival of any other style that need break this term of 
continuity. Moreover, it will not be inadvisable for us to 
set a period or character of the Renaissance style that theo- 
retically may be considered the best, and, in doing this, we 
must consider all the influences that are brought to bear. 

4. Intention of Renaissance Artists. — The effort of 
the Renaissance artists was not to invent a new style, nor to 
bring about through a transition a development based on 
classic lines, but to deliberately copy the monuments of 
pagan Rome and Greece and use these heathen forms, no 
matter how inappropriate or illy suited for the purpose of 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 3 

modern Christian art. They were different from anything 
they had ever seen or conceived; they were the products of 
an age of wonderful art and literary advancement, and, in 
the eyes of the Renaissance artists, were accepted as supe- 
rior to anything they could themselves devise. 

5. Renaissance Art in Italy. — The style of Renais- 
sance we find in Italy, where Gothic art had its slightest 
influence, naturally adheres as closely as possible to the old 
Roman forms, for there they had the old Roman buildings, 
many of them still intact, that could be copied line for line. 

The invasion of Italy by Charles VIII of France, toward 
the close of the fifteenth century, brought into the latter 
country examples of this revived Italian art that were much 
admired b)' the French public, and the revival of classic art 
was immediately felt throughout France. Devoid of actual 
buildings from which they could study their designs, the 
French artists were compelled to go to Italy and study, and 
French kings imported Italian artists to do work in and 
around Paris. Either experiment was bound to produce an 
altered style. 

6. Introduction Into France. — The French artist had 
been working in the Gothic style, and he studied the Italian 
monuments with an idea of medieval construction in his 
mind. The Italian artist came to France possibly with a 
clearer idea of classic art, but was hampered in his execution 
by the necessity of employing workmen that had cut stone 
in no other style than that which had prevailed during the 
six centuries of the Middle Ages. An even compromise can 
therefore be considered to have taken place between the 
perfect construction of the Gothic style and the perfect pro- 
portion of the classic art. 

H, Introduction Into England. — The introduction of 
Renaissance into England, however, was far different. True, 
her artists studied the styles under great Italian masters at 
Rome, but they, too, had to compete with designers in the 
local school, where Gothic art had secured its strongest 



i HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

foothold. Germany and Holland before this had adopted the 
Renaissance style from France, and the systematic patience 
of the Germans and the phlegmatic immobility of the Hol- 
lander are well woven into the style of classic art they 
reproduced. When these perverted ideas were transmitted 
to England, it is easily understood that they contained few 
details that could be considered purely classic. By a suc- 
cessive alteration through several countries, they could be 
with difficulty identified with their original type. 

8. Purity of rrench. Style. — We may therefore con- 
sider that in France we find the best examples of a practical 
adaptation of the ancient classic ornament to modern condi- 
tions and purposes, while in Italy we find a Renaissance of 
classic art that adheres more closely to the classic style, but 
can hardly be considered even a new departure. In Eng- 
land, however, the style that was developed in the Renais- 
sance period is not classic at all, except in its derivation, and 
there, after repeated endeavors to apply the inappropriate 
forms to the modern purposes, the style was abandoned and 
an endeavor made to revive that of the Medieval period. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 

9. Orig-in. — Fragments of exquisite beauty in stone, 
bronze, and marble were hardly covered over by the top of 
the soil in the ruins of the ancient buildings of Rome, and 
these buildings^ therefore became quarries from which stone 
was easily obtained and recut to be used for tombs and other 
buildings wherein the style of art for which they were origi- 
nally used played no part. This accounts largely for the 
fact that Gothic art secured so little foothold in Italy and 
remained for so short a time. 

The pointed arch was introduced in the northern part 
of Italy early in the thirteenth century, and this might be 
considered the planting of the seed of Gothic art in this 
territory ; but almost at the same time there was a protest 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 5 

made in favor of the ancients and the arts as being supe- 
rior to anything the barbarous hordes from the North could 
produce. 

10. Art and Literature. — The great poet Dante, 
though an ardent Christian, was a profound student of 
classic learning as well as a strong advocate of pagan art. 
The celebrated authors Petrarch and Boccaccio were intimate 
friends and spent their lives, not, as many people supposed, 
in writing Italian poetry and prose, but in laboring almost 
incessantly in the preservation and restoration to the rest of 
the world of the long-lost text of the Roman and Greek 
authors. It was Boccaccio that first gave to Italy a lucid 
account of Greek mythology and that first instituted a school 
for the study of the Greek language at Florence, and these 
efforts at a revival of learning were seconded and backed by 
a large number of notables who could not have failed to 
make it a success. 

11. Invention of Printing and Its Effects. — Now, 
understand that at the time when the labors of all these 
men had accumulated in their libraries — -public and private 
— all that could be recovered of classic learning, all that 
could be gathered from the earliest scrolls of the Greeks, all 
the information concerning art that remained from the 
wreckage of old Rome, about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, the art of printing was introduced into Italy and 
the learning of the ancients became spread among the people 
of all Europe. 

The invention of printing and the printing press is there- 
fore responsible for the development of the Renaissance 
style. Louis XI of France sent Nicholas Jenson into Italy 
to learn "the new art by which books were made." This 
learned man was no less a competent editor than he was a 
zealous printer, and from about the year 1490 he gave to the 
world in rapid succession many editions of Greek and Latin 
classics and a history of ancient art profusely illustrated with 
engravings on wood. 



6 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

13. Publication of Vltruvlus. — Through these illus- 
trations, which display a study on the part of the artist of 
ancient art, types of ornament geometrically opposed to those 
of the Middle Ages were disseminated over the continent of 
Europe; and, in 1511, the publication of the architecture of 
Vitruvius at Venice, with illustrations of the classic orders 
of architecture, set a final seal upon the fate of matters in 
art and afforded the means of spreading throughout other 
countries those details of ancient design that had so engaged 
the art public of Italy. 

13. Italian Aversion to Gothic Forms. — However, 
before those laborers that were endeavoring to bring classic 
art and literature to the front had succeeded in getting the 
least sign of encouragement, it was apparent that the Italians 
did not take kindly to Gothic forms. The acanthus leaf was 
typical of Italian art, and the foliated capitals of the Gothic 
school had to accept this form of vegetation. 

In its earliest stage. Renaissance art in Italy was really a 
revival of classic principles, and it was not until the middle 
of the fifteenth century that it could be considered an actual 
revival of style. 

14. Roman Influences. — At Rome the great wealth of 
the Italian princes and the great ecclesiastical works under- 
taken by successive pontiffs of the Church attracted to that 
city the highest procurable ability in the art world, and it is 
for that reason that we can still find in Rome, in the various 
palaces and churches, the most exquisite fragments of deco- 
rative sculpttire in detail. 

15. Donatello. — One of the most interesting qualities 
of this style of ornament is the skill with which those by 
whom it has been wrought have availed themselves of a 
variation of light and shade by the treatment of the surfaces 
on which the ornament is raised. The refined appreciation 
of the delicate shades of relief in sculptured ornament was 
carried out with the greatest perfection by Donatello, an 
artist whose authority on matters of art was held in the 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 7 

highest esteem by the people of Florence, and whose example 
was followed by all classes of artists. 

He was the first to practice the true basso rilievo, by 
which the effect of projection and of rounded molding 
is obtained within what would appear to be impracti- 
cable limits of relief; that is to say, in modeling his orna- 
ment on surface, it was raised but slightly above the surface 
but was treated in its carving so as to appear in high 
relief. 

Donatello then combined this style of work with mezzo 
rilievo and alto rilievo, the former being a half relief, and the 
latter being a sunken ornament below the surface on which it 
was executed. This combination maintained a division of the 
subject of his design into several planes. Donatello enriched 
many of his ornaments with elements derived from the art 
of painting. 

16. Plane System. — At the zenith of its perfection, this 
system of regular arrangement of ornament in planes was so 
ingeniously managed in position of light and shade that, 
when viewed from a distance, the relief presented only cer- 
tain points symmetrically disposed with some dominating 
geometrical figure. An approach of a few yards served to 
bring to the eye lines and details connecting the points of 
greatest importance, and a still nearer approach revealed the 
leafage of the delicate tendrils that were required to convey 
a tangible idea of the type of nature selected for the conven- 
tionalized design. And beyond this, no inspection could be 
too close a test of the artist's perfect appreciation of the 
refinements of surface texture. 

IT. Characteristics. — In the hands of 'less profoundly 
impressed artists than Donatello — those possessing an inferior 
sense of the proper limit of convention in sculpture — the 
introduction of pictorial elements in the bas- relief design soon 
degenerated into realism and confusion. Great as was the 
skill of Ghiberti, the effect of many of his most graceful 
compositions was marred by the introduction of perspective 



8 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



effect and accessories too servilely copied from nature. In 
many of the ornaments of sculpture, this fault is exagger- 
ated until the dignity of the design is lost in the frivolity of 
the detail. These monuments, decked with, huge garlands 
of flowers, hung with heavy cartouches and tablets, and fan- 
cifully overgrown with foliage, appeared more as examples 
of the artisan's skill than works of art commemorative of the 
date or dedicated to sacred purposes. 

This is somewhat illustrated in Fig. 1, which is a part of a 
cornice taken from the Palazzo Vecchio, or Town Hall, of 
Florence, Italy. This also illustrates the minutia of detail 






<i < I ' I 1 1 I r I r I f f r ni iLOBM ri_„ 

f) Mi')rf)if) f )if ) onf).f)/oroiO'Ojf)3;f;?f;ir 




T'.^J'"*^*! 








Pig. 1. 



with which this style of ornament abounded. Along the 
frieze are heavy garlands of flowers, the design of which 
includes also fruit and grain, while at the points between 
which they are stretched are hung shield-shaped cartouches 
bearing devices of a more symbolic character. The fleur- 
de-lis, emblematic of certain royal families, and the crossed 
keys of St. Peter are here seen, and it would appear that one 
of them must be strangely out of place in the frieze of a 
town hall. The other ornaments on the moldings, though 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 9 

* 

elaborately carved, are less out of place qnd are characteristic 
of the style and period. 

18. Frivolity and Incongruity of Designs. — The 

panels in the elaborately carved seat in Fig. % show to what 
extreme and frivolity ornament of this character can be car- 






^SS'-/&fesja5fe^^^*^i.it^t.-:gagai fhfi^Y V r i jifT Br r l^W KU b' ti V flianPTn"" 







Mri' >>'>>>■■ JAiftJ. . ^jf^/jfj^.'^^ ji^u^jii 




ried. Here, as the settee in St. Peter's Church, Perugia, we 
have a design not only proportioned according to the pagan 
rules and ideas, but elaborately interspersed with grotesque 



10 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

figures, comic masks, griffins, bucrania, flowers, and fruit, 
not one of which would appear to be particularly identified 
with any detail of the Christian faith. 

Many of the designs of this period are strangely incongru- 
ous with the purpose for which they are called into existence. 
Tragic and comic masks, musical instruments, antique altars, 
tripods, hybrid marine monsters, and chimeras do not har- 
monize well with monuments reared in consecrated edifices 
or dedicated to religious rites. However, this fault of the 
confusion of details cannot be laid entirely upon the shoul- 
ders of the artists of the Renaissance period, as their works 
may be considered simply as a reflection of the taste and dom- 
inant spirit of the age; and this revival of mythological 
symbolism was a protest against the hampering trammels of 
esthetic tradition erected into dogmatism by the rulers of the 
East, and endorsed by the Church during those centuries 
when its ascendency over an ignorant and turbulent popula- 
tion was at its greatest height. The minds of even the most 
religious men were thoroughly imbued with such inappro- 
priate and incongruous associations in the fourteenth century 

19. Talue to the Designer.— To the designer, the study 
of this period in ornament is of the greatest value, as in no 
style has ornament ever been better spaced or arranged to 
contrast more agreeably with the direction of the adjacent 
architectural lines by which it was bound and always kept in 
subordination. Rarely do we find an ornament placed in a 
horizontal position that is more suitable to a vertical one, or 
vice versa ; and rarely are the proportions of the ornaments 
and moldings or the stiles and rails by which regularity and 
symmetry are given to the whole, at variance with one 
another. 

30. Propriety -of Subject. — In Fig. 3 is shown a 
column from the inner court of the Palazzo Vecchio, with 
its stucco decorations in the style of the Renaissance of this 
period. Observe that the arabesques fit perfectly the rect- 
angular panels on the sides of the octagon column, and 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



n 



that the ornament is well spaced, appearing not crowded or 
excessive, but flowing naturally and preserving a proper 
relation between the plain surfaces and the richly orna- 
mented ones. None of this ornament could be said to have 




Fig. 3. 



been better suited to a horizontal position, nor can it be 
stated that the relative proportions of the details of the 
ornament are such as to make one portion of it any more 
prominent or excessive than another. 

In Fig. 4 is shown another column from the same build- 
ing, ornamented on an entirely different system, although 
included in the group with the one of the previous example. 
Here the flowing grape vine winds spirally around the col- 
umn, and the leaves and fruit are so disposed as to set off 
clearly the details and at the same time preserve that space 
relation that is always characteristic of good ornament. 



12 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



The capitals of these columns, it will be observed, are 
almost identical in design, although one of them crowns an 

octagonal column and the other 
a round shaft. 

5J1. In Fig. 5 is shown one 
end of a sarcophagus in the 
tomb of Marsuppini,_ at Flor- 
ence, designed by a pupil and 
follower of Donatello. This is 
considered one of the finest 
examples of Italian-Renaissance 
sculpture. The treatment of 
the leaves and foliage, and the 
proportioning of the ornament 
to the surface, with the digni- 
fied simplicity of the inscription 
and frame, make it deserving 
of close attention and considera- 
tion of the method by which 
its decoration is handled. The 
relation here of plain surface 
and funning ornament is very 
happily proportioned, avoiding 
so successfully the appearance of excess, so characteristic 
of most Renaissance design and at the same time satisfying 
the mind as to its sufficiency. 




Fig. 4. 



23. Scrollwork. — In Fig. 6 is shown the capital of a 
pilaster from the church of San Spirito, in Florence. The 
treatment of the acanthus leaf here, it will be observed, is 
very similar to its treatment on the Roman-Corinthian cap- 
ital, very few alterations having been made in the type. 
The introduction of the oak leaf in an acanthusized form 
shows a step in progression, as does the introduction of the 
acorn accompanying the leaf. The peculiar form of S scroll 
in the center of the capital, each side and below the acorns, 
is characteristic of the Renaissance, and has its origin 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



13 




Fig. 6. 







m 



u 



tM" M 



Fig. 6. 



14 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



undoubtedly in that irrepressible tendency of Roman orna- 
ment to end its scrolls each time in a flower. The propor- 
tioning of the ornament to the surface in this case, however, 
is much more moderate and refined than in the Roman- 
Corinthian capital, and though copied after the classic 
model, this is certainly an improvement on it. 

33. Foliated Terminations. — ■ In Fig. 7 is shown a 
portion of a cornice supported on pilasters around the door- 
way in the same church. The treatment of the frieze shows 
its origin in Roman ornament, but the introduction of the 



!^ 



w 



nnuwunu Vniw f m t f fi r f r f r n r r \. mmi nn\ r jjjiiiii Jimiio 







^^3,,^S £.. m it''-ii.r VMn'MmMif I ma<£AjLf, C, ', L^ ^^' 




human figure and birds with foliated terminations reminds 
us again of the innovations made by the Renaissance, artists. 
Observe that all surface is here ornamented, that every 
molding is cut to break up an appearance of continuous line 
and cast an irregular shadow, and that the surfaces, such as 
the top of the pilaster and its capital and the panels in the 
frieze just referred to, all have their decorations properly 
proportioned and in keeping with the position they occupy. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



15 



In Fig. 8 is shown another cornice from the same church, 
the design of which follows more closely the ancient classic 
model. The ornament on the frieze is carved in high relief 
and does not possess that easy flowing feeling that is seen 
in the previous example. The same may be said of the 




)eWiirrr.-rm; 







moldings on the pilaster that supports the cornice, and of 
the capital of this pilaster. The ornament is too thick and 
there is not sufficient blank surface to rest the eye from this 
abundance of detail, thereby giving the whole design a feel- 
ing of unrest that was more characteristic of the extravagant 



16 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



Corinthian order of the Romans than the more refined hand- 
lings of Italian art. 

In Fig. 9 is shown a bracket that forms a detail of the 
pulpit in the church of St. Croce, in Florence, the treatment 
of the decoration of which is well worthy of study. The 
omamen* is not excessive and well fills the surface where it is 




Fig. 9. 

placed, and the leafwork is carved in low relief and does not 
possess that excessive surface molding that so materially 
detracts from some of the work of the later Renaissance. 

24. Examples of Venetian Renaissance. — In Fig. 10 
is a bracket from the Ducal Palace at Venice, and is charac- 
teristic of the style of the Venetian Renaissance. The 
scrollwork and treatment of the foliage in this bracket is 
particularly happy, and illustrates, more clearly than any 
example we have had, the obedience to those laws of nature 
that must be observed in all good ornament: radiation from 
the parent stem, tangential curvature of lines, and distribu- 
tion of areas. The latter rule is particularly well shown in 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



17 



this by the gradual diminution in surface occupied by the 
running ornament as it extends into the extremities of the 
triangular panel. The scrollwork under the bracket is not 
so artistically formed or well proportioned, but errors here 
are amply balanced by the good points of the scroll. 

In Fig. 11 is shown a panel from a large candelabrum 
that gives a very clear idea of the treatment of Venetian 
arabesques. The panel is symmetrical on each side of a 
center line, carved in high relief in stone, and is treated in 




Fig. 10. 



a manner that makes the ornament somewhat monotonous 
in itself but well proportioned to the surface it is intended 
to cover, with enough blank space to prevent tiresomeness 
in its study. 



35. Ingenuity of Renaissance Designer. — Fig. 12 is 
a panel under the balustrade of the stairs in the cathedral at 
Sienna. This illustrates to a remarkable degree the inge- 
nuity and fertility of mind possessed by the early Renais- 
sance designer and sculptor. Here we have, forming the 



18 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



running border around a trapezoidal panel, the guilloche 
ornament so characteristic of classic art, and the running 
arabesque identified with the classic- revival period ; within 
this a modified form of the old Greek fret and then an irreg- 
ular panel, the surface of which is carved in low relief with 




HI 4A;^ 



a foliated scroll and arabesque that close study discovers is 
terminated at one end in a grotesque animal and at the other 
in a bunch of fruit. 



36. Renaissance Iron-work. — Not only was art at this 
period exemplified in details carved in stone and marble, 
modeled in stucco and painted on canvas, but the iron 
worker executed many details that brought his trade almost 
to a fine art. 

Fig. 13 shows a bracket from the Florence Museum, rep- 
resentative of a cornucopia filled with grapes and leaves. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



19 



The treatment of the scrollwork and the elaboration of all 
the detail of this device is peculiarly well adapted to the 




Fig. 13. 



purpose, and altogether this exhibits a remarkable design 
for a piece of work of this kind. 

In Fig. 14 is shown a portion of an iron grille from the 
cathedral at Prato, one portion of which, based on the com- 
binations of the circle, shows a slight leaning toward Gothic 
ideals, while the panel to the right is strictly Renaissance in 
the treatment of its leaf work and small figures; but the 



20 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



general direction of its outline, with its alternate branches to 
the left and right, undoubtedly have their origin in the 
Gothic school of foliation. 

It must be borne in mind that at this period there was no 




FIG. 13. 



separation in the branches of the art world. A man was 
architect, painter, and sculptor at once, and often combined 
these with the trade of goldsmith. The great artist Raffael 
designed ornaments for carvers in stone and metal, and 
exhibited in them the purest taste and most exquisite fancy. 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



21 



2^. Michael Angelo, Sculptor and Artist. — Michael 
Ang-elo was born in 1475 and was a pupil of Domenico 
Ghirlandajo. Having shown at an early age a strong talent 
for sculpture, he was given an opportunity to study in a 
school for the culture of sculpture founded by Lorenzo de 
Medici. The Medici family was banished from Florence 
when Angelo was 30 years of age, and the young sculptor 





Fig. 14. 



was forced to retire to Bologna, where he worked for a while 
on the tomb of St. Domini. He returned to Florence, how- 
ever, and about the time of his twenty -third birthday finished 
his celebrated statue of Cupid, and also his Bacchus, which 
were the cause of his being invited to Rome. 

At Rome, among many other works by him, is the Pieta 
now standing in St. Peter's Church. His gigantic statue of 



23 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

David, at Florence, was his next great achievement, and 
before he was 30 years of age he was summoned to Rome 
by Pope Julius II for the purpose of designing his Mauso- 
leum, for which building the famous statues of "Moses" 
and "The Slaves" were originally designed. 

Thus far the work of Michael Angelo has apparently been 
that of a sculptor, with possibly the exception of the design 
of the Mausoleum. His next great work, however, was the 
painting of the Sistine Chapel— one of the greatest of his 
achievements, whether we regard it purely as a work of 
intrinsic art or as a monument that exercised a powerful 
influence both on the art of a contemporary character as well 
as that of later times. 

For Pope PaulTlI, in 1541, he completed his vast fresco 
"The Last Judgment" in the same chapel, and the 
remainder of his long life was chiefly devoted to the con- 
struction of St. Peter's Church, on which he was employed 
at the time of his death, in 1564, and for which he refused 
any remuneration. 

During the long life of Michael Angelo, everything he 
executed expressed a desire for novelty, and this is the only 
detraction he ever seemed to have from the study of pure 
excellence. His daring innovations in ornament are most 
striking. His large broken pediments and moldings, his 
sweeping consoles and scrolls, his direct imitation of nature 
in some of his enrichments, and the amount of absolutely 
plain surface that he uniformly preserved in all his archi- 
tectural compositions, seem to bring new elements into the 
field of design that were greedily snapped up by men of 
lesser genius than he himself possessed. 

Thus the style of the Roman school became materially 
altered through the work of Michael Angelo. Subsequent 
artists, down even to Vignola himself, so far as ornament 
was concerned, adopted all his beauties, and defects of design, 
the greatest of which were an exaggeration of manner. 

38. Glacopo Tatti Sansovino. — Venice seems to be 
the only city of Italy that did not follow the style that was 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 33 

set by Michael Angelo, and this was probably due to the fact 
that she had a hero of her own in Giacopo Tatti Sansovino. 
This artist was bom at Florence in the year 1479. Having, 
at an early age, displayed a remarkable talent for art, he was 
properly educated and distinguished himself by his build- 
ings at Florence. He was then taken to Rome by San Gallo, 
architect of Pope Julius II, where he attracted the notice of 
Bramante, and made, under Bramante's direction, a large 
wax model of the Laocoon, in competition with other artists. 
Sansovino's was judged to be the best, and a bronze cast was 
taken of it that finally came into the possession of Cardinal 
Lorraine and by him was taken to France in the year 1534. 

Sansovino was obliged to leave Rome on account of his 
health, and was placed by Bramante with the artist Peru- 
gino, who was then painting the ceiling in the Toore Borgia. 
Perugino was so pleased with Sansovino's ability that he 
caused him to prepare many models for his own use. 

In the year 1514, most elaborate preparations were being 
made at Florence for the entry of Pope Leo X, and Sanso- 
vino was employed in the preparation for designs of many 
triumphal arches and statues. The works were so success- 
ful that he was given the commission by the Pope to make a 
design for the facade of San Lorenzo, in Florence. After 
this he continued in Rome and was employed both in sculp- 
ture and architecture, and was the successful competitor for 
the church of St. John, of the Florentines, against Raffael 
and Antonio San Gallo. From this on he was engaged on 
work of importance in Rome until the year 1527, when 
Rome was taken by the French, and Sansovino sought 
refuge in Venice, intending from there to visit France, 
where the king had offered him employment. The Duke 
Andrea Gritti, however, persuaded him to remain and 
undertake the restoration of the cupolas of St. Mark's 
Church — a work that he performed so successfully that he 
was appointed to a public office, given a house, and provided 
with a stipend. It was to this appointment that Venice 
owes so many architectural monuments that are among the 
finest examples of Italian art. 



34 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

FBE]SrCH RENAISSANCE. 

39. Eapidity of Transition. — The transition from the 
style of the Middle Ages to the style of the Renaissance, that 
took place so gradually in Italy, was in France sudden and 
complete. The campaigns of Charles VIII, Louis XII, and 
Francis I in Italy brought them in contact with the wonder- 
ful art productions of that country, and filled them on their 
return to France with an ambition to rival the splendid 
palaces and gardens of Italy, for which purpose they took 
with them Italian artists to act as instructors to the French. 
However, although these imported Italians introduced many 
classic elements and details into French art, they failed to 
dominate the natural spirit of the French master masons 
and architects in matters of general composition. There- 
fore, the early French Renaissance is wholly unlike that of 
Italy, from which it derived only a few minor details and 
the impetus that carried it forwards. On account of its 
possession of greater originality than the Italian style, and 
its freedom from the baser incongruities that prevailed in 
the Renaissance in Germany and England, we can take the 
French style as a good standard, and study it as a revival of 
classic art modified almost perfectly to fit more modern 
ideas. It is important in studying the French Renaissance 
to bear in mind the periods into which it is divided and sub- 
divided, and also to bear in mind the dates of these periods. 
In modern practice, when any designs are executed in any 
particular style, the French styles more than any others are 
rated according to their period rather than nationality. 

30. Periods of French Renaissance. — French Renais- 
sance may be divided into three general periods: (1) Valois 
period, or Renaissance proper ; (2) Bourbon, or Classic, 
period ; and (3) Rococo period. 

1. Valois Period. — The Valois period extends from 1483 
(about the time of the invasion of Charles VIII into Italy) to 
1589 (about the end of the reign of Henry III). This may 
be subdivided into: (a) The Transition period, comprising 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 35 

the reigns of Charles VIII and Louis XII and the early 
years of Francis I, extending from 1483 to 1515. This 
period is characterized by a picturesque mixture of classic 
details and Gothic ideas. [d) The style of Francis I, or 
Early Renaissance, extending from about 1520 to 1547. The 
ornament of this period is distinguished by its great variety 
and grace of composition and the exquisite beauty of detail, 
(c) The Advanced Renaissance, combining the reigns of 
Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III, extend- 
ing from 1647 to 1589, and distinguished by the general 
adoption of the classic proportions in the orders and a decline 
in the delicacy and originality in the treatment of the orna- 
ment. In other words, this period represents, as did the 
later Renaissance of Italy, an attempt to actually reproduce 
all classic forms. 

3. Bourbon Period. — This period of the Renaissance 
extends from 1589 to 1715, covering the reign of Henry IV 
and of Louis XIV. This may be subdivided into the style 
of Henry IV, covering entirely his reign and part of the 
reign of Louis XIII, extending altogether from 1589 to 
1645. The distinguishing characteristic of this period is 
the excessive use of the classic orders and other forms with 
a heavy, bold, florid ornament. The style of Louis XIV 
begins during the reign of his predecessor and extends to 
the time of his death — from 1645 to 1715. This is the great 
age of classic architecture in France, wherein the luxury and 
wealth of the nation and its desire for splendor exceeded its 
taste in art and represented in its architecture an attempt at 
the grandeur of Rome. 

3. Rococo Period. — This period may be considered the 
decline, and is distinguished by the marked extravagance of 
detail derived from the leaf and other ornamental forms of 
previous periods, combined with rock and shell forms, so 
capricious as to be absolutely meaningless. 

This period of French Renaissance terminates in what is 
known as the Empire style. This consisted of a strong pro- 
test against the frivolity of the ornament of the Rococo, and 
a return to the actual detail of more classic forms. As it 



as 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



progressed into the nineteenth century, it expressed itself 
under the reign of Napoleon, as emperor, and attempted to 
produce the grandeur of Imperial Rome. 

France had conquered the greater part of Europe, and 
believed that she was to set up a universal empire covering 
the entire country, as Rome had done, and with this idea in 
mind, built triumphal arches, columns of victory, gorgeous 
palaces, and country chateaux, and in every way lavished 
money on public and private monuments, in an endeavor to 
visibly express her imperialism. 

31. Castles and Chateaux. — The transition from the 
Gothic to the Renaissance is more clearly expressed in the 
chateaux, or country residences, of the nobles than in almost 
any other class of buildings, and for that reason we will confine 
our discussion largely to a few of these interesting edifices. 




Fig. 15. 



We have seen how the castle of the Middle Ages was built 
mainly for defense, its ornamental features being merely 
an embellishment of the necessities that were prominent in 
its construction. Such was exhibited in the general appear- 
ance of the castle of Coucy, Fig. 133, Historic Ornament, § 4. 



lilSTORIC ORNAMENT. 



27 



The remodeling of these Gothic castles to suit the.taste of 
the Renaissance brought in many incongruous but very- 
picturesque ideas. In Fig. 15, a view of the castle of Azay- 
le-Rideau, it will be observed how the towers and turrets 
characteristic of the old style are retained, how the upper 
portions are still carried out on bold corbels, and their tops 




Oi/f/me P/an of 
CHATEAU DEBLOIS. 



Fig. 16. 



roofed over in a cone; but the drawbridge, the moat, and 
the portcullis have disappeared. Broad airy windows dimin- 
ish the extent of blank wall surface characteristic of feudal 
times, and pilasters each side of the windows, topped with 
classic capitals and carved in rich arabesque, show the adop- 
tion of Italian art. The plan, composition, and grouping 
of the parts are still French and more or less feudal, and the 
Italian art has only affected the detail. 



28 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



33. Chateau de Blois. — The largest, and, in many 
respects, the most important, of these country residences of 
royalty is the Chateau de Blois, and this we will consider in 
detail, as within it may be traced the gradual transition of 
each phase of the French Renaissance, from the time of Louis 
XII to the time of Henry IV, thereby including the entire 
Valois and a part of the Bourbon period of this style. 

In Fig. 16 is shown a plan of this structure, the irregularity 
of which gives evidence of its medieval origin. About the 




Fig. 17. 



year 1500 Louis XII remodeled the east wing, which bears 
his name, a front view of which is shown in Fig. 17. In this 
may be seen the elliptical arch, the clustered column, the 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



39 



.high-pointed gable, and the slender pinnacles whose origin 
can be traced to medieval days, but the introduction of flank- 
ing pilasters and arabesque ornament, though here but spar- 
ingly seen, is suggestive of the change to come. 

On the outside of this wing, the archway that leads through 
to the "Court of Honor," shown 
in Fig. 18, is flanked on each 
side by heavy piers, over which 
is a conventional Gothic niche 
wherein, against an elaborate 
background of fleur-de-lis, rides 
King Louis XII on his charger. 
To the right of this is a little 
doorway that gives the pedestrian 
access to the passage, and over 
this entrance, in bas-relief, is 
carved a porcupine, the emblem 
of Louis XII, and a knotted 
cord for Anne of Brittany, 
his queen. Of these emblems 
we will have more to say later. 

We will now turn to the wing of Francis I, on the north- 
west side of the court. This was erected but fifty years 
after the one we have just considered, but the difference 
in style is manifest even to the most casual observer, as 
shown in Fig. 19. 




Fig. is. 



33. French. Conception of Koman Ideas. — The artists 
of the sixteenth century, hurried along by the swift current 
of fifty years of wonderful intellectual regeneration, seemed 
to arrive at a comprehension of the use that the Romans had 
made of the Greek orders. They seemed to understand that 
the orders were not used in Rome as elements of construc- 
tion, as they had been in Greece, but as decorative details 
having no essential relation to the construction itself. They 
seemed to comprehend by instinct that there was no reason 
why they should not take those same Roman orders and 
details and use them in any way they chose — structural or 



30 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

non-structural — so long as their use suited the purpose to , 
which they were applied. 



Thus a study of this period of French architecture shows 
that the French builders accepted not the conventional 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



31 



restrictions of the classic formulas, but the spirit of these 
formulas, as an organized system of ornamentation. A study 
of the court facade of this Chateau de Blois shows that the 
lessons in classic styles given by the imported Italian mas- 
ters were accepted by the French architects with respect and 
intelligence, but not learned by rote. The Italian rules had 
an influence, but were not accepted as a law. 

34. Octagonal Staircase. — The greatest artistic effort 
of this period was probably the octagonal staircase that 
appears in this facade. It is considered one of the master- 
pieces of the sixteenth century, though it is at the same time 
an example illustrative of the audacious independence of the 




Fig. ao. 

French architect. It has no architectural relation to the 
wall surface from which it protrudes, except that its four 
great free-standing buttresses support a cornice and balus- 
trade that are a continuation of those on the wall. These 
buttresses are niched and contain exquisitely carved figures, 
while between them extends the balustrade of the stairs, 



33 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



divided into panels carved with the crowned salamander 
emblematic of Francis I, and in other places with the mono- 
gram F and C under a crown, standing for Francis, and 
Claude, his queen. 

In Fig. 30 is shown a large detail of this salamander device, 
and the form of its crown, decorated with fleur-de-lis. This 




Fig. 21. 



is the key of the period and style, as was the crowned porcu- 
pine a key to the style of Louis XII. The fleur-de-lis will be 
found on nearly every detail connected with French royalty, 
as it was adopted originally by Hugh Capet, the first king of 
France. 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



33 



If we now go into this castle and wander through its 
rooms, we will find many details typical of the spirit of the 
French people and suggestive of their love of display and 
art. We will be able to judge largely the period of each 
particular room by the emblems characteristic of the reign. 




FlO. 



35. Development of the Fireplace. — It was about 
the beginning of the Renaissance period that the chimney as 
a means of carrying off the smoke was introduced into 
France, and in the Chateau de Blois we see the full develop- 
ment of the fireplace. Therefore it will be well to make a 



34 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

study of these details by themselves, inasmuch as the student 
can then make a better comparison. 

36. In Fig. 31 is shown an old mantel that stood at the 
end of the great hall of the States General. Its design is 
Gothic in feeling, as is plainly shown by the crockets around 
its cornice. The columns either side of the opening are 
carved with Gothic capitals, and the ornament extending 
across the top of the opening is Gothic in its detail, though 
indicative of the influence_of the Renaissance arabesque. 

In Fig. 22 is shown a mantel of the hall of the Guards, 
the details each side of the opening of which, as well as the 
panel across the top of the opening and the frame panel over 
the mantel, are. certainly Gothic in feeling. ■ The pilasters at 
each side of the mantel, however, and the capitals at their 
tops, are certainly of Italian origin and design. 

These two examples, particularly Fig. 31, give a good idea 
of the earliest ornamental mantel used in French art, and are 
typical of the designs in use at the close of the fifteenth 
century. 

37. Heraldry. — In Fig. 33 is shown the mantel known 
as the Mantle of Crowns, on which in high relief we find the 
crowned porcupine emblematic of Louis XII, together with 
the crowned initials L and A, standing for Louis and Anne 
of Brittany, his queen. Around the frieze is a knotted cord 
that also is emblematic of Anne of Brittany, and in later 
years was used by some queens as a sign of widowhood. The 
dolphin forming the background of this mantel, and bearing 
the crown of France, appears as a detail in many French 
designs emblematic of heirship to the throne, the nearest heir 
to the throne in France being called the Dauphin — a word 
derived from the dolphin, that fish being the emblem. 

Another interesting detail in this design is found above 
and below the knotted cord, around the frieze ; above is the 
conventional fleur-de-lis emblematic of the kings of France, 
and below it is the conventional form of ermine emblematic 
of the queen, Anne of Brittany. 



§ 6 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 35 

In Fig. 24 is shown another mantel from the Chateau de 
Blois, of the period of Louis XII, in which the crowned por- 
cupine and the crowned ermine are each displayed in sepa- 
rate panels, the ermine in this case being shown as a complete 
animal instead of the conventional form representing its fur. 




Fig. 23. 

as displayed in the previous figure. The moldings of this 
mantel and its general outline and proportions are strongly 
suggestive of the Gothic style, but the treatment of the 
arabesque at each side of the panels, the carving of the 
three-quarter columns that mark the separate panels, and 
the frieze over the fireplace, show conclusively their Italian 



36 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



origin. It will be observed that the initials L and A are 
repeated across the top of the chimney, and the background 
of the panels containing the reliefs of the porcupine and 




Fig. 24. 



ermine are each diapered with the fieur-de-lis and conven- 
tional form of ermine fur. 



38. In Fig. 35 we have another mantel of this same 
period, where the frieze over the top of the fireplace opening 
is evenly divided between the crowned initials of the king 
and queen, on a fleur-de-lis and ermine background, t3rpical 
of their houses or families. The crowned porcupine between 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



37 



the two — the symbol of Louis XII — appears in nearly all 
designs executed during the reign of that king. Above 
the fireplace are the figures of two angels, supporting the 
crown of France, and the shield bearing the escutcheons 




Fig. 25. 



of both the king and queen. A little observation of the 
detail at the top, and the moldings of the columns, will 
show that the Gothic influence still pervaded the art of 
the period. 

In Fig. 36 is a chimney with the emblems of Anne of 
Brittany. The elaborate A and knotted cords against a 



38 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



background of ermine, together with the entire treatment 
of the design, is suggestive only of the house of the queen, 
undivided with that of King Louis. 

Fig. 27 shows a mantel wherein no initials occur to indi- 
cate to whom or what period it belonged ; but we can easily 




Pig. 



judge from the presence of the knotted cord in each of the 
side panels, and the existence of this device as a border to 
the center panel, and its stenciled background of ermine and 
fleur-de-lis, over which the shield surrounded with shells has 
been placed. 



§5' 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



39 



39. In Fig. 28 is shown a mantel of the later period — 
that of Francis I — a fact that is clearly declared by the pres- 
ence of the salamander in its design, a word concerning 
which might be necessary. The salamander is a mythical 




Fig. 27. 



animal supposedly so cold blooded that it will actually quench 
fire when placed within it, and the design here shown 
expresses this idea of the salamander, standing on a bed of 
coals and surrounded by flame that he is supposed to quench 
by the coldness of his breath. 



40 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



The details of this mantel are very classic. The capitals 
of the columns are derived undoubtedly from the Italian 
Renaissance. The acanthus leaf forming the bracket at the 




Fig. 28. 

corners of the mantel, and the bracket over the crown, as a 
sort of clumsy keystone in the center, are decidedly Italian 
in their molding. The mantel is chiefly interesting by its 
strong personality and association with the reign, period, 
and person of Francis I. 

40. In Fig. 29 is shown what is called the Chimney of 
the Fleur-de-lis, the upper background of which is stenciled 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



41 



exclusively with fleur-de-lis, and bears in its center the 
crowned shield surrounded by shells. 

We now arrive at Fig. 30, a mantel in a room known as 
the Cabinet of the Queen, and here we get the severe clas- 







f f -f -^^ 



r r ) 




Fig. 29. 



sicism characteristic of the period of Henry II. The pilas- 
ters each side of the mantel, and the panels of the wall, 
all richly carved in arabesque, and the frieze over the top of 
the mantel, with similar ornament, show the predominating 
influence of Italian art. The background of the upper 
portion of the mantel, with its stenciled H and fleur-de-lis. 



42 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



and the oval cartouch or modillion in the center, with its 
crowned H surrounded by laurel leaves, stamp this design 
characteristically with the period of Henry II, while a small 
cartouch in the center of the mantel over the fireplace open- 
ing bears the initials H 
and C, standing for 
Henry, and Catherine 
de Medici, his queen. 

The study of these 
designs and escutch- 
eons is of particular 
interest to the student, 
as nearly all detail of 
the French Renaissance 
period 'can be classified 
easily by bearing in 
mind the heraldic sym- 
bols characteristic of 
each reign and period. 

41. Wall and Cell- 
ing Decoration. — No 

less interesting than the 
mantels of this cele- 
brated chateau are the 
decorations of the walls 
and ceilings with the 
characteristic surface 
ornament of the period. 
The Same monograms 
and initials are here 
found in embossed leather, surrounded by richly foliated 
ornamentation in strong colors and gold. 

In Fig. 31 is shown a room known as the King's Chamber, 
the walls of which are decorated with a repeating pattern at 
regular intervals, within which we find the initials H and C, 
for Henry and Catherine, the ting and queen. An enlarged 
detail of this wall decoration is shown in Fig. 33, and is 




Fig. 30. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



43 



valuable as a characteristic wall treatment of the period of 
this French Renaissance. 




In Fig. 33, the decorations of Queen Catherine's chamber 
may be seen, and it is interesting to note that in each of 



44 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



§5 



these rooms there is an abrupt termination between the wall 
decorations of the main room and the dado or wainscot of 
the niche or alcove, no attempt being made to blend the two 




Fig. 83. 



patterns so that they die or fit into each other. The inde- 
pendence expressed -is in perfect accordance with that 
already spoken of in the arrangement of the buttresses of 
the great staircase. 



§5 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



45 



Beyond this room, through the open doorway seen in 
Fig. 33, is another apartment, the walls of which are treated 




a 



with a surface decoration shown in Fig. 34. The single letter 
H under the conventional crown indicates this apartment to 



46 



HISTORIC ORNAMEN'r. 



§5 



have been decorated in the period and style of Henry II, 
and a little study of the design in comparison with Fig. 32 
will show the simplicity and neatness of the earlier style as 




Fig. 34. 



compared with the later one. Pig. 36 shows a third example 
of the wall decorations of this chateau. 

These wall decorations are very valuable to the interior 
decorator of today, inasmuch as they furnish him with a 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 



47 



clear suggestion of the style of interior work during the 
Renaissance period, of which so few examples are in exist- 
ence at the present time. 







'Mm 



43. Fontalnebleau and Versailles. — Duringthe decline 
of the Renaissance to the period of the Empire, the seat of 
government and the royal family were centered in Paris, 
and the palaces of Fontalnebleau and Versailles are the 



48 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

most important, with the exception of the Louvre, of the 
many palaces of France. They are both built up of sections 
that vary in style and age from the fourteenth century to 
the present day, but in each of these parts the greatest 
architectural interest -centers in the details of the period of 
Francis I and his immediate successors. 

The details of this style of architecture, as seen in Fon- 
tainebleau and Versailles, are more urban than those from 
the chateaux we have just been considering, and, though all 
these, buildings in their proper sense were palaces, yet the 
two structures in present consideration were always spoken 
of as such, inasmuch as they were the. city residences of the 
king in distinction from his country seat. 

43. Variation of Styles. — In the rooms of these. palaces 
can be seen the furniture and decorations whose style is 
typical of French art during each period .of the Renaissance 
and at the height of its glory. Here, during the reigns of 
Louis XV and Louis XVI, we have the style of furniture 
characteristic of and known by the names of these monarchs, 
as well as that dainty specific style of design called Marie 
Antoinette. After the year 1662, French furniture can be 
roughly divided into four styles, corresponding to the four 
monarchs under whose influences its manufacture was car- 
ried on. These are: Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, and 
Napoleon, usually called .Sm/zV^. 

As in all cases- of subdivision into periods, there is a tran- 
sition from one period to another that makes the styles over- 
lap one another, and the distinctive characteristics of each 
cannot be applied with certainty. The dividing lines in the 
case of French furniture, however, are more clearly drawn 
than in other art details, inasmuch as each style seems to 
have been the result of a court fashion that depended largely 
on the taste of the reigning monarch. 

44. Louis XIV loved pomp and grandeur, and the forms 
of Louis XIV furniture are bold and severe in line and pro- 
portion — a fact that kept them from appearing gaudy in 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 49 

their excessive gilding. A great desire in furniture at this 
period was magnificence, and native woods were set aside in 
preference for foreign woods from India and America. 
Rarity of material was of more importance than any other 
detail, and artistic composition was now relegated to an 
inferior place. The eifect of this was to make the details 
small, as the use of costly materials required that they should 
be treated with care and that even the smallest fragments 
should be used. 

4 5 . Introduction of Costly Materials. — A great differ- 
ence was thus established between the old-fashioned joiner, 
faithful to the carving of native woods, and the cabinetmaker 
to the king, whose care was to produce objects of magnifi- 
cence. In other words, vulgarity was introduced into the 
scheme of ornament, and brilliant and costly materials were 
used solely for their expression of brilliancy and costliness ; 
and it is from this standpoint that French furniture of this 
period must be regarded. The skill lavished upon it and 
the fancy and variety that characterizes its design and the 
minuteness of its workmanship in inlaid surfaces, graven 
and chiseled brasses, and the ingenuity of its construction 
and expense, can then be appreciated. 

46. Discouragement of Symmetry. — During the 
period of Louis XV, furniture loses the dignity of outline 
and proportion that characterized that of the previous style, 
although it possesses all the brilliancy and gaudiness of the 
former. Another detail of importance between these two 
styles is that in the Louis XIV work sjrmmetry was not dis- 
tinctly observed, as the great effect of varied light and shade 
was enhanced by the abruptness of unsymmetrical parts. In 
the period of Louis XV, this eccentricity became a law; and 
symmetry became not only a detail of no consequence, but 
a thing not to be encouraged. This caused the design to 
reach the height of irregularity, and the style took the name 
of Rococo — a term in the French language meaning frivolous. 

In this eccentric ornamentation other details figured, and 



50 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

roses, cornucopia, vases, scrolls, etc. are interwoven with, a 
great predominance of shell-like forms. There is nothing in 
the entire range of art acting as an example or prototype of 
this Rococo idea. Every shape and line throughout it is 
twisted and turned until it is almost a deformity; the 
ordinary acanthus scroll was carried into an endless reedy 
foliation. Nature appeared to be looked upon as a rude and 
barbarous affair that needed some dressing of French taste, 
and yet some specimens of Louis XV furniture impress us 
both with the actual skill of the man that did the work, 
whether in metal or wood, and that the pieces of furniture 
are themselves marvels of decoration. These twists and 
turns, though absolutely meaningless, seem to have an object. 
They reflect the light from gilded metal in a thousand 
different ways, and from a thousand different points, while 
the high relief affords an abundant play of light and shade 
amidst this brightness. Toward the end of the reign of 
Louis XV, a reaction set in against these absurdities, sim- 
ply because the exaggerated style was being carried beyond 
reasonable limits. 

47'. Under the reign of Louis XVI, the furniture is 
similar to that of his predecessor, inasmuch as the festoons, 
garlands, gildings, and shell decorations still exist, but the 
shape of the chair, and the care and study expended on it, 
is very different. Refinement is evident in every one of its 
lines and proportions. The earlier chair, with sprawling 
legs — called the cancan — was not to be accepted during the 
reign of Louis XVI, but to "be departed from as widely as 
circumstances would permit. During this period, we find 
none of the bandy-legged forms of the chair and table 
characteristic of the previous style, but straight-turned and 
sometimes fluted shafts imitative of attenuated vases or 
Clips, or suggestive of little columns or colonnettes. The 
gilding was used, not entirely over the surface, to increase 
the gaudy appearance, but in lines, to accentuate the fluting 
of the column-like legs more than to emphasize the curves 
of the moldings that were turned according to Greek ideas. 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 51 

48. The entire interior decoration of this period par- 
took , of a similar reformation. The panels of the rooms 
were divided into straight lines, and omitted all details of 
the rococo flourishes. These panels were painted white, 
and the pilasters between them were carved in rich and 
delicately executed arabesque. 

The whole scheme of decoration of this period was 
equally elaborate and rich with that of its predecessors, and 
various articles of furniture were made of tulip wood, 
laburnum, or of rosewood, and on other occasions they 
would be executed in lighter wood, colored in various gold 
and brown shades by means of a hot iron. The chief orna- 
ment was marquetry of elaborate pattern, usually in floral 
garlands with borders of fine diaper work. The chairs, 
beds, and couches were usually upholstered in fine Gobelin 
tapestry or costly French and Italian silks, all of which were 
further enriched by beautiful metal mounts, while inlaid 
bits of Sbvres porcelain added a delicacy to the whole. 



GERlMATi AND EKGLISII KEKAISSAKCE. 

49. Influence of Italian Art. — Renaissance ornament 
penetrated into Germany at an early period, but was not 
particularly popular at first, and took no hold on the hearts 
of the people until the spread of books and engravings pre- 
pared the way to the adaptation. From an early period 
there had been a steady current of artists leaving Germany 
to study art in Italy, and the return of these affected many 
of their countrymen. 

50. Albert Durer, a German artist and illustrator, in 
many of his engravings, showed a perfect understanding 
of the conditions of Italian design, leaning occasionally to 
the Gothic style of his early master and on other occa- 
sions to the Italian style of his more recent studies. The 
spread of these engravings undoubtedly influenced the 
German taste, but, even at its best, the Renaissance of 
Germany was impure. The inclination of her people for 



52 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

difficulties that could be solved by the hand rather than 
by the head soon led her into strapwork, jeweled forms, 
and monstrous devices more animated than graceful, but 
exhibiting fully the delight of the clever mechanic to 
execute details that were difficult to handle but easy to 
conceive. 

51. Introduction Into' England. — The introduction of 
Renaissance art into England dates from about the year 
1518, when Henry VIII employed an Italian architect to 
design a monument in memory of Henry VII, which still 
exists in Westminster Abbey and is almost a pure example 
of the Italian style of that period. 

The same architect designed a monument of the Countess 
of Richmond at Westminster, and shortly afterwards left 
England for Spain, leaving behind, however, a number of 
Italians attached to the service of Henry VIII, by whom a 
taste for the Italian style was thoroughly inoculated into 
the country. Among these was the architect John of Padua, 
who appears to have done more work than any of the others, 
among the most important of which is the old Sommerset 
House, built in 1549. 

At the time these Italian artists were spreading a taste for 
Italian architecture and sculpture throughout the length 
and breadth of England, another influence was at work to 
temper this style and prevent its being accepted in its purest 
form. 

52. Holbein. — In 1534, the celebrated German artist 
Holbein came to England from Holland, and to him and 
John of Padua is due mainly the resulting style of archi- 
tecture that appeared in England during the reign of 
Elizabeth. Holbein was a man of great individual genius 
as a painter, and naturally inclined to establish the taste of 
the German school in England, and, though he died in 
1554 — thirty years after entering the country — ^his influence 
on John of Padua is plainly seen in the results of that archi- 
tect during the subsequent years. 



§ 6 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 53 

53. Dutcli InfLiience. — At the time of Elizabeth, a 
number of artists came over from • Holland, built several 
buildings, and painted many portraits, and, though these 
artists and architects were thoroughly imbued with a taste 
for Italian art, that taste was certainly affected by their 
Dutch surroundings and education. 

Theodore Haveus, of Cleves, was architect of four gates 
of Caius College, in England, built toward the close of the 
sixteenth century, and at this time it appears that most of 
the Italian architects had left the country. There were 
many English goldsmiths and jewelers, as well as a number 
of artists and architects, whose names appear prominently 
at this time, and all this jointly had the effect of conglom- 
erating the Dutch, Italian, and English-Gothic style of art. 

54. Political Ties of England and Holland. — During 
the reign of Elizabeth we meet a great preponderance of 
Dutch names, considering that it was an English country, 
which is accounted for by the fact that England was bound 
by political and religious ties with Holland; and although 
the greater number of these names are applied to artists and 
painters, it must be borne in mind that all the arts were 
connected closely in those days, and artists and sculptors 
were frequently employed to design models for ornament 
and even for architecture, and, in the accessories of their 
own pictures, found frequent opportunity for the exhibition 
of ornamental design. 

Michael Angelo was an artist and painted the ceiling and 
side walls of the Sistine Chapel, at Rome ; Michael Angelo 
was a sculptor and carved much of the statuary that now 
stands in the corridors of some of the most prominent 
museums of Europe ; Michael Angelo was an architect and 
completed the building of St. Peter's Church, in Rome, the 
most stupendous undertaking of , the age and the largest 
structure now in existence. 

55. Influences on English Art. — During the early 
part of Queen Elizabeth's reign, we are then justified in 



54 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

concluding that a most important influence must have been 
exercised on English art, through the medium of the Prot- 
estant states and low countries and also of Germany. 

Heidelberg Castle, in Germany, was completed about this 
time, and it is not unlikely that this, too, had an effect on 
English art, especially when we consider that Princess Eliza- 
beth, daughter of James I of England, was queen of Bohemia, 
and held court at Heidelberg about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. Records show that toward the close 
of Elizabeth's reign, and about the beginning of that of 
James I, English artists seem to have predominated, and it 
would appear that at this time would be found the most 
likely development of a strictly native style. It is to be 
deplored, however, that this period of English art, known as 
Jacobean, is undoubtedly the most inartistic, inappropriate, 
and ill-composed in all history. 

56. Elizabethan Ornament. — Thus we may expect to 
meet with the purest Italian ornament during the reign of 
Henry VIII. During the reign of Elizabeth, his daughter, 
we perceive but a slight imitation of the Italian models 
and an almost complete adoption of the style of ornament 
practiced by the decorative artists of Germany and the 
Netherlands. In the reign of James I, Elizabeth's suc- 
cessor, we find this same style continued, or attempted to 
be continued, by the English artists, but in a large and 
gross manner. 

57. Cliaracterlstlcs. — There is little, then, that can be 
justly termed original in Elizabethan ornament. It consists 
more of an adaptation of foreign elements — an adaptation of 
elements with which the adapters had no intimacy, and about 
which they had little understanding. The characteristics of 
Elizabethan ornament may be described as consisting chiefly 
of a grotesque and complicated variety of pierced scrollwork 
with curled edges, as though a riumber of short straps were 
interwoven and their ends allowed to curl up; of interlaced 
bands, sometimes on a geometrical pattern, but more often 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 55 

flowing irregularly and capriciously ; bands composed of strap 
and nail-head ornaments; festoons of fruit and drapery inter- 
spersed -with roughly executed figures of human beings; 
grotesque monsters and animals, with here and there large 
and flowing designs of natural branch and leaf ornament. 
High-paneled apartments often filled with designs of foliage, 
shields, and coats of arms, grotesque keystones in arches, 
and immense flowing brackets, are freely used; and the 
carving, whether in wood or stone, is always very roughly 
and crudely executed, and the design coarse and ill-adapted 
to the material in which it is executed. 

Unlike the adoption of the Classic style in Italy and 
France, these ornaments are not applied to a Gothic system 
of construction, but the entire building is masked under a 
coat of plaster or other material, and the groundwork of 
classic simplicity is first laid, to receive the meaningless 
ornament that stamps the period. 

58. Revival of Antique Art. — About the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, the revival of the antique art, 
which we have already discussed, in Italy became invigorated 
and reduced to a system, as we have said before, through its 
popular introduction afforded by the means of printing and 
engraving. Translations of the work of Vitruvius, copiously 
illustrated and ably commented upon, were printed and 
spread so as to become the foundation of work for every 
designer of eminence throughout the country, and at the 
same time offered a suggestion on which at least half a dozen 
other writers prepared treatises on architecture, among them 
Palladio and Vignola, whose works have been preserved and 
form the standard down to the present day. 

59. Architecture and ornament during the period of the 
English Renaissance may be considered- as failures from an 
artistic standpoint. The purest ornament developed during 
this great historical period we find in France, where it was 
uninfluenced by any foreign elements of importance except 
those received from Italy with the style itself. 



56 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

CONCLUSION. 

60. Object of Complete Eevie^val of Historic Orna- 
ment. — Thus we have considered the entire range of historic 
ornament, from the earliest days of Egypt to the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. The object of this study has not 
been to acquire a number of forms that were characteristic 
of each period, that the student might copy or imitate out- 
lines and designs of the past, in order to execute ideas 
characteristic of a certain historic period. The purpose has 
been to train the mind in order that the natural develop- 
ments arising from conditions in the past can be applied to 
the probable conditions that would arise under similar cir- 
cumstances of the present day and the future. 

61. Influences Affecting Styles of Art. — It has been 
pointed out that religion, politics, and geography have 
affected the character of ornament in different countries, as 
well as historic influences, and at the present day we find 
that the majority of the ornament is affected by the inven- 
tions and advancement in science and art characteristic of 
the nineteenth century, as was the Renaissance period char- 
acterized by the advancement of learning in its period. In 
fact, the latter half of the nineteenth century has been 
characterized by some writers as a Ne^w Eenalssance, if 
such a term can be reasonably used. It certainly bears a 
similar relation, to the three hundred years that preceded it, 
that the beginning of the Renaissance period bore to the 
centuries before its dawn. 

62. Effect of Environments on Art and ArcMtec- 
ture.- — In the fifteenth century, we have the introduction 
of books to the masses of people, through the invention of 
the printing press and printing. ' A spread of desire for art, 
and learning followed as soon as the antiquities of Rome 
and Greece were learned, and with this development of the 
human mind, a rapid advancement of civilization took place 
that characterizes the period as one of the most brilliant in 
history. 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 57 

In the same manner, we have a number of inventions 
characteristic of the latter half of the nineteenth century 
that have so changed the conditions of man that his entire 
habits and character are different from those of his ancestors 
in the Renaissance period. Steam and electricity have been 
controlled so as to convert night into day, and make it no 
longer necessary to discontinue any line of work or manu- 
facture at sunset. These same agents have rendered the 
distances between business centers — even on two continents 
—matters of only a few hours' or days' travel. Conversa- 
tion between individuals a thousand miles apart is so easily 
maintained that it may be considered that space, from a 
business standpoint, is practically annihilated, and, with a 
hundred other inventions, we are confronted with a propo- 
sition in design today that makes the traditions and devices 
of past ages simply symbols of antiquity. 

The modern mind is so imbued with mechanics and inven- 
tions that the present age can give little time to the study 
and development of a national or characteristic art. Designs 
of the past have been copied, and we are satisfied to imitate 
what has been done in this line, instead of trying to do some- 
thing for ourselves. The human mind has not attempted to 
invent practical art forms, and years hence the study of the 
art of this period will be considered in much the same terms 
that we now consider the art of the Jacobean period in 
England. 

63. Adlierence to Old Designs. — A simple illustra- 
tion of this may perhaps be seen in the ordinary chandelier, 
or hanging light. In the days when candles furnished all 
the light for rich and poor that was obtainable, it was cus- 
tomary that a rod or bar should hang from some portion of 
the room and support on its end one or more candles. The 
introduction of lamps to general use made it necessary that 
there should be a bulb or metal globe somewhere near the 
bottom of this rod, to l^e filled with oil to supply the lamp that 
still was suspended from the ceiling by a rod, or, occasion- 
ally, a chain. With the introduction of gas as illuminating 



58 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

power, the rod was replaced by a pipe, still in imitation 
of the old rod, but serving the double purpose of support- 
ing the chandelier and conveying the gas to the burner. 
The horizontal bars that formerly carried lamps now carry 
lava tips from which the gas burns, and the large round 
balls or globes that originally contained the oil to supply the 
lamp are now false, hollow devices, used to cover the joints 
where the vertical and horizontal bars are united. 

In addition to this, elaborate designs for gas fixtures often 
introduced long chains from various portions of their cross- 
bars to staples in the ceiling, suggesting that these fixtures 
were hung from the ceiling by chains, as the lamps of old — 
a clumsy deceit, inasmuch as the chains nearly always hung 
loose and the fixture was plainly supported by its central 
pipe. 

From a point of design, nothing could be more incon- 
sistent than to borrow the chain that hung the lamp of our 
ancestors and use it as a decorative element where it was 
allowed to hang in a limp curve, on account of this outline 
being more pleasing to the eye. The reason for this is to 
be found in the fact that the designer did not invent new 
conditions to suit the new material. Had he never known 
of chandeliers for candles and lamps and been called upon 
to design a device for gas, there is no doubt he would have 
done much better. His knowledge of historic ornament in 
lamp fixtures, therefore, did not benefit him, but injured his 
ability to design something original for gas, and now, with 
the introduction of electricity, many are continuing in the 
same error today. 

64. All that is required for an electric-light illumination 
is a pair of small wires to convej'- the current, and a bulb in 
which the incandescent fiber is enclosed. The designer is 
free to use these two agents in any form he pleases, to elabo- 
rate them in any way he chooses, and to produce an equal 
illumination of a room in the simplest and most artistic way 
that circumstances can possibly admit. Yet, the majority 
of our electrolier designs are based on developments of the 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 59 

old gas fixtures, or, in some instances, going back to the 
old candelabra of our forefathers, where tiny lights are 
poised on the ends of glass imitation tapers, designed with 
the ornament and after the style of the old dim candles of 
the sixteenth century, but burning with the brilliant electric 
illumination of the nineteenth century. 

65. Use of Historic Ornament In Designing. — In 

making use of historic ornament for a matter of design, 
there are two methods the student may legitimately pursue. 
He may make a design for any purpose whatsoever, which 
he may call after the style of Louis XII, for instance, and to 
carry out his idea, may honestly and confessedly borrow 
details from prominent chateaux or castles and carry them 
out with all the crude simplicity of this Medieval period. 
Or he may accept only the spirit of the period and produce 
designs that are copies of nothing that has ever existed 
before, but are applications of the simplicity and sternness 
of the necessities of that time to the change of conditions 
existing in his new surroundings. In other words, he may 
duplicate a historic building, in some cases, to produce an 
emphatic suggestion of a historic period, or he may erect 
an entirely new structure that is designed of modern mate- 
rials and with modern methods, but the spirit dominating 
that is similar to the spirit of the time he would have it 
represent. 

Another illustration of this point may make it more clear. 
A sitting room or library that is to be decorated in the 
so called Gothic style need not be trimmed with antique 
oak, carved with deep moldings, and furnished with uncom- 
fortable high-back chairs that run to a point, with finial and 
crockets, after the shape of church windows, but it can be 
decorated and furnished in the spirit of that period, with 
furniture more suitable to modem times. It need not be 
oak if mahogany suits better, nor need the chairs be high 
back or pointed. The treatment of this interior will consist 
more of an avoidance of what is wrong than of an introduc- 
tion of what is absolutely correct. 



60 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

Carpets on floors were practically unknown at this period, 
and some of the richest palaces had floor coverings of no 
better material than straw ; but in the nineteenth century 
we require carpet, and our Gothic interior need not be made 
as crude as a barn in order to be correct ; we can use hard- 
wood floors and rugs, or if carpet is more desirable, we 
must avoid colors and designs that are inconsistent with the 
spirit of our purpose. 

66. Wlndcvr and Wall Ornamentation. — We inust 
remember that glass was scarce and expensive at this time, 
and that in most cases the windows were large and filled 
with small panes — first, for the admission of sunshine and 
air, and, second, for economy. But glass is cheap now, and 
it is not necessary that we should divide our windows up 
into a multitude of trivial openings, in order that our panes 
may be small, because they were in the Gothic period. 
Leaded glass and stained glass existed in those days and 
can be used now to obtain any effect we desire that is con- 
sistent with our purpose. Walls were hung with tapestries 
at that time, whereas to-day the paper manufacturer has, 
for economical reasons, crowded the tapestry industry into a 
comparatively second place, except for the very wealthy. 
However, we can cover our walls with paper if we choose, 
but its design should not be suggestive of any period but 
the one we have in mind. 

And so throughout, all our efforts may be carried out with 
the material we have in hand or available at the present 
time, if we but stop to consider the reason for certain things 
in the past and a reason why they should or should not be 
reproduced in the present. 

67. This same suggestion applies to the designer of 
fabrics of all kinds as well as to the decorator, and, whether 
executing a design for a carpet, wall paper, dress fabric, or 
linen damask, it is a simpler matter, if its practice is once 
started, to imitate the spirit of any age or style than it is to 
attempt to copy the elements of existing designs. 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 61 

HISTOiEMC LETTEEHN^G. 

68. Lettering does not in reality form a part of Historic 
Ornament as the various other ornamental details do, but it 
is here introduced with the explanation of the characteristics 
of each style, in order that' it may be associated with the 
ornamental style of each characteristic period. We all know 
that there was no such style of alphabet as we term Antique 
Egyptian extant in ancient Egypt, but we do find letters of 
this character in certain Roman works executed at a late 
period on Egyptian soil, and it is from these that it derives its 
name. The styles of letter here given must all be accepted 
with a certain amount of liberality, as each, though in har- 
mony with the period it represents, has certain modern char- 
acteristics introduced for purely commercial advantages. 

69. The practical designer is frequently called upon to 
execute ornamental lettering appropriate to some historic 
style and in harmony with some practical purpose. For this 
reason the student is herewith given a number of useful 
alphabets, with a brief description of each, that will enable 
him to execute the outlines of each letter properly and pro- 
portion them according to rules. The titles given to these 
alphabets are names by which they are known in modem 
use and explain themselves. 

There is no rule by which one can determine what style 
of letter is best suited to each particular purpose, but it is 
well to bear in mind that legibility is always the first con- 
sideration, and where the lettering of a design is intended 
to convey direct inforniation, as in a sign or piece of adver- 
tising matter, the lettering should be simple and clear in 
order that the purpose of the design may not fail. On the 
other hand, where the lettering is for a certificate, diploma, 
memorial, or other piece of matter that is more ornamental 
than instructive, the lettering may be elaborated to any 
degree within reasonable limits. The relative amount of 
space covered by letters and background is a matter of 
design that is considered in the same manner as spotting. 




I) 



fft^ 





e « ^ "^ ''^ "^ 



■■■■kl 




■ 

■ 


U.J 


■ 


■■!■■ 


« 




1 

t 


■■ 


■ 


r 

A 


^ 

L 


i 


■■ 


■■p 




.. 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 63 

and the proportions of letters to each other must also be 
considered in the composition of the design, as matters of 
the principal and subordinate parts of the same design, all 
of which will be more fully explained hereafter. 

Elaboration of letters or the use of elaborate letters does 
not enhance either the beauty or the value of the design 
unless these letters are used intelligently, and a plain letter 
correctly and intelligently proportioned will produce a much 
more pleasing effect than the most elaborate style badly and 
ignorantly arranged. 



ANTIQUE EGYPTIAN ALPHABET. 

TO. This letter. Fig. 36, is almost identical with the plain 
Egyptian, the distinction being in the addition of the spur at 
the angles of the letters, but no variation occurs in the propor- 
tion of the letter or its stroke. The stroke of a letter is the 
proportional width of its heavy lines in comparison with its 
height.^ In this letter the stroke is one-fifth the height, as 
shown by the small squares in which the letter surface is 
divided. Some designers make the spur much more exag- 
gerated than is shown on this plate, while others make it 
scarcely perceptible. The examples given herewith, how- 
ever, may be taken as an average, wherein the spur projects 
about one-third the width of the stroke. All letters having 
a horizontal stroke, as the E, L, etc., have these strokes fin- 
ished with a beveled end, on which the spur is added at 
the same angle. The ends of the strokes of the C and the 
upper stroke of the G and S, and figures 2, S, 5, 6, and 9 are 
beveled at an angle opposite to that of the other letters 
referred to above. This bevel, shown on the upper terminal 
of C, is made by drawing a line from a point one-fourth the 
width of the stroke to the right oi 5 a to a point one-third 
the width of the stroke to the left of 5 c. The points 5 a and 
6 c refer to the intersection of the fifth vertical line from 
the left side of the letter, with the third horizontal line 
marked c. 

The middle bar of the A is the width of the stroke below 



64 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 6 ' 

the center; the middle bar of the //'is one-half the width of 
the stroke above the center ; while the middle bars of the E 
and F are exactly in the center. The / is finished with a 
spur at 5 e, as well as just above 1 e. The points that deter- 
mine the inclination of the strokes of the K are from Sato 
two- thirds the width of the stroke below 2 d, and from J^f to 
the intersection of the upper slanting stroke with line S one- 
third the width of the stroke above d. The two slanting 
strokes of the Af meet in the center of the letter at a point 
online/", and no spurs exist on the insides of the slanting 
strokes at the top. The tail of the Q is cut on an angle of 
45 degrees, the shorter side being the width of the stroke in 
length and the longer side being equal to the distance from 
^ ^ to Sf. The tail of the i? is a slanting stroke ; the points 
of contact are J^d to 5 f. The strokes of the W come to a 
point on line a to correspond with the M. The corner of 
the Z is beveled off at about the same angle as the interior 
of the 5 and the top of the character &. The long slanting 
stroke of the character & is drawn from a point one-half the 
width of the stroke to the left and below la to a. point one- 
half the width of the stroke to the right of J^f. The corre- 
sponding, or upper, slanting stroke, from its top to the 
beginning of the curve, is made from a point one-half the 
width of the stroke to the right and below Jtato a, point 2 d. 
The other slanting stroke intersects the long stroke the 
width of the stroke below this point and is parallel with the 
upper stroke, finishing on line c. The curve by which these 
strokes are united is three-fourths the width of the stroke to 
the left of line 1 at e. The middle bar of the numeral S is 
beveled at a slight angle, as shown. The character of the 
numeral 5 is changed at the point where the vertical stroke 
joins the curved bottom portion of the numeral 6. The 
• point added below the line d is necessary to fill out the space 
to the line of the curve. The numerals 6, 8, and 9 are about 
one-third the width of the stroke wider than the other char- 
aracters, but are similar^ in other respects to the same 
numerals in the plain Egyptian alphabet. 

The lower-case letters are, in many respects, the same as 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 65 

those in the plain Egyptian alphabet, although many excep- 
tions occur. All strokes extending above the line a are 
cut at an angle of 60 degrees, to which the spur is added 
at the same angle. This characteristic is also observable 
on letters of shorter height, such as the i, j, m, n, etc., but 
the ends of the strokes of all letters extending below the 
line are finished without this detail. 



MGHT ANTIQUE EGYPTIAK AliPHABET. 

1 1 . The difference between tl^e alphabet shown in Fig. 37 
and that shown in Fig. 36 is almost entirely in the weight 
of the stroke. The capital letters and figures of this alpha- 
bet are one-fourth higher than wide, with the exception of 
the letters A, M, O, Q, S, W, etc., which are wider than the 
others, and the letters /, L, and N, which are narrower. 

On the top line we have, in A, a letter whose width is 
equal to its height, and in /" a letter whose width is but three 
thirty-seconds its height. The cross-bar of the A is two and 
two-thirds strokes above the bottom line, and the curved line 
at the top and to the left of .4 is a short pen or brush stroke 
termed the cyma, on account of its resemblance to the curve 
of the Greek moldings of that name. The purpose of the 
cyma in lettering is to fill the space between the slanting 
parts of the letters, or extremities of letters where wide 
openings are likely to appear where the letters are placed 
together. It is also used as an integral part of some letters, 
as in the Q and lower part of the Z. In other styles of 
lettering the cyma is frequently used as a structural part of 
many letters, particularly in the Old English alphabet. On 
the letter A the cyma is eight strokes in length and is located 
one stroke to the left of the upper point of the A. 

The letter B is fashioned so that its lower portion to the 
middle of bar is eight strokes above the bottom line, and 
projects one stroke to the right of the upper portion. As far 
as it goes, the letter <7 is a perfect arc of a circle, and the spur 
on the inside is about two strokes from the top line. The 



# 

^ 



<D 

lU 

lU 




§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 67 

lower extremity of the letter projects a stroke beyond the 
top and finishes at a point about three strokes above the 
lower line. The right side of the letter D is semicircular 
and becomes tangent at the top and bottom three strokes to 
the right of the vertical. E, F, G, and H each possess a 
middle bar that is located four strokes below the top of the 
letter, and in the letters E and F this middle bar extends to 
within three strokes of the right extremity of the letter. In 
iT the slanting stroke begins three' strokes above the lower 
line and extends to the top line where the end is beveled at 
an angle of about sixty degrees. The letter L is about one 
stroke narrower than the other letters, and the cyma is 
placed over it so that its lower extremity is even with the 
right-hand portion of the letter. M is two strokes wider 
than the other letters, and in some cases is made precisely 
like an inverted W, except at the union of the two slanting 
strokes where the letter is finished flat with a spur instead of 
being pointed as in the W. Here the middle strokes of the 
M are brought to a point one-half the width of the letter 
below the top line. The slanting stroke of the iVcommences 
on the vertical stroke one-fourth the width of the letter 
below the bottom line. The loops of the P and R are very 
different in style, the middle bar of the P being four and 
two-thirds strokes from the bottom line, while the middle 
stroke of the R is six and two- thirds strokes above the bottom 
line. The tail of the R intersects the middle bar at a point 
where the curve becomes tangent. The letter 5 curves in 
each direction from a point in the center of the letter on a 
line with the middle bar of the R, and this letter is. narrower 
at the top than at the bottom and can be enclosed in an 
isosceles triangle whose height is about three times the 
height of the letter. The W is precisely the same as two 
V's joined at a point two and two-thirds strokes below the 
top line. The vertical stroke of the Y extends six and two- 
thirds strokes above the bottom line, the letter being twelve 
strokes wide on the top. The X is nine strokes wide on 
top and thirteen strokes wide on the bottom. The letter Z 
is the same width as the average letters on top, but it may 




E 







k 



Id 




4 




§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 69 

be finished either with the cyma as shown here, or with a hot- 
torn corresponding in detail to the top, as th^ fancy dictates. 
The figures are of the average width of the letters, the S 
being similar to the S, and the Z to the 7. The lower-case 
letters are easily constructed, as shown. 



HBATY ANTIQUE EGYPTIAN AliPHABET. 

73. The style of letter shown in Fig. 38 is the heavy 
extreme of the Antique Egyptian style, in the same manner 
that Fig. 37 was the light extreme of this style. Between 
these two extremes the style may be varied to almost any 
extent, slight variations in the form of letter being necessary 
to suit the different conditions. The Heavy Antique Egyp- 
tian, however, is rarely used as a solid black letter as shown 
in this figure, and is only so printed here in order to preserve 
uniformity in the alphabets. 

In much design work this letter is found in simple outline, 
and though extremely bulky on account of the weight of its 
stroke, it may be gracefully handled and elaborately orna- 
mented to produce a most pleasing effect. The stroke in 
the Antique Egyptian alphabet should not exceed one-third 
the full width of the average letter, which is the extreme 
illustrated in this case, and it will be observed that with this 
heavy stroke it is necessary that certain letters, such as the 
K, S, V, W, etc., be carried beyond the limiting top and 
bottom lines, in order that the full outline of the letter may 
be shown without confusion of parts. In some places, too, 
it will be found necessary to diminish the width of the stroke 
in order to leave necessary space between strokes, and other 
variations may be indulged to suit specific circumstances. 



MEDIEVAL KOMAN ALPHABET. 

'73. This style of letter, by many authorities, is termed 
the Antique Roman, but it belongs to the historic period 
indicated by its name. The Medieval Roman alphabet as 



z 
< 






W 










§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 71 

shown in Fig. 39 possesses three distinct and characteristic 
features. First, there is a small spur that projects above 
and below the lettering lines, and there is another projection 
of the inside line of the stroke beyond the fine line for a 
distance of. about one-third the stroke, as in the top of the 
letter A and the bottom of the letter N; and besides these, 
every angle between a stroke and a fine line is rounded. 
The width of the stroke here is from one-fourth to one-fifth 
the height of the letter, and the spur is one stroke long and 
is joined to the letter one stroke above the bottom, or below 
the top line, thus making the curve on the inside an exact 
quarter circle. 

All letters average five strokes in width, with the excep- 
tion of such letters as have heretofore been described as 
varying from the regular limits. In the letter A the fine 
line intersects the stroke at the point of the letter, and 
though on its inside the stroke is carried past the fine line, 
the intersection takes place precisely as though this peculi- 
arity did not exist. The horizontal fine line of the A is one 
and one-fourth strokes above the bottom of the letter. 



LIGHT AND HEAVY FRENCH ROKAN ALPHABET. 

t4:. In modern usage the Roman alphabet is varied 
somewhat to suit certain purposes. One' of these variations, 
called the "New York Roman," adheres in outline very 
closely to the original Medieval form with the exception of 
the projecting spur of the stroke beyond the fine line. 
Another variation, known as the "French Roman," differs 
from its. prototype by increasing the weight of the fine line 
in order that it may be better expressed in carved stone- 
work, etc. The variations of these three styles, from an 
extremely light letter to an extremely heavy letter, is prac- 
ticed by all designers, but the similarity is such that we only 
give the normal conditions of the Medieval Roman and 
extreme conditions of the French. 

In Fig; 40 is shown the Light French Roman alphabet. 



US 



'Sr 



01* 



Eon 



ox 









CQ 




J n CO 



023ld 



^ 



H 
ft! 




<zo> 



?4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 




and this fills the 
same position in 
the variation of the 
alphabet as the 
Light Antique 
Egyptian. In giv- 
ing the letter 
weight, as shown 
in Fig. 41, certain 
liberties are taken 
with the fine lines, 
as shown in the 
lower strokes of 
the E, L, and Z. 

In using- these 
Roman alphabets, 
care must be taken 
to have the lower- 
case- letters well 
proportioned in the 
weights of their 
strokes with the 
capitals that are 
used. In Fig. 42 
are shown the 
lower - case letters 
of the French 
Roman and the 
Medieval Roman 
alphabets, the 
former, it will be 
observed, possess- 
ing a mi:ch heav- 
ier stroke. These 
lower.-case letters 
in Fig. 42 are pro- 
portioned for the 
normal condition 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 75 

of alphabet, and where used with the heavy or light 
alphabet, they must be increased or diminished in stroke 
accordingly. The use of the Roman numerals with these 
alphabets is by no means essential, but the numerals are 
given here in order that the proportionate stroke -may be 
observed. There are many cases where the use of the 
Medieval Roman alphabet is appropriate beyond all other 
alphabets, and it is usual that in such cases the Roman 
numerals be used. 



GOTHIC ALPHABET. 

75. The style of letter we term "Gothic" was designed 
during the latter part of the Medieval period and is asso- 
ciated both historically and architecturally with the style of 
Gothic architecture that existed during the Flamboyant 
period in France and the Perpendicular period in England. 
In modern use this letter is largely applied to church deco- 
ration for the. purpose of making religious quotations, and is 
also used in printing for certain kinds of literature on 
account of its origin in ancient monasteries. It is similar 
but much more easily read than what we term "Church 
Text," and is, therefore, given here to the exclusion of the 
latter, as it is much more serviceable. 

In Fig. 43 the capital and lower-case letters, as well as 
the figures, are shown, and the distinguishing characteristics 
of this style lie in the peculiar formation of the letters 
A, C, E, F, H,J, and U. The letters A, M, N, etc. do not 
possess any slanting strokes as they do in the Roman 
alphabets, but are formed with a vertical stroke as one of 
their sides and curved strokes for the rest of the outline. 
The letters C and £ are closed on their right sides by a 
vertical line ending in small dots or volutes, the line on E 
being longer than that on the C The i^is similar in gen- 
eral outline to the capital F of the Roman styles, but carries 
its spur on the upper fine line below the bottom of the 
letter itself. The capital /f is but slightly varied from the 
lower-case k, and the / is peculiar in its general details to 



3 






P Pf > ^:n 







&« 



^ 

^ 



5P 




^ 





^ 

^ 




ISJ 




5a 




w y ^ 

s 2 D 



^ 






(Q 



in 






^ 









^ 










^.N 











§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 79 

this style of alphabet. Other details of peculiarity exhibit 
themselves to the student as he studies this style. This 
letter is frequently elaborated in certificate and engrossing 
work, by means of shading and elaborate backgrounds, and 
some proportions of the letters may be slightly changed in 
order to suit them to particular circumstances. 

A later development of this alphabet is shown in Fig. 44, 
where the letters A, M, N, etc. partake of the same char- 
acteristics as the Roman letter, while the peculiar ogival 
form of outline characteristic of the Gothic style is main- 
tained in all of the curves in the stroke. A strong character- 
istic difference, however, between the alphabet in Fig. 43 
and that in Fig. 44 is that in the former all the fine lines 
are straight and in the latter all of the fine lines are curved, 
except in the A, K, Jll, etc. This style of letter, usually 
termed "16th Century," is suitable where more elaboration 
is required than the Gothic style permits, and is seldom used 
for church work as it is associated with that period of archi- 
tecture when the building of churches was in its decline. 

Another style of letter that had its origin, also, in the 
Gothic is illustrated in Fig. 45 and is termed " Henry VJI " 
inasmuch as the only existing example of this work is to be 
seen in the Henry VII Chapel at Westminster Abbey. As 
a matter of fact, this is technically a Renaissance style, 
although like all early Renaissance art it developed from 
the Gothic. The tendency to elaboration and the intro- 
duction of meaningless curves and forms is characteristic of 
this period, but the style of alphabet when properly treated 
affords a very valuable means of enriching a design that is 
composed almost entirely of lettering work. 



OLB ENGLISH ALPHABET. 

I' 6. A standard alphabet that has ever been popular 
and is ever serviceable under certain conditions is the Old 
English, shown in Fig. 46. There can be little doubt that 
this bears a close relation to the Gothic alphabet, and. 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 81 

-indeed, its lower-case letters are very similar to the Gothic; 
and, though it is much used in church work and in the 
designing of "certificates and other engrossed documents, it 
is not as legible as the Gothic alphabet and is more suitable 
for conditions where ornamentation is required rather than 
clear information. 

It will be observed in this alphabet that the cyma forms a 
marked characteristic in each of the letters. For instance, 
in the letter E nearly all the strokes are composed of at 
least a portion of the cyma. Certain letters are very hard 
to distinguish from one another in this alphabet, and care 
should be taken to remember the distinguishing character- 
istics of each in order that they may be rendered without 
referring constantly to the copy. In some forms of alphabet, 
the C and the E are almost identical, the exception between 
the two letters being that the E contains a solid stroke where 
the two horizontal fine lines exist in the C. We think it 
preferable, however, to use the form of E shown in Fig. 46, 
although this is somewhat confusing when compared with 
the F. It will be observed that the vertical stroke of the F 
is a straight stroke and not a cyma as in the E, and that a 
fine line connecting the upper spur of the F with the main 
stroke is straight instead of a curved continuation of a cyma 
as in the letter E. T and U are also difficult to distinguish 
in some styles of alphabet, and study should be given to the 
formation of the / and J in order that they may not become 
confusing. 

A little consideration of these letters will show the student 
that there are only three or four different styles of stroke 
and that many different letters are formed simply by the 
addition of some detail of other letters. For instance, the 
letter E differs but slightly from the letter L, except in the 
addition of its center spur, and the left-hand portion of the 
letter M is almost identical with the letter /. Similar 
resemblances will be found in many other letters, such as 
the Q, R, etc. , and the Z, though shown on this plate with 
a compound final stroke, is often drawn with a top and bot- 
tom of the same character. 



82 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

The lower-case letters are similar to the lower-case letters 
of the Gothic alphabet, except that they are somewhat 
heavier in their stroke, but for all practical purposes the two 
styles are so near alike in their lower case that one is fre- 
quently used with the other without invoking any severe 
criticism. 

TITi. In making use of these alphabets in design, it has 
been customary to associate all the Roman styles with 
Classic and Renaissance art and to use the Gothic and "16th 
Century" with Medieval art; while the Henry VII and Old 
English are used both in Medieval and Renaissance art. 
There are cases where one style of letter may be used per- 
fectly proper in another style of art, but care must be given 
to this consideration when the mixture of styles is attempted, 
as it will readily be seen that there is nothing particularly 
incongruous about using the Roman letter in Renaissance 
art, or even in Gothic art,- but a Gothic letter would be highly 
out of place in Classic art no matter what were the circum- 
stances. The reason for this should be clear, as the Gothic 
architect might have inherited some knowledge of the Roman 
letter and used it in his designs, but it would be utterly 
impossible for the Roman designer to borrow a letter of the 
Gothic style inasmuch as that letter had not been invented 
during the period of the Roman architectural styles. 

78. The initial letters that are woven in many of the 
designs of French Renaissance art usually tend toward the 
character of the French Roman, and the interwoven initials 
of H and C in the wall decoration shown in Fig. 33 are 
borrowed from the style we have herein described as French 
Roman, and comparison of other initials that will be found 
carved in the stonework of the mantels illustrated in the 
foregoing pages will indicate that they have all been adapted 
to their modern purpose from the more ancient style of 
classic letter. 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



COMPOSITIOIS^. 

1. Unity in Design. — Composition in art deals almost 
entirely with the grouping of the elements of a design to 
bring them together and appear as a unity. No matter of 
how many parts a design may be composed, if these parts 
are properly treated, it will 
present to the eye an appear- 
ance of unity and individu- 
ality, and only in such 
periods of art history as the 
designs have presented this 
unity do we find a progress 
in a thoroughly artistic 
sense. 

To illustrate this some- 





what, we have, in Fig. 1, a group of six lines, all of one 
length, but irregularly arranged. There is no expression 

§ 6 

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title page. 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 



of unity in this, nor is there anything about it suggestive of 
an attempt at any kind of an arrangement, but in Fig. 2 
these same six lines are so placed as to convey an idea 
beyond the lines themselves, and the individual lines are 
lost in the expression of unity. Another method of pro- 
ducing this impression is to surround the irregularly drawn 




Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

lines with some detail of more importance, as shown in 
Fig. 3, where a number of irregular lines are included within 
a rectangle and the force of the outline is sufBcient to com- 
bine all the lines in one idea. Again, the smaller lines may 
be grouped to form a series of geometrical figures within a 
similar geometrical figure, and produce this same feeling, as 
shown in Pig. 4. 

2, Liralt of Outline. — In order to express this feeling 
of unity, there must be a limit in the outline governing the 
arrangement of the lines; for instance, in Fig. 5 we have a 



Fig. 5. 

series of equal lines arranged in groups that repeat indefi- 
nitely; but there is nothing to stop them and there is a feeling 
of continuity as though it might be extended forever in the 
same arrangement without materially changing the form. 
This feeling is not unity, but continuity , of which we shall 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 3 

have occasion to speak later. In Fig. 3, the arrangement of 
the six lines, in one case, conveys an impression of extension, 
as though it could be extended in any direction and in all 
directions without impairing the original form — this is con- 
tinuity in all directions. The other geometrical form in 
Fig. 2 conveys the idea of unity and contraction without any 
impression of a desire to spread out. 

3. Assemblage of Details to Secure Unity. — In 

assembling the subordinate details of a design in order 
to secure a unity in the whole, there are three general 
arrangements or groupings that completely satisfy the 
mind to a sense of unity: One single object always looks 
well alone, unless improperly subdivided or surrounded by 
a lot of trivial and discordant details. An arrangement con- 
sisting of a group of two things can be made to look well, 
unless there is too great a difference in their form or size, or 
unless they are badly united. Any group of three things 
looks well, unless they are of uniform size or consist of too 
prominent a character to be expressed in any quantity at all. 



SURFACE DECORATIOlSr. 

4. Siibdlvlslon of Space. — Surface decoration con- 
sists in the subdivision of a given space so that its parts 
shall bear a relation to one another that varies in form and 
shade. This subdivision may 
be accomplished by the judi- 
cious spacing of a number of 
straight lines so that the sepa- 
rated members bear a definite 
relation to one another. Take, 
for instance, the square ; its pro- 
portions cannot in any way be 
varied, as all its sides are equal; 
but its surface may be divided 
into a number of smaller 
squares, as shown in Fig. 6, Fig. 6. 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



simply by the placing of equally spaced vertical and hori- 
zontal lines. This, however, does not accord with our 
idea of unity, because, if it expressed unity, we should feel 
that nothing could be taken away from the square without 
destroying its value, and, in Fig. 6, should we take away 
eleven of the smaller squares across the top and one side, 
we would still have a square very little different from the 
first one. 

5. Arrangement of Xiines. — Suppose we divide the 
surface of the square somewhat as shown in Fig. 7, spacing 
the dividing lines more irregularly and grouping the lines 
themselves in pairs and singly. This relieves the surface 
of its monotony, and the various parts bear definite relations 



Fig. 7. 



Fig. S. 



to one another, so that the surface appears as a unit, the 
subtraction of any member of which would materially 
change its appearance. In Fig. 8 we have another sub- 
division of the surface of the square where the lines are not 
symmetrical on all four sides, and yet this is relieved of that 
feeling of monotony so dominant in Fig. 6. 

An immense variation of surface can thus be accomplished 
simply by the placing of lines, and the more irregular the 
intervals between the lines, the greater scope is there for 
invention and design, as there is no limit to the number of 
different arrangements that can be arrived at in the division 
of a space in this manner. The symmetrical arrangement in 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



5 



Fig. 7 is the character of subdivision we must adhere to in 
the design of ceiUngs, paneled wainscots, and the like, 
while the unsymmetrical design shown in Fig. 8 is char- 
acteristic of woven fabrics such as plaids and other dress 
goods. 

6. In order to fully comprehend the importance of this 
simple suggestion, the student should make a freehand 
drawing of a simple square measuring about 4 inches on 
each side, and divide it by vertical and horizontal lines into 
various relative shapes. A piece of tracing paper laid over 
the square, so as to retrace its outline, may be used to 
advantage, and a traced square made in this way may be 
divided into a number of pleasing forms that may afterwards 




Fig. 9. 

be compared to determine which of the arrangements are 
more satisfactory to the eye than others. When this has 
been determined, endeavor to ascertain what arrangement of 
lines satisfies the eye most, and what arrangement satisfies it 
least. Some arrangements will always be more interesting 
than others, and a little study will show that the most sat- 
isfactory groupings are dependent entirely on the variation 
in the proportions and relations of their parts. Take, for 
instance, Fig. 9, wherein we have six different arrangements 
on precisely the same grouping of lines, the relative parts 
of this being produced by shade and not by line grouping, 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 



as in the previous example. But in Fig. 10 we have four 
examples of a surface divided by lines the grouping of which 
makes four distinct figures entirely different, some of which 

are more pleasing 
than the others. 



Fig. 10. 



7. Study of 
Grouping. — In this 
grouping of lines it 
is important that the 
student should study 
various works of art. 
He will soon learn 
that certain things 
look well if grouped 
in a certain manner, 
no ' matter whether 
they are the figures 
in an oil painting, 
lines in a plaid, the 
windows of a building, or the leaves of a plant as they are 
disposed in a carved panel; and he should study as much as 
possible_ those forms of art that have been handed down from 
generation to generation throughout history as being beauti- 
ful and worthy of attention. In the French chateaux we 
have an elaborate grouping of chimneys and turrets; in fact, 
the distinguishing characteristic of these buildings lies in the 
grouping of their roof treatment. In the Venetian palaces 
we have a variety of relations of lines and spaces in the 
arrangement of the windows in their facades, and in Ara- 
bian and Moorish art we find the surface decoration grouped 
on geometrical principles wherein the proportion of one 
part to another is affected not only by lines, but by color 
systematically and scientifically applied. The student 
should therefore, in studying the simple outline forms in 
Figs. 6 to 10, bear in mind that, simple though they be, 
the principle of their pleasing or unpleasing appearance 
is the same that governs the most elaborate ornament 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 7 

in the Venetian style or the most brilliant coloring in 
Moorish art. 

8. Eelatlon of Colors. — In the coloring of parts we 
do not really consider the actual spectrum shades that exist 
on adjacent members of a design, but rather the tints or 
shades as they appear to the eye. A design may be 
expressed in two tints or it may be expressed in more, and 
the depths of these tints should bear a definite relation to 
one another in proportion to the surface that is covered. 
We know that the three primary colors — yellow, red, and 
blufe — exist in their pure form in perfect harmony in the 
proportion of 3, 5, and 8, and the same may be said of black- 
and-white compositions. A certain depth of one shade must 
be in exact proportion to a lighter or darker shade, in order 
that a feeling of harmony may exist in the composition. In 
all examples of ancient art we find that attention has been 
given not only to the exact subdivision of a surface in order 
that the space relations may be pleasing, but that the most 
careful consideration has been given to the coloring. of each 
of these divisions and its appearance and relation beside the 
coloring of its neighbors. This color relation can exist 
in line composition where the lines used are of different 
breadths, or weights, thei'eby bringing somewhat the effect 
of a surface element in their appearance. 

9. Iiiglit and Sliade. — We find in certain oriental designs 
for rugs a thorough understanding of this relation of liglit 
and shade, and to it we are indebted largely to the influence 
of Mohammedan religion on oriental art. As the creed of 
Mohammed forbade the representation of any natural form, 
it became necessary for his followers to secure pleasing 
effects in their designs by color relation or light and shade, 
and thus freed from the struggle to imitate nature, their 
whole attention could be concentrated on this other element. 

10. Eeverslon of Colors. — In Fig. 11 is shown a 
design for a rug, based on the simplest geometrical lines, 
while in Fig. 12 the same identical pattern is prodticed, but 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT, 




reversed so far as its color relations are concerned. It is at 
once evident that any design consisting of but two tones is 

susceptible to this reversing 
of its treatment in color 
relations, and parts of it 
also can in some cases be 
reversed, while others remain 
the same. For instance, in 
Fig. 11 we have a rug with 
a dark center on which the 
geometrical ornament is 
traced in light lines, while 
the border is of a light shade 
and the geometrical orna- 
ment is traced in dark lines. 
In Fig. 12 we have exactly 
the reversal of this — a light 
center and a dark border. 
Put the border of Fig. 13 on Fig. 11 and we have a dark 
rug throughout, the geometrical ornament of which is 
executed in light lines; reverse this new pattern, and we have 
what would be the equivalent 
of Fig. 13 with the border of 
Fig. 11. In this way a num- 
ber of different arrangements 
in light- and- shade eflEects can 
be made with the same geo- 
metrical design as its founda- 
tion. In fact, many grades of 
rugs and carpets are woven so 
that one side presents one 
effect and the other exactly 
its reverse in light and shade. 



Fig. 11. 



■ n7i7i7rrr.°aTi,J,i,i, 




:;ii,8;f;T;'i,T;^V8';T;r;r 



11. Reversion of Treat- 
ment. — In Fig. 13 are shown 
four styles of ornamentation, 
each of which is expressive of unity and balance in its 



Via. 12. 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 9 

design, but each at the same time being perfectly capable of a 
reversal in treatment in three or more ways. For instance, 




Fig. 13. 



in any example the border can consist of black figures on 
a white ground and the center of white figures on a black 
ground, or the border and center can both consist of white 



■ ■ ■ 


-- .__■ ■ 


■ 

■ 
■ 


.i 


:..:..!.. 


i : 


■ ■ ■ 


: 












■■ s 




■ 
■ 


■ 




" " 


' 


■ 


■ 

■••■•■ 


■ 
■ ■■■: 








:■■■ 

■ 


■ 


■ ■ 












■■■ ■_-! ! 




. ...i-- --! S--J--S i.. 

■ ■■ ■■■ ■■■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■■ 


! :.. 


; 

■•■i 


■ ■ ■ 




i... 


■■■ ■■■ ...!— S ■-. 




!"" 


s" "5 V" 


-5-i S 










[■Hri 
















5 S S.S. 


■Hi 


.....:.. 


■ S ■■■! 




■ 


...5.....:... 



ii^Sinii^siBii^Sii 




'H:ii|l!!!!;iiiEl'i'Mi3i"!i: 

BI:||||SII:|,,3EII:||,|3E|| 

'']-i'lr''il-Mr''jl-i'li-''ll- 

"ftiiJlH-iiSlili*"!'- 
fil' pii£'- jiixiliiiE" 
ftlHBfflSm S ! S iS ! ! 



■ IJ L_B IJ ■.. 

..:i::.iT.j:i:::.iT..:i: 
::"'xi"::Jx"ii":: i : ' " ii 

i.::i:..Tin::i:..Ti.::i 

-■ii'£i-I-i'Sii-¥--i'iii 
1 1 liriiHhr Irm I EI:::Bi 




Fig, 14. 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 11 

figures on a black ground, or a third arrangement will per- 
mit of a reversal of the first ; certain figures can be changed 
and others remain the same, thus giving a great variety. 

The proper understanding and comprehension of this 
color relation in surface decoration enables the student to 
produce an almost unlimited variety of effects, as is shown 
in Fig. 14. Here we have eight examples of variation in 
light and shade, all based on precisely the same geometrical 
arrangement, the entire variation being produced simply by 
a variation in the relation and proportion of the effects of 
light and shade. The frequent practice of rendering in 
this manner is of immense value to the designer. Let him 
divide a surface up into a number of small rectangles and 
then work over them with a brush charged with heavy 
color, and group these rectangles so as to produce different 
symmetrical designs, in order that he may familiarize himself 
with the capability of these forms for extension and compre- 
hend the value of a thorough understanding of this principle. 

13. Variety of Designs from Same Elements. 

Referring to Fig. 14, the eight examples there shown are 
executed in but two colors — ^black and white — and all based 
on a uniform arrangement of lines that divide the surface 
originally into a number of small squares. Turn this prin- 
ciple over to immediate practical work, and we find that, in 
laying a tile or mosaic floor, any one of these designs could 
be produced with a series of tiles or mosaics cut to uniform 
squares representing each of the squares divided in our sur- 
face design, and colored in proportion to the light and shade 
of our example. 

In wood mosaic or parquetry work, a number of simple 
squares or a combination of squares and rectangles of uni- 
form sizes in light and dark woods would produce any of 
these eight patterns and many more. The arrangement of 
the geometrical constructive principle of diagonally inter- 
secting lines so as to produce the triangle, the lozenge shape, 
or the hexagon, brings us again in contact with other sys- 
tems of construction in which the variety is also unlimited. 



13 ELEMENTS OP ORNAMENT. 



CONVEIS^TIONALISM. 

13. Necessity of Conventionalism. — Convention- 
alism of design is usually very much misunderstood by 
students in art, and the majority are inclined to believe 
that it is simply a term that means stiffness and rigid for- 
mality in a design. This is entirely wrong. A conventional 
treatment may be easy and flowing as well as severe, both 
qualities being necessary and valuable in their proper places, 
but by no means is either one of them absolutely necessary 
at all times. 

As an illustration, take a piece of pottery or a china plate, 
and the design executed on it represents a spray of flowers. 
While it is proper that the designer should go to nature and 
draw his instructions from natural forms in order to create 
decorative design, there is a limit to which he can carry this 
imitation justifiably, and it is in this spray of flowers where 
that limit shall be expressed. 

14. Shall the imitation be a portrait of the flower spray, 
showing the light and shade, and the shine of the leaves, and 
all the details connected with the appearance of that spray 
under particular conditions of surrounding and lighting ? Or, 
shall it represent the spray regardless of light and shade, so 
that, no matter, under what conditions the plate or pottery 
appears, its decoration will always seera to be in place ? A 
plate is a movable object, and its decoration is seldom seen in 
the same position twice in succession. Therefore, a painted 
spray on this plate, that demanded a certain condition of 
light in order that it should appear to its best advantage, 
would be entirely out of place, while one with the light and 
shade ignored, all the refinements of form still retained, and 
all the delicate details of nature emphasized, would certainly 
be most suitable. 

In the naturalistic treatment, the beautiful and delicate 
details of nature are lost in the attempt to make the spray 
seem natural, and, in making it natural — contrary as it may 
seem — we make it false. 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 13 

15. Invention and Imitation. — Decorative art origi- 
nates in two distinct faculties of the mind — the inventive, 
or constructive, and the imitative. Inventive ornament 
consists of an arbitrary and abstract arrangement of lines 
calculated to produce a pleasing effect. This is character- 
istic of the savage tribes, though traces of it pervaded all 
the great styles, the frets and interlacings of the Classic, 
Medieval, and Arabian styles being of this character. Invent- 
ive ornament of this class affords the best practice to the 
student in the study of decorative design, and, at the same 
time, offers the best and simplest means of demonstrating 
some of the greatest principles of ornament. 

16. Tlie Oval in N"ature. — There is an abstract form 
that seems to pervade many beautiful forms in nature; this 
form we call the oval, and on it are based many outlines 
seen in the vegetable world. It is an elementary outline of 
many leaves, and also enters into the composition of the 
human head and hand. 

In studying the oval we find that its two sides are 
alike, that is, it is repeated on each side of a center line. 
It is not only repeated, but, being reversed, one side is 
contrasted to another, and still, again, throughout the entire 
curve — unlike the curve of a circle — there is a constant 
change of form and direction ; therefore, we have a variety. 
Hence, three important principles of design — repetition, 
contrast, and variety — are expressed in the simple form of 
this oval. 

17. Repetition, Contrast, and Variety. — Now let us 

take xip these three principles in a point of design. The 
simplest arrangement of lines in order to secure repetition 
is somewhat shown at (a) in P'ig. 15, but here there is no 
variety; while at {b) we secure variety with the same 
arrangement for repetition by making the lines of varying 
lengths, but there is no contrast. Let us again change them 
and put them as we have them at (c), which gives us con- 
trast, but destroys our variety. However, by adopting the 



14 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



three methods in (a), (d), and {c), we have in (d), repetition, 
variety, and contrast — the three elements that we seek. 
Abandoning lines, let us return to some natural form. In 



(a) 



(b) 



m 




^WW 




Fig. 15. 



Fig. 16. 



Fig. 16, at (a), we have repetition, at {V), we have variety, 
and at {c), by combining {a) and (b), introducing the third 
element as in the previous case, we have repetition, variety, 
and contrast in leaf forms as desired. 

18. Symmetry and Kadlatlon.— rin addition to these 
principles, we have evolved two more, so far unspoken of, 
as shown at (b) and {d) in Fig. 15. These principles are, 




WW 




symmetry and radiation. Symmetry has many forms of 
expression, but usually may be considered to mean likesided- 
ness, no matter what the form of the object may be. At (a). 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 15 



Fig. 17, is shown a form of symmetry that consists simply 
of the arrangement and repetition of a given form each side 
of a center line ; this is known as 
bisymmetry . At {b) is a similar arrange- 
ment where the forms on the sides are 
the same in detail as the form that 
separates them ; this is known as tri- 
symmetry. At (<:), where there are a 
number of forms each side of a similar 
form in the center, we have what is 
known as multisyinmetry. 

By bringing the forms shown at {U), 
Fig. 17, together to form a unity, we 
have an example of radiation from a 
point, as shown at (d), while the dis- 
tribution of the forms along a center '"'" '"' 
line, as shown in Fig. 18, gives an example of radiation 
from a center line. 






ORlSrAMENT, 



LINEAR ORNAMENT. 

19. ATiclent Pottery Decoration. — From a considera- 
tion of the earliest forms of historic art, it will be found 
that, after the most suitable form of utensil for the purpose 
required had been arrived at, the easiest and readiest means 
were employed to execute the decoration of its surface. 
The elements of the pattern were of the simplest character — ■ 
composed of straight lines — and a pointed stick was gener- 
ally used to execute the ornament in the soft clay of their 
pottery. 

Fig. 19 shows a vase where the straight lines variously 
arranged in patterns are disposed in bands, and the patterns 
are a result of simple arrangement in accordance with some 
fundamental principle handed down from generation to 
generation. Pottery is selected for the demonstration of 



16 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 




this point; inasmuch as it is of a more durable character, 
we have more examples of the early period, and it there- 
fore furnishes a' more reliable series of art development. 
It has often been demonstrated that the 
patterns evolved by weaving are identi- 
cal with, and often suggested by, the 
patterns found on pottery. It is only 
incidental to point out in this figure 
that there appears to be an unconscious 
obedience to the laws of fitness in the 
application of these straight-line pat- 

O^^l terns. They are not applied in an 
^ j/-i.' t arbitrary way, but in harmony with the 

structure they adorn. 

30. Fitness of Ornament. — As a 

usual thing, the rim comes in for deco- 
ration in order to give the part most 
likely to fracture an appearance of strength, while any change 
in the contour of the form is usually emphasized by additional 
ornamentation. The reason for this may be found in the 
fact that the application of ornament gives an impression 
of strength, and, when a vase or jug in its plastic condition 
is difficult to maintain in shape, the idea naturally sug- 
gests itself to the potter to decorate that part that exhib- 
its the weakness of the form. This determines largely the 
location of the bands around the curves. We will find 
also a precedent for this in the vegetable world, as 
changes in the directions of stems are generally accented 
in some way or other by the thickening or broadening of 
the point of union for the two elements. The stem of a 
leaf is usually almost as large or thick as the branch itself at 
that point. 



Fig. 19. 



31. As we progress in the study of prehistoric decora- 
tion, the later examples possess the curved line, and the 
zigzag— so common in early work — becomes softened and 
gradually develops itself into a wavy scroll, as shown at 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



17 



(fl), {b), and (c) in Fig. 20. The changes arise from the fact 
that the angles are first rounded off, and the other portions 
of the line between the curves are softened and graduated 
until the zigzag loses its 
identity entirely in the 
wavy line at {c). 

33, Constructive 
Origin of Decorative 
Art. — From these illus- 
trations it will be readily 
understood that decora- 
tive art had a construc- 
tive origin., Primitive 
man, finding it necessary 

to provide coverings for his body, learned that the weaving 
of certain strands produced certain patterns, such as the zig- 
zag, lozenge, etc., and in later periods, when he had learned 
the use of metals, he applied the forms thus associated in his 
mind. These forms were again adopted in decorating other 
materials, and hence formed a starting point for decoration. 




33. Evolution of Design. — If the student will now 
follow out graphically the progress of design from the work 
of the savage to that of civilized man, he will comprehend 
a number of details that he otherwise could not learn. 

On a sheet of paper, rule off a number of equall}' spaced 
vertical and horizontal lines, as shown in Fig. 21. Then 
emphasize certain lines of the square meshes, but varying 
the emphasis by shade work or spotting to produce different 
patterns all based on the same geometrical principle as 
shown at {a), (b), {c), and [d). {a) is the simplest form, and 
consists of repeated crosses alternating with squares, while 
{b) is evolved on the same principle, but by uniting the inter- 
mediate squares with the crosses; (c) is another pattern 
resulting from the inclusion of a greater number of founda- 
tion squares, and [d) shows how an interlaced design may 
be produced. The geometrical figures at (r) contain 





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Fig. w. 




Fig, S3. 



go 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



ai 



elements of more progressive design, and resemble the pat- 
terns usually evolved by the savage race. 

In Fig. 23 is shown a different series of patterns evolved 
by working on the diagonals of the squares and then by the 
introduction of semicircles struck from the angles or inter- 
sections of the diagonals. 

24. Limitless Variety of Patterns. — The product of 
various patterns on this plan is almost unlimited, a few of 
which are shown in Fig. 33 in order that the student may 
better understand the extent to which this can be carried. 
At {a), Fig. 23, quarter circles are struck from the center 
of each figure, thereby forming a series of wavy lines 
that determine the shape of the pattern. At (5), how- 
ever, a series of semicircles is emphasized so as to gen- 
erate a trefoil pattern, while (c) -and (d) are produced by 
means of a number of tangent circular arcs, and (e) is 
developed upon lines crossing one another diagonally so 
as to leave lozenge shaped spaces instead of squares or 
parallelograms. 

In the latter case we have a seriEs of figures produced 
somewhat as shown in Fig. 24, each of which can be used as 




W 



the element for the construction of a new pattern, as shown 
in Fig. 35. If, now, we reduce the forms shown in Fig. 34 
to their own individual elements, we get a series of forms 
similar to Fig. 36, and, applying these as elements of design, 
produce results similar to Fig. 27, where at (a) we have an 
orderly arrangement of the obtuse angle shown at [a) in 
Fig. 26, at {l>) a combination of the quadrants shown at {d) 




Fig. 26. 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



23 



in Fig. 36, and at (c) a similar combination of the ogee 

curves, shown at (c) 

in Fig. 36. Straight 

lines alone may be 

combined almost 

without limit, as 

shown in Fig. 28; 

and a combination of 

curves and straight 

lines, or curves, straight lines, and spirals, gives a great 






Fig. 27. 



variety of forms, which can be introduced and combined 
to form an unlimited series of patterns. 




Fig. 28. 



35. Bmsti Decoration of Pottery. — ^We have been 
considering so far only linear patterns as were found in pre- 
historic pottery when pottery was ornamented chiefly by 
incising the soft clay with a hard point. In later periods, 
however, pottery was decorated by means of the brush, and, 



24 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

as has already been pointed out, the use of this employment 
led to much excellence in ornamental art. 

It will now be readily understood how the combination of 
a few brush marks produced such important historic forms 
as the Greek palmette and honeysuckle ornament, and the 
fleur-de-lis and other devices common in medieval heraldry. 
In the first instance we considered the development of 
linear design in pottery decoration; then the application 
of pottery design to surface decoration and an analysis of 
forms that these arts produced; and, finally, a production 
of new forms from the elements of the original ones. If we 
now follow out the same idea and reproduce these forms 
with the variety that can be given them through brush 
decoration, we introduce an entirely new lot of expressions 
that linear decoration is incapable of carrying forth. 



NATURAL ORKAMENT. 

36. Union With. Geometrical Ornament. — History 
shows that, as civilization advanced, greater ability for the 
expression of ornamental design was developed, and that 
mere geornetrical design was found insufficient. Natural 
forms were therefore resorted to in order to add new fea- 
tures to the preexisting forms, and this was done in such a 
way that the new elements should harmonize with the old. 
The natural representations, though imitations of nature, 
were not pictorial copies, but modifications to suit their pur- 
pose, or, as we now consider it, conventional renderings; 
and it is the union of these two principles — the imitative 
. and the inventive — that has given rise to the most impor- 
tant styles of ornamental art. Therefore, in applying 
natural forms to decoration, the student must always guard 
against the tendency to run into a pictorial representa- 
tion, as pictorial forms do not harmonize with the older 
geometrical lines that may be called on to serve with them. 
Forms adopted from nature must be adapted by a judicious 
conventionalism. 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



25 



CONVENTIONALISM IN ANCIENT ART. 

3T. Kinds of Conventionalism. — In historic ornament 
we find two kinds of conventionalism : first, the conven- 
tionalism of principles or ideas, and second, the conven- 
tionalism of facts. The first deals only with the principles 
or ideas of growth common to a number of classes of plants or 
objects, and not representative of any specific form. The 
second deals with the individualizing of particular plants or 
objects, giving a more or less geometrical rendering of them. 

38. Egyptian Conventionalism. — Por instance, the 
art of the Egyptians, being purely symbolic, bound them to 
the conventionalism of facts, and in using their favorite 
flowers — the lotus and 
papyrus — in decorative 
art, they did not copy 
them pictorially, but con- 
ventionalized them in 
such a manner that they 
readily conveyed the i'dea 
of the type and at the *'""• ^■ 

same time obeyed the rules of their geometrical foundation. 
In Fig. 29 the papyrus is shown at (a) and the lotus at (b), 

in their natural forms. 
In Fig. 30 is shown a 
border based on the primi- 
tive zigzag of prehistoric 
ornament, and decorated 
at («) with a conventional 
rendering of the lotus 
and at (b) with a conven- 
tional rendering of the papyrus, while at (c) is shown the 
lotus flower with its curved outline as we see it in later 
Egyptian art after the curve of the zigzag had been evened 
up, as heretofore shown in Fig. 20. 






39. Greek Conventionalism. — The art system of the 
Greeks, however, was of the other kind of conventionalism — 



36 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



that of principles or ideas. Greek art not being symbolic, 
there was no necessity to represent particular plants (though 
at times they did so), and usually in their ornament we find 
principles expressed without indicating any particular natural 
type. 

In Fig. 31 is shown an ornament found as a border on 
many vases. Its structural line is undoubtedly a develop- 
ment of the zigzag, while the leaf forms owe their origin to 

the limitations of brush 
work, and the general 
character of the orna- 
ment is indicative of a 
class of running plants, 
but expressive of no par- 
ticular plant. Another point observable in Greek art is the 
way in which the scrolls are decorated, which, though based 
,on a principle of vegetation, do not imitate any particular 
type. 

In Fig. 33 is shown an example of Greek foliated orna- 
ment; it will be noticed that the principles there expressed 
are based on certain ideas derived from the vegetable world. 
In Fig. 33 is shown a branch of a shrub from nature, and it 




Fig. 31. 





Fig. 82. 



Fig. 33. 



will be observed that the part of the shrub above the 
branches is smaller than the part of the shrub below the 
branches, and that there is a considerable thickening of the 



6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



37 



part where the main stem and the branching stem unite. 
The Greek ornament in Fig. 32 is simply a development of 
this principle, and does not imitate the plant at all, but 
ornaments the idea. 



30. Development of Leaves. — Following the general 
growth and development of plants comes the consideration of 
their leaves; these should be studied systematically, accord- 
ing to their develop- 
ment. Such study will 
show that in spite of 
the apparent irregu- 
larity of leaf form there 
is a regular order in 
their outlines. It has 
already been shown 
that leaves develop 
according to some geo- 
metrical principle, and it will be found that the majority of 
leaves or leaf clusters may be enclosed within a circle or an 




Fig. 34. 




Fig. 35. 



ellipse, as shown in Fig. 34; and a continuance of this prin- 
ciple to the study of flowers will show that the top views of 
many flowers are governed by the same geometrical figure, 
as shown at («), Fig. 35, where the buttercup, daisy, and 



28 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



phlox are shown, while at {b) the side views of these flowers 
are enclosed within a triangle. 

31. Geometrical Forms in Nature. — The study of 
nature will show that this principle can be carried out exten- 
sively, even to the fruit or seeds of the various plants; and 
a careful study of individual forms and their details will 
enlighten the student to many ideas that can be reduced to 
a geometrical principle and thereby become conventional- 
ized, while other facts observable in nature can also be con- 
ventionalized to give a closer representation of the form. 



COKVENTIOlSrAIj ORlSTAMElSrT. 

33. Natural Forms in Desig-n. — We will now try to 
show how the study of nature can be applied in ornamental 
design. Suppose we return to Fig. 21 and take the design 
worked out at (<?) and decorate it with forms from nature. 




Fig. 36. 



We will surround the extremities of the radiating lines with 
figures derived from the study of nature, such as the edges 
of some flowers, and produce a design somewhat as shown 
in Fig. 36. A similar treatment of (c), Fig. 22, will 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



39 



produce a design somewhat as shown in Fig. 37. Fig. 38 is 
based on the development of (c), Fig. 33, and Fig. 39 is a 
development of (d), 
Fig. 33. 



33. Now, instead 
of dividing our sur- 
face up into rectan- 
gles, as we did in 
Figs. 21, 33, etc., 
we will let the out- 
line of some natural 
form govern the 
subdivision ; and in 
Fig. 40 we have a 
pattern where the 
contour of a five- 




FlG. 37. 



lobed leaf is used as the governing principle of the outline, 
within which other floral forms .are used to form a surface 
decoration. This, it will immediately be observed, is the 
method of using natural forms practiced by oriental artists, 

and the pattern shown in 
Fig. 40 is strongly sug- 
gestive of Arabian art. 
For instance, at («), 
Fig. 41, is shown a spray 
o£ leaves from nature, 
while at {b) is an Arabian 
design based on the out- 
line of this spray of leaves. 




Fig. 38. 



34. Arrangement of 
Ornament in Indian 

Art. — In Indian art a favorite way of spacing out the orna- 
ment was after the manner shown in Fig. 43, where the leaf 
form is evidently of the lotus type. Diapers in Indian art 
are often designed as shown in Fig. 43, where there is no 
attempt made to represent any particular plant, but simply 



30 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 




Fig. 39. 



an application of principles. Thus, we see that the conven- 
tionalism of principles is almost unlimited in its extent, and 

we will now consider 
^^^^^^^^^^2^^^ the conventionalism of 

'' facts. 

35. Convention- 
alizing a Plant 
Form.. — Take, for in- 
stance, any plant suit- 
able for the purpose, 
and adapt it to orna- 
ment. "We are not 
going to make a pic- 
ture of it, but study- 
its characteristics, par- 
ticularly those that 
distinguish it from other plants, and idealize the original. 
It will be necessary to examine more than one specimen of 
the selected plant, because a peculiarity or accidental mark 
in one individual may not be found in another, and what we 
then require is a knowl- 
edge of the details and 
characteristics common to 
the entire family or kind 
to which the chosen speci- 
men belongs. This knowl- 
edge can be acquired only 
by long and continued 
study of plant analysis, as 
a limited sttidy is likely to 
render an untrue repre- 
sentation. P:g. 40. 




36. Realism and Conventionalism. — To copy nature 
as she is presented to us, with all the accidents and defects, 
would be to render her realistically. To correct nature by 
knowledge derived from the study of all her works in each 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



31 



class, would be to treat her naturally. To reduce the 
result of -these studies to a principle that expresses a 
simple fact with the fewest possible lines, as was done by 




Fig. 41. 

the Egyptians with their lotus blossom, is to treat nature 
coriventionally. 

For instance, at («), Fig. 44, is shown an ivy leaf sketched 
from nature. It cannot be considered as ideal or natural, 
because its shape is not even the average shape of a number 




of leaves; therefore, (a) is a realistic drawing. At (3), how- 
ever, is shown what might be considered a composite picture 
of a number of leaves possessing all the corrections of irreg- 
ularities found in the entire class. This is a naturalistic ren- 
dering of the ivy leaf, and the reduction of this leaf to a 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



6 



pentagonal form, shown in Fig. 34, reduces it to the simple 
expression of an idea, and presents the ivy leaf in a most 
conventional form. 



SY. Consideration of Purpose. — The extent, however, 
to which the modification of the details must be carried in 

order to apply a plant 
form in design must 
be determined by the 
purpose of its applica- 
tion, whether the design 
is to be free or severe. 
If the design is to be 
severe, the geometrical 
rendering shown in 
Fig. 34 will be most 
serviceable, but, if the 
design is to be free, the 
naturalistic form shown 
at (3), Fig. 44, may be 
used. The 'form shown at (a) with all its shadings and 
gradations, so strongly characteristic of the growing plant 
under certain conditions of lighting, is never suitable to 
ornament. 




Fig. 4H. 



38. Taste in Conventionalism, — Now let us consider 

this application in Fig. 45. At (a) is shown the application 
of the flower to the primi- 
tive design illustrated at (i?) 
in Fig. 21. The flattened 
curves of the flowers and 
leaves in the natural repre- 
sentation as shown in Fig. 46 
are arranged at («), Fig. 45, 
.stiffly, in order to harmonize 
with the severe character of 

1' lli. 'J4. 

the design. But the char- 
acter of the plant is maintained, because its main features 




6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



33 



have not only been adhered to, but have been empha- 
sized. Observe the indented ends 'of the petals, the serrated 
edges of the calyx, and the acutely lobed characteristic of 




Fig. 45, 



the leaves. At (l?), Fig. 45, however, the lines forming 
the basis of the pattern are composed of curves and do 
not demand so severe a treatment of the ornamenting 
plant, and the flower is rendered in a freer and more 
naturalistic raanner than was possible 
in the previous case. 

39. Thus, it will be seen that the 
conventionalized rendering of a natural 
object requires careful consideration as 
to the extent to which the geometrical 
rendering shall have influence, and the 
idea that conventional rendering is sim- 
ply a geometrical rendering, without 

consideration of the properties and application, is entirely 
wrong. 




84 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 

ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS. 

40. Although good ornament is possible with the sim-" 
plest forms and materials, it is undoubtedly true that the 
higher the form of decorative art, the nobler must be the 
elements of which it is composed. The elements of orna- 
ment are therefore drawn from a great many different 
sources, but may be classified in a general way under two 
distinct heads^the artificial and the natural. These may 
again be subdivided, for the sake of convenience, into six 
subordinate classes — geometrical, architectural, industrial, 
vegetable, animal, and the human figure. 

41. Under the subject of geometrical ornament, we 
include frets, traceries, diapers, interlacings, etc., together 
with those forms that are so simply developed in the orna- 
ment of the savage races. In architectural ornament, we 
include columns, entablatures, pediments, cartouches, etc. 
Industrial ornament may be considered to include all 
musical instruments, vases, spears, and other arms, as well 
as laces, ribbons, etc. Tegetable ornament embraces 
designs from plant life — leaves, flowers, fruits, festoons, 
various rosettes, etc. — while under the animal classification 
we have quadrupeds, fishes, birds, insects, and reptiles, as 
well as such imaginary figures as griffins, dragons, etc. 
The human figure used in design includes both natural 
and mythological representations, the terminals of foliage 
designs used in the Renaissance periods, the caryatids used 
in classic art, as well as certain creations in the mind of 
man, such as sphinxes, atlantes, mermaids, etc. 



GEOMETEICAIi ELEMENTS. 

43. Frets. — The simplest form of geometrical elements 
we find in the frets, which throughout all ages and with all 
peoples seem to have been a favorite method of ornamenting 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 35 

flat svirfaces. They are used largely for borders, for which 
they are eminently fitted, but diapers are also formed of 
them in Japanese and Egyptian art. 

In fretwork, the pattern and the ground are usually 
equally spaced, but this need not always be the case, as a 
strong effect is sometimes Obtained by making a variation in 
this respect, as shown at («), Fig. 47. Another variation 
that may be attained in frets is accomplished by changing 
the formation of the figure that forms their governing 
outline. It is not necessary that this figure should be 




Fig. 47. 



square or even rectangular, as is clearly illustrated at {l>) 
and (c), the former being a parallelogram in the form of 
each section of its pattern, and the latter developed on the 
intersection of a series of diagonal lines, this being more 
characteristic of ornamental work, and suitable for flat or 
inclined surfaces. The introduction of curved lines in this 
class of work, either in conjunction with straight lines or 
entirely by themselves, leads us to various interlaced pat- 
terns, including the guilloche and basketwork. 

43. The study of geometrical ornament is of particular 
value on account of the elements that lie at the base of the 
elaborate and intricate patterns that oriental artists and the 
Middle-Age mosaic workers so freely indulged in. With a 
thorough understanding of geometrical ornament and the 
possibilities of geometrical arrangement, the designing of 
complex and intricate patterns becomes a comparatively 
simple task. 

ARCHITECTTJEAL ELEMElfTS. 

44. Construction Allied With. Beauty. — Next in the 
order of our subdivision we take up ai-chitectural ele- 
ments, and we must consider that architecture properly 



36 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



comprehended is the art of construction allied with beauty 
— not construction made beautiful by superadded decora- 
tion, but construction with beauty incorporated with it. In 
all the best periods of ornamental art, it has been architec- 
ture that has afforded the greatest field for its development ; 
and in pottery, stained and painted glass, ironwork, jewelry, 
and the decoration of pilasters, shafts, etc., architectural 
construction has had a most marked influence. 

In decorated designs, certain architectural forms have 
been used in their pure and simple form, but most 'fre- 
quently they have been modified by imagination so as to 
bring them in harmony with other details with which they 
are associated. Hence, in some forms of ornament, we 
find but a suggestion of architecture, while, in others, a 
distinctive characteristic. 



45. Adaptatiori of Architectural ITonns.^In adapt- 
ing architectural forms to a surface design, it is entirely 
unnecessary that the stiffness and structural rigidity that is 
demanded in architectural practice should be maintained in 
the surface pattern, because the same structural conditions 
do not exist. There is no physical weight to be provided 
for, and, in the decoration, the introduction of the appear- 
ance of weight is all that is 
necessary so long as the eye is 
satisfied. 

The representation of a frieze 
may be taken from a carved pro- 
totype, but the details of the 
relief expressed in the original 
carving need form no part of the 
textile or other surface design, 
the element of beauty lying in the 
direction and proportioning of the 
lines only; the frieze may there- 
fore be reduced to a simple sur- 
^'°- "^^ face treatment. 

The same may be said in the design of an iron grille 




ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



37 



either for a railing- or for a gate. The design should be 
influenced if not governed by some characteristic of a simi- 
ilar detail in its original material. For instance, the design 
of the fence panel shown at {a), Fig. 48, is clearly copied in 
its general outline from the stone baluster of the classic 
balustrade shown at (d). The treatment of the head-piece 
over the gateway shown at (a), Fig. 49, is clearly developed 




from the broken pediment characteristic of certain Renais- 
sance work shown at {b). These details as reproduced in 
iron are not copies of the original, but simply ornamental 
forms founded on a principle of earlier construction. In 
the same manner a well-designed iron railing is influenced 
in its proportions and composition by the architectural orders 
and classic proportions for balustrades. 



46. The Volute Scroll. — Some of the ornamental 
details derived in architecture and applied in decorative art 
will now be considered as to their origin and proper treat- 
ment. There is, for instance, the little volute scroll so 
characteristic of the Corinthian column as it curls out under 
the corner of the abacus. The gracefulness of this feature 
and its apparent strength render it particularly adaptable in 
setting out friezes and other purely ornamental arrange- 
ments where the qualities of grace and strength are to be 



38 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

combined, as shown in Fig. 60, where a frieze is designed 




ijZZrtilllll 



Fig. 60. 

using one of the forms of scroll shown in Fig. 51, all ,of 




Fig. 51. 



which have been taken from the capitals of the various 
modifications of the Corinthian. 







Uz 




zpJ 


□2 




/-:=, 


\ i 


p5i 






r^Z 


(a) 


Z£q 








] 


Pig. B2. 


/I 

























S6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



39 



47. Tlie Cartoucli. — The cartouch is another archi- 
tectural detail that enters largely into decorative design; it 
owes its origin to the ancient use of paper or parchment 
labels for inscriptions and badges. The margins of these 
labels were usually cut 
in some ornamental 
shape and afterwards 
curled into scroll forms 
of an ornamental char- 
acter. This led to 
a systematic develop- 
ment, and, subsequent- 
ly, in conjunction with 
interlaced ornament, 
produced a new kind of 
decorative work that we 
usually term cartoucli 
work. This element 
is invaluable to the 
designer, both in its 
capacity as a fiUing-in 
treatment for an uninteresting piece of background, and as 
a strengthening element to the general composition. 

At (a), Fig. 52, is shown one of the earliest and simplest 
forms of Lhis cartouch work, while at (5) is shown the paper 

from which it is cut. In Figs. 53 
; and 54: are shown examples of 
1 advanced and more complicated 
cartouches, developed from the 
same general principle. It is 
easy to understand the develop- 
ment of the cartouch form into 
the carved work shown in 
Fig. 53, where a shield-shaped 
cartouch, with its curled and 
ornamental edges, is carved in 
relief with the human figure. 
Fig. 54. In Fig- 54 is shown a further 




Fig. 63. 




40 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

development of the ornament, in order to convert it into 
a frame, as was done during the period of the Italian 
Renaissance. The general form varied, but became more 
elaborate in design as the Renaissance spread into France 
and Germany. 

INDUSTRIAL ELEMENTS, 

48. Association With Arcliitectural Elements. — The 
Industrial elements of design are not widely separated 
from the architectural class, and are considered here under 
a different heading simply as a matter of convenience. Indus- 
trial objects, such as tools, armor, musical instruments, etc. , 
are used in various ways in decoration, usually for purely 
symbolic purposes. These articles are usually introduced 
purely from an esthetic sense, with no other purpose than 
to please the sense of vision, and are therefore arranged to 
present to the best advantage the beauty of their forms. 

49. Symbolism. — In the symbolic use of these details, 
it should always be remembered that there are two ideas 
associated with nearly all symbols — one, the ide^ of recall- 
ing something to the memory; the other, the expression of 
an entirely new idea, or the illustration of one. Thus, the 
Latin cross may stand as an expression or as a symbol of 
the Christian faith, or it may act as a reminder of the 
crucifixion of Christ. Another case is where the musical 
instrument, the lyre, so frequently used to express the idea 
of music, may with equal propriety set forth a reminder of 
the ancient use of that instrument in the classic musical 
entertainments. 

50. Pi-ehlstoric Emblems. — At (a), Fig. 65, is shown 
a prehistoric emblem of God. It had its origin almost 
undoubtedly in early sun worship, which fact is attested by 
the circle, and the survival of this form is seen in the halo, 
or nimbus, painted over the heads of the saints during the 
Middle Ages. At (d) we have the Egyptian symbol of 
divinity, but of a more complex character. The circle is 



§6 . 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



41 



still retained but is supported by outstretched wings, indica- 
tive of sovereignty and ubiquity of the deity. The scara- 
bseus of the Egyptians, shown at (c), was a detail that 
appeared frequently in their designs. At (d) we have the 
nimbus, or halo, characteristic of the Christian symbol of 
glory, and at (e), {/), (g), and (k) we have four forms of 





^^^ 



(e; 







crosses known under the names of the Latin cross at (e), 
the Greek cross at (/"), the cross of St. Andrew at (^), and 
the Maltese cross at (A). At (z) is shown the old symbolic 
monogram of Christ, composed of the two Greek letters of 
his name X (c/ii) and P {rko), with A (alpha) and fi! [omega), 
the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, added to 
indicate his eternal character. 

51. These few forms will serve to illustrate the extent 
to which symbolism enters into modern ornamental design, 
and a little study and thought will bring to the student's 
mind and attention numerous other examples of the same 
kind. 



53. 



]S'ATURAr, EliEMENTS. 
Vegetable Forms. — Of the elements of design 



that are taken directly from nature, our first consideration 
will naturally be the vegetable forms. Here the material 
presented to the designer is not only unlimited in style, but 
is easy of adaptation to all his requirements. 



42 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



In using plant forms for design, there is material for the 
designer in every part of the growth — the roots, stalk, 
leaves, flowers, and seed all contain details that may sug- 
gest ideas to the designer. While there may be nothing of 
great beauty in the root of a flower itself, yet there is always 
sufficient detail of importance there, and, if properly studied, 
can give rise to beautiful ideas. 

53. TMckeniiig of Stem at Points of Departure. 

In all good ornament of a flowing character, no matter how 
conventionally it may be arranged, it has always been the 
practice that there should be a thickening of the stem at 
the point of departure of the two 
reversed growths, as shown at (a), 
Fig. 56; or, if more than one starting 
point is used, a stop is usually intro- 
duced between the two sections of 






(a) 




design that are run- 
ning together, as at (i)). 

54. Botanical 
Principles in Design. 

Now let us see how 
the application of some 
of these principles of 
growth can be proper- 
ly considered in orna- 
mental design. Let us 
study the botanical 
aspect for a moment. 
We have in botany 




§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 43 

a term called Inflorescence, which is the arrangement 
or growth of flowers on the stem, the simplest form of 
which is shown at («), Fig. 57. Taking its principle of 
growth and not copying in any way the specimens, we can 
introduce it in the design shown at {c), where it forms a per- 
fectly proper termination with the scroll, with which it har- 
monizes, as well as with the longitudinal character of the 
border pattern. At {b) is shown another form of inflores- 
cence, and at {d) is shown its application to a scroll orna- 
ment as before. 

55. There are many different characteristics of botanical 
growth, each of which is capable of furnishing an idea that 
can be carried out as simply as the above, and always to 
good advantage, in the product of satisfactory designs. 



AKIMAL ELEMENTS. 

56. Erequent Use in Design.- — Animal elements 

have always been used in ornamental art in a more or less 
naturalistic manner, and, though these forms are more diffi- 
cult to treat ornamentally than are inanimate forms, the 
ancient artist used them frequently, , as animal ■ forms will 
increase the interest in any composition. In Celtic orna- 
ment, for instance, elements from the animal world are 
introdiiced even with the purest geometrical designs, and 
we flnd down to the present day that conventionalized rep- 
resentations from the animal world are most conspicuous 
details of heraldry. 

In certain periods of art, animal forms were preferred 
even to the vegetable forms, as man in his early condition 
had a closer interest in certain classes of beasts that aided 
him in his struggle for existence, such as the horse, rein- 
deer, dog, etc. His admiration for them lay more in his 
comprehension of their usefulness than in his admiration of 
their form, as his chief business in life at that time was the 
provision for his natural wants and his own protection. 



44 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

511. Imagmary Beasts. — In later periods, when man 
arrived at an easier state of living, he became more sensi- 
tive to the beauty of the world, and it is then that we have 
the naturalistic rendering of animal form giving way to 
more conventional representations, such as are found in the 
imaginary beasts, like griffins, dragons, and chimeras. 

Throughout the history of art, the formation of any style 
of ornament depends largely on some preceding style, and the 
earliest form of development that we have must necessarily 
have arisen from the geometric, or a combination of some later 
form with an earlier geometric form. This combination of 
form naturally leads to a combination of conventional ideas, 
and we have the union of the attributes of one animal with 
those of another. We have already considered the two kinds 
of conventionalism that can exist— one, the conventionalism 
of facts, and the other, the conventionalism of ideas. 

58. Conventionalizing Animal Forms. — In the con- 
ventionalizing of animal forms, it is usual to express the 




idea by means of a symbolic representation and the fact 
by a conventional rendering of the animal. To make this 
more clear, we will take, for 'instance, the griffin, shown 
in Fig. 68, which is composed of the body of the lion and 
the head and wings of a bird, and is usually symbolic of 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



45 



watchfulness, strength, alertness, and swiftness. We find 
this figure on the piers of gateways, and it was often used 
by the Greeks to adorn certaia portions of their temples. 

In this representation, we conventionalize the idea by 
representing it symbolically, the eagle's head and wings and 
the expression of the added ears being symbolic of watch- 
fulness, alertness, and swiftness, whereas the lion's body is 
symbolic of strength. The conventionalized facts we find in 
the reduction of these emblems to a form by which they can 
be combined in one figure. 

59. Sphinx, Wivern, Etc. — Other figures of this char- 
acter are the sphinx, shown in Fig. 59, which combines the 




^*^-iU^^^^^^- 




human head with the body of the lion — symbolic of intelli- 
gence and strength ; the wivern, shown in Fig. GO, which con- 
sists of a sort of winged 
serpent with a bird's head 
and legs, and carries the 
same idea as the griffin, 
with the addition of wis- 
dom indicated by the ser- 
pent's body, and alertness 
during the nocturnal hours 
from the bat-like form of 
its wings. 

Another figure of this 
character, which is of Greek fig. 60. 




46 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 



origin, is the clilniera, shown in Fig. 61., This figure is 
supposed to typify a volcanic mountain in Greece, which, 
according to various legends, was infested with lions at the 
top, and around the middle with goats, while the foot of 




Fig. 61. 

the mountain abounded in venomous snakes. The chimera 
therefore combining the forms of the lion, goat, and ser- 
pent, from whose mouths issued flames and deadly gases, 
became the symbol of terror and devastation. 

The dragon shown in Fig. 62 has ever been an emblem 
of the evil forces of the natural and moral world. It com- 




PlG. 62. 



bines in its characteristics the litheness and repulsiveness 
of the lizard and serpent, the swiftness of action charac- 
teristic of various winged creatures, and the fierceness and 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 47 

belligerency of the carnivorous animals from the form of its 
teeth and claws. To intensify its evil appearance, it is fre- 
' quently represented as belching flames. 

There are numerous other animals of a mythical char- 
acter that have their origin purely in the conventionalism 
of some idea, and the reduction of numerous animal forms 
to the conventional rendering is almost unlimited in its 
application. 

60. Difficulty of Adapting Animal Forms. — In the 

case of animal forms, it is not so easy to adapt them to the 
requirements of ornamental design as it is the free and varied 
growth of plants. The latter have a multitudinous repetition 
of parts that enables the designer to adapt them without 
violence to nature, while animal forms have a proscribed 
and limited number of parts that narrows the limit of their 
employment and presents difficulties in the way of their 
successful adaptation. It is therefore necessary that ani- 
mal forms should be analyzed in the same manner that 
plant forms have been analyzed in this course of study, 
in order to learn the characteristic lines of their compo- 
sition and reduce them to a form capable of conventional 
rendering. 

61. It is comparatively easy to draw accurately any 
animal form, and yet such a form is likely to be utterly 
unfit for decorative purposes, while a less accurate repre- 
sentation may be highly suited to decorative work; and we 
will find that the animal forms usually seen in the designs 
of the more barbaric nations are better suited to ornamental 
art than the realistic renderings of the later periods. 

63. Birds and Running Ornaments. — Birds also may 
be combined successfully with running ornament, as they 
are not only graceful in themselves, but are pleasantly 
associated with all plant growth, and they can be arranged 
so that their lines flow with the lines of the ornament and 
harmonize with it perfectly. Certain quadrupeds can thus 
be treated also, but not always so readily. 



48 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 



At (a), Fig. G3, is shown a border ornament consisting of 
a foliated design, through which a dog is seen running after 
a bird, while at (d) is a rough outline of this same design , 




showing how the curves of the dog's body are in harmony 
with those of the ornament, and how the introduction of this 
detail is so suitable in the combination shown. 

Again, at («), Fig. 64, is shown a design where the bird 
alone is introduced, while at (d) the outline drawing of it 
shows the arrangement of the foliated design and its rela- 




tion to the bird form, together with the line of curvature 
that makes the two details harmonize, the latter being 
shown in dots. Fig. 64 is taken from a stone carving of the 
sixteenth centur}'. 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



49 



63. Wings in Ornament.— While we are considering 
the introduction of bird forms it will be wise for us to con- 
sider the subject of wings and the introduction of wings 
in ornament. There are few details of animal- form that 
have been so extensively introduced in various convention- 
alized forms, to represent both ideas and facts, as the wings 
of birds and bats. Though the bird's wing is composed of 
flesh and feathers, and the bat's wing is made up of a skele- 
ton framework between the parts of which a thin skin is 




Pig. 65. 



stretched, the principle governing the outline of each is 
practically the same, and, in addition to this, it might be 
noted that the structure of wings and that of the human 
arm is very closely allied. 

At {a), Fig. 65, is shown the outline of a bird's wing, 
while at (6) is shown the outline of a bat's wing, and at (c), 
an outline of the bone construction of the human arm. 
The relative arrangement of these details will show their 
relation in- structure, while Fig. 66 shows three forms of 



50 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 



bird's wing, differing materially in outline, owing to the 
arrangement of the feathers, but based on precisely the same 
skeleton construction as is shown at (a), Fig. 65. 

64. Proportions of Wings. — At (a), Fig. 66, the wing 
represented is that of a common sparrow, while (b) shows 
the pigeon's wing, and (c), that of the sea swallow. It will be 
observed that in the order they are named these wings are 







(") 



(b) 



(c) 



Fig. 66. 



from birds each of whose flight is more prolonged than the 
former — the sparrow, flying but short distances ; the pigeon, 
usually capable of traveling a mile or more on the wing; 
while the sea swallow is flying a majority of the time. The 
relative extent of the outward extremity of the wing, it 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



51 



will be observed, increases with the flying qualities of 
the bird. In apply- 
ing these wing forms 
to design, it is fre- 
quently necessary to 
take these details into 
consideration. 



65. Application 

of Wings. — We have 
already considered the 
application of the wing 
in the design of the 
winged globe shown 
at {l>), Fig. 55, but its 
application to other ^^J^ 
forms we will consider 
here. In Fig. 67 is 
shown the character- 
istic Egyptian hiero- 
glyph of the goddess 




i.i:'4S 



,-<. «»■»'' 



Fig f7 



Neith, who carries in each hand a symbol, and whose out- 
stretched wings typify her 
world-wide sovereignty. 

In more modern applica- 
tion, we find the use of wings 
in the Greek sphinx, shown 
in Fig. 68, where the treat- 
ment is less conventional 
than in the Egyptian style, 
and the possession of the 
wings distinguishes this sphinx 
from the one of Egyptian 
design. Fig. 69 shows a still 
more modem application, 
where, in a female figure, 
the wings replace the arms 
and are outstretched in the 




52 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



§6 



position usually considered symbolic of untiring activity 
or eternal protection. 




Fig. 



66. Feathers. — Besides the wings, in a total by 
themselves, we have the individual feathers as a sub- 
ject for decoration, and many designs are based on these 
details. At («), Fig. 70, are shown the ends of pea- 




FlG. 70. 



cock feathers, which have always been a favorite type 
for ornamentation, while at (d) are shown various types 
of feathers from the pheasant in different stages of 
their development, with their characteristic spots and 
markings. 

At {a), Fig. 71, is shown a design for a border, the ele- 
ments of which are derived from the peacock feather, while 
at {d) are shown three designs based on the formation 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



53 



illustrated in the forms of the pheasant's feather shown at 
{b), Fig. 70. 




67. Insects In Design. — The use of insects in decora- 
tive design is not as extensive as of birds, though the mark- 
ings of the wings of some of them, particularly the butterfly, 
are easily applicable in some characters of design, as shown 




Fig. 72. 



at («), Fig. 72, where a border is designed on principles 
taken from the butterfly's wing illustrated at {b), and the 
simple mosquito, illustrated in a conventional rendering at 



54 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



(«), Fig. 73, is easily applicable to a diaper ornament, as 
shown at {b). There is no limit to the extent to which these 




Fig. 73. 

forms may be varied, or combined with plant forms, to pro- 
duce any given variety of ornament. 

68. Flslies In Ornament. — The use of fislies in orna- 
mental art is somewhat limited. With the exception of the 
dolphin, we have very few historic representations of this 
class of animal ; but, in order that there may be a thorotigh 
understanding of the details that must be considered in the 
designing of any fish-like form, there is illustrated in Fig. 74 

a typical fish, with the 

(0 



five principal fins that 
exist in nearly every 
example, though they 
may be varied in form. 
At (a) is the dorsal 
fin ; at (b), the ventral 
fin ; and at (c), the pec- 
toral fin. The tail is technically known as the caudal fin, and 
the fin between the ventral and the tail is termed the anal fin. 
Each of these fins is developed to a greater or less degree 
in different fishes, in some of which it is divided so as to pre- 
sent two fins. For instance, it is not unusual to find two or 
more dorsal or two or more ventral or anal fins on one fish, 
and in rendering them for conventional treatment, it would 
be well to bear in mind a certain type of fish from which to 
study, and to preserve the characteristics of this fish in the 
rendering. 




Fig. 74. 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



55 



For instance, we have at (a), Fig. 75, a fish wherein the 
pectoral fins are so enlarged as to appear almost as wings, 




faj 




Fig. 75. 

while at (d) and (c) are two conventional renderings typify- 
ing the characteristics of this fish but reducing it to a purely 
ornamental form. 

69. Snakes and Lizards. — There is no limit to which 
this can be carried, not only with fish 
but with snakes and lizards, as the 
latter sometimes introduces an ele- 
ment of frivolity and relieves the 
seriousness of a purely conventional 
and constructive composition. Ser- 
pents have always formed a favorite 
type for the design of all periods, not 
only in flat-surface ornament but also 
in the design of certain utensils, 
where, as in Fig. 76, they are used to 
form the handle of a ewer. 

The combination of fishes and rep- 
tiles gives, again, an opportunity to fig. 76. 




56 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

express oonventionally the attributes of two animals, as was 
done in the combination of reptiles and birds, or of birds 
and animals, and the introduction of shells and shell-like 
forms is not only highly appropriate in designs where ele- 
ments from the sea are characteristic, but we find that shells 
fit themselves admirably, with very little alteration in their 
detail, to the purposes of the designer. 



THE HUMAK FIGURE. 

70. The Noblest Element of Design. — The human 
figure is the highest and noblest of all the elements from 
which the designer can draw ideas, and it is at the same 
time the most difficult one to handle in any character of a 
design. It does not lend itself to conventionalism and con- 
ventional rendering as readily as do the vegetable and 
animal forms, and the rendering of its proportion is more 
diificult to learn than any other subject. 

71. Proportions of the Human Figure. — In order 
that the human figure might possess uniformity in its pro- 
portions, the Egyptians drew up a system by which different 
members of the body could be maintained in relatively the 
same ratio at all times, and it is believed that this same sys- 
tem was adopted by the Greeks, although- carried to greater 
refinement. A Greek writer on the subject states that 
"Nature has so composed the human body that the face 
from the chin to the top of the forehead and roots of the 
hair should be one-tenth the height, and that the palm of 
the hand from the wrist joint to the tip of the middle finger 
should possess the same measurement; that from the chin to 
the highest ■ point of the head should be one-eighth the 
height, and from the chest to the roots of the hair should be 
one-sixth." 

Carrying out the measurements, and, at the same time, 
calling the student's attention to a number of others, we 
have the proportions as shown in Fig. 77. Here the fig- 
ure is shown with one arm extended, drawn within the 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



57 



square abed, and the horizontal and vertical lines dividing 
this square into sixteen smaller squares determine the posi- 
tion of important parts of the body. 

Thus, the distance b e i% one-fourth the height of the body, 
and the line passes through the middle of the chest ; the dis- 
tance bfi& one-eighth the height of the body, and the line 




passes under the chin; the distance fg is one- tenth the 
height of the body, and the line passes tangent to the chin 
and through the roots of the hair; fh is one-sixteenth the 
height of the body, and marks the distance of the eyes above 
the chin; while // is one thirty-second the height of the 
body, and marks the distance of the bottom of the nose 
above the chin. It will be here observed that the arms 
extended horizontally measure the same distance across, 



58 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

from the tip of the middle finger of one hand to that of the 
other, a distance equal to the height of the body. The lines 
across the elbow, thigh, knee, calf of the leg, etc. show the 
breadth of each member in proportion to the height of the 
body at the point marked. 

It is not the intention of this description to give a com- 
plete systematic set of rules for the drawing of the human 
figure; but simply to indicate the general proportions by 
which the student can outline a figure in a design and 
keep it in relative proportion to the other elements of the 
composition. 

112. Harmony in Adaptation. — In adapting figures to 
design, it is of the utmost importance that they should har- 
monize with the ornament, in its direction and line, with 
which they are associated, as well as that the figures should 
be so posed as to be in harmony with the space they are to 
fill. Figures simply drawn to fill a space; without consider- 
ation of their harmony with that space, have the appearance 
of being stuck in the design instead of forming an integral 
part of it. Therefore, to successfully handle the human 
figure as an ornamental element, the student must not copy 
his raodel exactly, but must idealize as much as possible, and 
by constant study familiarize himself with the ornamental 
lines that pervade the human structure. 

The study of anatomy, to a general extent, will be of great 
assistance but cannot be altogether relied on by the oma- 
mentalist, as it is the surface forms and lines that concern 
him mostly, and these do not altogether agree with the 
under structure of the body. 

The only way to become familiar with the details and 
beauties of curves characteristic of the human figure is to 
study them frequently and constantly and make drawings 
from life. The general proportions and characteristics may 
be learned by drawing from copy, but different poses and 
arrangements can be acquired in no superficial study, and 
the designer that finds the human form necessary in his 
compositions must make a separate study of it and devote 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



59 



nearly as much time to this branch as to all the rest of his 
studies combined. 

73. Fundamental Principles of Figure Design. — In 

applying the human form in design, there are certain funda- 
mental principles that must ever be recognized. For instance, 
at («), Fig. 78, is shown the outline of a figure resting the 





(c) 



bulk of the weight on one leg, and it will be observed that 
there is a general line of support, which is shown dotted 
throughout the body, from the ankle to the neck, and that 
about .this line of support the body is disposed in almost 
equal masses, as shown. 

74. Another principle that must be considered is that, 
in drawing the upper and lower limbs, one is likely to lay 
too much detail upon their outline and shape rather than to 
appreciate the value of these elements and the general lines 
that govern their arrangement. For instance, though the 



60 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



6 



side view of the leg is composed of a series of convex lines, 
these should not be given too much prominence over the 
general proportion of the whole limb, as such a rendering 
would give a result somewhat as shown at («), Fig. 79; while 
a closer observation of this whole member would lead to the 
discovery that, notwithstanding the existence of convex 
curves in the shin, the line in the front of the leg is con- 
cave, as shown at {b), while that of the back is convex. 




The same may be said of the forearm, which is frequently 
drawn as shown at {c), Fig. 79, with the inside of the fore- 
arm convex, in order to show the softness of the curves at 
that point; but, as a matter of fact, if its general contour 
were taken into account, it would be found to be concave, 
as shown at (d), and a proper rendering of it would be more 
as shown at {e). 

The student should carefully analyze these details in 
studying the human figure, not only as a guide to its truth- 
ful representation, but also in order to study the details of 
its conventionalism to arrive at a proper principle for its 
general design — a principle that can be enlarged upon after 
the main outlines have been established. 



TS. Difficiilty of Free Rendering. — In considering 
the application of the human figure to decorative purposes, 
the same rules hold good as for decoration with foliage, but 
its Tendering is, of course, more difficult, as we cannot 
handle it as freely as we do the plants. The human figure 
has to be taken in its entirety, without exaggerating its 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



61 



structure in any way (except for the purpose of caricature, 
which does not enter into this course of study), and its 
elementary lines must be thoroughly comprehended by the 
student. 

Details of the human figure have been combined with 
animals, as has here- 
tofore been shown 
and illustrated, as in 
the sphinx, etc., and 
we will presently 
have occasion to give 
other examples. The 1 
combination of the 
human figure with 
foliage is character- 
istic of many designs 

of the Renaissance iij'mriijjii 

period, where the 'tlfcr ■ '^ 

lower portions of the %,. 

body were permitted ^'°- *'• 

to terminate in leaf-like forms and enter into the foliated 
ornament of an arabesque or panel, as shown in Fig. 80. 




76. This style of treatment probably grew out of a 
development shown in Fig. 81, where at (a) is shown a half 
figTire that might appear more suitable to the filling of a 




Pig. 81. 



certain space than the full-length figure. The lower part of 
the figure is covered by drapery, the elaboration of the folds 



62 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



6 



of which brings it to the form of a design shown at (b), 
which further elaboration brings to a foliated form as at (c), 
and subsequent renderings form a part of the figure as illus- 
trated at (d). Attention is simply called to this here to illus- 
trate a possible progress and growth and to show the ration- 
alism of foliated terminations under certain circumstances. 

17. Huraan Figures as Supports. — The use of the 
human figure as a support in the place of a column, or occa- 




Pig. 83. 




iilSii 




Fig. 88. 



sionally, with artificial terminations, under brackets, is 
shown in Fig. 83, which is taken from one of the caryatids 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



63 



used in the north porch of the Erechtheum at Athens, 
while in Fig. 83 is shown a front and side view of the 
Egyptian method of carving human figures as supports, 
though, in the latter case, it will be observed that the figure 
does not actually support any of the superimposed load, but 
simply rests against a pier. The Greek artists, apparently 
appreciating the inappropriateness of the human figure to 
act as a column and permanently support something super- 
imposed, increased the proportions 
and gave them a 
strong architectonic 
feeling. 



78. During the 
Renaissance period, 
the use of figures as 
supporting mem- 
bers was very much 
misunderstood, and 
the combination of 
these elements with 
the attempt at grace- 
fulness of line led 
to such misconcep- 
tions as shown in 
Fig. 84, where the 
curved dotted line 
shows the real line 
of support through 
the figures, and, at 
the same time, gives 
an expression of 
weakness to the 
detail as an archi- 
tectural member. 




Fig. 84. 



Fig. 85. 



A comparison of this with the Greek figure shown in Fig. 83 
will readily illustrate the error made by the more modern 
designers. 



64 



ELEMENTS OP ORNAMENT. 



6 



The use of half figures, called termini, is characteristic 
of the Renaissance period, an example of which is shown in 

Fig. 85. No great load 
should be superim- 
posed upon them, in 
order that their appli- 
cation may be harmo- 
nious. 

79. Application, 
of Wings. — In the 

application of wings 
and feathers to the 
human figure, Egyp- 
tian art usually at- 
tached the wings 
below the arms, as 
shown in Fig. 67, 
while the Assyrians 
usually attached them 
behind the shoulders, 
as shown in Fig. 86, 
and, although the latter method is the less rational one 
from an anatomical structure, it is the one that survives at 





FlO. 87. 



§6 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



65 



the present day, and is usually used in modern work. 
Fig. 87 is taken from Greek vase paintings, and shows the 
Greeks' idea of wing treatment; while the Renaissance 
example shown in Fig. 69 possesses an exaggerated outline, 
the curves of which in no way appear to agree with the 
hidden structure, though the development of the wings in 
the place of arms is much more rational than the form 
shown in Fig. 87. 



80. Fabulous Creatures. ■ — ■ Many fabulous crea- 
tures—partly human and partly animal — have been created 
during the periods of grotesque art, and to Greek art we are 
indebted for most of these mythical creatures, as their cen- 
tral idea was the glorification of the human form. Greek 
mythology had so many 
deities representative of 
different characteristics 
and ideas that separate 
gods and goddesses, illus- 
trative of separate con- 
ceptions, were indispensa- 
ble ; and not only were lit- 
erature, arts, and sciences 
typified by a form of 
human being, but the 
seas, the rivers, the moun- 
tains, the woods, the trees, 
and the rocks were all 
representatively depicted 
in some ideal form, and 
even the natural devices 
and calamities of man- 
kind had some symbol 
in human guise. 

When these, however, were insufficient to properly express 
their ideas, the human form was combined with that of a bird 
or animal, or some reptile, in order to complete the symbol- 
ism as far as possible. Therefore, in their personification 




Fig. 88. 



66 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



of the free untrammeled woodland life, they gave to the 
figure of a man the legs and horns of a goat, to intensify the. 
i^ea of wild freedom, and as a result we have the mytholog- 
ical forms of the satyr and Pan illustrated in Fig. 88. 

81. Greek SpMnx. — The Egyptian sphinx, being sym- 
bolic of the combination of intellect, wisdom, and power, is 
represented with the human head and the lion's body, as 
shown in Fig. 59; while the Greek sphinx differs in form 
from that of the Egyptian, as it is usually represented as 
being of the female sex and possessing wings. This sphinx 
by the Greeks appears to have been adopted as the personi- 
fication of malignity combined with mystery, and to her is 
accredited the practice of propounding riddles to those that 
visited her and tearing to pieces all that failed to solve them. 
The gracefulness of the creature's form, however, caused it 
to become a favorite as an ornamental element, and it is 
used frequently in mural decoration and for the adornment 
of bronze tripods 

\ ^ V 






>LvL:^-'*^t-, 



S- 




and other devices 
purely of an orna- 
mental character. 



83. Centaur. 

The combination 
of rnan and horse, 
called the cen- 
taur, was repre- 
sentative of a race 
of warriors cele- 
brated in Greek 
mythology for 
their horseman- 
ship. Their skill 
was so»great that 
the rider and horse 
appeared as one ; hence, the development of the idea shown 
in Fig. 89. A similar device was the combined form of a 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



67 



woman and a horse, or, more frequently, of a woman and a 
deer, typifying the huntress, or a denizen of the forest. 

83. Medusa. — The head of Medusa, shown in Fig. 90, 
is emblematic and typical of the sensations of extreme fear 
and terror. According, 
to Greek mythology. 
Medusa was the most 
celebrated of the Gorgon 
sisters, who were origi- 
nally priestesses of Athe- 
na, but having broken 
her vows of celibacy and 
ultimately marrying Po- 
seidon, she was punished 
by the goddess Athena, 
by having each of her 
beautiful wavy locks 
transformed into a ven- 
omous serpent, and her 
head thus assumed the horrible aspect depicted in the illus- 
tration. 




Fig. 90. 



84. License in Designing the Human Figure. 

Thus, the human figure is seen to have pervaded certain 
classes of ornamental design throughout all ages, but has 
been altered or modified in order to suit it to characteristic 
purposes and places, or its details better arranged to har- 
monize with other elements of ornament. 

The restrictions that influence and largely govern the use 
of certain ornamental forms in conventionalized design, 
must all be considered of equal importance in the applica- 
tion of the human figure, and a truthful portrayal or 
realistic rendering is permissible only under the rarest 
circumstances of absolutely monumental work. 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



PEXN^CIPLES INTOLVED I]S^ PRACTICAL 
DESIGN. 

1. The principles that are involved in the production of 
good repeating patterns are repetition, contrast, and variety; 
balance, symmetry, and unity; tangential junction ; radiation 
&T1&. proportion , axid groivth, stability, repose, and. fitness. 

2. Repetition. — Repetition in many respects is the most 
important principle in textile design, as an all-over repeat- 
ing pattern implies in itself the idea of repetition, and whereas 
there are many all-over designs that do not repeat, they are 
confined to hand work, such as rugs, embroideries, and other 
products beyond the scope of -the designer for the loom or 
the press. 

3. Alternation. — In connection with repetition we have 
alternation, wherein the repetition consists of a form that 




Fig. 1. 

duplicates itself alternately with another form, as shown in 
Fig. 1. Alternation is very useful in some cases when it is 

§ 7 

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title page. 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



used to vary repetition and avoid monotony. It produces 
a slight feeling of contrast combined with a feeling of con- 
tinuous variation, but it must not be confounded with the 
principles of contrast and variety, which are separate and 
distinct. 



4. Contrast and Variety. — ^The feeling of contrast is 
best expressed in a design wherein the 
linear elements meet or cross each other 
nearly at right angles, as shown in Fig. 3, 
and contrast is best effected by an arrange- 
ment of lines that brings about this con- 
dition, as shown in Pig. 3, which is an 
ancient Greek pattern wherein this prin- 
ciple dominates the entire design, all the 

lines being arranged to join each other nearly at right 

angles. 

The feeling of contrast is not confined entirely to designs 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 



of a rigid character, and Fig. 4 illustrates an example wherein 
this principle is carefully handled in a design of a soff and 
flowing character. At a will be observed the main flowing 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



3 



line broken by the scroll that crosses it at right angles, 
and, therefore, stands not only in contrast with it but also 
assists in giving a feeling of variety. Variety is the very 
essence of a design and 
the principle that gives it 
brightness and prevents its 
monotony, and though the 
variety of design must not 
be so extensive as to rob it 
of its feeling of repose, 
there must be sufficient 

change to rest the eye from the observation of any par- 
ticular form. 




5. Symmetry and Balance. — Symmetry and balance 
are principles that exist when the arrangement of ornament 
is such that the details on both sides of a line or point are 





/^^^ 



Fig. 6. 



Fig. 6. 



exactly repeated or duplicated, as in Fig. 5, or are of equal 
value, as in Fig. 6, the former being a symmetrical element, 
the latter a balanced element. 



6. Tangential Junction. — Tangential junction of lines, 
as we already know, is a detail depending on the close 
observation of nature, and is illustrated in several forms 
in Fig. 7. Radiation is also a principle that we have 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



already considered, and whether that radiation takes place 

from a point or a line is 
a matter to be decided 
according to the character 
of the ornament. Gro^vth. 
is another principle derived 
from observation of plant 
form, and the curves exist- 
ing in long slender leaves, 
^''°' ^' such as that of the cattail 

and flag, or even blades of -grass, are expressive of this 

principle. 




7 . Subordination is a principle that must be introduced, 
into certain parts of a design in order to prevent monotony; 
there must be principal features and subordinate features, 
and if every detail is brought into equal prominence there 
will be neither contrast nor variety. In every good design 
there should always be a principal feature, such as a bright 
flower or group of flowers or of leaves, or of some other 
striking object, and the rest of the design should sink into 
the background and take a secondary place. 

8. Fitness. — The question of fitness is simply the appli- 
cation of a certain class of design to certain materials. Of 
course, it is evident that the style of design that would be 
suitable for a carpet would be utterly unsuitable for a printed 
cotton goods or a velvet, and would be out of place for 
printing on a fine' silk. Then, there is always the considera- 
tion of fashion — a subject that every designer is bound to 
be familiar with and governed by, although his good sense 
may at times be opposed to it; but designs are made for 
commercial purposes and the designer must bow to the 
prevailing fashions even though his artistic nature rebel. 
Therefore, a design should always be thought out or men- 
tally planned at first, and its style, scale, and character 
suited and fitted to the material and purpose in which it is 
to be carried out and for which it is to serve. 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 5 

9. Proportion. — In connection with fitness we come to 
the principle of proportion, which is most difficult to decide 
upon, as, under it, the designer must make up his mind as to 
the relation between the lengths and breadths of the repeats, 
the scale of the pattern, etc. 

10. Unity. — The last principle to be considered, per- 
haps, is unity, and in this we must sum up all the previous 
ones. However well the plan may be balanced and however 
well the. natural formations and growths may be observed 
and adhered to, and thoroughly adapted though the design 
may be in scale and proportion to the material in which it is 
executed, it is of little value unless all these principles unite 
in a characteristic whole that prevents any one of them 
becoming unduly prominent or makes it appear that they 
are not bound together inseparably. 



PLANNIIfG THE DESIGI^. 

*11. Characteristic of a Design. — It is always well to 
have a clear idea of what the main characteristics of a design 
are to be before the actual work of arrangement is begun. 
These characteristics will be influenced largely by the mate- 
rial purpose of the finished fabric as well as the trend of the 
prevailing fashions. If, for instance, the design is to be 
woven in tapestry or other hanging, then it may be bold and 
rich, emphasized by the arrangement of strong and contrast- 
ing colors. But, on the other hand, if the design is for a 
dress fabric, it must be made to a much smaller scale and 
the colors be much more subdued. In the case of a dress 
fabric, it should always be borne in mind that the scale 
must be kept down, as some one is going to wear it; and, 
there being a comparative uniformity in the sizes of various 
people, we have- a definite scale to work to. It has been 
shown that the most convenient size for a repeat in dress 
patterns is about 4i inches, as the folds of the dress and the 
numerous seams would destroy the effect of the repeat if it 
were made much larger. 



6 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



13. Geometrical Basis. — It must always be borne in 
mind tliat it is absolutely necessary that the plan of any 
design that is to be reproduced by mechanical means, such 
as a printing block, must always have a geometrical basis, 
and the repeat must be governed by a regular geometrical 
figure. This figure is called the unit, and it is the govern- 
ing shape of the unit of the pattern; it must always be 
enclosed in itself, or in a multiple of itself, in a square or 
oblong whose dimensions correspond with the dimensions 
of the printing block from which the design is to be 
reproduced. 

This may be more clearly understood by reference to 
Fig. 8 {«), where the unit of the design and the size of 






. 



"r" 



(a) 



< 


a 


1 ^- 1 


b 

/ 




/ 


'■■\ , / 




/'' 









('') 






>-- 


--< 


\ 


---( 




^ ■ 






}— 




''' 











(d) 



(I) 
Fig. 8. 




the repeat are identical, the small dark square indicating the 
unit after which the cards would have to be cut in weaving, 
and the dotted exterior square showing the size of the block 
from which the pattern would be produced in printing. At 
{d), however, the lozenge shape contains the unit of the 
design, .and the complete repeat is composed of one whole 
diamond and four quarters, which together, as shown at 
abed, are contained in an oblong, this oblong being the 
repeat for which the cards would be cut in weaving. At [b) 
is shown the manner in which this oblong would be treated 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 7 

in a square if it were intended to reproduce the design 
by printing, the square there representing the printing 
block; while at (c), (e), and (/) are shown the methods 
of treating such forms as the triangle, hexagon, and ogee 
shape, which are considered in the same manner as was the 
lozenge. 

13. ITnlt and Repeat. — It is important that the student 
should always keep clearly in his mind the difference between 
the unit of a design and the repeat, and not confound one 
with the other. A comparison of all the details of Fig. 8 
will show that the units are always made up of regular 
geometrical figures that fit together, leaving no interstices 
between them. This, of course, is a necessary characteristic 
that the unit must possess. The diamond, the square, and 
the oblong are the most useful shapes ; but on general prin- 
ciples the lozenge or diamond is the best of all. 

14. Defective Design. — As said before, it is necessary 
that a clear and definite idea should be possessed when a 
design is started, on which the subsequent building up can 
depend. In Fig. 9 are shown two renderings of the same 
style of ornament intended for the same purpose, though the 
one at {b) in no way fulfils the conditions. 

It is assumed that this is a design for a stripe in some 
piece of goods, and an irregular wavy line is drawn, from 
which spring a number of leaves and flowers, regardless of 
any preconceived order, except that the design must repeat 
beyond the lines a b and c d. The line, the leaves, and the 
flowers have no apparent relation to one another, nor to the 
border of the panel itself, and the three flowers at o acci- 
dentally fall together and form a straight line across the 
stripe, making a very awkward accentuation at the end of 
each repeat — a characteristic of repeating designs that the 
designer usually tries to conceal. 

15. Remedy for Defects. — At («), however, the same 
elements are used and show that, by a little consideration, 



8 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

an arrangement can be obtained whereby the same details 
may be put together to form a satisfactory repeating pattern. 
The main stem runs through the ornament in the form of a 
wave line as before, and the repeating portion is limited 
between the lines ^/and gh arranged similarly to ab and 




Fig. 9. 

c d oi {b). The main stem at the points k and k is equi- 
distant from each side of the border lines, and the scroll 
springing from the main stem is drawn in such a way 
that it will break this stem twice and thereby destroy its 
monotony. 

The flowers are placed on alternate sides and grouped in 
bunches of three, and a similar grouping, though different 
in its arrangement, is maintained in relation to the leaves. 
Close study of the design will show that the leaves and 
flowers terminate about the same distance from the outside 
border, and this detail, taken with the evenness of spacing 
of the wave line, tends to give a solidity and steadiness to 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 9 

the design and adds to the impression that the floral orna- 
ment could not readily be removed without, impairing its 
appearance. 

16. Tlie Parent Stem. — In Fig. 10 is shown a surface, 
or all-over, pattern somewhat of the same character as Fig. 9, 
the limitations of which are precisely the same as those of the 
border. The principal line, or the main stem, is drawn first, 
and once located, the designer must determine whether this 
line is to form an essential detail of his design or simply to 
be a starting element. In many cases, the parent stem is 
inserted into a design solely to give some logical growth and 
provide some element that the flowers and leaves can spring 
from, but in no way forms an important part of the design 
itself, and might be removed without impairing the design 
in the least. In this case, however, the parent stem is one 
of the most important factors and must be put in with care 
and thought. 

17. Principal Feature. — In all designs, or at least in 
nearly all, there should be some feature that by its promi- 
nent color, shape, or size is more prominent than the others, 
and it should be so placed that it will immediately attract 
the eye. Such being the case, it is necessary that the means 
by which this attraction to the eye is attained must be con- 
sidered before the design is started. A design without a 
leading feature is uninteresting and tiresome, and it natu- 
rally follows that if this leading feature is so important, it 
is necessary that it should be the most beautiful and the 
most interesting part of the design. 

In the present case, the repeat is first decided on and the 
wave line is carefully studied with the idea that it is to be a 
prominent detail in the finished design. Its curve must be 
graceful, of good proportions, and so arranged that it will 
not interfere inharmoniously with its adjacent curves in 
the other repeats. The four large leaves in the corner of 
each repeat being intended for prominent features, should 
also be carefully drawn and placed in position. In general 



10 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



practice it would be found advisable to sketch the design in 
outline at first, as shown in Fig. 10 at {a), because it is likely 
to be modified after the design is worked out and it would 
be a waste of time to try and work out the finished details 
at once. 

The next detail in the preparation of the design is the 
conventional flower in the center of the repeat ; this should 
go in next, and it would seem advisable to place the flower 
at some point central between the four large leaves. The 
necessity of placing this flower in a central position can be 
readily seen by referring to Fig. 11, where the design is the 
saime as that shown in Fig. 10, except that the flower is not 




Fig. 10. 



in the center but thrown to one side, over one set of the 
leaves. The effect of this can be readily seen, that inas- 
much as the flower is removed from the center, the character 
of the pattern ceases to be of the all-over type, and resolves 
itself into a series of stripes. This does not absolutely spoil 
the design, as it would be considered all right if a striped 
pattern were wanted; but when an all-over pattern is wanted, 
this treatment is certainly all wrong. After the flower is 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 11 

drawn in outline, the rest of the figure is blocked in as 
shown in Fig. 10 (p). 

18. Eflfect of tlie Repeat. — In all cases in laying out 
a design, it is advisable to draw more than one repeat, as 
the student can then judge somewhat better the appear- 




FIG. 11. 

ance of it when multiplied in the loom or the press. Few 
but the most experienced designers can judge the prob- 
able effect and know how to avoid faults that are likely 
to appear, unless several repeats are laid out in each 
direction. 



12 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



Having considered the preliminary arrangement of the 
plan for the repeat itself, we will now take up the different 
methods of securing this repeat, and consider the advantages 
of each case. 



DROP PATTERN. 

19. Unit of the Pattern. — The drop pattern takes 
its name from a characteristic that requires the unit to be 
dropped one -half its length in order that adjacent members 




Pig. 12. 



may properly match, and it has been suggested that the 
lozenge shape is best adapted as the figure constituting the 
unit of any pattern. In fact, though this shape is used as 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 13 

the basis for nearly all repeating diaper patterns, it is 
almost indispensable in the construction of the drop pat- 
tern. Every practical drop pattern, if properly analyzed, 
will be found with the lozenge as its fundamental form, 
though, as a rule, this shape is concealed in the superfluity 
of ornament. 

In Fig. 12 the lozenge shape does not appear at all, 
although it can be easily shown that it is the govern- 



FlG. 13. 

ing principle of this design. If we join the four central 
points of the four large five-lobed leaves, the resulting 
figure is lozenge-shaped, and a similar figure would be pro- 
duced by joining any four repeating points in the design, 
as shown in Fig. 13. 



u 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



30. The Enclosing Rectangle. — Notwithstanding the 
fact that this lozenge shape is the governing principle of so 
many designs, it must not be forgotten that the practical 
working out of the pattern in the loom, or the printing of 




Fig. 14. 

the pattern in the press, requires that the design skal/ be 
enclosed within a rectangle, and the amount that has to 
appear in the design will be one complete lozenge and four 
quarter-lozenges in order to make up the rectangle. An 
exception to this rule, however, will be found in center ties 
and roll carpets, which will be considered later on. 

31. Symmetrical Designs. — Where a design is sym- 
metrical on both sides of a given center line, as shown in 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



15 



Fig. 14, it is only necessary to put half the lozenge on the 
design paper, as it is possible to arrange the loom to produce 
two symmetrical halves from 
one set of pattern cards. For 
instance, in Fig. 14, the actual 
amount of design worked out 
would simply be the rect- 
angle abed, the other half 
being produced automatically 
through the arrangement of 
the loom. 

This is also applicable in 
the weaving of fabrics whose 
design is not based on the 
drop pattern, but is of a 
symmetrical character, as 
shown in Fig. IS,, which is 
a Gothic design of the six- 
teenth century, and does not 
drop in its repeat, the por- 
tion abed being the Only 
part of the design necessary to execute, its duplication and 
reversing being accomplished when cutting the cards for 
the loom. 




Fig. 15. 



33. Drop Pattern in Carpet Designs. — The drop 
pattern is most advantageous in its application to roll 
carpets. Different kinds of carpet are of different widths, 
but 27 inches is the standard for most styles, and by using a 
drop pattern it is possible to make the width of the repeat 
twice this, or 54 inches. This can best be understood by 
referring to Fig. 16, which is a carpet design in which the 
drop pattern has been used. 

The distance ab represents 37 inches, or one width of 
the carpet, and the rectangle abe d represents the amount 
necessary to be worked out in the design in order to cut 
the jacquards properly, and includes one complete repeat. 
In the center of the line 5 c we find the same repeat 



16 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§? 



dropped at efgh, this rectangle representing another 
width of carpet roll that fits the. first so as to make a 
perfectly connected design. Thus it will be seen that the 
same points do not repeat in this design in less than twice 
the width of one roll, as may be seen at d and k, where 




Fig. 16. 



the flower at d is completed in the section at k 54 inches 
away from it. If the plan were adopted for a side-to-side 
repeat, these forms would repeat every 27 inches horizon- 
tally ; but by means of the drop pattern we can, without 
additional labor or expense, produce a carpet design of 
apparently twice this width, and this same idea can be 
carried out in wall paper. 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



17 



33. Waste in Cutting. — Another advantage in the use 
of the drop pattern for carpets is that the chance of waste is 
considerably reduced during the process of cutting and 
fitting the widths together to suit the size of a room. This 
can better be understood by referring to Fig. 17, where at {a) 
the drop pattern is shown as its repeats would recur in a 



i a 



(a) 






d e f 



Fig. 17. 



room; and at ((^) the side-to-side repeating pattern appears 
as laid out upon the same room. This room is assumed to 
be 13 ft. 6 in. X 15 ft. , the narrower dimension requiring just 
six widths of 37-inch carpet to cover it. 

It will be seen at (a), that, beginning at the upper 
left-hand corner and cutting off from the roll what is 
required for the length of the room, we will have four 
complete repeats and a little over, and in replacing this 
width to the right of this and laying off what is required 
for the second length of the room, there will be a little 
waste at each end, as shown at d and c. In the same 
manner, the same amount of waste occurs at dc and half 
as much at /£-, while the breadths between, at k and i, 
are cut to exactly cover the room in the same manner as 
the first one. 

Looking now at the other arrangement at {6), we have the 



18 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

same space carpeted with a pattern that does not drop, but 
matches from side to side, and it will be readily seen that 
the waste, as indicated at bcde and f, is considerably more 
than the previous case, amounting to very nearly 4 yards. 
Of course, the proportions of this room are such as to make 
this rather an extreme case ; but the fact remains that there 
is less waste with the drop pattern, because the repeats fit at 
half the height, and the greatest possible waste in any one 
room length of roll will be half the length of a repeat, while 
with a side-to-side repeating pattern nearly a whole repeat 
of waste is possible. 

On this account it is advantageous to keep the length of 
the repeat short whether the design drops or not, for with 
a long repeat there is much more waste in cutting than 
where the repeat is moderate. In Fig. 16 the repeat is 
entirely too long for economy, and had the lozenge form 
been turned to a horizontal position it would have been 
much more advantageous, inasmuch as the effort has been 
in the first place to make the repeat extend over two 
widths of carpet, and there is no good reason why the 
repetition in a vertical direction should be of any greater 
extent. 

34. Planning and Drawing the Design. — It is always 
best to construct the lozenge shape so that its vertical and 
horizontal dimensions are equal to the vertical and hori- 
zontal dimensions of a full repeat, and then to sketch in the 
principal details and general lines. The leaf forms can then 
be filled in so that the upper right line of the lozenge will 
cut these details in exactl)^ the same form and position as 
the lower left-hand line, and the same may be said of the 
upper left-hand line and the lower right-hand line. In gen- 
eral practice, the best way of doing this is to sketch the form 
roughly on transparent paper or tracing cloth, with a soft 
pencil. These forms may then be gone over with a harder 
pencil on the reverse side and the pencil markings trans- 
ferred almost exactly uniform to any part. In the frequent 
references that we will make to tracing paper hereafter, we 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



19 



will in all cases mean simply the drawing or tracing of a 
design on transparent paper and the transferring of the 
design by means of that tracing to other parts of the draw- 
ing. In this way the details of the general sketch may be 
multiplied and extended freely in every direction. When 
so multiplied and the forms appear to be well arranged 
and distributed, an exact drawing can be made by means 
of tracing paper and everything carefully drawn in its 
proper place. 

35. Striped Efltect in Drop Patterns. — ^In the true 
drop pattern, the drop is always considered as half the height 
of the repeat ; but it is not unusual to have a drop pattern of 
less than this, as, for instance, one-third the height of the 
repeat. This is shown in Fig. 18 at («), while at [d) the 




(a) 



(b) 

Fig. 18. 



<c) 



drop is only one-quarter of the height ; but the result is 
never as satisfactory, as an even distribution is not so 
readily acquired and the comparative width of the repeat 
is greater. 

The bringing of the principal elements so much closer 
together is also likely to produce a striped effect as shown at 



20 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

ab m. Fig. 18 {a) and at cd in. Fig. 18 {b) ; whereas in (c), where 
the drop is half tlie height of the repeat, there is little or no 
tendency to get a striped effect, as the principal elements of 
the design are evenly distributed. The shorter the drop the 
stronger is the tendency to produce a pronounced stripe and 
increase the width of tlie repeat, and, therefore, the more 
expensive to work out without any compensating advantages 
regarded of value as ornament. For this reason it should be 
borne in mind that drop patterns of less than half the repeat 
are to be avoided if an even distribution of ornament is 
desired, and the tendency of any part of the ornament to 
run in stripes is to be obviated. 



TtJRTf-OVER iNIETHOD. 

36. Advantage of the Turn Over. — Another method 
of planning a design is called the turn-over method, and 
for many reasons is very desirable. With this method of 
planning, faults can be avoided with greater certainty and 
the design is given an appearance of greater complexitj', as 
the repeats alternating to the riglit and left are less evident 
to the eye than when running in but one direction. This is 
a most useful system of planning, and, when properly stud- 
ied, a design can be executed in which faults are least likely 
to occur; but the method is a most difficult one for the stu- 
dent to master, because when the unit of one repeat is 
reversed or turned over, the two units are likely to overlap 
in some of their details. 

37. Planning the Turn Over. — In Fig. 19 is shown 
a turn-over design, with the geometrical constructions and 
the main lines on which the whole is based. The first 
consideration is the proportions of the repeat, shown at 
abed, containing but 1 unit and 4 quarter-units surround- 
ing it. This constitutes the geometrical construction of our 
design. 

The next consideration is the character of the design itself, 
and if we assume the ogee outline as shown in this case, we 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



21 



must divide the top comer of the repeat into four equal parts, 
at e, f, g, h, and draw in the ogee line fh, in order to get any 
degree of accuracy. In fact, all that is required of this line 
is the portion from / to i, the other half being traced from 
it, the two parts being exactly the same. The other four 
portions may be traced in a similar manner. 




FIG. 19. 

Next, the large flower in the center of each repeat should 
be placed in position, and care must be taken that each 
alternate horizontal series of repeats is turned in a different 
direction — one whole series toward the right, and another 
whole series toward the left as shown — as no other arrange- 
ment will produce the effect. 



22 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

In the first blocking out of the design, much time will be 
saved if the main features are sketched with a single line as 
shown in Fig. 19, where the oval shape stands for the flower 
in the center of the unit. When these oval shapes have been 
repeated a sufficient number of times, the lines of the ogee 
at k should be broken away from their regular direction, 
and the small flowers in each unit drawn upon these 
branchings. 

38. Elimination of Faults. — By this time the design 
has been advanced sufficiently to enable the designer to look 
over it carefully and see that none of its details is likely to 
overlap or go wrong in any way. It is, however, almost 
certain that some detail will overlap another when the orna- 
ment is first drawn and turned over on the adjacent dia- 
mond, and if such overlapping occurs, of course the design 
inust be altered. If, however, the design develops satis- 
factorily, the detail of the principal element in the center 
may be repeated in the four corners, at a, b, c, and d, and 
then the flowers distributed along the line kk may be 
sketched in place. 

Even now though the design is finished in the last detail, 
it is wise to look over it thoroughly, as it is almost sure to 
require some alterations, lest when turned over one portion 
will come into conflict with another; and the line where 
the first lozenge joins the four adjacent ones may be so 
thickly ornamented as to appear heavy, or it may be so 
sparse that it requires filling. It is always at the points 
where these units join that the most skill is required in the 
arrangement. 

39. Turn-Over-and-Drop Patterns. — In some of its 
details the turn-over pattern is not unlike the drop ; it requires 
1 unit and 4 quarter-units to make up the whole repeat, and 
the unit contained in the whole lozenge is both turned over 
and dropped, so that in making the design it is necessary 
to trace off the first lozenge, reverse the tracing paper, and 
drop it to the adjacent lower one. In fact, were it not for a 



§r 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



33 



needless lengthening of the name, this style of design could 
better be termed the turn-over-and-drop pattern. 



30. Avoidance of Faults. — Turn-over designs are 
liable to the same faults as are designs that go only in 
one direction, but not to such a marked degree. This 
partial avoidance of faulty lining is one of the advantages, 
as the turning over of the unit causes a zigzag effect rather 
than a line effect. An illustration of this effect is given in 
Fig. 20, where at (a) a turn-over pattern is shown based on 
the wave line, and its unit is indicated by the lozenge shape 




fa) 



Fig. 20. 



(b) 



in the center. Looking at this rectangular repeat, it would 
be difficult for even an expert designer to predict that the 
whole design, when printed and many times repeated, would 
appear faulty; but this faultiness becomes very evident when 
the design is executed and a large surface spread out before 
the eye as shown at (d). If the design shown at (l>) be held 
at arm's length and the eyes half closed, a white zigzag line 
will be perceived running systematically through the design 
from top to bottom, as marked at a a a, etc. 



34 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

This could easily have been avoided by the addition of 
another leaf in each blank, or by twisting around the little 
spray of conventional buds at the top so that they would fill 
the gaps. In fact, if the design is worked out enough to 
present such faults they can usually be easily remedied; 
but they are very difficult to discern from one or even 
two or three adjacent repeats. 



OTHER METHODS. 

31. Advantage of a Knowledge of Knmerous 
Methods. — In order that designs may have a variety and 
that the work of each designer may not be stamped too 
much with his personal characteristics, it is necessary that 
he should be familiar with a number of different ways of 
planning a design, and whenever he sees the work of another 
designer he should study the system and analyze the geo- 
metrical elements of its construction. Having determined 
upon the geometrical basis, he should look for the principal 
spots, and then the secondary features, and the system of 
connecting them. 

33. Systems of Construction. — The choice of geo- 
metrical systems of construction on which a plan can be 
built are very limited, as for mechanical duplication it must 
be either a square or other rectangle, or some geometrical 
figure that will exactly fit inside a rectangle, and thereby 
repeat. The latter condition permits us to arrange a plan 
that is apparently irregular, provided we can fit all of its 
repeat within the given rectangle; but care must be exer- 
cised under these circumstances to avoid an irregular or 
unsteady appearance. Thus, it is understood why the 
square, rectangle, and lozenge shape are the fundamental 
bases of nearly every design, and* the endless variety of 
every class of repeating ornament that we meet can be 
traced to a rearrangement of these three simple geometrical 
figures. 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



25 



33. Selection of System of Design. — The selection 
of the system of construction should not be made arbitrarily, 
but should always be decided after mature thought as to 
which would bring about the best result. The square pro- 
duces a repeat in the same distance both vertically and hori- 
zontally, and the rectangle gives us a repeat greater in one 
direction than the other, according to which way it is turned; 




the lozenge can be made to produce repeats in the same 
proportion as the square or rectangle, but produces an 
entirely different effect, as shown in Fig. 21, where the same 
design is worked out on the system of the square as is 
worked out on the system of the lozenge in Fig. 23. The 
former is much more severe than the latter, and the limits 
of the repeat are much more definitely marked. There is a 
tendency, too, toward the expression of a horizontal and 



36 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



vertical system of lining in Fig. 21 that is not so apparent in 
Fig. 22. It is therefore seen that for some conditions the 




Fig. 82. 

square might be preferred to the diamond shape, while for 
other conditions the latter is preferable. 

34. Variety Possible. — On these geometrical bases 
an unlimited variety of' designs may be developed from 
a simple sprig or spray to most elaborate combinations 
of interlaced wave lines and ogee forms. These may be 
roughly divided into spots, powderings, connected forms, 
or stripes, in which the repeats are made continuous by 
structural lines though the pattern may be made up entirely 
of geometrical forms. 

35. Slraple Spot Designs. — In Fig. 23 is shown a spot 
design, the plan of which is based on the diamond, as is 
very evident, and shows how valuable an arrangement the 



§r 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



37 



diamond form is to us when much ornament is not a neces- 
sity. It should always be borne in mind that ornament 
is intended to beautify a material, and if the material will 
look better with very little ornament upon it and plenty 
of ground or bare space, the designer must confine himself 
to just so much ornament as the fabric appears to demand. 




Fig. 33. 

Then, for some purposes, an elaborate design is unsuitable, 
so that too much ornament will vulgarize and spoil a fabric 
rather than enhance its beauty. It is in such cases that 
the spot character of design, as shown in Fig. 33, is most 
useful, especially when the ground of the material requires 
only sufficient ornament to break its monotony, or where the 
material is to be used in small quantities. 



36. Influence of Fashions. — The prevailing fashions 
influence this condition of design to a great extent, especially 
in regard to wearing apparel. Sometimes the demand is for 



28 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 







Fig. 34. 



r 



♦- "> 





4^,M-k 




\ ^k^ S^'fc 







^M 'k 




k^ 




^%M 



FIO. 35. 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



29 



spots, sometimes for elaborately figured goods, and some- 
times there is an occasion for a medium between the two, as 
shown in Fig. 24, which is a design based on an elaboration 
of the spot, but giving a spot and powdered effect. 

Fig. 35 shows a style of design that is used very largely in 
dress fabrics; its simple treatment renders it very suitable 
and to a large extent obviates the danger of faulty lining, 
and the design is very effective and easy to construct. It is 
arranged upon the diamond plan, as shown by the dotted 
lines in Fig. 26, the largest 
spray being drawn first in any 
of the unit forms, and then 
turned over and dropped as 
before explained. It may, 
under some conditions, be suffi- 
cient to trace simply the four 
corners of the repeat and then 
trace in the principal sprig to 
fill the center of the lozenge 
shape and occupy any bare 
space that may appear. Under 
these circumstances, it is wise 
to turn the tracing paper back 
and add the sprig to the larger 
one and then insert the small 
sprig in other repeats just as the large sprig was put in at 
the four comers. 

Where it is desirous that there should be but little of the 
ground broken with ornament, a little running vine may be 
used as the basis of the design, arranged in sprays somewhat 
as shown in Fig. 27. The construction here is very simple, 
and though the sprigs run in a lozenge shape, the pattern is 
constructed upon the system of the square, as shown in 
Fig. 28. 




Fig. 26. 



SI. Irregular Units. — A design in which the forms 
are connected is of much more importance to the designer 
than a simple sprig pattern such as shown in Figs. 25 and 27, 



30 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



and is naturally much more intricate to execute. The struc- 
tural basis of the design shown in Fig. 29 is an irregular 
lozenge shape different from anything we have heretofore 
considered, as shown in Fig. 30. 

The. simplest way of constructing this design is by means 
of vertical and horizontal lines, the latter drawn at equal 




Fig. 27. 



distances, as at a: (5 c, Fig. 30, and the vertical ones alternating 
with a large and small space as at dc, ef, etc. The two 
large flowers may then be placed in the upper comer of a 
rectangle of the repeat as at a and the other large flower at 
the intersection of the vertical and horizontal line, below 
this rectangle, as at h. The connecting lines and secondary 
features may then be sketched in and drawn as shown. This 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



31 



design is a turn-over pattern, and though irregular, it is 
constructed on the same principles as all turn-over designs, 
and when- completed its principal line is a vertical wave, as 
may be seen in Fig. 29. 



38. A Ball Pattern.— In Fig. 31 is what might be 
considered a ball pattern, as the ball-shaped flower is one 




Fig. 28. 



of the most prominent features. The design is apparently- 
much more complicated in its effect than it really is. It is a 
regular turn-over pattern, and where the skeleton outline of 
the figure is shown it will be observed that there is a con- 
tinuous flowing stem from which the flowers branch alter- 
nately to the right and left. On these branches are arranged 



33 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 




Fig. 29. 




Fro. 80. 



§^ 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



33 



five clover leaves, and the main feature of the design consists 
of the arrangement of these flowers and leaves in order to 
give the impression of simplicity and at the same time pro- 
duce an all-over effect, without expressing in a pronounced 
degree the system of its arrangement. 

39. In Fig. 33 we have a turn-over pattern on the dia- 
mond basis and it conceals the simplicity of its development 
through the possession of three equally prominent features. 



-^: 




Fig. 31. 



The circular flowers, for instance, are arranged on the dia- 
rnond plan, and the other two features are intersected in a 
regular order, while the stem oscillates from side to side, 
sending off alternately to the right and left a scroll with a 
bud or a blossom. The effect of this treatment, simple 
though it i^ is exceedingly pleasing and expresses the variety 
that can be attained by the simple geomet~ical arrangements 
that underlie it. Simplicity in the arrangement of a design 
should always be the aim of the designer, as a pleasing effect 



34 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



can be more easily developed thereby ; while complicity alone 
is never pleasing and is much more difficult to make so. 

40. Fig. 33 is a design based on the parallelogram, the 
corners of which are to be found in the centers of the four 
similar flowers, while the conventional leaf form is placed 
in the center. The design is peculiar in the fact that the 




Fig. 82. 



arrangement of its wave line is such that it runs diagonally 
across the repeat, making an ogee curve from corner to 
corner with but one simple curve in each repeat. 



41. In Fig. 34 we have a pattern based on the turn- 
over design characteristic of the eighteenth century style 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 35 

in Northern Italy. In this design there are two strongly- 
contrasting figTires — the spray of flowers and the leaves — 
and though the plan can be constructed on the diamond, 
it is far simpler to plan it on horizontal and vertical 
lines, as shown in Fig. 35. All the leaves that run in 
the same direction are placed at the four corners of the 



Fig. 33 

repeat. The design is then traced and turned over on 
the center, where the leaf extending in the opposite direc- 
tion is traced in place. Circular forms representing the 
flowers are then located and the figure arranged to follow 
its course. 

43. Introduction of Geometrical Elements. — The 

design shown in Fig. 36 is a combination of geometrical 
interlaced strap work over which are superimposed various 
foliated forms. The construction is on the basis of the 
lozenge, and, owing to a duplication of various parts of 



b6 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§■7 




Fig. 34. 




Fig. 83, 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



37 




Fig. 36. 




38 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



the design on each side of a given center line, only one-half 
of the pattern need be executed for weaving purposes, as it 
can be adapted to a center tie. This example is particularly 
interesting in showing the contrast of line, and it will be 
observed by studying the elements of Fig. 37, which is a 
skeleton outline of Fig. 36, that when one line crosses another, 
in nearly every instance it crosses it at a right angle and 
thereby gives to the design a sharpness and crispness that 
characterizes it. 

43. In Fig. 38 is shown a design based on the dia- 
mond and arranged as a center tie. Its principal con- 
struction lines are a pair of ogee curves that cross each 




other, one of which follows the stem of the running vine, 
and the other forms the governing direction of an orna- 
mental ribbon work that underlies the main decoration. 
This introduces also a contrast between the ribbon and 
the design itself that causes the latter to stand up promi- 
nently and prevents the whole composition from appearing 
monotonous. 



§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 39 

BORDERS, CORNERS, AND STRIPES. 



BORDERS. 

44. Uniformity of Repeat. — In woven fabrics it is 
impossible to consider the design for the border by itself 
and apart from the filling, as usually when a fabric possesses 
a border, both the border and the filling are woven together 
in one piece, and it is essential for mechanical reasons that 
the repeat of the border should be in line with that of the 
filling. An example of this would be a stair carpet, which 
has a border on each side. Then, if the repeat of the filling 
is 18 inches, the repeat of the border must also be 18 inches, 
or a divisor of 18, so that the border may repeat twice for 
every repeat of the filling, or even three times. A repeat of 
7 inches in the border would be impracticable, as it would 
fail to work with the 18-inch repeat of the filling. However, 
where a border is woven separately and afterwards sewed to 
the filling, as in carpets, for instance, there is not this same 
necessity for uniformity of repetition, but there should be, 
even in a case of this kind, some definite relation between 
the repeat of the border and that of the filling around which 
it is to be stitched. 

45. One-Piece Borders. — The weaving of borders in 
direct connection with a falling design is confined to a 
certain class of goods, such as damask, table linen, tapes- 
try, velvet table covers, cotton quiltings, toilet covers, 
handkerchiefs, lace, muslin, damask or tapestry curtains, 
rugs, and carpets woven in one piece, such as Brussels 
and Kidderminster squares. The presence of a border 
on any fabric usually implies that it was woven in one 
piece and that the fabric — such as a table cover — not 
only possesses the border on the sides but also at each 
end. Therefore, we must consider, before dealing with 
the ornamental details of the design of a border, the prac- 
tical elements that underlie the requirements of their 
weaving. 



40 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



46. Size of the Repeat in Damasks. — First, we must 
consider the size of the article, and in most instances a size 
that is an even multiple of a quarter of a yard is found to be 
convenient. Fabrics such as table covers and table linen, or 
carpets, will always be found to be multiples of a quarter- 
yard in both length and breadth. For instance, 10 quarter- 
yards by 7 quarter-yards gives us 7 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 




Fig. 39. 

3 inches ; and take a table cover of these dimensions as shown 
in Fig. 39 and we have the setting out arrangement of the 
repeats in which a very highly ornate treatment is given. 
In this case, the size of the repeat is one-quarter of a yard 
in each direction. This has the advantage of making the 
design capable of fitting any size table cover, either in length 
or breadth, that is desired, simply by increasing the number 
of repeats. 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



41 



The border around this, it will be observed, is the same 
in design and dimension of its repeats both at the sides and 
at the ends, and it may be readily observed that the secondary 
repeats of the filling fall directly in line with the repeats of 
the border not only on the sides and ends but also in the 



corner. 
This 



9-inch square repeat is the simplest and least 




Fig. 40. 

expensive way of dealing with a fabric such as a table cloth, 
and is suitable for some particular designs, but the designer 
is in no way limited to this shape. 

47. Unequal Repeats. — In Fig. 40 is shown another 
design of identical dimensions with Fig. 39, in which the 
filling repeat is oblong and the proportion of the oblong is 
such as to make it similar to the entire oblong surface of the 



42 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



filling, thereby securing a sense of fitness in the design. 
This, however, brings us against the proposition of having 
the repeat of the side borders greater than the repeat of the 
ends, and the corners are different in shape from the border 
either at the side or end. 

It is the corner of the border of this character that usually 
requires the most skill in order to make it join properly with 




the repeat in each direction, while retaining at the same time 
an identical design in the four corners. This is sometimes 
obviated by paneling off the corner by itself and introducing 
here an isolated ornament that has no connection with the 
border. 

When it is desirable, however, that the border should 
continue around the design without a break, the problem is 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



43 



a troublesome one unless the design is similar to that shown 
in Fig. 39, as it is a simple matter to design a corner to fit a 
system of repeat that is uniform in the two directions. But 
in running borders such as shown in Figs. 40 and 41, the 
ornament must have a distinct development in one direction 
and grow from itself continuously. In some forms of art 
this is not difficult at all, but in a woven fabric it must be 
borne in mind that the two side borders must be equal, the 
top and bottom borders must be equal, and the corners each 
the same. 

48. In Fig. 40 we have a design of a border that is made 
to connect around the corners without any break, while in 
Fig. 41 we have at ^ ^ a design for a border that runs from 
the center of the width around the corner to the center of 
the length, where it is stopped by a rosette or other inde- 




pendent device. This system of treatment, however, requires 
that the repeat of the border and its adjacent filling shall 
amount to one-quarter of the whole fabric, as shown at 
be dx, and that whatever comes in this quarter must reverse 
and repeat above and on the other side; this system also 



44 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



§7 



permits us to treat the angles of the filling with separate 

ornament, as shown at {e) in Fig. 41. 

When a fabric is square it is sometimes convenient to 

duplicate the design on each side of the diagonal line, 

as shown in Fig. 42, where the square is divided into eight 

equal triangular pieces 
as shown at fgh, each 
of which is symmetrical 
but reversed from its 
neighbor. 

49. Lace - Curtain 
Design. — Where cur- 
tains are woven in one 
piece, one of the most 
popular schemes of de- 
sign is to have a dado 
treatment at the bottom 
and a border on each 
of the sides. This bor- 
der can be of the same 
width on each side or of 
varying widths, accord- 
ing to th 2 circumstances, 
or the design may be 
such that the two bor- 
ders and the dado con- 
sist of one scheme of 
ornament varying in 
width to express the 
proportion of each. 
Much economy can be 
effected, however, in the designing of curtains by having 
the whole length worked out upon a symmetrical arrange- 
ment so that the two halves each side of the center line 
will be identical. This may be ' somewhat severe in 
style, but is capable of producing the happiest of results. 
In Fig. 43 is shown a symmetrical arrangement of design 




§ 7 PRACTICAL DESIGN. 45 

duplicating on the center line y li. Only one-half of this 
design would need to be prepared on design paper, ghkl 




Fig. 44. 



being the amount required for the dado, and klinn, the 
repeat for the border and filling of the body of the cur- 
tain; whereas in Fig. 44 just twice this quantity of design 



46 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



would have to be executed, as the pattern extends the full 
width of the curtain. 

The severity of style which this plan is likely to produce 
may be somewhat obviated by the use of a free center, 
shown in Fig. 45, where the design on each side of a given 
center line is exactly balanced and reproduced. The amount 
of design worked out on paper in this case is shown at a bed 
in the dado, and c def in the upper portion of the curtain, 

and when this is woven, the 
opposite side is separated 
from it a distance equal to 
b g, and the free center 
bghc in the dado, and 
c hkf for the repeat in 
the upper part of the cur- 
tain would require to be 
drawn out separately on 
design paper. 

50. Classification of 
Borders.- — We have so far 
devoted all our attention to 
the application of border 
designs to such textile 
fabrics as they are most 
generally used, but we will 
now consider some of the 
more typical details upon 
which repeating borders 
may be constructed. For 
the purposes of classification, ordinary repeating borders are 
termed link or vertebrate, according to the method by which 
the repeats are joined, the former being linked together by 
some conventional form that tends to give the appearance of 
combining the units, and the latter being built about a straight 
line that acts as a sort of backbone through the whole design. 
In Pig. 46 are shown several borders built up of historic 
ornament and illustrating the principles of this classification. 




§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



47 



It will be noticed that in nearly all of them there is a decided 
tendency to vertical and horizontal arrangement, that the 
ornament grows, or appears to grow, at right angles to one 
of the edges or from both of them. For instance, the Greek 
border at («) appears to be perpendicular to the inner edge, 








Fig. 46. 



while that at {b) is perpendicular to the outer edge, and at {c) 
is alternately perpendicular to the two edges, each separate 
element being connected by an S-shaped link. These designs 
are all Greek in origin and express the handling of border 
elements typical of the Greek style. 



51. Borders for Hangings and Table Covers. — It 

should always be borne in mind that the position of the 



48 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

goods or material on which the border is designed must 
always be considered before the characteristics of the border 
are decided upon. Table covers and scarfs are usually seen 
in such a position that the border assumes a perpendicular 
position in relation to the outer edge, and for such a purpose 
the design shown at (i^) would be perfectly suitable. On por- 
tiers and other hangings, the lower border is perpendicular 
to the bottom line, while the side borders could be either 
perpendicular to the outer or the inner line, and a combina- 
tion of effect is obtained by using the pattern shown at (c), 
where the border runs all the way around, or the one shown 
at (d), where the border runs up and down the sides and a 
straight dado is designed across the bottom. 

53. Borders for Rugs and Floor Coverings. — Rugs 
and carpet squares are usually observed from the center of 
the room, and a border design is most satisfactory when it is 
perpendicular to the inner edge of the border line, as shown 
at («) and {/), the latter being a design based on Arabian lines. 
At [a) the link is parallel with the direction of the border and 
turns up at each end to join the ornamental figures that 
constittite the principal elements of the design. At {e) the 
link consists of a number of semicircles, the ends of which 
unite every other ornamental detail. At (y) it assumes an 
S shape and lies in a horizontal position, while at {d) the link 
travels from one side of the border to the other, as it does 
also at [c], though in the former case each S runs in the same 
direction as its neighbor, and in the latter case they are 
made to reverse alternately. 

53. Vertebrate Borders. — All of the above are link 
borders, while those shown in Fig. 47 are vertebrate borders. 
The chief characteristics that we observe in comparing these 
two figures is that the link border seems more associated 
with classic art, while the character of the vertebrate border 
tends more toward the Middle Ages and Renaissance design. 

At (a) is shown, the simplest pattern consisting of a 
straight line or backbone, with a series of leaves growing 



§i 



PRACTICAL DESIGN, 



49 




50 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

symmetrically from each side; at {l>) the alternate sides are 
not symmetrical, as the repeats grow alternately above and 
below the vertebrate lines. At (c) one of the boundary lines of 
the border acts as the vertebrate line from which the details 
of the ornament spring, while at {d) we have both boundary 
lines acting as vertebrae and the ornament springing alter- 
nately from each side. At {e) is shown an example of a 
border based on the wave line, so that it miters well in the 
corner without a material change in the character of the 
design. This is based on the principle of a curved vertebra 
instead of a straight one, as is also the form shown at {/), 
which is a scroll vertebra clothed with conventional foliage, 
the scroll itself having developed from the wave line. At 
(g) we have the application of the Persian system, where 
there are two wave lines, each carrying its own share of 
ornament, in order to fill the space, and while in this example 
the growth of the two vertebrae is in the same direction, 
there is no authentic necessity for it, as many designs are 
known to exist where one appears to grow in one direction 
and the other in the opposite direction. At [k) is shown an 
Arabian border, the vertebrate line of which does not appear, 
but exists as an imaginary detail through the center. From 
each side of this, there branches a conventional figure typical 
of this style of ornament but printed in two shades, alter- 
nating and interlacing with each other, though identical in 
form. This example of ornament is best suited to a vertical 
position, for which it was originally intended, while for hori- 
zontal positions other designs such as shown at (d), {e), (/), 
and (g) are better adapted. 

54. Corners.— In Fig. 48, examples of borders and 
comers are given that are based on the vertebrate principle 
btlt are laid out on less conventional lines. The style of 
treatment suitable to certain classes of fabric is illustrated 
in the design of the borders, where the character of the 
ornament is more suitable to floor coverings than to table 
covers, or hangings, inasmuch as the former He flat and dis- 
play the whole design, .while in a table cover, or other 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



51 



hanging, the corner is usually lost by the folding of the 
cloth. 

It should be borne in mind that the purpose of any angle 




Fig. 48. 



ornament is to break the crudeness of a sharp comer, but its 
form and contour must be consistent so that it leaves a 
pleasing effect. In the filling at (a) in Fig. 48 is shown the 



52 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

outline of a rug in which the border and comer design shown 
at [b) is used, and it will be readily seen that the style of 
corner ornament shown at {b) is suitable only to a rug of 
oblong shape, while the Oriental design shown at {c) is better 
adapted to a rug with a square shape, though of course it 
could be used in an oblong without any sense of incongruity, 
whereas the form shown at (b) could not be used in a square 
rug. 

At [d) is shown a corner design that breaks into the bor- 
der and causes it to stop abruptly at each side. This design 
is symmetrical upon the miter line as shown in Fig. 42 and is 
capable of reproduction on four sides of a square as described 
in connection with that figure. 

One other style of corner design is shown at {e) where 
the border runs around the corner, and repeats itself utterly 
independent of the corner ornament, and the corner orna- 
ment is woven or printed within the border line entirely 
independent of the border itself. This corner ornament is 
not enclosed in any definite outline as were (b) and (c), nor 
is it symmetrical on the center line as are (c) and {d). It 
therefore requires separate consideration in design and 
requires no calculations for repeat in unison with a repeat 
of the border. 

55. Stripes. — The use of stripes in woven goods, of 
course, applies almost entirely to the field where a border is 
considered, or to the goods themselves exclusive of any con- 
sideration of corner or border ornament, but the purpose for 
which the goods are to be used will govern the size, strength, 
and direction of the stripe entirely. Stripes running verti- 
cally tend to increase the appearance of height, while stripes 
running horizontally tend to decrease the impression of 
height. It is for this reason that short persons are advised 
to wear dress goods with stripes running vertical^, and in the 
decoration of rooms with very high ceilings, numerous hori- 
zontal lines are introduced to decrease the effect of height. 

In Fig. 49 at («) is show'n a combination of a stripe and 
powdered effect consisting of narrow straight stripes from 



54 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

which conventionalized flowers branch at an angle of 45°, 
changing their direction at each alternate stripe. At {b) the 
stripe .consists of alternate wave lines with conventional 
flowers growing in the broader spaces on and between them. 
At (c) parallel wave lines are broken by systematic and con- 
ventional ornament that grows from its sides alternately in 
the same manner as described in , the vertebrate border, 
Fig. 47 {d). 

At {d) the stripe crosses the ornament in a diagonal direc- 
tion at an angle of 45°, and consideration will remind the 
student that the direction of this stripe is governed by the 
diagonal of the rectangle representing the_ repeat. If the 
repeat were within an oblong, the angle of the stripe could 
be made greater or less than 45°, according to the propor- 
tions of the rectangle. At {e) is shown a more complicated 
treatment of a striped design wherein three distinct styles 
of contrasting stripe are used — a conventionalized floral form 
alternating with a conventionalized geometrical form from 
which it is separated by a heavy wave-line stripe. 

56. Style In Historic Stripes. — In Fig. 50 we have 
three examples of stripe ornament showing the characteris- 
tics of historic styles. At {a) the straight stripe is relieved 
of its monotony by an all-over pattern of sprigs, four of the 
sprigs representing the four corners of a rectangular repeat 
with the fifth sprig in the center. This might be considered 
a combination of a stripe-and-spot pattern, the style of which 
is characteristic of the old Italian brocades, this example 
having been taken froni a piece of Italian velvet. 

The treatment given at {b) is entirely different from this 
— a severely conventional design — being alternated with a 
somewhat naturalistic rendering, thereby .giving the effect 
of a light stripe alternating with a dark one, a style of design 
characteristic of the early Gothic period. 

The pattern shown at {c) is from an old Spanish fabric 
showing alternate light and dark stripes, each of which 
heightens the interest of the other and both of which are 
more or less elaborated with conventional floral designs. 



§7 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



55 




APPLIED DESIGN. 

(PART 1.) 



GEOMETRICAL CO:NSIDERATIOIvrS. 

1. Fitness. — In applying any form of nature to a surface 
in order to produce a decoration, it must unquestionably 
possess a quality known as fitness for that purpose for 
Avhich it is required. It is just as important that the decora- 
tion should exactly fit the utensil as that the utensil should 
exactly fit the purpose for which it is made. Mere applica- 
tion of ornament to a space is not decoration, nor is it 
applied design. It must be adapted to that space as per- 
fectly as possible, and in any respect that it falls short of 
this perfect adaption, just in that respect does it fall short 
of being a proper decoration. 

3. influence of Shape. — In Fig. 1 are shown four 
shapes or forms, and it will require very little study to 
determine that no two of them could be rationally treated 
from a decorative standpoint in exactly the same way, and 
in decorating them the first question that arises is, in what 
direction should the lines run on the surface that is to be 
occupied by them. 

Here let it be known that the lines forming the boundaries 
of the figure should influence the direction of the lines laying 
out the pattern. The leading lines should emphasize the 
lines of the boundaries, unless for some reason this cannot 
be done, when the minor lines should be made to do so. 

§ 8 

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title page. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 




This must all be done with perfect harmony and due care to 
prevent monotony. Both of these principles can be observed 

by paying particular attention to 
the effects of contrast and variety. 

3. Influence of Conven- 
tionalism. — In determining the 
directions that are to be taken by 
the leading lines of our design, 
it is of the greatest importance 
that the character the design is 
to assume should be considered, 
whether it is to be a purely con- 
ventional composition to be based 
on conventionalism of general 
ideas, or on the realization of 
some particular plant. In the 
first case, we may assume any 
ornamental lines we choose, so 
long as they are suitable to their 
surroundings; but if the design 
is to realize some particular plant 
form, the lines must be such that 
they depict the growth of the plant and at the same time 
are suitable to the space they occupy. 

This limits our field of selection in the latter case, and we 
must select our natural types with care, in order that both of 
its conditions — adaptability of lines and adherence to plant 
growth — will be carried out. We must not let stiff growing 
plants be designed in easy flowing lines, nor must we allow 
the soft trailing aspect of running vines to be stiffened into 
an unnatural appearance, for such would not be convention- 
alism, but quite the contrary. 



^ 



) 



(d) 

Fig. 1. 



4. Emphasis of Structural Lines. — ^In Fig. 3 we have 
the decoration of a surface similar to that shown at {a) of 
Fig. 1. The first lines put in place here are the vertical 
ones repeating and emphasizing the effect of the sides of the 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



3 



oblong, but varying in length. Short horizontal lines are 
then introduced, emphasizing the top and the bottom of the 
figure ; then the curved lines are brought in for contrast. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



If, for any reason, the leading lines of our composition 
cannot be made to follow the leading lines of the surface 
that is decorated, our minor lines must be made to do this, 
as shown in Fig. 3. Here we start with a diagonal line in 
direct contrast to any of the sides of the rectangle. This 
contrast is made strong, and variety is obtained by the 
introduction of the spiral lines; then the short vertical and 
horizontal lines are introduced as 
secondary details, to emphasize the 
sides of the rectangle. 



5. Empliasis of Curved Iilnes. 

In Fig. 4 we have the circle, and 
the same details apply here as 
in ' the previous case. A central 
vertical line stands in strong con- 
trast to a boundary line, while the 
curved lines are in harmony with it and emphasize the 
circumference. 




Fig. 4. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



In Fig. 5 we have a decoration of a spandrel between two 
arches, based on the outline form shown in Fig. 1 at (c) ; 
the arches between which this spandrel is introduced being 
important features of this construction, the curved lines 




Fig. 5. 

forming its boundaties are given more emphasis, while 

the vertical line separating them is introduced to present 

contrast. 

Then, again, in Fig. 6, which is based on {d) of Fig. 1, 

the spiral forms and semicircle within the top emphasize the 
outline of the figure, while both con- 
trast and variety are produced by the 
flowing lines from the center to the 
sides. 




6. Harmoiiy of Seconclary 
Lines. — It must be observed, too, 
that while some of the lines used in 
laying out the ornament are in accord 
with the boundary of the surface, 
the secondary lines must also "he 
influenced in their direction by the main lines, as shown 
in Fig. 2, where the small branching lines from the ver- 
ticals are influenced by the curves in the verticals them- 
selves. 



Fig. 6. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 




T. Harmony of Lines in ]S"ature. — This principle of 
harmony and fitness in the direction of lines can readily be 
studied by the observation of the veining of some leaves. 
Take, for instance, the lilac leaf 
shown in Fig. 7, and observe that 
although in the beginning of their 
growth the veins start almost in 
direct contrast to the direction of 
the edge of the leaf, they gradually 
bend and assume a curve similar 
to the marginal outline, and that 
the secondary veins are in har- 
mony with the primary ones. In 
order to further secure this har- 
mony and unity in composition, 
it is necessary that lines should express a continuity in their 
arrangement as well as a harmony with each other and their 
surrounding outlines, and although they may be interrupted, 
a common and united direction should be indicated. 

8. Continuity of Lines. — It is well that all lines 
should express the feeling that if they were continued in the 

same direction or on the 
same curve from the point 
where they stop, they 
would unite with some 
other line. Thus, in 
Fig. 8, we have a square 
panel, the inside of which 
is laid out on a sym- 
metrical arrangement, and 
the lines a and b possess 
such a curve as would 
bring them into unity if 
continued as shown by 
Fig. 8. the dotted line. 

9. Distribution of Masses. — Another point to be 
observed is the proper distribution of lines — a distribution 




6 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

such that the masses between them will bear a pleasing rela- 
tion to one another. This can also be studied from natural 
leaf forms. Take, for instance, the ivy leaf shown in Fig. 9, 

and observe how even is the 
distribution of the space — that 
although the veins do not 
equally divide the surface, 

^^ they separate it into varying 

\ ^;i^$<C;^( J/aT^^On. quantities so nicely graduated 
^^^^^J^^^*=^si^i^\ and balanced that there is an 

evenness and uniformity of 
arrangement. 

This distribution of masses 
is materially affected when our 
design is finished up and we convert the lines of our original 
decoration into flowing leaf forms and general details, propor- 
tioning the surfaces to the surface on which they are applied. 

10. The general outline form shown in Fig. 2 suggests 
the distribution of lines that we desire for the decoration of 




Fig. 9. 








Fig. 10. 



this oblong surface, and the propriety and character of this 
distribution is expressed much more clearly when our design 



§8 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



is finished upon these lines, as it is in Fig. 10 («). Here we 
have endeavored to preserve an even and restful balance 
between the background and the surface figure, securing a 
distribution of masses that would be materially influenced 
by any change in the direction of the originally sketched 
lines in Fig. 2. 

Our sketch in Fig. 3, showing another principle in effect- 
ing the contrast of lines in order to secure a characteristic 
decoration in a rectangular panel, when elaborated to the 
completed form iii Fig. 10 (d), illustrates clearly the value 
of properly conceiving this distribution of guide lines in 
order that the finished design may be carried out without 
material alteration of the original idea. 

11. The value of practice in this direction cannot be too 
highly estimated, as it is of particular importance in connec- 
tion with surface designs, whether that surface be a wall, or a 
floor, or the side of a building, or a portion of the details of 
some interior decoration, and in Fig. 11 is shown the spandrel 




FIG. 11. 

of the arch, the outlines of which were sketched in Fig. 5. In 
working up patterns for an all-over design, it is necessary that 
the unit of the repeat should be based on the same system of 
treatment as we have considered in these single forms; other- 
wise, we will not obtain the satisfactory results that we look 
for in paper hangings, carpets, dress fabrics, etc. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



13. Geometrical Basis of Surface Decorations. — 

Wall-paper patterns are laid out on a geometrical basis, and 
the adoption of different geometrical forms will lead to a 
great variety of designs in the filling in. In Fig. 12 at («) is 
a pattern suited for wall decoration or textile design, where 
the leading lines are vertical and horizontal, and the repeated 









1 



^^^^ 







ornament consists in the joining of a number of decorated 
rectangles. At [d) is shown a surface decoration where the 
foundations of the geometi-ical construction are tangent cir- 
cles, yet the pattern is so handled that the lines governing 
its foundation principle are lost in the appearance of the 
entire design, and a study of the circular design itself would 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 9 

show that the leading construction lines were set out in pre- 
cisely the same manner as in Figs. 2 to 8. At {c) the basis 
for construction of ornament is the lozenge shape, and this 
introduces oblique lirtes giving the pattern an entirely 
different character from the previous one, while at (d) the 
structural lines of the pattern being of a wavy or ogival 
character, give rise to the production of still another variety 
of surface ornament. 

In all of these designs the principal lines are in harmony 
with the form of the principal figure, and the filling in of the 
figure is of a secondary consideration, although, of course, it 
lies with the designer to limit the character of his decoration 
simply to one figure or to run it into several figures, making 
the design simple or complex as he desires. 

13. Retaining' and Abolishing Fundamental Geo- 
metric Constructions. — Then, again, the designer may 
retain the original form on which the design is based and 
emphasize it, or arrange that it will be abolished altogether 
when the pattern is completed, adopting his course according 
to the purpose to which the design is to be applied. As a 
suggestion, it may be said that if the design is for a wall 
paper to be used on a dado, the constructive geometrical 
forms are better retained, as they impart to the design a 
stiffness and strong look that make it suitable for the pur- 
pose ; but if the paper is designed to be hung between the 
dado and the frieze, the structural forms may be judiciously 
dispensed with and the flowing, easy pattern of the ornament 
left open that it may be more in harmony with the position 
it is to occupy. 

AERAKGEME^TT OF DETAILS. 

14. A method of evolving patterns upon the basis of 
intersecting lines has already been shown; the ornament 
formed on this principle has been analyzed as the basis for 
new ornament. Starting from here, we will consider the 
method of treating a surface according to the composition 
and location of the ornament. 





mm 
mm 







a) 




........... 




(g) 



(e) 








/EI £5^/£f 

(3) 







(k) 




§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 11 

15. General Ari'angements of Ornament in Surface 
"Work. — There are five general arrangements of ornament 
in surface work — fiiapering, checkering, striping and ba^tding, 
paneling, and spotting and powdering. Assuming that we 
have simply a number of square meshes laid out as was our 
foundation plan in Fig. 31 of Elements of Ornament, we can, 
by simply filling in each square with some form of ornament 
and repeating the arrangement regularly, obtain the style of 
treatment, known as diapering, shown in Fig. 13, where at 
(a) and (i^) the square forms are in a horizontal position, and 
at (c), (d), and (/i), they are at an angle, or in other words, 
a lozenge shape. At (r) and {/) are shown the same design 
as is used at (a) and (d), only the method of laying out the 
design is to have the ornament occupy only every other 
square, thereby producing the treatment known as checker- 
ing. At (g) we have a combination of these two forms, 
called checkering and diapering, wherein the design is 
made lighter on every alternate square, thus giving a checker 
effect, while each square is filled with ornament as in the 
diaper effect. 

16. In arranging our ornament in annexed squares, either 
vertical or horizontal, and leaving spaces of one or more rows 
of squares between, we. get the effect known as striping 
and banding, as shown at (?'), {j), and (k); or by combi- 
ning striping and banding in such a manner that the stripes 
and bands enclose a certain amount of space, we get the 
treatment called paneling, shown at {/), {;«), and («). An 
extreme treatment of this gives us the effect shown at (o), 
sometimes called lining, where the space is divided by lines 
of different weights converting the surface into a number of 
small panels like a plaid. By extending the space between 
the ornaments to a greater or lesser extent, we obtain the 
effect known as spotting and po"wdering, as shown at (/), 
(q), and (r). 

The difference between spotting and powdering simply 
consists in the relative area occupied by the different pieces 
of ornament. Where the ornamentation and the background 




Fio. 14 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 13 

are about of one area, or apparently so, the design is said to 
be powdered, but where the ornament exists in small masses 
with considerable space between, the effect is said to be 
spotted. 

11. Diaper. — We will now consider by itself each of 
these systems of arrangement : First comes the diaper — this 
consists of a pattern that regularly repeats itself so as to com- 
pletely cover a surface without interval, or in such a way 
that any interval that exists will form a part of the pattern. 
"It is what is usually termed an all-over pattern — an arrange- 
ment of a most systematic character wherein each detail of 
the pattern is confined to an allotted space and does not 
overrun its boundaries. 

The forms on which the diaper is based may be of any 
shape, and frequently different forms may be used in the 
same diaper design alternating with each other both ver- 
tically and horizontally. This is shown in Fig. 14 where, 
at ia) and (5), the geometrical forms governing the 
diaper are squares and lozenge shapes, and at (c), tan- 
gent circles. 

18. As the diaper developed historically, the pattern in 
each geometrical section was permitted to extend over and 
run into the succeeding section, thereby tending in a slight 
degree to obliterate the apparent geometric formation as 
shown at (d') and (e) ; and, finally, as it developed still more, 
the boundaries became ornamented as well as the spaces 
enclosed by them, and the diaper took a form shown at (/). 
It was then but a short step to the time when the formal 
all-over pattern developed itself, and arrived at what we 
consider the ordinary diaper pattern of the present day, 
which consists of a surface decoration that rarely shows its 
geometrical construction no matter how regular that con- 
struction may be. 

In Fig. 15 are shown four designs, at («), (3), (c), and 
(d'), wherein, after the geometrical guide lines have been 
removed, it is a difficult matter to trace the character of 



14 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



8 



the ornament. Each geometrical form shown dotted in 
these designs contains the complete details of all the oma- 




FlG. 15. 

ment of the entire surface and they repeat in each direction 

unlimitedly. 

19. Fig. 16 shows additional patterns taken from pieces of 
tapestry of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, whereon 
the geometrical expression of the design has been empha- 
sized for the purpose of illustration. At (a) the square is 
the basis on which the design is constructed and contains 
every detail of the entire pattern, but in two forms, one of 




Fig. 16. 





(h) 




(W 





"7^7" 



5i§l 




♦15' 

? 




..ews^yek & 



(f) 



Fig. 17, 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 17 

which is the reverse of the other, forming what might be 
considered a right-and-left pattern, so to speak. At (d), 
however, the rectangle containing all the details of the 
design is repeated without reverse both above and below 
and on each side of itself. At (c), where the design is based 
on the lozenge shape, the pattern consists of a simple repe- 
tition of the lozenge "form in diagonal directions on each of 
the four sides of its origin, while at ( d) the general design 
is based on the circle, and the parts filled in, as well as the 
parts between the circles, are emphasized in the design and 
almost obliterate the geometrical basis of the construction. 
From this it can be seen that the extent to which a system 
of diapering can be varied is unlimited, and checkering is 
so similar to it that we can readily see it also has no 
limitation. 

20. Clieckering. — In Fig. 17, at (a) and [d), are shown 
two systems of surface decoration by means of checker 
work ; at (a) the individual lines separating the checkers are 
omitted from the design and the checker filling alone is 
used, but at (d) the vertical lines of at least a part of the 
checker work are maintained in the design, and the fillings 
branch from either side of them in conventionalized floral 
forms. 

31. Striping, Paneling, Banding, Spotting and 
PoAvdering. — The effect obtained by striping is shown in 
Fig. 17 at (r), w^here the broad stripe down the center of the 
panel is blended into the border to improve the effect, while 
the space each side is broken by a single spot. At {d) the 
stripes run diagonally across the panel and divide its surface 
up into a number of bands. At (f) is shown the appearance 
of a panel decorated by spotting alone. Here a large cen- 
tral spot forms a main feature and two smaller spots are 
placed above and b;-low, the whole being balanced by means 
of vertical and horizontal lines. At {/) is shown the effect 
in panel work of spotting and powdering, the whole being 
arranged on a lozenge system of checker work, but destroyed 
from a checker work effect by the powdered background. 



18 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§8 



APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT. 



HANGING FABRICS. 

23. Propriety of Design. — In applying ornament to 
any surface the greatest consideration must be given to 
the question of purpose. The style and method of deco- 
rating a textile fabric may be very appropriate for itself 
and altogether inappropriate when 'applied to a wall sur- 




FiG. 18. 



face. For instance, even in the same class of goods, a 
woven fabric that is to be used on a wall surface must 
necessarily present a different problem in design from 
one that is to form a hanging over a doorway — one is 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



19 



stiff, flat, and hard, from the surface it is called upon 
to cover ; the other is soft, movable, and flexible, and 
uneven in surface when in use; and a design that is suit- 
,able for the one would surely be greatly out of place for 
the other. 



33. Here it must again be suggested that the method in 
the style of design that will best accent the qualities desired 
in each material will be the method most suitable in con- 
structing the design. The wall must appear flat, and for 
that reason a design that will not show any particular direc- 
tion will be more suitable. 
Vertical and horizontal stripes 
must not form any part in 
the decoration, and a scheme 
based on diapering or pow- 
dering, or an all-over system 
of paneling, will be allow- 
able. 



34. On the other hand, a 
curtain that is hung from a 
pole is suitable to striping, 
and horizontal or oblique 
stripes work in very naturally 
for such a purpose, as shown 
in Fig. 18, as through the 
folds the stripes are broken 
and the strongest effect of 
the movability and softness 
of the goods is brought out. 
Vertically striped patterns are to be avoided as hangings, 
as their design tends to confusion, emphasizing the folds 
of the goods instead of harmonizing them, as shown in 
Fig. 19. 

Another point that should be considered in designing 
hangings is the size of the pattern compared with the weight 
and quality of the goods — a heavy material that will lie in 




Fig. 19. 



20 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

bold round folds can support a pattern of large details and 
vigorous design, but light goods that hang in delicate undu- 
lations require a delicate handling in order that the pattern 
may not appear incongruous or heavy for the goods. 



"WALL DECORATION. 

35. Methods of Treatment. — In the wall decoration 
of large and important rooms, the figures forming the detail 
of the decoration may be bold and heavy, but in small rooms 
of less importance in character the figures of the decoration 
should be suificiently reduced not to attract the eye from the 
other harmonies of the room. 

Aside from the scale of the detail of the pattern, there 
should be considered the order of its distribution, for when 
we begin to divide a surface into its different sections we 
must consider the value of each section and the relative 
importance each is to occupy in the design. For instance, 
should we divide our wall into dado, wall surface, and frieze, 
and possibly subdivide these members by moldings and 
borders, we are emphasizing an idea derived from a struc- 
tural value — the pedestal, column, and entablature of an 
architectural order — and the parts having the greatest struc- 
tural value should, therefore, receive the most severe treat- 
ment, while those of less importance may have a delicate 
and more picturesque treatment. The dado, being the 
support of the wall surface, must therefore receive the 
plainest and most dignified decoration, while the wall sur- 
face itself may be freely treated with a diaper or spotted 
decoration, and the frieze, with an elaborate though delicate 
treatment. 

36. Pilaster Foi-ms of Treatment. — Sometimes the 
wall may be divided by means of pilasters so that it consists 
of a number of panels ; then it loses its character as an entire 
wall surface, and the panels should be decorated individu- 
ally, while the pilasters as structural members should receive 
proper treatment of importance and dignity. 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 31 

There is a strong objection in some cases to using the 
pilaster form of treatment as a surface decoration, inasmuch 
as it has too much of a structural significance, but it is fre- 
quently necessary to break the monotony of a long wall sur- 
face, and if the actual pilasters cannot be built to bring 
about the effect, a decorative pilaster may be used with per- 
fect propriety, provided always that it is a conventional 
representation of one and not a realistic counterfeit. It 
is in this that the danger of using structural forms in 
wall decoration exists. The pilaster may, and properly 
should, suggest the idea of the form of decoration with 
which we effect the subdivision, but a false and painted 
pilaster is most assuredly highly out of place as the divi- 
ding member. 

37. Effects of Vertical and Horizontal Decorating. 

It will also be well to remember that the methods of wall 
decoration have each a marked effect upon the general 
appearance of a room. Horizontal divisions of the wall 
increase the effect of comfort and coziness in an apartment 
but reduce the apparent height of its ceiling, and if the 
upper and lower divisions of the wall are overdeveloped 
in order to get this horizontal effect, the cramped posi- 
tion of the intermediate space will reduce the apparent 
height of the ceiling almost to an exaggeration. On the 
other hand, vertical divisions of the wall into panels or 
by means of pilasters, tend to increase the apparent 
height- of the ceiling at the expense of the cozy and home- 
like appearance of the apartment. Such treatment is per- 
missible only in the more formal rooms of a building, 
where great dignity and less familiarity of surroundings 
are required. 

38. In the preparation of patterns for wall decoration, 
whether they are to be stencils, direct paintings, or designs 
for the paper stainer, weaver, or textile printer, there are 
alwaj's technical matters in each industry that must be con- 
sidered, besides the mere handling of the design, and the 



22 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

conditions by which each design is more or less limited must 
be thoroughly understood by the designer if the artistic 
element is to be carried to its fullest possibilities. 

39. Wall-Paper Design. — Wall papers are printed 
from blocks or rolls varying in size from 18 to 22 inches 
square, though most English papers are printed from blocks 
21 inches square; and to practically space out a design it 
requires that the number of fundamental forms or repeats 
must-be so adjusted as to fit one of these blocks; otherwise, 
perfect repetition in all directions will be impossible. It 
must also be remembered that no matter whether the pat- 
tern is based on the square, the rectangle, or the triangle, 
the paper will be printed from a square block and in runs of 
about 12 yards. The block may contain one repeat or more 
than one repeat or even only a portion of a repeat, accord- 
ing to the scale of the pattern, and in all cases the extension 
of the repeat in a vertical direction is attained by repeated 
printings from the block, while the horizontal repeats are 
matters for the paper hanger to carry out when he places 
the hangings side by side. The dimensions of the printing 
block will therefore control, to a large extent, the size and 
proportion of the pattern, and the pattern must always be 
so adjusted that the repeat will occur with the utmost 
accuracy in both directions. 

30. Size of tlie Repeat. — For instance, suppose we 
adopt the lozenge form as the basis of our pattern, as shown 
in Fig. 20 at («), and comparing it with the proposed design, 
discover that it will yield a pattern far too large for the 
character of the subject we desire to have printed; there- 
fore, we make the block contain one and one-half of the 
form for repeat as shown at ((^) ; but this, while it reduces 
the scale of our design, at the same time so alters the pro- 
portions of OUT figure that we cannot readily handle it. 
The arrangement of two lozenge shapes, as at (c), in the 
same space that we originally attempted to put one, as at 
(a), still further decreases the relative proportion between 



§8 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



33 



the width and the height of our geometrical form. There- 
fore, if it is necessary that our pattern should preserve the 
same proportion as our lozenge shape in Fig. 20 (a), we 
must shorten the block somewhat as expressed at {/), or 
adopt the arrangement shown at {e), which reduces our 





< IBinches • 


1 





/ s / 

/ \ / 
/ 

Y 

\ / \ 

\ / \ 
\ / \ 
\ / \ 



I \ / \ 

/ \ / \ 

'' V '^ 

N / \ / 

\ / \ ,' 



(a) 



(h) 



(c) 









A y 









/ \ 



\ 



<f) 



<d) 



Fig. 20. 



repeat to one-half the size we started with at («), and we 
can therefore see that in adapting any form to suit a block 
of a given size we are compelled to alter the proportion or 
greatly reduce the scale. 



31. If the size of the pattern indicated in Fig. 20 at {b) 
is satisfactory and if the change of its proportion is of no 
great account, it will be found that the method of repetition 
differs from that in {a), (c), and {e) and that it will not 
repeat by being placed side by side on the same level, as in 
Fig. 21 at («), and therefore the horizontal repetition of the 
pattern must be effected by lowering the pattern half a 
block when placed side by side as shown at {b). Patterns 
arranged in this way for hangings are technically known as 
"drop pattern," because the decorator has to drop the paper 
half the width of one block when pasting it on the wall. 
The chief object attained in adopting the drop pattern is the 



24 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§8 



avoidance of too small a scale, as can be seen in Fig. 30. 
The largest possible scale that can be worked on this piin- 
ciple, next to the full size shown at {a), is shown at {d), and 
the arrangement shown at (d), though satisfactory for a 

repetition horizontally by 
dropping the pattern one- 
third of a block, will not 
repeat vertically and so can- 
not be printed. 

33. Proportion of tlie 
Unit. — Here is the first 
problem that confronts us in 
making a repeat pattern. 
We have in Fig. 30 six 
schemes of arrangement by 
which to adapt the form 
shown at («) to a different 
scale of pattern, each of 
which is likely to present 
certain unsurmountable dis- 
advantages. The scheme at 
{b) may be too narrow for the 
height according to the work of the design; (c) is still more 
so; {d) presents us with a smaller pattern than (a) in the 
same proportion, but one that cannot be printed owing to 
its lack of vertical repeat ; (e) being but half the size of {a) 
may be too small; and (_/"), though suitable in every respect 
for a drop pattern, demands that the proportions of the 
printing block be changed, which is not a convenient thing 
to do. We therefore must resort to the printing of our 
pattern in large scales as at («), or reduce its proportions to 
the forms shown at (i^) and {e). 




33. Bringing this down to a practical basis, we have in 
Fig. 22 at [a) the diagram of a wall-paper pattern on a basis 
of geomertrical figures and at (b) the method of dropping it 
in order to secure the satisfactory repeats. This, however, 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



25 




is not the only method of 
securing repeating pat- 
terns used by designers. 
The plan of cutting the 
paper into equal sections 
after the first elements of 
the design have been laid 
out and then transposing 
the pieces during the 
process of design, has been 
heretofore discussed and is 
certainly more suitable for 
designs where the treat- 
ment is free, such as that 
shown in Fig. 15 at (i5). 
By this method the artist 
can work with greater 
freedom and always be 
sure of the accuracy of 
his repeats. 

34. Coloring in Wall 
Paper. — Another detail in 
the manufacture of wall 
paper that must always be 
considered, is the question 
of color, and the number 
of colors to be used should 
always be governed to a 
certain extent by the scale 
of the pattern. If the 
scale be small, several 
colors may be used, as 
the diminutiveness of the 
details will cause the colors 
to blend and show no 
effect of brilliant or dark 
spots, which would appear 



26 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

in a wall surface where the pattern was large. In a large 
pattern, however, the colors must be few, or so subdued in 
tint that none of them is obtrusive. 

35. Fitness of Pattern. — In the character of patterns 
that are suitable for wall papers, the law of fitness should 
govern us always. The limitations of the processes of 
printing affect our repetition, but not the growth and devel- 

- opment of our design. Patterns that are made up of a con- 
ventional repetition of a given type are well adapted to block 
printing, but patterns having the appearance of a natural 
growth are but ill suited to this class of work, as the iden- 
tical lines must occur again and again throughout the deco- 
rated space, and the characteristic irregularity of nature is 
thus violated. 

36. The only way to present a naturalistic treatment of 
a wall surface is by some process that favors the principle of 
variety. Hand painting is the only means by which ever 
changing variety may be attained to an unlimited extent. 
Therefore, the fitness of methods to the realization of the 
besfdesigns justifies us in saying that conventional patterns 
are best suited to the mechanically repeated process of print- 
ing, and naturalistic designs must always be executed by 
hand painting. 

37. Friezes. — We will now consider the subject of 
frieze decoration, which bears the same relation to the wall 
surface as the capital does to the column, or the entablature 
to an architectural order, and it should be borne in mind 
that inasmuch as the capital of a column is made more elab- 
orate and interesting than is the shaft itself, just in such 
proportion should the frieze design of the wall be elaborated 
over the decoration of the general surface. 

It should also be borne in mind that the scheme of deco- 
ration of a frieze should be more complicated and interesting 
than the wall, because it occupies a structural position and 
also because it is removed beyond a point of danger from 
damage from moving furniture, etc. , but at the same time 



§8 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



27 




fa) 



fe^*M*^ 



n>) 




(c) 







Pig. 2E 



28 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



its elevated position requires that its decoration should be 
simple so as to be easily understood at a distance. 

38. There are four distinctively different ways in which 
a frieze may be treated. It may contain a continuous run- 
ning pattern as shown at (a) in Fig. 23— a system of treat- 
ment in accord with the Gothic system of decoration and 
observable in many o_f the carved friezes of Gothic art, but 
unfortunately productive of rather a weak effect when used 
for plain surface decoration. 

A better method is by the introduction of a number of 
vertical ornaments as shown at {d) somewhat after the clas- 




FlG. 34. 



sic method of frieze decoration as shown in Fig. 24, which is 
a portion of a frieze from a Greek temple. Several separate 
details of this character may be joined by horizontal running 
ornament, as shown in Fig. 23 at (c), and this we might con- 




FlG. 35. 



sider somewhat more in sympathy with the Renaissance 
system of treating this detail, as shown in Fig. 25. 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 29 

The fourth method, shown at {d), is by the introduction of 
a number of panels, but this is only applicable where a 
severe form of treatment is desired. The system of filling 
a frieze with a few vertical ornaments is entirely in accord 
with the structural conditions and recalls the vertical mem- 
bers in the triglyphs of the Doric order, and the dentals in 
the Ionic and Corinthian. 

It makes no difference whether we lay out our frieze by 
an arrangement of panels or by simple vertical elements, we 
must bear in mind that it is always wise to accentuate the 
structural lines, but the extent to which this is permissible 
depends on the general scheme, adopted. If the scheme of 
design is severe and dignified, structural accentuation may 
be carried out to a greater degree than if the treatment be 
light and fanciful. 

39. Borders. — Borders are used sometimes in wall deco- 
ration to separate the frieze and the dado from the filling or 
wall space, or are sometimes used as the boundaries of 
panels. Their primary office in design is usually to prevent 
the decoration of one surface from lapping over and imping- 
ing on that of another; therefore, an elaborate border of 
complicated design requires a separating element of a plainer 
character in order to keep its design froni mixing with the 
design of the filling and thereby forming a part of the 
patterns it is intended to separate. This is sometimes 

' accomplished by making a distinct contrast between the 
character of the pattern of the border and that of the 
filling. This may be done in matter of color, or in the 
arrangement of lines, allowing vertical lines to predomi- 
nate one, and horizontal lines to form the characteristics 
of the other. 

40. Another use to which the border is put is that of 
the enclosing of an ornament in order to confine it and give 
it an expression of unity as illustrated in Fig. 3 of Elements 
of Ornament. In the case of pictures, the application of a 
border in the form of a frame is to separate it from the more 



30 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



conventional rendering of the wall surface on which it hangs 
and confine the attention to that which is enclosed. 

41. The treatment of the border depends entirely on 
the space around it, and the character of the design must be 
carefully studied in order that the border may not be of 
more interest than the picture. Occasionally, when the 
subject does not allow the enclosure a proper border, a 
simple line around the edge to confine it to its apparently 
allotted space is sometimes sufficient to satisfy the eye, but 
this method should be but sparingly used and only when 
some good reason warrants its adoption. 

The character of the border, as said before, must be 
studied relatively to the design surrounded ; for instance, in 
Fig. 36 is shown a panel of conventional design where at («) 




the simple line border is readily seen to be insufficient, 
while at (b) a heavier boi'der is introduced and suits its pur- 
pose better. There is no rule that requires the design of a 



33 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



border to be simply a band around its subject demanding 
parallel lines, and in Fig. 27 is shown a design where the 
inside of the border is not parallel with the outside, but con- 
sists of a surrounding member of special design to suit its 
particular purpose. 

In Fig. 28 we have at {a) a panel of foliated ornament 
surrounded by a border composed of. details, the interest of 
which is too great and consequently conflicts with the inter- 
est in the panel itself ; but at [b] the same foliated ornament 
is reduced in the border to a conventional rendering, thereby 
suiting its purpose exactly and enhancing the value of the 
design instead of detracting from it. 

43. Corners.. — Besides the consideration of borders, 
attention should be given to the consideration of corners 
where borders turn around a frame or wall surface, and it 
should always be remembered that a frame is structurally 
formed in one of several ways, the three most prominent 
of which are shown in Fig. 29, where at {a) we have the 



(a) 



(b) 



t: 



(0) 



Fig. 29. 



miter joint, at {b) a square joint, and at (c) the joggled or 
halved joint. The joint is always apparently the weakest 
part of a structure, therefore the ornament should be added 
in such a way as to apparently strengthen this part of it, and 
in laying out a design it is advisable to start at the corner 
and apply the ornament in such a manner that it will appear 
to hold the corner in position and extend itself over the 
vertical and horizontal pieces. 

43. Pilasters. — Besides horizontal borders, there are 
vertical elements that fulfil the same functions, and under 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



33 



this consideration may be included the decorative elements 
of pilasters and other upright divisions of a wall surface. 

Many lines used for horizontal borders have often been 
used in the decoration of pilasters, subject to certain modifi- 
cations in order to adapt them ; but this course is not to be 
commended, as there are four systems of pilaster decoration 
that seem to have satisfied the wants of mankind in the best 
periods of art without any general modification or improve- 
ment. 

44:. In one of these the elements of the design are built 
in stages and symmetrically disposed around a central stalk 
as shown in Fig. 30 at {a). This method gives us the 





(aj 



(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



impression of support and vertical feeling of stability charac- 
teristic of the pilaster itself. The second method is where 
the ornament is tied together in bunches apparently and 
suspended over the surface of the panel of the pilaster by a 



34 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

cord or ribbon as shown at {d), and this treatment should 
be used only when the pilaster itself is of vigorous design 
and requires no element to apparently strengthen its ability 
to support. A third method is arranged upon a succession 
of spirals growing apparently in vine form from the bottom 
of the pilaster or panel and neither adding to nor detracting 
from its value as a structural member, as shown at (c). The 
fourth method, shown at (d), is similar in effect to the first, 
and is based on a series of wave lines crossing and recrossing 
a central stem without in any way adding to its apparent 
support. 

45. In the treatment of these, designs («) and (d), being 
additions to the development of structural feeling, will 
require a conventional rendering of their details. The cen- 
tral axis must be strong, and architectural elements can be 
used in the subdivisions. On the other hand, the light delicate 
treatment of (6) and (c) will permit of a naturalistic rendering, 
and grape-vine, ivy, or morning- gtory patterns, never suit- 
able to the other surroundings, may form the type on which 
the design is based. 

CEILIIS'G DECORATION. 

46. In every room there are two surfaces that require 
consideration in connection with the architecture and deco- 
rative treatment; these are the ceiling and the floor. The 
first of these is usually the least decorated part of any 
apartment, though in many historic buildings the conditions 
are quite the reverse. 

4'7. In decorating the ceiling it should always be remem- 
bered that this detail of a room acts as a reflector of light 
and should therefore be treated in such a manner that its 
ornamentation will not render the apartment gloomy, and 
particularly if the ceiling is low. It should certainly be 
in harmony, both in design and color, with other details of 
the room and particularly with the frieze or cornice with 
which it is surrounded. Its design may consist of the most 
simple treatment, limited to a border, with ornaments at the 



§8 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



35 



corners to strengthen them; or it may consist of a number 
of structural lines covering the whole surface, particularly 
if a structural treatment is given the frieze. This may be 
understood somewhat by referring to Fig. 31, which shows a 




r ®B^^^^iii:^^^® M^^E® 



-» • > J. 'I 



*v , 







> 



-^_/ / / / / 



:-^ / / / /^^ 















® 



■51©!^ 



® 



m3im\ " ^ ' ^ 




i 
ft 



Fig. 31. 

Structural arrangement of a ceiling resulting in panels of 
irregular sizes and shapes, each of which forms a subject for 
individual decoration according to its value in relation to the 
others. This was the usual treatment accorded the French 
buildings in the beginning of the nineteenth century. 



38 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

48. Adaptability of Decoration. — Care must be taken 
to suit the' general decoration to the purposes of the room 
and the character of its surroundings in each case, and 
where a room is small and the intention is to have it cosy 
and comfortable, a mild, delicate treatment of ceiling will 
be found the most satisfactory; but, in large halls and 
assembly rooms, a ceiling can be elaborated with more 
interesting subjects, as there will be a number of points 
from which it can be studied. This was the method of 
treating the Pompeian ceilings, as shown in Fig. 34. 

49. It should also be mentioned that all ceilings are not 
fiat — some are arched, somfe are domed, and some have" pre- 
served the natural conditions 'by the insertion of paneling 
between the beams. The decorative treatment of each of 
these must be considered according to its case. 

Flat ornament must not be applied to curved surfaces, as 
it is likely to appear distorted, and the decorative details 
that are suited for long narrow panels, in the depths of 
which illumination will be poor, are certainly not suited to 
broad, open wall space. With domed and arched ceilings, 
the character of the ornament should tend to vertical ele- 
ments where the ceiling joins the side walls, and gradually 
shape itself to horizontal elements as it rounds overhead, 
each of these blending into the other to preserve unity in 
the design. 

rLOOE DBCOEATIOlf. 

50. Necessity of riatness. — In covering the floors of 
an apartment, no matter what the material is to be, it should 
always be borne in mind that the prime element to be con- 
sidered is that of the flatnisss of surface. It is proper that a 
ceiling should be paneled, domed, or vaulted; that a side 
wall should consist of pilasters and framed pictures, of pro- 
jecting and overhanging entablatures, or be supported upon 
a continuous dado; but under all conditions the floor is fiat 
and any decoration that tends to' interfere with this flatness 
is out of place, and wrong. 



|8 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



37 




Fig. 84. 



// 






I I 

mill 






ir I ij 



f "'lli'i' 



II 



I • [I A > I dr in lj 



1,111 llllllll )' 
,„ '', ,1 'l| 



''Hill ""r"'ii' I 
, I ii,if,.,i,i"' . 




APPLIED DESIGN. 



39 



The general practice of designing floor coverings to have 
the appearance of an uneven surface is found more in carpets 
than in tiles or parquetry, but this mistake will be found in 
all materials. This can best be expressed by a few illustra- 
tions. 

For instance, in Fig. 35, at {a) is shown a simple border 
pattern for parquetry, wherein the design appears to possess 
an interlaced effect of one strap passing over and then under 



xxxx 



(a) 



V V V ♦ 




P>) (d) 

Fig. 35. 



another, which, if true, would make the floor uneven and 
therefore undesirable. A better method of treating this on 
the same lines is shown at [b), where the flatness of feeling 
is preserved. 

The same may be said of the tile-work pattern shown at 
{c), wherein the arrangement of lozenge- shaped tiles is such 
that it gives one the impression of a series of cubes standing 
on tlieir corners, which certainly is most undesirable. A 
better treatment is shown at {d). 

51. Softness of Outliiie. — In carpet designs, the pat- 
terns usually take a less rigid form than in tile work, 
mosaic, etc. , because the nature of the material is such that, 
besides the expression of flatness, consideration must be 



f /V^ ^y ij: 



I \ 
II 



ii'lli 

1, '""/ '„,,.i" i",|iii' 

"'■,"1"'"' .''''I,' Ifllll',,, " 1,1, 






i'|i|,i ^ 



Kn III'' 

■ f 



%fV 



'I '" M 



I II I'll 



ivili, 

I L 



4y,i''4'\ 













o 







•#- 4 T I V "^ r K -^^ • 1 1? iB^ ^^-^ -y' 



§8 APPLIED DESIGN. 41 

given to the flexibility of its character. Carpet usually pos- 
sesses a soft and somewhat yielding surface and it is there- 
fore proper that patterns woven in -it should be made up 
largely of curved lines that are more expressive of softness 
and flexibility than are straight lines — symbolic of firmness 
and strength. 

Great contrast in a carpet design is undesirable, because it 
is expressive of hardness and firmness, at variance with the 
character of the material. For instance, in Fig. 36 at («) the 
appearance of the design is uneven and there is too great a 
contrast between the tones of color used. The treatment at 
(b) is better and gives a flatter appearance, but the outlining 
of the pattern has increased the contrast of the general 
ground. At (c), however, the tones are brought nearer 
together and the entire appearance is flat and soft, so that 
the pattern and the ground melt and blend into each other 
in a harmonious manner entirely suitable to the material and 
its purpose. 

TTTBNSILS AND VASES. 

53. _ Origin. — All objects that are products of industrial 
art have evolved by successive developments from some 
simple form that was originally constructed to serve a utili- 
tarian pixrpose only. The most elaborate forms of cups, 
vases, furniture, jewelry, etc. each have a most elementary 
origin, and various alterations, for reasons of convenience, 
have been forced upon them, in accordance with the con- 
stantly altering conditions of society. 

Take, for instance, a cup ; this vessel has its origin in the 
desire of prehistoric man to provide himself with some vessel 
of capacity in which to collect water to drink and for other 
purposes. The earliest cups and bowls were doubtless 
natural ones, consisting probably of gourds, shells, horns of 
animals, etc., and these crude implements satisfied man's 
requirements until a more cultivated period of society was 
attained, and we find man manufacturing utensils of clay. 
Nothing was more natural than that he should imitate 
in clay the same forms and shapes to which he had been 



42 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

accustomed in nature, and we find the earliest vases and 
vessels modeled on a form of the gourd, shell, drinking 
horn, etc. 

53. The earliest form of a vessel used for catching water 
from a spring would naturally be a wide-mouthed bowl on 
the sides of which were provided handles for holding it, as 
shown in Fig. 37 ; but, although this is well conceived for 

receiving dripping water, it is poorly 
adapted to the carrying of it, because 
the least motion would cause the water 
to spill, it having so large a surface, and 

for carrying purposes a narrow-mouthed vessel was far 

superior. 

Both conditions, however — that of receiving the water, 

and that of carrying it — had to be provided for, and we thus 

arrive at a vessel designed to suit the double purpose in the 

form shown in Fig. 38. Here the wide mouth is still retained, 

while the under part is narrowed down in 

order to present a small surface of water to 

be affected by the oscillation of the body in 

walking, thereby reducing the chance of 

spilling. In this simple necessity we arrive 

at the first form of vase, with its large 

body, narrow neck, and expanding top, and ^''°' ^' 

we find that its origin was due to necessity and not to 

fancy. 

54. Development of the Drinking Cnp. — Now, let 
us turn for a moment to the ordinary drinking cup that we 
find in various forms. In Fig. 39 at {a} is shown a form of 
cup that is common even at the present day and undoubtedly 
had its origin in the section of some animal's horn, and it is 
this form of cup that has received the greatest development 
throughout successive ages of history. 

Although this horn shape is decidedly serviceable in use, 
it had a tendency to be easily overturned when filled with 
liqtiid, and at the same time there was danger of its slipping 
through the fingers when the exterior was wet, and a change 




APPLIED DESIGN. 



43 



in shape naturally resulted. The first of these difficulties 
was overcome by expanding the base somewhat, in order to 
give it a greater standing area, as shown at {d), while the 
slipping tendency was counteracted by an alteration of the 



(a} 



(b) 



(c) 



I — n 

(d) 



\ \ 



(ej 







outline as shown at (c), or by means of raised rings as shown 
at {d). The gathering of the part below these rings brings 
us to the form shown at (e) and introduces us to the first 
idea of a stem below the glass. 

55. The parts of the cup then assumed specified names, 
the extreme top being termed the lip, the lower part the 



44 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

body, the portion between the body and the stem was called 
the calyx, and then came the stem and the foot. 

The next development was on the principle of extension 
of individual parts: first, the development of the calyx, so 
that it was emphasized beyond the body of the cup^ as shown 
at (/) and {g-) ; then the decoration of the frieze below the 
lip became a feature, and, subsequently, for the purpose of 
keeping out dust, etc. , a cover was added, as shown at (k). 

56. The term Iiauap is usually applied to those vessels 
with covers to distinguish them from the open ones, and 
when such vessels were made of large size — so large, in. 
fact, that they could not be handled without great incon^ 
venience — it became necessary to elongate the stem in order 
that it might be grasped entirely around by the hand, or 
else to add on one or two sides of the cup a handle. To 
distinguish these two, it was necessary to call the large glass 
with a stem a hanap, while the one that was lifted by means 
of a side handle was termed a tankard. 

The introduction of the long stem brought as a necessity 
of construction another detail, the knop, which is a ball or 
protuberance in the middle of the stem to keep it from slip- 
ping through the hand, as shown at (7) of Fig. 39, and the 
stem was extended so that it was necessary to add a finial or 
knob on the center of the cover, in order to preserve the 
line of balance and apparent stability of a cup. 

57. As luxury became more general, drinking vessels 
became elaborately ornate and engraved and were regarded 
more as articles indicative of wealth than for actual use. 
The enrichment of the surface of the hanaps was usually 
produced by three general methods, all of which are depend- 
ent, for their effect, on the contour they bring about. The 
first method is to add variety to the outline, the second 
method to develop individual parts, and the third method to 
subdivide the surface. 

The alteration in outline arose largely through the influ- 
ence of the nature of the material used and the method of 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 45 

working. The precious metals, owing to their ductility, 
were worked to a great thinness, and, consequently, became 
so light as to be particularly flimsy; to resist the damage 
the surface was likely to undergo from indentation, the 
sides were usually bulged and beaten into various regular 
forms in order to give them strength. This method of 
working was soon adopted as a decorative feature. 

58. Another method of strengthening the stem that 
became a source of ornamentation was the adding of small 
cast supports and braces at different parts of the stem, it 
being believed that these would add stiffness to the whole. 
They were, in the first place, adopted to overcome the tend- 
ency of interior pressure on the vessel and to strengthen the 
junction of the calyx and stem, and they not only gave sup- 
port to the vessel but added a very pleasing effect and sug- 
gested undoubtedly to the mind of soine subsequent worker 
the possibilities of an extended application. 

59. Development of the Tase. — The development of 
what is modernly known as the vase had for its origin the 
water cup shown in Fig. 39. This was developed in various 
forms, until we arrive at the perfected work of the Greeks, 
where the surface was covered with ornamentation appro- 
priate to its position, and moldings were carved with that 
extreme skill for which the Greek was ever noted. 

60. Tlie Clialice. — Another form of cup is the chalice, 
and it appears to have been developed from the primitive 
bowl suggested in Fig. 37. Bowls of that character were in 
early Greek times supported on a short stem, and the next 
step — that of elongating the stem and suppression of the side 
handles — became necessary when the cup was used for drink- 
ing purposes only. This form of drinking cup is not the 
one that was used for religious purposes, and extensive 
changes ■«rere subsequently made in order to suit it for its 
specific purposes. 

The knop was added to the stem in order that it could be 
more easily grasped, and the base was greatly extended over 



46 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§8 



that of. other drinking cups in order to minimize the danger 
of upsetting. The base was afterwards made irregular in 
shape, so that when the chalice was laid on the side to 
drain, as it frequently was, it would not tend to roll in 

one direction or the other, and 
incidental with these changes, 
the profile of the cup became 
somewhat altered, until it 
assumed generally the form 
shown in Fig. 40. 



^%';^ 




61. Tlie Jug and E-wer. — 

The jug and ewer seem to have 
been evolved by an entirely dif- 
ferent process from that which 
called into existence the vessels 
we have already considered, as 
these vessels have a long side 
handle for lifting them, instead 
of a stem. Ewers were prob- 
f ably derived from vases and 
beakers, by repressing the stem 
on one side and cutting the lip 

obliquely downwards so as to make it more serviceable, at 

the opposite side. 



Fig. 40. 



63. Handles. — In designing vessels with handles it is 
important to give proper consideration for the position of 
the handle with relation to the lips and spouts of the vessel, 
in order that its contents may not act against the pouring 
action. The point whereat a vessel can best be grasped and 
turned to pour out its contents will be a little above the 
center of gravity of the whole mass, and it is of the highest 
importance to determine the point of the center of gravity 
in order that the handle will be properly placed upon a 
pitcher. This may be very easily done, graphically, by cut- 
ting out, in cardboard, the form of a vertical section through 
the center of the proposed vessel and drawing on this 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



47 



section the vertical center line. If the card section is now 
hung, or supported, from any point on its upper edge, a 
vertical line passing through this point and across the center 
line will mark, where it crosses the center line, the center of 
gravity required. This experiment should always be tried 
in designing vases. 

63. The tracing of the development of these forms thus 
far shows conclusively that every detail has had its origin in 
necessity — that the elaboration of these details has progressed 
in harmony with man's inventive genius and general ability 
through several ages. It is well to understand, though, that 
up to the present time there is no reason why any two forms 
should have been molded on exactly the same lines, or why 
infinite variety cannot be obtained by working the changes 
on these simple forms. 

Too often the designer attempts to copy literally from 
nature in the production of some object, an idea for whose 
design he has drawn from a natural 
source. Take, for instance, the acorn, 
and assume that a vessel is to be 
designed with this simple detail as its 
model. To use the identical outline 
of the acorn, imitate its cap at the 
bottom, and raise it on a stem with a 
bunch of leaves for a base, in direct 
imitation of the original, is not design- 
ing a vessel on the type of the acorn, 
but making a metallic acorn suit the 
purpose of a drinking vessel. 

We should do better to borrow 
ideas of outline and structure from 
the acorn and produce a hanap of the style shown in Fig. 41. 
Here there is no direct imitation of nature — no attempt 
made to deceive the eye into the belief that this cup -is an 
acorn used for drinking purposes. 

64. Suggestions From Nature.— There is no form in 
nature that cannot, if intelligently used, be made to give 




Fig. 41. 



48 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§8 



suggestions for the design of vase and other forms. Take, 
for instance, the human form and extract its subtle lines, 
and one can readily, by repeating the soft curves on each 
side of an axial line, at least get suggestions that may be 
worked up into most pleasing forms. 

In Fig. 42 is shown a vase or bowl, the governing outline 
of which is formed by two profiles of the human face arranged 




at such an angle that they suit the conditions exactly. Such 
a design is suitable for execution in any wrought metal, but 
preferably in silver on account of the delicacy of some of its 
lines. The details of this design are associated with the sea, 
the base being formed of scallop shells, while the stem con- 
sists of groups of dolphins and other sea forms. The head 
of the mermaid at the top of the bowl is raised on the sur- 
face, and the locks of hair distributed in each direction as 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 49 

though floating on the waves of the sea give an irregular 
outHne to the top. The propriety of this distribution of 
hair is evident from two points; first, it produces the hori- 
zontal lines necessary to emphasize and apparently strengthen 
the weakest part of the vessel, and, second, applies a type 
of decoration consistent with the profile on which the out- 
line is formed. The handles consist of dolphins reduced to 
conventionalized forms according to the principles suggested 
in the discussion of the animal elements of design in Ele- 
ments of Ornament. 

It is not necessary in a design of this character that the 
entire profile should be used, or that it should be maintained 
in this position or particular angle. It may be varied to 
suit any conditions according to the artist's fancy, and is 
used here only to illustrate that an interesting outline may 
be applied to various widely differing objects, alwa}^s caus- 
ing a pleasing effect inasmuch as it is the proportions and 
variations of the curves of these outlines that satisfy the 
artistic eye. 

When such an outline is adopted, whether it is the profile 
of the human face, the curve of the neck, shoulder, or any 
other portion of the body, or an established outline of any 
other natural form, care should always be exercised that 
the surface decoration accompanying it is in harmony with 
the disposition of its various parts, and that members requir- 
ing a treatment in horizontal lines are not handled in accord- 
ance with the system of decoration that creates a wrong 
impression. Each thing should be suited to its place; no 
element should be applied unless it appears to be required, 
and no ornament should be placed so that it will destroy the 
effect of what is essentially an interesting outline or a well 
proportioned surface. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 

(PART 2.) 



TEXTILE FABRICS. 



GENERAL CONSIDEBATIOKS. 

1. Appropriateness of Design. — In making a design 
for any class of textile fabric, the first object to be con- 
sidered is, the use to which this fabric is to be applied. 
This having been determined, the ornament of the fabric 
can be considered either as part of the structure woven into 
the fabric itself, or stamped on its surface, as in cotton 
goods or in some silks. It thus appears that in the design 
of textile fabrics we do not necessarily work entirely on 
principles of art; but designate to the weaver, by means 
of drawings, details that are to confine him to a certain 
structure of goods. 

3. Purposes of Fabrics. — The use to which a fabric is 
to be put very materially determines its structure, and we 
may divide these uses, purely from a utilitarian standpoint, 
into two classes — coverings for the body to keep it warm, and 
coverings for our walls and furniture, primarily, perhaps, as 
a decoration, but, in reality, also to provide warmth. In 
both cases, the goods will be called upon to fulfil one condi- 
tion; that is, ivear, and in this subject of wear we are con- 
cerned entirely with the structure of the goods, its ornament 

§ 9 

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title page. 



3 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

affecting the wear only inasmuch as that ornament affects 
the structure. Some goods must bear strain in one direction 
to fulfil this condition of wear, others must be able to stand 
friction and general handling without apparent damage, and 
others are likely to be called upon for both these qualities. 

3. Textile fabrics may be generally described as a com- 
bination of interwoven or interlaced threads, and the struc- 
ture of that fabric consists of the method of interlacing these 
threads in order that the fabric may serve all the require- 
ments of its purpose. Now, the threads that go to make 
up any woven fabric are divided into two sets — the warp 
threads that run lengthwise of the goods on the loom and 
are practically continuous throughout the entire piece, and 
the weft threads that run crosswise of the goods and inter- 
weave with the warp. 

4. "Weaving. — This interweaving is effected in the loom 
by lifting a certain number of warp threads and passing the 
weft thread under them, after which another set of warp 
threads is lifted and another line of weft thread is passed 

under. If, in this system of weaving, 
we lift every other warp thread and 
pass the weft through, and then lift 
every alternate warp thread between 
and pass the weft thread back, we will 
produce a weave of plain goods, such 
as is shown in the diagram. Fig. 1, 
where the warp threads with the odd 
numbers 1, S, 6, etc. are lifted and 
the weft thread is passed through from 
a to b, then the even numbered warp 
threads 2, 4, 6, etc. are lifted and the weft thread is returned 
from b to c, and so on, alternately, weaving a piece of plain 
cloth the width of which remains constantly equal to ab, but 
the length can be unlimited and is determined entirely by 
the length of the warp threads that are wound on a cylinder 
in the loom, called the beam. 




§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 3 

The structural design of any woven fabric depends entirely 
on the arrangement of these warp and weft threads, while 
its wearing qualities and utility may be dependent on the 
character of the threads themselves, both as to the material of 
which they are made and the manner in which they are spun. 

5. Effect of Twist in "Weaving. — It will be seen from 
Fig. 1 that the twist of the thread, or yarn, in the warp 
threads is at right angles to the twist of the threads in the 
weft and that it will be necessary, therefore, that these 
threads should bend around one another and, thereby, leave 
small open spaces, instead of lying quite tight and close 
together. "• The thicker -the threads of which the fabric is 
made, the larger will be these open spaces ; and the thinner 
the thread, the smaller and closer will be the weave. Other 
conditions of the yarn will affect these perforations also, as 
a threadthat is soft and fuzzy will pack in rather closely 
and will practically fill up the open spaces by the projecting 
filaments of fuzz and make a piece of solid goods, so that in 
the mechanical process of weaving we can press the goods 
closely together and as the yarn springs out it will fill up 
'these small openings and produce a solid piece of goods. 
On the other hand, if the yarn is twisted hard, so as to make 
a firm, solid thread, it cannot be compressed as can the 
softer yarn, and it will, therefore, be worked less closely 
together, producing an open fabric, but, owing to the hard- 
ness of the thread, a fabric that will 
bear more wear from friction than 
the previous one. 




6. Now, in Fig. 2 we have an 
illustration of a fabric precisely the 
same as that in Fig. 1, except that 
the weft thread is twisted in its 
manufacture in the opposite direc- ^'°- ^■ 

tion to that of the thread used in the warp, and it will be 
observed that the lines of this twist are parallel in weft and 
warp and that when the threads are woven together the 



i APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

individual filaments of one will fall between the individual 
filaments of another and, thereby, mechanically produce a 
quality of goods superior to that of which we have just been 
speaking. 

It is therefore apparent that with the same quality of yarn 
- we can make a stronger fabric by using the method illus- 
trated in Fig. % than by using that shown in Fig. 1 and at 
precisely the same cost. This should always be borne in 
mind in working out a design for any piece of goods, 
whether it is to be ornamented or simply plain cloth, as one 
method will produce a close weave naturally, and another a 
close weave only by the use of soft or fuzzy yarn that can be 
made to expand, after being driven into position, 'and fill up 
the spaces. 

t. Now, before we go into the conditions under which 
different classes of goods are woven, we will consider the 
material of which the threads of this warp and weft are 
composed, and we can then more readily understand the 
effect that will be, hereafter, referred to in different classes 
of goods. 

CHARACTER OF THE THREADS. 

8. A thread is a filament composed of small fibers that 
are either drawn out parallel to one another or twisted 
together in order to make them more or less compact. The 
fibers of which threads are usually made are obtained from 
wool, cotton, silk, and flax, and each one produces a fiber of 
a particular character that causes conditions to arise that can 
be obtained with no one of the others. 

9. Wool Fibers. — A lock of wool examined under the 
microscope, just as it comes from the sheep, will show that 
its fibers are wavy and crimped, that the waves are exceed- 
ingly regular from end to end, and that the entire filament 
is covered with a series of small scales forming rings 
arranged around the filament and pointing from what was 
the root of the hair toward the top. If a piece of wool fiber 



I 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 5 

be drawn through the fingers from its root to its end, it will 
slip quite smoothly, but if drawn in the contrary direction, 
it will feel rough and present considerable resistance. 

It is the scales on its surface and the crinkliness in 
its length that gives to wool fiber its particular value, and 
when this fiber is spun into thread it is arranged so that 
these scales on its surface are opposed to one another as 
much as possible and thereby interlock and hold fast to 
one another, and the more the thread is spun the closer do 
they engage one another and the stronger does the filament 
become. 

10. Felting. — It is not only in the spinning that these 
scales are of value, but after the goods are woven they can 
be put through a process called felting, in which the fibers 
are pounded together and the scales made to interlock so 
firmly that the fabric becomes perfectly compact and homo- 
geneous so that it is with the greatest difficulty that the 
individual warp and weft threads may be discerned and 
unraveled. The waves, or crimps, in the fiber are of value 
in this operation, as well as the scales. The felting is 
effected by wetting the cloth with soapy water and apply- 
ing pressure. The result of this process is, that these 
fibers are straightened out and the scales of the opposing 
fibers engage, or lock in, with them, and when the pres- 
sure is removed the natural spring or crinkliness of the 
fiber causes it to return as ne'arly as possible to its origi- 
nal position and draws all of the other fibers with it, caus- 
ing compactness in the goods. This operation is repeated 
several times so that the threads lose their individuality 
and the cloth becomes a solid compact mass. Where felt- 
ing is carried out to its greatest extent, the threads must 
be especially prepared; and any pattern that is intended 
to appear in the weaving, through this process is seri- 
ously impaired or may be entirely lost. Different classes 
of wools vary materially in this quality of waviness, and, 
therefore, some are better suited than others to this class 
of work. 



6 APPLIED design: § 9 

11. Cotton Fibers. — Under the microscope, a wad of 
cotton appears materially different from a lock of wool. 
Cotton is a vegetable fiber and, when magnified, appears as 
a thin flat tube or ribbon considerably twisted, and these 
twists in the fiber are what give the strength to the cotton 
thread by interlocking with one another somewhat after the 
manner of the scales on the woolen thread. The cotton 
fiber, however, is soft and pliable and does not possess that 
natural crinkly spring that we find in the wool; hence, 
threads that we are able to spin from it are weak and 
do not possess the ability to be felted as do the woolen 
threads. 

13. Silk Fibers. — Silk is obtained from unwinding the 
filament from the cocoon of the silk worm and in reality is 
not materially different from ordinary spider's web. Under 
the microscope, it appears as a very straight, smooth, and 
highly polished fiber, somewhat like a glass rod. It is soft, 
exceedingly pliable, and lends itself readily to the forma- 
tion of a thread, but it cannot be spun like wool and cotton, 
as it has no peculiarities of surface that correspond to the 
scales of the former or the twists in the latter, and silk 
filaments can be made into thread only by twisting, a num- 
ber of filaments being twisted together into fine threads and 
then a number of these fine threads again twisted until a 
final thread of proper weight is obtained. 

13. Flax Fibers. — Flax is a vegetable fiber appearing 
like long blades of grass. It is cylindrical in form, and has 
knots at regular intervals throughout its length. These 
knots act, mechanically, in the spinning of the thread in a 
similar manner to the scales in the wool and the twists in 
the cotton fiber. 

14. Of each of these four classes of fibers we can make 
two entirely different kinds of thread, and it is in the manu- 
facture of this thread that we materially affect the orna- 
mentation and sometimes the structural formation of the 
fabric. 



§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. ? 

SPryNING THE FIBERS. 

15. In order to obtain a clearer idea of the effect that 
spinning has on the fibers, the subject of wool spinning is 
here considered. The entire process of preparing the 
woolen yarns is given from the time the wool is taken 
from the sheep's back until it is wound upon the bobbin or 
spool from which it is woven into the fabric. 

The wool comes to the mill in sacks and is emptied upon 
the floor and sorted, each lock being handled, examined, and 
placed in a separate pile, according to the quality and length 
of its fiber. It is then thoroughly washed, to free it from all 
impurities, and the fibers are then separated and straightened 
in a carding machine. 

16. Carding Machine. — A carding machine is com- 
posed of large rollers from which short wires project similar 
to the bristles in a brush. These wires have slightly hooked 
ends, and as they turn they lock into the fiber of the wool and 
carry it around the drum or roller as it revolves. On their way 
around the roller, the fibers come in contact with a similar 
roller turning in the opposite direction, thereby engaging part 
of the fibers and pulling them away from the others. Thus 
the fibers are separated and reseparated on these revolving 
drums, called cards, the wires on which become finer and closer 
together as the wool fiber proceeds, until at the end of the final 
drum it is scarcely rougher than a piece of fine sandpaper. 

There is no attempt here to keep the fibers parallel. 
They are simply separated and bunched together across the 
end of a cylinder forming a long soft rope-like sliver that 
possesses only tensile strength enough to support its own 
weight as it is drawn into a round box, or can, from which 
it is taken to the throstle frame, or to the spinning mule. 



XAJRIfS. 

17. There are two kinds of woolen thread — one, com- 
monly known as woolen, and the other as zvorsted thread. 
When wool is intended for the production of woolen thread. 



8 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

it is passed through two or three of these carding machines 
in order to reduce it to a finer quality. 

18. "Woolen Xarn.^The essential distinction between 
woolen and worsted yarns consists of a difference in the 
quality of the wool and of a difference in the methods of 
spinning into thread. Generally, it may be said that woolen 
yarns are made from shorter fibers than worsted yarns and 
of fibers that possess the highest felting qualities, or in 
other words, that are most sharply crinkled, and that the 
yarns are prepared from the carded fibers more or less 
crossed and interlocked with one another with no attempt at 
parallelism. Though these may be spun hard upon the 
mule frame, they form a light fltiffy yarn that is suitable, 
when woven into cloth, to produce a partially felted goods, 
which, in reality, is the distinguishing characteristic between 
woolen and worsted goods. 

19. "Worsted Yarn. — "Worsted yarns are generally 
made of the long silky varieties of wool, and the fibers are 
combed as well as carded, in order to bring them as nearly 
parallel to one another as possible. The spinning of worsted 
yarn is accomplished on a throstle frame and the thread is 
smooth and compact and does not partake of the character 
of felting in any part of its weaving. 

In all varieties of worsted and woolen yarns there is a 
tendency for each to partake largely of the characteristics of 
the other, some woolens being made from longer wool than 
are some worsteds, and worsteds being made from short 
staple wool, so that the actual length of the fiber has 
nothing to do with the classification, but its felting quality 
and method of conversion into thread forms the distinction. 

30. Preparing "Wool for Spinning. — "When the carded 
wool has passed through the third carding machine, it is in 
the form of a continuous evenly distributed mat around the 
last cylinder. To prepare it for spinning, it must be divided 
into a series of equal strips or ribbons, and these condensed 
into a round sliver sufficiently compact to stand winding on 



§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 9 

a bobbin. The condenser for doing this is attached to the 
carding machine, and as the strips pass off the drum they 
are acted on by a pair of rubbers that simply pinch the 
sliver down to a smaller size by compacting the fibers with- 
out twisting them. From this they pass to the spinning 
mule and are drawn down to fine threads. 

31. The Mule. — The mule frame on which this spinning 
is effected acts in a similar manner, but on a larger scale, to 
the old-fashioned spinning wheel. Large bobbins or spools 
of the wool sliver are placed on the frame and their ends 
drawn and attached to vertical spindles that revolve and 
give a twist to the yarn as it draws it. The frame contain- 
ing the spindles advances to the sliver spools and then 
backs away from them, as the sliver is gradually fed out as 
the spools revolve. The entire distance moved by the frame 
is 6 or 7 feet, during two-thirds of which the sliver is fed 
out as the frame recedes, but during the rest of the distance 
the spools remain stationary and the sliver is drawn or 
stretched, thereby becoming thinner, and at the same time 
it is rapidly twisted by the revolving spindles into an even 
compact thread. When this twist is completed, the mule 
frame advances toward the sliver spools again, and the spun 
threads just completed are wound upon the spindles as the 
mule frame advances. , 

22, The effect of this drawing and twisting at one time 
is one of the characteristics of woolen thread. It is evident 
that, in drawing, the stretch will not take place evenly and 
that some portions of the yarn will be thinner than the 
others ; but it is also evident that these thinner portions will 
be the ones that will be first affected by the twisting, or spin- 
ning, of the bobbins and when once twistecl become hard 
and less subject to drawing, thereby causing the thicker por- 
tions between them to be drawn out more. While the tend- 
ency of this work is to equalize the thread, somewhat, it is 
not sufficient to compensate entirely, and, therefore, woolen 
thread is unequal and irregular in its thickness. 



10 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

33. Knitting and Carpet Yams. — While the technical 
definition of worsted yarn requires that it be made of fibers 
that are parallel with one' another and it is restricted to two 
methods of manufacture — of long wool, by the method of 
drawing and combing, and of medium and short staple 
wools that are first carded and afterwards combed — we have 
a third class of worsted yarns, but in reality they are wor- 
sted only in the sense that they are not meant for felting. 
These are yarns for carpets and knitting yarns, each being 
full and open in structure and prepared for spinning simply 
by carding in the manner that woolen yarns are made. As 
said before, we class them as worsted yarns simply because 
they are not fit for felting. 

34. Combing'. — Before the slivers pass through the 
operation of combing, they are put through a gilling 
machine, for the purpose of making them uniform in size 
and quality and at the same time making all fibers parallel 
to one another. Several slivers are fed into the gilling 
machine, and drawn into one ; this process is repeated several 
times, if necessary, in order to get a final sliver of uniform 
quality throughout. It is then passed through a combing 
machine, which removes the short fibers and leaves the 
sliver even, compact, and uniform in quality and composed 
almost entirely of long fibers. 

As it is delivered from the combing machine the sliver is 
made up into a ball on a bobbin that winds it up with an 
oscillating motion, in order to wind the sliver up in a 
diagonal direction alternately from end to end. The sliver 
is then drawn out by passing it through sets of rollers, the 
first pair of which revolves much more slowly than the next 
pair, so that between the two pairs of rollers the sliver is 
constantly being drawn or stretched out. Now, assuming 
that the sliver is to pass through six such drawing frames, 
six slivers may be fed into the first and drawn out to the 
dimensions of one, and the same may be repeated in the 
next five slivers that are put in. In this manner, a sliver 
may be drawn out several thousand times its original length, 



§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 11 

according to the quality and uniformity that is demanded in 
the goods. 

35. Throstle Spinning. — After the yarn is drawn and 
redrawn, the bobbins containing it are placed on a throstle 
frame for spinning. In this process, the drawing is effected 
in exactly the same manner as in the woolen yarn on the 
spinning mule. The rovlngs, as the drawn yarns are 
called, pass between pairs of rollers in which they are 
drawn out by the difference of speed of rotation between the 
front pair and the back pair, and as the cylinder cord is 
delivered from the front pair of rollers, a spindle that is 
revolving rapidly gives it the required twist. 

These yarns or threads are known as singles. For some 
uses they are twisted into two-ply or three-ply yarns on a 
twisting frame where each single is drawn from a bobbin 
and twisted with others into a two-ply or three-ply yam, as 
the case may be. 

36. Characteristics of Worsted Thread. — In worsted 
thread we have a yarn of great uniformity and evenness of 
diameter, all the fibers being parallel and as nearly as pos- 
sible of the same length. It therefore possesses the advan- 
tage of uniformity in strength and is especially suited to the 
weaving of fabrics where a pattern is to show in the finished 
product as a result of the system of weaving. It will not be 
suitable for milling or felting, because the fibers, being 
parallel, will not lose their individuality. It will not resist 
wear from friction to the same degree that woolen will, 
because the threads will retain their individuality and 
not become felted into the general mass ; and thus the fabric 
not being so compact as woolen, it will not possess, to the 
same degree, the quality of retaining warmth. 

On the other hand, the subsequent processes through 
which the cloth may pass to finish it will in no way impair 
the pattern, and a worsted fabric is always recognized by 
the clearness of its pattern and the sharpness and smooth- 
ness of its finish, both wool and worsted being possessed of 
individual properties and advantages. 



12 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

COTTOIf, FLAX, AJVD SILK. 

37. Cotton Yarn. — Cotton is prepared by carding in 
much the same manner as wool, but subsequent processes 
are necessary to equalize the fiber, as was the case in the 
manufacture of wdrsted. Cotton is sometimes combed 
when a very high class of yam is desired. It is spun into 
threads in much the same manner that worsted is sptm, and 
the majority of cotton yarns partake of the mechanical 
characteristics of both woolen and worsted. 

38. Flax Yarn. — The two yarns prepared from flax 
are linen and tow. Linen yarn is prepared similar to 
worsted, but the machinery is essentially different on account 
of the difference in the character of the fiber. Raw flax is 
beaten, or crushed, in order to make it pliable ; this is called 
hackling. After that, it passes through a combing opera- 
tion that, in linen manufacture, is called scuteliing. 
Where the fibers are too long to work readily, as is fre- 
quently the case, they are broken in a machine called a sa-w. 
After scutching, the fibers are carded and the short ones are 
converted into tow yarn, while the long ones are spun into 
linen yarns. 

39. Silk Yarn. — Silk yam is different from any of the 
previous fibers, the raw silk being obtained by drawing it 
from the cocoon of the silk worm in one long, continuous 
filament. Several of these filaments must be combined in 
order to produce a tram, or an organzine, the former being 
used for weft in weaving and is put together loosely with 
little or no twist, and the other, used for warp silk, is 
twisted firmly to make a compact thread. Both qualities 
are composed of long filaments and are well suited for the 
production of more or less elaborate patterns in the fabric. 

There are many cases, however, where the cocoons are 
damaged, and the filament cannot be wound from them in a 
continuous thread. These cocoons are usually torn up and 
the fibers are combed and laid parallel to one another in the 
same manner as in cotton or worsted. The silk yarn thus made 



§9 APPLIED DESIGN. 13 

does not possess the freedom from fuzzy surface that raw 
silk does, yet many of the combed fibers are of considerable 
length and this makes a very strong thread well suited for 
the weaving of ornamental patterns. 

30. The object of this short discussion, the manufac- 
ture of threads, is to enable the student to be familiar with 
the materials that are to be woven into a fabric, the design 
of which he is to execute. In the descriptions that follow 
of the weave of certain classes of cloths, the student can 
readily see wherein a knowledge of yarn or thread will be 
of great value in the preparation of his design. 



WARP AKD WEPT. 

31. Plain Fabrics. — -In the fabrics shown in Fig. 1 we 
have what is called a plain fabric, that is, one in which the 
■warp and weft threads are equal in quantity and diameter, 
but we may alter this relation of warp and weft and by so 
doing obtain an increase in weight of the goods; thereby 
making a warmer cloth, if for wearing material, or an 
increase of strength, where that is a requisite quality, or, in 
other cases, an increase in ornamental value, if it is desired 
to increase the effect of ornamentation by the weave. 

33. Where the warp threads are heavier than the weft 
threads, the weft will naturally bend around them and cause 
ribs to appear lengthwise of the fabric ; but where the weft 
threads are the heavier, the warp will bend around them and 
cause ribs to appear running across the fabric. The best 
quality of fabrics, however, are those in which the warp 
threads are the thinner and are arranged with a greater 
number to the inch than the weft threads. 

The weaving of these classes of goods is precisely the same 
as the weaving of plain cloths, but the variations of the 
relative quantities or thicknesses of warp or weft completely 
changes the character of the fabric. In goods where the 
weft threads are thicker than the warp threads and the warp 



14 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

threads are packed closely together, the weaving binds the 
warp threads so closely that it actually compresses them 
between the weft threads and makes them occupy less space 
than their true diameter. The warp threads being placed 
close together and crossing one another around each weft 
thread, or pick as it is technically called, it makes no differ- 
ence how much tension be put upon the warp, either in the 
process of weaving or after the process is formed, it will not 
bend the Weft out of line, simply because the spaces between 
the warp threads are so small in comparison with the weight 
of the weft thread that the latter cannot be bent in any 
direction. Thus, a very firm goods is formed. Therefore, 
in this class of goods, the closeness of the warp and the 
strength of the weft give it the property of resisting wear 
and retaining warmth. 

33. Another system of weaving is to have the warp 
threads and the weft threads alternately heavy and light, 
thereby causing the thin threads of the warp to wind them- 
selves around the heavy threads of the weft, and the thin 
threads of the weft around the heavy threads of the warp. 
A characteristic style of goods of this class is what is com- 
monly known as repp, but in this particular fabric the weft 
lies in perfectly straight lines and the warp winds around 
both the thin and the heavy threads. 

34. T-wills. — In twilled fabrics there is an effect of ribs 
running diagonally across the goods, not by varying the 
weights of threads, but by varying the proportions of warp 
and weft that come to the surface. In making twills, there 
are two general objects sought — one, to increase the bulk of 
the goods, and the other, to ornament its surface. 

The essential difference between a plain weave and a twill 
is, that in the former the warp and weft interweave alter- 
nately, while in the latter the warp and weft interweave at 
varying intervals so as to produce the desired fabric. For 
instance, in Fig. 3 it will be observed that the weft thread 
a b passes over the warp threads 1 and 2 and under the warp 




g 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 15 

threads 3 and 4 and over the warp threads 6 and 6, and so 
on, and that the weft thread c d passes over the warp thread 
1, tinder the warp threads ^ and 5, and over the warp 
threads 4 and 5. This produces an 
effect that, in some goods other than 
cloth, is called a basket weave, but, as 
a matter of fact, it is a simple twill 
upon the variation of which' much 
designing in dress goods is accom- 
plished. Each warp thread passes 
alternatelv over and under two weft 
threads, or picks, and similarly each ^^^ ^ 

weft thread alternately passes under 

and over two warp threads, hut each end does not pass over 
the same threads as its predecessor. 

35. This not only produces a pleasing pattern on the 
surface, but it enables us to introduce more material into 
the goods we are weaving, and, therefore, to produce a more 
bulky fabric that is closer in its structure. The reason of 
this is, that the warp and weft interweaving at greater 
intervals permit the skipped threads to lie closer together 
without any intervening transverse threads, thereby making 
a closer and warmer fabric. 

In the plain cloth, we have shown that we are able to 
make goods wherein the warp threads lie very closely 
together and, also, goods wherein the weft threads lie very 
closely together. In each case, the threads 6f the opposite 
system are quite a distance apart, but in the twill we are 
enabled to weave cloth wherein the warp and weft both lie 
very closely together and give an even texture in both direc- 
tions and, consequently, a corresponding increase in the bulk 
of the fabric. 

36. The twill may be altered in detail so as to increase 
the bulk of the goods, simply by increasing the interval at 
which two sets of threads interweave. For instance, the 
warp thread may pass over several weft threads before it 



16 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

interweaves again and in this way bind this number together 
in close contact and crowd them into a much smaller space 
than they would have occupied had they been interwoven 
alternately. But as this increase in weight is produced by 
the skipping of a greater number of threads, the fabric loses 
strength, inasmuch as it may not be properly interwoven, 
and a considerable amount of friction of its surface will allow 
these long overshot threads to become broken and to weaken 
the fabric by fraying. 

37. The yarn of which the goods is woven is composed 
of single fibers, and when overshot for considerable distance 
these fibers are presented to a greater length than they may 
possibly be able to bear, causing a weak but warm fabric. 
The looseness of the fabric will also reduce its power to bear 
strain, and although a loosely woven cloth may be propor- 
tioned to its interweaving so that it will be stronger under 
tension than one more closely woven, yet it will never be so 
strong in proportion to the relative kind of material of which 
it is composed. 

38. It is possible to make another order or arrange- 
ment in twills, wherein we abandon the idea of increasing 
bulk or warmth and endeavor to weave in order to acquire 
the greatest strength; when it is desired that the pattern 
shall be ornamental as well as be strong or warm, it must 
always be borne in mind that the character of the weave 
affects all three conditions — strength, warmth, and orna- 
mentation. The class of goods known as satins are twills 
woven on a regular systematic basis; that is, the order of 
interweaving two sets of threads does not follow consecu- 
tively but at intervals. 

In Fig. 4 is shown the system on which a satin is woven. 
It will here be observed that the threads interweave at 
every fifth end or pick and that the two succeeding picks 
do not interweave with adjoining ends but at intervals of 
two ; that is, if weft a passes over No. S warp, weft b will 
pass over No. 6 warp, and so on. Now, if it is desired to 




§9 APPLIED DESIGN. 17 

produce a fabric whose greatest strength is to be in the direc- 
tion of its warp, it would be made on what is termed a warp 
surface. The warp threads will be laid in the loom as 
closely as possible, and as the weft threads are inserted, one 
of the warp threads will be withdrawn and bent around the 
weft at the back. As the next pick 
is inserted, another end will be with- 
drawn, the first one returning to its 
original place, but as the ends are not 
withdrawn in consecutive order, the 
weft does not bend around the warp 
to any extent and is practically 
straight, while the warp itself is 
drawn out of its course. In this way 

the weft threads are not kept very close together but are 
separated from one another by the thickness of the warp 
threads. Therefore, there are a greater number of warp 
threads to the inch than weft threads. 

39. Now, if it is desired to produce a perfectly smooth, 
unbroken surface on the fabric, the warp threads may be 
placed so closely together that as one is withdrawn to bend 
around the weft, those on each side of it will close over the 
vacancy and completely hide the point where it is inter- 
woven with the weft. In that case, the number of warp 
threads will be increased in proportion to the number of 
weft, and, consequently, the fabric will be capable of bear- 
ing an increased strain in the direction of the warp and a 
decreased strain in the direction of the weft. Moreover, it 
should be borne in mind that on account of the warp thread 
predominating, the fabric when handled possesses a glossy 
or smooth surface in the direction of the warp and a rough- 
ened surface across the warp. 

40. This same principle may be carried out with the 
weft threads predominating and the warp threads set so 
far apart that they will permit the weft threads to inter- 
weave between them. The weft threads are inserted as 



18 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

closely as their sizes will allow, and pass over and bend 
-around the various strands of warp. Of course, in such 
cases, the greatest strength of the fabric is across the 
goods in the direction of the weft. 



DOUBLE CLOTHS. 

,41. Double cloths do not differ materially in principle 
from ordinary woven goods, but they belong to a different 
class of fabric. A double cloth is suitable for a purpose 
wherein great weight or bulk is required, without, at the 
same time, producing a coarse, open structure that would 
result from using coarse threads. In ordinary weaving 
there are but two ways of producing a heavy fabric — either 
to use very coarse threads, or to use an increased number of 
fine ones. Coarse threads will produce a coarse-looking 
cloth, no matter how they may be woven, and there is no 
way of reducing this, but with fine threads the order of 
interweaving will prevent the introduction of a sufficient 
number of threads in plain work, and there is no alternative 
but to manufacture a double cloth. 

By this method we do not try to crowd a large number of 
threads, but we weave what is practically two fabrics — one 
above the other, with a sufficient number of intervals and 
interweavings to join them in one. There are several 
classes of goods termed double cloths that do not neces- 
sarily fulfil all the conditions ' of a double cloth, but simply 
are double-faced cloths. With these there is usually one 
warp and two wefts, or sometimes one weft and two warps, 
but in a true double cloth there should be two separate 
fabrics each having its own warp and weft. 

43. The two fabrics are woven at one time and are 
intermixed with each other, but in reality they do not lose 
their individuality at all, whether they are combined for the 
purpose of producing a double-faced cloth or for the pur- 
pose of increasing the weight. Where there is a single weft 
and a double warp, the weft simply weaves with one warp 



§9 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



19 



to produce a figure and at intervals of several picks inter- 
weaves with the other warp, thus tying the two warps 
together and producing a double-faced goods where the 
warp forms the prevailing material. 

This is shown in Fig. 5, where at a are seen the ends of 
the upper warp, at c the ends of the lower warp, and at b 



h y///yyyyyyyy yyyyyyyyyi 




o 



f//////yyyyyy.^^^^^. 



Pig. 5. 

one thread of the weft weaving through the cloth and 
catching a pick of each warp. In this manner, we have the 
warps separated from one another and a means of produ- 
cing a very heavy fabric with great strength in the direction 
of its length. The cloth itself is reversible, and one side 
may be any color or check and the other perfectly plain, as 
a lining. 

43. In exactly the same manner that we made our satin, 
as shown in Fig. 4, we can weave our double-faced cloth to 
have the warp or weft predominate. If the weft is to pre- 
dominate, the conditions are reversed somewhat and the 
greatest strength of the goods will be across instead of 
lengthwise, as shown in Fig. 6, where at a is shown the 




hTznnm 



Fig. 6. 



upper weft and at b the lower weft, while at c are the ends 
of the single warp, the two wefts interweaving with this 
warp alternately producing a very heavy cloth with two 
wefts and one warp. The ornamenting of the surfaces can 
be carried on quite independently of each other, the only 
considerations required being that the weaving of the 



30 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



ornament must be such as will permit the interweaving of 
the opposite side at certain fixed intervals. 

44. Ornament Threads. — Still another way of orna- 
menting cloth is by the introduction of additional threads, 
threads that exist in the cloth for no other reason than to 
produce ornainent. If we conceive a plain cloth to be woven 
double with a series of unused threads lying between the 
two surfaces and these unused threads drawn to the outside 
of the cloth whenever we want to produce an ornament or 
design on the surface of the goods, we have a condition 
wherein one quality of material is put into the goods to 
stand wear and another quality is put in to give the orna- 
mentation. Each one is entirely independent of the other 
in quality and purpose, but both are interwoven to form the 
desired article. In this class of goods we have plush and 
velvet, and they come under the head of what is known as 
pile fabrics. .The term "pile" is applied to all goods 
wherein the surface is ornamented by drawing up the 
threads to form an extra surface, as in plush, velvet, 
Brussels carpet, etc. This gives us an extensive field for 
ornamentation, inasmuch as the threads can be brought so 
closely together that they obliterate the, warp and weft back- 
ing entirely and produce an unlimited variety of design on 
the surface. 



45. Laying Out a Design. — In weaving all kinds of 
cloths and carpets, the design for the weave is laid out on 
a special kind of paper ruled off in squares, as shown 

in Fig. 7, with a varying num- 
ber of subdivisions to the inch 
according to the goods and the 
number of warp and weft threads 
used. In this design paper each 
series of vertical spaces usually rep- 
resent warp threads, and each series 
of horizontal spaces or squares rep- 
Pi(3_ 7_ " resent weft threads. The design is 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



21 



expressed on the paper by filling in the squares where the 
weft thread comes to the surface or falls below the surface, 
as shown in Fig. 8, which is a design for a 
twill composed of six ends, the weft thread 
coming to the surface over the warp thread 
and then falling below the surface and 
passing under two warp threads progress- 
ively throughout the piece. Each of these 
black squares represents a pick in the loom. 



■-I'-i'.i 
I'.i .i". 

-I l_ I 

l_ l_ l_ 



Fig. 8. 



46. If the number of threads per inch of weft and warp 
are the same, the angle of this twill will be 45°, because it 
will move in each direction, progressively, at the same rate, 
and the warp or weft in this particular pattern must pre- 
dominate on the surface, as on one side the weft passes 
under twice as much warp as it passes over, and on the 
other side the warp passes under twice as much w.eft as it 
passes over. This is the first principle of ornamentation in 
fabrics where color is not used and 
represents the principle on which 
ornamentation is attained in the 
greater number of dress goods that 
are of one color only. 




Fig. 9. 



41. This ornamentation may be 
carried out in a checker pattern 
somewhat after the manner shown 
in Fig. 9, where the twills run 
diagonally for twelve picks, and 

the same amount of warp and weft are 

on the surface. Then, for the twelve 

additional picks the twills reverse in 

direction, thus producing a checker 

effect in squares each representing 

twelve picks. Tljere is no limit to 

the amount of surface decoration that 

can be obtained in this way, and the 

student should bear in mind all these fig. lo 



WS^-'f' 



^smM 



aa 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



9 






possibilities in the weaving of cloth fabrics before he con- 
siders the subject of color. 

A pattern of this character, where the 
warp and weft are of different colors, 
will produce goods running in diago- 
nal stripes as well ' as diagonal ribs. 
Figs. 10, 11, and 13 each show arrange- 
ments whereby the pattern may be 
varied on the system of the simple 
twill, which is an economical method 

of producing a variation of surface. 

This is the principle on which most 

woolen goods, such as are used for 

men's clothing, are made. 



SI 



Fig. 11. 




48. Laying Out Ornamenta- 
tion. — Figured fabrics present a prob- 
lem that is different from that of any 
of the twill systems that have so far 
been discussed, inasmuch as the pat- pj^ j2_ 

tern forms a fixed and definite design 

all over the fabric, and our designs for these have been 
designs for the whole fabric. If we now consider the orna- 
mentation of a fabric where specific ornament is worked 
out in spots, we must consider the appearance of these 
spots on the design paper and the characteristic limitations 
of their mechanical reproduction in the loom. For forming 
this figure on the surface of the cloth we may either use 
the material of which the cloth itself is woven, or, as already 
suggested, we may introduce extra material, which exists 
for the sole purpose of forming the figure. 

In a plain cloth, additional warp or weft may be intro- 
duced in order to weave the figure without in any way inter- 
fering with the weave of the plain fabric, or the warp or 
weft of the plain fabric may be caused to cease interweaving 
regularly and to come to the surface in considerable quantities 
in order to produce the figure. Usually, the figures woven 
in a fabric are composed partially of the ground material of 



§9 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



33 



the fabric itself and partially of other material introduced 
purely for ornamentation. 

49. In Fig. 13 we have an example of a pattern for a 
perfectly plain cloth on which a lozenge-shaped spot is 
woven, and in Fig. 14 we have a section 
through that cloth where, at a, the ends of 
the warp threads are shown and, at b, the 
weft thread, interweaving regttlarly except 
where it passes over the five warp threads 
to form the pattern in the center of the 
lozenge-shaped spot, as at c d. The gen- 
eral body of the cloth remains perfectly 
plain, and the pattern is formed simply by the skipping of 
a few threads. Of course, this affects the quality of the 
goods somewhat and it is not so closely woven, but this 



■ JtJ^-l. 


■ ■ ■ n 


OO . LM_»JLJ 


<^:k'i 


/v»:in 


' ■ J ■ 1 


■ .■ 


I 


■ ■ 


■ 


■ rw ■ 


"i 


■ 


■ 1 


■ ■ ■ 


■ 


■ I 


■ 


■ H MJ 




I ■ I ■ ■ ■ 1 




* ■ ^1 la I 


1_ 


■ 1jt wT; _ 


I 


■■ ■_"i* . - . 


■ 


I ■ I. ■ ■ 1 1 




rn« la ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 



Fig. 13. 



.:KmWS=S 



Fig. 14. 

defect will vary according to the size and number of figures 
that are introduced. 

50. In Fig. 15 we have an example of a piece of goods 
woven on the principle shown in Fig. 14, and the number of 

spots is distributed evenly over the 
entire piece. Each spot must be 
examined in its relation to each 
pick and warp end, in order' to 
comprehend the pattern. The 
spots a each commence on the same 
pick, and so do the spots b, c, etc., 
and, further, we can see that a and 
c are also woven on the same warp 
ends, as are also b and d, so that in 
reality « is a repetition of c in the 
and i5i is a repetition of d in the 
Consequently, we can see that a 






Fig. 15. 



direction of the warp, 

direction of the weft. 

and b are the only two spots in the pattern, the others be- 



24 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

ing arranged to duplicate these in different positions and pro- 
duce an all-over effect. 

Technically, this style of pattern is called ' ' two spots set 
alternately," and it simply means that there are only two 
spots in the complete pattern and that they are so arranged 
that they alternate in the order of weaving. This is the 
simplest way of arranging spot figures, no matter what may 
be their size or form, but it creates a great disadvantage in 
the structure of the cloth. 

51. If we look at Fig. 15, we will see that the weft 
passes over five warp threads through the center of the spots 
and then interweaves with but three of them, and the same 
occurs with the warp thread through the centers of the 
figures, as is also shown in Fig. 14. Now, if we look along 
the line of interweaving marked e, we will see that the warp 
and weft interweave alternately throughout the pattern, and 
the same occurs with the warp thread along the line f. 
Now, such a variation in the order and system of weaving 
the various threads produces irregularities in texture that 
are a detriment to the quality of the goods, inasmuch as 
there is a wide variation in the tension of the different warp 
and weft threads causing a cockling of the surface. In a 
small pattern like this one, the damage would not be serious, 
but in large and bulky goods, such as carpet, the defect 
would be very objectionable and might 
render an otherwise good design utter- 
ly useless. 



■■jT^.Vr ■■■■■ 



^m^- 



■■■■fl^-"A"S^ 



5=r-wa-:W. 



53. It is therefore evident that if 
this system is to be used on a larger 
scale, we must provide a different 
method of arrangement. Whatever 
system we use, we certainly must pre- 
serve a regularity of the spots and 
keep them equally distributed, and in 
Fig. 16 will be found the most suitable arrangement for 
work of this kind. The same spots exist here and are the 



§9 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



35 



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same distance apart, and the order 
of interweaving each respective pick 
and end is equal. The appearance 
of the finished cloth vs^ill be the same 
as that of Fig. 15, but it will be more 
perfectly constructed and certainly 
more pleasing to the eye. 

This system of weaving is very 
simple and is based on what is called 
an eiglit-eiid satin. In laying it 
out, we must calculate the area of 
the figure to determine the number 
of the ends and picks that will be re- 
quired to produce it, and if this num- 
ber does not conveniently fit in with 
the number of hooks contained on our 
Jacquard mac/nne,th.en we must alter 
it to suit as the case may require. 

53. The Jacquard machine 

consists of an apparatus that is sup- 
ported above the loom, and by means 
of a number of wire hooks extend- 
ing to each thread of the warp in the 
loom, it raises certain desired warp 
threads and permits the shuttle with 
the weft wound on it to pass under 
the raised threads and over those that 
lie below. In weaving any kind of 
goods each throw of the shuttle is 
preceded by a raising of certain warp 
threads under which it is desired that 
the weft shall pass. These raised 
threads are usually called the ' ' shed. " 

54. The design is punched on 
cards similar to Fig. 17, where each 
hole represents one of the squares of 



Fig. 17. 



36 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§9 



our design, paper, and these cards passing through the Jac- 
quard machine press against a series of pins that cause the 
hooks to be released and prevent the warp threads attached 
to the hooks being raised. Where the holes exist in the 
cards, the pins pass through and the hooks are not released, 
so that the threads represented by these holes are lifted and 
appear on the surface of the goods in the weave after the 
shuttle has passed through the loom below. The Jacquard 
cards are all the same size and linked together to form a 
chain. For some classes of goods, such as carpets, it is 
sometimes necessary to have several thousand of them in 
order to weave one pattern. Each card represents one pick 

of the loom, and the practical 
weaver can look at a Jacquard 
card and see the pattern that 
it will work out quite as 
clearly as the practical de- 
signer can see the pattern on 
his design paper. 



.■■■■■I 



M 






!;■ 



Fig. 18. 



55. In laying out a pat- 
tern on design paper, it should . 
be borne in mind that if a figure covers considerable surface 
an effort must be made to tie it in, in some points. In 
Fig. 18 is shown a figure where a considerable portion of the 
thread extends over several 
picks, and it is very evident 
that if so woven the design 
would not wear well, as it 
would leave so much less 
material on the surface. The 
long threads that constitute 
this figure, however, can be 
tied in at half intervals either 
by means of a series of extra 
picks through the center, as shown in Fig. 19, or by a 
systematic tying around the edges, as shown in Fig. 20. 
Where these ties can be made a part of the design it is 



■III 




V^ 



Fig. 19. 



§9 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



27 



so much the better, but in any event they should be intro- 
duced in order that the goods 
will not be too loose and 
irregnlar in its weave. 




Fig. 20. 



56. This brings us down 
to the figuring of the surface 
of fabrics in their pile, and 
this is of considerable impor- 
tance to us, as in this class 
of fabric are included both 
Brussels and Wilton carpets, as well as velvets, plushes, and 
other goods with a soft surface finish upon a ground warp of 
coarser material. This class of goods differs from all other 
classes, in that-its surface consists of a series of short threads 
that issue from the body of the fabric and present their ends 
to the eye, or else issue from the fabric and return present- 
ing the end of a loop or the end of a series of loops to the 
eye. Pile fabrics are of two classes — cut and uncut. The 
pile in the former, after issuing from the body of the fabric, 
is cut so as to present the ends, as in plush, velvet, and so 
on ; in the uncut pile the loop remains as it is formed in the 
weaving and presents a class of goods of the character of 
Brussels carpet, and so on. 



5*7. The pile surface of goods may be formed either in 
the warp or the weft, and this formation of the pile also 
divides pile fabrics into two separate classes. Weft pile 
consists of a series of weft threads floating loosely over its 
surface, usually as a figure, and bound at regular intervals 
into the ground cloth below. This loose material is cut, 
leaving the ends projecting on the surface of the cloth 
in varying lengths according to the character of goods 
required. 

In Fig. 31 is shown a section of a cut pile fabric. Here 
the dots represent the warp, and the weft a interweaves 
alternately with the warp forming a body cloth of plain 
regular weave. The ^ile weft b, however, interweaves into 



38 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

the ground at longer intervals, and is then cut as shown at 
c, leaving the loose ends to stand above the ground warp 
and form the surface. The pile must be well bound into 




the cloth, or it will pull out of its surface and, in time, leave 
nothing but the ground cloth. 

58. In the formation of pile surfaces with warp pile, 
we have a more convenient and useful fabric and a class 
with which we are somewhat more familiar. In weft pile 
there is one warp and two wefts in the fabric^one weft to 
form the body of the goods, and the other to form the pile ; 
in warp pile there are two warps and one weft, the second 
warp being solely to form the pile on the surface. Where 
the pile is made up of the weft, the cutting of the pile takes 
place after the goods \ are completed, but with warp pile the 
cittting takes place with the weaving, if it is to be cut at all. 
So that we have two forms of warp pile, commonly known 
as cut and loop pile, or sometimes as cut velvet and terry 
velvet, but whether the pile is cut or uncut the structure 
of the cloth is absolutely the same. 

59. Velvet is formed by pile warp issuing from the cloth, 
passing over a wire, and then passing into the cloth again 
where it is interwoven to secure it firmly. We can bring 
the whole of the pile warp over this wire at once or we can 
bring only a portion of it, but in either case it must be 
firmly bound into the body of the goods when it returns. 

60. The ornamentation of pile fabrics must be consid- 
ered under two heads, the decoration of pile fabrics them- 
selves, and the decoration of fabrics with pile. The first 
system suggests the ornamentation of fabrics by the tise of 
colored pile. In ordinary velvet, color can only be used 
under limited conditions and cannot be used in a general 



§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 29 

way. The pile on the surface of the fabric covers the 
ground cloth entirely and any ornamentation that is intro- 
duced must be introduced into the pile warp. Therefore, if 
we introduce a variety of colors they will naturally run in 
stripes, and regular figures cannot be formed. The warp, 
existing as it does of a number of parallel threads, should 
we' make them of different colors with a given number of 
one color and another number of another color, when these 
are woven into the fabric and form the pile on the surface, 
they will introduce the same stripes exactly on the body 
goods as in the pile and thus limit our ornamentation on 
very narrow lines. 

61. The ornamentation of pile fabrics may be accom- 
plished by forming patterns with the pile itself without the 
aid of color. We may form a pattern by varying the length 
of the pile, but this will usually form a stripe across the 
piece, because the different lengths of pile are produced by 
the introduction of wires of different sizes. Another sys- 
tem of ornamenting the surface is by a system of cut and 
uncut pile, the figures being formed in terry velvet. The 
same warp can be used for the formation of both kinds,- but 
two kinds of wires must be used — one, a plain wire to form 
the loop, and the other, a wire terminating in a knife at one 
end that will cut the loops as it is drawn out. 

63. Brussels Carpet. — Brussels carpet is a form of 
terry velvet, the ornamentation of whose surface is accom- 
plished by the introduction of extra material, and it is 
necessary, in explaining the designing of these goods, that 
considerable attention be paid the weave. The pile on 
Brussels carpet is formed, in precisely the same manner as 
terry velvet, by the insertion of wires under the pile 
threads, but the selection of the threads to form the pile is 
entirely different. In weaving the velvet, we bring all or 
a given portion of the pile over the wires at one time, but 
in Brussels carpet we have a series of duplicate ends in the 
warp, each of a different color, and from these our Jacquard 



30 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§9 



selects one, according to the pattern we require, brings it to 
the surface and passes it over the wire. In ordinary velvet, 
the pile warp- returns to the ground and interweaves in 
the same manner as the ground warp, except at the points 
where the pile is formed ; but in Brussels carpet, the pile 
warp does not weave in any place into the ground, but lies 
as a straight thread in the body of the carpet, where it is 
not used in forming the pile. 

63. Now this can be somewhat more clearly shown by 
referring to Fig. 32, where the ground warp is represented 
by the lines a, and the weft by the dots, while at b, c, and d 
are three colors of pile warp that are to form the pattern on 
the surface of the carpet. It will be observed that the 
ground warp a weaves regularly and alternately throughout 
the entire fabric from side to side, but that the colored 
warps b, c, and d lie perfectly straight in the body of the 
goods until they come to the surface in forming the pile 




Fig. 22. 



loops, as shown. The pile warp lies between the ground 
weft and is intersected by the ground warp, so that where 
no pile loops are formed there is a plain cloth with a stout 
back in the middle, the threads of which are perfectly 
straight and take no part whatever in the formation of the 
cloth, except to give bulk to it. Between every pair of 
ground warp threads, there is one thread of each color of 
the pile warp that is to be used. When the pattern is 
formed, one of each of these threads is raised between each 
pair of ground picks, passed over the wire, and returned to 



§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 31 

the cloth. If it is again required, it again comes up, but 
the threads are dormant and useless except where they 
appear in the figure. Thus, it will be seen that though 
there may be four, five, or even six colors, and consequently 
as many separate threads between each pair of ground 
threads, only one of each is brought to the surface, accord- 
ing to the color that is required. 

This makes an expensive weave, but it produces a uni- 
form surface and body of cloth, and the pattern is formed 
by color, so that any amount or variety of it will in no way 
affect the structure or quality of the goods. The colored 
material forming the pattern is in the carpet at all times, 
and is only brought to the surface where it is required. 

64. It will be apparent that these idle threads lying 
straight in the carpet and forming loops at irregular inter- 
vals, must be used in- varying proportions, so that they 
cannot all be wound on one cylinder or beam at the end of 
the loom as is the ground warp. For instance, the ground 
warp interweaves with the weft at every pick, whereas the 
pile warp may remain as a straight thread through several 
picks. Under these circumstances, a strip of ground warp 
twice as long as that of the pile warp may be consumed in a 
given number of picks, and it is evident that the two classes 
of warp could not be wound upon the same beam. 

65. So, in the manufacture of Brussels carpets, the pile 
warp threads are wound on separate spools or bobbins, each 
bobbin serving for a single color and the bobbins being 
arranged in series on a frame. Each color has a frame to 
itself, and this arrangement of the threads on frames gives 
rise to the descriptive terms used in Brussels carpet trades, 
such as five-frame Brussels. This term means that the 
carpet contains five sets of pile-warp threads, each set hav- 
ing been wound on bobbins and supported by a separate 
frame. These frames make carpet looms very bulky 
machines, but wifbout them it would be impossible to 
produce the goods, 



33 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§9 



66. In designing carpets, each square on the design 
paper represents one loop of the pile. If the carpet is a 
velvet carpet, where the pile is cut, then the square on the 
design paper represents the two ends of the cut loop, and in 
laying out the design this should be borne well in mind. It 
should also be borne in mind, that the more colors'that are 
used, the more material there is in its body and consequently 
the more expensive it becomes. The main divisions of 
design paper used for Brussels carpet are in squares of 
^ inch, but in moquette carpet they are as large as ^ inch. 
Low ingrains have the squares -^ inch, but regular ingrains 
^ inch. That is to say, the threads of warp and 



are 



weft are proportioned to run 7 to the inch in one direction, 
and 8 to the inch in another. 

67. In laying out circular or other curved figures on 
design paper, it should be borne in' mind that this design, 

when woven, will present 
a somewhat ragged out- 
line, as it must be formed 
in squares, and the scale 
of the figure must be al- 
tered to suit the size of 
the square on the design 
paper when it is .pro- 
duced. Fig. 23 shows a 
curved figure that is too 
small to be produced on 
design paper of the size 
shown, and the outline 
loses its curved effect, 
whereas in Fig. 24 the 
enlargement of the same figure on the same sized design paper 
shows that the effect of the curved lines can be readily carried 
out. It is well to bear this in mind in all design work. 




Fig. 



68. Brussels carpets are formed with two kinds of yarns, 
the body or ground of the carpet being made of hemp or 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



33 



linen yarn, while the pile is of wool. The methods of Spin- 
ning the yarns for this fabric, or any other class of goods, is 
precisely the same as has been described. The wool that 




forms the surface of the carpet is carded and spun in pre- 
cisely the same manner as the wool that goes into a dress 
fabric. It is dyed to the color desired to be reproduced and 



34= APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

wound on spools ready to go into the frame behind the 
loom. 

69. There have been many suggestions for economy in 
the manufacture of carpets, and there are many carpets 
manufactured that present the same general appearance as 
Brussels but do not possess its great weight, owing to the 
lack of goods in the body. One form of these carpets is 
what is known as tapestry Brussels, wherein the threads are 
not left idly inside the fabric, and exist only where the pile 
is formed. In tapestry Brussels there is but one set of 
threads of pile warp- and that is printed so as to form the 
pattern. The printing of the pile thread is effected by 
measuring out the length of a certain color required in a 
certain place to form the figure and that length of the 
thread is colored accordingly. It is then woven into the 
cloth as in ordinary velvet, and its pile brought to the sur- 
face. Following it on the same thread is another color 
required to form the ground on another portion of the fig- 
ure. One printed thread thus serves for a number of col- 
ored ones, and it certainly is a very economical way of produ- 
cing a colored carpet, but it is in no way so serviceable as the 
body Brussels that it is attempting to imitate. 

70. Wilton carpet is the same as Brussels carpet, except 
that the pile is cut, and another formation of velvet carpets 
is effected by setting the pile surface into the carpet in sec- 
tions just as it is required. Rugs are also formed in this 
way. The pile threads are neither warp nor weft, but are 
simply tufts set in where the figure is required. The colored 
threads are wound on long thin cylinders or rollers, possess- 
ing all the colors that are necessary to form one pick across 
the goods. A short length of these threads is then cut off 
and falls in place parallel with the warp in the loom, while 
the weft thread passes over them and binds them into the 
body of the carpet. They are then cut off and the roll 
passes on its way and makes room for another roll to bring 
the next set of threads. This makes a very bulky loom, as 



§ 9 APPLIED DESIGN. 35 

there must be a separate roll for each pick across the loom 
for every repeat. In fact, there must be one roll for every 
Jacquard and in weaving long rugs it is not unusual to have 
three or four hundred of these rolls, each one of which is 
used but once, to form the pattern. 

Tl. The designing of all these goods remains the same, 
however, the only difference being in the ■ design papers 
themselves, which must be obtained for the particular pur- 
pose they are required. Ingrain carpet cannot be designed 
on Brussels paper, because it does not run the same number 
of threads to the inch, and when designs are laid out on 
paper care must be given that the proper subdivisions of 
the paper have been obtained. 



A SERIES 



OF 



QUESTIONS AND EXAMPLES 

Relating to the Subjects 
Treated of in this Volume. 



It will be noticed that the Examination Questions con- 
tained in the following pages are divided into sections cor- 
responding to the sections of the text of the preceding 
pages, so that each section has a headline which is the same 
as the headline of the section to which the questions refer. 
No attempt should be made to answer any questions or to 
,work any examples until the corresponding part of the text 
has been carefully studied. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

(PART 1.) 



EXAJMEN^ATIOJiT QUESTIOI^S. 

(1) (a) How many types of people were there among the 
Egyptians ? (6) Describe each. 

(2) What natural types are found in Assyrian ornament ? 

(3) (a) How many moldings are there in Greek archi. 
tecture ? (5) Make a sketch of the outline of each molding, 
with its name under it. (These outlines should be about 
1 inch high.) 

(4) (a) Who were the Etruscans? {&) What nation was 
largely affected by their art ? (c) What class of work did 
they excel in ? 

(5) («) What two plant forms play a conspicuous part in 
Egyptian ornament ? (d) Make a sketch of either one of 
them and describe the other one. 

(6) How is Assyrian sculptured ornament inferior to the 
Egyptian ? 

(7) State the difference between ornament and decoration. 

(8) («) What is the winged disk ? {U) What does it 
signify ? (c) To what style of ornament does it belong ? 
(d) Of what class of ornament is it ? 

(9) Make a sketch, about 2 inches high, showing the 
Assyrian rendering of the Egyptian lotus. 

§3 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following; the title page. 



2 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

(10) (a) Where is the torus molding most frequently 
used ? (d) Where is the echinus molding most fre- 
quently used ? (c) Where is the cyma recta most frequently 
used ? 

(11) What is meant by the term conventionalism f 

(13) (a) What is a scarabseus ? (b) To what style of 
ornament does it belong ? 

(13) What great geographical differences were there 
between Greece and Egypt ? 

(14) What is the principal Greek building in the Doric 
order ? 

(15) (a) Should a floral design on a textile fabric be as 
close an imitation of the natural plant as is possible ? 
(b) Why? 

(16) Into what three classes is Egyptian ornament 
divided ? 

(17) Describe the character of the Greeks as a nation. 

(18) Make a drawing 3 inches high of the Greek anthe- 
mion. 

(19) How should color be used in decorative design ? 

(30) Describe Egyptian carved ornament. 

(31) How does Greek art differ from Egyptian and 
Assyrian art ? 

(33) Make a drawing 3 inches high of the Greek lily. 

(33) What was the origin of the fixed styles rtf orna- 
ment? 

(34) Describe the preparation of a body for burial, as 
practiced among the ancient Egyptians. 



§ 3 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 3 

(35) {a) In what does the beauty of Greek ornament lie 
most largely ? (d) What characteristic that is prominent in 
Egyptian art does it lack ? 

(26) What is a guilloche ? 

(27) Of what advantage is the study of historic orna- 
ment ? 

(28) What is the scroll ornament, as seen in Egyptian 
art, considered to be symbolic of ? 

(29) To what do the leaves of the Greek flowers owe 
their form and shape ? 

(30) What is polychromy f 

(31) What natural phenomenon had a marked effect on 
Egyptian ornament ? 

(32) Make a sketch, about 2 inches by 3 inches, of charac- 
teristic Egyptian ornament based on a combination of circles 
and ornamented with lotus-flower devices. 

(33) What are the three great laws of nature observed by 
the Greek artist in his ornament ? 

(34) Describe the colors used, and the location of each, 
in the Grecian-Doric order. 

(35) What peculiarity does Egyptian ornament possess 
over all other styles ? 

(36) (a) What colors were used in Egyptian ornament ? 
(l>) Why was it necessary to use bright colors ? 

(37) (a) What are antefixae ; and (3) from what derived ? 

(38) (a) What are the three Greek orders ? (5) What is 
the distinguishing characteristic of each ? 



4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 3 

(39) From what country was the ornament of Assyria 
borrowed ? 

(40) What is a propylon ? 

(41) How are the contours of Greek moldings profiled ? 

(42) What objects standing in front of the Egyptian 
temples are characteristic of this style of art ? 

(43) Draw a hyperbola. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

(PART 2.) 



EXAMEN^ATIOK QUESTIONS. 

(1) What great religious difference existed between the 
Arabs and the Persians ? 

(3) What other nations carry out the same principles of 
surface decoration that we find in Indian art ? 

(3) In painted Byzantine ornament, of what does the 
ground almost universally consist ? 

(4) (a) Romanesque ornament in Eastern Europe was 
affected by the art of what other countries ? (b) Into what 
style of art did the Romanesque develop under this 
influence ? 

(6) What is a modillion ? 

(6) What products of Persian design are still considered 
the finest in the world ? 

(7) What is the relationship that exists between Byzan- 
tine and Arabian ornament ? 

(8) What is the relative importance of sculpture in 
Byzantine and Romanesque art? 

(9) Why is the distinction between Roman and Greek 
art so much more clearly marked than that between Byzan- 
tine and Romanesque ? 

§4 

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title page. 



2 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

(10) (a) What is the essential difference between the 
Roman-Corinthian order and the Roman-Composite order? 
(b) For what reason was the Composite order originally- 
designed ? 

(11) What are the characteristics of Celtic ornament ? 

(12) From what did the Moorish style spring ? 

(13) What are the restrictions of the Mohammedan 
religion in relation to decorative design ? 

(14) What is the relation of mosaic work and painted 
work in Byzantine and Romanesque art ? 

(15) (a) What is the earliest monument in the Byzantine 
style? (3) When was it built ? 

(16) What is the difference between the treatment of the 
acanthus leaves at the top of a Roman-Corinthian column 
and the lotus leaves at the top of an Egyptian column ? 

(17) What is the principal building in Moorish archi- 
tecture ? ' 

(18) What peculiar personal characteristics of the ori- 
ental people affect the progress of their arts ? 

(19) (a) What building stands as prominently character- 
istic of Byzantine art as the Parthenon does of Greek art ? 
(3) For what is the building now used ? 

• (20) What is the essential characteristic of all Roman 
ornament ? 

(21) What characteristic does Moorish ornament lack ? 

(22) To what can we trace the predominance of geomet- 
rical ornament in all Mohammedan designs ? 

(23) Aside from coloring, what is the first element of 
beauty in Chinese art ? 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 3 

(24) * Make a sketch of a Byzantine capital. 

(25) At the time of its fall, how much of the coniinent 
of Europe did the Roman Empire cover f 

(26) {a) What colors were used by the Moors, and {b) how 
were they arranged in wall treatment, to accord with natural 
laws? 

(27) Describe the capitals of the columns in («) the Early 
English period; {b) the Decorated period; (c) the Perpen- 
dicular period. 

(28) * Make a sketch of Arabian geometrical ornament 
suitable for mosaic work. 

(29) In Indian woven fabrics, what rules are observed 
under the following, conditions: {a) How are colored grounds 
treated when gold ornaments are used, or where gold is used 
in large masses ? {b) How is the ground treated when gold 
ornament is used alone ? (c) When ornaments of one color 
are used on a ground of a contrasting color, what is the 
general rule ? (d) When colored ornaments are used on a 
gold ground, how are they separated sharply from the 
ground ? 

(30) * Make a sketch of Byzantine running ornament or 
surface decoration. 

(31) What conditions gave rise to the Romanesque style ? 

(32) * Make a sketch of Moorish geometrical interlaced 
ornament. 

(33) What was the first Mohammedan nation to adopt 
European fashio'ns in architecture ? 

(34) Why are examples of Byzantine art, as found on 
Greek soil, usually purer in style than others ? 



* All sketches are to be about 2 inches square. 



4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 4 

(35) (a) In what year occurred the £a1.] of Rome f 
{b) How did tliis affect the art of Eastern and Western 
Europe ? 

(36) In what monuments was Roman art mostly 
expressed ? 

(37) In what class of work do we find the only ornament 
that is strictly Turl^ish in character ? 

(38) What object appears to have been maintained in 
the woven fabric of Indian manufacture concerning the 
definition of each object, and the effect of colored objects 
viewed at a distance ? 

(3!)) What are the characteristics of Byzantine carved 
ornament ? 

(40) What was the period of highest development in all 
architecture ? 

(41) What structural problem underlies the system of 
Romanesque design ? 

(42) Why was modification necessary when the Romans 
adopted the Greek orders ? 

(43) [a) Can the designs observable in Turkish carpets 
be considered characteristic Turkish designs ? {b) Why ? 

(44) * Make a sketch of the capital of an early Roman- 
esque column. 

(45) (a) Name the five orders of architecture, {b) Which 
of these are essentially Roman ? i 

(46) What are the most prominent colors in Turkish 
ornament ? 



* All sketches are to be about 2 inches square. 



§ 4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 5 

(47) How do Byzantine mosaics differ from Roman 
mosaics ? 

(48) Why are Romanesque forms so simple ? 

(49) In what colors do modern Turkish ornament and 
ancient Turkish ornament differ ? 

(50) Give the characteristics («) of the Greek-Ionic order: 
((5) of the Roman-Doric order. 



HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 

(PART 3.) 



EXAMESfATION QUESTIOlSrS. 

(1) Into what four styles can French furniture be dividea 
after the middle of the seventeenth century ? 

(2) What are the characteristic differences between the 
feudal castle and the Renaissance chateau ? 

(3) What effect did the invention of printing and the 
printing press have on the development of Renaissance art ? 

(4) Execute your name in letters of the Old English 
alphabet. 

(5) (a) Make a sketch of some heraldic device char- 
acteristic of Francis I period; {b) Henry II period. 

(6) Describe the furniture of the Louis XIV period. 

(7) What is the largest and most important of the French 
ehateaux ? 

(8) What is meant by {a) basso rilievo ? (d) mezzo 
rilievo ? (c) alto rilievo ? (d) By whom were they first 
practiced ? 

(9) Describe the decorations of the molded work ^nd 
panels in the three periods of English architecture. 

(10) Make a sketch, 2 inches square, showing an example 
of Celtic interlaced work. 

For notice of the copyright, see -page immediately following the title page. 



2 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. . § 5 

'(1 1) Describe the furniture of the Louis XV period. 

(12) What idea did the French artists conceive of the 
Romans' use of the Greek orders ? 

(13) What great painting did Michael Angelo execute in 
1641? 

(14) Describe the diapers and wall decorations of the 
three periods of English art. 

(15) Where do we find the purest forms of Gothic orna- 
ment ? 

(16) Describe the furniture of the Louis XVI period. 

(17) What was the heraldic device of Francis I ? 

(18) What two famous statues did Michael Angelo design 
for Pope Julius II ? 

(19) ■ Print the title ' ' Historic Ornament " in letters of the 
Medieval Roman alphabet. 

(20) What are the characteristics of Early English archi- 
tecture ? 

(21) Describe the interior decorations of the Louis XVI 
period. 

(22) What was the heraldic device of Louis XII ? 

(23) What are the characteristics expressed in all of 
Michael Angelo's works ? 

(34) What are the three periods of Gothic architecture in 
France ? 

(26) What are the three periods of English-Gothic 
ornament ? 

(26) In what way did Albert Durer influence the tastes 
in German Renaissance ? 



§ 5 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. 3 

(37) What heraldic device was sometimes used by Anne 
of Brittany ? 

(38) What building was Michael Angelo employed upon 
as architect when he died ? 

(29) What other buildings than churches formed a large 
portion of the Gothic architecture of the thirteenth cen- 
tury ? 

(30) What are the characteristics of the Decorated period 
of English architecture ? 

(31) (a) What monument, in England, marks the intro- 
duction of Renaissance into that country ? {d) What year 

was it erected ? 

I 

(32) In French heraldry, of what was the dolphin 
indicative ? 

(33) Why was the transition from Gothic to Renaissance 
mvich more rapid in France than anywhere else ? 

(34) Describe the feudal system. 

(35) What are the characteristics of the Perpendicular 
period of English-Gothic architecture ? 

(36) What Dutch architect designed a number of college 
gates in England ? 

(37) What animal was used in heraldic devices, indicative 
of Anne of Brittany ? 

(38) Into what three periods is French Renaissance 
divided ? 

(39) How were the rooms heated in the early feudal 
castles ? 

(40) What ar^ the distinguishing characteristics of Italian- 
Gothic architecture ? 



4 HISTORIC ORNAMENT. § 5 

(41) What are the characteristics of Elizabethan 
ornament ? 

(43) What two palaces near Paris became popular with 
the royal family toward the decline of the Renaissance ? 

(43) What class of buildings best expresses the transition 
from Gothic to Renaissance in French architecture ? 

(44) Describe the influences that affected Renaissance 
architecture in Italy, France, and England. 

(45) What is the purpose in studying historic ornament ? 



ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 



EXAMZCSTATIOE^ QUESTIONS. 

(I) (a) In the application of wings to the human figure, 
where did the Egyptians attach them ? (5) Where did the 
Assyrians attach them ? (c) Which of these methods sur- 
vives at the present day ? 

(3) Make a sketch of («) Maltese cross ; (d) Greek cross ; 
(c) cross of St. Andrew; (d) Latin cross. 

(3) Sketch a conventionalized form of Greek foliated 
ornament and the natural growth from which it is derived. 

(4) What is meant by untij in design ? 

(5) In drawing the human figure, how should the masses 
be disposed ? 

(6) Describe the dragon and its combined characteristics. 

(7) What is included under industrial ornament ? 

(8) What three principles in design are represented by 
the oval? 

(9) What are the supposed characteristics of the Greek 
sphinxes ? 

(10) What were the general measurements of the human 
figure according to Greek proportions ? 

(II) What is the simplest form of geometrical elements ? 

§6 

For notice of the copyright, see pag-e immediately following the title page. 



3 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. § 6 

(12) Describe the relation between applied ornament and 
appearance of strength in ancient pottery. 

(13) What is the difference between the Greek sphinx 
and the Egyptian sphinx ? 

(14) Draw the symbolic monogram of the name of Christ, 
composed of the two Greek letters chi and rho. 

(15) Make a sketch of (a) the morning-glory leaf treated 
realistically; (U) the morning-glory leaf treated naturally; 
(c) the morning-glory leaf treated conventionally. 

(16) Make a sketch of four squares, measuring 3 inches 
on each side, all subdivided on a different system, as 
explained in Art. 5. 

(17) What two separate ideas are associated with sym- 
bolism ? 

(18) Describe the difference in treatment of the human 
figure when used as a support, in Egyptian art and Greek 
art. 

(19) (a) Describe the chimera. {U) From what was the 
idea derived ? 

(20) What is included under geometrical ornament ? 

(21) («) What is inventive ornament ? {b) Of whom is 
it characteristic ? 

(32) What is the centaur, and from what is it derived ? 

(23) (a) What is the meaning of the botanical term 
inflorescence ? (b) Make a sketch showing its application 
in design. 

(24) Make a sketch where the daisy is applied to geomet- 
rical ornament in two ways: («) conventionally; (by •asXyy- 
ralistically. 



§ 6 ELEMENTS OF ORNAMENT. 3 

(26) Why is conventionalism necessary in decorative 
design ? 

(36) («) Describe the head of Medusa, {b) What is the 
legend concerning this head ? 

(37) Draw a conventionalized border composed of insect 
forms, or ideas derived from insect forms. 

■ (38) What was the origin of the cartouch ? 

(39) Draw a leaf and a flower, the outline of which shall 
be based on a geometrical figure. 

(30) What is included under architectural ornament ? 

(31) What abstract form seems to pervade all nature ? 
(33) What is included under animal ornament ? 

(33) {a) What two kinds of conventionalism do we find 
in historic ornament ? {b) Describe each. 

(34) {a) Describe the imaginary animal known as the 
griffin, [b) What does it symbolize ? (c) Describe the dif- 
ference between the conventional idea and the convention- 
alized facts in this figure. 

(35) Describe the principles of symmetry and radiation. 

(36) (a) Under how many divisions can the elements of 
ornament be classified ? {b) Name them. 

(37) !Make sketches about 2 inches high illustrating 
bisymmetr)'', trisymmetry, and multisymmetry. 

(38) In designing an iron railing, what characteristic 
should greatly influence the form and proportion of its lines ? 

(39) What two faculties of the mind lie at the origin of 
decorative art ? 

(40) Make a sketch of a cartouch' and also of the form of 
the sheet of metal necessary to produce it. 



PRACTICAL DESIGN. 



EXAMi]s^ATio:sr questio:n^s. 

(1) What is a drop pattern? 

(2) Make a sketch, 6 inches square, the design of which 
repeats on each side of the diagonal and consists of an 
arrangement of eight equal triangles. 

(3) Make a drawing of a rug where the corner ornament 
of the central panel merges into and is continuous with the 
border. 

(4) What is the difference between repetition and alter- 
nation ? 

(5) What advantages are obtainable in the application of 
drop patterns in roll carpets ? 

(6) What consideration must be observed as to the char- 
acter of borders used (a) on table cloths ? (^) on rugs ? 

(7) Make a drawing for repeating ornament based on 
the lozenge shape, or diamond, the theme of which shall be 
the ivy. 

(8) Make a drawing of a rug wherein the corner orna- 
ment of the central panel is independent of the border. 

§7 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page. 



2 PRACTICAL DESIGN. § 7 

(9) Make a design that expresses the principles of con- 
trast and variety. 

(10) What is a turn-over pattern ? 

(11) Into what two classes are borders divided ? 

(12) Describe three methods of laying out designs for 
lace curtains and illustrate same with original designs. 

(13) Make two drawi-ngs demonstrating the principles of 
s)^rametry and balance. 

(14) What is the advantage of familiarity with several 
systems of constructing patterns ? 

(15) What is the purpose of an angle ornament or corner ? 

(16) What considerations must be observed in the design- 
ing of borders ? 

(17) What principles are involved in the production of 
good repeating patterns ? 

(18) (a) What is the unit ? (d) What three geometrical 
figures lend themselves readily to the formation of units ? 



APPLIED DESIGN. 

(PART 1.) 



EXAMINATIOI^^ QUESTIONS. 

(1) Make a drawing, 4 in. X 6 in., representing a panel 
decorated in the style of surface work known as diaper- 
ing, and introduce the fleur-de-lis as an element in this 
decoration. 

(2) In using stripe materials for hangings and other 
decorations, what considerations should be given to the 
character and directions of the stripes ? 

(3) (a) Make a drawing, 4 inches square, showing a 
design and the principle of the design block from which 
wall paper, on a lozenge pattern, is printed, (d) Make 
another drawing of this same design, on a differently pro- 
portioned lozenge, arranged for a drop pattern. 

(4) (a) In how many ways may a frieze be decorated ? 
(i^) Make a sketch, 3 inches in width, of each of these 
forms and have each characteristic of some architectural 
style. 

(5) Make a design for a drinking cup, suitable to be 
worked in silver, and execute on its surface a style of orna- 
ment suitable to its purpose. 

(6) Make a design for the side wall of a room, showing 
both dado and frieze, and execute same in the Moorish style, 
observing proper treatment for each detail. 

§8 

For notice of the copyrigrht, see page immediately following the title page. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 



§8 



(7) Draw the accompanying figure to a scale of 1 inch 
to the foot, and ornament the spandrels with a decoration 




characteristic of some architectural style in harmony with 
the columns and other details. 

(8) («) What is the meaning of spotting and pov der- 
ing ? (b) What is the difference between spotting and 
powdering? (c) Make a design, 4 in. x 6 in., for a panel 
that will be an example of both spotting-and-powdering 
work. 

(9) In what way does the weight and quality of the goods 
affect the style of the pattern in textiles ? 

(10) [a) When the scale of a pattern of a wall decora- 
tion is small, how should its color rendering be considered ? 
(b) What effect on the color rendering does increase of scale 
bring about ? 

(11) Design a corner ornament for a frarhe that will 
possess the most desirable characteristics of a corner orna- 
ment. 

(12) What is a hanap ? 

(13) In laying out ornament on a surface, what consid- 
eration must be given the structural lines relative to the 
geometrical shape of the surface ? 



f 8 • APPLIED DESIGN. 3 

(14) The accompanying figure is a fireplace opening sur- 
rounded by tiles ; draw this out at a scale of 1^ inches to the 
foot, and sketch in a design for each tile, so that the entire 
-work will present a surface characteristic of checker design, 



« 




5 H 




' 










































5 


1 





































tjr a combination of checkering and diapering, based on 
■squares, and see that the structural lines are properly placed 
in each tile. 

(15) The accompanying figure represents the side wall of 
^ room ; make a drawing of it, on a scale of \ inch to the 
ioot, according to the dimensions here given, and decorate 




the wall in any suitable manner, giving a description of the 
method of treating it and the style intended. 

(16) What character of patterns are best suited to block 
printing ? 



4 APPLIED DESIGN. § 8 

(17) In what four ways may pilasters be treated ? 

(18) Make four drawings, each 4 inches square, applying 
some floral form to a wall-paper pattern based on the four 
systems of repeat illustrated in Art. 12. 

(19) Make two designs for wall-paper patterns based on 
a conventional rendering of the morning-glory vine, or some 
similar type, one of which will show clearly the geometrical 
construction on which it is based, while the other will be of 
such a character afe to make it difficult to show the geomet- 
rical plan on which it is based after the guide lines have 
been removed. 

(20) {a) When should pilasters be introdu.ced into the 
wall treatment of a room ? {b) What is the objection to the 
use of pilasters as a wall treatment ? 

(31) What relation to wall decoration does the frieze 
bear? 

(32) What character of pilaster requires a conventional 
rendering in its decoration, and what character of pilaster 
will permit a more naturalistic rendering ? 

(23) What are the standard widths of wall papers ? 

(34) Make a drawing of a panel, 4 in. X 6 in., wherein 
the center contains a well balanced design around which a 
border is designed in harmony with it but in no, way con- 
flicting with its interest. 

(35) What characteristics must be sought in the design- 
ing of carpets, so as to avoid harshness ? 

(36) What is a tankard ? 

(37) What five general arrangements of ornament are 
there in surface work ? 

(28) How may the apparent feeling of ceiling height be 
altered in a room without making any structural change ? 



§ 8 APPLIED DESIGN. 5 

(29) How should the decoration of a frieze compare with 
the rest of the wall ? 

(30) What is the first consideration in the decoration of 
a ceiling ? 

(31) What are the uses of borders in decoration and 
design ? 

(33) Make a border, 2 inches wide, which will be a suit- 
able design for a parquet floor, composed of two or more 
colored woods and arranged to accomplish the most desirable 
characteristics of this style of design. 

N. B. — All drawings are to be made on sheets of paper 8 in. X 10 in. 



APPLIED DESIGN. 

(PART 2.) 



EXAMES^ATION QUESTIOI^S. 

(1) (a) In a plain weave where the weft threads are 
heavier than the warp, what will be the effect in the finished 
goods ? (b) Why ? 

(2) Describe in detail the method of weaving Brussels 
carpet. 

(3) What is the direct effect of the twist of the threads in 
the texture of the goods in a woven fabric ? 

(4) What is a twill ? 

(5) What yarn is used in the body, or ground, of Brussels 
carpet ? 

(6) Describe the process of making woolen yarn. 

(7) Describe the system on which satins are woven. 

(8) Describe the method of weaving tapestry Brussels 
carpet. 

(9) What is the difference between wool and worsted ? 

(10) Make a sketch of a cross-section of a double-faced 
cloth with one warp and two wefts. 

(11) What is Wilton carpet ? 

(13) What are the characteristics of (a) wool fibers ? 
(d) silk fibers ? 

§ 9 



2 APPLIED DESIGN. § 9 

(13) (a) Make an original design on squared paper for a 
simple twill, (d) Make a sketch of a cross-section through 
this design, the second pick from the top. 

(14) What is the Jacquard machine ? 

(15) Describe the method of making (a) silk thread; 
(b) linen thread. 

(16) Make a sketch of a cross-section of the goods woven 
according to the pattern in Fig. 13, (a) on the fourth pick 
from the top ; (6) on the fourth pick from the bottom. 

(17) On what is the warp wound in the loom ? 

(18) What is accomplished by the use of the carding 
machine ? 

(19) (a) Make an original design for a spot pattern. 
(d) Make a section showing the weave of the goods through 
the center of the spot. (<:) Make a section showing the 
weave of the goods between the cpots. 

(30) On what does the wearing quality of a fabric depend ? 

(21) Describe the operation of the spinning mule. 

(33) Make a section showing the weave (a) through 
Fig. 19, five picks from the bottom of the spot; (3) through 
Fig. 30, four picks from the bottom of the spot. 

(33) What are the first considerations in laying out a 
design for a textile fabric ? 

(34) Describe the spinning of carpet yam. 

(35) {a) What is the gilling machine ? (d) What is its 
purpose ? 



INDEX 



Note.— All items in this index refer first to the section (see the Preface) and then to the 
page of the section. Thus, "Lotus 3 26" means that lotus will be found on pagre 26 of 
section 3. 



A 


Sec. Page 




Sec. Pase 


Abacus 


4 


3 


Application of wings 


6 


51 


Acanthus. Roman . 


4 


31 


Applied Design 


8 


1 


Adaptability of decoration . . 


8 


48 


Arabian and Persian art compared 


4 


78 


Adaptation of architectural forms 


6 


36 


art . . 


1 


69 


Adherence to old desig:ns 


5 


57 


" Arrangement of orna- 






Albert Durer 


5 


51 


ment in . 


6 


29 


Alhambra . . 


4 


81 


" coloring 


4 


74 


Alphabet, Antique Egyptian . 


5 


63 


" *' Mohammedanism 






" . French Roman 


5 


71 


in . 


4 


70 


Gothic . . 


5 


75 


ornament 


4 


69 


Heavy antique Egyp- 






Development of 


4 


69 


tian . 


.5 


69 


Architectural development, Zenith 






" Light antique Egyptian 


5 


65 


of . . 


4 


115 


'* Medieval Roman 


5 


69 


" elements. Associa- 






Old EngUsh 


5 


79 


tion of, with indus- 






Alternatioii 


7 


1 


trial . 


6 


40 


Alto rilievo . : 


5 


7 


elements in design . 


6 


35 


Ancient art . 


3 


9 


" forms. Adaptation of 


6 


36 


" Conventionalism in . 


6 


25 


" orders . . 


3 


58 


castles, Heating of . 


4 


126 


" ornament . 


6 


34 


Mode of living in 


4 


126 


Architecture, Chinese, Scarcity of 


4 


61 


Ornament . 


3 


9 


Classic 


4 


2 


pottery decoration 


6 


15 


Conditions influen- 






Animal elements in design . 


6 


43 


cing . . ^. 


3 


5 


forms combined with de- 






" Five orders of 


4 


2 


tails of human figure 


6 


61 


Greek . 


3 


54 


forms, Conventionalizing 


6 


44 


" Influences of 


8 


4 


" forms. Difficulty of adapt- 






Architrave . . . 


4 


6 


ing ... . 


6 


47 


Ionic .... 


4 


13 


" forms in Celtic ornament 


4 


96 


Arrangement of details . 


8 


9 


ornament 


6 


34 


" " lines . . 


6 


4 


Annulets . 


4 


5 


Arrangements of ornament in sur- 






AntefixsB . 


3 


76 


face work . 


8 


11 


Anthemion . . . . . 


3 


67 


Art, Ancient . 


3 


9 


Antique art. Revival of, in Eng- 






*' and literature, Italian 


5 


5 


land . . 


5 


55 


" Assyrian . 


3 


47 


Egyptian alphabet . . 


5 


63 


*' Development of . 


3 


47 


Heavy 


6 


69 


" Byzantine . .... 


4 


39 


Light 


5 


65 


" Celtic 


4 


95 


Antiquity of Egyptian ornament 


3 


15 


" Chinese . .' . . 


4 


59 


Apophyge 


4 


12 


" " Standard forms in . . 


4 


62 



vn 



INDEX 



Art, Classic . . 

" Comparison of Persian and 
Arabian . 
Persian and 
Indian . 
Conventionalism in ancient 
Decorative 
" Egyptian 
Etruscan 
" French Gothic 

Heraldry in 
" Gothic . 

" Evolution of 
in Italy 

Influence of religion jn 
Greco-Roman 
Greek . 
" Indian . 

*' " Lack of progressive- 
ness in . 
Influence affecting different 

styles of 
Italian, Roman influences on 
Japanese 

" Moorish . 

" " Construction and dec- 

oration in . 
" " Derivation of 

" " Primary colors in 

" Oriental . 
" Persian 
" Pompeian . 
*' Renaissance . . 
" " in Italy . 

Origin of 
" Romanesque . . . 

" Sculpture in Byzantine . 

" Romanesque 
*' Turkish . 
Western 
Artificial elements . 
Asiatic ornament 
Assemblage of details to secure 

unity . 
Assembly, Hall of . 
Assyrian art . ... 

"■ " Development of 

method of attaching 
■wings to human figure 
" ornament 
sculpture . 
Athena Polias, Temple of . . 

Attic base 



Sec. 
4 



Page 

1 

52 

78 

79 
25 
6 
14 
77 

116 
31 
99 
99 

106 
99 
79 
52 
64 



a5 

59 

78 

79 

1 

3 

1 

33 

58 

58 

76 

95 

34 

59 



17 
47 

47 

64 
47 
48 
70 
9 
12 



Ball-flower ornament 

" pattern .... 
Base, Attic . 

Corinthian 
Bases, Greek . , 
Basis of a design, Geometrical . 
Basket weave . . 
Basso rilievo 
Beasts, Imaginary 
Beauty, Construction allied with . 
Birds and running ornaments . 
Bisymmetry, Definition of . 
Blending of colors in Moorish or- 

.nament 
Elois, Chateau de . . . 

Staircase of Chateau de 
Border and filling, Uniformity of 

repeat in 

applied to picture in form 
of frame . 
Borders, Classification of . 

corners, and stripes . . 
for hangings and table 
covers 
rugs and floor cov- 
erings . 
wall paper 
" Greek 
" Link . 

" One-piece 

Vertebrate , 
Botanical principles in design . 
Bourbon period 
Brocades, Italian 
Brush decoration of pottery . 
Brussels carpet . 



Byzantine art 



Body. 
Tapestry 

" Ornamental influ- 
ence in , 
" Sculpture in 
ceiling decoration 
decoration 
ornament 

Ingenuity of 
" Origin of 

style, Examples of . . 



Sec. Page 


4 


101 


7 


31 


4 


12 


4 


16 


3 


59- 


7 


6 


9- 


15 


5 


7 


6 


44 


6 


35- 


6 


48 


6 


15- 


4 


91 


6 


28- 


5 


31 



8 29 

7 46 

7 39 

7 47 



48. 
29 
47 
46 
39- 
46 
42 
25 
54 
23 
27 
29- 
34 
34 



39^ 
58 
47 
47 
39' 
55 



Capital, Corinthian 4 

Capitals, decorated, Characteris- 
tics of 4 

eariy English, Charac- 
teristics o£ 4 



109 



10ft 



INDEX 



IX 





Sec. Page 




Sec. Page 


Capitals, Early French . 


i 


116 


Characteristics of the Greel^s . 


3 


52 


'* Flamboyant 


4 


117 


" Turkish orna- 






" perpendicular, Charac- 






ment . 


4 


76 


teristics of ... 


4 


110 


Chateau de Blois . . 


5 


28 


" Rayonnant 


4 


117 


" " " Octagonal stair- 






Carding machine 


9 


7 


case in 


5 


31 


Cards, Jacquard . 


9 


26 


" " " Wall decoration 






Carpet, Brussels . 


9 


29 


in 


5 


42 


Designing of 


9 


35 


Chateaux and castles . . 


5 


26 


designs. Drop pattern in . 


7 


15 


Checkering 


8 


11 


" " Softness of out- 






" 


8 


17 


line in . . 


8 


39 


Chimera, The .... 


6 


46 


Width of repeat in 


7 


15 


Chinese architecture. Scarcity of . 


4 


61 


Waste in catting 


7 


17 


" art. Standard forms in . 


4 


62 


Wilton . 


9 


34 


coloring 


4 


62 


Cartouch, The . 


6 


30 


ornament . 


4 


59 


Castle of Coucy . . ... 


4 


123 


and idealism . . 


4 


60 


Castles, ancient, Heating of 


4 


126 


" Primitiveness of 


4 


59 


" " Mode of living in 


4 


126 


Christ, Monogram of 


6 


41 


and chateaux . 


5 


26 


Church, Influence of . . . 


4 


34 


Cathedral of Monreale 


4 


55 


of St. Mark . 


4 


51 


Cauliculi 


4 


16 


Class of ornament . 


3 


30 


Cavetto 


3 


63 


Classes of Egyptian ornament . . 


3 


30 


Ceiling decoration . 


8 


34 


Classic architecture . 


4 


2 


" " . Byzantine . 


4 


47 


art . 


3 


52 


Ceilings, Treatment of arched 


8 


38 


" " . . 


4 


1 


" fiat 


8 


38 


moldings 


3 


60 


Celtic art . 


4 


95 


ornament 


3 


52 


" ornament . . 


4 


95 


" " 


4 


1 


" " Animal forms in . 


4 


96 


style. Revival of 


5 


2 


" Characteristics of 


4 


86 


Classification of borders 


7 


46 


" Intricacy of 


4 


97 


" elements . 


6 


34 


Origin of 


4 


95 


Cleopatra 


3 


34 


" Symbolism in 


4 


98 


Cloth, Plain, ornamented with loz- 






Centaur 


6 


66 


enge-shaped spot 


9 


^ 


Chalice 


8 


46 


Cloths, Double 


9 


18 


Character of threads . . 


9 


4 


Color . . . ... 


3 


8 


Characteristics of a design . . 


7 


5 


Use of, in pile fabrics . 


9 


29 


" " Celtic ornament 


4 


96 


Coloring, Arabian . 


4 


74 


" " decorated cap- 






Chinese 


4 


62 


itals . 


4 


110 


Egyptian 


3 


46 


" " early English 






in Moorish ornament . 


4 


89 


capitals 


4 


109 


wall paper 


8 


25 


" Elizabethan or- 






Moorish, System of . . 


4 


90 


nament 


5 


64 


Rules of , in Indian fabrics 


4 


65 


" Indian orna- 






Colors, Blending of, in Moorish 






ment . 


4 


65 


" ornament . 


4 


91 


" " Moorish orna- 






" of Egyptians 


3 


46 


ment .... 


4 


81 


" Relation of . 


6 


7 


" " Oriental people 


4 


59 


Reversion of 


6 


7 


" " perpendicular 






Column, Tuscan . . . 


4 


20 


capitals . 


4 


110 


Combination of elements 


3 


3 


*' " Persian orna- 






Combing 


9 


10 


ment 


4 


78 


Comparison of Egypt and Greece 


3 


52 


*' "Roman orna- 






" " Greek and Roman 






ment . 


4 


31 


orders 


4 


20 



INDEX 





Sec. 


Page 




Sec. 


Pare 


Comparison of Indian and Per- 






Cornice . . 


4 


7 


sian art . . . 


i 


79 


Corona 


4 


7 


" " Persian and Ara- 






Cotton fibers . 


9 


6 


bian art 


4 


78 


yarn . . 


9 


12 


■Composite order 


4 


30 


Creatures, Fabulous . 


6 


65 


Composition 


6 


1 


Cross, Greek 


6 


41 


Conditions influencing arcliitec- 


3 


5 


" Latin . 


6 


41 


ture .... 


3 


5 


" Maltese . . 


6 


41 


Conic sections 


3 


60 


" Saint Andrew's 


6 


41 


Consideration of purpose in design 


6 


32 


Curtain design. Lace . 


7 


44 


Consistency in design . 


3 


7 


Curved lines. Emphasis of . 


8 


3 


" of Egyptian ornament 


3 


29 


Cutting carpets, Waste in . 


7 


18 


'* " Moorisli ornament 


4 


87 


Cyma recta . 


3 


63 


Construction allied with beauty . 


6 


35 


" reversa . . 


3 


63 


and decoration in 






Cymatium . . . 


4 


8 


Moorish art . 


4 


83 








" of design, Selection 






JD 






of system of . 


7 


25 








" " Moorish geomet- 






Datpasks, Size of repeat in 


7 


40 


rical ornament 


4 


92 


De Thou ... 


7 


72 


Systems of . 


7 


24 


Decorated capitals. Characteris- 






Constructive origin of decorative 






tics of . 


4 


109 


art . 


6 


17 


" period . ... 


4 


100 


ornament 


3 


31 


Decorating, Effects of vertical and 






Continuity of lines . 


8 


5 


horizontal . ■ • -. 


8 


21 


Contrast and variety 


7 


2 


Decoration, Adaptability of . 


8 


38 


variety, and repetition 


6 


13 


Ancient pottery 


6 


15 


Conventional ornament 


6 


28 


and construction in 






" treatment of nature 


6 


SI 


Moorish art 


4 


83 


Conventionalism- 


3 


6 


" Arabian 


4 


72 


and realism . 


6 


30 


Ceiling . 


8 


35 


Egyptian 


6 


25 


" Elements of 


3 


2 


Explanation of 


6 


12 


Floor . . . 


8 


38 


Greek . . 


6 


25 


General rules of sur- 






" in ancient art 


6 


26 


face in . 


3 


8 


" '* Moorish orna- 






" Meaning of . 


3 


1 


ment . 


4 


88 


" Principles of 


3 


2 


Influence of . 


8 


2 


Surface . . . . 


6 


3 


" Kinds of . 


6 


25 


" " Geometrical 






" Necessity of 


6 


12 


basis of . 


8 


8 


of Egyptian orna- 






Decorations, Painted Roman . 


4 


32 


ment . 


3 


29 


Decorative art . 


3 


6 


facts . 


6 


25 


" Constructive origin 






" " principles o r 






of . 


6 


17 


ideas 


6 


25 


" ornament 


3 


30 


Taste in . . . . 


6 


32 


'* " 


3 


35 


Conventionalizing a plant form . 


6 


30 


theory exhibited by the 






" animal forms 


6 


44 


savage 


3 


12 


Corinthian base . 


4 


16 


Defective design . . 


7 


7 


capital . 


4 


15 


Defects, Remedy for . 


7 


7 


order .... 


3 


64 


Definition of bisymmetry . 


6 


15 


Roman , 


4 


27 


inflorescence . . . 


6 


43 


Corner ornament . 


7 


42 


inventive ornament . 


6 


13 


" " 


7 


50 


multisymmetry . 


6 


15 


Corners 


8 


32 


" trisymmetry . 


6 


15 


borders, and stripes . . 


7 


89 


■ unit .... 


7 


6 



INDEX 







Sec. 


Pa^re 




Sec. Page 


Derivation of Moorish art . 


4 


80 


Diapering 


8 


11 


Desigr 


, Adherence to old . 


5 


57 


Diapers, Early English 


4 


113 


" 


based on the diamond and 






French 


4 


119 




arranged as a center tie 


7 


38 


Disk, Winged 


3 


27 


" 


based on the parallelo- 






Distribution of masses 


8 


r> 




gram .... 


7 


34 


Divinity, Egyptian symbol of . 


6 


40 


" 


Botanical principles in . 


6 


42 


Double cloths 


9 


18 


*' 


Characteristics of a . 


7 


5 


Dragon, The . 


6 


46 


^' 


Consistency in 


3 


7 


Donatello . . 


5 


6 


" 


Defective . . . . 


7 


7 


Doric entablature 


4 


6 


" 


Enclosing rectangle of a . 


7 


14 


" " 


4 


24 


^' 


Evolution of . 


6 


17 


order . . .... 


3 


fA 




for fabric. Appropriate- 






Drawing designs. Planning and 


7 


18 




ness of . 


9 


1 


Drinking cup. Development of the 


8 


42 


*' 


Laying out 


9 


20 


Drop pattern 


7 


12 


*' 


Human figure used in 


6 


34 


in carpet design . 


7 


15 




in hanging fabrics. Propri- 






wall papers . 


8 


22 




ety of . 


8 


18 


patterns, Striped effect in . 


7 


19 


*' 


Natural forms in 


6 


28 


Durer, Albert 


5 


51 


*' 


Noblest element of . . 


6 


66 


Dutch influence in English Renais- 






*' 


of the sixteenth century. 






sance 


5 


53 




Gothic 


7 


15 








*' 


Orders of . 


3 


58 


E 








Planning the 


7 


5 








" 


Practical 


7 


1 


Early English capitals. Character- 








Principal feature in a . 


7 


9 


istics of . 




109 


*' 


Principles involved in 






diapers 




113 




practical 


7 


1 


period . 




100 




Simple spot . 


7 


26 


" " spandrels 




112 


" 


Symmetrical 


7 


14 


" French capitals . 




116 


" 


Unity in . 


6 


1 


diapers 




119 


" 


Wall-paper 


8 


22 


period 




116 


Designing, Advantage of numer- 






Echinus 


3 


63 




ous methods in . 


7 


24 


Effect of invention of printing 


5 


5 


" 


of carpets . 


9 


35 


" " IMohammedan religion 






Design 


s. Variety of, from same 






on light and shade . 


6 


7 


elements . 


6 


11 


" *' repeat . . 


7 


11 


Details 


, Arrangement of 


8 


9 


" traditional styles 


3 


11 


" 


Assemblage of, to secure 






Egypt and Greece. Comparison of 


3 


52 




unity . . . 


6 


3 


Egyptian alphabet. Antique . . 


5 


63 


" 


German Gothic . 


4 


121 


Heavy antique 


5 


69 


Development of Arabian orna- 






Light antique 


5 


65 




ment 


4 


69 


art . . . 


3 


14 




Assyrian art 


3 


47 


coloring , 


3 


46 




" drinking cup 


8 


42 


" colors . 


3 


46 




" fireplace . 


5 


33 


" conventionalism 


6 


25 




" flowers 


6 


27 


method of attaching 








" leaves . 


6 


27 


wings to human figure 


6 


64 




" Romanesque 






ornament . . 


3 


14 




style . 


4 


33 


" " Antiquity of 


3 


15 


Device 


s, Symbolic . 


3 


3 


Classes of 


3 


30 


Diamo 


nd, Design based on the, 
and arranged as a 






Consistency of 
" " Conventional- 


3 


29 




center tie 


7 


38 


ism of 


3 


29 


" 


Turn-over pattern 






" " Influence of 








based on the . 


7 


33 


Nile on . 


3 


14 



INDEX 





Sec. 


Page 


F 


Sec. Page 


Egyptian ornament, Influence of 






Fabric, Laying out design for . 


9 


20 


religion on . 


3 


16 


" Ornamentation of, in 






'* sphinx 


6 


45 


checker pattern 


9 


21 


temple 


3 


17 


Fabrics, Appropriateness of de- 






Interior of 


3 


19 


sign for 


9 


2 


Plan of ... 


3 


22 


" Figuring of surface of, in 






Eighteenth century, Italian design 






their pile . 


9 


27 


of the 


7 


35 


Hanging ... 


8 


18 


Element of design, The noblest . . 


6 


56 


Indian, Rules of coloring 


4 


65 


Elements, Animal, in design 


6 


43 


Laying out ornamenta- 






Architectural, in design 


6 


35 


tion of . 


9 


22 


Artificial . 


6 


34 


Ornamentation of . 


9 


22 


" Classification of 


6 


34 


Pile 


9 


20 


" Combination of 


3 


3 


" " _ 


9 


27 


Geometrical, in design . 


6 


34 


" Ornamentation of 


9 


28 


" Industrial, in design . 


6 


40 


Use of color in 


9 


29 


*' Introduction of geomet- 






Plain . 


9 


13 


rical 


7 


35 


Purposes of 


9 


1 


Natural 


6 


34 


Textile . 


9 


1 


" " in design . 


6 


41 


Warp pile 


9 


28 


" of decoration . . . 


3 


2 


Weft pile 


9 


27 


" ornament . 


6 


1 


Fabulous creatures 


6 


65 


Elizabethan ornament. Character- 






Pall of Roman Empire 


4 


33 


istics of 


5 


54 


Fashion, Consideration of 


7 


4 


Ellipse . . . 


3 


61 


Influence of 


7 


27 


Emblems, Prehistoric . 


6 


39 


Faults in turn-over method, Elim- 






Emphasis of curved lines . 


8 


3 


ination of 


7 


22 


" structural lines 


8 


2 


Feathers 


6 


52 


Empire period 


5 


26 


Feature in a design. Principal . 


7 


9 


England and Holland, Political 






Felting . . 


9 


5 


ties of . 


5 


53 


Feudal system . 


4 


121 


" Introduction of Renais- 






Fibers, Cotton . 


9 


6 


sance art into . 


5 


3 


Flax . 


9 


6 


Introduction of Renais- 






Silk 


9 


6 


sance art into 


5 


52 


Wool 


9 


4 


Revival of antique art 






Fiefs .... 


4 


122 


in 


8 


55 


Figure design. Fundamental prin- 






English and German Gothic 


4 


100 


ciples of 


6 


59 


Renaissance 


5 


51 


Human 


6 


56 


" " Dutch influ- 






Figuring surface of fabrics in their 






ence in 


5 


53 


pile. . 


9 


27 


Entablature, Doric 


4 


6 


Fillet . . 


3 


63 


" Roman Doric . 


4 


24 


Fireplace, Development of 


5 


33 


Tuscan 


4 


20 


Fishes in ornament 


6 


54 


Epitithidas . 


■4 


5 


Fitness . . 


7 


4 


Erechtheum 


3 


71 


" . . . . 


8 


1 


Etruscan art .... 


3 


77 


" of ornament . 


6 


16 


ornament 


3 


77 


pattern in wall paper . 


8 


26 


Evolution of design 


6 


17 


Five orders of architecture 


4 


2 


" ^ " Gothic art 


4 


99 


Flatness, Necessity of, in floor 






" " " ornament . . 


■4 


108 


decoration 


8 


38 


Ewer . . . . . ... 


8 


4G 


Flamboyant capitals .... 


4 


117 


Examples of Byzantine style 


4 


42 


period . . 


4 


116 


Explanation of conventionalism . 


6 


12 


Flax fibers . . 


9 


6 


Expression of taste in savage or- 






" yarn 


9 


12 


nament 


3 


11 


Fleur-de-lis 


4 


12s 







INDEX 






xiii 




Sec. Page 






Sec 


Page 


Floor coverings andrugfs, Borders 






Geometrical forms in nature 


6 


28 


for. . 


7 


48 




ornament . . 


6 


34 


*' decoration 


8 


38 




ornament, Moorish, 






" " Necessity of flat- 








Construction of . . 


4 


92 


ness in . . 


8 


38 


* 


' Union of, with natural 






Floral forms combined with de- 








ornament . 


6 


24 


tails of human fleure 


6 


61 


German and English Gothic 


4 


100 


Flowers, Development of . . . 


6 


27 


'* 


Gothic details . . 


4 


121 


Foliated terminations in Italian 






*' 


Renaissance . . 


5 


51 


Renaissance .... 


5 


13 




Renaissance, Influence of 






Fontainebleau . . . 


5 


47 




Italian art in 


5 


51 


Forms, Vegetable 


6 


41 


Ghiberti . . . 


5 


7 


France, Introduction of Renais- 






Giacopo Tatti Sansovino 


5 


22 


sance art into . 


5 


3 


Gilling machine 


9 


10 


French art. Heraldry in . . 


5 


34 


Globe 


Winged . 


3 


27 


conception of Roman ideas 


5 


29 


Gothic alphabet 


5 


75 


furniture. Lack of sym- 






" 


art . 


4 


99 


metry in . 


5 


49 


" 


'* Evolution of 


4 


99 


" ' " Style of 


5 


48 


" 


" in France . 


4 


116 


Gothic art 


4 


116 


*' 


" " Italy 


4 


106 


Renaissance . . . 


5 


24 


" 


" Influence of religion in . 


4 


99 


Periods of . . 


5 


24 


" 


design of the sixteenth cen- 






" Rapidity of 








tury . . 


7 


15 


transition of 


5 


24 


" 


English and German 


4 


100 


style. Purity 






" 


forms. Italian aversion to . 


5 


6 


of 


5 


4 


" 


frieze . 


8 


28 


Roman alphabet . 


5 


71 


" 


German details 


4 


121 


window tracery 


4 


105 


" 


Misinterpretation of . 


4 


121 


Fret 


3 


37 


" 


ornament 


4 


99 


Frets . 


6 


34 


" 


" Evolution of 


4 


108 


Frieze . . . 


4 


6 


" 


*' Origin of 


4 


39 


" Gothic 


8 


28 


Greco-Roman art 


3 


79 


" Greek . 


8 


28 




ornament 


3 


79 


■■ Renaissance 


8 


28 


Greece and Egypt, Comparison of 


3 


52 


Friezes ... 


8 


26 


Greek 


and Roman orders. Com- 






Furniture, French, Lack of sym- 








parison of 


4 


20 


metry in 


5 


49 


*' 


architecture 


3 


54 


Style of 


5 


48 




art . 
bases 


3 
3 


52 
59 


6 








borders .... 


7 


47 


General rules of surface decora- 








conventionalism . 


6 


25 


tion . 


3 


8 


'* 


Corinthian order . 


4 


14 


Geometric constructions. Abolish- 






" 


cross . .... 


6 


41 


ing fundamental . . 


8 


9 


" 


Doric order ... 


4 


3 


constructions. Retain- 






" 


friez&. . . 


8 


28 


ing fundamental . 


8 


9 




lUy ... 


3 


67 


Geometrical bases. Variety possi- 








orders 


4 


2 


ble on certain 


7 


26 




ornament . 


3 


52 


basis of a design 


7 


6 


" 


Representative 






surface dec- 








types of 


3 


56 


orations 


8 


8 


*' 


sculpture . 


3 


56 


considerations in Ap- 






" 


sphinx . . 


6 


51 


plied Design . . 


8 


1 


" 


'* 


6 


66 


elements in design . 


6 


34 


Greeks, Character of the 


3 


52 


" " Introduc- 






Griflar 


. 


6 


43 


tion of 


7 


36 


Group 


ing. Study of 


6 


6 



XIV 



INDEX 



Growth . . 
Guilloche , . . 
Guttee . . 



H 



Hackling- 

Hag-ia Sophia . . . 

Hall, Hypostyle 

" at Karnak 
of assembly 
Hanap . . ... 

Handles, Consideration of, in de- 
signing: vases and cups 
Hanging fabrics . 
Hangings and table covers, Bor- 
ders for 
Harmachis- ... . . 

Harmony in adaptation of human 
figure to design 
" " secondary lines . 

Head of Medusa . 
Heating of ancient castles .... 
Heavy Antique Egyptian Alphabet 
Heraldry . . 

in French art 
Historic lettering . 

" Modern use of . 
" '* Object of study- 

ing 
" Value of study 
of . 
Holbein . . 

Holland and England 

ties of ' 
Horn ... 
How to bisect a given angle 

" study ornament 
Human figure 

figure. Application of 

wings to 
figure. Details of, com- 
bined with animal and 
floral forms . ... 

" figure. Difficulty of free 

rendering of . ^ . 
" figure, Harmony in adap- 
tation oE, to design . 
figure, Proportions of 
figure used in design 
" figures as supports . 

Hyperbola 

'* Method of drawing . . 
" Method of drawing tan- 
gent to 
Hypostyle hall . . 

" " at Karnak 



Sec. 


Page 


7 


4 


3 


70 


4 


8 


9 


■12 


4 


40 


3 


17 


3 


23 


3 


17 


8 


44 


8 


46 


8 


18 


7 


47 


3 


25 


6 


58 


8 


i 


6 


67 


4 


126 


5 


69 


4 


127 


6- 


34 


5 


61 


5 


59 



56 





3 


13 




5 


52 


Political 








5 


53 




3 


26 


le 


8 


33 




3 


14 




6 


66 



Idealism and Chinese ornament . 
Imaginary beasts 
Imitation and invention . ... 

Indian and Persian art compared 
art . 
*' " Arrangement of orna- 
ment in 
" " Lack of progressive- 

ness in 
" fabrics. Rules of coloring 

" ornament 

" " Characteristics of 

Industrial elements, Association 
of, with architectural 
elements in design 
ornament . 
Infloresence, Definition of . 
Influence of architecture 

conventionalism 
Italian art in German 

Renaissance 
Mohammedanism 
nature 
religion . 

in Egyptian 
ornament . 
in Gothic art 
the church 

Nile on Egyptian 
ornament . . . 
Influences affecting different styles 

of art ... 
Ingenuity of Byzantine ornament 
Insects in design 

Intention of Renaissance artists . 

Interior of Egyptian temple . 

Intricacy of Celtic ornament 

Introduction of Renaissance art 

into England . 

" Renaissance art 

into England . 

" Renaissance art 



Sec. 


Pasr 


4 


60 


6 


44 


6 


13 


4 


79 


4 


64 



29 



4 


64 


4 


65 


4 


64 


4 


65 


6 


40 


6 


40 


6 


34 


6 


43 


3 


4 


8 


2 


5 


51 


4 


70 


3 


9 


3 


5 


3 


16 


4 


99- 


4 


34 



5 


56 


4 


65 


6 


53 


5 


2 


3 


19 


4 


97 



52 



6 


61 


into France . 


5 


a 






Invention and imitation . 


6 


13 


6 


60 


of printins:, Effect of 


5 


5 






Inventive ornament, Definition of 


6 


13 


6 


58 


Ionic architrave 


4 


IS 


6 


56 


" order . ... 


3 


64 


6 


34 




4 


8 


6 


62 


" Roman . 


4 


24 


8 


61 


Ironwork, Renaissance . 


6 


18 


3 


62 


Italian art and literature 


5 


5 






" Roman influence on 


5^ 


6 


8 


63 


aversion to Gothic form . 


5 


5 


3 


17 


design of the eififhteenth 






3 


28 


century 


7 


35 



INDEX 



XV 





Sec. 


Page 


M 


Sec. Page 


Italian Gothic art . . 


i 


106 


Machine, Carding 


9 


7 


" Renaissance ... 


5 


4 


Gilling . 


9 


10 


Foliated ter- 






Jacquard 


9 


25 


minations in 


5 


13 


Maltese cross . . 


6 


41 


French ideas 






Masses, Distribution of . 


8 


5 


of . . 


6 


29 


Meaning of decoration 


3 


1 


Origin of . 


5 


4 


" order . . 


4 


2 


" Scrollwork in 


5 


12 


ornament . 


3 


1 


Value of, to 






Medieval Roman alphabst 


5 


69 


the designer 


5 


10 


Medusa, Head of . 


6 


67 


Italy, Renaissance art in 


5 


3 


Methods in designing. Advantage 












of a knowledge of numerous 


7 


24 


J 






Metope . 


4 


6 


Jacquard cards 


9 


26 


Mezzo rilievo 


5 


7 


machine . 


9 


25 


Michael Angelo 


5 


21 


Japanese art . 


i 


63 


Misinterpretation of Gothic . 


4 


121 


ornament 


i 


.59 


Mode of living in ancient castles 


4 


126 


Jugr .... 


8 


46 


Modem use of historic ornament . 


5 


59 


Junction of lines. Tangential 


7 


3 


Modillion 


4 


29 








Modules ... 


4 


8 


K 






Mohammedan decoration . . . 


4 


72 


Kamak, Hypostyle hall at 


3 


23 


religion. Effect of. 






Temple of 


3 


23 


on hght and shade 


6 


7 


Kinds of conventionalism . 


6 


25 


Mohammedanism in Arabian art . 


4 


70 


Knitting and carpet yarns . 


9 


10 


Influence of 


4 


70 








Moldings, Classic . 


3 


60 


t. 






Monogram of Christ . 


6 


41 


Labyrinth 


3 


37 


Monreale, Cathedral of 


4 


55 


Lace curtain design . 


7 


44 


Monument of Lysicrates 


4 


14 


Lack of progressiveness in Indian 






Moorish art . . . . 


4 


80 


art 


4 


64 


Construction and dec- 






" " symmetry in French fur- 






oration in . 


4 


83 


niture . 


5 


49 


Derivation of . 


4 


80 


Latin cross - . 


6 


41 


Primary colors in . 


4 


85 


Laws of nature 


3 


57 


coloring. System of 


4 


90 


Laying out a design for fabric 


9 


20 


geometrical ornament. 






Leaves, Development of 


C 


27 


Construction of 


4 


93 


Lettering, Historic 


5 


61 


ornament . 


4 


80- 


Literature and art, Italian . 


5 


5 


Blending of col- 






Light and shade . . ... 


6 


7 


ors in 


4 


91 


antique Egyptian alphabet 


5 


65 


" " Characteristics 






Lily, Greek . 


3 


67 


of . . 


4 


81 


Limit of outline 


6 


2 


" " Coloring in 


4 


89- 


Limitless variety of patterns 


6 


21 


Consistency of 


4 


87 


Linear ornament 


6 


15 


Conventional- 






Lines, Arrangement of 


6 


4 


ism in 


4 


88 


" Continuity of 


8 


5 


Mule, Description of . 


9 


9 


Emphasis of curved 


8 


3 


Multisymmetry, Definition of . 


6 


15 


Harmony of secondary 


8 


4 


Mummy 


3 


35 


in nature. Harmony of . 


8 


5 


Mutules 


4 


7 


Tangential junction of . 


7 


3 








Lining .... \ 


8 


11 


N 






Link borders . . 


7 


46 


Natural ele.ments 


6 


.34 


Lizards and snakes 


6 


65 


" " in design 


6 


41 


Lotus 


3 


26 


" forms in design . 


6 


28 


Lysicrates, Monument of . 


i 


14 


" ornament . . 


6 


24 



xvi 




INDEX 








■ 


Sec. 


Paee 


Sec. 


Page 


Natural ornament, Union of, with 




Ornament . . .... 


6 


15 


geometrical 


6 


24 


Ancient . . . . ■ 


3 


9 


treatment of nature 


6 


31 


Animal . 


6 


34 


Naturalistic treatment of wall sur- 




" 


Arabian 


4 


69 


face . ... 


8 


26 


Development of 


4 


69 


Nature, Conventional treatment of 


6 


31 


Architectural . 


6 


34 


" Geometrical forms in 


6 


28 


Arrangement of, in Ara- 






Harmony of lines in 


8 


5 


bian art 


6 


29 


Influence of . 


3 


9 


Arrangement of, in In- 






Natural treatment of . 


6 


31 


dian art . 


6 


29 


Oval in 


6 


13, 


Asiatic . 


4 


59 


" Realistic treatment of . 


6 


30 


Assyrian . 


3 


47 


Suggestions from, for the 




*' 


Ball-flower 


4 


101 


design of vases and 




" 


Byzantine 


4 


39 


cups . 


8 


48 


Celtic 


4 


95 


Necessity of conventionalism . 


6 


12 


" Animal forms in . 


4 


96 


Nimbus 


6 


41 


" "Characteristics of, 


4 


96 






" 


*' Intricacy of . 


4 


97 


O 




'* 


" Origin of . . 


4 


95 


Obelisks 


3 


21 


" Symbolism in 


4 


98 


Object of studying historic orna- 




*' 


Character of Roman . 


4 


31 


ment . . . 


5 


56 


Characteristics of Per- 






Octagonal staircase at Blois 


5 


31 


sian . 


4 


78 


Old designs. Adherence to 


5- 


57 


Characteristics of Turk- 






" English alphabet 


5 


79 


ish . 


4 


76 


Order, Composite 


4 


30 


Chinese 


4 


59 


Corinthian 


3 


64 


and idealism 


4 


60 


Doric . 


3 


64 


Class of. 


3 


30 


■' Greek-Corinthian 


4 


14 


* Classic . . . 


4 


1 


Doric 


4 


3 


*' 


3 


52 


Ionic 


3 


64 


Comparison of Persian 






.. 


4 


8 


and Arabian . . . 


4 


78 


Meaning of . . . 


4 


2 


Comparison of Persian 






*' Roman-Corinthian . 


4 


27 . 


and Indian 


4 


79 


Doric 


4 


21 


Constructive 


3 


31 


" " Ionic . 


4 


24 


Conventional . 


6 


28 


Tuscan . . 


4 


19 


Decorative . 


3 


30 


Orders. Architectural ... 


3 


58 


Egyptian 


3 


14 


" " Meaning of . 


4 


2 


Antiquity of 


3 


15 


Comparison of Greek and 






" Classes of . . 


3 


30 


Roman 


4 


20 


Consistency of 


3 


29 


Greek 


4 


2 


" Conventional- 






of design 


3 


58 


ism of . 


3 


29 


Roman 


4 


17 


Influenceof 






Oriental art 


4 


59 


Nile on . . 


3 


14 


influence in Byzantine art 


4 


39 


Influence of re- 






people. Characteristics 






ligion on 


3 


16 


of . ... 


4 


59 


' Elements of . 


6 


1 


Origin of Celtic ornament . . 


4 


95 


' Elizabethan, Character- 






Gothic and Byzantine or- 






istics of . . 


5 


54 


nament . . . 


4 


39 


Etruscan ." . . 


3 


77 


Italian Renaissance . 


5 


4 


Expression of taste in 






cup .... 


8 


41 


savage 


3 


11 


" Renaissance art . 


5 


1 


Fitness of 


6 


16 


" " set styles 


3 


10 


' General arrangement 






*' " tattooing . . . 


3 


10 


of, in surface work . . 


8 


11 



INDEX 



xvii 







Sec. 


Page 




Sec. 


Page 


Ornament, Geometrical 


6 


34 


Ornament, Wings in . . 


6 


49 


Uothic . 


4 


SI9 


Ornamentation in checker pattern 






" " Evolution of . 


4 


108 


for fabric . 


9 


21 


" Greco-Roman 


3 


79 


of fabrics . 


9 


22 


Greek 


3 


52 


Laying 






" Representative 






out 


9 


22 


types of 


3 


56 


pile fabrics 


9 


28 


Historic, Modern use of 


5 


59 


Reversion of treat- 






Object of 






ment in . 


6 


8 


studying 


5 


66 


Osiris 


3 


20 


Value of study 






Outline, Limit of . 


6 


2 


of. 


3 


13 


Oval in nature 


6 


13 


History of . 


2 


1 


** Repetition, contrast, and va- 






How to study 


3 


14 


riety expressed in the 


6 _ 


\Z 


" Indian. . . ... 


1 


64 








Characteristics 






P 






of . 


4 


65 


Painted Roman decorations 


4 


32 


Industrial 


6 


34 


Paneling 


8 


H 


Ingenuity of Byzantine 


4 


55 




8 


17 


Japanese 


4 


59 


Papyrus 


3 


26 


Linear . 


6 


15 


Parabola .... 


3 


60 


Meaning: of 


3 


1 


Parallelogram, Design based on 






Moorish ... 


4 


80 


the . 


7 


34 


Blending of col- 






Parent stem 


7 


9 


ors in . . 


4 


91 


Parthenon . 


3 


55 


Characteristics 






Pattern, Ball . 


7 


31 


of -. 


4 


81 


Drop . . 


7 


12 


Coloring in 


4 


89 


Turn-over-and-drop 


7 


22 


Consistency of 


4 


87 


Unit of 


7 


12 


*' Convention- 






Patterns, Limitless variety of . 


6 


21 


alism in 


4 


88 


Pedestal, Roman Doric 


4 


23 


Derivation of . 


4 


80 


Tuscan 


4 


19 


" geometrical. 






People, Types of . 


3 


26 


Construction 






Periods of French Renaissance . 


5 


24 


of 


4 


92 


Perpendicular characters 


4 


110 




Natural ... 


6 


24 


period 


4 


100 




Origin of Gothic and 






Persian and Arabian art com- 








Byzantine 


4 


39 


pared 


4 


T.S 




Persian 


4 


78 


" ornament. Characteris- 








Pompeian 


3 


79 


tics of 


4 


78 




' 


3 


82 


Pilaster forms of treatment 


8 


20 




Primitive . . 


3 


9 


Pilasters 


8 


32 




Primitiveness of Chi- 






Pile fabrics 


9 


20 




nese . . 


4 


69 




9 


27 




Renaissance . 


5 


1 


Ornamentation of 


9 


28 




Representative 


3 


30 


Plain fabrics'. . . 


9 


13 




* " 


3 


33 


Planning and drawing the design 


7 


18 




Roman . 


4 


1 


design 


7 


5 




Romanesque 


4 


33 


turn-over method in 








Style in 


3 


30 


design 


7 


20 




Surface 


3 


66 


Plan of Egyptian temple 


3 


22 




threads 


9 


20 


Plant form. Conventionalizing a 


6 


30 




Turkish 


4 


76 


Political ties of England and Hol- 








Type of 


3 


31 


land 


5 


63 




Vegetable 


6 


34 


Polychromy 


3 


72 




Western 


4 


95 


Pompeian art 


3 


79 



xvm 




INI 


DEX 








Sec. 


Pas-e 




Sec. 


Pagt 


Pompeian ornament . 


3 


79 


Renaissanceart, Origin of , . . 


5 


1 


" 


3 


82 


artists. Intention of 


5 


2 


Pottery, Ancient decoration of 


6 


15 


English , 


5 


51 


" Brush decoration of . 


6 


23 


" Dutch influ- 






Powdered effect in designs 


7 


29 


ence in . 


5 


53 


Powderinff, Spotting and 


8 


■ n 


" French , 


5 


24 


Practical Design 


7 


1 


Periods of . 


5 


24 


Prehistoric emblems 


6 


40 


'* " Rapidity of 






Primary colors in Moorish art 


4 


85 


transition 






Primitive ornament 


3 


9 


in 


5 


24 


Primitiveness of Chinese ornament 


4 


59 


frieze 


8 


28 


Principles, Fundamental, of figure 






*' German 


5 


51 


design 


6 


60 


German, Influence 






involved in practical 






of Italian art in 


5 


61 


design . . 


7 


1 


Introduction of, into 






of decoration 


3 


2 


England 


5 


52 


" " human figure 


6 


56 


ironwork 


5 


18 


" wings . 


6 


50 


Italian 


5 


4 


Printing, Invention of 


5 


5 


ornament . 


5 


1 


Profile of human face used to form 






period, Scope of 


5 


2 


design for outline of vase 


8 


48 


Venetian 


5 


16 


Proportion . . 


7 


5 


Rendered perspective , 


6 


1 


of unit 


8 


24 


Repeat and unit 


7 


7 


Propriety of design for hanging 






Effect of 


7 


11 


fabrics 


8 


IS 


in carpet design. Width of 


7 


15 


Propylon . 


3 


18 


Size of, in damasks 


7 


40 


Purity of French Renaissance style 


5 


4 


wall papers . 


8 


22 


Purpose, Consideration of, in 






Uniformity of, in border 






design 


6 


32 


and filling 


7 


39 


Purposes of fabrics 


9 


1 


Repeats. Unequal 


7 


41 


Pylons 


8 


17 


Repetition 


7 


1 


Q 






contrast, and variety 


6 


13 


Quadrupeds and running orna- 
ments 


6 


47 


Representative ornament 

types of Greek 
ornament . 


3 
3 


30 

56 


R 






Reversion of colors 


6 


7 


Radiation . . 


7 


3 


" treatment in orna- 






" and symmetry . 


6 


14 


mentation . . 


6 


8 


Ramesseum 


3 


22 


Revival of antique art in England . 


5 


55 


Rapidity of transition of French 






" classic style 


5 


2 


Renaissance . . . 


5 


24 


Rococo period . 


5 


26 


Rayonnant capitals 


4 


117 


Roman acanthus . 


4 


31 


period . . 


4 


116 


alphabet. Medieval . . 


5 


C9 


Realism and conventionahsm . 


6 


SO 


and Greek orders. Com- 






Realistic treatment of nature 


6 


30 


parison of . 


4 


20 


Rectangle of design. Enclosing -. 


7 


14 


Corinthia'n order 


4 


27 


Relation of colors 


6 


7 


Doric order 


4 


21 


Religion, Influence of ... 


3 


5 


entablature . 


4 


24 


" " " in Gothic art 


4 


99 


pedestal . . . 


4 


23 


Remedy for defects 


7 


7 


" domination. System of 






Renaissance art 


5 


1 


building under . 


4 


34 


" inltaly . . 


5 


3 


empire. Fall of . . 


4 


33 


Introduction of. 






influences on Italian art 


5 


6 


into England . 


6 


3 


Ionic order 


4 


24 


" " Introduction of. 






orders 


4 


17 


into France 


5 


3 


ornament . 


4 


1 



INDEX 



Sec. 

Roman ornament. Character of . 4 

painted decorations 4 

Romanesque art .... 4 

" Sculpture in 4 

" ornament 4 

style. Development 

of 4 

Rovings . . . ... 9 

Rugfs and floor covering's, Borders 

for . 7 

Rules of coloring: in Indian fabrics 4 

Running: ornaments and birds 6 

S 
Sacred bark ... 3 
Saint Andrew, Cross of 6 
" Mark's church . 4 
Sansovino, Giacopo Tatti . 5 
' Satins, Method of weaving . 9 
Savage, Decorative theory ex- 
hibited by the . 3 
ornament. Expression of 



Page 
31 
32 
33 
58 



65 
47 



36 
41 
51 



taste in 


3 


11 


Scarabeus 


3 


28 


" 


6 


41 


Scarcity of Chinese architecture 


4 


61 


Scope of Renaissance period 


f, 


2 


Scotia 


3 


63 


Scroll . 


3 


41 


" Volute 


6 


37 


Scrollwork in Italian Renaissance 


5 


12 


Sculpture, Assyrian . 


3 


48 


Greek . 


3 


56 


in Byzantine art 


4 


58 


Romanesque art 


4 


58 


Secondary lines. Harmony of . 


8 


4 


Sections, Conic 


3 


60 


Sekos ... . 


3 


17 


Set styles, Orijrin of . 


8 


10 


Shade, Light and 


6 


7 


Shaft. . . 


4 


12 


Shape, Influence of 


S 


1 


Silk fibers 


i) 


6 


" yarn . 


9 


12 


Singles . 


9 


11 


Size of repeat in damasks . 


7 


40 


wallpapers . 


8 


22 


Snakes and lizards 


6 


55 


Soffit .... 


4 


7 


Space, Subdivision of . 


6 


3 


Spandrels, Early English 


4 


112 


Spanish fabrics 


7 


54 


Sphinx . 


3 


25 




6 


■45 


Egyptian 


6 


45 


Greek 


6 


51 



Spinning fibers . . . 

" Preparing wool for 

Throstle . 
Spot designs, Simple 
Spotting and powdering . 
Staircase of Chateau de Blois 
Stem, Parent ... 

Thickening of, at points of 
departure . 
Striped effect in drop patterns 
Stripes, Style in historic . 

in early Gothic period 
" " Spanish fabrics 
" woven goods . 
" Propriety of, in hanging 
fabrics 
Striping and banding 
Structural lines, Emphasis of . 
Study of grouping . 
Style and ornament , . 

Development of Roman- 
esque .... 

'* Examples of Byzantine . 
" in historic stripes 
of French furniture 
Styles, Origin of set . 

Effect of traditional . 
Stylobate 

Subdivision of space 
Subordination 

Supports, Human figures as 
Surface decoration, Definition of 
" " General rules 

of 
" ornament . 

varied by the placing of 
lines . 
Surfaces and Solids, Drawing 
plate . . . . . . 

Symbol of Egyptian divinity 
Symbolic devices 
Symbolism . . 

in Celtic ornament 
Symmetrical designs 
Symmetry and balance 

radiation 
System, Feudal 

of building under Roman 
domination 
design. Selection of 
Systems of construction 

Moorish coloring 



Table covers and hangings. Bor- 
ders for 7 



Sec. 


Page 


9 


7 


9 


8 


9 


11 


7 


26 


8 


11 


5 


31 


7 


9 


7 


42 


7 


19 


7 


54 


7 


54 


7 


54 


7 


52 


8 


19 


8 


11 


8 


2 


6 


6 


3 


30 


1 


33 


4 


42 


7 


54 


5 


48 


3 


10 


3 


11 


4 


3 


6 


3 


7- 


4 


6 


62 


6 


3 


3 


8 


3 


66 



2 


24 


6 


40 


3 


3 


6 


40 


4 


98 


7 


14 


7 


3 


6 


14 


4 


121 


4 


34 


7 


25 


7 


24 


4 


90 



XX 



INDEX 



Tangential junction of lines . 

Tankard 

Tapestry of the thirteenth and 

fourteenth centuries . 
Taste in conventionalism . 
Tattooing:. Origin of . 
Temple, Egryptian . 

Plan of 
of Athena Polias . 

" " Karnak 
Termini ... 
Textile fabrics, General considera- 
tions in . 
Thickening of stem at points of 

departure 
Thoth ... 
Thread, Characteristics of worsted 
Threads, Character of 
" Ornament . 

Warp 

Weft. . . 
Three great laws of nature 
Throstle spinning 
Thumb molding 
Torus . . . 

Tower of the winds 
Tracery . 

French .... 
Traditional styles, Effects of . 
Tram . . . 

Treatment, Reversion of, in orna- 
mentation 
Triglyph 

Trisymmetry, Definition of . 
Turkish art 

' ornament . . 

Characteristics 
of 
Turn-over-and-drop patterns 

" method, Advantage of 

the 

" " method, Elimination of 
faults in . . . 

" " method in design, Plan- 
ning the 
" " pattern based on the 
diamond . 
Tuscan column 

entablature 
order 
pedestal . 

Twills 

Twist, Effect of, in weaving . 
Type of ornament . 
Types of people 



Sec. Page U Sec. Page 

7 3 Unequal repeats ... . . 7 41 

8 44 Union of natural with geometrical 

ornament 

8 14 Unit and repeat . 

6 32 " Definition of . .. 

3 10 " of pattern . 

3 17 " Proportion of . . 

3 22 Units, Irregular 

3 70 Unity. . ... 

4 9 " Assemblage of details to se- 
3 23 cure 
6 64 "in design 

Utensils and vases. Origin of . 



6 


42 


3 


26 


9 


11 


9 


4 


9 


20 


9 


2 


9 


2 


3 


57 


9 


11 


4 


6 


3 


63 


3 


65 


4 


101 


4 


105 


3 


11 


9 


12 


6 


8 


4 


6 


6 


15 


4 


76 


4 


76 


4 


76 


V 


22 



24 
7 
6 
12 
24 
29 
5 



1 
41 



Valois period . 

Value of Italian Renaissance to 
the designer . 
" '* study of historic orna- 
ment 
Variation of surface by the pla- 
cing of lines 
Variety and contrast 

" of designs from same ele- 
ments . 
" possible on certain geo- 
metrical bases 
repetition, and contrast 
Vase, Development of the 

Profile of human face used 
to form design for outline 
of . . . 

Vases and cups. Suggestions from 
nature for design of . 
utensils. Origin of . 
Vegetable forms . 

ornament , 
Velvets and plushes . 
Venetian Renaissance . 
Versailles . 
Vertebrate borders 
,_ ^ Vertical and horizontal decorating, 

' Effects of 

^ ^2 Vignola 
Vitruvius 

7 20 ^°i"'^ ;, 
scroll . 

7 33 W 

4 20 Wall decoration . . . 

4 20 " " Byzantine 

4 19 " " Chateau de Blois 

4 19 " " Methods of treat- 

9 14 ment in 

9 3 ■' paper, Coloring in 

3 ■ 31 " " dosiffn 

3 -0 " " Size of repeat in 



24 

10 

13 

4 
2 



26 
13 
45 



8 48 



8 


48 


8 


41 


6 


41 


6 


34 


9 


27 


5 


16 


5 


47 


7 


46 


8 


■:i 


4 


17 


5 


6 


4 


12 


6 


37 


8 


20 


4 


47 


5 


42 


8 


20 


8 


25 


8 


22 


8 


22 



Wall surface, Naturalistic treat- 
ment of 

Warp and weft in different colors, 
Effect of . . 
** pile fabrics . . 

" threads . 
Waste in cutting' carpets . . 
Weave, Basket 

Weaving 

Effect of twist 
Weft pile in fabrics 

" threads 
Western art 

ornament . ... 

Wilton carpets . 
Window tracery, French 
Winged disk . 

gflobe ... 

Wings, Application of 

" to human 
figure . 
Assyrian method of aftach- 
ing, to human figure 





INDEX 






xxi 


Sec. 


Pas^e 






Sec. Page 






Wings, Egyptian 


1 method of at- 






8 


26 


tachingr, to human figure 


6 


64 






in ornament . . 


6 


49 


9 


22 


Proportions of . 


6 


50 


9 


28 


Wivern . . 




6 


45 


9 


2 


Wool fibers . . 




9 


4 


7 


17 


for spinning. 


Preparing . 


9 


8 


9 


15 


Woolen yarn . 




9 


8 


9 


2 


Worsted thread. Characteristics of 


9 


11 


9 


3 


yarn 




9 


8 


9 


27 




• 






9 


2 




Y 






i 


95 


Yarn, Cotton 




9 


12 


4 


95 


" Flax . 




9 


12 


9 


27 


" Silk 




9 


12 


4 


105 


" Woolen . 




9 


7 


3 


27 


" Worsted 




9 


8 


3 


27 


Yams . . 




9 


7 


6 


51 


" Knitting and carpet 


9 


10 


t> 


64 




Z 










Zenith of architectural develop- 






6 


64 


ment 




4 


115