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History of 
The Windermere Parish Church. 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



(sometimes erroneously called 
bowness parish church.) 





author of 

History of the Captivity and 

Return of the Jews (Stock). 
Life of Christ during His Ministry 

(Church Army). 
Family Prayers (Simpkin Marshall). 






bowness-on-windermere : 

Boynton & Marshall, Old Art School, 



The eagerness with which 10,000 pamphlets 
describing briefly our Ancient Parish Church of 
Windermere are annually taken and read by 
residents and visitors alike during week-days gives 
me every hope that this volume of 100 pages with 
18 illustrations will be equally appreciated by the 
public who " Thirst for Knowledge." 

All the printing has been done in Windermere 
to encourage local trade, I am therefore practically 
my own publisher so that all the profits (if any) 
from the Sale of this Book will be given to some 
Parochial object. 

I have to thank Mr. George Browne of Trout- 
beck for his help in connection with the account 
of the Rectors of Windermere. 

I am indebted to the late Henry Hughes for the 
" Art of Glass Painting," Mr. Thomas Curtis 
(Messrs. Ward & Hughes, London), for the 
description and blocks of their windows, to Mr. 


George Moore for a " block " and description of 
his window ; to Mr. Grylls (Burleson & Grylls, 
London) for the " Key of the East Window," to 
Mr. Waters for the photographs of the Church 
before restoration, and Mr. Herbert and Mr. Bruns- 
kill for the more recent ones which are reproduced 
in this book, and to the late Frederick Clowes and 
James Stockdale for extracts taken from their 
descriptions of the East Window and to Canon 
Rawnsley for the description of the Church Plate. 

I have published these facts in a series of 
articles in the Parish Magazine; in addition to this 
1000 copies have been printed off each month and 
thus little by little has this work been accomplished. 

I mention this in case someone may imitate the 
plan which I have adopted which is inexpensive, 
comparatively easy and most interesting to a 
Rector or Vicar, and I hope to the public. 

I apologise for mistakes and lack of literary 

Lcurlan.j JjUsrsz-* 

The Rectory, 

Windermere, March 1st, 7908. 


Date of Church ... ... ... ... 3 

Mural Decorations ... ... ... ... 5 

Frescoes ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Gunpowder Plot ... ... ... ... 14 

The Beams ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Rectors ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Churchwardens ... ... ... ... 29 

The East Window ... ... ... ... 31 

The Restored East Window ... ... ... 37 

Key Plan of East Window ... ... ... 50 

The Carrier's Arms ... ... ... ... 55 

The Art of Glass Painting ... ... ... 56 

Church Plate ... ... ... ... 62 

Case for Chained Books ... ... ... 64 

The Church Yard ... ... ... ... 67 

The Parish ... ... ... ... ... 68 

The Rectory... ... ... ... ... 70 

The Forwood Window ... ... ... 71 

The Curates... ... ... ... ... 73 

Mural Tablets ... ... ... ... 74 

Bellasis Memorial Window ... ... ... 78 

Canon Stock Gift Window ... ... ... 79 

Watson Memorial Window ... ... ... 80 

Clowes Memorial Window ... ... ... 82 


The Church (interior) before Restoration. 

The Church (exterior) before Restoration. 

The Church (interior) after Restoration. 

The Church (exterior) after Restoration. 

The Frescoes — The Entombment. 

The Frescoes — The Visit of the Magi. 

The Mural Inscriptions. 

The Runic Cross. 

Gunpowder Plot Inscription. 

The Chalice, 

The West End of Church. 

The Rectory. 

The Attock Window. 

The Bellasis Window. 

The Watson Window. 

The Stock Window. 

The Clowes Window. 

Portrait of Canon Stock. 

f&\jz ^vobabh Bat* of t)jt Cijmxlj. 

fffiERE are various evidences of a Church 
having existed on the site of the pre- 
sent sacred edifice at a very early 
period, but the greater part of the now 
restored building is probably comparatively modern. 
Archceologists, Antiquarians and those qualified 
to judge, have expressed their opinions that the 
ancient floor which was found five feet below the 
present floor of the Church indicates that there 
was a place of worship over 1000 YEARS AGO on 
the very spot on which the present Church now 
stands. The ancient wooden building was burnt 
to the ground in the 15th Century, the only 
evidence we have to prove this assertion is that 
the colour of the top of the Sandstone Saxon Font 
indicates that it has been discoloured by fire, and 
that the Registers prior to the 15th century are 


The present building is believed to have been 
built in the year 1480, in the reign of Edward IV. 
and was completely restored in 1870 by the late 
Rev. Canon Stock at a cost of ^8000. 

Haint JKartin 

(the patron saint). 

The Church is dedicated to St. Martin, who 
was born about A.D. 316, at Sabaria, a town in 
Hungary. He was the son of a Roman Tribune 
and of Pagan parentage. At an early age he 
came under Christian influences and at fifteen 
was received as a catechumen. Before he could 
be baptised he was sent to join the army in Gaul. 
The legion in which he served was quartered at 
Amiens in the year 332, and the winter of that 
year was of such severity that men died in the 
street from excessive cold. It happened one day 
that St. Martin on going out of the gate of the 
city was met by a poor naked beggar, shivering 
with cold, and he feeling compassion for him, and 
having nothing but his cloak and his sword, he 
divided his cloak with his sword and gave one half 
of it to the beggar, covering himself as well as he 
was able with the other half. The legend is 
that on that very night in a dream he beheld the 
Lord Jesus, who stood before him having on his 
shoulders the half of the cloak which he had 


bestowed on the beggar, and Jesus said to the 
Angels who were around Him, " Know ye who 
hath thus arrayed ME. ? My servant Martin, 
though yet unbaptised, hath done this ! " 

St. Martin after this vision hastened to be 
baptised. He left the army at the age of 40, and 
became Bishop of Tours in A.D. 371. The fame 
of his sanctity attracted crowds of visitants from 
all parts of Gaul, he died in A.D. 400 in a mon- 
astry near Tours, which he had established. A 
Church was then built and dedicated to his 
memory by St. Ninian at Whithorn in Galloway. 

The best authorities suppose that the Diocese 
over which St. Ninian presided extended from the 
modern Glasgow to Stainmore Cross on the borders 
of Westmorland, in which case the ancient Parish 
of Windermere would necessarily be in that 

In the middle of the 5th Century, St. Martin's 
Church at Canterbury — one of che oldest Churches 
in England — was also dedicated to this Saint. 

%\it jKttral Ibror aliens. 

The Architecture of the Church is of a very 
rude or plain character ; the walls and pillars 
being merely rubble work covered with plaster, 
presenting before the decorations were effected a 
very cold and glaring appearance. 


An important part of the Mural Decorations 
consists of a curious series of inscriptions on 
either side of the Nave which were discovered by 
the late Rector (Canon Stock) concealed under 
several coats of whitewash, they are believed to 
have been placed on the walls after the Reform- 
ation about A.D., 1590. 

We are indebted to the late Rev. John Ayre for 
the information that some of these inscriptions are 
to be found in a small book entitled ' Short 
Questions and Answeares conteining the summe 
of Christian Religion with the Testimonies of 
Scripture, Imprinted at London at the 3 Cranes 
in the Vintree, by Thomas Dawson, 1590." 
The Author is Robert Openshawe who writes 
V From my Study at Waimouth and Melcombe 
Regis, the 18 daye of J any., in the yeare of our 
Lord 1548:' 

This Book is now in the British Museum. 

The Author states in his preface that he has 
enlarged certain Short Questions and Answeares" 
but he does not state who was the original author ; 
some people tell us these inscriptions are taken 
from Archbishop Cranmer's Shorter Catechism. 

They are printed in Old English characters, 
with Old English spelling. Here we give the 
modern : — 

1 . How many Sacraments are there ? 

Two : Baptism and the Supper of the Lord 

H mm many [arrauinit© are ft fir: 
V) no: feptlstiif.inii fee [upper of fjf ILoifl" . 

1 n kptifraf dSirbf j y fijue v maybe fffwr 
'Water outfit je^e^G^e^G^es'K) 

WbicljeiB tbnyate y cannot be jwme * 
^B Br Uttfljingf aroaieof Bwb fyttje HooiV 

of dtttF' G^Q^G^Q&te 



Wlncf) \8y$stt y raitnotlit 1 frm 

lETjf fcie and fa of (Sfjrifa 

Tot|f fUMJjniuia of ^ourfaitfo jimor maity 

tljiiige? feirttf yon in kpmrner 
T\Do:fiiw loatfrtoafofflj aU^^fiffu^ 
of y flrftfc: fo f Ihk of (grift tDajjjetJjatow 
fymif f runny M fpftniOl^amtaugjjt to riff 
a^aitu to news of life , xx^ 


4. To the strengthening of your faith, how many 

things learn you in baptism ? 

Two : first as water washeth away the filthiness 
of the flesh ; so the Blood of Christ washeth 
away sin from my soul ; secondly, I am 
taught to rise again to newness of life. 

5. The cup of blessing which we bless, Is it not 

the communion of the Blood of Christ. The 
The bread which we break, Is it not the 
communion of the Body of Christ ? 

The designs are principally bands of Scroll-work 
in grisaille heightened with gold, and in the Nave 
form a scheme for resetting the old inscriptions, 
which have been restored with great care, and only 
to such an extent as to make them legible. 

There are also texts from the Sermon on the 
Mount on scrolls arranged round the walls of the 
aisles and each window is adorned with a " hood- 
cresting ornament." In these ornaments, the 
design of one which existed on the original plaster 
has been taken advantage of : though somewhat 
rude, it seemed to claim association with the 
building, and was a key in some respects to the 
construction of the rest. 

The texts are as follows, beginning at the East 
End of the South Aisle : — 

Blessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is the King- 
dom of heaven. 

Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the 

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see 

T# tjf ftrmtpfiiyngf of your fdfljjflw mmy 

\mttf-fo iivfattlif.Tnv futile 0# fraftf rfy bflfti? 

mCfioti and fii0 rifcteatf as lurlvf Iml 
tti) W tow mnft a8ffjo# t»y ^ 

&0 tfa breaflf and minF tnmfft into ^ Godftir 

and titorof iljriftr 

No.fmif you turn* oitakeaunivy fujiie tjjat 
may l)f ff nr it in no fanamrat » 

3n pinje to j lair of tlje 10, to#at 
o^tamautoronlito*or to jnynrijaltt 


Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain 


Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called 

the children of God. 
Be ye therefore perfect as your Father in heaven 

is perfect. 

The texts on the North Aisle beginning at the 
West End are as follows : — 

Ask and it shall be given you. 

Seek and }e shall find. 

Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and His right- 
eousness, for where your treasure is there 
will your heart be also. 

Love your enemies. 

Do good to them that hate you. 

Blessed are ye that hunger now for ye shall be filled. 

Praise God in His Sanctuary. 

JJnsrriptxon upon the ^Ijirb pillar 
in tljs ^tafo. 

This inscription was placed over where the Old 
Pulpit stood. The text is taken from Coverdale's 
Bible which was printed in the reign of Henry 
VIII, A.D. 1535, and is in Old English letters — 
the word " improove " is now reprove " in the 
Authorised Version. 


We give here the modern letters and spelling : — 

Preach the word, 
be instant in season, 
out of season, improve 
rebuke, exhort in all long- 
suffering and doctrine. 

II Timothy IV, 2. 

Here we give the inscription in Old English 

spelling : — 

Preach the worrd 
be instant in season, 
out of season, improove 
rebuke, exhort in all long 
suffering and doctorine. 

11 Tim. : R 11 


Chap. 4 

The ancient inscriptions, sometimes thought to be 
Archbishop Cranmer's Shorter Catechism, have 
been a starting point or key to the whole design of 
mural decoration so effectively carried out in en- 
caustic tempora and oils by Mr. Hughes when the 
Church was restored in 1870. The style of the 
architecture may be said to be unique, consequently 
it required a special treatment in its decoration. 
It was necessary to keep the style of the painting 
subdued and quiet, so as not to destroy the general 
character of the interior. 


The object, as regards style of decoration, has 
been to maintain an agreeable and cheerful tone 
over the whole, accepting the local colour of the 
walls, in preference to painting over in washes. 
The lines are in freehand, as opposed to stencilling 
mostly in chocolate and vandyke brown, black, red 
and yellow being used occasionally to heighten the 

The general design of these decorations is to 
show forth the course and order of the Christian 

At the East End we have the leading events of 
the first Advent set forth by pictorial represent- 
ations. And as we pass from East to West, there 
is in like manner indicated, by text and symbol the 
work of the Church in preparing the world for the 
Second Advent by preaching the word of God, the 
meaning of the Sacraments, and Catechetical 

The Chancel has naturally received more elabor- 
ate treatment than the Nave, and here we have two 
beautiful Frescoes on the north and south side 
respectively, so arranged as to form a triptych. 

The design on the North Side represents The 
Adoration of the Magi. 

"Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of 
Judaea in the days of Herod the King, behold there 
came Wise Men from the East to Jerusalem, 
saying, "Where is He that is born King of the 
Jews ? for we have seen His star in the East and 


are come to worship Him. . . . Then Herod 
sent them to Bethlehem. . . . And lo, the 
star which they saw in the East went before them, 
till it came and stood over where the young child 
was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with 
exceeding great joy. And when they were come 
into the house, they saw the young Child with 
Mary His mother, and fell down and worshipped 
Him, and when they had opened their treasures, 
they presented unto Him gifts — gold, frankincense 
and myrrh.— (Matt. II, 1 & 8). 

The design on the South Side of the Chancel 
represents The Entombment of our Lord. 

"And after this, Joseph of Arimathsea, being a 
disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, 
besought Pilate that he might take away the body 
of Jesus : and Pilate gave him leave. He came 
therefore, and took the body of Jesus. And there 
came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to 
Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and 
aloes, about an hundred pound weight. And they 
took the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen 
clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews 
is to bury. Now in the place where He was cruci- 
fied there was a garden ; and in the garden a new 
sepulchre wherein was never man yet laid. There 
laid they Jesus therefore, because of the Jews pre- 
paration day, for the sepulchre was nigh at hand. — 
(St, John, XIX, 38-42). 

The idea of the artist has been to present in one 
view the principal events of our Lord's history — 
His earliest years. His Cross and Passion in the 
East window (which we shall describe fully later 
on), His honourable Burial, and the Resurrection 
(which may be seen depicted in another window 
in the Church). 


These pictures are elaborately framed in con- 
ventional roses, lilies, etc., and we may note the 
pleasing effect of the symbolical vine climbing about 
the East Window, suggestive of a Jesse branch, 
ending in a cross at the apex of the window. 

On the West wall, above the arch, there is a 
fresco which gives dignity to a part of the Church 
which, before it was placed there, had a somewhat 
mean aspect. It represents Our Lord in glory, 
surrounded by the Holy Angels, the inscription 
underneath being — 

" He shall come with His Holy Angels." 

On the South side of the arch is inscribed — ■• 
Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive 
power and glory ! ' ' 

On the North side of the arch is inscribed — 
"And wisdom and strength and honour and 
glory and blessing." 

Our Lord is represented seated on a throne with 
orb and sceptre in hand enclosed in a " vesica 
piscis," the borders of which contain adoring cheru- 
bims ; then there is a border of conventional clouds, 
and in the panels on each side are groups of Angels. 
The background is richly lighted with stars. 

These frescoes are, perhaps, the most important 
parts of the decorations : they were painted by Mr. 
Henry Hughes, who, with the conventional de- 
manded by the surroundings, has succeeded in 
combining great devotional feeling with pictorial 


Inscription to (Komtrantorat* tfa failure 
of tlj* dwnnotote |pioi 

On the soffit of the arch opposite the small South 
door is an inscription by a good Protestant in com- 
memoration of the failure of the Gunpowder Plot 
in 1605. 

The author signs himself " CHRISTOPHER 
PHILIPSON Generosus." The Philipsons are 
said to have held Belle Isle against the soldiers of 
Oliver Cromwell in the Civil Wars, and one mem- 
ber of the family, best known as " Robin the 
Devil " rode from Windermere to Kendal in pur- 
suit of his enemy Colonel Briggs, galloped through 
the open door of the Church, and not finding his 
victim there, rode his horse out again and escaped 
with the loss of his helmet, which was knocked off 
as he passed through the doorway. The helmet 
still hangs in Kendal Parish Church and is known 
as the " rebel's cap." 

As Protestants, Royalists, and Churchmen, the 
ancient Parish Church of Windermere was prob- 
ably the object of the special care of the Philipson 
family, some of the most distinguished members 
being buried within its walls. 

The following inscription, in the form of Latin 
verses, was put up in A.D. 1629 — 24 years after 
the discovery of the Plot. 

It is painted on the whitewash, and does not 
belong to the same series as those known as " Cran- 



mer's Shorter Catechism " which are upon the 
original plaster of the Church. 

Hie est ille dies renovante celebrior anno 
Quem facit et proprio signat amore Deus 
Euge boni ! stygiis quae conjurata tenebris 
Nunc mala Divina fabula facta manu 
Anglia, mole suas mox conspicienda ruinae 
Psallat, ut aetherea libera mansit ope 

Exulat Anglia 

Faucibus eripior Fauxis, quasicarcere mortis 
Gloria in excelsis ! hinc mini tuta salus 

Christopherus Philipson, Jun., Generosus, 1629. 

The following is a Literal Translation. 

This is that day* more famed as each year brings 
it round, which God himself appoints and marks 
with his peculiar favour. 

Rejoice ye who are good ! The mischief con- 
spired in (or by) Stygian darkness has been now 
made an empty tale by the hand of Providence. 
England which was shortly to be conspicuous for 
the greatness of its ruin may now sing hymns since 
she has remained free by the aid of Heaven. 

England expresses her great joy. 

I am delivered from the jaws of Faux as from a 
prison of death. Glory to God in the highest ! 
Hence is my secret safety. 

Christopher Philipson, Junior, Gentlemen, 1629. 
* The Anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot. 



%\)t KsUams. 

The rude oak timbers of the Roof have been em- 
belished with a double series of texts, which carries 
the eye upwards, and makes interesting the other- 
wise dull effect of the oak beams. 

The texts, painted in Old English characters, 
beginning from the East looking eastwards are — 

Beam 1. I am the Bread of Life. 

2. I am the true Vine. 

3. Abide in Me and I in you. 

4. I am the Good Shepherd. 

5. God is Love. 

6. Love one another. 

7. God is Light. 

8. I am the Light of the World. 

The texts beginning from the West looking 
towards the west are — 

Beam 9. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Al- 
,, 8. On Earth peace goodwill towards 

7. Glory to god in the highest. 

6. Pray without ceasing. 

5. In everything give thanks. 

4. Love the Brotherhood. 

3. Fear God, honour the King. 

2. He that eateth Me shall live by Me. 

1. I will come and sup with Him. 


floors of WLinbtxmtxt. 

Adam Carus 1548-1586. 

John Lindow, 1586-1594. 

William Sawrey, 1594-1610. 

Thomas Bousfield, 1610-1627. 

James Wakefield, 1627-1644. 

Richard Archer, 1645-1652. 

William Wilson, 1652-1705. 

William Barton, 1705-1719. 

William Crosby, 1719-1728. 

Girlington Butler Barton, 1728-1763. 

Giles Moore, 1763-1779. 

William Barton, 1779-1823. 

Sir Richard le Fleming, Bart, 1823-1857. 

Edward Feche Stock, 1857-1904. 

Euston John Nurse, 1904- 

The following particulars have been kindly fur- 
nished by Mr. George Browne, of Troutbeck. 

Adam Carus, 1548-1586. 
Adam Carus was probably the first Rector of 
Windermere after the Reformation, he was the son 
of William Carus, of Esthwaite, Whinfell, in the 
Parish of Kendal, and his wife Isabella Laybourne, 
daughter of Thomas Laybourne, of Cunswick in 
the county of Westmorland, and brother to Sir 
Thomas Carus, Knt, one of the Justices of the 
Queen's Bench in 1546. No record can be found 
of his Institution, it must have been prior to the 


foundation of the Bishopric of Chester in 1541 as 
there is no entry of his institution in the Chester Reg- 
istry. His name is, however, in the List of Clergy 
at the Bishop of Chester's visitation in 1558. 

Adam Carus appears to have looked after the 
worldly as well as the spiritual affairs of his 
parishioners for he was one of the supervisors 
of the will of George Browne, of Troutbeck, dated 
March 8th, 1558, and in 1566 of the will of Agnes 
the widow of the said George. 

In 1568 he was an Arbitrator in a dispute 
between James Cookson and Thomas and Chris- 
topher Browne about some land in the Hall in 
Troutbeck. In the first consecration deed of 
Troutbeck Chappell by William Downham, Bishop 
of Chester, July 18th, 1562, it is mentioned that it 
was done " with the express consent and assent 
of that worshipful man Adam Carus, clarke, Rector 
of the Parish Church of Windermere." Adam 
Carus died in 1586, and was succeeded by John 

John Lindow, 1586-1594. 
John Lindow was, according to the records in 
the Registers at Chester, instituted Rector of 
" Winandermer on April 28th, 1586, on the death 
of Adam Carus." The presentation was made 
by Miles Philipson and Thomas Benson, the pat- 
rons. He was succeeded in 1594 by William 
Sawrey — either after his death or resignation. 

rectors of windermere. 19 

William Sawrey, 1594-1610. 
William Sawrey was the second son of Henry 
Sawrey, of Plumpton, near Ulverston, and Jane the 
daughter of William Curus, of Esthwaite, and 
sister to Adam Carus, the Rector before mentioned. 
He was baptised at Ulverston on Sept. 4th, 1564, 
and was instituted Vicar of Preston, Dec. 21st, in 
1592, and to the Rectory of Windermere in June, 
1594, which he held with the Vicarage of Preston 
until 1603 when he resigned the latter but relin- 
quished the Rectory of Windermere by death or 
resignation in 1610, and was succeeded to the 
Rectory of Windermere by Thomas Bousfield. 

Thomas Bousfield, 1610 1627. 

Thomas Bousfield. — From the following memor- 
andum in the Windermere Parish Registers it 
will be seen that he was Rector in 1610. — " Mem- 
orandum that I, Thomas Bousfield, Parson of the 
Rectorye of Windermer alias Winandermer have 
read the Articles of Reyligion and instituted the 
XVth of July, 1610, being the Saboth, in the 
audience of the Congregation." This memorandum 
was signed by the Rector, Curate, Churchwardens, 
and Parish Clerk. 

During his Rectorship the Windermere Gram- 
mar School was founded and as one of the school 
founders his name will always be remembered in 
the Parish. The deed of foundation is dated Jan. 
20th, 1613. On the 23rd of Oct., 1622, he wrote 


a letter to Richard Pearson, Curate of Troutbeck, 
absolving one Adam Birkett from the sentence of 
excommunication by authority from the Bishop of 
Chester. This letter is now amongst the records 
in Troutbeck Church. 

He assisted in settling the disputes of his 
parishioners on July 31st, 1624 for he was one 
of the arbitrators in a dispute between George 
Airey and Robert Wilson, both of Troutbeck. 

He died in the month of March, 1627. His will 
is in Somerset House dated March 2nd, 1627, 
and the inventory deposited with it is dated March 
29th, 1627, and proved April 7th, 1627. N.B.— It 
was a common thing to take an inventory on the 
day of death. 

James Wakefield, 1627-1644. 

James Wakefield was instituted to the Rectory 
of Windermere in Dec, 1627, on the presentation 
of Christopher Philipson, of Crook, and Gowan 
Braithwaite, of Ambleside. 

An award was made in Dec, 1627 by Christopher 
Phillipson, of Calgarth, and Gowan Braithwaite, 
of Ambleside, concerning some trees cut down and 
taken away from the Parsonage and Glebe Land 
of Windermer. 

Several persons were ordered to pay certain 
sums, the largest being paid by Margaret Roberts 
(widdowe) late wife of Thomas Roberts, for felling 
eleven trees, thirty-six shillings and eightpence. 


On Feb 2nd, 1633, a new deed was made for the 
Windermere Grammar School. He was a party 
to the Foundation of Troutbeck School Deed dated 
July 29th, 1639. 

During his Rectorship, Borwick's Charity was 
founded, by a Deed dated Dec. 20th, 1638, " for 
and towards putting forth of Poor Children within 
the Parish of Windermere to Apprentices to some 
honest trades whose parents ure not able to main- 
tain them — or for the help of poor scholars, or for 
poor, needy, and impotent people in the parish 

The £\00 was invested in 1679 when a small 
estate was purchased at Natland, near Kendal. At 
the present time it is let for £20 a year. James 
Wakefield died about the month of Sept., 1644. 
An inventory of his goods is amongst the Richmond 
wills dated Oct. 3rd, 1644. 

Richard Archer, 1645-1652. 
Richard Archer, B.D., was instituced in Feb. 
12th, 1644-5, on the presentation of Gowan 
Braithwaite de Ambleside, Huddleston Philipson 
de Crook and Mary Philipson of the said Crook. 
He was the son of Edward Archer, and was born 
at Kendal, 1610, and proceeded to Queen's College, 
Oxford, in 1625, took his B.A. degree in 1630, and 
M.A. in 1633, and was elected a Fellow of the 
College in 1633, and was Junior Bursar from 1641 
to 1642, and took his B.D. degree in 1642. In 


1642-43 he, along with eleven other Fellows, 
received 5d. a week for seven weeks in lieu of 
Commons, the College being broken up for that 
period on the occasion of the coming of the enemy. 
Part of the Rectory was rebuilt by him which 
he held till his death in Nov. 1652. The following 
is the entry in the Windermere Registers of his 
burial : " Richard Archer, parson of Windermere, 
buried the 16th of Nov., 1652." 

William Wilson, 1657-1705. 

William Wilson was (according to the State 
papers 1660-1) "presented to the Rectory of Win- 
dermere in 1657, but could not be legally instituted 
on account of the late tyranny till 1660. He was 
the son of Thomas Wilson, of Kendal by his wife 
Dorothy, daughter of Henry Fisher, of Bradley- 
field, near Kendal. He was educated at Queen's 
College, Oxford. In 1662 he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel Sandys, of Esthwaite. While 
he was Rector, Borwick's charity was recovered, 
and in 1679 an estate was purchased at Natland 
which now brings in ^"20 a year and is divided 
amongst the poor of the ancient parish of Winder- 
mere at the Annual Easter Vestry meeting. 

During his Rectorship the Quakers (as appears 
from Sir Daniel Fleming's manuscripts) began to 
be pugnatious and troublesome. " On Dec. 25th, 
1666 (Christmas Day) a Quaker woman stood up 


in the middle of the church during Mr. Wilson's 
sermon and used slanderous language against him." 

On the 10th of Dec, 1677, another Quaker 
named Thomas Williamson disturbed Mr. Wilson 
and the congregation by speaking aloud in the 
parish church, and was committed to prison by 
Sir Richard Fleming, Justice, till the sessions and 
then set at liberty. 

William Wilson died in 1705 aged 75 years and 
was buried in the chancel. 

William Barton, 1705-1719. 

William Barton was Curate at Lancaster Parish 
Church in 1702, in 1703 was Vicar of Bolton-le- 
Sands and in 1705 became Rector of Windermere. 

He married Magdalen, daughter of Mr. Butler 
Ratcliffe by whom he had two sons, one of whom, 
Girlington Butler Barton, was afterwards Rector 
of Windermere. 

After the death of Rev. William Barton, on Jan. 
15th, 1719, his widow married James Bisse, of 
London, in 1721. Mr. Bisse appears to have got 
into trouble through killing a Mr. Croft in a duel. 
After the death of Mr. Bisse his widow married 
in 1731 a third husband, Mr. Thomas Philipson, 
the last of the Rayrigg Philipsons. She was living 
in 1747 and again a widow. 

William Crosby, 1719-1728. 

William Crosby, M.A., was born in the city of 
Durham in 1664, was educated at Trinity College, 


Cambridge, of which college he was a fellow, and 
became Vicar of Kendal in 1699 and Rector of 
Windermere in 1719. 

During his Rectorship the Quakers again became 
troublesome, refusing to pay tithes, and it was an 
annual thing to take proceedings and distrain their 

Mr. Crosby resigned the Rectory of Windermere 
in 1728 but retained the Vicarage of Kendal till 
his death in 1733, and was buried in the Parish 
Church at Kendal in front of the Communion 

Girlington Butler Barton, 1728-1763. 

Girlington Butler Barton was the elder son of 
the Rev. William Barton, a former Rector. He 
married in 1743 Jane Sharpe, daughter of William 
Sharpe (one of the parishioners) by whom he had 
several children. William, the eldest, succeeded 
Giles Moore as Rector. In 1755 the Lord's 

Prayer and Ten Commandments in the Church 
were re-framed and new painted. He died in 1763 
having been Rector for nearly 35 years and was 
buried in the chancel at the north end of the 
Communion Table. 

Giles Moore, 1763-1779. 
Giles Moore was the elder son of John Moore, 
of Grimeshill, near Kirkby Lonsdale, the repre- 
sentative of the ancient family of Middleton, of 


Middleton Hall in the county of Westmorland. He 
made considerable improvements in the Rector}' 
House and died in 1779 and was buried at Win- 

William Barton, 1779-1823. 

William Barton was the eldest son of Girlington 
Butler Barton, the preceding Rector to Giles Moore. 
Mr. Barton married a Miss Ann Braken who pre- 
deceased him. There is a tablet to his memory in 
the chancel inscribed " In memory of the Rev. 
William Barton, 43 years Rector of this Parish, died 
the 3rd day of February, 1823." He was a Justice 
of the Peace (the only one in the parish). 

Sir Richard le Fleming, Bart., 1823-1857. 

Sir Richard le Fleming was both Rector of 
Grasmere from 1821 and Rector of Windermere 
from 1823, and held both livings up to the time of 
his death in 1857. 

Edward Peche Stock, 1857-1904. 

Edward Peche Stock was the fifth son of the 
Rev. John Stock, Vicar of Finchingfield, Essex, 
and was born in 1826. He took his B.A. degree 
at St. John's College, Cambridge in 1851, and M.A. 
in 1854. In 1854 he was ordained Priest at Prest- 
wich and in the same year married Penelope, 
daughter of Richard and Mary Ann Cope, of Man- 


Chester; the ceremony being performed by his 
father in Manchester Cathedral. From 1854 to 
1857 he was Curate of Radcliffe in Lancashire. 
He was instituted and inducted in 1857 to the 
Rectory of Windermere. When he came to Win- 
dermere there was only one school — the Grammar 
School — and this served for both boys and girls. 
As the Parish increased in population, he was 
instrumental in building the Girls' School in 1867-8 
and also the Infants' School in 1894, the latter 
costing ^"1,530. He was Chairman of the Gover- 
nors both of the Grammar School and the Elemen- 
tary Schools from the time he became Rector till 
the day of his death. 

In 1870 he restored the Church at a cost of over 
^"8,000, when the tower was raised, a peal of eight 
bells hung, the chancel lengthened, and a vestry 
added. During the process of the restoration, the 
inscriptions in the nave were discovered by Mr. 
Stock concealed under several coats of whitewash, 
these inscriptions were renewed and the frescoes 
on the wall added. The East Window was 
restored by Mr. Henry Hughes, of London, and 
the Reredos presented by Mr. H. W. Schneider. 

In 1892 he was presented with a cheque by the 
parishioners with which he placed a stained glass 
window at the East end of the South Aisle. 

In 1871 he was appointed an Honorary Canon 
of Carlisle Cathedral. He died on October 16th, 





1904, aged 77 years, having been 47 years Rector 
of the Parish. 

A Church Room has been built to his memory 
costing ^"1,000. 

Euston John Nurse, 1904 — . 

Euston John Nurse is the youngest son of the 
late Rev. G. T. Nurse, M.A., and was born at 
Wicken Hall, Cambridgeshire, in 1864, and named 
after his father's parish of Euston, Suffolk. He 
was educated at King Edward VI School, Bury 
St. Edmunds, and proceeded to Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, in 1883, where he took his 
B.A. degree in 1886 and M.A. in 1890. 

Mr. Nurse on leaving College commenced par- 
ochial work in the East End of London as a Lay 
Reader in the Parish of St. Anthony, Stepney. 
He was ordained Deacon in 1889 and Priest in 
1890 by the then Bishop of Worcester and became 
Curate at St. John's, Ladywood, Birmingham, 
where he remained for 15 years, during which time 
he became the author of ' Family Prayers " which 
has run through two editions ; the Author of ' The 
History of the Captivity and Return of the Jews. 1 " 
published by Elliott Stock, London, with a preface 
by the Bishop of Manchester ; and the Author of 
'''Life of Christ during His Ministry." published 
by the Church Army. 

In 1897 he married Edith Jane Robins daughter 
of the late Dr. E. D. Moore and granddaughter of 


the late Brigadier-General George Moore of the 
Tndian Army, who was present at the taking of the 
Cape of Good Hope, and distinguished himself in 
several of the Indian Campaign, 

Mr. Nurse has only two brothers, both being 
officers in the Indian Army : the elder, Colonel 
Charles George Nurse, commands the 33rd Pun- 
jaubi Regiment — a fine Regiment of 15 officers and 
900 men ; the younger, Major Henry Harvey 
Nurse of the 122nd Regiment. 

Both brothers have seen Active Service, the 
former in the Soudanese Campaign in 1884, receiv- 
ing the Medal and Clasp and Bronze Star, the latter 
being present in the recent Chinese and Somaliland 
Campaigns and receiving the medal for each. 

Since the Rector's appointment to Windermere 
he has established a Mission Service at Blackwell 
Lodge on the Storrs Estate (2 miles from the 
Parish Church), and services are held there every 
Sunday evening by a Licensed Lay Reader. 

Mr. Nurse has also caused the Church to be kept 
open during the week for visitors to see and for 
private prayer, and holds a daily service therein. 

Mr. Nurse was instituted and inducted to the 
Rectory of Windermere in 1904 since which time 
he has given himself up entirely to parochial work. 

Since Mr. Nurse has been Rector, a window has 
been placed in the Church by Sir William Forwood, 
and the Church Room has been built at a cost of 
^"1000 in memory of the late Rector (Canon Stock). 


GLIjitrrljfoartrims nf tljj> Jgarislj Cljurrb, 

We are able to trace the names of all the Church- 
wardens from 1858. It will be seen that they are 
divided into two divisions. " Rector's " Wardens 
and Peoples' " Wardens. The custom has been in 
existence for centuries for the 24 Sidesman of the 
ancient Parish of Windermere (including the newly 
formed parishes of Ambleside, Troutbeck and St. 
Mary's and St. John's Windermere) to elect the two 
Peoples' Wardens, and the Rector to elect the two 
Rector's Wardens. In the Windermere Terrier 
dated 1746 the following extract is to be found signed 
by the Rector (The Rev. W. Barton) Church- 
wardens and the four and twenty or Sidesmen. 
The Rector to have the sole power to nominate 
the four and twenty Sidesmen, and clerk for the 
parrish according to custome." 

These old customs are very difficult to alter 
and cannot be changed except by special Act of 



G. A, Aufrere, 


■ Gregg. 


Rev. T. Staniforth 




Rev. T. Staniforth 




Rev. T. Staniforth 




Rev. T. Staniforth 




Rev. T. Staniforth 




H. W. Schneider 




H. W. Schneider 




1877-9. H. W. Schneider F. Clowes. 
1880-1. H. W. Schneider H. G. Gibson. 
1882. H. W. Schneider H. G. Gibson. 
1883-7. H. W. Schneider H. G. Gibson. 
1888-96. Dr. Dobson H. Nicholls. 

1897. Dr. Dobson H. Nicholls. 

1898-05. Dr. Dobson H. Nicholls. 

1906-7. H. Nicholls T. H. Winder. 















H. Wright. 




H. Wright. 















'. T. Holmes. 




T. Dixon. 




T. Dixon. 




T. Dixon. 




R. Hayton. 



. Nicholls 

R. Hayton. 



, H. Winder 

J. Metcalfe. 



, H. Winder 


C. Harrison. 



, H. Winder 


. S. Holland. 

1906-7. J. W. Longton J. G. Robinson. 

Jfttural CBpitaplj. 

The following epitaph, written by Robert Phil- 
ipson (evidently a member of the same family as 
Christopher Philipson who wrote the Latin verses 
to commemorate the discovery of the Gundowder 
Plot) is on a mural tablet on the South Wall : — 

The Authors Epitaph upon 

Him Self : made in the 

Tyme of his sickness. 
A man I was. wormes meate I am 
To earth returned from whence I came : 
Many removes on earth I had 


In earth at length my bed is made : 
Altho' it could not him retain, 
His deadlie foes might plainlie see : 
Over sinn, and death his victorie, 
Here must I rest, till Christ shall let me see, 
His promised Jerusalem and her fcelicitie. 

Veni Domine Jesu, Veni Cito. 

Robert Philipson Gent, x ™„ Octobns Ano salutis 
1631 Ano aetata sua? 63 T . J ?- 

According to tradition, the large window in the 
chancel of Bowness Church, Windermere, was 
brought from Furness Abbey, at the time of the 
dissolution of that monastry, A.D. 1537. Tradition 
may generally be accepted as more or less true ; but 
from the following rather strong evidence to the 
contrary, it will perhaps scarcely be considered so 
in this instance ; on the contrary, it will be seen 
that, in all probability this Bowness Church win- 
dow, instead of having been brought from Furness 
Abbey at the time of che dissolution of that religious 
house, was really taken out of the chancel of the 
Priory Church of St. Mary, at Cartmel — not at the 
time of the dissolution of the lesser religious houses, 
A.D. 1535-6 — Cartmel Priory being one of these — 
but probably about the end of the reign of Henry 
VI, A.D. 1471 — or even later. 

Whoever has closely examined the interior of 
Cartmel Church will have observed that the chancel 
and the two transepts are part of the original Priory 


Church of St. Mary, founded by the celebrated 
William Mareshall the Elder, Earl of Pembroke, 
son-in-law of King John, A.D. 1188. Originally the 
chancel and two transepts of Cartmel Church must 
each of them have been lighted by three or four 
lancet-shaped windows, the style of that day, two 
of these yet remaining in the north transept, though 
blocked up with masonry, and some faint traces 
being visible of others in the chancel. About the 
reign of King Edward III. (or some of his imme- 
diate successors) most of these lancet-shaped 
windows seem to have been taken out of the 
chancel and the two transepts, and other and much 
larger windows of the partially-decorated style 
of that period inserted — those put into the two 
transepts remaining there intact to this day. About 
the reign of King Henry VI. the windows put into 
the chancel in the reign of Edward III. or soon 
afterwards, seem to have been taken out in order 
to insert the noble ramified east window at present 
there — forty-eight feet in height and twenty-two 
feet in width — filling nearly the whole east end of 
the chancel, almost from the ground up to the roof, 
and cutting off the communication between the tri- 
forium on the south side of the chancel and the 
triforium on the north side of the same ; this trifor- 
ium having up to the time passed across the east 
wall, between both the lancet and the other windows 
once there. 



The insertion of the large east window in the 
chancel having displaced the windows put in, as 
above mentioned, about the reign of King Edward 
III. or his immediate successors, we naturally 
enough ask, what became of them ? and as the 
window in the chancel of Bowness Church is as 
nearly as may be a.fac simile of those now in the 
transepts of Cartmel Church — only a little wider, 
the chancel of Cartmel Church being wider than 
the transepts — there seems to be good reason for 
believing that the window now in Bowness Church 
is actually one of the windows which, as above 
said, were taken out of the chancel of Cartmel 
Church ; particularly as it contains the effigy of a 
prior of Cartmel; the effigies of William Thorn- 
burgh and his wife, of Hampsfield Hall, in Cartmel ; 
monks with Cartmel names, praying and turning 
their faces towards the Thornburghs ; and lastly 
the arms of William Mareshall the Elder, the 
founder of Cartmel Priory, in two places. Instill 
further proof of these allegations, or rather sugges- 
tions, it may be needful to enter into the matter 
more fully, and to state that Bowness Church 
window is composed of seven lights or compart- 
ments, containing much elaborately pencilled, 
stained, or painted glass, and amongst many other 
effigies and arms pictured there, are the following: — 
In the first compartment or light is the the effigy 
of a monk kneeling, and over his head these 


words;- WILLM. PLO .... P'OR OF 
KYRKMKL (William Plo . . . . Prior of Kyrk- 
mel). In the second light, a knight and his lady 
kneeling, habited in surcoats, the knight in chain 
armour ; the arms on their surcoats being ermine 
fretty gules, for Thomburgh, and argent two bars 
gules, for Broughton — Sir William Thornburgh, 
of Hampsfield Hall, in Cartmel, having married 
Elizabeth Broughton, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Broughton, of Broughton Tower, about the end of 
the reign of Henry VI. ; and over their heads this 
inscription :— WI LLM. THORNBORROW 
AND HIS WYFF. In the third light, a group 
of monks kneeling, with their faces turned towards 
the Thornburghs, the following names being over 
their heads:— THOMAS HOGSON (Hodgson); 
FIS .... (perhaps Fishwick) — all but one Cart- 
mel names. In the fourth or centre light are the 
arms, as has always been supposed, of King Ed- 
ward III., beautifully emblazoned (but which in 
our day has been questioned, and reasonably too, 
as will presently be fully stated), quartering the 
arms of France, this king having been the first to 
quarter the arms of France and England. In this 
light are also the crucifixion, the Virgin Mary 
kneeling, St. George and the dragon, St. John, and 
St. Catherine with her sword and wheel, Fifth 


light — the arms of William Mareshall the Elder, 
Earl of Pembroke, founder of the Priory of St. 
Mary at Cartmel — -parti per pale or et vert, a lion 
rampant gules. Sixth light — the arms of William 
Mareshall a second time. 

On close examination of this Bowness Church 
window it has been ascertained that the finely- 
painted arms in the middle compartment, said to 
be those of Edward III. by Nicholson and Burn, 
and other antiquarians, are not the arms of that 
king, there being (it is said) a label of three points 
on the shield, which, if plain, would denote that 
these were the arms of some Prince of Wales ; 
and, if charged, then of some younger branch of 
the royal family. There is too, other evidence 
that these arms are not so early as the reign 
of Edward III., or his immediate successors, 
Richard II. or Henry IV., for King Henry V. 
finding that Charles VI. of France had changed 
the French arms from " fleurs de lis seine " 
or scattered over the field, to " three fleurs de 
lis " placed triangularly, two and one, did the 
same in quartering them with the arms of England, 
in which shape they have ever since been borne by 
every succeeding sovereign of these realms up to 
the accession of Queen Victoria, in whose reign 
the fleurs de lis have never appeared in the royal 
arms. As the large shield in the centre compart- 
ment of the Bowness Church window has the three 


fleurs de lis placed triangularly and not seme or 
scattered over the field, it is clear that these arms 
are not of an earlier date than Henry V.'s reign, and 
are not of the time of Edward III., who, as before 
said, first quartered the arms of France and Eng- 
land; these fleurs de lis being then seme or scat- 
tered over the field. 

There are other arms on this window, chiefly of 
Cartmel families, or families connected with them 
by marriage, or donors to Cartmel Priory, such as 
Middleton, Harrington, Redmayne, Fleming de 
Rydal, Strickland, Leyland, and others ; but only 
a few arms of Furness families. 

The Thornburghs, of Hampsfield Hall, in Cart- 
mel, were certainly a great and very ancient 
knightly family, previous to the reign of Edward 
III., and were knights of the shire for Westmor- 
land, from time to time in the reigns of Edward 
III., Richard II., Henry IV., Henry V., and after- 

It is just possible that the table tomb in Cartmel 
Church called the " Harrington monument " may 
be the tomb of one of the Thornburghs, as the arms 
on the knights shield and surcoat are nearly the same 
as the arms of the Thornburghs of Hampsfield. In 
Bowness Church window the effigy of Sir William 
Thornburgh is in chain armour, the same as the 
effigy on the table tomb in Cartmel Church. 

"Annals of Cartmel" by James Stockdale, (page 224). 


flj* fUstorefr fest Mitttmto. 

To all lovers of antiquities the idea of restoring 
anything old and interesting is painful. It is there- 
fore necessary to explain the reasons why this 
curious collection of old glass was not allowed to re- 
main undisturbed. These were briefly two ; the win- 
dow was in a very unsafe state in 1870, and a new 
Chancel could not be built without removing it. 
Under these circumstances the Committee, chosen 
by the Parish to restore the Church, consulted the 
Secretary of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of 
London, Mr. C. Knight Watson, who recommended 
that the window should be put into the hands of 
Mr. Henry Hughes, of Frith Street, Soho, London. 
It was consequently taken down and sent to Lon- 
don, where the whole work was completed under 
the auspices of Mr. Watson, and other members of 
the Society of Antiquaries. The leading principle 
of the work was conservation, that is to say, great 
pains were taken to preserve every morsel of old 
work ; new glass was only put in where it was 
absolutely necessary. It was also a rule never to 
make up any imperfection without good authority 
as to what should be done, nor to alter the arrange- 
ments of the different parts of window for the sake 
of artistic effect, so as to interfere with its original 
character of being a combination of several old 
windows brought together some time ago. As the 
restoration was carried on, it was found necessary 


to put in more new glass than was at first contem- 
plated. ¥ It was requisite to make it as complete 
as possible as a work of art, and yet not to lessen 
its antiquarian value. This difficulty was at last 
solved by marking every piece of new glass with 
Mr. Hughes's initials. By this means the new and 
old can be readily distinguished, and certainly in 
many parts of the window no antiquarian could tell 
the one from the other if this had not been done. 

The window may be divided for the purpose of 
description into three parts. (1) The space above 
the transom, which is chiefly occupied with arms, 
(2) the large figures in the middle, (3) and the row 
of small effigies below. 

The Crucifixion. 

Beginning with the large figures, we find that 
those on the three central lights represent the 
Crucifixion. This is of course the most important 
part of the window, and it may be remarked that 
we have here a representation of the great central 
fact of the Christian faith, well fitted for a Christ- 
ian Church. The object of the artist not having 
been — as is too often the case — a portrait or pic- 
ture of what occurred, but such a symbolical show- 
ing forth, as it were, of the mysterious meaning 

* As it was necessary to conserve rather than restore, the 
difficulty was how to maintain its integrity, the introductions 
being rather of the character of apologies for vacuity. — Mr. 
Hughes's MS. 




of the great Sacrifice, as is most fitted to fill the 
minds of an assembly of worshippers with feelings 
of love and awe ; in other words, to help them to 
realise and feel that which no mere picture can 
represent. The preciousness of the blood of Christ 
is indicated by the attendance of Angels to receive 
it from the five sacred wounds in golden chalices ; 
and the freeness with which it was shed for our 
sins, by the copious streams which are flowing so 
conspicuously. The face of our Saviour and a 
considerable part of the body have been restored, 
as well as some portions of the Cross. 

On the left of the Cross, the Blessed Virgin 
Mary is represented standing, in a beautiful eastern 
dress, Of this figure little has been restored but 
the face. On the right is the youthful, almost 
feminine, figure of S. John, which has undergone 
considerable restoration ; only the lower part was 
formerly anything like complete. The whole of 
this group are placed upon a ground representing 
Calvary ; herbage and stones, with a skull and 
human bones, and rudely drawn trees (the conven- 
tional foliage of which is covered with the sacred 
blood), convey to the mind most effectively the 
site of the great Sacrifice. 

St. George and the Dragon. 

On either side of the Crucifixion group are 
placed, very appropriately, some of those who have 
been the most glorious witnesses of its truth, some 


of the noble army of martyrs. Of the figures on 
the left, S. George is of course best known as the 
patron Saint of England. " With the name of 

S. George is associated the memory of all that is 
glorious in the martial annals of our country, when 
the warcry of ' S. George for Merrie England ' 
was the signal of victory on the fields of Creci and 
Agincourt ; and in earlier times when the flower 
of British knighthood led the armies to the rescue 
of the Holy Sepulchre of the Redeemer, the name 
of S. George was their unfailing watchword." His 
cross is emblazoned on our union flag to this day. 
He was born in the year 303 in Cappadocia. 
While he was a youth his father was killed, fighting 
bravely againt the foes of Christ. S. George 
soon became a soldier, and at the age of 20, in 
consequence of his valour, was made a Count by 
Diocletian. When the Emperor began the ninth 
persecution, he put off his military habiliments, 
made dole of his substance to the poor, and boldly 
upbraided Diocletian for his cruelty. The Emperor 
wooed him with great honours, but S. George con- 
tinuing constant, he was imprisoned in irons with 
a heavy stone on his breast. Then again he was 
questioned, but made answer that sooner should the 
Emperor be weary of tormenting him than he of 
suffering. After various cruel tortures, in which 
he was supported by divine aid, he was at length 
beheaded. We are so familiar with quaint 


and sometimes ridiculous representations of " S. 
George and the Dragon " that we are apt to think 
of it as a foolish legend, and forget that it is a pic- 
torial allegory of the Christians' warfare against 
the " Old Serpent the Devil." S. George is the 
" deliverer," his treading on the Dragon is a sym- 
bolic representation of the " Victory of Faith over 
Evil." He is supposed to wear the breastplate of 
righteousness, and the sword of the Spirit, which 
is the Word of God — signifying, in a word, the 
victory of faith or holiness over the powers of evil. 
This is one of the boldest and finest figures of the 
series ; some parts have been restored, but the 
whole strength and vigour of the drawing is original. 
The whole outline has been preserved ; little more 
than some of the colour of the S. George's Cross 
on the breast and of the armour and dragon being 
new ; also, the top of the helmet and some portion 
of the leg and toe and bits of the foreground. 

Saint Barbara. 
The other figure on the left is S. Barbara. She 
was also one of the early martyrs to the Truth, being 
of the same century as S. George, and like him 
associated with chivalry and arms. She was the 
daughter of Dioscorus, an Egyptian nobleman, who 
was so fond of her, and so afraid of her marrying 
and leaving him, that he shut her up in a high 
tower. There she spent her time in study ; and 
becoming convinced of the falsity of the Egyptian 


Gods, she sent privately for the great father Origen, 
who, being unable to go himself, sent one of his 
disciples, by whom she was converted. By making 
three windows in her tower, which she told her 
father were emblamatical of the Trinity, she first 
indicated her conversion. On her confession of 
Christianity she was cruelly scourged and tortured 
by her father, and finally beheaded. In the origi- 
nal window only the lower part of this figure existed, 
representing the dress of a female saint. One of 
the reasons for believing that S. Barbara occupied 
this space is the fact that she is often associated in 
old glass of the period with S. Katherine, who is 
placed on the opposite side of the window. Another 
is that S. Barbara was, as before said, the patron- 
ess, as S. George was the patron, of chivalry and 
knighthood. In later times they have both been 
supposed to patronise firearms and gunpowder. 
Our artist has represented her bearing her usual 
symbol, the tower with three windows. 
Saint Katherine. 
We must now leave the little known S. Barbara, 
whose name is not retained in the calendar of our 
Church, and go to the other side of the window, 
where we shall find in the last light but one, the 
well-known figure of the Saint with whom she is 
so often associated, S. Katherine. This subject 
has required but little restoration, her wheel, sword, 
and martyr's crown were almost perfect, and the 


label was not much injured. This Saint has been 
honoured from the earliest times as the patroness 
of learning, theology, colleges, and education. 
There are 51 churches in England dedicated to 
her. She, like S. Barbara, was born in Egypt in 
the earlier part of the fourth century. She was the 
daughter of King Costis, and was celebrated from 
her childhood for her acquirements in learning. 
Having been at an early age converted to Christ- 
ianity, she refused all offers of marriage, and gave 
herself up to God. After the death of her parents, 
the tyrant Maximin went to Alexandria and perse- 
secuted the Christians, who would not sacrifice to 
the gods. Katherine stood up in their defence, 
confuted the arguments of learned philosophers 
sent to convince her, and converted them to the 
Christian Faith. These were burnt to death by the 
tyrant, who was so struck with the beauty of Kath- 
erine that he became her lover. She steadfastly 
refused his offers, and he was so enraged that he 
ordered her to be tortured between four wheels 
armed with spikes revolving different ways. The 
legend is that, as these instruments of torture were 
preparing, lightning from heaven burned and shat- 
tered them, killing the executioners with the flying 
fragments. She was then taken beyond the city 
walls, scourged and beheaded. Her body was 
afterwards taken by the monks to the great monas- 
tery on Mount Sinai. 

44 the restored east window. 

St. Stephen and St. Lawrence. 

We have now done with the series of large fig- 
ures, and will pass on to the four smaller ones in 
line with them on the seventh or last light, on the 
right hand side. The large figures just described 
belong to the latter part of the 15th century, say 
about 1480 ; but these smaller ones were executed 
some 50 years earlier — that is to say, about 1430. 
We shall complete the list of saints and martyrs 
by taking the two lower figures first, as they 
represent S. Stephen and S. Lawrence. 

It is not necessary to say much about S. Stephen, 
the proto-martyr, the first to die for the truth of 
the Gospel, who was stoned to death probably in 
the 34th year of our era. The stones in his left 
hand, by which he is specially identified, may 
easily be distinguished by means of an opera glass. 

S. Lawrence is well worthy of remembrance by 
Christians, as one of those early martyrs, by whom 
the Church of Christ was built up and established. 
Supposed to be a native of Spain, he was ordained 
deacon by Sixtus the Second, Bishop of Rome, 
and was afterwards made Archdeacon of the City. 
In the year 258 the persecution under the Emperor 
Valerian fell most severelv on the Christian bishops 
and Sixtus was put to death. After this the 
tyrant, thinking that S. Lawrence had charge of 
the treasures of the Church, laid hands on him, 
and bade him give them up, saying the God of the 


Christians was poor enough when he was on earth, 
and that these Christians should be as poor as 
their Master. S. Lawrence answered quietly, 
' Yes, our Church is no doubt rich, none richer in 
the world," and he begged for three days to get 
everything in order. The respite was granted, 
and he employed the time in collecting the widows, 
the poor, the maimed, the sick, who were supported 
or relieved by the Church's fund. The appointed 
day arrived, and the Emperor came to the Church 
to take possession of his treasures. But what was 
his disgust when he saw what they were. 
Behold," said S. Lawrence, " our riches ; they 
are poor without, but rich within ; we have laid 
up our treasures, where neither moth nor rust 
doth corrupt." " What," replied the Emperor, 
"dost thou mock us thus; dost thou desire a 
martyr's death ; be it so ; but no speedy death 
shall be thine. Thou shalt be broiled over a slow 
fire." And so he was put to death, with his last 
breath praying that the eyes of his torturers might 
be opened. S. Lawrence is represented holding a 
gridiron in his right hand, and a book in his left. 
We have now done with the saints and martyrs 
(so far as this window is concerned) men and 
women who lived for Christ and died rather than 
deny Him. It is well to remember that although 
the profession of His Name does not now endanger 
our lives, we are still daily liable to deny Him 
before men. 

46 the restored east window. 

The Archbishops of Canterbury 
and York. 

We must pass on to the two figures above those 
last described, who certainly ought to have been 
saints, for they held the highest holy office in the 
realm. For these two are the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York. They bear the pallium and 
crosier characteristic of Archbishops. The one on 
the right hand a blue pallium, characteristic of the 
see of Canterbury ; the other a red one, which 
identifies him with that of York. It is true that 
this red pallium has very much puzzled the anti- 
quaries, as its shape is quite unusual, but they 
appear to have little or no doubt that it is a pallium, 
and not a crossed stole or the border of a vestment, 
as has been supposed. The crosses upon it dis- 
tinguish it from anything else. For the sake of 
those who know nothing about the subject, it 
should be explained that the pallium or pall of an 
Archbishop is really white with blue crosses upon 
it. In the Romish Church it was, and is, sent by 
the Pope to the Archbishops on their consecration, 
and until they have received it they cannot perform 
their functions. It was originally part of the Im- 
perial habit, and was given to the Christian pat- 
riachs by the Emperor of Rome as a mark of 
Imperial honour. It was made of the wool of a 
perfectly white sheep, blessed and dedicated on S. 
Agnes's Day, at Rome, with much ceremony. The 


object of the artist here has been to indicate simply 
and effectively the two sees of Canterbury and 
York. For this purpose he has given the charac- 
teristic colour of the arms of each to the most 
important vestment of the Archbishops, the pall. 
The most conspicuous colour of the Canterbury 
arms is blue, that of York red. It seems that for 
artistic purposes all kinds of liberties were taken 
both with the colour and form of vestments. The 
dress being white, it was necessary to use such 
means as would mark the character required, by a 
liberty allowed. If the pall had been white it 
would have been white upon white, and therefore 
indistinct. The croziers they bear are also charac- 
teristic of Archbishops. It will be seen that these 
are not the ordinary pastoral staffs or crooks carried 
by many Church dignitaries, which are commonly 
called croziers, but the true crosier or crossier of 
an Archbishop. 

We have now described all the window 
below the transome. Although this part is made 
up from two windows of different dates, it may be 
considered as forming one group, and has been 
arranged with no little care, and has considerable 
merit both as regards religious and artistic feeling. 
We have a general canopy extending across the 
whole window, and underneath it, in the centre, a 
representation of the Crucifixion, with the Blessed 
Virgin and Beloved Disciple on either side of the 


Cross. On either side of this group are some of 
the earliest and most distinguished witnesses and 
martyrs to the truth of this great central fact of 
our faith — S. Stephen, the protomartyr, S. Law- 
rence, S. Katherine, S. George, S. Barbara ; and 
with these, the two highest Church dignitaries of 
the realm, the Archbishops of Canterbury and 

Beneath all, the ecclesiastical dignitaries of 
the particular Church to which the window be- 
longed, and some of its founders or most important 
benefactors. There is, as before said, certain 
evidence, from the artistic unity of the several 
parts, that all this, with the exception of the four 
small figures of the Archbishops, and S. 
Stephen and S. Lawrence (which belong to an ear- 
lier date), was originally designed, executed, and 
arranged as it now stands. All appears to have 
been grouped with the desire to represent Faith, 
Suffering, and Martyrdom, in unity with the great 
central Sacrifice. 

That part of the window which is above the tran- 
some is chiefly occupied bv coats of arms, but there 
are besides these some interesting sacred subjects, 
which are unfortunately placed so high that they 
are liable to be overlooked. They can all, however, 
be easily examined with an ordinary opera glass. 
At the top of the second light on the left, is a tol- 
erably perfect representation of our Saviour's 


entry into Jerusalem. He is placed above, and 
there are spectators below, bearing palm branches. 
At the top of the third light is, perhaps, the gem 
of the window, a representation of the Blessed 
Virgin and Child. This was once the whole or 
part of a lancet or " Early English " window, and 
its date is believed to be about the year 1260 — that 
is to say, about 200 years earlier than the glass 
below the transome. The Blessed Virgin is 

represented crowned, sitting under a canopy, with 
the Child on her arm ; her dress is fastened at 
the breast with a brooch, bearing the letter M. on 
its surface. This is a most valuable specimen of 
the art of the period, and it is a pity that it is not 
nearer to the eye, so that the beauty of some 
details might be seen, such as that of the Virgin's 
dress, and of the two falcons and squirrels which 
are on either side of the border of the panel ; the 
plumage of the birds is especially beautiful. Next 
to this, towards the top of the fourth or centre 
light, is a somewhat imperfect representation of 
the Resurrection. Our Saviour is above the 
centre. Below are two Roman soldiers, one 
in a recumbent position lifting his visor with his 
hand, the other standing. At the top of the last 
light are several parts of designs which belong to 
the time of the great central figures, but could 
not have formed parts of these. One of them is a 
large key, such as might have belonged to S. Peter; 


another represents the feet of Christ pierced with a 
nail ; and there are two figures apparently playing 
on musical instruments. 

(The above account is taken from an account of the East 
Window in a Book now out of print, by Frederick Clowes.) 

m^ flan of fest Minoota. 

The original stained-glass window consisted of 
the Shield of the Prince of Wales in the central 
light D., and also the lights H. I. K. L. M. and N. 
down to the dotted line in each light. 

A. — All modern, inserted at the restoration in 1870. 

B. — In the upper part fragments of figures and 
ornamental work, date about 1420-40. 
Shields : No. 1. Gurney of Keswick. 2. 
Evard or Everard. 3. Harrington. 4. The 
same, impaling Frecton or Frecleton. 

C. — In the upper part, the Virgin and Child, date 
about 1300. Shields : No. 5. Harrington. 
6. Bardesley, impaling Leybourne. 7. 
Fleming of Rydale. 8. Fleming of Wath 
quartering De-la-Mere. 

Saint Barbara, but tnere aues uui a^om ^ 
have been any old authority for this. In 
the lower part of the light at P is a small 



D. — In the upper part, part of a subject, " The 
Resurrection," under a canopy, date 1420- 
40. Shields: No. 9, imperfect. 10. The 
arms, within a garter, of Edward Plantage- 
net, Prince of Wales, created Knight of the 
Garter 1475, and with his brother murdered 
in the Tower 1483, a few months after he 
became King as Edward V. 

E.— Shields : 11, Middleton of Leighton Hall. 
12. Bale quartering Gurney. 13. De Roos 
quartering Harrington. 14. Guies, 3 hand 
mirrors argent (this coat cannot be identi- 
fied). 15. Harrington. 16. Cartmel Priory. 
17. Redman or Rudiman. 

F. — Upper part, fragments of Canopy work, date 
about 1360. Shields: 18. Redman. 19. 
Framlingham. 20. Cartmel Priory. 21. 

G. — Fragments. 

The Lower Lights. 

The upper part of H. I. L. M. and N. contains 
Canopy work, all of the same date, i.e., 1480. 

H. — A figure of S. Barbara. The panel H a is en- 
tirely modern. It has been restored as 
Saint Barbara, but there does not seem to 
have been any old authority for this. In 
the lower part of the light at P is a small 


figure of a Monk knelling, on a scroll above 



I. — A figure of S. George. His armour is of the 
period of Edward IV., about 1480. "At the 
foot of the light at Q a Knight and Lady 
kneeling, in Surcoats. The Knight's armour 
is of the period of Henry VI., about 1430. 
His arms are on his Surcoat. Ermine, 
Fretty Gules (Thornburgh). The Lady 
has Argent, 2 bars Gules (Broughton). 
The figures represent Sir William Thorn- 
burgh and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Broughton of Broughton 
Tower ; above on a scroll WILLM 

K. L. and M. — " The Crucifixion." The subject 
is taken through the three central openings, 
the figure of our Lord in the centre with 
the Virgin and St. John in the lights on 
either side. Three Angels with chalices 
catch the blood flowing from the wounds 
in His side, His hands and His feet. 

K. — In the bottom panel at R Monks kneeling 
with their names above their heads. 



L. — In the bottom panel at S a Knight and Lady 
kneeling. There is a good deal of modern 
glass in this panel. The arms on the 
Knight's Surcoat appear to be " Reygate " 
argent 3 fusils in fesse azure, the Lady's, 
" Widdrington " Quarterly argent and gules 
a bend sable. 

M. — The bottom panel T is very imperfect and 
to a great extent modern. 

N. — A figure of St. Catherine crowned with her 
emblems, a sword, and broken wheel. The 
bottom panel T is very imperfect and 
mostly modern. 

O. — This light is made up of fragments, mostly of 
the same date, 1420-40. In the centre are 
small figures of 2 archbishops and 2 deacons 
(St. Stephen and St. Lawrence). They 
originally formed part of the tracery {i.e., 
the small upper lights) of a window. 

Dates of the Different Paintings. 

1300. — The earliest work is the figure of the Virgin 
and Child in the piece marked C and the 
two shields 16 and 20. The Chapel on the 
South side of the Choir of Cartmel Church 


is of the same date (about 1300), and has 
old glass of a similar character remaining in 
some of the windows. 

1360.— The five trefoils with shields 4, 8, 13, 17, 
and 21, with the architectural canopy work 
in F, are next in order. There are no 
windows of this date in the present church 
at Cartmel, but there might have been some 
in the north aisle of the Nave where there 
is now only a modern blank wall ; the 
doorway which remains belongs to this 

1420-50. — The panels at the bottom of the window 
and the light O belong to this date. The 
north aisle of the Choir of Cartmel Church 
has windows with old glass of a similar 
character remaining in the tracery. 

1480.— The shield of the Prince of Wales in D 
and the whole of the lights H, I, K, L, M, 
and N down to the small bottom panels are 
of the date — Edward Duke of York was 
created Prince of Wales in 1475 and became 
King in 1483, so that the work must have 
been executed sometime during those eight 
years. That is just when Windermere 
Parish Church was being re-built after 
having been destroyed by fire. There is 
no work of this date in Cartmel Church 


either in stone or stained glass — and every- 
thing seems to point to this being actually 
part of the original East window of this 

The Author is indebted to Mr. Grylls, of London 
for the above key and plan of the East Window, 
and the late Mr. Frederick Clowes for his descrip- 
tion of the " Restored East Window " from a book 
now out of print. 

** W>\jz Carrier's Jlrms" Uttttoota. 

There is a piece of stained glass in a window of 
the north side called "the Carrier's Arms," which are 
a rope, a wantey hook, five packing pricks or 
skewers, being the instruments which carriers use to 
fasten their packing sheets together. When the 
Parish Church had to be re-built, tradition says 
there was a dispute amongst the Parishioners as 
to whether it should be upon the old site or not. 
This dispute was happily terminated by the gener- 
ous offer of a carrier living in the Parish (perhaps 
at Bowness) to bring the lead for the roof free of 
charge on his pack-horses, on condition that the 
Church should be built in the old place. In mem- 
ory of this generous action, the emblems of his 
business were inserted in stained glass in this 


The inscription reads as follows : — 


fUmarks ntt tfa ^.rt of (!Hass fainting. 

By Henry Hughes. 

At the request of the Antiquarian Society of 
London and the Restoration Committee of S. 
Martin's, Windermere (Bowness Church), I under- 
took the restoration, or rather conservation, of the 
East Window. The first aspect of the affair 
seemed dismal, but as I had often experienced this 
in the old damaged windows I had restored, I was 
able to give an encouraging report. The greatest 
difficulty lay in the want of a great portion of the 
principal figure, that of Our Lord, and the upper 
half of S. Barbara ; also parts of the Blessed 
Virgin, S. John, S. George, and S. Lawrence ; and 
as it was a question of conservation rather than 


restoration, it was perplexing what to do for the 
best under the existing circumstances, which led 
to considerable discussion with the Antiquarian 
Society how best to carry out the work satis- 
factorily. It was ultimately arranged that the 
parts restored should be marked with my initials, 
the original design would thus be completed, and 
the considerable blanks which would otherwise 
have been left, would be avoided. And whenever 
the New Zealander comes to London Bridge he 
may penetrate as far as Bowness, and finding 
H.H." scratched upon the glass (supposing the 
window remains in a suitable state for examina- 
tion), he will probably consider them marks of 
progress in the art of the nineteenth century, or 
he may find it an interesting puzzle. The first 
process in the work was to ascertion the original 
intention as to general design or arrangement of 
subjects, and if possible to bring the scattered parts 
together. It was so disintegrated by time and 
neglect that it would not hold together, and it was 
therefore necessary to re-lead it as it was, in order 
to have it placed in a position to study its character 
and design ; then, after much study and considera- 
tion, discoveries were made of various features in 
it. The glass was separated and re-leaded, again 
and again the same process was repeated, until the 
whole was brought together in harmony, and the 
amount of restoration necessary was revealed. In 


studying this window in its relation to other works 
of art of the same epoch it presents most interesting 
features, and especially we may contrast it with 
the modern practice as a fitting decoration of a 
of a Christian Church in its remarkable symbolistic 
character. The principal subject, the Crucifixion 
— represented by the simple figure of Our Lord on 
the Cross, the Blessed Virgin, S. John, S. Kath- 
erine, and S. Barbara — very superior in principle 
to the plan of presenting a complicated crowd of 
spectators as a tableau only. This representation 
employing only what is essential to the object, faith, 
and varied by different situations and seasons ; the 
centre figures being those present at the great 
sacrifice, the others, S. Katherme, S. George, and 
S. Barbara, representing those who followed in 
faith in their struggle with the world, following the 
Apostles in the early Church. These few noble 
figures being superior to numbers, as representing 
the Church. This system was, I believe, under- 
stood in the early times better than at present, and 
the principle it would seem was lost soon after 
this work was done, consequently this window 
offers a most interesting example of one of the true 
ideas of early art. It is interesting to notice the 
connection between this work and the practice of 
the early Church, as regards representing their 
ideas by single or isolated figures from the time of 
the catacombs of Rome, borrowed from the Greeks, 


who represented their ideas in a similar way many 
centuries earlier, and when glass painting was first 
practised it was designed very similarly. It was 
designed for the most part after the manner of a 
coarse mosaic, the use of the figures being a means 
to an end, rather than the principal object, yet 
maintaining an imposing effect of colour as far as 
consistent with its symbolistic character. Whereas 
in later times art partook of the feelings of its 
epoch, as if were independent of the Church, and 
invited more attention to the pose and character of 
figures, till it often presented as its principal point 
eccentric forms and colour, independent of any 
teaching. The principal subject of this window 
belongs to a period generally characterised by its 
lower tone of colouring, and particularly the blue, 
which in this example has an intensity nearly equal 
to the thirteenth century glass. The pictures of 
the twelth and thirteenth centuries, though some- 
what inartistic, yet in brilliancy of colour (particu- 
larly the blues and reds) were never after equalled, 
indeed the chief reliance on the primaries and 
secondaries; but afterwards the colours gradually 
varied, by becoming lower in tone, until the end of 
the sixteenth century. 

It is particularly noticeable that as the material 
itself presented a diminished intensity there were 
added greater variety and scale of colour with the 
tertiaries unknown in the thirteenth and fourteenth 


centuries. These new tones enabled the designers 
of windows to make use of their qualities in 
pictures having complicated foregrounds, forgetting 
the principles which guided the works of a former 
age, and leading them into a simulation of a mere 
picture, or on the other hand, inviting admiration 
for effect of material alone. And, singularly, we 
find in this window a principle contrasting both in 
design and colour with many works of the same 
period, the figures being cut out or relieved on a 
blue ground, flat and intense, not imitating sky, but 
intense blue comparatively, with the simple symbolic 
figures, which make it quite a work of itself, and 
curious beyond any other in England ; the myster- 
ious streams of blood marking the sacrifice in a 
very effective manner, as also showing a power 
over colour in a very simple yet grand style. I 
may here mention the principle which should guide 
a designer. It is this, that stained glass should be 
so rendered as to form an auxiliary to the archi- 
tecture with which it is united, rather than an 
independent object of interest, and should be 
employed so as to subdue the light which it trans- 
mits, rather than as a means of displaying imitative 
or academic art, which in the latter case is often 
obtrusive ; and, of course, when employed in a 
religious place, it ought to inspire pious or holy 
feeling by its devotional character. One very 
curious fact in this work in relation to its design, 


is the possession of such varied elements in its 
construction ; that, in addition to the principal 
subject, there are portions of glass of other dates 
— of periods varying from the thirteenth to the 
sixteenth century — forming no part of the original 
design. There is a Blessed Virgin and Child of 
the thirteenth century ; coats of arms of the four- 
teenth ; and two pictures of the same period — Our 
Lord's entry into Jerusalem and Resurrection ; and 
it is the more interesting that such varied elements 
should combine to produce an interesting whole. 
Having visited and studied all the principal works 
in glass both in England and on the Continent, I 
am able to say that this, both in effect and interest, 
stands quite unique. Some of the finest windows 
of this date, say 1480 — but which period extended 
from 1380 to 1530 — it may be mentioned, are 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge ; the Church at 
Fairford ; S. Neot's, Cornwall; New College, 
Oxford ; Malvern Priory ; Lichfield, Gloucester, 
and Winchester Cathedrals; and on the Continent, 
Cologne, Augsburg, Brussels, and the Churches of 
Liege, and at Gouda in Holland, the latter being 
the latest. Soon after this the material failed, 
when they resorted to enamel colours to help them, 
as may be seen at Lincoln's Inn Chapel and Christ 
Church, Oxford, until the art was lost. Thanks 
are due to the late Mr. Winston, for his researches 
and analysis of old glass, this art has been brought 


within the range of possibility of recovery, the only 
impediment in the way at present being the exig- 
encies of modern times which demand such various 
treatment —often the whims of individuals inter- 
fering and militating sadly with the principles which 
ought to govern — some demanding blue, others red, 
or a simulation of a bygone character or period, 
with its high or low tone, so that true principle is 
quite neglected. It is very refreshing to look at 
such a work as the window in S. Martin's, Win- 

WLinbtvmtvt partsb OLIjurrlj opiate. 

By the Rev. Canon Rawnsley. 

The terrier of 1778 at Chester mentions only 
though, doubtless, then as now, there were also 
pewter vessels. The plate now consists of an 
ancient silver cup and cover, a modern silver cup, 
silver flagon, and two silver patens, a pewter flagon 
and two pewter dishes. 

The ancient cup and cover, of old York silver, 
are remarkable for beauty of shape and simplicity 
of design. The cup is 8 inches high, 4f diameter 
at top and the same at base ; depth of bowl 4 



inches ; weight, 13oz. 3dwt. The bowl, a flat- 
bottomed cylinder, is on a stem of hour-glass pat- 
tern, with a heavy knop standing out well all round, 
on which is an engraved band of conventional 
lilies running from left to right, with three breaks 
in it which shew clustered lilies ; and above, 
divided into three by the lily pattern, runs round in 
cursive the words : — 

' This plaite belonges to the Parish Church of 
Windermer 1684." 

It has three marks : — 1, Maker's initials W. B. 
in double quatrefoil, probably identical with the 
mark on a cup of 1681-2 at St. Lawrence, York 
(O.E.P., p. 77) : 2, Fleur-de-lis dimidiating a 
crowned rose in circular stamp ; 3, Italic small z, 
York date letter for 1682-3. The cover, now used 
as a paten, is 5i inches in diameter, with button or 
foot 1 inch high and 2i inches diameter ; weight 
5oz. It has a band of lilies round the volute of 
the rim, and W. B.'s York marks, but the date 
letter is too worn to be intelligible. 

The Silver Chalice and Paten. 
The modern silver cup, 7| inches high, weighs 
9oz. 7dwt. ; the silver flagon, 9f inches high, weighs 
16oz. 3dwt. ; the silver paten, 6f inches in diameter, 
weighs 4oz. 3dwt. 12gr. On each of these vessels 
are London marks for 1871-2, and the sacred 


(&a%z for (!LIjanu0 Iiooks. 

This case was placed in the Church in 1908 by a 
few personal friends in memory of the late Mr. 
Dan Gibson — architect of the Church Room — who 
attended the Church for many years. 

This case contains a valuable copy of a Bible 
dated 1608 known as the Breeches Bible " in 
consequence of the translators having substituted 
the word ' breeches " in the 7th verse of the 3rd 
chapter of Genesis for the word "aprons." This 
Bible is bound with brass corners, which have 
evidently been made use of to affix chains of the 
Reformation period. 

On the page opposite the Title-page is a record 
of the ownership of this Bible as follows but 
written in old English. ' This Bible was printed 
in 1608 and bought by Willam Jackson of Kendal 
in 1620. Henry Rowlandson my grandfather 
bought in 1620 and kept it 50 years, gave it to my 
father in 1671, who kept it 62 years. In 1733 my 
father John Rowlandson died being aged 99 years 
and 6 months and gave to me his son, Henry Row- 
landson, this Bible. I pray God to give me grace 
to read, mark, learn and understand that I may live 
to praise and glorify His Name, and by the assist- 
ance of His good Spirit to the saving of my soul 
for Jesus Christ his sake." 

On the 2nd shelf of this case will be found two 
large chained-books — one entitled "A Paraphrase 


of the Gospels " by Erasmus, written in the reign 
of Henry VIII, dated 1516. In the preface he 
wrote " I wish the weakest woman should read the 
Gospels, and I wish they were translated into all 
languages so that the husbandman should sing 
portions of them to himself as he follows the 
plough, that the weaver should hum them to the 
to the tune of the shuttle and that the traveller 
should beguile with their stories the tedium of his 

In 1547, in the reign of Edward VI. the Injunc- 
tions were issued providing the commissions to see 
that Bibles, together with the Pharaphases of 
Erasmus on the Gospels, were provided in each 
Church in the Kingdom. 

The other book on the same shelf also with 
chains affixed belonging to the Reformation Period 
is Bishop Jewel's " Apology for the Church of 
England," published in the year 1562, which was 
a triumphant exposure of the pretensions of the 
Church of Rome. On the accession of Queen 
Elizabeth, Jewel was appointed Bishop of Salis- 
bury. His great controversial ability made him 
the foremost Churchman of the age, but the 
demands of a great controversy wore out his 
strength, so that he died in 1571, aged 49. 

There is also in this case two Books of Homilies 
one said to have been composed by Cranmer, 
Latimer, and Ridley, this book was ordered to be 


read in Churches instead of a sermon — the other 
Book of Homilies was compiled by Bishop Jewel 
(who published the famous Apology for the Church 
of England in 1562) in 1563, and this book was for 
several successive reigns placed by Royal Com- 
mand in every Church in the land for the 
instruction of the people. 

The Pewter Flagon. 
The pewter flagon, a very fine vessel, lOi" inches 
high to lid, 4f diameter at mouth, stands on a most 
substantial base, of 9 inches diameter, thrice 
voluted, and weighs 51bs., 12oz. 19dwt. It has the 
following five marks : — 1, a buckle; 2, a horse's 
head couped ; 3, an arm embossed, surmounted by 
a crown ; 4 and 5, first and second marks repeated. 
Of the two pewter dishes, both in excellent pres- 
ervation, one 13 inches in diameter and weighs lib. 
2oz. 9dwt. The larger is marked with (l) a coat 
of arms on a shield, three griffins heads erased, per 
chevron engrailed, with the name '' S. Duncomb " 
beneath, and (2) a primrose between two sprays 
of foliage. The word " London," on a scroll 
beneath, links the two stamps. The smaller 
dish is marked with a stamp in which rising 
out of ducal crown is a horse's jamb in shaped 
shield ; above the shield are cross staves under- 
neath a crown, and beneath is the word " London." 
There are in addition to the stamp four marks : — 



1, Leopard's head uncrowned; 2, Jamb in shaped 
shield (?) ; 3, Griffin's head erased ; 4, S. D. in a 

(Ferguson, R. S. — Old church plate in the dio- 
cese of Carlisle.) 

®Ij* Cljurdj-lartr. 

The Churchyard is bordered on the South and 
West by some stately Yew Trees varying in age, 
it is said, from 200 to 700 years. 

A handsome Runic Cross may be seen with the 
following inscription This Cross was erected in 
the year of our Lord, 1903 in grateful remembrance 
of the declaration of Peace in South Africa, and in 
memory of those who fought and fell for their 
Sovereign and Empire." 

The Lych Gate is a fine specimen. 
On a Gravestone at the East End of the Church- 
yard there is a curious inscription, it runs as 
follows : — 

" In memory of Thomas Ullock who died 19th 
of Oct., 1791, aged 75 years." 

" Poor Tom came here to lie 

From Battles of 

Dettigen and Fontenoy 

in 1743 and 1745," 


There is an epitaph on a tombstone, also at the 
East End of the Church-yard, placed to the 
memory of an Abyssinian Slave who died in 1822. 
" A Slave by birth I left my native Land 
And found my freedom on Britannia's Strand 
Blest Isle ! Thou Glory of the Wise and Free 
Thy Touch alone unbinds the chains of Slavery." 

$\)t |3arisfj. 

The name Windermere (anciently written 
Winandermere) may be derived from a Celtic 
word meaning ' the clear ancient lake," or it may 
have received its name, in ancient times, from a 
person of the name of Winder or Wynander. 

Windermere Parish' Church was originally only 
a chapel of ease under Kendal Church, and in token 
of subjection the Rector pays to this day an annual 
pension of 13s. 4d. to the Vicar of Kendal being 
the sum anciently paid to St. Mary's Abbey, York. 

In 1535 it appears to have been a distinct parish 
for in that year the Rectory is valued in the King's 
Books at £24- 6s. 8d. 

In 1849 the parish was ten miles in length and 
three in breadth, and was bounded on the north by 
the parish of Grasmere and on the east by that of 
Kendal. The Church is in the Gothic and Norman 


style of architecture and when erected about the 
year 1485 King Richard III. granted a warrant 
for five marks {£?> 6s. 8d.) towards the building. 

The Old School was built by subscription in 
1637, and the present school occupies a pleasant 
and healthful situation, built in 1836 by John 
Bolton, Esq., of Storrs Hall, who died in 1837, and 
who lies buried in the Churchyard where a hand- 
some tablet is raised to his memory. The Girls' 
and Infant Schools were built in the life time of 
Canon Stock. 

Storrs Hall stands in a picturesque situation 
and was built by Sir John Legard, but was greatly 
improved by Mr. John Bolton, it is now used 
as an Hotel. 

Calgarth Hall was for many generations held 
by the Phillipson family and is one of the oldest 
houses in the county, now a farm house. 

In 1789, Dr. Watson, the worthy Bishop of 
Llandaff, commenced building his beautiful seat 
called Calgarth Park, and is now held by Major 
C. G. Watson, late of the Royal Artillery. 

Curwen's Island now also called " Belle Isle " 
contains 27 acres and formerly had a neat house in 
the centre of it, which in the Civil Wars stood a 
ten days siege. A round house now stands in the 
centre of the Island and is still occupied by the 
Curwen family. 


Rayrigg, situate about half a mile from the 
Church is now in the possession of The Rev. Hugh 
Fleming. The house is about the same age as the 
Rectory and has been occupied by the Fleming 
family for many years. 

There are several tombstones and one memorial 
window in the Church in memory of various 
members of this ancient family. 

The Church Room is a well built edifice costing 
over a /"1000, to perpetuate the memory of the late 
Rector (Canon Stock). The foundation stone was 
laid by Sir William Forwood in 1907 and was 
"opened" in 1908. 

It is heated by hot water and lighted by electric 

The Rectory is one of the oldest houses in 
Westmorland. Nicholson and Burn in their History 
of Westmorland, published in 1777, in describing 
the Parsonage House or Hall, say " part of it 
was rebuilt by Mr. Richard Archer, formerly fellow 
of Queen's College in Oxford, rector thereof and 
another part by Mr. William Wilson of the said 
College, and it hath received considerable im- 
provements by the present worthy Rector Mr. 
Giles Moore." 


The date 1416 has been found carved in oak in 
the kitchen which is the oldest part of it. 

From the above it may be gathered the approxi- 
age of the present Rectory, viz. — 

Built in 1416. 

Partly rebuilt by Rev. Richard Archer, 1650. 

Partly rebuilt by Rev. William Wilson, 1680. 

Improved by Rev. Giles Moore, 1770. 

Added to by Rev. Canon Stock, 1857. 

Improved by Rev. Euston J. Nurse, 1905. 

The Porch and old chimneys are characteristic 
of many of the old houses in the county. The 
interior is now fitted up with modern conveniences 
such as the electric light, telephone, and is heated 
by hot water radiators. 

In 1770 the Rectory was described as " the only 
respectable building in the place." 

W$t "fovtooob" JKnrtflrial min&ohr. 

This window placed in the church in 1907 by 
Sir William Forwood as a Thank-offering for 40 
happy summers spent on the shores of Lake 

The subject is the " Te Deum" — We praise 
Thee, O God. Angels are depicted holding scrolls 
in their hands inscribed, To Thee all angels cry 
aloud ; the Heavens and all the Powers therein " 
"Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ." 


The inscription is, " To the glory of God — A 
Thank-offering 1866-1906 by Sir William Forwood, 

" The glorious company of the Apostles praise 

The following Apostles are depicted in the left 

light of the window. 

S. Peter with Keys S. Andrew with Cross 

S. John with Cup S. Philip 

S. Bartholomew S. Thomas 

S. Simon with Saw S. Matthew 

S. Jude S. Mathias 

S. James the Great, praying S. James the Less with Club 

" The goodly fellowship of the Prophets Praise 

The following Prophets are represented in the 
right light of the window. 
David with Harp Ezekiel 

John the Baptist kneeling Moses with Tablets of Stone 
Isaiah Isaac 

Solomon crowned Abraham with Knife 

Aaron with Rod Jeremiah 

" The noble army of Martyrs Praise Thee." 
S. Paul praying S. Oswald with Spear 

S. Stephen with Stones S. Cecilia with Organ Pipes 

S. Katherine with Wheel S. Lawrence 

S. George in Armour with S. Kentigen 

" The Holy Church throughout the world praise 

S. Martin kneeling with S. Geraint with Spear 



S. Edward the Confessor S. Columba 

as King 

S. Etheldreda kneeling S. Anthony 
S. Aidan 

The Martyrs and the Holy Church are depicted 

in the lower portion of the window. 

CLttrates of the f)arislj Cljmxlj. 


... The Revs. R. P. Graves 
and W. Bryans 

... The Revs. R. P. Graves 
and R. Burrow 


... The Revs. R. P. Graves 
and T. Phibbs. 


The Rev. H. J. Wilkinson 


The Rev. F. Haden Cope 


... The Rev. H. W. Snell 


The Rev. R. Fowler 


... The Rev. F. A. Bright 
... The Rev. A. B. Tarbutt 


... The Rev. Trevor Parkins 


The Rev. S. A. K. Sylvester 
... The Rev. F. Brownson 


The Rev. C. A. W. Robins 


... The Rev. H. E. Stevens 

1898-1902 .. 

... The Rev. J. T. Ashworth 


The Rev. J. Sinker 


The Rev. H. J. Shaw 


... The Rev. B. I. Rylands 

... The Revs. B. I. Rylands 

and F. W. Clayton 


The Rev. R. M. Samson, Headmaster of 
Hawkshead Grammar School, acted as one of the 
Assistant Clergy from 1885 to 1905. 

The Rev. H. W. Snell, is now Vicar of All 
Saints, Blackheath. 

The Rev. F. A. Bright is now Vicar of Caterham 

The Rev. S. A. K. Sylvester is now Vicar of 
Roby, Liverpool and Honorary Canon of Liverpool 

The Rev. F. Brownson is now Rector of 
Compton-Greenfield, near Bristol. 

The Rev. C. A. W. Robins is now Vicar of 
Hendford, near Yeovil. 

The Rev. J. Sinker is now Vicar of Burneside, 
near Kendal. 

JEural tabids in ilje (Kljnrdj. 

Tablets on the North Aisle wall have been 
placed to the following : — 

Captain Mark Beaufoy, of the Coldstream 
Guards, who served at the Battle of Waterloo, 
died in 1854, aged 60 years. 

Juliana Robinson, died 1839. 

Medley Silvester Grimston, and Frances 
Grimston, his wife, died at Storrs in 1801. 

Barbara Fleming, daughter of Fletcher 
Fleming, of Rayrigg, in 1817, aged 61 years. 


Fletcher Raincock, A.M., son of the Rev. 
W. Raincock, A.M., who died in 1840. 

The Rev. John Fleming, A.M. of Rayrigg, 
died 1835 

Jane Fleming, died at Rayrigg in 1828. 

The Rev. Fletcher Fleming, Rector of 
Grasmere, died at Rayrigg in 1876. 

Catherine Emily Fleming, wife of the 
Rev. Fletcher Fleming, died at Rayrigg in 1878. 

Barbara Fleming, daughter of the Rev. John 
Fleming, died at Rayrigg in 1897, in the 90th 
year of her age. 

Jane Isabella Fleming, daughter of John 
Fleming, died at Rayrigg in 1902, in the 94th 
year of her age. 

The Hon. Elizabeth Carpenter, widow 
of Captain the Hon. Charles Carpenter, her son 
George, Earl of Tyrconnel, was A.D.C. to Field- 
Marshal the Duke of York and died at Wilna in 

William Suart, for 29 years Parish Clerk 
of Windermere died in 1869. 

There are Tablets on the South Aisle Wall 
placed to the memory of the following : — 

Robert Allan, of Ferney Green died 1818, 
aged 72 years. 


Mrs. D. Metcalfe, of Old England, died 
1842, aged 88 years. 

Frederick Marwood (Barrister) died 1824, 
aged 27 years. 

Robert Greaves, J. P., of Ferney Green, 
died 1840, aged 70 years. 

Hannah Greaves, of Ferney Green, died 
1862, aged 86 years. 

John Braithwaite, of Orrest Head, died 
1854. He added an aisle to St. Mary's Birth waite, 
now called St. Mary's, Windermere. 

Mrs. Braithwaite, of Orrest Head, who left 
^"2000 to found a scholarship at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, for boys born in Windermere. 

John Braithwaite, of Orrest Head, died 
1818, aged 69 years. 

Elizabeth Braithwaite, of Orrest Head, 
died 1838, aged 84 years. 

William Braithwaite, of Orrest Head, died 
1805, aged 31 years. 

John Braithwaite, of Orrest Head, died 
1854, aged 72 years. 

Daniel Bellasis, died 1874, aged 54 years. 

James Bryans, J.P., of Belfield, died 1863, 
aged 60 years. 


On one of the Pillars of the South Aisle, Tablets 
are inscribed as follows : — 

Thomas Dixon, of Orrest Head, died 1691, 
aged 65 years. 

Magnus Jackson, died 1830. 

William Satterthwaite, died 1750, aged 
73 years. 

Margaret Satterthwaite, died 1751, aged 
73 years. 

Isabel Satterthwaite, died 1757, aged 38 

On the South Chancel Aisle Wall is a Tablet 
put up to the memory of 

Bishop Watson, of Llandaff, who died in 
1816 aged 79, and Dorothy Watson, his wife, who 
died in 1831 aged 81 years. 

On the West Wall there are Mural Tablets to 
the memory of 

JOSIAH BROWN, of Orrest Head, who died in 
1801, aged 72 years. 

Henry G. Poulett Thompson, aged 14 
years, who was lost with all the crew of His 
Majesty's Brig " Recruit " in a severe gale of 
wind on the passage from Halifax to Bermuda, in 


Sophia Poulett Thompson, died at Belfield 
in 1834. 

Andrew John Poulett Thompson, died 
in 1836. 

Andrew Henry Poulett Thompson, 
drowned in the River Thames by the upsetting of 
a boat in 1839. 

%\)t IBdiasts JEnttorial Minboto 

(the west window in south aisle). 

The principal theme in this window is that 
contained in the two central lights " The Parable 
of the Lilies." The two outer subjects, represent- 
ing Our Lord in His command to His disciples to 
" Search the Scriptures," which tends to produce 
faith, the points of which are shewn in the right- 
hand light, where the Centurion believes the 
Saviour's words as to the healing of his (the 
Centurion's) servant, and these two incidents were 
chosen as representing the personal characteristics 
of the man to whose memory the window is 
dedicated. The subjects are framed by rich 
architectural canopies and leaves of white and gold 
upon ruby backgrounds with angels holding scrolls 
charged with appropriate quotations. The dedica- 

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tion sentence at the base runs as follows — " To 
the Glory of God and in memory of Major-General 
John Brownrigg Bellasis, born at Waterside, 
Bowness, Windermere, August I2th, 1806, died 
10th March, 1890, and of Louisa his wife ; also of 
Charlotte Agnes Bellasis of the same place who 
died at Montreux, Vaud, Switzerland, 29th Decem- 
ber, 1894. This window is dedicated by Herbert 
Inglefield Bellasis, son and husband respectively of 
the above." 

This window is by the same hand as the Watson 
Memorial, T. Curtis, (Ward & Hughes) and has the 
same characteristics. 

€\jt Canon %totk (&ift-Wmboba. 


This window placed in the Church by the late 
Rector, Canon Stock, is intended to illustrate new 
phases of the ministerial office, and has in the 
first light represented the Baptism of Our Lord by 
St. John, referring to the Sacrament of Baptism. 
The next subject typifies preaching by Our Lord's 
Sermon on the Mount. The care of the poor and 
destitute by the feeding of the multitude, and Holy 
Communion by the Institution of the Last Supper 
by Our Lord. The subjects are framed by canopies 


and leaves, scrolls in the latter charged with appro- 
priate texts. The dedication at the sill of the 
window says thus — " To the Glory of God this 
window was dedicated by Edward P. Stock, 
Rector of this Parish, A.D., 1892." 

The window is the work of the same artist 
T. F. Curtis (Ward & Hughes) who executed the 
Watson Window in the same aisle. 

%\}t Watson jJtnnorial WLinbobj 

(in south aisle). 

This window has for its theme rather a remark- 
able composition which was evolved by the late 
Christopher Knight Watson, Secretary of the 
Royal Society of Antiquaries, donor of the work, 
and points out in the most forcible way the 
connection between the Old and New Testament, 
more especially respecting Our Blessed Lord's 
advent upon earth. The upper series of figures 
are those of the four Evangelists, Saints Matthew, 
Mark, Luke, and John, who each bear scrolls 
charged with a Text from their own Gospels, in 
connection with the Saviours Godhead and Man- 
hood. Each Evangelist has his appropriate 
symbol, as described in the Revelation of St. John 
the Divine — St. Matthew, the Angel — St. Mark, the 

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Lion — St. Luke, the Bull — and St. John, the Eagle. 

The lower series of figures represent the four 
major prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and 
Daniel, and as with the upper series, hold scrolls 
charged with sentences from their prophesies 
connected with the Lord's coming and His purpose 
of redemption. The connecting link between the 
two rows of figures comes in with the words upon 
the important scroll running right across the centre 
of the window is held by angels and which says 
" In Vetere Testamento Novum Testa- 
mentum Latet; in Novo Testamento Vetus 
Testamentum Patet." 

" The Teaching of the New Testament lies 
hidden in the Old Testament; that of the Old 
Testament is brought to light in the New Testa- 
ment," or in other words 'The New Testament is 
the complement of the Old." 

In accordance with the late character of the 
stone work of the window the framing of the 
figures is bound by rich Perpendicular canopies of 
white and gold upon ruby background, at the head 
of the window runs the dedication — " To the glory 
of God and in loving memory of Lt. Col. Charles 
Edward Watson, J. P. D. L. late Royal Fusiliers 
of Calgarth Park, Westmorland, born 4th June, 
1823, deceased 7th January, 1894, and of Louisa 
his wife, born 11th April, 1843, deceased 14th 
August, 1888, also of William Luther Watson late 


S. Lancashire Regiment, born 4th November, 
1862, deceased 18th February, 1896, being respect- 
ively a grandson, grand-daughter, and great-grand- 
son of the Right Rev. Richard, Lord Bishop of 
Llandaff, this window is dedicated by their brother, 
brother in law, and father respectively, Christopher 
Knight Watson of Calgarth Park aforesaid. 
" May they rest in peace..' " Right dear in the 
sight of the Lord is the death of His saints." 

The window is the work of Thomas F. Curtis 
(Ward & Hughes) of 67, Frith Street, Soho Square, 
London, and is a fine example of ecclesiastical art 
of a high standard of merit. The drawing and 
painting being graceful and delicate while the 
colour is very soft and harmonious. 

Wht i&lomtz ffltmoxial WLinbom. 

The Window in the South Aisle in which are 
represented eight acts of mercy is a memorial to 
Frederick Clowes. 

They are illustrated as follows : 
Feeding the Hungry. 
Giving drink to the Thirsty. 
Clothing the Naked. 
Taking in the Stranger. 
Succouring the Sick. 
Visiting in Prison. 
Comforting the Widow. 
Receiving the Orphans. 


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These acts of kindness and consideration to our 
fellow-creatures specially commended by Our Lord 
in His Sermon on the Mount in the 25th. chapter 
of St. Matthew's Gospel, and which will receive 
special recognition at His Second Advent, give a 
great opportunity of expression and tender feeling 
in the composition and grace of the drawing of the 
human figures. 

A glance at the bottom left-hand subject of tend- 
ing the sick will illustrate well, what it is here 
attempted to convey. The framing is of the same 
architectural character as the "Watson Window" 
and has been composed to harmonise with it as a 
fitting companion-window. At the base is a de- 
dication running thus : — " To the Glory of God 
and in loving memory of Frederick Clowes, of 
Holly Hill, Windermere, who departed this life 
Feb. 25th, 1894, aged 76 years, dedicated by his 

This window is by the same hand who executed 
the " Watson" "Stock" and "Bellasis" Windows, 
in the South Aisle viz., T. Curtis (Ward & Hughes) 
65, Frith Street, Soho Square, London, W. 


Printed by Boynton & Marshall, Old Art School, 
Bowness-on- Windermere .