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Full text of "Indian wars and pioneers of Texas"

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Huntington Free Library 

Native American 
Collection 




CORNELL UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARY 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924104081736 



INDIAN WAR5 



AND 



Pioneers of Texas 



BY 

JOHN HENRY BROWN. ^ 






L. E. DANIELL, Publisher, 
Austin, Texas. J 



Press of 

Nixon- Jones Printing Company, 

St. Louis, Mo. 



-beck told— 

Pminting and Book Mfg. Co. 

st. louis, mo. 

BINUEKg. 



DEDICATORY PREFACE. 



The reader of this vokime is introduced to a series of advancing scenes in a 
drama that had its beginning in the first feeble attempts that were made at the 
settlement of the country, and to a succession of actors from the solitary explorer 
of seventy years ago to the men of to-day. 

To one of the most useful, honored and capable of the latter, our esteemed 
friend — 

Mr. George Sealy, 

of Galveston, 

this work is respectfully dedicated. 

The book leads the reader through the past to the present and here leaves him 
amid active and progressive men who are advancing, along with him, toward the 
future. 

Including, as it does, lives of men now living, it constitutes a connecting link 
between what has gone before and what is to come after. It is therefore fitting 
that it should be dedicated to a prominent man of our day in preference to one of 
former times. The matter presented, in the nature of things, is largely biographical. 

There can be no foundation for history without biography. History is a 
generalization of particulars. It presents wide extended views. To use a para- 
dox, history gives us but a part of history. That other part which it does not 
give us, the part which introduces us to the thoughts, aspirations and daily life 
of a people, is supplied by biography. 

When a good action is performed we feel that it should be remembered 
forever. When a good man dies, there is nothing sadder than the reflection that 
he will be forgotten. No record has been preserved of the greater number of 

(3) 



4 DEDICATORY PREFACE. 

noble actions. The names of some of the men who have done most to make 
history have found no place upon its pages. 

As Thomas-a-Kempis hath truly said : " To-day the man is here ; to-morrov*^ he 
hath disappeared. And when he is out of sight, quickly also is he out of mind. 

•' Tell me now, where are^all those doctors and masters, with whom thou wast 
well acquainted, while they lived and flourished iu learning? ISTow others possess 
their livings and perhaps do scarce ever think of them. In their lifetime they 
seemed something, but now they are not spoken of.'' 

The men whose deeds are recorded in this book were or are dee])ly identi- 
fied with Texas, and the preservation in this volume in enduring form of some 
remembrance of them — their names, who and what they were — has been a 
pleasant task to one who feels a deep interest and pride in Texas — its past 
history, its heroes and future destiny. The book is presented to the reader 
with the hope that he will find both pleasure and profit in its perusal. 



c^OOV 




INTRODUCTORY 



TO THE 



Mian Wars and Pioneers of Texas, 



The first contest on the soil of Texas between 
Americans and Indians antedates the visit of Moses 
Austin to the country in 1820 ; but the combatants 
were not colonists ; they were a part of the second 
expedition of Capt. James Long in aid of the 
patriots in the Mexican revolution. His first ex- 
pedition, entering East Texas by land, had been 
defeated in detail and driven from the country by 
the troops of Spain, sent from San Antonio. This 
second expedition came by water to Bolivar Point, 
opposite the east end of Galveston Island, and forti- 
fied that place. Some of the expedition, under 
Don Felix Trespalacios, and among whom was the 
subsequently distinguished martyr of Bexar in 1835, 
Col. Benjamin R. Milam, sailed down the coast 
and landed near Tampico. Fifty-two men remained 
with Long, among whom were John Austin (com- 
mander at Velasco in 1832), John McHenry, 
deceased in Jackson County in 1885, and a number 
of educated and daring Americans from different 
States of the Union. In December, 1853, in De 
Bow's New Orleans Review, the author of this work, 
after repeated interviews with Capt. McHenry, 
long his neighbor, gave this account of that first 
strictly American-Indian fight in Texas, late in the 
autumn of 1819. Its verity has never been ques- 
tioned : — 

While Long was at Bolivar, a French sloop 
freighted with wines and Mexican supplies, bound 
to Cassano; stranded on Galveston Island near the 
present city. The Carancahua Indians, to the 
number of 200 warriors, were then encamped in 
the immediate vicinity, and at once attacked and 
butchered all on board the sloop, plundered the 
craft, and entered upon a general jollification and 
war-dance. Long (discovering these facts) deter- 



mined to chastise them for their baseness. Accord- 
ingly after nightfall, at the head of thirty men 
(inchiding McHenry), he passed over in small 
boats to the island, and made an unexpected assault 
upon the guilty wretches, who were then greatly 
heated by the wines. 

The Carancahuas, however, though surprised, 
instantly seized their weapons, and yelling furiously, 
met their assailants with determined courage. 
With such superior numbers, they were a full match 
for Long. The combatants soon came to a hand- 
to-hand fight of doubtful issue ; but Long directed 
his men in a masterly manner and effected a retreat 
to his boats, leaving thirty -two Indians killed, three 
of his own men dead, and two badly besides several 
slightly wounded. George Early was severely 
wounded. Long's party took two Indian boys 
prisoners, and retained them, one of whom was 
accidentally killed some time afterwards. This is 
doubtless the first engagement known between the 
war-like Carancahuas and the Americans. 

THE FIRST CONTEST WITH THE COLONISTS. 

The first two schooner loads of immigrants to 
Texas, under the auspices of Stephen F. Austin, 
landed on the west bank, three miles above the 
mouth of the Colorado, late in March, 1822, having 
left New Orleans on the 7th of February. The first 
of the two vessels to amve was the schooner Only 
Son, owned by Kineheloe and Anderson, two of the 
immigrants, and commanded by Capt. Benjamin 
Ellison, who made many subsequent trips to our 
coast and died at his home in Groton, Connecticut, 
July 17, 1880. [The writer met him at his own 
home in 1869 and 1870, and found him to be a 
refined and elegant old Chi-istian gentleman, with 

(5) 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



kind recollections of the early pioneers on our 
coast, and yet retaining a warm interest in the wel- 
fare of Texas.] Among those arriving on the 
Only Son were Abram M. Clare, from Kentucky, 
who, till his death about forty years later, was a 
worthy citizen; Maj. George Helm, of Kentucky, 
who died on the eve of leaving to bring out his 
family, one of whose sons, John L. Helm, was 
afterwards Governor of Kentucky, while another is 
the venerable Rev. Dr. Samuel Larne Helm, of the 
Baptist Church, still of that State; Charles Whitson 
and fapaily, James Morgan and family; Greenup 
Hayes, a grandson of Daniel Boone, who did not 
remain in the country ; Mr. Bray, who settled at the 
mouth of Bray's bayou, now Harrisburg, and his 
son-in-law. While in Galveston Bay a number of 
the colonists died of yellow fever, before reaching 
Matagorda Bay. Among those who arrived by the 
other vessel were Samuel M. Williams, afterwards 
so long Secretary of Austin's Colony, and Jonathan 
C. Peyton and wife, Angelina B., a sister of Bailie 
Peyton of Tennessee, afterwards the wife of Jacob 
Eberly, by which name she was widely known and 
esteemed throughout Texas, till her death about 
1860. These personal facts are mentioned in justice 
to those who were the first of our countrymen to 
cross the gulf and seek homes in the wilderness of 
Texas — the first, in that mode, to vindicate the 
grand conception of the already deceased Moses 
Austin, at the very moment that his son and suc- 
cessor, Stephen F. Austin, was encountering in San 
Antonio de Bexar the first of a long series of 
obstacles to the prosecution of the enterprise — an 
enterprise in the fruition of which, as time has 
already shown, was directly involved the welfare of 
two and a half millions of people now on the soil of 
Texas, besides indirectly affecting other vast mul- 
titudes now resident in California, Nevada, Utah, 
Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. The politico- 
economical aspect of this question would fill a 
volume in following the march of our race 
from Jamestown, Plymouth and Beaufort to the 
present time, both interesting and edifying to the 
highest order of political philosophers ; but its 
discussion does not fall within the scope of this 
work. 

These immigrants, leaving a small guard with 
their effects, somewhat aided by a few persons who 
had settled on and near the Colorado, within the 
present bounds of the counties of Colorado and 
Fayette, moved up in that portion of the wilderness. 
James Cummins, Jesse Burnham, and a few others 
constituted the infant settlements referred to at 
that time. 

Before leaving their supplies under guard those 



savages of the coast, the Carancahuas,* had visited 
the immigrants, professed friendship, and entered 
into a verbal treaty of good will. But, in keeping 
with their instincts, as soon as the families and 
main strength of the party had been gone sufficiently 
long, they clandestinelj^ assailed the camp — the 
guard escaping more or less wounded — and seized 
its contents. On learning this a party marched 
down and chastised a small encampment of the 
Indians, giving them a foretaste of what they real- 
ized, when too late, that they must either In good 
faith be at peace with the Americans or suffer an- 
nihilation. Thirty years later their once powerful 
tribe — long the scourge of wrecked vessels and 
their crews — was practically, if not absolutely, 
extinct. This was the first blood shed between the 
settlers and the Indians. 

The Carancahuas were both treacherous and 
troublesome, often stealing from the settlers and 
often firing upon them from ambush. The earlier 
colonists living in proximity to the coast were 
greatly annoyed by them. But there is no reliable 
account of many of their earlier depredations. 
About 1851 a small volume was published, purport- 
ing to consist of letters by an early settler in the 
section mentioned to a friend in Kentucky, giving 
current accounts of events from 1822 to about 1845, 
when in fact thej' were written by another, and a 
stranger in the country, from the verbal recitals 
from memory of the assumed author. The gross 
inaccuracies in regard to events occurring much 
later, especially in 1832 and 1840, necessarily 
weaken confidence in his statements in regard to 
earlier occurrences. We must, therefore, be con- 
tent with more or less imperfect summaries of the 
conflicts with the Carancahuas for the first few years 
of the colony. 

Among the first of which any account has been 
preserved was an attack from ambush by these 
savages upon three young men in a canoe in the 
Colorado river, in the spring of 1823. The locality 
is now in Colorado County. Loy and Alley (the lat- 
ter one of several brothers) were Idlled. Clark, their 
companion, escaped to the opposite bank, severely 
but not mortally wounded. On the same day another 
young man named Robert Brotherton was fired upon 
and wounded by them, but escaped on horseback to 
convey the news to the settlers above, these two 
attacks being near the mouth of Skull creek. 



* I follow the correct Spanish spelling of the names 
of the Texas Indian tribes, giving also the correct pro- 
nunciation. Thus, Caran-ca-hua, pronounced Kar-an- 
ka-wah. There has been no uniformity in the orthograpliy 
of these names among American writers. All, however, 
will agree that there should be. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



This was Robert Brotherton from St. Louis 
County, Missouri, of which his two brothers, James 
and Marshall, were successively sheriff, from 1834 
to 1842. Eobert died unmarried at Columbiis, 
Texas, about 1857, leaving his estate to his nephew, 
Joseph W. McClurg, who, after a short residence 
in Texas, returned to Missouri, to become later a 
congressman and Governor of the State. 

A party of the settlers, numbering fourteen or 
fifteen, by a cautious night march arrived at the 
Indian camp in time to attack it at dawn on the 
following morning. Completely surprised, the 
Indians fled into the brush, leaving several dead. 
This was on Skull creek, a few miles from 
Columbus. 

The depredations of the Carancahuas continued 
with such frequency that Austin determined to 
chastise and if possible force them into pacific 
behavior. [Having left San Antonio very unex- 
pectedly for the city of Mexico in March, 1822, to 
secure a ratification of his colonization scheme by 
the newly formed government of Iturbide, the 
original concession of 1821 to Moses Austin having 
been made by the expiring authorities under 
Spain, Austin was now, in the summer of 1824, at 
his new home on the Brazos, clothed temporarily 
with authority to administer the civil and judicial 
affairs of the colony, and to command the militia 
with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.] Capt. 
Eandall Jones, in command of twenty-three men, 
in the month of September, moved down' the 
Brazos in canoes. On the lower river he was 
visited by some of the Indians who, on seeing his 
strength, manifested friendship. But learning that 
about thirtj' warriors of the tribe were encamped 
on a tributary of the Bernard, about seven miles 
distant, and also that about a dozen others had 
gone to Bailey's, further up the river, to buy 
ammunition, Capt. Jones sent two messengers 
up the river for help. These two found a small 
number already collected to watch the party at 
Bailey's. Becoming assured of their hostile intent, 
the settlers attacked them, killed several and the 
others fled. 

Without waiting for reinforcements, Capt. 
Jones determined to attack the party on the creek. 
Crossing to its west side he moved down in the 
night abreast the Indian camp, which was on the 
margin of a marshy expansion of the creek, covered 
with high grass, reeds, etc. At daylight the whites 
fired, charging into the camp. In a moment the 
Indians were secreted in the rank vegetation, hurl- 
ing arrows with dangerous precision into their 
exposed assailants. In another moment one or two 
of the whites fell dead, and several were wounded. 



To maintain their position was suicidal ; to charge 
upon the hidden foe was madness ; to retire as 
best they could was the dictate of common sense. 
This they did, pursued up the creek to where they 
recrossed it. They had three men killed, bearing 
the names of Spencer, Singer, and Bailey, and 
several wounded. It was claimed that fifteen 
Indians were killed, but of this there was no 
assurance when we remember the arms then in use. 
Be that as it may, it was a clear repulse of the 
whites, whose leader, Capt. Jones, was an expe- 
rienced soldier of approved courage. Such a result 
was lamentable at that period in the colony's 
infancy. It was this affair which caused the name 
of "Jones" to be bestowed on that creek. 

Soon after this the Carancahuas, a little above 
the mouth of the Colorado, captured an American 
named White and two Mexicans, in a canoe, who 
had gone from the San Antonio to buy corn. They 
let White go under a promise that he would bring 
down corn from the settlement and divide it with 
them — the canoe and Mexicans remaining as hos- 
tages. When White reported the affair to the 
people above, Capt. Jesse Burnham, with about 
thirty men, hastened to the spot agreed upon, and 
very soon ambushed a canoe containing seven or' 
eight Indians, nearly all of whom were slain at the 
first fire, and it was not certain that a single one 
escaped. 

Col. Austin, near this time, raised about a 
hundred volunteers and marched from the Brazos 
southwesterly in search of the Carancahuas. Some 
accounts say that he went to meet them, at their 
request, to make a treaty. Others assert that he 
started forth to chastise them, and that after 
crossing the Guadalupe at Victoria he met messen- 
gers from the Indians, sent through the priests of 
Goliad, proposing to meet and enter into a treaty 
with him. This is undoubtedly the true version. 
Austin started prepared and determined to punish 
the Indians for their repeated outrages, or force 
them to leave the limits of his colony. Had he 
only gone in response to their invitation, he would 
not have taken with him over a dozen men. He 
met them on the Menahuilla creek, a few miles 
east of La Bahia, and, being much persuaded 
thereto by the clergy and Alcalde of that town, 
made a ti'eaty with them, in which they pledged 
themselves never again to come east of the San 
Antonio river. More than one writer has been led 
to assert that the Carancahuas kept that pledge, 
which is notoriously untrue, as they committed 
occasional depredations east of that river at inter- 
vals for twenty-one years, and at other intervals 
lived at peace with settlements, hunting and some- 



8 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



times picking cotton for the people. In 1842 they 
were living on the margins of Matagorda Bay, 
often seen by the author of this work, while during 
the succeeding December, with the Somervell 
expedition, he saw perhaps a dozen of the tribe 
on the banks of the Rio Grande. The last Ameri- 
can blood shed by them was that of Capt. John 
F. Kempen, in Victoria County, whom they mur- 
dered in November, 1845., [Vide Victor M. Eose's 
History of Victoria County, page 21. J 

Austin's movement was a wise one. It con- 
vinced those unfaithful creatures that the Ameri- 
cans had become strong enough to hold the country 
and punish their overt acts. They had formerly 
been partially under the influence of the mission- 
aries, and still had their children baptized by the 
priests who stood somewhat as sponsors for them 
in the treaty, probably a stroke of policy mutually 
understood by them and Col. Austin, as sure to 
have no evil effect, and with the hope that it might 
exert a salutary influence, as it doubtless did. We 
must not forget that those were the days of infancy 
and small things in Texas. 

As to the number of Indians in Texas in its first 
American settlement, we have no reliable statistics. 
The following semi-official statement, published in 
the Nashville (Tenn.) Banner of August 1, 1836, 
is deemed authentic as far as it goes ; but it does 
not include those tribes or portions of tribes — as 
for instance the Comanches — pertaining to Texas, 
or south of the Arkansas river and west of the 
100th degree of longitude west of Greenwich : — 

Me. Editor — As the public mind has been and 
still is somewhat excited with regard to the situa- 
tion of our western frontier, and the State being 
now under a requisition of Gen. Gaines for a 
regiment of mounted gun men to maintain its 
defense, I have thought it would not be uninter- 
esting to the public to know the names and numbers 
of Indian tribes on that frontier. The statement 
is taken from an estimate accompanying a map of 
survey showing the geographical and relative posi- 
tions of the different tribes, which was prepared at 
the topographical bureau during the present year, 
which I have not yet seen published. 

The names and numbers of the Indians who 
have emigrated to the west of the Mississippi : — 

Choctaws l.'jjOOS 

Apalachicoles 265 

Cherokees 5,000 

Creeks 2,459 

Senecas and Shawnees 211 

Senecas (from Sandusky) 231 

Potowatomies 141 



Peorias and Kaskaskias 132 

Plenkeshaws 1''^ 

Wees 222 

Ottoways 200 

Kickapoos ^^0 

Shawnees 1,250 

Delawares ^26 

The names and numbers of the Indian tribes 
resident west of the Mississippi : — 

lowas 1,200 

Sacs, of the Missouri 500 

Omahas 1,400 

Ottoes and Missourians 1,600 

Pawnees 10,000 

Comanches 7,000 

Mandons 15,000 

Mineterees 15,000 

Assinaboins 800 

Crees 3,000 

Crosventres 3,000 

Crows 45,000 

Sioux 27,500 

Quapaws 460 

Caddos 800 

Poncas 800 

Osages 5,120 

Konsas 1,471 

Sacs 4,800 

Arickaras 8,000 

Chazenes 2,000 

Blackfeet .30,000 

Foxes 1,600 

Areehpas and Keawas 1,400 

There is yet remaining east of the river in the 
Southern States a considerable number: the five 
principal tribes are the Seminoles, Creeks, Chero- 
kees, Choctaws and Chickasaws. 

Seminoles, yet remaining east 2,420 

Choctaws, yet remaining east 3,500 

Chickasaws, yet remaining east 5,420 

Cherokees, yet remaining east 10,000 

Creeks, yet remaining east 22,668 

Those stated as western tribes extend along the 
whole western frontier. And taking as true the 
opinions of the department, that the average 
number of an Indian family is four, it may bo seen 
what number of warriors, by possibility, might be 
brought into the field, and what number on the 
other hand might be required to keep them in 
check. 

By publishing the foregoing statement, you will 
oblige your humble servant, 

Thomas J. Porter. 




CHIEF AT HOME. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



At that time there were in East Texas the Chero- 
kees and their twelve associate bands of United 
States Indians, embracing portions of the Dela- 
wares, ' Shawnees, Kickapoos, Alabamas, Coosh- 
attes, Caddos, Pawnees, and others. 

There were also remnants of ancient Texas 
Indians — some almost extinct — such as the 
Achaes, Jaranenies, Anaquas, Bedwias — still 
formidable bodies of Carancahuas, Tsixahuas, 
Lipans, Tahnacarnoes, Wacos, Wichitas, Keechies, 
lonies, Towdashes, and others, besides the still 
principal tribes of the Comanches, Kiowas and 



to their west the Apaches, Navajoes, and others 
more strictly pertaining to New Mexico, but often 
depredating in Texas, as did the Mescalaros and 
other tribes from beyond the Rio Grande hailing 
from Coahuila and Chihuahua. 

Our work is hereafter confined to events after the 
American settlements began. It covers the period 
from 1822 to 1874, fift\'-two years, and much is 
untold, but the early struggles in every part of this 
State are given as illustrations of what the pioneers 
of Texas suffered. 



Mrs. Jane Long at Bolivar Point— 1820. 



Bolivar Point lies, green and inviting, a high 
point of land in sight of Galveston. It seems to 
say to pleasure-seekers, " Come and visit me. I 
have shady groves, fresh breezes, and in the season 
fine melons and fruits to offer, but there are events 
of historic and romantic interest connected with 
me, which add tenfold to my attractiveness." Yes, 
truly, seventy-six years ago Bolivar was the scene of 
events now known to comparatively few, except per- 
haps members of old Texas families, who have 
heard them related by the remarkable woman who 
there displayed a heroic devotion and courage rarely 
equaled in modern times. 

First we see her, in the year 1815, at Natchez, 
Miss., with sun-bonnet hiding her clustering curls, 
and school satchel on arm, as she wends her way to 
the academy. The same day she meets, for the 
first time, Dr. Long, who has just distinguished 
himself in the battle of New Orleans, where he won 
from Gen. Jackson the sobriquet of "The 
Young Lion." The stream which separates simple 
acquaintance from passionate love was soon crossed, 
and the boy surgeon of twenty and Jane Wilkinson, 
the school girl of fifteen, became husband and wife. 
A few years of quiet domestic life, and the adven - 
turous spirit and manly ambition of the soldier 
assumed full sway over a mind which could not be 
content with the peaeefulpursuits of the farmer, nor 
yet with the humdrum traffic of the merchant, which 
Long successively engaged in after his marriage. 

Mexico was struggling to be free from Spain, and 
in 1819 Gen. Long became the leader of a gal- 
lant band of men raised in Natchez for the purpose 
of wresting that portion of Mexico called Texas 



from the Spanish yoke. Through the many excit- 
ing scenes incident to a soldier's life in this almost 
unknown country, Mrs. Long followed her husband, 
content if she could but be near him. In 1820 she 
found a resting place in a rude fort at Bolivar 
Point, fortified and provisioned by Gen. Long 
before his departure for La Bahia, or Goliad. Here 
the adoring wife long awaited a return, of whose 
impossibility her boundless faith would not allow 
her to conceive. As time wore on, and no news of 
the General's fate arrived, Bolivar was deserted by 
the two men who constituted the guard. Although 
several vessels touched at the point for the purpose 
of conveying Mrs. Long to New Orleans, she, with 
her little daughter and negro servant girl, Kian, 
determined, at all hazards, to await her husband's 
return. 

When we look upon the Galveston Island of to- 
day, with its city rising from the sea, its market 
gardens and dairy farms, its beach gay with costly 
equipages, and surf noisy with the shouts of bathers, 
it is difficult to recognize in it the Galveston Island 
of seventy-six years ago. At that time, deserted 
even by the pirate Lafltte, the red house and the 
three trees the only objects that rose above the 
water's edge, the cry of seagulls and pelicans, 
mingled with the doleful sighing of breaking waves, 
the only sounds to reach the ear of the brave woman 
who kept her lonely watch at Bolivar, as we view 
the incoming ships, laden with freight from every 
quarter of the globe, and the sailing yachts bearing 
pleasure parties perhaps to the very spot whence 
Mrs. Long often strained her eyes to descry a dis- 
tant sail which might bring good tidings, it is 



10 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



almost impossible to form a true conception of the 
extreme desolateness of her situation. 

In the midst of a region little known by whites, 
the only human beings she could expect to see were 
the savage Carancahua Indians, who might be 
tempted to return to their old haunts, on the island, 
now that Lafltte had deserted the place, or other 
Indians who might approach from the Trinity. 
Whenever they came near enough to cause her to 
dread an attack, she had presence of mind to fire 
off the cannon, and give .other indications that the 
fort was occupied by a formidable force. There 
were times when, not daring to go out by day, Kian 
would visit the beach at night, in order to get 
oysters, which were often their only article of 
food. Great was the rejoicing when, during that 
severe winter of 1820-21, which converted the bay 
into a sheet of ice, Kian found numbers of be- 
numbed or frozen fish beneath the icy surface, and, 
with Mrs. Long's assistance, a hole was cut, and a 
good supply obtained and packed in the brine of 
mackerel barrels. The cold was at this time so in- 
tense that the ice was strong enough to bear the 
weight of a bear which calmly pursued its way 
across the bay, unmolested save by the barking of 
Mrs. Long's dog, "Galveston." 



At length the period of lonely waiting drew to 
a close. One day there came a Mexican from 
San Antonio, sent by Gen. Palacios, bearing 
a message ; but how different were the tidings 
from those for which the devoted wife had fondly 
hoped I 

The tragic manner of Gen. Long's death in 
the city of Mexico is well known to readers of 
Texas history, but none can ever know the shock 
which his young wife experienced at this rude 
awakening from her long dream of a happy reunion. 
Some weeks later a second messenger came, pro- 
vided with mules to convey her and her little family, 
consisting of two girls (an infant having been born 
during her sojourn at Bolivar) and the faithful ser- 
vant, to San Antonio. Here she was treated with 
marked distinction by the Mexican government, as 
the widow of a patriot and a hero. 

Her long life of widowhood, intimately bound up 
with the history of Texas, came to a close, at the 
age of eighty-two, on the 30th of December, 1880, 
at Richmond, Texas, where her son-in-law. Judge 
Sullivan, and granddaughter still reside. Her 
Spartan qualities became the legacy of Texians, for 
historians have concurred in bestowing upon her 
the worthy title, " The Mother of Texas." 



The Cherokee Indians and Their Twelve Associate Bands — 

Fights with the Wacos and Tehuacanos — 

1820 to 1829. 



A little before 1820, dissatisfled portions of the 
great Cherokee tribe of Indians, who had, from the 
earliest knowledge we have of them, occupied 
a large, romantic and fertile district of country, 
now embraced in East Tennessee, Western North 
Carolina and the upper portions of South Carolina, 
Georgia and Alabama, began emigrating west of 
the Mississippi. Before the close of that year a 
portion of them reached and halted temporarily on 
Red river, in the northeast corner of Texas. The 
Itirger portion located in the valley of the Arkansas, 
between Little Rock and Fort Smith, and there 
with annually increasing numbers, remained a 
number of years, until tlie main body yet remain- 
ing in the loved land of their fathers, under treaty 
stipulations with the United States, began their 
final removal to the magnificent territory now be- 



longing to them ; a migration occupying a number 
of years, and not completed uiitil 1837. In that 
time those along the Arkansas joined them. Those 
coming down to Red river also received acces- 
sions, for a number of years, from the different 
migrating bodies, including small colonies from 
twelve other partially civilized tribes. 

Very soon, perhaps before the close of 1820, and 
certainly in 1821, they explored the country south 
of them and began locating in East Texas, in what, 
from that time till their expulsion in 1839, was 
known as "the Cherokee country," now embrac- 
ing the county of Cherokee and adjoining territory, 
where they and their twelve associate bands, grad- 
ually established homes, building cabins, opening 
farms and raising domestic animals. Some joined 
them as late as 1830 and '31. In 1822 when 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



11 



Stephen F. Austin and Green De Witt of Missouri, 
Haden Edwards of Mississippi, and Eobert Lef twich 
of Nashville, Tennessee (the original grantee in 
what subsequently became Robertson's Colony), 
were in the city of Mexico, seeking colonial privi- 
leges in Texas, three Cherokee chiefs, Bowles, 
Fields and Nicollet, were also there, seeking a 
grant, or some sort of concession, to the district in 
which they were locating, not a contract for colon- 
ization, as desired by the gentleman named, but a 
specific grant to their people in tribal capacity. 
But they did not succeed, receiving only polite 
promises of something when Mexican affairs should 
be more settled. 

In 182G Fields and John Dunn Hunter (both of 
mixed blood. Hunter possibly altogether white, but 
of this there is no positive knowledge, and both of 
good education) visited the Mexican capital on a 
similar mission for the Cherokees, but they also 
failed and returned to their people in an ill humor, 
just in time to sympathize with Haden Edwards 
and his colonists in their outrageous treatment by 
the Mexican Governor of the State of Coahuila and 
Texas, in declaring, without trial or investigation, 
the annulment of his contract and ordering the 
expulsion of himself and brother from the countiy. 
Fields and Hunter, smarting under what they con- 
sidered the bad faith of Mexico, induced their 
people to treat with and sustain the Edwards party 
in what received the name of the Fredonian war. 
But this had a brief existence. Bean, as agent of 
Mexico, seduced the Indians from their agreement 
and secured their support of the Mexican troops 
then advancing, which caused the Fredonians to 
yield the hopeless contest and leave the country. 
Not only this, but the Cherokees turned upon their 
two most enlightened and zealous champions. 
They basely assassinated both Fields and Hunter. 
This ended that embroglio. The Cherokees claimed 
a promise from Bean that Mexico, in reward for 
their course, would grant them the lands desired. 
Whether so promised or not, the grant was never 
made. 

A band of Cherokees, en route to tbeir people in 
Texas, halted on Red river, in order to raise a 
crop of corn, in the winter of 1828-9. An account 
of what followed wsls written and published in 1855, 
and is here reproduced. * * * They had not 
been at this place very long before their villages 
were discovered by a party of Wacos, on a robbing 
expedition from the Brazos ; and these freebooters, 
true to their instincts from time immemorial, lay 
concealed till the silent midnight hour, and then, 
stealthily entering the herds of the sleeping Chero- 
kees, stampeded their horses, driving off a large 



number. To follow them was labor in vain — but 
to quietly forget the deed was not the maxim among 
the red sons of Tennessee. 

A council was held and the matter discussed. 
After the opinions of the warriors had been given, 
the principal war-chief rose, and in substance said : 
" My brothers ! the wild men of the far-off Brazos 
have come into our camp while the Cherokee slept ! 
They have stolen our most useful property. With- 
out horses we are poor, and C3.nnot make corn. 
The Cherokees will hasten to plant their corn for 
this spring, and while that is springing from the 
ground and growing under the smiles of the Great 
Spirit, and shall be waving around our women and 
children, we will leave some old men and women to 
watch it, and the Cherokee braves will spring upon 
the cunning Wacos of the Brazos, as they have 
sprung upon us." 

The corn was planted, and in the month of Maj^, 
1829, a war party of fifty-five, well armed, left the 
Red river villages on foot in search of the Wacos. 
At this time the principal village of the Wacos was 
on the bluff where the beautiful town of Waco now 
greets the eye on the west bank of the Brazos. 
One band of theTehuacano (Ta-wak-a-no) Indians, 
who have always been more or less connected with 
the Wacos, were living on the east bank of the 
river, three miles below. Both bands had erected 
rude fortifications, by scooping up the earth in 
various places and throwing up a circular embank- 
ment three or four feet high, the remains of which 
still are to be seen. The principal work of this 
kind at the Waco village occupied a natural sink in 
the surface. 

The Cherokees struck the Brazos above the vil- 
lage some forty miles, and traveled downward 
until they discovered signs of its proximity, and 
then secreted themselves in the cedar brake till 
night. The greater portion of the night was spent 
in examining the position, through experienced 
scouts. Having made the necessary observations, 
the scouts reported near dayhght, when the war- 
chief admonished them of what they had come 
for — revenge! Waco scalps!! horses!!! — and 
led them forth from their hiding-place, under the 
bank of the river, to a point about four hundred 
yards from the wigwams of the slumbering Wacos. 
Here they halted till rays of light, on that lovely 
May morning, began to gild the eastern horizon. 
The time for action had come. Moving with the 
noiseless, elastic step peculiar to the sons of the 
forest, the Cherokees approached the camp. But 
a solitary Waco had aroused and was collecting the 
remains of his fire of the previous night, prepara- 
tory to his morning repast. His Indian ear caught 



12 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



the sound of footsteps on the brush — a glance of 
his lynx-eye revealed the approaching foe. A 
single shrill yell from him, which echoed far and 
near through the Brazos forest, brought every 
Waco to his feet. The terrible Cherokee war- 
whoop was their morning greeting, accompanied 
by a shower of leaden rain. But, though surprised, 
the Wacos outnumbered their assailants many 
times — their women and children must be pro- 
tected or sacrificed — their ancient home, where 
the bones of their fathers had been buried for ages, 
was assailed by unknown intruders. Their chief 
rallied the warriors and made a stand — the fight 
became general, and as the sun rose majestically 
over the towering trees of the east, he beheld the 
red men of Tennessee and the red men of Texas in 
deadly strife. But the bows and arrows of the 
Waco could not compete with the merciless rifl.e of 
the Cherokee. The Wacos were falling rapidly, 
while the Cherokees were unharmed. 

After half an hour's strife, amid yells and mutual 
imprecations, the Wacos signaled a retreat, and 
they fell back in confusion, taking refuge in the 
fortified sink-hole. Here, though hemmed in, they 
were quite secure, having a great advantage. In- 
deed, they could kill every Cherokee who might 
peradvenlure risk his person too near the brink. 

The Cherokees had already killed many, and now 
held a council, to consider what they should do. 
It was proposed by one brave that they should 
strip to a state of nature, march into the sink-hole 
in a body, fire their pieces, then drop them, and 
with tomahawks alone endeavor to kill every man, 
woman and child among the Wacos. A half-breed 
named Smith, who was in favor of this desperate 
measure, as an incentive to his comrades, stripped 
himself, fastened half a dozen Iiorse-bells (which 
he had picked up -in the camp) round his waist, 
and commenced galloping and yelling around the 
sink-hole, now and then jumping on the embank- 
ment and then back, cursing the Wacos most lustily. 
Arrows were hurled at him by scores, but he fell 
not. 

Just as the Cherokee council was coming to a 
close, at about an hour after sunrise, they heard a 
noise like distant thunder on the opposite side of 
the river and delayed a few moments to discover its 
cause. Very soon they discovered a large body of 
mounted Indians rising the river bank a little 
below them. What could it mean? they murmured 
one to another. The story is soon told. A mes- 
senger had rushed from the Wacos in the outset, 
for the Tehuacano village, begging help, and now 
two hundred Tehuacano warriors, mounted and 
ready for the fray, were at hand. The whole aspect 



of the day was changed in a moment. To conquer 
this combined force was impossible — to escape 
themselves would require prudence. The Tehua- 
canos, in coming up, cut off a Cherokee boy, 
twelve years old, killed and scalped him, and plac- 
ing his scalp on a lance, held it up defiantly to the 
view of the Cherokees. The boy was an only 
child, and his father beheld this scene. The brave 
man's eye glared with fury. Without a word he 
threw from his body every piece of his apparel, 
seized a knife in one hand, a tomahawk in the 
other. "What will you.?" demanded the chief. 
"Die with my brave boy. Die slaying the wild 
men who have plucked the last rose from my 
bosom!" The chief interceded, and told him it 
was madness ; but the Cherokee listened not ; with 
rapid strides he rushed among the Tehuacanos, 
upon certain death; but ere death had seized its 
victim, he had killed several and died shouting 
defiance in their midst. 

The Tehuacanos occupied the post oaks just 
below the Cherokees, and kept up a lusty shouting, 
but ventured not within rifle-shot. The latter, see- 
ing that on an open field they could not resist such 
numbers — having taken fifty-five Waco scalps 
(equal to their own number) — having lost two 
men and the boy — now fell back into the cedar 
brake and remained there till night. They were 
convinced that their safety depended upon a cau- 
tious retreat, as, if surrounded on the prairies, they 
would be annihilated. When night came on, they 
crossed the river, traveled down the sand bank a 
mile or two, as if they were going down the coun- 
try, thence, turning into the stream, waded up the 
edge of the water some six or seven miles (the river 
being low and remarkably even), and thus eluded 
pursuit. In due time, they reached their Red 
river villages, without the thousand horses they 
anticipated, but with fifty-five Waco scalps — glory 
enough in their estimation. The tribe was speedily 
called together for a grand war-dance. For miles 
around the American settlers were surprised to see 
such a commotion and gathering among the Indians. 
A gentleman, my informant, was there visiting a 
widowed sister. He rode up to the Cherokee 
encampment, inquired into the cause of the move- 
ment, was invited to alight and spend the day. 
He did so, aud witnessed one of thtf grandest war- 
dances he ever saw, and he was an old Indian 
fighter. A very intelligent man, a half-breed, 
named Chisholm, one of the fifty-five, gave 
him a full history of the whole transaction. He 
noted it carefully, and from him I received it in 
1855. 
That gentleman was Capt. Thomas H. Barron, 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



13 



formerly of Washington County, then residing near 
Waco. When he first visited Waco in 1834, he at 
once recognized the battle-ground and sink-hole as 



described by Chisholm. The Cherokees did not 
forget the Tehuacanos, but held them to a strict 
account. 



Cherokee and Tehuacano Fight in 1830. 



After the Cherokees returned to their temporary 
home on Bed river, from the attack on the Wacos, 
in 1829, they determined to take vengeance on the 
Tehuacanos for their interference in that engage- 
ment on behalf of the Wacos. It seems that early 
in the summer of 1830, they fitted out a war party 
for this purpose, numbering about one hundred and 
twenty fighting men. 

The Tehuacanos, like the Wacos, had several 
principal villages, favorite places of resort, from 
some peculiarity, as fine springs of water, abun- 
dance of buffalo, etc. One of them, and perhaps 
their most esteemed locality, was at the southern 
point of the hills of the same name, now in the 
upper edge of Limestone County, and the pres- 
ent site of Tehuacano University. Around these 
springs there is a large amount of loose limestone 
on the surface, as well as in the hills, and the 
whole surrounding country is one of rare beauty and 
loveliness. 

The Tehuacanos had erected several small in- 
closures of these loose stones, about three feet high, 
leaving occasional spaces some two feet square re- 
sembling the mouths of furnaces. Over the tops 
they threw poles and spread buffalo- hides, and 
when attacked, their women, old men, and children 
would retreat into these cells while the warriors 
would oppose the attacking party from without, 
until too closely pressed, when they, too, would 
seek refuge in the same, and lying flat on the 
ground, would send their arrows and bullets 
through these apertures whenever an enemy came 
within range. From the attacks of small arms 
such a protection, however primitive, was gen- 
erally quite effective. 

This party of Cherokees, having been informed 
of the locality of this place, and the value set upon 
it by the Tehuacanos, and knowing that it was a 
considerable distance from the Wacos, determined 
to seek it out and there wreak vengeance upon 
those who had by their own act called forth feel- 
ings of hostility. Guided by an Indian who had 
explored the country as a trapper, they reached 



the place in due season. When discovered, the 
Tehuacanos were engaged at a play of balls around 
the little forts. The Cherokees stripped for action 
at once, while the ball-players, promptly ceasing 
that amusement, rushed their women and children 
into their retreats, and prepared for defense. 
They had quite a large village, and outnumbered 
the Cherokees in fighting-men. 

A random fight commenced, the Cherokees using 
the surrounding trees as protection and taking the 
matter as a business transaction, made their ad- 
vances from tree to tree with prudence. Their 
aim, with the "rest" against the trees, told with 
effect, and one by one, notwithstanding their hid- 
eous yells and capering, to and fro, the Tehuacanos 
were biting the dust. 

The moment one was wounded, unless a very- 
brave fellow, he would crawl into the*hiding-plaee 
among their women and children, unless, per- 
chance, on his way, a Cherokee ball brought him 
to the ground. 

The fight continued this way an hour or more, 
when, upon a signal, the whole body retired within 
their breastworks. At this time, the Cherokees, 
elated by what they supposed to be a victory, 
charged upon the openholes, ringing their victori- 
ous war-whoop most furiously. But they were soon 
convinced that though concealed, the besieged were 
not powerless, for here they received a shower of 
arrows and balls from the hidden enemy which 
tumbled several of their braves alongside of those 
they killed on the other side. Yet, excited as they 
had become, they were not easily convinced that 
prudence in that case was the better part of valor. 
On the contrary, they maintained the unequal con- 
test for some lime, until one of their old men 
advised a talk. 

They withdrew a short distance, and held a con- 
sultation. Their leaders said they had come there 
for revenge and they would not relinquish their 
design so long as a Cherokee brave was left to 
fight — that to go back to their people and report 
a defeat would, disgrace them — they would die on 



14 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



the field rather than bear such tidings! " Where 
there's a will there's a way," is a trite old adage, 
and at this juncture of affairs it was verified by the 
Cherokees. The old man who had advised the 
"talk" now made a suggestion, which was sec- 
onded by all. He proposed that a party should be 
sent off a short distance to cut dry grass and bring 
a lot; that men, loaded with this combustible 
material, should cautiously approach each hole in 
the breast-works, from the sides, using the grass 
as a shield on the way ; that the door-holes should 
be stopped up with it (with new supplies constantly 
arriving), and set on fire, by which very simple 
process the inmates would be suffocated or com- 
pelled to throw off the hides and leap out, breath- 
less and more or less blinded through the smoke, 
while the Cherokees, stationed round in circles, 
would have an easy time in butchering their 
astounded red brethren. This was a rich idea, 
and, delighted with the anticipated fun on their 
part, and misery among their enemies, the Chero- 
kees speedily made all their arrangements and dis- 
posed of their fighting-men to the best advantage. 
The grass was placed in the required position, and 
at the same moment, set on fire. For a moment 
or two no response was heard from within ; but 
very soon the smolte was seen escaping, through the 
rocks and from under the skins, proving that each 
little refuge was full of the strangulating exhala- 
tion. To endure such a torture long 'was beyond 
human power ; and in a little while a doleful howl 
issued forth, followed by a significant upheaving of 
the buffalo-skin roofs, and a rush of the gasping 
vicliras, blinded by smoke, leaping over the walls, 
they knew not where. To render the picture more 
appalling, the exulting Cherokees set up a terrible 



yelling, and dealt death to the doomed creatures 
with their guns, tomahawks, and scalping knives 
until all were slain or had made their escape from 
the dreadful sacrifice by headlong flight. Quite a 
number of squaws and children, and perhaps a few 
men, had been unable' to rise, and died from suffo- 
cation inside the works. 

And thus ended this tragic scene in the course 
of our Indian warfare. Comparatively few of the 
Tehuacanos escaped. The surviving women and 
children were preserved prisoners, and a consider- 
able number of horses, blankets, skins, and indeed 
the entire camp equipage, fell into the hands of the 
victors, who returned to their people on Red river 
in triumph, displaying not only their available 
booty but a large number of the greatest of all 
Indian symbols of glory, scalps. 

These facts I obtained in 1842 from an old 
Spaniard, who composed one of the party, and I 
have little doubt but they were furnished by him 
with fidelity. 

This old Spaniard, whose name was Vasquez, 
was a native of New Madrid, Missouri, and had 
passed much of his life with different Indian tribes. 
About 1840 he appeared at Gonzales, Texas, where 
I formed his acquaintance. He fought with the 
Texians at Salado, in September, and at Mier in 
December, 1842. Escaping from the latter place 
he returned to Gonzales, his home being with Capt. 
Henry E. McCulloch, to suffer a cruel death soon 
after. In 1843 he was captured by Mexican 
banditti, west of the San Antonio, who, knowing 
his fidelity to Texas, suspended him to a tree by 
the heels, in which position he died and was a few 
days subsequently found. 



First Settlement of Gonzales in 1825 — Attack by the Indians in 

1826— Murder of French Traders in 1835 at Castleman's 

Cabin — Battle of San Marcos — 1825 to 1835. 



The settlement of Gonzales and De Witt's colony, 
of which it was the capital, is replete with matters 
of unusual interest in the pioneer history of Texas 
and its Indian wars. At its birth it was baptized 
in blood, and for twenty years a succession of 
bloody episodes attended its march towards peace- 
ful civilization. 

As soon as Green De Witt, then of Ralls County, 



Missouri, entered into contract with the Mexican 
authorities for colonizing that beautiful district of 
country, now embracing all of Gonzales, Caldwell, 
Guadalupe and De Witt counties and portions of 
Lavaca, Wilson and Karnes, he left for Missouri to 
bring out his family. At the same time, Maj. 
James Kerr was appointed surveyor of the colony, 
with authority to lay out the capital town and sub- 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



15 



divide the dedicated four leagues of land upon 
which it was to be located into small farm lots to be 
allotted to the settlers of the town. In fulfillment 
of his duties, Maj. Kerr, with his negro servants 
and six single men, arrived on the present site of 
Gonzales in July, 1825, he thereby becoming the 
first American settler, as the head of a family, west 
of the Colorado river in Texas. 

The six single men who accompanied him to 
Gonzales, and for a time remained in his service as 
chainmen, rodmen or hunters, were the afterwards 
famous Deaf Smith, Bazil Durbin, John Wight- 
man, Strickland, James Musick and Gerron 

Hinds. 

His chief servants were Shade and Anise, the 
parents and grandparents of numerous offspring, 
who became widely known to the future settlers of 
the country and greatly esteemed for their fidelity 
to every trust and their patriotism in every conflict. 

Soon after Maj. Kerr's settlement, Francis 
Berry, with a family of children and two step- 
children, John and Betsy Oliver, arrived and settled 
half a mile below him. Cabins were erected and 
their new life auspiciously begun. 

The little settlement remained in peace for a year, 
receiving occasional calls from passing parties of 
Indians, professing friendship, and occasional visits 
from Americans exploring the country. Among 
these were Elijah Stapp, from Palmyra, and Edwin 
Moorehouse, from Clarksville, Missouri, both of 
whom settled in Texas five or six years later. 

Capt. Henry S. Brown, brother-in-law of Maj. 
Kerr, having arrived on the lower Brazos as a Mex- 
ican trader in December, 1824, made his first trip 
into Mexico in 1825, and halted his caravan for rest 
at the new settlement on both his outward and 
return trip. 

In the meantime, Maj. Kerr prosecuted his 
labors in the survey of lands, his people subsisting 
on wild meat and coffee. Each household opened 
afield and planted crops in the spring of 1826. In 
June, Maj. Kerr was absent on the Brazos. 
There was to be a primitive barbecue on the Colo- 
rado at Beson's, seven miles below the present 
Columbus. It was agreed among the pilgrims that 
they must be represented, notwithstanding the dis- 
tance was about seventy miles. Bazil Durbin, 
John and Betsy. Oliver and Jack, son of Shade and 
Anise, were selected as the delegates. On the 
afternoon of Sunday, July 2d, this party left on 
horseback for Beson's. At that time Deaf Smith 
and Hinds were out buffalo hunting ; Musick, 
Strickland and the colored people were spending 
the afternoon at Berry's, and John Wightman was 
left alone in charge of the premises, consisting of a 



double log house, with passage between and two or 
three cabins in the yard. No danger was appre- 
hended as no indications of hostility by the Indians 
had been observed. 

Durbin and party traveled fourteen miles, en- 
camped on Thorn's branch and all slept soundly, 
but about midnight they were aroused by the war^ 
whoop and firing of guns. Springing to their feet 
they discovered that their assailants were very near 
and in ambush. Durbin fell, but was assisted into 
an adjoining thicket where all found safety. The 
Indians seized and bore away their horses and all 
their effects. Durbin had a musket ball driven 
into his shoulder so deep that it remained there till 
his death in Jackson County in 1858, thirty-two years 
later. He suffered excruciating pain, from which, 
with the loss of blood, he several times fainted. 
■Daylight came and they retraced their steps to 
headquarters ; but on arriving were appalled to 
find the house deserted and robbed of its contents, 
including Maj. Kerr's papers and three surveying 
compasses, and Wightman dead, scalped and his 
mutilated body lying in the open hallway. Hast- 
ening down to Berry's house they found it closed, 
and written on the door with charcoal (for Smith 
and Hinds) the words: "Gone to Burnam's, on 
the Colorado." It was developed later that when 
Musick, Strickland and the colored people returned 
home late in the evening they found this condition 
of affairs, returned to Berry's and all of both 
houses left for the Colorado. As written by the 
writer more than forty years ago, in the presence 
of the sufferer: "Durbin's wound had already 
rendered him very weak, but he had now no alter- 
native but to seek the same place on foot, or perish 
on the way. Three days were occupied in the trip, 
the weather was very warm and there was great 
danger of mortification, to prevent which mud 
poultices, renewed at every watering place, proved 
to be effectual." 

And thus was the first American settlement west 
of the Colorado baptized in blood. 

Maj. Kerr then settled on the Lavaca and made 
a crop there in 1827. His place temporarily served 
as a rallying point for De Wilt and others, till the 
spring of 1828, when the settlement at Gonzales 
was renewed. Maj. Kerr remained permanently 
on the Lavaca, but continued for some years as 
surveyor of De Witt's colony. The temporary set- 
tlement on the west of the Lavaca was subsequently 
known as the "Old Station," while Maj. Kerr's 
headright league and home were on the east side. 

In the autumn of 183S, John Castleman, a bold 
and sagacious backwoodsman, from the borders of 
Missouri, with his wife and four children and his 



16 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



wife's mother, settled fifteen miles west of Gonzales, 
on the San Antonio road and on Sandy creek. He 
was a bold hunter, much in the forest, and had four 
ferocious dogs, which served as sentinels at night, 
and on one occasion had a terrible fight with a 
number of Indians in the yard endeavoring to steal 
the horses tied around the house. They evidently 
inflicted severe punishment on the savages, who 
left abundant blood marks on the ground and were 
glad to escape without the horses, though in doing 
so, in sheer self-defense, they killed each dog. 
Castleman, in his meanderings, was ever watchful 
for indications of Indians, and thus served as a 
vidette to the people of Gonzales and persons 
traveling on that exposed road. Many were the 
persons who slumbered under his roof rather than 
camp out at that noted watering place. 

In the spring of 1835, a party of thirteen French 
and Mexican traders, with pack mules and dry 
goods from Natchitoches, Louisiana, en route to 
Mexico, stopped under some trees a hundred yards 
in front of the cabin. It was in the forenoon, and 
before they had unpacked Castleman advised them 
that he had that morning discovered ' ' Indian 
signs" near by and urged them to camp in his 
yard and use his house as a fort if necessary. 
They laughed at him. He shrugged his shoulders 
and assured them they were in danger, but they 
still laughed. He walked back to his cabin, but 
before he entered about a hundred mounted 
savages dashed among them, yelling and cutting 
out every animal of the party. These were guarded 
by a few in full view of the camp, while the main 
body continued the fight. The traders improvised 
breastworks of their saddles, packs and bales of 
goods and fought with desperation. TJie engage- 
ment lasted four hours, the Indians charging in a 
circle, firing and falling back. Finally, as none of 
their number fell, the besieged being armed only 
with Mexican escopetas (smooth-bored cavalry 
guns) they maneuvered till all the traders fired at 
the same time, then rushed upon and killed all who 
had not previously fallen. Castleman could, many 
times, have killed an Indian with his trusty rifle 
from his cabin window, but was restrained by his 
wife, who regarded the destruction of the strangers 
as certain and contended that if her husband took 
part, vengeance would be wreaked upon the 
family — a hundred savages against one man. 
He desisted, but, as his wife said, " frothed at 
the mouth" to be thus compelled to non-ac- 
tion on such an occasion. Had he possessed a 
modern Winchester, he could have repelled the 
whole array, saving both the traders and their 
goods. 



The exultant barbarians, after scalping their 
victims, packed all their booty on the captured 
mules and moved off up the couuti-y. When night 
came, Castleman hastened to Gonzales with the 
tidings, and was home again before dawn. 

In a few hours a band of volunteers, under Dr. 
James H. C. Miller, were on the trail and followed 
it across the Guadalupe and up the San Marcos, 
and finally into a cedar brake in a valley surrounded 
by high hills, presumably on the Rio Blanco. 
This was on the second or third day after the 
massacre. Finding they were very near the 
enemy, Miller halted, placing his men in ambush 
on the edge of a small opening or glade. He sent 
forward Matthew Caldwell, Daniel McCoy and 
Ezekiel Williams to reconnoitre. Following the 
newly made path of the Indians through the brake, 
in about three hundred yards, they suddenly came 
upon them dismounted and eating. They speedily 
retired, but were discovered and, being only three 
in number, the whole crowd of Indians furiously 
pursued them with such yells as, resounding from 
bluff to bluff, caused some of the men in ambush 
to flee from the apparent wrath to come ; but of the' 
whole number of twenty-nine or thrity, sixteen 
maintained their position and their senses. Daniel 
McCoy, the hindmost of the three scouts in single 
file, wore a long tail coat. This was seized and 
tightly held by an Indian, but " Old Dan," as he 
was called, threw his arms backward and slipped 
from the garment without stopping, exclaiming, 
" Take it, d — n you I " Caldwell sprang first into 
the glade, wheeled, fired and killed the first Indian 
to enier. Others, unable to see through the brush 
till exposed to view, rushed into the trap till nine 
warriors lay in a heap. Realizing this fact, after 
such unexpected fatality, the pursuers raised that 
dismal howl which means death and defeat, and 
fell back to their camp. The panic among some of 
our men prevented pursuit. It is a fact that 
among those thus seized with the "buck ague," 
were men then wholly inexperienced, who subse- 
quently became distinguished for coolness and 
gallantry. 

Among others, besides those already named, who 
were in this engagement were Wm. S. Fisher, 
commander at Mier seven years later ; Bartlett D. 
McClure, died in 1841; David Hanna, Lnndon 
Webster and Jonathan Scott. 

Dr. James H. C. Miller, who commanded, soon 
after left Texas and settled in Michigan. His 
name has sometimes been confounded with that of 
Dr. James B. Miller, of Fort Bend, long distin- 
guished in public life under the province and 
republic of Texas. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



17 



An Adventure in 1826. 



In the year 1826 a party of fourteen men of the 
Red river settlements, of which Eli Hopkins was 
quasi-leader, made a trip to the west, hunting and 
trading with Indians. Besides Hopkins I have 
been able to gather the names of Henry Stout, 
Jamas Clark, Charles Birkham, Charles Hum- 
phreys, Foi'd, Tyler, and Wallace — 

«ight of the fourteen — though the only published 
allusion to the matter I have ever seen (in the 
Clarksville Times about 1874), only names Messrs. 
Hopkins and Clark and states the whole number 
at twenty men — nor does it give the year of the 
■oceurrerrce. I obtained the date, the number of 
men and the additional six names from Henry Stout, 
some years later. 

It seems that on their return trip homewards, these 
fourteen men were surrounded and beset by a large 
party of Indians, some of whom had been trading 
in their camp before. Instead of opening fire, the 
Indians demanded the surrender of Humphreys to 
them, describing him by the absence of a front 
tooth (a loss they had discovered in their previous 
visit and now pretended to have known before), 
alleging that on some former occasion Humphreys 



had depredated upon them. This was known to 
be false and a ruse to gain some advantage. So, 
when the chief and a few others (who had retired 
to let the party consult), returned for an answer, 
they were told that Humphreys was a good man, 
had done them no wrong and they would die rather 
than surrender him. Wallace was the interpreter 
and had been up to that time suspected of coward- 
ice by some of the party. , But in this crisis they 
quickly discovered their error, for Wallace, with 
cool and quiet determination, became the hero, 
telling them that he would die right there rather 
than give up an innocent man to such murderous 
wretches. His spirit was infectious. Every man 
leveled his gun at some one of the Indians, Hop- 
kins holding a deadly aim on the chief, till they all 
agreed to leave the ground and not again molest 
them. 

They at once retired, evidently unwilling to 
hazard an attack on such men. Intrepid coolness 
saved them while timidity would have brought their 
destruction. As it was they reached home in 
safety. 



The Early Days of Harris County — 1824 to 1838. 



The first political subdivision of the large dis- 
trict of which the present large county of Harris, 
containing a little over eighteen hundred square 
miles, formed but a part, was erected into the 
municipality of Harrisburg not long before the revo- 
lution began, in 1835. It is, at this day, interest- 
ing to note the first settlement of that now old, 
historic and wealthy district, embracing the noble 
•city of Houston, in which the whole State feels 
justifiable pride. For a short while also the island 
of Galveston formed a part of Harrisburg 
"county" — so called under the Republic, after 
independence in March, 1836. 

The first Americans to cultivate the earth in that 
region were Mr. Knight and Walter C. White, who, 
at the time of Long's expedition in 1820, burnt off 
a canebrake and raised a crop of corn on the San 
Jacinto, near its mouth ; but they did not remain 

2 



there, becoming subsequently well-known citizens of 
Brazoria. For an account of the first actual set- 
tlers of the district during the first ten or twelve 
years, I am indebted to the fine memory and facile 
pen of Mrs. Mary J. Briscoe, of Houston, whose 
evidence dates from childhood days, her father, 
John R. Harris, the founder of Harrisburg, having 
settled there in 1824, and laid out the town in 1826. 
He built the first steam saw mill in Texas, for which 
he received as a bounty two leagues of land. He 
became also a merchant, established a tannery and 
owned the schooner " Rights of Man," which plied 
between Harrisburg and New Orleans. In 1828 his 
brother David came ; in 1830 William P. Harris, 
came, accompanied by " Honest " Bob Wilson, and 
in 1832 came Samuel M. Harris, a fourth brother, 
all of whom came from Cayuga County, New York, 
and were valuable men. Mary J., daughter of the 



18 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



first immigrant, John R. Harris, subsequently mar- 
ried Capt. Andrew Briscoe, who, as the colleague of 
the grand Mexican patriot, Don Lorenzo de Zavala, 
from that municipality, signed the declaration of 
independence, and fifty days later commanded one 
of the largest companies at San Jacinto. He was 
also the first Chief Justice of Hariisburg County 
and so remained for many years. The well-known 
De Witt C. Harris, who died in 1860, was a brother 
of Mrs. Briscoe, as is also Lewis B. Harris, of San 
Francisco, who was my fellow-soldier on the Rio 
Grande in 1842. 

According to the notes of Mrs. Briscoe the first 
actual settlers arrived in April, 1822, of whom 
Moses L. Choate and William Pettus were the first 
settlers on the San Jacinto, and a surveyor 
named Ryder, unmarried, settled on Morgan's 
Point, on the bay. In June John Ijams, with his 
wife and two youthful sons arrived, of whom John, 
the elder, then fifteen years old, still lives in Hous- 
ton, aged 82, a tribute certainly to the climate in 
which he has lived sixty-seven years. They settled 
at Cedar Point, afterwai-ds a favorite home of Gen. 
Sam Houston. Johnson Hunter settled near Mor- 
gan's Point, but ultimately on the Brazos. In the 
same year Nathaniel Lynch settled at the confluence 
of the San Jacinto and Buffalo bayou, where 
Lynchburg stands ; John D. Taylor on the San 
Jacinto at the place now called Midway ; John 
Jones, Humphrey Jackson and John and Frederick 
Rankin, on the same river, where the Texas and 
N. O. railroad crosses it. Mr. Callahan and Ezekiel 
Thomas, brothers-in-law, located as the first set- 
tlers on Buffalo bayou. Mrs. Samuel W. Allen, 
youngest daughter of Mr. Thomas, still resides in 
Houston — another tribute to the climate. In the 
same year four brothers, William, Allen, Robert 
and John Vinee, all young men, settled just below 
the mouth of Vince's bayou, rendered famous in 
connection with Vince's bridge immediately before 
the battle of San Jacinto, the destruction of the 
bridge by order of Gen. Houston, leading to the 
capture of Santa Anna. William Vince had a horse 
power sugar mill on his place. During the same 
year, Mrs. Wilkins, with her two daughters and her 
son-in-law. Dr. Phelps, settled what is now known 
as Frost-town in the city of Houston, being the 
first settlers there. In 1824 came Enoch Bronson, 
who settled near Morgan's Point ; also Wm. Blood- 
good and Page Ballew, with families, and several 
young men who settled in the district ; also Arthur 
McCormick, wife and two sons, who settled the 
league on which, twelve years later, the battle of 
San Jacinto was fought. He was drowned soon 
afterwards in crossing Buffalo bayou, as was his 



surviving son, Michael, a long time pilot on a 
steamboat, in 1875. It was suspected that the 
widow, eccentric, well-to-do and living alone, was 
murdered by robbers and burnt in her dwelling. 
George, Jesse, Reuben and William White, in 1824, 
settled on the San Jacinto, a few miles above its 
mouth; William Scott at Midway, together with 
Charles E. Givens, Presly Gill and Dr. Knuckles, 
who married Scott's daughter, while Samuel M. 
Williams married another. [Mr. Williams was 
the distinguished secretary of Austin's Colony and 
afterwards, long a banker in Galveston. J 

In 1824, Austin, with Secretary Williams and the 
Commissioner, Baron de Bastrop, visited the settle- 
ment and issued the first titles to those entitled to 
them. 

In 1825 the Edwards family settled on the bay 
at what has since been known as Edwards' Point. 
Ritoon Morris, a son-in-law of Edwards, and a man 
of wealth, came at the same time. He was greatly 
esteemed and was, known as " Jaw-bone Morris," 
from a song he and his negroes sang while he picked 
the banjo. He settled at the mouth of Clear Creek. 
About 1829 Mr. Clopper, for whom the bar in Gal- 
veston bay is called, bought Johnson Hunter's 
land and afterwards sold it to Col. James Morgan, 
who laid out a town destined never to leave its 
swaddling clothes, calling it New Washington. Its 
chief claim to remembrance is in the visit of Santa 
Anna a day or two before his overthrow under the 
war cry of "Remember the Alamo." Sam Mc- 
Gurley and others were early settlers on Spring 
Creek. David G. Burnet, afterwards President, 
came in 1826. In 1831 he brought out the machin- 
ery for a steam mill which was burned in 1845. 
With him came Norman Hurd and Gilbert Brooks, 
the latter still living. President Burnet built his 
home two or three miles from Lynchburg. Lynch- 
burg, and San Jacinto, opposite to it, were de- 
stroyed by the great storm and flood, on the 17th 
of September, 1875. 

Passing over the intervening years, we find that 
in 1835 the municipality of Harrisburg abounded 
in a splendid population of patriotic citizens, the 
noble Zavala having become one of them. In the 
Consultation of November 3-14, 1835, her delegates 
were Lorenzo de Zavala, William P. Harris, Clem- 
ent C. Dyer, John W. Moore, M. W. Smith and 
David B. McComb. In the convention which de- 
clared independence, March 1-18, 1836, her dele- 
gates were Lorenzo de Zavala and Andrew Briscoe, 
as previously stated. When the provisional gov- 
ernment of the Republic was created David G. 
Burnet was elected President and Lorenzo de 
Zavala Vice-president, both of this municipal- 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



19 



ity. Harrisburg, grown to be quite a village, 
was the seat of justice, and from March 22d 
to April 13lh, 1836, it was the seat of govern- 
ment, but abandoned on the approach of the Mexi- 
can army, by which it was burned. The first Lone 
Star flag had been improvised there in March by 
Mrs. Dobson and other ladies — that is, the first 
in Texas, for that by Miss Troutman, of Georgia, 
had been made and presented to the gallant Capt. 
(afterwards Colonel) William Ward two or three 
months earlier. The ladies also, says Mrs. Briscoe, 
cut up all their flannel apparel to make cartridges, 
following the example of Mother Bailey, in Groton, 
Connecticut, in the war of 1812. 

In August, 1836, the brothers A. C. and John K. 
Allen laid out the town of Houston. The First Con- 
gress of the Republic, at Columbia, on the 15th of 
December, 1836, selected the new town as the seat 
of government, to continue until the session of 1840. 
The government was removed there prior to May 
1st, 1837. Soon afterwards the county seat was 
moved from Harrisburg to Houston, and the latter, 
under such impulsion, grew rapidly. This was 
one of those enterprising movements at variance 
with natural advantages, for all know that Harris- 
burg, in facilities for navigation, was greatly supe- 
rior to Houston, and, as a town site otherwise, fully 
as desirable. But notwithstanding all these, pluck 
and enterprise have made Houston a splendid city. 

The first sail vessel to reach Houston was the 
schooner Rolla, on the 21st of April, 1837, four 
days in making the trip of 10 or 12 miles by water 
from Harrisburg. That night the first anniversary 
of San Jacinto was celebrated by a ball, which was 
opened by President Houston and Mrs. Mosely 
Baker, Francis R. Lubbock and Miss Mary J. Har- 
ris (now Mrs. Briscoe), Jacob W. Crugerand Mrs. 
Lubbock and Mr. and Mrs. Welchmej'er. 

The first marriage license signed under the laws 
of the Republic, July 22, 1837, by DeWitt C. Har- 



ris, county clerk, was to Hugh McCrory and Mary 
Smith, and the service was performed next day by 
the Rev. H. Matthews, of the Methodist church. 
Mr. McCrory died in a few months, and in 1840 the 
widow married Dr. Anson Jones, afterwards the 
last President of Texas. She still lives in Houston 
and recently followed to the grave her popular and 
talented son, Judge C. Anson Jones. 

At the first District Court held in Houston, Hon. 
Benjamin C. Franklin presiding, a man was found 
guilty of theft, required to restore the stolen money 
and notes and to receive thirty-nine lashes on his 
bare back, all of which being accomplished, it is 
supposed the victim migrated to other parts. 
Thieves, in those days, were not tolerated by foolish 
quibbles or qualms of conscience. There were no 
prisons and the lash was regarded as the only avail- 
able antidote. 

In 1834 the Harris brothers brought out a small 
steamboat called the Cayuga, but the first steamer 
to reach Houston was the Laura, Capt. Thomas 
Grayson. On the first Monday in January, 1838, 
Dr. Francis Moore, Jr., long editor of the Tele- 
graph and afterwards State geologist, was elected 
the first mayor of Houston. He and his partner, 
Jacob W. Cruger, early in 1837, established the 
first newspaper, by removing the Telegraph from 
Columbia. On the 21st of May, 1838, agrandball 
was given by the Jockey Club, in Houston. " The 
ladies' tickets," says Mrs. Briscoe, "were printed 
on white satin, and I had the pleasure of dancing 
successively, with Generals Sam Houston, Albert 
Sidney Johnston and Sidney Sherman." 

I have condensed from the interesting narrative 
a portion of its contents, omitting much of interest, 
the object being to portray the outlines of how the 
early coast settlements passed from infancy to self- 
sustaining maturity. Locally, the labors of this 
early Texas girl — now ranking among the mothers 
of the land — are of great value. 



Fight of the Bowies with the Indians on the San Saba in 1831. 



In 1832 Rezin P. Bowie furnished a Philadelphia 
paper with the following narrative. It has been 
published in several books since. Col. James, 
Bowie made a report to the Mexican Governor at 
San Antonio, not so full but in accord with this 
report. It gives an account of one of the most 
extraordinary events in the pioneer history of 
America. 



"On the 2d of November, 1831, we left the 
town of San Antonio de Bexar for the silver mines 
on the San Saba river ; the party consisting of the 
following named persons : Rezin P. Bowie, James 
Bowie, David Buchanan, Robert Armstrong, Jesse 
Wallace, Matthew Doyle, Cephas D. Hamm, James 
Coryell, Thomas McCaslin, Gonzales and Charles, 
servant boys. Nothing particular occurred until 



20 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



the 19th, on which day, about 10 a. m. we were 
overhauled by two Comanche Indians and a Mexican 
captive, who had strucli our trail and followed it. 
They stated that they belonged to Isaonie's party, 
a chief of the Comanche tribe, sixteen in number, 
and were on their way to San Antonio with a drove 
of horses, which they had taicen from the Wacos 
and Tawaclianies, and were about returning to 
their owners, citizens of San Antonio. After smok- 
ing and talking with them about an hour, and 
making them a few presents of tobacco, powder, 
shot, etc. , they returned to their party, who were 
waiting at the Llano river. 

'■'■ We continued our journey until night closed 
upon us, when we encamped. The next morning, 
the above named Mexican captive returned to our 
camp, his horse was much fatigued, and who, 
after eating and smoking, stated that he had been 
sent by his .chief, Isaonie, to inform us we were 
followed by one hundred and twenty-four Tawac- 
kanie and Waco Indians, and forty Caddos had 
joined them, who were determined to have our 
scalps at all risks. Isaonie had held a talk with 
them all the previous afternoon, and endeavored to 
dissuade them from their purpose ; but they still 
pers'sted, and left him enraged and pursued our 
trail. As a voucher for the truth of the above, the 
Mexican produced his chief's silver medal, which 
is common among the natives in such cases. He 
further stated that his chief requested him to say, 
that he had but sixteen men, badly armed and 
without ammunition ; but if we would return and 
join him, such succor as he could give us he would. 
But knowing that the enemy lay between us and 
him, we deemed it more prudent to pursue our 
journey and endeavor to reach the old fort on the 
San Saba river before night, distance thirty miles. ■ 
The Mexican then returned to his party, and we 
proceeded on. 

" Throughout the day we encountered bad roads, 
being covered- with rocks, and the horses' feet be- 
ing worn out, we were disappointed in not reaching 
the fort. In the evening we had some little difficulty 
in picking out an advantageous spot where to en- 
camp for the night. We however made choice of 
the best that offered, which was a cluster of live- 
oak trees, some thirty or forty in number, about 
the size of a man's body. To the north of them a 
thicket of live-oak bushes, about ten feet high, forty 
yards in length and twenty in breadth, to the west, 
at thie distance of thirty-five or forty yards, ran a 
stream of water. 

"The surrounding country was an open prairie, 
interspersed with a few trees, rocks, and broken 
land. The trail which we came on lay to 



the east of our encampment. After taking the 
precaution to prepare our spot for defense, by cut- 
ting a road inside the thicket of bushes, ten feet 
from the outer edge all around, and clearing the 
prickly-pears from amongst the bushes, we 
hobbled our horses and placed sentinels for the 
night. We were now distant six miles from the 
old fort above mentioned, which was built by the 
Spaniards in 1752, for the purpose of protecting 
them while working the silver mines, which are a 
mile distant. A few years after, it was attacked 
by the Comanche Indians and every soul put to 
death. Since that time it has never been occupied. 
Within the fort is a church, which, had we reached 
before night, it was our intention to have occupied 
to defend ourselves against the Indians. The fort 
surrounds about one acre of land under a twelve- 
feet stone wall. 

"Nothing occurred during the night, and we 
lost no time in the morning in making preparations 
for continuing our journey to the fort ; and when 
in the act of starting, we discovered the Indians on 
our trail to the east, about two hundred yards dis- 
tant, and a footman about fifty yards ahead of the 
main body, with his face to the ground, tracking. 
The cry of ' Indians ' was given, and ' All hands to 
arms.' We dismounted, and both saddle and pack- 
horses were made fast to the trees. As soon as 
they found we had discovered them, they gave the 
war whoop, halted and commenced stripping, pre- 
paratory to action. A number of mounted Indians 
were reconnoitering the ground ; among them we 
discovered a few Caddo Indians, by the cut of 
their hair, who had always previously been f i iendly 
to Americans. 

"Their number being so far greater than ours 
(one hundred and sixty-four to eleven), it was 
agreed that Rezin P. Bowie should be sent out to 
talk with them, and endeavor to compromise with 
them rather than attempt a fight. He accordingly 
started, with David Buchanan in company, and 
walked up to within about forty yards of where 
they had halted, and requested them in their own 
tongue to send forward their chief, as he wanted to 
talk with him. Their answer was, "how-de-do? 
how-de-do?" in English, and a discharge of twelve 
shots at us, one of which broke Buchanan's leg. 
Bowie returned their salutation with the contents of 
a double barreled gun and a pistol. He then took 
Buchanan on his shoulder, and started ])ack to the 
encampment. They then opened a heavy fire upon 
us, which wounded Buchanan in two more places 
slightly, and pierced Bowie's hunting shirt in sev- 
eral places without doing him any injury. When 
they found their shot failed to bring Bowie down. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



21 



eight Indians on foot took after him with their 
^tomahawks, and when close upon him were dis- 
covered by his party, who ruslied out with their 
rifles and brought down four of them — the other 
four retreating back to the main body. We then 
returned to our position, and all was still for about 
five minutes. 

" We then discovered a hill to the northeast at 
the distance of sixty yards, red with Indians who 
opened a heavy fire upon us with loud yells, their 
chief, on horseback, urging them in a loud and 
audible voice to the charge, walking his horse per- 
fectly composed. When we first discovered him, 
our gans were all empty, with the exception of Mr. 
Hamm's. James Bowie cried out, ' Who is 
loaded?' Mr. Hamm observed, 'I am.' He 
was then told to shoot that Indian on horseback. 
He did so, and broke his leg and killed his horse. 
We now discovered him hopping around his horse 
on one leg, with his shield on his arm to keep off 
the balls. By this time four of our party being re- 
loaded, fired at the same instant, and all the balls 
took effect through the shield. He fell and was 
immediately surrounded by six or eight of his tribe, 
who picked him up and bore him off. Several of 
these were shot by our party. The whole party 
then retreated back of the hill, out of sight, with 
the exception of a few Indians who were running 
about from tree to tree, out of gun-shot. 

"They now covered the hill a second time, 
bringing up their bowmen, who had not been in 
action before, and commenced a heavy fire with 
balls and arrows, which we returned by a well 
directed aim with our rifles. At this instant, 
another chief appeared on horseback, near the spot 
where the last one fell. The same question of who 
was loaded, was asked; the answer was nobody; 
when little Charles, the mulatto servant, came run- 
ning up with Buchanan's rifle, which had not been 
discharged since he was wounded, and handed it to 
James Bowie, who instantly fired and brought him 
down from his horse. He was surrounded by six 
or eight of his tribe, as was the last, and borne off 
under our fire. During the time we were engaged 
in defending ourselves from the Indians on the 
hill, some fifteen or twenty of the Caddo tribe had 
succeeded in getting under the bank of the creek in 
our rear at about forty yards distance, and opened 
a heavy fire upon us, which wounded Matthew 
Doyle, the ball entering the left breast and passing 
out of the back. As soon as he cried out he was 
wounded, Thomas M'Caslin hastened to the spot 
where he fell, and observed, ' Where is the Indian 
that shot Doyle?' He was told by a more 
experienced hand not to venture there, as, from 



the report of their guns, they must be riflemen. At 
that instant they discovered an Indian, and while 
in the act of raising his piece, M'Caslin was shot 
through the center of the body and expired. 
Robert Armstrong exclaimed, ' D— n the Indian 
that shot M'Caslin ! Where is he? ' He was told 
not to venture there, as they must be riflemen ; but, 
on discovering an Indian, and while bringing his 
gun up, he was fired at, and part of the stock of 
his gun cut off, and the ball lodged against the 
barrel. During this time our enemies had formed a 
complete circle around us, occupying the points of 
rocks, scattering trees and bushes. The firing then 
became general from all quarters. 

" Finding our situation too much exposed among 
the trees, we were obliged to leave it, and take to the 
thickets. The first thing necessary was to dislodge 
the riflemen from under the bank of the creek, who 
were within point-blank shot. This we soon suc- 
ceeded in, by shooting the most of them through 
the head, as we had the advantage of seeing them 
when they could not see us. 

' ' The road we had cut around the thicket the 
night previous, gave us now an advantageous situ- 
ation over that of our enemies, and we had a fair 
view of them in the prairie, while we were com- 
pletely hid. We baffled their shots by moving six 
or eight feet the moment we had fired, as their only- 
mark was the smoke of our guns. They would put 
twenty balls within the size of a pocket handkerchief, 
where they had seen the smoke. In this manner 
we fought them two hours, and had one man 
wounded, James Coryell, who was shot through 
the arm, and the ball lodged in the side, first cut- 
ting away a bush which prevented it from penetrat- 
ing deeper than the size of it. 

"They now discovered that we were not to be 
dislodged from the thicket, and the uncertainty of 
killing us at a random shot ; they suffering very 
much from the fire of our rifles, which brought a 
half a dozen down at every round. They now 
determined to resort to stratagem, by putting fire 
to the dry grass in the prairie, for the double pur- 
pose of routing us from our position, and under 
cover of the smoke, to carry away their dead and 
wounded, which lay near us. The wind was now 
blowing from the west, they placed the fire in that 
quarter, where it burnt down all the grass to the 
creek, and bore off to the right, and leaving around 
our position a space of about five acres that was 
untouched by fire. Under cover of this smoke they 
succeeded in carrying off a portion of their dead 
and wounded. In the meantime, our party were 
engaged in scraping away the dry grass and leaves 
from our wounded men and baggage to prevent the 



22 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



fire from passing over it ; and likewise, in pulling 
up rocks and bushes to answer the purpose of a 
breastwork. 

" They now discovered they had failed in routing 
us by the flre, as they had anticipated. They then 
re-occupied the points of rocks and trees in the 
prairie, and commenced another attack. The firing 
continued for some time when the wind suddenly 
shifted to the north, and blew very hard. We now 
discovered our dangerous situation, should the 
Indians succeed in putting flre to the small spot 
which we occupied, and kept a strict watch all 
around. The two servant boys were employed in 
scraping away dry grass and leaves from around 
the baggage, and pulling up rocks and placing them 
around the wounded men. The remainder of the 
party were warmly engaged with the enemy. The 
point from which the wind now blew being favora- 
ble to fire our position, one of the Indians succeeded 
in crawling down the creek and putting flre to the 
grass that had not yet been burnt ; but before he 
could retreat back to his party, was killed by 
Robert Armstrong. 

" At this time we saw no hopes of escape, as the 
flre was coming down rapidly before the wind, 
flaming ten feet high, and directly for the spot we 
occupied. What was to be done? We must either 
be burned up alive, or driven into the prairie 
among the savages. This encouraged the Indians ; 
and to make it more awful, their shouts and yells 
rent the air, they at the same time flring upon us 
about twenty shots a minute. As soon as the 
smoke hid us from their view, we collected together 
and held a consultation as to what was best to be 
done. Our first impression was, that they might 
charge us under cover of the smoke, as we could 
make but one effectual fire, the sparks were flying 
about so thickly that no man could open his powder 
horn without running the risk of being blown up. 
However, we finally came to a determination had 
they charged us to give them one fire, place our 
backs together, and draw our knives and fight 
them as long as any one of us was left alive. 
The next question was, should they not charge us, 
and we retain our position, we must be burned up. 
It was then decided that each man should take 
care of himself as best he could, until the fire 
arrived at the ring around our baggage and 
wounded men, and there it should be smothered 
with buffalo robes, bear skins, deer skins, and 
blankets, which, after a great deal of exertion, wu 
succeeded in doing. 

"Our thicket lieing so much burned and scorched , 
that it afforded us little or no shelter, we all got 
into the ring that was around our wounded men 



and baggage, and commenced building our breast- 
work higher, with the loose rocks from the inside, 
and dirt dug up with our knives and sticks. 
During this last flre, the Indians had succeeded 
in removing all their killed and wounded which 
lay near us. It wa.s now sundown, and we 
had been warmly engaged with the Indians 
since sunrise, a period of thirteen hours; and 
they seeing us still alive and ready for fight, 
drew off at a distance of three hundred yards, 
and encamped for the night with their dead and 
wounded. Our party now commenced to work in 
raising our fortification higher, and succeeded in 
getting it breast high by 10 p. m. We now filled 
all our vessels and skins with water, expecting 
another attack the next morning. We could dis- 
tinctly hear the Indians, nearly all night, crying 
over their dead, which is their custom ; and at 
daylight, they shot a wounded chief — it being 
also a custom to shoot any of their tribe that are 
mortally wounded. They, after that, set out with 
their dead and wounded to a mountain about a 
mile distant, where they deposited their dead in a 
cave on the side of it. At eight in the morning, 
two of the party went out from the fortification to 
the encampment, where the Indians had lain the 
night previous, and counted forty-eight bloody 
spots on the grass where the Indians had been lying. 
As near as we could judge, their loss must have 
been forty killed and thirty wounded. [We after- 
wards learned from the Comanche Indians that 
their loss was eighty-two killed and wounded.] 

" Finding ourselves much cut up, having one man 
killed, and three wounded — live horses killed, 
and three wounded — we recommenced strength- 
ening our little fort, and continued our labors 
until 1 p. m., when the arrival of thirteen Indians 
drew us into the fort again. As soon as they 
discovered we were still there and ready for action 
and well fortified they put off. We, after that, 
remained in our fort eight days, recruiting our 
wounded men and horses, at the exijiration of 
which time, being all in pretty good order, we set out 
on our return to San Antonio de liexar. We left 
our fort at dark, and tr.iveled all night and until 
afternoon of the next day, when we picked out an 
advantageous spot and fortifuid ourselves, (ex- 
pecting the Indians would, when recruiled, follow 
our trail; but, however, we saw no more of them. 

" David Buchanan's wounded leg hero mortified, 
and having no surgical instruments, or medicine of 
any kind, not even a dose of salts, wc boiled some 
live oak bark very strong, and thickened it with 
pounded charcoal and Indian meal, made a poul- 
tice of it, and tied it around his leg, over which we 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



23 



sewed a buffalo skin, and traveled along five days 
without looking at it ; when it was opened, it was 
in a fair way for healing, which it finally did, 
and the mortified parts all dropped off, and his 



of the party but had his skin cut in several places, 
and numerous shot holes through his clothes. 

" On the twelfth day we arrived in good order, 
with our wounded men and horses, at San Antonio 



leg now is as well as it ever was. There was none de Bexar." 



The Scalping of Wilbarger and Death of Christian and 

Strother, in 1833. 



In the year 1828, Josiah Wilbarger, recently 
married to a daughter of Leman Barker, of Lin- 
coln County, Mo., arrived at Matagorda, Texas. 
The writer of this, then in his eighth year, knew 
him intimately. The Wilbarger family adjoining 
the farm of my parents, lived on a thousand arpents 
of the richest land, one mile east of the present 
village of Ashley, Pike County, Missouri, sixteen 
miles from the Mississippi river and seventy-five 
miles above St. Louis. In the autumn of 1826, 
Capt. Henry S. Brown, father of the writer, tem- 
porarily returned home from Texas, after having 
spent two years in that then terra incognita and 
Northern Mexico. His descriptions of the country 
deeply impressed young Wilbarger, as well as a 
large number of persons in the adjoining county of 
Lincoln, whose names subsequently shed luster on 
the pioneer life of Texas. The remainder of the 
Wilbarger family, or rather two brothers and three 
sisters of their number, came to Texas in 1837. 
Josiah spent a year in Matagorda, another in Col- 
orado County, and in J.831 settled on his headright 
league, ten miles above Bastrop on the Colorado, with 
his wife, child and two transient young men. He 
was temporarily the outside settler, but soon others 
located along the river below and two or three 
above, the elder Reuben Hornsby becoming the 
outer sentinel, and so remaining for a number of 
years. Mr. Wilbarger located various lands for 
other parties in that section, it being in Austin's 
second grant above the old San Antonio and Nacog- 
doches road, which crossed at Bastrop. 

In August, 1833, accompanied by four others, 
viz., Christian a surveyor, Strother, Standifer and 
Haynie, Mr. Wilbarger left on a land-locating 
expedition, above where Austin now is. Arriving 
on the ground and on the eve of beginning work, 
an Indian was discovered on a neighboring ridge, 
watching their movements. Wilbarger, after vainly 



beckoning to him to approach, rode toward him, 
manifesting friendship, but the Indian, pointing 
toward a smoke rising from a cedar brake at the 
base of a hill, in plain view, indicated a desire for 
his visitor to go to camp and galloped away. The 
party, after a short pursuit, became satisfied there 
was a considerable body of Indians, hostile la feel- 
ing, and determined at once to return to the settle- 
ment. They started in, intending to go directly to 
Hornsby' s place, but they stopped at a spring on 
the way to take lunch, to which Wilbarger objected, 
being quite sure the Indians would pursue them, 
while the others thought otherwise. Very soon, 
however, about sixty savages suddenly charged, 
fired and fell back under the protection of brush. 
Strother fell dead and Christian apparently so. 
Wilbarger's horse broke away and fled. He fol- 
lowed a short distance, but failed to recover him. 
Hastening back, he found the other two men 
mounted and ready to fiee, and discovered that Chris- 
tian, though helpless, was not dead. He implored 
the two mounted men to stay with him in the ra- 
vine, and endeavor to save Christian. Just then 
the Indians renewed the fire at long range and 
struck Wilbarger in the hip. He then asked to be 
taken behind one of the men, but seeing the 
enemy approaching, they fled at full speed, leaving 
him to his fate. The Indians, one having mounted 
Christian's horse, encircled him on all sides. He had 
seized the guns of the fallen men and thus with 
these partly protected by a tree just as he was 
taking deliberate aim at the mounted warrior, a 
ball entered his neck, paralyzing him, so that he fell 
to the ground and was at once at the mercy of the 
wretches. Though perfectly helpless and appar- 
ently dead, he was conscious of all that transpired. 
A knife was passed entirely around his head and 
the scalp torn off. While suffering no pain, he 
ever asserted that neither a storm in the forest nor 



24 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



the roar of artillery could have sounded more 
terrible to a sound man than did this scalping pro- 
cess to him. The shrieks and exultant yells of the 
brutes were indescribable. 

Christian's life ebbed away, all three were 
stripped and scalped ; the savages retired and Wil- 
barger lay in a dreamy state of semi-consciousness, 
visions flitting through his mind bordering on the 
marvelous and the supernatural. 

The loss of blood finally aroused him and he 
realized several wounds unknown to him before. 
He crawled to a limpid stream close by and sub- 
merged his body in it both to quench a burning thirst 
and stop the flow of blood, and succeeded in both ; 
but in an hour or two became greatly chilled and 
crawled out, but was so weak he fell into a sound 
sleep — for how long he knew not — on awakening 
from which he found his wounds covered with 
those disgustinginsects, " blowflies." Occasionally 
refreshing himself in the pool, the hours sped and 
night came. He had realized that the escaped men 
would spread the news and as soon as the few 
settlers below could collect, rehef might come. 
After dark and many efforts he was able to rise and 
stand — then to stagger along — and resolved to 
make an effort to reach the Hornsby place. He 
traveled about a quarter of a mile, utterly failed 
in strength and sank under a large tree, intensely 
suffering with cold. When morning came he was 
unable to move and his suffering, till the sun rose 
and warmed him, was intense. He became able to 
rise again, but not to walk. He affirmed that while 
reclining against the tree his sister, Margaret,* 
vividly appeared before him, saying, " Brother 
Josiah! you are too weak to go in by yourself! 
Remain here and before the sun sets friends will 
take you in." She disappeared, going directly 
towards the settlement. He piteously called to her : 
"Margaret, my sister, Margaret! stay with me 
till they come! " But she disappeared, and when 
rehef did come he told them of the vision and 
believed till that time that it was a reality. 

During the day — that long and agonizing day — 
between periods of drowsy slumber, he would sit 
or stand, intensely gazing in the direction Margaret 
had taken. 

The two men who fled gave the alarm at 
Hornsby' s, and runners were sent below for aid, 
which could not be expected before the next day ; 
and here occurs one of those incidents which, 
however remarkable, unless a whole family and 
several other persons of unquestionable integrity 

* This sister was Mrs. Margaret Clifton, who had died 
the day before at Florissant, St. Louis County, Missouri. 



were themselves falsifiers, is true, and so held by 
all the early settlers of the Colorado. During the 
night in which Wilbai-ger lay under the tree, not- 
withstanding the two men asserted positively that 
they saw Wilbarger, Christian and Strother killed, 
Mrs. Hornsby, one of the best of women and 
regarded as the mother of the new colony, about 
midnight, sprang from bed, aroused all the house 
and said: "Wilbarger is not dead! He sits 
against a large tree and is scalped ! I saw him 
and know it is so! " Those present reassured and 
remonstrated, even ridiculed her dream, and all 
again retired. But about three o'clock, she again 
sprang from the bed, under intense excitement, 
repeated her former statement and added : "I saw 
him again ! As sure as God lives Josiah Wilbarger 
is alive, scalped and under a large tree by himself ! 
I saw him as plainly as 1 now see you who are 
present ! If you are not cowards go at onco or he 
will die! " " But," said one of the escaped men, 
" Mrs. Hornsby, I saw fifty Indians around his 
body and it is impossible for him to be alive." 

" I care not what you saw," replied the seem- 
ingly inspired old mother, "I saw as plainly as 
you could have seen, and I know he is alive! Go 
to him at once." Her husband suggested that if 
the men all left before help came from below she 
would be in danger. "Never mind me! I can 
take to the dogwood thicket and save myself! 
Go, I tell you, to poor Wilbarger! " 

The few men present determined to await till 
morning the arrival of succor from below, but 
Mrs. Hornsby refused to retire again, and busied 
herself cooking till sunrise, so as to avoid any 
delay when aid should come. When the men came 
in the morning, she repeated to them in the most 
earnest manner her dual vision, urged them to eat 
quickly and hasten forward and, as they were 
leaving, took from her bed a strong sheet, handed 
it to them and said: " Take this, you will have to 
bring him on a litter; he cannot sit on ahorse." 
The men left and after long search found and 
buried the bodies of Christian and Strother. 

Wilbarger spent the day in alternate watching 
and dozing till, late in the evening, completely ex- 
hausted, having crawled to a stump from which a 
more extended view was obtained, he was sinking 
into a despairing slumber, when the rumbling of 
horses' feet fell upon his ear. He arose and now 
beheld his dehverers. When, after quite a search 
they discovered the ghastly object -a mass of 
blood — they involuntarily halted, seeing which he 
beckoned and finally called : " Come on, friends • it 
is Wilbarger." They came up, even then lie'si- 
tating, for he was disfigured beyond recognition 




GKN. EDWARD BUULKSON. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



25 



He begged for water ! water ! which was promptly 
furnished. He was wrapped in the sheet, placed 
on Mr. Hornsby's horse and that gentleman, 
mounting behind, held him in his arms, and thus, 
slowly, he was borne to the house, to be embraced 
with a mother's warmth by her who had seen him 
in the vision. 

The great loss of blood prevented febrile ten- 
dencies, and, under good nursing, Mr. Wilbarger 
recovered his usual health ; but the scalp having 
taken with it the inner membrane, followed by two 
days' exposure to the sun, never healed, The dome 
of the skull remained bare, only protected by arti- 
iicial covering. For eleven years he enjoyed 
health, prospered and accumulated a handsome 
estate. At the end of that time the skull rapidly 



decayed, exposed the brain, brought on delirium, 
and in a few weeks, just before the assurance of 
annexation and in the twelfth year from his 
calamity, his soul went to join that of his waiting 
sister Margaret in that abode " where the wicked 
cease from troubling and the weary are at rest." 
Recalling the days of childhood, when the writer 
often sat upon his lap and received many evidences 
of his kindly nature, it is a pleasure to state that 
in 1858 he enjoyed and embraced the opportunity 
of honoring his memory by naming the county of 
Wilbarger jointly for him and his brother Matthias, 
a surveyor. 

John Wilbarger, one of the sons of Josiah, while 
a ranger, was killed by Indians in the Nueces 
country, in 1847. 



Events in 1833 and 1835 — Campaigns of Oldham, Coleman, 

John H. Moore, Williamson, Burleson, Coheen — Fate 

of Canoma — Choctaw Tom— The Toncahuas. 



In the year 1833, a stranger from the United 
States, named Reed, spent several days at Tenox- 
titlan, Falls of the Brazos, now in the lower part of 
Falls County. There were at that time seven 
friendly Toncahua Indians at the place, with whom 
Reed made an exchange of horses. The Indians 
concluded they had been cheated and pretended to 
leave; but secreted themselves and, on the second 
day afterwards, lying in ambush, they killed Reed 
as he was leaving the vicinity on his return to the 
United States, and made prize of his horse and 
baggage. 

, Canoma, a faithful and friendly Indian, was the 
chief of a small band of Caddos, and passed much 
of his time with or near the Americans at the Falls. 
He was then in the vicinity. He took seven of his 
tribe and pursued the Toncahuas. On the eighth 
day he returned, bearing as trophies seven scalps, 
Reed's horse and baggage, receiving substantial 
commendation from the settlers. 

In the spring of 1835 the faithful Canoma was 
still about Tenoxtitlan. There were various indi- 
cations of intended hostility by the wild tribes, but 
it was mainly towards the people on the Colorado. 
The wild Indians, as is well known to those conver- 
sant with that period, considered the people of the 
two rivers as separate tribes. The people at the 



Falls, to avert an outbreak, employed Canoma to 
go among the savages and endeavor to bring them 
in for the purpose of making a treaty and of recov- 
ering two children of Mr. Moss, then prisoners in 
their hands. 

Canoma, leaving two of his children as hostages, 
undertook the mission and visited several tribes. 
On returning he reported that those he had seen 
were willing to treat with the Brazos people ; but 
that about half were bitterly opposed to forming 
friendly relations with the Coloradians, and that at 
that moment a descent was being made on Bastrop 
on that river by a party of the irreconcilables. 

The people at the Falls immediately dispatched 
Samuel McFall to advise the people of that infant 
settlement of their danger. Before he reached his 
destination the Indians had entered the settlement, 
murdered a wagoner, stolen several horses and left, 
and Col. Edward Burleson, in command of a small 
party, was in pursuit. 

In the meantime, some travelers lost their horses 
at the Falls and employed Canoma to follow and 
recover them. Canoma, with his wife and son, 
armed with a written certification of his fidelity to 
the whites, trailed the horses in the direction of and 
nearly to the three forks of Little river, and re- 
covered them. On his return with these American 



20 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



horses, Burleson and party fell in with hira, but 
were not aware of his faithful character. He ex- 
hibited his credentials, with which Burleson was dis- 
posed to be satisfied ; but his men, already incensed, 
and finding Canoma in possession of the horses 
under such suspicious circumstances, gave rein to 
unreasoning exasperation. They killed him and his 
son, leaving his wife to get in alone, which she lost 
no time in doing. She reported these unfortunate 
facts precisely as they had transpii'ed, and as they 
were ever lamented by the chivalrous and kind- 
hearted Burleson. 

This intensely incensed the remainder of Cano- 
ma' s party, who were still at the Falls. Choctaw 
Tom, the principal man left among them, stated 
that they did not blame the people at the Falls, but 
that all the Indians would now make war on the 
Coloradians, and, with all the band, left for the 
Indian country. 

Soon after this, in consequence of some depreda- 
tions, Maj. Oldham raised a company of twenty- 
five men in Washington, and made a successful 
attack an the Keechi village, on the Trinity, now in 
Leon County. He routed them, killed a number 
and captured a considerable number of horses and 
all their camp equipage. 

Immediately after this, Capt. Robert M. Cole- 
man, of Bastrop, with twenty-five men, three of 
whom were Brazos men well known to many of the 
Indians, made a campaign against the Tehuacanos, 
at the famous springs of that name now in Lime- 
stone County. He crossed the Brazos at Washing- 
ton on the 4th of July, 1835. He was not 
discovered till near the village. The Indians 
manifested stubborn courage. A severe engage- 
ment ensued, but in the end, though killing a 
considerable number of Indians, Coleman was com- 
pelled to retreat — having one man killed and four 
wounded. The enemy were too numerous for so 
small a party ; and it was believed that their recog- 
nilion of the thi'ee Brazos men among tlioir assail- 
ants, stimulated their courage and exasperated 
them against tlie settlers on that river, as they were 
already towards those on the Colorado. 

Coleman fell back upon Parker's fort, two and a 
half miles iibove the present town of Groesbeck, 
and sent in an express, calling for an augmentation 
of force to chastise the enemy. Thrctc companies 
were immediately raised — one commanded by 
Capt. Robert M. Williamson (the gifted, dauntless 
and eloquent three-legged Willie of the popular 
legends), one by Capt. Coheen and a third by Dr. 
George W. Barnett. Col. John H. Moore was 
given chief command and Joseph C. Neill (a 



soldier at the Horseshoe) was made adjutant. 
They joined Coleman at the fort and rapidly 
advanced upon the Tehuacanos at the springs ; 
but the wily red man had discovered them and 
fled. 

They then scoured the country up the Trinity as 
far as the forks, near the subsequent site of Dallas, 
then passed over to and down the Brazos, crossing 
it where old Fort Graham stands, without encoun- 
tering more than five or six Indians on several 
occasions. They, however, killed one warrior and 
made prisoners of several women and children. 
One of the women, after her capture, killed her 
own child, for which she was immediately shot. 
Without any other event of moment the command 
leisurely returned to the settlements. 

[Note. Maj. Oldham was afterwards one of 
the Mier prisoners. Dr. Barnett, from Tennessee, 
at 37 years of age, on the second day of the next 
March (1836), signed the Declaration of Tcxian 
Independence. He served as a senator for a num- 
ber of years and then moved to the western i)art of 
Gonzales County, where, in the latest Indian raid 
ever made into that section, he was killed while 
alone, by the savages. The names of Robert M. 
Williamson and John H. Moore are too intimately 
identified with our history to justify farther notice 
here. As a Lieutenant-Colonel at San Jacinto, 
Joseph C. Neill was severely wounded. Robert 
M. Coleman was born and reared in that portion of 
Christian County, Kentucky, which afterwards be- 
came Trigg County. He came to Texas in 1880. 
He, too, at the age of 37, signed the Declaration 
of Independence and, fifty- one days later, com- 
manded a company at San Jacinto. He was 
drowned at the mouth of the Brazos in 1837. In 
1839 his wife and 13 year-old-son were killed at 
their frontier home in Webber's prairie, on the 
Colorado, and another son carried into captivity by 
thu Indians, never to be restored to civilization. 
Two little girls, concealed under the floor by their 
heroic child brother before his fall, were saved. 
Henry Bridgcr, a young man, i\w\\ just from Cole 
County, Missouri, afterwards my ni^iglibor and close 
friend in several campaigns and battles- — modest 
as a maiden, fearless as ii tiger — also a Mier pris- 
oner, saw his fiist service in this campaign of Col. 
Moore. Sam MctFall, the bearer of the warning 
from the Falls to Bastrop, iVoin choice went on 
foot. He was six I'c^el and thvw, inches high, loan, 
lithe and audacious. He was the greatest footman 
ever known in Texas, and made the distance in 
shorter time than a saddle horse could have done. 
He becami' famous among tiie Mier ))iiHoncrs at 
Pcrotc, 1843-4, by feigning lunacy and stampeding 
whenever harnessed to one of tlie little Mexican 
carts for hauling stone, a task forced upon his 
comrades, but from which lie escaped as a 
"lunatico." He died in McLennan County some 
years ago, lamented as an exemplar of true," inborn 
nobility of soul and dauntless courage.] 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



27 



The Attempted Settlement of Beales' Rio Grande Colony in 
1834— Its Failure and the Sad Fate of Some of the Col- 
onists—Twelve Murdered — Mrs. Horn and Two 
Sons and Mrs. Harris Carried into 
Captivity — 1834 to 1836. 



Before narrating the painful scenes attending 
the attempt to form a colony of Europeans and 
Americans on the Rio Grande, about thirty miles 
above the present town of Eagle Pass, begun in 
New York in November, 1833, and terminating in 
bitter failure and the slaughter of a portion of the 
colonists on the 2d of April, 1836, a few precedent 
facts are condensed, for the more intelligent and 
comprehensive understanding of the subject. 

Dr. John Charles Beales, born in Aldborough, 
Suffolk County, England, March 20, 1804, went to 
Mexico, and, in 1830, married the widow of Richard 
Exter, an English merchant in that country. She 
was a Mexican lady, her maiden name having been 
Maria Dolores Soto. Prior to his death Mr. Exter 
had become associated in certain empresario con- 
tracts for introducing colonists into northern or 
rather New Mexico with Stephen Julian Wilson, an 
English naturalized citizen of Mexico. 

In 1832 Dr. Beales and Jose Manuel Roquella 
obtained from the State of Coahuila and Texas the 
right to settle colonists in the following described 
limits: — 

Beginning at the intersection of latitude 32° 
north with longitude 102° west from London, the 
same being the southwest corner of a tract peti- 
tioned for by Col. Reuben Ross ; thence west on 
the parallel of latitude 32° to the eastern hmit of 
New Mexico ; thence north on the line dividing 
New Mexico and the provinces (the State) of Coa- 
huila and Texas, to a point twenty leagues (52f 
miles) south of the Arkansas river ; thence east to 
longitude 102°, on the west boundary (really the 
northwest corner) of the tract petitioned for by 
Col. Reuben Ross; — thence south to the place of 
beginning. Beales and Roquella employed Mr. A. 
Le Grand, an American, to survey and mark the 
boundaries of this territory and divide it into twelve 
or more blocks. Le Grand, with an escort and 
proper outfit, arrived on the ground from Santa Fe, 
and established the initial point, after a series of 
observations, on the 27th of June, 1833. From 
that date till the 30th of October, he was actively 
engaged in the work, running lines north, south. 



east and west over most of the large territory. In 
the night, eight inches of snow fell, and on the 
30th, after several days' examination of its topog- 
raphy, he was at the base of the mountain called 
by the Mexicans " La Sierra Oscura." Here, for 
the time being, he abandoned the work and pro- 
ceeded to Santa Fe to report to his employers. 
Extracts from that report form the base for these 
statements. Neither Beales and Roquella nor Col. 
Reuben Ross ever proceeded farther in these enter- 
prises ; but it is worthy of note that Le Grand pre- 
ceded Capt. R. B. Marcy, D. S. A., twenty-six 
years in the exploration and survey of the upper 
waters of the Colorado, Brazos, Red, Canadian and 
Washita rivers, a field in which Capt. Marcy has 
worn the honors of first explorer from the dates of 
his two expeditious, respectively, in 1849 and 1853. 
Le Grand's notes are quite full, noting the cross- 
ing of every stream in all his 1800 to 2000 miles 
in his subdivision of that large territory Into dis- 
tricts or blocks numbered 1 to 12. 

Le Grand, in his diary, states that on the 14th 
of August: " We fell in with a party of Riana In- 
dians, who informed us they were on their way to 
Santa Fe, for the purpose of treating with the 
government. We sent by them a copy of our jour- 
nal to this date." 

On the 20th of August they visited a large en- 
campment of Comanche Indians, who were friendly 
and traded with them. 

On the night of September 10th, in the country 
between the Arkansas and Canadian, five of the 
party — Kimble, Bois, Caseboth, Boring and 
Ryon — deserted, taking with them all but four 
of Le Grand's horses. 

On the 21st of September, near the northeast 
corner of the tract they saw, to the west, a large 
body of Indians. This was probably in " No Man's 
Land," now near the northeast corner of Sherman 
County, Texas. 

On the night of September 27th, twenty miles 
west of the northeast corner, and therefore near 
the northwest corner of Sherman County, they 
were attacked by a body of Snake Indians. The 



28 



INDIAN WANS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



action was short but furious. The Indians, evi- 
dently expecting to surprise and slaughter the 
party while asleep, left nine warriors dead on the 
ground. But the victors paid dearly for the 
triumph; they lost three killed, McCrummins, 
Weathers and Jones, and Thompson was slightly 
wounded. They buried the dead on the 28th and 
remained on the ground till the 2'.)th. The country 
over which this party carried the compass and 
chain, between June 27th and October 30th, 1833, 
measuring on the ground about eighteen hundred 
miles, covers about the western half of the pi-esent 
misnamed Texas Panhandle, the eastern portion 
(or a strip thereof) of the present New Mexico, 
the western portion of "No Man's Land," and 
south of the Panhandle to latitude 32. The 
initial or southeast corner (the intersection of 
longitude 102 with latitude 32), judging by our 
present maps, was in the vicinity of the present 
town of Midland, on the Texas and Pacific Railway, 
but Le Grand's observations must necessarily have 
been imperfect and fixed the point erroneously. It 
was, however, sixteen miles south of what he called 
throughout the ''Red river of Texas," meaning 
the Colorado or Pasigono, while he designates as 
"Red river" the stream still so called. This 
large territory is now settled and being settled by 
stock raisers, with a decided tendency towards 
farming pursuits. The writer of this, through the 
press of Texas, ever since 1872, has contended that 
in due time Northwest Texas, from the Pacific 
road to latitude 36° 30', notwithstanding consid- 
erable districts of worthless land, would become 
the seat of an independent and robust agricultural 
population. It is now being verified. 

BEALES COLONY ON THE KIO GRANDE. 

Dr. Beales secured in his own name a right to 
settle a colony extending from the Nueces to the 
Rio Grande and lying above the road from San 
Antonio to Laredo. Next above, extending north 
to latitude 32°, was a similar privilege granted to 
John L. Woodbury, which expired, as did similar 
concessions to Dr. James Grant, a Scotchman 
naturalized and married in Mexico (the same who 
was killed by the Mexican army on its march to 
Texas, in February, 1836, in what is known as the 
Johnson and Grant expedition, beyond the Nueces 
river), and various others. Dr. Beales entered 
into some sort of partnership with Grant for 
settling colonists on the Rio Grande and Nueces' 
tract, and then, with Grant's approval, while re- 
taining his official position as empresario, or con- 
tractor with the State, formed in New York an 



association styled the " Rio Grande and Texas 
Land Company," for the purpose of raising 
means to encourage immigration to the colony 
from France, Ireland, England and Germany, in- 
cluding also Americans. Mr. Egerton, an English 
surveyor, was sent out first to examine the lands 
and select a site for locating a town, and the first 
immigrants. He performed that service and 
returned to New York in the summer of 1833. 

The Rio Grande and Texas Land Company organ- 
ized on a basis of capital " divided into 800 shares, 
each containing ten thousand acres, besides sur- 
plus lands." Certificate No. 407, issued in New 
York, July 11, 1834, signed, Isaac A. Johnson, 
trustee ; Samuel Sawyer, secretary, and J. C. Beales, 
empresario, with a miniature map of the lands, was 
transmitted to me as a present or memento, as the 
case might be, in the year 1874, by my relative, 
Hon. Wm. Jessop Ward, of Baltimore, and now 
lies before me. As a matter of fact, Beales, 
like all other empresarios under the Mexican 
colonization laws, contracted or got permission 
to introduce a specified number of immigrants (800 
in this case) and was to receive a given amount of 
premium land in fee simple to himself for each 
hundred families so introduced. Otherwise he had 
no right to or interest in the lands, and all lands 
not taken up by immigrants as headrights, or 
awarded him as premiums within a certain term of 
years from the date of the contract, remained, as 
before, public domain of the State. Hence the 
habit generally adopted by writers and map-makers 
of styling these districts of country "•grants" to 
A., B. or C. was and ever has been a misnomer. 
They were in reality only permits. 

The first, and so far as known or believed, the 
only body of immigrants introduced by Dr. Beales, 
sailed with him from New York, in the schooner 
Amos Wright, Capt. Monroe, November 11th, 1833. 
The party consisted of fifty-nine souls, men, women 
and children, but how many of each class cannot be 
stated. 

On the 6th of December, 1833, the Amos Wright 
entered Aransas bay, finding nine feet of water 
on the bar; on the 12th they disembarked and 
pitched their tents on the beach at Copano and 
there remained till January ;i, 1831, finding there 
only a Mexican coast-guard consisting of a corporal 
and two men. On the 15th of December Don Jose 
Maria Cosio, collector of customs, came down from 
Goliad (the ancient La Bahia), and passed their 
papers and goods as correct and was both courteous 
and kind. Throughout the remainder of December, 
January and February there were rapidly succeed- 
ing wet and cold northers, indicating one of the 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



29 



most inclement winters known to the inhabitants — 
flooding the coast prairies and causing great dis- 
comfort to the strangers, who, however, feasted 
abundantly on wild game, fish and water fowl. 

On the 20th Dr. Beales, his servant, Marcelino, 
and Mr. Power started to Goliad to see the Alcalde, 
Don Miguel Aldrete, and procure teams for trans- 
portation, the roads being so flooded that, although 
the distance was only about forty miles, they did 
not arrive till the 22d. Returning with animals to 
draw their vehicles, they arrived at Copano late on 
the 31st of December, having halted, both in going 
and returning, at the Irish settlement of Power's 
and Hewetson's infant colony, at the old mission 
of Refugio. (This colony had for empresarios Mr. 
James Power and Dr. James Hewetson, both 
well known in the subsequent history of that sorely 
desolated section. ) 

The party left Copano on the 3d of January, 
1834, and after numerous vexations and minor 
accidents, arrived at Goliad, crossed and encamped 
on the east bank of the San Antonio river on the 
16th, having thus left behind them the level and 
flooded coast lands. Dr. Beales notes that, while 
at Goliad, " some of the foreigners in the town, 
the lowest class of the Americans, behaved ex- 
ceedingly ill, endeavoring, by all means in their 
power, to seduce my families away." But only 
one man left, and he secured his old Majordomo 
(overseer or manager), John Quinn, and a 
Mexican with his wife and four children, to 
accompany the party. He also notes that on 
Sunday (19th) a Carancahua Indian child was 
baptized by the priest in Goliad, for which the 
collector's wife, Senora Cosio, stood godmother. 

On the 20th of January, with freshly purchased 
oxen, they left for San Antonio and, after much 
trouble and cold weather, arrived there on the 6th 
of February. A few miles below that place (a 
fact stated by Mrs. Horn, but not found in Beales' 
diary) they found Mr. Smith, a stranger from the 
United States, lying by the roadside, terribly 
wounded, and with him a dead Mexican, while two 
others of his Mexican escort had escaped severely 
wounded. They had had a desperate fight with a 
small party of Indians who had left Mr. Smith as 
dead. Dr. Beales, both as physician and good 
Samaritan, gave him every possible attention 
and conveyed him to San Antonio, where he 
lingered for a time and died after the colonists 
left that place. While there a young German 
couple in the party were married, but their names 
are not given. 

On the 18th of February, with fifteen carts and 
wagons, the colonists left San Antonio for the 



Rio Grande. On the 28th they crossed the Nueces 
and for the first time entered the lands designated 
as Beales' Colony. Mr. Little carved upon a 
large tree on the west bank — " Los Primeros 
colonos de la Villa de Dolores pasaron el 28 de 
Febrero, 1834," which being rendered into Eng- 
lish is: "The first colonists of the village of 
Dolores passed here on the 28th of February, 
1834," many of them, alas, never to pass again. 

On the 2d of March Mr. Egerton went forward 
to Presidio de Rio Grande to examine the route, 
and returned at midnight with the information that 
the best route was to cross the river at that point, 
travel up on the west side and recross to the pro- 
posed locality of Dolores, on the Las Moras creek, 
which is below the present town of Del Rio and ten 
or twelve miles from the northeast side of the Rio 
Grande. They crossed the river on the oth and on 
the 6th entered the Presidio, about five miles from 
it. Slowly moving up on the west side, by a some- 
what circuitous route and crossing a little river 
called by Dr. Beales "Rio Escondido," the 
same sometimes called Rio Chico, or Little river, 
which enters the Rio Grande a few miles below 
Eagle Pass, they recrossed to the east side of the 
Rio Grande on the 12th and were again on the 
colony lands. Here they fell in with five Shawnee 
Indian trappers, two of whom spoke English and 
were not only very friendly, but became of service 
for some time in killing game. Other Shawnee 
trappers frequently visited them. Here^Beales left 
a portion of the freight, guarded by Addicks and 
two Mexicans, and on the 14th traveled up the 
country about fifteen miles to a creek called " El 
Sancillo," or " El Sanz." On the 16th of March, 
a few miles above the latter stream , they arrived at 
the site of the proposed village of Dolores, on the 
Las Moras creek, as before stated said to be ten or 
twelve miles from the Rio Grande. The name 
"Dolores" was doubtless bestowed by Doctor 
Beales in honor of his absent wife. 

Preparations were at once undertaken to form 
tents, huts and cabins, by cleaning out a thicket 
and building a brush wall around it as a fortifica- 
tion against the wild Indians who then, as for gen- 
erations before and for fifty years afterwards, were 
a terror to the Mexican population on that frontier. 
On the 30th, Dr. Beales was unexpectedly com- 
pelled to go to Matamoras, three or four hundred 
miles, to cash his drafts, having failed to do so in 
Monclova. It was a grave disappointment, as 
money was essential to meet the wants of the peo- 
ple. Beyond this date bis notes are inaccessible 
and subsequent events are gleaned dimly from other 
sources. It must suffice to say that without irri- 



Missing Page 



Missing Page 



32 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



tive ladies could it have been made known and this 
they had no oppoi-lunity of doing excepting after 
their recovery and through the narrative from 
which these facts are collected. Neither was ever 
afterwards in the settled parts of Texas, and indeed 
never were before, excepting on the trip from 
Copano, via Goliad and San Antonio, to the Rio 
Grande. 

On another occasion, after traveling for a short 
distance on a large road, evidently leading to 
Matamoras, they arrived near a rancho, near a 
lake of water. The main body halted and a part 
advanced upon the house which, though near, could 
not be seen by the captive ladies, but they heard 
the fight going on, firing and defiant shouts, for a 
considerable time, when the Indians returned, 
bearing two of their comrades severely 
wounded, and showing that they had been 
defeated and feared pursuit. They left the road 
and traveled rapidly till night, and then made 
no fire. On the following day they moved in 
haste, as if apprehensive of attack. They made 
no halt till night, and then for the first time 
in two days, allowed the prisoners water and a 
small quantity of meat. After two hours' travel 
next morning, to the amazement of the captives, 
they arrived at the spot where their husbands and 
friends had been murdered and where their naked 
bodies still lay, untouched since they left them, and 
only blackened in appearance. The little boys, 
John and Joseph, at once recognized their father, 
and poured forth such wails as to soften any but a 
brutal, savage heart. They soon passed on to the 
spot where lay the bodies of Mr. Harris and the 
_young German, who, Mrs. Horn says, fell 
upon his face and knees and was still in that 
position, being the only one not stripped of his 
clothing. 

Startmg next morning by a different route from 
that first pursued, they traveled rapidly for three 
days and reached the spot near where they had 
killed the little Mexican and his family and had 
secreted the plunder taken from his house and 
the other victims of their barbarity. This, Mrs. 
Horn thought, was on the 18th day of April, 1836, 
being the fifteenth day of their captivity. This 
being but three days before the battle of San 
Jacinto, when the entire American population of 
Texas was on, or east of the Trinity, abundantly 
accounts for the fact that these l)loody tragedies 
never become known in Texas ; though, as will be 
shown farther on, they accidentally came to my 
knowledge in the year 1839, while in Missouri. 

Gathering and packing their secreted spoils, the 
savages separated into three parties of about equal 



numbers and traveled with all possible speed till 
about the middle of June, about two months. Much 
of the way was over rough, stony ground, pro- 
visions scarce, long intervals without water, the 
sun on the bare heads and naked bodies of the 
captives, very hot, and their sufferings Were great. 
The ladies were in two different parties. 

The narrative of Mrs. Horn, during her entire 
captivity, abounds in recitals of cruelties towards 
herself, her children and Mrs. Harris, involving 
hunger, thirst, menial labor, stripes, etc., though 
gradually lessened as time passed. To follow them 
in detail would become monotonous repetition. As 
a rather extreme illustration the following facts 
transpired on this long march of about two months 
from extreme Southwest Texas to (it is supposed) 
the head waters of the Arkansas. 

Much of the route, as before stated, was over 
rough and stony ground, " cut up by steep and 
nearly impassable ravines, with deep and dangerous 
fords." (This is Mrs. Harris' language and aptly 
applies to the head waters of the Nueces, Guadalupe, 
the Conchos and the sources of the Colorado, 
Brazos and Red rivers, through which they neces- 
sarily passed.) At one of these deep fords, little 
Joseph Horn slipped from his mule while ascending 
the bank and fell back into the water. When he 
had nearly extricated himself, a burly savage, en- 
raged at the accident, pierced him in the face with 
a lance with such force as to throw him into deep 
and rapid water and inflict a severe wound just be- 
low the eye. Not one of the demons offered remon- 
strance or assistance, but all seemed to exult in the 
brutal scene. The little sufferer, however, caught 
a projecting bush and succeeded in reaching the 
bank, bleeding like a slaughtered animal. The 
distracted mother upbraided the wretch for his con- 
duct, in return for which he made the child travel 
on foot and drive a mule the remainder of the day. 
When they halted for the night he called Mrs. 
Horn to him. With a knife in one hand and a whip 
in the other, he gave her an unmerciful thrashing, 
butinthisas in all her afflictions, she says: " I have 
cast myself at His feet whom I have ever been 
taught to trust and adore, and it is to Ilim I owe it 
that I was sustained in the fiery trials. When the 
savage monster liad done whipping me, he took his 
knife and literally sawed the hair from my head. 
It was quite long and when he completed the oper- 
ation, he tied it to his own as an ornament, and, I 
suppose, wears it yet. At this time we had tasted 
no food for two days, and in hearing of the moana 
of my starving children, bound, as on every night, 
with cords, I laid down, and mothers may judge, if 
they can, the measure of my repose. The next day 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



33 



a wild horse was killed and we were allowed to par- 
take of the flesh." 

The next day, saj's the captive lady, they came 
to a deep, rapid stream. The mules had to swim 
and the banks were so steep that the riders had to 
dismount in the edge of the water to enable them 
to ascend. They then soon came to the base of a 
mountain which it was difficult to ascend. Arriv- 
ing at the summit, they halted, when a few of the 
Indians returned to the stream with the two little 
boys and enjoyed the barbaric sport of throwing 
the little creatures in till life would be almost 
extinct. Reviving them, the}' would repeat the 
torture and this was done time and again. Finally 
they rejoined the party on the mountain, the chil- 
dren being unable to stand, partially unconscious 
and presenting a pitiable spectacle. Their bodies 
were distended from engorgement with water and 
Joseph's wounded face was terribly swollen. 
Water came from their stomachs in gurgles. Let 
Eastern humanitarians bear in mind that this was 
in the spring of 1836, before the Comanches had 
any just pretense for hostility towards the people 
of Texas (however much they may have had in 
regard to the Mexicans), and that this narrative 
comes not from a Texian, but from a refined En- 
glish lady, deeply imbued with that spirit of reli- 
gion whose great pillars are " Faith, Hope and 
Charity." My soul sickens in retrospective con- 
templation of that (to the uninformed) somewhat 
plausible gush of philanthropy, which indulges in 
the Pharisaical " I am holier than thou " hypocrisy 
at home, but soars abroad to lift up the most 
inferior and barbaric races of men ! — a fanaticism 
which is ever blind to natural truth and common 
sense on such subjects — ever the fomentor of 
strife rather than fraternity among its own people — 
and which is never enjoying the maximum of self- 
righteousness unless intermeddling with the affairs 
and convictions of other people. 

Referring to the stream and mountain just de- 
scribed and the probable time, in the absence of 
dates, together with a knowledge of the topography 
of the country, and an evidently dry period , as no 
mention is made in this part of the narrative of 
rain or mud, it is quite certain that the stream was 
the Big Wichita (the Ouichita of the French. ) The 
description, in view of all the facts, admirably 
applies to it and to none other. 

On the night of this day, after traveling through 
the afternoon, for the first time Mrs. Horn was 
allowed the use of her arms, though still bound 
around the ankles. After this little unusual hap- 
pened on the journey, till the three parties again 
united. Mrs. Harris, when they met, seemed barely 

3 



to exist. The meeting of the captive ladies was 
a mournful renewal of their sorrows. Mrs. H.'s 
breasts, though improved, were not well and her 
general health was bad, from which, with the want 
of food and water, she had suffered much. The 
whole band of four hundred then traveled together 
several days, till one day Mrs. Horn, being in front 
and her children in the rear, she discovered that 
those behind her were diverging in separate parties. 
She never again saw her little sons together, though, 
as will be seen, she saw them separately. They 
soon afterwards reached the lodges of the band she 
was with, and, three days later, she was taken to 
the lodge of the Indian who claimed her. There 
were three branches of the family, in separate tents. 
In one was an old woman and her two daughters, 
one being a widow; in another was the son of the 
old woman and his wife and five sons, to whom 
Mrs. Horn belonged ; and in the third was a son- 
in-law of the old woman. The mistress of Mrs. H. 
was the personification of savagery, and abused her 
captive often with blows and stones, till, in des- 
peration Mrs. Horn asserted her rights by counter- 
blows and stones and this rendered the cowardly 
brute less tyrannical. She was employed con- 
stantly by day in dressing buffalo robes and deer 
skins and converting them into garments and moc- 
casins. She was thrown much with an old woman 
who constituted a remarkable exception to the 
general brutality of the tribe. In the language of 
the captive lady: "She contributed generally by 
her acts of kindness and soothing manners, to 
reconcile me to my fate. But she had a daughter 
who was the very reverse of all that was amiable 
and seemed never at ease unless engaged in some 
way in indulging her ill-humor towards me. But, 
as if by heaven's interposition, it was not long till 
I so won the old woman's confidence that in all 
matters of controversy between her daughter and 
myself, she adopted my statement and decided in 
my favor." 

Omitting Mrs. Horn's mental tortures on ac- 
count of her children, she avers that the sufferings 
of Mrs. Harris were much greater than her own. 
That lady could not brook the idea of menial 
service to such demons and fared badlj'. They 
were often near together and were allowed occa- 
sionally to meet and mingle their tears of anguish. 
Mrs. Harris, generally, was starved to such a degree 
that she availed herself of every opportunity to get 
a mite of meat, however small, through Mrs. Horn. 

In about two months two little Mexican boy 
prisoners told her a little white boy had arrived 
near by with his captors and told them his mother 
was a prisoner somewhere in the country. By per- 



34 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



mission she went to see him and found her little 
Joseph, who, painted and his head shaven except- 
ing a tuft on the crown, recognized her at a distance 
and ran to her overflowing with cries and tears of 
joy. She was allowed to remain with him only half 
an hour. I draw the veil over the heartrending 
scene of their separation. 

It was four months before she heard of John, 
her eider son, and then she saw him passing with a 
party, but was not allowed to go to him. But 
some time later, when the different bands congre- 
gated for buffalo hunting, she was allowed to see 
him. Time passed and dates cannot be given, but 
Mrs. Horn records that " some of Capt. Coffee's 
men came to trade with the Indians and found me." 
They were Americans and made every effort to 
buy her, but in vain. On leaving, they said they 
would report to Capt. Coffee and if any one could 
assist these captives he could and would. Soon 
afterwards he came in person and offered the 
Indians any amount in goods or money ; but with- 
out avail. Mrs. Horn says: "He expressed the 
deepest concern at his disappointment and wept 
over me as he gave me clothing and divided his 
scanty supply of flour with me and my children, 
which he took the pains to carry to them himself. 
It is, if possible, with a deeper interest that I 
record this tribute of gratitude to Capt. Coffee be- 
cause, since my strange deliverance, I have been 
pained to learn that he has been charged with 
supineness and indifference on the subject ; but I 
can assure the reader that nothing can be more un- 
just. Mrs. Harris was equally the object of his 
solicitude. The meeting with this friend in the 
deep recesses of savage wilds was indeed like water 
to a thirsty soul ; and the parting under such 
gloomy forebodings opened anew the fountain of 
grief in my heart. It was to me as the icy seal of 
death fixed upon the only glimmering ray of hope, 
and my heart seemed to die within me, as the form 
of him whom I had fondly anticipated as my deliv- 
ering angel, disappeared in the distance." 

(The noble-hearted gentleman thus embalmed in 
the pure heart of that daughter of sorrow, was 
Holland Coffee, the founder of Coffee's Trading 
House, on Red river, a few miles above Denison. 
He was a member of the Texian Congress in 1838, 
a valualdc and courageous man on the frontier and, 
to the regret of the country, was killed a few years 
later in a difficulty, the particulars of which are not 
at this time remembered. Col. Coffee, formerly 
of Southwest Missouri, but for many years of 
Georgetown, Texas, is a brother of the deceased.) 

Soon after this there was so great a scarcity of 
meat that some of the Indians nearly starved. 



Little John managed to send his mother smal' 
portions of his allowance and when, not a great 
while later, she saw him for the last time, he was 
rejoiced to learn she had received them. He had 
been sick and had sore throat, but she was only 
allowed a short interview with him. Soon after this 
little Joseph's party camped near her and she was 
permitted to spend nearly a day with him. He had 
a new owner and said he was then treated kindly. 
His mistress, who was a young Mexican, had been 
captured with her brother, and remained with them, 
while her brother, by some means, had been restored 
to his people. He was one of the hired guard at 
the unfortunate settlement of Dolores, where Joseph 
knew him and learned the story of his captivity and 
that his sister was still with the savages. By acci- 
dent this woman learned these facts from Josejth, 
who, to convince her, shbwed how her brother 
walked, he being lame. This coincidence cstal>- 
lished a bond of union between the two, greatly to 
Joseph's advantage. As the shades of evening 
appn^ached the little fellow piteously clung to his 
mother, who, for the last time, folded him in her 
arms and commended his soul to that beneficent 
God in whose goodness and mercy she implicity 
trusted. 

Some time in June, 1837, a little over fourteen 
months after their capture, a party of Mexican 
traders visited the camp and bought Mrs. Harris. 
In this work of mercy they were the employes' of 
that large-hearted Santa Fe trader, who had pre- 
viously ransomed and restored Mrs. Rachel 
Plummcr to her people, Mr. William Donoho, of 
whom more will hereafter be said. They tried in 
vain to buy Mrs. Horn. Although near each other 
she was not allowed to sec Mrs. Harris before her 
departure, but rejoiced at her liberation. They 
had often mingled their tears together and had been 
mutual comforters. 

Of this separation Mrs. Horn wrote: "Now 
left a lonely exile in the bonds of savage slavery, 
haunted by night and by day with the image pf my 
murdered husband, and tortured continually by an 
undying solicitude for my dear little ones, my life 
was little else than unmiUgated misery, and the 
God of Heaven only knows why and how it is that 
I am still alive." 

After the departure of Mrs. Harris the Indians 
traveled to and fro almost continually for about 
three months, without any remarkable occurrence. 
At the 011(1 of this time they were within two days' 
travel of San Miguel, a village on the Pecos,' in 
eastern New Mexico. Here an Indian girl told 
Mrs. Horn that she was to he sold to people who 
lived in houses. She did not believe it and cared 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



35 



tout little, indeed dreaded lest thereby she might 
inecer see her children, but hope suggested that as 
a prisoner she might never again see them, while 
•her redemption might be followed by theirs. A 
great many Indians had here congregated. Her 
old woman friend, in reply to her questions, told 
■her she was to be sold, wept bitterly and applied 
to her neck and arms a peculiar red paint, symbolic 
of undying friendship. They started early next 
morning and traveled till dark, encamping near 
a pond. They started before day next morning 
And soon reached a river, necessarily the Pecos or 
ancient Puerco, which they forded, and soon 
arrived at a small town on its margin, where they 
-encamped for the remainder of the day. The 
inhabitants visited the camp from curiosity, among 
them a man who spoke broken P^nglish, who asked 
if Mrs. Horn was for sale and was answered 
afflrmatively by her owner. He then gave her to 
understand that if he bought her he expected her 
to remain with him, to which, with the feelings of 
a pure woman, she promptly replied that she did 
not wish to exchange her miserable condition for 
a worse one. He offered two horses for her, how- 
ever, but they were declined. Finding he could 
not buy her, he told her that in San Miguel there 
was a rich American merchant, named Benjamin 
Hill, who would probably buy her. Her mistress 
seemed anxious that she should fall into American 
hands, and she was herself of course intensely 
anxious to do so. 

They reached San Miguel on the next daj' and 
encamped there. She soon conveyed, through an 
old woman of the place, a message to Mr. Hill. 
He promptly appeared and asked her if she knew 
Mrs. Hai'ris, and if she had two children among the 
Indians. Being answered in the affirmative, he 
■said: "You are the woman I have heard of," and 
added, " I suppose you would be happy to get away 
from these people." "I answered in the affirmative, 
when he bid the wretched captive ' Good morning,' 
and deliberately walked off without uttering another 
word, and my throbbing bosom swelled with unut- 
terable anguish as he disappeared." 

For two days longer she remained in excruciating 
suspense as to her fate. Mr. Hill neither visited 
nor sent her anything, while the Mexicans were very 
kind (it should be understood that, while at Dolores, 
she and her two little boys had learned to speak 
Spanish and this was to her advantage now, as it 
had been among her captors, more or less of whom 
spoke that language.) 

On the morning of the third day the Indians be- 
igan preparations for leaving, and when three-fourths 
of the animals were packed and some had left, a 



good-hearted Mexican appeared and offered to buy 
Mrs. Horn, but was told it was too late. The ap- 
plicant insisted, exhibited four beautiful bridles and 
invited the Indian owning her to go with her to his 
house, near by. He consented. In passing Hill's 
store on the way, her mistress, knowing she pre- 
ferred passing into American hands, persuaded her 
to enter it. Mr. Hill offered a worthless old horse 
for her, and then refused to give some red and blue 
cloth, which the Indians fancied, for her. They 
then went to the Mexican's house and he gave for 
her two fine horses, the four fine bridles, two fine 
blankets, two looking glasses, two knives, some 
tobacco, powder and balls, articles then of very 
great cost. She says : "I subsequently learned 
that for my ransom I was indebted to the benevo- 
lent heart of an American gentleman, a trader, then 
absent, who had authorized this Mexican to pur- 
chase us at any cost, and had made himself respon- 
sible for the same. Had I the name of my bene- 
factor I would gratefully record it in letters of gold 
and preserve it as a precious memento of his truly 
Christian philanthropy." 

It will be shown in the sequel that the noble 
heart, to which the ransomed captive paid homage, 
pulsated in the manly breast of Mr. William 
Donoho, then of Santa Fe, but a Missourian, and 
afterwards of Clarksville, Texas, where his only 
surviving child, Mr. James B. Donoho, yet resides. 
His widow died there in 1880, preceded by him in 
1845. 

The redemption of this daughter of multiplied 
sorrows occurred, as stated, at San Miguel, New 
Mexico, on the 19th of September, 1837 — one 
year, five months and fifteen days after her capture 
on the 4th of April, 1836, on the Nueces river. 

On the 21st, much to her surprise, Mr. Hill sent 
a servant requesting her to remo^^e to his house. 
This she refused. The servant came a second 
time, saying, in the name of his master, that if she 
did not go he would compel her to do so. A trial 
was had and she was awarded to Hill. She re- 
mained in his service as a servant, fed on mush 
and milk and denied a seat at the luxurious table 
of himself and mistress till the 2d of November. 
A generous-hearted gentlemen named Smith, 
residing sixty miles distant in the mines, hearing 
of her situation, sent the necessary means and 
escort to have her taken to his place for temporary' 
protection. She left on the 2d and arrived at Mr. 
Smith's on the 4th. The grateful heart thus notes 
the change: "The contrast between this and the 
house I had left exhibited the difference between 
a servant and a guest, between the cold heart that 
would coin the tears of helpless misery into gold 



36 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



to swell a miser's store, and the generous bestowal 
of heavenly friendship which, in its zeal to relieve 
the woes of suffering humanity, gives sacred 
attestation that it springs from the bosom of ' Him 
who, though He was rich, yet for our sakes became 
poor that we, through His poverty, might become 
rich.' " 

Her stay at the home of Mr. Smith was a daily 
repetition of kindnesses, and she enjoyed all that 
was possible in view of the ever present grief over 
her slaughtered husband and captive children. 

In February 1838, she received a sympathetic 
letter from Texas, accompanied with presents in 
clothing, from Messrs. Workman and Rowland, 
Missourians, so long honorably known as Santa Fe 
traders and merchants, whose families were then 
residing in Taos. They advised her to defer leav- 
ing for Independence till they could make another 
effort to recover her children and invited her to re- 
pair, as their guest, to Taos, to await events, pro- 
vided the means for her doing so, placing her under 
the protection of Mr. Kinkindall (probably Kuy- 
kendall, but I follow her spelling of the name). 

" But," she records, " friends were multiplying 
around me, who seemed to vie with each other in 
their endeavors to meet my wants. Other means 
presented themselves, and I was favored with the 
company of a lady and Dr. "Waldo." 

She left Mr. Smith and the mines on the 4lh of 
March, 1838, and after traveling in snow and over 
rocks and mountains part of the way, arrived at 
Taos on the 10th. From that time till the 22d of 
August, her time was about equally divided between 
the families of Messrs. Workman and Eowland, who 
bestowed upon her every kindness. 

She now learned that these gentlemen had for- 
merly sent out a company to recover herself and 
Mrs. Harris, w'hohad fallen in with a different tribe 
of Indians and lost several of their number in a 
fight. Her friend, Mr. Smith, had performed a 
similar service and when far out his guide faltered, 
causing such suffering as to cause several deaths 
from hunger, while some survived by drinking the 
blood of their mules. While Mrs. Horn remained 
with them these gentlemen endeavored through two 
trading parties, to recover her children, but failed. 
A report came in that little John had frozen to 
death, holding horses at night; but it was not 
believed by many. Mrs. Harris and Mrs. Plummer 
reached Missouri under the protection of Mrs. 
Donoho. On the 2d of August, all efforts to recover 
her children having failed, leaving only the hope 
that others might succeed, Mrs. Horn left in the 
train and under the protection of Messrs. Workman 
and Rowland. She was the only lady in the party. 



Nothing unusual transpired on the journey of 700 
or 800 miles, and on the last day of September, 
1838, they arrived at Independence, Missouri. On 
the 6th of October, she reached the hospitable home 
of Mr. David Workman at " New " Franklin. 

This closes the narrative as written by Mrs. Horn 
soon after she reached Missouri and before she 
met Mr. Donoho. Her facts have been faithfully 
followed, omitting the repetition of her sufferings 
and correcting her dates in two cases where her 
memory was at fault. She sailed from New York 
on the 11th of November, 1833, a year earlier than 
stated by her, hence arrived at Dolores a year 
earlier, and consequently remained there two years 
instead of one, for it is absolutely certain that sh& 
arrived there in March, 1834, and left there in 
March, 1836. I have been able also, from her 
notes, to approximate localities and routes men- 
tioned by her, from long acquaintance with much 
of the country over which she traveled. 

Mr. Donoho, in company with his wife — a lady 
of precious memory in Clarksville, Texas, from 
the close of 1839 till her death in 1880 — conveyed 
Mrs. Plummer (one of the captives taken at Parker's 
Fort, May 19, 1836), and Mrs. Harris, from Santa 
Fe to Missouri in the autumn of 1837. He escorted 
Mrs. Plummer to her people in Texas, left his wife 
and Mrs. Harris with his mother-in-law, Mrs. Lucy 
Dodson in Pulaski County, Missouri, and then 
hastened back to Santa Fe to look after his property 
and business, for he had hurried away because of a 
sudden outbreak of hostilities between the New 
Mexicans and Indians formerly friendly, and this^ 
is the reason he was not present to take personal, 
charge of Mrs. Horn on her recovery at San Miguel. 
When he reached Santa Fe Mrs. Horn had left 
Taos for Independence. Closing his business in 
Santa Fe, he left the place permanently and 
rejoined his family at Mrs. Dodson's. Mrs. Horn 
then, for the first time, met him and remained several 
months with his family. Prior to this her narrative 
had been written, and she slill saw little of him, he 
being much absent on business. Mrs. Harris had 
relatives in Texas but shrunk from the idea of goino- 
there ; and hearing of other kindred near Boonville, 
Missouri, joined them and soon died from the expos- 
ures and abuse undergone while a prisoner. Mrs. 
Horn soon died from the same causes, while on a. 
visit, though her home was with Mrs. Dodson. 
Both ladies were covered with barbaric scars — their 
vital organs were impaired — and they fell the 
victims of the accursed cruelty known only ta 
savage brutes. 

Mr. William Donoho was a son of Kentucky, 
born in 1798. His wife, a Tennesseean, and 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



87 



daughter of Dr. James Dodson, married Mm in 
Missouri, in 1831, where their first child was born. 
From 1833 till the close of 1838, they lived in Santa 
Fe, where the second daughter, born in 1835, and 
their first son, born in 1837 (now Mr. J. B. Don- 
oho, of Clarksville, the only survivor of six chil- 
dren), were the two first American children born 
in Santa Fe. Mr. Donoho permanentlj' settled at 
Clarksville, Texas, late in 1839 and died there in 
• 1845. 

In verification of the facts not stated by Mrs. 
Horn, because, when writing, they were unknown 
to her, I have the statements of Dr. "William Dod- 
son and Mrs. Lucy Estes, of Camden County, Mis- 
souri, brother and sister of Mrs. Donoho, who were 
with all the parties for nearly a year after they 
reached Missouri. 

A copy of Mrs. Horn's memoir came into my 
possession in 1839, when it had just been issued 
and so remained till accidentally lost many years 
later, believed to have been the only copy ever in 
Texas. The events described by her were never 
otherwise known in Texas and have never been be- 
fore published in the State. This is not strange. 
Beales' Colony was neither in Texas at that date, 
nor in anywise connected with the American col- 
onies or settlements in Texas. It was in Coahuila, 
though now in the limits of Texas. When its short 
life terminated in dispersion and the butchery of 
the retreating party on the Nueces, the Mexican 
army covered every roadway leading to the in- 
habited part of Texas, before whom the entire 
population had fled east. None were left to re- 
count the closing tragedy excepting the two 
unfortunate and (as attested by all who subse- 
quently knew them), refined Christian ladies whose 
travails and sorrows have been chronicled, both of 
whom, as shown, died soon after liberation, and 
neither of whom ever after saw Texas. 

Fortunately, through the efforts of Mr. James 
B. Donoho, of Clarksville, and his uncle, Dr. Dod- 
son, and aunt, Mrs. Estes, of Missouri, I have 
been placed in possession of a manuscript copy of 



Mrs. Horn's narrative, made by a little, school girl 
in Missouri in 1839 — afterwards Mrs. D. B. Dod- 
son, and now long deceased. Accompanying its 
transmission, on the 5th of February, 1887, Mr. 
James B. Donoho says: — 

"As it had always been a desire with me to 
some time visit the place of my birth, in the summer 
of 1885, with my wife and children, I visited Santa 
Fe, finding no little pleasure in identifying land- 
marks of which I had heard my mother so often 
speak, being myself an infant when we left there. 
I had no trouble in identifying the house in which 
my second sister and self were born, as it cornered 
on the plaza and is now known as the Exchange 
Hotel. While there it was settled that my sister, 
born in 1835, and myself, born in 1837, were the 
first Americans born in Santa Fe, a distinction (if 
such it can be called) previously claimed for one 
born there in 1838." 

The novelty of this history, unknown to the peo- 
ple of Texas at the time of its occurrence, has 
moved me to extra diligence in search of the troth 
and the whole trdth in its elucidation. As a deli- 
cate and patriotic duty it has been faithfully per- 
formed in justice to the memory of the strangely 
united daughters of England and America, and 
of those lion-hearted yet noble-breasted American 
gentlemen, Messrs. Donoho, Workman, Rowland 
and Smith, by no means omitting Mrs. Donoho, 
Mrs. Dodson and children, nor yet the poor old 
Comanche woman — a pearl among swine — who 
looked in pity upon the stricken widow, mother and 
captive. 

Lamenting my inability to state the fate of little 
John and Joseph, and trusting that those to 
come after us may realize the cost in blood through 
which Texas was won to civilization, to enlightened 
freedom and to a knowledge of that religion by 
which it is taught that — " Charity suffereth long 
and is kind — * * * beareth all things, believeth 
all things, hopeth all things, and endureth all 
things," I do not regret the labor it has cost me to 
collect the materials for this sketch. 



38 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



The Heroic Taylor Family of the Three Forks of 

Little River — 1835. 



In the autumn of 1835 the outermost habitation 
on the waters of Little river was that of the Taylor 
family. It stood about three miles southeast of 
where Belton is, a mile or so east of the Leon river 
and three miles or more above the mouth of that 
stream. The junction of the Leon, Lampasas and 
Salado constitutes the locality known as the " Three 
Forks of Little River," the latter stream being 
the San Andres of the Mexicans as well as of 
the early settlers of Texas. This change of name 
is not the only one wrought in that locality, for 
the names "Lampasas" (water lily) and "Sal- 
ado " (saltish) were also most inappropriately 
exchanged, the originals being characteristic of 
the two streams, while the swap makes descriptive 
nonsense. At an earlier period the same incon- 
gruous change occurred in the names of the 
" Brazos " and " Colorado " rivers. 

The home of the Taylors consisted of two long 
cabins with a covered passage between. The 
family consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Taylor, two 
youthful sons and two daughters. One of the 
latter, Miss Frazier, was a daughter of Mrs. Tay- 
lor by a former husband, and afterwards the wife 
of George W. Chapman, of Bell County. 

In the night of November 12th, 1835, eleven 
Indians attacked the house. The parents and girls 
were in one room — the boys in the other. The 
door to the family room, made of riven boards, 
was a foot too short, leaving an open space at the 
top. The first indication of the presence of the 
enem^- was the warning of a faithful dog, which was 
speedily killed in the yard. This was followed by 
a burly warrior trying to force the door, at the 
same time in English demanding to know how 
many men were in the house, a supply of tobacco 
and the surrender of the family. By the bright 
moonlight they could be distinctly seen. Mrs. 
Taylor defiantly answered, "No tobacco, no sur- 
render," and Mr. Taylor answered there were ten 
men in the house. The assailant pronounced the 
latter statement false, when Taylor, through a 
crack, gave him a severe thrust in the stomach with 
a board, which caused his hasty retreat, whereupon 
Mrs. Taylor threw open the door, commanding the 
boys to hasten in across the hall, which they did, 
escaping a flight of balls and arrows. The door 
was then fastened, a table set against it, and on it 
the smallest boy, a child of only twelve years, was 



mounted with a gun and instructed to shoot 
through the space over the door whenever an 
Indian appeared. There were not many bullets on 
hand, and the girls supplied that want by moulding ■ 
more. Taylor, his wife and larger son, watched 
through cracks in the walls to shoot as opportunity 
might occur. Very soon a warrior entered the 
passageway to assault the door, when the twelve 
years' " kid," to use a cant phrase in use to day, 
shot him unto death. A second warrior rushed in 
to drag his dead comrade away, but Mr. Taylor shot 
him, so that he fell, not dead but helpless, across 
his red brother. These two admonitions rendered 
the assailants more cautious. They resolved tO' 
effect by fire that which seemed too hazardous by 
direct attack. They set the now vacated room on 
Ore at the further end and amid their demoniac 
yells the flames ascended to the roof and made 
rapid progress along the boards, soon igniting those 
covering the hallway. Suspended to beams was a 
large amount of fat bear meat. The burning roof 
soon began to cook the meat, and blazing sheets of 
the oil fell upon the wouuded savage, who writhed 
and hideously yelled, but was powerless to extri- 
cate himself from the tortune. Mrs. Taylor had 
no sympathy for the wretch, but, pee[)ing through 
a crack, expressed her feelings by exclaiming: 
" Howl! you yellow brute ! Your meat is not fit 
for hogs, but we'll roast you for the wolves ! " 

As the fire was reaching the roof of the besieged 
room, Mr, Taylor was greatly dispirited, seeming 
to regard their fate as sealed ; but his heroic wife, 
thinking not of herself, but of her children, rose 
equal to the occasion, declaring that they would 
whip the enemy and all be saved. From a table 
she was enabled to reach the boards forming the 
roof. Throwing down the weight poles, there 
being no nails in the boards, she threw down 
enough boards in advance of the lire to create an 
empty space. There was a large quantity of milk 
in the house and a small barrel of home-made 
vinegar. These fluids were passed up to her by 
her daughters, and with them she extinguished 
the Are. In doing so her head and chest formed 
a target for the enemy ; but while several arrows 
and balls rent her clothing, she was in nowise 
wounded. 

While these matters were transpiring, Mr. Taylor 
and the elder son each wounded a savawe in the 




QUANATI PARKER. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



39 



yard. Having accomplished her hazardous mission, 
Mrs. Taylor resumed the floor, and soon discovered 
an Indian in the outer chimney corner, endeavoring 
to start a Are and peering through a considerable 
hole burnt through the "dirt and wooden" jam. 
Seizing a wooden shovel, she threw into his face 
and bosom a . shovelful of live coals and embers, 
causing him to retreat, uttering the most agonizing 
screams, to which she responded " Take that, you 
yellow scoundrel!" It was said afterwards that 
her warm and hasty application destroyed his eye- 
sight. 

After these disasters the enemy held a brief con- 
sultation and realized the fact that of their group 
of eleven, two were dead and partially barbecued, 
two were severely wounded, and one was at least 
temporarily blind under the "heroic" oculistical 
treatment of Mrs Taylor. What was said by them, 
one to another, is not known ; but they retired 



without further obtrusion upon the peace and 
dignity of that outpost in the missionary field of 
civilization. 

An hour later the family deemed it prudent to 
retire to the river bottom, and next morning fol- 
lowed it down to the fort. A small party of men 
then repaired to the scene of conflict and found the 
preceding narrative verified in every essential. 
The dead Indians were there, and everything 
remained as left by the family'. Excepting Mrs. 
Chapman, all of that family long since passed away. 
Before the Civil War I personally knew Brown 
Taylor, one of the sons, then a quiet, modest young 
man, carrying in his breast the disease destined to 
cut short his days — consumption. 

This all happened more than fifty years ago. 
To-day two large towns, Belton and Temple, and 
half a dozen small ones, and two trunk line rail- 
roads are almost in sight of the spot. 



Fall of Parker's Fort in 1836 — The Killed, Wounded and Cap- 
tured — Van Dorn's Victory in 1858 — Recovery of 
Cynthia Ann Parker — Quanah Parker, 
the Comanche Chief. 



In the fall of 1833 the Parker family came 
from Cole County, Illinois, to East Texas — one or 
two came a little earlier and some a little later. 
The elder Parker was a native of Virginia, resided 
for a time in Georgia, but chiefly reared his family 
in Bedford County, Tennessee, whence, in 1818, he 
removed to Illinois. The family, with perhaps one 
exception, belonged to one branch of the primitive 
Baptist Church, commonly designated as Two Seed 
Baptists. 

Parker's Fort, or block-house, a mile west of the 
Navasota creek and two and a half northwesterly 
from the present town of Groesbeck, in Limestone 
County, was established in 1834, with accessions 
afterwards up to the revolution in the fall of 1835. 
At the time of the attack upon it, May 19, 1836, it 
was occupied by Elder John Parker, patriarch of 
the family, and his wife, his son, James W. Parker, 
wife, four single children and his daughter, Mrs. 
Rachel Plummer, her husband, L. T. M. Plummer, 
and infant son, 15 months old ; Mrs. Sarah Nixon, 
another daughter, and her husband, L. D. Nixon ; 



Silas M. Parker (another son of Elder John), his 
wife and four children ; Benjamin F. Parker, an 
unmarried son of the Elder;. Mrs. Nixon, Sr., 
mother of Mrs. James W. Parker ; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Kellogg, daughter of Mrs. Nixon ; Mrs. Duty ; 
Samuel M. Frost, wife and children ; G. E. Dwight, 
wife and children ; David Faulkenberry, his son 
Evan, Silas H. Bates and Abram Anglin, a youth|of 
nineteen years. The latter four sometimes slept in 
the fort and sometimes in their cabins on their farms, 
perhaps two miles distant. They, however, were in 
the fort on the night of May 18th. 

On the morning of May 19th, James W. Parker 
and Nixon repaired to their fleld, a mile dis- 
tant, on the Navasota. The two Faulkenberrys, 
Bates and Anglin went to their fields, a mile 
further and a little below. About 9 a. m. several 
hundred Indians appeared in the prairie, about 
three hundred yards, halted, and hoisted a white 
flag. Benjamin F. Parker went over to them, had 
a talk and returned, expressing the opinion that the 
Indians intended to fight ; but added that he would 



40 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



go back and try to avert it. His brother Silas 
remonstrated, but be persisted in going, and was 
immediately surrounded and killed ; whereupon 
the whole force sent forth terrific yells, and charged 
upon the works, the occupants numbering but three 
men, wholly unprepared for defense. Cries and 
confusion reigned. They killed Silas M. Parker on 
the outside of the fort, while he was bravely fight- 
ing to save Mrs. Plummer. They knocked Mrs. 
Pluramer down with a hoe and made her captive. 
Elder John Parker, wife and Mrs. Kellogg attempted 
to escape, and got about three-fourths of a mile, 
when they were overtaken, and driven back near to 
the fort, where the old gentleman was stripped, 
murdered and scalped. They stripped and speared 
Mrs. Parker, leaving her as dead — but she revived, 
as will be seen further on. Mrs. Kellogg remained 
captive. 

When the Indians first appeared, Mrs. Sarah 
Nixon hastened to the field to advise her father, 
husband and Plummer. Plummer hastened down 
to Inform the Faulkenberrys, Bates and Anglin. 
David Faulkenberry was first met and started im- 
mediately to the fort. The others followed as 
soon as found by Plummer. J. W. Parker and 
Nixon started to the fort, but the former met his 
family on the way, and took them to the Navasota 
bottom. Nixon, though unarmed, continued on to- 
ward the fort, and met Mrs. Lucy, wife of the dead 
Silas Parker, with her four children, just as she 
was overtaken by the Indians. They compelled 
her to lift behind two mounted warriors her nine- 
3'ear-old daughter, Cynthia Ann, and her little boy, 
John. The foot Indians took her and her two 
younger children back to the fort, Nixon following. 
On arriving, she passed around and Nixon through 
the fort. Just as the Indians were about to kill 
Nixon, David Faulkenberry appeared with his rifle, 
and caused them to fall back. Nixon then hurried 
away to find his wife, and soon overtook Dwight, 
with bis own and Frost's family. Dwight met J. 
W. Parker and went with him to his hiding-place 
in the bottom. 

Faulkenberry, thus left with Mrs. Silas Parker 
and her two children, bade her follow him. With 
the infant in her arms and the other child held by 
the hand, she obeyed. The Indians made several 
feints, but vrere held in check by the brave man's 
rifle. One warrior dashed up so near that Mrs. 
Parker's faithful dog siezed his pony by the nose, 
whereupon both horse and rider somersaulted, 
alighting on their backs in a ditch. 

At this time Silas Bates, Abram Anglin and 
Evan Faulkenberry, armed, and Plummer, un- 
."vrmed, came up. They passed through Silas 



Parker's field, when Plummer, as if aroused from 
a dream, demanded to know what had become of 
his wife and child. Armed only with the butcher 
knife of Abram Anglin, he left the party in search 
of his wife, and was seen no more for six days. 
The Indians made no further assault. 

During the assault on the fort, Samuel M. Frost 
and his son Robert fell while heroically defending 
the women and children inside the stockade. 

The result so far was : — 

Killed — Elder John Parker, Benjamin F. Parker, 
Silas M. Parker, Samuel M. Frost and his son 
Robert. 

Wounded dangerously — Mrs. John Parker and 
Mrs. Duty. 

Captured— Mrs. Elizabeth Kellogg, Cynthia 
Ann and John, children of Silas M. Parker, Mrs. 
Rachel Plummer and infant James Pratt Plummer. 

The Faulkenberrys, Bates and Anglin, with Mrs. 
Parker and children, secreted themselves in a 
small creek bottom. On the way they were met 
and joined by Seth Bates, father of Silas, and Mr. 
Lunn, also an old man. Whether they had slept 
in the fort or in the cabins during the previous 
night all accounts fail to say. Elisha Anglin 
was the father of Abram, but his whereabouts do 
not appear in any of the accounts. At twilight 
Abram Anglin and Evan Faulkenberry started 
back to the fort. On reaching Elisha Anglin's 
cabin, they found old mother Parker covered with 
blood and nearly naked. They secreted her and 
went on to the fort, where they found no one alive, 
but found $106.50 where the old lady had secreted 
the money under a book. They returned and 
conducted her to those in the bottom, where they 
also found Nixon, who had failed to find his wife, 
for, as he ought to have known, she was with her 
father. On the next morning. Bates, Anglin and 
E. Faulkenberry went back to the fort, secured 
five horses and provisions and the party in the 
bottom were thus enabled to reach Fort Houston 
without material suffering. Fort Houston, an 
asylum on this as on many other occasions, stood 
on what has been for many years the field of a wise 
statesman, a chivalrous soldier and an incorruptible 
patriot — John H. Reagan — two miles west of 
Palestine. 

After six days of starvation, with their clothing 
torn into shreds, their bodies lacerated with briars 
and thorns, the women and children with unshod 
and bleeding feet, the party of James W. Parker — 
2 men, 19 women and children — reached Tinnin's, 
at the old San Antonio and Nacogdoches crossing 
of the Navasota. Being informed of their approach, 
Messrs. Carter and Courtney, with five horses, met 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



41 



them some miles away, and thus enabled the 
women and children to ride. The few people 
around, though but returned to their deserted 
homes after the victory of San Jacinto, shared all 
they had of food and clothing with them. Plum- 
mer, after six days of wanderings, joined the 
party the same day. In due time the members of 
the party located temporarily as best suited the 
respective families. A party from Fort Houston 
went up and buried the dead. 

The experienced frontiersman of later da^'s will 
be struck with the apparent lack of leadership or 
organization among the settlers. Had they existed, 
combined with proper signals, there can be little 
doubt but that the Indians would have been held 
at bay. 

THE CAPTIVES, 

Mrs. Kellogg fell into the hands of the Keechis, 
from whom, six months after her capture, she was 
purchased by some Delawares, who carried her 
into Nacogdoches and delivered her to Gen. Hous- 
ton, who paid them $150.00, the amount they had 
paid and all they asked. On the way thence to 
Fort Houston, escorted by J. W. Parker and 
others, a hostile Indian was slightly wounded and 
temporarily disabled by a Mr. Smith. Mrs. Kel- 
logg instantly recognized him as the savage who 
had scalped the patriarch, Elder John Parker, 
whereupon, without judge, jury or court-martial, 
or even dallying with Judge Lynch, he was invol- 
untarily hastened on to the happy hunting-ground 
of his fathers. 

Mrs. Rachel Plummer, after a brutal captivity 
through th€ agency of some Mexican Santa Fe 
traders, was ransomed by a noble-hearted Amer- 
ican merchant of that place, Mr. William Donoho. 
She was purchased in the Rocky Mountains so far 
north of Santa Fe that seventeen days were con- 
sumed in reaching that place. She was at once 
made a member of her benefactor's family, after 
a captivity of one and a half years. She, ere long, 
accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Donoho to Independ- 
ence, Missouri, and in due time embraced her 
brother-in-law, Nixon, and by him was escorted 
back to her people. On the 19th of February, 
1838, she reached her father's house, exactly 
twenty-one months from her capture. She had 
never seen her infant son, James P., since soon 
after their capture, and knew nothing of his fate. 
She wrote, or dictated an account of her sufferings 
and observations among the savages, and died on 
the 19th of February, 1839. About six months 
after her capture she gave birth to a child, but it 
was cruelly murdered in her presence. As remark- 



able coincidences it may be stated that she was born 
on the 19th, married on the 19th, captured on the 
19th, released on the 19th, reached Independence 
on the 19th, arrived at home on the 19th, 
and died on the 19th of the month. Her 
child, James Pratt Plummer, was ransomed and 
taken to Fort Gibson late in 1842, and reached 
home in February, in 1843, in charge of his grand- 
father. He became a respected citizen of Ander- 
son County. This still left in captivity Cynthia 
Ann and John Parker, who, as subsequently 
learned, were held by separate bands. John grew 
to manhood and became a warrior. In a raid into 
Mexico he captured a Mexican girl and made her 
his wife. Afterwards he was seized with small-pox. 
His tribe fled in dismay, taking his wife and leaving 
him alone to die ; but she escaped from them and 
returned to nurse him. He recovered and in dis- 
gust quit the Indians to go and live with his wife's 
people, which he did, and when the civil war broke 
out, he joined a Mexican company in the Confed- 
erate service. He, however, refused to leave the 
soil of Texas and would, under no circumstance, 
cross the Sabine into Louisiana. He was still liv- 
ing across the Rio Grande a few years ago, but up 
to that time had never visited any of his Texas 
cousins. 

EECOVERY OP CYNTHIA ANN PAKKER. 

From May 19th, 1836, to December 18th, 1860, 
was twenty-four years and seven months. Add to 
this nine years, her age when captured, and, at the 
latter date Cynthia Ann Parker was in her thirty- 
fourth year. During that quarter of a century no 
reliable tidings had ever been received of her. 
She had long been given up as dead or irretriev- 
ably lost to civilization. As a prelude to her 
reclamation, a few other important events may be 
narrated. 

When, in 1858, Major Earl Van Dorn, United 
States dragoons, was about leaving Fort Belknap 
on his famous campaign against the hostile tribes, 
Lawrence Sullivan Eoss (the Gen. " Sul " Ross, 
a household favorite throughout Texas to-day), 
then a frontier Texas youth of eighteen, had just 
returned for vacation from college. He raised and 
took command of 135 friendly Waco, Tehuacano, 
Toncahua and Caddo Indians and tendered their 
services to Van Dorn, which were gladly accepted. 
He was sent in advance to " spy out the land," the 
troops and supply trains following. Reaching the 
Wichita mountains, Ross sent a confidential Waco 
and Tehuacano to the Wichita village, 75 miles east 
of the Washita river, hoping to learn where the 



42 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



hostile Comanchea were. On approaching he 
village these two scouts, to their surprise, found 
that Buffalo Hump and his band of Comanches, 
against whom Van Dorn's expedition was intended, 
were there, trading and gambling with the Wichitas. 
The scouts lay concealed till night, then stole two 
Comanche horses and hastily rejoined Ross with the 
tidings. With some difficulty Ross convinced Van 
Dorn of the reliability of the scouts and persuaded 
him to deflect his course and make a forced march 
for the village. At sunrise, on the first day of 
Outober, they struck the village as a whirlwind, 
almost annihilating Buffalo Hump and his power- 
ful band, capturing horses, tents, equipage and 
numerous prisoners, among whom was the white 
girl, " Lizzie," never recognized or claimed by 
kindred, but adopted, educated and tenderly reared 
by Gen. Ross and subsequently married and died 
in California. VanDorn was dangerously wounded ; 
as was also Ross, by a rifie ball, whose youthful 
gallantry was such that every United States officer, 
while yet on the battle field, signed a petition to 
the President to commission him as an officer in the 
regular army, and he soon received from Gen. 
Winfield Scott a most complimentary official recog- 
nition of his wise and dauntless bearing. 

Graduating at college a year later (in 1859), in 
1860 and till secession occurred in the beginning 
of 18fil, young Ross was kept, more or less, in the 
frontier service. In the fall of 1860, under the 
commission of Governor Sam Houston, he was 
stationed near Fort Belknap, in command of a com- 
pany of rangers. Late in November a band of 
Comanches raided Parker County, committed serious 
depredations and retreated with many horses, creat- 
ing great excitement among the sparsely settled 
inhabitants. Ross, in command of a party of his 
own men, a sergeant and twenty United States 
cavalry, placed at his service by Capt. N. G. 
Evans, commanding at Camp Cooper, and seventy 
citizens from Palo Pinto County, under Capt. Jack 
Curington, followed the marauders a few days 
later. Early on the 18th of December near some 
cedar mountains, on the head waters of Pease 
river, they suddenly came upon an Indian village, 
which the occupants, with their horses already 
packed, were about leaving. Curington's company 
was several miles behind, and twenty of the rangers 
were on foot, leading their broken-down horses, 
the only food for them for several days having been 
the bark and sprigs of young cottonwoods. With 
the dragoons and only twenty of his own men, 
seeing that he was undiscovered, Ross charged the 
camp, completely surprising the Indians. In less 
than half an hour he had complete possession of the 



camp, their supplies and 350 horses, besides killing 
many. Two Indians, mounted, attempted to escape 
to the mountains, about six miles distant. Lieut. 
Thomas Killiher pursued one ; Ross and Lieut. 
Somerville followed the other. Somerville's heavy 
weight soon caused his horse to fail, and Ross pur- 
sued alone till, in about two miles, he came up with 
Mohee, chief of the band. After a short combat, 
Ross triumphed in the death of his adversary, 
securing his lance, shield, quiver and head-dress, 
all of which remain to the present time among 
similar trophies in the State collection at Austin. 
Very soon Lieut. Killiher joined him in charge of 
the Indian he had followed, who proved to be a 
woman, with her girl child, about two and a halt 
years old. On the way back a Comanche boy was 
picked up by Lieut. Sublett. Ross took charge of 
him, and he grew up at Waco, bearing the name of 
Pease, suggested doubtless by the locality of his 
capture. 

It soon became evident that the captured woman 
was an American, and through a Mexican interpre- 
ter it became equally certain that she had been cap- 
tured in childhood — that her husband had been 
killed in the fight, and that she had two little boys 
elsewhere among the band to which siie belonged. 
Ross, from all the facts, suspected that she might 
be one of the long missing Parker children, and on 
reaching the settlements, sent for the venerable 
Isaac Parker, of Tarrant County, son and brother 
respectively of those killed at the Fort in 1836. 
On his arrival it was soon made manifest that the 
captured woman was Cynthia Ann Parker, as per- 
fectly an Indian in habit as if she had been so born. 
She recognized her name when distinctly pro- 
nounced by her uncle ; otherwise she knew not an 
English word. She sought every opportunity to 
escape, and had to be closely watched for some 
time. Her uncle brought herself and child into 
his home — then took them to Austin, where the 
secession convention was in session. Mrs. John 
Henry Brown and Mrs. N. C. Raymond interested 
themselves in her, dressed her neatly, and on one 
occasion took her into the gallery of the hall while 
the convention was in session. They soon realized 
that she was greatly alarmed by the belief that the 
assemblage was a council of chiefs, sitting in judg- 
ment on her life. Mrs. Brown beckoned to her 
husband, who was a member of the convention, who 
appeared and succeeded in reassuring her that she 
was among friends. 

Gradually her mother tongue came back, and 
with it occasional incidents of her childhood, includ- 
ing a recognition of the venerable Mr. Anglin and 
perhaps one or two others. She proved to be a 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



43 



sensible and comely woman, and died at her 
, brother's in Anderson County, in 1870, preceded a 
short time by her sprightly little daughter, "Prairie 
Flower." 

One of the little sons of Cynthia Ann died some 
years later. The other, now known as Capt. 
Quanah Parker, born, as he informed me, at Wich- 
ita Falls, in 1854, is a popular and trustworthy 
chief of the Comanches, on their reservation in the 
Indian Territory. He speaks English, is consider- 
ably advanced in civilization, and owns a ranch 
with considerable live stock and a small farm — 
withal a fine looking and dignified son of the 
plains. 

Thus ended the sad story begun May 19th, 1836. 
Various detached accounts have been given of it. 



Some years ago I wrote it up from the best data at 
command. Since then I have used every effort to 
get more complete details from those best informed, 
and am persuaded that this narrative states cor- 
rectly every material fact connected with it. 

Note. Eider Daniel Parker, a man of strong 
mental powers, a son of Elder John, does not figure 
in these events. He signed the Declaration of In- 
dependence in 1836, and preached to his people till 
his death in Anderson County, in 1845. Ex-Kep- 
resentative Ben. F. Parker is his son and successor 
in preaching at the same place. Isaac Parker, 
before named, another son, long represented Hous- 
ton and Anderson Counties in the Senate and 
House, and in 1855 represented Tarrant County. 
He died in 1884, not far from eighty-eight years of 
age. Isaac D. Parker of Tarrant is his son. 



The Break-up in Bell County in 1836 — Death of Davidson and 

Crouch — The Childers Family — Orville T. Tyler — 

Walker, Monroe, Smith, Etc.— 1836. 



When the invasion of Santa Anna occurred, from 
January to April, 1836, there were a few newly 
located settlers on Little river, now in Bell County. 
They retreated east, as did the entire population wesfc 
of the Trinity. Some of these settlers went into the 
army till after the victory at San Jacinto on the 
21st of April. Some of them, immediately after 
that triumph, with the family of Gouldsby Childers, 
returned to their deserted homes. During the pre- 
vious winter each head of a family and one or two 
single men had cleared about four acres of ground 
on his own land and had planted corn before the 
retreat. To cultivate this corn and thus have bread 
was the immediate incentive to an early return. 
Gouldsby Childers had his, cabin and little field on 
his own league on Little river. Robert Davidson's 
cabin and league were a little above on the river, 
both being on the north side. Orville T. Tyler's 
league, cabin and cornfield were on the west side 
of the Leon in the three forks of Little river, its 
limits extending to within a mile of the present 
town of Belton. Wm. Taylor's league was oppo- 
site that of Tyler, but his cornfield was on the 
other land. At this time Henry Walker, Mr. Mon- 
roe, and James (Camel Back) Smith had also 
returned to their abandoned homes, in the edge of 
the prairie, about eight miles east of the present 



town of Cameron, in Milam County, their cabins 
being only about a hundred yards apart. This 
was the same James Smith who, in October, 1838, 
escaped, so severely wounded, from the Surveyor's 
Fight, in sight of the present town of Dawson, in 
Navarro County, as narrated in the chapter on that 
subject. 

Nashville, on the Brazos, near the mouth of 
Little river, was then the nearest settlement and 
refuge to these people, and the families of those 
who returned to cultivate their corn in the new 
settlement, remained in that now extinct village. 

The massacre at Parker's Fort on the Navasota, 
occurred on the 19th of May. In the month of 
June, but on what day of the month cannot be 
stated, two young men named John Beal and Jack 
Hopson, arrived as messengers from Nashville to 
advise these people of their great peril, as large 
bodies of hostile Indians were known to be maraud- 
ing in the country. On receipt of this intelli- 
gence immediate preparations were made to retreat 
in a body to Nashville. Their only vehicle was a 
wagon to be drawn by a single pair of oxen. They 
had a few horses but not enough to mount the 
whole party. The entire party consisted of Capt. 
Gouldsby Childers, his wife, sons, Robert (now 
living at Temple), Frank (17 years of age, and 



44 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



killed In Erath's fight with the Indians, on Big Elm, 
in the same section, in January, 1837), William 
and Prior Childers, small boys ; his two grown 
daughters, Katherine (afterwards Mrs. E. Lawrence 
Stickney); Amanda (afterwards Mrs. John E. 
Craddock, and still living in Bell County); and 
Caroline, eight years old (now the widow of Orville 
T. Tyler and the mother of George W. Tyler, liv- 
ing in Belton), the whole family consisting of nine 
souls — also an old man named Rhoads, living with 

the Childers family, Shackleford, Orville T. 

Tyler, Parson Crouch and Robert Davidson (whose 
families were in Nashville), Ezekiel Roberson and 
the two messengers, John Beal and Jack Hopson — 
total souls, seventeen, of whom eleven were able 
to bear arms, though Mr. Rhoads was old and 
infirm. 

On the evening of the first day they arrived and 
encamped at the house of Henry Walker, where 
the farailies of Monroe and Smith had already 
taken refuge. It was expected that these three 
families would join them in the march next morn- 
ing; but they were not ready, and the original 
party, when morning came, moved on. When two 
or three miles southeast of Walker's house, on the 
road to Nashville, via Smith's crossing of Little 
river, Davidson and Crouch being about three hun- 
dred, and Capt. Childers about one hundred yards 
ahead and two or three men perhaps two hundred 
yards behind, driving a few cattle, the latter discov- 
ered about two hundred mounted warriors advanc- 
ing from the rear at full speed. They gave the 
alarm and rushed forward to the wagon. Capt. 
Childers, yelling to Crouch and Davidson, hastened 
back. They reached the wagon barely in time to 
present a bold front to the advancing savages and 
cause them to change their charge into an encircle- 
ment of the apparently doomed party ; but in 
accomplishing this purpose the enemy discovered 
Messrs. Crouch and Davidson seeking to rejoin 
their companions. This diverted their attention 
from the main party to the two unfortunate gentle- 
men, who, seeing the impossibility of their attempt, 
endeavored to escape by flight, but being poorly 
mounted, were speedily surrounded, killed and 
scalped. Then followed great excitement among 
the Indians, apparently quarreling over the dispo- 
sition of the scalps and effects of the two gentle- 
men. This enabled the main party to reach a 
grove of timber about four hundred yards distant, 
where they turned the oxen loose, and only sought 
to save their lives. At this critical crisis and just 
as the savages were returning to renew the attack, 
Beal and Hopson, who had won the friendship of 



all by coming as messengers, and by their conduct 
up to that moment, made their escape from what 
seemed certain death. 

For a little while the Indians galloped around 
them, j'elling, firing and by every artifice seeking 
to draw a fire from the little band ; but they pre- 
sented a bold front and fired not a gun. Shackle- 
ford could speak the Indian tongue and challenged 
them to charge and come to close quarters, but the 
Indians evidently believed they had pistols and 
extra arras in the wagons and failed to approach 
nearer than a hundred yards and soon withdrew. 
In close order, the besieged retreated changing 
their route to the raft, four or five miles distant, 
on Little river, on which they crossed, swimming 
their horses. Carolina Childers, tiie child of eight, 
rode behind her future husband, Orville T. Tyler, 
who had a lame foot and was compelled to ride, 
while others, for want of horses, were compelled to 
travel on foot. They doubted not the attack would 
be renewed at some more favorable spot, but it 
was not. Thus they traveled till night and 
encamped. They reached Nashville late next day. 

During the next day Smith, Monroe and Walker, 
with their families, arrived. Immediately on leav- 
ing the former party the Inilians had attacked the 
three families in Walker's house and kept up a fire 
all day without wounding either of the defenders, 
who fired deliberately through port-holes whenever 
opportunity appeared. While not assured of kill- 
ing a single Indian, they were perfectly certain of 
having wounded a considerable number. As night 
came on, the Indians retired, and as soon as satis- 
fied of their departure, the three families left for 
Nashville, and arrived without further molestation. 

Note. Robert Davidson was a man of intelli- 
gence and merit, and was the father of Wilson T. 
Davidson and Mrs. Harvey Smith of Belton, Mrs. 
Francis T. Duffau of Austin, and Justus Davidson 
of Galveston, all of whom have so lived in the 
intervening fifty-one years as to reflect honor on 
their slaughtered father. Of the family of Mr. 
Crouch I have no knowledge. Mrs. Stickney died 
in Coryell County, December 24, 1880. Prior 
Childers died in Falls County in 1867 or 1868. 
William Childers died in tlie Confederate army in 
1864, having served from the beginning of the 
war. 

0. T. Tyler was born in Massachusetts, August 
28, 1810; landed in Texas in February, 1885; 
married Caroline Childers in 1850; was the first 
chief- justice of Coryell County, and filled various 
other public stations; and full of years and the 
honors of a well-spent life, died at his elegant home 
in Belton, April 17th, 1886. His son. Senator 
George W. Tyler, of Belton, was the first white 
child born in Coryell County. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



45 



The Murder of the Douglas and Dougherty Families — 1836. 



The month of March, 1836, ranks overwhelmingly 
as the bloodiest and yet, in one respect, the brightest 
in the annals of Texas. On the second day of that 
month, at Washington on the Brazos, the chosen 
delegates of the people, fifty-two being present, 
unanimously declared Texas to be a free, sovereign 
and independent Republic, according to Gen. Sam 
Houston, their most distinguished colleague, the 
opportunity of subscribing his name to the solemn 
declaration, the second of its kind in the history of 
the human family, on his birthday, an event not 
dreamed of by his noble mother when in Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, on the second day of March, 1793, 
she first clasped him to her bosom. On the 4th of 
March, Gen. Houston was elected commander-in- 
chief of the armies of the Republic, as he had been 
in the previous November of the armies of the Pro- 
visional, or inchoate, government. On the 11th, 
Henry Smith, the Provisional Governor, one of the 
grandest characters adorning the history of Texas 
and to whom more than to any one man, the cause 
of Independence was indebted for its triumph, sur- 
rendered his functions to the representatives of the 
people. On the 2d, Dr. Grant and his party, 
beyond the Nueces, were slaughtered by Urrea's dra- 
goons, one man only escaping massacre, to be held 
long in Mexican dungeons and then escape, to 
survive at least fifty-five years, with the fervent hope 
by hosts of friends that he may yet be spared many 
years to see a commercial city arise where he has 
resided for over half a century. The veteran 
gentleman referred to is Col. Reuben R. Brown, of 
Velasco, at the mouth of the Brazos. On the 6lh 
the Alamo and its 182 defenders went down to 
immortality under the oft-repulsed but surging 
columns of Santa Anna. On the 19th Fannin 
capitulated to Urrea on the plains of Coleto. On 
the 27th he and his followers, to the number of 
about 480, were massacred in cold blood, under the 
specific orders of that arch traitor and apostate to 
liberty, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, whose life, 
twenty-four days later, when a prisoner in their 
hands, was spared through a magnanimity unsur- 
passed in the world's history, by the lion-hearted 
defenders of a people then and ever since, by prej- 
udiced fanatics and superficial scribblers, charac- 
terized as largely composed of outlaws and quasi- 
barbarians, instead of being representatives, as they 
were, of the highest type of American chivalry, 
American civilization and American liberty. 



While these grand events were transpiring, the 
American settlers on the Guadalupe, the Lavaca 
and farther east were removing their families east- 
wardly, flying from the legions of Santa Anna as 
from wild beasts. Many had no vehicles and used 
horses, oxen, sleds or whatever could be improvised 
to transport the women, children, bedding and food. 
Among those thus situated were two isolated 
families, living on Douglas' or Clark's creek, about 
twelve miles southwest of Hallettsville, in Lavaca 
County. These were John Douglas, wife and 

children, and Dougherty, a widower, with 

three children. The parents were natives of 
Ireland, but had lived and probably married in 
Cambria County, Pennsylvania, where their children 
were born and from which they came to Texas in 
1832. They were worthy and useful citizens, and 
lived together. The}' prepared sleds on which to 
transport their effects, but when these were com- 
pleted the few people in that section had already 
left for the east. On the morning of the 4th of 
March Augustine Douglas, aged fifteen, and Thad- 
eus Douglas, aged thirteen, were sent out by their 
father to find and bring in the oxen designed to 
draw the sleds. Returning in the afternoon, at a 
short distance from home, they saw that the cabins 
were on fire, and heard such screams and war 
whoops as to admonish them that their parents and 
kindred were being butchered ; but they were 
unarmed and powerless and realized that to save 
their own lives they must seek a hiding-place. 
This they found in a thicket near by, and there 
remained concealed till night. When dark came 
they cautiously approached the smoldering ruins 
and found that the savages had left. A brief 
examination revealed to them the dead and scalped 
bodies of their father, mother, sister and little 
brother and of Mr. Dougherty, one son and two 
daughters, lying naked in the yard — eight souls 
thus brutally snatched from earth. Imagination, 
especially when assured that those two boys were 
noted for gentle and affectionate natures, as per- 
sonally known to the writer for a number of years, 
may depict the forlorn anguish piercing their young 
hearts. It was a scene over which angels weep. 

There were scarcely anything more than paths, 
and few of them, through that section. Augustine 
had some idea as to courses, and speedily deter- 
mined on a policy. With his little brother he pro- 
ceeded to the little settlement in the vicinity of 



46 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



where Halleltsville is, but found that every one had 
retreated. The3' then followed the Lavaca down 
about thirty-five miles to where their older sister, 
the wife of Capt. John McHenry, and a few others 
lived — but found that all had been gone some 
time. They then took the old Atascosita road 
from Goliad which crossed the Colorado a few 
miles below where Columbia is. Near the Colo- 
rado, almost starved to death, they fell in with 
some Mexican scouts and were conducted to the 
camp of the Mexican general, Adrian Woll, a 
Frenchman, who could speak English and to whom 
they narrated their sad story. Woll received them 
kindly and had all needful care taken of them. In 
a few days the boys were taken by a Frenchman 
named Auguste, a traitor to Texas, to his place on 
Cummins' creek, where he had collected a lot of 
negroes and a great many cattle belonging to the 
retreating citizens, from which he was supplying 
Gen. Woll with beef at enormous prices. The 21st 
of April passed and San Jacinto was won. Very 
soon the Mexicans began preparations for retreat. 
Auguste, mounting Augustine Douglas on a fine 
horse, sent him down to learn when Woll could 
start. In the meantime a party of Texians, headed 
by Alison York, who had heard of Auguste' s 
thieving den, hurried forward to chastise him before 
he could leave the country with his booty. He 
punished them severely, all who could fleeing into 
the bottom and thence to WoU's catap. When 
York's party opened fire, little Thadeus Douglas, 



not understanding the cause, fled down the road 
and in about a mile met his brother returning from 
WoU's camp on Auguste's fine horse. With equal 
prudence and financial skill they determined to save 
both themselves and the horse. Thadeus mount- 
ing behind, they started at double quick for the 
Brazos. They had not traveled many miles, how- 
ever, when they met the gallant Capt. Henry W. 
Karnes, atthe head of some cavalry, from whom they 
learned for the first time, of the victory of San 
Jacinto, and that they yet would see their only sur- 
viving sister and brother-in-law, Capt. and Mrs. 
McHenry. In writing of this incident in De Bow's 
Review of December, 18.53, eighteen years after 
its occurrence, I used this language: — 

"These boys, thus rendered objects of sym- 
pathy, formed a link in the legends of the old 
Texians, and still reside on the Lavaca, much re- 
spected for their courage and moral deportment." 

It is a still greater pleasure to say now that they 
ever after bore honorable characters. One of the 
brothers died some years ago, and the other in 
1889. The noble old patriot in three revolu- 
tions — Mexico in 1820, South America in 1822, 
and Texas in 1835 — preceded by gallant conduct 
at New Orleans in 1815, when only sixteen years 
old — the honest, brave and ever true son of Erin's 
isle, Capt. John McHenry, died in 1885, leaving 
a memory sweetly embalmed in many thousand 
hearts. 



Erath's Fight, January 7, 1837. 



Among the brave and useful men on the Brazos 
frontier from 1835 till that frontier receded far up 
the river, conspicuously appears the name of the 
venerable Capt. George B. Erath. He was born in 
Austria. His first services were in Col. John H. 
Moore's expedition for the relief of Capt. Robert 
M. Coleman, to the Tehuacano Hill country, in 
July, 1835. Though green from the land of the 
Hapsburgs, he won a character for daring courage 
in his first engagement, leading in the charge and 
gaining the soubriquet of " The Flying Dutchman." 
His second experience wns on the field of San Ja- 
linto, April 21, 1836. In the summer of that year 
he located at Nashville, at the falls of the Brazos, 
and over after resided in that vicinity and McLen- 



nan county. As surveyor and ranger for ten years 
or more he had many adventures and was in many 
skirmishes and engagements with the Indians. He 
served in the Congress of the Republic, and after- 
wards in the one or the other house of the Legisla- 
ture, at intervals, till 18G5. 

His third engagement as a soldier occurred on 
the 7th of January, 18;i7, on Elm creek, in 
Milam County. At that time Lieut. Curtis com- 
manded a small company of illy equipped rangers 
at a little fort at the three forks of Little river, in 
Bell County, subsislin-^ chiefly on wild meat and 
honey. Erath, as a lieutenant, was first there and 
erected several cabins, but on the arrivul of Curtis 
he became the ranking ollicer. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



47 



A man arriving at the fort reported a fresh 
" foot " Indian trail twelve miles east and bearing 
towards the settlements below. It was agreed that 
Erath should pursue them. He started on the 
morning of the 6th with thirteen men and boys, 
nearly half being on foot. Three of the number 
were volunteers for the trip, and eleven were sol- 
diers, viz. : Lishley (a stranger), Robert Childers 
(now living at Temple) and Frank Childers, his 
boy-brother, volunteers ; the soldiers were Lieut. 
Erath, Sergt. McLocblan, Lee R. Davis, David 
Clark, Empson Thompson, Jack Gross, Jack 
Houston, and four boys, viz. : Lewis Moore, 
Morris Moore, John Folks and Green McCoy, 
a boy from Gonzales. They traveled twenty- 
three miles east, striking the trail and finding that it 
was made by about a hundred Indians on foot. Af 
night they heard the Indians, who were encamped 
in the bottom, on the bank of Elm creek, eight 
miles west of the present town of Cameron, in 
Milam County. They remained quiet till nearly day- 
light, then, after securing their horses, cautiously 
approached along ravines and the bed of the creek 
till they secured a position under the bank within 
twenty-five yards of the yet unsuspecting savages, 
who very soon began to move about and kindle 
their flres. When it was sufficiently light each man 
and boy took deliberate aim and about ten Indians 
tumbled over. With revolvers (then unknown), 
they could easily have routed the whole band. But 
each one had to reload by the old process. During 
the interval the Indians seized their guns, there not 
being a bow among them, and, realizing the small 
number of their assailants, jumped behind trees 
and fought furiously. Some of them entered the 
creek below to enfilade Erath's position, and this 
compelled a retreat to the opposite bank, in accom- 
plishing which David Clark was killed and Frank 
Childers wounded. Erath continued to retreat by 



alternation, one half of the men covering the retreat 
of the other half for thirty or forty yards at a time, 
so that half of the guns were alternately loaded and 
flred. The bottom favored this plan till they 
reached their horses at the edge of the prairie. On 
the way, Frank Childers, finding his life ebbing, 
reached a secluded spot on one side, sat down 
by a tree against which his gun rested, and there 
expired, but was not discovered by the enemy, 
who, instead of continuing the fight, returned to 
their camp and began a dismal howl over their 
own dead. 

There were numerous narrow escapes, balls cut- 
ting the clothes of nearly every man. One broke 
McLochlan's ramrod, another the lock of his gun, 
a third bursted his powder horn, a fourth passed 
through his coat and a fifth through the handker- 
chief worn as a turban on his head. At- that time 
the families of Neil McLennan and his sons-in-law 
were living eight miles distant. The men were ab- 
sent, and, but for this attack of the bold " Flying 
Dutchman," the women and children would have 
fallen easy victims to the savages. A month later 
one of McLennan's young negroes was carried into 
captivity by them. David Clark was past middle 
age and was a son of Capt. Christopher Clark, of 
near Troy, Lincoln County, Missouri, known to the 
writer of these sketches from his infancy. Green 
McCoy was a maternal nephew of Clark and a 
paternal nephew of Jesse McCoy, who fell in the 
Alamo. The Childers brothers were maternal 
uncles of George W. Tyler, the first child born (in 
1854) in Coryell County. Capt. Erath, Robert 
Childers and Lewis Moore, of McLennan County, 
are the only survivors of this episode of nearly 
fifty-two years ago. Of the whole party, men and 
boys, every one through life bore a good character. 
They were in truth of the " salt of the earth " and 
" pillars of strength " on the frontier. 



The Surveyors' Fight in Navarro County, in October, 1838. 



At this date the long since abandoned village of 
" Old " Franklin, situated in the post oaks between 
where Bryan and Calvert now stand, was the 
extreme outside settlement, omitting a few families 
in the Brazos valley, in the vicinity of Marlin, and 
was the county seat of the original Robertson 
County, with its immense unsettled territory. 



including the west half of Dallas County and terri- 
tory north and west of it. It was a rendezvous 
for both surveying parties and volunteers on expe- 
ditions against the Indians. Its male population 
was much larger than the female, and embraced a 
number of men of more or less note for intelligence 
and courage. Among these were Dr. George W. 



48 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Hill, long a senator and once in President Houston's 
Cabinet, for whom Hill County was named : Capt. 
Eli Chandler, a brave frontiersman; E. L. R 
Wheelock, Cavitt Armstrong, the father of the 
Cavitt family of later times, and others. 

There was a great desire on the part of both dis- 
charged soldiers and other citizens who had just re- 
ceived bounty and head-right certificates for land to 
have them located and the land surveyed. In the 
early summer of 1838, near Richlandcreek, twelve or 
fourteen miles southerly from Corsicana, three men 
belonging to a surveying party were surprised and 
killed. Their names were Barry, Holland, and 
William F. Sparks, a land locator from Nacog- 
doches. The remainder of the party, too weak for 
defense against the number of the savages, cau- 
tiously and successfully eluded them and returned 
home. 

Early in October of the same year William F. 
Henderson, for many years since an estimable 
citizen of Corsicana, fitted out a surveying party 
to locate lands in what is now the southwest por- 
tion of Navarro County. He and his assistant each 
had a compass. The entire party consisted of 
twenty-four men and one boy, and was under the 
command of Capt. Neill. 

The party arrived on the field of their labors and 
encamped at a spring or water hole about two mile 
northwest of what after that expedition was and 
ever since has been known as Battle creek. 

Here they met with a large body of Indians, 
chiefly Kickapoos, but embracing some of several 
tribes, who were encamped in the vicinity, killing 
buffalo. They professed friendship, but mani- 
fested decided opposition to having the lands sur- 
veyed, assuring the party that if they persisted 
the Comanches and lonies would kill them. But it 
was believed their design was only to frighten 
them away. After a day or two a trial of the 
compasses was made, when it was found one of 
the needles had lost its magnetism and would not 
work. William M. Love, afterward a well-known 
citizen of Navarro County, and a Mr. Jackson were 
sent back to Franklin for a magnet to recharge 
the needle, thus reducing the party to twenty- 
three. Early on the following morning Henderson 
ran a line for a mile or so, more or less Indians 
following and intently watching the manipulation 
of the compass, one of them remarking: "It is 
God's eye." The party, after a satisfactory trial, 
returned to camp for breakfast, and after that was 
over, returned to, and were about resuming their 
work, when from a ravine, about forty yards dis- 
tant, they were fired upon by about fifty Indians. 
The men, led by Capt. Neill, at once charged upon 



them, but in doing so, discovered about a hundred 
warriors rushing to aid those in the ravine from 
the timber behind them. At the same time about 
the same number of mounted Indians charged 
them from the prairie in their rear. Neill retreated 
under heavy fire to the head of a branch in the 
prairie with banks four or five feet high. There 
was some brush and a few trees ; but seventy-five 
yards below them was another cluster, of which 
the enemy took possession. This was between 9 
and 10 o'clock a. m., and there the besieged were 
held under a fluctuating fire until midnight. 
Every one who exposed himself to view was killed 
or wounded. Euclid M. Cox for an hour stood 
behind a lone tree on the bank doing much execu- 
tion, but was finally shot through the spine, upon 
which Walter P. Lane, afterwards a distinguished 
Brigadier-general in the Confederate army, jumped 
upon the bank and dragged him into the ravine, 
in which he died soon afterwards. A man named 
Davis, from San Augustine, having a fine horse, 
attempted to escape through the line of Indians 
strung in a circle around the little band, but he 
was killed in sight of his comrades. A band of 
mounted Indians, not participating in the fight, 
collected on an elevation just out of gunshot, and 
repeatedly called out, " Come to Kickapool Kick- 
apoo good Indian! " and by gesticulations mani- 
fested friendship, in which our men placed no 
possible confidence ; but among them was Mr. 
Spikes, a feeble old man of eighty-two years, who 
said his days were few at best, and as he could not 
see to shoot he would test their sincerity. He 
mounted and rode up to them and was mercilessly 
butchered. Night brought no relief or cessation 
of the attack, and a number of our men were dead 
in the ravine. The moon shone brightly until 
midnight. But when it sank below the horizon, 
the survivors determined to make an effort to reach 
the timber on a brushy branch leading into a creek 
heavily covered with thickets and trees, and dis- 
tant hardly half a mile. Three horses yet lived, 
and on these the wounded were placed, and the 
fiery ordeal began. The enemy pressed on the 
rear and both flanks. The wounded were speedily 
shot from their horses. Capt. Neill was wounded 
and immediately lifted on one of the horses, but 
both fell an instant later. A hundred yards from 
the brush Walter P. Lane was shot in the leg, 
below the knee, shattering, but not breaking the 
bone. He entered the brush with Henderson and 
Burton. Mr. William Smith entered at another 
place alone, and Mr. Violet at still a different 
place, terribly wounded, and at the same instant 
another man escaped in like manner. Once under 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



49 



cover, in the dark, each lone man, and the group 
of three, felt the necessity of perfect silence. 
Each stealthily and cautiously moved as he or they 
thought best, and the fate of neither became 
known to the other until all had reached the settle- 
ments. Smith, severely wounded, traveled by 
night and lay secreted by day till he reached the 
settlements on the Brazos, distant over forty miles. 
The unnamed man, slightly wounded, escaped 
eastwardly and succeeded, after much suffering, 
in reaching the settlements. Henderson, Lane 
and Burton found lodgment in a deep ravine lead- 
ing to the creek. Lane became so weak from the 
loss of blood that Henderson tore up his shirt to 
stanch and bandage the wound, and succeeded in 
the effort. Passing down some distance, they 
heard the Indians in pursuit, and ascended the 
bank and lay in brush with their guns cocked. 
The pursuers passed within three or four feet but 
failed to discover them. About an hour before 
day they reached the creek and traveled down to 
a muddy pool of water. On a log they crawled 
onto a little island densely matted with brush, 
under which they lay concealed all day. They 
repeatedly heard the Indians, but remained undis- 
covered. When night came as an angel of mercy, 
throwing its mantle over them, they emerged from 
their hiding place ; but when Lane rose up, the 
agony from his splintered leg was so great that he 
swooned. On recovering consciousness he found 
that Burton, probably considering his condition 
hopeless, was urging Henderson to abandon 
him ; but that great-hearted son of Tennessee 
spurned the suggestion. The idea inspired Lane 
with indignation and the courage of desperation. 
In words more emphatic than mild he told Burton 
to go, and declared for himself that he could, and 
with the help of God and William F. Henderson, 
would make the trip. By the zigzag route they 
traveled it was about thirty miles to Tehuacano 
springs. They traveled, as a matter of course, 
very slowly, and chiefly by night. Lane hobbling 
on one leg, supported by Henderson. For two 
days and nights after leaving their covert they had 
neither food nor drink. Their sufferings were 
great and their clothing torn into rags. On the 
third day, being the fourth from their first assault 
by the enemy, they reached the springs named, 
where three Kickapoos were found with their 
families. At first they appeared distant and sus- 
picious, and demanded of them where and how they 
came to be in such condition. Henderson 
promptly answered that their party, from which 
they had become separated, had been attacked by 
Comanches and lonies, and that they, in their dis- 



tress, had been hoping to fall in with some friendly 
Kickapoos. This diplomacy, however remote from 
the truth, had the desired effect. One of the red 
men thereupon lighted his pipe, took a few whiffs, 
and passed it to Henderson, saying, " Smoke! 
Kickapoo good Indian!" All smoked. Provis- 
ions were offered, and the women bathed, dressed 
and bandaged Lane's leg. Henderson then offered 
his rifle to one of them if he would allow Lane to 
ride his horse into Franklin. After some hesita- 
tion he assented, and they started on; but during 
the next day, below Parker's abandoned fort, 
hearing a gunshot not far off (which proved to 
belong to another party of Kickapoos, but were 
not seen), the Indian became uneasy and left 
them, taking both his pony and the rifle. It should 
be stated that Lane's gun had been left where they 
began their march, at the little island, simply 
because of his inability to carry it ; hence Bur- 
ton's gun was now their last remaining weapon. 
But now, after the departure of the Indian, they 
were gladdened by meeting Love and Jackson, 
returning with the magnet, ignorant, of course, of 
the terrible calamity that had fallen upon their 
comrades. Lane was mounted on one of their 
horses, and they hurried on to Franklin, arriving 
there without further adventure. 

A party was speedily organized at Franklin to 
go to the scene and bury the dead. On their way 
out at Tehuacano springs, by the merest accident, 
they came upon Mr. Violet in a most pitiable and 
perishing condition. His thigh had been "broken, 
and for six days, without food or water, excepting 
uncooked grasshoppers, he had crawled on his 
hands and knees, over grass and rocks and through 
brush, about twenty-five miles, in an air line, but 
much more, in fact, by his serpentine wanderings 
in a section with which he was unacquainted. His 
arrival at the springs was a providential interposi- 
tion, but for which, acconapanied by that of the 
relief party, his doom would have been speedy and 
inevitable. Two men were detailed to escort him 
back to Franklin, to friends, to gentle nursing, and 
finally to restoration of heallh, all of which were 
repaid by his conduct as a good citizen in after 
life. 

The company continued on to the battle-ground, 
collected and buried the remains of the seventeen 
victims of savage fury, near a lone tree. 

It mav well be conceived that heroic courage and 
action were displayed by this little party of twent}'- 
three, encircled by at least three hundred Indians — 
not wild Comanches with bows and arrows, but the 
far more formidable Kickapoos and kindred asso- 
ciates, armed with rifles. It was ascertained after- 



50 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



wards that they had sustained a loss in liilled equal 
to double the number of the Texians, besides many 
wounded. It was believed that Euclid M. Cos, 
before receiving his death wound, killed eight or 
ten. 

The Surveyors' Fight ranks, in stubborn courage 
and carnage, with the bloodiest in our history — 
with Bowie's San Saba fight in 1831, Bird's victory 
and death in Bell County in 1839, and Hays' 
mountain fight in 1844, and others illustrating sim- 
ilar courage and destructiveness. 

THE SLAIN. 

Of the twenty-three men in the fight seventeen 
were killed, viz. : Euclid M. Cox, Thomas Barton, 
Samuel Allen, — Ingraham, — Davis, J. Hard, 
Asa T. Mitchell, J. Neal or Neill, William Tremier, 
— Spikes, J. Bullock, N. Barker, A. Houston, P. 
M. Jones, James Jones, David Clark, and one 
whose name is not remembered. 

Those who escaped were William F. Henderson, 
Walter P. Lane, wounded as described, and Bur- 
ton, who escaped together; Violet, wounded as de- 
scribed ; William Smith, severely wounded in the 
shoulder; and the man slightly wounded, who 
escaped towards the east — 6. Messrs. Love and 
Jackson, though not in the fight, justly deserve to 
be classed with the party, as they were on hazard- 
ous duty and performed it well, besides relieving 
Lane and then participating in the interment of the 
•dead. • 

In the year 1885, John P. and Rev. Fred Cox, 
sons. of Euclid, at their own cost, erected, under 
the shadow of that lone tree, a handsome and beflt- 
-ting monument, on which is carved the names of 
.all who were slain and all who escaped, excepting 



that one of each class whose names are missing. 
The tree and monument, inclosed by a neat fence, 
one mile west of Dawson, Narvarro County, are in 
plain view of the Texas and St. Louis railroad. 

Note. This William Smith, prior to this dis- 
astrous contest, but at what precise date cannot be 
stated, but believed to have been in the winter of 
1837-8, lived in the Brazos bottom. The Indians 
became so bad that he determined to move, and 
for that purpose placed his effects in his wagon in 
his yard, but before starting his house was at- 
tacked. He barred his door and through cracks 
between the logs fired whenever he could, nearly 
always striking an Indian, but all his reserve 
ammunition had been placed in the wagon and the 
supply in his pouch was nearly exhausted, when 
Mrs. Smith opened the door, rushed to the wagon, 
secured the powder and lead and rushed back. 
Balis and arrows whizzed all about her but she 
escaped with slight wounds and immediately began 
moulding bullets. She thought not of herself but 
of her little children. Honored forever be the 
pioneer mothers of Texas and thrice honored be 
such as Mrs. Smith. It was my pleasure after- 
wards, personally, to know her and some of her 
children, and to serve on the Southwestern frontier 
with her fearless husband, an honest Christian 
man. One of their sons was the late Prof. Smith 
of Salado College, a son worthy of such parents. 
Mr. Smith crippled so many of his assailants that 
thoy retired, leaving him master of the situation, 
when he removed farther into the settlements. 
There is one fact in connection with this affair 
that, as a Texian, I blush to state. There was an 
able-bodied man in Mr. Smith's house all the time 
who slunk away as the veriest craven, taking 
refuge under the bed, while the heroic father and 
mother "fought the good fight and kept the 
faith." I have not his name and if it were known 
to me would not publish it, as it may be borne by 
others of heroic hearts, and injustice might be 
done ; besides, the subsequent life of that man must 
have been a continuing torture. 



Karnes' Fight on the Arroyo Seco, August 10, 1838. 



From the beginning of 1837, lo his death in 
August, 1840, Henry W. Karnes, a citizen of San 
Antonio, stood as a pillar of strength and wall of 
defense to the Southwestern frontier. He was ever 
ready to meet danger, and often commanded small 
bodies of volunteers in search or pursuit of hostile 
Indians. He had numerous skirmishes and minor 
encounters with them and was almost invariably 
successful. 



In the summer of 1838, in command of twenty- 
one fearless volunteers, while halting on the Arroyo 
Seco, west of the Medina, and on the 10th day of 
August, he was suddenly and furiously assailed by 
two hundred mounted Comanches ; but, ever alert 
and prepared for danger, in the twinkling of an eye 
his horses were secured and his men stationed in 
their front, somewhat protected by a ravine and 
chaparral, and fired in alternate platoons, by which 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



51 



-one-third of their guns were always loaded to meet 
the attack at close quarters. Their aim was deadly 
and warriors were rapidly tumbled to the ground. 
Yet, knowing they were ten to one against the 
Texians, the Comanches were not willing to give up 
the contest till over twenty of their number lay 
dead, and doubtless as many more were wounded. 
■Col. Karnes, in his intense and unselfish desire to 
both save and encourage his men, greatly exposed 
himself and was severely wounded, this being the 
only casualty to his party, though nearly all his 
horses were more or less wounded. It was a gal- 
lant and successful defense against immense odds, 
.and served to cement more closely the already 



strong ties that bound the modest but ever faithful 
and fearless Karnes to the hearts of the people of 
San Antonio and the whole Southwest. Living, 
fighting and dying in the country without family or 
kindred ; leaving no trace on paper indicating his 
long and faithful service ; largely winning achieve- 
ments of which neither oflScial nor private record 
was kept ; though personally having had very slight 
acquaintance with him, it has ever been to the writer 
a sincere pleasure to rescue from oblivion his many 
gallant deeds, and place his memory where it right- 
fully belongs in the galaxy composed of the truest, 
best, most unselfish and bravest men who wrought 
for Texas at any time between 1821 and 1846. 



The Captivity of the Putman and Lockhart Children in 1838. 



In the summer of 1837, succeeding the great 
-exodus of 1836, Mr. Andrew Lockhart returned to 
his frontier home on the west side of the Guad- 
alupe, and nearly opposite the present consider- 
able town of Cuero, in DeWitt County. He was 
accompanied, or soon joined, by Mitchell Putman, 
with his wife and several children. Mr. Putman 
was a man of good character, and had been honor- 
ably discharged from the army after having served 
a full term and being in the battle of San Jacinto. 
The two families temporarily lived in the same 
yard. 

When the pecans began ripening in the fall, the 
children of both families frequented the bottom 
near by to gather those delicious nuts, which, of 
course, were highly prized at a time when nearly 
all, and oftentimes all, the food attainable was 
wild meat, indigenous nuts and fruit. 

On one occasion, in October, 1838, Matilda, 
daughter of Mr. Lockhart, aged about thirteen, 
and three of Mr. Putman's children, a small girl, 
a boy of four and a girl of two and a half years, 
left home in search of pecans. The hours flew 
by — night came, and through its weary hours 
parental hearts throbbed with anguish. Signal 
fires were lighted, horns blown and guns fired — 
the few accessible settlers were notified, but the 
morning sun rose upon two disconsolate house- 
holds. The four children, as time revealed, had 
been cunningly surprised, awed into silence, and 
swiftly borne away by a party of wild Indians. 
Pursuit was impracticable. There were not njen 



enough in the country and the families needed 
nightiy?protection at home. 

Mr, Lockhart, more able to do so than Mr. Put- 
man, made every effort to recover his daughter and 
the other children. For this purpose he accompa- 
nied Col. John H. Moore on expeditions into the 
mountains in both 1838 and 1839. In one of these 
expeditions Col. Moore made a daylight attack on 
a large hostile village on the San Saba, or rather 
just as day was dawning. Despite the remon- 
strances of others the resolute seeker of his lost 
child rushed ahead of all others, exclaiming in 
stentorian voice: "Matilda Lockhart! Oh, my 
child ! if you are here run to me. I am your 
father! " He continued so to shout, and, dear 
reader, Matilda heard and recognized that loyed 
voice repeatedly ; but the moment the fight opened 
she was lashed into a run by squaws and speedily 
driven into the recesses of thickets. So time 
passed, the stricken father seizing upon every hope, 
however faint, to recover his child. 

Negotiations were opened with the hostiles, by 
direction of President Lamar, in the winter of 
1839-40, seeking a restoration of all our captive 
children, and there was known to be quite a number 
among them. The wily foe betrayed the cunning 
and dissimulation of their race from the first. 
They promised much in two or three interviews, 
but performed little. 

During the spring of 1840 the little boy of Mr. 
Putman was brought in and restored to his parents. 
The elder daughter was not heard of until during 



52 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



the late war, in 1864, twenty-seven years after her 
captivity, when she was providentially restored to 
her family at Gonzales, and it happened in this wise : 
Judge John R. Chenault, of Southwest Missouri, 
who had, in former years, been an Indian agent 
west of that State, refugeed to Gonzales, where he 
had kindred. In his family was a girl he had in 
that day recovered from the Indians, and educated. 
She was identified beyond doubt as the missing 
daughter of Mr. Putman and resumed her place 
among her kindred. Judge Chenault died several 
years since, a citizen of Dallas County. 

In fulfillment of one of their violated promises 
to bring in all the prisoners they had, the warriors 
only brought in one poor woman, who had been 
cruelly treated throughout her captivity — her body 
burnt in small spots all over — and this was Matilda 
Lockhart. 

Restored to her family and adorned in civilized 
costume, she speedily developed into one of the 
prettiest and most lovely women in the surround- 
ing country, becoming a great favorite, distin- 
guished alike for modesty, sprightliness, and 
affectionate devotion to her kindred and friends. 
A few years later a cold contracted at a night 
party, fastened upon her lungs, and speedily closed 
her life, to the regret of the whole surrounding 
country. The story, from her own lips, of the 
cruelties practiced upon her throughout her cap- 
tivity, would fill a small volume, the reason for 
which was unknown to her and unexplainable at 
home. Temporary brutality to captives is common 
among the wild tribes, but in a little while the young 
are treated as other children. 

This leaves the little girl of Mr. Putman alone to 
account for. She was two and a half years old 
when she was captured in 1838. 

Another party of warriors in the spring of 1840, 
brought in and delivered up at San Antonio a little 
girl of about five, but who could not or would not 
tell where she was captured, and no one there from 
her appearance, could imagine her to be one of the 
lost children of whom he had any information. 
The child could not speak a word of P^nglish and 
was wild — afraid of every white person — and 
tried on every occasion to run away. The military 
authorities were perplexed and linew not how to 
keep or how to dispose of her. Here, again, came 
providential interposition. 

The District Court was in session, the now 
lamented Judge John Hemphill presiding for the 
first time. In attendance as a lawyer was his pre- 
decessor. Judge James W. Robinson, who then 
lived two miles above Gonzales, and one mile below 
him lived Arch Gipson, whose wife was a daughter 



of Mitchell Putman, and a sister of the missing 
little girl. Hearing of the child he examined her 
closely, trusting she might show some family re- 
semblance to Mrs. Gipson, whom he knew well and 
whose father lived only fifteen miles from Gonzales. 
He could recognize no resemblance, but deter- 
mined to take the little stranger home with him, 
for, as he assured the writer, he had a presenti- 
ment that she was the Putman child, and had a 
very sympathetic nature. He, Judge Hemphill and 
John R. Cunningham (a brilliant star, eclipsed in 
death as a Mexican prisoner two years later), made 
the trip on horseback together, the little wild crea- 
ture alternating behind them. They exhausted 
every means of gentling and winning her, but in 
vain. It was necessary to tie her in camp at night 
and watch her closely by day. In this plight they 
arrived at Judge Robinson's house as dinner was 
about ready, and the Judge learned that Mrs. Gip- 
son was very feeble from recent illness. He deemed 
it prudent to approach her cautiously about the 
child, and to this end, after dinner he rode for- 
ward, alone, leaving the other gentlemen to follow 
a little later with the child who, up to that time, had 
not spoken an English word. 

Judge Robinson gently related all the facts to 
Mrs. Gipson, said it could not be her sister, but 
thought it would be more satisfactory to let her 
see in person and had therefore brought the little 
thing, adding: " Be quiet, it will be here very 
soon." 

The gentlemen soon rode up to the yard fence, 
the child behind Judge Hemphill, on a very tall 
horse. I quote by memory the indelible words 
given me by Judge Robinson a few days after- 
wards: — 

" Despite my urgent caution Mrs. Gipson, from 
her first realization that a recovered child was 
near at hand, presented the strangest appearance 
I ever saw in woman, before or since. She 
seemed, feeble as she was, to skip more as a bird 
than as a person, her eyes indescribably bright, 
and her lips tightly closed — but she uttered not a 
word. As the horsemen arrived she skipped over 
the fence, and with an expression which language 
cannot descril)e, she stood as if transfixed, peering 
up into the little face on horseback. Never before 
nor since have I watched any living thing as I 
watched that child at that moment. As if moved" 
by irresistible power, the instant it looked into 
Mrs. Gipson'8 face it seemed startled as from a 
slumber, threw up its little head as if to collect 
its mind, and with a second piercing look, sprang 
from the horse with outstretched arms, clasping 
Mrs. Gipson around the neck, piteously exclaim- 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



53 



ng: 'Sister, sister!'" And tears of joy 
mingled with audible sobs fell from three of the 
most distinguished men of Texas, all long since 
gathered to their fathers — Canningham in Mexi- 
can bondage in 1842, Robinson in Southern Cali- 



fornia about 1850, and Hemphill in the Confederate 
Senate in 1862. But when such tears flow do not 
the angels sing pseans around the throne of Him 
who took little children " up in His arms, put His 
hands upon them and blessed them ! " 



Texas Independence — A Glimpse at the First Capitals, Harris- 
burg, Galveston, Velasco, Columbia, the First Real 
Capital, Houston, and Austin, the 
First Permanent Capital. 



Independence was declared in a log cabin, with- 
out glass in its windows, in the now almost extinct 
town of Washington-on-tbe-Brazos, on the second 
day of March, 1836. The government ad interim, 
then established, with David G. Burnet as Presi- 
dent, and Lorenzo de Zavala as Vice-president, first 
organized at Harrisburg, but soon fled from Santa 
Anna's army down to the barren island of Galveston, 
where it remained till a short time after the battle 
of San Jacinto, when it moved to Velasco, at the 
mouth of the Brazos. After the first election under 
the Republic, President Burnet, by proclamation, 
assembled the First Congress, President and Vice- 
president, at the town of Columbia, on the Brazos, 
on the 3d of October, 1836. No other place in 
Texas, at the time (excepting, perhaps, Nacog- 
doches, in the extreme east), had sufflcient house 
room to meet the emergency. There was in 
Columbia a large two-story house, divided in the 
center by a wide hall and stairway into large rooms 
above and below — one on each side of the hall, and 
an ell containing several rooms. It had been 
erected and occupied in 1832-3 by Capt. Henry S. 
Brown, father of the author, and in it he died on 
July 26, 1834, his attending physician being Dr. 
Anson Jones, afterwards the last President of the 
Republic. This building was torn down early in 
1888. 

In this building the First Congress of the Repub- 
lic of Texas assembled under President Burnet's 
proclamation on the third of October, 1836. In it 
on the 22d of the same month. President Burnet 
delivered his farewell message, and at the same 
time Sam Houston, as first constitutional Presi- 
dent, and Mirabeau B. Lamar, as Vice-president, 
took the oath of office and delivered their inaugural 



addresses. In it all of the first Cabinet took the 
oath of office, viz. : Stephen F. Austin as Secre- 
tary of State (died on the 27th of December fol- 
lowing) ; Ex-Governor Henry Smith, as Secretary 
of the Treasury (died in the mountains of Cali- 
fornia, March 4, 1851) ; Thomas J. Rusk, as Secre- 
tary of War (resigned a few weeks later and was 
succeeded by William S. Fisher, who died in 1845, 
while Gen. Rusk died in 1857) ; and Samuel Rhoads 
Fisher, as Secretary of the Navy (who died in 
1839.) A portion of the officers were in other 
buildings and for a time one House of the Congress 
occupied a different building. 

In this really first Capitol of Texas were enacted 
all the original laws for organizing the Republic and 
its counties, and the afterwards famous law defining 
its boundaries, the western line of which was the 
Rio Grande del Norte from its source to its en- 
trance into the Gulf of Mexico ; and in it Robert 
J. Walker, of Mississippi, then a distinguished 
member of the United States Senate, was received 
as the guest of the infant nation. 

From Columbia the capital was moved to the 
new town of Houston in the spring of 1837. From 
Houston it was removed to the newly planned 
frontier town of Austin in October, 1839, and here 
is where I propose to locate what follows. 

The government was established at Austin in 
October, 1839. Mirabeau B. Lamar, one of the 
truest knights of chivalry that ever figured on Texas 
soil, was President; David G. Burnet, the embodi- 
ment of integrity — learned and experienced — was 
Vice-president; Ab(jer S. Lipscomb, one of the 
trio who subsequently gave fame to the judicial 
decisions of Texas, was Secretary of State ; 
Albert Sidney Johnston, the great soldier and 



54 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



patriot who fell at Shiloh on the 6th of April, 1862, 
was Secretary of War ; Louis P. Cooke, who died 
of cholera at Brownsville in 1849, and had been a 
student at West Point, was Secretary of the Navy ; 
Dr. James H. Starr, of Nacogdoches, was Secretary 
of the Treasury ; John Rice Jones was Postmaster- 
General ; John P. Borden was Commissioner of the 
Land Office ; Thomas J. Rusk was Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court, the Associates being the Dis- 
trict Judges of the Republic ; James Webb was 
Attorney-General ; Asa Brigham, Treasurer ; E. 
Lawrence Stickney, Stock Commissioner ; Wm. G. 
Cooke, Quartermaster-General; Hugh McLeod, 
Adjutant-General; Wm. L. Cazneau, Commissary- 
General ; Jacob Snively, Paymaster-General ; 
Peter H. Bell (afterwards Governor), Inspector- 
General ; Edward Burleson was Colonel command- 
ing the regular army ; Charles DeMorse was Fund 
Commissioner, or something of that sort. 

These men arrived in Austin as the government, 
in September and October, 1839. Austin was the 
outside settlement on the Colorado and so remained 
until annexation was perfected on the I9th of 
February, 1846. Through those six years it 
remained exposed to the forays of all the hostile 
Indians in upper Texas, from which many valuable 
lives were lost and quite a number of women and 
children carried into savage captivity. Just com- 
pleting my eighteenth year, I became a denizen of 
Austin at its birth, setting type on one of the two 
newspapers then started, and so remained for a 
considerable time, in which it was my privilege to 
make the personal acquaintance of each of the 
gentlemen named as officials of the government, 
and ever after to enjoy the friendship of nearly all 
of them, the exceptions arising from early and per- 
manent separation by distance. 

No new town, in this or any other country, ever 
began its existence with a larger ratio of educated, 
talented and honorable men, especially of young 
men. A few of the latter now, in the fiftieth year 
afterwards, still live there. Among them are James 
H. Raymond, John M. Swisher, Joseph Lee, James 
F. Johnson, James M. Swisher, Fenwick Smith, 
Wm. S. Hotchkiss. Among those known or be- 
lieved to be living elsewhere, are Henry H. Collier, 
in Canada ; *Thoma8 Gales Forster, in Cincinnati ; 
Wm. B. Billingaly, in Bastrop ; Archibald C. Hyde, 
of Dvalde County (the first postmaster and one of 
the first justices of the peace at Austin) ; John P. 
Borden, of Colorado County ; Gen. Geo. W. Morgan, 
of Mount Vernon, Ohio (then Captain in the Texian 
army) ; *Rev. Joseph A. Clark, living at Thorp's 
Spring, and founder of Ad Ran College ; Parry W. 
Humphries, of Aransas Pass ; John Adriance, in 



Columbia ; Alex. T. Gayle, Jackson County ; and 
ex- Governor Bell, living in North Carolina. Of 
those who are dead I recall George J. Durham, who 
died in 1869; James M. Ogden, Thos. L. Jones 
and *Martin C. Wing, all of whom drew black beans 
and were put to death in Mexico, March 25, 1843 ; 
Capt. Ben. Johnson, killed by Mexicans near the 
Nueces soon afterwards; — Dodson and — Black, 
killed by Indians opposite Austin, in 1842 ; Henry 
W. Raglan, Richard H. Hord, died in Kentucky; 
George D. Biggar, Capt. Joseph Daniels, died in 
San Francisco in 1885 ; M. H. Nicholson, *Joel 
Miner, "Alexander Area, •William Clark, Ambrose 
B. Pattison, died in Onondaga Hollow, N. Y. ; 
Maj. George W. Bonnell (editor, and killed 
as one of the guard at Mier, December 26, 
1842); *James Glasscock (a Mier prisoner); 
* — McClelland, died in Tyler; * William Carleton, 
Wm. H. Murrah, Alex. C. McFarlane, George 
K. Teulon (editor), died in Calcutta; Maj. Samuel 
Whiting (founder of the first paper in Austin), 
died in New Jersey; Rev. Edward L. Fontaine, 
died in Mississippi; John B. Ransom (poet), 
accidentally killed in 1841 ; John W. Lann, died a 
Santa Fe prisoner ; Thos. Ward and Col. Thomas 
Wm. Ward, Dr. Richard F. Brenham (killed in 
the rescue of the Mier prisoners at Salado, Mexi- 
co, February — 1843); Horace L. Upshur, M. H. 
Beatty, M. P. Woodhouse, Wm. H. H. Johnson, 
James W. Smith (first Judge of Travis County), 
killed by Indians in sight of Austin, in 1843 ; 
Harvey Smith died in Bell County ; Thomas W. 
Smith (their father), killed by Indians near 
Austin in 1841 ; Francis P. Morris, died a dis- 
tinguished Methodist preacher in Missouri; *W. 
D. Mims, Dr. Moses Johnson (first Mayor of 
Austin), died in Lavaca ; Charles Schoolfield, killed 
by Indians; Henry J. Jewett, Judge Luckett, 
Alfred W. Luckett, Wm. W. Thompson, died in 
Arizona; Wayne Barton (the first sheriff), killed 
in Washington County in 1844; Capt. James G. 
Swisher, »George W. Noble, died in Mobile ; Mus- 
grove Evans, Charles Mason (respectively first and 
second Auditors), James Newcomb, L. Vancleve, 
Capt, Mark B. Lewis, killed in 1843; Jesse C. 
Tannehill, Jacob M. Harrell, Wm. Hornsby, Na- 
thaniel Townsend, Samuel Browning, Capt. Stephen 
Crosby, Abner H. Cook, Alfred D. Coombs, Neri 
Chamberlain, Joseph Cecil (both arms shot off), 
Massillon Farley, John Green, Joseph Harrell, 
Anderson Harrell, Mrs. Angelina Eberly, died in 
Kentucky; Mrs. Eliza B. Logan, Mrs. Anna C. 



* All those mArked thus *, Including myself, were 
printers. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



55 



Luckett, R. D. McAnelly, Nelson Merrill, A. B. 
McGill, B. D. Noble, Dr. Joseph W. Robertson, 
Mrs. Ann T. J. Wooldridge, Moses Wells, Joseph 
Waples, Thos. G. Western, Michael Ziller, Charles 
R. Sossaman, Martin Moore, Charles De Morse. 

These names, drawn from memory, in a very large 
sense, apply to persons who then or subsequently 
became widely known in the public service — in- 
deed, in their respective spheres valuable men in 
the country. Of course I can only recall a portion 
of those entitled to honorable mention in an article 
of this character. Gathered together from all 
parts of the Union, and a few from Europe, their 
bones are widely asunder, at least as far as from 
New York to San Francisco, and one in China. 

The then future of Austin, seemingly bright, was 
invisibly portentous of evil. On the capture of 
San Antonio by Mexicans, in March, 1842, Austin 
was abandoned as the seat of government, and so 
remained for four years, or until February, 1846. 
Many of the inhabitants thereupon left their homes, 
and with a greatly depleted population, the town 
was left open to savage attacks from the north, 
east and west. Their trials and deprivations were 
great. The day of comparative deliverance came 
when, in connection with annexation, the govern- 



ment was returned to Austin, from which period 
the place slowly grew until railroads reached it, 
since which time its increase in population, wealth 
and costly edifices has been rapid, until, with ample 
public buildings, and four State asylums, and a 
State House pronounced equal in grandeur and 
appointments to any in the Union, it is regarded 
with pride by the State and admiration by stran- 
gers as one of the most charming and beautiful 
of State capitals of the Union. Though perhaps 
the youngest of its self-governing inhabitants 
at the time of its birth, it was my privilege on 
numerous subsequent occasions, covering a period 
of twenty years, to represent other portions of the 
State in its deliberative bodies assembled there, 
and I have never ceased to feel a deep interest in 
its prosperity. Hence, on this fifty-third anniver- 
sary of Texian independence, and in the fiftieth of 
the life of our State capital, with the utmost sin- 
cerity, I can and do salute thee, oh ! thou dearly 
won but beautiful city of the Colorado, and would 
gladly embrace each of its survivors of fifty years 
ago — male and female — and their children and 
grandchildren as well, were it practicable to do so. 
May the God of our fathers be their God and bless 
them. 



A Succession of Tragedies in Houston and Anderson Counties — 

Death of the Faulkenberrys — Cordova's Rebellion — A 

Bloody Skirmish— Battle of Kickapdo — Slaughter 

and Cremation at John Edens' House — 

Butchery of the Campbell Family — 

1836 to 1841 — Etc., Etc. 



In the account of the fall of Parker's fort, prom- 
inent mention was made of David Faulkenberry, 
his son Evan, a youth, and Abram Anglin, a boy 
of eighteen. They with others of the defeated 
party temporarily located at Fort Houston, as 
before stated, a mile or two west of where Palestine 
now stands. In the fall of 1836 these three, with 
Columbus Anderson (one account gives this name 
as Andrews), went down to the Trinity to the 
point since known as Bonner's ferry, crossed to the 
west bank for the purpose of hunting, lay down 
under the bank and all fell asleep. James Hunter 



was in the vicinity also, but remained on the east 
bank. While gathering nuts near by he heard the 
guns and yells of Indians, and hastening to the 
river, witnessed a portion of the scene. At the 
first fire Columbus Anderson received a death 
wound, but swam the river, crawled about two 
miles and died. David Faulkenberry, also mortally 
wounded, swam over, crawled about two hundred 
yards and died. Both of these men had pulled 
grass and made a bed on which to die. 

A bullet passed through Abram Anglin' s powder 
horn and into his thigh, carrying fragments of the 



56 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



horn, but he swam the river, climbed its bank, 
mounted behind Hunter, and escaped, to live till 
1875 or 1876, when he died, in the vicinity of his 
first home, near Parker's lort. Of Evan Faulken- 
berry no trace was ever found. The Indians after- 
wards said that he fought like a demon, killed two 
of their number, wounded a third, and when scalped 
and almost cloven asunder, jerked from them, 
plunged into the river and about midway sank to 
appear no more — adding another to the list of 
heroic boys who have died for Texas. Honored be 
his memory ! The dead were buried the next day. 

THE MEXICAN KEBELLION. 

' At the time of the revolution there was a consid- 
erable resident Mexican population in and around 
Nacogdoches. About the first of September, 1838, 
Jose Cordova, at the head of about two hundred of 
these people, aided by Juan Flores, Juan Cruz and 
John Norris, rose in rebellion and pitched camp on 
the Angelina, about twenty miles southwest of 
Nacogdoches. Joined by renegade Indians, they 
began a system of murder and pillage among the 
thinly scattered settlers. They soon murdered the 
brothers, Matthew and Charles Roberts, and Mr. 
Finley, their relative. Speedily, Gen. Thomas J. 
Rusk, at the head of six hundred volunteers, was 
in the field. Cordova retired to the village of 
"The Bowl," Chief of the Cherokees, and sought, 
unsuccessfully, to form an alliance with him ; but 
succeeded in attaching to Lis standard some of the 
more desperate of the Clierokees and Cooshattas. 
In a day or two he moved to the Kickapoo village, 
now in the northeast corner of Anderson County, 
and succeeded in winning that band to his cause. 
Rusk followed their line of retreat to the Killough 
settlement, some forty miles farther. He became 
convinced of his inability to overhaul them ; also, 
that they had left the country, and returned home, 
disbanding his forces. 

BATTLE OP KIOKAI'OO. 

Rusk had scarcely disbanded his men, when the 
numerous family of Killough was inhumanly butch- 
ered by this motley confederation of Mexicans and 
Indians, which alarmed and incensed the people 
exposed to their forays. The bugle blast of Rusk 
soon re-assembled his disbanded followers. Maj. 
Leonard H. Mabbitt then had a small force at Fort 
Houston. Rusk directed him to unite with him at 
what is now known as the Duty place, four miles 
west of the Neches. Mabbitt, reinforced by some 
volunteers of the vicinity under Capt. W. T. Sad- 
dler, started to the rendezvous. On the march, six 
miles from Fort Houston, a number of Mabbitt's 



men, a mile or more in rear of the command, were 
surprised by an attack of Indians and Mexicans, 
led by Flores and Cruz. A sharp skirmish ensued, 
in which the little band displayed great gallantry, 
but before Mabbitt came to their rescue, Bullock, 
Wright and J. W. Carpenter were killed, and two 
men, McKenzie and Webb, were wounded. The 
enemy, on seeing Mabbitt's approach, precipitately 
fled. This occurred on the 11th or 12th of Octo- 
ber, 1838. The dead were buried. Only one 
Indian was left on the field, but several were 
killed. 

On the 13th a spy company was organized, under 
Capt. James E. Box, and on the 14lh Mabbitt re- 
newed his march for a junction with Rusk. On the 
afternoon of the 15th a few Indians were seen pass- 
ing the abandoned Kickapoo village, evidently 
carrying meat to Cordova. Gen. Rusk soon arrived, 
his united force being about seven hundred men. 
It was nearly night, and he pitched camp on a 
spot chosen as well to prevent surprise as for de- 
fense. 

At dawn on the 16th, Rusk was furiously assailed 
by iibout nine hundred Kickapoos, Delawares, 
lonies, Caddos, Cooshattas, a few Cherokees, and 
Cordova with his Mexicans. Indians fell within 
forty or fifty feet of the lines. Many were killed, 
and after an engagement of not exceeding an hour, 
the enemy fled in every direction, seeking safety in 
the dense forest. The assaults were most severe on 
the companies of Box, Snively, Bradshaw, Saddler 
and Mabbitt's command ; but owing to the sagacity 
of Rusk in the selection of a defensive position, his 
loss was only one man, James Hall, mortally wound- 
ed, and twenty-five wounded more or less severely, 
among whom were Dr. E. J. DeBard, afterwards 
of Palestine, John Murchison, J. J. Ware, Triplett 
Gates, and twenty-one others. It was a signal defeat 
of Cordova and his evil-inspired desire for vengeance 
upon a people who had committed no act to justify 
such a savage resolve. He retired to Mexico, and 
thence essayed to gratify his malignant hatred by a 
raid, under Flores, in the following year, which was 
badly whipped by Burleson, six or eight miles from 
where Seguin stands, and virtually destroyed by 
the gallant Capt. James O. Rice, in the vicinity of 
the present town of Round Rock, on the Brushy, 
in Williamson County. His last attempt to satisfy 
his thirst for revenge was in the Mexican invasion 
of September, 1842, in command of a band of 
Mexican desperadoes and Carrizo Indians. In the 
battle of Salado, on the, 18th of that month, a yager 
ball, sent by John Lowe, standing within three feet 
of where I stood, after a flight of about ninety 
yards, crushed his arm from wrist to elbow and 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



57 



passed through his heart. This, however, is 
digression. 

Tlie wounded of Gen. EusIj were borne on litters 
back to Fort Houston. Hall survived about twenty 
days — the other twenty-five recovered. 

THE TERRIBLE TRAGEDY AT JOHN EDENS' HOUSE. 

When the citizens of that locality volunteered 
under Capt. W. T. Saddler, a soldier of San Jacinto, 
to accompany Maj. Mabbitt in the Cordova-Kicka- 
poo expedition, the families of several of the party 
were removed for safety to the house of Mr. John 
Edens, an old man, and there left under the protec- 
tion of that gentleman and three other old men, 
viz.: James Madden, Martin Murchison (father of 
John, wounded at Kickapoo), and Elisha Moore, 
then a prospector from Alabama. The other per- 
sons in the house were Mrs. John Edens and 
daughter Emily, Mrs. John Murchison, Mrs. W. T. 
Saddler, her daughter, Mrs. James Madden, and 
two little sons, aged seven and nine years, Mrs. 
Robert Madden, and daughter Mary, and a negro 
woman of sixty years, named Betsey or Patsey. 
This is the same place on which Judge D. H. Edens 
afterwards lived, in Houston County, and on which 
he died. The ladies occupied one of the two rooms 
and the men the other, a covered passageway 
separating them. On the fatal night, about the 
19 th of October, after all the inmates had retired, 
the house was attacked ,by Indians. The assault 
was made on the room occupied by the ladies and 
children. The savages broke down the door and 
rushed in, using knives and tomahawks. Mrs. 
Murchison and her daugliter, Mrs. Saddler, were 
instantly killed. Mrs. John Edens, mortally 
wounded, escaped from the room and crossed two 
fences to die in the adjoining field. Of Mary, 
daughter of Robert Madden; Emily, daughter of 
John Edens, each three years old, and tbe two 
little sons of James Madden, no tidings were ever 
heard. Whether carried into captivity or burned 
to ashes, was never known, but every presumption 
is in favor of the latter. The room was speedily 
set on fire. The men durst not open the door into 
the passage. Mrs. Robert Madden, dangerously 
wounded, rushed into the room of the men, falling 
on a bed. One by one, or, rather, two by two, the 
four men ran the gauntlet and escaped, supposing 
all the others were dead. Early in the assault 
Patsey (or Betsey), seized a little girl of John 
Edens', yet living, the beloved wife of James 
Duke, swiftly bore her to the house of Mr. Davis, 
a mile and a half distant, and then, moved by an 
inspiration that should embalm her memory in every 



generous heart, as swiftly returned as an angel of 
mercy to any who might survive. She arrived in 
time to enter the rapidly consuming house and 
rescue the unconscious Mrs. Robert Madden, but 
an instant before the roof fell in. Placing her on 
her own bed, in her unmolested cabin in the yard, 
she sought elsewhere for deeds of mercy, and found 
Mrs. James Madden, utterly helpless, under the 
eaves of the crumbling walls, and doomed to 
speedy cremation. She gently bore her to the 
same refuge, and by them watched, bathed, poul- 
ticed and nursed — aye, prayed! — till the morrow 
brought succor. However lowly and humble the 
gifts of the daughters of Ham, every Southron, 
born and reared among them, will recognize in this 
touching manifestation of humanity and affection 
elements with which he has been more or less 
familiar since his childhood. Honored be the 
memory and cherished be the saintly fidelity of this 
humble servant woman. 

Mrs. James Madden, thus rescued from the 
flames, bore upon her person three ghastly wounds 
from a tomahawk, one severing her collar bone, two 
ribs cut asunder near the spine, and a horrible 
gash in the back. But it is gratifying to record 
that both of these wounded ladies recovered, and 
in 1883, were yet living near Augusta, Houston 
County, ob-'ects of affectionate esteem by their 
neighbors. 

On the day following this horrid slaughter, the 
volunteers — the husbands and neighbors of the 
victims — returned from the battle of Kickapoo, in 
time to perform the last rites to the fallen and to 
nurse the wounded. The late venerable Capt. 
William Y. Lacey, of Palestine, Robert Madden, 
Elder Daniel Parker, aud others of the Edens and 
other old families of that vicinity were among 
them. 

ANOTHER BLOODY TRAGEDY MORDEE OF MRS. CAMP- 
BELL, HER SON AND DAUGHTER. 

In the year 1837, Charles C. Campbell arrived in 
the vicinity of Fort Houston, and settled on what 
is now called Town creek, three miles west of Pal- 
estine. His family consisted of himself, wife and 
five children — Malathiel, a youth of twenty; Pa- 
melia, aged seventeen ; Hulda, fourteen ; Fountain, 
eleven ; George, four, and two negro men. They 
labored faithfully, built cabins, opened a field, and 
in 1838, made a bountiful crop. 

In February, 1839, Mr. Campbell sickened and 
died. During a bright moon, about a week later, 
in the same month, soon after the family had re- 
tired, the house was suddenly attacked by a party 



58 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



of Indians. The only weapon in the house was an 
old rifle with a defective flint loci?. "With this Mala- 
thiel heroically endeavored to defend his mother 
and her children. The negro men, having no means 
of defense, managed to escape, Mrs. Campbell 
caused Pamelia, the elder daughter, to take refuge 
under the puncheon floor, with her little brother 
George, enjoining upon her silence as the only means 
of saving herself and the child. The son soon 
found that the gun lock refused to work, and the 
mother sought to ignite the powder with a brand of 
fire, but in doing so stood so near the door that an 
Indian, forcing it slightly ajar and thrusting in his 
arm, nearly severed her arm from her body. The 
door was then forced open, the Indians rushed in, 
and in a moment tomahawked unto death Mrs. 
Campbell, Huldah and Fountain. Malathiel, knife 
in hand, sprang from the room into the yard, but 
was speedily slain by those outside. While these 
things were being enacted in the house Pamelia, 
with little George, stealthily emerged from her hid- 
ing place and nearly escaped unobserved ; but just 
as she was entering a thicket near by, an arrow 
struck the back of her head, but fortunately it 
glanced around without entering the skull, and she 
soon reached Fort Houston to report her desola- 
tion. 

The Indians robbed the house of its contents, 
including six feather-beds (leaving the feathers, 
however), a keg of powder, four hundred silver 
dollars, and a considerable amount of paper money, 
which, like the feathers, was cast to the winds. At 
daylight the bloody demons crossed the Trinity 
eight miles away, and were thus beyond pursuit 
by the small available force at hand ; for the west 
side of the river at that time teemed with hostile 
savages. 

Pamelia Campbell, thus spared and since de- 



prived by death of the little brother she saved, yet 
lives, the last of her family, respected and beloved, 
the wife or widow of Mr. Moore, living on Cedar 
creek, Anderson County. 



THE LAST KAID. 

The last raid in that vicinity was by one account 
in 1841, by another in 1843, but both agree as to the 
facts. A small party of Indians stole some horses. 
They were pursued by Wm. Frost, who escaped 
from the Parker's Fort disaster in 1836, and three 
others. They came upon the Indians while they 
were swimming the Trinity at West Point. Frost 
fired, killing an Indian, on reaching the bank a 
little in advance of the others, but was instantly 
shot dead by a warrior already on the opposite 
bank. The other three men poured a volley into 
the enemy yet under the bank and in the river. 
Four were killed, when the remainder fled, leaving 
the horses in the hands of the pursuers. 

In 1837 there was a severe encounter in Maine's 
prairie, Anderson County, but the particulars are 
not before me, nor are those attending the butchery 
of the Killough family, which led to the battle of 
Kickapoo, and was one of the impelling causes of 
the expulsion of the Cherokees and associate bands 
from the country. 

In the accounts here given some conflicting state- 
ments are sought to be reconciled. The unrecorded 
memory of most old men, untrained in the habits 
of preserving historical events, is often at fault. 
Unfamiliar with the localities, it is believed that 
substantial accuracy is attained in this con- 
densed account of these successive and sanguinary 
events, illuminating the path of blood through 
which that interesting portion of our beloved State 
was transferred from barbarism to civilization. 



Some Reminiscences — First Anniversary Ball in the Republic 
of Texas, and other Items of Interest. 



The following relating to the first anniversary 
celebration of Texian Independence and the battle 
of San Jacinto, respectively given at Washington, 
March 2d, 1837, and at the newly laid out town of 
Houston, April 21, 1837, will doubtless interest 
the reader. 



The invitation to the first or Independence ball 
ran thus : — 



Washington, 28th February, 1837.— The pleas- 
ure of your company is respectfully solicited at a 
party to be given in Washington on Thursday, 2d 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



59 



March, to celebrate the birthday of our national 
independence. 

Devereau J. Woodlief, Thos. Gay, E. Stevenson, 
W. B. Scates, Asa Hoxey, James E. Cook, W. W. 
Hill, J. C. Hunt, Thos. P. Shapard, managers. 

All these nine now sleep with their fathers. Mr. 
Scates, the last to die a few years since, was a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence ; Wood- 
lief was terribly wounded at San Jacinto ; the gal- 
lant James E. Cook, a lieutenant at San Jacinto and 
a colonel under Somervell in 1842-43, was killed 
in a momentary difficulty about the first of April, 
1843, a deeply lamented occurrence. 

For a description of the ball in Houston credit is 
due the gifted pen of a lady survivor of the scene, 
then little more than a child : — 

"Following the impulses common to humanity, 
as the 21st of April, 1837, drew near, the patriotic 
citizens of Texas, with the memory of San Jacinto 
still fresh in their minds and appreciating the ad- 
vantages resulting from it, 'resolved that the event 
should be celebrated at the capital of the Eepublic, 
which this victory had made possible, and which 
had been most appropriately named for him who 
wore the laurel. The city of Houston was at that 
time a mere name, or at best a camp in the woods. 
White tents and temporary structures of clapboards 
and pine poles were scattered here and there near 
the banks of the bayou, the substantial log house of 
the pioneer was rare, or altogether wanting, it being 
the intention of the builders soon to replace what 
the needs of the hour demanded, with ■ buildings 
fitted to adorn the capital of a great Eepublic. 

"The site of the capitol had been selected where 
now stands the fine hotel bearing its name, but the 
materials for its construction had not yet arrived 
from Maine. There was, however, a large two- 
story buildijig about half finished on the spot now 
occupied by T. W. House's bank. It was the 
property of the firm of Kelsey & Hubbard, and, 
having been tendered for the free use of the public 
on this occasion, men worked night and day that it 
might at least have floor, walls and roof, which 
were indeed the chief essentials of a dancing hall. 
As there was neither time nor material at hand for 
ceiling or laying the second floor, a canopy of green 
boughs was spread over the beams to do away with 
the unpleasant effect of skeleton timbers and great 
space between floor and pointed roof. 

"Chandeliers were suspended from the beams 
overhead, but they i-esembled the glittering orna- 
ment of to-day in naught save use for which they 
were intended. Made of wood, with sockets to 
hold the sperm candles, and distributed at regular 
distances, each pendant comprised of five or six 



lights, which shed a dim radiance, but alas, a liberal 
spattering of sperm upon the dancers beneath. 
The floor being twenty-five feet wide, by fifty feet 
in length, could easily accommodate several cotil- 
lions, and, although the citizens of Houston were 
very few, all the space was required for the large 
number who came from Brazoria, Columbia, San 
Felipe, Harrisburg and all the adjacent country. 
Ladies and gentlemen came in parties on horseback, 
distances of fifty and sixty miles, accompanied by 
men servants and ladies' maids, who had in charge 
the elegant ball costumes for the important occa- 
sion. From Harrisburg they came in large row 
boats, that mode of conveyance being preferable 
to a horseback ride through the thick under- 
growth, for at that time there was nothing more 
than a bridle path to guide the traveler between 
the two places. 

" Capt. Mosley Baker, a captain at San Jacinto, 
and one of Houston's first citizens, was living with 
his wife and child (now Mrs. Fannie Darden), in a 
small house built of clapboards ; the house com- 
prised one large room designed to serve as parlor, 
bed-room and dining-room, and a small shed-room 
at the back. The floor, gr rather the lack of the 
floor, in the large apartment, was concealed by a 
carpet, which gave an air of comfort contrasting 
strongly with the surroundings. 

"As the time for going to the ball drew near, 
which was as soon as convenient after dark, several 
persons assembled at Capt. Baker's for the purpose 
of going together. These were Gen. Houston, 
Frank E. Lubbock, afterwards Governor, and his 
wife, John Birdsall (soon after Attorney-General), 
and Mary Jane Harris (the surviving widow of 
Andrew Briscoe.) Gen. Houston was Mrs. Baker's 
escort, Capt. Baker having gone to see that some 
lady friends were provided for. When this party 
approached the ball room, where dancing had 
already begun, the music, which was rendered by a 
vioUn, bass viol and fife, immediately struck up 
' Hail to the Chief,' the dancers withdrew to each 
side of the hall, and- the whole party. Gen. Houston 
and Mrs. Baker leading, and maids bringing up the 
rear, marched to the upper end of the room. Hav- 
ing here laid aside wraps, and exchanged black 
slippers for white ones, for there was no dressing 
room, thej' were ready to join in the dance, which 
was soon resumed. A new cotillion was formed by 
the party who had just entered, with the addition 
of another couple, whose names are not preserved, 
and Mr. Jacob Cruger took the place of Mr. Bird- 
sail, who did not dance. Gen. Houston and Mrs. 
Baker were partners, Mrs. Lubbock and Mr. Cru- 
ger, and Mr. Lubbock and Miss Harris. Then 



60 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



were the solemn figures of the stately cotillion exe- 
cuted with care and precision, the grave balancing 
steps, the dos-a-dos, and others to test the nimble- 
ness and grace of dancers. 

" Gen. Houston, the President, was of course the 
hero of the day, and his dress on this occasion was 
unique and somuwhat striking. His ruffled shirt, 
scarlet cassimere waistcoat and suit of black silk 
velvet, corded with gold, was admirably adapted 
to set off his fine, tall figure ; his boots, with short, 
red tops, were laced and folded down in such a 
way as to reach but little above the ankles, and 
were finished at the heels with silver spurs. The 
spurs were, of course, quite a useless adornment, 
but they were in those days so commonly worn as 
to seem almost a part of the boots. The weakness 
of Gen. Houston's ankle, resulting from the wound, 
was his reason for substituting boots for the slip- 
pers, then universally worn by gentlemen for dan- 
cing. 

"Mrs. Baker's dress of white satin, with black 
lace overdress, corresponded in elegance with that 
of her escort, and the dresses of most of the other 
ladies were likewise rich and tasteful. Some wore 
white mull, with satin trimmings ; others were 
dressed in white and colored satins, but naturally 
in so large an assembly, gathered from many differ- 
ent places, there was great variety in the quality of 
costumes. All, however, wore their dresses short, 
cut low in the neck, sleeves generally short, and all 
wore ornaments or flowers or feathers in their hair, 
some flowers of Mexican manufacture being partic- 
ularly noticeable, on account of their beauty and 
rarety. 

" But one event occurred to mar the happiness of 
the evening. Wtiilst all were dancing merrily, tlie 
sad news arrived that the brother of the Misses 
Cooper, who were at the time on the floor, had been 
killed by Indians at some point on the Colorado 
river. Altliough the young ladies were strangers to 
most of those present, earnest expressions of sym- 
pathy were heard on all sides, and the pleasure of 
their^imraediate friends was of course destroyed. 

" At about midnight the signal for supper was 
given, and tlie dancers marched over to the hotel of 
Capt. Ben Fort Smith, which stood near the middle 
of the block now occupied by the Ilutchins House. 
This building consisted of two very large rooms, 



built of pine poles, laid up like a log house, with a 
long shed extending the full length of the rooms. 
Under this shed, quite innocent of floor or carpet, 
the supper was spread ; the tempting turkeys, veni- 
son, cakes, etc., displayed in rich profusion ; the 
excellent coffee and sparkling wines invited all to 
partake freely, and soon the witty toast and hearty 
laugh went round. 

"Returning to the ball room, dancing was re- 
sumed with renewed zest, and continued until the 
energy of the musicians began to flag, and the 
prompter failed to call out the figures with liis ac- 
customed gusto ; then the cotillion gave place to 
the time-honored Virginia reel, and by the time 
each couple had enjoyed the privilege of "going 
down the middle," daylight began to dawn, parting 
salutations were exchanged, and the throng of dan- 
cers separated, many of them never to meet again. 

" Ere long the memory of San Jacinto's first ball 
was laid away among the mementos of the dead, 
which, being withdrawn from their obscurity only 
on each recurring anniversary, continue to retain 
their freshness even after fifty years have flown. 

" Of all the merry company who participated in 
that festival, only a few are known to be living at 
the present day. They are ex-Governor Lubbock, 
Mrs. Wynns, Mrs. Mary J. Briscoe and Mrs. 
Fannie Darden." 

Addenda. In January, 1886, the following an- 
cient item in a Nashville paper, announcing the 
death of Noah W. Ludlow, the old theatrical man- 
ager, appeared, viz. : — 

"In July, 1818, in Nashville, an amateur per- 
formance of Home's tragedy of Douglas was given, 
in which Mr. Ludlow appeared as Old Norval. 
There were remarkable men in that performance. 
The manager of the amateur club was Gen. Jno. M. 
Eaton, afterward Secretary of War diirinir Gen. 
Jackson's presidential term. Lieut. Sam. Houston, 
afterward Gen. Sam Houston, of Sun Jacinto fame, 
played Glunalvon ; Wm. S. Fulton, afterward Gov- 
ernor of Arkansas, was the youni; Norval ; K. H. 
Foster, later United States Senator^rom Tennessee, 
was a member of the club, and the part of Lord 
Randolph was taken by W. C. Dunliip, who, in 1839, 
was a member of Congress from Tennessee. Gen. 
Andrew Jackson was an honorary meml)er of the 
same dramatic club." 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



61 



Death of Capt. Robert M. Coleman in 1837 — Murder of 
Coleman and her Heroic Boy" and the Battle 
of Brushy in 1839. 



Mrs. 



Robert M. Coleman, a native of Trigg County, 
Kentucky, born in 1799, is elsewliere mentioned in 
connection witli ttie expedition under tiimself first, 
and Col. John H. Moore, secondly, into the 
Tehuacano Hill region, in 1835. He was a gallant 
man, courageous and impetuous, and settled on the 
Colorado, near Bastrop, in 1830. He was in the 
siege of Bexar, in the fall of 1835, signed the 
Declaration of Independence on the second of 
March, 1836, and commanded a company at San 
Jacinto, on the 21st of April, his wife and children 
being then among the refugees east of the Trinity. 
In the summer of 1837, while on a mission to 
Velasco, at the mouth of the Brazos, he was 
drowned while bathing in the river. This was 
justly deplored as a great loss to the frontier of the 
country. He left, besides his wife, three sons and 
two daughters. 

Mrs. Coleman returned to their former home in 
what was called Wells' prairie, a prolongation of 
the lower end of Webber's prairie, perhaps twelve 
miles above Bastrop, her nearest neighbors being 
the late Geo. W. Davis and Dr. J. W. Roberbson, 
of Austin, and one or two others. Her cabin and 
little field stood in the lower point of a small 
prairie, closely flanked on the east, west and south 
by dense bottom timber, the onlj' approach being 
through the prairie on the north, and it was very 
narrow. She and her sons made a small crop there 
in 1838. 

On the 18th of February, 1839, while Mrs. 
Coleman and four of her children were employed 
a short distance from the cabin, a large body of 
Indians, estimated at from two to three hundred, 
suddenly emerged from the timber, and with the 
wildest yells, rushed towards them. They fled to 
the cabin and all reached it except Thomas, a 
child of five years, who was captured, never more 
to return to his kindred though occasionally heard 
of many years later as a Comanche warrior. At 
the moment of the attack James Coleman and 
— Rogers were farther away, separated from the 
others by the Indians, and being powerless, es- 
caped down the bottom to notify the people 
below. 

As Mrs. Coleman reached the door of the cabin, 
Albert and the two little girls entered, when, missing 



little Thomas, she halted to look for him. It was 
but for an instant, but long enough for an arrow 
to pierce her throat. In the throes of death she 
sprang inside. Albert closed atd barred the door, 
and she sank to the floor, speedily- to expire. 
Albert was a boy under fifteen years of age, but 
a worthy son of his brave sire. There being two 
or three guns in the cabin, he made a heroic fight, 
holding the enemy at bay for some time, certainly 
killing four of their number ; in the meantime 
raising a puncheon, causing his two little sisters 
to get under the fioor, replacing the puncheon, 
and enjoining upon them, whether he survived or 
perished, to make no noise until sure that white 
men called them. Soon after this he received a 
fatal wound. As life ebbed he sank down, re- 
peated his former injunction to his little sisters, 
then, pillowing his head on his mother's pulseless 
bosom, died. A year later, in the Congress of 
Texas, my youthful heart was electrified on hear- 
ing the old patriot, William Menefee, of Colorado, 
in a speech on the "Cherokee Land Bill," utter 
an eloquent apostrophe to " Mrs. Coleman and 
her heroic ,boy." 

For some reason, doubtless under the impression 
that there were other men in the house, the Indians 
withdrew. They next appeared at the house of 
Dr. Robertson, captured seven negroes and, the 
doctor being absent, robbed the house. 

At twilight John D. Anderson, a youth who lived 
within a few miles (afterwards distinguished as a 
lawyer and an orator), rode to the cabin and called 
the children by name. They recognized his voice 
and answered. He then raised a puncheon and 
released them. Remounting, with one before and 
one behind him, he conveyed them to Geo. W. 
Davis' house, where the families of the vicinity had 
assembled for safety — possibly at a different 
house, but Mr. Davis remained iu charge of the 
guard left to protect the women and children. 

Speedily two squads of men assembled at the 
locality — twenty-five under Capt. Joseph Burleson 
and twenty-seven commanded by Capt. James 
Rogers. Thus, fifty-two in number, they pursued 
the savages in a northerly direction. On the next 
forenoon, near a place since called Post Oak Island 
and three or four miles north of Brushy creek, they 



62 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



came in sight of the enemy, who, all being on foot, 
sought to reach the thicket on a branch, somewhat 
between the parties. To prevent this a charge was 
ordered to cut them off, and if need be, occupy the 
thicket as a base of defense ; but some of the men 
hesitated, while others advanced. Skirmishing 
began, confusion ensued, followed by a disorderly 
retreat, some men gallantly dismounting time and 
again, to .hold the enemy in check. In this engage- 
ment Capt. Joseph Burleson was killed, while dis- 
mounted and trying to save the day. The horse of 
W. W. (afterward Captain) Wallace escaped and 
was caught and mounted by an Indian. A. J. 
HaynJe, seeing this, gallantly took Mr. Wallace up 
behind him and thus saved his life. 

The whole party, notwithstanding the disorder, 
halted on reaching Brushy. 

While remaining in a state of indecision, Gen. 
Edward Burleson (of whom Joseph was a brother) 
came up with thirty-two men. All submitted at 
once 'to his experienced leadership. Reorganizing 
the force, with Capt. Jesse Billingsley commanding 
a portion, he moved forward, and about the middle 
of the afternoon found the Indians in a strong 
position, along a crescent-shaped branch, partly 
protected by high banks, and the whole hidden by 
brush. Burleson led one party into the ravine 
above and Billingsey the other into it below the 
Indians, intending to approach each way and drive 
the enemy out. But each party found an inter- 
vening, open and flat expansion of the ravine, in 



passing which they would be exposed to an enfilad- 
ing fire from an invisible enemy. Hence this plan 
was abandoned and a random skirmish kept up until 
night, a considerable number of Indians being 
killed, as evidenced by their lamentations, as they 
retreated as soon as shielded by darkness. Burle- 
son camped on the ground. 

The next day, on litters, the dead and Mr. 
Gilleland were carried homeward, the latter to die 
in a few days. 

The men of Bastrop were ever famed for gal- 
lantry, and many were the regi-ets and heart-burn- 
ings among themselves in connection with the first 
engagement of the day; but ample amends were 
made on other fields to atone for that untoward 
event. 

Doubtless interesting facts are omitted. Those 
given were derived long ago from participants, sup- 
plemented by a few points derived at a later day 
from Mr. A. D. Adkisson, who was also one of 
the number. 

For several years succeeding the raids into and 
around Bastrop, stealing horses, and killing, some- 
times one and sometimes two or three persons, 
were so frequent that their narration would seem 
monotonous. In most cases these depredations 
were committed by small parties early in the night, 
and by sunrise they would be far away, rendering 
pursuit useless. They were years of anguish, 
sorely testing the courage and fortitude of as 
courageous a people as ever settled in a wilderness. 



Cordova's Rebellion in 1838-9 — Rusk's Defeat of the Kicka- 

poos — Burleson's Defeat of Cordova — Rice's Defeat 

of Flores — Death of Flores and Cordova — 

Capt. Matthew Caldwe-11. 



At the close of 1837, and in the first eight or 
nine months of 1838, Gen. Vicente Filisola was in 
command of Northern Mexico, with headquarters 
in Matamoros. He undertook, by various well- 
planned artifices, to win to Mexico the friendship 
of all the Indians in Texas, including the Cherokees 
and their associate bands, and unite them in a per- 
sistent war on Texas. Through emissaries passing 
above the settlements he communicated with the 
•Cherokees and others, and with a number of Mexi- 



can citizens, in and around Nacogdoches, and suc- 
ceeded in enlisting many of them in his schemes. 
The most conspicuous of these Mexicans, as devel- 
oped in the progress of events, was Vicente Cor- 
dova, an old resident of Nacogdoches, from which 
the affair has generally been called " Cordova's 
rebellion," but there were others actively engaged 
with him, some bearing American names, as Nat 
Norris and Joshua Robertson, and Mexicans named 
Juan Jose Rodriguez, Carlos Morales, Juan Santos 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



63 



Ooy, Jose Vicenti Micheli, Jose Ariola, and An- 
tonio Corda. 

The first outbreak occurred on the 4th of August, 
1838, when a party of Americans who had pursued 
and recovered some stolen horses from a Mexican 
settlement in Nacogdoches County, were fired upon 
on their return trip and one of their number killed. 

The trail of the assailants was followed and 
found to be large and made by Mexicans. On the 
7th Gen. Husk was informed that over a hundred 
Mexicans, headed by Cordova and Norris, were 
encamped on the Angelina. He immediately re- 
cruited a company of sixty volunteers and posted 
them at the lower ford of that stream. The enemy 
were then on the west side. On the 10th it was 
reported that about 300 Indians had joined Cor- 
dova. On the same day President Houston, then 
in Nacogdoches, who had issued a proclamation to 
the immigrants, received a letter signed by the per- 
sons whose names have been given, disavowing 
allegiance to Texas and claiming to be citizens of 
Mexico. 

Cordova, on the 10th, moved up towards the 
Cherokee Nation. Maj. H. W. Augustin was* 
detailed to follow his trail, while Gen. Rusk moved 
directly towards the village of Bowles, the head 
<!hief of the Cherokees, believing Cordova had 
gone there ; but, on reaching the Saline, it was 
found that he had moved rapidly in the direction 
of the Upper Trinity, while the great body of his 
followers had dispersed. To the Upper Trinity and 
Brazos, he went and remained till March, 1839, in 
■constant communication with the wild Indians, 
urging them to a relentless war on Texas, burning 
and destroying the homes and property of the 
settlers, of course with the deadly horrors of their 
mode of warfare, and promising them, under the 
instructions of Gen. Filisola first, and his succes- 
sor. Gen. Valentino Canalizo, secondly, protection 
under the Mexican government and fee simple 
rights to the respective territories occupied by 
them. He sent communications to the generals 
named, and also to Manuel Flores, in Matamoros, 
charged with diplomatic duties, towards the Indians 
of Texas, urging Flores to meet with him for con- 
ference and a more definite understanding. 

In the meantime a combination of these lawless 
Mexicans and Indians committed depredations on 
the settlements to such a degree that Gen. Busk 
raised two hundred volunteers and moved against 
them. On the 14th of October, 1838, he arrived at 
Fort Houston, and learning that the enemy were in 
force at the Kickapoo village (now in Anderson 
County), he moved in that direction. At daylight 
on the 16th he attacked them and after a short, but 



hot engagement, charged them, upon which they 
fied with precipitation and were pursued for some 
distance. Eleven warriors were left dead, and, of 
course, a much larger number were wounded. 
Rusk had eleven men wounded, but none killed. 

The winter passed without further report from 
Cordova, who was, however, exerting all his povrers 
to unite all the Indian tribes in a destructive war- 
fare on Texas. 

On the 27th of February, 1839, Gen. Canalizo, 
who had succeeded Filisola in command at Mata- 
moros, sent instructions to Cordova, the same in 
substance as had already been given to Flores, 
detailing the manner of procedure and directing 
the pledges and promises to be made to the Indians. 
Both instructions embraced messages from Canalizo 
to the chiefs of the Caddos, Seminoles, Biloxies, 
Cherokees, Kickapoos, Brazos, Tehuacanos and 
other tribes, in which he enjoined them to. keep 
at a goodly distance from the frontier of 
the United States, — a policy dictated by fear 
of retribution from that country. Of all the 
tribes named the Caddos were the only ones 
who dwelt along that border and, in consequence 
of acts attributed to them, in November, 1838, 
Gen. Rusk captured and disarmed a portion of the 
tribe and delivered them to their American agent 
in Shreveport, where they made a treaty, promis- 
ing pacific behavior until peace should be made 
betvreen Texas and the remainder of their people. 

CORDOVA EN KODTE TO MATAMOROS. 

In his zeal to confer directly with Flores and 
Canalizo, Cordova^ resolved to go in person to 
Matamoros. From his temporary abiding place on 
the Upper Trinity, with an escort of about seventy- 
five Mexicans, Indians and negroes, he set forth in 
March, 1839. On the 27th of that month, his 
camp was discovered at the foot of the mountains, 
north of and not far from where the city of Austin 
now stands. The news was speedily conveyed to 
Col. Burleson at Bastrop, and in a little while that 
ever-ready, noble and lion-hearted defender of his 
country found himself at the head of eighty of his 
Colorado neighbors, as reliable and gallant citizen 
soldiers as ever existed in Texas. Surmising the 
probable route of Cordova, Col. Burleson bore 
west till he struck his trail and, finding it but a 
few hours old, followed it as rapidly as his horses 
could travel till late in the afternoon of the 
29th, when his scouts reported Cordova near 
by, unaware of the danger in his rear. Burleson 
increased his pace and came up with the enemy in 
an open body of post oaks about six miles east, or 



64 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



probably nearer southeast, from Seguin, on the 
Guadalupe. Yoakum says the enemy fled at the 
first fire. He was misinformed. Cordova promptly 
formed his men, and, shielded by the large trees 
of the forest, made a stubborn resistance. Bur- 
leson dismounted a portion of his men, who also 
fought from the trees for some time. Finally see- 
ing some of the enemy wavering, Burleson charged 
them, when they broke and were hotly pursued 
about two miles into the Guadalupe bottom, which 
they entered as twilight approached. Further pur- 
suit was impossible at night and Burleson bore up 
the valley six miles to Seguin, to protect the few 
families resident there against a possible attack by 
the discomfited foe. The conduct of Gen. Bur- 
leson in this whole affair, but especially during the 
engagement in the post oaks, was marked by 
unusual zeal and gallantry. The lamented John D. 
Anderson, OwenB. Hardeman, Wm. H. Magilland 
other participants often narrated to me, the writer, 
then a youth, how gloriously their loved chief bore 
himself on the occasion. All the Bastrop people 
loved Burleson as a father. Cordova lost over 
twenty-five in killed, fully one-third of his follow- 
ers, Burleson lost none by death, but had several 
wounded. 

PURSUIT OF CORDOVA BY CALDWELL. 

At the time of this occurrence Capt. Matthew 
Caldwell, of Gonzales, one of the best known and 
most useful frontier leaders Texas ever had, was in 
command of a company of six months' rangers, 
under a law of the previous winter. A portion of 
the company, under First Lieut. James Camp- 
bell, were stationed in the embryo hamlet of 
Seguin. The other portion, nnder Calilwell, was 
located on the Guadalupe, fourteen miles above 
Gonzales and eighteen miles below Seguin, but 
when the news reached them of this affair, during 
the night succeeding Cordova's defeat, Capt. 
Caldwell was in Gonzales and Second Lieut. 
Canoh C. Colley was in command of the camp. 
He instantly dispatched a messenger, wbo reached 
Caldwell before daylight. The latter soon sent 
word among the yet sleeping villagers, calling for 
volunteers to join him by sunrise. Quite a number 
were promptly on hand, among whom were Ben 
McCulloch and others of approved gallantry. 

Traveling rapidly, the camp was soon reached 
and, everything being in readiness, Capt. Caldwell 
lost no. time in uniting with Campbell at Seguin, 
so that in about thirty -six hours after Burleson had 
driven Cordova into the Guadalupe bottom, Cald- 
well, with his own united company (omitting the 



necessary camp guards), and the volunteer citizens 
referred to, sought, found and followed the trail of 
Cordova. 

But when Cordova, succeeding his defeat, 
reached the river, he found it impracticable to 
ford it and, during the night, returned to the up- 
lands, made a detour to the east of Seguin, and 
struck the river five miles above, where, at day- 
light, March 30th, and at the edge of the bottom, 
he accidentally surprised and attacked five of 
Lieut. Campbell's men returning from a scout, and 
encamped for the night. These men were James 
M. Day, Thomas R. Nichols, John W. Nichols, 
D. M. Poor and David Reynolds. Always on the 
alert, though surprised at such an hour by men using 
fire-arms only, indicating a foe other than wild 
Indians, they fought so fiercely as to hold their as- 
sailants in check sufflciently to enable them to reach 
a dense thicket and escape death, though each one 
was severely wounded. They lost their horses and 
everything excepting their arms. Seeing Cordova 
move on up the river, they continued down about 
five miles to Seguin, and when Caldwell arrived 
early next morning gave him this information. 
Besides those from Gonzales Caldwell was joined 
at Seguin by Ezekiel Smith, Sr., Peter D. Ander- 
son and French Smith, George W. Nichols, Sr., 
William Clinton, IL G. Henderson, Doctor Henry, 
Frederick Happell, George 11. Ciray and possibly 
two or three others. 

Caldwell pursued Cordova, crossing the Guad- 
alupe where New Braunfels stands, through the 
highlands north of and around San Antonio and 
thence westerly or northwesterly to the Old Pre- 
sidio de Rio Grande road, where it crosses the Rio 
Frio and along that road to the Nueces. It was 
evident froni the "signs" that he had gained 
nothing in distance on the retreating chief who 
would easily cross the Rio Grande thirty or forty 
miles ahead. Hence farther pursuit was futile and 
Caldwell returned, following the road to San 
Antonio. He had started without provisions, reiv- 
ing upon wild game; but Cordova's party had, for 
the moment, frightened wild animals from the line 
of march and after a serpentine route of a hundred 
and sixty miles through hills, the men were in need 
of food and became much more so before traveling 
a hundred and ten additional miles to San Antonio. 
Arriving there, however, the whole town welcomed 
them with open arms. In a note to the author 
written August 24, 1887, more than forty-eight 
years later. Gen. Henry E. McCulloch, who was a 
private in Caldwell's Company, says: "The 
hospitable people of that blood-stained old town, 
gave us a warm reception and the best dinner pos- 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



65 



■sible in their then condition, over which the heroic 
and ever lamented Coi. Henry W. Karnes pre- 
sided. They also furnished supplies to meet our 
wants until we reached our respective encamp- 
ments." 

On the way out Caldwell passed at different 
points wounded horses abandoned by Cordova. 
■One such, in the mountains, severely wounded, 
attracted the experienced eye of Ben McCulloch as 
a valuable horse, if he could be restored to sound- 
ness. On leaving San Antonio for home by per- 
mission of Capt. Caldwell, with a single companion, 
he went in search of the horse. He found him, 
and by slow marches took him home, where, under 
good treatment, he entirely recovered, to become 
iamous as "Old Pike," McCulloch's pet and 
favorite as long as he lived — a fast racer of rich 
chestnut color, sixteen hands high, faultless 
in disposition and one of the most sagacious 
horses ever known in the country. The tips 
of his ears had been split for about an inch, 
proving his former ownership by one of the Indian 
tribes. Another coincidence may be stated, viz., 
that returning from a brief campaign in June, 
1841, when at a farm house (that of Mrs. Sophia 
Jones), eight miles from Gonzales, the rifle of an 
old man named Triplett, lying across his lap on 
horseback, with the rod in the barrel, accidentally 
-fired, driving the ramrod into Old Pike's shoulder 
blade, not over four feet distant. McCulloch was 
on him at the time and the writer of this, just dis- 
mounted, stood within ten feet. The venerable 
Mrs. Jones (mother of the four brothers, William 
E., Augustus H. , Russell and Isham G. Jones), 
wept over the scene as she gazed upon the noble 
.animal in his agonizing pain, and "strong men wept 
at what they supposed to be the death scene of 
•Old Pike. But it was not so. He was taken in 
-charge by Mrs. Jones ; the fragments of the shat- 
tered ramrod, one by one, extracted, healthy sup- 
.puration brought about ; and, after about three 
months' careful nursing, everyone in that section 
rejoiced to know that Old Pike " was himself 
again." In a chase after two Mexican scouts, 
between the Nueces and Laredo, in the Somervell 
•expedition, in December, 1842, in a field of per- 
haps twenty-five horses, Flacco, the Lipan chief, 
slightly led, closely followed by Hays on the horse 
.presented him by Leonard W. Grace, and Ben 
JMcCulloch, on Old Pike. Both Mexicans were 
captured. 

PURSUIT AND DEATH OF MANUEL FLOBES. 

Bearing in mind what has been said of Cordova's 
■correspondence with Manuel Flores, the Mexican 



Indian agent in Matamoros, and his desire to have 
a conference with that personage, it remains, in 
the regular order of events, to say that Flores, 
ignorant of the calamitous defeat of Cordova (on 
the 29th of March, 1839), set forth from Mata- 
moros probably in the last days of April, to meet 
Cordova and the Indian tribes wherever they might 
be found, on the upper Brazos, Triuity or east of 
the latter. He had an escort of about thirty 
Indians and Mexicans, supplies of ammuni- 
tion for his allies and all his official papers 
from Filisola and Canalize, to which reference 
has been made, empowering him to treat with 
the Indians so as to secure their united friend- ^ 
ship for Mexico and combined hostility to Texas. 
His march was necessarily slow. On the 14th of 
May, he crossed the road between Seguin and San 
Antonio, having committed several depredations on 
and near the route, and on the 15th crossed the 
Guadalupe at the old Nacogdoches ford. He was 
discovered near the Colorado not far above where 
Austin was laid out later in the same year. 

Lieut. James O.' Rice, a gallant young ranger, 
in command of seventeen men, fell upon his trail, 
pursued, overhauled and assailed him On Brushy 
creek (not the San Gabriel as stated by Yoakum), 
in the edge of Williamson County. Flores en- 
deavored to make a stand, but Kice rushed for- 
ward with such impetuosity as to throw the enemy 
into confusion and flight. Flores and two others 
were left dead upon the ground, and fully half of 
those who escaped were wounded. Rice captured 
and carried in one hundred horses and mules, 
three hundred pounds of powder, a large amount 
of shot, balls, lead, etc., and all the correspond- 
ence in possession of Flores, which revealed the 
whole plot for the destruction of the frontier 
people of Texas, to be followed up by the devast- 
ation of the whole country. The destruction of 
the whole demoniacal scheme, it will be seen, was 
accomplished by a train of what must be esteemed 
providential occurrences. 

THE FATE OF VICENTE OOEDOVA. 

Cordova, after these admonitions, never returned 
to East or North Texas, but remained on the Rio 
Grande. In September, 1842, in command of a 
small band of his renegade Mexicans and Indians, 
he accompanied the Mexican General, Adrian WoU, 
in his expedition against San Antonio, and was in 
the battle of Salado, on Sunday the 18th of that 
month. While Woll fought in front, Cordova led 
his band below the Texian position on the creek and 
reached a dry ravine where it entered the timbered 
bottom, at right angles with the corner of the creek. 



66 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



At intervals were small thickets on the ravine, with 
open spaces between. Cordova, in the nearest 
open space to the bottom and about ninety yards to 
the right of my company, when in the act of firing, 
was shot dead by John Lowe, who belonged to the 
adjoining company on our right and stood about 
thirty feet from me, while I was loading my gun. 
I watched the affair closely, fearing that one of 
our men might, fall from Cordova's fire. There 
could, at the instant, be no mistake about it. 
Others saw the same ; but no one knew it was Cor- 
dova till his men were driven from the position by 
Lieut. John R. Baker of Cameron's Company, when 
old Vasquez, a New Madrid Spaniard in our com- 
mand, recognized him, as did others later. And 
thus perished Cordova, Flores, and largely, but by 
no means entirely, their schemes for uniting the 
Indians against the people of Texas. The great 
invasion of 1840, and other inroads were a part of 
the fruit springing from the intrigues of Filisola and 
Canalizo. 

These entire facts, in their connection and rela- 
tion to each other, have never before been pub- 
lished ; and while some minor details have been 
omitted, it is believed every material fact has been 
correctly stated. 



In subsequent years contradictory statements 
were made as to the manner of Cordova's death, or 
rather, as to who killed him. I simply state the 
absolute truth as I distinctly saw the fact. The 
ball ran nearly the whole length of the arm, hori- 
zontally supporting his gun, and then entered his 
breast, causing instant death. I stated the fact 
openly and repeatedly on the ground after the 
battle and no one then asserted differently. 

Caldwell's Company of six months' men, while 
failing to have any engagement, rendered valuable 
service in protecting the settlers, including Gonzales 
and Seguin, on the Guadalupe, the San Marcos and 
La Vaca. In the summer of 1839, Capt. Caldwell 
also furnished and commanded an escort to Ben 
McCulloch in survej'ing and opening a wagon road 
from Gonzales to the proposed new capital of Texas, 
then being laid out at Austin, the course, from the 
court house at Gonzales, being N. 17° W., and the 
distance, by actual measurement, fifty-five and one- 
fourth miles. Referring back to numerous trips 
made on that route from soon after its opening in 
1839 to the last one in 1869, the writer has ever 
been of the impression that (outside of mountains 
and swa;mps), it was the longest road for its meas- 
ured length, he ever traveled. 



The Expulsion of the Cherokees from Texas in 1839. 



When the revolution against Mexico broke out in 
Texas in September, 1835, all of what is now called 
North Texas, excepting small settlements in the 
present territory of Bowie, Red river and the 
northeast corner of Lamar counties, was without a 
single white inhabitant. It was a wilderness bccu- 
pied or traversed at will by wild Indians. The 
Caddos, more or less treacherous, and sometimes 
committing depredations, occupied the country 
around Caddo and Soda lakes, partly in Texas and 
partly in Louisiana. The heart of East Texas, as 
now defined, was then the home of one branch of 
the Cherokees and their twelve associate bands, the 
Shawnees, Kickapoos, Delawares and others who 
had entered the country from the United States 
from about 1820 to 1835. It has been shown in 
previous chapters that in 1822 three of their chiefs 
visited the city of Mexico to secure a grant of land 
and failed: how in 1826, two of their best and 
most talented men, John Dunn Hunter and — 



Fields, visited that capital on a similar mission ancJ 
failed, returning soured against the Mexican gov- 
ernment; how, in the autumn of that year, in con- 
sequence of that failure, they united with Col. 
Haden Edwards, himself outraged by Mexican in- 
justice, as the head of a colony, in opposition to 
the Mexican government, in what was known as 
the Fredonian war, and how, being seduced from 
their alliance with Edwards through the promises 
of Ellis P. Bean, as an agent of Mexico, they 
turned upon and murdered Hunter and Fields, 
their truest and best friends, and joined the Mexi- 
can soldiery to drive the Americans from Nacog- 
doches and Edwards' colony. 

So, when the revolution of 1835 burst forth, the 
provisional government of Texas, through Gen. 
Sam. Houston and Col. Jno. Forbes, commissioners, 
in February, 1836, formed a treaty with them] 
conceding them certain territory and securing their 
neutrality, so far as paper stipulations could do it. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



67 



But it was soon suspected that Mexicans were 
among them, and when it became known that the 
whole population west of the Trinity must flee to 
the east of that stream, if not to and across the 
Sabine, perhaps two or three thousand men — hus- 
bands, fathers and sons — were deterred from join- 
ing Gen. Houston's little band of three hundred at 
Gonzales, in its retreat, from March 13th to April 
20th, to the plains of San Jacinto. It was a fear- 
ful moment. Being appealed to, on the ground 
that these were United States Indians, Gen. 
Edmund P. Gaines, the commander at Fort Jessup, 
near Natchitoches, Louisiana, encamped a regiment 
of dragoons on the east bank of the Sabine, which 
was readily understood by the Indians to mean that 
if they murdered a single Texian family, these 
dragoons would cross that river and be hurled upon 
them. This had the desired effect. 

Again, in the early summer of 1836, when a 
second and much more formidable invasion of 
Texas seemed imminent, it became known that 
Mexican emissaries were again among these In- 
dians, and great apprehensions were felt of their 
rising in arms as the Mexicans advanced. Presi- 
dent David G. Burnet, on the 28th of June, at the 
suggestion of Stephen F. Austin, who had arrived 
at Velasco on the 26th from the United States, 
addressed a letter to Gen. Gaines, asking him for 
the time being, to station a force at Nacogdoches, 
to overawe the Indians. Austin also wrote him of 
the emergency. That noble and humane old soldier 
and patriot assumed the responsibility and dis- 
patched Col. Whistler with a regiment of dragoons 
to take post at Nacogdoches. This had the desired 
effect on the Indians. The Mexican invasion did 
not occur, and the crisis passed. 

But the seeds of suspicion and discord between 
the whites and Indians still existed. Isolated mur- 
ders and lesser outrages began to show themselves 
soon afterwards. The Pearce family, the numer- 
ous family of tlie Killoughs and numerous others 
were ruthlessly murdered. 

Gen. Houston, who had great influence with the 
Cherokees, interposed his potential voice to allay 

the excitement and preserve the peace. In 

, 1838, Vicente Cordova headed an insur- 



rection of the Mexicans of Nacogdoches and took 
position in the Cherokee country, — and sustained 
more or less by that tribe, and joined by a few of 
them, greatly incensed the whites against them. 
In November, 1838, Gen. Busk fought and 
defeated a strong force of Kickapoo and other 
Indians. Gen. Houston retired from his first 
presidential term in December, and was succeeded 
by Gen. Mirabeau B. Lamar, who was in deep 



sympathy with the people, and had probably 
brought with him from Georgia a measure of 
prejudice against those who had fought and slain 
his kindred and fellow-citizens in that State. 

President Lamar resolved on the removal of 
these people from the heart of East Texas, and 
their return to their kindred west of Arkansas — by 
force if necessary. He desired to pay them for 
their improvements and other losses. He ap- 
pointed Vice-president David G. Burnet, Gen. 
Albert Sidney Johnston, Secretary of War, Hugh 
McLeod, Adjutant-general, and Gen. Thomas J. 
Rusk to meet and treat with them for their peace- 
ful removal ; but if that failed then they were to be 
expelled by force. To be prepared for the latter 
contingency, he ordered Col. Edward Burleson, 
then in command of the regular army, to march 
from Austin to the appointed rendezvous in the 
Cherokee country, with two companies of regulars 
and the volunteer companies of Capts. James 
Ownsby and Mark B. Lewis, about two hundred 
strong, and commanded by Maj. William J. 
Jones, still living at Virginia Point, opposite Gal- 
veston. On the ground they found the com- 
missioners and about the same time Gen. Kelsey 
H. Douglas arrived with several hundred East 
Texas militia and took chief command. Burleson 
took with him also Capt. Placido, with forty 
Toncahua warriors. 

After three days' negotiation terms were verbally 
agreed upon. The Indians ' were to leave the 
country for a consideration. The second day fol- 
lowing was fixed for signing the treat j-. But the 
Indians did not appear. The rendezvous was 
ten miles from their settlements. Scouts sent out 
returned reporting the Indians in force moving off. 
It turned out that Bowles, the principal chief, had 
been finessing for time to assemble all his warriors 
and surprise the whites by a superior force. His 
reinforcements not arriving in time, he had begun 
falling back to meet them. Col. Burleson was 
ordered to lead the pursuit. He pressed forward 
rapidly and late in the afternoon (it being July 
16th, 1839), came up with them and had a severe 
engagement, partly in a small prairie and partly in 
heavy timber, into which Burleson drove them, 
when night came on and our troops encamped. I 
now quote from the narrative of Maj. Wm. J. 
Jones, who was under Burleson in the first as well 
as the last engagement on the 17th of July. He 
says : — 

"It soon became apparent that the reinforce- 
ments looked for by Bowles had not reached him 
and that he was falling back to meet them. This 
he succeeded in accomplishing next morning (the 



68 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



17th day of July), at the Delaware village, now in 
Cherokee County, occupying an eminence in the 
open post oaks, with the heavily timbered bottom 
of the Neches in their immediate rear. When our 
forces overtook them the main body of the enemy 
were in full sight occupying the eminence where the 
village was located, while a detachment was posted 
in a ravine, tortuous in its course, and was 
intended to conceal their movements towards our 
rear, with a view'to throw themselves between our 
men and their horses. But the watchful eye of 
Col. Burleson, who well understood the Indian 
tactics, discovered this movement in good time, 
when he ordered his entire force of three hundred 
men to charge and drive the Indians from their 
place of concealment. Although the weather was 
extremely hot and the men all famished for water, 
this order was executed with promptness, routing 
the Indians and driving them back to.wards the 
village, surrounded by fences and cornfields. 
■Gen. Rusk, with all the force (about 400) of East 
Texas under his immediate* command, had in the 
m-eantime advanced upon the enemy's front and 
kept them so hotly engaged in defense of fheir 
women and children that no reinforcement could 
be spared from that quarter for the support of 
those who had been driven from the ravine. When 
they retreated upon the main body, their entire 
force was terrorized and fell back in great disorder 
upon the cornfields, then in full bearing, and the 
dense timber of the river bottom. It was here that 
Bowles evinced the most desperate intrepidity, and 
made several unavailing efforts to rally his trusted 
warriors. * * * it was in his third and last 
effort to restore his broken and disordered ranks, 
that he met his death, mounted upon a very fine 
sorrel horse, with blaze face and four white feet. 
He was shot in the back, near the spine, with a 
musket ball and three buckshot. He breathed 
a short while only after his fall. * * * 

" After this defeat and the loss of their great and 
trusted chief," the Indians disappeared, in the 
jungles of the Neches and, as best they could, in 
squads, retreated up the country, the larger por- 
tion finally joining their countrymen west of 
Arkansas ; but as will be seen a band of them led 
by John Bowles (son of the deceased chief) and 
Egg, en route to Mexico, were defeated, these two 
leaders killed and twenty-seven women and children 
■captured, near the mouth of the San Saba, on 
Christmas day, 1839, by Col. Burleson. These cap- 
tives were afterwards sent to the Cherokee Nation, 

The victory at the Delaware village freed East 
Texas of those Indians. It had become an imper- 
ative necessity to the safety and population of the 



country. Yet let it not be understood that all of 
EIGHT was with the whites and all of wrong with 
the Indians — for that would be false and unjust, 
and neither should stain our history. From their 
standpoint the Cherokees believed they had a 
moral, an equitable, and, at least, a quasi-legal 
right to the country, and such is truth. But be- 
tween Mexican emissaries on the one hand, mis- 
chievous Indians on the other and the grasping 
desire of the unprincipled land grabbers for their 
territory, one wrong produced a counter wrong 
until blood flowed and women and children were 
sacrificed by the more lawless of the Indians, and 
we have seen the result. All the Indians were not 
bad, nor were all the whites good. Their expul- 
sion, thus resolved into the necessity of self-preser- 
vation, is not without shades of sorrow. But it has 
been ever thus where advancing civilization and its 
opposite have been brought into juxtaposition for 
the mastery. 

But to return to the battle-field of Delaware vil- 
lage. Many heroic actions were performed. Vice- 
president Burnet, Gen. Johnston and Adjt.-Gen. 
McLeod were each wounded, but not dangerously 
so. Maj. David S. Kaufman, of the militia 
(afterwards the distinguished congressman), was 
shot in the cheek. Capt. S. W. Jordan, of the 
regulars (afterwards, by his retreat in October, 
1840, from Saltillo, styled the Xenophon of his 
age), was severely wounded when Bowles was 
killed, and one of his privates, with " buck and 
ball," says Maj. Jones, " had the credit of killing 
Bowles." 

[In a letter dated Nacogdoches, July 27, 1885, 
Mr. C. N. Bell, who was in the fight under Capt. 
Robert Smith, and is vouched for as a man of in- 
tegrity, says: " Chief Bowles was wounded in the 
battle, and after this Capt. Smith and I found him. 
He was sitting in the edge of a little prairie on the 
Neches river. The chief asked for no quarter. 
He had a holster of pistols, a sword and a bowie 
knife. Under the circumstances the captain was 
compelled to shoot him, as the chief did not surren- 
der nor ask for quarter. Smith put his pistol right 
to his head and shot him dead, and of course had no 
use for the sword." So says Mr. Bell, but the in- 
quisitive mind will fail to see the compulsive neces- 
sity of killing the disabled chief when his slayer 
was enabled "to put his pistol right to his head 
and shoot him dead." I well remember in those 
days, however, that the names of half a dozen men 
were paraded as the champions, who, under as 
many different circumstances, had killed Bowles.] 

Inthis battle young Wirt Adams was the Adjutant 
of Maj. Jones' battalion. He was the distinguished 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



69 



Mississippi Confederate General who was killed in 
some sort of personal diflSculty a year or two years 
ago. Michael Chavallier, subsequently distinguished 
as a Texas ranger, drew his maiden sword in this 
fight. Maj. Henry W. Augustine, of San Augustine, 
was severely wounded in it. Charles A. Ogsbury, 
now of Cuero, was a gallant member of Capt. Owns- 
by's Company. John H. Reagan,* then a youth, 
recently arrived in the country, was in the hottest of 
the engagement, and now sits in the Senate of the 
United States. David Rusk, standing six feet six 



in his stocking feet, was there, as valiant as on San 
Jacinto's field. The ever true, ever cool and ever 
fearless Burleson covered himself with glory and by 
his side rode the stately and never faltering chief, 
Capt. Placido, who would have faced "devils and 
demons dire " rather than forsake his friend and 
beau ideal of warriors, "Col. Woorleson," as he 
always pronounced the name. 

1 cannot give a list of casualties, but the 
number of wounded was large ^- of killed 
small. 



Col. Burleson's Christmas Fight in 1839 — Death of Chiefs John 

Bowles and the " Egg." 



After the double defeat of the Cherokees in East 
Texas, in the battle of July 16th and 17th, the 
whereabouts of those Indians was unknown for a 
considerable time. Doubtless a considerable por- 
tion of them sought and found refuge among their 
kindred on the north side of the Arkansas, where 
Texas had long desired them to be. The death of 
their great chief, Col. Bowles, or "The Bowl," as 
his people designated him — the man who had been 
their Moses for many years — had divided their 
counsels and scattered them. But a considerable 
body remained intact under the lead of the younger 
chiefs, John Bowles, son of the deceased, and 
"The Egg." In the autumn of 1839, these, with 
their followers, undertook to pass across the coun- 
try, above the settlements, into Mexico, from which 
they could harass our Northwestern frontier with 
impunity and find both refuge and protection 
beyond the Rio Grande and among our national 
foes. 

At that time it happened that Col. Edward Bur- 
leson, then of the regular army, with a body of 
regulars, a few volunteers and Lipan and Toncahua 
Indians as scouts, was on a winter campaign against 
the hostile tribes in the upper country, between the 
Brazos and the Colorado rivers. 

On the evening of December 23d, 1839, when 
about twenty-five miles (easterly) from Pecan 
bayou, the scouts reported the discovery of a large 
trail of horses and cattle, bearing south towards 

* Since above was written, resigned from United 
States Senate, and is now a member of the Texas State 
Bailroad Commission. 



the Colorado river. On the following day Col. Bur- 
leson changed his course and followed the trail. 
On the morning of the 25th, Christmas day, the 
scouts returned and reported an encampment of 
Indians about twelve miles distant, on the west 
bank of the Colorado and about three miles below 
the mouth of the San Saba. (This was presumably 
the identical spot from which Capts. Kuykendall 
and Henry S. Brown drove the Indians ten years 
before in 1829.) 

Fearing discovery if he waited for a night attack. 
Col. Burleson determined to move forward as 
rapidly as possible, starting at 9 a. m. By great 
caution and the cunning of his Indian guides he 
succeeded in crossing the river a short distance 
above the encampment without being discovered. 

When discovered within a few hundred yards of 
the camp, a messenger met them and proposed a 
parley. Col. Burleson did not wish to fire if they 
would surrender ; but perceiving their messenger 
was being detained, the Indians opened a brisk 
fire from a ravine in rear of their camp, which was 
promptly returned by Company B. under Capt. 
Clendenin, which formed under cover of some 
trees and fallen timber ; while the remainder of the 
command moved to the right in order to flank their 
left or surround tkem; but before this could be 
executed, our advance charged and the enemy 
gave way, and a running fight took place for two 
miles, our whole force pursuing. Favored by a 
rocky precipitous ravine, and a dense cedar brake, 
the warriors chiefly escaped, but their loss was 
great. Among the seven warriors left dead on 
the field were the Chiefs John Bowles and "The 



70 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Egg." The whole of their camp equipage, horses 
and cattle, one man, five women and nineteen 
children fell into the hands of the victors. Among 
the prisoners were the mother, three children and 
two sisters of John Bowles. 

Our loss was one Toncahua wounded and the 
brave Capt. Lynch of the volunteers killed — shot 
dead while charging among the foremost of the 
advance. 

The prisoners were sent under a guard com- 
manded by Lieut. Moran to Austin, together with 
important papers found in the camp. 

Col. Burleson made his official report next day 
to Gen. Albert Sydney Johnston, Secretary of 
War, from which these details are derived. He 



then continued his original march, scouring the 
country up Pecan bayou, thence across to the 
Leon and down the country. Several bodies of 
Indians were discovered by the scouts — one being 
large — but they fled and avoided the troops. 
Two soldiers deserted on the trip, and both were 
killed by the hostiles. Among others in this 
expedition were Col. Wm. S. Fisher, Maj. Wyatt, 
the gallant Capt. Matthew Caldwell, Lieut. Lewis, 
Dr. Booker and Dr. (then Capt.) J. P. B. Jan- 
uary, who died in Victoria, Texas, a worthy sur- 
vivor of the men of '36. 

A few months later, after an amicable under- 
standing, the prisoners were sent to their kindred 
in the Cherokee Nation, west of Arkansas. 



Bird's Victory and Death in 1839. 



In 1839 the savages, flushed with many trophies, 
became exceedingly bold, and were constantly 
committing depredations. The settlers on the 
upper Brazos, Colorado and Trinity called upon 
the government for some measure of relief and 
protection. Under an Act of the Congress in the 
beginning of that year several companies of three 
months' rangers were called out. 

The fraction of a company, thirty-four men, 
recruited in Houston, and under the command of 
Lieut. William G. Evans, marched from that city 
and reached Fort Milam the 3d of April, 1839. 
This fort, situated two miles from the present town 
of Marlin, had been built by Capt. Joseph Daniels, 
with the Milam Guards, a volunteer company, also 
from Houston. William H. Weaver was Orderly 
Sergeant of Evans' Company. Evans was directed 
to afford all the protection in his power to the 
settlers. 

A company of fifty-nine men from Fort Bend 
and Austin counties, was mustered into the ser- 
vice for three months, on the 21st of April, 1839, 
under the command of Capt. John Bird, and 
reached Fort Milam on the 6th of May. Capt. 
Bird, as senior officer, took command of both com- 
panies, but leaving Evans in the fort, he quartered 
in some deserted houses on the spot where Marlin 
now stands. 

Nothing special transpired for some little time, 
but their provisions gave out, and the men were 
compelled to subsist on wild meat alone. This 



occasioned some murmurs and seven men became 
mutinous, insomuch, as, in the opinion of Bird, to 
demand a court-martial ; but there were not 
officers enough to constitute such a tribunal, and 
after their arrest he determined to send them under 
guard to Col. Burleson, at Bastrop. For this pur- 
pose twelve men were detailed under First-Lieut. 
James Irvine. At the same time Bird detailed 
twelve men, including Sergt. Weaver, from Evans' 
command, to strengthen his own company, and 
determined to bear company with the prisoners 
on a portion of the route towards Bastrop. 

They reached the deserted fort on Little river on 
the night of the 25th of June and camped. Next 
morning, leaving Lieut. Wm. R. Allen in charge, 
Bird and Nathan Brookshire accompanied the 
guard and prisoners for a few miles on their route 
and then retraced their steps towards the fort. 
On the way, they came upon three Indians, skin- 
ning a buffalo, routed them and captured a horse 
loaded with meat. 

About 9 o'clock a. m., and during Bird's ab- 
sence, a small party of Indians, on the chase, ran 
a gang of buffaloes very near the/fort, but so soon 
as they discovered the Americans they retreated 
north over the rolling prairie. Sergt. Weaver 
was anxious to pursue them, but Allen refused, 
lest by so doing they should expose Bird and 
Brookshire. So soon as the latter arrived, and 
were informed of what had been seen, Bird directed 
an examination into the condition of their arms. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



71 



and ordered "To horse," and a rapid march In 
the direction the Indians had gone, leaving two 
men in the fort as guard. In about four miles 
they came in view of fifteen or twenty Indians and 
chased without overhauling them. The enemy 
were well mounted and could easily elude them, 
but seemed only to avoid gun-shot distance, and 
continued at a moderate speed on the same course, 
through the broken prairie. Now and then, a sin- 
gle Indian would dart oft in advance of his com- 
rades and disappear, and after pursuing them some 
four or five miles small parlies of well mounted 
Indians would frequently appear and join the first 
body; but still the retreat and the pursuit were 
continued. 

After traveling some twelve miles in this way, 
through the prairie, the Indian force had been ma- 
terially augmented, and they halted and formed on 
the summit of a high ridge. Bird, immediately 
ordered a charge, which was firmly met by the 
enemy and they came into close quarters and hot 
work. As they mingled with the Indians on the 
elevated ridge, one of Bird's men, pointing to the 
next ridge beyond, sang out: "Look yonder, 
boys! What a crowd of Indians! " and the little 
band of forty-five men beheld several hundred 
mounted warriors advancing at full speed. They 
immediately surrounded our men and poured a 
heavy fire among them. The intrepid Weaver 
directed Capt. Bird's attention to a ravine two hun- 
dred j'ards distant and at the base of the hill, as an 
advantageous position. Bird, preserving the ut- 
most composure amid the shower of bullets and 
arrows, ordered his men to dismount, and leading 
their horses in solid column, to cut their way down 
to the position named. 

Cutting their way as best they could, they reached 
the head of the little ravine and made a lodgment 
for both men and horses, but a man named H. M. 
C. Hall, who had persisted in remaining on his 
horse, was mortally wounded in dismounting on 
the bank. This ravine was in the open prairie with 
a ridge gradually ascending from its head and on 
either side, reaching the principal elevations at 
from two hundred and fifty to three hundred 
yards. For about eighty yards the ravine had 
washed out into a channel, and then expanded 
into a flat surface. Such localities are com- 
mon in the rolling prairies of Texas. The party 
having thus secured this, the only defensible point 
within their reach, the enemy collected to the 
number of about six hundred on the ridge, stripped 
for battle and hoisted a beautiful flag of blue and 
red, perhaps the trophy of some precious victory. 
Sounding a whistle they mounted and at a gentle 



and beautifully regular gallop in single file, they 
commenced encircling Bird and his little band, 
using their shields with great dexterity. Passing 
round the head of the ravine then turning in front 
of the Texian line, at about thirty yards — a trial 
always the most critical to men attacked by supe- 
rior numbers, and one, too, that created among 
Bird's men a death-like silence and doubtless tested 
every nerve — the leading chief saluted them with: 
"How do you do? How do you do?" repeated 
by a number of his followers. At that moment, 
says one of the party, my heart rose to my throat 
and I felt like I could outrun a race-horse and I 
thought all the rest felt just as I did. But, just as 
the chief had repeated the salutation the third time, 
William Winkler, a Dutchman, presented his rifle 
with as much self-composure as if he had been 
shooting a beef, at the same time responding: " I 
dosh tolerably well; how dosh you do, God tarn 
you! " He fired, and as the chief fell, he con- 
tinued: '■'■Now, how dosh you do, you tam red 
rascal ! " Not another word had been uttered up to 
that moment, but the dare-devil impromptu of the 
iron-nerved Winkler operated as an electric battery, 
and our men opened on the enemy with loud and 
defiant hurrahs — the spell was broken, and not a 
man among them but felt himself a hero. Their 
first fire, however, from the intensity of the ordeal, 
did little execution, and in the charge, Thomas Gay 
fell dead in the ditch, from a rifle ball. 

Recoiling under the fire, the Indians again formed 
on the hill and remained about twenty minutes, 
when a second charge was made in the same order, 
but in which they made a complete circuit around 
the Texians dealing a heavy fire among them. But 
the nerves of the inspirited defenders had now be- 
come steady and their aim was unerring — they 
brought a goodly number of their assailants to the 
ground. They paid bitterly for it, however, in the 
loss of the fearless Weaver, who received a death 
ball in the head, and of Jesse E. Nash, who was 
killed by an arrow, while Lieut. Allen and George 
W. Hensell were severely wounded and disabled ; 
and as the enemy fell back a second time, Capt. 
Bird jumped on to the bank to encourage his men ; 
but only to close his career on earth. He was shot 
through the heart with an arrow by an Indian at 
the extraordinary distance of two hundred yards — 
the best arrow shot known in the annals of Indian 
warfare, and one that would seem incredible to 
those who are not familiar with their skill in shoot- 
ing by elevation. 

They were now left without an officer. Nathan 
Brookshire, who had served in the Creek war under 
Jackson, was the oldest man in the company, and 



72 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



at the suggestion of Samuel A. Blain, was unani- 
mously called upon to assume the command. He 
assented, and requited the confidence reposed in a 
most gallant manner. 

For the third time, after a brief delay on the 
ridge, the enemy came down in full force, with ter- 
rific yells, and an apparent determination to triumph 
or sacrifice themselves. They advanced with impet- 
uosity to the very brink of the ditch, and, recoiling 
under the most telling fire from our brave boys, 
they would rally again and again with great firmness. 
Dozens of them fell within twenty or thirty feet of 
our rifles — almost every shot killed or wounded an 
Indian. Brookshire's stentorian voice was heard 
through the lines in words of inspiring counsel. 
The stand made by the enemy was truly desperate ; 
but the death-dealing havoc of the white man, fight- 
ing for victory or death, was too galling for the red 
man, battling for his ancient hunting-grounds, and 
after a prolonged contest, they withdrew with sullen 
stubbornness to the same position on the ridge, leav- 
ing many of their comrades on the field. It was 
now drawing towards night, and our men, wearied 
with the hard day's work, and not wishing to pro- 
voke a feeling of desperation among the discom- 
fited foe, concluded it would be unwise to hurrah 
any more, as they had done, unless in resisting a 
charge. 

The Indians drew up into a compact mass on the 
ridge and were vehemently addressed by their prin- 
cipal chief, mounted on a beautiful horse and 
wearing on his head a buffalo skin cap, with the 
horns attached. It was manifest, from his manner 
and gesticulations, that he was urging his braves 
to another and last desperate struggle for victory — 
but it would not do. The crowd was defeated. 
But not so with their heroic chief. Failing to 
nerve the mass, he resolved to lead the few who 
might follow him. With not exceeding twelve 
warriors, as the forlorn hope, and proudly waving 
defiance at his people, he made one of the most 
daring assaults in our history, charging within a 
few paces of our lines, fired, and wheeling his 
horse, threw his shield over his shoulders, leaving 
his head and neck only exposed. At this moment, 
the chivalrous young James W. Robinett sent a 
ball through his neck, causing instant death, ex- 
claiming, as the chief fell, "Shout boys! I struck 
him where his neck and shoulders join! " A tre- 
mendous hurrah was the response. The Indians on 
the hill side, spectators of the scene, seeing their 
great war chief fall within thirty feet of the Amer- 
icans, seemed instantly possessed by a reckless 
frenzy to recover his body; and with headlong 
impetuosity, rushed down and surrounded the 



dead chief, apparently heedless of their own dan- 
ger, while our elated heroes poured among them 
awful havoc, every ball telling upon some one of 
the huge and compact mass. This struggle was 
short, but deadly. They bore away the martyred 
chief, but paid a dear reckoning for the privilege. 

It was now sunset. The enemy had counted 
our men — they knew their own force — and so 
confident were they of perfect victory, that they 
were careful not to kill our horses, only one of 
which fell. But they were sadly mistaken — they 
were defeated with great loss, and as the sun was 
closing the day, they slowly and sullenly moved 
off, uttering that peculiar guttural howl — that 
solemn, Indian wail — which all old Indian fighters 
understand. 

Brookshire, having no provisions and his heroic 
men being exhausted from the intense labors of 
the day, thought it prudent to fall back upon the 
fort the same night. Hall, Allen and Hensell were 
carried in, the former dying soon after reaching 
there. The next day Brookshire sent a runner to 
Nashville, fifty miles. On the second day, his 
provisions exhausted, he moved the company also 
to Nashville. Mr. Thompson received them with 
open arms and feasted them with the best he had. 
Brookshire made a brief report of the battle to the 
Government, and was retained in command till 
their three months' term of service expired, with- 
out any other important incident. " Bird's Vic- 
tory," as this battle has been termed, spread a 
gloom among the Indians, the first serious repulse 
the wild tribes had received for some time, and its 
effect was long felt. 

I have before me copies of the muster rolls of 
both Bird's and Evans' companies, in which are 
designated those who were in the battle, excepting 
one person. The list does not show who composed 
the prisoners or guard. Lieut. Irvine and L. M. 
H. Washington, however, were two of the guards. 
As the muster rolls have been burnt in the Adjutant- 
General's ofHce, these rolls are the more important 
and may be preserved in this sketch. The names 
are classed and hereto appended. 

bird's company. 
Those known to be in the fight were : John Bird, 
Captain ; Wm. R. Allen, Second Lieutenant ; Wm. 
P. Sharp, Second Sergeant; Wm. P. Bird, First 
Corporal. Privates : Nathan Brookshire (Captain 
after Bird's death), William Badgett, James 
Brookshire, Tillman C. Fort, James Hensley, 
William Hensley, H. M. C. Hall, J. H. Hughes, 

A. J. Ivey, Edward Jocelyn, Lewis Kleberg, Green 

B. Lynch, Jesse E. Nash, Jonathan Peters, William 





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IT 


..j^B 


MjH 


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iHt| 


^^HE^" 




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GEN. BEN. McCDLLOCH. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



73 



Peters, E. Rector, Milton Bradford, Warren Hast- 
ings, T. W, Lightfoot, G. W. Pentecost, Eli Fore- 
man, A. G. Parker, Daniel Bradley, Geo. W. 
Hensel, Benj. P. Kuyger, John D. Thompson, 
Joseph H. Slack, Thomas Bradford — 32 and one 
omitted — say 33. Left in charge of the fort, 
Joseph S. Marsh and F. G. Woordward — 2. Ab- 
sent (as before stated, including the man in the 
fight not remembered), James Irvine, First Lieuten- 
ant. Privates : Bela Vickery, Wm. Blair, Second 
Corporal, George Allen, Wm. Ayres, Joshua O. 
Blair, Lewis L. Hunter, W. Hickson, Neil Mc- 
Crarey, J. D. Marshall, James Martin, J. W. 
Stoddard, Henry Verm, Joseph H. Barnard, 
Stephen Goodman, M. J. Hannon, C. Beisner, 
Jackson E. Burdick, James M. Moreton, .Joseph 
McGuines, Wm. J. Hodge, Charles Waller, L. M. 
H. Washington, John Atkinson, Joshua O. Blair — 
25. 

LIEUT. EVANS' COMPANY. 

Those in the fight were: William H. Weaver, 
First Sergeant ; Samuel A. Blain, Second Corporal ; 
Privates: Thomas Gay, Charles M. Gevin, W. W. 
Hanman, Robert Mills, Thomas S. Menefee, H. A. 
Powers, James M. Robinett, John Romann, William 



Winkler, Thos. Robinett — 12. Those left at Fort 
Milam were : Wm. G. Evans, First Lieutenant ; 
J. O. Butler, Second Sergeant; Thos. Brown, 
First Corporal ; A. Bettinger, Musician ; Privates: 
Charles Ball, Littleton Brown, Grafton H. Boatler, 
D. W. Collins, Joseph Flippen, Abner Frost, James 
Hickey, Hezekiah Joner, John Kirk, Laben Mene- 
fee, Jarrett Menefee, Thomas J. Miller, Frederick 
Pool, Washington Rhodes, Jarrett Ridgway, John 
St. Clair, John Weston, Thomas A. Menefee — 22. 
Joseph Mayor crippled and left in Houston — total 
company, 35. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Bird's men in the battle 33 

Evans' " " " 12—45 

Bird's men not in the fight 26 

Evans' " " " " 22—48 

Aggregate force of both commands 93 

The classification of the names was made by one 
of those in the battle, from memory. It may pos- 
sibly be slightly incorrect in that particular ; but 
the rolls of each company as mustered in are 
official. 



Ben McCulloch's Peach Creek Fight in 1839. 



Among the survivors of that day, it is remem- 
bered as a fact and by those of a later day, as a 
tradition, that in February, 1839, there fell through- 
out South and Southwest Texas, the most destruc- 
tive sleet ever known in the country. Great trees 
were bereft of limbs and tops by the immense 
weight of ice, and bottoms, previously open and 
free of underbrush, were simply choked to impassa- 
bility by fallen timber. The cold period continued 
for ten or twelve days, while ice and snow, shielded 
from the sun, lay upon the ground for a much 
longer period. This occurred in the latter half of 
February, 1839, in the same year but several 
months before Austin, or rather the land upon 
which it stands, was selected as the future seat of 
government. 

At that lime Ben McCuIloch, who had entered 
Texas just in time to command a gun at San 
Jacinto, was a young man in his twenty-eighth year 
residing at Gonzales, having been joined by his 
brother, Henry E., his junior by several years. 



during the preceding year. At the same time the 
Toncahua tribe of Indians were encamped at the 
junction of Peach and Sandy creeks, about fifteen 
miles northeast of Gonzales. 

Just prior to this great sleet Ben McCulloch had 
made an agreement with a portion of the Toncahuas 
to join him and such white men as he could secure 
in a winter expedition against the hostile Indians 
above. The sleet postponed the enterprise and, 
when the weather partially resumed its usual 
temperature, it was difficult to enlist either whites 
or Indians in the contemplated enterprise. Both 
dreaded a recurrence of the storm. But following 
Moore's San Saba trip and in hope of recovering 
Matilda Lockhart and the Putman children, Mc- 
Culloch deemed that an auspicious time to make 
such a trip, and about the first of March left the 
Toncahua village for the mountains. The party 
consisted of five white men — Ben McCulloch, Wil- 
son Randall, John D. Wolfin, David Hanson and 
Henry E. McCulloch — and thirty-five Toncahua 



74 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



warriors commanded by their well-lsnown and wily 
old chief, " Capt. Jim Kerr," a name that he 
assumed in 1826 as an evidence of his friendship 
for the first settler of Gonzales, after that gentle- 
man had been broken up by other Indians in July 
of that year. The medicine man of the party was 
Chico. 

On the second day out and on the head waters of 
Peach creek, they struck a fresh trail of foot 
Indians, bearing directly for Gonzales. This, of 
course, changed their plans. Duty to their threat- 
ened neighbors demanded that they should follow 
and break up this invading party. 

They followed the trail rapidly for three or four 
hours and then came in sight of the enemy, who 
promptly entered an almost impenetrable thicket 
bordering a branch and in a post oak country. 
The hostiles, concealed from view, had every 
advantage, "and every attempt to reach a point from 
which they could be seen or flred upon was ex- 
posing the party attempting it to the fire of the 
unseen enemy. Several hours passed in which 
occasional shots were fired. From the first Capt. 
Jim refused to enter or allow his men to enter the 
thicket, saying the dangei was too great and Ton- 
cahuas too scarce to run such hazards. One of 
his men, however, from behind the only tree well 
situated for defense, was killed, the only loss sus- 
tained by the attacking party. Finally, impatient 
of delay and dreading the approach of night, 
McCulloch got a promise from Capt. Jim to so 
place his men around the lower end of the thicket 
as to kill any who might attempt to escape, while 
he, his brother, Randall and Henson would crawl 
through it from the upper end. Wolfln declined a 
ticket in what he regarded as so dangerous a lot- 
tery. Slowly they moved, observing every possible 
precaution till — " one by one " — each of the four 
killed an Indian and two or three others were 
wounded. The assailed Indians fired many shots 
and arrovrs, but seemed doomed to failure. In 
thickets nothing is so effective as the rifle ball. 



Finally the survivors of the enemy (nine of an 
original thirteen) emerged in the branch at the 
lower end of the thicket and were allowed by Capt. 
Jim to escape. When the whites effected an exit 
the enemy was beyond reach, sheltered in a yet 
larger thicket. 

This closed the campaign. The Toncahuas, 
scalping the four dead hostiles, felt impelled by a 
patriotic sense of duty to hasten home and celebrate 
their victory. They fleeced off portions of the 
thighs and breasts of the dead and all started in ; 
but they soon stopped on the way and went through 
most of the mystic ceremonies attending a war 
dance, thoroughly commingling weird wails over 
their fallen comrade with their wild and equally 
weird exultations over their fallen foes. This cere- 
mony over, they hastened home to repeat the savage 
scenes with increased ferocity. McCulloch and 
party, more leisurely, returned to Gonzales, to be 
welcomed by the people who had thus been pro- 
tected from a night attack by the discomfited 
invaders. Such inroads by foot Indians almost 
invariably resulted in the loss of numerous horses, 
and one or more — alas ! sometimes many — lives 
to the settlers. 

This was forty-eight and a half years ago ; yet, 
as I write this, on the 19th day of August, 1887, 
Henry E. McCulloch, hale, well-preserved and spot- 
less before his countrymen, is my guest at the 
ex-Confederate reunion in Dallas, and verifies the 
accuracy of this narrative. Our friendship began 
later in that same year, and every succeeding year 
has been an additional record of time, attesting a 
friendship lacking but eighteen months of ha f a 
century. After 1839 his name is interwoven with 
the hazards of the Southwestern frontier, as Texas 
ranger — private, lieutenant and captain — down 
to annexation in 1846 ; then a captain in and after 
the Mexican war under the United States ; later as 
the first Confederate colonel in Texas, and from 
April, 1862, to the close of the war, as a brigadier- 
general in the Confederate army. 



Moore's Defeat on the San Saba, 1839. 



In consequence of the repeated and continued 
inroads of the Indians through 1837 and 1838, at 
the close of the latter year Col. John. H. Moore, 
of Fayette, already distinguished alike for gallantry 
and patriotism, determined to chastise them. Call- 



ing for volunteers from the thinly settled country 
around him, he succeeded in raising a force of .fifty-, 
five whites, forty-two Lipan and twelve Toncahua 
Indians, an aggregate of one hundred and nine. 
Col. Castro, chief of the Lipans, commanded his 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



75 



warriors, assisted by the rising and ever faithful 
young chief, Flacco, whose memory is honored, 
and whose subsequent peifldious fate is and ever 
has been deplored by every pioneer of Texas. 

Among this little troup of whites was Mr. Andrew 
Lockhart, of the Guadalupe, impelled by an 
agonizing desire to rescue his beautiful little 
daughter, Matilda, who had been captured with 
the four Putman children near his home. Her 
final recovery, at the time of the Council House 
fight in San Antonio, on the 19th of March, 1840, 
is narrated in another chapter. 

The advance scouts reported to Col. Moore the 
discovery of a large Comanche encampment, with 
many horses, on. the San Saba river, yet the sequel 
showed that they failed to realize its magnitude in 
numbers. 

With adroit caution that experienced frontiers- 
man, by a night march, arrived in the vicinity be- 
fore the dawn of day, on the 12th of February, 
1839, a clear, frosty morning. They were in a 
favored position for surprising the foe, and wholly 
undiscovered. At a given signal every man un- 
derstood his duty. Castro, with a portion of the 
Indians, was to stampede the horses grazing in the 
valley and rush with them beyond recovery. The 
whites and remaining Indians were to charge, with- 
out noise, upon the village. The horses of the 
■dismounted men of both colors wer§ left tied a mile 
in the rear in a ravine. 

As light sufficiently appeared to distinguish 
friend from foe, the signal was given. With thirty 
of his people the wily old Castro soon had a 
thousand or more loose horses thundering over 
hill and dale towards the south. Flacco, with 
twelve Lipans and the twelve Toncahuas, remained 
with Moore. The combined force left, numbering 
seventy-nine, rushed upon the buffalo tents, firing 
whenever an Indian was seen. Many were killed 
in the first onset. But almost instantly the camp 
was in motion, the warriors, as if by magic, rush- 
ing together and fighting ; the women and children 
wildly fleeing to the coverts of the bottom and 
neighboring thickets. It was at this moment, amid 
the screams, yells and war-whoops resounding 
through the valley, that Mr. Lockhart plunged 
forward in advance of his comrades, calling aloud : 
" Matilda! it you are here, run to me! Your 
father calls! " And though yet too dim to see 



every word pierced the child's heart as she recog- 
nized her father's wailing voice, while she was 
lashed into a run with the retreating squaws. 
The contest was fierce and bloody, till, as the 
sunlight came. Col. Moore realized that he had 
only struck and well-nigh destroyed the fighting 
strength of the lower end of a long and powerful 
encampment. The enraged savages from above 
came pouring down in such numbers as to 
threaten the annihilation of their assailants. Re- 
treat became a necessity, demanding the utmost 
courage and strictest discipline. But not a man 
wavered. For the time being the stentorian voice 
of their stalwart and iron-nerved leader was a law 
unto all. Detailing some to bear the wounded, 
with the others Moore covered them on either 
fiank, and stubbornly fought his way back to the 
ravine in which his horses had been left, to Sad 
that every animal had already been mounted by a 
Comanche, and was then curveting around them. 
All that remained possible was to fight on the 
defensive from the position thus secured, and this 
was done with such effect that, after a prolonged 
contest, the enemy ceased to assault. Excepting 
occasional shots at long range by a few of the most 
daring warriors, extending into the next day, the 
discomfited assailants were allowed to wend their 
weary way homewards. Imagine such a paity, 
150 miles from home, afoot, with a hundred miles 
of the way through mountains, and six of their 
comrades so wounded as to perish in the wilder- 
ness, or be transported on litters home by their 
fellows. Such was the condition of six of the 
number. They were William M. Eastland (spared 
then to draw a black bean and be murdered by the 
accursed order of Santa Anna in 1843); S. S. B. 
Fields, a lawyer of La Grange ; James Manor, 
Felix Taylor, — Lefiingwell, and — Martin, the 
latter of whom died soon after reaching home. 
Cicero Rufiis Perry was a sixteen-year-old boy in 
this ordeal. Gonzalvo Wood was also one of the 
number. 

After much suffering the party reached home, pre- 
ceded by Castro with the captured horses, which the 
cunning old fox chiefly appropriated to his own tribe. 

Col. Moore, in his victorious destruction of a 
Comanche town high up the Colorado in 1840, 
made terrible reclamation for the trials and adver- 
sities of this expedition. 



76 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



The Famous Council House Fight in San Antonio, March 19, 
1840 — A Bloody Tragedy — Official Details. 



From the retreat of the people before Santa 
Anna in the spring of 1836, down to the close of 
1839, the Comanches and other wild tribes had 
depredated along our entire line of frontier, steal- 
ing horses, killing men, and carrying into captivity 
women and children, more especially the latter, 
for they often murdered the women also. 

On several occasions, as at Houston in 1837, and 
perhaps twice at San Antonio, they had made quasi- 
treaties, promising peace and good behavior, but 
on receiving presents and leaving for home they 
uniformly broke faith and committed depredations. 
The people and the government became outraged 
at such perfidy and finally the government deter- 
mined, if possible, to recover our captives and 
inculcate among the hostiles respect for pledges 
and a desire for peace. 

The seat of government in the fall of 1839 was 
removed from Houston to Austin, a newly, planned 
town, forming the outside settlement on the Colo- 
rado. There was not even a single cabin above or 
beyond the place, west, north, or east, above the 
falls of the Brazos. So stood matters when the 
first day of January, 1840, arrived, with Mirabeau 
B. Lamar as President, David G-. Burnet as Vice- 
President, and Albert Sidney Johnston on the eve 
of resigning as Secretary of War, to be succeeded 
by Dr. Branch T. Archer. 

On the 10th of January, 1840, from San Antonio, 
Col. Henry W. Karnes (then out of office), wrote 
Gen. Johnston, Secretary of War, announcing that 
three Comanche chiefs had been in on the previous 
day, expressing a desire for peace, stating also that 
their tribe, eighteen days previously, had held a 
council, agreed to ask for peace and had chosen a 
prominent chief to represent them in the negotia- 
tion. They said they had rejected overtures and 
presents from the hostile Cherokees, and also of 
the Centralists, of Mexico, who had emissaries 
among their people. Col. Karnes told them no 
treaty was possible unless they brought in all 
prisoners and stolen property held by them. To 
this they said their people had already assented in 
council. They left, promising to return in twenty 
or thirty days with a large party of chiefs and 
warriors, prepared to make a treaty, and that all 
white prisoners in their hands would be brought in 
with them. 

From their broken faith on former occasions, and 



their known diplomatic treachery with Mexico from 
time immemorial, neither the President, Secretary 
of War nor Col. Karnes (who had been a prisoner 
among them) had any faith in their promises, be- 
yond their dread of our power to punish them. 
Official action was based on this apprehension of 
their intended duplicity. 

On the 30th of January Lieut.-Col. William S. 
Fisher, commanding the First Regiment of Infan- 
try, was instructed to march three companies to San 
Antonio under his own command, and to take such 
position there as would enable him to detain the 
Comanches, should they come in without our pris- 
oners. In that case, says the order of Gen. John- 
ston, " some of their number will be dispatched as 
messengers to the tribe to inform them that those 
retained will be held as hostages until the (our) 
prisoners are delivered up, when the hostages 
will be released." The instructions further sayr 
"It has been usual, heretofore, to. give presents. 
For the future such custom will be dispensed 
with." 

Following this military order, and in harmony 
■with the suggestion of Col. Karnes, President Lamar 
dispatched Col. Hugh McLeod, Adjutant-General, 
and Col. William G. Cooke, Quartermaster-General, 
as commissioners to treat with the Comanches, 
should they come in, and with instructions in ac- 
cord with those given Col. Fisher. They repaired 
to San Antonio and awaited events. 

On the 19th of March, in the morning, two Co- 
manche runners entered San Antonio and announced 
the arrival in the vicinity of a party of sixty-five 
men, women and children, and only one prisoner, 
a girl of about thirteen years, Matilda Lockhart. 
In reporting the subsequent facts to the President 
on the next day Col. McLeod wrote : — 

"They (the Indians) came into town. The 
little girl was very intelligent and told us that she 
had seen several of the other prisoners at the prin- 
cipal camp a few days before she left, and that they 
brought her in to see if they could get a high price 
for her, and, if so, they intended to bring in the 
rest, one at a time. 

" Having ascertained this, it became necessary 
to execute your orders and take hostages for the 
safe return of our people, and the order was 
accordingly given by Col. William G. Cooke, act- 
ing Secretary of War. Lieut.-Col. Fisher, First 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



77 



Infantry, was ordered to inarch up two companies 
of his command and post them in the immediate 
vicinity of the council room. 

" The chiefs were then called together and asked : 
' Where are the prisoners you promised to bring in 
to the talk?' 

" Muke-war-rah, the chief who held the last talk 
with us and made the promise, replied : ' We have 
brought in the only one we had ; the others are with 
other tribes.' 

" A pause ensued because, as this was a palpa- 
ble lie, and a direct violation of their pledge, 
solemnly given scarcely a month since, we had the 
only alternative left us. He observed this pause 
and asked quickly : ' How do you like the an- 
swer? ' 

"The order was now given to march one com- 
pany into the council room and the other in rear 
of the building, where the warriors were assembled. 
During the execution of this order the talk was 
re-opened and the terms of a treaty, directed by 
your excellency to be made with them in case the 
prisoners were restored, were discussed, and they 
were told the treaty would be made when they 
brought in the prisoners. They acknowledged 
that they had violated all their previous treaties, 
and yet tauntingly demanded that new confidence 
should be reposed io another promise to bring in 
the prisoners. 

"The troops being now posted, the (twelve) 
chiefs and captains were told that they were our 
prisoners and would be kept as hostages for the 
safety of our people then in their hands, and that 
they might send their young men to the tribe, and 
as soon as our friends were restored they should be 
liberated. 

" Capt. (George T.) Howard, whose company 
was stationed in the council house, posted sentinels 
at the doors and drew up his men across the 
room. We told the chiefs that the soldiers they 
saw were their guards, and descended from the 
platform. The chiefs immediately followed. One 
sprang to the back door and attempted to pass the 
sentinel, who presented his musket, when the 
ohief drew his knife and stabbed him. A rush 
was then made to the door. Capt. Howard col- 
lared one of them and received a severe stab from 
him in the side, He ordered the sentinel to fire 
upon him, which he immediately did, and the 
Indian fell dead. They then all drew their knives 
and bows, and evidently resolved to fight to the 
last. Col. Fisher ordered : ' Fire, if they do not 
•desist! ' The Indians rushed on, attacked us des- 
perately, and a general order to fire became 
necessary." 



"After a short but desperate struggle every one 
of the twelve chiefs and captains in the council 
house lay dead upon the floor, but not until, in the 
hand-to-hand struggle, they had wounded a num- 
ber of persons. 

"The indoor work being finished, Capt. Howard's 
company was formed in front to prevent retreat in 
that direction ; but, in consequence of the severity 
of his wound, he was relieved by Capt. Gillen, who 
commanded the company till the close of the action. 

"Capt. Redd,* whose company was formed in 
the rear of the council house, was attacked by the 
warriors in the yard, vrho fought like wild beasts. 
They, however, took refuge in some stone houses, 
from which they kept up a galling fire with bows 
and arrows and a few rifles. Their arrows, wher- 
ever they struck one of our men, were driven to 
the feather. A small party escaped across the 
river, but were pursued by Col. Lysander Wells 
with a few mounted men and all killed. The only 
one of the whole band who escaped was a renegade 
Mexican among them, who slipped away unob- 
served. A single warrior took refuge in a stone 
house, refusing every overture sent him by squaws, 
with promise of securit}', and killing or wounding 
several till, after night, when a ball of rags, soaked 
in turpentine and ignited, was dropped through the 
smoke escape in the roof onto his head. Thus, in a 
blaze of fire, he sprang through the door and was 
riddled with bullets. 

" In such an action — so unexpected, so sudden 
and terrific — it was impossible at times to distin- 

* Note. Cap. Redd and Col. Wells fought a duel in 
San Antonio later the same year and killed each other. 
Judge Robinson died In San Diego, California, in 1853. 
Judge Hemphill died during the Civil War, a member of 
the Confederate Senate. Capt. Matthew Caldwell, then 
of the regulars and a famous Indian fighter, died at his 
home in Gonzales in the winter of 1842-3. Col. McLeod, 
commanding a Texas regiment, died at Dumfries, 
Virginia, during the Civil War. Col. William S. Fisher, 
afterwards commander at Mier and a "Mier prisoner," 
died in Galveston in 1845, soon after his release. Col. 
Wm. G. Cooke died at Navarro ranch, on the San Gero- 
nimo, in 1847. He came as Lieutenant of the NewOrleans 
Grays in 1835, succeeded Burleson as Colonel of the 
regulars in 1840. He married a daughter of Don Luciano 
Navarro. He was Quartermaster-General, a commis- 
sioner to Santa Fe and a prisoner, and was a noble man. 
Col. Henry W. Karnes died 1q San Antonio, his home, in 
the autumn of 1840. Henry Clay Davis was "a volunteer 
in the fleht on horseback. An Indian sprang up behind 
■ him and, while trying to kill him with an arrow used as 
a dirk, Davis killed him with one of the first lot of Colt's 
revolvers ever brought to Texas. Davis settled at Bio 
Grande City, married a Mexican lady, was once in the 
Senate, and was killed accidentally by his own gun while 
out hunting. 



78 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



guish between the sexes, and three squaws were 
killed. The short struggle was fruitful in blood. 
Our losses were: — 

"Killed: Judge Hood, of San Antonio; Judge 
Thompson, of Houston ; Mr. Casey, of Mata- 
gorda County ; Lieut. W". M. Dunnington, First 
Infantry; Privates Kaminske and Whitney, and a 
Mexican — 7. 

"Wounded: Capt. George T. Howard, Lieut. 
Edward A. Thompson and Private Kelly severely ; 
Capt. Matthew Caldwell, Judge James W. Kobin- 
son, Messrs. Higgenbottom, Morgan and Car- 
son— 8." 

"John Hemphill, then District Judge and after- 
ward so long Chief Justice, assailed in the council 
house by a chief and slightly wounded, felt reluct- 
antly compelled (as he remarked to the writer 
afterwards) to disembowel his assailant with his 
bowie knife, but declared that he did so under a 
sense of duty, while he had no personal acquaint- 
ance with nor personal ill-will towards his antag- 
onist. 

"The Indian loss stood: Thirty chiefs and war- 
riors, 3 women and 2 children killed. Total, 35. 

' ' Prisoners taken : Twenty-seven women and chil- 
dren and 2 old men. Total, 29. 

"Escaped, the renegade Mexican, 1. Grand 
total, 65." 

Over a hundred horses and a large quantity of 
buffalo robes and peltries remained to the victors. 

By request of the prisoners one squaw was 
released, mounted, provisioned and allowed to go 
to her people and say that the prisoners would be 



released whenever thej' brought in the Texas 
prisoners held by them. 

A short time afterwards a party of Comanches 
displayed a white flag on a hill some distance from 
town, evidently afraid to come nearer. When a 
flag was sent out, it was found that they had 
brought in several white children to exchange for 
their people. Their mission was successful and 
they hurried away, seeming to be indeed "wild 
Indians." 

These are the facts as shown by the official 
papers, copies of which have been in my possession 
ever since the bloody tragedy. At that time a few 
papers in the United States, uninformed of the 
underlying and antecedent facta dictating the 
action of Texas, criticised the affair with more or 
less condemnation ; but the people of to-day, 
enlightened by the massacre of Gen. Canby in 
Oregon, the fall of the chivalrous Gen. Custer, the 
hundreds of inhuman acts of barbarism along the 
whole frontier of the United States, and the recent 
demonisms of Geronimo and his band of cut- 
throats, will realize and indorse the genuine spirit 
of humanity which prompted that as the only mode 
of bringing those treacherous savages to a real- 
ization of the fact that their fiendish mode of 
warfare would bring calamities upon their own 
people. Be that as it may, the then pioneers of 
Texas, with their children in savage captivity, 
shed no tears on that occasion, noi' do their sur- 
vivors now. Their children of to-day dispense 
with that liquid, eye-yielding manifestation of 
grief. 



The Great Indian Raid of 1840 — Attack on Victoria — Sacking 

and Burning of Linnville — Skirmish at Casa Blanca 

Creek — Overthrow of the Indians 

at Plum Creek. 



Of this, the most remarkable Indian raid in the 
annals of Texas, numerous fragmentary and often 
erroneous, or extremely partial, accounts in former 
years have been published. It was a sudden and 
remarkable inroad by the savages, took the country 
by surprise, drew the fighting population together 
from different localities for a few days, to speedily 
disperse to their homes, and there being no offluial 



control, no one was charged with the duty of re- 
cording the facts. The great majority of the par- 
ticipants, as will be seen in the narrative, witnessed 
but a portion, here or there, of the incident. 

The writer was then nineteen years old and, 
though living on the Lavaca near Victoria and Linn- 
ville, happened to be with a party from that vicinity 
that passed lo the upper and final field of opera. 




COMANCHE WARRIORS. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



79 



tions — a party that saw more of the entire episode 
than any other one party. More than this, he took 
care at once to gather all the facts not seen by him 
and made copious notes of all, which have ever 
since remained in his possession. In January, 1871, 
in the town of Lavaca, the successor of Linnville, 
he delivered (for a benevolent purpose) to a large 
audience, embracing both ladies and gentlemen 
resident in that section at the time of the raid, a 
lecture historically narrating the events connected 
with it, and received their public thanks for its 
fullness, fairness and historical accuracy. These 
remarks are justified by the false statements in 
" Dewees' Letters from Texas," giving the credit 
of fighting the battle of Plum Creek to four com- 
panies of citizen volunteers, he claiming to have 
been Captain of one of them, when in fact not one 
of such companies was in the fight or even saw the 
Indians. Tliis falsehood was exposed by the writer 
hereof, on the appearance of Dewees' book, in the 
Indianola Bulletin of January, 1853, an exposure 
unanswered in the intervening thirty-five years. 

At the time of this raid the country between the 
Guadalupe and San Marcos, on the west, and the 
Colorado on the east, above a line drawn from Gon- 
zales to La Grange, was a wilderness, while below 
that line it was thinly settled. Between Gonzales 
and Austin, on Plum creek, were two recent set- 
tlers, Isom J. Goode and John A. Neill. From 
Gonzales to within a few miles of La Grange there 
was not a settler. There was not one between Gon- 
zales and Bastrop, nor one between Austin and San 
Antonio. A road from Gonzales to Austin, then in 
the first year of its existence, had been opened in 
July, 1839. 

This Indian raid was known to and encouraged 
by Gen. Valentin Canalizo, commanding in 
Northern Mexico, with headquarters in Matamoras. 
The Comanches were easily persuaded into it in 
retaliation for their loss of thirty-odd warriors in 
the Council fight in San Antonio during the previous 
March. Renegade Mexicans and lawless Indians 
from some of the half-civilized tribes were induced 
to join it. Dr. Branch T. Archer, Secretary of 
War, from information reaching him gave a warning 
to the country two months earlier ; but as no enemy 
appeared, the occasion became derisively known as 
the " Archer war." 



THE KAID. 



On August 5, 1840, Dr. Joel Ponton and Tucker 
Foley, citizens of the Lavaca (now Hallettsville) 
neighborhood, en route to Gonzales, on the road 
from Columbus and just west of Ponton's creek, 
fell in with twenty-seven mounted warriors, and 



were chased about three miles back to the creek. 
Foley was captured, mutilated and killed. Ponton 
received two wounds, but escaped, and during the 
following night reached home. The alarm was 
given, and next day thirty-six men, under Capt. 
Adam Zumwalt, hastened to the scene, found and 
buried Foley, and then pursued the trail of the 
savages.* 

In the meantime the mail carrier from Austin 
arrived at Gonzales and reported a large and fresh 
Indian trail crossing the road in the vicinity of 
Plum creek, bearing towards the coast. Thereupon 
twenty-four volunteers, under Ben McCuUoch, has- 
tened eastwardly to" the Big Hill neighborhood, 
about sixteen miles east. This is an extended 
ridge bearing northeast and southwest, separat- 
ing the waters of the Peach creeks of the Guad- 
alupe from the heads of Rocky, Ponton's, and 
other tributaries of the Lavaca and the latter 
stream itself. Indian raiders, bound below, 
almost invariably crossed the Columbus and 
Gonzales road at the most conspicuous elevation 
of this ridge — the Big Hill. Hence McCul- 
loch's haste to that point. On the 6th McCuUoch 
and Zumwalt united on the trail and rapidly fol- 
lowed it in the direction of Victoria. Some miles 
below they fell in with sixty-five men from the 
Cuero (now De Witt County) settlements on the 
Guadalupe, and some from Victoria, commanded 
by Capt. John J. Tumlinson. The latter assumed 
command of the whole 125 by request and the march 
was continued. 

On the same afternoon the Indians approached 
Victoria. At Spring creek, above the town, they 
killed four negroes belonging to Mr. Poage. On 
the Texana road, east side of town, they met and 
killed Col. Pinkney Caldwell, a prominent cit- 
izen and soldier of 1836. They chased various 
persons into the town, killing an unknown Ger- 
man, a Mexican, and three more negroes. A 
party hastily repaired to the suburbs to confront 
the enemy. Of their number Dr. Gray, Varlan 
Richardson, William McNuner and Mr. Daniels 
were killed, a total of thirteen. 

The Indians retired and passed the night on 
Spring creek, having secured about fifteen hundred 
horses and mules on the prairie in front of Victoria, 

* Arthur Foley was killed in the Fannin massacre, 
March 27, 1836; James Foley was killed by Mexican 
marauders west of the Nueces in 1839; Tucker was the 
third brother to fall as stated. They were the sons of 
an eccentric but wealthy planter (Washington Green Lee 
Foley), who died in Lavaca County some years ago. 
The father of Dr. Ponton was killed ijy Indians near his 
home, on Ponton's creek, about 1834-35. 



80 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



a large portion of which, belonging to " Scotch" 
Sutherland, had just arrived en route east. On 
Friday, August 7, the Indians reappeared, made 
serious demonstrations, but were held in checlc by 
citizens under cover of houses. Securing several 
hundred more horses, they bore down the country 
to Nine Mile Point, where they captured young 
Mrs. Crosby, a granddaughter of Daniel Boone, 
and her infant. They then deflected to the east, 
across the prairie in the direction of Linnville. 
They camped for a portion of the night on PlaciJo 
creek, killed a teamster named Stephens, but failed 
to discover a Frenchman ensconced in the moss 
and foliage of a giant live oak over their heads. 

Moving before dawn on Sunday, August 8, as 
they approached Linnville, its inhabitants entirely 
unconscious of impending danger, they killed Mr. 
O'Neal and two negro men belonging to Maj. H. 
O. Watts. The people, believing the enemy to be 
friendly Mexicans with horses to sell, realized the 
fearful truth only in time to escape into the sail- 
boats anchored in shoal water about one hundred 
yards from shore. In attempting this, Maj. 
Watts was killed in the water. His young bride, 
negro woman, and a little son of the latter were 
captured. There was an immense amount of goods 
in the warehouses destined for San Antonio and 
the Mexican trade. Rapidly were these goods 
packed on horses and mules, but it consumed the 
daj', and late in the afternoon every building but 
one warehouse was burned, the citizens, becalmed 
all day in their boats, witnessing the destruction of 
their homes and business houses. 

During the night the jubilant savages began their 
return march for their mountain homes, taking a 
route that passes up the west side of the Garcitas 
creek, about fifteen miles east of Victoria. 

On the 8th of August (Sunday) while Linnville 
was being sacked, Tumlinson reached Victoria 
about sunset, rested for a time, received some sup- 
plies, left about twenty-flve men and received about 
an equal number, continuing his effective force at 
125 men. They moved east on the Texana road 
and at midnight camped on the Casa Blanea creek, 
a small tributary of the Garcitas from the west. 
George Kerr was dispatched for recruits to 
Texana, but at Kitchen's ranch, on the east side of 
the Arenoso, near tidewater junction with the Gar- 
citas, he found Capt. Clark L. Owen of Texana 
with forty men. It was then too late to unite with 
Tumlinson. The enemy in force had come between 
them. Owen sent out three scouts, of whom Dr. 
Bell was chased and killed, Nail escaped by the 
fleetness of his horse towards the Lavaca, and the 
noble John S. Menefee (deceased in 1884) escaped 



in some drift brush with seven arrows piercing his 
body, all of which he extracted and preserved to 
the day of his death. 

Thus Tumlinson early in the day (August 9) eon- 
fronted the whole body of the Indians with their 
immense booty, on a level and treeless prairie. 
He dismounted his men and was continually 
encircled by cunning warriors, to divert attention 
while their herds were being forced forward. 
McCulloch impetuously insisted on charging into 
the midst of the enemy as the only road to victory. 
The brave and oft- tried Tumlinson, seeing hesitancy 
in his ranlfs, yielded, and the enemy, after immate- 
rial skirmishing, was allowed to move on with herds 
and booty. Later in the day Owen's party joined 
them and desultory pursuit was continued, but the 
pursuers never came up with the Indians, nor did 
any other party till the battle of Plum creek was 
fought by entirely different parties. In this skir- 
mish one Indian was killed and also Mr. Mordecai 
of Victoria. 

On reaching the timber of the Chicolita, some 
twenty miles above the Casa Blanea, writhing 
under what he considered a lost opportunity, Ben 
McCulloch, accompanied by Alsey S. Miller, 
Archibald Gipson, and Barney Randall, left the 
command, deflected to the west so as to pass the 
enemy, and made such speed via Gonzales that 
these four alone of all the men at any time in the 
pursuit, were in the battle of Plum creek. The 
pursuers, however, were gallant men, and many of 
them reached the battle ground a few hours after 
the flght. 

Let us now turn to the series of movements that 
culminated in the overwhelming overthrow of the 
Indians at Plum creek, and of much of this the 
writer was an eye-witness. On the night of 
August 7, advised by courier of the attack on 
Victoria twenty-two volunteers left the house of 
Maj. James Kerr (the home of the writer) on the 
Lavaca river. Lafayette Ward was called to the 
command. The writer, then a boy of nineteen, was 
the youngest of the party. Reaching the Big 
Hill, heretofore described, and finding the In- 
dians had not passed up, the opinion prevailed that 
they had crossed over and were returning on the 
west side of the Guadalupe. They hastened on 
to Gonzales where the old hero, Capt. Matthew 
Caldwell, had just arrived. He adopted the same 
view, and announced that the Indians would 
recross the Guadalupe where New Braunfels now 
stands. In an hour he was at the head of thirty- 
seven men, making our united number fifty-nine 
We followed his lead, traveled all night, and at 
sunrise on the 10th, reached Seguin. As we did so 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



81 



" Big" Hall, of Gonzales, on foaming steed, over- 
took U3 with the news from Victoria and Linnville, 
and that the Indians, pursued, were retreating on 
their downward made trail. The old veteran Cald- 
well at once said we mustmeet and fight them atPlum 
creek. After rest and breakfast, and strengthened 
by a few recruits, we moved on and camped that 
night at the old San Antonio crossing of the San 
Marcos. The 11th was intensely hot, and our 
ride was chiefly over a burnt prairie, the flying 
ashes being blinding to the eyes. Waiting some 
hours at noon, watching for the approach of the 
enemy after night, we arrived at Goode's cabin, on 
the Gonzales and Austin road, a little east of Plum 
creek. Here Felix Huston, General of militia, with 
his aide, James Izard, arrived from Austin about 
the same time. We moved two or three miles and 
camped on Plum creek, above the Indian trail. 
Here we met the gallant Capt. James Bird, of 
Gonzales, with about thirty men, who had come up 
the road directly from that place, and with the 
indefatigable Ben McCulIoch and his three com- 
rades. Our united force was then one hundred 
men.. We camped at midnight and sent pickets to 
watch the trail. Men and horses were greatly jaded, 
but the horses had to eat while the men slept. 

At daylight the pickets dashed in and 
reported the Indians advancing about three 
miles below. In twenty minutes every man 
was mounted and in line. Capt. Caldwell, in 
the bigness of his heart, rode out in front and 
moved that Gen. Felix Huston take command. 
A few responded aye and none said nay, but in 
fact the men wanted the old Indian fighter Caldwell 
himself to lead. They respected Gen. Huston 
as a military man in regular war. They knew he 
had no experience in the business then in hand, but 
they were too polite to say nay, having a real 
respect for the man. The command moved forward 
across one or two ravines and glades till they entered 
a small open space hidden from the large prairie 
by a branch, thickly studded with trees and bushes. 
At this moment the gallant young Owen Hardeman, 
and Reed of Bastrop dashed up with the infor- 
mation that Col. Edward Burleson, with eighty- 
seven volunteers and thirteen Toncahua Indians 
(the latter on foot) were within three or four miles, 
advancing at a gallop. They were too invaluable 
to be left. A halt was called. Gen. Huston 
then announced his plan : a hollow square, open in 
front, Burleson on the right, Caldwell on the left, 
Bird and Ward forming the rear line, under Maj. 
Thomas Monroe Hardeman. During this delay we 
had a full view of the Indians passing diagonally 
across our front, about a mile distant. They were 



singing and gyrating in divers grotesque ways, 
evidencing their great triumph, and utterly ob- 
livious of danger. Up to this time they had lost 
but one warrior, at the Casa Blanca ; they had 
killed twenty persons, from Tucker Foley, the first, 
to Mordeeai-, the last ; they had as prisoners Mrs. 
Watts, Mrs. Crosby and child, and the negro 
woman and child ; they had about 2,000 captured 
horses and mules, and an immense booty in goods 
of various kinds. Before Burleson arrived the 
main body had passed our front, leaving only 
stragglers bringing up bunches of animals 
from the timber in their rear. It must be under- 
stood that the whole country, about forty miles 
from the Big Hill to the north side of Plum creek, 
is heavily timbered, while beyond that it is an open 
prairie to the foot of the mountains, with the Clear 
Fork of Plum creek on the left and parallel to the 
Indian trail. 

Here is an appropriate place to speak of the 
number of Indians. Their number was variously 
estimated, but from all the facts and the judg- 
ment of the most experienced, it is safe to say 
they numbered about 1,000. Our force was: — 

Number under Caldwell, including Bird and 

Ward 100 

Under Burleson, 87; and 13 Indians..-. 100 

Total 200 

As soon as Burleson arrived the troops were 
formed as before mentioned, and the advance made 
at a trot, soon increasing into a gallop. The main 
body of the Indians were perhaps a mile and a 
half ahead. As soon as we ascended from the 
valley on to the level plain, they had a full view of 
us, and at once prepared for action. Small par- 
ties of their more daring warriors met and eon- 
tested with a few of our men voluntarily acting as 
skirmishers, and some heroic acts were performed. 
I remember well the gallantry of Capt. Andrew 
NeiU, Ben McCulloch, Arch. Gipson, Reed of 
Bastrop, Capt. Alonzo B. Sweitzer (severely 
wounded in the arm), Columbus C. DeWitt, Henry 
E. McCulloch, and others then personally known 
to me. 

The Indians, as we neared them, took position 
in a point of oaks on the left, with the Clear Fork 
in their rear, and a small boggy branch on their 
left, but in the line of their retreat. It was only 
boggy a short distance, and was easily turned on 
our right advance. 

When within about two hundred yards of the 
enemy we were halted and dismounted on the open 



82 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



plain. Bands of warriors then began encircling us, 
firing and using their shields with great effect. 
From the timber a steady fire was kept up, by 
musljets and some long range rifles, while about 
thirty of our men, still mounted, were dashing 
to and fro among the mounted Indians, illustrating 
a series of personal heroisms worthy of all praise. 
In one of these Eeed of Bastrop had an arrow 
driven through his body, piercing his lungs, though 
he lived long afterwards. Among the dismounted 
men several were wounded and a number of horses 
were killed. In all this time the herds and pack 
animals were being hurried onwards, and our oldest 
fighters, especially Burleson, Caldwell, Ben Mc- 
CuUoch, and others, were eager for a charge into 
the midst of the savages. At last, perhaps half an 
hour after dismounting, an Indian chief, wearing a 
tremendous head dress, who had been exceedingly 
daring, approached so near that several shots struck 
him, and he fell forward on the pommel of his 
saddle, but was caught by a comrade on either 
side and borne away, evidently dead or dying, for 
as soon as he was led among his people in the oaks 
they set up a peculiar howl, when Capt. Caldwell 
sang. out, " Now, General, is your time to charge 
them! they are whipped!" The charge was 
ordered, and gallantly made. Very soon the 
Indians broke into parties and ran, but ran fight- 
ing all the time. At the boggy branch quite a 
number were killed, and they were killed in clusters 
for ten or twelve miles, our men scattering as did 
the Indians, every man acting as he pleased. 
There was no pretense of command after the 
boggy branch was passed. A few of our men pur- 
sued small bodies for twelve or more miles. In 
one of these isolated combats it fell to my lot to 
dismount a warrior wearing a buffalo skin cap sur- 
mounted with the horns. He was dead when I dis- 
mounted to secure the prize, which was soon after- 
-wards sent by Judge John Hayes to the Cincinnati 
museum, and was there in 1870. 

During the running fight Mrs. Watts was severely 
wounded in the breast by an arrow, but fell into 
our hands. The negro woman shared a similar 
fate, and her little son was recovered without 
wounds. Mrs. Crosby, by some means (probably 
her own act), was dismounted during the retreat 
near a small thicket, and sought to enter it, but in 
the act a fleeing warrior drove a lance through her 
heart. With several others, at about a hundred 



yards distance, I distinctly witnessed the act ; but 
though at full speed none of us could overtake the 
bloody wretch. 

The heroic action of Placido, chief of the Ton- 
cahuas, attracted universal praise. He seemed 
reckless of life, and his twelve followers, as rapidly 
as mounted, emulated his example. All being on 
foot, they could only be mounted by each vaulting 
into the saddle of a slain Comanche, but they were 
all mounted in a marvelously short time after the 
action commenced. 

Great numbers of the loose and pack animals 
stampeded during the engagement, and were seen 
no more ; but large numbers on the return were 
driven in, and about the middle of the afternoon the 
men had generally returned to the point where the 
action began, and near which a camp was pitched. 
A welcome shower proved refreshing about this 
time. Later in the afternoon Col. John H. Moore, 
of Fayette, Capt. Owen, previously mentioned, 
and in all about 150 men arrived on the ground, 
having followed the trail that far. 

The trophies, during the next day, were classi- 
fied, numbered, and drawn by lot. I only remember 
that a horse, a fine mule, $27 worth of silk, and 
about foO worth of other goods fit for ladies' use 
fell to my lot, and the latter were so donated. I 
gave the horse to a poor man as a plow horse, and 
sold the mule for $100 on trust to a stranger whose 
horse died on the road, and never received a cent 
thereof ; and although he so treated me, an inex- 
perienced boy, I was very sorry some years later 
when the Indians shot on arrow through his breast. 
It was impossible to determine how many Indians 
were killed. They sank many in the creek, and 
many died after reaching their haunts, as was 
learned from prisoners afterwards reclaimed. From 
this source of information it was ascertained that 
fifty-two so died in a few days, and I became sat- 
isfied by the after discovery of secreted and sunken 
bodies and the number found on the field that at 
least eighty-six were killed in the action, being a 
total of 138 certainly killed. 

The Indians lost everything. The defeat was 
unexpected — a surprise, complete and crushing. 
Followed by a great victory over them in the fol- 
lowing October, near where Colorado City now 
stands, won by Col. John H. Moore and his brave 
volunteers, the Comanches were taught lessons 
hitherto unknown to them. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



83 



Moore's Great Victory on the Upper Colorado, in 1840. 



Following Col. Moore's defeat on the San Saba 
in January, 1839, came the Cherokee battles, of 
July and December, and many engagements or 
calamities of lesser magnitude during that year, 
including the massacre of the Webster party of 
fourteen men and one child and the capture of 
Mrs. Webster, her other two children and negro 
woman, on Brushy creek, in what is now William- 
son County. In March, 1840, occurred the 
Council House fight, in San Antonio, and in Au- 
gust the great Indian raid to the coast, the rob- 
bery and burning of the village of Linnville, two 
miles above the present Lavaca, and the final defeat 
and dispersion of the Indians in the decisive battle 
of Plum Creek, on the 12lh day of that month. 

Following this last raid the veteran soldier, Col. 
John H. Moore, of Fayette, sent forth circulars 
calling for volunteers to again penetrate the country 
of the hostiles, on the upper waters of the Col- 
orado, as another lesson to them that the whites 
were determined to either compel them to abstain 
from robbing, murdering and capturing their fel- 
low-citizens or exterminate them. A prompt 
response followed, and about the first of October 
the expedition left Austin, at once entering the 
wilderness. Col. Moore commanded, with S. S. B. 
Fields, a lawyer of LaGrange, as Adjutant. Capts. 
Thomas J. Rabb and Nicholas Dawson, of Fayette, 
■commanded the companies, the latter being the 
same who commanded and fell at the Dawson 
massacre in 1842. There were ninety men in all. 
Clark L. Owen, of Texana (who fell as a Captain, 
at Shiloh, in 1862), was First Lieutenant in Rabb's 
Company. R. Addison Gillespie (who fell as a 
Captain of Texas rangers in storming the Bishop's 
palace at Monterey, in 1846), was one of the 
■lieutenants, his brother being also along. Nearly 
all the men were from Fayette and Bastrop, but 
there were a few from the Lavaca, among whom I 
remember Isaac N. Mitchell, Mason B. Foley, 
Joseph Simons, of Texana, Nicholas J. Ryan and 
Peter Rockfeller (Simons and Rockfeller both 
dying in Mexican prisons, as Mier men in 1844 or 
1845.) I started with these young men, then my 
neighbors, but was compelled to halt, on account 
of my horse being crippled at the head of the 
Navidad. Col. Moore also had with him a detach- 
ment of twelve Lipan Indians, commanded by Col. 
Castro, their principal chief, with the famous 
young chief Flacco as his Lieutenant. 



The command followed up the valley of the 
Colorado, without encountering an enemy, till it 
reached a point now supposed to be in the region of 
Colorado City. The Lipan scouts were constantly 
in advance, and on the alert. Hastily returning, 
while in the vicinity mentioned, they reported the 
discovery of a Comanche encampment fifteen or 
twenty miles distant, on the east bank and in a 
small horseshoe bend of the Colorado, with a high 
and somewhat steep bluff on the opposite bank. 

Col. Moore traveled by night to within a mile or 
two of the camp, and then halted. It was a clear, 
cold night in October, and the earth white with 
frost, probably two thousand feet above the sea 
level. The men shivered with cold, while the un- 
suspecting savages slept warmly under buffalo- 
robes in their skin-covered tepees. In the mean- 
time Moore detached Lieut. Owen, with thirty 
men, to cross the river below, move up and at dawn 
occupy the bluff. This movement was success- 
fully effected, and all awaited the dawn for sufficient 
light to guide their movements. 

The stalwart and- gallant old leader, mounted 
on his favorite steed, with a few whispered words 
summoned every man to his saddle. Slowly, 
cautiously they moved till within three hundred 
yards of the camp, when the rumbling sound of 
moving horses struck the ear of a warrior on watch. 
His shrill yell sounded the alarm, and ere Moore, 
under a charge instantly ordered, could be in their 
midst, every warrior and many of the squaws had 
their bows strung and ready for fight. But pell- 
mell the volunteers rushed upon and among them. 
The rifles, shot-guns and pistols of the white man, 
in a contest largely hand-to-hand, with fearful 
rapidity struck the red man to the earth. Sur- 
prised and at close quarters, the wild man, though 
fighting with desperation, shot too rapidly and 
wildly to be effective. Seeing their fate a consid- 
erable number swam the narrow river and essayed 
to escape by climbing the bluff. Some were shot in 
their ascent by Moore's men from across the 
stream and tumbled- backwards. Every one who 
made the ascent to the summit of the bluff was 
confronted and slain by Owen's men. At the onset 
two horses were tied in the camp. On these two 
warriors escaped. Besides them, so far as could be 
ascertained, every warrior was killed, excepting a 
few old men and one or two j'oung men, who sur- 
rendered and were spared. 



84 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Many of the Indian women, for a little while, 
fought as stoutly as the men and some were killed, 
despite every effort to save them. In the charge 
Isaac Mitchell's bridle bit parted asunder and his 
mule rushed ahead into the midst of the Indians — 
then halted and " sulked" — refused to move. A 
squaw seized a large billet of wood and by a blow 
on his head tumbled him to the ground; but he 
sprang to his feet, a little bewildered, and just as 
his comrades came by, seeing the squaw springing 
at him knife in hand, they sang out, "Kill her, 



Mitchell! " With a smile, not untinged with pain, 
he replied: " Oh, no, boys, I can't kill a woman!" 
But to prevent her killing himself, he knocked 
her down and wrenched the weapon from her 
hands. 

A hundred and thirty Indians were left dead on 
the field. Thirty-four squaws and children and 
several hundred horses were brought in, besides 
such camp equipage as the men chose to carry 
with them, among which were goods plundered at 
Linnville the previous August. 



A Raid into Gonzales and Pursuit of tiie Indians in May, 1841 — 

Ben McCulloch in the Lead. 



Late in April, or early in May, 1841, a party of 
twenty-two Indians made a night raid into and 
around Gonzales, captured a considerable number 
of horses and, ere daylight came, were in rapid 
flight to their mountain home. It was but one of 
oft-recurring inroads, the majority of which will 
never be known in history. In this case, however, 
as in many others, I am enabled to narrate every 
material fact, and render justice to the handful of 
gallant men who pursued and chastised the free- 
booters. 

Ben McCulloch called for volunteers ; but not, as 
was most usual, to hurry off in pursuit. He knew the 
difficulty and uncertainty of overhauling retreating 
savages, with abundant horses for frequent change, 
and preferred waiting a few days, thereby inducing 
the red men, who always kept scouts in the rear, to 
believe no pursuit would be made, and in this he 
was successful. 

When ready, McCulloch set forth with the fol- 
lowing sixteen companions, every one of whom was 
personally well known to the writer as a brave and 
useful frontiersman, viz. : Arthur Swift, James H. 
Callahan (himself often a captain), Wilson Randle, 
Green McCoy (the Gonzales boy who was in 
Erath's fight in Milam County in 1837, when his 
uncle, David Clark, and Frank Childress, were 
killed), Eli T. Hankins, Clement Hinds, Archibald 
Gipson (a daring soldier in many fights, from 1836 
to 1861,) W. A. Hall, Henry E. McCulloch, 
James Roberts, Jeremiah Roberts, Thomas R. 



Nichols, William Tamlinson, William P. Kincannon, 
Alsey S. Miller, and William Morrison. 

They struck the Indian trail where it crossed the 
San Marcos at the mouth of Mule creek and fol- 
lowed it northwestwardly up and to the head of 
York's creek; thence through the mountains to the 
Guadalupe, and up that stream to what is now- 
known as " Johnson's Fork," which is the principal 
mountain tributary to the Guadalupe on the north 
side. The trail was followed along this fork to its 
source, and thence northwestwardly to the head of 
what is now known as " Johnson's Fork " of the 
Llano, and down this to its junction with the 
Llano. 

Before reaching the latter point McCulloch 
halted in a secluded locality, satisfied that he was- 
near the enemy, and in person made a reconnoisance 
of their position, and with such accuracy that he 
was enabled to move on foot so near to the encamp- 
ment as, at daylight, to completely surprise the 
Indians. The conflict was short. Five warriors 
lay dead upon the ground. Half of the remainder 
escaped wounded, so that of twenty-two only about 
eight escaped unhurt ; but their number had prob- 
ably been increased after reaching that section. 

The Indians lost everything excepting their arms. 
Their horses, saddles, equipages, blankets, robes, 
and even their moccasins, were captured. It wa» 
not only a surprise to them, but a significant warn- 
ilig, as they had no dread of being hunted down 
and punished in that distant and remarkably 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



85 



secluded locality. In March and April, 1865, in 
command of 183 men, the writer, as a Confederate 
officer, made a campaign through and above that 
country, following the identical route from the 
mouth of Johnson's Fork of the Guadalupe to the 



spot where this conflict took place twenty-four 
years before, and found it still a wild mountain 
region — still a hiding-place for savage red men, 
and at that particular period, for lawless and dis- 
reputable white men. 



Red River and Trinity Events in 1841 — The Yeary and Ripley 

Families — Skirmish on Village Creek and Death 

of Denton — Expeditions of Gens. Smith 

and Tarrant. 



For a great many years I have had notes on the 
expedition in which John B. Denton was killed, 
furnished at different times by four different per- 
sons who were participants, viz.. Cols. James Bour- 
land and Wm. C. Young, Dr. Lemuel M. Cochran 
and David Williams, then a boy ; but there has 
appeared from time to time in former years such a 
variety of fiction on the subject that I determined 
to publish nothing until thoroughly convinced of 
the accuracy of the statements thus obtained — all 
the while hoping for a personal interview with my 
venerable friend of yore, Henry Stout, of Wood 
County — who, besides Denton, was the only man 
hurt in the trip. This I now have together with a 
written statement from Dr. Cochran, dated Gon- 
zales, September 26, 1886, and the personal recol- 
lections of John M. Watson, Alex W. Webb and 
Col. Jas. G. Stevens, then a youth. 

As a prelude to the expedition it is proper to say 
that late in 1840, the house of.Capt. John Yeary, 
living on Sulphur, in the southeast part of Fannin 
County, was attacked by a party of ten Indians 
while he and a negro man were at work in his field 
three hundred yards from the house. Mrs. Yeary, 
gun in hand, stood on the defensive, inside of the 
closed door. Yeary and the negro man, armed 
with a hoe each, rushed towards the house and 
across the yard fence, fought the assailants hand to 
hand, in which Yeary received an arrow just above 
the eye, which glanced around the skull without 
penetrating. Mrs. Yeary, with a gun, ran out to 
her husband, but in doing so was shot in the hip. 
Thus strengthened in the means of defense, the 
Indians were driven off, without further casualty 
to the family. 

Early in April, 1841, a part of the Ripley family 



on the old Cherokee trace, on Eipley creek, in Titus 
County, were murdered by Indians. Riplej' was 
absent. Mrs. Ripley was at home with a son 
scarcely twenty years old, a daughter about six- 
teen, two daughters from twelve to fifteen, and 
several smaller children, living some distance from 
any other habitation. The Indians suddenly ap- 
peared in daylight, shot and killed the son as he 
was plowing in the field, and rushed upon the house, 
from which the mother and children fled towards a 
canebrake, two hundred yards distant. The elder 
daughter was shot dead on the way. The second 
and third daughters escaped into the cane ; the 
mother and the other children were killed with 
clubs ; one child in the house, probably asleep. 
The Indians then plundered the house and set it on 
fire, the child inside being consumed in the flames. 
This second outrage led to a retaliatory expedi- 
tion, which required some time for organization, in 
the thinly populated district. By prior agreement 
the volunteer citizens, numbering eighty (as stated 
by Dr. Cochran, who was Orderly Sergeant ; but, 
seventy, according to Henry Stout's statement), met 
in a body on Choctaw bayou, eight miles west of the 
place since known as Old Warren, on the 4th of Ma}', 
1841, as shown by the notes of John M. Watson, 
yet (1886) living in Fannin County. On the next 
morning they organized into a company by electing 
James Bourland, Captain, William C. Young, 
Lieutenant, and Lemuel M. Cochran, Orderly Ser- 
geant. John B. Denton and Henry Stout were 
each placed in charge of a few men as scouts. 
Edward H. Tarrant, General of militia, was of the 
party without command, but' was consulted and 
respected as a senior officer. On the same day the 
company moved west to the vacant barracks, 



86 



INDIAN WAES AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



erected during the previous winter by Col. William 
G. Cooke, senior officer in command of the regular 
troopa of Texas. At the barracks, which stood 
in the immediate vicinity of the present town of • 
Denison, the company remained two or three days 
for a portion of the volunteers, who had been de- 
tained. On their arrival the command moved west 
on the old Chihuahua trail, leading to Natchitoches. 
Jack Ivey, a man of mixed Indian and African blood, 
was pilot. At that time Holland Coffee, who was one 
of the party, lived eight miles above the barracks. At 
some poict on the trip, but exactly when or where, I 
have been unable to learn, he, with a man named 
Wm. A. (Big Foot) Wallace, Colvill, and seven 
others, left the company andjreturned to his post 
or trading house. This doubtless accounts for the 
disparity in numbers given by Cochran and Stout. 

It was believed that the depredating Indians 
were encamped on a creek which enters the west 
fork of Trinity from the northeast si^de, where the 
town of Bridgeport now stands, in Wise County, 
the reputed village being at a broken, rocky spot, 
four or five miles up the stream, which now bears the 
name of "Village" creek. The expedition moved 
under that belief, passing where Gainesville now is, 
and thence southwesterly to the supposed Keechi 
village, but found it abandoned, without any evi- 
dence of very recent occupancy, beyond some fresh 
horse tracks, not far away. 

The next day they crossed to the west side of 
the Trinity, and for two days traveled south 
obliquely in the direction of the Brazos. Find- 
ing no indication of Indians, they turned north- 
easterly, and on the afternoon of the second 
day recrossed the Trinity to the north and trav- 
eled down its valley, camping in the forks of 
that stream and Fossil creek. On t^he next day, 
near their camp, they found an old buffalo trail, 
leading down and diagonally across the river, and on 
to an Indian encampment on Village creek, a short 
distance above, but south from where the Texas and 
Pacific Kailroad crosses that creek, which runs from 
south to northeast, and is some miles east of Fort 
Worth. On this trail they found fresh horse tracks, 
and followed them. Henry Stout then, as through- 
out the expedition, led an advance scout of six 
men. Nearing the camp referred to, they dis- 
covered an Indian woman cooking in a copper ket- 
tle, in a little glade on the bank of the creek. See- 
ing he was not observed, and being veiled by a 
brush-covered rise in the ground. Stout halted and 
sent the information back to Tarrant. While 
thus waiting, a second woman rose the bank and 
joined the first, one of them having a child. As 
Tarrant came up the squawsdiscovered them, gave 



a loud scream, and plunged down into the bed of 
the creek. The men charged, supposing the war- 
riors were under the bank. A man named Alsey 
Fuller killed one of the squaws, not knowing her 
to be a woman, as she ascended the opposite bank. 
The other woman and child were captured. 

Here the men scattered into several different 
parties in quest of the unseen enemy. Bourland, 
with about twenty men, including Denton, Coch- 
ran and Lindley Johnson, crossed the creek and 
found a road along its valley. They galloped along 
it down the creek a little over a mile, when they 
came upon a large camp, when Bourland, with 
about half of the men, bore to the right, and Coch- 
ran, with the others, to the left, in order to flank 
the position, but the Indians retreated into the 
thickets on the opposite side. Cochran and Elbert 
Early both attempted to fire at a retreating 
Indian, but their guns snapped. On reaching the 
creek the Indian fired at Early but missed. The 
whole command became badly scattered and con- 
fused. Eight men again crossed the creek and in a 
short distance came upon a third camp just deserted. 
Tarrant ordered them to fall back to the second 
camp. When they did so about forty were pres- 
ent. While waiting for the others to come up, Den- 
ton asked and obtained Tarrant's reluctant consent 
to take ten men and go down the creek, promising 
to avoid an ambuscade by extreme caution. After 
Denton left, Bourland took ten men and started in 
a different direction ; but about a mile below they 
came together, and after moving together a short 
distance Bourland and Calvin Sullivan crossed a 
boggy branch to capture some horses, one of 
which wore a bell. The others bore farther down 
the branch into a corn-field, crossed it and found a 
road leading into the bottom. At the edge of the 
bottom thicket they halted, Denton to fulfill his 
promise of care in avoiding an ambush. Henry 
Stout then rode to the front saying, "If you are 
afraid to go in there, I am not." Denton brusquely 
answered that he would follow him to the infernal 
regions and said " Move on!" In about three hun- 
dred yards they came to and descended the creek 
bank. Stout led, followed by Denton, Capt. 
Griffin and the others in single file. When the 
three foremost had traveled up the creek bed about 
thirty paces from a thicket on the west bluff they 
were fired upon. Stout was in front, but 'partly 
protected by a small tree, but was shot through his 
left arm. He wheeled to the right, and in raising 
his gun to fire, a ball passed through its butt, caus- 
ing the barrel to strike him violently on the head, 
and five bullets pierced his clothing around his 
neck and shoulders. Denton, immediately behind 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



87 



Stout, was shot at the same instant, wheeled to the 
right-about, rode baclt up the bank, and fell dead, 
pierced by three balls, one in his arm, one in his 
shoulder and one through his right breast. The 
other men, being in single file, did not get in 
range, being screened by a projection in the bank, 
and some had not quite reached the creek bed. 
Those firing upon Stout and Denton fled in the 
brush after a single volley, and in a little time the 
savages were securely hidden in the surrounding 
thickets. Griffin was grazed by a ball on his 
cheek, and several passed through his clothes. 

The men hastily countermarched to the field, 
where Capt. Bourland met them. They were con- 
siderably demoralized. Pretty soon all were 
rallied at the first point of attack. Bourland 
took twenty-four men, went back and carried 
off the body of Denton. Eighty horses, a consid- 
erable number of copper kettles, many buffalo 
robes and other stuff were carried away. Our men 
retraced their steps to the Fossil creek camp of the 
previous night, arriving there about midnight, 
after losing much of the spoil. Next morning, 
crossing Fossil creek bottom to its north side, they 
buried Denton under the bank of a ravine, at the 
point of a rocky ridge, and not far from where 
Birdville stands. Ten or twelve feet from the 
grave stood a large post oak tree, at the roots of 
which two stones were partly set in the ground. 
This duty performed they traveled up the country 
on the west side of the Cross Timbers and Elm 
Fork, until they struck their trail outward at the 
site of Gainesville, and then followed it back to the 
barracks, where they disbanded, after a division of 
the captured property. The Indian woman escaped 
on the way in. Gen. Tarrant kept the child, but it 
was restored to its mother some two years later, at 
a council in the Indian Territory. 

The expedition was unsuccessful in its chief 
objects and, from some cause, probably a division 
of responsibility, the men, or a portion of them, at 
the critical moment, were thrown into a degree of 
confusion bordering on panic. 

On returning home from this fruitless, indeed 
unfortunate, expedition, measures were set on foot 
for a larger one, of which Gen. Tarrant was again 
to be the ranking officer. 

At that time Gen. James Smith, of Nacogdoches, 
was commander of the militia in that district. He 
led an expedition at the same time to the same 
section of country, there being an understanding 
that he and Tarrant would, if practicable, meet 
somewhere in the Cross Timbers. 

The volunteers of Ked river, between 400 and 
500 in number, assembled from the 15th to the 



20th of July, 1841, at Fort English, as the home 
of Bailey English was called, and there organized 
as a regiment by electing William C. Young as 
Colonel and James Bourland as Lieutenant-Colonel. 
John Smither was made Adjutant, and among the 
captains were William Lane, David Key and Robert 
S. Hamilton. 

Gen. Tarrant assumed command and controlled 
the expedition. Simultaneously with this assem- 
bling of the people two little boys on the Bois 
d'Arc, lower down, were captured and carried off 
by Indians, to be recovered about two years later. 

The expedition moved southwest and encamped 
on the west bank of the Trinity, probably in Wise 
County, and sent out a scouting party, who made no 
discoveries ; yet, as will be seen, the Indians dis- 
covered Tarrant's movements in time to be unseen 
by him and to narrowly escape a well-planned attack 
by Gen. Smith. Without discovering any enemy, 
after being out several weeks, Tarrant's command 
returned home and disbanded. 

In the meantime Gen. Smith, with a regiment of 
militia and volunteers, moved up northwesterly in 
the general direction of the present city of Dallas. 
On arriving at the block houses, known as King's 
Fort, at the present town of Kaufman, he found 
that the place had been assaulted by Indians during 
the previous evening and a considerable fight had 
occurred, in which the assailants had been gallantly 
repulsed and had retired, more or less damaged. 

Gen. Smith fell upon and followed the trail of 
the discomfited savages, crossing Cedar creek (of 
Kaufman County), the " East Fork," White Rock 
and the Trinity where Dallas stands, this being a 
few months before John Neely Bryan pitched his 
lonely camp on the same spot. On the spring 
branch, a mile or so on the west side of the river, 
the command halted, enjoying limpid spring water 
and an abundance of honey, from which one of the 
springs derived' the name it still retains — Honey 
spring. From this camp Gen. Smith dispatched a 
scout of twelve men, under Capt. John L. Hall, to 
seek and report the location of the Indian village. 
Besides Capt. Hall there were in this scout John H. 
Reagan (then a buckskin attired surveyor — years 
later United States senator, having first entered the 
lower House of Congress in 1857), Samuel Bean, 
Isaac Bean, John I. Burton (of race-horse fame), 
Hughes Burton, George Lacey, Warren A. Ferris, 
a Creek Indian named Charty, and three others 
whose names have not been obtained. They crossed 
Mountain creek above or south of the Texas and 
Pacific railroad of to-day, thence passed over the 
prairie into the Cross Timbers and to within a short 
distance of Village creek. From the number of 



88 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



fresh trails, apparently converging to a common 
center, it became evident they were in the vicinity 
of an Indian town. Secreting his party in a low 
and well hidden spot, Capt. Hall sent Judge 
Reagan and Isaac Bean on foot, to discover the 
exact location of the village and the best means of 
approaching and surprising it. These brave but 
cautious men, well-skilled in woodcraft, spent over 
half a day in " spying out the lay of the land," 
finding the Indians in quiet possession of their 
camp and that it was approachable at both the 
upper and lower ends of the village. Thus informed 
they lost no time in reporting to Capt. Hall, who, 
as soon as night came, cautiously emerged from his 
hiding-place with his party, and hastened with the 
information to Gen. Smith, who, by the way, was a 
gallant old soldier in the Creek war under Gen. 
Jackson. Camping at night on Mountain creek, 
after starting as soon as possible after the arrival 
of Hall, Gen. Smith reached the village about noon 



next day. The command was divided into two 
battalions, respectively commanded by Gen. Smith 
and Lieut.-Col. Elliott. 

Judge Reagan acted as guide in conducting Smith 
to the upper end of the village, while Bean per- 
formed the same service in guiding Elliott to the 
lower. Both moves were successfully made ; but, 
when the crisis came and the enthusiasm of the 
men was at fever heat, it was found that the enemy 
Ijad already precipitately fled, leaving some supplies 
and camp fixtures. 

The simple explanation was that the Indians had 
discovered Tarrant's force and fled barely in time to 
elude Smith. Pursuit, under such circumstances, 
would be useless. 

Without meeting, each command, in its own way, 
returned homeward ; but, though bloodless, the 
invasion of the Indian country, in such force, had 
a salutary effect in preparing all the smaller hostile 
tribes for the treaty entered into in September, 1843. 



Death of McSherry and Stinnett — Killing of Hibbins and 
Creath and the Capture of Mrs. Hibbins and 
Children — 1828 to 1842. 



In 1828, there arrived on the Guadalupe river a 
young married couple from the vicinity of Browns- 
ville, Jackson County, Illinois — John McSherry 
and his wife, Sarah, whose maiden name was Creath. 
They settled on the west side of the Guadalupe, 
near a little creek, which, with a spring, was some 
two hundred yards in front of the cabin they erected. 
This was in the lower edge of DeWitt's Colony, as 
it is now in the lower edge of DeWitt County. 
Their nearest neighbor was Andrew Lockhart, ten 
miles up the river, and one of a large family of 
sterling pioneers on the Guadalupe, bearing that 
name. Mrs. McSherry was a beautiful blonde, an 
excellent type of the country girls of the West in 
that day, very handsome in person, graceful in 
manner and pure of heart. Mr. McSherry was an 
honest, industrious man of nerve and will. They 
were happily devoted to each other. 

Early in 1829, their first child, John, was born in 
that isolated cabin, in one of the most lovely spots 
of the Southwest. 

Later in the same year, about noon on a pleasant 
day, Mr. McSherry went to the spring for a bucket 



of water. As he arose from the bank, bucket in 
hand, a party of Indians with a wild yell, sprang 
from the bushes and in a moment he was a lifeless 
and scalped corpse. His wife hearing the yell, 
sprang to the door, saw him plainly and realized 
the peril of herself and infant. In the twinkling of 
an eye, she barred the door, seized the gun and 
resolved to defend herself and baby unto death. 
The savages surveyed the situation and manceuvered 
to and fro, but failed to attack the cabin and soon 
disappeared. Thus she was left alone, ten miles 
from the nearest habitation, and without a road to 
that or any other place. But truly, in the belief 
of every honest person of long frontier experi- 
ence, the ways of providence are inscrutable. 
About dark John McCrabb, a fearless and excel- 
lent man, well armed and mounted, but wholly 
unaware of the sad condition of matters, rode up to 
the cabin to pass the night. Hearing the recital his 
strong nerves became stronger, and his heart pul- 
sated as became that of a whole-souled Irishman. 

Very soon he placed the young mother and babe 
on his horse and, by the light of the stars, started 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



89 



on foot, through the wilderness, for the house of 
Andrew Lockhart, reaching it before daylight, 
where warm hearts bestowed all possible care and 
kindness on those so ruthlessly stricken in the 
wilderness and so remote from all kindred ties. 

Mrs. McSherry, for a considerable time, found a 
home and friends with the Lockharts; but a few 
years later married John Hibbins, a worthy man, 
who settled on the east side of the Guadalupe, in 
the vicinity of where the town of Concrete now 
stands, in DeWitt County. 

In the summer of 1835, with her little boy, John 
McSherry, and an infant by Mr. Hibbins, she re- 
visited her kindred in Illinois. She returned via 
New Orleans in the winter of 1835-6, accompanied 
by her brother, George Creath, a single man, and 
landed at Columbia, on the Brazos, where early in 
February, 1836, Mr. Hibbins met them with an ox 
cart, on which they began the journey home. 
They crossed the Colorado at Season's and fell into 
the ancient La Bahia road on the upper Navidad. 
In due time they arrived at and were about 
encamping on Rocky creek, six miles above the 
subsequent village of Sweet Home, in Lavaca 
County and within fifteen or sixteen miles of their 
home, when they were suddenly attacked by 
thirteen Indian warriors who immediately killed 
Hibbins and Creath, made captives Mrs. Hibbins 
and her two children, took possession of all the 
effects and at leisure moved off up the country 
with perfect unconcern. They traveled slowly up 
through the timbered country, the Peach creek 
region between the Guadalupe and the Colorado, 
securely tying Mrs Hibbins at night and lying 
encircled around her. About the second day, at 
one of their camps, the baby cried with pain for 
some time, when one of the Indians seized it by the 
feet and mashed its brains against a tree, all in the 
presence of its helpless mother. For two or three 
days at this time Mrs. Hibbins distinctly heard 
the guns in the siege of the Alamo, at least sixty 
miles to the west. That she did so was made cer- 
tain a little later by her imparting the news to 
others till then unaware of that now world- 
renowned struggle. 

In due time her captors crossed the Colorado at 
the mouth of Shoal creek, now in the city of 
Austin. They moved on three or four miles and 
encamped on the south edge of a cedar brake, 
where a severe norther came up and caused them 
to remain three nights and two days. On the third 
night the Indians were engaged in a game till late 
and then slept soundly. Mrs. Hibbins determined, 
if possible, to escape. Cautiously, she freed her- 
self of the cords about her wrists and ankles and 



stepping over the bodies of her unconscious guards, 
stole away, not daring even to imprint a kiss on 
her only and first-born child, then a little over six 
years of age. 

Daylight found her but a short distance from 
camp, not over a mile or two, and she secreted 
herself in a thicket from which she soon saw and 
heard the Indians in pursuit. The savages com- 
pelled the little boy to call aloud, "Mama! Ma- 
ma!" But she knew that her only hope for her- 
self and child was in escape, and remained silent. 
After a considerable time the Indians disappeared. 
Bat she remained concealed still longer, till satisfied 
her captors had left. She then followed the creek 
to the Colorado and, as rapidly as possible, traveled 
down the river, shielded by the timber along its 
banks. 

The crow of a chicken late in the afternoon sent 
a thrill through her agonizing heart. The welcome 
sound was soon repeated several times and thither 
she hastened with a ileal born of her desperate con- 
dition, for she did not certainly know she was in a 
hundred miles of a habitation. In about two miles 
she reached the outer cabin on the Colorado, or 
rather one of the two outer ones — Jacob Harrell 
occupying the one she entered and Reuben Horns- 
by the other. She was so torn with thorns and 
briars, so nearly without raiment, and so bruised 
about the face, that her condition was pitiable. 
Providentially (as every old pioneer untainted with 
heathenism believed), eighteen rangers, the first 
ever raised under the revolutionary government of 
Texas, and commanded by Capt. John J. Tum- 
linson, had arrived two days before and were 
encamped at the cabin of. Hornsby. To this warm- 
hearted and gallant officer Mrs. Hibbins was per- 
sonally known and to him she hastily narrated her 
sad story. 

Tumlinson knew the country somewhat and felt 
sure he could find the Indians at a given point 
further up the country. He traveled nearly all 
night, halting only a short while before day to rest 
his horses and resuming the march at sunrise, and 
about 9 o'clock came upon the Indians, encamped, 
but on the eve of departure. I have the privilege, 
as to what followed, of quoting the exact language 
of Capt. Tumlinson, written for me forty years ago, 
as follows : — 

" The Indians discovered us just as we discov- 
ered them, but had not time to get their horses, so 
they commenced running on foot towards the 
mountain thickets. I threw Lieut. Joseph Rogers, 
with eight men, below them — and with the others 
I dashed past and took possession of their route 
above them. The Indians saw that the route 



90 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



above and below them was in our possession, and 
struck off for the mountain thicket nearest the side 
of the trail. I ordered Lieut. Rogers to charge, 
and fell upon them simultaneously. I saw an 
Indian aiming his rifle at me, but knew that he 
must be a better marksman than I had seen among 
them to hit me going at my horse's speed, and did 
not heed him till I got among them. Then I 
sprang from my horse quick as lightning, and 
turned towards him ; at the same instant he. flred ; 
the ball passed through the bosom of my shirt and 
struck my horse in the neck, killing him immedi- 
ately. I aimed deliberately and fired. The Indian 
sprang a few feet into the air, gave one whoop and 
fell dead within twenty-five feet of me. The fight 
now became general. Pell-mell we fell together. 
The Indians, thirteen in number, armed with bows 
and rifles, were endeavoring to make good their 
retreat towards the thicket. Several of them fell, 
and two of my men were wounded ; when finally 
they effected an entrance into the thicket, which 
was so dense that it would have been madness to 
have attempted to penetrate it, and we were forced 
So cease the pursuit. I dispatched Rogers after 
the child, the horses and mules of the Indians, 
whilst I remained watching the thicket to guard 
against, surprise. He found the child in the Indian 
camp tied on the back of a wild mule, with his 
robe and equipments about Lim fixed on for the 
day's march, and had to shoot the mule in order to 
get the child. He also succeeded in getting hold 
of all the animals of the Indians, and those they 
had stolen. My men immediately selected the best 
horse in the lot, which they presented to me in place 
of the one that was killed. 

•'We watched for the Indians a while longer; 
and in the meantime sent a runner for the doctor 
to see to the wounded. I sent a portion of the 
men under the command of Rogers with the child, 
and the wounded men and I brought up the rear. 
The wounded were Elijah Ingram, shot in the arm, 
the ball ranging upwards to the shoulder ; also 
Hugh M. Childers, shot through the leg. Of the 
Indians, four were killed. We arrived that night 
at Mr. Harrell's, where we found Mrs. Hibbins, 
the mother of the child. Lieut. Rogers presented 
the child to its mother, and the scene which here 
ensued beggars description, A mother meeting 
with her child released from Indian captivity, re- 
covered as it were from the very jaws of death! 
Not an eye was dry. She called us brothers, and 
every other endearing name, and would have fallen 
on her knees to worship us. She hugged her child 
to her bosom as if fearful that she would again lose 
him. And — but 'tis useless to say more." 



Lieut. Joseph Rogers was a brother of Mrs. Gen. 
Burleson, and was killed in a battle with the Indians 
a few years later. Thus the mother and child, 
bereft of husband and father, and left without a 
relative nearer than Southern Illinois, found them- 
selves in the families of Messrs. Harrell and 
Hornsby, the outside settlers on the then feeble 
frontier of the Colorado — large-hearted and sym- 
pathizing avant-couriers in the advancing civili- 
zation of Texas. The coincident fall of the Alamo 
came to them as a summons to pack up their effects 
and hasten eastward, as their fellow-citizens below 
were already doing. 

The mother and child accompanied these two 
families in their flight from the advancing Mexi- 
cans, till they halted east of the Trinity, where, in a 
few weeks, couriers bore the glorious news of vic- 
tory and redemption from the field of San Jacinto. 
Soon they resumed their" weary march, but this 
time for their homes. In Washington County Mrs. 
Hibbins halted, under the friendly roof of a sym- 
pathizing pioneer. There she also met a former 
neighbor, in the person of Mr. Claiborne Stinnett, 
an intelligent and estimable man, who, with Capt. 
Henry S. Brown (father of the writer of this) 
represented De Witt's Colony in the first delibera- 
tive body ever assembled in Texas — the able and 
patriotic convention assembled at San Felipe, 
October 1, 1832. 

After a widowhood of twelve months, Mrs. Hib- 
bins married Mr. Stinnett and they at once (in the 
spring of 1837) returned to their former home on 
the Guadalupe. In the organization of Gonzales 
County, a little later, Mr. Stinnett was elected 
Sheriff. Late in the fall, with apackhorse, he went 
to Linnville, on the bay, to buy needed supplies. 
Loading this extra horse with sugar, coffee, etc., 
and with seven hundred dollars in cash, he started 
home. But instead of following the road by Vic- 
toria, he traveled a more direct route through the 
prairie. When, about night, he was near the 
Arenosa creek, about twenty miles northeast of 
Victoria, he discovered a camp fire in a grove of 
timber and, supposing it to be a camp of hunters, 
went to it. Instead, it was the camp of two " run- 
away" negro;;men, seeking their way to Mexico. 
They murdered Mr. Stinnett, took his horses, pro- 
visions and money, and, undiscovered, reached 
Mexico. The fate of the murdered man remained 
a mystery. No trace of him was found for five 
years, until, in the fall of 1842, one of the negroes 
revealed all the facts to an American prisoner in 
Mexico (the late Col. Andrew Neill), and so de- 
scribed the locality that the remains of Mr. Stinnett 
were found and interred. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



91 



Thus this estimable lady lost her third husband — 
two by red savages and one by black — and was 
again alone, without the ties of kinship, excepting 
her child, in all the land. Yet she was still young, 
attractive in person and pure of heart, so that, two 
years later, she was wooed and won by Mr. Philip 
Howard. Unwisely, in June, 1840, soon after their 
marriage, they abandoned their home on the Guad- 
alupe and removed to the ancient Mission of San 
Juan, eight miles below San Antonio. It was a 
hundred miles through a wilderness often traversed 
by hostile savages. Hence they were escorted by 
seven young men of the vicinity, consisting of Byrd 
Lockhart, Jr. (of that well-known pioneer family), 
young McGary, two brothers named Powers (one 
of whom was a boy of thirteen and both the sons of 
a widow), and three others whose names are for- 
gotten. On arriving at the mission in the fore- 
noon their horses were hobbled out near by and 
little John McSherry (the child of Mrs. How- 
ard, recovered from the Indians in 1836, and at 
this time in his eleventh year) was left on 
a pony to watch them ; but within half an 
hour a body of Indians suddenly charged upon 
them, captured some of the horses, and little John 
barelj' escaped by dashing into the camp, a vivid 
reminder to the mother that her cup of affliction 
was not yet full. In a day or two the seven young 
men started on their return home. About noon 
next day, a heavy shower fell, wetting their guns; 
hut was soon followed by sunshine, when they all 
flred off their guns to clean and dry them.' Most 
imprudently they all did so at the same time, leav- 
ing no loaded piece. This volley attracted the 
keen ear of seventy hostile Comanches who other- 
wise would not have discovered them. In a 
moment or two they appeared and cried out that 



they were friendly Toncahuas. Tne ruse succeeded 
and they were allowed to approach and encircle the 
now helpless young men. Six of them were in- 
stantlj' slain, scalped and their horses and effects, 
with the boy Powers, carried off. During the 
second night afterwards, in passing through a 
cedar brake at the foot of the Cibolo mountains, he 
slid quietly off his horse and escaped. In three or 
four days he reached the upper settlements on the 
Guadulupe, and gave the first information of these 
harrowing facts. 

Thus again admonished, Mr. and Mrs. Howard 
removed low down on the San Antonio river, below 
the ancient ranch of Don Carlos de la Garza, in the 
lower edge of Goliad County, confident that no hos- 
tile savage would ever visit that secluded locality. 
But they were mistaken. Early in the spring of 
1842, the hostiles made a night raid all around 
them, stole a number of their horses, murdered 
two of their neighbors, Mr. and Mrs. Gilleland, and 
carried off their little son and daughter ; but a party 
of volunteers, among whom were the late Maj. 
A-lfred S. Thurmond, of Aransas, and the late Col. 
Andrew Neill, of Austin, overhauled and defeated 
the Indians and recaptured the children. The boy 
is now Wm. M. Gilleland, long of Austin, and the 
little girl is the widow of the late Rev. Orseneth 
Fisher, a distinguished Methodist preacher. 

Following this sixth admonition, Mr. and Mrs. 
Howard at once removed to the present vicinity of 
Hallettsville, in Lavaca County, and thencefoward 
her life encountered no repetition of the horrors 
which had so terribly followed her footsteps through 
the previous thirteen 5''ears. Peace and a fair share 
of prosperity succeeded. In 1848 Mr. Howard was 
made County Judge, and some years later they 
located in Bosque County. 



The Snively Expedition Against tine IVIexican Santa Fe 

Traders in 1843. 



The year 1843 was one of the gloomiest, at least 
during its first half, ever experienced in Texas. 
The perfidious and barbarous treatment given the 
" Texian Santa Fe " prisoners of 1841, after they 
had capitulated as prisoners of war, preceded by 
the treason of one of their number, a wretch named 
William P. Lewis, had created throughout Texas a 



desire for retaliation. The expedition so surren- 
dered to the overwhelming force of Armijo, the 
Governor of New Mexico, was both commercial 
and peaceful, but of necessity accompanied by a 
large armed escort to protect it against the hostile 
Indians, covering the entire distance. The wisdom 
and the legality of the measure, authorized by 



92 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



President Lamar, on his own responsibility, were 
severely criticised by many ; but Texas was a unit 
in indignation at the treacherous, dastardly and 
brutal treatment bestowed upon their brave and 
chivalrous citizens after honorable surrender, 
among whom were many well-known soldiers and 
gentlemen, including Hugh McLeod, the com- 
mander, Jose Antonio Navarro, William G. Cooke 
and Dr. Richard F. Brenham as Peace Commis- 
missioners, Capt. Matthew Caldwell, Geo. W. 
Kendall of New Orleans, young Frank Coombes 
of Kentucky, Capt. Houghton and an array of 
first-class privates, the choice spirits of the coun- 
try, of whom my friend of forty-eight years, 
Thomas W. Hunt, now of Bosque County, is still 
an honorable sample. 

The triplicate Mexican raid of 1842, ending with 
the glorious but unsuccessful battle of Mier, inten- 
sified the desire for retaliatory action towards 
Mexico and especially so towards New Mexico. 

As the result of this feeling, on the 28th of 
January, 1843, Jacob Snively, who had held the 
staff rank of Colonel in the Texian army, applied 
to the government for authority to raise men and 
proceed to the upper boundaries of Texas, and 
capture a rich train belonging to Armijo and other 
Santa Fe Mexicans. Permission was issued by 
George W. Hill, Secretary of War, on the 16th of 
February, with provisos that half the spoils should 
go to the government and should only be taken in 
honorable warfare. 

On the 24th of April, near the present town of 
Denison, the expedition, about 175 strong, was 
organized, with Snively unanimouily chosen as 
commander. A few others joined a day or two 
later, making a total of about 190. They followed 
the old Chihuahua trail west till assured of being 
west of the hundredth meridian, then bore north, 
passing along the western base of the Wichita 
mountains, and on the 27th of May encamped on 
the southwest bank of the Arkansas. This was 
said to be about forty miles below the Missouri- 
Santa Fe crossing, but was only eight or ten miles 
from the road on the opposite side of the river. 

It was known before they started that a Mexican 
train of great value (for that day) would pass from 
Independence to Santa Fe, some time in the spring, 
and as the route for a long distance lay in Texas, it 
was considered legitimate prey. 

They soon learned from some men from Bent's 
Fort that six hundred Mexican troops were waiting 
above to escort the caravan from the American 
boundary to Santa' Fe. Snively kept out scouts 
and sought to recruit his horses. His scouts in- 
spected the camp of the enemy and found their 



number as reported, about six hundred. On the 
20th of June a portion of the command had a fight 
with a detachment of the Mexicans, killing seven- 
teen and capturing eighty prisoners, including 
eighteen wounded, without losing a man, and 
securing a fine supply of horses, saddles and arms. 
Snively held the prisoners in a camp with good 
water. On the 24th three hundred Indians sud- 
denly appeared, but, seeing Snively's position and 
strength, professed friendship. There was no con- 
fidence, however, in their profession, excepting so 
far as induced by a fear to attack. 

The long delay created great discontent and 
when scout°s came in on the 28th and reported no 
discovery of the caravan, a separation took place. 
Seventy of the men, selecting Capt. Eli Chandler 
as their commander, started home on the 29th. 
Snively, furnishing his wounded prisoners with 
horses to ride, the others with a limited number of 
guns for defense against the Indians and such pro- 
visions as he could spare, set the whole -party at 
liberty. Whereupon he pitched another camp 
farther up the river to await the caravan, perfectly 
confident that he was west of the hundredth meri- 
dian and (being on the southwest side of the Ar- 
kansas, the boundary line from that meridian to 
its source), therefore, in. Texas. Subsequent sur- 
veys proved that he was right. By a captured 
Mexican he learned that the caravan was not far 
distant escorted by one hundred and ninety-six 
United States dragoons, commanded by Capt. 
Philip St. George Cooke. On June 30th they were 
discovered by the scouts and found to have also 
two pieces of artillery. Cooke soon appeared, 
crossed the river, despite the protest of Snively 
that he was on Texas soil, and planted his guns so 
as to rake the camp. He demanded unconditional 
surrender and there was no other alternative to the 
outrage. Cooke allowed them to retain ten guns 
for the one hundred and seven men present, com- 
pelled to travel at least four hundred miles through 
a hostile Indian country, without a human habita- 
tion ; but their situation was not so desperate as 
he intended, for a majority of the men, before it 
was too late, buried their rifies and double-barreled 
shot-guns in the friendly sand mounds, and meekly 
surrendered to Cooke the short escopetas they had 
captured from the Mexicans. Cooke immediately 
re-crossed the river and slept. He awakened to a 
partial realization of his harsh and unfeeling act ; 
and sent a message to Snively that he would escort 
as many of his men as would accept the invitation 
into Independence, Missouri. About forty-two of 
the men went, among whom were Capt. Myers F. 
Jones of Fayette County, his nephew John Rice 




o 

-9! 

P 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



93 



Jones, Jr., formerly of Washington County, Mis- 
souri, and others whose names cannot be recalled. 
With Cooke, on a health-seeking trip, was Mr. 
Joseph S. Pease, a noted hardware merchant of 
St. Louis, and an old friend of the writer, who 
bitterly denounced Cooke and defended the cause 
of the Texians on reaching St. Louis. 

Col. Snively hastily dispatched a courier advising 
Capt. Chandler of these events and asking him to 
halt. He did so and on the 2d of July the two 
parties re-united. On the 4th the Indians stam- 
peded sixty of their horses, but in the fight lost 
twelve warriors, while one Texian was killed and 
one wounded. 

On the 6th the scouts reported that the caravan 
had crossed the Arkansas. Some wanted to pursue 
and attack it — others opposed. Snively resigned 
on the 9th. Sixty-flve men selected Chas. A. War- 
fleld as leader (not the Charles A. Warfield after- 
wards representative of Hunt County, and more 
^.recently of California, but another man of the 
same name who, it is believed, died before the Civil 
War.) Col. Snively adhered to this party. They 
pursued the caravan till the 13th, when they found 
the Mexican escort to be too strong and abandoned 
the enterprise and started home. Warfleld resigned 
and Snively was re-elected. On the 20th they were 
assaulted by a band of Indians, but repulsed them, 
anfl after the usual privations of such a trip in 
mid-summer, they arrived at Bird's Fort, on the 
West Fork of the Trinity, pending the efforts to 
negotiate a treaty at that place, as elsewhere set 



forth in this work. Chandler and party, including 
Capt. S. P. Eoss, had already gotten in. 

Besides those already named as in this expedition 
was the now venerable and honorable ex-Senator 
Stewart A. Miller, of Crockett, who kept a daily 
diary of the trip, which was in my possession for 
several years and to which Yoakum also had access. 
The late founder of the flourishing town bearing 
his name, Robert A. Terrell, was also one of the 
party, and a number of others who are scattered 
over the country, but their names cannot be 
given. 

When this news reached St. Louis, the writer 
was on a visit to that city, the guest of Col. A. B. 
Chambers, editor of the Republican, in whose 
family six years of his boyhood had been passed. 
The press of the country went wild in bitter de- 
nunciation of the Texians as robbers and pirates. 
The Republican alone of the St. Louis press 
seemed willing to hear both sides. Capt. Myers 
F. Jones and party published a short defensive card, 
supplemented by a friendly one from Mr. Joseph 
S. Pease. That was nearly forty-flve years ago, 
when the writer had just graduated from contests 
withMexican freebooters, runningfor the ten months 
next prior to the battle of Mier. He could not 
submit in silence, and published in the Republican 
a complete recapitulation of the outrages, robberies 
and murders committed in 1841 and 1842 by the 
Mexicans upon the people of Texas, closing with a 
denunciation of the conduct of Capt. Philip St. 
George Cooke. 



The Thrilling Mission of Conmmissioner Joseph C. Eldridge to 

the Wild Tribes in 1843, by Authority of President 

Houston — Hamilton P. Bee, Thomas Torrey — 

The Three Delawares, Jim Shaw, John 

Connor and Jim Second Eye — 

The Treaty. 



When the year 1843 opened, Gen. Sara. Houston 
was serving his second term as President of the 
Republic of Texas, and the seat of government was 
temporarily at the town of Washington-on-the 
Brazos. He had uniformly favored a peace policy 
toward the Indians, whenever it might become 



practicable to conclude a general treaty with the 
numerous wild and generally hostile tribes inhabit- 
ing all the western and northwestern territory of 
the republic. On this policy the country was 
divided in opinion, and the question was often 
discussed with more or less bitterness. Nothing 



94 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



could be more natural, respecting a policy affecting 
so deeply the property and lives of tbe frontier 
people, who were so greatly exposed to the raids of 
the hostiles, and had little or no faith in their 
fidelity to treaty stipulations ; while the President, 
realizing the sparsity of population and feebleness 
in resources of the government and the country, 
hoped to bring about a general cessation of hostili- 
ties, establish a line of demarcation between the 
whites and Indians, and by establishing along the 
same a line of trading houses, to promote friendly 
traffic, with occasional presents by the government, 
to control the wild men and preserve the lives of 
the people. 

At this time Joseph C. Eldridge,* a man of 
education, experience, courage, and the highest 
order of integrity, was appointed by the President 
as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. About the 
same time a delegation from several of the 
smaller tribes visited the President, in order to 
have a talk. Among them were several Delawares, 
nearly civilized, and among them were persons who 
spoke not only our language, but all the tongues 
of the wild prairie tribes, some speaking one 
and some another tongue. It occurred to the 
President, after frequent interviews, that he could 
utilize these Delawares, or the three chief men 
among them, Jim Shaw, John Connor and Jim 
Second Eye, as commissioners in inducing all the 
wild tribes to meet the President and peace com- 



* Joseph C. Eldridge was a native of Connecticut, and 
of an ancient and honorable family. Of him Gen. Bee 
writes me: "He was an aimirable character, brave, 
cool, determined in danger, faithful to public trusts and 
loving in his friendships. He did more than his duty on 
this trip. He served as Paymaster in the United States 
navy from 18i6, and died the senior officer of that corps 
in 1881, at his home in Brooklyn, New York. His stern 
sense of duty was displayed on our way out, when, north 
of Red river, we met and camped all night with a com- 
pany of men under Capt. S. P. Eoss, returning from the 
ill-fated Snively expedition. They urged us to return 
home, as the Indians on the plains were all hostile — our 
trip would be fruitless, and the hazards were too great 
for such a handful. Only Eldridge's courage and high 
sense of duty caused him to reject the advice and pro- 
ceed; but pending our trial in the Comanche council we 
all regretted not having yielded to the warnings of Capt. 
Ross. Capt. Eldridge died of softening of the brain. He 
had a son, Houston Eldridge, named for the President 
after their temporary unpleasantness, a most promising 
young officer of the navy, who died not long after his 
father. Jjhn C. Eldridge, a cousin of Joseph C, also 
figured honorably in Texas for a number of years, and 
their names were sometim^is confounded. Charles W. 
Eldridge, another cousin, deceased in Hartford, Con- 
necticut, was a brother-in-law to the writer of this his- 
tory. 



missioners, at a point to be designated, for the 
purpose of making a treaty. Subsequent events 
went to show that the Delawares had imbibed that 
idea; but President Houston finally decided to 
commission Capt. Eldridge for that onerous and 
hazardous mission, to be accompanied by two or 
three white men of approved character, together 
with the Delawares and a few Indians of other 
tribes. Capt. Eldridge eagerly applied to his young 
and bosom friend, Hamilton P. Bee, to accompany 
him. They had crossed the gulf together on their 
first arrival in Texas in 1837 — Bee accompanying 
his mother from South Carolina to join his father, 
Col. Barnard E. Bee, already in the service of 
Texas, and Eldridge coming from his native State, 
Connecticut. He selected also Thomas Torrey, 
already an Indian agent, and also a native of 
Connecticut. 

The preparations being completed, the party left 
Washington late in March, 1843, and consisted of 
Joseph C. Eldridge, commissioner, Thomas Tor- 
rey, Indian agent, the three Delawares as guides 
and interpreters, several other Delawares as hunt- 
ers, helpers and traders, Acoquash, the Waco head 
chief, who was one those who had been to see 
the President, and Hamilton P. Bee. There may 
have been a few other Indians. They had a small 
caravan of pack mules to transport their provisions 
and presents for the Indians. They also had with 
them for delivery to their own people two Comanche 
children about twelve years old, one a girl named 
Maria (May-re-ah) and the other a boy who had 
taken the name of William Hockley, being two of 
>the captives at the Council House fight, in San 
Antonio, on the 19th of March, 1840, elsewhere 
described in this work. They also had two young 
Waco women, previously taken as prisoners, but 
these were placed in charge of Acoquash. 

They passed up the valley of the Brazos, passing 
Fort Milam, near the present Marlin, around which 
were the outside habitations of the white settlers. 
Further up, on Tehuacano creek, six or seven 
miles southeast of the present city of Waco, they 
reached the newly established trading house of the 
Torrey brothers,* afterwards well known as a 



* There were four of the Torrey brothers, all from 
Ashford, Connecticut, the younger following the elder to 
Texas 1836 to 1840. David was the head of Torrey's 
Trading House. He was the third one in the order of 
death, bemg killed by Indians on the Brazos frontier 
not far from the time of annexation. James, a gallant 
and estimable young man. kindly remembered by the 
writer of this for his social and soldierly virtues, was one 
of the seventeen justly celebrated Mler prisoners who 
drew black b.ans at the hacienda of Salado, Mexico 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



95 



resort for Indians and traders. Here they found a 
large party of Delawares. 

The Delawares ac'companying Eldrldge also had 
mules freighted with goods for traffic with the wild 
tribes, and, among other commodities, a goodly 
supply of that scourge of our race — whisky — 
doubtless intended for the Delawares found here, 
as expected by those with Eldrldge, for at that 
time the wild tribes did not drink it. 

On the arrival of the commissioner, all became 
bustle and activity. The liquor was soon tapped 
and a merry time inaugurated, but soon after dark 
every Indian surrendered his knife and firearms to 
the chiefs, by whom they were secreted. Then 
loose reign was given to unarmed warriors, and 
throughout the night pandemonium prevailed ac- 
companied by screams, hideous yells, fisticuffs, 
scratching, biting, and all manner of unarmed per- 
sonal combat, causing wakefulness and some degree 
of apprehension among the white men. But no 
one was killed or seriously injured, and in due 
time, sheer exhaustion was followed by quiet 
slumber, the red man showing the same maudlin 
beastliness when crazed by mean whisky as, alas! 
cliaracterizes his white brother in like condition. 
It required two days to recover from the frolic, 
and then Eldridge resumed his march into the 
wilds beyond. His instructions were to visit as 
many of the wild tribes as possible, and the head 
chief of the Comanches — to deliver to them the 
words of friendship from their Great Father, the 
President, and invite them all to attend a grand 
council to be held at Bird's Fort, on the north side 
of the main or west fork of the Trinitj', com- 
mencing on the 10th of August (1843), where 
they would meet duly accredited commissioners 
and the President in person to treat with them. 



and were shot to death by order of Santa Anna, on the 
19th of March, 1843. Thomas, the companion of Eld- 
ridge and Bee on this hazardous mission, a worthy 
brother of such men as David and James, was a Santa 
Fe prisoner in 1841-42, marched in chains twelve hundred 
miles, from Santa Fe to the city of Mexico, and was there 
imprisoned with his fellows. He passed the terrible 
ordeal narrated In this chapter, as occurring in the 
council of Payhaynco — separated from Eldridge and Bee 
at the Wichita village, successfully reached Bird's Fort, 
with detachments of the wild tribes, there to sicken and 
die, as success largely crowned their efforts to bring 
about a general treaty. John F. Torrey, the only sur- 
vivor of the four brothers, the personification of enter- 
prise, built and ran cotton and woolen factories at New 
Braunfels. Floods twice swept them and his wealth away. 
At a goodly age he lives on his own farm on Comanche 
Peak, Hood County. Honored be the name of Torrey 
among the children of Texas! 



This fort was about twenty-two miles westerly 
from where Dallas was subsequently founded. 

At a point above the three forks of the Trinity, 
probably in Wise or Jack County, the expedition 
halted for a few days and sent out Delaware mes- 
sengers to find and invite any tribes found in the 
surrounding country to visit them. Delegations 
from eleven small tribes responded by coming in, 
among them being Wacos, Anadarcos, Towdashes, 
Caddos, Keecbis, Tehuacanos, Delawares, Bedais, 
Boluxies, lonies, and one or two others, constitut- 
ing a large assemblage, the deliberations of which 
were duly opened by the solemnities of embracing, 
smoking, and a wordy interchange of civilities. 
Capt. Eldridge appeared in full uniform, and Bee * 
performed the duties of secretary. The council 
opened by an address from the Delaware interpre- 
ters, and the whole day was consumed in a series 
of dialogues between them and the wild chiefs, 
Capt. Eldridge getting no opportunity to speak, 
and when desiring to do so was told by the Dela- 
ware's that it was not yet time, as they had not 
talked enough to the wild men. So, at night, the 
council adjourned till next day when Eldridge de- 
livered his talk, which was interpreted to the differ- 
ent tribes by the Delawares. Finally Eldridge 
said: "Tell them I am the mouth-piece of the 
President, and speak his words." Two of the Dela- 
wares interpreted the sentence, but Jim Shaw re- 
fused, saying it was a lie. The other two conveyed 
the language to all. The result was satisfactory, 
and the tribes present all agreed to attend the 
council at Bird's Fort. Returning to bis tent, 
Capt. Eldridge demanded of Shaw, who was the 
leader and more intelligent of the Delawares, the 
meaning of his strange conduct, to which he replied 
that the three Delawares considered themselves the 
commissioners, Eldridge being along only to write 
down whatever was done. He also charged that 
Eldridge had their commission, attested by seals 



" Hamilton P. Bee is a native of Charleston, South Car- 
olina, favorably and intimately known to the writer for 
half a century as an honor to his country in all that con- 
stitutes a true and patriotic citizen — a son of the Hon. 
Barnard E. Bee, who early tendered his sword and ser- 
vices to struggling Texas, and a brother of Gen. Barnard 
E. Bee, who fell at Manassas, the first General to yield 
his life to the Confederate cause. Hamilton P. Bee was 
Secretary to the United States and Texas Boundary Com- 
mission, 1839-40; Secretary of the first State Senate in 
1846; a gallant soldier in the Mexican war; eight years a 
member of the Legislature from the Rio Grande, and 
Speaker of the House in 1855-56; a Brigadier-General in 
the Confederate army, losing a handsome estate by the 
war, and later served as Commissioner of Insurance, 
Statistics and History of the State of Texas. 



96 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



and ribbons, with his baggage. This document 
being Eldridge's instructions as commissioner, was 
brought out, read and explained by Bee. Jim Shaw 
was greatly excited, and had evidently believed 
what he said ; but Eldridge bore himself with great 
composure and firmness. After the reading Jim 
Shaw said: " I beg your pardon, Joe, but I have 
been misled. I thought the Delawares were to 
make the treaties. We will go no farther, but go to 
our own country, on the Missouri river — will start 
to-morrow, and will never return to Texas." Eld- 
ridge, alarmed at this unexpected phase of affairs, 
appealed to the trio to stay and guide him, as the 
President expected them to do ; but they seemed 
infliixible. To proceed without them was madness, 
and in this dilemma Eldridge sent for Jose Maria, 
the noted chief of the Anadarcos, who had been so 
severely wounded in his victorious fight with the 
whites, in Bryant's defeat near Marlin, in January, 
1839. He explained to him the facts just related, 
and asked him if he would escort him back into the 
settlements. Greatly pleased at such a mark of 
confidence — his keen black eyes giving full expres- 
sion to his gratified pride — he promptly and sol- 
emnly promised to do so. 

On the next morning, while Eldridge was pack- 
ing and mounting for his homeward march, sur- 
rounded by his promised escort of one hundred 
Anadarco warriors, well mounted and armed with 
bows and lances, with Jose Maria at their head, 
Jim Shaw sent word to Capt. Eldridge that he had 
changed his mind and would continue the trip. An 
interview followed and a full understanding was 
entered into, acknowledging Capt. Eldridge as the 
sole head of the expedition ; but after this the manner 
of the Delaware trio was formal and reserved, and 
their intercourse long confined to business matters. 

Continuing the march, they next reached the 
principal village of the Wacos, whither they had 
been preceded by Acoquash, with the two released 
"Waco girls, who greeted them warmly. During 
their stay he was their guest, and most of the time 
had his family on hand. It was a little odd, but 
his friendship was too valuable to be sacrificed on 
a question of etiquette. Here the Delawares 
annouDced that it would be necessary to send out 
runners to find the Comanches ; that this would 
require fifteen days, during which time the trio — 
Shaw, Connor and Second Eye — would take the 
peltries they had on hand to Warren's trading 
house down on Red river, for deposit or sale, and 
return within the time named. During the delay, 
Eldridge camped three miles from the village, but 
was daily surrounded and more or less annoyed by 
the Wticos, men, women and children. The wife of 



Acoquash became violently ill, and he requested his 
white brothers to exert their skill as medicine men. 
Mr. Bee administered to her jalap and rhubarb, 
which, fortunately for them, as will be seen later, 
speedily relieved and restored her to health. 

The runners returned on time with rather encour- 
aging reports ; but the essential trio, so indispen- 
sable to progress, were absent twenty-eight instead 
of fifteen days, causing a loss of precious time. 

Their next move was for the Wichita village, at 
or near the present site of Fort Sill. They were 
kindly received by this warlike tribe, who had heard 
of their mission and promised to attend the council 
at Bird's Fort. 

They next bore westerly for the great prairies and 
plains in search of the Comanches, Acoquash and 
his wife being with them. It was now in July and all 
of their provisions were exhausted, reducing them 
to an entire dependence on wild meat, which, how- 
ever, was abundant, and they soon found the tal- 
low of the buffalo, quite unlike that of the cow, 
a good substitute for bread. They carried in 
abundant strings of cooked meat on their pack 
mules. 

After twenty days they found Indian" signs" in 
a plum thicket, " the best wild plums," wrote Young 
Bee, "I ever saw." They saw where Indians 
had been eating plums during the same day, and 
there they encamped. Pretty soon an Indian, 
splendidly mounted, approached, having a boy of 
six years before him. He proved to be blind, but 
a distinguished chief of the Comanches — a man 
of remarkable physique, over six feet in height, a 
model in proportions and his hair growing down 
over his face. He told the Delaware interpreter 
the localitj' in which they were, and that the town 
of Payhayuco, the great head chief of the 
Comanches, was only a few miles distant. 

As soon as the blind chief's boy — a beautiful 
child, handsomely dressed in ornamented buck- 
skin—gathered a supply of plums, they mounted 
and returned to their town, accompanied by a few 
of the Delawares. In the afternoon a delegation 
of the Comanches visited Eldiidge and invited him 
and his party to visit their town. Promptly sad- 
dling up and escorted by about 500 Comanche 
warriors, in about two hours' ride, they entered 
the town of the great chief 

PAYHAYUCO, 

and for the first time beheld the pride aad the glory 
of the wild tribes — the Comanche Indian in his 
Bedouin-like home. With considerable ceremony 
they were conducted to the tent of Payhayuco who 
was absent, but the honors were done by the chief 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



97 



of his seven wives, who caused the best tent to be 
vacated and placed at the disposal of her white 
guests. It was hot, August weather, and such 
crowds of Comanches, of all ages and sexes, pressed 
in and around the tent that it became so suffocat- 
ing as to necessitate the erection of their own tent, 
which was open at both ends. First getting the 
consent of their hostess, this was done. 

Finding that the chief would be absent a week 
yet to come, and their business being with him, 
they could only patiently await his arrival. They 
were ceaseless curiosities to all the younger Coman- 
ches, who had never seen a white man, and who 
continued to crowd around and inspect them ; roll- 
ing up their sleeves to show their white arms to the 
children, etc. While thus delayed the Comanches 
twice moved their town, and our people were aston- 
ished at the regularity with which each new location 
was laid off into streets and the precision with 
which each family took its position in each new 
place. Mr. Bee accompanied the warriors on two 
or" three buffalo hunts, and was surprised at their 
wonderful dexterity. 

Payhayuco arrived On the afternoon of August 
9 (1843), and occupied the tent adjoining the 
whites. They were soon informally presented to 
him and courteously received, but no clue was 
obtained as to the state of his mind. At sunrise 
next morning about a hundred warriors met in 
council in a large tent, sitting on the ground in a 
series of circles diminishing from circumference 
to center, wherein Payhayuco sat. Our friends, 
not being invited, took a brief glance at thetn 
and retired to their own tent, leaving their case 
with the Delawares, who attended the council. 
About 10 a. m. a sort of committee from the 
council waited on tljem to say that a report 
had come from the Waco village, where they 
had tarried so long, charging that they were bad 
men and had given poison to the Wacos, and 
wanted to know what they had to say about it. 
This was supremely preposterous, but it was also 
gravely suggestive of danger. They repelled the 
charge' and referred to the old Waco chief, 
Acoquash, then present, their companion on the 
whole trip, and whose wife they had cured. 
What a hazard they had passed ! Had that poor 
squaw died instead of recovering under Bee's 
treatment, their fate would have been sealed. A 
Choctaw negro, who understood bat little Co- 
maache, told them the council was deliberating 
op their lives and talking savagely. They sent for 
the Delawares and told tluem of this. The Dela- 
wares denied it, and reassured them. But half an 
hour later their favorite Delaware huater, the only 



one in whose friendshiji they fully confided,, in- 
formed them that the Comanches were going to kill 
them. They were, of course, very much alarmed 
by this second warning, and, again summoning 
the trio, told .Jim Shaw they were not children, but 
men, and demanded to know the truth. Shaw re- 
plied that he had desired to conceal their peril 
from them as long as possible, and for that reason 
had told them a lie ; but in truth the council was 
clamorous and unanimous for their death ; that all 
the chiefs who had a right to speak had done so, 
and all were against them ; that they (Shaw and 
Connor) had done all they could for them ; bad 
told the council they would die with them, as they 
had promised the White Father they would take 
care of them and would never return without them ; 
and that Acoquash had been equally true to them. 
They added that only Payhayuco was yet to speak, 
but even should he take the opposite side they did 
not believe he had influence enough to save their 
lives, "Next came into our tent " (I quote the 
language of Gen. Bee on this incident), " our dear 
old friend Acoquash, where we three lone white 
men were sitting, betraying the most intense feel- 
ing, shaking all over and great tears rolling from 
his eyes, and as best he could, told us that we 
would soon be put to death. He said, he had told 
them his father was once a great chief, the head of 
a nation who were lords of the prairie, but had 
always been the friends of the Comanches, who 
always listened to the counsel of his father, for 
it was always good, and he had begged them to 
listen to him as their fathers had listened to his 
father, when he told them that we (Eldridge, Bee 
and Torrey) were messengers of peace; that we 
had the ' white flag,' and that the vengeance of 
the Great Spirit would be turned against them if 
they killed such messengers ; but he said it was of 
no avail. We had to die and he would die with us 
for he loved us as his own children. Poor old In- 
dian ! My heart yearns to him yet after the lapse 
of so many years." [Gen. Bee to his children.] 

Acoquash then returned to the council. Our 
friends, of course, agonized as brave men may who 
are to die as dogs, bat they soon recovered com- 
posure and resolved on their course. Each had 
two pistols. When the party should come to take 
them out for death, each would kill an Indian with 
one, and then, to escape slow torture, empty the 
other into his own brain. From 12 to 4 o'clock 
not a word was spoken in that council. All sat in 
silence, awaiting the voice of Payhayuco. At 4 
o'clock his voice was heard, but no one reported to 
the doomed men. Then otl*er voices, were heard, 
and occasionally those of the Delawares. A little 



98 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



later confusion seemed to prevail, and many voices 
were heard. Bee said to Eldridge : " See the set- 
ting sun, old fellow ! It is the last we shall ever 
see on earih! " At the same instant approaching 
footsteps were heard. Each of the three sprang to 
his feet, a pistol in each hand, when "dear old " 
Acoquash burst into the tent and threw himself 
into the arms of Eldridge. Bee and Torrey 
thought the old Spartan had come to redeem his 
jpledge and die with them, but in a moment realized 
that his convulsive action was the fruit of uncon- 
trollable joy. The next moment the Delawares 
rushed in exclaiming, "Saved! saved!" "Oh! 
God ! can I ever forget that moment ! To the 
earth, from which we came, we fell as if we had 
been shot, communing with Him who reigns over 
all — a scene that might be portrayed on canvas, 
but not described ! Prostrate on the earth lay the 
white man and the red man, creatures of a common 
brotherhood, typiiied and made evident that day 
in the wilderness ; not a word spoken ; each bowed 
to the earth — brothers in danger and brothers in 
the holy electric spark which caused each in his 
way to thank God for deliverance." [Gen. Bee to 
his children.] 

After this ordeal had been passed, succeeded by 
a measure of almost heavenly repose, the inter- 
preters, now fully reconciled to Eldridge, explained 
that after that solemn silence of four hours, Pay- 
hayuco had eloquently espoused the cause of 
mercy and the sanctitj' of the white flag borne by 
the messengers of peace. His appeal was, perhaps, 
as powerful and pathetic as ever fell from the lips 
of an untutored son of the forest. Upon con- 
clusion, amid much confusion and the hum of 
excited voices, he took the vote per capita and was 
sustained by a small majority. The sun sank at 
the same moment, reflecting rays of joy upon the . 
western horizon, causing among the saved a solemn 
and inexpressibly grateful sense of the majesty and 
benignity of the King of kings — our Father iu 
Heaven. 

As darkness came, the stentorian voice of Pay- 
hayuco was successively heard in the four quarters 
of the town, its tones denoting words of command. 
Our countrymen demanded of the interpreters to 
know what he was saying. The latter answered: 
" He is telling them you are under his protection 
and must not, at the peril of their lives, be hurt." 
A hundred warriors were then placed in a circle 
around the tent, and so remained till next morning. 
No Indian was allowed to enter the circle. 

When morning came they were invited to the 
council, when Capt. Eldridge delivered the meseage 
of friendship from President Houston, and invited 



them to accompany him in and meet the council ab 
Bird's Fort; but this was the 11th of August, a 
day after the date heretofore fixed for the assem- 
blage, and a new date would be selected promptly 
on their arrival, or sooner if runners were sent in 
advance. The presents were then distributed and 
an answer awaited. 

On their arrival the little Comanche boy had been 
given up. He still remembered some of his mother 
tongue and at once relapsed into barbarism. But 
now Capt. Eldridge tendered to the chief, little 
Maria, a beautiful Indian child, neatly dressed, 
who knew no word but English. A scene followed 
which brought tears to the eyes of not only the 
white men, but also of the Delaware*. The 
child seemed horrified, clung desperately and im- 
ploringly to Capt. Eldridge, and screamed most 
piteously ; but the whole scene cannot be described 
here. It was simply heartrending. She was taken 
up bj' a huge warrior and borne away, uttering 
piercing cries of despair. For years afterwards she 
was occssionally heard of, still bearing the name of 
Maria, acting as interpreter at Indian councils. 

Succeeding this last scene they were informed 
that the council had refused to send delegates to 
the proposed council. Payhayuco favored the 
measure, but was overruled by the majority. 
Within an hour after this announcement (August 
11th, 1843) our friends mounted and started on 
their long journey home — fully five hundred miles,, 
through a trackless wilderness. I pass over some 
exciting incidents occurring at the moment of their 
departure between a newly arrived party of Dela- 
ware traders, having no connection with Eldridge, 
and a portion of the Comanches, in regard to" a 
Choctaw negro prisoner bought from the c'omanches 
by the traders. It was dreaded by our friends as a 
new danger, but was settled without bloodshed by 
the payment of a larger ransom to the avaricious 
Comanches. 

Without remarkable incident and in due 
time, our friends arrived again at the principal 
Wichita village (at or near the present Fort Sill), 
and were again kindly received. The day fixed for 
the treaty having passed, Eldridge knew the Presi- 
dent would be disappointed and impatient; so 
after consultation, it was agreed that Torrey, with 
Jim Shaw, John Connor and the other Indian 
attaches, still with them, should return on the route 
they had gone out, gather up the tribes first men- 
tioned in this narrative, and conduct them to Bird's 
Fort; while Eldridge Bee and their most trusted 
Delaware hunter, witli Jim Second Eye as auide 
would proceed directly to the fort. Thus thev 
separated, each party on its mission, and to 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



99 



Eldridge and Bee it was a perilous one. I shall 
follow them. 

On the second day, at 3 p. m., they halted in a 
pretty grove, on a beautiful stream, to cook their 
last food, a little Wichita green corn. This en- 
raged Second Eye, who seized the hunter's gun, 
and galloped away, leaving them with only holster 
pistols. The Delaware hunter was a stranger in 
the country and could only communicate by signs. 
For three days he kept a bee line for Warren's 
trading house on Red river, as safer than going 
directly to Bird's Fort, guided by the information 
he had casually picked up from his brothers on the 
trip, for neither of the white men knew the country. 
On the third day they entered the Cross Timbers 
where brush and briers retarded their progress, 
and camped near night on a pretty creek. The 
Delaware climbed a high tree and soon began joy- 
ful gesticulations. Descending he indicated that 
Eldridge should accompany him, leaving Bee in 
camp. He did so and they were gone two or three 
hours, but finally returned with a good supply of 
fresh corn bread, a grateful repast to men who had 
been without an ounce of food for three days and 
nights. The camp visited proved to be that of a 
party of men cutting hay for Fort Arbuckle, on the 
Washita, who cooked and gave them the bread and 
other provisions, with directions to find the trading 
house and the information that they could reach it 
next day. With full stomachs they slept soundly ; 
started early in the morning and about 2 p. m. 
rode up to Warren's trading house. The first 
man seen was Jim Second Eye, the treacherous 
scoundrel who had left them at the mercy of any 
straggling party of hostile or thieving savages. 
He hastened forward with extended hand, exclaim- 
ing: "How are you, Joe? How are you, Ham? 
Glad to see you ! " 

The always courteous Eldridge, usually gentle 
and never given to profane language, sprang from 
his horse and showered upon him sueh a torrent of 
denunciatory expletives as to exhaust himself ; then, 
recovering, presented himself and Mr. Bee to Mr. 
Warren, with an explanatory apology for his violent 
language, justified, as he thought, towards the base 
wretch to whom it was addressed. Quite a crowd 
of Indians and a few white men were present. Mr. 
Warren received and entertained them most kindly. 
They never more beheld Jim Second Eye. 

After a fest of two days Eldridge and Bee, with 
their faithful Delaware, left for Bird's Fort, and, 
without special incident, arrived there about the 
middle of September, to be welcomed by the com- 
missioners, Messrs. George W. Terrell and E. H. 
Tarrant, who had given them up as lost. Tlie 



President had remained at the fort for a month, 
when, chagrined and greatly disappointed, he had 
left for the seat of government. 

Capt. Eldridge, anxious to report to the Presi- 
dent, tarried not at the fort, but with Bee and the 
still faithful Delaware, continued on. On the way 
Mr. Bee was seized with chills and fever of violent 
type, insomuch that, at Fort Milam, Eldridge left 
him and hurried on. Mr. Bee finally reached the 
hospitable house of his friend, Col. Josiah Crosby, 
seven miles above Washington, and there remained 
till in the winter, before recovering his health. 
Capt. Eldridge, after some delay, met and reported 
to the President, but was not received with the 
cordiality he thought due his services. Jim Shaw and 
John Connor had preceded him and misstated vari- 
ous matters to the prejudice of Eldridge, and to 
the amazement of many who knew his great merit 
and his tried fidelity to President Houston, he was 
dismissed from office. Very soon, however, the old 
hero became convinced of his error ; had Eldridge 
appointed chief clerk of the State Department 
under Anson Jones, and, immediately after annexa- 
tion in 1846, secured his appointment by President 
Polk, as Paymaster in the United States Navy, a 
position he held till his death in his long-time home 
in Brooklyn, New York, in 1881. Excepting only 
the incident referred to — deeply lamented by 
mutual friends — the friendship between him and 
President Houston, from their first acquaintance in 
1837, remained steadfast while both lived. Indeed 
Capt. Eldridge subsequently named a son for him — 
his two sons being Charles and Houston Eldridge. 

A TREATY MADE. 

On the 29th of September, 1843, a few days after 
Eldridge and Bee left, a treaty was concluded by 
Messrs. Tarrant and Terrell, with the following 
tribes, viz. = Tehuacanos, Keechis, Wacos, Caddos, 
Anadareos, Ionics, Boluxies, Delawares, and thirty 
isolated Cherokees. The Wichitas and Towdashes 
were deterred from coming in by the lies of some 
of the Creeks. Estecayucatubba, principal chief 
of the Chickasaws, signed the treaty merely for its 
effect on the wild tribes. Leonard Williams and 
Luis Sanchez, of Nacogdoches, were present and 
aided in collecting the tribes, who failed to assemble 
on the 10th of August, because of the non-return of 
Eldridge and his party. Roasting Ear, S. Lewis 
and McCuUoch, Delaware chiefs, were present at 
the signing and rendered service in favor of the 
treaty. 

The most potent chief in the council, to whom 
the wild tribes looked as a leader, was Kechikoro- 
qua, the head of the Tehuacanos, who at first 



100 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



refused to treat with any one but the President ; 
but finally yielded, after understanding the powers 
of the commissioners. 

A line of demarcation was agreed upon between 
the whites and Indians, along which, at proper in- 
tervals, trading houses were to be established. 
Three points for such houses were selected, which 
indicate the general line chosen, viz. : one at the 
junction of the West and Clear Forks of the Trin- 



ity ; one at the Comanche Peak; and one at the 
old San Saba Mission. 

From undoubted data this narrative has been pre- 
pared, the first ever published of this most thrilling 
succession of events in our Indian history. It 
reflects the highest credit on the three courageous 
young men who assumed and triumphed over its 
hazards, though sadly followed by the death of the 
heroic and much loved Thomas Torrey. 



Scenes on Red River — Murder of Mrs. Hunter, Daughter 

and Servant. 



From the first settlements along and near Red 
river in the counties of Fannin and Grayson, cov- 
ering the years from 1837 to 1843, the few and 
scattered inhabitants were at no time free from the 
sneaking savages, who in small parties, often clan- 
destinely entered the vicinity of one or more of 
the new settlers and lay in wait till opportunity 
should offer for their murderous assaults under cir- 
cumstances promising them greater or less immun- 
ity from danger to themselves. The number of 
such inroads during those years was considerable, 
and relatively many lives were lost, besides quite 
a number of women and children being carried into 
captivity. It must seem incredible to those who 
have ever lived in peace and security in old com- 
munities, that men, in no sense compelled to 
abandon such localities on account of crowded 
population, should, with their wives and children, 
thrust themselves forward entirely beyond the arm 
of governmental protection, or even the aid of their 
own countrymen. To such persons thousands of 
the hazards thus voluntarily assumed must appear 
as the offspring of inexcusable temerity. The idea 
of voluntarily subjecting women and helpless chil- 
dren to the constant hazard of such fiendish horrors, 
i-5 appalling to those who are born, live and die in 
the older States of our country. All this seems 
unreasonable to those around the peaceful firesides 
of home, in the midst of population, comfort, 
schools, churches, law and government. But the 
political philosopher as well as the enlightened stu- 
dent of American history, meets these tender sen- 
sibilities of the human heart with the stubborn and 
all-pervading fact, that had it not been for this 
trait in the Anglo-Saxon character, tKis lofty defi- 



ance of danger and love of adventure, the Ameri- 
can Union to-day would scarcely have passed the 
Ohio in its march towards the West. The truth of 
this opinion, in a large degree, if not in its entirety, 
is attested by the blood of the slain in ten thousand 
places west and southwest of the Alleghanies, and 
by the heroism, the anguish, the tears and the 
prayers of more than ten thousand mothers ascend- 
ing to the throne of God pleading for their children 
" because they were not." It is a truth the 
quintessence of which should ever comfort every 
American freeman as one of the great testimonials 
by Which he enjoys life and liberty, home and hap- 
piness in much the larger portion of this Republic 
of Republics, reaching from the Eastern io the 
Western ocean, entirely across the New World. Of 
all men on earth such a freeman should be a good 
citizen, jealous of his rights, as sacred boons, con- 
ferred that he and his fellows might stand forth as 
true men — the unfaltering friends of good govern- 
ment and of liberty, regulated by wise and just 
laws. 

As samples of the horrors referred to, the sub- 
joined narrative of one of the lesser demonisms 
pertaining to our pioneer settlements is given. 

In the year 1840, Dr. Hunter and family located 
in the valley of Red river, about eight miles east 
or below the trading house or village of Old Warren 
and several miles from any other habitation. The 
family consisted of the parents, a son nearly 
grown, three daughters, aged about eighteen, 
twelve and ten, and a negro woman. They soon 
erected cabins, and the elder daughter married Mr. 
William Laiikford of Warren, and settled at a new 
place. The family were pleased with the surround- 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



101 



ings and labored assiduously in opening up a 
permanent home. Like thousands before them, 
they finally fell into a state of fancied security 
and became careless, till on one occasion, the 
father and son both left home to be absent till 
night. 

Late in the afternoon of the ill-fated day, the 
two little girls went to the spring, about a hundred 
yards from the cabin, for a bucket of water. But 
as they started on their return to the house, a party 
of eleven lurking savages sprang from the brush, 
shot one of the children to death and seized the 
other so suddenly that neither made the slightest 
noise. Scalping the slain child and holding fast to 
the other, they noiselessly approached the cabin, 
unheard and unseen till they sprang into the door 
and thei'e, in the presence of the captive, merci- 
lessly killed and scalped her mother and killed, 
without scalping, the negro woman. As speedily 
as they could they plundered the house of all they 
could carry off and left at dark, of course bearing 
away the child prisoner. 

Before they had passed beyond hearing young 
Hunter reached home and hallooed for some one to 
come out. The Indians increased their pace, a 
stout warrior carrying the child on his shoulders. 
Eeceiving no answer the young man entered the 



house and before he could strike a light, stumbled 
over his dead mother. The light, when struck, 
revealed the dead bodies and the destruction other- 
wise wrought. He lost no time in mounting and 
hastening for help, but the people were too few and 
scattered to make any effective pursuit. Arriving 
at the place next day the dead little girl was found, 
and this led to grave apprehensions as to the fate 
of the other. It had rained all night, rendering it 
impracticable to rapidly follow the trail of the 
retreating marauders. 

Subsequent developments showed that the Indians 
traveled all night in the rain, but during the next 
day slackened their pace and thereafter traveled 
slowly for several days to their villages. At night, 
before the fire, the little captive was compelled to 
work in dressing her mother's scalp. Months 
passed and no tidings came of the missing one ; 
but perhaps a year later the father and son learned 
that a party of Choctaws had bought such a child 
from wild Indians. The son hastened into the 
country of those friendly people and after three or 
four days' travel, found and recovered his sister. 
He hastened her back to the embraces of her 
stricken father and sister, to cherish through life, 
however, an everpresent recollection of the ghastly 
scene she was compelled to witness. 



Captivity of the Simpson Children — The Murder of Emma and 
the Recovery of Thomas — 1844. 



Among the residents of Austin in the days of its 
partial abandonment, from the spring of 1842 to 
the final act of annexation in the winter of 1845-6, 
was an estimable widow named Simpson. During 
that period Austin was but an outpost, without 
troops and ever exposed to inroads from the In- 
dians. Mrs. Simpson had a.daughter named Emma, 
fourteen years of age, and a son named Thomas, 
aged twelve. On a summer afternoon in 1844, her 
two children went out a short distance to drive 
home the cows. Soon their mother heard them 
scream at the ravine, not over 400 yards west 
of the center of the town. In the language of Col. 
John S. Ford, a part of whose narrative I adopt: 
"She required no explanation of the cause; she 
knew at once the Indians bad captured her darlings. 
Sorrowing, and almost heartbroken, she rushed to 



the more thickly settled part of the town to implore 
citizens to turn out, and endeavor to recapture 
her children. A party of men were soon in the 
saddle, and on the trail. 

"They discovered the savages were on foot — 
about four in number — and were moving in the 
timber, parallel to the river, and up it. They found 
on the trail shreds of the girl's dress, yet it was 
difficult to follow the footsteps of the fleeing red 
men. From a hill they descried the Indians just 
before they entered the ravine south of Mount Bon- 
nell. The whites moved at a run, yet they failed 
to overtake the barbarians. A piece of an under- 
garment was certain evidence that the captors had 
passed over Mount Barker. The rocky surface of 
the ground precluded the possibility of fast trail- 
ing, and almost the possibility of trailing at all.. 



102 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Every conceivable effort was made to track the 
Indians, and all proved unavailing. They were 
loth to return to Austin to inform the grief-stricken 
mother her loved ones were indeed the prisoners of 
savages, and would be subject to all the brutal 
cruelties and outrages of a captivity a thousand 
limes more terrible than the pangs of death. The 
scene which ensued, when the dread news reached 
Mrs. Simpson's ears, can not be painted with pen 
or pencil. The wail of agony and despair rent the 
air, and tears of sympathy were rung from fron- 
tiersmen who never quailed when danger came in 
its most fearful form. The pursuing party was 
small. All the names have not been ascertained. 
Judge Joe Lee, Columbus Browning and Thomas 
Wooldridge, were among them." 

Pursuit under the then condition of the almost 
defenseless people of Austin was impossible. No 
further tidings of the lost children were had for a 
year or more. About that time Thomas Simpson 
was ransomed by a trader at Taos, New Mexico. 
He was finally returned to his mother, and then the 
fate of Emma became manifest. TLomas said 
" his sister fought the Indians all the time. They 
carried her by force — dragged her frequently, 
tore her clothing and handled her roughly. 
Thomas was led by two Indians. He offered no 
resistance, knowing he would be killed if he 
did. 

" When the Indians discovered they were fol- 
lowed they doubled, coming back rather in the 
direction of Austin. They made a short halt not 
far from Hon. John Hancock's place. Thomas 
begged his sister not to resist, and told her such a 
course would cause her to be put to death." 

The Indians then divided for a short time, the 



sister in the charge of one and the brother of the 
other couple. When they reunited on Shoal creek, 
about six miles from Austin, Thomas saw " his 
sister's scalp dangling from one's belt. No one 
will ever know the details of the bloody deed. 
Indeed, a knowledge of Indian customs justifies 
the belief that the sacrifice of an innocent life 
involved incidents of a more revolting character 
than mere murder. In the course of time the 
bones of the unfortunate girl were found near the 
place where Mr. George W. Davis erected his 
residence, and to that extent corroborated the 
account of Thomas Simpson. It is no diflScult 
matter to conceive what were the impressions 
produced upon parents then living in Austin by 
this event. It is easy to imagine how vivid the 
conviction must have been that their sons and 
daughters might become the victims of similar mis- 
fortunes, suffering and outrages." 

In the language of Col. Ford: " Let the reader 
extend the idea, and include the whole frontier of 
Texas in the scope, extending, as it did, from Red 
river to the Rio Grande, in a sinuous line upon the 
outer tiers of settlements, and including a large 
extent of the Gulf coast. Let him remember that 
the country was then so sparsely populated it was 
quite all frontier, and open to the incursions of 
the merciless tribes who made war upon women 
and children, and flourished the tomahawk and the 
scaiping-knife in the bedrooms and the boudoirs, 
as well as in the forests and upon the bosoms of 
the prairies. When he shall have done this he can 
form a proximate conception of the privations and 
perils endured by the pioneers who reclaimed Texas 
from the dominion of the Indian and made it the 
abode of civilized men." 



Brief History of Castro's Colony. 



With the declaration of Texian independence, 
March 2d, 1836, all prior colonial grants and con- 
tracts with Mexico or the State of Coahuila and 
Texas ceased. Really and practically they ceased 
on the 13th of November, 1835, by a decree of the 
first revolutionary assembly, known as the consulta- 
tion, which, as a preventive measure against frauds 
and villainy, wisely and honestly closed all land 
otfice business until a permanent government could 
be organized. Hence, as a historical fact, the 



colonial contracts of Stephen F. Austin, Austin & 
Williams, Sterling C. Robertson, Green De Witt, 
Martin DeLeon, Power & Hewetson and McMullen 
& McGloin ceased qn the 13th of November, 1835 
The concessions to David G. Burnet, Joseph 
Vehlein and Lorenzo de Zavala, previously trans- 
ferred to a New York syndicate, known as the New 
York and Galveston Bay Company, of which Avchi- 
bald HotchkHs, of Nacogdoches, was made resi- 
dent agent, and which, in reality, accomplished 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



103 



little or nothing, also ejjpired by the decree of the 
13th of November, 1835. 

The Republic was born March 2, 1836, and for 
the five succeeding years, until February 4th, 1841, 
in the last year of Lamar's administration, there 
was no law authorizing colonial contracts. But on 
the last named day a law was passed authorizing 
the President, under conditions set forth, to enter 
into contracts for the colonization of wild lands in 
Northwest and Southwest Texas. That act was 
amended January 1st, 1843. 

President Lamar entered into a contract for 
what became known as Peters Colony, in North 
Texas, August 30, 1841, which was altered Novem- 
ber 20, 1841, and, by President Houston, on the 
26th of July, 1842, Houston having succeeded 
Lamar as President. Under this law, besides the 
Peters Colony, already granted. President Houston 
made grants to Henry F. Fisher and Burchard 
Miller, for what afterwards became linown as the 
■German Colony, which did much to populate the 
beautiful mountain country drained by the Perdcr- 
nales, Llano and San Saba rivers. 

On the 16th of January, 1842, Henry Castro 
entered into a contract with President Houston for 
settling a colony west of the Medina, to continue 
for five years, the eastern boundary being four 
■miles west of the Medina and cutting him off from 
that beautiful stream ; but he bought from private 
parties the lands on it and thereby made the Medina 
his eastern boundary. At the same time President 
Houston appointed Mr. Castro Texian Consul-Gen- 
eral to France. 

Who was Henry Castro? He was an educated 
and accomplished Frenchman, bearing a Spanish 
name, and was rightfully Henri de Castro. Owing 
to the invasion of Texas in 1842 and other 
obstacles, on the 2oth of December, 1844, after 
he had brought over seven hundred immigrants, 
on seven different ships, cliartered at his own 
cost, his contract was prolonged for three years 
from its original period of termination — a just 
and honorable concession by Texas to one of such 
approved zeal and energy. 

A volume of interest could be written descriptive 
of the efforts of Mr. Castro to settle his colony, 
then exposed to the attacks of bandit and guerrilla 
Mexicans but a little to its west, and to all the 
hostile Indians north and west of his proposed 
settlement. He hurried to France and besides his 
otHcial and personal affairs, did great service in 
aiding Gen. James Hamilton, the Texian minister, 
in popularizing the cause of Texas in France. He 
encountered great obstacles, as the French govern- 
ment was using immense efforts to encourage 



migration to its colony in Algiers; but on the 13th 
of November, 1842, he dispatched the ship, Ebro, 
from Havre with 113 immigrants for Texas. Soon 
afterwards the ships Lyons, from Havre, and the 
Louis Philippe, from Dunkirk, followed with im- 
migrants, accompanied by the Abbe Menitrier. 
These were followed from Antwerp on the 25th of 
October, 1843, by the ship, Jeane Key ; and on 
May 4th by the Jeanette Marie. The seven ships 
named brought over seven hundred colonists. In 
all, in thirty-seven ships, he introduced into Texas 
over five thousand immigrants, farmers, orchard- 
ists and vine-growers, chiefly from the Rhenish 
provinces, an excellent class of industrious, law- 
abiding peeple, whose deeds " do follow them " in 
the beautiful gardens, fields and homes in Medina 
and the contiguous counties on the west. 

On the 3d of September, 1844, after manv 
delays, the heroic Castro, at the head of the first 
party to arrive on the ground, formally inaugurated 
his colony as a living fact. A town was laid out 
on the west bank of the Medina, and by the unani- 
mous vote of the colonists, named Castroville. It 
was a bold step, confronting dangers unknown to 
the first American colonists in 1822, for besides 
hostile savages, now accustomed to the use of fire 
arms, it challenged inroads from the whole Rio 
Grande Mexican frontier, which, in 1822 furnished 
friends and not enemies to foreign settlement in 
Texas. It was doing what both Spanish and Mex- 
ican power had failed to do in 153 years — 1692 to 
1844 — since the first settlement at San Antonio. 
It was founding a permanent settlement of civilized. 
Christian men, between San Antonio and the Rio 
Grande, the settlements and towns on which, from 
Matamoros (Reynosa, Camargo, Mier, Guerrero, 
Larioredo, Dolores, San Fernando, Santa Rosa, 
Presidio del Rio Grande, Presidio del Norte), 
bristled in hostility to Texas and its people. It 
was an achievement entitling the name of Henri de 
Castro to be enrolled among the most prominent 
pioneers of civilization in modern times. Yet the 
youth of to-day, joyously and peacefully gallopinw 
over the beautiful and fertile hills and valleys he 
rescued from savagery, are largely ignorant of his 
great services. 

The gallant Col. John. C. Hays, the big-hearted 
Col. George T. (Tom) Howard, John James, the 
surveyor, and, among others, the pure, warm- 
hearted and fatherly John M. Odin, the first Cath- 
olic Bishop of Texas, besides many generous 
hearted Americans, visited Castroville and bade 
godspeed to the new settlers from La Belle France 
and the Rhine. Bishop Odin (friend of my youth 
and of my mother's house), laid and blessed the 



104 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



corner-stone of the first house dedicated to the 
worship of God — a service rendered before the 
settlers had completed respectable huts to shelter 
their families. On his return from this mission the 
good bishop dined at my mother's house, and, 
though a Baptist, both by inheritance and forty-six 
years of membership, in the broader spirit of civil- 
ization and that spirit which embraces all true and 
pure hearts, regardless of party and creed, she 
congratulated him on the work he had done. But 
in fact every man, woman and child who knew 
Bishop Odin (0-deen) in those years of trials and 
sorrow in Texas, loved him, and sorrowed when he 
returned to and died in his native Lombardy. 

Mr. Castro, soon after inaugurating his colony, 
was compelled to revisit France. He delivered a 
parting farewell to his people. On the 25th of 
November, 1844, to the number of flfty-three heads 
of families, they responded. Their address is 
before me. They say: "We take pleasure in 
acknowledging that since the first of September — 
the date at which we signed the process verbal of 
taking possession — you have treated us like a 
liberal and kind father. * * * Our best wishes 
accompany you on your voyage and we take this 
occasion to express to you our ardent desire to see 
you return soon among us, to continue to us your 
paternal protection." Signed by Leopold Mentrier, 
J. H. Burgeois, George Cupples, Jean Baptiste 
Lecomte, Joseph Weber, Michael Simon and forty- 
seven others. 

The Indians sorely perplexed these exposed peo- 
ple. In the rear of one of their first immigrating 
parlies, the Indians, forty miles below San Antonio, 
attaclied and burnt a wagon. The driver, an 
American, rifle in hand, reached a thicket and 
killed s?veral of them ; but they killed a boy of 



nineteen — a Frenchman — cut off his head and 
nailed it to a tree. In the burnt wagon was a 
trunk containing a considerable amount of gold 
and silver. In the ashes the silver was found 
melted — the gold only blackened. This was one 
of tlie first parties following the advance settlers. 

In this enterprise Henry Castro expended of his 
personal means over one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. He fed his colonists for a year — furnished 
them milch cows, farming implements, seeds, medi- 
cines and whatever they needed. He was a father, 
dispensing blessings hitherto unknown in the col- 
onization of Texas. He was a learned, wise and 
humane man, unappreciated by many, because he 
was modest and in nowise self-asserting, and his 
tastes were literary. He was a devoted friend of 
Presidents Lamar, Houston and Jones, all of whom 
were his friends and did all in their power, each 
during his term, to advance his great and patriotic 
idea of planting permanent civilization in South- 
west Texas. He was a devout believer in the 
capacity of intelligent men for self-government, and 
abhorred despotism as illustrated in the kingly gov- 
ernments of Europe — the rule of nations by suc- 
cession in particular families regardless of sense, 
honor or capacity. He believed with Jefferson, in 
the God-given right of every association of men, 
whether in commonwealth, nations or empires, to 
select their own officers, and, by chosen represent- 
atives, to make their own laws. Hence he was, in 
every sense, a valuable accession to the infant 
Republic of Texas. 

When war raged and our ports were closed, Mr. 
Castro sought to visit the land of his birth, and, to 
that end, reached Monterey in Mexico. There lie 
sickened and died, and there, at the base of the 
Sierra Madre, his remains repose. 



The "Chihuahua-El Paso" Pioneer Expedition in 1848. 



When the Mexican war closed and the last of the 
Texian troops returned home in the spring of 1848, 
the business men of San Antonio and other places 
became deeply interested in opening a road and 
establishing commercial intercourse with El Paso 
and Chihuahua. The U. S. Government also 
desired such a road. Meetings were held and the 
plan of an expedition outlined. A volunteer party 
of about thirty-five business men and citizens was 



formed, among whom were Col. John C. Hays, Mr 
Peacock, Maj. Mike Chevalier, Capt. George T* 
Howard, Maj. John Caperton, SamuelA. Mav^erick' 

Quartermaster Ralston, Dr. a German from 

Fredericksburg, and a young friend of his, Lorenzo, 
a Mexican, who went as a guide and who had been 
many years a prisoner among the Comanches. 

At that time Capt. Samuel Highsmith was in 
command of a company of Texas rangers, stationed 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



105 



opposite the little German settlement of Castell, on 
the Llano river. In response to a request from the 
citizens interested, Capt. Highsmith was directed 
to detail thirty-five of his company and escort 
the expedition. Col. Hays commanded the com- 
bined forces. Capt. Highsmith, instead of making 
an arbitrary detail, called for volunteers. Instantly 
more men stepped forth than were required, but 
the matter was amicably arranged. Among those 
who went were bugler A. K. Barnes, now of Lam- 
pasas, Calvin Bell, Joseph Collins, Jesse Jerkins, 
— Jerkins, John Hughes, — Measbe, Herman 
L. Eaven, still of Travis County, Solomon Ramsey, 
James Sims, Thomas Smith, John Warren and 
John Conner, a noted Delaware Indian who was 
the regular guide of the company. My informant, 
Herman L. Raven, can only recall these names. 

The San Antonio party arrived at Highsmith's 
camp about the 1st of August, 1848. The troops 
were given a pack mule to each mess of four men 
and carried rations for thiity days. The com- 
mand, seventy in all, moved up the valley of the 
Llano to the source of the South or Paint Rock 
fork. They then crossed the divide and reached 
the upper Nueces river. The route then pursued 
passed the Arroyo Las Moras, a tributary of the 
Elo Grande (on which Beales' unfortunate party 
essayed the establishment of an English-American 
colony in 1834, as will be seen in the remarkable 
narrative of Mrs. Horn, one of the victims, else- 
where in this work), and thence to Devil's river, 
near its confluence with the Rio Grande. This 
stream had previously acquired the name of San 
Pedro ; but after occupying three days in getting 
across and away from it, accompanied by several 
accidents, the expedition voted that it should ever 
more bear the name of El Eio del'Diablo, or the 
Devil's river. It required three days to pass from 
this to the Pecos river, the water found on the way 
being reddish and brackish. Thenceforward, no 
man in the expedition knew the country. Having 
crossed the Pecos they found themselves in 
the rough, broken and unknown region 
lying between that stream and the Eio Grande. 
To men whose rations, as at this time, were 
about exhausted, it was a dismal succession of 
barrenness in hill, vale and barranca. Lorenzo, 
the guide, failed to recognize the landmarks and 
became bewildered. In a day or two their supplies 
gave out. There was no game in the country, and, 
as many had been driven to do before, they re- 
sorted to their pack mules, the flesh of which was 
their only food for ten or twelve days. Fortun- 
ately a party of Mescalero Indians discovered them 
and, as Col. Hays, from prudential motives with 



reference to Indians in that region, always had a 
white flag flying, came close enough to invite a talk, 
for which purpose three of their number met three 
of the Texians. After mutual explanations, easily 
understood on both sides through the Spanish lan- 
guage, and a liberal distribution of presents, with 
which the San Antonians were well supplied, they 
gave the party careful directions how to reach and 
cross the Eio Grande, and get to the Eancho San 
Carlos, on the Mexican side. Before reaching the 
river a doctor of the San Antonio party became de- 
ranged and wandered o'ff. Five days after leaving 
the Mescaleros they arrived at San Carlos in a pitia- 
ble condition, where they procured a supply of food. 

After resting one day they continued their march 
about forty miles further up the country, recross- 
ing the Eio Grande to Fort Leaton, on the east 
side and nine miles below Presidio del' Norte, on 
the west side, where they arrived on the forty- 
seventh day from the initial point on the Llano. 
Fort Leaton (pronounced "Laytou") was a sort 
of fortified trading house kept by two or three 
brothers of that name, the senior of whom, Ben- 
jamin Leaton, a Tennesseean and an old Apache 
trader, was personally known to the writer of this. 
The expedition remained there sixteen days recruit- 
ing their animals and providing supplies, during 
which lime the proprietors gave them a barbecue, 
the chief elements being meat, tortillas (Mexican 
corn pancakes), and that most cheiished of all 
beverages among old Texians — coffee ! The 
Bishop of Chihuahua sent them also some supplies. 

For reasons deemed sufificient it was determined 
to prosecute the enterprise no farther. Winter was 
close by. They had left to be absent only sixty 
days. At the expiration of that time they were 
not yet recruited at Leaton's. The troops, having 
started in August, had only summer clothing. The 
result showed the wisdom of their determination 
to return. 

About the first of November the return march 
was begun. The men had thirty days' rationsi of 
meat, beeves to be driven on foot, and more or 
less " Pinola " or parched corn meal. Their route 
was b^' Lost Springs, where they arrived after a 
fast of two and a half days without water. They 
struck the Pecos at the Horsehead crossing, and 
followed that stream down to Live Oak creek, 
where Fort Lancaster was afterwards established. 
It was in this locality that the command separated. 
Twenty-eight of the San Antonio party started in a 
direct route for that city and safely arrived at their 
destination. Col. Hays, with six men, returned by 
way of the Las Moras and also got in safely, but 
both parties suffered much. 



106 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



From Live Oak creek Capt. HighsmitU bore 
across the country towards the sources of the South 
■Concho. On the way, on one occasion, some of 
the men fell in the rear on account of their failing 
horses, and at night camped in a thicket of small 
bushes. While asleep at night a party of Indians 
furiously rode over them, seizing a saddle and some 
-other articles and successfully stampeded their 
horses. On foot they overhauled the company at 
■camp next morning. On the head of South Concho 
they encamped for the night. One of the sentinels 
^ell asleep and at daylight it was found that the 
Indians had quietly taken off thirteen of their 
horses. Thenceforward about half the men traveled 
on foot. 

At the head of Brady's creek, these men, clad 
only in their now tattered and torn summer gar- 
ments, encountered a violent snow storm. Capt. 
Highsmith, with a few men, pushed forward to his 
•quarters on the Llano, to relieve the anxiety of the 
country as to their safety, correctly conjecturing 
that intense anxiety among the people must exist 
on account of their prolonged absence. The other 
men remained shivering in an open camp for five 
days. The sufferings of both parties were terrible. 
Their beef was exhausted and wild game was their 
■only food, but it was abundant in deer, antelope 



and turkey. On the forty-seventh day from Fort 
Leaton the last party reached the camp on the 
Llano. Thus with forty-seven days each on the 
outward and inward trip and eighteen days at 
the Fort, they had been absent 112 instead of 
60 days. The re-united company was marched to 
Austin, and on the 26th day of December, dis- 
charged, their term of service having expired. 
From the sufferings of this trip, in less than a 
month, Capt. Sam Highsmith died. From 1826 to 
1848 he bad justly borne the character of a noble 
pioneer— warm-hearted, generous, brave; yet, 
most tender in nature and ever considerate of 
the rights of others, he never had personal difficult- 
ies. I knew him well, and as he had been a long- 
time friend and comrade of my then long deceased 
father, his friendship was prized as priceless. 

Col. Hays brought in a little son of Mr. Leaton, 
to be sent to school. 

The doctor who became deranged and wandered 
off, fell into the hands of a party of Indians, 
by whom his hunger was appeased and he was 
kindly treated, as is the habit of those wild tribes 
towards insane persons. He gradually recovered 
and, after he had been mourned by his wife as dead 
for over a year, suddenly presented himself to her, 
sound in mind and body. 



The Bloody Days of Bastrop. 



Before and immediately after the Texas revolu- 
tion of 1835-6, Gonzales, on the Guadalupe, and 
Bastrop, on the Colorado, with the upper settlements 
on the Brazos, were more exposed to Indian depre- 
dations than any other distinct localities in Texas. 
These sketches have more fully done justice to Gon- 
zales and the Brazos, than to Bastrop, the home of 
the Burlesons, Coleman, Billingsley, Wallace, 
Thomas H. Mays, Wm. H. Magill, the brothers 
Wiley, Middletonand Thomas B. J. Hill, Washing- 
ton and John D. Anderson, Dr. Thomas J. Gasley, 
L. C. Cunningham, Wm. A. Clopton, Bartlett 
Sims, Cicero Rufus Perry, the Wilbargers, Dr. J. 
W. Robertson, John Caldwell, Hurch Reed, John 
H. Jenkins, Hon. William Pinkney Hill, for a time 
Robert M. Williamson, the eloquent orator and 
patriot, Highsmith, Eblin, Carter Anderson, Dal- 
rymple, Eggleston, Gilleland, Blakey, Page, Pres- 
ton Conley, the Hardemans, the Andrews brothers. 



the Crafts, Taylor, the Bartons, Pace, John W. 
Bunton, Martin Wolner, Geren Brown, Logan Van- 
deveer, George Green, Godwin, Garwood, Halde- 
ma*n, Miller, Holder, Curtis, Bain, Hood, McLean, 
Graves, Allen, Henry Jones, Thomas Nicholson, 
Vaughan, Hugh Childers, Hancock and John 
Walters. 

Aside from many important battles, in which a 
large per cent of those men and others not named, 
participated, as at and around San Antonio in 1835, 
at San Jacinto in 1836 (in which fifty of them fought 
under Col. Burleson in Capt. Jesse Billingsley's 
company, and in which Lemuel Blakey was killed, 
and Capt. Billingsley, Logan Vandeveer, Washing- 
ton Anderson, Calvin Page and Martin Walter were 
wounded), at Plum creek in 1840, in which a hun- 
dred of them and thirteen Toncahua Indians fought 
under Burleson, and other important contests, for 
fifteen years they were exposed to Indian forays and 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



107 



had numberless encounters and also fruitless pur- 
suits after those ever active and cunning enemies. 
■Some of these sanguinary incidents have been de- 
scribed ; but, many have not and some, from the 
death of the participants and failing memories, 
never will be. But enough has been preserved to 
shed a halo of honor on those pioneers, by this 
writer many years ago styled — "The brave men 
of Bastrop." 

In this chapter, availing myself somewhat of the 
recollections of Mr. John H. Jenkins, I will briefly 
summarize some of the incidents not heretofore 
given. 

By a false alarm of Mexican invasion in 1837, 
as in 1836, the people of Bastrop fled from their 
homes, but the alarm passed and they soon returned 
from near the Brazos. 

Near where Austin is, later in 1837, Lieut. 
Wrenn, of Coleman's Company, surprised a body 
of warriors, killed several, had one man shot in 
the mouth and killed, defeated the Indians and 
captured all their horses. 

In the same fall the Indians attacked the home of 
Mr. Gocher (or Gotier) east of Bastrop, killed him, 
his wife and two sons, and carried off Mrs. Craw- 
ford, his widowed daughter, one of his little sons 
and a little son and daughter of Mrs. Crawford. 
This tragedy was discovered by Col. Burleson 
some days later, when too late to pursue the mur- 
derers. Mrs. Crawford and the children, after 
several years of captivity, were bought by Mr. 
Spaulding, a trader, who married the widow and 
brought them all back to live in Bastrop County. 

Not far from this time a party of Indians robbed 
a house below Bastrop. Burleson drove them into 
a cedar brake on Piney creek, above town, and 
sent back for more men. While waiting, the 
Indians slipped out and retreated east toward the 



headwaters of the Yeguas. Reinforced, Burleson 
followed their trail at half speed, overtaking them 
late in the afternoon, and drove them headlong, 
after quite a chase, into a ravine, from which they 
escaped unhurt and soon reached their camp, but 
most of them only to die. They had gorged them- 
selves on fat pork, killed in the woods, and soon 
after arriving among their people nearly all of them 
died, proving that stomachs overcharged with fat 
and fresh hog meat were not prepared for rapid foot 
races, the deceased sons of the forest having been 
on foot. Mrs. Crawford was then a prisoner in 
the camp and verified these facts. 

The next raid was made in daylight. A party of 
Comanehes came in sight of town and drove off 
fifteen horses. They were hastily followed by a 
few citizens, who overhauled them eight miles out. 
A running fight ensued — the Indians abandoned 
their own and the stolen horses and found security 
in thickets.- No one was killed on either side, but 
the citizens returned with their own and the Indian 
horses. Richard Vaughan's horse, however, was 
killed under him. 

Early in 1838 the Indians entered the town at 
night, killed Messrs. Hart and Weaver and es- 
caped. 

Soon afterwards, about three miles east of town, 
Messrs. Robinson and Dollar were making boards. 
Fifteen Indians charged upon them. Each sprang 
upon his horse, near by, but Robinson was killed 
at the same moment, while Dollar was pursued and 
hemmed on a high bank of the river; but, leaving 
his horse, he leaped down the bank about twenty 
feet, swam the Colorado and then hastened to town. 
Soon afterwards he started to leave the country and 
was never again heard of. No doubt was enter- 
tained, however, of his having been killed by 
Indians. 



Raid into Gonzales and De Witt Counties in 1848 — Death of 

Dr. Barnett, Capt. John York and Others — Death 

of Maj. Charles 0. Bryant in 1850. 



For several years prior to 1848 the country 
between the Guadalupe and San Antonio rivers 
escaped annoyance from the Indians, though their 
depredations beyond were frequent. The people 
in the section referred to had ceased to regard 
themselves as exposed to danger, and were there- 



fore unprepared for it. Early in October, 1848, 
they realized, however, that they were open to 
savage fury. A party of Indians descended from 
the mountains along the valley of the Cibolo, and 
thence southeasterly to the " Sandies," a set of 
small streams in the western part of Gonzales 



108 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



County. On the Sandies they came across and 
killed Dr. George W. Barnett, also a recent settler 
in that locality — the same gentleman mentioned 
in my chapter on the events in 1833 and 1835, as a 
Captain in '35, a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, a soldier at San Jacinto and a senator of 
the Eepublic. Another party of Indians, presumed 
to be of the same band, and acting in concert with 
them, crossed from the west to the east side of the 
San Antonio, and formed a junction with the first 
named party, the two bands numbering thirty-five 
or forty warriors, including, it was believed, some 
outlawed Mexicans, the Indians being Lipans, theu 
living in the border Mexican Slate of Coahuila, be- 
yond the Rio Grande. Before their junction, about 
the 5th of October, the second named or lower 
gang had killed a Mr. Lockard (or Lockhart) and 
a young man of Goliad County, son of Mr. Thacker 
Vivian, at the Goliad and San Antonio crossing of 
the Ecleto creek. 

These events alarmed the settlers onthe west side 
of the Guadalupe, the remainder of the district 
mentioned being still a wilderness, and a company 
of thirty-two men and boys from the west side of 
the river in De Witt County, assembled to meet 
and repel the raiders. John York, a brave old 
soldier who commanded a company in the storming 
of San Antonio in 1835, was made Captain ; Eiehard 
H. Cblsholm, another veteran, Lieutenant, with H. 
B. McB. Pridgen and Newton Porter, Sergeants, 
and Joseph Tumlinson, guide. 

On the night of October 10th, these hastily col- 
lected volunteers encamped on the head waters of 
the Cabesa, twenty-five miles above Goliad. On 
the morning of the 11th they traveled some miles 
up the country, and then struck the trail of the 
Indians, which bore southerly towards the mouth 
of the Escondida, a tributary of the San Antonio 
from the southwest side. It became evident the 
enemy had secured a considerablenumber of horses, 
were leaving the country, and the pursuit was 
quickened. Passing the San Antonio, on its west 
bank they found the recently abandoned camp of 
the savages, with a letter and some trifling articles 
proving they were the murderers of Lockard and 
Vivian. The letter found was from George W. 
Smyth, Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
to a citizen of Robertson County, on official busi- 
ness, and sent by Lockard. Young Vivian was 
the son of a neighbor of my parents when I was a 
child in Missouri, and a kinsman of Mrs. Dr. A. 
A. Johnston, of Dallas. Believing that they had 
been discovered, and that the Indians were hastily 



retreating, Capt. York pressed forward rapidly till^ 
on reaching the brushy banks of the Escondida, 
about five miles beyond the abandoned camp, and 
while a portion of the pursuers were a little behind^ 
those in front received a heavy fire from ambush, 
accompanied by yells of dtfiance and imprecations 
in broken English, which threw some of the inex- 
perienced into confusion, causing a recoil, and this 
disconcerted those in the rear, but tiie brave old 
leader ordered the men to dismount in a grove of 
trees, and was obeyed by a portion of his followers, 
who returned and kept up the fire. Lieut. Chis- 
holm (Uncle Dick, who cast the first cannon ball in 
the Texas revolution) tried to rally the halting, 
but the panic was on them and he tried in vain. 
James H. Sykes, a stalwart man of reckless daring, 
dashed up to the dense chaparral in which the 
Indians were sheltered, and was killed. James 
Bell, a son-in-law of Capt. York, and a man of ap- 
proved nerve, was shot down between the contend- 
ing parties, when Capt. York ran to him and while 
stooping to raise him up was shot through the 
kidneys. The brave couple expired in the embrace 
of each other. Joseph Tumlinson and Hugh R. 
Young were severely wounded, and James York, 
son of the dead captain, one of the handsomest 
boys I ever knew, was shot centrally through the 
cheeks from side to side, supposed at the time to 
be fatally, but he rode home and finally recovered, 
though greatly disfigured. The contest was kept 
up about an hour, when both parties retired, ours 
only a little down the creek to get water for the 
wounded. It was believed the Indians lost six or 
seven in killed, but of this there was no certainty. 
Besides those already named among those who 
stood to their colors to the last were William R. 
Taylor (Goliad), Johnson, A. Berry, and others 
whose names cannot be recalled. Some men of 
unquestioned courage were among the victims of 
the panic, and others were inexperienced boys who 
had never been under fire. 

This, so far as is remembered, was the last raid 
in that section of country below the Seguin and 
San Antonio road; but above that line the pioneers 
of the frontier, till some years after the Civil War, 
were the victims of a predatory and brutal war, in 
which the most remorseless cruelties were more or 
less practiced. 

The facts as herein narrated were communicated 
to me by a number of the participants on the 20th 
of October, only nine days after the fight, and have 
been so preserved ever since. I persohally knew 
every one named in connection with the engagement. 




HENRY Mcculloch. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



109 



Death of Maj. Charles G. Bryant. 



The isolated murder of this estimable gentleman, 
by the Indians, occurred about fourteen months 
after the events herein described, but being in the 
same section of the State, the facts are added to 
this chapter, with some other matters of interest 
in relation to him and his family. 

Charles G. Bryant was born in 1803 at Thomas- 
ton, Maine, and was long captain of a company in 
Bangor, being of an ardent military temperament. 
Being also a warm sympathizer with the rebellion 
in Canada in 1837-8, he crossed the border in the 
latter year and joined his fortunes with those in 
arms against the British power. In their final de- 
feat he was captured, tried and sentenced to death. 
By the intervention of friends, at great hazard to 
themselves, on the night before his appointed exe- 
cution, he escaped from prison, and by relays of 
ho'-ses previously provided, rode in a gallop from 
Montreal to Bangor. A large reward was offered 
for him, dead or alive, and to escape extradition he 
chartered a small vessel, on which, with his elder 
son, Andrew Jackson Bryant', leaving the remainder 
of his family behind, he sailed for Galveston, arriv- 
ing there in January, 1839. His son entered the 
Texas navy, as midshipman, won esteem as such, 
and in the naval battle off Campeeehy in the spring 
of 1843, was fearfullj' wounded,, displaying the 
highest order of heroism. He sailed from Galves- 
ton for New York a few months later for medical 
treatment and to bring out his mother and the other 
children, but the vessel went down at sea. No tid- 
ings of it or any of its human freight were ever 
received. In January, 1845, Mrs. Bryant arrived 
in Galveston, accompanied by their sons, Charles 



C. (now an employee on Texas Farm and Ranch), 
Martin, Clinton and Wolfred N. (now of Dallas). 

During the Mexican war, probably in 1846 or 
1847, Maj. Bryant removed his family from Gal- 
veston to Corpus Christi. It had been reinforced 
at Galveston by the birth of a son named Edwin, 
and a daughter, now of Dallas, and known through- 
out the State from her brilliant and patriotic poet- 
ical effusions, as Mrs. Welthea Bryant Leachman, 
a favorite pet of the Texas Veteran Association, to 
whom she is endeared by ties honorable to her 
mind, her genius and her heart. 

Maj. Bryant was a prominent and valued citizen 
of Corpus Christi. He was mustering officer of the 
three companies of Texas rangers, commanded 
respectively by Capts. John S. Ford, John G. 
Grumbles and Charles M. Blackwell. On the 11th 
of January, 1850, he left Corpus Christi on horse- 
back for Austin, on business growing out of this 
official position, crossing the reef at the head of 
Corpus Christi bay. Early on the next day, about 
nine miles from Black Point, and in plain view of 
several persons who had fortunately discovered the 
danger and concealed themselves in some chaparral, 
he was completely surprised, murdered and robbed 
by a party of nine Indians. He had on his person 
several hundred dollars in gold, and a large amount 
in bank bills. In that locality he had no reason to 
apprehend danger, but though surprised, he fought 
with desperation, till overwhelmed by the odds 
against him. The concealed and unarmed specta- 
tors, though being unseen by the Indians, and see- 
ing their approach in time to save themselves, could 
give no warning to him whose life was at hazard. 



The Southwest Coast in 1850 — Henry McCulloch's Fight on 

the San Saba in 1851. 



In 1849 and 1850, while Gen. Brooke, with head- 
quarters at San Aptonio, was in command of the 
United States troops in Texas, there was such a 
Siuccession of Indian raids into the coast country 
between the San Antonio and Nueces rivers, and 
west of the latter stream in rear of Corpus Christi, 



as to create a constant sense of insecurity among 
the scattered population of that section. It will be 
remembered, as shown elsewhere, that on the 11th 
of January, 1850, Maj. Charles G. Bryant, of Cor- 
pus Christi, was killed by one of those raiding 
parties. 



110 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Gen. Brooke, in view of these increasing depre- 
ciations, called into service a company of Texas 
rangers, who were mustered in at Austin, Novem- 
ber 5, 1850. Henry E. McCulIoch, for the fifth 
time since June'8, 1846, was elected Captain, John 
R. King, First Lieutenant, Calvin S. Turner, Second 
Lieutenant, and Wm. C. McKean, was Orderly 
Sergeant. 

The company formed a central camp on the 
Aransas, between the Nueces and San Antonio, 
and kept up an active system of scouts from the 
one river to the other, and successively discovered, 
pursued and broke up two or three raiding parties, 
capturing their horses and outfits, though the sav- 
ages in each case escaped into the almost impene- 
trable chaparrals of that section. Two Indians, 
however, during the stay of the company in that 
locality, slipped inside the lines, captured a small 
boy, son of Hart, at the Mission Refugio, and suc- 
cessfully escaped ; but this in a period of five 
months, was the only success they achieved, being 
wholly defeated in every other attempt, and confi- 
dence was restored. The company, being six 
months' men, were discharged at Fort Merrill, on 
the Nueces, on the 4th of May, 18.51, but reor- 
ganized as a new company for another six months 
on the next day. Capt. Gordon Granger (a 
Federal General in the civil war) was the officer 
who mustered out the old company and remus- 
tered them in the new. 

Of this second company (the sixth and last one 
in the service of the United States commanded by 
the same gentleman) Henry E. McCulloeh was 
unanimouslyelectedCaptain, MilburnHarrell, First, 
and Wm. C. McKean, Second Lieutenant, Oliver H. 
F. Keese, Orderly Sergeant, the other Sergeants 
being Houston Tom, Thomas Drennan and James 
Eastwood ; the corporals w^re John M. Lewis, 
Abner H. Beard, Thomas F. Mitchell and Archi- 
bald Gipson; Wm. J. Boykin and James E. Keese, 
buglers ; John Swearlnger, blacksmith ; Thomas 
Sappington, farrier. There were seventy-four 
privates and a total in rank and file of eighty- 
nine. 

In the mean time Gen. Brooke died in San 
Antonio and Gen. Wm. S. Harney had succeeded 
to the command. He directed Capt. McCulloch to 
take such position in the mountains, covering the 
head waters of the Guadalupe, Perdenales, Llano 
and San Saba, as, by a system of energetic scout- 
ing, would enable him best to protect the settle- 
ments inside, in reality covering most of the 
country between the upper Nueces and the Colo, 
rado. About the 1st of June Capt. McCulloch 
established his headquarters on the north branch of 



the Llano river, about ten miles above the forks,- 
and thenceforward had daily reports from a long 
line of observation. This active service, without 
any important action or discovery, continued until 
early in August, when the scouts reported a con- 
siderable and fresh 'Indian trail to the west of the 
encampment bearing from the lower country in a 
northerly direction. 

Capt. McCulloch, with a detail of twenty-one 
men, started in immediate pursuit. 

Following the trail, rendered very plain by the 
number of stolen horses driven by the Indians, it 
became manifest that the robbers apprehended no 
danger and were traveling leisurely. On reaching 
the south branch of the San Saba, not far from its- 
source, it became certain that the enemy was near 
by, Capt. McCulloch halting the company, with 
Chris. McCoy went forward, soon to discover the 
Indians encamped on a deep branch, evidently feel- 
ing secure, and their horses grazing at some distance 
from them. A plan of attack was at once adopted. 
A charge was so made as to cut the horses oft and 
the Indians took position in the branch, but be- 
trayed more of a desire to escape than to fight. . 
The rangers, inspired by their captain, crowded 
upon them whenever and wherever it could be done 
without reckless exposure to their invisible shots. 
Some of the squaws with bows and arrows, fought as 
men, and two would have been killed in the deadly 
melee but for the discovery of their sex, upon which 
they were overpowered and disarmed, this being 
the highest manifestation of chivalry possible under 
the circumstances, including, of course, the safe 
custody of the captured ladies. Herman L. Raven 
was wounded by one of the squaws. Jeremiah 
Campbell's horse was killed by a rifle ball. The 
Indians were closely pressed as they retreated 
down the branch until they found security in the 
thickets on its borders. 

Seven or eight warriors were left dead on the 
ground. All the horses and other property of the 
Indians were captured. It became evident that the 
raiders had been robbing Mexicans on the Rio 
Grande. On reflection Capt. McCulloch furnished, 
the two squaws horses and outfits, telling them 
to find their people and say to them that If they 
would come into Fort Marlin Scott (two and a half 
miles cast of Fredericksburg, and on the Perde- 
nales), bring in any prisoners they might have and 
pledge themselves to cease depredations on the 
frontier, their horses and effects would be restored 
to tbem. This offer was accepted and carried into 
effect Ketemsi, chieJ of the defeated party, con- 
tended that he had been warring on Mexicans only 
and It was not right for Texians to attack him - a . 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Ill 



position untenable while he passed over and occu- 
pied Texas soil in his hostile movements against 
people with whom we were at peace. But in truth 
he was ready lo rob and slay Texians as well as 
Mexicans. 

The company continued in active service till the 
expiration of their period of enlistment, when on the 



5th of November, 1851, they were mustered out at 
Fort Martin Scott. As previously stated, they 
were mustered in at Fort Merrill by Capt. Gordon 
Granger, afterwards a distinguished Union General 
in the war between the States. They were mustered 
out by James Longstreet, an equally distinguished 
General on the Confederate side in the same war. 



Governor Fitzhugh Lee's Hand-to-Hand Fight with a Stalwart 

Warrior in 1855. 



I am unable to give the date or precise locality 
of the incident about to be narrated ; but it was 
about 18o5, and not far from one of the U. S. mil- 
itary posts then on our western frontier, and the 
facts are derived from Capt. Hayes, the only wit- 
ness of the scene. The hero of the occasion was 
Fitzhugh Lee, then a young Lieutenant of cavalry 
in the United States army, afterwards distinguished 
as a General of cavalry in the Confederate army and 
still later as Governor of Virginia. He is a nephew 
of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and a son of Com. Sidney 
Smith Lee, deceased, of the United States navy. 

Capt. Hayes (then, I think, a lieutenant), and 
Lieut. Lee, on the occasion referred to, were roam- 
ing through a forest when they espied a large and 
robust warrior quite near and mounted on horse- 
back. As soon as he discovered them he gave a 
steatorian war whoop and darted off through the 
timber, pursued by Lee and Hayes. The chase con- 
tinued for a considerable distance, first one and then 
the other party gaining ground, till finally, owing 
to thick brush on the bank of a creek, the Indian 
was forced to abandon his horse and seek conceal- 
ment, in doing which he leaped down the creek 
bank where it was about ten feet high. 

The pursuers dismounted, Lee passing down 
the creek on one side and Hayes on the other. 
In a little while Hayes saw Lee stoop down and 
pick up a fine blanket, dropped by the Indian, and 
called to him to be cautious, as the owner must be 
near at hand. He had scarcely done so when the 
savage sprang from behind a ledge of rocks, not 
over four feet distant, and with a wild yell, seized 
Lee, and a life and death struggle began. The 
Indian was much the stronger of the two and 
very soon had Lee down. The former had a 
lance and a bow and arrow on his back while 



Lee had a pistol and carbine, but, at ihe first 
onset, the lance and carbine, respectively, wer& 
dropped. Lee, being agile, rose to his feet, tightly 
clenched by his antagonist, but was again thrown 
to the ground. His pistol fell and rolled beyond 
the reach of either. Lee rose a third time and was 
again thrown, when they rolled over and over each 
other. Lee, with his left hand, seized the Indian's 
throat and endeavored to suffocate him, but his 
hand was seized by the savage and restrained. 
Lee continued his efforts — they again rolled over 
each other and finally Lee found himself on top and 
renewed his choking operation ; but at the same 
instant discovered that they had rolled within reach 
of his pistol, seizing which, unseen by the Indian, 
he held it near the ground and fired, the ball pass- 
ing through the Indian's cheeks. 

The savage then made a powerful effort to- 
" turn " Lee and get possession of the pistol. In 
the language of Capt. Hayes: " Each man fought 
with superhuman strength, and each knew that it 
was a battle unto death." 

In all this time, and it was but a moment, Capt. 
Hayes had seen the struggle and hastened to reach 
the spot in aid of his friend, for he dare not fire 
unless immediately at them, lest he might kill Lee, 
but he was delayed by brush and the bluff in cross- 
ing the creek. " But," says he, " just as I reached 
Fitz he fired again and the ball went crashing 
through the Indian's heart, killing him. Lee then 
arose and I said to him : That was a close call» 
Fitz. He replied: 'Yes, I thought I was gone.' 
Afterward I asked him how in the world he man- 
aged to turn the heavy Indian ? In his own peculiar 
way Fitz replied : ' I tell you what saved my life, 
Jack. When I was a boy at school in Virginia I 
learned a litt'e trick in wrestling that the boys 



112 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



called the back heel, and the thought struck me, 
when he had me down, that if I tried that Virginia 
back heelon him I would get him. I tried it and I 
got him.' " 

An account of this rencounter speedily spread all 
over the frontier of Texas and gave Fitzhugh Lee 
a hold on the people which is a pleasant remem- 
brance among the surviving pioneers unto this day, 
and has never been weakened by any act of his 
since : but, on the contrary, they have ever followed 
and rejoiced over his brilliant career as soldier, and 
statesman, with a pride akin to kinship. Not long 
after the occurrence, he visited Dallas in charge of 



an escort to a supply train, where the people gave a 
ball and supper in his honor — then sent a commit- 
tee to escort him on his return as far as McKinney. 
where the same honors were paid. 

As Governor of Virginia he worthily occupied a 
seat honored aforetime by his grandfather, Light 
Horse Harry Lee, of glorious memory, but erecting 
another monument to the fact that since Richard 
Lee, first of the name in America, came to the 
colony- of Virginia as secretary to Governor Sir 
William Beverly, in 1641, no Lee has ever left 
a stain upon his name or proved untrue to his 
country. 



Van Dorn's Fight at the Wichita Village, October 1, 1858. 



Some years since Capt. (now ex-Governor) L. S. 
Ross wrote the following brief account of this 
battle, Maj. Van Dorn being of the U. S. Cavalry 
and severely wounded: — 

"In 1858 I returned from school and found 
Maj. Van Dorn was at Belknap organizing an ex- 
pedition against the Comanches, then supposed to 
he somewhere on the head waters of the Arkansas 
and Canadian rivers. I went at once to the Indian 
agency and raised one hundred and thirty-five 
Waco, Tehuacano, Toncahua and Caddo warriors, 
and with them reported to Maj. Van Dorn for 
co-operation in the expedition. He sent me in ad- 
vance to the Wichita mountains, while he followed 
with trains, supplies, and troops, expecting to 
establish a depot there for supplies, etc. When I 
reached the mountains, I sent a Waco and a Tehua- 
cano Indian to the Wichita village, seventy-five 
miles east of the Washita river, hoping to learn 
through them where the Comanches were to be 
found. When the scouts came in sight of the vil- 
lage they found, to their surprise, "Buffalo Hump " 
with his band of Comanches (the very ones we 
were hunting), encamped there, trading and gam- 
bling with the Wichitas. The scouts concealed 
themselves until after dark, and then stole two 



Comanche horses and returned to me to report the 
facts. With difficulty I convinced Maj. Van Dorn 
that the Indians could be relied upon and induced 
him to turn the direction of his columns, and by a 
forced march we reached the village at sunrise 
October 1st, 1858, surprising and almost completely 
destroying that band of the Comanches, capturing 
their horses, tents, supplies and several prisoners, 
among whom I captured the white girl named 
" Lizzie," subsequently raised by my mother, and 
of whose family or parentage no trace has been 
discovered. For their services Maj. Van Dorn 
gave the Indians of my command the spoils cap- 
tured, horses, etc. I received for mj- pay a dan- 
gerous gun-shot wound, still a painful reminder of 
the occasion, together with a petition, signed on 
the battle-field by every D. S. officer present, re- 
questing my appointment by the Government in 
the regular army for distinguished gallantry, and 
after due time came a complimentary order from 
Gen. Winfield Scott, which documents I still have, 
but have never made or attempted to make use of 
them." 

Tills, when but twenty years old, was the 
beginning of Gen. Ross' brilliant career as a 
soldier. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



113 



A Story of Gen. Lee— His Attack Upon a Band of Savages in 
1860, Wliile on the Way to the Rio Grande. 



" Col. A. G. Brackett, who in 1886 and for sev- 
eral years commanded at Fort Davis, Texas, spent 
the better part of a long and arduous military career 
in Indian fighting and the roughest of frontier work 
generally," writes a correspondent of the St. Louis 
Globe-Democrat; and then continues: " For years 
prior to the war, when San Antonio was but a far 
outlying post, when railways were an unknown 
quantity in Texas' taxable values, and the Coman- 
ches and Mexicans practically owned creation. 
Col. Brackett was holding up his end of government 
guard duty, and of necessity became intimate with 
most of the men who for some portion of their lives 
lived on the then far frontier, and afterward be- 
came heroes of national story and song. To a 
group of interested listeners Col. Brackett detailed 
the following hitherto unprinted episode in the life 
of Gen. Robert E. Lee — in 3860 a Colonel in com- 
mand of the department of Texas, and in 1865 the 
Confederacy's grandest soldier. 

" ' Robert E. Lee,' says Col. Brackett, ' was on 
his way from San Antonio to the Rio Grande for the 
purpose of doing what he could toward bringing the 
Cortinas war to a close and settling the disturbances 
connected therewith. He had for his escort my 
company of the Second Cavalry, and was marching 
as rapidly as possible. He had done what he could 
in his office, and now found his only safe plan was 
to go himself to the spot where hostilities were pro- 
gressing. He was a man who always attended to 
everything himself as far as possible. Utterly with- 
out pretension, he held every man to a strict per- 
formance of his duty, and spared nothing in having 
his plans carried out. He was an able department 
commander, and foreshadowed many of those quali- 
ties which made him famous in a more extended 
sphere of action, and proved him one of the great- 
est military leaders this country has produced. He 
was strict in his ways, but at the same time was one 
of the most benevolent and kind-hearted of meij. 

" ' As he approached Seco river a messenger came 
galloping up to him and reported that the Indians 
were just ahead and were robbing the settlements 

8 



on and near that stream. It took but a moment to 
pass the word to me. We dashed off with our 
troops and were soon in the midst of the savages, 
who, unaware of our proximity, were plundering 
without hindrance and to their own great satisfac- 
tion. But when the cavalry dashed in upon them 
there were seen some amazing feats of horseman- 
ship as with wild yells the Indians endeavored to 
get out of the way. They had killed some head of 
cattle, and were about to rob a house occupied by 
women who had huddled together there, when Lee 
appeared on the scene. Again they went in every 
direction, but generally up the river toward the 
mountains, the cattle lowing from fright, and' the 
big bay horses of the troopers bounding after the 
red men over the rocks, stones and bushes in a 
way to gladden the heart of every true horseman. 
For a time the din was great as the troops tore 
through the bushes. It was a race for life, and a 
most exciting one, as all must admit. How many 
were hurt was never accurately known to the whites, 
as an Indian can conceal himself in a place which 
would almost seem impossible. The chase was 
kept up for a couple of miles, but in the broken 
ground all further efforts were useless. The men 
returned to the house, when a recall was sounded, 
their horses being blown and their clothing in 
strings from the brush and briers. The women 
were dreadfully frightened, their husbands and 
brothers being away from home at the time of the 
attack, but as the soldiers returned they came in 
and were profuse in their thanks to Lee for his 
timely arrival and his handsome performance in 
beating off the red rascals. He was as impassive 
as ever, but it was plainly to be seen that he 
thoroughly enjoyed the discomfiture of the Indians, 
as well as the eagerness of his men to get at them.' 
" In lengthy and interesting mention of the great 
commander as one who had broken bread and lived 
in camps with him, Col. Brackett speaks of the 
Confederate General with the respect and tender 
appreciation of a lifetime soldier for a gallant 
foe." 



114 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



A Raid in Burnet County in April, 1861 — Death of James 

Gracey — George Baker and Family's Escape — 

Escape of John H. Stockman, a Boy. 



In 1861 Thomas Dawson, a single man, lived 
about nine miles westerly from Lampasas, and two 
miles east of the road from Burnet to San Saba. 
With him lived a fatherless boy of thirteen, John 
H. Stockman, whose aunt. Miss Greenwood, subse- 
quently became the wife of Dawson. On the 10th 
of April, 1861, James, the thirteen-year-old son of 
John N. Gracey, then and still (in 1887) of 
Lampasas, went to Dawson's in search of horses, 
and remained all night. 

On the morning of the 11th these two boys, on 
foot, went out seeking the horses. When about 
two miles from the house and very near the Burnet 
and San Saba road, while Stockman was trying to 
kill a turkey a short distance from Gracey, and in 
a body of post oaks, he heard a rumbling sound — 
then shouts, and, on looking, discovered fifteen 
Indians in charge of about a hundred stolen and 
frightened horses. Checking up the herd, three of 
the savages seized little Gracey, stripped off his 
clothing, scalped him as he stood upon the ground, 
then beckoned him to run, and as he did so, sent sev- 
eral arrows through his body, causing instant death. 
It was the work of but a moment, during which 
Stockman stood among the trees as if paralyzed, not 
doubting a similar fate ; but just as the wretches 
were about to rush upon him, their attention was 
directed to another party a short distance below on 
the road. It consisted of George Baker, of Austin, 
on horselDEck, his wife and infant, and Mr. Austin, 
his father-in-law, in a buggy. Most of the Indians 
were required to hold their restless herd, but the 
remainder attacked the party. Mr. Baker sought 
to defend his precious charge till they could reach 
some timber and brush perhaps two hundred yards 
away. He had both a gun and pistols. He was 
soon wounded, but killed the most daring of the 
assailants at an instant when Mrs. Baker was for 
a moment at their mercy. But they were so san- 
guine of killing the husband and holding the wife, 
that the whole party succeeded in reaching the 
desired haven and found partial protection. Mr. 
Austin was an old man somewhat palsied in the 
arms and could do nothing. Baker held them at 
bay, firing several shots and wounding a second 
Indian; but he was wounded several times and 
finally became unable to do more. Mrs. Baker 



drew the arrows from his body and staunched the 
wounds as best, she could ; but in the last dread 
alternative stood in his stead, wielding his weapon* 
and holding the brutal creatures at a respectful 
distance. An arrow entered the baby's stomach 
through several folds of a Mexican blanket, but 
not far enough to endanger its life. 

In the meantime two other fortunate events- 
transpired. The boy, Stockman, seized the occa- 
sion to escape. He found partial protection for a 
short distance along a ravine. Having on a very 
white shirt, easily seen at a considerable distance, 
he cast it off. Having to cross a small prairie, he 
crawled perhaps half a mile, lacerating his flesh 
and limbs, and while so engaged, a part of the 
Indians, in preventing a stampede of the horses,, 
rode almost upon, without seeing him, in the high 
grass. Through brush and briers be ran rapidly,, 
by circuitous routes, six or eight miles, to reach 
the house of Thomas Espy, two miles east of Daw- 
son's place. He was severely torn and bruised, 
but not otherwise injured, though frantic over the 
horrors he had witnessed. 

The other incident was that as the occupants 
quit the buggy, the horse ran away, casting off one 
of the four wheels, and, providentially leaving the 
road, he went full speed to Dawson's house, near 
which one or two of the Indians captured, unhar- 
nessed and hurried him back to their fellows. This 
was seen by Mr. Dawson, who mounted his own 
horse and started in a run to give the alarm at 
Lampasas ; but, again providentially, within a mile 
he fell in with a hunting party from Lampasas, 
consisting of Dempsey Pace, John Greenwood 
George Weldy and Newton Knight, who, at half 
speed, followed the trail made by the buggy, and 
soon arrived on the scene, to find the enemy still 
endeavoring to accomplish their object, without 
losing any more of their own number. The savao-ea 
challenged them to combat at some distance on the 
prairie ; but their purpose was to protect and save 
the apparently doomed family. They prepared, as 
best they could, for conveying them to the house 
of Mr. Espy, the nearest family in that region. 
The Indians soon retired with their booty, and the 
rescuers safely conducted their charges in, carrying 
Mr. Baker in a litter. He was gently nursed for 



INDIAN WAES AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



115 



six or eight weelis, and was then enabled to reach 
his home, where he in due time recovered, as proud 
of his heroic wife as he was thankful for their pres- 
ervation through such apparently hopeless dangers. 
A party, accompanied by little Stockman, went 
out during the succeeding night to recover the 
body of little James Gracey, but were unable to 
find it. They camped at the spot indicated by 
Stockman, and when daylight came found it in 
their midst, and then realized the cause of their 
failure in the fact that the nude bodj', lying among 
the white rooks, was not distinguishable in the 



night time. The remains were conveyed to his 
stricken parents and family, and interred in the 
presence of a sympathizing concourse. 

Stockman now lives in San Antonio, but has been 
much about Dallas, and only a few days since 
recounted to mci his version of this bloody episode 
in our border history. It will be of interest to 
many old residents of East and Southwest Texas to 
know that he is a grandson of Elder Garrison 
Greenwood, a sterling old Baptist preacher, who 
settled in Nacogdoches County in 1833, and moved 
west in 1846, finally to die in Lampasas County. 



Raid into Cooke County, in December, 1863. 



On the 22d and 23d days of December, 1863, 

occurred one of the most bloody and destructive 

Indian raids to which our poorly protected frontier 

was subject during and for some years after the 

late war. At this time Col. James Bourland, one 

of the bravest and truest of all our frontiersmen, 

commanded a regiment of Confederate troops with 

his headquarters at Gainesville, but at the time of 

this particular raid he was in Bonhara, on official 

business with Gen. Henry E. McCulloch. Col. 

Bourland had to protect with his regiment such an 

extended reach of frontier that he was compelled 

to scatter his troops in small squads far apart, and 

for this reason it was impossible to concentrate any 

considerable number of his troops at any given 

point in time to repel such an invasion as this. 

At this time Capt. Wm. C. Twitty, a brave and 

true soldier, was in commabd of the few troops of 

Col. Bourland' s regiment, that then happened to 

be at and near Gainesville not exceeding fifty or 

seventy-five in number. 

At the same time Capt. Jno. T. Rowland, a 
brave and experienced Indian fighter, commanded 
a company of Texas State troops. Capt. Rowland 
was in camp at Red River Station, in Montague 
County, and was the first to hear of the raid. The 
Indians crossed Red river into Texas about 2 
o'clock in the afternoon of the 22d of December, 
1863, a few miles below Red River Station, 
and at once commenced their fiendish work 
of murder and burning. They first came upon the 
house of Mr. Anderson. They killed his wife, and 
left her with her feet so near a fire in the yard as 
to roast her feet. At the residence of Wesley 



Willet they killed Mr. Willet and one daughter, 
while his wife and another daughter made their 
escape. They burned and plundered Mr. Willet's 
house, and then came upon the house of Mr. G. L. 
Hatfield. Hatfield and his family made their es- 
cape, but they had fled only a short distance before 
they looked back and saw their home in flames. 
After taking such things as they wanted the Indians 
set flre to the house. Settlements at this time 
along the Red river border were quite spare and 
what was then known as the Wallace settlement, in 
Sadler's bend in Cooke County, was the next set- 
tlement below Hatfleld's and was some twelve or 
fifteen miles distant. The Indians started in the 
direction of this settlement when they left the Hat- 
field place, but they were closely pursued by Capt. 
Rowland with about twe.nty-five men. The Indians 
were between two and three hundred strong. 
Before reaching the Wallace settlement the Indians 
reerossed Red river and this led Capt. Rowland to 
believe that they had abandoned the raid, as it was 
their custom to make these sudden inroads upon 
the settlements and then make their escape under 
cover of night. Capt. Rowland and his men had 
ridden very rapidly — the Indians had so much 
the start of them, that their horses were 
completely wearied out, so he thought it was 
best to turn into Capt. Wallace's and rest 
his men and horses for the night, and renew 
the pursuit early next morning. The news of 
the raid and the massacre of the Willet family 
with the usual exaggerations, had already been 
carried to the Wallace settlement, by some terrified 
settler, and when Capt. Rowland reached Wallace's 



116 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



he found that the whole settlement had forted there 
as a means of protection. The news had also been 
conveyed to what was known as the Elmore settle- 
ment, on the head of Fish creek, about six miles 
east of Wallace's ; also to what was known as the 
Potter settlement, some four miles southeast from 
Elmore's, and a fleet courier had also carried the 
news to Gainesville. During the night of the 22d, 
the few families in that settlement gathered at the 
residence of James Elmore, and the few families 
that composed the settlement around Capt. C. 
Potter's were also gathered in there before daylight 
of the morning of the 23d. Many of these families 
were simply women and children, the husbands and 
fathers being in the Confederate army, and the few 
men in the county were armed with the poorest 
class of firearms, all the best guns having been 
given to those who joined the Confederate army. 

When Capt. Twilty heard the news of the raid, 
which reached him at Gainesville, in the early part 
of the night of the 22d of December, he imme- 
diately dispatched about tweuty-flve men from 
Capt. S. P. C. Patton's Company, to the scene of 
the raid. These men, after a hard ride, reached 
Capt. Wallace's a short time before daylight on 
the morning of the 23d. Capt. Rowland, who was 
not expecting reinforcements, and taking these 
men for the enemy, came near firing upon them 
before the mistake was discovered. But the 
Indians, confident in their superior numbers, deter- 
mined to do more devilment before leaving and early 
next morning, recrossed Red river and went in 
below Capt. Wallace's. At sunrise they were scam- 
pering over the prairies, stealing horses, shooting 
cattle, and burning houses. They soon came to 
the Elmore place and their number was so unpre- 
cedentedly large, that they struck terror to the 
hearts of the men and women crowded in the house, 
and they at once fled to the woods, scattering in 
every direction. Some were killed, others were 
chased for miles — but most of them made their 
escape, though they lay in the woods all that day 
and the following night. Many thrilling incidents 
could be related of this flight. Among others, a 
Mr. Dawson, when the stampede began from 
the house, seized a babe about six months old, 
but not his own. When he reached a spot where 
he thought he could safely hide, the child began to 
cry and would not be comforted. Dawson could 
see the Indians coming in his direction and knew 
that they must soon hear the screams of the child, 
if they had not already done so. So he ran deeper 
into the woods, seeking the most inaccessible 
places. The Indians continued to follow and the 
-child to cry, as poor Dawson thought louder than 



ever. In utter despair of ever making his escape 
with the babe, he laid it down in a deep dry branch 
and covered it with leaves. The little thing went 
to sleep in a moment. Dawson thus made his 
escape and when the Indians left he went back, 
got the babe and carried it to its almost frenzied 
mother. After the people left Elmore's house the 
Indians plundered it, took what they wanted and 
set fire to it. The people forted up at Capt, 
Potter's, soon saw the flames at Elmore's house 
and knew that the Indians were coming on in their 
direction. About a mile and a half south of Capt. 
Potter lived the families of Ephraim Clark and 
Harrison Lander. These families, contrary to 
their usual custom, failed to go to Capt. Potter's, 
as their neighbors had done when they received 
the report of the raid. When the people at Pot- 
ter's saw Elmore's house burning they knew that 
it was too late to get Clark's and Lander's families 
to Potter's. Hence they concluded that it was 
best to go to Clark's or Lander's, as they lived 
very near together. About the time they left 
Potter's house, James McNabb, who had left 
Potter's early that morning to go to his home 
a mile away to look after" his stock, came flying 
back, hotly pursued by a squad of Indians who 
were in advance of the main body. McNabb made 
a narrow escape. Before he dismounted the 
Indians surrounded the house and tried to cut him 
off from his horse, but he made his escape by 
making his horse jump the fence. The people 
forted at Capt, Potter's, as well as his own family, 
made a hasty retreat to Lander's house going by 
Clark's and getting his family. Many of the chil- 
dren were taken from bed and without being 
dressed were hurried into a wagon and driven 
rapidly away. They had not reached Lander's 
house before they saw the flames bursting from 
the roof of Capt. Potter's house. Mr. Lander's 
house was situated on a prairie knoll near a very 
high and precipitous bluff. Here the affrighted 
women and children were gathered in the house, 
while four men and three boys, with poor and 
uncertain guns in their hands, stood in the yard 
and about the outhouses ready to protect as best 
they could all that was dear to them. Soon the 
Indians came in sight and a sight it was. They 
came not in a body but in squads' and strin<.s. 
They had bedecked their horses with the b°ed 
clothing, sheets, quilts, counterpanes, table-cloths, 
ladies wearing apparel, etc. 

The women gathered in the house were fratotic. 
It was supposed that all had been killed at Elmore's 
as the house had been seen to burn. It was known 
that they had as much or more fighting force at 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEEBS OF TEXAS. 



117 



Elmore's than they had at Lander's and when the 
overwhelming force of Indians came in sight strung 
out for a considerable distance, with their yells and 
queer decorations, all hope sank. Some women 
prayed, others screamed and cried, while others 
held their children to their bosoms in mute despair. 
Soon the Indians were around the place and had 
driven off the loose 'horses that had been driven 
along by the fleeing people with the hope of saving 
them. The horses that had been ridden and driven 
were brought inside the yard fence and tied. It 
was some time before all the Indians congregated 
and, as they would come up, they would stop near 
the house, shoot arrows at the men in the yard, 
occasionally fire a gun or pistol, and at times some 
daring fellow would come within gun-shot, but the 
citizens were too experienced in Indian warfare to 
Are until it had to be done to save the dear ones 
in the house. The Indians were so slow about 
making an attack upon the house that it was thought 
that the women and children might be hurried over 
the steep bluff that was just north of the house and 
down this the Indians could not follow them on 
their horses, and if the bluff could be reached 
escape was certain to most of the party. A plan 
was soon arranged ; the Indians were south of the 
house and the main body of them three hundred 
yards away. The bluff was north of the house and 
one hundred and fifty yards away. The men and 
boys with guns were to mount their horses and 
form a line for the protection of the women and 
children, who were to make a break for the bluff. 
-The men were soon on their horses and the women 
and children started, but as they poured out of the 
house and out of the yard, the Indians set up an 
unearthly yell, and all the women and children ran 
back into the house. After some further delay, 
another effort was made to carry out this scheme. 
It might not have been successful, but about the 
time the women and children got out of the yard, 
the soldiers came in sight upon the brow of a high 
hill a mile away to the north, and this gave the 
Indians something else to do. They at once took 
to their heels and ran for two miles to the highest 
point of the divide between Fish creek and Dry 
Elm and then halted. 

The soldiers seen were Capt. Eowland with that 
part of his own company that was with him the day 
before, and that part of Capt. Patton's Company 
that had joined them the night before at Wallace's, 
as already related. They had learned early on the 
morning of that day that the Indians had again 
crossed Red river and were continuing their depre- 
dations. Capt. Eowland immediately ordered a 
pursuit and he found it no trouble now to trail the 



Indians, as he could follow them by the burning 
houses. But they had so much the start and 
traveled so rapidly that long before Capt. Rowland 
came in sight of them the horses of many of his 
men were completely worn out and they could go 
no farther. By the time the soldiers reached 
Lander's, Capt. Rowland's own horse had given 
out, but he was furnished another by Clark. Soirie 
of his men also obtained fresh horses from the citi- 
zens who were only too glad to show favors to those 
who had just saved them and their families from 
death. Some of the citizens joined the soldiers in 
pursuit of the Indians. The Indians were over- 
taken near the high point where they had first 
stopped. Indeed they showed no disposition to get 
away when they ascertained the small number of 
whites. Capt. Rowland led his men through Capt. 
Potter's prairie farm and, in going out on the south 
side, the rail fence was thrown down and left down 
in two or three different places. This fact proved 
most fortunate to the whites, as will hereafter 
appear. After going some three hundred yards 
south of the fence, Capt. Rowland halted his com- 
mand, but it was with great difficulty that he got 
them into a tolerable line. The Indians soon 
seemed to divide into two wings, one starting east 
and the other west around the soldiers, to surround 
them. The troops, without waiting for command, 
commenced firing, but at such long range as to do 
little damage. As the Indians got closer and be- 
gan to fire upon the line, many of the soldiers 
thinking the odds too great, broke line and started 
to run. Capt. Rowland did all in his power to stop 
this and to rally the men, but the panic soon be- 
came general and the whole command fled. The 
object seemed to be to go through the gaps 
left in the fence and turn and fight the Indians 
from behind the fence. The Indians at once 
began a hot pursuit of the flying men, and with 
their guns, and pistols, bows, arrows and spears, 
they did fatal work on the poor men whose tired 
horses could not carry them out of reach of the 
Indians. Before the fence was reached three men 
were killed and several others were wounded. Mr. 
Green, of Capt. Pollard's Company, also another 
man, whose name is not remembered, were killed. 
Mr. Pollard, an officer in Rowland's Company, was 
severely wounded, having four arrows shot into his 
back, which were pulled out by Capt. Rowland 
after the men had reached the inside of the fleld, 
but the spikes from some of the arrows were left in 
his body. S. B. Potter, a son of Capt. Potter, was 
also wounded in the head by an arrow that struck 
the skull and then turned to one side. There was 
quite a rush among the men to get through the gaps 



118 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



in the fence to a place of security beliind it, as the 
Indians were pressing them hard. Men rode at full 
speed against the fence, endeavoring to get through 
the gaps. Capt. Rowland was about the last man 
to pass through the gaps. He had purposely kept 
near the rear, and did what he could to protect the 
hindmost of the men, reserving his fire until a shot 
was absolutely demanded. Just before riding into 
the field he fired his double-barrel shot-gun at an 
Indian not more than thirty yards from him, and 
at the fire the Indian dropped his shield and gave 
other signs of being badly hurt. It was afterwards 
learned that this shot killed him and that he was 
the chief. When the Indians saw the men forming 
behind the fence they precipitately fled. Capt. 
Rowland attempted to encourage his men to again 
attack them, but they were too much demoralized 
to renew the fight against such odds. Capt. Row- 
land, finding that he could not hope to again fight 
the Indians with the force he then had, dispatched 
couriers to different points to give the alarm and 
with a few men he went to the head of Elm in Mon- 
tague County where there were a few families 
without protection. The Indians soon continued 
their raid, going south and east, and soon reached 
the Jones' settlement on Dry Elm. Here they 
came upon and mortally wounded Mr. White and 
dangerously wounded his step-son, young Parker. 
Mr. Jones, their companion, escaped. Parker be- 
longed to Wood's company of Fitzhugh's regiment. 
He had been severely wounded in the battle at Mil- 
lican's Bend, June 7th, 1863, and was home on 
sick furlough. 

The Indians beat a hasty retreat that night and 
crossed Red river with a large number of stolen 
horses before daylight next morning. Small squads 
of Indians would scatter off from the main body 
and commit all sorts of depredations. One of 
their parties came upon Miss Gouna, who was carry- 
ing water from a spring some distance from the 
house. They thrust their spears into her body in 



several places and cut off her hair, but she escaped 
and finally recovered from her wounds. 

Young Parker, above alluded to, saw the Indians 
and heard the shooting in their fight with Capt. 
Rowland, but did not believe it was Indians and 
kept riding towards them, against the protests, too, 
of his companion, Mr. Miles Jones. He did not 
discover that it was Indians until- a squad of them 
dashed upon and mortally wounded him. He died 
in ten days. 

The following additional facts are taken from a 
letter written by me at the time to the Houston 
Telegraph : — 

"At every house burnt, the savages derisively 
left hanging a blanket, marked 'U. S.' During 
the night of the twenty-third, they made a hasty 
retreat, left about fifty Indian saddles, numerous 
blankets and buffalo robes, and considerable of the 
booty they had taken from houses. 

" In the meantime nearly a thousand men had 
reached Gainesville and made pursuit next day as 
soon as the trail could be found ; but a start of 
twenty-four hours by fleeing savages cannot be 
overcome in the short and cold days of winter, when 
they could travel at night and only be followed in 
daylight. The pursuit, though energetic under Maj. 
Diamond and aided by Chickasaws, was fruitless. 

'' As soon as the news reached Col. Bourland, at 
Bonham, that old veteran spared neither himself 
nor horse till he was on the ground doing his duty. 
Capts. Patton, Mosby and many citizens were in 
the pursuit under Diamond. Lieut.-Col. Showal- 
ter, with Capts. Wm. S. Rather (then and now of 
Belton), Wilson and Carpenter, with their compa- 
nies, made a forced march from Bonham, hoping 
for a tilt with the Indians ; but on reaching Red 
river, some twenty miles northwest from Gaines- 
ville, information from the advanced pursuers ren- 
dered the effort hopeless. Being on detailed duty 
at that time in Bonham, I accompanied Col. Sho- 
walter in this severe march." 



The Murder of Mrs. Hamleton and Children in Tarrant County, 

in April, 1867. 



In the fall of 1860 James Myres, wife and six 
children, came from Missouri and settled on Walnut 
creek, in the northwestern edge of Tarrant County. 
His wife, Sally, was a daughter of Nathan AUman, 
who had settled on Walnut creek in 18-50 and on 



whose land a country church was built. Mr 
Myres died in the spring of 1861, and a year or so 
later his widow married William Hamleton, by 
whom she had two children. The tragedy about 
to be related occurred in cotton-picking time in 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



119 



1867. The children at that time were "William 
Myres, aged sixteen, MahalaEmilene, aged fifteen, 
Eliza, thirteen, Sarina, eleven, Samuel, nine, and 
John Myres, aged seven. The two Hamleton chil- 
dren were Mary L., aged about five years, and 
(jrus., aged about eighteen months. 

On the day of the attack Mr. Hamleton had 
gone some distance to mill; the elder son, Will- 
iam, was from home attending cattle. Mahala, 
Eliza, Samuel and John were picking cotton. 
Sarina Myres, Mary and little Gus. were at the 
house and their mother was weaving cloth in a 
hand loom. 

8uch was the situation when a band of Indians, 
said to have been led by the Comanche chief, 
Santag — the same who, while a prisoner with 
Santanta and Big Tree in 1871, was killed by the 
guard — surrounded and entered the house. Mrs. 
Hamleton was at once murdered ; and little Gus., 



Sarina and Mary were seized. The house was 
then plundered of everything portable desired by 
the Indians, and with their little prisoners and 
booty they left. Little Mary, from the effect of 
chills, was very weak, so much so that on leaving 
their camp next morning, they left her and started, 
but she cried so wildly that they went back and 
killed her. The only eye-witness to these double 
horrors was Sarina, who was also in feeble health, 
but had both the strength and fortitude to en- 
dure without murmur the indignities and hardships 
incident to her condition in the hands of such 
brutal creatures. She was held by them about six 
months and by some means recovered at Fort 
Arbuckle, on the False Washita. Her brother, 
William, as soon as advised of the fact, went to 
the fort and escorted her home. 

Mr. Hamleton died about two years after the 
murder of his wife and children. 



A Bloody Raid in Cooke County in 1868. 



To many persons latterly drawn to the pretty and 
prosperous little city of Gainesville, Cooke County, 
it must be difficult to realize how that place was at 
one time exposed to the inroads of murderous 
savages. 

On Sunday, January 5th, 1868, about a hundred 
Indians suddenly appeared upon the head waters 
of Clear creek, in the northwestern part of Cooke 
County. They gathered horses wherever seen, 
aggregating a large number, and killed during their 
stay nine persons, Mr. Long, a young man named 
Leatherwood, Thomas Fitzgerald and wife, Arthur 
Parkhill, an old man named Loney, and Mr. 
Manascos. Previously they had killed Mrs. Car- 
rolton and captured her sixteen-year-old daughter. 
Mr. Manascos living about seventeen miles west of 
Gainesville, on his way home from church discov- 
ered signs of the Indians and immediately hastened 
to the house of Edward Sbegogg, his son-in-law, 
whom he knew to be from home and whose wife and 
infant were alone. Mr. Manascos took his daughter 
and her child and started to his own house, near 
which the savages fell upon and killed him and 
made captive the mother and infant, the latter, 
however, being killed soon afterwards. During the 
succeeding night Mr. Shegogg, having returned 
home and collected a few men, fired upon the sav- 



ages on the overland mail road about fifteen miles 
west of Gainesville. In the confusion produced 
among them by this attack Mrs. Carrolton escaped 
from them and followed that road till she ap- 
proached the premises of Dr. Davidson, but, very 
prudently fearing to go to the house lest she again 
might fall into the hands of her captors, took shel- 
ter in a ravine, covered with brush, and there 
remained till morning came and she discovered 
white persons in possession of the house. She then 
hastened to it, having suffered much from cold 
durilig the night. 

The Indians had divided into two or more parties 
and covered considerable territory. They captured 
horses from St. Clair, Jones, Newton, Gilbert and 
others southwest of Gainesville, and killed some. 
They seem to have become bewildered, as during 
the night they halted on the west bank of Elm 
creek, immediately below the farm of Samuel Doss 
and within a mile of Gainesville and remained there 
about three hours. Yet, while this was transpiring, 
another party, as discovered next day, had halted 
and built a fire a mile above town on the east side 
of the creek, and another party, or scouts from one 
of these two, had entered the town, apparently 
without knowing of its existence, for they hurriedly 
left it, crossed the creek and either by design or 



120 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



accident joined the party near Doss' place, making 
such communication to them as to cause much ex- 
citement and confusion. Mrs. Shegogg, taking ad- 
vantage of this and the darkness of the night, man- 
aged to escape and secrete herself till morning, 
when almost nude and suffering greatly from cold, 
she found refuge in Mr. Doss' house. The Indians 
hastily retired as she escaped. The party that had 
been in town had left so hurriedly that they left sev- 
eral of their horses, with saddles on, one of which 
was found next morning at the door of the hotel 
stable — another with saddle, moccaains and other 
Indian outfit, was in the yard of Mr. Patton, in a 
few hundredjards of the court house — and various 
articles of Indian toilet were found in different 
parts of the town ; yet the inhabitants slept the 
sleep of security, unconscious of the murderous 
wretches being in the country till morning revealed 
these facts, followed by the appearance and recital 
of Mrs. Shegogg, who had not only been robbed of 
most of her apparel, but also of her beautiful suit 
of hair, clipped close to the scalp. 

Near the time of the killing of Mr. Manascos, they 
had captured two children of W. G, Manascos, and 
a negro boy. Prior to that, on Clear creek, they 
had robbed the houses of Joseph Wilson, Mr. Mc- 
Crackin and Washington Williams, burning the two 
former, and at the time of killing Mr. and Mrs. 
Fitzpatrick, captured three of their children. Mrs. 
Parkhill and children, in connection with the murder 
of their husband and father, successfully secreted 
themselves and escaped. In all seventeen women 
and children were carried into brutal captivity in 
the midst of winter and a cold period for that sea- 
son, and being, without doubt, deprived of most of 
their clothing, must have suffered greatly. Of 
their ultimate fate I am not advised. 

The citizens collected and did all in their power 
to overhaul and chastise the enemy and recover the 
captives, but the severity of the weather, the gen- 
eral poverty of the people in munitions of war 
at that dark period of reconstruction, when some 
of the most favored leaders of the people were 
ostracised by the military despotism enthroned at 
Austin and New Orleans, and when a majority of 
the men felt bound to stand by their own families 
during such a raid, abundantly accounts for their 
inability to wreak vengeance on the raiders. It 
was one of those blood-curdling desolations follow- 
ing the war when, with abundance of troops, 
munitions and supplies, the army, to the disgust 
of its honorable officers and men, was diverted 
from its mission of protection to the people against 
wild and bloody savages, to that of espionage and 



constabulary duties for the annoyance, the arrest 
and the imprisonment of men whose only offense, 
as a general fact, had been fidelity to their own 
State and section during the war, and who were 
honored in becoming objects of vengeance to the 
creatures then suddenly risen to the surface as 
petty and (thank God) ephemeral rulers of a peo- 
ple by the respectable and honorable portion of 
whom they were despised ; and by none more than 
by honorable officers of the army and civilians who 
had been consistent Union men from convictions of 
duty. Those classes never ceased'to realize that in 
a mighty issue, involving millions of people on both 
sides, American freemen might differ and die in 
their convictions, without being tainted with treason 
or inBdelitj' to human liberty. They left that soul- 
less manifestation of littleness of heart, weakness of 
intellect and meanness of spirit to such as chose to 
follow the vocation of spy, informer and perse- 
cutor. 

On the 16th of the following June, five months 
after the destructive assault on those frontier peo- 
ple, a once famous resolution was introduced in the 
reconstruction convention at Austin, among thou- 
sands of others, specifically and forever disfranchis- 
ing a large number of the very men exposed to this 
raid, because during the war, and under the laws of 
their country at the time, they had belonged to 
Gen. Wm. Hudson's Brigade of State troops, whose 
chief duty was the protection of the women and 
children on the frontier against these barbarian 
savages, whose mode of warfare " respected neither 
age, sex nor condition." But from that Bedlam 
of hate sprang forth a single fact more preciously 
freighted with faith in the perpetuity of American 
unity and American liberty than a thousand theories 
and prophecies by political philosophers. It is the 
simple fact that the American heart, as soon as time 
for reflection had passed, disdained to tolerate per- 
secution for opinion's sake; that the opposin-^ 
soldiers in the Civil War are long since, friends and 
reconciled countrymen ; breaking bread toaetheron 
holy days ; voting together as seemeth to them best 
now, regardless of the past;, sitting together in the 
same sanctuary; counseling together for the com- 
mon weal as their conditions are now; partners in 
business; their children intermarrying; jointly 
burying their deceased comrades; jointly aiding 
their unfortunate comrades; and jointly upholding 
each other when unjustly assailed. Talk not of 
American liberty failing through faction, when con- 
fronted with this one ever-present, grand and 
heaven-blest fact! Leave that bewai'lin'g whine to 
moral dyspeptics and intellectual dwarfs. 




COMANCHE INDIAN GROUP. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



121 



Indian Massacres in Parker County, 1858 to 1873. 



Tbe first settlements in the present territory of 
Parker County were made about 1853-4. The 
county was created by the legislature, December 
12, 1855, and organized March 2, 1856. It was 
long exposed to forays by bands of hostile savages, 
and while no important battle was ever fought, 
life and property were insecure as late as 1873. 
During the existence of the Indian reservation on 
the Brazos, in Young County, and especially for 
two years prior to the removal of the Indians to 
Fort Cobb, north of Red river, in the summer 
of 1859, it was alleged, and almost universally 
believed by the border people, that many of the rob- 
beries and murders were committed by the tribes 
resident on the ten miles square embracing that 
reservation. That matter will not be discussed 
here. The writer was one of five commissioners 
deputed by the Governor to investigate that matter, 
in 1859, the board consisting of Richard Coke, 
John Henry Brown, George B. Erath, Joseph M. 
Smith and Dr. Josephus M. Steiner. The writer 
also commanded a company of Texas rangers for 
some time before and during the removal of the 
Indians, to prevent their leaving the reservation 
before their removal or committing depredations on 
the march. Hence he was well informed on the 
existing matters in issue, which, for the moment, 
were more or less distorted for political effect. It 
is enough here to say that while many exaggerated 
or false statements were scattered broadcast over 
the country, arousing the people to such a frenzy 
as to cause the killing of probably two small par- 
ties of unoffending Indians, still it was unques- 
tionably true that more or less of the depredations 
committed along the frontier, from Red river to the 
Guadalupe, were perpetrated by the Indians be- 
longing to the one or the other of the two reserva- 
tions — the second, at Camp Cooper, on the clear 
fork of the Brazos, being exclusively occupied by 
a portion of the Comanche tribe — ithiXe on the 
other Brazos reservation were various small tribes, 
embracing the Wacos, Tehuacanos, Keechis, Ana- 
darcoes, Towashes, Toncahuas, lonies, Caddos 
and perhaps one or two. others, with a few indi- 
viduals, or families of Choctaws, Delawares, Shaw- 
nees and others. It is equally true that those 
Indians left the localities named with the most 
vengeful animosities towards such localities on the 
frontier as they believed had been active against 
them, and this feeling especially applied to Parker, 



Wise, Jack, Palo Pinto, Erath, Comanche and 
other outside counties. 

It is proposed in this chapter to briefly narrate 
the successive massacres in Parker County, in so 
far as I have the data, for portions of which I am 
indebted to Mr. H. Smythe's history of that 
county. 

In December, 1859, following the removal of the 
Indians, a party of five assaulted, killed and scalped 
Mr. John Brown, near his residence about twelve 
miles from Weatherford, and drove off eighteen of 
his horses. Two miles away they stole seven 
horses from Mr. Thompson, and next, with their 
number increased to fifty, they appeared at the 
house of Mr. Sherman, whose family consisted of 
himself, wife and four children. They ordered the 
family to leave, promising safety if they did. They 
obeyed the mandate and hurried away on foot, but 
in half a mile the savages overtook them, seized 
Mrs. Sherman, conveyed her back to the house, 
committed nameless outrages on her person, shot 
numerous arrows into her body, scalped and left her 
as dead ; but she survived four days, to detail the 
horrors she had undergone. 

In June, 1860, Josephus Browning was killed 
and Frank Browning wounded on the Clear Fork 
of the Brazos. At that time several citizens of 
Weatherford were in that section and pursued the 
murderers. The party consisted of John R. Bay- 
lor, George W. Baylor (of Weatherford), Elias 
Hale, Minn Wright and John Dawson. On the 
5th day of June, 1860, they overtook the Indians 
on Paint creek and boldly attacked them, killing 
nine and putting the remainder to flight. As attest- 
ations of their achievment they scalped their 
victims and carried the evidence thereof into the 
settlements, along with sundry trophies won on 
the occasion. 

In the spring of 1861 a party of eleven Indians 
attacked David Stinson, Budd Slover, John 
Slover, — Boyd and — McMahon, a scout from 
Capt. M. D. Tackett's Company, a few miles 
north of Jacksboro, but they were speedily re- 
pulsed, with the loss of one Indian killed and one 
wounded. On the next day, William Youngblood, 
a citizen, was killed and scalped, near his home, 
by a party of nine Indians. The five rangers 
named, reinforced by James Gilleland, Angle 
Price, — Parmer and others, pursued and attacked 
the enemy, and killed a warrior and recovered the 



122 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



scalp of Youngblood, which was conveyed to his 
late residence in time to be placed in its natural posi- 
tion before the burial. 

In the summer of 1861, a party of Indians on 
Grindstone creek attacked two young men named 
William Washington and John Killen, while stock 
hunting. They killed Mr. Killen while Washington 
escaped severely wounded, but recovered after 
prolonged suffering. 

In the same summer Mrs. John Brown, living on 
Grindstone creek and having twin babies, started 
to visit a neighbor, s&e carrying one and a' young 
girl the other infant. The girl was some distance 
ahead, when the Indians appeared, and reached the 
neighbor's house. Mrs. Brown retreated to her 
own house and entered it, but was closely followed 
by the murderous wretches, by whom she was 
killed and scalped. The infant, however, was left 
unharmed. 

Prior to these tragedies, in January, 1861, Mrs. 
Woods and her two sisters, the Miss'es Lemley, of 
Parker County, were ruthlessly assailed by five sav- 
ages, who murdered and scalped the former lady, 
and shockingly wounded the young ladies, leaving 
them as dead, but after great suffering, under the 
assiduous treatment of Dr. J. P. Volintine they 
recovered. 

In September, 1861, the house of Jas. Brown, on 
the Jacksboro road, in his temporary absence, was 
attacked by a small party of Indians, but they were 
repulsed and driven off by Mrs. Brown, who under- 
stood the use of five arms and used them most 
effectually. 

In the beginning of 1863, William and Stewart, 
sons of Eev. John Hamilton, living in the valley 
of Patrick's creek, while near their home, were 
murdered, scalped and otherwise mutilated. 

On the same day the house of Mrs. F. C. Brown, 
in the same neighborhood, was attacked and the 
lady killed. Her daughter, Sarah, aged sixteen, 
and another fourteen years of age, on their return 
home from the house of a neighbor, were both 
wounded, but escaped — Sarah to die of her 
wounds — the younger sister to recover. 

A Mr, Berry, while at work in his field on Sanchez 
creek, in September, 1864, was killed by a squad 
of Indians. 

In those same days of insecurity and bloodshed, 
a child was captured and carried into captivity from 
the home of Hugh O. Blackwell, but was subse- 
quently recovered at Fort Cobb, in the Indian 
Territory. But soon after his return home from 
the disbanded Confederate army in 186.5 Mr. Black- 
well himself, while returning home from Jacksboro, 



was killed by a party of these prowling assassins 
and scalped. 

In the same year Henry Maxwell was murdered 
by a similar band on his farm near te Brazos 



river. 



In June, 1865, Fuller Milsap was attacked by 
two savages near his house, seeing which, his 
heroic daughter, Donnie (subsequently Mrs. Jesse 
Hitson), ran to him with a supply of ammunition, 
when her brave father rebuked her temerity, but 
must have felt an exalted pride in such a daughter, 
who had on former occasions exhibited similar 
courage, and was once shot through her clothing. 
Honored be her name in her mountain home, far 
away in Colorado ! The father triumphed over his 
foes, and they fled. 

In July, 1865, in a fight with a small party of 
Indians in Meek's prairie, A. J. Gorman was 
killed, about a month after reaching home from the 
Confederate army. Charles Rivers and his other 
companions repulsed the attacking party. 

In November, 1866, while working in his field 
on Sanchez creek, Bohlen Savage was butchered 
and scalped. His child, eight years old, ran to 
him on seeing the assault, and was carried off, to 
be recovered two years later at Fort Sill. The 
wretches then passed over to Patrick's creek, 
where James Savage, a brother of Bohlen, lived, 
and where they murdered him with equal brutality. 
In August, 1866, William, son of Hiram Wil- 
son, of Spring creek, twelve years of age, and 
Diana Fulton, aged nine years, were captured. 
On the fourth day afterwards, in Palo Pinto 
County, Captain Maxwell's Company attacked the 
same Indians, killed several, routed the band, and 
recovered the two children. 

On Rock creek, in April, 1869, Edward Rippey 
was attacked a short distance from his home. He 
fled towards the house, calling to his wife to bring 
the gun. She ran toward him with the weapon, 
but before meeting her he was killed, when the 
demons slew the devoted wife. In the house was 
their only daughter and a boy named Eli Hancock. 
This heroic lad quickly barred the door, and with 
the arms still in the house, defied and beat off the 
blood-stained vandals. On a prior occasion, Mrs. 
Rippey, rifle in hand, had successfully held at bay 
one of these roving bands. 

On the 4th of July, 1869, while returning from 
a visit to. a neighbor, Mr. and Mrs. Light were 
murdered near their home on Grindstone creek. 
Both were scalped, but Mr. Light survived two 
days. Their children were at home and thus 
escaped a similar fate. 

On the 16th of December, 1870, on Turkey creek, 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



123 



George and Richard Joel repulsed an attack by 
twelve Indians. Two hours later the savages fell 
in with three gentlemen returning to their home on 
the Brazos, from a business trip to Kansas. They 
were Marcus L. Dalton (who had nearly $12,000 
with him), James Eedfield and James McAster. 
They were evidently taken by surprise, speedily 
slain and scalped. The freebooters secured five 
horses and other effects, but failed to find the 
money. They fell in Loving's valley, and their 
mutilated bodies were discovered next day by 
Green Lassiter, destined himself soon to share a 
similar fate. He was horribly butchered in the 
Keechi valley a few months later. 

On the 23d of April, 1871, in sight of his father's 
house, twelve miles west of Weatherford, Linn 
Boyd Cranflll, aged fifteen, and son of Isom Cran- 
fiU, was mortally wounded by a fleeing party of 
savages, in full view of his sister, who gave the 
alarm and caused the assassins to flee without 
scalping him. 

On the 14th of March, 1872, in front of the 
house of Fuller Milsap, on Eock creek, Thomas 
Landrum was murdered by a party of red demons. 
Mr. Milsap and Joseph B. Loving attacked and 
pursued the murderers, killing one. It was on this 
occasion that the heroic girl, Donnie Milsap, fol- 
lowed her father with ammunition and received a 
shot through her clothing. 

On the 14th of July, 1872, two lads from the 
Brazos, enroute to mill in Weatherford, viz., Jack- 



son, aged thirteen, a son of Jesse Hale, and Martin 
Cathey, aged eighteen (the boys being cousins) 
were murdered by another of those bands, so often 
appearing on the frontier. 

In August, 1873, while standing in his yard, in 
the northwest part of Parker County, Geo. W. 
McCIusky was instantly killed by an Indian con- 
cealed behind an oat stack, and armed, as were 
many of these marauders in the years succeeding 
the Civil War, with Winchester or other improved 
rifles. 

These recitals may embrace inaccuracies in dates 
and otherwise, but are believed to be substantially 
correct ; but they by no means embrace all the 
bloody tragedies enacted in the years named. 

Bear in mind that this is only a brief and very 
.incomplete recital of a portion of the fiendish 
murders in Parker County alone for the fourteen 
years from 1859 to 1873. In several other counties, 
as Palo Pinto, Wise, Jack, Comanche Brown and 
San Saba, the catalogue would be, in a general 
average, full as bloody — in some much more so, 
in others possibly less. The same calamities fell 
upon the southwestern frontier from the San Saba 
to the Rio Grande, and also upon the counties of 
Cooke, Montague and Clay on Red river. 

They are sad memorials of the trials, sufferings 
and indomitable courage of those fearless and lion- 
hearted men and women, by whom those portions 
of Texas were won to peace, to civilization and to 
Christianity. 



The Heroism of the Dlllard Boys in 1873. 



On the 7th day of August, 1873, Henry Dillard, 
aged about twenty, and his brother Willie, aged 
thirteen, made one of those heroic fights and 
escapes which approach the marvelous even in the 
hazards of frontier life. They lived on the Brazos ; 
had been to Fort Griflln with a two-horse wagon 
load of produce for sale ; had sold their commodi- 
ties and, iifter sitting up late the previous night, in 
attendance upon a ball at the fort, were quietly 
returning home through an open prairie country. 
Henry was armed with a six-shooter and a Win- 
chester rifle — Willie with a six-shooting revolver 
only. 

When about fifteen miles from the fort, Henry, 
who had fallen into a partial slumber, was aroused 



by loud voices and the tramping of horses. Arous- 
ing, he instantly realized that he had driven into a 
band of thirty mounted Indians. Each brother 
seized his arms and stood on the defensive. The 
foremost Indian, abreast of and very near the 
wagon, fired at Henry, cutting away one of his 
temporal locks and powder-burning his head. 
Henry fired twice, but discovering that his balls 
failed to penetrate the Indian shields, fired a third 
ball lower down, breaking the thigh of an Indian 
and the backbone of his horse. 

Instructing Willie to follow and be with him, 
Henry then sprang from the wagon and determined, 
if possible, to reach a branch about a quarter of a 
mile distant. The Indians at once formed a circle, 



124 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



galloping around and firing upon them. "Walking, 
running, halting by alternation, the boys fired with 
great precision, rarely failing to strike an Indian 
or his horse, or both. Very soon the cylinder of 
Willie's pistol was knocked out by a ball, and 
thenceforward he could only carry cartridges for his 
brother. At one time Henry tripped and fell on 
his face. An Indian dashed up and dismounted to 
scalp him, but while yet on the ground the brave 
boy drove a pistol ball through his heart. At 
another time Willie called out: "Henry! look 
here! " On looking he found the little fellow run- 
ning around a mesquite bush, pursued by an Indian 
clutching at his clothes, but shot him dead, and the 
boys, as before, continued their retreat, the enemy 
charging, yelling and firing. The brothers con- 
tinued firing, loading, dodging, turning, trotting or 
running as opportunity offered, all the while realiz- 
ing that to halt was death, and the only haven of 
hope was in the thickets on the branch. As they 
neared the covert the enemy became more furious, 
but the boys, encouraged by their seeming miracu- 
lous immunity from death or wounds, and thus 
buoyed in the hope of safety, maintained perfect 
self-possession, and finally reached the hoped for 
refuge. But one savage had preceded them, dis- 
mounted, and confronted their entrance. Henry 
tried to fire his Winchester at him, but it was empty. 
The Indian, seeing this, remounted and charged 
upon him, but Henry sent a pistol ball through his 
body. The astounded red men, seeing their prey 
escape from such fearful odds, seemed awe-stricken. 
After a short parley they returned to the wagon, 
took the horses and its contents and retired, bear- 
ing their dead and wounded, and leaving, five 
horses dead on the ground. The day — August 
7th, be it remembered — was very hot, and the 
boys, following such a contest, came near dying 
for water. 

When night came the brothers sought the neare s 



ranch, some miles away. Mounting horses there 
they hurried back to Fort Griffin and reported the 
facts to Gen. Buell, U. S. A., commanding that post. 
That gentleman promptly dispatched a party of 
dragoons in pursuit. The pursuers discovered that 
the Indians, bearing northwesterly, had divided into 
twoparties, the left hand gang carrying off the killed 
and wounded. In two or three days they came 
upon a newly deserted camp in which were three 
beds of grass gorged with blood. Discovering buz- 
zards sailing round a mountain near by, some of 
the party ascended it and found three dead Indians, 
partially buried on its summit. They also found 
in this camp Henry Dillard's memorandum book. 
The gallant boy, let it be understood, was among 
the pursuers. From this locality, which was about 
the head of the Big Wichita, hopeless of over 
taking the Indians, the dragoons returned to the 
fort. 

This is among the extraordinary episodes in our 
frontier history. It seems almost incredible. The 
officer commanding the pursuit, after all his dis- 
coveries, asserted that the brothers had killed and 
wounded eleven .Indians, besides the five horses 
left on the field. 

The gentleman to whom I am chiefly indebted 
for these details, says that Henry Dillard is a Ken- 
tuckian, who came to Texas a boy five or six years 
before this occurrence. He is about five feet nine 
inches high, slender, erect and quick in movement, 
with brown hair, handsome features and clear, 
penetrating gray eyes. He afterwards set- 
tled on the Clear Fork of the Brazos, near 
the scene of this remarkable conflict, and stood as 
a good citizen, enjoying the confidence and esteem 
of the surrounding country — an acknowledged 
hero of modest nature, void of all self-adulation 
and averse to recounting his deeds of daring to 
others. It is ever pleasant to record the merits of 
such men. 



Don Lorenzo De Zavala. 



For one who loves truth and admires purity in the 
character of public men and benefactors to the mul- 
titude in the land of their birth or adoption, the 
career of Don Lorenzo de Zavala possesses peculiar 
interest. Only the oldest and best informed citi- 
zens of Texas have any intelligent knowledge of 
his character and services in the cause of human 



liberty. But every school boy and school girl in 
• our State should be familiar with his history. 

Lorenzo de Zavala was born in Madrid, Spain, 
on the 3d of October, 1789. His father was a man 
of education and refinement and belonged to that 
class of men in Europe who had glimmerings of 
human rights and yearnings to possess them! In 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



125 



other words, he was a Castilian of noble aspirations 
and possessed of love for his fellow-beings. "When 
his child, Lorenzo, was but eighteen months old he 
determined to quit Spain and seek a home where he 
hoped for more liberty. Instead of going to the 
United States and among a different race, where 
. liberty was a birthright, he went to Yucatan, which 
was then not a part of Mexico, as now, but a dis- 
tinct Captain-Generalcy under the Spanish crown. 
He settled, in the infancy of his child, Lorenzo, in 
the beautiful city of Merida, and hence it is that 
the impression became general (including among 
ils believers not only enlightened Mexicans, but 
also his first-born son, Lorenzo de Zavala, Jr.), 
that he was born in that place ; and such was my 
own impression till recently furnished with data 
having the sanction of his own name. The father 
gave Lorenzo every possible advantage to gain an 
education, and kept him from his earliest boyhood 
at a fine school in Merida. The son advanced 
beyond the liberal ideas of the father and began to 
grasp the Jeffersonian idea of the rights of man. 
He acquired a knowledge of the English language 
and eagerly read everything he coulrl reach to 
enlighten his mind. While a student, he bepame 
an intense Jeffersonian Republican. Passing on 
the street one day the Governor, he failed to lift 
his hat as an obeisance, whereupon his Excellency 
struck him with his riding whip. The young Jef- 
fersonian thereupon jerked the Governor from his 
calesa (a sort of buggy) and gave him a pounding. 
For this outrage on dignity (by a compromise) he 
was banished to Europe to complete his education. 
He went, and studied with assiduity. 

Returning in the year 1809, and in his twentieth 
year, on board the good ship which bore him he fell 
in love with a Castilian maiden, the daughter of a 
family on board. This maiden bore the name of 
Toresa Correa. Soon after arriving in Yucatan, 
Lorenzo and Toresa became husband and wife. 
It was a happy union of pure hearts, and three 
children were born to them. 

The young Democrat arrived in Merida sur- 
charged with a sense of political rights, and a 
reformer against the outrageous oppressions borne 
by the people of Spain, and more especially by 
those of Spanish America. He became, by the 
inspiration of his own sense of true manhood, 
a missionary among a down-trodden people. 
Newspapers did not exist. He found a substitute. 
He organized a sort of political institute, to which, 
at its regular weekly meetings, he read his own 
productions, the grand, all-pervading idea of which 
was that, under the providence of God, all men 
were born free and equal and were entitled to a 



fair and equal participation in the blessings of 
government. He rejected in toto the idea that the 
accident of birth should confer upon a particular 
family — regardless of sense, honesty or merit — 
the power to rule over a multitude, a common- 
wealth or a nation of men. On this point, without, 
perhaps knowing it, he was an assimilated disciple 
of Thomas Jefferson. He exerted vast influence 
in Yucatan, and became, for one so young, the idol 
of the people, a fact of which I had abundant 
evidence during my four months tour in Yucatan 
in the winter of 1865-6, for, when it became known 
in Campeachy that an American gentleman of 
Texas, who was a friend of Lorenzo de Zavala was 
a guest of the son of the celebrated John McGregor, 
the house was visited by many, and an old lady of 
benevolent face, when introduced, said to my host: 
" Win the gentleman permit one who loved Lorenzo 
de Zavala to embrace him .? " Without waiting for 
interpretation, as I perfectly understood her, I 
said: "Yes, dear madam, with keenest pleasure ; " 
and the embrace was mutual, a la Mexicana. My 
heart yet warms to the dear old lady. I recall the 
whole scene, too long to be described here, with 
a pleasure which whispers to my heart that truth, 
virtue, manhood, womanhood, patriotism, anfl all 
the attributes pertaining to the highest developed 
humanity, are not the peculiar and exclusive char- 
acterigtics of my own countrymen, but exist, in 
some form or other, wherever the children of men 
are found. " The wind bloweth where it listeth 
but thou canst not tell whence it cometh nor whither 
it goeth; such is the kingdom of God." So it is 
in virtue, in honor, in love, in manhood and in 
womanhood. 

Returning to Merida with an education finished 
in Europe, young Lorenzo was made secretary of 
the city council of Merida (then a city of about 
sixty thousand inhabitants), and he filled that 
office through 1812-13, and until July, 1814, when, 
in 'consequence of his liberal doctrines, he was 
seized and imprisoned in the castle of San Juan de 
UUoa, in front of Vera Cruz. He was held in that 
prison till 1817, covering three years of the Mexi- 
can revolution (1810 to 1821). While in prison 
his library and property were conflscated. Liber- 
ated in the last half of 1817, and going forth bank- 
rupt, he rallied on a previous study in medicine 
and became a physician in Merida from the latter 
part of 1817 to about the close of 1819. 

It must be remembered that during the Mexican 
revolution against Spain (1810 to 1821), Yucatan 
was a separate Captain-Generalcy and took no part ; 
but that as soon as Me?;ican independence was 
secured Yucatan joined the Mexican confedera- 



126 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



tion as a State. This is important to bear in mind 
as a historical fact. 

In 1820 Zavala was elected by Yucatan as a 
deputy to the then ephemeral Cortes of Spain. He 
attended the sessions of that body and proposed 
a measure to establish a legislative body for 
Yucatan and other Spanish-American colonies, for 
their local self-government ; but this caused among 
the monarchists per se, a great cry against him, 
and, to save his liberty, if not his life, he was 
compelled to flee. He escaped into France and 
thence found his way over to London and from 
there sailed for his home. 

In September, 1821, the Mexican revolution, 
under Iturbide's plan of Iguala, triumphed. 
Thereupon Yucatan determined to join her fortunes 
to Mexico, and in February, 1822, elected Don 
Lorenzo as one of her deputies to the first Congress 
of that country. He took his seat in that notable 
assembly and was elected its President. That body 
finally adopted the Eepablican constitution of 1824. 
The first name signed to it is that of Lorenzo de 
Zavala, President, and Deputy from Yucatan. 

Under that constitution, the future Congress 
being divided into a Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, Zavala was senator from Yucatan in 
1825 and 1826. In March, 1827, he was made 
Governor of the State of Mexico, (including the 
capital city), and held that office till 1830, when a 
revolution fomented at Jalapa compelled him, as a 
friend of free constitutional government, to flee to 
the United States. During his exile he made a 
tour of the United States and wrote a most valuable 
volume on his observations, designed to enlighten 
his countrymen as to the practical workings and 
benefits of free government. 

On the triumph of Santa Anna, in 1833, as the 
champion of the Republican constitution of 1824, 
Zavala returned to Mexico. He had been a friend 
of Santa Anna and the Liberal party, and incident- 
ally a zealous friend of the American colonists in 
Texas. Indeed he had bought land on Buffalo 
bayou, in Texas, and resolved to make that his 
home, that he might live among a free and liberty- 
loving people ; but fate delayed the consummation of 
his wishes. His great and lucid mind seems to 
have foreseen the future grandeur of Texas. He 
acquired the right to found a colony in the eastern 
part of the province, but his public duties forbade 
his personal attention, and he transferred the right 
to persons, or a company, who did nothing to carry 
out the project. 

On the triumph of Santa Anna, Zavala was 
appointed Mexican Minister to France. In the 
meantime Mrs. Zavala had died, early in 1831, and 



he had married an accomplished lady in New York, 
whose maiden name was Emily West, who was 
born in New York, September 9, 1811. (This lady, 
subsequently Mrs. Hand, died in Houston, June 15, 
1883, and was buried at the family cemetery, 
Zavala's Point, opposite the battle ground of San 
Jacinto. ) Mrs. Zavala was considered at the court 
of St. Cloud a beautiful and accomplished woman, 
and was greatly esteemed for her social virtues. 

Don Lorenzo repaired at once to his post in Paris 
flushed with high hopes as to the future of his 
country. He had scarcely arrived, however, when 
ominous sounds rolled over the Atlantic — sounds 
soon rendered certainties — admonishing him that 
his old friend and chief, Antonio Lopez de Santa 
Anna, had become a traitor to the cause of liberty 
and was now the champion of despotism — of the 
Church and State party — and in fact was the 
champion of the cast-off despotism of Spain, the 
only difference being in a name. 

When this whole fact, thrice repeated, came to 
be understood by Zavala in Paris, his honest soul 
revolted, and he promptly sent his resignation to 
Mexico. He at once resolved to carry out his idea 
of becoming a citizen of Texas — then a Mexican 
province — where he hoped to rear his children in 
an atmosphere of freedom. He sent his son 
Lorenzo de Zavala, Jr. , who was his Secretary of 
Legation also, to Texas, to begin improvements on 
the lands he had previously bought. He wrote 
Santa Anna a letter worthy of his character, de- 
nouncing the latter's apostasy to the cause of 
liberty, and telling him that whereas, heretofore 
his cause had prospered because it was right, now 
that he had betrayed that cause, he would fall. 
Truer prediction was never uttered, though it re- 
quired nineteen years to bring the grand truth 
home to Santa Anna, and make him a refucree from 
the wrath of his own countrymen, never more to 
be tolerated on the soil of his birth, except when 
old and decrepit, to be allowed the privilege to 
return and die in the capital of the land he had 
outraged. The poor old apostate did so return and 
die, a veritable outcast, in the old Hotel Vergara, 
about 1874. 

Governor Zavala arrived in Texas early in 1835. 
He was received with open arms by all classes, and 
was consulted by all prominent men in regard to 
the condition of the country. When the people 
elected members to the first revolutionary conven- 
tion (consultation), of November 3d, 1835, he was 
a delegate, and aided in forming the provisional 
government, of which that grand and noble patriot, 
Henry Smith, was made chief. 

When the second convention declared Texas to 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



127 



be a free and independent nation, Marcli 2d, 
1836, Zavala was a member and signed the docu- 
ment. 

When the convention of independence formed a 
government ad interim for the Republic, on the 
17th of March, 1836, David G. Burnet was elected 
President and Lorenzo de Zavala, Vice-president. 
Both held oflSce until the formation of the con- 
stitutional government, on the 22d of October, 
1836. 

Zavala's home was at Zavala's Point, on Buffalo 
bayou. In crossing the bayou early in November, 
just after yielding up the vice-presidency, in a 
canoe, and with his son, Augustin, then only three 
years old, the canoe capsized. It was a cold, 
windy day. Securing his child on the bottom of 
the capsized boat, he swam and guided it to the 
opposite shore. In saving his child he became 
chilled; pneumonia followed, and on the 16th of 
November, 1836, the pure and noble soul of 
Lorenzo de Zavala went to God. 

Consider where and when this man was born ; 
where and under what conditions he lived, how he 
demeaned himself, and your judgment must be that 
he was an honor to his race. His memory will be 
hallowed while that of his apostate enemy and per- 
secutor, Santa Anna, will be hissed as something 
detestable between the teeth of freemen. Blessed 
is the memory of one — detested that of the other. 

In such a sketch I am compelled to epitomize 
rather than enlarge on the subject-matter. Yet I 
cannot withhold an expression of the opinion enter- 
tained of the exalted and spotless character of this 
noble man. That this is not a recent opinion is 
shown by the fact that in the legislature of 1857-8, 
while a member from Galveston, I introduced and 
carried through the legislature a bill creating and 
naming the county of Zavala. My visit to Yucatan, 
in 1865-6 — being then " a man of sorrow and 
acquainted with grief" — intensified the original 
pleasure I had enjoyed in accomplishing that tribute 
to his memory. Donna Joaquina Peon, of Merida, 
made famous in Stephens' work on Central America, 
being made sensible of the fact by the gentleman 
who presented me, was profuse in expressions of 
thankfulness, because, as she said, Don Lorenzo 
was one of God's noblemen. 

By his marriage with Toresa Corrca, Governor 



Zavala had three children, viz. : Lorenzo, Jr., who, 
in 1881, lived in Merida. He was on the battle 
field of San Jacinto, and part of the tame acted as 
interpreter between Santa Anna and Gen. Houston. 
He left Texas in 1841 and went to his native city 
of Merida, where he still resided in 1881, though 
he was absent during my visit there in 1865-6. 
There was a daughter named Manuela, and a 
daughter who died in infancy. 

By his second marriage, late in 1831, to Miss 
Emily West, of New "York, he had three children, 
viz. : — 

1. Augustin de Zavala, born in New York, Janu- 
ary 1, 1838, married Julia Tyrrell, and now lives in 
San Antonio, Texas. Their children are Adina, an 
educated and accomplished young lady (as I know 
from correspondence with her), Florence, Mary, 
Zita, Thomas J. , and Augustin P. 

2. Emily de Zavala, born in February, 1834, mar- 
ried Capt. Thomas Jenkins, a lawyer, and died in 
Galveston, April 20, 1858, leaving a child named 
Catherine. 

3. Ricardo de Zavala, born in New York in 1835, 
twice married and both wives dead. He still lives, 
having two sons and two daughters. 

In all my meditations on the men and history of 
Texas — with an Involuntary reverence for the char- 
acters of Milam, Travis, Bonham, Bowie, and numer- 
ous others — I dwell with fascinating delight on 
the character of Lorenzo de Zavala. He must not 
be judged and weighed in the same scale that we 
apply to native born Americans, but by the times, 
country, institutions and surroundings attending his 
birth and growth into manhood. Tried by the test, 
he presents one of the most spotless and exalted 
characters of modern times, and his memory should 
be cherished by the children of Texas as one of the 
purest patriots of this or any other age. 

He was one of the proscribed citizens of Texas, 
and Santa Anna sought both through the civil 
authorities and his military minions sent to overawe 
Texas in 1835, to have him arrested and sent to 
Mexico for trial. The civil authorities spurned the 
infamous request, and the military at San -Antonio 
were impotent to effect it. Through his grand- 
daughter, Adina, I have recently come into posses- 
sion of the only picture of him ever in Texas, a 
painting executed in Havana, about 1831. 



128 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEEBS OF TEXAS. 



David G. Burnet. 



David Gouveneur Burnet, son of a revolutionary 
surgeon, was born at Newark, New Jersey, April 
4th, 1788. 

His family ranked high for intelligence and 
moral worth. His elder brother, .Jacob, was sen- 
ator from Ohio and many years Chief Justice of 
that State. Another brother, Isaac, was long 
Mayor of Cincinnati. David G. received a thor- 
ough education and when in his eighteenth year, 
on the Ist of January, 1806, joined in New York, 
the expedition of Gen. Francisco de Mirando, 
a native of Venezuela, for the liberation of that 
country from Spanish bondage. On that day he 
received from that patriot chi.ef a commission as 
Second Lieutenant of infantry, the original of which 
is in my possession, a gift from him in 1869. The 
sons of many noted families of New York, New 
Jersey and Massachusetts, including a grandson of 
President John Adams, were in the expedition. 
The invading squadron entered the gulf of Venez- 
uela, accompanied by the British frigate Buchante, 
whose launch boat was commanded by Lieut. 
Burnet, under whose orders the first gun was fired 
in behalf of South American liberty. This was in 
an attack on the fort protecting La Villa de Coro, 
on that gulf. The assailants carried the fort, its 
occupants retiring to the interior. At Porto 
Caballo, a number of the invaders were captured — 
ten of whom were slaughtered, some condemned to 
the mines, and others died. The death of Pitt, 
Premier of England and patron of Mirando, caused 
au abandonment of the enterprise and the return 
of the survivors to New York. 

In 1808 Mirando renewed the contest and secured 
a position on the coast. Burnet hastened to him, 
but he was persuaded by the patriot chief to 
return home. Soon afterwards Mirando was cap- 
tured and sent to Spain, where he died in prison. 
Various thrilling incidents are omitted. 

Burnet, a few years later, went to Cincinnati, 
and early in 1817, to Natchitoches, Louisiana. 
Threatened with consumption, in the autumn of 
that year, he went among the wild Comanches and 
lived about two years with them, recovering robust 
health, and having as a companion for a part of the 
tin>e Ben R. Milam, who went among those wild 
people to exchaijgB goods for horses, furs and pel- 
tries. On leaving them Burnet gave the Indians 
all his effects in exchange for a number of Mexican 
women and children held captives by them, all of 



whom he safely returned to their people, refusing 
all offers of compensation. For the seven suc- 
ceeding years, in Texas, Louisiana and Ohio, he 
devoted his time to the study and practice of law. 
Marrying a lady, whose memory is fondly cherished 
wherever she was known, in 1826, he became a 
permanent citizen of Texas, on the San Jacinto 
river, near Galveston Bay, introducing a steam saw 
mill, which proved a failure for want of people to 
buy lumber. 

In 1833 he was a member of the convention 
which drafted and sent to Mexico a proposed con- 
stitution for Texas as a State, and a long and able 
memorial praying for its adoption. Gen. Sam 
Houston was chairman of the committee which 
drew the constitution ; Burnet wrote the memorial, 
and Austin, as commissioner, carried both to 
Mexico. The base imprisonment of Austin and 
utter refusal to adopt the constitution and allow 
Texas to have a separate State government from 
Coahuila were the causes, direct and indirect, of 
the Texas revolution. 

In 1834 a law was passed establishing a Supe- 
rior Court in Texas, with a judge, and three dis- 
tricts with a judge each — Bexar, Brazos and Na- 
cogdoches. Burnet was appointed judge of the 
district of Brazos, that is, all of Central Texas. 
He held terms of court until superseded by the 
revolutionary provisional government in November, 
1835, and was the only person who ever held a 
court of law in Texas prior to that time. 

The convention which declared Texas independ- 
ent and established its government as such, on 
the 18th day of March, 1836 (the last of its 
session), elected David G. Burnet, President; 
Samuel P. Carson, Secretary of State; Thomas J. 
Rusk, Secretary of War; Robert Potter, Secretary 
of the Navy ; Bailey Hardeman, Secretary of the 
Treasury, and David Thomas, Attorney General. 

The presidency of this ad interim term con- 
tinued till the 22d of October, when it was suc- 
ceeded by officers elected by the people under the 
constitution, Gen. Houston becoming President and 
Mirabeau B. Lamar, Vice-president. 

The fame of President Burnet very largely rests 
upon his administration through those eight months 
of peril, gloom, disaster and brilliant success. 
The Alamo had fallen twelve days before. The 
butchery of Fannin and his 345 men occurred nine 
days later. Houston was then retreating before 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



129 



Santa Anna. The sun of San Jaointo rose in 
splendor and went down in blood thirty-four days 
after Burnet's election, but its rays were reflected 
over a land won to freedom. 

Then followed grave problems. First the dis- 
position to be made of Santa Anna; second, the 
maintenance of an army in the field, without 
money, supplies or resources in a country from 
which the inhabitants had recently fled and were 
returning without bread — the condition soon 
aggravated by men poorly fed and idle in camp ; 
third, the creation of a navy against Mexican 
cruisers; fourth, Indian ravages on the frontier; 
and fifth, the regular organization of the Republic, 
by elections under and the ratification of the con- 
stitution. Passions ran high ; demagoguery had 
its votaries, and nothing short of superhuman 
power could have escaped unjust criticism. But 
to men of enlightened minds and just hearts it 
has long been evident that the administration of 
this over-burdened first President was wise and 
eminently patriotic. It will bear the most rigid 
scrutiny and be pronounced a durable monument 
to the head and heart of its chief. 

After remaining in retirement two years he be- 
came Vice-president by a large majority in Decem- 
ber, 1838, and served three years, several months 
of the time as President. He participated in the 
Cherokee battles of 1839, and was wounded. 

With 1841 he retired to private life, but served as 
Secretary of State through 1846 and 1847, with 
Governor J. P. Henderson. 

In 1866 he was elected to the United States 
Senate, but was. denied a seat on account of the 
question of reconstruction. 

The close of the war found him alone in the 
world. His wife and three children lay buried on 
his San Jacinto farm. His last child, the gallant 
Maj. Wm. E. Burnet, had fallen in the battle of 
Spanish Fort, near Mobile, March 31, 1865 — a 
noble young man worthy of his noble parents. 

President Burnet was not only a learned, wise 
and upright man, but a man of sincere and pro- 
found religious convictions, from which, neither in 
youth nor manhood, did he ever depart. 

. 9 



He was tendered and accepted a home in the 
generous and estimable family of Mr. Preston 
Perry, in Galveston, but in 1868 his kindred in 
Newark, tendered him a home among them, on his 
native spot. The affections of childhood returned 
and he concluded to go. This becoming known in 
Galveston, on the 23d of May, 1868, a farewell 
letter was addressed to him signed by ninety-eight 
gentlemen and twenty-seven ladies, embracing some 
of the most eminent names in the State. That 
letter, now before me, is touchingly beautiful and 
as true as beautiful. It is too long for this place ; 
but I want young people to read at least its con- 
cluding paragraph. Here it is : — 

" Texas, whom you have loved and served, sends 
you to-day from her mountain tops to her sea 
l)oard, from both sexes and all ages her affection- 
ate greeting and farewell. It comes alike from the 
few feeble voices that long ago, in the day of 
youth and strength, elevated you to the supreme 
authority in the Republic of Texas ; the heroic 
few that won her independence and accepted her 
destiny as their own ; from the lispings of child- 
hood, who have learned from parental lips the 
value of your services, and beauty of your char- 
acter ; and from strangers, too, who have learned 
to love in you all that is pure, unselfish, and noble 
in man. And that God, in his goodness, may 
bless and preserve you, is the earnest and universal 
prayer of Texas and her people." 

This letter to President Burnet, in its entirety, 
with the names attached, is a proud monument to 
his memory. 

He went to his native place, but did not long 
remain. The changes there had removed the 
scenes of childhood and he moved among strangers. 
The love of Texas — the product of fifty years' 
association in manhood and its trials — came upon 
him, by contrast, with resistless force. He came 
back to die in the land of his love, and then to 
sleep beside his wife and children. Peacefully, on 
the 5th day of December, 1870, he departed from 
life, aged eighty-two years and eight months, in 
the home of Mrs. Preston Perry of Galveston, who 
was to him all that a daughter could be. 



130 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



James Butler Bonham. 



It is honorable to human nature to feel some- 
thing akin to personal interest and, with many, 
kinship, in the character of men whose deeds stamp 
them as of the highest order of honor and heroism. 
Of such is the character we have under considera- 
tion. Most that is known among the multitude, 
even of well-informed Texians, is that Bonham, a 
South Carolinian, fell in the Alamo. The true 
sublimity of his acts and bearing has been locked 
in the hearts of a few, and never till recently, by 
the writer of these chapters, given to the public, 
and then only to contradict a published historical 
misstatement awarding to another the credit due to 
Bonham, and to Bonham only. 

Who was this almost matchless hero, patriot and 
friend — friend to the illustrious Travis, as David 
and Jonathan were friends — a friendship hallowed 
in Masonry and in the hearts of men three thousand 
years after its manifestation in the days of Saul ? 
Very briefly I will answer. 

The Bonham family, in so far as their American 
history goes, are of Maryland origin. They 
branched off more than a hundred years ago fiom 
that State into South Carolina, Kentucky (from 
Kentucky into Missouri and thence to Texas), and 
elsewhere in the newer portions of the Union. 

James Bonham, in the Revolutionary War, was a 
private soldier at fifteen years of age in a Mary- 
land cavalry company, whose captain and oldest 
member was but nineteen. They served at the 
siege of Yorktown. The wife of this James Bon- 
ham was Sophia Smith. They had five sons and 
three daugthers. Jacob, the eldest, died in child- 
hood. The second, Simon Smith Bonham, died a 
lawyer and planter in Alabama, in 1835. 

The third, Malachi Bonham, died in Fairfield, 
Freestone County, Texas, during the Civil War, and 
has children there now. The fourth son was the 
hero of Alamo, James Butler Bonham. The fifth 
and last son was Milledge L. Bonham. This son 
was Adjutant of a South Carolina brigade in the 
Florida war. He was Colonel of the 12th U. S. 
Infantry in the Mexican war. He was Solicitor in 
his district in South Carolina for nine years ; a 
member of Congress from 1857 to the Civil War in 
1861. He was Major-General commanding all the 
troops of South Carolina at the time of her seces- 
sion from the Union, and so remained until April 
19, 1861, when the State troops were merged into 
the Confederate army, and Gen. Bonham, as a fact. 



led the first brigade into that service. In the fall 
of that year, however, he was elected to the Con- 
federate Congress, in which he served one session, 
and in 1862 was elected Governor of South Caro- 
lina,- serving till the close of 1864, when, as Briga- 
dier-General, he re-entered the Confederate army 
and so remained till the close of the war. He died 
at the age of 80 years in 1890, while President of 
the State Board of Railroad Commissioners. 

Returning to Bonham, the martyr, it may be 
stated that his sister, Sarah M. , married John Lips- 
comb, of Abbeville, S. C, while Julia married Dr. 
Samuel Bowie,- and died in Lowndes County, 
Alabama. 

James Butler Bonham, fourth son of Capt. James 
Bonham, was born on Red Bank creek, Edgefield 
County, South Carolina, February 7, 1807. Wm. 
Barrett Travis, slightly his senior, and of one of the 
best families of that country, was born within five 
miles of the same spot. Their childhood and boy- 
hood constituted an unbroken chain of endearment. 
Both were tall, muscular and handsome men. Both 
were noted for manly gentleness in social life and 
fearlessness in danger. Travis came to Texas in 
1830. His career thence to his death is a part of 
our history. We turn to Bonham. He was well 
educated, studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1830. In the fall of 1832, with the rank of 
Lieutenant-Colonel, he was appointed Aide to Gov- 
ernor James Hamilton (afterwards so justly en- 
deared to Texas. ) That was when South Carolina 
was a military camp in the time of nullification. He 
was at Charleston in all the preparations for de- 
fense. The citizens of Charleston, charmed by his 
splendid physique, accomplished manners and gentle 
bearing, made him Captain of their favorite artillery 
company, which he commanded in addition to his 
staff duties. The passage of Henry Clay's com- 
promise averted the danger, and young Bonham 
resumed his practice in Pendleton District ; but in 
1834 removed to Montgomery, Alabama, and at 
once began a career full of brilliant promise. But 
about September, 1835, there was wafted to him 
whisperings, and then audible sounds, of the impend- 
ing revolution in Texas. While the correspondence 
IS lost. It IS certain that earnest and loving letters 
passed between him and Travis. Communication 
was slow and at distant intervals compared with the 
present time; but by November the soul of Bon- 
ham was enlisted in the cause of Texas. He 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



131 



abandoned everything and came — came with such 
indorsements as commanded the confidence of Gov- 
ernor Henry Smith, the leader of the party of in- 
dependence, Gen. Houston, and all the prominent 
men who advocated an absolute separation from 
Mexico. At San Felipe he met and embraced his 
loved Travis. Bexar had fallen. Wild schemes 
not untinged with selfishness, and consequent de- 
moralization, were in the air. Govenor Smith sent 
Col. Travis to take command at San Antonio, after 
Johnson, Grant and their self-organized expedition 
to take Matamoros had depleted San Antonio of its 
military supplies and left it as a defenseless out- 
post. Travis hastened to his post of duty, pre- 
ceded a short time by the friend of his youth, 
Bonham. Travis, grand in intellect, unselfish in 
spirit and noble in heart, organized his force as best 
he could, determined to hold the advancing enemy 
in check until Gen. Houston could collect and 
organize a force sufficient to meet and repel him in 
the open field. He trusted that Fannin, with over 
four hundred thoroughly (equipped men at Goliad, 
would march to his relief. He sent appeals to him 
to that effect, and finally, after Santa Anna's co- 
horts had encircled his position in the Alamo, he 
sent Bonham for a last appeal for aid, with in- 
structions also to his lifetime friend to proceed 
from Goliad to Gonzales in search of aid. This 
missioQ was full of peril from both Mexicans around 
San Antonio and Indians on the entire route of his 
travel. As things were then, none but a man oblivi- 
ous of danger would have undertaken the mission. 
James Butler Bonham, then just twenty -nine years 
of age, assumed its hazards. He presented the 
facts to Fannin, but the latter failed to respond. 
Thence Bonham, through the wilderness, without a 
human habitation between the points, hastened from 
Goliad to Gonzales, just as a few volunteers began 
to collect there. In response to the appeals of 
Travis thirty-two citizens of that colony had left 
a day or two before, under Capt. Albert Martin, 
to succor the 160 defenders of the Alamo. The 
siege had begun on the 23d of February. These 
thirty-two men had fought their way in at daylight 
on the 1st of March. Bonham, supplied with all 
the information he could gather, and satisfied he 
could get no further present recruits, determined 
to return to Travis. He was accompanied by John 
W. Smith. When they reached the heights over- 
looking San Antonio and saw that the doomed 
Alamo was encircled by Santa Anna's troops, Smith 
deemed it suicidal to seek an entrance. That was 
the ninth day of the siege and the doom of the 
garrison was inevitable. Smith, by his own hon- 
orable statement afterwards, to both Gen. Sam 



Houston and ex-Governor Milledge L. Bonham, in 
Houston, in 1838, urged Bonham to retire with 
him ; but he sternly refused, saying : " I will report 
the result of my mission to Travis or die in the 
attempt." Mounted on a beautiful cream-colored 
horse, with a white handkerchief floating from his 
hat (as previously agreed with Travis), he dashed 
through the Mexican lines, amid the showers of 
bullets hurled at him — the gate of the Alamo flew 
open, and as chivalrous a soul as ever fought and 
died for liberty entered — entered to leave no more, 
except in its upward flight to the throne of God. 
The soul communion between those two sons of 
Carolina — in that noonday hour may be imagined. 
Sixty-six hours later they and their doomed com- 
panions, in all 183, slept with their fathers. 

Bonham had neither wife nor child. He was but 
twenty-nine years and fourteen days old when he 
fell. His entrance into the Alamo under a leaden 
shower hurled from an implacable enemy was 
hailed by the besieged heroes with such shouts as 
caused even the enemy to marvel. It was a per- 
sonal heroism unsurpassed in the world's history. 
In its inspiration and fidelity to a holy trust it was 
sublime. 

Such was James Butler Bonham. Shall any man, 
after the immortal Travis, be more prominently 
sculptured on the Alamo monument than he? Let 
all who love truth and justice in history answer. 
The spirit of truth and justice appeals to those who 
would commemorate the deeds of the Alamo, that 
the names to be most signalized should be arranged 
with that of Travis in the foreground, then Bon- 
ham, Bowie, who heroically died sick in bed, Albert 
Martin, leader of the thirty-two from Gonzales, 
after which should follow those of Crockett, Green 
B. Jameson, Dickenson, Geo. W. Cottle, Andrew 
Kent, and the others down to the last one of the 
one hundred and eighty-three. 

South Carolina went into mourning over Travis 
and Bonham, sons in whom she felt a sublime 
pride. I have before me the proceedings of several 
public meetings held in that State when the truth, 
in all its chivalrous glory, spread over her borders. 
Carolina wept for her sons " because they were 
not." She baptized them with tears of sorrow, not 
unmingled with the consolatory resignation of a 
mother who bewails the loss of her sons but rejoices 
that they fell in a cause just and righteous — 
gloriously fell that their country might be free. 
Among many sentiments uttered at these meetings 
in South Carolina, I extract the following: — 

1. "The memory of Cols. Travis and Bonham: 
There is cause for joy and not of mourning. The 
District of Edgefield proudly points to her 'two gal- 



132 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



fant sons who fell in a struggle against a monster 
tyrant, contending for those sacred principles which 
are dear to every American bosom." 

2. "The memory of Cols. Travis and Bonham : 
Martyrs in the cause of Texian liberty. We are 
proud to say that this spot of earth gave them 
birth ; and that here they imbibed those principles 
in the maintenance of which they so gloriously 
fell." 

3. By James Dorn : "James Butler Bonham, 
who perished in the Alamo — a noble son of Caro- 



lina. May her sons ever contend for that soil on 

which he so nobly fought and died." 
Throughout the State similar meetings were held, 

and hundreds of Carolina volunteers hastened 
to Texas, to save the land for which Travis, 
Bonham, Bowie, Martin, Crockett ^nd their com- 
rades died. Bowie, by name, shared in the eulogies 
pronounced, as did also Crockett. Each name is 
dear to Texas; but no name in the splendor of 
manhood and chivalrous bearing can ever eclipse 
that of James Butler Bonham. 



Benjamin R. Milam. 



The career of this chivalrous martyr to Texian 
liberty possesses romantic interest from its incep- 
tion to its close. 

Born in Kentucky about 1790, of good stock and 
reared in that school of republican simplicity and 
unbending integrity so characteristic of a large ele- 
ment of the people of that (then) district in old 
Virginia, he entered upon man's estate, fortified by 
sound principles of right and never departed from 
them. He inherited the love of enterprise and 
adventure, and among such a people, in passing 
from childhood to manhood, this inheritance grew 
into a passion. 

In early manhood he was a daring soldier in the 
" war of 1812," and won both the admiration and 
affection of his comrades. In 1815 he and John 
Samuel, of Frankfort, Kentucky, took a large ship- 
ment of flour to New Orleans, but finding a dull 
market, he and two others chartered a schooner and 
sailed with the flour for Maricaibo. 

On the voyage the yellow fever appeared in its 
most malignant form, carrying off the captain and 
nearly all the crew. A terrific storm disabled the 
vessel. The adventure proved a total loss. The 
survivors were finally conveyed to St. Johns, N. B., 
and thence to New York. Milam ultimately reached 
his Kentucky home. 

We next find him, with a few followers, in 1818, 
on the head waters of the Colorado, trading with 
the wild Comanches. It was there that he first 
met David G. Burnet, afterwards the first Presi- 
dent of Texas, then among those wild men of the 
plains, as has been elsewhere shown, successfully 
striving to overcome the threatened inroads of 
pulmonary consumption. They slept on the same 



blanket among savages, few of whom had ever seen 
an American. The closest ties of friendship speed- 
idly united them in the warmest esteem, never 
to be severed, except in death. It was a beautiful 
affection between two noble men, whose souls, 
dedicated to liberty and virtue, were incapable of 
treachery or dishonor. They separated to meet 
again as citizens of Texas. 

Returning to New Orleans in 1819, Milam sailed 
for Galveston Island and there joined Long's ex- 
pedition for Mexico, in aid of the patriots of that 
country. Milam, however, sailed down the Mexi- 
can coast with General Felix Trespalacios, and a, 
small party, effecting a landing and union with 
native patriot forces, while Long marched upon La 
Bahia (now Goliad), Texas, and took the place, but 
in a few days surrendered himself and fifty-one fol- 
lowers to a Spanish royalist force. They were 
marched as prisoners to Monterey, whence Long^ 
was conveyed to the city of Mexico. When he 
reached there the revolution, by the apostasy of 
Iturbide from the royalist cause, had triumphed 
Long was then hailed as a friend. Trespalacios, 
Ml am Col. Christy and John Austin (the tw; 
latter having sailed with them from Galveston) 
arrived in the capital about the same time. Everyl 
thing, to them, wore a roseate hue and they were 
he recipients of every courtesy. It was soon de- 
termined by the new government to send Tre- 

palacios as Governor of the distant province Of 
iexas. That personage, however, became jealous 
o the influence of Long and basely procured his 
assassination. This enraged Milam! Christy and 
Austin, who had fought for Mexican iberty in sev- 
eral battles. They left the capital in advanc of 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



133 



Trespalacios, rejoined their companions at Mon- 
terey, reporting to them the dastardly murder of 
Long. It was agreed among them to wreak ven- 
geance on the new Governor on his arrival at 
Monterey, 

Before his arrival, however, two of the party there 
revealed the plan. Thereupon they were all seized 
and sent to the city of Mexico and there thrown 
into prison, with every prospect of being put to 
death. At the close of 1822, on the arrival in that 
city of Joel R. Poinsett, of South Carolina, as a 
•commissioner of observation from the United States, 
he secured their liberation and return home. 

After the formation of the constitutional govern- 
ment in Mexico in 1825, Milam returned to that 
country, and was recognized as a valiant soldier. 
He was granted in consideration of his services, a 
large body of land, which, unfortunately, he located 
on that portion of Red river which proved to be in 
Arkansas, and hence a total loss to him. Before 
that discovery, however, he established a farm and 
placed cattle on it. He also purchased a steam- 
boat and was the first person to pass such a vessel 
through and above the raft on Red river. He be- 
came also interested with Gen. Arthur AVavell, 
an Englishman, in a proposed colony farther up 
that stream ; but from various causes the enter- 
prise was not carried forward. Milam was almost 
idolized by the few people scattered on both sides of 
that stream. Of those most dearly attached to him 
were that sturdy old patriot, Collin McKinney, his 
wife and children, some of whom were then grown. 

About 1826 Milam secured in his own right a 
grant to found a colony between the Colorado 
and Guadalupe rivers, bounded on the south by 
the old San Antonio and Nacogdoches road, and 
extending up each river a distance of forty-five 
miles. This territory now includes all of Hays 
and Blanco counties, the east part of Comal, the 
upper part of Caldwell, the northwest quarter of 
Bastrop and the west half of Travis. He appointed 
Maj. James Kerr, the Surveyor-general of De- 
Witt's Colony, as his agent and attorney, in fact to 
manage the affairs of his proposed colony. The 
original power of attorney, drawn and witnessed 
by David G. Burnet, dated in January, 1827, in 
old San Felipe, and signed " Ben R. Milam," is a 
souvenir now in my possession. But before mat- 
ters progressed very far Milam sold his franchise 
to Baring Brothers, London. They totally failed 
to carry out the enterprise. 

For three or four years prior to the opening 
of 1835, Milam remained on Red river. In that 
time the people became greatly alarmed in that 
section in regard to their land matters and the 



true boundary line between Texas (or Mexico) 
and the United States. They appealed to Col. 
Milam to intercede for them with the State govern- 
ment of Coahuila and Texas at Monclova. He 
could not resist. Early in 1835, alone on horse- 
back, he started through the wilderness with a 
little dried beef and parched meal, to travel about 
seven hundred miles, trusting to his rifle for further 
supplies of food. He made the trip, passing only 
through San Antonio from Red River to the Rio 
Grande. He found Governor Augustine Viesca 
anxious to do all in his power in behalf of Milam 
and his constituents ; but revolution was in the 
air. Santa Anna had just given a death blow to 
the constitutional government on the plain of 
Zacatecas, and the flat had gone forth for the 
overthrow of the State government at Monclova. 
Time rapidly passed. Governor Viesca, with 
Milam and Dr. John Cameron, undertook to 
escape into Texas. They were seized and impris- 
oned. One by one they escaped and reached 
Texas, Milam being the flrst to do so. On the 
night of October 9th, 1835, he passed round 
Goliad and fell into the road east of the town. 
Hearing the approach of men on horseback, he 
secreted himself in brush by the road side. As 
the party came opposite him he heard American 
voices and called: — 

"Men! who are you .? " 

" We are volunteers, marching upon Goliad ; who 
are you? " 

"I am Ben Milam, escaping from prison in 
Mexico! " 

"God bless you. Col. Milam! we thought they 
had killed you. All Texas will shout in joy at 
your escape! Mount one of our horses and help 
us take Goliad! " 

"Indeed I will, boys, and already feel repaid for 
all my sufferings ! " 

He soon realized that he was in the presence of 
Capt. George M. Collinsworth and fifty-two volun- 
teers from the lower Colorado, Lavaca and Navidad. 
Noiselessly they approached the unsuspecting 
fortress, a barricaded stone church, and, at the 
pre-arranged signal, burst in. In five minutes they 
were in full possession, with three Mexicans dead 
and all the others prisoners, while Samuel McCul- 
loch, fearfully shot in the shoulder, was the only 
casualty among the assailants ; and on the 21st of 
April, 1886, fifty-one and a half years later, he 
was a guest of Col. W. W. Leake, at the serai- 
centennial reunion of the Texas veterans in Dallas. 
A few days later Col. Milam, as a private, joined 
the volunteers in their march upon San Antonio, 
then occupied by the Mexican General, Cos, with 



134 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



about eleven hundred men, afterwards increased to 
fifteen hundred. From the 27th of October, to the 
4th of December, varying in number from six hun- 
dred to eleven hundred men, first under Austin and 
then under Burleson, the volunteers had laid in a 
mile or so of San Antonio, without any attack upon 
the town. A brilliant victory was won by Bowie 
and Fannin, at the Mission of Concepcion at day- 
light on the 28th of October, before Austin's 
arrival with the main body ; and on the 26 th of 
November, the day after Austin left, the Grass fight 
occurred, in which a detachment of the enemy 
were driven into the town with some loss ; but noth- 
ing decisive had occurred. First under Austin and 
next under Burleson propositions for storming the 
place had failed. Dissatisfaction arose and men 
came and went as they pleased. On the 4th of 
December, the force had fallen from eleven hun- 
dred to five or six hundred. On that day the last 
proposition had failed and great discontent pre- 
vailed. Milam became aroused and alarmed lest 
the entire encampment should disband and go 
home. He moved to and fro as a caged lion, till 
late in the day he stepped out in plain view of all 
and in a stentorian voice called out: — 

" Who will follow Ben Milam into San Antonio? 
Let all who will, form a line right here." 

In the twinkling of an eye three hundred men 
were in line. The plan was soon formed. During 
the night the entrance was made in two divisions, 
one led by Milam, the other by Francis W. John- 
son. Under a heavy fire they effected lodgments 
in rows of stone houses and then for five days tun- 
nelled from room to room. On the 8th, while 
crossing a back yard from one house to another, a 
ball pierced Milam's head and he fell dead. But 
his spirit survived. He had imparted it to his fol- 
lowers, who continued to press forward his plans, 
till on the 9th, after having been driven from the 
town into the Alamo, Cos raised a white flag. On 
the 10th he capitulated, verifying the genius, the 
courage and ability to command of the grand and 



glorious Milam, whose death was bewailed as a 
personal loss in every hamlet and cabin in Texas. 
In person Col. Milam was of commanding form — 
tall, muscular and well-proportioned, with a face, 
a countenance and manner that instantly won re- 
gard and confidence. None of the heroes of Texas 
was so universally loved. His intelligence in prac- 
tical affairs was of the highest order. Unambitious 
of official place, he was always and everywhere a 
leader, because of the unbounded confidence men, 
and women as well, had in his wisdom, his infiexi- 
ble honesty, his kindness and his courage. I never 
dwell on his character without emotions of grati- 
tude to God for giving Texas in her infancy and 
travail such an example of the highest and noblest 
illustration of American manhood. 

A DEPEURED MEMORIAL. 

In the General Council of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment, December 27th, 1835 (nineteen days 
after Milam's death), the honorable John J. Linn, 
member from Victoria, the official journal says: 
" Presented a resolution providing for the erection 
of a monument to the memory of Benjamin R, 
Milam, at San Antonio de Bexar, which was 
adopted ; and his excellency Governor Henry Smith, 
James Cockran, John Rice Jones, Gail Borden and 
John H. Money were appointed a central committee 
to carry into effect the objects of the resolution." 
(Journals of the Council, page 215, December 27, 
1835.) 

Mr. Linn died in Victoria on the 25th of Octo- 
ber, 1885, in his 88th year. Fifty-six years, less 
two months and two days, had passed since the 
adoption of his resolution and other years have 
been added to the past, and still there is no mon- 
ument to Milam. Some men have become million- 
aires in the town he won to liberty and a large 
number have become wealthy. Every man on that 
committee and every member of that council is 
dead, and still there is no monument to Milam! 
Will it for ever be thus ? God forbid ! 



Rezin P. and James Bowie — The Bowie Family. 



An erroneous impression has ever prevailed in 
regard to the Bowie family, in the belief that they 
sprang from Maryland. Such, until now, was my 
own impression ; but I am now in possession of per- 
fectly authentic facts to the contrary. Two of 



three Scotch brothers of the name did settle in 
Maryland and have a numerous posterity. But a 
third brother, at the same time, settled in South 
Oaro ma. His son, Rezin Bowie, born in South 
Carolina, was wounded and taken prisoner by the 




REZIN P. BOWIE. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



135 



British. While so held in Savannah, among other 
American ladies who bestowed kindness upon him, 
was a lovely and pious young lady named Elve 
(sometimes written Elvy) Jones, of a large and 
educated family. In 1782 Eezin Bowie and this 
girl were married in Georgia and settled there. 
They became the parents of the Texas Bowies. 
Their first children, dying in infancy, were twin 
girls, Lavinia and Lavisia. David, a remarkably 
pious youth, died at the age of nineteen ; Sarah, 
who married Mr. Davis and died in Opelousas, La., 
in her first childbirth ; Mary, afterwards Mrs. 
Abram Bird, and John J., who died a few years ago 
in Issequana County, Miss. These six were born 
in Georgia. The parents then removed to Elliott's 
Springs, Tennessee, where, on the 8th of September, 
1793, the distinguished Rezin Pleasants Bowie was 
born. Two years later, in 1795, James Bowie, 
martyr of the Alamo, was born at the same place, 
followed by Stephen, who became a planter on 
Bayou Bceuf, La., and Martha, who first married 
James Nugent, who was accidentally killed, and 
then Alexander B. Sterrett, who, it is claimed, was 
the first settler at Sbreveport, La., where he was 
sheriff and was killed. He has grandchildren in 
Shreveport, named Gooch, and a widowed daughter, 
Mrs. Bettie Hull, whose only surviving child is her 
widowed daughter, Mrs. Reizette Bowie Donley. 
Presumably about 1802, Eezin Bowie, Sr., removed 
from Elliott's Springs, Tenn., to Catahoula parish, 
Louisiana, thence to Bayou Teche, and finally to 
the district of Opelousas, where he died in 1819. 
His widow, nee Elve Jones, of Georgia, a woman 
noted for charity and deeply religious principles, 
died at the house of her son-in-law, Alex. P. Ster- 
rett, in 1837 or 1838, in Shreveport. Having thus 
sketched the family, we return to the two brothers, 
whose names are linked with that of Texas. 

Rezin P. Bowie, the elder of the two, at the 
Catholic Church in Natchitoches, La., in 1812, 
married Frances, daughter of Daniel Neville. 
They had five children, two of whom died in child- 
hood; Martha A., died, aged twenty-one years, in 
New Orleans, in 1853; Matilda E., married Joseph 
H. Moore, and is a widow in New Orleans, residing 
with my friend, her estimable son, Mr. John S. 
Moore. Elve A., married Taylor Moore, and died 
in Claiborne County, Miss., in 1872. Rezin P. 
Bowie was three times a member of the legislature 
of Louisiana, and filled other positions besides his 
connection with Texas. He was an educated and 
accomplished gentleman and a fine orator. He, 
too, and not his brother James, was the designer of 
the famous hunting instrument known as the Bowie 
knife. He died in New Orleans, January 17, 1841. 



Col. James Bowie, on the 22d of April, 1831, in 
San Antonio de Bexar, Texas, married Maria 
Ursula, daughter of Don Juan Martin de Vere- 
mendi, Lieutenant-Governor of Coahuila and 
Texas. I have before me the " propter nuptias," 
authenticated by Jose Maria Salinas, the constitu- 
tional Alcalde, in which he settled upon his beauti- 
ful and lovely spouse the sum of fifteen thousand 
dollars, and in which his estate, in Texas and the 
United States, was shown to be worth $222,800. 
The instrument is witnessed by Jose Francisco 
Flores and Ygnacio Arocha. Two children blessed 
this union, but on a visit to Monclova, in Coahuila, 
in 1833, they and their young mother, as well as 
Governor Veremendi, died of cholera. It was to 
this quadruplicated affliction that Bowie so patheti- 
cally referred in his wonderful outburst of eloquence 
before the Council of Texas, at San Felipe, in De- 
cember, 1832. 

These facts are authentic and meet the desires of 
many to know the true genealogy of the Bowie 
family. 

The character of Col. Bowie has been grossly 
misunderstood by the great mass of the American 
people — a misunderstanding as great as that be- 
tween a ruffian on the one hand and a high-toned, 
chivalrous gentleman on the other. In no conceiv- 
able sense was James Bowie a ruffian ; but, by 
titles as indisputable as those under which the 
people of Texas hold their homesteads, he was a 
high-toned, chivalrous and great-hearted gentle- 
man. He was one of several sons of moral, upright 
parents, his mother especially being an exemplar of 
Christian womanhood in her every-day' life, and 
never, in all the vicissitudes of life, did the heart 
of son more tenderly revere mother than did that 
of James Bowie, who died in the Alamo, as he had 
ever lived, a champion of liberty and free govern- 
ment. 

The Bowie family has long been conspicuous in 
Maryland, in politics and jurisprudence, occupying 
the highest social status. 

Many statements in regard to James Bowie 
which gained more or less currency through the 
press were purely imaginary. He was not, as so 
persistently repeated, the fabricator of the famed 
Bowie knife. Rezin P. Bowie, in a written state- 
ment after his brother's death, asserted positively 
that he, and not James, whittled the model of that 
knife, from which pattern a blacksmith made the 
knives for hunting purpose. In common with the 
general public I had entertained the contrary 
opinion and had so written of the matter until a 
few years since, when I met this statement. 

Prior to locating in Texas, the two brothers wnic 



136 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



planters and traders. James first entered Texas 
with the view of locating, in 1824 —became a citizen 
in 1826 — but did not wholly give up his- home in 
Louisiana till 1828. He was fond of hunting and 
camp life, and became deeply interested in explora- 
tions for the discovery of gold and silver mines, 
devoting much time at intervals for several years to 
that search. 

The celebrated fight on a sand bar near Natchez, 
in 1828, was the product of a feud in which oppos- 
ing factions agreed upon that mode of adjusting 
their difficulties. To that extent it was a duel in 
which a number were engaged on either side. 
Bowie fell from a wound and was unable to rise. 
His antagonist closed upon him, and, though pros- 
trate, Bowie, by the use of his knife, killed him. 
After a time he recovered and suffered no perma- 
nent disability. In the article before referred to 
Eezin P. Bowie asserts that this was the only duel 
in which he or his brother were ever engaged. On 
the contrary, on many occasions, Bowie interposed 
to prevent difficulties and to reconcile excited men 
for whom he entertained kindly regard. He was, 
to this extent, a peace-maker. 

Bowie's noted fight with the Indians, on the 2d of 
November, 1831, from an account furnished by 
Rezin P. Bowie, to a Philadelphia paper in 1832, has 
been described in almost every book on Texas. 
The account appears in this volume. 

Bowie arrived in Nacogdoches after the battle of 
August 2d, 1832, between the Americans and the 
Mexican garrison under Col. Jose de la Piedras. 
The latter retreated during the night on the road 
to the west. He was pursued and surrendered at 
the Angelina on the 4th. Bowie escorted the 
prisoners to San Antonio. 

Bowie, in 1832, commanded a small company 
into the Indian country to retaliate for their attack 
upon him. But the red men received information 
of his movement and fled as from a pestilence, 
declaring him to be a "fighting devil." In a tour 
of several hundred miles he never saw an Indian. 

Bowie joined the volunteer citizen soldiery at 
Gonzales in October, 1835, and with Fannin com- 
manded an advance of ninety-two men, who, at the 
Mission of Concepcion, two miles below San 
Antonio, at daylight, on the 28th of October, were 
attacked by four hundred Mexicans, with two 
cannon. They occupied a fine position on the bank 
of the river, and after a short contest repulsed the 
enemy with heavy loss, on their part losing but one 
man, Richard Andrews. 

On the 26th of November Bowie commanded in 
the Grass Fight, on the west side of San Antonio 
and drove the enemy into the town. 



During the winter, pending the provisional gov- 
ernment, he desired a commission under which he 
could raise and command a regiment. Gen. Hous- 
ton estimated him as an able and safe commander 
and desired him in the field — indeed, assigned 
him, for the moment, to an important position. 
Bowie repaired to the seat of government and 
applied to the legislative council for the authority 
desired. That body was torn by faction and 
delayed action. Bowie became impatient. Tired 
of waiting, he suddenly appeared at the bar of the 
council and essayed to speak. "Order! Order!" 
rang through the hall, while Bowie stood erect, hat 
in hand, the personification of splendid manhood 
and fierce determination. The air was full of 
revolution — Bowie the idol of a majority of the 
people. A crisis was at hand. The presiding 
officer quickly spoke, suggesting that Col. Bowie — 
so long tried, distinguished and courageous — be 
heard. The council, grasping the situation, invited 
him to speak. 

He was a splendid specimen of manhood — six 
feet and one inch high, straight as an arrow, of 
full but not surplus fiesh, fair complexion, fine 
mouth, well-chiseled features and keen blue eyes — 
with grace and dignity in every movement. So 
far as known this was his first and last public 
speech. 

Stepping inside the railing, still hat in hand, 
with a graceful and dignified bow, he addressed 
himself to the president and council, for nearly an 
hour, in a vein of pathos, irony. Invective and 
fiery eloquence, that astonished and enraptured 
his oldest and most intimate friends. He reviewed 
the salient points of his life, hurled from him with 
indignation every floating allegation affecting his 
character as a man of peace and honor — admitted 
that he was an unlettered man of the Southwest, 
and his lot had been cast in a day and among a 
people rendered necessarily, from political and 
material causes, more or less independent of law; 
but brave, generous and infinitely scorning every 
species of meanness and duplicity ; that he had 
honorably cast his lot with Texas for honorable 
and patriotic purposes ; that he had ever neglected 
his own affairs to serve the country in the hour of 
danger; had betrayed no man, deceived no man 
wronged no man, and had never had a difficulty in 
the country, unless to protect the weak from the 
strong and evil-intentioned. That, yielding to the 
dictates of his own heart, he had taken to his 
bosom as a wife a true and lovely woman of a 
different race, the daughter of a distinguished 
Loahuil-Texano; " yet, as a thief in the night, 
death had invaded his little paradise and taken his 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



137 



father-in-law, his wife and his little jewels, given 
to him by the God his pious mother had taught 
him to reverence and to love as " Him who doeth 
all things well," and chasteneth those he loveth ; 
and now, standing as a monument of Omnipotent 
mercy, alone of all his blood in Texas, all he asked 
of his country was the privilege, under its iBgis, of 
serving it in the field, where his name might be 
honorably associated with the brave and the true 
in rescuing this fair and lovely land from the grasp 
of a remorseless military despotism. 

The effect was magical. Not an indecorous or 
undignified word fell from his lips — not an un- 
graceful movement or gesture — but there he 
stood, before the astonished council and specta- 
tors, the living exemplification of a natural orator. 

He tarried not, but left, satisfied that in the more 
perfect organization of the government he would 
receive generous consideration, and returned to 
San Antonio, soon to be immured in a sick room — 
a daik, little, cell-shaped room in the Alamo — and 
there, after a siege of thirteen days, to be perhaps 
the last of the hundred and eighty-three martyrs to 
yield up his life for his country. 

It was never my fortune to meet Col. Bowie, but 
I enjoyed close associations, in youth and early 
manhood, with many good men, who knew him 
long and well. Their universal testimony was that 
he was one of nature's noblemen, infiexible in 
honor, scorning double-dealing and trickery — a 
sincere and frank friend, kind and gentle in in- 
tercourse, liberal and generous, loving peace and 
holding in almost idolatry woman in her purity. 
He tolerated nowhere, even among the rudest men, 
anything derogatory to the female sex, holding 
them as "but a little lower than the angels." In 
the presence of woman he was a model of dignity, 
deference and kindness, as if the better elements 
of his nature were led captive at the shrine of true 
womanhood. But, when aroused under a sense of 
wrong, and far more so for a friend than for him- 
self, "he was fearful to look upon," and a dan- 
gerous man to the wrong-doer. In 1834 Capt.Wm. 
Y. Lacey spent eight months in the wilderness with 
him, and in after years wrote me saying; "He 
was not in the habit of using profane language and 
never used an indecent or vulgar word during the 
eight months I passed with him in the wilder- 
ness." 

I could multiply testimonials to his great worth, 
including the exalted opinion of Henry Clay, but 
space forbids. Many interesting incidents are 
omitted. 

One estimate, however, is added. Capt. Wm. 
G. Hunt wrote some years ago that he first met 



Col. Bowie and his wife (then en route to Louis-, 
iana) at a party given them on the Colorado, on 
Christmas day, 1831; that "Mrs. Bowie was a 
beautiful Castilian lady, and won all hearts by 
her sweet manners. Bowie seemed supremely 
happy with and devoted to her, more like a kind 
and tender lover than the rough backwoodsman 
he has since been represented to be." 

Is it not a shame that such a man, by the merest 
fiction and love of the marvelous, should, for half 
a century after his glorious death, be held in the 
popular mind of his country as at least a quasi- 
desperado — brave, truly, but a rough, coarse man, 
given to broils and affrays.? The children of 
Texas, at least, should know his true character, 
and, in some important aspects, emulate it. By 
doing so they will make better men than by swal- 
lowing much of the sensational literature now cor- 
rupting the youth cf the land. No boy taking 
Bowie as a model will ever become an undutiful 
son, a faithless husband, a brutal father, a treach- 
erous friend or an unpatriotic citizen. 

P. S. After the foregoing had been widely 
published. North and South, an attache of the 
Philadelphia Press sought to revive and wonder- 
fully add to the old slanders of desperadoism, by 
publishing a real or pretended interview with as 
vile an impostor as ever appeared in historic 
matters, attaching to the name of Bowie crimes and 
acts never before heard of. 

Some years ago the Philadelphia Times pub- 
lished a tissue of falsehoods about the campaign 
and battle of San Jacinto by a pretended partici- 
pant, who had never been in that section, but was 
really a reformed gambler. I exposed the fraud in 
a courteous letter to the Times, which it refused 
to publish. 

When the interview hereafter referred to appeared 
in the Philadelphia Press, on the 3d of October, a 
venerable and noble citizen of that city sent me a 
copy and urged that I should send him an exposure 
of its falsehoods, saying he would have it published 
in the Times. 
I did so promptly, but it was not published. 
Under conspicuous head lines appeared the inter- 
view in question in regard to the Alamo, Bowie, 
etc. Of the impostor the interviewer says: — 

"In 1814 Samuel G. Bastian was born in this 
city, at the southwest corner of Front and Spruce 
streets. When he was ten years of age his father, 
who was a gunsmith, removed to Alexandria, in 
Louisiana, and to-day, after an absence of sixty- 
three years, the son revisits his birthplace, a stal- 
wart man despite his seventy-seven years. His 
career has been a most eventful one. He is with- 



138 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



out doubt the only surviving American who wit- 
nessed the fall of the Alamo in the Texian revolu- 
tion of 1836, and his account of it will show of how 
little worth is popular opinion as material for 
history." 

" 'When I lived at Alexandria,' says Bastian, 
' it was a frontier town and the abiding-place of 
many of the worst ruffians in the Southwest. 
Prominent among these was Bowie. He devoted 
himself to forging land titles, and it is amusing to 
me to read accounts of his life, in which he is 
spoken of as a high-toned Southern gentleman and 
a patriot who died for the cause of Texian inde- 
pendence. He has come down to these times as the 
inventor of the Bowie knife, but my recollection is 
this: Bowie had sold a German, named Kaufman, 
a forged land title. Mr. Dalton, the United States 
land registrar, refused to record it, Kaufman 
threatened to prosecute Bowie and was promptly 
stabbed to death for his presumption. In a suit at 
law shortly after, the United States district judge 
complained of the endless litigation over land 
claims, and one of the attorneys answered sarcasti- 
cally, ' that Bowie's knife was the speediest and 
surest way of settling trouble about such disputes,' 
and this, I believe, is the story of Bowie's connec- 
tion with the historic knife.' " 

In the days referred to the brothers Rezin P. 
and James Bowie were quiet planters on Bayou 
Lafourche, 124 miles from Alexandria, and rarely 
in that place. This man's age was, according to 
his own statement, then ranging from ten to sixteen 
years. His statements about land titles, murders 
and the Bowie knife, are notoriously false. At the 
time he became sixteen. Col. James Bowie, from 
being a casual, became a permanent citizen of 
Texas, married the lovely and accomplished daugh- 
ter of Governor Veramendi, of San Antonio, and 
until the death of herself and two children was a 
model and devoted husband and father. A happier 
couple, by the testimony of all who knew them, 
never lived. 

Of the Alamo in 1836 the impostor says: " I 
was in the Alamo in February. There was a bitter 
feeling between the partisans of Travis and Bowie, 
the latter being the choice of the rougher party in 
the garrison. Fortunately Bowie was prostrated 
by pneumonia and could not act. When Santa 
Anna appeared before the place most of the garrison 
were drunk, and had the Mexicans made a rush the 
contest would have been short. Travis did his 
best and at once sent off couriers to Colonel Fan- 
nin, at Gonzales, to hurry up reinforcements. I 
was one of these couriers, and fortunately' I knew 



the country well and spoke Spanish like a native, 

so I had no trouble. On the 1st of March I 

met a party of thirty volunteers from Gonzales 

on the way to the Alamo and concluded to 

return with them. When near the fort we were 

discovered and fired on by the Mexican troops. 

Most of the party got through ; but I and three 

others had to take to the chaparral to save our 

lives. One of the party was a Spanish Creole from 

New Orleans. He went into the town and brought 

us intelligence. We were about three hundred 

yards from the fort concealed by brush, which 

extended north for twenty miles. I could see the 

enemy's operations perfectly." 

After the fall, March 6th, he says: " Disguising 
myself, and in company with Rigault, the Creole, we 
stole into the town. Everything was in confusion. 
In front of the fort the Mexican dead covered the , 
ground, but the scene inside the fort was awful." 
The idea of the fellow being concealed as stated, 
with thousands of Mexican troops camping on the 
ground, is in any and every sense preposterous; 
but when we consider that at that time there was 
no chaparral or thicket as stated by him, nor for 
miles in that direction, it was absolutely impossi- 
ble. Moreover, neither he nor any one else was 
cut off from the Gonzales band. There were 
thirty-two of them, and every one of them died in 
the Alamo. He falsifies about bearing an express 
to Fannin at Gonzales. Fannin was at Goliad, a 
hundred miles nearer the coast, with a wilderness 
and no road between them. 

Here is another sample of his gifts. After 
claiming to have spent some time in the Alamo — 
long enough to see the dead — he says : — 

"We now thought it time to look after ourselves, 

and made for the chaparral, where our companions 

were. We had nearly reached the wood when a 

mounted lancer overtook us. Rigault awaited and 

shot him dead, and so we made our escape. Our 

good fortune did not end here, for we had to make 

a detour to reach Gonzales and learned in time that 

the place was invested, and so were spared the fate 

of the garrison, for they and their commander, 

Colonel Fannin, were massacred by the Mexicans." 

Gen. Houston did not leave Gonzales till seven 

and a half days after this man claims to have 

started for that place. Fannin had not been there. 

The place was never invested. The Mexicans did 

not arrive till seven days after Houston left. 

The fame of Bowie as a soldier, a patriot, a gen- 
tleman, and as a husband and father, will pass 
from father to son and mother to daughter, so long 
as honor, justice and truth abide in Texas. 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



139 



Maj. James Kerr, the First Pioneer in Southwestern Texas. 



Many noble pioneers who have wrought for the 
settlement and civilization of Texas sleep in their 
graves never to be resurrected in memory except 
at the bar of God, with the welcome, " Well done, 
thou good and faithful servant." Some left 
kindred or friends to assert their merits and shield 
their reputations in the record of the history of 
their times. Many did not. There has been a 
tendency to concentrate the entire honor and the 
glory of settling Texas — with some, on one man — 
with others on a handful of men. The truth is, 
that near the same time half a dozen Americans 
conceived substantially the same idea, among 
whom stand the names of Moses Austin and Green 
DeWitt of Missouri, Robert Leftwich of Tennessee 
and several others. To the Americans of the first 
quarter of this century, while Texas was a terra 
incognita in fact, it was a paradise in the imagina- 
tion of many. Its beauties and fertility had been 
portrayed by traders and trappers and the adven- 
turers under Toledo, in 1812-13. Moses Austin 
received his right to introduce American immi- 
grants just before the final fall of Spanish power in 
1821. He returned home, sickened and died. 
His son assumed his responsibilities and was ac- 
corded his privileges, the whole being finally 
perfected on the 14th April, 1823. From this 
(begun in 1821) sprang the first American colony 
of Texas. The applications of DeWitt and others, 
almost simultaneously made, were delayed on 
account of the rapidly changing phases of political 
events in Mexico, till the spring of 1825, although 
DeWitt's grant was promised contemporaneously 
with that of Austin. DeWitt, assured of success, 
did not await the final consummation by the newly 
organized government of Coahuila and Texas, but 
proceeded to his home in Missouri to perfect ar- 
rangements for the settlement of his colony, through 
which ran the beautiful mountain rivers, Guadalupe 
and San Marcos, while the limpid Lavaca formed 
its eastern boundary. Yet he was again present 
at the final consummation of his plan in April, 1825. 
De Witt, in Missouri, secured the co-operation 
of James Kerr, then a member of the senate of 
that State, who became the suveyor-general of the 
colony, its first settler, and fop a time its chief 
manager. Mr. Kerr was born near Danville, Ky., 
September 24, 1790, removed with his father to 
St. Charles County, Missouri, in 1808, was a 
gallant soldier in the war of 1812-15 — a lieuten- 



ant under Capt. Nathan Boone — had been sheriff 
of St. Charles County, a representative in the 
legislature and then a senator. He had a wife, 
three little children and eight or ten favorite negro 
servants. With these he arrived at the mouth of 
the Brazos in February, 1825. Before the first of 
July his wife and two of his little children had 
died — the first in a camp, the others on the road- 
side. During July he reached the present site of 
Gonzales, accompanied by five or six single men 
and his servants. He erected cabins, laid out the 
townsite as the capital of the future colony and 
began the survey of its lands. On the 1st or 2d 
day of July, 1826, in his absence, Indians attacked 
his houses in the temporary absence of most of 
the inmates, killed one man and severely wounded 
another, robbed the establishment and then retired. 
Thereupon Maj. Kerr removed nearer the coast, 
to the Lavaca river, in what is now Jackson County, 
but continued his labors as surveyor of De Witt's 
colony, and subsequently, also, as surveyor of the 
Mexican colony of De Leon, next below on the 
Guadalupe. To his laborious duties, in January, 
1827, were added the entire superintendence of the 
affairs of Col. Ben. R. Milam, in his proposed 
Southwestern colony. 

From 1825 till 1832, Maj. Kerr's house was 
the headquarters of Americanism in Southwest 
Texas. Austin's colony on the one side, and De 
Witt's and De Leon's on the other, slowly grew, 
and he stood in all that time, and for several years 
later, as a wise counsellor to the people. When 
the quasi-revolution of 1832 occurred, he was 
elected a delegate to that first deliberative body 
that ever assembled in Texas, at San Felipe, 
October 1, 1832, and was on several of its com- 
mittees. That body of about fifty-eight repre- 
sentative men, so strangely overlooked by the 
historians of Texas, laid the predicate for all that 
followed in 1833-35-36, and caused more sensa- 
tion in Mexico than did the better known conven- 
tion of 1833, which did little more than amplify the 
labors of the first assembly. 

Maj. Kerr, however, was a member of the 
second convention which met at San Felipe on the 
first of March, 1833, and was an infiuential mem- 
ber in full accord with its general scope and 
design. He presided, in July, 1835, at the first 
primary meeting in Texas, on the Navidad river, 
which declared in favor of independence. 



140 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



He was elected to the third convention, or gen- 
eral consultation, which met at San Felipe, Novem- 
ber 3d, 1835, and formed a provisional government, 
with Henry Smith as Governor, and a legislative 
council. Being then on the campaign in which the 
battle of Lipantitlan was fought, on the Nueces, he 
failed to reach the first assembly, but served about 
two months in the council, rendering valuable ser- 
vice to the country. 

On the first of February, 1836, he was elected to 
the convention which declared the independence of 
Texas, but his name is not appended to that docu- 
ment for the reason that the approach of the 
Mexican army compelled him to flee east with his 
family and neighbors, and rendered it impossible 
for him to reach Washington in time to participate 
in that grave and solemn act. But riglitfuUy his 
name belongs there. 

Returning to his desolated home after the battle 
of San Jacinto, he stood as a pillar of strength in 
the organization of the country under the Republic. 
It may be truly said that no man in the western 
half of Texas, from 1825 to 1840, and especially 
during the stormy period of the revolution, exerted 
a greater influence for good as a wise, conservative 
counsellor. His sound judgment, tried experience. 



fine intelligence and candor, fitted him in a rare 
degree for such a field of usefulness. 

In 1838 he was elected to the last Congress that 
assembled at Houston and was the author, in whole 
or in part, of several of the wisest laws Texas ever 
enacted. From that time till his death, on the 23d of 
December, 1850, he held no oflScial position but con- 
tinued to exert a healthy influence on public affairs. 

Nothing has been said of his perils and narrow 
escapes from hostile savages during the twelve years 
he was almost constantly exposed to their attacks. 
Many of them possess romantic interest and evince 
his courage and sagacity in a remarJjable degree. 

While no dazzling splendor adorns his career, it 
is clothed from beginning to end with evidences of 
usefulness and unselfish patriotism, presenting those 
attributes without which in its chief actors Texas 
could not have been populated and reclaimed with 
the feeble means used in the achievement of that 
great work. His name is perpetuated in that of 
the beautiful county of Kerr, named, as the crea- 
tive act says, " in honor of James Kerr, the first 
American settler on the Guadalupe river." His 
only surviving son, Thomas R. Kerr, resides in 
Southwest Texas, and a number of his grand- 
children live in South Texas. 



Col. William S. Fisher, the Hero of Mier. 



In the revolutionary days of Texas there were 
three men of prominence bearing the name of 
Fisher. The first and the earliest immigrant to the 
country was Samuel Rhoads Fisher, of Matagorda. 
He was a native of Philadelphia, and a man of edu- 
cation, who came about 1830. He was a leader in 
local affairs, holding municipal position, and the 
husband and father of one of the most intelligent 
and refined families in a community distinguished 
for refinement and intelligence. Capt. Rhoads 
Fisher of Austin is the junior of his two sons. He 
represented Matagorda in the convention of 1836, 
and signed the Declaration of Independence ; and 
on the installation of Gen. Houston as President of 
the Republic in October, 1886, he appointed Mr. 
Fisher Secretary of the Navy. In 1838 he lost his 
life in an unfortunate personal difflculty, greatly 
lamented by the country. His memory was 
honored by the high character of his family. 

John Fisher was a native of Richmond, Virginia, 



and came to Gonzales, Texas, in 1833 or 1834. He 
was a man of education, ability and sterling char- 
acter, and was also a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, but died soon afterwards. 

William S. Fisher, the subject of this chapter, 
was a brother of John and, like himself, a native of 
Virginia. He was also a man of finished education 
and remarkable intelligence and one of the tallest 
men in the country. As a conversationalist he was 
captivating, ever governed by a keen sense of pro- 
priety and respect for others — hence a man com- 
manding esteem wherever he appeared. His first 
experience as a soldier was in the fight with the 
Indians on the San Marcos, in the spring of 1835 — 
sixteen men against the seventy Indians who had 
murdered and robbed the French traders west of 
Gonzales, in which the Indians were repulsed, with 
a loss of nine warriors. 

His first appearance in public life was as a mem- 
ber of the first revoluntionary convention (com- 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



141 



monly called the Consultation) iu November, 1835. 
He was also a volunteer in the first resistance to 
the Mexicana at Gonzales and in the march upon 
San Antonio in October. 

In the campaign of 1836, he was early in the 
field, and commanded one of the most gallant com- 
panies on the field of San Jacinto, in which he won 
the admiration of his comrades. He remained in 
the army till late in the year, when he was called 
into the Cabinet of President Houston to succeed 
(■iren. Busk as Secretary of War, thereby becoming 
a colleague of Governor Henry Smith, Stephen F. 
Austin and S. Rhoads Fisher in the same Cabinet, 
soon to announce the death of Austin in the follow- 
ing order: — 

" War Department, Columbia, Tex. 

"December 27, 1836. 

"The father of Texas is no more. The first 
pioneer of the wilderness has departed. Gen. 
Stephen F. Austin, Secretary of State, expired this 
day at half-past 12 o'clock, at Columbia. 

" As a testimony of respect to his high standing, 
undeviating moral rectitude, and as a mark of the 
nation's gratitude for his untiring zeal and invalu- 
able services, all officers, civil and military, are 
requested to wear crape on the right arm for the 
space of thirty days. All officers commanding 
posts, garrisons or detachments will, so soon as 
information is received of the melancholy event, 
cause twenty-three guns to be fired, with an inter- 
val of five minutes between each, and also have the 
garrison and regimental colors hung with black 
during the space of mourning for the illustrious 
dead. 

" By order of the President. 

" Wm. S. Fisher, 

Secretary of War." 

The. services of Col. Fisher were such that when 
provision was made for a regular army by the Con- 
gress of 1838-9, he was made Lieutenant- Colonel 
of the only permanent regiment, of which the vet- 
eran Burleson was made Colonel. In this capacity 
he commanded the troops engaged in the Council 
House fight with the Comanches, on the 19th of 
March, 1840, and rendered other important ser- 
vices to the frontier ; but in the summer of 1840 
he resigned to become a Colonel in the Mexican 
Revolutionary or Federalist army in the short-lived 
Republic of the Rio Grande. But the betrayal of 
Jordan and his command at Saltillo, in October of 
the same year, followed by the latter's successful 
retreat to the Rio Grande — an achievement which 
has been likened to that of Xenophon — was fol- 



lowed by the disbandment of the Federal forces and 
the triumph of centralism, upon which Col. Fisher 
and his three hundred Amercian followers returned 
to Texas. 

His next appearance was as a Captain in the 
Somervell expedition to the Rio Grande in the 
autumn of 1842. The history of that campaign is 
more or less familiar to the public. There were 
seven hundred men. From Laredo two hundred 
of them, under Capts. Jerome B. and E. S. C. 
Robertson, returned home. At the mouth of the 
Salado river, opposite Guerrero, another division 
occurred. Two hundred of the men (of whom I 
was one) returned home with and under the orders 
of Gen. Somervell. The remaining three hundred 
reorganized into a regiment and elected Col. 
Fisher as their commander. They moved down 
the river, crossed over and entered Mier, three 
miles west of it, on the Arroyo Alcantra, leaving 
forty of their number as a guard on the east bank 
of the river. They entered the town at twilight on 
the 25th of December, amid a blaze of cannon and 
small arms, in the hands of twenty-seven hundred 
Mexicans, commanded by Gen. Pedro de Ampudia, 
and for nineteen hours fought one of the most 
desperate battles in American annals — fought till 
they had killed and wounded more than double 
their own number, and till their ammunition was so 
far exhausted as to render further resistance hope- 
less. Then they capitulated, to become the famed 
Mier prisoners, or " the Prisoners of Perote ; " 
to rise upon their guard in the interior of Mexico 
and escape to the mountains — there to wander 
without food or water till their tongues were 
swollen and their strength exhausted, to become an 
easy prey to their pursuers — then to be marched 
back to the scene of their rescue, at the hacienda 
of Salado, and there, under the order of Santa 
Anna, each one blind folded, to draw in the lottery 
of Life or Death, from a covered jar in which 
were seventeen black and a hundred and fifty-three 
white beans. Every black bean drawn consigned 
the drawer to death — one-tenth of the whole to 
be shot for an act which commanded the admira- 
tion of every true soldier in Europe and America, 
not omitting those in Mexico, for Gen. Mexia 
refused to execute the inhuman edict and resigned 
his commission. But another took his place and 
those seventeen men were murdered. 

The entire imprisonment of the survivors (some 
of whom being in advance, were not in the rescue 
and therefore not in the drawing) covered a 
period of twenty-two months. They were then re- 
leased and reached home about the close of 1844. 

In 1845 Col. Fisher married a lady of great 



142 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



worth, but soon afterwards died in Galveston. 
Neither he nor his brother John left a child to bear 
his name, but the county of Fisher is understood 
to be a common memorial to them and S. Ehoads 
Fisher. 



There was a fourth man of the name — George 
Fisher — who figured in Texas before, during and 
after the revolution, chiefly in the capacity of clerk 
and translator, but he was a Greek and died in 
California. 



Maj. Richard Roman. 



Was born in Fayette County, Ky., in 1810, 
migrated to Illinois in 1831, and was an officer in 
the Black Hawk war of 1832. In December, 1835, 
he landed at Velasco, Texas, and joined Gen. 
Houston, as Captain of a company, on the Col- 
orado, during the retreat from Gonzales to San 
Jacinto, and performed gallant service in that 
battle. He was next aide-de-camp to Gen. Rusk, 
while he was in command of the army on the San 
Antonio and Guadulupe. He settled in Victoria 
and several times represented that county in the 
Texian Congress ; also frequently serving in expe- 
ditions against the Indians. 

By the Congress of 1839-40 he was elected one 
of the three members composing the traveling 
board of commissioners for all the country west of 
the Brazos river, for the detection of fraudulent 
land certificates by a personal examination of the 
records of each County Court and hearing proof, 
a high compliment to both his capacity and integ- 
rity. He was a senator in the last years of the 
Republic and participated in all the legislation con- 
nected with annexation to the United States. 

In 1846 he entered the Mexican war as a private 
soldier in the celebrated scouting companv of 
Capt. Ben McCulloch, in which were a number of 
men of high character at that time and numerous 



others who subsequently won more or less distinc- 
tion. In this respect it is doubtful if a more 
remarkable company for talent ever served under 
the Stars and Stripes. But Private Roman, at the 
instance of Gen. (then U. S. Senator) Rusk was 
soon appointed by President Polk, Commissary of 
Subsistence, with the rank of Major. As such he 
was in the battle of Monterey, in September, 1846, 
and Buena Vista in February, 1847. The Amer- 
ican army evacuated Mexico in June, 1848, and 
early in 1849 Maj. Roman started to California. 
Following the admission of that State into the Union 
in 1850, he was elected for the two first terms, 
State Treasurer, and then came very near being 
nominated by the dominant party for Governor. 
By President Buchanan he was appointed Appraiser 
General of Merchandise on the Pacific coast. 
About 1863 he became severely palsied and so deaf 
as to receive communication from others only 
through writing. Never having married, his last 
years were made pleasant in the family of a loving 
relative in San Francisco till his death in 1877. 
He was a man of ability, firmness, fidelity in every 
trust and strong in his attachments and, unlike 
many men of such characteristics, without bitter- 
ness or prejudice. The name of "Dick" Roman 
is cherished wherever it was known in Texas. 




IIENUY ROSENBERG. 



HENRY ROSENBERG, 

GALVESTON. 



Grotius and Vattel, among the earliest and most 
erudite of modern writers upon international law, 
who from the pandects of Justinian, the maritime 
code of Louis XIV, the laws of Oleron and the Han- 
seatio League and other sources, with wonderful 
brilliancy of genius and depth of philosophy, laid 
the foundation of that science which now regulates 
the intercourse of the community of nations, en- 
riched their pages by illustrations drawn from the 
history of many peoples, and from none more than 
from that of the people of Switzerland, to which 
they turned for the most striking examples of 
fidelity to treaty obligations, jealous defense of 
national honor, humanity, magnanimity and cour- 
age. 

Vattel declares that for more than three centuries 
prior to his time, Switzerland, although surrounded 
by nations almost constantly at war and eager for 
the acquisition of new territory, had preserved her 
independence, and enjoyed the confidence and 
respect of her neighbors. It is related that in the 
oldgn time, fifteen hundred Swiss, acting as the 
advance guard of a French army, came suddenly 
upon the full force of the opposing Austrians ; and, 
disdaining to retreat, although overwhelmingly out- 
numbered, charged into the midst of the enemy 
and, no re-inforcements coming up, perished, all 
save one man, who saved his life by flight and was 
subsequently driven from his native canton to die 
a despised wanderer in a foreign land. 

Who does not remember the story of Martha 
Glar ? Her country invaded and the men to defend 
it few in number, she called upon the women to 
arm and strike with them for the liberties of Swit- 
zerland and, later, fell sword in hand with her hus- 
band, sons, daughters, and granddaughters upon a 
bard contested field. Famous for their valor and 
love of freedom, the Swiss are no less renowned for 
their kindliness, justice and simple and unaffected 
piety. Of this race was the subject of this memoir. 

While his native land may well be proud of such 
a son, she cannot alone lay claim to him. The 
best years of his ripened manhood were spent in 
Texas. Such men are true citizens of the world 



and the memory of worthy deeds that they leave 
behind them is the heritage and common property 
of mankind. Deeply attached to the institutions 
of the United States and to the people of Texas 
and of Galveston especially, he never ceased to 
love the land of his birth and his friends of long 
ago. 

" There is a land, of every land the pride, 

Beloved by Heaven o'er all the world beside; 
There is a spot of earth supremely blest, 
A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest. 

" • Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found? ' 
Art thou a man ? — a patriot? — look around ! 
O! thou Shalt find, where'er thy footsteps roam 
That land thy country and that spot thy home! " 

With this love of country was coupled a venera- 
tion for the great and good of all climes. As will 
be seen further on in this brief sketch of his life, 
he has paid the most substantial tribute that has 
yet been paid to the men who fought for Texas 
independence, an act peculiarly fitting, as there is 
a bond of common brotherhood that binds together 
the hearts of the sons of Switzerland and the 
defenders of liberty in all lands and that neither 
time nor distance can affect. 

Broad-minded, generous and true-hearted — a 
genuine lover of his kind — the memory of Henry 
Rosenberg is dear to the people of Texas. His 
name will forever be associated with the history of 
the city of Galveston, a city in which he spent more 
than fifty of the most active and useful years of his 
life. He was born at Bilten, Canton Glarus, 
Switzerland, June 22, 1824. His early educational 
advantages were restricted. He was apprenticed 
when a boy and learned a trade which he followed 
until past eighteen years of age, when he came to 
America with one of his countrymen, JohnHessley, 
reaching Galveston in February, 1843. He was 
afterwards associated with Mr. Hessley in the mer- 
cantile business, which he enlarged and carried on 
for about thirty years, during which time he laid 
the foundation for the fortune which he afterwards 
accumulated. His latter years were devoted chiefly 

(143) 



144 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



to his banking interests, wliieli were founded in 1874 
upon the organization of the Galveston Bank & Trust 
Co., an incorporated institution of which he was 
one of the originators and which he bought out in 
1882 and replaced with the Eosenberg Bank, of 
which he was thereafter sole owner. Early in his 
career he began investing his means in Galveston 
city property, and, later, in other real estate, im- 
proved and unimproved, elsewhere in Texas and, as 
a consequence, in time became the owner of a large 
amount of realty, which, gradually appreciating in 
value, contributed materially to the increase of his 
wealth. Mr. Rosenberg was prominently identified 
with many of the important enterprises and under- 
takings which served to build up and promote the 
growth of Galveston. 

Prominent among these: — 

The First National Bank — of which he was one 
of the organizers and for many years the vice- 
president; The Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Rail- 
way, — of which he was one of the organizers, 
president from 1875 to and including 1878 (during 
which period the first fifty miles of the road were 
constructed), and of whose board of directors he 
was an active member for ten years thereafter ; 
the Galveston Wharf Company, — of which he 
was a director for a long term of years, and for 
three years vice-president, and the Galveston City 
Railway Company, of which he was president in 
1871. He was tendered re-election to the last 
named position but declined to accept that honor 
as other important business interests demanded his 
attention. He was an active and influential mem- 
ber of the board of aldermen of the city of Gal- 
veston in 1871-72 and again in 1885-87. As a 
result of his industry, strict application to business 
and superior practical sagacity, aided by circum- 
stances, he succeeded in amassing a fortune of 
about $1,200,000.00. He contributed to and 
took stock in nearly every worthy enterprise. He 
was keenly alive to the interests and especially 
proud of the city of his adoption, manifesting 
a deep concern in everything relating to its wel- 
fare. 

Mr. Rosenberg was long'known among his more 
intimate acquaintances as a man of generosity 
and great kindness of^heart, though he often times 
appeared otherwise to strangers. " Henry Rosen- 
berg," says an old and prominent citizen of Gal- 
veston, " was one of the best men I ever knew. 
He was pure, truthful, upright and just. He was 
strict in business and demanded honesty in others. 
He despised frauds and shams. 

" In fact, he was cordial and companionable and 
full of good nature in his social life. In the ordi- 



nary business relations, he was exact and just, 
but, impatient and aggressive when subjected to 
unfair, unjust or unreasonable treatment, or de- 
mands, from others. His superb gift to the chil- 
dren of Galveston, the Rosenberg Free School 
Building, erected in 1888, seating 1,000 pupils, 
his donation to Eaton Memorial Chapel of Trinity 
Church in that city and his erection of a church in 
his native village in Switzerland attested his interest 
in the cause of education and Christianity and are 
the best remembered of his more important acts of 
benevolence in which the public shared a knowledge 
before his death. It was not, however, until after 
his death and the provisions of his will became 
generally known, that his character was fully ap- 
preciated." After bequeathing to his surviving 
widow, relatives and friends $450,000.00, he left 
the remainder, about two-thirds, of his entire for- 
tune, to educational and charitable purposes, the 
bulk of it going to the people of Galveston. After 
remembering his native place with two bequests, 
one of $30,000.00 and the other of $50,000.00, he 
made provision for the city of Galveston as fol- 
lows: The Island City Protestant Orphans' Home, 
$30,000 ; Grace Church parish (Protestant Episco- 
pal), $30,000; Ladies' Aid Society of the German 
Lutheran Church, $10,000; for a Women's Home, 
$30,000 ; the Young Men's Christian Association, 
$65,000; for a monument to the memory of the 
heroes of the Texas Revolution of 1835-6, $50,- 
000 ; for drinking fountains for man and beast, 
$30,000; and the residue of his estate to the 
erection and equipment of a great free public 
library. 

The following extract from the residuary clause 
in his will providing a large sum for a public library, 
is pertinent in the latter connection: "In making 
this bequest I desire to express in practical form 
my affection for the city of my adoption and for the 
people among whom I have lived for many years, 
trusting that it will aid their intellectual and moral 
development and be a source of pleasure and profit 
to them and Iheir children and their children's 
children." The wisdom exercised by him in his 
bequests is no less worthy of admiration than their 
munificence. 

Mr. Rosenberg's death occurred May 12th, 1893 
Every appropriate mark of respect was shown to 
his memory in Galveston and his death was taken 
notice of generally by ihe press throughout the 
State. Now that he has laid aside his earthly bur- 
dens he has left behind him on earth the imperish- 
able memory of worthy deeds. 

No marble monument, stately monolith or princely 
sarcophagus can add to the merits of such a man. 




MES. HENRY EOSENBURG. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



145 



The Galveston News of May 13th, 1893, contained 
the following editorial: — 

" Early yesterday morning the earthly career of 
Henry Rosenberg closed after a painful illness. In 
his death Galveston has lost a worthy and re- 
spected citizen. Elsewhere will be found a sketch 
of his public life and actions, but the News desires, 
besides this, to briefly add its testimony to the 
private virtues and charitable excellence of this 
good man who has gone to his reward. In the 
donation of the school which bears his name, to the 
youth of Galveston, Mr. Rosenberg associated 
himself with the city's best interests. He did not 
leave this act to be performed after he himself had 
passed away and was himself done with the world's 
means and the world's ways, but in the vigor of his 
own manhood and from means of his own acquiring 
he saw erected and established an institution that 
promises to generations yet unborn the opportunities 
of education perhaps denied himself. 

" It was not ostentation upon the part of Henry 
Rosenberg that prompted the act. He was not an 
ostentatious man. On many an occasion, known 
to the writer, Henry Rosenberg's purse was placed 
at the disposal of the needy, but always upon the 
principle that his left hand should not know what 
his right hand was doing.' Upon an especially large 
donation to a worthy object some years ago the 
writer requested of Mr. Rosenberg permission to 
make known the fact through the columns of the 
News. 'No;' said Mr. Rosenberg, 'you will 
offend me if you do. Whatever I do in this way I 
do because I like to do it, but it would be no source 
of satisfaction to me to find it paraded before the 
public' Such was the man. * * * Peace to 
his ashes wherever they may rest." 

As the news of his death spread over the city it 
was followed by a wave of universal sorrow that 
embraced in its sweep the entire population. The 
remains laid in state at the Rosenberg Free School 
building, where they were viewed by thousands who 
loved him well. Impressive funeral services were 
held in Assembly Hall. The remains were taken 
from Assembly Hall to Grace Church, where the 
beautiful and impressive funeral service of the 
Episcopal Church was read by the rector, Rev. J. 
R. Carter, after which the body was temporarily 
deposited in Payne vault in the cemetery at Gal- 
veston, to await removal to Baltimore, Md. Mr. 
Rosenberg had been consul for Switzerland at Gal- 
veston for more than thirty years, and at the time 
of his death wasfirst dean of the consular corps. A 
message of condolence was received from the Swiss 
minister at Washington and the consular corps met, 
passed suitable resolutions and paid the last tribute 

10 



of respect to the memory of their friend and col- 
league. 

The vestry of Grace Episcopal Church, of 
which for many years he had been a mem- 
ber, City Council, School Board, board of 
trustees of the Rosenberg Free School, and 
other civil bodies, took similar action and a 
great mass meeting (presided over by some of 
the most distinguished men in Texas), assembled 
in response to a proclamation issued by the mayor 
of the city to listen to suitable speeches and pass 
appropriate resolutions. At this meeting was read 
the following poem: — 

IN HONOR OF HBNRT ROSBNBBRG. 

" The freightage of the surf is many kind. 

Both wreck and treasure ride the crested wave ; 
And ever as it frets its force away 

Against unyielding shores, it builds the strand 
For men to walk upon and trade and thrive. 

There, bleaching lie, the shells of myriad life 
That throbbed but briefly in a stifling sea 

And perished. And some, untimely cast ashore, 
Lie festering upon the sun-kissed sands, 

Abhorred and pestilent; while some are ripe 
To death and but repose in welcome rest ; 

And some are puny pygmies, sprawling prone, 
And rudely crashed into forgetfulness 

By hurrying heels of eager, searching crowds, 
And some are of larger growth and stand erect, 

Majestic emblems of a giant kind, 
Impacted in the sands of time ; behold, 

Nor wind, nor tide, nor jostling jealousy 
Can shake their adamantine base — unmoved 

Of all the mutable that throng the earth. 

" And there are those, who, in their speeding day, 

While youth and strength lent opportunity, 
With frugal husbandry, wrought hard and fast 

To garner yellow wealth in honest bins. 
And when the sun shone golden in the West 

And shadows deepened to the coming night. 
They looked upon their stores and smiled to think 

That Power now was minister to Wish, 
And straightway loosed the locks and smote the bars 

That old and young and mind and soul and beast 
Might share thebleasings of a fruitful life. 

And they live on. Along the pebbled way, 
That stretches from the utmost to the end. 

They mark the certain progress of mankind 
And guide us up to Godlier destinies." 

"The remains of Henry Rosenberg, the Texas 
philanthropist," says the Baltimore Sun of June 
1st, 1893, " were consigned to their final resting 
place in Loudon Park Cemetery yesterday after- 
noon. The body was brought to Baltimore from 
Galveston, of which city the deceased was an hon- 
ored citizen. The funeral services held there were 
elaborate, the whole city testifying to the esteem in 
which he was held. * * * The pall-bearers were 



146 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Judge David Fowler, G-eorge French, Howell Gris- 
wold, Richard G. Macgill, Jervis Spencer, Dr. Guy 
Hollyday, John Fowler and Patrick H. Macgill. 
Among those present were Chas C. Tuvel, secretary 
-of the Swiss legation at Washington, representing 
•the Swiss government ; William Nichols, of Galves- 
ton; Mr. and Mrs. Peter Cokelet, of New York, 
who had been close friends of Mr. Rosenberg for 
•more than forty years ; Dr. Chas. Macgill, of 
Catonsville ; Miss Rouskulp, of Hagerstown ; Mrs. 
Howell Griswold ; Mrs. Dr. Gibson ; Miss West ; 
Miss Bettie Mason Barnes ; Mr. and Mrs. George 
"Gibson ; Mrs. Drewry, of Virginia ; Davidge Mac- 
gill, of Virginia; Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Gary; Miss 
Fowler ; the Misses Carter, of Catonsville ; Miss L. 
K. Spencer; Mrs. George French, Col. Robert 
Smith, and others." 

Hundreds of editorial notices appeared in lead- 
ing newspapers throughout the country. The fol- 
lowing extracts are made from a few that appeared 
in Texas papers : — 

Galveston .News: "Trite reflections upon the 
•lives and ends of such men have little force beyond 
■the circle of their immediate friends, but, many 
will draw a serious lesson from that of the de- 
ceased. * * * He was one of several who 
accumulated large fortunes in Galveston and were 
not spoiled by their possessions nor estranged from 
those who had been less successful by the disparity 
in their circumstances. He was regarded with 
tender veneration by young ani old, rich and 
poor. A stranger on the Market street car line 
might have frequently observed a ruddy-faced and 
cheery old gentleman getting on or off at Thirteenth 
street, and on the outgoing trip the motorman 
would generally bring the car to a stop on the near 
side, though the rule would have taken it to the 
other side. This was quietly done for Mr. Rosen- 
berg, who always had a smile for the laborer and 
t^ie poor. Coming down town in the morning he 
was constantly nodding to his friends." 

Waco Day-Olobe: "It was reserved for a Tex- 
ian by adoption, a citizen who was born on foreign 
soil, to make the first real practical move towards 
honoring the memory of the fathers of Texas 
liberty. In his will the late Henry Rosenberg, 
of Galveston, born in Switzerland, bequeathed 
$50,000 for the erection of an appropriate and 
enduring memorial in honor of the heroes of the 
Texas revolution. It may also be remarked that 
this foreign-born citizen placed himself at the head 
-of the all too small list of Texas philanthro- 
pists. • * • In the disposition of the accumu- 
lations of his lifetime Mr. Rosenberg dealt out his 
•benefactions with an impartial hand. He seems 



to have lost sight of creed or race. A profound 
desire to benefit the human family was the ideal he 
strove to reach and so sound was his judgment, so 
broad and generous his impulses, that the money 
he has left will bless his fellowmen through cen- 
turies to come." 

Hempstead News: "His name will go down to 
after times as one of the best and noblest men of 
his day. Oh ! if there were more like him, this 
world would be a better world." 

Surviving him he left a widow, but no children. 
He had been twice married — marrying first, June 
11th, 1851, Miss Letitia Cooper, then of Galveston, 
but a native of Virginia. This estimable lady died 
June 4th, 1888, and November 13th, 1889, he 
married Miss Mollie R. Macgill, daughter of Dr. 
Charles Macgill. She was born at Hagerstown, 
Md., February 28th, 1839. At the time of 
Miss Macgill's birth Mr. Rosenberg's first wife 
was visiting the family of Dr. Macgill and in- 
duced the doctor to promise the child to her 
and afterwards made several offers to adopt her, 
which, however, were not accepted, as the parents 
would not agree to part with her entirely even to 
please so dear a friend. In September, 1856, Mr. 
Rosenberg brought Miss Macgill to Texas, where 
she remained eleven months as a guest of Mrs. 
Rosenberg. In the fall of 1860 Mrs. Rosenberg 
again sent for Miss Macgill, who arrived in Galves- 
ton in September expecting to remain two years, 
but returned to her parents in April, 1861, on 
account of the war, and remained with them until 
the close of the struggle. Returning to Galveston 
in March, 1866, she joined the family permanently 
and, Mrs. Rosenberg, becoming an invalid, Miss 
Macgill, who reciprocated the deep affection she 
felt for her, assumed full management of the house- 
hold and continued her tender ministrations until 
Mrs Rosenberg's last illness, and was present at 
her bedside when she quietly fell " asleep in Jesus " 
Mr. and Mrs. Rosenberg, with Miss Macgill, 
paid annual visits to Miss Macgill's parents in 
Richmond, Va. Miss Macgill's niece. Miss Minnie 
Drewry, of Virginia, was with her during the 
latter part of Mrs. Rosenberg's illness. The two 
remained with Mr. Rosenberg, traveling during the 
summer, and in the fall Miss Macgill and niecf re- 

until the following July and then with him visited 

we" 17%' "°''" ^-^ ^'^'"-"'^ -<^ ^-m t ere 
went to the Springs and New York City, returning 

rtr;^t:l^^5--^-^-°-bergan^ 



m marriage November 



Miss Macgill were united 

l^th 1889, at Grace Episcopal Church by Rev 

Hartly Carmichael of St. Paul's Church, assiLdby 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



147 



Rev. H. Melville Jackson of Grace Church, present 
assistant Bishop of Alabama. Dr. Charles Macgill 
was a native of Baltimore, Md. His grandfather 
on the maternal side was Thomas Jennings, who filled 
the position of King's Attorney under the Colonial 
government of Maryland, and on the paternal side, 
Rev. James Macgill, of Perth, Scotland, who settled 
in Maryland in 1728 and was the first rector of 
Queen Caroline Parish, Elkridge, Anne Arundel 
County, Md. Dr. Macgill served as full surgeon 
in the Confederate army during the war between 
the States ; and was one of President Jefferson 
Davis' family physicians. Dr. Macgill died in 
Chesterfield County, Va., May 5th, 1881. Mrs. 
Rosenberg's mother, now eighty-eight years of 
age, lives with her at Galveston. Of Mrs. Rosen- 
berg's brothers, Wm. D. enlisted at Palestine, 
Texas, in Company A. , Second Cavalry, and, after the 
battle of Sharpsburg, was transferred to the First 
Maryland Cavalry, Company C, and died in 
Baltimore, Md., August 25, 1890; Davidge en- 
listed in the First Maryland Cavalry, Company C, 
under Col. Brown in 1861, and served throughout 
the war. Dr. Chas. G. W. Macgill was a surgeon 
in Stonewall Jacks"on's brigade and James enlisted 
in the Confederate army at sixteen years of age 
and served in the same commands with his brother 
Wm. D. until the close of hostilities. Dr. Chas. 
G. W. Macgill and James Macgill surrendered with 
the troops in Virginia as did their father Dr. Chas. 
Macgill ; but Wm. D. and Davidge Macgill did not 
surrender until April 20, 1865, as they managed to 
get through the Federal lines and tried to make 
their way to Johnston, who surrendered before they 
reached him. A reader of the Birmingham Age- 
Herald, living at Childersburg, Ala., in an interest- 
ing and lengthy communication to that paper, 
under date of October 11, 1890, contributes the 
following: — 

"In your issue of the 7th inst., under the 
heading ' Some Persons of Prominence,' you 
kindly give space to eulogizing Dr. Macgill and 
family, formerly of Hagerstown, Md., and later of 
Richmond, Va., but more especially of Mrs. Helen 
E. Swan, from the announcement of her death, 
which occurred on the 22d of September last, at 
the home of her brother-in-law, Dr. S. A. Drewry 
in Richmond. 

" Among other things, you give prominence to 
their many intellectual, physical and social graces, 
together with their political prominence. * * * 
Now it may be that you ' reckoned better than 
you knew ' and that you did not know that 
there were some ex-Confederates who were con- 
stant readers of your valuable paper and in 



your Immediate vicinity who have special cause to 
honor and remember this illustrious and patriotic 
family. I allude particularly to Capt. John 
('Piney,') Oden, Company, K., Tenth Alabama 
Regiment, Confederate Volunteers, who was severely 
and, at the time, thought by his comrades to be 
mortally wounded, on Wednesday, September 17th, 
1862, at Sharpsburg, receiving a wound fourteen 
inches long, reaching the whole length of the thigh, 
from which he has been a permanent cripple and 
great sufferer ever since. Besides he received at 
the same time a painful wound in the left side from 
a piece of bomb-shell. * * * He lay upon the 
battle-field in that helpless condition for twenty-six 
hours. When all other efforts for removal failed, 
he made some Masonic characters upon a piece of 
paper and requested that they be carried to the 
general in command of the Federal army, he being 
then within the Federal lines. Very soon six men 
came for him with an improvised litter, an old 
army blanket. They made a slip gap in the fence, 
near which he lay, and ran across the hill to a field 
hospital with him upon the litter, which was more 
than once punctured with balls from his friends' 
guns, they not understanding what was going on. 
He was finally removed to the Hagerstown, Md., 
courthouse, which had been converted into a Federal 
hospital. * » * Here he first met and learned 
to love and honor the name of Macgill and the 
members of the family, for the daughters that were 
then at home came to the hospital and inquired 
especially if there were any Confederate soldiers 
among the wounded there. Capt. Oden being 
pointed out, they began immediately to beseech, in 
view of his condition, that he be paroled and they 
be allowed to carry him to their private dwelling, 
which request, at their earnest and importunate 
solicitation, was granted. * * « por six 
months the members of the family, including Dr. 
Chas. Macgill, Jr., who was then at home, contin- 
ued their ministrations. * * * At one time the 
femoral artery sloughed in two and Capt. Oden's 
life was despaired of, but every physical, and even 
spiritual, aid was rendered him. Finally he rallied 
and recovered, and lived many years thereafter to 
call them blessed. Capt. Oden often said that he 
was especially indebted to Miss MoUie Macgill, 
now Mrs. Rosenberg, of Galveston, and named a 
daughter Mollie Macgill Oden in honor and grate- 
ful remembrance of her. The intimacy and friend- 
ship between the Macgill and Oden families has 
been kept up ever since the war by correspondence 
and interchange of visits. * * * " 

Capt. Oden died in Odena, Talledega County, 
Ala., May 23, 1895. All this particularity of detail 



148 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



has been entered into to show that all that could be 
said in praise of the Macgill family is well deserved 
and that indeed, thousands of ex-Confederates 
have cause to remember them kindly, generally, and 
some especially. 

Through an interview published in the Macon, 
Ga., Daily Telegraph, of June 24th, 1894, Mr. 
Chester Pearce, a leading citizen and politician of 
Georgia, adds his quota of grateful recollections to 
that of Capt. Oden. Mr. Pearce took part in the 
battle of Sharpsburg as a soldier in the Eighteenth 
Georgia, Hood's Texas Brigade ; was shot entirely 
through the body with a minnie ball ; laid on the 
field many hours, and was finally carried to 
Hagerstown, Md., nine miles distant, where he 
was placed in the hospital at the courthouse. 
Here the doctors declined to dress his wound, 
saying that it was useless as death would soon 
come to relieve him of his suffering. For two 
days he lingered in this miserable condition with- 
out nourishment, no one even showing him the 
kindness to bathe his face and hands. Then a 
committee of ladies visited the hospital, among 
them the daughters of Dr. Macgill. 

"These daughters of Dr. Macgill," says the 
interviewer, "■ minis1;ering angels indeed, gave 
guarantee bond for the return of the young sol- 
dier, should he recover, and took him to their 
elegant and palatial home. Here for the first 
time he received medical attention. Dr. Chas. 
Macgill, Jr., taking him in charge and dressing 
his wounds. Miss Mollie Macgill, a beautiful 
young lady, became his nurse. In two months' 
time he was sufficiently recovered to go to Balti- 
more, the military post. Here Mr. James Carroll, 
a friend of Southern soldiers, gave guarantee bond 
for his safe-keeping and he was finally exchanged. 
He rejoined the Confederate army, took part in the 
murderous charge of Round Top — at the battle of 
Gettysburg ; later was again captured by the Fed- 
erals and was sent by them to Fort Delaware ; made 
his escape, but was retaken and carried to Fort 
Henry, where he was thrown into a dungeon with 
the vilest of criminals and remained until exchanged. 
He then again hurried to the front and fought in 



the lines until he surrendered with the other soldiers 
of Gen. Lee's army at Appomatox. * * * In 
the course of years, Miss Mollie Macgill, who had 
so tenderly nursed back to life the boy-soldier, 
married a Mr. Rosenberg, a wealthy banker of Gal- 
veston, Texas. There she met Mr. and Mrs. Dan 
Henderson j of Camilla, Ga., and told them the 
story of the young soldier she had nursed, and re- 
quested them to discover his whereabouts, if 
possible. 

"Not long since Mr. Henderson read in the 
Macon Telegraph, that a Chester Pearce was a can- 
didate for the legislature from Houston County. 
Mrs. Rosenberg wrote to the candidate to know if 
he could be the Chester Pearce whom she had 
known in Maryland, sending her kindest regards, 
and this was the letter that brought forth the ' war 
record ' of Chester Pearce, — this was the letter of 
which he so fondly spoke and that elicited from him 
expressions of grateful remembrance, worthy of the 
man and the kind friends who rescued him from an 
untimely grave." 

In peace and war, — through all the vicissi- 
tudes of time and circumstance, the Macgills 
have been the same true, generous and -chivalric 
race. Mrs. Rosenberg's life has been spent in 
an earnest, Christian effort to do all the good within 
her power and to render all about her happy. She 
has been a member of the Episcopal Church since 
she was sixteen years of age. After her husband's 
death, when it became known that his remains were 
to find sepulture out of the State, she was petitioned 
by thousands of people to allow them to be interred 
in one of the public squares of Galveston. She, 
however, carried out the wish expressed by him in 
his lifetime and consigned them to earth in Loudon 
park cemetery in Baltimore, Md., where his first 
wife is buried and a costly monument now marks 
the spot. Mrs. Rosenberg is a lady of rare brill- 
iancy and strength of mind. Her" husband was 
deeply attached to her. She was in full sympathy 
with all his acts of beneficence and in every way 
aided him to the full extent of her power in all his 
undertakings. No lady in Galveston is more gen- 
erally admired and beloved. 








^ng'StyHSCKoevoeuNY 



John Sealy 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



149 



JOHN SEALY, 

GALVESTON. 



The late lamented John Sealy, during many 
years a member of the famous banking house of 
Ball, Hutchings & Company, of Galveston, Texas, 
and an active promoter of the best interests of that 
city, was born in the great Wyoming Valley at 
Kingston, Luzerne County, Pa., October 18, 1822, 
and when fourteen years of age entered a country 
store as a clerk under an agreement to work for 
board and clothes until twenty-one years of age and 
tnen receive as further payment flOO.OOand an 
extra suit of clothing. When he had reached eight- 
een years of age his employer, although continu- 
ing merchandising, engaged in developing coal 
mines in addition thereto, and soon found that the 
young employee was competent to look after these 
outside interests and placed him in charge of them 
as general manager, which position he continued to 
fill, under the terms of agreement originally 
entered into as to remuneration for personal ser- 
vices, until he had attained his majority. He was 
then retained on a salary until twenty-four years 
of age, when he determined to cast his fortunes 
with the people of the State of Texas. He arrived 
in Galveston in 1846 with about seven hundred and 
fifty dollars, saved from his earnings, and suc- 
ceeded in securing employment as salesman in the 
house of Henry Hubbell & Co., who were at that 
time considered the leading dry goods merchants 
in the city. He continued in this position for 
about a year and during that time became ac- 
quainted with, and an intimate friend of Mr. 
J. H. Hutchings, bookkeeper for the firm. Mr. 
Hutchings had also saved from his salary 
about seven hundred and fifty dollars. The two 
young men decided to combine their means and go 
into business upon their own account and with their 
joint capital of fifteen hundred dollars succeeded 
in purchasing from Hubbell & Company, who had 
the greatest confidence in their integrity and 
capacity, a stock of goods, valued at several thou- 
sand dollars, which they took to the town of Sabine 
Pass, Texas, where they opened a store in 1847, 
under the firm name of Hutchings & Sealy. They 
soon won the confidence of the business community 
and built up a fine trade, which they rapidly ex- 
tended until they ranked as the leading merchants 
of the section. They remained in business at 
Sabine Pass, until 1854, when, having accumulated 
about $50,000.00, they deemed it advisable to 



close out there and change their base of operations 
to some larger place. Accordingly they wound up 
their affairs at Sabine Pass, took a few months 
much needed rest, and moved to Galveston, where 
they formed a copartnership with Mr. George 
Ball, under the firm name of Ball, Hutchings & 
Company, and embarked in the general dry goods 
and commission business. The commission busi- 
ness was sold out in 1860 and the dry goods busi- 
ness in 1865, when the firm went regularly into the 
banking business. Two years later Mr. George 
Sealy was admitted to the copartnership, which 
continued with this personnel until the death of the 
subject of this sketch, Mr. John Sealy, August 
29th, 1884. Mr. John Sealy's widow, Mrs. 
Rebecca Sealy, has been allowed to retain the 
partnership interest of her late husband in the 
business up to the present time, 1896. 

Mr. Sealy was married to Miss Rebecca Davis 
of Bedford, Pa., in 1857. Two children, John and 
Jane Sealy, were born of this union. The son 
will succeed to his father's interest and become a 
full partner in the firm. Mr. Sealy was identified 
with, every important public enterprise inaugurated 
in Galveston during his residence in that city and 
was instrumental in originating many of them. 

From the beginning he had a deep and abiding 
faith in the continued growth and prosperity of the 
city of his adoption and inspired all who came in con- 
tact with him with like confidence. He was an officer, 
or director, in nearly every corporation chartered 
and doing business in Galveston, by reason of his 
well recognized financial ability and the large stock 
interests that he held. At the time of his death he 
was the wealthiest man in Galveston, owning among 
other property a landed estate sufficiently large to 
form a good sized principality. Among other gen- 
erous bequests in his last will and testament he 
set aside a sum of money for the erection of a char- 
ity hospital which has since been erected at a cost 
of $75,000.00 and been of great benefit to the suf- 
fering poor of the State, as people from all parts of 
Texas are admitted free of charge. He did not 
wait until he no longer had a use for the things of 
this world to put his wealth to good purpose. His ' 
life was a long record of worthy deeds and silent 
benefactions. As between himself and others, 
whether friends or enemies, he kept the scales of 
justice evenly balanped. No man could ever say 



150 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



that he had treated him unfairly. He was incapa- 
ble of a little, mean or unworthy action. 

He started in the race of life penniless and with- 
out friends, other than those he had won by his 
energy, truthfulness, faithful discharge of duty, 
adherence to correct principles and purity of 
thought, speech and living. He resisted and over- 
came many temptations and encountered and sur- 
mounted many obstacles, following always with 
undeviating fidelity the lode-star of duty. His 
career in all essential respects was identical with 
that of his brother, Mr. George Sealy, a biography 
of whom appears elsewhere in this volume. The 
following is from the Galveston News of Sunday, 
August 31, 1884:— 

" To say that the news of the death of Mr. John 
Sealy touched the whole community with a deep thrill 
of sorrow yesterday, but poorly conveys the idea of 
the sense of the community upon the sudden taking 
away of one of its most prominent members. The 
flags upon the Santa Fe general office, Custom- 
House, Cotton Exchange, Galveston News building, 
British, German, Russian, Norwegian and Austrian 
consular offices, engine houses. Artillery Hall, Tur- 
ner Hall, Beach Hotel, Mallory and Morgan offices, 
Hendley, Eeymershoffer, Blum Block, Oppenheimer 
& Co.'s, Kauffman & Eunge, Marwitz, and a num- 
ber of other buildings, not now remembered, were 
placed at half-mast in honor of the memory of Mr. 
Sealy. An hour before the time set for the funeral, 
clouds gathered heavily in the north, and the pros- 
pect of a storm prevented many from attending the 
funeral services, but, as it was, there were hun- 
dreds present. The officers and employees of the 
Santa Fe road formed at the general office in a 
body and marched to the residence. A number of 
the members of Hook and Ladder Company No. 
1, were also present. 

"The floral tributes were numerous and beauti- 
ful, the casket being literally covered with choice 
flowers most artistically arranged. 

" At five o'clock, Rev. Dr. S. M. Bird, rector of 
Trinity Church, began the reading of the solemn 
and impressive service for the dead. Upon its con- 
clusion he delivered the following beautiful and 
touching comment upon the good man gone: — 

" ' Words of eulogy flow almost spontaneously as 
we stand amidst the funereal tributes to excellence 
and worth. 

" ' We have to restrain, rather than encourage, 
the natural instincts of affection which inspire the 
coronation of a successful and generous life. 

" ' We look into the calm, dead face of our friend 
ahd brother and read there all the story of amia- 
bility, frankness and honor, and as we recall the 



outlines of a life so suddenly closed, memory fully 
anticipates the epitaph which will be carved upon 
his tomb. We think of him as citizen, father, 
friend, neighbor, and each chapter unfolds its 
blending harmonies of goodness, purity and virtue. 
Wheij one of the old Patrician leaders of Rome 
expired, it was the custom of the common grief 
for each associate and colleague to bring to his 
bier the eblematic tokens of the particular virtue 
which most impressed itself upon the offerer. 
One brought the laurels which crowned his brow 
with the badges of noble bearing and courtly pride ; 
another placed in his dead hands, the white lilies 
of purity, commemorating a gentle life and unself- 
ish patriotism ; a third placed upon his shield the 
red rose of unsullied courage and iron purpose;, 
and thus, part by part, his catafalque was strewn 
with the silent symbols of worthiness and renown. 
I have thought if each one of ourselves could come 
from our reserve and give out from the respective 
treasures of our knowledge the impressions made 
by the long and useful life of our departed friend, 
the homage would be large indeed, for we would not 
cease until we had robed his casket in a funeral 
mantle, graceful as ever covered that of Roman 
senator or conscript father. To his public spirit 
and organizing industry our prosperous city is 
indebted for large and enduring elements of its 
permanency and present growth. Forecasting 
with unerring genius the future of Galveston, 
he conceived and carried out many of its in- 
stitutions which contribute to-day to its stability 
and wealth. Prompt with his judgment and good 
will, he promoted every interest which looked to the 
happiness of the people and the increase of their 
fortunes. Generous oftentimes beyond his share, 
he led the way in the courses of liberality and im- 
provements. His business and untiring industry 
became a passion to him, which laid up its results 
in strong material success for himself and in large 
and generous returns for others. Wealth brings 
power and responsibility, and so to his native 
strength of purpose, we find in maturer years this 
new gift added to his resources — a gift used so 
wisely that nearly every enterprise of public or 
municipal interest was unprojected until his name, 
his judgment, and his co-operation were first as- 
sured. This done, his fellow-citizens and fellow- 
capitalists were inspired by the one needed resolu- 
tion which almost Invariably leads up to such positive 
results as leave little to be desired. Responsibility, 
too, was fully appreciated, and so we find the stroma 
and solid banking house, whose business he con- 
tributed so much to enlarge and strengthen, became 
identified directly and at once with every depart- 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



lot 



ment of the city's life, and widely enough in the 
progress of the entire State. The founder of a 
city, who lays deeply those varied elements which 
make up the security of its wealth, the integrity of 
its credit and the happiness of its homes, must 
outrank in the hightest verdict every one of those 
who, with martial victories and trained warfare, 
destroy and pull down the habitations of man. A 
successful citizen is always a more interesting 
man than a conquering soldier, as the spirit 
of construction is always more large than the 
spirit which destroys. In the later days of 
his health and vigor many of his friends dis- 
covered a strong physical and personal resem- 
blance to the greatest soldier of the Northern 
armies. The likeness was remarkable, and yet we 
may be pardoned in rejoicing that our departed 
friend and brother possessed powers of worth and 
appliance of virtue so different and so much more 
laudable, that they will endure in their fruits of 
increase long after the ashes of smoking towns and 
the ruin of a people's industries have faded from 
the records which they so long disfigured. The 
commonwealth is made up of its citizens, and its 
best citizens are always the basis of its strength 
and the welcome prophecies of its fortunes. If we 
pass from his life as a citizen to his life as a man 
of business we discover similar distinguishing 
marks of excellence. One of the finest tributes I 
ever heard to a man of business was awarded to 
Mr. Scaly by his lifelong friend and partner at the 
latter's house on the occasion of a brilliant marriage, 
and the entire ' worthiness of the testimony was 
seen in the hearty sanction of the moment, and is 
echoed loudly by every one brought into commer- 
cial relations with him. Whether as banker, rail- 
road manager, president of a corporation, or a 
private in the ranks — the same straightforward- 
ness, integrity and painstaking, was the simple 
secret which made him everywhere trusted, and, 
most of all, by those whose dealings with him were 
intimate, mutual and constant. He enriched him- 
self never at the expense of others, while others 
were made partakers with him in all his successes 
and his fortunes. This is no small consideration in 
these days when men are ' making haste to get 
rich;' when, regardless of the social compact, 
careless of all moral restraint, impatient at the 
checks of conscience and defiant against every 
principle of virtue, they trample down all obstacles 
in the way of interest, until duty, honor and truth 
are outraged — wrecked in the rapid eagerness to- 
achieve results — and high names and the highest 
places, and highest trusts are prost'tuted, drag- 
ged down in the financial scramble to the level 



of common fraud and unblushing crime. Here 
there is not a whisper of detraction or reproach. 
If large wealth rewarded his industry and toil, it 
was the normal issue of a large heart which refused 
all unjust and ungenerous methods. His hands- 
are clean, even in death, because they never worked 
in the lower ventures of avarice and greed ; and so^ 
too, his hands were liberal, with a liberality which- 
was always his own and not another's. The mer- 
cantile spirit of the age was strong within him — 
too strong, for it overtaxed his time and his strength. 
In this mammon-loving country, I suppose his 
temptations were strong and keen, as only success- 
ful men can feel them ; but always they seemed 
dominated by a justice and discretion which led us 
all to recognize his calm superiority to passing 
inducements and a ' conscience void of offense.' 
More than twelve years continuously I have been 
his neighbor. It is needless to say that in him 1 
always felt that I had a neighbor ; yea, more, a 
friend, a counselor and confidant. His pleasing 
manners and cheerful bearing made him accessible 
to a fault. One was reassured at the outset,' and 
invited to the freest confidence. More than once I 
have felt drawn to his side in my moments of doubt, 
and depended upon him in my moments of hesita- 
tion, and always I have met just what I requiretJ 
and in the way that I wanted it. To my church he- 
gave a constant support, to my work an open hand> 
and to myself a generous and unswerving friend- 
ship. I may not intrude upon the inner circle of 
his retired home, where he has been a father, a 
husband, a brother — where his coming has been 
always as the coming of the genial light which 
falls upon the flowers, where his intercourse 
has been of that quiet and considerate careful- 
ness which made blessings fall like sunbeams 
upon every member of his family. Yesterday 
the light of his house went down in thick 
darkness. The shadows of eventide, coming with 
the closing hours of his life, fell like a pall of night 
upon all his home. A strong brother's arm is no 
more within reach, and the strong voice of gentle 
love, his children will wonder why they can no 
longer hear. Home to him was his atmosphere, 
his paradise. Rarely could he be drawn from its 
charmed circle. Only affairs of urgent business 
and necessity could tempt him abroad. This led ' 
some to think him retiring and reserved, but his 
home was his own creation, and the ideal of his 
earthly life, made lovely by his own good heart and " 
stamped anew every day with his genial and kindly 
nature. In this home the tears are falling fast, as 
they will flow long. In this home hearts are 
aching with strange and new sorrows, which come 




Eliy'ij-,-ll '■ r Kor.>-oi-,is.]IY 



J N HUTCHTN' 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



15a 



Confederate States government. As the coast of 
Texas was closely blockaded, goods of all kinds 
soon became scarce in the State, and one of the 
first importations made by the firm was a cargo of 
fifty thousand pairs of cotton and wool cards, 
which they brought in under a contract with the 
State, to enable the people of Texas to manufacture 
their own clothing. These were introduced by way 
of Mexico, through which country they continued 
to make large shipments of cotton during the con- 
tinuance of the blockade, while at the same time 
they employed foreign vessels to run war material 
into the harbor of Galveston. In all of this they 
were eminently successful, and Mr. Hutchings is 
still proud of the fact that, through the energy and 
daring enterprise of the firm, vessels were, at the 
close of the war, arriving at Galveston with arms 
and munitions, and departing, laden with cotton, 
on every change or dark of the moon, with almost 
the regularity of mail steamers. 

In 1865 the firm returned to Galveston and re- 
sumed the banking business in the same building 
which they had erected in 1855, and which they have 
now occupied for thirty-seven years ; but Mr. 
Hutchings still cherishes the kindest feelings for 
the people of Houston, with whom he lived so hap- 
pily and prosperously during the dark days of the 
Civil War. Soon after their return to Galveston 
they admitted as a partner Mr. George Sealy, who 
was a brother of Mr. John Sealy, and had long 
been in their service. The firm name, however, 
remained unchanged. In March, 1884, Mr. George 
Ball died, and in the following August Mr. John 
Sealy died, leaving Mr. Hutchings and Mr. George 
Sealy the only surviving members of the firm, and 
they have continued the banking and exchange 
business under the same firm name until the present 
time, and their rating for wealth and credit in bank- 
ing circles is perhaps as high as that of any other 
banking house in the world. 

The old building, which, in simple strength, so 
long and faithfully abided by the fortunes of the 
firm, has just been replaced by another, con- 
structed by Mr. Hutchings specially for their use 
and having every feature of safety, comfort and 
convenience suggested by the long conduct of the 
banking business. This structure is the best 
equipped and most thoroughly appointed bank 
building in the South. 

It is one of the handsomest buildings on the 
strand. 

. In addition to being one of the two managers of 
this great banking house, Mr. Hutchings has occu- 
pied, and still holds, many important and responsi- 
ble business positions. His sound judgment, his 



solid integrity, his far-seeing enterprise, his great 
activity, his superb business qualities, and remark- 
able success in all his undertakings, have caused 
his name and services to be almost indispensable in 
a leading connection with every important enter- 
prise of Galveston. He was for a long time presi- 
dent of the Galveston Wharf Company and it 
was during his presidency of this association 
that a compromise was effected with the city, which 
settled long disputed claims as to the title of the 
wharf property. In consideration of the value of 
his services in negotiating this settlement, the com- 
pany presented him with a handsome service of 
silver. The McAlpine survey of the wharf was 
also made during the same time, and improvements 
were begun which have created valuable property 
for the company, and given a spacious and beauti- 
ful front to the city. He was the first president, 
after the war, of the Galveston Gas Company, and 
has continued ever since to be one of its directors, 
and is now its president. He has long been a 
director of the Southern Press Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Galveston, and is at this time its president. 
He was for some time a director of the Galveston 
City Company, and is now the president of that 
company. He was appointed by Judge E. P. Hill, 
the Confederate States Judge for Texas, a Commis- 
sioner of the Confederate States Court, which he 
held as long as the Confederate States were in exist- 
ence, and still preserves his commission from Judge 
Hill and values it very highly. He was also one of 
the original directors of the Gulf, Colorado and 
Santa Fe Railroad Company, also of the Galveston 
Oil Mills Company, of the Land and Loan Com- 
pany, and also of the Galveston, Houston and Hen- 
derson Railway Company, and of the Galveston 
Insurance Company. In 1859-60 he was an alder- 
man of the city of Galveston, and negotiated the 
bonds for the first bridge biiilt over the bay. He 
was the author of the plan for raising money to 
open the inner bar in Galveston harbor, and 
drafted the ordinance of June 25, 1869, which , 
put his plan into successful execution, He was 
the originator and chief promoter of the estab- 
lishment of the splendid line of steamers plying 
between Galveston and New York, so well known 
as the Mallory line, and now incorporated as the 
New York and Texas Steamship Company, and he 
is one of the five directors of this company. He 
accomplished this splendid enterprise by inducing 
the Galveston Wharf Company, of which he was 
president, to take a fourth interest in the four first 
steamers built for the line, by taking stock himself 
and inducing his partners to do likewise ; and the 
present firm still owns a large interest in the line. 



154 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



He and his partner, John Sealy, formed a company 
and built the Factor's Cotton Press, but the com- 
pany was soon afterwards merged into the Southern 
Cotton Press and Manufacturing Company, the 
suggestion and accomplishment of which was the 
work of Mr. Hutchings, and his associates, appre- 
ciating his skill, industry, and ability in the adjust- 
ment of that matter, presented him with a gold 
watch and chain of the most costly kind, which he 
prizes highly and wears daily. 

It is said of Mr. Hutchings that in all these 
varied and exacting business relations, with their 
multitudinous demands upon his time and energy, 
he has never been known to fail in an appointment ; 
and he has maintained this course throughout a 
lifetime of hard work, extending through more than 
fifty years. He early found his task, and has 
faithfully stood to it. There has been no time in 
such a life for idle dreams. To him all true work 
has been held sacred — as wide as the earth, with 
its sumipit in heaven ; and if genius be, as has been 
said by one, " an immense capacity for taking 
pains; " or, as said by another, " a great capacity 
for discipline," in either character we find it in 
an eminent degree in the life of Mr. Hutchings. 
Being asked by the author the measure of his suc- 
cess, and the qualities and conditions to which he 
chiefly attributed it, he answered promptly: " Suc- 
cess in life depends much upon honesty, sobriety, 
industry, economy, and a disposition to promote 
the best interests of the community in which one 
lives. This disposition is always observed and 
appreciated ; and the measure of a man's success 
depends much upon the kindly disposition of his 
neighbors towards him. Success in life consists 
not so much in making money as in being use- 
ful ; and the man who has been the most useful 
in his day and generation is the most successful 
man." 

The life of Mr. Hutchings grandly illustrates his 
views of usefulness and success. Few men have 

^ taken the lead in so many enterprises that pro- 
moted the interests of the communities in which 
they lived ; and he has always faithfully discharged 
every duty which devolved upon him", laboring at 
all times for the public good, as well as for the 
interests and welfare of those who were directly 
concerned in his undertakings or affected by them ; 
and amid all the advantages and opportunities 
afforded by his official positions, he has never 
speculated upon his knowledge, his power, or his 
influence. 



He has strong faith in the future of Galveston 
as a great commercial city, and in the illimitable 
growth and prosperity of Texas. For nearly 
twenty years, he has taken a warm and active 
interest in every project for deepening the channel 
over Galveston bar, as being not only of the 
greatest importance to the welfare of the city, 
but of the whole State. 

During all this time, while so busily engaged in 
enterprises of a public character, he has not failed 
to attend with equal minuteness and promptitude 
to his private affairs. Early and late he has 
always been found at his bank during business 
hours, and is still found there at the proper time. 
He believes strongly in the old adage, that it is 
better to wear awaj' than to rust away. 

"While Mr. Hutchings, like all long-disciplined 
and successful business men, is stern and strict 
in his business habits, in social life he is 
kind, courteous, and genial. He is devoted 
to his family and warmly attached to his friends, 
and kind to all who have dealings with him. 
He was married in Galveston on the 18th of 
June, 1856, to Miss Minnie Knox, a lady of supe- 
rior reflnement and excellence of character, who 
was the niece of Robert Mills, at that time the head 
of the then well-known banking house of R. & D. 
G. Mills. They have reared a large and interest- 
ing family of children. Their third daughter was 
married a few years since to Mr. John W. Harris, 
an excellent young man, and a son of the late 
Judge John W. Harris, a distinguished pioneer of 
the Texas bar. 

Mr. Hutchings has a marked fondness for the 
beauties of nature, and claims great skill in the 
transplanting and nurture of trees. He has 
beautified his home in Galveston with an enchant- 
ing verdure of live oaks, flowers, and shrubbery ; 
and a visit to his hospitable mansion will well repay 
those who have a taste for the combined embellish- 
ments of art and nature. 

And yet the crowning virtue of the life and char- 
acter of Mr. Hutchings is his deep-founded faith 
in the precepts and promises of Christianity. He 
has long been a devout communicant of the Episco- 
pal Church ; and he considers spiritual attainment 
and a Christian life far above all earthly posses- 
sions and worldly successes — the golden crown of 
a successful life, of which all other qualifications 
are but parts. He is a liberal supporter of the 
church, and wears upon the brow of age the 
chaplet of many noble charities and benefactions. 




E^8 V^^C Koevoets NY 



Mrs J.H.HuTCHiNGs. 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



155' 



GEORGE BALL, 



GALVESTON. 



It has often struck me that the real is the most 
unreal. David Copperfield was a more real person- 
^Se and will longer exercise an influence in shaping 
the course of human lives and ultimate human des- 
tinies than many of the persons who are living and 
have actually lived. The ordinary human life, 
except in so far as it concerns the individual 
soul and affects those with which it mediately 
or Immediately comes in contact, is void of 
lasting effect. As to itself, it passes away like a 
shadow and is remembered no more. But there 
have been lives whose influence will extend to 
remotest time and of these was the life of the sub- 
ject of this memoir, Mr. George Ball. 

It is doubtful if there ever was an intrinsically 
noble man who did not have a noble mother, and it 
is doubtful if any man ever accomplished much 
worthy of commemoration, who was not sustained 
and cheered by the companionship and counsel of a 
noble wife. Mr. Ball possessed both and few men 
have done more to entitle themselves to an honorable 
place upon the pages of the State's history. 

He was born May 9th, 1817, at Gausevoort, 
Saratoga County, N. Y., where he resided until 
twelve years of age, when he went to live with 
his uncle, George Hoyt, at Albany, in that 
State. He learned the trade of silversmith and 
jeweler from his uncle and was indebted to him also 
for most excellent training in business affairs. On 
reaching his majority, he set out to seek a location 
for himself, traveling extensively through the 
Western and Southern States, and finally set 
tling for a time in Shreveport, La. There he 
came to hear a great deal of Texas, and being 
influenced by favorable reports, at last decided to 
try his fortunes in the then infant republic. 
Eeturning to New York, he formed a copartner- 
ship with his brother Albert, and, procuring a stock 
of general merchandise and lumber suflQcient to 
erect a small store house, embarked for Galveston, 
and arrived there in the fall of 1839, during the 
disastrous epidemic of yellow fever that prevailed 
that year. Nothing daunted by the gloomy sur- 
roundings that environed him, he landed his cargo 
and, leasing a lot on Tremont street, between 
Mechanics and Market streets, proceeded to erect 
his building and open his business. His brother 
joined him the following year, and their business 
proving successful, they moved to the vicinity of 



Strand and Twenty-second streets, at that time 
much nearer to the center of trade than the first 
site selected. After a few years this firm was dis- 
solved, Albert entering the clothing business and 
George continuing that of dry goods. 

In 1854, Mr. Ball disposed of his mercantile 
interests and, associating himself with John H. 
Hutchings and John Sealy, formed the firm of Ball, 
Hutchings & Co., for banking and commission pur- 
poses. As senior member of this firm, Mr. Ball 
showed himself to be a man of good ability.. Under 
his management it soon took rank among the first 
in the city and eventually became the first in the 
State. During the four years of the late war (from 
1861 to 1865) this firm transacted an extensive 
business with Europe in the interests of the Con- 
federate government through Mexico and after- 
wards, in 1873, tided over that year of panic and 
failure. Ball, Hutchings & Co., met all demands 
and, by integrity and business skill, have met and 
weathered all subsequent financial storms that have 
wrecked so many business concerns and are now 
one of the most famous banking houses that the 
United States can boast. From the first Mr. 
Ball manifested his belief in the future of Gal- 
veston and took great interest in everything per- 
taining to its welfare. There were very few enter-, 
prises started in the city in which he was not 
one of the foremost workers. To a number of cor- 
porations and scores of private undertakings, he 
was a stanch friend and valued contributor. He 
early saw the advantages that Galveston possessed 
as a shipping point and advocated and promoted 
the adoption of all measures that tended to the de- 
velopment of the transportation interests of the 
city. He took the first $10,000.00 worth of stock 
in the Mallory Steamship Company on its organiza- 
tion. On April 19, 1843, Mr. Ball married Miss 
Sarah Catherine Perry, a native of Newport, E. I., 
and a daughter of Capt. James Perry, who set 
tied at Galveston in 1839. Capt. Perry was con- 
nected with the Custom House in early days and 
was for many years a respected citizen of Galves- 
ton. Of this union six children were born, but two 
of whom survive : Mrs. Nellie League of Galveston 
and Frank Merriam Ball. Mr. Ball sought no pub- 
lic office, his family and business occupying all of 
his time and attention. He was a man of quiet 
tastes and retired habits, known for his great kind- 



156 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



ness of heart and disposition to be helpful to others. 
He came to be the possessor of much wealth, which, 
however, he sought to use in such a manner as to 
accomplish the most good for himself and his fellow- 
men. The year preceding his death, he donated 
fifty thousand doDars for the erection of a building 
in Galveston for public school purposes, to which 
donation, while the building was in course of con- 
struction, he added $20,000.00niore. This build- 
ing was barely finished when his life drew to a 
close, at 1 : 15 o'clock on the morning of March 
13, 1884. 

The following letter of acknowledgment was 
addressed to him by the trustees of the city public 
free schools, through their secretary: — 

" Office or Superintendent, 1 
"Galveston, Texas, June 9th, 1883. | 

" George Ball, Esq., Galveston, Texas: 

' ' Dear Sir — I have the honor to inform you that 
at a regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of 
the Public Free Schools of the city of Galveston, 
held June 7th, 1883, Col. W. B. Denson offered 
the following resolution, which was adopted by a 
unanimous vote, viz. . — 

" 'Resolved, by the Board of Trustees, that we 
have received notification of the generous and mag- 
nificent donation of our fellow-townsman, George 
Ball, in donating $50,000.00 to be used in the 
erection of a public school building in the city of 
Galveston, and, as the representatives of the pub- 
lic free schools of this city, we tender him our 
sincere and profound gratitude and we bespeak for 
this broad philanthropy of Mr. Ball the commenda- 
tion of a grateful people.' 

" I have the honor to further inform you that at 
the same meeting of the Board of School Trustees, 
on motion of Col. Denson, the action of the City 
Council in leaving the construction of the building 
aforesaid to your direction and supervision was 
indorsed by the Board. 

" Respectfully yours, 

" Foster Rose, Secy." 

His will provided funds in trust, for other char- 
ites, the chief of which was a fund of $50,000.00 
to aid the poor of the city. Mr.- Ball was buried 
March 4th, 1884, with all the honors a grateful 
people could confer upon the memory of one so 
universally mourned. 

The following is an extract from an editorial that 
appeared in the columns of the Galveston Daily 
Newsot the morning of March 15th, 1884: — 

" In all the history of Galveston there has never 
been a more spontaneous and frevent manifestation 



of sorrow at the death of a member of the commun- 
ity than that which was given yesterday upon the 
funeral of Mr. George Ball. The city wore a 
Sunday-like appearance and, except that the scores 
of flags that were at half-mast told their own story 
of the sorrow of the community, a comer to the 
city would have wondered at the quiet that pre- 
vailed. At 12 o'clock the Cotton Exchange and 
banks closed for the day, and between that hour 
and three o'clock a large number of stores closed 
their doors. During the day numerous tender gifts 
of flowers were sent to the residence, many of 
them elegant and elaborate. Among the handsome 
floral tributes each district school sent a gift, while 
the children of the Grammar school contributed a 
number of beautiful crosses, crowns and wreaths 
into which were wrought the initials G. B. Very 
handsome and artistic floral offerings were sent by 
Mrs. Kopperl, Mrs. Adoue, Mrs. George Sealy, 
Capt. Bolger, Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Willis, Mrs. A. 
G. Mills, Miss Sorley, the Ladies Aid Society and 
Miss Garley. One of the tenderest tributes was 
brought by a little girl, who went to the door of the 
residence and offered a little cross, saying, ' Please 
put this on the coflin ; it is the best I could do.' 
The little giver can rest assured that her offering 
of love was given a place upon the casket. The 
funeral services were held at three o'clock, but long 
before that hour citizens of high and low estate, 
old and young, white and black, had begun to 
gather at the residence. The body, inclosed in a 
handsome casket, rested in the drawing room, where 
it was viewed by hundreds. Those who knew Mr. 
Ball in life, could not help noting the naturalness 
which marked the features in death. The face 
wore a look of calm, placid rest, as though Mr. 
Ball had ' wrapped the mantle of his couch about 
him and laid down to pleasant dreams.' 

"The funeral services, which were held at the 
house, were conducted by the Reverend Mr. Scott, 
of the Presbyterian Church. After reading, by 
special request, the beautiful and impressive service 
of the Episcopal Church, Mr. Scott continued and 
said: — 

" 'It needs not, dear friends, that I speak with 
you to-day of him who is no longer with us, nor 
would it be consonant with the feelings and wishes 
of those most dearly concerned that I should do 
so. The deepest and truest grief always courts 
silence and retirement. His life was spent in your 
midst; his record is before you, as a man, 
a citizen, a philanthropist, a benefactor, he 
is known to you all; and I see in this vast throng, . 
here assembled, representing all classes and" 
orders among us,, a clear evidence that our whole 




Snj ?ly H.iS. CKoswo ete . TS-f 



George Ball. 



INDIAN' WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Vol 



city, in all her borders, sits to-day under the shadow 
of a common grief. The aged and the young, the 
little children of our homes, whose friend he was — 
are gathered, not onlj' under an impulse of sympathy 
with those who have been so sorely bereaved, but 
under a sense of personal sorrow and loss. And 
now, while our hearts are touched and attentive, 
may I not, as God's servant, entreat you to lay to 
heart this admonition ' in the midst of life we are 
in death ' and ask you to receive God's tender over- 
tures of grace and salvation, so that when your 
summons comes to go it may find you in perfect 
charity with man, at peace with God, in the enjoy- 
ment of ' a reasonable religious and holy hope ' the 
result of a life spent with the constant intention to 
follow the course mapped out by the divine Savior 
of the world. And let us bear upon the arm of our 
powerful sympathy those whose grief and sorrow 
are to-day so great, endeavoring to draw from that 
great well of comfort to the bereaved, those con- 
solations which a merciful God gives to the broken 
heart.' 

' ' Mr. Scott then read sundry appropriate and con- 
solatory scriptures, quoting in conclusion Elliott's 
beautiful lines : — 

" My God and Father while I stray 

Far from my home in life's rough way, 
0, help me from my heart to say : 
Thy will be done. 

"Let but my fainting heart be blest 

With Thy sweet spirit for its guest; 
My God, to Thee I leave the rest ; 
Thy will be done. 

" Renew my will from day to day, 

Blend it with Thine, and talje away 
All that makes it hard to say 
Thy will be done. 

" Then when on earth I breathe no more, 
That prayer, oft mixed with tears before, 
I'll sing upon a happy shore, 
Thy Will be done. 

"The casket was, upon the conclusion of the 
services at the residence, taken in charge by the 
pall-bearers — Mr. Rosenberg, Judge Ballinger,Mr. 
John Sealy, Mr. George Sealy, Mr. J. H. Hutchings, 
Mr. Waters S. Davis, Mr. A. J. Walker, Capt. A. N. 
Sawyer, Mr. James Sorley, Capt. Chas. Fowler, Capt. 
Bolger and Capt. Lufkin — and conveyed to the 
hearse. The procession formed with the following 
societies in the lead in the order named and repre- 
sented by the numbers stated : — 

" Screwmen's Benevolent Association, 195 men ; 
Longshoremen's Association, ' 65 ; Longshoremen's 
Benevolent Union, 40; Fire Department, 70; Gal- 
veston Typographical Union, 60; Employees of the 



Mallory Steamship Company, 60 ; Bricklayers As- 
sociation, 40 ; G. C. P. E. B. and P. Association, 
60; Franklin Assembly, K. of L., 25; Pioneer 
Assembly, K. of L., 35; Trades' Assembly, 32; 
Pressmen's Union, 10 ; 

" Next came the employees of the "bank, on foot ; 
then the pall-bearers in carriages. The hearse 
followed, and after it the family and friends. 
There were eighty-three carriages in the procession, 
which- extended over a mile and a quarter on Broad- 
way. 

"The procession on its way to the cemetery 
passed the Ball School building, which was draped 
in mourning. While the funeral cortege was pass- 
ing through the streets the bells of St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Trinity Church and St. John's church 
were tolled. The streets were lined with people 
along the whole route and at the cemetery the 
street was crowded with old and young. The 
flags of the societies, all draped in mourning, were 
stationed in a square around the grave. The casket 
was lowered into its final resting-place, a feeling 
prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Scott, and the floral 
offerings were deposited in the grave, and the 
tributes were ended. 

"While most of the children of the Grammar 
school were busily engaged in making the floral 
tributes placed by them on the casket, several of 
them passed resolutions of respect to the memory of 
Mr. Ball. After the committee had finished their 
work they collected all the pupils in one room, read 
the resolutions to them and they were unanimously 
adopted. They are as follows : — 

' ' ' Whereas, God having taken from us our friend 
and benefactor, Mr. George Ball, we the children 
of the Grammar school, as the immediate i-eciplents 
of his kindness, offer the following resolutions : — 

" ' 1. We heartily sympathize with the family in the 
act of Providence, which has deprived them of a 
kind husband and father and us of a true friend. 

" ' 2. We, the children to whom he has endeared 
himself by this, the crowning work of his life, can 
only regret that it was not the will of God that he 
should live to see its completion, and our daily 
efforts to show our appreciation of the benefits he 
has placed within our reach. 

"'3. That his name shall be forever cherished 
among us as that of one to whom it will be said : 
' Well done thou good and faithful servant.' 

"'4. That a copy of these resolutions be pre- 
sented to the bereaved family, and published in the 
Galveston papers. 

' ' ' Lewis Sorlet. 
" ' (Ninth Grade) Grammar.' 

"'Fannie A. Stephenson, Maud F. Royston, 



158 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Waters S. Davis, Jr. (Ninth Grade) ; Anna M. 
Swain, Virginia M. Sanford, Mamie Boyd (Eiglitli 
Grade) ; Maggie A. Malier, Marie FoeJje, Sebas- 
tian Tinsley, Harry Martin (Seventli Grade).' " 

Elsewliere in the News of the same issue appeared 
the following: "To-day all that was mortal of a 
man whose memory will be cherished as long as the 
city stands, will be consigned to the tomb to be 
seen no more forever in the city in which he was an 
important member for more than forty years. Re- 
tiring and quiet in his tastes and habits, his name 
was yet as familiar as that of the city itself, and 
the notoriety which he shunned was supplanted by 
the substantial respect and friendship of the peo- 
ple, who admired his virtues and integrity of char- 
acter and felt the benefits of his designs and far- 
reaching public spirit and charity. In the presence 
of the chaste and severe simplicity of such a char- 
acter the ordinary forms of praise are out of place, 
and only those who know perfectly — and none 
knew more than partially — the beneficent acts 
which he performed under a cold demeanor or con- 
cealed even from the beneficiaries, can realize to a 
fair extent the admirable equipoise of his character. 
As a man of business, he was as methodical and 
regular as a machine. In his charities, he would, 
if possible, have been so, but in the impossibility 
of discriminating in all demands upon it, he doubt- 
less erred in being too liberal rather than too rigid. 
The great commercial house of which he was the 
senior member has doubtless given far more for 
religious and charitable purposes and aided more 
in enterprises for the public good than any other in 
Texas. There is probably not one among the many 
churches of Galveston which has not been aided by 
them. Hospitals and asylums for the orphan and 
afflicted have been equally remembered, while steam- 
ships and railroads have been greatly aided by their 
ample means. Mr. Ball himself was the reputed 
owner of about one-eighth interest in the famous 
New York and Galveston Line of steamships. The 
house of which he was a senior member was doubt- 
less the main instrument in making the Santa Fe 
Eailroad, what it has proved, the most important 
element of its kind in the prosperity of Galveston. 
Hotels and city railroads have received important 
aid at their hands, and no enterprise for the benefit 
of the city has asked help from the firm in vain, 
while the business men of the city, whether mer- 
chants or mechanics, have often been sustained and 
encouraged by the house. It would be hard to 
name a worthy object needing aid which has. not 
received it at their h?inds. But, besides this, Mr. 
Ball's private charities are known to have been 
large though even his nearest friends do not know 



their extent. He studiously concealed many of 
them. Even the crowning gift that became public 
-before his death was made to take effect during his 
life with much reluctance, because he dreaded the 
talk and notoriety it would cause. It is under- 
stood that he had last year or before made pro- 
vision by will for the appropriation of $100,- 
000.00 out of his estate to provide a home for aged 
women, but on reflection he concluded to give half 
of the amount for the erection of the public school 
building which is now arising as a fitting monument 
to his fame, which is destined to rise higher after 
his long and useful life has ended. • * * Though 
a strictly business man and supposed to look mainly 
to profitable results, he loved a good name better 
than riches, and would have preferred any pecuniary 
loss to a tarnished reputation or any violence to his 
own conscience. * * * Mr. Ball's was in every 
sense of the word a remarkable and admirable 
character. Indeed he may have been taken as the 
type of the ideal business man. Of a fine and im- 
pressive personal appearance, with a massive and 
well-shaped head and keen, yet kindly eyes, his 
outward appearance rightly indicated his mental 
and moral qualities. It has been said by good 
judges, themselves able business men, that, in their 
opinion, Mr. George Ball was the most sagacious 
business man in the State and, perhaps, in the 
South. He was possessed of an eminently con- 
servative turn of mind, of a sharp insight into men 
and affairs, and, when occasion demanded it, he 
acted promptly and decisively. The admirable 
blending of these two qualities, caution and decision 
of character, gave him the key to that success which 
he invariably commanded. 

" By a wise management of his affairs, Mr. Ball 
acquired a large estate. 

" No man will ever know the amount of unosten- 
tatious beneficence that is surely credited to this 
self-poised but truly modest and kind-hearted 
man. * * * He ever and conscientiously de- 
clined election to public office. His life was 
wholly occupied by his business and his family, 
and, dying, he left no enemies, no animosities, no 
heart-burnings behind him. His self-reliant and 
yet retiring disposition shaded him, as it were, 
from public notoriety, but those who knew him well 
will not think it at all extravagant when we say 
that he possessed abilities that would have enabled 
him to fill any position in the country with dis- 
tinction. And that as a symmetrical character 
and an upright man we do not know of his 
superior." 

It is a hard struggle to fight one's way to finan- 
cial independence and harder still to achieve that 




Mrs. Sarah C. Ball. 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEEBS OF TEXAS. 



159 



independence and at the same time maintain a 
philanthropic interest in the welfare of others, even 
those who are contemporaneous, and almost im- 
possible as regards posterity ; yet, Mr. Ball was 
one of the few who succeeded in spite of all 
obstacles, and, notwithstanding the many chilling 
influences that every successful man must en- 
counter, entertained a genuine love for his fellow- 
men and a deep interest in the future welfare of 
his country and his kind. He did not care for 
money in itself, but simply for the power it gave 
him for good. His benefactions were many and 
continuous, but perhaps the most permanently 
beneficial was the donation for the public school 
building in Galveston. In a free country where 
every citizen is intrusted with the privilege and 
invested with the duties of suffrage the question of 
popular education, above all others, is the most 
vitally important, for the reason that the sole hope 
of constitutional freedom and good government 



must ever rest upon the intelligence of the citizen. 
It is almost impossible to estimate the ultimate 
value of this donation, equally notable for the 
wisdom and enlightened and noble spirit that 
inspired it — a donation worthy of all praise and 
of emulation. It is sufficient to say that it is 
fraught with blessings to the State. In every 
walk of life he was a potential factor. He left his 
impress deep upon the times in which he lived. 
Subsequent to Mr. Ball's death, Mrs. Ball had 
the school building beautifully remodeled and a 
handsome mansard roof put on it, at an additional 
cost of $40,000.00, and spent $10,000.00 more in 
suitably furnishing it. She was one of the organiz- 
ers of the First Presbyterian Church established in 
Galveston and is the only survivor of those whose 
names appear upon the first roll. A cultured, 
gracious and exceptionally talented lady, she is 
one of the brightest ornaments of the refined 
society of the Oleander City. 



GEORGE SEALY, 

GALVESTON. 



George Sealy, than whom no other man in Texas 
has contributed more to the development of the 
commerce of the State of Texas or to the develop- 
ment of its general resources, and than whom in 
this commonwealth there is none who has made a 
deeper impress on the times in which he lives, was 
born in the famous Wyoming Valley, Luzerne 
Co., Pa., on the 9th day of January, 1835. 
His parents, Robert and Mary (McCarty) Sealy, 
were born in Cork, Ireland. They were married 
and came to America in the year 181S. His father 
was one of eight children — four sons and four 
daughters. Quite a large family estate was owned 
in Ireland, but it was entailed and his father, being 
the fourth son, received only what the eldest brother 
was willing to concede to him. This, however, at 
the time of Robert Sealy's marriage, amounted to 
several thousand dollars, which he brought with him 
to America. He had also learned a trade (which 
was customary at that time), to fall back on if nec- 
essary. The trade that he selected was that of a 
locksmith. It was well that he learned a trade, for 
he found it useful in later life. He settled down 
in Pennsylvania but engaged in no active business, 
content, apparently, to live on his capital, instead 



of endeavoring to increase it. As his capital de- 
creased his family increased and, as time rolled on, 
he became the father of ten children — eight daugh- 
ters and two sons. Next to the oldest child came 
his son John and next to the last, the subject of 
this memoir, George Sealy. His family having 
thus grown and his money gone, he applied himself, 
from necessity, with energy and patience to the 
trade he had learned in his younger days, in order 
to earn a support for himself, wife and children. 
When reduced to this condition he ceased all cor- 
respondence with his family in Ireland and his 
older brother, supposing him dead, and having no 
male offspring of his own, broke the entail, and gave 
the property to his nephew. This put an end to all 
Robert Sealy's claims to the estate. 

These facts are mentioned to show that he had 
apparently little desire for the acquisition of 
wealth. He died in 1855, when sixty-six years 
of age. All that he left to his children was 
a name as an honest man and a reputation as a 
consistent member of the Presbyterian Church. 
His wife was also a member of the same church and 
a most devout Christian woman. Her infiuence 
over the children was much more effective in mold- 



160 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



ing their after lives than that of the father. Her 
constant prayers and advice to them was to be 
Industrious, economical, honest, and truthful. 
Example and precept were all she had to give 
them. 

Very early in life the subject of this memoir 
felt the necessity of caring for himself and experi- 
enced an ambition to, at some future time, become 
independent. He attended common schools until 
twelve years of age, and then undertook to take 
care of himself. His first earnings were gained by 
working for ten cents per day and his board, his 
employment being to sit on the end of a plow beam 
to hold the point of the plow in the ground when- 
ever the plowman had to cross gravel beds. He 
would walk from one streak of gravel to another 
and mount the end of the plow beam until it 
was passed. He next worked on a farm for five 
dollars per month and board and went to school 
three months during the winter season, working 
during these three months, nights and mornings, 
for his board. The three following years he 
worked in a country store, selling goods, sweeping 
out and keeping books nine months in the year at 
five dollars per month, and the other three months 
attending the Wyoming Seminary, at Kingston, 
Pa., working mornings and evenings for his board. 
When eighteen years of age the Lackawana and 
Bloomsburg Railroad was built into the Wyoming 
valley — the first railroad to enter the great coal 
valle}' of the Wyoming — and he accepted the posi- 
tion of station agent at Kingston and held it until 
he was twenty-two years of age. At that time his 
salary had been increased to fifty dollars per 
month and he had saved eleven hundred dollars. 
In the spring of 1857 he decided to come to Texas, 
and, to better his chances for a position in a busi- 
ness house, went to Pittsburg, Pa., and took a 
course in a commercial college. 

After graduating there he took one hundred dol- 
lars of his money to pay his expenses to Texas and 
left one thousand with his mother for her use in 
ease of necessity, or for the use of his unmarried 
sisters. He reached Galveston in November, 1857, 
during the great panic of that year, with $25 in his 
pocket. His ambition, as already stated, was to 
become financially independent, and this ambition 
could only be accomplished by hard work and 
economizing in every way. His idea was that any 
boy or young man, with good health and with no 
one but himself to care for, could save enough of 
his earnings to eventually become independent of 
others, but to thus succeed he must deprive him- 
self of what might be considered the luxuries of 
tobacco, cigars and liquors of all kinds, simply, if 



for no other reason, because of expense. He spent 
no money on these articles until late in life. His 
advice to all young men has been never to decline 
work on account of the salary offered, and never to 
abandon a situation unless another is offered at an 
increased salary. A living should be the first con- 
sideration of every poor boy or man, and if his 
services are valuable, his present employers will 
testify their appreciation of that fact by offering 
him proper compensation therefor, or others will 
discover his qualities and engage his services. 

On his arrival in Galveston in November, 1857, 
he offered his services to Ball, Hutchings & Com- 
pany, with the understanding that he would work 
one year and accept such salary, if any, as they 
might determine upon. 

His duties during the first year included those 
of shipping clerk, opening the oflace, sweeping out 
the store and any other work at which he could 
make himself useful. He neglected no opportunity 
to gain all the knowledge he could of the busi- 
ness. He made it his business to volunteer to do 
the work of any of the clerks who were sick, or 
were allowed a vacation. In this way he soon 
became competent to fill any position in the office. 
To perform this extra labor he would commence 
work at six o'clock in the morning and often 
remain at his post until as late as eleven o'clock 
at night. His willingness to work and eagerness to 
make himself competent and valuable constituted 
the basis of his after success. "The great 
error," he has often said, " that young men 
make, is being content to perform the only duties 
they are paid for, and having no ambition to 
advance themselves through the means of extra 
labor for which they get no pay. As a result, 
they are not competent to fill higher positions and 
they, perforce, go through life receiving small 
salaries and doing as little work as they possibly 
can." 

His salary was advanced from year to year, but 
without any demand on his part. During the year 
1859 he was offered a partnership in a large 
grocery house, which was being considered by him, 
when Mr. George Ball heard of the offer and said 
to him that the firm of Ball, Hutchings & Co., 
would not allow him to leave their employ and 
that all he had to do was to name a salary that 
would be satisfactory and it would be cheerfully 
given. A satisfactory arrangement was made and 
the partnership in the grocery business abandoned. 
Mr. Sealy's first vote was cast for John C. Free- 
mont for President of the United States in 1856. 
He was opposed to the extension of slavery into 
new territory, but recognized the constitutional 





Eng "^by K '> C Koevoets,N Y 



GEORGE SEAJY 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



161 



right of the then existing slave States to own 
negroes as property ; not because he approved or 
was in favor of the system of slavery, but because 
it was the acknowledged law of the land and only 
by war or by purchase of the negroes by the general 
government could that law be rightfully abrogated. 
War came and slavery was abolished. The election 
of Mr. Lincoln as President of the United States in 
1860 brought about the secession of the Southern 
States. The question then came up in the mind of 
Mr. Sealy, what was his duty to himself? He 
decided that, as he came to Texas to make it his 
home, he would obey the laws of the State of Texas 
and take his chances with the other people of the 
State, even in war, although he was opposed to 
secession. He continued his connection with Ball, 
Hutchings & Co., but it became necessary in 1862 
for him to join some military organization or be 
subject to conscription. He accordingly enlisted 
aa a volunteer in the independent company of 
cavalry organized by the late Col. H. B. Andrews 
as one of its original members. Mr. Sealy says he 
has always entertained a high opinion of the military 
qualities of Col. Andrews, as the Colonel's inde- 
pendent compan}' was attached to perhaps eight or 
ten battalions or regiments during the war ; the 
Colonel had a kind heart and was always willing to 
allow his company to be attached for the time being 
to a battalion to create the office of Major for some 
military friend of his deserving the position, or to 
•be attached to a number of companies to form a 
Tegiment so as to make a Colonel of a friend of his. 
It, however, never reported to any Major or Colonel 
to complete the organization and thus saw no active 
service. 

The company, as a matter of fact, was composed 
of such valuable material that the members were 
:all detailed for the discharge of special and im- 
portant duties, and the Colonel could never get his 
men together in time to perfect a battalion or regi- 
mental organization. The result was that the war 
lid not last long enough to give the Colonel an 
-opportunity to lead his men to the front for targets. 
They all survived the war and have been grateful 
for the strategy exhibited by him during the war 
for the purpose of securing their comfort and safety. 
Mr. Sealy enlisted for three years, as the law 
required in 1862. Being opposed to secession he 
was consistent in not accepting anything in the way 
of pay from the Confederacy for his services as 
a soldier and lived at his own expense. He was 
detailed to serve in the office of Gen. Slaughter, 
-commanding the Western Division of Texas, at 
Brownsville, and in 1865 performed the last official 
service that was rendered the Confederacy, signing 
n 



the parole, under official authority, of the soldiers 
of the lost cause who surrendered at Brownsville On 
the Eio Grande — the last to lay down their arms. 
He served his full three years without pay, but not 
without honor, as he was repeatedly offered higher 
positions which he declined. The position he took, 
from necessity, was that of a private, and he would 
not do himself the injustice to accept, voluntarily, 
any higher position, as he had promised himself to 
comply simply with the existing laws of the land 
and this he did faithfully. During the years 
from 1862 to 1865 he was also representing Ball, 
Hutchings & Co., at Matamoros, Mexico, in 
receiving and shipping cotton from Texas to 
Liverpool and cotton-cards from Europe. Ball, 
Hutchings & Co. had a contract with the State of 
Texas to deliver 20,000 pairs of cotton cards. A 
part of the consideration was, that they were 
granted by the State the privilege of exporting a 
certain number of bales of cotton free from any in- 
terference on the part of the Confederate officers. 
The war ended in May, 1865, and, after the army 
at Brownsville was disbanded, Mr. Sealy signed his 
own parole, having been authorized so to do, took 
passage on a government transport and went to Gal- 
veston. The city was still under the domination of 
the Federal military authorities. Business was 
allowed to go on unimpeded and Ball, Hutchings & 
Company opened their office again as bankers. 

This firm was established in the year 1855 and 
was composed at that time of Geo. Ball, John H. 
Hutchings and John Sealy. It is not necessary to 
say anything of the members individually here, as 
suitable biographical notices are to be found upon 
other pages of this volume. When the firm was 
established their business was that of wholesale dry 
goods and commission merchants. In 1860 they 
sold out their dry goods business and continued the 
cotton commission business. It was during this 
year, 1860, that the subject of this memoir con- 
ceived the idea of adding banking to the business 
of the firm on his own responsibility ; demonstrated 
the propriety and advantage of the step, had blanks 
printed and distributed among the members of the 
local business community and, in a short time there- 
after, put into successful operation a regular bank- 
ing business. From that time forward the firm of 
Ball, Hutchings & Company became known as 
bankers as well as commission merchants. It can 
be truthfully said that the firm never solicited 
patronage. That which came to it came voluntarily. 
The firm has enjoyed from its beginning to the 
present time an unbroken reputation for liberality 
and fair dealing. In the year 1865 Mr. George 
Sealy became interested in the business, being 



162 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



allowed a percentage of the profits, and in 1867 
became a full partner and has since so remained, 
having active management of the banking depart- 
ment. Mr. Sealy has ever been a public -spirited 
citizen. He, and all the members of bis firm, have 
been called upon to lead in nearly every public 
enterprise inaugurated in Galveston. It has fre- 
quently been said that if Ball, Hutcbings & Co. 
declined to subscribe to any public enterprise, it 
would necessarily fail. Consequently, Mr. Sealy 
has always been expected to take an active part in 
and use his influence for the promotion of such 
movements. In 1873 the Gulf, Colorado & Santa , 
Fe Railway Co. was chartered and in 1877 about 
fifty miles of road had been built, or rather, track 
had been laid that distance, but the company had 
no rolling stock, as there was no business on the 
road. It extended into Fort Bend County, but the 
company had neither money nor credit to extend 
the line further, and the work therefore ceased. 
Galveston County had contributed five hundred 
thousand dollars, and its Citizens had contributed 
about two hundred and fifty thousand dollars in 
stock of the company, and this amount (seven hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars) had been expended 
on the road. There was great depression in Gal- 
veston on account of discriminations in railroad 
rates, and in 1878, Mr. Sealy, seeing the great 
necessity of protecting the interests of Galveston 
merchants by further extending the Gulf, Col- 
orado & Santa Fe road, by his unaided efforts 
organized a syndicate to purchase and extend the 
line into the interior. This movement was suc- 
cessful. The line was extended wholly by the 
capital and credit of Galveston people, mainly 
through the infiuence of Mr. Sealy and the other 
members of the firm of Ball, Hutchings & Co. 
By 1886 the road was built to Fort Worth, to San 
Angelo and to Dallas, about seven hundred miles, 
when Mr. Sealy, seeing the necessity of making a 
connection with some system through which to 
reach the great Northwest, entered into negotia- 
tions with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Co. 
to make an exchange of Gulf, Colorado & Santa 
-Fe stock on a basis satisfactory to both parties, 
and the result of this action upon his part was 
that the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Co. completed 
its road to Paris, Texas, to a connection with the St. 
Louis & San Francisco road and to Purcell, I. T., 
to a connection with the Atchison Company, making 
a total of 1058 miles of Gulf, Colorado & Santa 
Fe road. Mr. Sealy remained president of the 
company until this mileage was completed and 
the management was transferred to the Atchison 
Company. 



The Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe road is the 
only road in Texas that has not at some 
time been sold out to satisfy creditors or placed 
in the hands of receivers. Its finances were 
managed entirely by Mr. Sealy and his bank- 
ino- firm. Every contract entered into by it was 
carried out to the letter and the contractors 
promptly paid in cash all amounts due them. 
These facts are mentioned to show that Mr. Sealy 
is entitled to be considered an able manager and 
financier. For the sake of history, we might men- 
tion that in the contract for the transfer, or ex- 
change of stock of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa 
Fe Co., to the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Co., 
involving about twenty-five million dollars, includ- 
ing stock and bonds, it was agreed by him for the 
stockholders of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Co. 
that the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe should be de- 
livered to the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Co. 
free from floating indebtedness after the completion 
of its line of road. Owing to bad crops and con- 
sequent bad business, when the Gulf, Colorado 
& Santa Fe mileage was completed the road was 
not free from floating debt (debts due outside of 
its bonded indebtedness), and Mr. Sealy so reported 
to the Atchison Company. The Atchison Com- 
pany, having every confidence in him, left the 
matter entirely in his hands for adjustment. The 
difference was made out by him and he submitted 
the accounts to the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe 
stockliolders and asked them to pay an assessment 
amounting to only 3 per cent on the stock to make 
up the deficiency. This was freely paid by all of 
the honest stockholders. A few, however, refused, 
claiming that they could not be legally compelled 
to pay on the ground that the constitution of the 
State of Texas prohibits the consolidation with 
railroad companies outside of Texas. Mr. Sealy 
said that the debt was honestly due and, for him- 
self, he never looked for a legal loophole to get out 
of an honorable business transaction. The few, 
however, whose names we will not mention, whom 
he designated in public correspondence at the time 
as " Colonels " did not pay their assessments and, 
in order to comply with the contract he had made 
with the Atchison Company, he proposed to pay 
what was due from the "Colonels" himself, but 
the Atchison Company declined to permit him to 
do so, because of this legally unsettled constitu- 
tional question. In this transaction alone, Mr. 
Sealy could have made a million of dollars, but he 
acted in good faith as president of the Gulf, Col- 
orado & Santa Fe, and every stockholder, large and 
small, received the same for their stock that he 
did. When he had the contract signed, in his 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



163 



hands; he could have purchased the stock of the 
"Colonels" at a much less price than they re- 
ceived, but he was not made of their kind of 
material, and was content to deal fairly with 
his fellow-stockholders. The correspondence 
that , took place at the time would be interest- 
ing [reading, but we have not space to intro- 
duce it here. Mr. Sealy is president of the 
Texas Guarantee and Trust Company, vice-presi- 
dent of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa FeRy. Co., 
treasurer of the Galveston Cotton Exchange,, Gal- 
veston Rope and Twine Co., Galveston Free School 
Board, Galveston Maritime Association, Galveston 
Protestant Ojphans' Home and Galveston Evening 
Tribune Publishing Co. ; a director in the Galves- 
ton Wharf Co., Galveston Gas Co., Southern Kan- 
sas & Texas Ry. Co., Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe 
Ry. Co., Galveston Cotton & Woolen Mills Co., 
Galveston Cotton Exchange, Galveston Maritime 
Association, Texas Land & Loan Co., Rembert 
Roller Compress Co., Southern Cotton Compress 
Co., Bluefields Banana Co., Galveston Agency 
of the Galveston Meat Exporting Co., and the 
Galveston Electric Light Co. He has never had 
a desire for public office.. Being urgently solic- 
ited, he did, however, allow his name to go be- 
fore the people of Galveston in the year 1872, as a 
candidate for alderman and was elected to and 
fllled that position. During his term he advocated 
and secured the introduction of reforms that were 
valuable to the city. When he entered the council, 
city scrip was selling at fifty cents on the dollar. 
This was caused largely by the fact of there being no 
limitation to the expenditure of money in any 
department of the city government. He saw the 
necessity of ascertaining the probable revenue for 
the coming year and of setting aside for the several 
departments of the government a certain propor- 
tion of the estimated revenues and confining ex- 
penditures to the estimated resources for that 
period. He also advocated the passage of an ordi- 
nance providing that the mayor should be subjected 
to a penalty for signing any draft on the treasurer 
of the city, when there was no mone^' in the hands 
of the treasurer to cover it. Necessary ordinances 
were accordingly enacted. These salutary reforms 
accomplished, the credit of the city was restored, 
and its affairs thereafter conducted on a cash 
basis. These reforms have since been generally 
adopted in other cities in the State. Mr. Sealy 
realizes that politics and business do not har- 
monize. He has frequently been called upon to 
allow his name to be presented for congressman, but 
has always declined. Had he consented, no doubt 
he would have been nominated and elected. His 



name has also been frequently mentioned as a busi- 
ness candidate for the position of 'Governor of 
Texas. He is well known to all classes, rich and 
poor, black and white, young and old. It has 
been a rule of bis life to recognize manhood in the 
boy as well as the man, and he speaks pleasantly 
to all, irrespective of their position as regards 
color, wealth, or education. It has been reported 
that on one occasion, when passing through a city 
in Texas, a man engaged in a profitable business 
stopped Mr. Sealy in the street and, extending his 
hand, said: "You do not know me now, but I 
want to shake your hand. I well remember that 
when I was a boy in Galveston, serving as collector 
for a wholesale house and earning only a few dol- 
lars per month, you always spoke to me in passing 
and I always felt better after meeting you. It 
made me think better of myself, and I know that 
your kindly recognition had a good influence over 
me, as I believed that you considered me a boy of 
character or you would not have spoken to me." 

Kindness costs nothing, and it often exercises a 
good and lasting influence. There is no envy in' 
Mr. Sealy's nature. He rejoices in the success of 
his competitors and during times of panic and dis- 
tress has frequently helped them with his means 
and advice to escape failure. He contributes to all 
classes of charities, because it is his pleasure to do 
so. He has acted upon the principle that it is 
" more blessed to give than to receive." 

Mr. Sealy was married to Miss Magnolia Willis, 
the daughter of P. J. Willis, of the great commer- 
cial house of P. J. Willis &Bros., of Galveston, 
in 1875. They have eight children, viz. : — 

Margaret, Ella, George, Caroline, Rebecca, 
Marj', Robert and William. 

Mr. Sealy is not fond of display or notoriety. 
He did, however, in order to gratify the desire of 
his wife and children and to show his great confi- 
dence in the future prosperity' of Galveston, con- 
sent to erect an elegant residence, perhaps the most 
expensive in the State. It has been said that its 
cost amounted to two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. 

Mr. Sealy's firm. Ball, Hutchings & Co., perhaps 
the wealthiest banking firm in the South, have been 
most liberal bankers. They have been successful 
and could afford to sustain occasional losses. 
Their losses, however, have been nearly all in- 
curred in trying to help some one to build up a 
business in the interest of Galveston and the State 
of Texas. From experience and observation Mr. 
Sealy has concluded that, as statistics prove but 
three men out of every one hundred succeed in 
making more than a living, it is very risky to ad- 



164 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



vance money to any one who has not proved him- 
self competent to accumulate something beyond 
his expenses from year to year, however small his 
capital may be at the outset. It has been said 
that "success is the only measure of merit." 
This truism applies not only to the making, or 
accumulating^of property but to all professions, 
arts and sciences as well. Success is not a matter 
of chance, the few exceptions noted by common 
experience proving rather than militating against 
the rule. 

Show me your man who occupies a high and 
useful place among his fellows and is adding to 
the happiness and prosperity of the community 
and country in which he lives and, nine times out 
of ten, I will show you a man who has made his 
own way, and that, too, against all manner of 
opposition, to the eminence, independence and 
usefulness of his present station. The life of no 
man who has made the world better or wiser by 
living, or having lived, or who has added to the 
comfort of his fellow-beings, or has set an example 
worthy of emulation, ever has been or ever can be a 
failure. To really fail is to fail in all these things. 

There are men in Texas to-day whose lives are 
like salt leavening the mass ; whose lives are full 
of wholesome lessons to the young ; men whose 
deeds have been prolific of good to the common- 
wealth ; men who have helped to lay broad and 
deep the foundations of the State's greatness. 
The development of natural resources and the 



march of natural progress along all lines during 
the past thirty years is without parallel in any other 
period of time of thrice its length in the annals of 
human history. This has been particularly marked 
in the South since the war. She now no longer 
mainly boasts of her statesmen and soldiers, but 
that, from her best brain and purpose she has 
evolved a race of able financiers and city builders. 
Many railroads now traverse her hills and plains 
and valleys, rich argosies ride at anchor in her 
ports, furnaces glow deep red in her valleys, the 
whirr of ever-increasing spindles makes music in 
her cities and a tide of hardy, industrious immi- 
grants is flowing into her waste places. Texas has 
not been behind her sister States in the march of 
industrial and commercial progress. A change 
has been wrought that the most sanguine little 
dreamed of in those sad days that followed after 
the close of the war. The men who have been 
leading workers in the bringing about of this won- 
derful increase of wealth, unfolding of resources 
and general development, are worthy of all praise. 
They have made history — some of its brightest 
pages. The enduring monuments that they have 
erected are stately cities, great transportation lines 
and churches, school houses and industrial enter- 
prises. 

One of the foremost of this band has been the 
subject of this memoir, whose financial skill, 
energy, liberality, patriotic purpose and con- 
structive genius have done much for Texas. 



HENRY J. LUTCHER, 

ORANGE. 



Henry J. Lutcher, one of the wealthiest saw-mill 
operators in the United Slates and one of the most 
widely known citizens of Texas, was born in 
Williamsport., Pa., on the 4th of November, 1836. 

His parents, Lewis and Barbara Lutcher, natives 
of Germany, came to America in 1826 and located 
in Williamsport, where they passed the remaining 
years of their lives. The mother died in 1883 and 
the father nine days later, leaving but little 
propertj'. 

The subject of this memoir was early thrown 
upon his own resources. In 1857, he began busi- 
ness upon his own account as a farmer and butcher 
and continued in these pursuits for five years, dur- 



ing which time he cleared about $15,000.00. He 
then associated himself with John Waltman, under , 
the firm name of Lutcher & Waltman, and engaged 
in the lumber business at Williamsport. At "the 
expiration of two years he induced his copartner 
to sell his interest to G. Bedell Moore, who has 
since been Mr. Lutcher's business associate, under 
the firm name of Lutcher & Moore. Mr. Lutcher 
while operating the mill at Williamsport, Pa. , bought 
a large number of cattle which he shipped to that 
place over the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad and 
sold to local butchers. His profits from this source 
amounted to about $50,000.00. In 1876 he visited 
Texas for the purpose of prospecting for timbered 







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166 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



for their fellow-men, yet each man capacitated for 
the task can point out the defects that he has dis- 
covered and suggest the remedies that he deems 
sufficient to repair them. Mr. Lutcher has done 
much thinking along this line and has been solicited 
by the editors of several of, the leading magazines 
of the country to prepare a series of articles for 
publication in their periodicals, and will probably 
accede to their request during the coming year. 
Thoroughly familiar with his subject, an elegant 
and trenchant writer, possessed of a mind stored 
with the "spoils of time," these productions will 
be looked for with interest and will doubtless cause 
something more than a ripple in the world of con- 
temporaneous thought. Mr. Lutcher has a large 
and carefully selected library and one of his great- 
est home-pleasures is to spend. the evening hours 
with his books. He agrees with Ruskin, who said 
that it seemed strange^ to him that a man would 
fritter away his time in idle conversation, when, by 
going to the shelves of his book-case, he could talk 
with the great an.d good of all ages, with Plato and 
Socrates, with Plutarch and Marcus Aurelius — the 
kings and princes in the realm of letters. 

He is an indefatigable worker, every hour having 
its appointed duties. He says that he owes much 
of his success in life to the aid given him by his wife 



and that as they have journeyed down the stream of 
time she has " steered him clear of many a danger- 
ous snag." She is thoroughly conversant with his 
business affairs and he consults her judgment in all 
matters of importance. Their palatial home covers 
a beautiful site of four acres on the west bank of 
the Sabine, overlooking that stream, and here they 
dispense a royal hospitality to their numerous 
friends in Texas and other States. Mr. Lutcher has 
taken a deep interest and been a potent factor in 
the development of the Texas coast country. 
Every worthy enterprise has found in him a liberal 
supporter. He has been a power for good in 
Southern Texas. His is a strong, magnetic per- 
sonality that would make itself felt in any assem- 
blage, however distinguished, or in any field of 
effort. He is an ardent Democrat, but with his 
father was bitterly opposed to the late war. He 
believes that it was brought on by scheming and 
reckless demagogues, indifferent to the long train of 
miseries they heaped upon their distracted country. 
In the prime of a vigorous mental and physical 
manhood and approaching the meridian of an un- 
usually successful and brilliant career as a financier, 
and full of plans for the future, his influence will 
be strongly felt in the future growth and develop- 
ment of his adopted State. 



JAMES H. RAYMOND. 



AUSTIN. 



The present, with all that belongs to it, is the 
outgrowth and summing up of the entire past. Its 
meaning to be comprehended must be interpreted 
by the past. 

To the young it is the border-line that separates 
them from the land of promise in which they are to 
be the dominant factors in the fight for mastery ; 
to the old the Pisgah height from which they gaze 
backward over the past through which they have 
journeyed, and forward to the future in which 
others will continue the work they have begun. 

The Texas of to-day is far different from the 
Texas of the days of the Republic. There have 
been many changes and transformations since the 
first rifle shot of the Revolution was fired in 1835. 
Many men of remarkable genius have trod its soil 
and toiled with hand and brain and voice and pen 
to shape its destinies and direct the commonwealth 



along the upward course which it has pursued to 
its present proud position among the States of the 
American Union. 

The leaders in the work of pioneer settlement, 
the daring spirits who fomented and led the 
pre- revolutionary movements, the heroes and 
martyrs of the struggle for independence, the 
presidents and cabinet oflicers of the days of the 
Republic and the men who laid the foundation of 
our State institutions have nearly all passed away. 

The only surviving Treasurer of the Republic of 
Texas is the subject of this sketch, Mr. James H. 
Raymond, now a resident of the city of Austin, 
with whose prosperity he has been identified for 
many years and where he has rounded out a career 
as a financier that, in point of success and brill- 
iancy, is paralleled by that of few other men in 
the State. 




En^ '-"iy W T B atli ei-, B kl>T. 



SA% Mo ^AVRa®WE)o 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



167 



James Harvey Raymond was born the 30th 
day of June, 1817, in Washington County, New 
•York. He was named after Dr. Harvey, the re- 
nowned religious and metaphysical writer. 

William Raymond, father of the subject of this 
■biographical sketch, was born in Connecticut, and 
-died in Genesee County, New York, in 1847, 
having located there in 1825. He was a merchant 
trader, and was well and favorably known in the 
community where he resided. He married Mary 
Kellogg, daughter of Justin Kellogg, one of the 
native farmers of Connecticut. She was an exem- 
plary wife and mother, remarkable for all those 
qualities of mind and heart which shine with 
undimmed brilliancy around the domestic hearth, 
and to her is the son indebted for the practical 
habits of his life. The greater portion of his early 
life was passed in Genesee County, New York, 
upon a farm, where he was inured to hard labor, 
enjoying no other educational advantages than 
were afforded by the ordinary country schools, 
which he was only permitted to attend at intervals. 
In 1832, being then but fifteen years old, he aban- 
doned his home and the State of his nativity, and 
came to Cincinnati, Ohio, where; and at Newport 
across the Ohio river in Kentuckj', he was engaged 
in clerking until 1836. In that year he returned 
to New York and clerked at Batavia until 1839, 
when he determined to emigrate. Texas was 
selected as the objective point, and his plans were 
immediately put into execution. 

He started, but on the way stopped at Natchez, 
Miss., where he remained a short time, proceeding 
from thence to Woodville, Wilkinson County, 
Miss. Here he passed nearly a year studying 
and practicing the rudiments of surveying with 
the intention of following that occupation on his 
arrival in Texas. In July, 1840, he landed in 
Galveston and proceeded thence to Houston, from 
which place he went on foot to Franklin, in Robert- 
son County. Here he was employed as Deputy 
Surveyor to accompany an expedition to the upper 
Brazos country. However, in a few days, and 
after all necessary preparations were nearly com- 
pleted, hostile Indians approached the locality and 
the contemplated expedition was abandoned, much 
to his chagrin. In October following he went 
to Austin in company with Geo. W. Hill, after- 
ward Secretary of War under President Houston, 
but at that time a member of the Congress of the 
Republic of Texas. On his arrival at Austin he 
was made Journal Clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Fourth Congress. In April, 
1841, Gen. Lamar, who was then President 
of the Republic, appointed him Acting Treas- 



urer, the duties Of which office he discharged 
with fidelity and marked: ability. In November, 
■1841, he was elected by the Fifth Congress Chief _ 
Clerk of the House of Representatives and in 
.this office he was retained by continued annual 
elections until 1845, when the Republic ceased its 
existence and Texas became a member of the Fed- 
' eral Union. In 1842 he served as a soldier in 
the expedition organized to repel the Vasquez and 
Woll invasions, and in 1844 was appointed Treas- 
urer by Gen. Houston, and discharged the duties 
of that office in connection with his other offices. 
In 1845 he was secretary of the convention that 
framed the first State constitution and in February, 
J846, was elected chief clerk of the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the legislature convened after the 
admission of Texas into the Union as a State. He 
served but a few days, when he resigned and was 
elected State Treasurer, the first Treasurer of the 
State of Texas. To this office he was continually 
chosen by annual election until November, 1858. 
Two years afterward he began banking at Austin 
as a member of the banking house of John W. 
Swisher & Company, which, in 1861, changed its 
uame to Raymond & Swisher, and in 1868 to Ray- 
mond & Whites. In June, 1876, Mr. Frank Hamil- 
ton and James R. Johnson purchased the interest 
of Mr. Whites, and since that time the business 
has been conducted under the firm name and style 
of James H. Raymond & Company. The State 
Agricultural and Mechanical College was erected 
under the supervision of a commission of which he 
was a member. As a member of this commission 
and in other official positions of minor importance 
that he has since held from time to time, he has 
discharged the duties intrusted to him in a most 
satisfactory manner. 

In 1843 he was married in Washington, Texas, 
to Miss Margaret Johnston, then recently from 
Troy, Ohio. 

His political connections have been those of the 
dominant party in the South and marked by firm- 
ness and consistency and a fearless advocacy. He 
has never been blind to the political wants of his 
section. 

In developing the great resources of Texas he 
has performed an important part. In religion he 
is a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and has been one of the wardens of Austin Church 
for fifteen years. 

The most attractive scenes with which nature de- 
lights the eye owe their charm to the effects of 
light and shade. It would be impossible even for 
an Angelo to give expression to the visions that fiit 
across the horizon of his soul if he employed only 



168 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



pigments that were bright. Virtue and honor and 
courage would be but idle names if there were no 
, temptations to evil, no allurements to draw the un- 
wary from the patli of rectitude, and no dangers 
arose on the way. Human Iffe would lose its beauty, 
its pathos and its purpose but for the trials that 
accompany it. Sad it is to note those who fall, but 
deep and lasting and full of usefulness are the" 
lessons taught by the lives of those who guide 
their course by the pole-star of duty and perform 
the tasks that Providence allots them. 

Mr. Raymond has lived beyond three score 
years and ten. He has been a moving spirit in 



some of the most stirring scenes that have trans- 
pired upon the continent and the intimate associate 
not only of such men of an earlier day, as Houston, 
but of those who have succeeded them as pilotg ^ 
the ship of State. Jt has fallen to his fortune to, 
in a quiet way, perform many valuable public ser- 
vices. He has done his duty, as he saw it, faith- 
fully under all circumstances, and now, in the quiet 
evening of his life and in the enjoyment of the 
financial independence that has come to him as 
the reward of the labors of former years, he enjoys 
the confidence and sincere esteem of the people of 
Texas. 



MOSES AUSTIN BRYAN, 

BRENHAM. 



The life and labors of this well remembered 
patriot, honored citizen and faithful public servant, 
were such as to entitle his name to a place upon 
some of the brightest of the undying pages of his 
country's history. He was born at Bryan's Mines 
on the banks of the Hazel Run, a branch of the 
Tar Blue river, in St. Genevieve County, in the 
then territory of Missouri, on the 26th day of Sep- 
tember, 1817. 

He was the third son of James and Emily Mar- 
garet (Austin) Bryan. His father, a merchant and 
also a miner and smelter of lead ore at Hazel Run, 
died at Herculaneum, on the Mississippi river, 
twenty-five miles below St. Louis, in 1823. 

Mrs. Bryan married in 1824 James F. Perry, a 
merchant at Potosi, Washington County, Mo., a 
town laid off by her father, Moses Austin, when the 
territory belonged to Spain. Young Bryan at- 
tended school at Potosi until eleven years of age 
and was then employed as a clerk in Perry & 
Hunter's store about a year when the firm deter- 
mined to move to Texas. He accompanied W. W, 
Hunter with the goods down the Mississippi river 
to New Orleans, and January 3, 1831, the schooner 
Maria, upon which he was a passenger, entered 
the mouth of the Brazos, and three days later he 
put foot upon Texas soil at the town of Brazoria 
and proceeded with Mr. Hunter to San Felipe de 
Austin, reaching that place January 10, 1831. In 
three or four weeks Perry & Hunter's store was 
opened and Bryan worked in it as a clerk during 
1831, selling goods to pioneers, hunters and Lipan 



and Carancahua Indians. In June of that year he 
boarded with "Uncle Jimmy" and "Aunt 
Betsey " Whitesides, who were among the settlers 
of Stephen F. Austin's first colony. Col. Ira Ran- 
dolph Lewis, with his wife and two daughters, 
Cora and Stella, arrived in San Felipe at this time 
and boarded at the same house. Cora Lewis was 
then an infant. In after years, when she reached 
lovely womanhood, she became Maj. Bryan's wife. 
Stephen F. Austin was absent from San Felipe 
when young Bryan arrived. When he returned, 
the latter, who had not seen him for more than 
ten years, called upon him at the house of Samuel 
M. Williams, who was Secretary of Austin's colony, 
and was cordially received. 

Stephen F. Austin was then a member of the leg- 
islature of Coahuila and Texas and invited his 
Dephew to accompany him, as his private secretary, 
to the city of Saltillo, capital of the provinces. 
The offer was accepted and, after an interesting 
journey through a country then almost entirely un- 
inhabited, they arrived 'at Saltillo, reaching their 
destination about the first of April, 1832. In June 
the legislature adjourned until fall and Austin left 
for Matamoros to see Gen. Terran, commander 
of the military district including the Eastern States 
bordering on the Rio Grande. While leisurely 
prosecuting this journey he heard of the troubles 
occurring in Texas and that Gen. Mexia had been 
sent with four armed vessels and troops to the 
mouth of the Brazos to quell the outbreak. He 
therefore hastened forward with the utmost dis- 




^^^yf^^c^c..,u^ c^^^.^'^cS^^ ^^^<^ 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



169 



patch, joined Mexia and went with him to Texas, 
leaving bis horses, mules and traveling equipage 
with Mr. Bedell, expecting to return in the 
autumn and attend the session of the legisla- 
ture. However, he found the political waters so 
stirred by the battles of Anahuac and Velasco be- 
tween the colonists and Mexican soldiers, that he 
concluded to remain, and wrote to his nephew that 
Mr. Bedell and three or four friends would take 
goods to the State fair at Saltillo to be held on the 
10th of September, the anniversary of the declara- 
tion of Mexican independence, and he could return 
with them to Matamoros, where Mr. Bedell would 
give him the horses, mules and baggage and furnish 
a trusty Mexican to pilot the way to San Felipe. 

On approaching Goliad, the Mexican heard the 
people talk of the battles of Anahuac and Velasco 
and refused to proceed further. The alcalde of 
the town, however, furnished a guide for the re- 
mainder of the journey. On reaching his destina- 
tion Bryan at once visited his mother at her home 
on Chocolate Bayou. In December, 1832, his step- 
father moved the family to Peach Point, ten miles 
below Brazoria, where Mrs. Perry, Maj. Bryan's 
sister-in-law, now resides. 

After visiting his mother, Maj. Bryan returned 
to San Felipe, where he re-entered Perry & Hunter's 
store. He clerked for them until 1833 and then 
clerked for Perry & Somervell. In 1835 he was a 
clerk in the land-offlce of Austin's colony and when 
Austin, in August, 1835, returned to Texas, after 
his long imprisonment in Mexico, and was made 
chairman of the Central Committee of Safety at 
San Felipe, served with Gail Borden, as Austin's 
secretary. In September of the same year Maj. 
Bryan participated in the attack upon Thompson's 
Mexican warship the Carreo. He was also among 
the first to respond to the call to arms that fol- 
lowed the battle of (jronzales (the Texas Lexing- 
ton) between the colonists and Mexican troops, the 
latter led by Ugartechea, who, following instruct 
tions from Santa Anna, had demanded a canHon 
which had been given to the jKOple of Gonzales 
and they had refused to surrefider. When Austin 
was elected General of the patriot forces Bryan 
went with him to San Antonio in the capacity of 
private secretary, and after Austin left on a mis- 
sion to the United States, remained with the army 
and took part in the storming and capture of San 
Antonio under Johnson and Milam. He was after- 
ward more or less intimately associated with Austin 
as his private secretary until that remarkable man's 
dicath, which occurred on the 27th of December, 
1836, at Columbia, in Brazoria County, and owned 
the sword that Austin wore while commander of 



the Texian army. Maj. Bryan, as a spectator, 
and as secretary of Lieutenant-Governor and Act- 
ing Governor Bobinson, was at the meeting of the 
plenary convention that assembled at Washington 
on the Brazos, in March, 1836, and was present 
when the committee reported a declaration of in- 
dependence, and it was voted on and adopted. As 
a sergeant in Capt. Mosley Baker's Company, he 
was with Gen. Sam Houston (often acting as his 
interpreter) on the retreat from Gonzales to the 
San Jacinto river. While on this march he was 
ordered by Capt. Baker (who acted under instruc- 
tions from headquarters) to burn the town of San 
Felipe. The order was the result of an erroneous 
report, made by scouts, that the enemj' were close 
at hand and about to enter the place. Bryan asked 
to be excused, on the ground that he felt a natural 
repugnance to having any share in putting the torch 
to the first town built in the wilderness by his uncle. 
He was relieved from the necessity of performing 
this unpleasant duty and the town of San Felipe de 
Austin was destroyed by other hands. At last the 
fateful day (April 21, 1836) arrived that was to 
decide the future destinies of Texas. Although 
Maj. Bryan was almost prostrated with fever he 
insisted upon taking part with his company in the 
charge of Burleson's regiment made at ever memor- 
able San Jacinto, and behaved with dislinguished. 
gallantry. Three holes were shot through his coat 
before the regiment carried the breast-works by 
storm. After victory had been won, he did what 
he could to check the indiscriminate slaughter of 
Mexicans that followed, but the memory of the 
massacres at the Alamo and Goliad was fresh in 
the minds of the Texas soldiers and his noble 
efforts were in vain. He was present when Santa 
Anna was brought before Gen. Houston by Col. 
Hockley and Maj. Ben Fort Smith, who had taken 
charge of the prisoner soon after he had been 
brought in by the scouts, Sylvester and Matthews. 
Col. Hockley said: "General Houston, here is 
Santa Anna." Bryan was perhaps the only mem- 
ber of the party who understood Santa Anna's reply. 

Gen. Santa Anna said in Spanish: " Yo soie 
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Presidente de 
Mexico, commandante in jefe del exercito de 
operaciones y me pongo a la disposicions del vali- 
antes General Houston guiro ser tatado como deber 
seren general quando es prisoners de guerra." 

His speech in English was: " I am Antonio 
Lopez de Santa Anna, President of Mexico, com- 
mander-in-chief of the army of operations, and I 
put myself at the disposition of the brave General 
Houston. I wish to be treated as a general should 
be when a prisoner of war." 



170 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



At the close of this speech Gen. Houston rose 
up on his right arm (he was then suffering from a 
wound received the day before, a ball having 
passed through the bones of his- right leg three 
inches above the ankle joint) and replied: "Ah! 
ah, indeed! General Santa Anna! Happy to see 
you, General. Take a seat, take a seat," moving 
his hand toward an old. tool-chest nearby. 

In the subsequent interview Col. Almonte acted 
as interpreter. Santa Anna made a-proposition to 
issue an order for (pl-en. Filisola to leave- Texas 
■with the troops under his command. Gen. Rusk 
replied that, his chief being a prisoner, Filisola 
would not obey the . order. Santa Anna replied 
that su,ch was the attachment of the officers and 
soldier^s of the army to him, they would do any- 
thing that he told them to do. Gen. Rusk then 
said: " Col. Almonte, teU Santa Anna to order 
Filisola and army to surrender as prisoners of 
war." 

Santa Anna replied that he wa,s but a single Mex- 
ican, but would do nothing that would be a dis- 
grace to him or his nation and they could do with 
him as they- would. He said that he was willing to 
issue an order to Filisola to leave Texas. It was 
finally decided that he should do so, the order was 
issued and a body of mounted Texians, commanded 
for a time by Col. Burleson and afterwards by Gen. 
Thomas Rusk, followed close upon Filisola's rear 
and saw that the mandate was promptly obeyed. 
Upon this service Maj. Bryan accompanied Gen. 
Rusk as a member of his staff, in which capacity 
he rendered valuable assistance as Spanish inter- 
preter. The command reached Goliad June 1, 
1836, and two days thereafter gave Christian bur- 
ial to the charred remains of the men who were 
massacred with Fannin at that place on the 27th of 
the preceding March, by order of Santa Anna. 
Gen. Rusk, standing at the edge of the pit, began 
an address, but was so overcome by emotion that 
he could not finish it. It was a most affecting -and 
solemn ceremony. 

At this time Maj. Bryan became the bearer of 
dispatches from Gen. Rusk to the Spanish General, 
Andrada, demanding the surrender of all prisoners 
held by him, a demand that was promptly acceded 
to. A few days later a Mexican courier arrived at Gen . 
Rusk's headquarters with a letter from two Texas 
colonels, Karnes and Teel, prisoners at Matamoros, 
stating that the Mexicans were assembling a large 
army under Gen. Urrea for the purpose of invading 
Texas. The letter was concealed in the cane han- 
dle of the courier's quirt and was translated by 
Maj. Bryan. A copy was sent to President Bur- 
net, who at once (June 23, 1836), issued a proc- 



lamation calling upon the people to hold themselves 
in readiness to respond to a call to arms. 

Santa . Anna, called upon to make good his 
pledges, stirred up, through his friends in Mexico, 
a revolutionary movement that effectually prevented 
Urrea from carrying his plans for the invasion of 
Texas into execution. 

In January, 1839, Maj. Bryan was appointed 
Secretary of the Texas legation at Washington,- D. 
C, by President Mirabeau B. Lamar, and served as 
such for a number of months. Dr. Anson Jones 
was the Texian minister to the United States at the 
time. 

In February, 1840, Maj. Bryan married Miss 
Adeline -Lamothe, daughter of Polycarp Lamothe, 
a prominent planter of Rapides parish, Louisiana. 
In 1842, as first Iteuteaant of a company organized 
at Brazoria, he participated in the Rio Grande 
expedition commanded by Gen. Somervell, that 
resulted in bringing to an inglorious close the 
attempt made by the Mexican general, Adrian 
Woll, to invade and find a foothold in Texas. 
Afier passing through the thrilling experiences 
connected with this expedition, Maj. Bryan de- 
voted himself to looking after his plantations in 
Brazoria and Washington counties. In May, 1854, 
Mrs. Bryan died, and in November, 1856, he mar- 
ried Miss Cora Lewis, daughter of Col. Ira Ran- 
dolph Lewis, an eminent lawyer, who served with 
distinction during the trying times of the Texas 
revolution. In 1863, Maj. Bryan, fearing an inva- 
sion of the coast-country by the Federals, removed 
his family to Independence, Washington County; 
which place became his permanent residence. 

At the beginning of the war between the States 
he enlisted in the Confederate army as a private 
soldier in the Third Regiment of Texas State troops, 
and was elected Major of his regiment. Upon the 
organization of the reserve corps he was elected 
Major of the First Regiment, and served as such in 
Texas until the close of hostilities, making an 
excellent record as a soldier and officer. He, 
with a few others, was the founder of the Texas 
Veterans' Association, organized in May, 1873. 
He was elected and served as its secretary until 
April, 1886, when he resigned the position and 
nominated as his successor his friend. Col. Stephen 
H. Darden, who was duly elected. Maj. Bryan 
was one of the Association's chief promoters and 
leading spirits. He devoted for several years 
a large share of his time to correspondence with 
its members, gathering a mass of valuable historical 
data and papers now in the hands of his son, Hon. 
Beauregard Bryan, of Brenham. This matter will 
be of great service to the future historian. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



171 



Maj. Bryan served for a time as a member of 
the Commissioner's Court of Brazoria County, was 
active in the building of the Columbia Tap Rail- 
road and was at all times an energetic worker in the 
cause of higher education. He served for twenty 
years as trustee of Baylor University, then located 
at Independence, and donated largely to its sup- 
port, being a warm friend of its founder. Judge 
Baylor. He has done much for the upbuilding of 
his section and the State at large, every worthy 
enterprise receiving his encouragement and sup- 
port. He ■ was a member of the celebrated tax- 
payers convention which met in Austin in 1871, 
representing Washington County. He was one oi 
the committee of five who were appointed to notify 
Governor E. J. Davis of the acts of the conven- 
tion. 

• In religion he was an Episcopalian and in politics 
always a Democrat, attending as a delegate all the 
State and county Democratic conventions up to the 
year 1880. Maj. Bryan died at the home of his 
son (Hon. Beauregard Bryan) in Brenham, March 
16, 1895, after a brief illness. He left five chil- 
dren: James, Beauregard, L. R., S. J., and Austin 
Bryan, who Were present at his bedside during his 
last moments. His wife had died June 9th, 1889. 

As the wires conveyed the intelligence of his 
death to all parts of the State, the public heart was 
stirred as it could have been stirred by few events, 
for all realized that a father in Israel had passed 
away, that a man whose life connected the present 
with all that is brightest and best and most glori- 
ous in the past history of the commonwealth had 
journeyed " across the narrow isthmus that divides 
the sea of life from the ocean of eternity that lies 
beyond." 

The Twenty-fourth legislature was then in session 
and, on the 19th of March, out of respect to the 
distinguished dead, passed by unanimous votes the 
following resolutions : — 

Senate Resolution, offered by Senator Dickson : — 

" Whereas, One of our most distinguished and 
honored citizens and patriotic gentlemen has been 
called from our midst in the death of the late Moses 
Austin Bryan and, 



" Whereas, In his death we recognize the fact 
that the State of Texas has sustained a loss of one 
whose true and honored name has become of great 
pride and held in highest esteem by all citizens of 
Texas, therefore be it. 

"Resolved, That the Senate of the Twenty-fourth 
legislature of Texas do hold in sacred memory his 
good name and patriotism, and do extend to his 
beloved children and relatives their heartfelt sym- 
pathies and condolence in this their hour of deepest 
sorrow and distress." 

House Resolution, offered by Giddings and 
Rogers : — 

" Whereas, We have learned with deep regret of 
the death of Moses Austin Bryan, of Brenham, on 
Saturday, March 16th last, and 

" Whereas, In him ye lose another of those grand 
old heroes, who by their valor, patriotism and 
devotion to the principles of liberty, achieved the 
independence of Texas and left it as a princely 
heritage to posterity, therefore be it 

"Resolved, First. That while we realize that 
there is no escape from the relentless hand of Time 
and recognize that he had passed the allotted age of 
man, and had rounded out a long life of devotion 
to our loved State, yet it is with feelings of pro- 
found sorrow that we see him taken from our midst. 
Second. That we extend to his sorrowing relatives 
and friends our sincere sympathy for the great 
personal loss they have susta,ined." 

The remains were interred in the cemetery at 
Independence, Washington County, Texas, and 
were followed to their last resting-place by the 
largest funeral cortege known in the history of 
that place. The people, without distinction, united 
in paying tribute to the memory of the fearless 
soldier, stainless citizen, and blameless patriot, 
who had lived among them through so many years, 
and been such a faithful neighbor and friend, and 
who, as he passed among them, had scattered all 
about his path of life seeds of kindness, that, 
sprung into life from the soil in which they fell, 
and filled with the incense of heaven's own flowers 
the tranquil evening hours of his departing day. 



172 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



IRA RANDOLPH LEWIS. 



The subject of this sketch, Ira Randolph Lewis, 
was one of the patriots, who, as an associate of 
Austin, Houston, Travis and their compeers, severed 
Texas from Mexico by the revolution of 1835-1836. 
He was a prominent and distinguished lawyer and 
political actor in those times. He was a delegate 
ifrom and represented the Municipality of Matagorda 
in the convention of 1833, the first ever called by the 
people of Texas, and of which Stephen F. Austin 
was president and Frank W. Johnson secretary. 

This convention set forth the grievances of the 
colonists in Texas of Anglo-American origin, in a 
paper of unparalleled strength, prepared by David 
G. Burnet, and addressed to the Mexican govern- 
tn^at. S. F. Austin, W. H. Wharton and J. B. 
Millet; were commissioned by the convention to pre- 
sent this pa;per to the government of Mexico at the 
city of Mexico. "Wharton and Miller refused to go 
and encounter the dangers incident to such a mis- ■ 
sion, but Austin undertook the necessary task. His 
imprisonment and sufferings in a Mexican dungeon 
are matters familiar to every student of Texas 
history. 

Again , in the consultation of 1835 , Matagorda sent 
Mr. Lewis to represent it, together with R. E.- 
Eoyal. What was done by these conventions is a 
part of the history of Texas and the reader is 
referred to volume one of Brown's History of 
Texas, which gives in full the proceedings of both 
conventions. 

He was again honored by being chosen a mem- 
ber of the General Executive Council, consisting of 
two members from each county, or municipality 
as they were then called. The object of this coun- 
cil was to assist the executive. Governor Smith, in 
conducting the affairs of the Provisional Govern- 
ment. 

While performing his duties in the Executive 
Council in February, 1836, Governor Henr3' Smith 
commissioned T. J. Chambers, with rank as Gen- 
eral, to go to the United States and enlist volun- 
teer soldiers and raise funds to aid Texas in her 
struggle with Mexico. Chambers appointed Lewis 
on his staff with rank of Colonel and, with Cham- 
bers' indorsement and Governor Smith's written 
permission, he left the council in the latter part of 
February, 1830, and proceeded at once to the 
United States. 

Col. Lewis, in his capacity as Commissioner for 
Texas, actively canvassed in rapid succession the 



towns and cities most accessible to him in those 
days of the ox-cart, stage coach and river steamer. 
But for this absence he would have participated in 
the battle of San Jacinto. 

On his return to Texas he made an official report- 
to the President of the Republic, who was Gen. 
Sam Houston. The report is as follows : — 

" To the President of the Republic of Texas : 

" In obedience to official duty and for the fur- 
ther purpose of announcing to the proper author- 
ities, for what otherwise might appear a wanton 
absence from the country of my adoption during 
her greatest difficulties, while in the United States 
for the last ten months, I beg leave to communicate 
the following information and report, which your 
Excellency will be pleased to receive and transmit 
to the officer of the proper department where it 
belongs. 

" On the 9th day of January, of the present 
year, the then existing government of this Re- 
public passed a law authorizing T. J. Chambers, 
Esq., to raise, arm, equip and command a division 
as an auxiliary army for the defense of the cause 
of Texas ; the particulars of which will more fully 
appear by reference to said law, a copy of which is 
herewith transmitted and made a part of the report, 
being marked No. 1 ; the original is on file in the 
archives of this government. 

"After Gen. Chambers was commissioned and 
instructed to go to the United States to procure 
men and means to constitute his division, and put 
it in motion and serve in Texas, he^ offered me 
an office on his staff as paymaster of said division, 
which I accepted and was immediately com- 
missioned by the proper executive of this govern- 
ment, a copy of which commission is here attached 
and marked No. 2 ; a proper record of the original 
is to be found in the war office. 

" At the time I received my appointment, which 
was in February last, and from all the information 
then obtained, the enemy was expected to appear 
in the months of May or June last, and as the corps 
was to be raised in the United States, I received an 
order from Gen. Chambers to repair forthwith 
with him to the United States to aid and assist in 
procuring the men and means necessary to place the 
division in Texas for service as speedily as possi- 
ble; and in obedience to which order, I set out 
from San E'elipe for the United States for the object 




JRA LEWIS. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



173 



mentioned in the order, a copy of which is here 
attached, marked No. 3. 

" On the day of leaving San Felipe the news, or 
rumor, from the interior, gave information that the 
enemy was in motion about Saltillo, and might be 
expected in April and sooner than had been antici- 
pated, which prompted a more speedy action on our 
part, with a view of throwing aid into the country 
in time to be of use in the first contest, but nothing 
is more common than disappointment, for when we 
reached Natchez the news had reached there in 
authentic shape that Santa Anna had besieged the 
Alamo at San Antonio about the first of March and 
in a few days the melancholy news arrived that the 
garrison had fallen, and all its gallant defenders 
had been put to the sword. 

"Gen. Chambers and myself immediately com- 
municated with the most respectable and influential 
citizens of that place and explained the situation 
and unhappy condition of our country. In a short 
time the most enthusiastic feeling was found to 
prevail there — and large meetings were held by the 
inhabitants to manifest this feeling, and offer aid 
to suffering Texas. And at that time (in the month 
of March last) I had the- high gratification to learn 
from Judge Quitman and Gen. F. Huston that they 
would visit Texas, and enlist in her war ; and men 
of their influence, wealth and distinction, I knew 
would induce much efficient aid from Mississippi. 
At Natchez I received further orders to proceed 
forthwith to the eastern country to explain the 
cause of the war, the situation of our country, and 
obtain men and means for her aid ; which order is 
here attached in copy, marked No. 4. 

" In obedience to said order, I set out on the first 
of April last for Louisville, where I arrived on the 
12th of that month. When I made known the object 
of my visit, and consulted with many of the lead- 
ing gentlemen of that place, as to the best course 
to pursue, I found the best of feeling prevailing 
for our cause and in a few days a mass meeting was 
called, which I had the honor, by invitation, to 
address on behalf of Texas, and had the pleasure 
to have the most generous responses made to the 
call for aid. By unremitting efforts I procured to 
be raised and dispatched. Col. C. L. Harrison's 
Louisville Battalion, the van of which, was Capt. 
Wiggonton's company of near one hundred men, 
and the balance soon followed, being aided to do 
so by the munificence of the generous citizens of 
that city. From there I proceeded to Lexington, 
by invitation to meet a State convention then being 
held in that place. 

" To the convention and inhabitants of Lexington 
and the surrounding country, I proclaimed the 



cause of Texas, their condition and want of aid,, in 
a public address. Here I remained for two weeks 
making constant exertion for our cause and having 
many meetings upon the subject, which resulted in 
a display of the most generous and noble sympathy 
and friendship in our favor and, ultimately, the 
raising and dispatching of the Lexington Battalion 
of about three hundred men, and the money for 
their outfit and transportation to New Orleans, fur- 
nished by the generous donations of the high-minded 
and chivalrous inhabitants of that city and its 
vicinity. From Lexington I proceeded to Cincinnati, 
where I made known my objects, and, by the aid of 
the most influential gentlemen of that place, a very 
large meeting was convened, which I addressed in 
favor of our cause ; which resulted in the raising 
of a fine company of about eighty men, who were 
furnished with an excellent outfit and means for 
transportation as far as New Orleans, by the dona- 
tions of the well-tried friends of our cause in that 
great metropolis. In all of these four named 
places I had the good fortune to be aided by ad- 
visory committees, composed of gentlemen of dif- 
ferent places, of the first standing and influence ; 
and the different corps were raised and dispatched 
and the means procured by superintending com- 
mittees for that purpose in each place, appointed 
by the citizens of the same, who procured the 
means by donations and also disbursed the satne 
for the purpose of purchasing the supplies and out- 
fits for the different corps and if any surplus re- 
mained, the respective committees paid over the 
same to the persons who took command of the 
different detachments. 

" This course was adopted and pursued by my 
own request and suggestion, to secure the infiuence 
of the committees, and secure as far as possible 
entire satisfaction. All this was done and the most 
of the different corps had set out for Texas during 
this period, when the melancholy news was daily 
reaching the United States of the fall of the Alamo 
the massacre of Fannin, of Ward and of King, and 
that Santa Anna was passing triumphantly over the 
country, burning and devastating as he went and 
that he was in a short time to be looked for on the 
banks of the Sabine. It was not until late in May 
last that the news arrived in that part of the United 
States, in such a shape as to be believed, of the 
glorious battle of the San Jacinto, and the capture 
of the monster, Santa Anna, or as his own vanity 
induced him to call himself, " the Napoleon of the 
West." Many delays necessarily took place from 
the confused and distorted statements concerning 
this country, which frequently got into circulation 
there, and much time was lost and operations had 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



to be delayed in order to obtain counter-informa- 
tion to correct them, but every effort was made to 
get our men on as rapidly as possible, and I gave 
written information of all done, to Gen. Chambers at 
Nashville, where he was stationed, and to President 
Burnet, through the Texas agent in New Orleans, 
and as fast and in the order in which I progressed, 
but I am surprised to. find that nothing exists in the 
archives of this government to show that I have 
done anything or communicated any information to 
this government. 

" My own communications may have shared the 
fate and miscarriages of those of Messrs. Carson 
and Hamilton, who I am fully sensible addressed 
the government frequently and from different parts 
of the United States, for I saw their letters ; but, 
like myself, 1 am told, not a word has been heard 
from them. 

" Shortly after my effort before the public in 
Cincinnati, I fell sick and was confined with a fever 
and painful illness for near a month. During this 
time I received orders to proceed to Pittsburg, to 
purchase some cannon, and from there to Phila- 
delphia and New York and, if practicable, to effect 
a loan on the credit of Texas for fifty thousand 
dollars to complete the outfit of the division then 
being raised, which order is herewith submitted in 
a true copy and marked No. 5. 

" In obedience to the last named order, I set 
out from Cincinnati on the first of June, that being 
as soon as I could travel, or information from this 
country would authorize it ; passing by Pittsburg 
but found that no cannon could be procured at that 
time, inasmuch as the only foundry which made, 
them had a large contract on hand for the United 
States, and would not make any others before fall. 
From there I proceeded to Washington City on my 
way to the Elust, and for the purpose of learnino'. 
the disposition of that government in relation to 
Texas; thinking at the same time that such infor- 
mation might be wanting, on my attempting the 
loan I wished to make, and my anticipations proved 
true. In Washington I found our commissioners, 
Messrs. Hamilton and Childress, making every 
possible exertion for our cause, and with happy 
effect. Gen. Austin, Wm. H, Wharton and Dr. 
Archer, the former commissioners, then being on 
their way home, and all as I found having produced 
by their able efforts impressions of the most en- 
couraging character in favor of our cause. From 
there I proceeded to New York, by way of Balti- 
more and Philadelphia. There I made propositions 
for the money I wanted, and with the aid and under 
the auspices of S. Swartwout, Esq., and James 
Treat, Esq., two of the most noble and devoted 



friends that Texas ever had, ox ever will have, I 
was told that the money could be had if .the gov- 
ernment of the United States would recognize our 
independence, or take action upon the subject, 
which would be tantarnount thereto, or manifest 
a favorable disposition ; and at this point did 
my negotiation for a loan cease for a time. Also 
one other proposed loan of another commissioner, 
Mr. R. Hamilton, for five hundred thousand 
dollars, and which had been set in operation by the 
first commissioners with a heavy banking house of 
that city. During this suspension I was advised 
by some friends of Texas to return to Washington 
City, and see what was likely to be done there, 
which I did, and had the gratification of meeting 
our Secretary of State, Col. S. P. Carson, there, 
but in bad health, notwithstanding which he gave 
great aid and assistance to the cause of Texas, and 
much credit is due him for the successful passage 
of the favorable resolution in the Congress of the 
United States concerning Texas. From Washing- 
ton, Messrs. Carson, Hamilton, Childress, and 
myself went up to New York, for the purpose of 
concluding, if possible, the two loans which had 
been proposed previously. In a short time after 
we reached there, and as everything was assuming 
a highly favorable aspect in relation to our busi- 
ness, there appeared in public prints tliat famous, 
proclamation of his Excellency, President Burnet, 
denouncing, without distinction, all agents and com- 
missioners then in the United States and announc- 
ing that Mr. T. Toby was the only Texas agent. 
The same mail which announced his appointment, 
also brought the intelligence of the failure of 
Messrs. Toby & Bro. ; all of which was well 
calculated to produce what followed, namely, that, 
state of confusion and distrust in the public mind 
which prevailed in the United States, after conclu- 
sion of the late administration of Burnet, and a 
loss to Texas at that time, of more th»n half a 
milHon of dollars, which aid she was on the eve of 
obtaining. 

"Immediately on seeing the proclamation, be- 
fore alluded to, we withdrew all propositions for 
money and made no further exertions of that, 
nature. In a short time after this, which was about 
the latter part of July last, I set out for the South 
on my way home, and met Gen. Chambers at Cin- 
cinnati, to whom I communicated the result of my 
mission and who I found had sacrificed a large 
portion of his private fortune to advance the cause 
and aid the country. I found there that another 
famous proclamation of his Excellency President 
Burnet, had issued that no more volunteers were 
wanted from the United States, which I found had 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



lib 



produced great confusion and dissatisfaction in 
that country, particularly to those (and there were 
many within my knowledge) who had prepared and 
determined to emigrate to Texas, from " the dark 
and bloody ground" of our existence, and when 
to every rational mind it was supposed the war 
would be prosecuted with vigor. 

" But in a short time after the proclamation, last 
alluded to, other threatened invasions by the Mex- 
icans became imminent, and produced another 
proclamation calling on the generous and sympa- 
thizing of the world to come to the aid of suffering 
Texas, but then it was too late in the season, as the 
people of the North were afraid to come South until 
fall. 

" General Chambers made and was still making, 
preparations to bring on a Sne band of gallant 
emigrants (in addition to those already in this 
country), who were to start in a short time after 
Messrs. Wilson and Postlethwaite's return from 
Texas. 

" I think their slanderous publications destroyed 
all these efforts and for a time turned the tide of feel- 
ing against Texas. On the first of September, I left 
Louisville on my way home, but unfortunately was 
taken sick on the river, and after I reached Natchez 
was confined for near a month. After my recov- 
ery I had some private business which detained me 
for a short time, and news of an unfavorable char- 
acter after that was concluded, I proceeded home- 
wards, and arrived at this place on the eighth of 
this month. 

"The last service I did for the cause of Texas 
was in Natchez, when I aided the quarter-master 
general, at his request, in selling land scrip, and 
assisted in obtaining some fifty thousand dollars for 
the government to purchase provisions for the army ; 
and that of refuting the pamphlet publication con- 
taining the calumnies against Texas of Messrs. 
Wilson and Postlethwaite. I had the pleasure of see- 
ing before 1 left the United States, that the highest 
friendly feeling was again up for Texas and perfect 
confidence was . displayed throughout that country, 
on the receipt of the news of the election of the 
hero of San Jacinto to the presidencj', and the 
appointment of his able Cabinet, and the policies of 
the same. 

" The present Congress I contracted no debt for, 
or on account of this government, iior made it re- 
sponsible for one thing. 

"The foregoing services herein related I per- 
formed at my own expense, and free of charge to 
the government in any manner whatever. 

" By my absence I left exposed and unprotected 
all my property and effects on earth ; also my office. 



papers and books of all kinds (professional and 
private), which were all destroyed and thereby 
leaving me damaged, with others (and worse than 
thej', for most of them saved their papers at least), 
to a large amount of property and effects, and worse 
than all, subjected to incalculable difficulties and 
confusion, by the loss of my books and papers. 

" The foregoing is faithfully submitted to your 
Excellency and a candid world, to show the cause 
of my absence from the country at a time when I 
should have rejoiced to have marched with your 
Excellency and all my countrymen in arms, and 
perhaps gained some of the brilliant honors by 
many achieved, or died with the immortal slain. 
And ihe same is submitted to account for the delays 
and disappointments before explained. 

" In the foregoing report I have discharged a 
conscientious duty, in giving a plain and candid 
expose, but not as full as I would have given had 
it been required or compatible with official obliga- 
tion, and of this I shall content myself as in all 
other matters of my life with a quiet and approving 
conscience, knowing that I have faithfully and 
honorably discharged my duty to my country. 

" I have the honor to be, with high regard, 

" Your obedient and humble servant, 

"I. E. Lewis. 

"Columbia, December 12th, 1836." 

"P. S. For the high and generous feeling of 
kindness and sympathy, which I found prevailing 
in Kentucky for our cause, the highest credit is due 
bur distinguished fellow- citizens. Gen. S. F. Austin 
and Dr. B. T. Archer, two of our first commission- 
ers, but a short time previously had passed through 
that country on their way East and who, by their 
zealous and able efforts, had prepared the public 
mind in the ha])piest manner to respond promptly 
and generously to any call which might be made in 
behalf of Texas, and made my efforts more profit- 
able than I could have otherwise anticipated. 

" In New York I had the pleasure of meeting one 
of the last commissioners sent out b}' President 
Burnet, viz., our distinguished and worthy fellow- 
citizen,; James CoUinsworth, just as I was on the 
eve of leaving that city." 

Col. Lewis also served as a volunteer in the cam- 
paign of 1842. against the invasion by Woll of 
Texas. 

After the overthrow of Mexican rule in Texas, 
Col. Lewis busied himself with his profession, 
practicing principally in the counties of Matagorda^ 
Brazoria, Fort Bend and Wharton, until he acquired 
considerable property, when he retired from the 



176 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



practice to plantations purchased by him and com- 
menced farming with negro slaves. 

Though proficient in law and literature, Col. 
Lewis discovered that he was not cut out for a 
planter and, after meeting reverses, abandoned 
farming and returned to the practice, in which he 
continued until his death, vyhich occurred at the 
home of his son-in-law, Maj. Moses Austin Bryan, 
at Independence, in August, 1867. 

The antecedents and family history of this public 
servant and distinguished citizen are clearly traced 
and well known, as he left behind him all his private 
and public papers and correspondence, which are 
numerous and carefully preserved ; all of which is 
in the possession of his descendants living in Texas, 
hereafter noted. These papers, if ever published, 
will throw much light on what arc now obscure 
places in Texas history, during the most trying 
period. Col. Lewis was born in Virginia, Septem- 
ber 25th, 1800. His mother was a Miss Randolph, 
of the Virginia family of that name, and his father 
was a physician. Doctor Jacob Lewis, who was 
born the 13th day of October, 1767, in Somerset 
County, State of New Jersey, and lived to a ripe 
old age, dying in 1852 in Cincinnati, Ohio, the then 
place of his residence. 

The father of Dr. Lewis was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War, serving under Washington in 
repelling the invasion of New Jersey and New York 
by the British. 

While in the Continental patriot army he con- 
tracted camp fever and died. 

The autobiography of Dr. Lewis, speaking of 
the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, relates 
the following incident:— 

" After peace was proclaimed, the fourth day of 
July was appointed as a day to be set apart for 
thanksgiving and rejoicing. The plains where 
Somerville now stands, in Somerset County, New 
Jersey, was the place of meeting. The largest 
collection of people I think I ever saw was collected 
there to congratulate each other on the happy event 
of gaining our independence. A circle formed, and 
Gen. Frelinghuyson, on his war horse, rode in the 
center and gave us a truly patriotic lecture ; spoke 
much on our ease and comfort, and that the form 
of our government would be that of a Republic ; 
and further went on and explained the meaning of 
a Republican form of government, viz., that our 
legislators would be bound to act for the good of 
the nation, not local or sectional." 

The Lewis family are of French Huguenot 
descent, tracing their ancestry directly back to 
the flight of the Huguenots from France after the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, A. D. 1688. 



Fleeing from religious persecution in France, the 
ancestors of Col. Lewis settled first in Holland, 
then removed to Wales and then to America in 
about the year 1700. 

The Lewis family were of that baud of French 
Huguenots that history records as settling in little 
squads in the States of New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland and South Carolina. 

In the year 1802, Dr. Lewis, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, removed to the then Terri- 
tory of Ohio, a part of Virginia, which was created 
a State out of Virginia in February, 1803. 

He settled in the town of Hamilton, or rather 
what became the city of Hamilton, Ohio. Here he 
practiced his profession and prospered until the 
war of 1812 came on with Great Britain, called the 
second war of independence. He enlisted in this 
war against the oppression of the British, as his 
father had done before him in the Revolution. By 
virtue of his profession he was appointed surgeon's 
mate, or assistant surgeon, in the First Regiment, 
Third Detachment, Ohio militia, on the 13th day of 
February, 1813, and served throughout the war. 

Col. I. R. Lewis was educated by his father. Dr. 
Jacob Lewis, in the best schools of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and grew up and was reared to be a highly 
accomplished young man. Choosing the law as his 
profession, he entered upon its study under the 
greatest advantages and auspices, being under 
Nicholas Longworth, the great Ohio lawyer. His 
father had planned for him a quiet and prosperous 
career, as a Cincinnati lawyer, starting as he did as 
a protege of Longworth and associate and compan- 
ion of Thomas Corwin, who became so famous as a 
lawyer and statesman. 

Just after coming of age, he married, in 1822, 
Miss Eliza Julia Hunt. Miss Hunt was a native of 
Mississippi, born in Natchez, November 23d, 1802, 
and was left an orphan at an early age. Miss 
Hunt's uncle, Jesse Hunt, took her to Kentucky, 
where the Hunt family came from, and from there 
she was sent to be educated in the schools of 
Cincinnati and met young Lewis. As soon as 
married and in control of his wife's property, 
which consisted of large landed estates and slaves, 
the self-reliant and venturesome spirit of his ances- 
tors cropped out and, to the dismay and chagrin of 
his father and friends. Col. Ira Lewis announced 
that he had quit law and would move to Mississippi 
and take charge of his wife's property and become 
a planter with slaves. Residing in and near Nat- 
chez, Col. Lewis operated his plantation, dispens- 
ing a generous and refined Southern hospitality. 

After several years residence in Mississippi,- he 
sold out and purchased a plantation near Baton 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



177 



Rouge and Donaldson, La., and continued to live 
there until the year 1830, when he concluded to go 
to Austin's Colony in the then Mexican Province of 
Texas. He had heard of Texas from persons he 
had met in New Orleans when visiting that place to 
purchase supplies for his plantation. Visiting 
Texas in 1830, he satisfied himself that it was the 
coming empire of the Southwest and, returning to 
the United States, sold out his interests in Louisi- 
ana and embarked his family in a sailing vessel in 
May, 1831, bound out of New Orleans for Texas. 
Passage by sea proved stormy and disastrous, re- 
sulting in the wrecking of the vessel off the coast 
of Texas. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis with their four 
children, all girls, were saved in the boats and, after 
undergoing terrible hardships for several days at 
sea, tossed about at the mercy of the waves, they 
were landed near the town of Matagorda, in Mata- 
gorda County, on the coast of Texas, then a part 
of Austin's Colony. Everything was lost in the 
wreck. All that was left was on their shivering 
bodies. Relics and mementoes, as well as furniture 
and wearing apparel, luxuries and necessaries of 
life, were all swallowed up in the Gulf of Mexico. 

With hospitality, characteristic of life in a new 
country, the people^ of Matagorda took into their 
arms the Lewis family and provided for them until 
they procured a home. This crushing blow well- 
nigh crazed Mrs. Lewis and she implored her hus- 
band to return to the United States, but he insisted 
on remaining. As soon as the means could be pro- 
cured it was determined that San Felipe de Austin, 
the seat of government of Austin's Colony, was 
the proper place to settle and practice his profes- 
sion of law. 

A writer of the period between 1831 and 1833, 
speaking of the people of San Felipe de Austin, 
under the head of " Early Days in Texas," says: 
"San Felipe was established by S. F. Austin, in 
1824, on the Brazos, and was named by Governor 
Garcia as the capital of Austin's Colony. It was 
the first Anglo-American town established in Texas. 
Stephen F. Austin, the empresario, and Samuel M. 
Williams, his secretary, lived here. Here was kept 
the land ofBce; here met the Ayuntamiento, the 
colonists to designate their lands, and to receive 
their titles, and strangers who visited the country ; 
here resided the prominent lawyers of the colonists 
of Austin, among whom were W. B. Travis, W. H. 
Jack, Ira R. Lewis, T. J. Chambers, Luke Lesas- 
sier, Thomas M. Duke, Hosea League, Robert M. 
Williamson (three-legged Willie) and others. The 
society of San Felipe at that day was good. The 
colonists were required by Austin to bring with 
them from their former places of residence, certifi- 



cates of good character. By printed notices they 
were informed if they failed in this, their applica- 
tion to be received as colonists would be rejected. 
San Felipe could boast of elegant, refined and 
beautiful women, as well as noble and cultured 
men. Mrs. Ira R. Lewis, Mrs. James F. Perry 
(the sister of S. F. Austin), Mrs. W. H. Jack, Mrs. 
Nancy McKinney, Mrs. Townsend, Mrs. Peyton 
(sister of Bailey Peyton), Mrs. Parmer and others, 
from their personal attractions, lovely womanly 
character, would command attention and admira- 
tion anywhere. Here was established the first 
Sunday school, the first newspaper and the first 
Masonic Lodge in Texas. Here assembled the 
representative men to consult and plan for the 
weal of Texas, and it so continued until it was 
destroyed by fire on the approach of the Mexican 
army, under Santa Anna, in 1836. But for this 
destruction it would have, in all probabilitj-, have 
been selected as the capital of the Republic of 
Texas." 

After practicing his profession for several years 
at San Felipe, Col. Lewis returned to Matagorda, 
which place became for many years his permanent 
place of residence. 

Mrs. I. R. Lewis died January 11th, 1887, at the 
residence of her son-in-law, Maj. M. A. Bryan, 
and was interred in the family cemetery at Inde- 
pendence, Texas. 

Colonel and Mrs. Lewis had four children, all 
girls, viz., Laura, born in 1824, at Natchez; Louisa, 
born near Baton Rouge, La., in December, 1825, 
Cora and Stella, born in Baton Rouge, La., in the 
years, respectively, 1828 and 1830. 

Laura married at Matagorda, Texas, Dr. A. F. 
Axson and w'as the mother of three children, viz., 
Lewis, Clinton J. and B. Palmer, all born in New 
Orleans. Louisa married Hon. Geo. Hancock of 
Austin, Texas, and was the mother of one child, 
viz., Lewis, born in Austin, Texas. Cora married 
Moses Austin Bryan of Brazoria, November 3d, 
1856, and was the mother of six children, to wit. 
Gum M., who died at the age of two years, in 
Brazoria ; Stella Louisa, who died at the age of four 
years, at Independence ; Lewis Randolph, born 
October 2d, 1858 ; Beauregard, born January 16th, 
1862; Austin Y., born December 20th, 1863; 
Stonewall Jackson, born February 2d, 1866. Of 
these children the first four were born in Brazoria 
County, Texas, on their father's plantation on 
Oyster creek, called "Retire." The last two 
were born near Independence on their father's 
plantation. Stella married Maj. Hal. G. Runnels, 
of Harris County, Texas, an only son of Governor 
Hiram G. Runnels and cousin of Governor Hardin 



178 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



E. Runnels, and was the mother of two children, 
Sue and Harry G. Stella died near Independence, 
Texas. Laura died in September, 1876, in New 
Orleans, La., the place of her residence, and was 



interred in Metarie Cemetery in that city. Cora 
died June 9th, 1889, in Brenham, Texas, and is 
interred in the family cemetery at Independence, 
Texas. 



CHARLES FOWLER, 



GALVESTON. 



The late lamented Capt. Charles Fowler, of 
Galveston, was born in Guilford, Connecticut, in 
1824; went to sea at the age of fourteen, was mas- 
ter of a ship at twentj'-one and followed that 
vocation until 18fi6, when he became agent for the 
Morgan line of steamers at Galveston, which posi- 
tion he held from that time until the time of his 
death, a period of twenty-flve years. 

He came to Galveston in 1847 as captain of the 
brig, Mary. Three years later he returned to Con- 
necticut and was married at Stratford to Miss Mary 
J. Booth, daughter of Isaac Patterson Booth. 

Upon the commencement of hostilities between 
the States he entered the naval branch of the Con- 
federate service ; at the famous engagement at 
Sabine Pass participated in the capture of the 
enemy's fleet and was subsequently made prisoner 
and detained until the close of the war. On 
returning to Galveston he was made captain of one 
of the Morgan ships, from which position he was 
transferred to the Galveston agency. Though 
never aspiring to political preferment, he was elected 
an alderman of Galveston as far back as 1873, 
afterwards frequently served in that capacity and 
at the time of his death, March 17th, 1891, was a 
member of the board, having served continuously 
since 1885. His last tenure of office began under 
a system of municipal reform and his discharge of 
duty was so acceptable to the people at large that 
-they insisted again and again upon his standing for 
election. As alderman (from 1885 to 1891) he 
always held the position of honor as chairman of 
the committee on finance and positions on all other 
leading committees. He was, in fact, recognized 
as intellectually and, in a business way, the strong- 
est man in the council, and his straightforwardness. 
Integrity and devotion to duty easily entitled him 
to this position. 

Though not a civil engineer by profession he was 
a man possessed of strong and valuable practical 
ideas upon matters of engineering, and in 1868, 



took charge of the work of deepening the water on 
the inner bar, on which there was a depth of eight 
feet of water at high tide, all vessels being subject 
to a pilotage of $3.00 per foot besides the $4.00 per 
foot over the outer bar. In 1869, as president of 
the board of pilot commissioners, he handed in a 
report, showing a depth of fifteen feet over the in- 
ner bar, and recommended the abolition of pilotage 
over same, a recommendation that was followed 
forthwith. Through his long and intimate acquaint- 
ance with municipal affairs and all classes of the 
people, no man was better qualified to serve the 
people of Galveston and foster the best interests of 
the city. He was often urged to accept the mayor- 
alty but declined to become a candidate for the 
honor. Physically he was a noble specimen of 
manhood. He possessed in full measure solid public 
and domestic virtues. His wife and three children 
survive him, viz., a married daughter, Mrs. A. 
Bornefeld; a son, Charles Fowler, Jr., and a 
younger daughter. Miss Louise. In reporting the 
fact of his death, the Galveston News of March 18th, 
1891, contained the following : " The friends and 
acquaintances of Capt. Charles Fowler, and their 
number in Galveston is legion, have for the past two 
days been hourly anticipating his death. Some ten 
days ago he was taken to his bed with a chill to which 
no particular importance was attached, but as days 
passed his malady grew more complicated, finally 
developing into a serious kidney complication, 
resulting in a fatal case of uremic poisoning. He 
died last night at 8-30 o'clock, and in his death 
no ordinary man passed away. Few citizens 
have died in Galveston who were more universally 
respected and esteemed by all classes, or whose 
death will be more universally regretted. Since it 
has been known that death was inevitable the 
inquiry upon every lip upon the street has been in 
regard to Capt. Fowler's condition and if any evi- 
dence was wanting as to his popularity, it was 
clearly demonstrated by all classes of citizens over 




CHARLES FOWLER. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



179 



his critical condition. Those of high and low station, 
rich and poor, displayed an abiding sorrow at the 
announcement that the life-tide of Charles Fowler 
was ebbing away and that his death was but a 
question of a few short hours. The universal 
sentiment expressed was that 'in the death of 
Charles Fowler Galveston will lose one of her best 
and noblest citizens,' and when the sad news came 
last night that all was over it fell liije a pall upon 
the busy streets." 

That paper said editorially: "The mortal re- 
mains of Capt. Charles Fowler were yesterday con- 
signed to the earth, whence they came. In the 
death of Capt. Fowler this city has lost one of her 
best and most useful citizens. * » * Trained 
to the sea, with its dangers and vicissitudes, he was 
«ver ready in emergency and always manly and 
brave in act. Yet how loving and kindly in all the 
relations of life. To the general public he dis- 
charged his full duty — to his immediate family all 
that mortal man could do. The tribute paid to his 
memory yesterday by the citizens of Galveston was 
worthy of his character. Among the many who 
accompanied his remains to their last resting-place 
were those of every degree and station in life — the 
professional man, the merchant, the civic authority 
and oflfleial, the laborer, the domestic. It was not 
an outpouring of popular curiosity, but a real trib- 
ute to worth and manhood. The man who worked 
for his daily wages upon the docks was as sincerely 
grief-stricken as the man of wealth who may have 
considered Capt. Fowler his more immediate com- 
panion or his coadjutor in public affairs. The 
tribute was beautiful in itself and pleasant to think 
over, because it demonstrates that human nature 
has a fine touch of grandeur after all in its recogni- 
tion and appreciation of the manly virtues. The 
spotless integrity and loving kindness of Charles 
Fowler's nature drew from the hearts of the people 
■of Galveston yesterday as fine a poem as ever poet 
penned." 

At a called meeting of the city council held 
March 20th, 1891, Mayor R. L. Fulton submitted a 
message in which he pronounced an eloquent eulo- 
giura upon the deceased, and upon motion that 
body adopted the following resolutions : — 

" Whereas, Galveston has just lost by death one 
of her most eminent, patriotic and distinguished, 
citizens in the person of Capt. Charles Fowler, who 



for a great number of years has been prominently 
identified with the city government as alderman, 
member of the Board of Health, chairman of the 
Committee on Finance and Revenue, and member 
of many other useful committees, where at all times 
he manifested the utmost zeal for the public welfare, 
great ability as a financier, enterprise, energy, a 
spirit of progress in keeping with the times, and a 
moral and physical courage which enabled him to 
stamp his convictions on his associates and thus 
give to the city of his love the full benefit of his 
wise counsels, legislative and executive ability and 
patriotism ; and 

"Whereas, He never hesitated to expend his 
time, energy and great abilities for the benefit of his 
fellow citizens ; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, By the city council of the city of 
Galveston, that on no more melancholy and regret- 
table an occasion was this council ever before 
convened. 

" Resolved, Further, That on Saturday, the 21st 
inst., the day of his interment, as a mark of 
respect, all the city offices be closed ; that the 
different branches or departments of the city 
government attend the funeral ; that the city hall 
and council chamber be draped in appropriate 
emblems of mourning and respect for the loss of 
this good and useful private citizen and public 
officer. Be it also 

" Resolved, That his chair in the municipal cham- 
ber be left unoccupied during the remainder of the 
municipal term, this council pledging itself to his 
constituents the same careful attention to their 
interests, and that these resolutions be spread upon 
the minutes and copies be furnished the members 
of his immediate family, and that the daily papers 
be requested to publish same. Be it also 

" Resolved, That this council does hereby request 
the business houses of this city to close during the 
funeral to-morrow, Saturday, March 21st." 

Who would not lead such a life of modest use- 
fulness? Who would not leave such a memory 
behind him when he passes from the scenes of life? 
The cynic and the idler may well draw lessons of 
profit from this brief chronicle and those who seek 
for happiness, if not honor, in dubious ways, 
should lay speedily to heart the truth that: " It is 
only noble to be good," and that there is no happi- 
ness aside from duty. 



180 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



R. W. LOUGHERY, 



MARSHALL. 



Iq this brief memoir it is the intention of the 
author to present an outline of the main incidents 
in the career of a man who, for many years, figured 
prominently upon the scene of action in this Stale, 
and whose memory, though his form has been con- 
signed to earth, which at last must receive us all, 
is still revered by many of the older people of this 
State, who either knew him personally or by 
reputation. 

His was a truly noble character. He was so 
slow to think evil of others and unselfish, he failed 
to ask for, and often refused to accept, the rewards 
that his services had richly earned, and that, at the 
time, would have been freely accorded him, but 
which later, when he greatly needed substantial 
recognition by his party, was denied him under a 
system of politics that leads those in power to be- 
stow their favors not as rewards of merit, but with 
an eye-single to personal aggrandizement — to pre- 
fer an obscure cross-roads politician, who can com- 
mand one vote in the State convention, to an old 
veteran, who has grown gray in the service of his 
country. He saved the frail barques of many politi- 
cians from disaster and built up the political fortunes 
of several men who have since held high positions in 
the councils of the nation, but sought no honors 
for himself, when (for instance, within a few years 
after the overthrow of the Military Commission at 
Jefferson) he could have secured any oflice within 
the gift of the people of Texas. 

These traits were a part of his mental and 
spiritual make-up and bore fruit that, while it did 
not embitter (for nothing could embitter) saddened 
the later years of his life, until at last he sank into 
the welcome grave. 

He was ambitious, not to secure political pre- 
ferment, social position, influence or other reward, 
or to gratify personal vanity by parading the fact 
that he was patriotic, true, honorable, pious, 
kindly, generous and charitable ; but, ambitious 
alone to possess, cultivate and practice those vir- 
tues. The pathetic appealed to him as it does to 
few men. He wept with those who mourned and 
rejoiced with those who rejoiced. He was above all 
petty jealousy. He not only saw but applauded 
the merits of others, and cheered them on in efforts 
that led to distinction. He never permitted a case 
of suffering to go unrelieved, that it was in his 
power to relieve, and he never turned a tramp or 



other beggar from his door. When the world cried^ 
"Crucify! "he was ever found on the side of 
mercy. He never deserted his friends, but was- 
quick to fly to their defense when they appealed to- 
him, or when he saw that they needed his aid, and 
as a result, there are thousands who remember him-, 
and sincerely mourn his loss. He never failed to- 
inspire the respect even of his political enemies.. 
He had the rare faculty of doing the right thing at 
the right time, and was a consummate master of the- 
higher tactics of political warfare. He was an in- 
domitable and trusted defender of right, and never 
failed to be the first to throw himself squarely into 
the breach in time of public danger. He was- 
physically and morally intrepid. He was quick to 
espouse every worthy cause, and advocate it with 
might and main. He was not only kind and benev- 
olent to men and women, both great and small, 
rich and poor, black and white; but, to God's, 
creatures, the lower animals, not one of whom he 
ever injured, or permitted to be injured in his. 
presence, without reproof. He turned, instinctively, 
to the defense of the weak and defenseless. He 
never did an intentional wrong, and never com- 
mitted a wrong unintentionally through error aris- 
ing from mistake of judgment or misrepresentation 
of facts that he did not sorely repent, and imme 
diately seek to atone for. He never sacrificed' 
principle to expediency. 

It may be said truthfully of him that he was the- 
" Father of Texas Democracy." "When he estab- 
lished his newspaper at Marshall in 1849 (three 
years after Texas was admitted to the Union) the 
two great parties in the United States (Whigs an* 
Democrats) had no representative local organiza- 
tions in Texas. Seeing the confusion that prevailed 
and deprecating the practice of conducting cam- 
paigns merely on personal and local issues, he, for 
six years, zealously taught, through the columns of 
his paper, the tenets of Democratic faith, as to- 
which there were many misconceptions (men run- 
ning for office who claimed to be Democrats, and 
who did not understand or believe in the first 
principles of Democracy) and sought to bring 
about party alignments, which he at last suc- 
ceeded in doing, as the State convention of 1855- 
was the result of his labors and the labor of those 
who aided him in the work. While he believed in 
that concerted action in political matters, which caa 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



181 



alone be secured through perfect party organiza- 
tions, he was of too manly and independent a spirit 
and too clear-headed and wise a man to erect party 
into a fetich, to be bowed down before and wor- 
shiped. He did not hesitate to criticise platforms, 
oandidates and officials — from the highest to the 
lowest — when he deemed such criticism necessary 
to the good of the country or party. He believed 
in the great cardinal principles upon which rests 
the school of political economy that claimed his 
allegiance. If party leaders violated those princi- 
ples he sought, as far as his influence extended, to 
whip them back into line. If his views upon public 
•questions were not accepted and enunciated in the 
platform utterances of his party, he did not cease 
to advocate their adoption, neither did he quit his 
party, for, with the author of Lacon, he believed 
^'that the violation of correct principles offers no 
excuse for their abandonment," and was sure that 
the Democratic masses would in time force their 
leaders to adopt the correct course and retrace the 
false and dangerous steps that were being taken. 
He believed that if the principles enunciated by Mr. 
Jefferson, Calhoun and their associates were prac- 
tically applied to the administration of our national 
and State affairs, we would have one of the most 
enduring, freest and happiest governments that it 
is possible for human genius to construct and human 
patriotism and wisdom sustain. Party, with him, 
was merely a necessary means to a desirable end — 
good government and constitutional integrity and 
freedom — and he combated every movement, ut- 
terance, or nomination that promised to impair its 
strength or usefulness. 

He was devoted to the Democratic flag with a 
devotion akin to that of a veteran for his flag. His 
was a bold aggressive personality, fitted for times 
of storm and struggle. 

Comparatively early in his career it was charged 
that Hon. Lewis T. Wigfall wrote the editorials for 
the Texas Republican, but this piece of malicious 
whispering was soon forever silenced, as he and 
Wigfall became engaged in a newspaper controversy, 
in which Wigfall was placed liors de combat. 

He was born in Nashville, Tenn., February 2, 
1820, and was educated at St. Joseph's College at 
Bardstown, Ky., to which place his parents, Robert 
and Sarah Ann Loughery (from the north of Ire- 
land) removed during his infancy. At ten years 
of age he was left an orphan and not long after 
entered a printing office, where he learned the 
trade. 

News of the revolution in progress in Texas — 
the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad and the 
victory won at the battle of San Jacinto — fired him 



with a desire to j oin the patriot army and strike a blow 
for liberty and, although but sixteen years of age, he 
went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and there joined a military 
company and started with it for Texas. A frail, 
delicate lad, he was taken sick en route to New 
Orleans and was left in that city, where he remained 
a year and a half, and then went to Monroe, La., 
where he remained until 1846, part of the time con- 
ducting an influential newspaper, and then again 
went to New Orleans. On the 11th of February, 
1841, he married, at Monroe, Miss Sarah Jane Bal- 
lew, an estimable young lady, the daughter of a 
leading pioneer settler in Ouachita parish. In 
1847, he removed to Texas and during that year 
edited a paper at Jefferson. He spent 1848 in 
traveling over the State, often traversing solitudes 
of forest and prairie for days together. He said 
In after life that some of the most pleasant hours 
that he ever spent were in the wilderness in silent 
and solitary meditation as he rode along, far from 
the haunts of men. 

In May, 1849, he and Judge Trenton J. Patillo 
established the Texas Republican at Marshall, one 
of the most famous newspapers ever published in 
Texas, and certainly the most widely influential and 
by far the ablest conducted in the State before the 
war. The paper was named the Texas Republican 
in honor of the party which advocated the adoption 
of the American constitution. Judge Patillo sold 
his interest to his son, Mr. Frank Patillo, in 1850, 
and in 1851 Col. Loughery obtained sole control 
of the paper by purchase, and conducted it alone 
until August, 1869. The files of the Texas Repub- 
lican were purchased a few years since by the State 
of Texas, and are now preserved in the archives of 
the State Department of Insurance, Statistics and 
History. Before the war this paper was the recog- 
nized organ of the Democratic party in Texas. It 
led the hosts in every contest. The fiery Know- 
Nothing campaign of 1855 gave full scope for the 
exercise of his varied abilities. The Know-Nothing 
party was a secret, oath-bound organization, hostile 
to Catholicism and opposed to immigrants from for- 
eign lands acquiring right of citizenship in this 
country. Largely, if not mainly, through the 
efforts of Col. Loughery, a Democratic State Con- 
vention was called (the first in the State), assembled, 
nominated candidates for State offices, and drew 
the Democracy up in regular array to contest the 
State with the opposition. He was bitterly opposed 
to the methods and tenets of the Know-Nothing 
party. 

The following incident is illustrative of the temper 
of the times. Hon. Pendleton Murrah, afterwards 
Governor of the State, was a candidate for Con- 



182 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



gress and opened his campaign at Marshall. It 
was impossible to estimate the strength of the 
Know-Nothing party, as all its proceedings were 
held in secret. This strength was greatly underesti- 
mated by Murrah and his friends. They believed 
that the excitement was of an ephemeral character 
and was confined to a few individuals who hoped 
to secure office by playing the roles of political 
agitators. Mr. Murrah assailed the leaders and 
principles of Know-Nothingism with all the vigor 
and venom of which he was capable, hoping to give 
the American party, so far as his district was con- 
cerned, its coup de grace. One of the leading 
citizens of the county arose and declared that the 
gentlemen who composed the American party had 
been insulted, and called upon all members of the 
party to follow him from the court room. There 
was a moment of breathless expectation, succeeded 
by the audience arising well-nigh en masse and 
moving toward the door. Soon Mr. Murrah and 
two or three friends alone remained. They were 
dumbfounded. The scene they had witnessed was 
a revelation. They realized that there was no hope 
of Democratic success in the district and that the 
Know-Nothing party would sweep it. Mr. Murrah 
declared his intention to at once withdraw from 
the race. At this moment Col. Loughery stepped 
up to him and urged him to continue the campaign 
and that with increased vigor, saying, among other 
things: "If you retire now in the face of the 
enemy, your political career will end to-day. 
Although defeat is certain, stand up and fight, and 
when the Know-Nothing party is condemned by 
the sober second thought of the people, you will be 
remembered and honored." Mr. Murrah followed 
Col. Loughery's advice and was afterwards elected 
Governor. The campaign waxed hotter and hotter. 
The Texas Republican's philippics, many of them 
unsurpassed by any written by the author of 
the letters of Junius or uttered by Sheridan or 
Burke, fell thicker and faster and party speakers 
flew swiftly from point to point haranguing the 
multitude, sometimes alone but more often in 
fierce joint debate. At last came the fateful day of 
election, a day of doom for the Know-Nothing 
party (but not for its spirit, for that unfortunately 
is still alive) and of victory to the Democracy. 

The next momentous epoch in the history of Col. 
Loughery was that marked by the secession 
movement. As to the right of revolution, it is 
necessarily inherent in every people. The time 
when it shall be exercised rests alone in their dis- 
cretion. The right of secession was of an entirely 
different nature. It was in the nature of that right 
which a party claims when he withdraws from a 



contract, the terms of which have been violated or 
the consideration for which has been withdrawn, 
and identical with that which nations who are 
parties to a treaty of alliance, offensive and de- 
fensive, reserve to themselves (although the com- 
pact may in its terms provide for a perpetual 
union) to consider the treaty annulled when its- 
terms are departed from or the connection no longer 
continues to be pleasant or profitable. Withdrawal 
may, or may not, give offense and lead to a declara- 
tion of war. If it does lead to hostilities, the 
resulting struggle is one carried on by equals in 
which heavy artillery and big battalions will settle 
the fate of the quarrel. The question of moral 
right must be left to the decision of the public 
conscience of the world, or, if that conscience fails 
to assert itself at the time, to posterity and the 
impartial historians of a later period. At 'one time 
in the history of the English race, the trial by 
battle was a part of legal procedure by which issues, 
both civil and criminal, were judicially determined. 
But in course of time men came to see that 
skill, strength and courage were the sole factors 
that controlled the issue of such contests and that 
wrong was as often successful as right. As a 
consequence the trial by battle fell gradually into 
disuse and at last became extinct and is now only 
remembered as a curious custom incident to the 
evolution of our system of jurisprudence. What 
has been said of the trial by battle may be said 
with equal truth of war and the fate of war. The 
fact that the Southern States were defeated, con- 
sequently, has no bearing upon the question of 
their right to secede. The States bound themselves 
together to secure certain benefits and to remain so 
associated so long as the connection proved desir- 
able. He believed that every essential guarantee 
contained in the constitution had been grossly vio- 
lated and that the Southern States could no longer 
either expect peace or security to their rights, or 
any benefit whatever by continuing under the same 
governmental roof with the States north of Mason 
and Dixon's line. He was in favor of a peaceful 
withdrawal, if possible. 

During the progress of the war Col. Loughery 
opposed the passage of the conscript laws and the 
invasion of the jurisdiction of civil authority by 
military commanders. With all his powers of per- 
suasion he sought to keep up the waning hopes of 
the people as the months passed on into years. 
Knowing that many of the families of Confederate 
soldiers then in the field were in need, he inaugu- 
rated a movement that resulted in a mass meeting 
at the Court House in Marshall, Texas, at which a 
committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions of 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



183 



money and provisions for the establishment of a 
depot of supplies, at which such families could ob- 
tain what they needed. He continued to publish 
his paper throughout the war, never missing an 
issue. The final result of the struggle did not un- 
nerve him as it did many other public men, some 
of whom, among the number the brilliant and 
lamented Pendleton Murrah, fled the country to 
find graves in alien lands. Those were dark days 
that followed the surrender, and the establishment 
of military rule. Some of those who boasted that 
they would submit to no Indignities, not only tamely 
submitted but went entirely over to the Radicals, 
accepted office under them and seemed to delight 
in oppressing a defenseless people. This class 
found no mercy at his hands. His course was 
characterized by eminent good sense and was re- 
markable for its fearlessness. Owing to the stand 
that he took the iniquities that were perpetrated 
fell far short in atrocity to what they would other- 
wise have done, as he unhesitatingly not only venti- 
lated, but denounced what was going on and his 
papers found their way to Washington. 

In April, 1867, he started the Jefferson Times 
(daily and weekly) and ran it in connection with 
his paper at Marshall. 

At this time a complete system of oppression and 
tyranny prevailed. An army of thieves were sent 
into the country, ostensibly to protect the negroes 
and to hunt up Confederate cotton and other 
alleged Confederate property. The Freedman's 
Bureau had its agents in every county. The jails 
were full of respectable people, charged with dis- 
loyalty or alleged crimes, on the complaints of 
mean whites or depraved negroes. Five military 
despotisms prevailed in the South. Governors were 
deposed, legislatures dispersed at the point of the 
bayonet and citizens disfranchised. The press 
was silenced and men were afraid to talk, but in 
many places they became bolder, until they did not 
see actual danger. 

Such was the case in Jefferson, in 1869, when a 
number of outraged citizens broke into the jail and 
shot to death a man named Smith (who had often 
threatened to have the town burned) and three 
negroes. These killings inflamed the Radicals. 
They cared nothing about Smith, whose conduct 
was about as offensive to them as to the people, 
but they seemed to rejoice at the opportunity this 
incident afforded to oppress a people that they 
hated. Col. Loughery, with both papers, attacked 
the military organization and the military commis- 
sion appointed to try these men and others incar- 
cerated at Jefferson, charged with alleged crimes. 
The commission prevailed for over six months, and 



with it a reign of terror. Men talked in bated 
whispers. A large number of men left the country 
to escape persecution. A stockade was erected on 
the west side of town, in'^which were imprisoned 
over fltty persons. Martial law prevailed, the writ 
of habeas corpus was suspended, and men were 
tried by army officers in time of profound peace, 
in plain, open violation of jthe constitution. His 
position during this period was one of great peril, 
as he reported the proceedings of, and boldly 
assailed, the commission and its acts from day to 
day. 

Col. Loughery' s able and intrepid course resulted 
in the downfall of the commission, prevented the 
arrest of many persons, and the perpetration of many 
outrageous acts that otherwise] would have been 
committed, and preserved the lives and liberties of 
many of those confined in the stockade. With him 
at the head of the Times, the military authorities 
were compelled to restrain themselves, and think 
well before they acted. They ordered him several 
times to cease his strictures, but in each instance 
he sent back a bold defiance, and the following 
morning the Times appeared with editorials in keep- 
ing with those of former issues. He had three 
newspaper plants and all of his files destroyed by 
fire in Jefferson, but notwithstanding these great 
losses and heavy expense attendant upon the publi- 
cation of a daily newspaper in those days, he con- 
ducted the Times until , after which time he 

published and edited papers at Galveston and Jef- 
ferson, Texas, and Shreveport, La., and from 1877 
until 1880, edited the Marshall IferaZd, at Marshall, 
Texas, published by Mr. Howard Hamments. 
Some of the best work that he ever did was on the 
Herald. There was scarcely a paper in the State 
that did not quote from the Herald's editorial 
columns, and the editors of the State, as if by com- 
mon consent, united in referring to him on all 
occasions as the " Nestor of the Texas Press." 

From a very early period Col. Loughery strongly 
advocated the building of a trans-continental rail- 
way through Texas to the Pacific ocean, and while 
in New Orleans on one occasion was employed by 
Col. Faulk, the original projector of what is now the 
Texas and Pacific Railway, to write a series of 
articles for the Picayune in defense of the corpo- 
ration which Col. Faulk had then recently formed. 
Later he became one of the stockholders and direct- 
ors of the corporation. Throughout his life he felt 
an interest in the fortunes of the Texas and Pacific, 
and remained an earnest advocate of railway con- 
struction. Every worthy enterprise found in him 
a staunch and zealous supporter. 

In 1887 he was appointed by President Cleveland 



184 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Consul for the United States at Aeapulco, Mexico, 
and held the office until December 1st, 1890, 
making one of the best officers in the foreign ser- 
vice. He was often commended by the State 
Department, and his reports were copied by the 
leading commercial papers in Europe and America. 

Col. Loughery was undoubtedly one of the 
finest writers and clearest thinkers that the South 
has ever produced, and deserves to rank with 
Ritchie, Kendall and Prentice. It has been said 
that journalism has greatly improved in recent 
years. This is true with regard to the gathering 
and dissemination of news, but not true in anj- 
other particular. 

He was married to Miss Elizabeth M. Bowers 
near Nebo, Ky., November 23, 1853. His 
widow and four children, Robert W., Jr. (born 
of his first marriage), Augusta M., E. H., and 
Fannie L. , survive him. He died at his home in 
Marshall, Texas, April 26, 1894, and was interred 
in the cemetery at that place. 

Mrs. E. M. Loughery was born in Christian 
County, Kentucky, is the daughter of the late Mr. 
and Mrs. W. W. Bowers, is descended from two 
of the oldest and most distinguished families of the 
" Blue Grass State," was partly educated at Oak- 
land Institute, Jackson, Miss., came to Texas 
with her uncle. Judge Dudley S. Jennings, and 
remained some time afterward with her uncle. 
Gen. Thomas J. Jennings, well remembered as 
a lawyer, Attorney-general of Texas and citizen of 
Nacogdoches, San Augustine and Fort Worth. 
Mrs. Loughery is a lady of superior culture and 
attainments, and as a writer little inferior to her 
talented husband. During the days of the military 
commission at Jefferson, when Col. Loughery was 
threatened with incarceration in the stockade, it 
was understood that in case of his arrest, she was 
to assume editorial control of the Times, and con- 
tinue its strictures on the despotism that prevailed, 
a work, that had it become necessary, she would 
have been fully competent to perform. She has 
recently written and published in pamphlet form 
a memoir of the life, character and services of Col. 
Loughery that possesses superior literary merits 
and has met with favorable comment in the leading 
newspapers in the State. 

R. W. Loughery, Jr., was a soldier in the Con- 
federate Army during the four years of the war, 
carried the last dispatches into Arkansas Post, 
fought through the Tennessee and Georgia cam- 
paigns, was mentioned at the head of his regiment 
for conspicuous gallantry at Chickamauga and fol- 
lowed the flag until it was finally furled in North 
Carolina. He was a printer on the old Dallas 



Herald, and later on its successor, the Dallas News, 
until recently, and is still living in Dallas. 

Miss Augusta M. Loughery is one of the most 
accomplished ladies in Texas. E. H. Loughery 
edited newspapers at Jefferson, Texas, Shreve- 
port. La., Paris, Texas, Abilene, Texas, and 
Marshall, Texas, during the years from 1879 to 
1891; edited Daniell's Personnel of the Texas 
State Government (published in 1892), Col. John 
Henry Brown's two-volume history of Texas, and 
the present volume (Indian Wars and Pioneers of 
Texas) ; has gotten out numerous special news- 
paper editions in Texas, and has done various 
writing at sessions of the Texas State legislature 
during the past eleven or twelve years. Miss 
Fannie L. Loughery is an excellent writer, and a 
poetess of great promise. 

The following are three of the hundreds of 
notices that appeared in Texas papers concerning 
him: — 

" It is now definitely known that our townsman, 
Col. R. W. Loughery, the Nestor of the Texas 
press, has been appointed American Consul at 
Aeapulco, Mexico. Col. Loughery's reputation as 
an able and fearless editor, as an honest and faith- 
ful Democrat, is beyond question, and nothing we 
might write could possibly add to his well-earned 
and well-deserved reputation. If Col. Loughery 
had done nothing more, his heroic, but perilous 
fight with the military in the days of reconstruction, 
when there was at Jefferson a military inquisition, 
and the man who opposed it imperiled both life and 
liberty, he would deserve the highest praise. As a 
staunch, tried and true Democrat of the Jeffersonian 
school. Col. Loughery is the peer of any and de- 
serves liberal recognition from the party. Texas 
owes him a large debt of gratitude and liberal 
material recognition for the work he has done in 
shaping her political fortunes when it cost much in 
peril and sacrifice to defend her rights and auton- 
omy against the combined power of Federal 
authority and hireling satraps. As a writer 
Col. Loughery is clear, incisive, strong, and 
few men are better posted in the political 
history of our national and Southern State politics, 
and few, if any, are better able to defend a Demo- 
cratic administration. As a consular representative 
of our country in Aeapulco, Mexico, he will bring 
to his duties a mind well cultivated and a large 
experience in the duties of American citizenship 
and an accurate knowledge of the history of our 
government. The Colonel will wield a pen able and 
ready for any emergency in peace or war — a Dam- 
ascus blade that has never yet been sheathed in the 
presence of an enemy." — Marshall Messenger. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



185 



" In May, 1872, Col. Loughery was commissioned 
consul at Acapulco, Mexico, and at once assumed 
the duties of his office. In that city he found a 
strong prejudice existing against Americans and 
particularly against Texas, the heritage of a bloody 
war and his predecessors in office. His geniality 
and kind, courteous and business-like manner 
soon swept this away, and he succeeded in sup- 
planting the strong anti-American sentiment with 
admiration and respect for America and Amer- 
icans as strong. By untiring efforts he succeeded 
in giving his government far more information than 
it had ever before been able to obtain from this 
portion of the Mexican republic. In fact, when he 
was recalled at the expiration of President Cleve- 
land's first term the relations between the United 
States and this important port and coaling station 
were in every way pleasant and the business of 
the consulate was in better condition than ever 
before." 

"The death of Col. Loughery at Marshall, 
April 26th, 1894, was received here with deep regret 
and profound sorrow, and a pall of gloom hangs 
over his old home and around the scenes of his 
glorious works and accomplishments during the 
dark days of reconstruction. During those trying 
times he stood as a champion of civil liberty, and 
boldly defended the rights of the people against 
usurpation of the powers that were imposing a 
tyranny and rule that was abhorred by the civilized 
world. The military commission organized in a 
time of profound peace, and its inhuman practices, 
is a stigma upon the dominant party and a disgrace 
to the power that authorized and sanctioned its 
outrages. Every means to degrade and oppress 
the people were organized and run in conflict and 
opposition to the law and order that the best ele- 
ment here was anxious to prevail. A reign of 
terror was imposed, and our innocent people were 
incarcerated in a Bastile, and tried by a mock 
tribunal for crimes they never committed, to gratify 
a petty tyranny born and nutured in partisan spirit 
and sectional hatred. At the beginning of this 
stormy period Col. Loughery came to the rescue and 
nobly and gallantly wielded the pen and fought for 
principles and justice and boldly enunciated a law 
and rule to restore common rights and liberty, that 
the existing martial law had stultified and sat upon 
with impunity. The desired effect was at last 
attained, and the commission was dissolved, and the 
civil law was permitted to assume its rightful func- 
tions and acknowledged superior to the military. 
The gratitude of our people for his efforts along 
this perilous line is a silent but eloquent tribute 



to the memory of Col. Loughery. He has gone to 
his reward, and we join the craft in sincere sorrow, 
and mourn in common with the family of our 
esteemed old friend." — Jefferson JimpUcute. 

The following poem was written by Col. Loug- 
hery's youngest daughter, Miss Fannie L. Lough- 
ery:— 

SALEM ALEIKUM. 

Peace be to thy sacred dust. 

Cares of earth are ended ! 
Through life's long and weary day 

Grief and joy were blended. 

Blessed is that perfect rest, 

Free from pain and sorrow. 
Death's dark night alone can bring 

Sleep with no sad morrow. 

Memory's holy censer yields 

Fragrance sweet, forever. 
Home holds ties, to loving hearts, 

Parting can not sever. 

Kindly words and noble deeds 

Give thy life its beauty. 
Brave and patient to the last. 

Faithful to each duty. 

True as steel to every trust, 

Thy aims were selfish never. 
Good deeds live when thou art gone. 

Thy light shines brighter ever. 

Good fight fought, and life work o'er. 
Friends and loved ones round thee, 

Garnered like the full ripe ear, 
Length of days had crowned thee. 

Slowly faded like a leaf. 

Natural is thy slumber. 
Thou livest yet in many hearts. 

Thy friends no one can number. 

Good night, father, last farewell. 

Never we'll behold thee. 
May the sod rest light on thee. 

Gently earth enfold thee. 

" Pax vobiscum " (solemn words). 

Sadly death bereft us. 
Lonely is the hearth and home. 

Father, since you left us. 

Sheaves of love and peace are thine, 

No wrong thou dids't to any. 
May thy life's pure earnest zeal 

Strength impart to many. 



186 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



O. C. HARTLEY, 



GALVESTON. 



r Oliver Cromwell Hartley was born in Bedford 
County, Penn., March 31st, 1823, where his ances- 
tors, who emigrated from England, settled soon 
after the American Eevolution; was educated at 
Franklin and Marshall College, from which he was 
graduated aud honored with the valedictory of his 
class in 1841 ; studied law in the ofHce of Samuel 
M. Barclay, an eminent lawyer of Bedford, and at 
the age of twenty-one was admitted to the bar and 
began the practice of his profession. In 1845 he 
married Miss Susan C. Davis, of Bedford, and in 
1846 moved to Texas and located at Galveston. 
The Mexican war was then in progress, and, a call 
being made for volunteers to rescue the army of 
Gen. Taylor from its perilous position on the Kio 
Grande, Mr. Hartley volunteered as a private, 
and hastened with his company to the seat of hos- 
tilities which he reached soon after the battles of 
Palo Alto andResaca de laPalma had been fought, 
victories for the American arms which enabled 
Gen. Taylor to assume the offensive and obviated 
any immediate need for the services of the rein- 
forcements which were at hand. 

On the organization of Col. Johnson's Regiment, 
Mr. Hartley was elected a Lieutenant in the com- 
pany from Galveston, which, being disbanded dur- 
ing the summer, he returned to the Island City and 
resumed the practice of law. The statutes of the 
State were at that time in much confusion as to 
arrangement and the members of the bar greatly 
felt the inconvenience occasioned by the want of a 
sulflcient digest. Mr. Hartley prepared a synopti- 
cal index of the laws for his own use, which became 
the basis of his admirable "Digest of the Texas 
Laws." This work was begun in 1848, and in the 
spring of 1850 was submitted to the legislature, 
which authorized the Governor to subscribe for 
fifteen hundred copies for the use of the State. 
His digest fully met the wants of the profession, 
and was justly regarded as a work of great merit 
and perfection. 

In 1851, he was elected to represent Galveston 
County in the legislature and distinguished himself 
as a useful and efficient member. It was said of 
him that " he was noted for the frankness and inde- 
pendence of his bearing and his refusal to enter 
into the intrigues and cabals by which legislation is 
80 often controlled." 
While a member of the legislature he was 



appointed reporter of the decisions of the Supreme 
Court, and held that office until his death. His 
skill as a reporter was recognized as eminent. 
His analyses are accurate and thorough and his 
syllabi present a clear and concise exposition of 
the law. He was especially apt and felicitous in 
eliminating distinctive principles and establishing 
legal results from complicated relations and views 
arising from a combination of facts, and his efforts 
greatly aided in the development of the peculiar 
system of Texas jurisprudence. 

In February, 1854, he was appointed by the 
Governor one of the three commissioners author- 
ized by the legislature, " to prepare a code amend- 
ing, supplying, revising, digesting and arranging 
the laws of the State." The other members of the 
commission were JohnW. Harris and James Willie, 
and in their division of the labor, the preparation 
of a " Code of Civil Procedure" was assigned to 
Mr. Hartley. To this work he applied himself 
with great zeal, and with an ambition that the civil 
code of Texas should be superior to that of any 
other State in the Union ; and as an adjunct to its 
value and merits he prepared a complete system of 
forms to be used in all civil proceedings ; but the 
State was not prepared to adopt a new civil code, 
and its publication was postponed. 

The assiduity with which he pursued his labors 
upon this work, and which was unremittedly ap- 
plied to his duties as court reporter and the de- 
mands of his profession, finally undermined a 
naturally robust and vigorous constitution. He 
became a martyr to his industry and ambition, and 
died of apoplexy of the brain at his residence in 
the city of Galveston on the 13th of January, 
1859. 

Mr. Hartley was a thorough scholar. Possessed 
of a patient fondness for investigation and the 
acquisition of knowledge, he had from his early 
youth devoted his life to its pursuit, and his mind 
was disciplined by a thorough and systematic 
training, and expanded by constant intellectual 
nourishment. Before he left his native State he 
had attracted the attention of Judge Jeremiah 
Black, who was at that time Chief Justice of 
Pennsylvania, whose friendship he secured and 
retained. He had also won the interest and esteem 
of Mr. Buchanan, who gave him flattering testi- 
monials as a sesame to public confidence in Texas. 




'"S^-byH.XC,P(oevoets,t^^' 



O.C Hartley 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



187 



As a lawyer his philosophical turn of mind led him 
to closely investigate the relations of things, and 
to study their correct association ; hence his skill 
in analysis was acute and his powers of compari- 
son of a high order. He was careful in the selec- 
tion of his premises, and when conscious of their 
correctness, his conclusions were deduced in a clear 
and logical train. He had accustomed himself to 
look at both sides of a question and, perceiving the 
proper line of attack, he was prepared to adopt 
the most effectual line of defense. 

Nothwithstanding his devotion to his profession, 
and his ambition to attain a high position at the 
bar, Mr. Hartley took a deep interest in the politi- 
cal issues of his day, and sought to measure all 
doubtful questions by the authority of the constitu- 
tion. He was a good constitutional lawyer and his 
patriotism was kindled by a discussion of its inter- 
pretation and the merits of its provisions. He was 
exemplary in his private and social life. Reared 
by a Christian mother, he was early guided into the 
walks of piety and at his death was a member of 
the Episcopal church. He was one of the few 
precocious youths whose after-lives realized the 
hopes of parental ambition and the promises of 
early years. 

He possessed a high sense of honor, and his con- 
duct was guided by an enlightened judgment and 



sensitive conscience. When the legislature author- 
ized the Governor to subscribe for his digest it pre- 
scribed that the binding should be " law calf " and 
when his publishers remonstrated against that kind 
of binding and suggested " law sheep," the usual 
material for such works, he insisted that it should be 
bound in the material designated by the legislature, 
though it was apparent that the requirement was the 
result either of ignorance or inadvertence. In his pro- 
fessional intercourse he was characterized by fair- 
ness and candor; a temper rarely disturbed by pas- 
sion and a judgment never betrayed by impulse. 
The amenity of his manners and the unobtrusive- 
ness of his character, added to a native goodness of 
heart, endeared him to all and to none more than 
his brethren at the bar. 

He was greatly devoted to his family, and his 
home life was pure, simple and almost pathetic in 
its tenderness. Surviving him and residing at Gal- 
veston, Mr. Hartley left a widow and one daughter. 
His widow is still living, being now numbered 
among the old residents of that city. His daughter, 
Miss Jerian Black Hartley, died unmarried in 1894. 
His only son died in infancy, so that there are no 
descendants now living of this pioneer lawyer, but 
his works will preserve his name and memory 
as long as there remains an annal of Texas 
jurisprudence. 



GEORGE CLARK, 

WACO. 



The history of Texas for the past quarter of a 
century could not be truthfully written without a 
resume of the career of Hon. George Clark. The 
memorable Prohibition campaign of 1887 is still 
fresh in the minds of the people. If a vote had 
been taken in the earlier part of the campaign, the 
pending amendment to the constitution prohibiting 
the manufacture or sale Qf malt, spirituous or vinous 
liquors in this State would have been adopted and, 
under the provisions of that amendment, laws 
would have been passed violative of the dearest 
and most sacred liberties of the people, domicil- 
iary visits inaugurated, and a system of espionage, 
spying and perjury established out of touch with 
this age and its civilization, necessarily tending to 
breed animosities that it would have required years 
to allay, and which, in fact, might never have been 



allayed. The indications were that the Prohibi- 
tionists would carry the State by storm. Politi- 
cians are never in finer feather than when they can 
parade themselves as fearless and unselfish leaders ; 
but, as a matter of fact, the majority of them are the 
most subservient of followers, sail-trimmers whose 
greatest anxiety is to catch favorable popular 
breezes with which to waft themselves into office 
and keep themselves there. They regard such a 
thing as personal sacriflce in the defense of 
opinions very much as a majority of men do 
suicide — as an act of insanity. This truth was 
never more vividly illustrated than during the prog- 
ress of the exciting contest referred to. One 
public man of prominence after another, thinking 
that the amendment would be adopted, published 
open letters favoring it, although by doing 



188 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



so they abandoned the position they had 
previously held. The larger number of lead- 
ers who had not taken this step sulked in their 
tents, or remained discreetly silent, waiting for the 
outcome. At this critical moment Judge Clark 
threw himself into the breach, organized the anti- 
prohibition forces and in a short time had the oppo- 
sition on the run and begging quarter and, when 
the sun set upon the day of election, he had led the 
way to one of the most remarkable, signal and 
brilliant political victories ever won in any State of 
the American Union. The question was thoroughly 
argued and was decided upon its merits. He was 
the hero of the hour — the foremost and most dis- 
tinguished figure in the political arena in Texas, 
the idol of the people. If he had desired office, he 
could have gotten anything within the gift of the 
people, but he desired none. It was sufficient to 
him to enjoy the calm consciousness of having done 
his duty, without the expectation or desire of re- 
ceiving any reward whatever. Nor did he there- 
after consent to become a candidate until, as the 
champion of principles upon whose triumph he 
believed depended the prosperity of the country, 
he led the forlorn-hope in the Clark-Hogg guber- 
natorial campaign of 1892 and conducted a cam- 
paign, which led to more temperate action upon 
the part of those in power than could otherwise 
have been expected. He is now the recognized 
leader in Texas in another great contest, that is 
being made in the interest of what he believes to be 
the maintenance of a sound financial system by 
the United States. His purity of purpose and his 
learning as a lawyer and exceptional ability as a 
statesman are generally recognized throughout 
Texas and throughout the country. 

He was born in Eutaw, Alabama, July 18, 1841. 
His father was James Blair Clark, a native of 
Pennsylvania, who was partially reared at Chilli- 
cothe, Ohio, when it was the capital of the State, 
and in the State of Kentucky by his uncle, Alex- 
ander Blair. His mother's maiden name was Mary 
Erwin. She was a native of Virginia and was reared 
and educated at Mount Sterling, Ky. James 
B. Clark and Mary Erwin were married at Mount 
Sterling in 1825, and at once emigrated to the State 
of Alabama, where the former rose to eminence at 
the bar and was for many years Chancellor of the 
Middle Division of that State. He died in 1873 and 
his wife in 1863. Nine children were born to them, 
seven sons and two daughters. George was the 
seventh son. He was educated in the private schools 
of his native place and entered the University of 
Alabama at Tuscaloosa in 1857. At the beginning 
of the war between the States in 1861 he left college 



and joined the Eleventh Alabama Regiment of In- 
fantry as a lieutenant and went with his command 
to Virginia ; in July of that year joined Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston at Winchester ; was with the army in 
its march across the mountains to a junction with 
Beauregard but arrived too late to participate in 
the first battle of Manassas ; was with the army in 
its advance toward Washington in the autumn of 
1861 ; went with his command to Yorktown in the 
spring of 1862 ; participated in the battles of Seven 
Pines, Gaines Mill, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine Run, the Wilder- 
ness, ^pottsylvania, Hanover, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, the Mine, Reams' Station and many other 
hot affairs around Petersburg in 1864 and was on 
the retreat to Appomatox in April, 1865, but did 
not surrender, having joined a squad of cavalry 
which broke through Sheridan's line on the morning 
of the surrender. He was wounded at Gaines' 
Mill on June 27th, 1862, on the third day at Gettys- 
burg, in Pickett's charge, and again at Reams' 
Station on August 25th, 1864. 

After the close of the war he returned home and 
began the study of law under his father ; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in October, 1866 ; removed to 
Texas in January, 1867, and located at Weatherford, 
in Parker County ; removed to Waco, his present 
home, in December, 1868 ; was a member of the 
State Democratic Committee in 1872 ; was appointed 
Secretary of State in January, 1874 ; served as 
Attorney-General of the State from 1874 to 1876 ; 
served as one of the commissioners appointed to 
revise and codify the laws of Texas from 1877 to 
1879, and was one of the judges of the Court of 
Appeals in the years 1879 and 1880, since which 
time he has held no public office, but has devoted 
his attention to the practice of his profession at 
Waco. 

During his term as Attorney-General, apart from 
any criminal cases in which he represented the State 
on appeal, and which may be found in the Texas 
Reports, vols. 40 to 45 inclusive, he represented 
the State successfully in many civil causes, among 
others in Bledsoe v. The International Railway 
Co. (40 Tex. 537), 

Keuchler v. Wright, 40 Tex. 600, 

The Treasurer v. Wygall, 46 Tex. 447 , 
all involving great interests. His opinions on the 
bench may be found in the 7th, 8th and 9th 
Court of Appeals Reports, among the more im- 
portant of which are: — 

Rothschild v. State, 7 Ct. of App. 519 ; 

Jennings v. State, 7 Ct. of App. 350 ; 

Hull V. State, 7 Ct. of App. 593 ; 

Alford V. State, 8 Ct. of App. 545 ; 




GEORGE CLARK. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



189 



Kendall v. State, 8 Ct. of App. 569 ; 

Guffee V. State, 8 Ct. of App. 187 ; 

Albrecht v. State, 8 Ct. of App. 216. 
As a lawyer he represents important railway and 
commercial interests, and in a recent controversy 
between the United States and the State of Texas, 
in the Supreme Court, involving the title to Greer 
County, Texas, was of counsel for the State and 
participated in the argument. Few lawyers in the 
State enjoy as large and lucrative a law practice. 
He has long ranked among the ablest counselors in 
the United States. His services in connection 
with the codification of the statutes of the State 
were invaluable. It was the first work of the kind 
that was undertaken. The result of the labors of 
the commission were the Revised Statutes of 1879. 
The work was so thoroughly done, that, when the 
legislature provided a few years since for a revision 
of the laws of the State, the commissioners were 
instructed not to change the general arrangement, 
nor even the verbiage used by the former codifiers, 
where such action was not rendered imperative by 
later amendments to old, or the enactment of new, 
laws. No greater compliment could have been 



paid to Judge Clark and his colleagues. As 
Attorney-General and as one of the judges of the 
Court of Appeals he fully sustained the high repu- 
tation with which he came to those positions. 
Before those important public offices were con- 
ferred upon him he had become well known to the 
people of Texas. In the dark days that followed 
the war between the States, he was an earnest 
worker for the re-establishment of honest, constitu- 
tional government, and took a prominent part in 
the great popular struggle that resulted in the 
overthrow of the Davis regime and the restoration 
of the control of the State to the citizens of Texas. 
Asa soldier, public servant, lawyer and citizen, he 
has come fully up to every responsibility, and has 
responded to every duty. As a member of an honor- 
able profession, he has pursued it with zeal and 
has devoted to it the full strength of his mind. 
The people of Texas fully appreciate his high 
character and important services. They have a 
very warm spot in their heart of hearts for George 
Clark and will not forget what he has done until 
they grow to be grateful only for services they 
expect to receive. 



CHARLES S. WEST, 

AUSTIN. 



The State of South Carolina, in proportion to her 
limits and population, has contributed as much, if 
not more, towards developing and making the State 
of Texas what she is to-day, as any of her sister 
States. 

To the judiciary she has sent James Collinsworth, 
the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court under 
the Eepublic ; Hon. Thomas J. Rusk, first Chief 
Justice of the Appellate Court under the State 
government and for so long a while her distin- 
guished United States Senator ; Hon. John Hemp- 
hill, who later filled the same position (from 1846 
to 1858) and who, like his predecessor. Gen. Rusk, 
represented his State in the United State Senate ; 
then there was Hon. A. S. Lipscomb, also the 
venerable and esteemed O. M. Roberts and Hon. 
Charles S. West, the subject of this sketch, all 
conspicuous examples of gallant sons of the 
" Palmetto State " who have adorned the bench of 
their adopted State of Texas. 

The father of Judge West, John Charles West, 



was a native of North Carolina, who at an early age 
emigrated to Camden, South Carolina, where he 
was teller in the old Camden Bank and for two 
terms sheriff of Kershaw district (now county). 
He was universally esteemed and respected. On 
his mother's side Judge West was connected with 
the Thorntons, Eccles, Copers, Clarks and other 
old South Carolina families. His mother, Nancy 
Clark Eccles, was a woman of more than ordinary 
culture and education and possessed literary ability 
of the higher order. 

In the fall of 1846 young West left Jefferson 
College, Pennsylvania, and became a student of 
South Carolina College, then presided over by the 
celebrated orator, Hon. W. C. Preston. He gradu- 
ated therefrom in 1848. During the years 1849-5(> 
he was in very needy circumstances and for a living 
taught a small school for the Boykin family at 
their Pleasant Hill home, near Camden ; at the 
same time studied law under Hon. James Chestnut, 
afterwards a United States senator from South 



190 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Carolina, who became young West's personal 
and valued friend. Judge West received his 
license to practice law in South Carolina 
on the law and equity sides of the docket, 
respectively, the former May 13th, 1851, and the 
latter May 12th, 1852, and began the practice 
at Camden, but with very moderate success. 
About the last of November, 1852, he left his 
native State and came to Texas, reaching the State 
November 2, of that year, and located at Austin, 
which was ever after his home. He reached Austin 
with but $7.50 in his pocket and that was bor- 
rowed money, In 1854 he formed a law-partner- 
ship with Col. H. P. Brewster. He was in 1855, 
when twenty-six years of age, elected to the 
legislature from the Austin district, and took a 
prominent part in the discussion of the issues of 
those days. In 1856 Hon. John Hancock and 
Judge West formed what was afterwards the well- 
known law firm of Hancock & West and did a 
large law business, handling heavy land litigation, 
railroad and other corporation cases. The firm 
continued up to and during the period of the late 
war and until 1882, when Judge West became an 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. He was 
comparatively little in public life, eschewed politics 
and confined himself closely to his profession. He 
was for a short while Secretary of State, under 
Governor F. R. Lubbock. In the constitutional 
convention of 1875 he represented Travis and a 
number of adjoining counties, comprising one dis- 
trict, and served on important committees. Under 
the act approved July 28th, 1876, Governor Coke 
appointed Judge West as one of the five commis- 
sioners to revise the laws of the State and he was 
chosen chairman of the body. During the late 
war he served with distinction in the Adjutant- 
General's department, with the rank of Captain on 
the staff of Gen. P. O. Hebert and, later, on 
the staff of Gen. Magruder at the battle of 



Galveston and received special official mention for 
gallant conduct. During the latter years of the 
war he served on the staff of Gen. E. Kirby 
Smith and was with him at Jenkin's Ferry on the 
Sabine river in Arkansas and with Gen. Wm. E. 
Scurry when that commander was killed in this 
battle. For gallantry in this battle, Capt. West 
was promoted to the rank of Major and was 
assigned to duty in the Trans-Mississippi depart- 
ment as Judge Advocate-General, which position 
he ably filled until the downfall of the Confed- 
eracy. He then returned to his law practice at 
Austin and in 1874 was admitted to the bar of the 
United States Supreme Court and argued before 
that body some very heavy and important cases. 
In 1859 Judge West married Miss Florence R. 
Duval, daughter of Judge Thomas H. Duval, for 
many years United States District Judge for the 
Western District of Texas. 

Her grandfather was Hon. W. P. Duval, first 
Governor of PMorida and the " Ralph Ringwood " 
of his friend Washington Irving's tales of Brace- 
bridge Hall. 

Mrs. West was an accomplished woman, a 
charming vocalist and an ornament to society. 
Judge West was not a member of any religious 
sect or order, but was a regular attendant of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church and filled before the 
late war the otflce of vestryman of St. David's 
Church at Austin, Texas. He was a generous and 
kind-hearted gentleman and a just judge. Owing 
to ill health he resigned his seat on the bench, 
September 24th, 1885. He died at his home in 
Austin, October 22, 1885. Mrs. West died No- 
vember 19th, 1881. They left three sons: Robt. 
G. West, an able lawyer of the Austin and Texas 
bar and member of the firm of Cochran & West ; 
Duval West, at present Assistant United States 
District Attorney for the Western District of Texas ; 
and William. 



WILLARD RICHARDSON, 

GALVESTON. 



Willard Richardson was a native of Massachu- 
setts, born in that State, June 24th, 1802. His 
father was Zacharia Richardson, a retired capitalist 
of Taunton, Mass. When fourteen years of age 
the subject of this memoir and a brother ran away 
from home in a spirit of boyish adventure, went 



South and landed at Charleston, S. C, in the midst 
of a yellow fever epidemic to which his brother 
speedily succumbed. Young Richardson shortly 
thereafter left the plague-stricken city and went to 
Newberry district, where he taught school in the 
hope of earning sufficient money to complete bis 




WILLAED EICHARDSON. 



INDIAN WAES AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



191 



education. His manly struggle to attain this 
worthy end attracted the attention and won for 
him the friendship of Judge O'Neill, who supplied 
him the means to complete his course in the State 
college at Columbia. 

He then accompanied Prof. Stafford to Tusca- 
loosa, Ala., as an assistant teacher, and devoted his 
first earnings to the reimbursement of his friend, 
Judge O'Neill, for whom he ever afterward cher- 
ished sentiments of the warmest gratitude and 
esteem. Emigrating to Texas, in 1837, he pro- 
ceeded to the West and employed himself in locat- 
ing and surveying lands. He afterwards went to 
Houston and established a school for young men. 
Some time there after, Dr. Francis Moore, editor of 
The Telegraph, who was regarded as one of the 
most finished newspaper writers then in the State, 
wished to spend a summer in the North and induced 
Mr. Richardson to assume editorial control of the 
paper. The versatility, force and literary excel- 
lence of his writings immediately attracted atten- 
tion, and probably the expression of public 
appreciation of his efforts had much to do with 
inducing him to adopt journalism as a profession. 
He bent every energy to the upbuilding of the 
paper and, prudent, cool and persevering, never 
lost faith in the future of the city and in the 
country nor in the ultimate success of his own 
efforts. He was not content to keep abreast of 
the times but sought to anticipate the general 
march of progress and development, and move in 
advance of others. As a result the News almost 
immediately became a power in the land, a position 
that it has ever since maintained. He took an 
active part both with his pen and by liberal contri- 
butions from his private means, in aiding all worthy 
public enterprises from old times down to the era 
that inaugurated railroad building in Texas. He 
made a powerful effort through the columns of the 
News, devoting whole numbers and large extra edi- 
tions of the paper to that purpose to induce the 
adoption by the State of Texas of what was known 
as the " Galveston Plan," under which the State 
was asked to patronize a system of roads to diverge 
from the navigable waters of Galveston Bay into 
Eastern, Western and Central Texas. 

The plan was simple, comprehensive and practi- 
cable, but was not adopted by the legislature and 
the State has since struggled on without a system 
and under many difficulties and distractions in the 
construction of roads by private companies with 
State aid and complications have resulted that 
threaten protracted and vexatious litigation and hot 
civil convulsions in the future. Driven from Gal- 
veston in the year of 1861-2 by the Federal forces 



he moved his extensive and valuable newspaper 
plant to Houston, where it was a short time there- 
after entirely destroyed by fire. The establishment 
was then, as now, by far the most valuable in the 
State. It was wholly uninsured and there was no 
chance to replace it in full owing to the blockade ; 
but he met the heavy loss — probably $50,000 in 
the original outlay — with entire equanimity and 
immediately set to work to collect such material as 
was available ; resumed the publication of the 
paper and kept it up throughout the war, not 
returning to Galveston until 1866, after the fall 
of the Confederacy. During the war the News 
was eminently conservative and outspoken, though 
devoted to the Southern cause. He did not hesi- 
tate to denounce the establ shment and enforcement 
of so-called martial law under pleas of military 
necessity, under which so many private rights were 
outraged and lawless acts perpetrated on both sides 
of the contest by those claiming to exercise military 
authority. It contained well-written and trenchant 
articles protesting against the arbitrary acts of both 
the Confederate congress and tlie military authori- 
ties at a time when one, whose devotion to the 
Southern cause was not so well established as that 
of Mr. Richardson, would not have dared to speak 
so freely. Nor did he feel bound, like so many 
editors of the day, to give only such news as was 
favorable to the South and represented her as 
triumphant, when in fact the clouds of adverse 
fortune were lowering upon her banners. 

He did nothing, however, to discourage any just 
hopes of his friends. The course that he pursued 
was to publish the facts as he received them. 
When the final collapse of the Confederacy came 
he was prepared for it and ready to render all the 
aid possible toward the political and material 
rehabilitation of the country. He neither yielded 
himself nor desired to see others yield to apathy and 
despair ; but, both by precept and example, taught 
that the duty of the hour was to make a vigorous 
and united effort to repair the ravages of war by 
the development of the agricultural resources of 
the State, increasing transportation facilities, culti- 
vating commercial relations with the other States of 
the Union and stimulating immigration. 

During his long connection with the News, com- 
mencing as editor in 1843, and afterwards as sole 
proprietor or partner, Mr. Richardson presented a 
model of persistent application to business. With- 
out any ambition to figure in politics, caring noth- 
ing for ordinary amusements, he found sufficient 
entertainment in the active pursuits of life and the 
literary labors his vocation involved. He was a 
hard worker, but he loved his work and for the 



192 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



most part was cheered by the successful results 
of his enterprise and foresight. Whenever he 
took a stand on any great public question he 
did so after mature deliberation and adhered to 
his views with consistency and firmness, apparently 
as little disturbed by adverse prospects as elated 
with success. His temperament and mental organ- 
ism were not such as characterize the partisan or 
popular politician. He was not capable of viewing 
a question wholly from one standpoint, but natur- 
ally considered it in all its bearings, and if he had 
prejudices and prepossessions that warped his 
judgment and influenced his conclusions, they never 
appeared, in anything that he said or wrote. He 
never indulged in the crimination and recrimina- 
tion so common to the press in times of political 
excitement, nor showed prejudice against a person 
or cause on personal grounds. Neither did he 
deal in vague generalities or exhibitions of feeling 
or sentiment. Palpable facts and the most direct 
and logical conclusions from them constituted the 
means which he employed to influence public 
opinion. Raised in the political school of Calhoun 
and deeply imbued with its principles, he held with 
constancy to the fixed political opinions of his 
younger years, firm in the belief that they were 
well founded and must be ultimately vindicated 
or the government lose the vital elements of lib- 
erty. In his manner toward and intercourse with 
others Mr. Richardson was singularly modest and 
unobtrusive. With an abiding faith in the future 
of Galveston and Texas, he invested the proceeds 
of his business in property that grew in value with 
the development of the country and spent his 
money with a liberal hand in the erection of elegant 
and costly buildings. The first four- story brick 
building put up in Galveston was erected by him 
before the war for the office of the News. The 
opera house and stores connected with it, extend- 
ing to and adjoining the office of the News, fol- 
lowed, involving investments which but few men 
would have ventured to make at that time, but 
which were all made with the cool calculation of 
the man of business, as well as the laudable pride 
of a man who had identified himself with the build- 
ing up of the city and was willing to stand or fall 
with it. He also made other valuable improve- 
ments in other parts of Galveston and contributed 
to almost every enterprise for the improvement of 
the city and its connection with the commerce of 
the interior. 

In former years he sometimes served as alderman 
and was once elected and served as mayor of Gal- 
veston, although he had not announced himself as 
a candidate. He declined to run for re-election. 



He frequently expressed repugnance to office hold- 
ing. He had no ambition to occupy a conspicuous 
position in the public eye, either living or dead, and 
placed little value upon ostentatious display, pre- 
ferring the solid and useful to that which is ornate 
and showy. With the increase of years and the 
pressure of business he gradually relaxed his edi- 
torial labors, having for some years prior to his 
death retired from any active management of the 
News. Though he found time afterwards to con- 
tribute to its columns, he had ceased to do so 
regularly for a long time and held no position in 
the division of the labors of the establishment. 

He took an active interest in the benevolent order 
of Odd Fellows, of which he was a life-long member 
and for which he exercised his pen even after he 
had ceased to labor on the columns of the News. 
At the session of the Grand Lodge of the United 
States, held in April, 1874, it was resolved that the 
history of the order should be written and an appeal 
was made to members throughout the country for 
aid in the work. In accordance with a resolution 
then adopted by the Grand Lodge, Mr. Richardson 
received the following appointment through the 
Grand Master of Texas : — 

" Office of R. W. Grand Master, 
" R. W. Grand Lodge I. O. O. F. or the 
" State of Texas. 

" Waco, Texas, April 24th, 1874. 
" By virtue of the authority in me vested, and in 
compliance with the spirit and object of the en- 
closed copy of circular letter, I hereby nominate, 
constitute and appoint you Historiographer of our 
beloved order in the State of Texas. While you 
deservedly have the reputation of being the Nestor 
of journalism in this great and rapidly growing 
State, you are also esteemed properly by the 
brothers of this jurisdiction as the father of Odd 
Fellowship in Texas. No one in my knowledge is 
more imbued with the cardinal virtues, and has 
more interest in and zeal for our Order in Texas 
than yourself, and no one is better prepared to 
give accurately, thoroughly and attractively the 
rise, progress and rapid development of Odd 
Fellowship in Texas than yourself. Hoping that 
you will accept the appointment, and at once open 
correspondence with Brother Ridgeley, I am, fra- 
ternally yours, etc. 

"M. D. Herring, 

" Grand Master." 

This labor of love Mr. Richardson, then seventy- 
two years of age, at once set out to accomplish, 
and the result in a short time was a handsome book 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



193 



of three hundred and fifty pages, giving a complete 

history of the Order in Texas, from the opening of 

the first lodge in Houston, on the 24th of July, 

1838, up to 1874, a period of thirty-six years. 

He held almost every office known to the Order 

during his long connection with it and his name 

appears in the list of chief officers of the Grand 

Encampment of the State, as M. E. G. High 

Priest for more than one term. For several years 

successively preceding his death he was Grand 

Representative to the National Grand Lodge, and 

held that position at the time of his demise and 

looked forward with pleasure to the period of the 

Grand Reunion, which he was destined to never 

more attend. 

Time and space will not permit an examination 
of the printed archives of the order to trace his 
varied work in its behalf and he left no personal 
records of himself in this or in any other respect, 
though he spoke freely of his past life among his 
friends. He returned to South Carolina in 1849 
and June 6th of that year was united in marriage 
to Miss Louisa B. Murrell, to whom he had been 
engaged since early manhood. Mrs. Richardson 
is a daughter of James and Louisa (Sumpter) 
Murrell, at the time of her marriage residents of 
Sumpter, South Carolina, where she was born in 
1819. Her father was a planter. Gen. Thomas 
Sumpter, of revolutionary fame, was Mrs. Richard- 



son's maternal grandfather. The town of Sumpter 
and Fort Sumpter in Charleston Harbor were named 
for this distinguished military officer and citizen. 
He also was a planter. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richardson had 'one child, a 
daughter, now the wife of Dr. Henry P. Cooke, of 
Galveston. Dr. and Mrs. Cooke, have one son, 
Willard Richardson Cooke, born in Galveston, 
September 6lh, 1888. 

Mrs. Richardson lives in retirement in the beau- 
tiful Oleander City by the sea surrounded by a 
wide circle of friends and in the enjoyment of the 
companionship of her daughter's family. 

Mr. Richardson died at his home in Galveston, 
July 26th, 1875. He was a man who had fixed 
plans and aims in life and, though he lived to work 
most of them out to successful results, it is known 
to his more immediate confidants that he hoped to 
crown the end of his career with a work that would 
have inured to the benefit of the people of Texas- 
of after times and conferred enduring benefits on 
the city which had been the scene of his labors^ 
His name deserves a place among those of the- 
many illustrious men who have in this country 
adorned the profession of journalism. His char- 
acter embraced many of the elements of true 
greatness. He did much for tlie State of Texas 
and deserves grateful remembrance at the hands 
of her people. 



THE CARR FAMILY OF BRYAN, 

BRYAN. 



The Bryan branch of the Carr family in Texas 
dates back to the arrival of Allan Carr at the town 
of Old Washington, on the Brazos, in 1858. He 
came from Noxubee County, Mississippi, and 
brought with him a family of five children, the 
wife and mother having died in Mississippi. He 
remained at Old Washington but a short time, 
however, when, having purchased a farm on the 
river in Burleson County, about twelve miles north- 
west of Bryan, he settled there. 

He brought with him from Mississippi one hun- 
dred slaves, which he worked on his farm until 
affairs. State and national, became unsettled and 
then, in 1860, sold them (retaining only a few house 
servants) to a Mr. William Brewer, of Old Inde- 

13 



pendence, in Washington County. Some of these 
slaves still live in and about Independence, Brenham 
and Bryan. 

Allan Carr was a native of North Carolina and 
was born in 1807. 

He led an active life until his death at his home 
in Burleson County in 1861. He is remembered by 
old settlers as a man of excellent impulses, strong 
traits of character, and a good citizen. He was a 
life-long i^lanter and raised cotton and corn with 
great success. 

His early ancestors were Scotch-Irish and his 
more immediate antecedents were directly traceable 
to the earliest colonists of old Virginia. 

He married Miss Elizabeth Wooton, she being 



194 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



also of North Carolina birth. Of their children, 
three are now living in Texas: Robert W., Jennie, 
and Allan B. 

Robert W. is a resident of Bryan and for twelve 
years past treasurer of Brazos County. He was 
born on Tar River, Greene County, North Carolina, 
October 2, 1831. "When about six years of age his 
father located with the family at West Point, Miss. 
In 1850 young Carr went to California and followed 
mining throughout the then newly developing gold- 
diggings. He passed through the tnost exciting 
period of those lively early days in the "Golden 
State." He remained in California until the break- 
ing out of the late war, when he returned to the 
South, coming via Panama, Aspinwall and New 
York to St. Louis, from which place he made his 
way into Arkansas, where he raised an independent 
company of cavalry and equipped the men with the 
best Sharp's rifles and six- shooting revolvers. With 
this company he ranged through that region of 
country and was with "Jeff." Thompson and his 
command at the battle of BlackRiver and also later 
at Pocahontas, Missouri. 

At this point, receiving news from home of the 
dangerous illness of his father, he disbanded his 
company and returned to Texas. His father died 
at his Brazos valley farm, as before recited, and 
Capt. Carr joined Capt. Hargrove's scouting com- 
pany, which became a part of Hood's Brigade. 
Capt. Carr soon received a commission to raise a 
company of cavalry, which he did and was there- 
upon ordered by Gen. Magruder to fight the " Yan- 
kees" in the valley of the Rio Grande, which he 
most cheerfully and effectually did. 

The story of Capt. Carr's campaign on the Rio 
Grande river, properly written, would, in itself, make 
a fair-sized volume of more than ordinary interest. 

Capt. Carr remained in the vallej' until the close 
of the war and for a time commanded the post at 
Brownsville, which was the base of supplies from 
Mexico for the Confederate States. His company 
fought and won the last battle of the war at Pal- 
metto Ranch, about fifteen miles below Browns- 
ville, which took place some time after Gen. Lee 
had surrendered and hostilities had ceased. It 
should be stated, however, that Brownsville was so 
far distant from the seat of war and the means of 
communication so impaired that the offlcial news of 
the cessation of hostilities had not reached them. 
Upon the receipt of the news, Capt. Carr returned 
to Texas and commenced merchandising at Milli- 
can and, also, pursued farming on the Brazos until 
1867, when he went to Bryan and entered the cot- 
ton business, in which he has been engaged since 
about 1875. 



Since the year 1884: he has continuously held the 
office of treasurer of Brazos County, having been 
elected from time to time with increased majorities 
over his opponents. 

Capt. Carr married in 1867 Mrs. M. E. Farinholt, 
whose maiden name was Mary E. Knowles. She 
was born in Arkansas. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carr have had four daughters, two 
of whom are living, viz. : Mary E., who serves as 
his deputy in the treasurer's office, and Lillie E. , 
who is the wife of Mr. John Davis, of Bryan. 

Jennie, the second of the family now living, is 
Mrs. T. C. Westbrook, of Hearne. 

Allan B., the youngest living member of this 
generation, is a resident of Bryan, where he has 
lived since about 1873. He was born August 27, 
1843, in Lowndes (since Clay) County, Miss., 
at the town of West Point, where his father was the 
first settler and erected the first buildings. Here - 
young Carr spent his boyhood and youth and was 
about fifteen years of age when he, with his father, 
came to Texas. Soon after the settlement of the 
family on their Brazos bottom-farm, the war broke 
out and he promptly joined the army, in defense 
of the Confederate cause, as a member of the 
Second Texas Infantry, commanded by Col. (later 
Brigadier-General) John C. Moore, as a consequence 
of whose promotion. Col. W. P. Rogers took regi- 
mental command. Mr. Carr participated with his 
regiment in the well-known and bloody engagements 
at Shiloh, Farmington and luka, and was in the 
second battle of Corinth, where Col. Rogers fell in 
the heat of the struggle. Mr. Carr was at the time 
serving as Col. Rogers' orderly. Mr. Carr remained 
with the army until the final break-up and then 
returned to Burleson County and engaged in farm- 
ing (his father having died). He also conducted 
a ferry across the Brazos river at the old San 
Antonio crossing for about two years, when he 
removed to Bryan, where he has since resided. 

Mr. Carr married in 1866 Miss Pandora Mosely, 
a daughter of Augustus Mosely (deceased), a 
pioneer of Burleson County (1857) and an exten- 
sive Brazos-bottom planter. They have two sons, 
Charles O' Conor Carr, engaged in the insurance 
business, and Allan B. Carr, Jr., one of the most 
prosperous merchants at Bryan. 

Mr. Carr for twenty-two years past has, without 
intermission, held the office of secretary of the city 
of Bryan. 

His long continuance in office is evidence of the 
esteem in which he is held as a citizen and faithful 
offlcial. Mr. Carr owns rural and city realty but 
his time is largely absorbed with his offlcial duties. 

Others of the family are deceased. Martha died 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



195 



in Mississippi, tLe wife of Wm. McMulIen ; Eliza- 
beth (or Bettie) married T. P. Mills, was the 
mother of two daughters and a son, and died in 
Houston about 1860. Titus came to Texas with 
his father, married and in 1870 died at Bryan, 
leaving four children and a widow, who again 



married ; and William came to Texas with the 
family, married, and died in the United States 
mail service at Fort Worth about 1885, leaving 
one son, Weatbrook. William had held a respon- 
sible position in the United States service for up- 
wards of twenty years. 



ALEXANDER GILMER, 



ORANGE. 



Was born September 7, 1829, in County 
Armagh, Ireland. His parents were George and 
Jane Gilmer, both of whom died in Ireland. 

He was educated in his native land, where he 
remained until seventeen years of age, when he 
came to America and located in Georgia, where he 
engaged in getting out shipmasts for the French 
government, working under his brother, John, who 
was the contractor. He followed this employment 
for three years, clearing about $700.00. He then 
worked under his brother in building a schooner 
and steamboat, putting all his earnings in the 
steamboat, the Swan, which was to ply on the 
Ghattahoochie river. She was sunk during the 
second season, leaving him but ten cents when she 
went down, which he gave to a negro who blacked 
his boots. He then helped to build a schooner, the 
AlthaBrooks, on the Chattahoochie river in Alabama 
-and came out to Texas on her, landing at Galves- 
ton, from which place he went to Orange to repair 
a schooner. This work completed, he took a con- 
tract with a man named Livingston to build a 
schooner, which they completed, and then helped to 
build another -schooner, the Mary Ellen. 

This done, he formed a copartnership with Smith 
& Merriman and his cousin, George C. Gilmer, 
and built the Alex Moore, which was run between 
■Orange and Galveston, and was employed in the 
Texas coast-wise trade. 

He and his cousin bought out Smith & Merri- 
man's interest in the schooner and started a 
mercantile business at Orange, which they con- 
tinued about fifteen years, until George C. Gil- 
mer's death at Orange. 

Mr. George C. Gilmer bequeathed half his inter- 
est in the store, valued at about $10,000.00, to 
George Gilmer, a son of the subject of this notice. 
When twenty-seven years of age Mr. Alexander 



Gilmer was united in marriage to Miss Etta Read- 
ing, of Orange. No children by this marriage. 

His second marriage was to Miss C. C. Thomas, 
of Orange, in 1867. Nine children have been born 
to them, seven ofwhom are living, viz. : Laura, now 
Mrs. Dr. F. Hadra, of Orange ; Mattie, now Mrs. 
H. S. Filson, of Orange ; Effle, now Mrs. E. M. 
Williamson, of Waco ; Eliza, Cleora, Annie, and 
Ollie. Two sons died in infancy. 

Mr. Gilmer engaged in the saw-mill business in 
1866. He sustained q, number of severe losses by 
fire, but in each instance by good management put 
his financial affairs on a better basis than they 
were before. 

One of his largest mills was built at Orange in 
1894. 

Just before his last loss by fire, he established 
lumber yards at Velasco ; bought one at Beeville 
(which he closed in 1895), bought one at Yoakum, 
one at Cuero, one at Runge, one at Karnes City, 
one at Victoria, and established one at Brazoria, 
which are valued at about $100,000.00. His mill 
property is valued at about $75,000.00. 

Mr. Gilmer's property interests now aggregate 
about $300,000.00. He had but $500.00 when he 
reached Texas. 

He was on the G. H. Bell, commanded by 
Charles Fowler, when the Morning Light was cap- 
tured in the battle of Sabine Pass, during the war 
between the States. 

Later he ran the blockade with a schooner loaded 
with cotton, commanded by Capt. Whiting, and 
made a successful trip to Balize, Honduras ; then 
made an equally successful trip from Columbia to 
the Rio Grande ; sold one cargo from Galveston at 
Havana ; was captured at Sabine Pass, by the Hat- 
teras, which was sunk by the Alabama, the day 
after his boat was taken, and then chartered a brig 



196 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



at Jamaica and loaded her with coffee, sugar and 
lumber, and took the cargo to Laredo, from wliich 
place he sent It overland to Houston ; bought cotton 
in Laredo, for which he was offered forty cents per 
pound in gold, which he refused ; took the cotton to 
Matamoros and lost mone}'. 

His partner in these ventures was Mr. M. A. 
Kopperl, of Galveston. 



Before and after the war Mr. Gilmer owned five 
schooners, coasting in the lumber trade. He lost 
four schooners, with two of which all of the crew 
perished. 

Mr. Gilmer is now, and has been for manj' years, 
one of the most influential citizens and leading busi- 
ness men of the section of the State in which he 
resides. 



WILLIAM HARRISON WESTFALL, M. D., 



BURNET. 



While there are few incidents of a sensational or 
even novel kind in the ordinary lives of professional 
men, there is yet in every successful career points 
of interest and an undercurrenfof character well 
deserving of careful thought. However much 
men's lives may resemble one another each must 
differ from all others and preserve an identity truly 
its own. The life history of the subject of this 
article, while it has many phases in common with 
others of his profession, yet discloses an eneirgy, 
tact, mental endowments and discipline, and social 
qualities, which acting together as a motive power 
have enabled him to reach and successfully main- 
tain a position of respectability in his profession, 
and in the world of practical business, seldom 
attained by members of that profession, dis- 
tinguished as it is for men of intelligence and 
general merit. 

Dr. Westfall comes of good ancestry, not par- 
ticularly noted, but respectable, strong, sturdy 
Virginia stock, of Prussian extraction. He was 
born in the town of Buchanan, in what is now 
Upshur County, West Virginia, December 16, 
1822. He was reared in his native place, in the 
local schools of which he received his early mental 
training. Opportunities for a collegiate educa- 
tion were not open to him, but his energy, 
force of character and persistent industry helped 
in a great measure to neutralize this disadvan- 
tage, and, having determined on a professional 
career, he began preparation for it with sufficient 
mental equipment. He attended the medical de- 
partment of the University of New York, in which 
institution and in the hospitals of that city he spent 
five years, enjoying the best advantages then open 
to students. He did not enter immediately on the 
practice of his profession after completing his edu- 



cation, but laid aside his purpose for a while, being 
induced to this by considerations which exercised a 
controlling influence on the careers of many others 
of his age. Those were the years in which the 
country was swept by the great gold fever which^ 
breaking out in the wilds of California, spread to 
the remotest parts of this continent, and of civili- 
zation. Young Westfall was an early victim and 
the spring of 1850 found him well on the overland 
route towards the new El Dorado. He spent 
several months in the gold fields, leading the desul- 
tory life of a miner and adventurer. Then in the 
winter of 1851 he returned to " the States," stop- 
ping in Missouri. Up to this time his fund of 
experience was considerably larger than his fund 
of cash, but he was not satisfied with either, and 
shortly afterward determined to try his fortunes in 
a speculative scheme with a bunch of cattle, which 
he undertook with some assistance to drive to the 
diggings in California. That drive, one of the 
earliest in the history of the country, was an 
undertaking, the magnitude and hazard of 
which the average reader of this day can have but 
little conception. The distance covered was 
over 2,000 miles and the route lay through an 
utterly desert and wilderness country infested 
by savage Indians and subject to the perils 
of storm, famine and flood. Tbat it was accom- 
plished without serious mishap is to be wondered at, 
but so it was, and, what is more, it turned out prof- 
itably to those who were concerned in it. Dr. 
Westfall remained in California on this trip till the 
fall of 1853 when, in a better financial condition, he 
returned to Missouri. He now felt that it was 
time for him to take up his profession and, settling 
at Clinton in Henry County, that State, he formed 
a partnership with Dr. G. Y. Salmon, a well-known 







WoDfl„WES'TrFAD=L,[ 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



197 



and competent physician, and, entered on his pro- 
fessiopal labors. November 20, 1853, he married 
Miss Mary A. Bates, of Clinton, whose parents, 
Asaph W. and Sarah Bates, originally from Ken- 
tucky, had settled in Henry County in pioneer 
days, where Mrs. Westfall had been born and 
reared. 

After four years' residence in Missouri Dr. 
Westfall concluded to come to Texas, moving in 
1857 to Austin, where he resumed the practice of 
his profession, later purchasing land in Williamson 
County, in the vicinity of Liberty Hill, which he 
improved as a ranch. When the war came on he 
transferred his residence from Austin to his ranch, 
the returns from which, supplementing the income 
from his profession, enabled him to support his 
family during the period of hostilities. He was 
exempt from military service by reason of his pro- 
fession ; but, as a physician and citizen, he rendered 
the cause of the Confederacy the best service in 
his power, giving it the weight of his personal 
influence and attending the families of the soldiers 
in the field, free of charge. 

In 1872, Dr. Westfall was elected to the lower 
branch of the State Legislature from Williamson 
County and served as a member of the Thirteenth 
General Assembly. This was a new field for him 
but one in which his energy and talents enabled him 
to acquit himself with credit. It will be remem- 
bered that the Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Legislatures were those which had so much to do 
with shaping the policy of the State with respect 
to schools, public funds and railways. Among the 
general laws passed by the Thirteenth Legislature to 
which he gave his support were those creating a 
public school system and setting apart one-half of 
the public domain for the support and maintenance 
of the same ; the law providing for the better secu- 
rity of the public funds ; the law regulating the 
assessment and collection of taxes, and the law to 
protect the agricultural interests of the State by 
providing adequate punishment for those guilty of 
destroying gates and fences or committing other 
trespasses, in which last act there was a hint of the 
possible conditions which actually arose ten years 
later and culminated in the celebrated fence-cutting 
troubles. The special laws passed by the Thirteenth 
Legislature, in which he took considerable interest, 
favoring some and opposing others as seemed to 
him proper at the time, were those incorporating 
railway, canal and ship channel companies, incor- 
porating and extending the corporate powers of 
towns and cities, and those establishing by charter 
real estate, building, savings and banking concerns, 
private educational institutions and benevolent 



associations, more than 200 acts of this character 
being passed by that Legislature. The Thirteenth 
was distinctively the Legislature which gave practi- 
cal direction to the re-awakened energies of the 
people after the war and prepared the way for the 
era of prosperity which followed. 

From the lower house Dr. Westfall went to the 
upper by election in the fall of 1873, being chosen 
from the senatorial district composed of Travis, 
Williamson, Burnet, Lampasas, San Saba, Llano and 
Blanco. During his term of service in tbe Four- 
teenth General Assembly he pursued the same line 
of conduct previously marked out, entering, if 
anything, more actively into the work of legislation 
because by that time he had become better ac- 
quainted with the necessities and wishes of the 
people, and more familiar with legislative methods 
and proceedings. There were some important 
amendments to the school law passed by that Legis- 
lature, which as' a member of the Committee on 
Education, he was in a position to materially aid. 
But during this, .as at the previous sitting, the rail- 
roads came in for most of the time of the law- 
makers. It was during the second session of the 
Fourteenth Legislature that the act was passed 
giving to the International & Great Northern Rail- 
road Company, in lieu of the $10,000 per mile bonds 
theretofore granted, twenty sections of land for each 
mile of road constructed and exempting the lands 
so donated and all of the property of the original 
company from taxation for a period of twenty-five 
years. This was in the nature of a compromise 
and was regarded by many as a good settlement 
for the State as well as being just and equitable 
towards the railroad. At the outset Dr. Westfall 
opposed it, being in favor of the bond subsidy. 
But when it became known that such a subsidy 
would not meet the approval of the then Governor 
and believing that the best interests of the people 
demanded a settlement of the question he, as a 
member of the committee appointed to formulate a 
bill that would receive the Governor's approval, sup- 
ported this measure in accordance with his pledge 
to stand by the action of a majority of the com- 
mittee. 

This Legislature also did itself the honor of voting 
increased pensions to the surviving veterans of the 
revolution by which Texas was separated from 
Mexico, including the Santa Fe and Mier prisoners, 
the survivors of the company of Capt. Dawson, 
who was massacred near San Antonio in 1842, the 
survivors of those who were captured at San 
Antonio in 1842 and imprisoned at Perote and the 
survivors of Deaf Smith's Spy Company. And it 
also made legal holidays of the second of March 



198 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



(Texas Independence Day) and the twenty-flrst of 
April (San Jacinto Day), both of which patriotic 
measures received the Doctor's cordial support. 

With the expiration of his term as senator Dr. 
Westfall gave up public affairs altogether and 
turned his attention strictly to his professional and 
business interests, which by that time had assumed 
very gratifying proportions, gradually placing him 
in a position where he could find wider fields for 
active and profitable employment. He had moved 
from Williamson County to Au3tin in 1876. From 
Austin he moved to Burnet in 1879, having made 
investments in the latter place which necessitated 
this step. For a year or so after going to Burnet 
he was interested in the mercantile and exchange 
business there ; but, disposing of his mercantile in- 
terest later, he engaged in the banking business, 
associating with himself for this purpose his son- 
in-law, W. H. Hotchkiss, the bank, a private insti- 
tution, being opened under the firm name of W. H. 
Westfall & Co. In 1883 it was converted into a 
national bank and conducted as such for ten years, 
at the end of which time it was denationalized and 
again became a private institution, and so continues 
under the old firm name. The denationalization 
was resolved on and effected purely as a matter of 
expedieuce and from a conviction that the old sys- 
tem was the better adapted to existing conditions, 
both systems having been given a fair trial. The 
career of the bank under the national system had 
been reasonably satisfactory to the stockholders 
and eminently so to the Federal authorities-, the 
latter fact being evidenced both by repeated expres- 
sions from the department and by the fact, of 
seldom occurrence, that the Comptroller of the Cur- 
rency accepted the statements of the officers of the 
bank as to its condition and granted the stock- 
holders a release without the formality of an inves- 
tigation. This bank with the changes here indi- 
cated is the only one the town of Burnet has ever 
had and it has been an important factor in the 
town's and county's financial and business affairs. 
Its treatment of its patrons has always been fair 
and reasonable and its liberality in this respect 
together with its well-known conservative course in 
all things has served to entrench it in the confidence 
and good will of the people generally. It is 
worthy of note that the bank voluntarily reduced 
its rate of interest before the Legislature took action 
on that question. 

Dr. Westfall has invested more or less in outside 
enterprises and has made considerable money by 
his investments. He is largely interested in the 
South Heights addition to San Antonio and in real 
estate in Utah, owning fourteen houses and lots in 



Salt Lake City and some irrigated properties in 
near-by counties. It may be added that his in- 
vestments have been made entirely out of his indi- 
vidual means, and only when he has had means 
which he felt he could safely use for such purposes, 
his unalterable habit having been never to touch 
a dollar of other people's money intrusted to 
him. 

An active man of business, with a keen percep- 
tion of the commercial value of things. Dr. West- 
fall was among the first to direct attention to the 
great wealth locked up in the stone measures of 
Burnet County arid he was a staunch advocate of 
the claims of that stone for building purposes long 
before experts had passed favorably upon it or its 
usefulness had been demonstrated by actual trial. 
When the commissioners were hunting over the 
State for material for the new capitol he put him- 
self in communication with them, invited them to 
Burnet County to inspect its resources, and person- 
ally accompanied them in their travels, assisting 
them in their investigations, confident that such 
investigations, if fully and fairly made, would 
result in the adoption of Burnet County stone for 
the great work in hand. As is known, however, 
the matter of selecting material for the building 
was held in abeyance for some time and it was not 
until the value of the product of Granite Mountain 
had been thoroughly demonstrated and Dr. West- 
fall and his associates. Col. N. L. Norton and Mr. 
George W. Lacy, had offered to give to the State 
all the stone needed, that it was decided to con- 
struct the building of this material. The capitol 
as a building speaks for itself. It also in some 
measure may be considered a monument to the 
wisdom, liberality and public spirit of those who 
furnished free of cost the handsome and enduring 
material out of which it is constructed. 

After having developed the quarries of Granite 
Mountain and shipped large quantities of the stone 
throughout the State, notably for the jetties at 
Galveston and the dam at Austin, the moun- 
tain was sold by its owners at a fair profit, 
but not until they had seen it through its entire 
period of probation and fixed it firmly in pub- 
lic favor. With the development of this enterprise 
began Dr. Westfall' s connection with the Austin 
& Northwestern Railroad, the latter being in 
reality an outgrowth of the former. He was one of 
the charter members of the road and for some time 
its vice-president. He is still its chief surgeon. 
All public enterprises — whatever will stimulate 
industry or in any way result in good to the com- 
munity — meet his cordial approbation and receive 
his prompt advocacy and assistance. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



199 



While Dr. Westfall has thus traveled far out of 
the beaten path of bis profession he has never lost 
sight of its claims upon him nor ceased to feel an 
abiding interest in it. Confining his attention 
mainly to surgery, for which branch he has special 
inclination, he responds jpromptly to all calls for his 
services and follows up his duties in this connection 
with zeal and effleiency. He has served as pres- 
ident of the examining boards of the three judicial 
districts in which he has lived, and not only with 
the laity but with his medical brethren he stands 
among the first. 

Dr. Westfall is a zealous Mason, having been 



made a member of the order more than forty years 
ago. He belongs to Ben Hur Shrine and Colorado 
Commandery, both of Austin. 

A wife and widowed daughter constitute his 
family. Not the least of the many creditable 
things that can be truthfully said of him is that he 
makes grateful acknowledgment for what he is and 
what he has to the good wife, who, joining her for- 
tunes with his more than forty years ago, has 
shared in all his triumphs and reverses, counseling 
with him, applauding and encouraging his efforts, 
and rejoicing more than any one else in his 
success. 



THE COLE FAMILY. 



BRYAN. 



The permanent settlement of the late ven- 
erable Bansom Cole in Texas dates back to the 
year 1850, when he established himself in Cass 
County, in the eastern part of the State. He had 
lived, however, a short time during 1849, just over 
the State line in Western Louisiana. He was a 
native of South Carolina and was born in Edgefield 
district, that State, June 11, 1800. The family 
history, so far as traceable, seems to be one of 
pioneer record. 

Daniel Cole, the father of Ransom Cole, was 
among the early settlers of Virginia and as that 
country became settled pushed on to the frontier 
of South Carolina, and later advanced with the 
progress of settlement into Georgia and later into 
Alabama. Thus it was that Ransom Cole, born 
and reared in a then new country, became imbued 
with the genuine pioneer instinct and preferred and 
during his active years lead a typical pioneer life. 
He had Texas in his mind long years before his 
final location in Cass County in 1850. Fifteen 
years pjior to that date (1835) he explored the 
Brazos valley as far north as Waco springs and 
there selected lands which he purchased. 

Complications arose, however, touching land 
titles in that vicinity, covering the tract he had 
selected. The trouble very likely occurred with 
the Indians, as the Wacos were still at that time 
in almost absolute possession of the upper Brazos 
valley and held sway for several years later and 
relinquished their final hold not without contest and 
even bloodshed. 



Mr.- Cole finally perfected his title to the land, 
but never lived thereon, preferring to remain at his 
Cass county home. 

Daniel Cole, a younger brother of Ransom, also 
came to Texas and located in Cass County in 1853. 
He there pursued farming and lived until his death, 
leaving a family, some of whom still reside there. 

Ransom Cole early suffered the loss of his wife, 
Agatha (jiee Bostwick) Cole, December 1, 1854, in 
her forty-eighth year. She was born in 1806. She 
was the mother of nine children and of these three 
sons settled at Bryan in the infancy of the thrifty 
county seat of Brazos County, and as merchants 
and esteemed citizens have become conspicuous in 
the business development and growth of the city, 
standing as they do at the head of its mercantile 
interests. The firm name of the house. Cole 
Brothers, has become a household word throughout 
the Brazos valley region. Ransom Cole remained 
on his Cass County estate until, advanced in years, 
he relinquished the cares of business to spend the 
declining years of his life with his children at Bryan 
and vicinity and there died in the year 1887, at 
eighty-seven years of age. He was favorably known 
as a man of quiet and unpretentious manners and a 
kind, warm heart. 

In view of the foregoing facts, space cannot be 
more becomingly utilized than to recite the follow- 
ing brief biographical facts touching the Bryan mem- 
bers of this pioneer family, all of whom have seen 
and taken an aggressive part in the growth of the 
richest and most promising valley country in Texas. 



200 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Mason D. Cole, the oldest of the family of nine 
children, was born in Pike County, Alabama, on his 
father's farm, February 24, 1831. His boyhood 
was for the most part spent in Macon County, Ala- 
bama, and he there early engaged in agriculture 
until the removal of the family to Louisiana and 
soon after to Texas in 1849. He remained in Cass 
County, this State, until he became identified with 
the commissary department of the Confederate 
government, in which he served during 1864 and 
1865. He, in common with his fellow-countrymen, 
suffered severe losses in consequence of the war ; 
but, gathering up the remnants of his estate, he em- 
barked in merchandising at Douglassville, Texas, 
from 1865 to 1869, and in a measure repaired his 
fortunes. His two brothers preceded him to Bryan 
in 1867 and engaged in merchandising under the 
firm name of Cole, Dansby & Co. Mr. Cole 
came on, purchased Mr. Dansby's interest, and, 
with his brothers, established the firm of Cole 
Brothers, which dates its existence from 1869. 

Mr. Cole married, in 1872, his present and third 
wife, Mrs. Mollie A. Covy, a widow lady, native of 
Georgia. Of the children born of this union, two 
sons survive, viz. ; Houston and Jeff Cole. By a 
former marriage, Mr. Cole has a son, J. R. Cole, 
and a daughter, now Mrs. Simm Cooper, both resi- 
dents of Bryan. 

Mr. Cole devotes his time chiefly to the exten- 
sive dry goods interests of his firm. He has 
served fifteen years as trustee of the public schools 
tand in the city council and was one of the original 
promoters of Bryan's public free school system. 

Jasper N. Cole, general manager of the business 
of the firm, was born in Macon County, Alabama, 
January 14, 1837, and, like his elder brother, lived 
■on his father's farm until about fifteen years of age. 
Upon the opening of the war between the States in 
1861, he promptly enlisted as a private soldier in 
the Third Texas Cavalry, in Greer's Regiment, but 
served for the most part under the regimental 
command of Col. Walter P. Lane. 

The record of the gallant Third Texas Cavalry, 
under the leadership at various times of such in- 
trepid and relentless fighters as Gens. Ben McCul- 



loch. Price, Bragg, and Joseph E. Johnston, is a 
part of the history of the great war waged in the 
interest of the Southern cause. Mr. Cole fought in 
the battles of Wilson Creek, Missouri ; Elk Horn, or 
Pea Ridge, Arkansas; Corinth, Mississippi; and 
those incident to all the great campaigns dovrn to 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, and on down into Georgia. 
He returned to his home in Cass County after the 
war and in 1867 went to Bryan and embarked in 
merchandising in company with a younger brother, 
TSoah B. Cole, present junior member of the firm. 

Mr. Cole married, October 21, 1869, in Brazos 
County, Miss Nannie Walker, daughter of James 
Walker, a pioneer of Brazos County. Nine chil- 
dren born of this marriage are living, viz. : Mattie, 
wife of Lemuel B. Hall, a well-known drug mer- 
chant of Bryan ; May, unmarried ; Ella, wife, W. S. 
Adams; Carl, Arrie, Alma, Nellie, Jasper, and 
Ransom. Two, Claud and Earl, are deceased. 

Mr. Cole is known in the financial circles of Texas 
as the president of the Merchants and Planters 
Bank of Bryan since 1889. He is also president 
of the Bryan Cotton Seed Oil Mill. 

NoahB. Cole, the director of the hardware store 
of the firm, was born in Alabama, August 19, 1847, 
the youngest of nine children, and lived on his 
father's farm until 1864, when, at seventeen years 
of age, he joined Lane's Regiment, so well known in 
the history of the late war as the First Texas 
Partisan Rangers, the services of which were con- 
fined chiefly to the Trans-Mississippi Department. 
He went through a lively Louisiana, Arkansas and 
Missouri campaign of about eighteen months and at 
the break-up returned home in August, 1865, un- 
scathed. He came with his elder brother, Jasper 
N. Cole, to Bryan, in 1867, and engaged in business, 
the outcome of which is three flourishing stores at 
that place. 

He has been twice married, first in 1879, to Miss 
Mollie Rawles, who died December 5th, 1888, leav- 
ing one son, Robert E. Cole. Mr. Cole married, 
November 14, 1890, his second and present wife. 
Miss Lula Davies, a daughter of Dr. Wm. Davies, 
of Burleson County. Two children have been born 
to them, viz.: NoahD., and Walter R. Cole. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



201 



E. M. PEASE, 



AUSTIN. 



We have selected for the subject of this memoir 
Hon. Elisha Marshall Pease, a man who, in his day 
and generation, moved as a colossal figure upon 
the stage of action in Texas. 

His career covered the most momentous epochs 
in the history of the State, the Texas revolution, 
the days of the Republic, annexation, the war 
between the States, and the era of reconstruction. 

A sufficient period of time has now elapsed since 
the happening of those events for the formation of 
a true estimate of his character and services, and 
to enable the historian, by a dispassionate con- 
sideration of the circumstances that surrounded 
him, to obtain an insight into the motives that 
prompted his public acts. 

He was born at Enfield, Conn., January 8, 1812, 
and enjoyed such educational advantages as were 
afforded by the schools of his native town and a 
short attendance at an academy at Westfleld, 
Mass. His parents were Lorain Thompson, and 
Sarah (Marshall), Pease. 

At the age of fourteen he was placed in a coun- 
try store where he remained three years. From 
that time until 1834, he was a clerk at the post 
office at Hartford. 

The greater part of the year 1834 was spent in 
traveling in the Northwestern States, and in the 
fall he went to New Orleans. In that citj' he met 
many persons from Texas, and, allured by the glow- 
ing accounts which they gave of the character and 
prospects of the country beyond the Sabine, de- 
termined to seek a home and fortune within its 
confines. Accordingly, in the month of January, 
1835, he took passage on a sailing vessel, landed at 
the port of Velasco, and from thence made his way 
to the frontier settlements on the Colorado, and 
located at Mina, now the town of Bastrop, where 
he began the study of law in the office of Col. D. 
C. Barrett, who had but recently entered upon the 
practice of the profession. 

The times were not such, however, that a high- 
spirited and mettlesome young man could sit 
quietly in an office and pore over the musty pages 
of the law and, while he applied himself with such 
assiduity as was possible under the circumstances, 
his studies were interrupted and he made little 
progress therein until later and less stormy days. 
The people of Texas were smarting under a long 
train of injustices and oppressions inflicted upon 



them by the Mexican government and were threat- 
ened with the entire overthrow of their liberties. 
The affairs at Anahuac and Velasco, in 1832, which 
had resulted in the expulsion of Bradburn from the 
country, were fresh in memory and the capture of 
Anahuac by Travis and a few fearless followers was 
near at hand, conventions had been held at San 
Felipe in 1832 and 1833, asking for reforms in many 
directions and the reforms had been denied and the 
complaints of the petitioners treated with haughty 
and indignant contempt. The remnant of the once 
powerful Liberal party in Mexico, that in time 
past had responded to the clarion calls of Hidalgo 
and Morelos, had made its last stand for the 
constitution and been irretrievably defeated upon 
the blood-soaked plains of Guadalupe and Zacatecas 
by the minions of Santa Anna, whose baleful star 
was thpn rising towards its zenith. A strong central 
despotism, inimical to the Anglo-American settlers 
of Texas, was no longer a danger threatened by 
the future, but an accomplished fact. To the 
dullest ear was distinctly audible the rum- 
blings of the approaching revolution. A crisis 
was upon the country. It was a time to try the 
stoutest hearts — for patriots to stand firm, coun- 
sel resistance, and prepare for the impending 
struggle, and for the timid to talk in bated 
whispers and prate of compromise and peace, 
when there could be no compromise and peace with- 
out the dishonor of virtual slavery. On the one 
hand was arrayed the powerful Mexican nation, 
numbering several millions of inhabitants and 
possessing an army and navy, well equipped and 
well otfloered ; on the other a small band of pio- 
neers, possessed of no resources and widely scat- 
tered over a vast expanse of hill and valley, plain 
and forest, and with no facilities for bringing about 
speedy concentration and concert of action. Such 
was the prospect that confronted the people of 
Texas. It was gloomy indeed. But there were 
those among the pioneers (and not a few) who had 
inbibed with their mother's milk detestation of in- 
justice and tyranny in all its forms and that love of 
liberty and those manly sentiments that in all ages 
have taught the brave to count danger and death as 
nothing when their rights, liberties or honor were 
invaded and could only be maintained by a 
resort to the sword. Descended from a race 
whose sons were among the first to respond 



202 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



to their country's call in 1776 and strike for 
the independence of the American Colonies, 
young Pease was among the most outspoken of 
those who precipitated the Texas revolution, 
and in a few months was elected secretary of 
the Committee of Safety, formed by the people of 
Mina, the first of its kind organized in Texas. In 
the following September, when couriers from Gon- 
zales brought an appeal for armed assistance, he 
hurried to that place as a volunteer in the company 
commanded by Capt. R. M. Coleman, and had the 
honor to fire a shot in the first battle and to help 
win the first victory of the revolution. In a few 
weeks he was granted a furlough on account of 
sickness and in the latter part of November went 
to San Felipe, where he was elected one of the two 
secretaries of the first provisional government of 
Texas, in which position he remained until the 
government ad interim was organized, under Presi- 
dent Burnet, March 18, 1836. 

While he was not a delegate to the convention 
that issued the declaration of Texas independence, 
he was present at its sessions, was chosen and 
served as one of its secretaries and helped to frame 
the special ordinance that created the government 
ad interim, and the constitution for the republic 
adopted by it. The latter was formulated subject 
to ratification or rejection by the people as soon as 
an election could be held for that purpose. 

During the summer he served as chief clerk, first 
in the navy and then in the treasury department, 
and for a short time acted as Secretary of the Treas- 
ury upon the death of Secretary Hardeman. 

In November, when Gen. Sam Houston was 
President, he was appointed clerk of the Judiciary 
Committee of the House of Representatives, and 
while in that position drew up most of the laws 
organizing the courts, creating county offices and 
defining the duties of county officers ; also the fee- 
bill and criminal code. 

Upon the adjournment of Congress in Decem- 
ber he was tendered the office of Postmaster 
General by President Houston, but declined it and 
entered the office of Col. John A. Wharton at Bra- 
zoria, where he diligently applied himself to the 
study of law. He was admitted to the bar at the 
town of Washington, in April, 1837, but in June 
following was tendered by President Houston and 
accepted the office of Comptroller of Public Ac- 
counts, which he filled until December and then 
returned to Brazoria, where he formed a copart- 
nership with Col. Wharton and entered actively 
upon the practice of his profession. In 1838, John 
W. Harris became associated with them and after 
the death of Col. Wharton, which occurred a few 



months later, the firm of Harris & Pease continued 
for many years and became one of the most dis- 
tinguished in the State. During this period Mr. 
Pease served as District Attorney for a short time, 
and, after annexation in 1846, was elected from 
Brazoria County to the House of Representatives 
of the First State Legislature and was re-elected in 
1847 to the Second Legislature. 

These were exceedingly important sessions, as 
the building of the framework for a State govern- 
ment had to be done from the ground up and the 
future prosperity of the commonwealth and hap- 
piness of its people largely depended upon the 
wisdom or unwisdom displayed in the enactment 
of statutes and the formulation of lines of public 
policy for later administrations to follow or reject. 
Both branches of the legislature contained many 
men of commanding talents (Texas' brightest and 
best, among whom Mr. Pease moved as a recog- 
nized leader) and accomplished the arduous duties 
that devolved upon it in a manner creditable to the 
members and satisfactory to the people. 

During his terms of service in the House he drew 
up very nearly all the laws defining the jurisdiction 
of courts, and, as chairman of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee in the Second Legislature, originated and 
pushed to enactment the probate laws of 1848. 

In 1849 he was elected to the Senate of the Third 
Legislature from the district composed of the 
counties of Brazoria and Galveston, and at the 
regular session of 1850 added to the laurels he had 
already won and still further endeared himself to 
a people not insensible to the merits of those who 
had not only shown themselves true patriots and 
devoted to the common cause in the darkest hours 
of the country's history, but capable in time of 
peace of guiding the ship of State. Being absent 
from Texas when Governor Bell called an extra ses- 
sion of the Legislature at a l^ter period in 1850, he 
resigned and terminated his services as a lawmaker. 
Thereafter until 1853 he devoted himself to his 
law practice, but continued a prominent figure and 
potent factor in public life and indenufied himself 
with all principal movements that gave promise of 
promoting the best interests of the country. 

With other leading men he early saw the neces- 
sity of railroads as a means of developing the vast 
territory of the State, deprived as it was of interior 
navigation except in neighborhoods not far remote 
from the coast and at Jefferson on the extreme 
Northeast, and advocated the construction of a 
transcontinental railway to the Pacific ocean. 
With Thomas J. Rusk, Gen. Sam Houston and 
others, he earnestly favored the building of what is 
now the Texas & Pacific Railroad, destined, after 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



203 



passing through many changes and many doubtful 
stages, and by the blending of many charters, to 
ultimate construction and completion in 1881. 

Mr. Pease was not long suffered to remain in 
retirement. In 1853 he was elected Governor of 
Texas, as the successor of Governor Bell, and 
re-elected in 1855, Hardin R. Runnels being elected 
Lieutenant-Governor. That he was one of the 
ablest and purest Governors Texas has ever 
had, is the unanimous opinion of all who 
are conversant with the facts. His messages to 
the Legislature are model State papers, not only 
on account of the knowledge of the condition and 
needs of the country and the principles of civil 
government that they display, but for the wisdom 
of the recommendations that they contain and the 
elegance and perspicuity of their diction. During 
the four years that he filled the gubernatorial chair, 
alternate sections of land were set aside to promote 
the construction of railroads, and much of our 
earliest railroad legislation was enacted, lands were 
set apart for free school purposes, a nucleus for the 
present munificent school fund was formed, and a 
handsome appropriation was made for the establish- 
ment of a State university, for no man felt a deeper 
interest in popular education or more fully realized 
that the hope of constitutional freedom must ever 
rest upon the intelligence of the citizen ; a new 
State Capitol and other public buildings were erected, 
and institutions for the insane, deaf and dumb, and 
blind were founded, and liberal appropriations made 
for their support. When his official life as Gov- 
enor began, the State tax was twenty cents on the 
one hundred dollars, and when his second term 
expired it was fifteen cents and the State was 
entirely free from debt. 

In 1854, there was introduced into Texas a secret, 
oath-bound, political organization, which became 
known as the Know-Nothing or American party. 
It transacted its business with closed doors and 
in the latter year put forth a full ticket for State 
offices. The principles of the new party were 
designed to place restrictions upon foreign immi- 
grants acquiring American citizenship, and to 
impose restraints and civil disabilities upon those 
professing the Catholic religion. Its methods, tenets 
and purposes were assailed by Governor Pease. 
A sturdy republican, he entertained an unconquer- 
able hostility to secret political organizations, 
believing that, while some excuse might be offered 
for their formation under the despotisms of the old 
world," none could be advanced for their existence 
here. He considered them, per se, inimical and a 
menace to our free institutions. As to debarring 
worthy foreigners from the blessings and advan- 



tages attendant upon American citizenship, the 
idea to him was utterly repugnant. He remembered 
that our ancestors themselves were emigrees from 
Europe, that many men of foreign birth had fought 
in the Continental army and afterwards adorned 
the walks both of public and private life in the early 
days of the republic, that many such men emigrated 
from their distant homes to settle in the wilderness 
of Texas and that not a few had honorably borne 
arms in the struggle that won for Texas her inde- 
pendence, and he knew that men who would leave 
the land of their birth to escape tyranny and, in 
search of liberty, cross the stormy deep in the 
hope of bettering their conditions amid alien scenes 
and among a people to whose very language they 
were strangers, were made of stuff that fitted them 
for the patriotic discharge of the duties incident to 
self-government. His was not the spirit of the 
glutton, who, careless of the welfare of others, 
wishes all for himself, but that nobler spirit that 
led the fathers of 1776 to boast that they had estab- 
lished an asylum to which the oppressed of every 
land might turn with the assurance of safety and 
protection. As to religion, he believed that to be a 
matter of conscience that should rest between each 
man and his God and that should in no way be 
interfered with by private individuals or the State. 
He believed the action the Know-Nothing party 
contemplated taking against Catholics and foreign 
immigrants to be contrary to the history and tradi- 
tions of our government and the genius of our insti- 
tutions. So believing, he entered the campaign as 
the standard-bearer of the opposition, known as the 
Democratic party, but containing men of widely 
divergent views, and, after a spirited and exciting 
contest, was elected at the polls and entered upon 
his second term. 

The ticket put in the field by the Know-Nothing 
party contained the first nominations made by a 
political party in Texas. In fact, prior to 1855 
there were no party organizations, properly so 
called, in the State. 

Before the close of Governor Pease's second 
term, the whole country was stirred from center to 
circumference over questions that aroused the 
bitterest sectional feeling. Under the terms of the 
Missouri Compromise of 1820 and 1821, the terri- 
tories of Kansas and Nebraska when admitted 
would necessarily enter the Union as free States. 
In 1854, Senator Douglass, of Illinois, introduced 
in Congress what was known as the Kansas and 
Nebraska Bill (which became a law), in which it 
was declared that the Missouri Compromise — 
" Being inconsistent with the principles of non- 
intervention by Congress with slavery in the States 



204 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



and Territories, as recognized by the legislation of 
1850, commonly called the Compromise Measures, 
is hereby declared inoperative and void, it being 
the true intent and meaning of this act, not to leg- 
islate slavery into any Territory or State, nor to 
exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people there- 
of perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic 
institutions in their own way, subject only to the 
constitution of the United States." 

Mr. Douglass' measure of course carried with it 
the right of slave-owners to settle in Kansas and 
Nebraslva with their slaves. The Eastern portion 
of Kansas was regarded by many as a desirable 
region in which to employ slave labor and many 
Southern people located in it. The conflicts and 
bloodshed that followed are familiar matters of 
history. The passage of the act only served to in- 
tensify sectional hatred. Gen. Houston, Senator 
from Texas, voted against it for reasons which he 
elaborated and which met with the sanction of Gov- 
ernor Pease and others, who were firmly, convinced 
that any attempt to establish slavery in that section 
would prove futile and only serve to widen the 
breach that separated the Southern and Northern 
States, which, if not healed, threatened armed con- 
flict and, probable dissolution of the Union. They 
were for pouring oil upon the troubled waters and 
not for still further agitating them. Gen. Houston 
offered himself as a candidate for the Governor- 
ship in opposition to Hardin K. Runnels, the sec- 
ond nominee of the Democratic organization, and, 
although he made a fine canvass, was supported by 
Governor Pease (the first nominee of that party and 
then occupying the Governor's chair) and had many 
devoted admirers and supporters, public sentiment 
was such that he was defeated, Runnels receiving a 
majority of over ten thousand votes. Such was 
the condition of affairs on the 21st of December, 
1857, when a change of administration took place. 
Two years later. Gen. Houston was elected to suc- 
ceed Runnels, but a great crisis was at hand. 
Threats were openly made that, if Mr. Lincoln was 
elected, the Southern States would withdraw from 
the Union and form a Confederacy of their own, 
threats that were afterwards carried into execution. 
Governor Pease opposed secession, and, finding that 
his opposition was in vain, retired to private life. 

He was a delegate from Texas to the convention 
of Southern loyalists that met at Philadelphia in 
1866 and was elected one of the vice-presidents of 
that body. Later in the same year he was the can- 
didate of the Union party for the office of Governor 
of Texas, but was defeated by Hon. J. W. 
Throckmorton. In August, 1867, he was appointed 
Provisional Governor of the State by Gen. Sheridan, 



but resigned before the end of the year because he 
differed with the commanding general of the de- 
partment. Gen. J. J. Reynolds, as to the course 
that should be pursued in the reconstruction of the 
State. He represented the State in the Liberal 
Republican Convention of 1872 that assembled in 
Chicago and nominated Horace Greeley for the 
presidency. In later days he attended various 
State and national Republican conventions and 
continued to act with the Republican party. 
Shortly after the war it was charged that he was 
an extremist, but, it is a fact well and gratefully 
remembered by the people of Texas that, when he 
saw during the administration of Governor Davis 
to what iniquities the extreme policy that was being 
pursued would lead, he opposed it and threw 
the great weight of his influence into the scales of 
conservatism. 

The stormy days before, during and after the 
war are gone and the waves of passion and preju- 
dice that beat so fiercely have subsided. The war 
was inevitable. Questions were settled by it that 
had long vexed the people and been a prolific 
source of discord and that could have been settled 
in no other way. Old social and commercial con- 
ditions were changed that could have been changed 
in no other way. Mutual confidence, respect and 
friendship were restored as they could have been 
restored in no other way, and a fraternal, and it is 
to be hoped, eternal. Union secured that could have 
been secured in no other way. Now we can enter 
into full sympathy with those who could see neither 
safety nor profit in continuing to live under a com- 
pact of Union, every essential provision of which 
they believed to have been violated, and who de- 
termined to seek peace in a Confederation com- 
posed of friendly States with interests in common. 
We can also enter into full sympathy with those who 
opposed the policy of secession. They thought that, 
if wrong had been done, it could be redressed within 
the Union — that the slavery and all other ques- 
tions could be settled there. Governor Pease and 
others of undoubted patriotism looked upon the 
dissolution of the Union as the greatest calamity 
that could befall the country. Upon the continu- 
ation of that Union he believed depended the 
destinies and future vpelfare of the race, for its 
fall, he well knew, would seal the doom of free 
institutions, which in a few years would perish from 
the earth. "Should the blood" said men of his 
party " shed upon the battle fields of the Revolution 
of 1776, be shed in vain? Should the labors of 
Washington and Jefferson and their compeers 
prove unavaiUng? A thousand times no! " They 
were right in their prognostications of the evils that 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



205 



would inevitably follow a dissolution of the Union. 
Tiiey were wrong in the belief that the questions 
that divided the people, could be settled peace- 
fully. From their standpoint they were right in 
opposing secession. It is fortunate, all now agree, 
that the attempt to secede was unsuccessful. It 
was, however, written in the book of fate that it 
should be made and fail. A stronger hand than 
man's controlled the course of events and brought 
about the beneficent results that have followed in 
their train. We admire the moral and physical 
courage that led men of both sides to brave ani- 
madversion, the loss of prestige and death itself in 
support of their opinions and principles that they 
believed to be correct. They were animated by 
that desire for the promotion of the general good 
and by that spirit of their fathers that led Pym 
and Hampden and Sidney to dare the block and the 
soldiers at Concord to fire upon the British reg- 
ulars. Let us strew flowers with impartial hand 
upon those whom death has gathered in its cold 
embrace and transmit their memories to posterity, 
freed from reproach and with imperishable assur- 
ances of our love and veneration for them. 

There was nothing of the time-serving spirit in 
Governor Pease's composition. He was incapable 
of allowing a desire for personal aggrandizement or 
for the promotion of any of his private interests to 
induce him to compromise with what he believed to 
be wrong. He stood for principles and, seeing 
that they were about to be violated, he could not 
remain silent and inactive. He had no superstitious 
reverence for majorities. He knew full well that 
majorities are often wrong and that the pages of 
history are stained and blurred all over by records 
of the mistakes they have made, and the crimes 
they have committed. The majority believed for 
centuries that the earth was flat and the center 
of the universe ; in witches and wizards and necro- 
mancy ; that it was impious to attempt by sanitary 
measures to stay the pestilence, which they consid- 
ered a divine visitation upon the people for their 
sins, and it was in accordance with the will of 
majorities that Christ was condemned to a shameful 
death upon the cross, the fires of persecution were 
kept ablaze at Smithfleld and Oxford, and many 
noble lives were sacrificed and much cruel wrong 
inflicted. He believed that the day had not yet 
come when majorities were invested with the attri- 
butes of infallibility. If the majority was right, he 
cheerfully went with it. If he considered it in error, 
he as manfully opposed it, nor could he be com- 
pelled by any consideration to cease his opposition. 
Even his opponents at all times freely admitted his 
honesty of character and purpose. He retired from 
office enjoying the respect of all the people. 



In 1874 he was tendered the oflSce of Collector of 
the Port of Galveston by Secretary of the Interior 
Bristow, but declined it. 

In 1877 he retired from the active practice of law 
in which he had been engaged, except when em- 
ployed in the discharge of public duties, since 
1837. 

In 1879 he was tendered, without solicitation 
upo;i his part, the CoUectorship of the port of Gal- 
veston, and, this time, accepted Jt. This was his 
last public service. 

He was vice-president of the First National Bank 
of Austin, at the time of his death, which occurred 
at Lampasas Springs, Texas, August 26, 1883, where 
he had gone in search of health. § His remains were 
interred in the cemetery at^Austin. 

Governor Pease became a Mason in 1839, joining 
St. John's Lodge, No. 5, at Columbia, Texas and took 
all the regular degrees. ^He was not a member of 
any religious organization, but attended the services 
of the Episcopal Church, the church in which he 
was reared. 

As a lawyer he had few equals in the State. His 
briefs were always clear, [^fair and logical, and, 
while his patient research armed him at every point 
in a case, he never sought undue advantage. So 
fixed were these traits [that Chief Justice Wheeler 
once said that the statements of facts in his briefs 
were always so lucid and j just he could rely upon 
them without reference to the record. He was fre- 
quently consulted upon important public matters 
having a legal bearing, even after his retirement 
from practice, and always rendered such services 
without charge. 

Sincerity and candor, and an observance of the 
golden rule marked his intercourse with his fellow- 
men. Courtly in manner, kindly and genial, he 
enjoyed the affectionate regard of the circle of 
friends whom he admitted to his acquaintance. He 
had as much infiuence in framing the public policies 
and general laws of the State as any man who ever 
lived in Texas. He was identified with the soil 
from the days antedating the revolution. It was 
his fortune to perform many important public ser- 
vices. His career covered the most momentous 
periods known to our history. He was the intimate 
friend and associate of such men as W^harton, 
Houston, Williamson, Rusk and Archer, and the 
leaders of thought ^of later days, and his name de- 
serves a place beside theirs upon the pages of the 
State's history. 

He was married in 1850 to Miss L. C. Niles, a 
daughter of Col. Richard Niles, of Windsor, Conn. 
This accomplished and most excellent lady, and her 
only surviving daughter, live at the family. seat 
near the city of Austin. 



206 



INDIAN -\\ARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



ISABELLA HADDON GORDON, 



CLARKSVILLE, 



One of Bed River County's early^settlers, a noble 
Christian woman who linked her name permanently 
with that of the county's history, was born August 
10th, 1805, in Montgomery County, Ky., and was a 
daughter of Frank and Katie (Elliott) Hopkins, of 
Kentucky. Her paternal grandfather, Wm. Hop- 
kins, was from one of the New England States, and 
her maternal grandfather, James Elliott, was from 
Virginia. Her maternal grandmother was Katie 
(Stewart) Elliott of Virginia. Her father was a 
leading and wealthy planter of Kentucky. He 
moved to Indiana the year of the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, carrying with him all his slaves, which he 
lost by some legal technicality. In 1823 he moved 
to Texas, settling at the mouth of Mill creek, which 
is now in Bowie County. At that time all the white 
settlers "lived in neighborhoods within a mile of 
Red river, and it was ten years before there were 
any white settlements on the prairie. The subject 
of this sketch was married, April 18th, 1824, to 
John Hanks, a native of Kentucky, who died in 
1827. One child, Minerva, blessed this union, is 
still living and is the widow of Robert Graham. 
The subject of this notice was married the second 
time to James Clark, then a member of the Arkansas 
legislature and a son of Benjamin Clark, a native 
of Tennessee, who at the time lived in Arkansas, 
but moved soon after to Texas. To this union three 
children were born. The first, Frank H., born 
April 27th, 1830, attended law school at Lexing- 
ton, boarding with Chief Justice Marshall, and had 
the benefit of the advice and association of that 
eminent jurist. This bright son and promising 
lawyer died in 1856. The second son. Dr. Pat 
Clark, is a physician and resident of Red River 
County. The third and youngest son of this union 
is Capt. .James Clark, a leading and representative 
citizen of Red River County. In the fall of 1832, 
when Mr. Clark was a resident of Jonesboro, a 
settlement on Red river. Gen. Sam Houston crossed 
the river with five companions and with one of them 
passed his first night in Texas at the house of the 
subject of this sketch, his four other companions 
being prepared to camp out. He remained with 
the then Mrs. Clark awaiting guides to take him to 
Nacogdoches, as at that time there were no roads. 
The whole party were gentlemanly in dress and 
conduct, contrary to a statement published as a 
matter of history, that they were intoxicated and 



disorderly ; the companions of Gen. Houston were 
white men and not Indians, as erroneously declared 
in the statement alluded to. James Clark died in 
1838 at the late home of his widow in Clarks- 
ville, Texas, which city is named in his honor. 
This husband and the second of her brothers were 
in the war of 1836, and fought for the independ- 
ence of Texas and it was through the instrument- 
ality of Mrs. Gordon, who at that time was Mrs. 
Clark, that a large number of recruits were col- 
lected and equipped at her expense and sent for- 
ward to aid in gaining the independence of the 
Lone Star Republic. The third husband of this 
lady was Dr. George Gordon, of Coviugton, Ky. 
John, their first son, died while discharging the 
duties of a soldier in the Confederate army. 
Belle was their second and Dick the third. Dr. 
Gordon served in the Confederate army as assistant 
to her son (and his step-son) Dr. Pat Clark, who 
was surgeon of Gen. Lane's Regiment. Prior to 
the time of Mrs. Gordon's arrival in Texas, the 
prairies were inhabited by hostile Indians, but from 
about 1826 to 1836 settlements were made by 
several tribes of friendly Indians, Kickapoos, 
Delawares, and Shawnees, who were really a pro- 
tection to the whites. There was one Delaware 
chief who had lost a hand (he said in the battle of 
Tippecanoe), and there is a creek in the neighbor- 
hood that derives its name from him — "Cut- 
hand." Mrs. Gordon knew many of these Indians, 
as they came to trade with the white people. 
After the war of 1836, Texas made no provisions 
for these Indians, and they returned peacefully to 
their homes. The Shawnee chief was called 
"Cow-leach," and lived on a prairie four miles 
from Clarksville, and it still bears his name. 
When our subject was first married, for one year 
she lived within a mile of a village inhabited by 
friendly Choctaw Indians, and they were good 
neighbors. Her nearest white neighbor, a Mr. 
Cnllum, was four miles off. The white people at 
an early day were in constant dread of hostile 
Indians. There was a settlement of Caddos on the 
Sabine river, about one hundred and fifty miles 
distant, and one of them came and told Mrs. 
Gordon that the friendly Indians near had planned 
to kill the white people. This was a favorite 
trick of the Indians to get the white people to 
leave their homes so that the redskins could pillage. 



INDIAN WABS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



207 



On this occasion the men took the Indian and 
whipped him, the whipping talking place near the 
house of a Mr. Murphy. Just one year after 
a party of Caddos came, found Mr. Murphy alone 
with his sled to haul rails, and mending his 
fence. He had nothing to do with the whipping, 
but they killed him, took his scalp, and had a war 
dance over it at their village, as reported by a 
trader, who said it was done for revenge, which 
must have been the case, as they did not even take 
away the horse. Mrs. Murphy heard the gunshot 
and went to see what was the matter. The Indians 
were gone^ but she found her husband's body. 
She was entirely alone and carried'waterto wash the 
body, covered it and took the horse from the sled 
and rode two miles to her nearest neighbor to give 
the alarm. 

For the first year after Mrs. Gordon came to 
Texas, unless the vessels were brought with them, 
the people had none but gourds. For some years 
all the cloth was made from cotton, the seeds 
picked out with the fingers, then spun and woven. 
In those daj's there were cotton pickings, but not 
like those of this day. In the long winter 
evenings people would meet at a house and pick 
X)ut seeds. Then it was ready to spin for making 
cloth. 

The pioneers had no chairs, but made stools. 
Beds were made fast to the wall. For seven years 
Mrs. Gordon never saw a plank floor, as all floors 
were made of puncheons — that is, lumber hewn 
out of logs. For a number of years there were no 
wagons, and people moved in canoes. The men 
wore clothes made entirely of deer skins, the skins 
of deer and cattle being tanned in a trough. The 
nicest shoes were made of deer skins, and our sub- 



ject was married to Mr. Clark in a pair made by a 
shoemaker named Huey Shaw. 

The people had an abundance of food at an early 
date, deer and bear meat and fat wild turkeys 
being plentiful. The woods were full of bee- trees. 
Bread was made by beating out the corn in a 
mortar. Later the people had steel mills which 
they turned by hand. About once a year a keel- 
boat would be pushed up Red river with such sup- 
plies as sugar, flour and coffee. 

Mrs. Gordon still has relatives living in Ken- 
tucky and Indiana, among them the Hamiltons of 
Montgomerjr County, in the former State. Judge 
Elliott, who was killed at Frankfort, Ky., a few- 
years ago, by Judge Buford, was a great-grand- 
nephew of her mother. 

Mrs. Gordon's name is synonymous with all 
that is good and charitable. The wealth which 
a beneficent Providence entrusted to her care 
was judiciously used for the relief and com- 
fort of her fellow-creatures. Her whole life was 
spent toward the advancement and good of her 
country and its population. For many years her 
life was not connected with any religious denom- 
ination, but her life and its example could have 
been followed to good purpose by many of those 
who claimed to have passed through the purifying 
fires of repentance. In 1864 she joined the Cath- 
olic Church, of which she was thereafter a devout 
and consistent member. 

The love for this good woman is shown by the 
numerous namesakes she has in the States of 
Arkansas and Texas. She gave land, lots and 
houses to many poor, but deserving, people. Hun- 
dreds reverence her memory. 

She died in June, 1895, and is buried at Clarksville. 



T. C. WESTBROOK, 



HEARNE. 



Capt. T. C. Westbrook, born at West Point, 
Mississippi, October 1st, 1842, of well-to-do and 
highly respected parents, representatives of the 
fine old Southern aristocracy of the halcyon days 
before the war, had the advantage in youth of care- 
ful training and thorough education, graduating 
with the rank of Captain from the Military Insti- 
tute, at Frankfort, Ky., when seventeen years of 
of age, and soon after came to Texas with his step- 



father, L. W. Carr, who located with his family on 
the rich alluvial lands of the Brazos river bottom 
near the town of Hearne,' in Robertson County. 
Mr. Westbrook entered the Confederate army in 
the spring of 1862 as a soldier in Company B., en- 
listing for three years, or so long as the war might 
last, and was stationed with his command first on 
Galveston Island, then at Virginia Point, and then 
at Camp Speight, Texas, near Millican, where the 



208 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



Fifteenth Texas Infantrj- was organized, with J. W. 
Speight as its Colonel, andM. D. Herring, Captain, 
and the subject of this memoir Lieutenant of Com- 
pany B. The regiment was ordered to Arkansas, 
remained at Camp Daniels until 1862, reached 
Little Rock in October following, and did garrison 
duty at Camp Nelson and Camp Bayou Metre until 
shortly before the fall of Arkansas Post, when 
it was ordered to Fort Smith, and from thence 
through the Indian Territory, to Camp Kiamisha on 
Red river. In 1863 the Fifteenth, and the brigade 
of which it formed a part, were ordered to Louisiana 
to oppose, with the other troops under Gen. Tay- 
lor, the advance of Gen. Banks. The brigade was 
commanded by Gen. J. W. Speight, Sr., Gen. 
King and Gen. Polignac, in the order named, 
and participated in the fights at Fordasb, 
Bayou Bourdeau, Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, Marks- 
ville, Yellow Bayou, and numerous skirmishes 
and smaller engagements. Capt. Westbrook was 
slightly wounded at the battle of Mansfield. 
When mustered out of the service at Houston, 
Texas, after the final surrender of the Confederate 
forces, he held the rank of Captain and was acting 
Adjutant of his regiment. A friend, speaking of 
his bearing as a soldier, says: "In camp he was 
modest and unobtrusive, kind and jovial ; in the 
thickest and hottest of the raging battle, cooler 
than most men on dress-parade, prompt to act and 
utterly fearless. He enj'oyed the respect and con- 
fidence of his men and brother and superior ofllcers. 
Knowing him as I did, I can truthfully say that he 
was as a friend as true and tried as tempered 
Damascus steel ; as a soldier and patriot, as brave 
and devoted as any man who wore the gray." 

Returning to his home in Robertson County he 
engaged in farming upon his own account. His 
possessions increased from year to year until he 
took rank as one of the wealthiest planters in 
Texas. He was an ideal, practical farmer — one 
of the most successful in the State — and his large 
Brazos bottom plantations near Hearne, on which he 
continued to reside until his death, showed at all 
times the perfection of good management. He 
spared no expense in securing and enjoying the 
good things of life. He and his beloved wife 
(formerly Mrs. Jennie Randle), to whom he was 
married December 4th, 1878, dispensed a generous 
and wholesale hospitality at their palatial home to 
their many friends and the chance " stranger within 
their gates." It was his custom, assisted by his 
wife, to see that every one on his plantation, black 
or white, received each Christmas day some suitable 
present. He lived in the half patriarchal, half 
princely style of his ancestors and was a noble sur- 



vival of the high-souled, warm-hearted and chivalric 
gentlemen of a by-gone day. While exact in his 
business methods, his hand dispensed liberally to 
others of what it gathered. He sympathized with 
human suffering and sorrow and sought when he 
could to relieve it, and few contributed so much to 
the support of the church. It was chiefly through 
his influence and exertions that the Hearne & 
Brazos Valley Railroad was constructed and put into 
successful operation. He was elected president of 
the company upon its organization and served in 
that capacity up to the time of his death, the road 
earning handsome dividends on the money in- 
vested, under his management. 

He manifested a lively interest in and was active 
in support of all worthy enterprises. He was a 
life-long Democrat and ardent advocate of clean, 
wholesome measures and always interested himself 
in helping elect good men to office. He was a 
delegate to numerous county and State conventions 
and was more than once importuned to become a 
candidate for election to the legislature, but de- 
clined, having no desire for political honors and 
much preferring the quiet and peaceful home-life to 
which he Was accustomed. In July, 1893, he suf- 
fered from a severe attack of la grippe from which 
he never fully recovered. He sought restoration to 
health by travel, sojourning for a time in Mexico, 
and visiting, among other places, San Antonio, Hot 
Springs and Wooten Wells. A month before the 
coming of the end he was taken to Mineral Wells 
and died there on the 17th of Septenaber, 1893, 
leaving a wife, a daughter of Mrs. Westbrook by 
her former marriage (Mrs. Monroe, Miller, of Aus- 
tiu), two brothers (C. A. Westbrook, of Lorena, 
McLennan County, and M. L. Westbrook of 
Waco), a sister (Mrs. S. C. Beckman, of Hearne), 
a step-father, to whom he had been as a favorite 
son ; two nieces and a nephew and many score of 
devoted friends to mourn his loss. The announce- 
ment of his death cast a shade of sorrow over the 
community of which tie had been such a prominent, 
useful and honored citizen. The remains were con- 
veyed to Hearne in a special car and were followed 
to their last resting-place in Oakwood Cemetery by 
the largest funeral cortege known in the history of 
the town, many of those in attendance coming from 
a distance. So ended the career of a noble man. 
There is something peculiarly sad in the reflection 
that he was cut down in the full maturity of ripened 
manhood and when he was surrounded by all the 
endearments that render a continuance of life 
desirable. However, if ever man was ready for 
the summons, he was ready. To his devoted wife 
is left the consolation that through her example and 




J. D. GIDDINGS. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



209 



influence he was led to give his heart to God and 
to the perfect day of a happy immortality and 
that a blessed reunion awaits them beyond the 
grave. 



Mrs. Westbrook is a daughter of Allen Carr, who 
came to Texas in 1858 and settled in Burleson 
County, were he was for many years a prominent 
citizen and she was reared. 



J. D. GIDDINGS, 



BRENHAIW. 



Jabez Demming Giddings was one of eight sons 
of James Giddings, a farmer of Susquehanna 
County, Pa. 

James Giddings was descended from George 
Giddings, of Saint Albans, Hertfordshire, England, 
a gentleman Of property, who emigrated to America 
in 1635, settling in the town of Ipswich, Mass. 
James was born in Norwich, Conn., June 29th, 
1780. At an early age, he entered the merchant 
marine, rising to a captaincy, with full charge of 
cargo on attaining his majority. 

In consequence of a shipwreck off the Carolina" 
coast in 1810, by which was destroyed the fruits of 
many years of daring adventure and successful 
trading, he abandoned the sea and settled on a 
farm in the then wilderness of Western Pennsyl- 
vania. 

He was a man of great firmness and bravery and 
of an adventurous spirit, qualities generously 
transmitted to his numerous progeny. 

The mother of J. D. Giddings was Susie Dem- 
ming, of Connecticut, whose ancestors were early 
immigrants from France, and who distinguished 
themselves, as did the descendants of George 
Giddings, by their loyalty to the fortunes of the 
American Colonies in the Eevolutionary "War. 

In 1835 Giles A. Giddings, an older brother of 
J. D. Giddings, came to Texas to select and sur- 
vey a tract of land for a colony, but finding the 
Texians engaged in a struggle with Mexico, joined 
the army of Gen. Houston, just previous to the 
battle of San Jacinto, and died from the effects of 
wounds received in that engagement. The night 
before the battle he wrote to his parents a letter 
worthy of copying in full as a model of literary 
excellence, but from which only a few sentences 
will be quoted, as disclosing the patriotic courage 
and love of liberty which marks his family. 

"It is reported Houston will attack them, 
[Santa Anna's army] in the morning. What will 
be the result or fate of Texas is hid in the bowels of 



futurity. Yet I think we are engaged in the cause 
of justice and I hope the God of battles will pro- 
tect us. * * * I was born in the land of free- 
dom, and taught to lisp the name of liberty with 
my infant tongue and, rather than be driven out of 
the country or submit to be a slave, I will leave my 
bones to bleach on the plains of Texas. » * * 

"Be not alarmed about my safety. I am no 
better, and my life no dearer, than those who gained 
the liberty you enjoy." 

In 1838, Mr. J. D. Giddings, having completed 
his educational course at the Cassanovia Institute, 
New York, came to Texas to settle the estate left 
by his brother and, being pleased with the coun- 
try, located in Washington County. For about 
two years after his arrival he taught school, study- 
ing law during his leisure moments. 

On a call for volunteers to avenge the raids of 
Vasquez and Woll and to rescue the prisoners held 
by the Mexicans, he promptly responded and re- 
mained with Gen. Somervell's army until it was 
officially disbanded, when he, with the great major- 
ity, returned home, thus escaping the slaughter at 
Mier. 

As a means of support during the prosecution of 
his legal studies, he sought the office of district 
clerk, was elected, and served four years. 

In 1844, he married Miss Ann M. Tarver, 
daughter of Edmund T. Tarver, a prominent farmer, 
who had moved to the State from Tennessee in 
1841. 

On the expiration of his term of office as district 
clerk, he was admitted to the bar, where he achieved 
signal success, though numbering among his com- 
petitors many of the greatest minds in the State. 

Of a genial disposition and possessing a wonder- 
fully retentive memory ; warmly sympathizing with 
the distressed and aiding the needy with kindly gen- 
erosity ; charitable to the faults of others, yet con- 
trolling himself by the strictest code of moral princi- 
ples, his acquaintance became extensive, and ties 



210 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



of personal friendship, strong and lasting, were 
formed, thus predisposing most juries to a favor- 
able consideration of any cause that he might ad- 
vocate. His intellectual processes were, however, 
distinctly logical and, though impressing his hearers 
with the sincerity of his own convictions by the 
earnestness of his manner, he yet appealed directly 
to their reason by a masterly marshaling of his 
facts and the cogency of his arguments. His 
energy was indomitable and patience tireless, no 
detail of a case being considered unworthy of at- 
tention. This completeness of preparation, com- 
bined with cautiousness in the enunciation of 
legal principles or judicial rulings, gave him a mer- 
ited influence with the courts and the degree of 
confidence placed in his integrity and executive 
capacity is shown by the frequency of his name on 
the probate records as counselor or as the fiduciary 
agent of estates. Though thorough in the examina- 
tion of all questions, he was bold and progressive 
in the advocacy of measures conducive to the 
advancement of his town, county and State. 

He was thus among the first to perceive the bene- 
ficial possibilities of railroads and in 1856, in con- 
nection with his distinguished brother, Hon. D. C. 
Giddings, he assisted in the organization of a com- 
pany for the purpose of constructing a railroad 
through Washington County and, to prevent the 
failure of the enterprise, the firm of J. D. and D. C. 
Giddings undertook the building of the road. 

The self-abnegation, bravery and constructive 
energy of the pioneer settlers of America has made 
thejr history pleasant reading to all and their 
example has fired the hearts of many struggling for 
the political advancement of their race, but the 
promoters of the first railroads built in America 
are entitled to well-nigh equal admiration, for they 
have shown equal ability, equal energy and equal 
courage in grappling with difficulties and have, too, 
frequently sacrificed the earnings of a lifetime in 
their efforts to advance their own and the material 
welfare of the country. Though the line built by 
J. D. and D. C. Giddings was but a short one, yet 
the troublous times during which the work was 
completed and the faithfulness with which they 
complied with all their obligations to Northern 
creditors, not only elevated them to the highest 
plane of business capacity, but laid the foundation 
of Brenham's present prosperity. 

Treasuring as a priceless jewel the liberty gained 
on the field of San Jacinto, Mr. Giddings took a 
lively interest in all political issues. His wide 



acquaintance, knowledge of human nature, and 
executive ability made him a party leader of ex- 
ceptional power, but his fondness for the pleasures 
of home and his aversion to the turmoil of public life 
restrained his political aspirations and he refused 
offers of office on all but one occasion. 

In 1866, when the disorganization consequent 
upon the cessation of the war between the States 
was most complete, when questions of vital impor- 
tance to the peace and happiness of his people were 
to be settled, and when many of our best men were 
dead or bowed down by discouragement, he accepted 
a seat in the legislature and served one term. 

He was a religious man. His God was his friend 
and counsellor. His Bible was the source of daily 
comfort and aid. 

The support of his church, her ordinances and 
ministers, was with him not only a duty but a posi- 
tive pleasure and, though sparing of time and 
means for personal indulgence, neither were too 
valuable for the advancement of religion or the 
cause of charity. This religious element in his 
nature enabled him not only to fully appreciate the 
sublime beauties of the Masonic ritual, but 
, prompted his aspirations to positions of honor in 
the order and, as in his church he was elected to 
the highest honors possible to a layman, so he held 
the highest offices in the three grand divisions of 
Masonry. 

In 1878 he was thrown from his buggy and, a 
few days afterwards, on the 25th of June, died 
from internal injuries. 

In 1880, the old frame church (in which as 
superintendent of the Sunday school he ministered 
for over twenty years) was torn down and a hand- 
some modern building erected on a more beautiful 
spot and dedicated as the "Giddings Memorial 
Church." 

With qualities pre-eminently fitting him for 
political leadership, he sought only the advancement 
of his friends and the good of his country. A 
great lawyer and skilled in all the subtleties of his 
profession, he was a willing friend and a chivalrous 
opponent of youthful attorneys. 

Forgetful of self, but ever indulgent of others, 
a ready helper of those in need and denying ad- 
vice to none in distress, welcoming all with gen- 
erous hospitality, a devoted husband and father, a 
true friend and good citizen, he will ever be held 
in remembrance, by those who knew him best, 
as a noble specimen of God's greatest work — a 
Christian. 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



211 



WILLIAM CROFT, 



CORSICANA. 



Judge William Croft, long a distinguished figure 
in Texas and the oldest practicing attorney of the 
Navarro County bar, is a native of Mobile, Ala- 
bama, born February 9th, 1827. 

His parents, "William and Annie Willard Croft, 
were natives, the father of England and the mother 
of Pennsylvania. His father was for a number of 
years a cotton commission merchant of New 
Orleans, where he died when the subject of this 
sketch was an infant. Judge William Croft, of 
whom we here write, was reared in New Orleans 
and received his earlier education in the schools of 
that city, finishing at Louisville, Ky. He read 
law under the Hon. Isaac T. Preston, of New 
Orleans, then Attorney-General and afterwards 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Louisiana ; came to 
Texas in April, 1847, and was admitted to the bar 
on May 5th, 1848, at Kichmond, Fort Bend 
County, before the Hon. Joseph C. Megginson, of 
the First Judicial District. He then entered the 
practice at Richmond and followed it in Fort Bend 
and adjoining counties until December, 1849, when 
he came to Navarro County and took up his resi- 
dence at Corsicana. He has since been a citizen 
of Corsicana and has been actively engaged in the 
practice of his profession at that place, except 
while in the Confederate army, a period of two and 
a half years. While the war was in progress there 
was little or no practice in the courts. The first 
session of the District Court, which Judge Croft 
attended in Navarro County, was the spring term of 
1850. The county having been organized in 1846, 
there had been only two or three terms held prior 
to that lime and the machinery of the court had not 
yet been put in good working order. The presid- 
ing Judge was Hon. Bennett H. Martin. Judge 
Croft attended all the sittings of the District Court, 
as well as of the inferior courts, from 1850 up to 
the opening of the war, receiving his share of the 
_ business, both criminal and civil. He was young, 
vigorous, well-grounded in a knowledge of the law, 
skilled in the management of cases, and pursued 
his profession with enthusiasm. His success fol- 
lowed as a matter of course. For twenty-five 
years he never finally lost a criminal case and, con- 
sidering the great number of hard cases which he 
defended in those years, there is good reason for 
believing that many of the verdicts which he secured 
were rather compliments to his skill and eloquence 



than the result of sober reflection on the part of 
juries. When the war came on he responded to 
the call for volunteers, enlisting in Capt. B. D, 
McKie's Company, which was the second raised in 
the county, Bass's Regiment. He had been afflicted 
with a throat trouble for some time and the 
exposure, which active service in the field rendered 
unavoidable, brought on a bad case of bronchitis, 
which soon necessitated his retiring from active 
duty. He was honorably discharged on account of 
this disability. Returning home, he entered the 
Quarter-master's Department, where he remained 
until just before the surrender. After the war he 
attempted to resume the practice of his profession, 
at Corsicana ; but, on account of the unsettled 
condition of affairs there at that time, this was 
impossible. He accordingly moved to Houston, 
where the courts had not been disorganized and 
some show was still made of conducting public 
business according to established forms and usages. 
He practiced there and in the courts of that local- 
ity for about two years and a half and then returned 
to Corsicana and took up the practice there, con- 
tinuing uninterruptedly there since. Judge Croft 
has devoted his entire life to his profession and his 
efforts have been rewarded with more than ordinary 
success. He had accumulated considerable prop- 
erty when the war came on, but it was swept away 
and he found himself, at the close, like thousands 
of others, empty-handed and confronted with new 
conditions which it was not easy to measure in all 
their relations, nor master when fully understood. 
But he survived it all and surveys the past as 
serenely now as if his whole life had been one long 
series of triumphs, thus displaying much philoso- 
phy and good sense. It would be hard to imagine 
a professional life better lived than his has been. 

Judge Croft has been twice married. In 1851 he 
married Miss Roxana Elliott, of Navarro County, 
who died within a few months. He married again 
in January, 1854, Miss Rebecca A. Lockhart, a 
daughter of Charles J. C. Lockhart, an early 
settler of the county. Two children now survive 
this union: Charles W., now his father's law part- 
ner, and Earnest T. , still in school. Earnest T. is 
an accomplished musician and is said by some of 
the most competent judges in the county to pos- 
sess musical talent of the highest order. This is 
already well cultivated and, with further develop- 



212 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



ment in this delightful field of art, there is no tell- 
ing what he might accomplish. Judge Croft has 
been. a Mason since 1850, being one of the first 
members initiated in the mother lodge of Navarro 
County. He took his first degree in company with 
A. Beaton, James M. Riggs and B. L. Ham, soon 
after the lodge was organized. Gen. E. H. Tarrant 



being the presiding ofllcer. He is also a member 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian church and. Id 
accordance with his means, a liberal contributor to 
all worthy purposes. He has never voted any other 
than the Democratic ticket. He has long been a 
prominent figure in his section of the State and at 
the bar of Texas. 



E. P. BECTON. M. D., 

SUPERINTENDENT STATE INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND. 



The subject of this brief historical notice, Dr. 
Edwin Pinckney Becton is well known throughout 
the State as a pioneer Texian, leading physician 
and superintendent in charge of one of the State's 
most important eleemosynary institutions. 

He was born in Gibson County, Tenn., June 
27, 1834, and came to Texas in 1841 with his 
parents, who settled at San Augustine, where he was 
early placed at school and acquired the rudiments 
of a good literary education. 

His father. Rev. John May Becton, was born in 
Craven County, North Carolina, January 8, 1806, 
and was a Presbyterian clergyman of the old 
school, much admired for his learning, piety and 
zeal. 

His mother's maiden name was Eleanor Emeline 
Sharp. She was a daughter of James Sharp, and 
is now (1896) living, at eighty-six years of age, at 
Fort Worth with Mr. J. J. Nunnally, who married 
her granddaughter, Fannie. 

Rev. John May Becton' s parents were Frederick 
Edwin and Fannie (May) Becton, who moved from 
Craven County, North Carolina, when he was a little 
past twelve months of age and located in Ruther- 
ford County, Tennessee. There he was given such 
school advantages as the county afforded, com- 
pleting his education at Pebble Hill Academy, 
located on Stone's river. He began life as a 
farmer, married Miss Eleanor Emeline Sharp, 
January 9, 1827, and in 1831 moved to Gibson 
County, Tennessee. 

He was reared in the "Hard-Shell" Baptist 
faith ; in July, 1833, professed religion at a Metho- 
dist camp- meeting; during the year joined the 
old school Presbyterian church, and in 1835 was 
licensed to preach the gospel by the latter denom- 
ination. In April, 1841, he was ordained and in 
November of that year came to Texas and located 



at San Augustine, where he preached and taught 
school. In 1844 he moved to Nacogdoches County. 
He died at Church Hill, nine miles east of Hen- 
derson, in Rusk County, July 14, 1853. He was 
one of the early and most active pioneer clergymen 
of his church in Texas and it is believed organized 
more churches than any other member of the de- 
nomination in the State, among others the church 
at Douglass, in Nacogdoches County, in 1844 ; one 
in Henderson, in Rusk County, in 1845 ; one at 
Rusk in Cherokee County, in 1849, or 1850, and 
the church at Larissa, in Cherokee County, in 1849. 
At the same time he and the Rev. Daniel Baker 
organized the Palestine Presbyterian church, at 
Palestine, and organized alone the one at Gum 
Springs, Rusk County, in 1851, since known as the 
Danvilla church. 

He organized the Presbyterian church at Church 
Hill in 1852, at which place he died, as above 
mentioned. 

He is said by old people who knew him, to 
have been an elegant and fiuent writer, and elo- 
quent speaker and pulpit orator. 

He was liberal and broad in his views, and, be- 
ing a leader in church affairs in those days, drew 
about him a large following and a wide circle of 
friends and supporters. He was associated in his 
work with such well-known pioneer clergymen as 
the Rev. Dr. Baker, Rev. Hugh Wilson, Rev. 
Peter Fullinwider, Rev. P. M. Warrener, and • 
others of those who blazed the way for Presby- 
terianism in Texas. 

At his death he left three sons and one daughter, 
the latter of whom, Isabella, died in 1862. One 
son, Joseph S. Becton, was a gallant soldier in the 
Confederate army during the war between the 
States and finally lost his life at the skirmish at 
Spanish Fort, near Mobile, Ala., April 9, 1865, 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



213 



the day of the final surrender of the Confederate 
forces. He enlisted from Rusk County at seven- 
teen years of age, and went to the front as a mem- 
ber of Thompson's Company, Lock's Regiment. 

John A. Becton, the second son, lives at Sulphur 
Springs, Texas, and the third son is Dr. E. P. 
Becton, the subject of this sketch. 

Dr. Becton was but little more than six years of 
age when his parents came to East Texas. He 
spent his boyhood in San Augustine, Nacogdoches, 
Cherokee and Rusk counties, attending the com- 
mon schools of that day, and took a partial course 
of study at Austin College, at Huntsville, Texas. 
He then determined to adopt the practice of medi- 
cine as a profession, and accordingly, entered the 
office of Dr. A. R. Hamilton, at New Danville, 
Texas (where the family had located), and Jan- 
uary, 1855, began a course of systematic reading 
and examinations preparatory to entering college. 
In the winter of 1855-6 he attended, lectures at 
Nashville, Tenn., and at the close of the session 
went to Murf reesboro, Tenn. , where he read 'in the 
office of James E. and Robert S. Wendel, physi- 
cians of prominence in that State, continuing his 
studies under those instructors until the opening of 
the next regular session of the University of Ten- 
nessee, when he entered the medical department of 
that institution of learning and took a full course , 
of lectures. He graduated therefrom March 2, 
1857, carrying off the honors of his class, one of 
the prizes in anatomy, for the highest standing in 
the department of anatomy. Dr. Becton com- 
menced the practice of medicine at New Danville, 
Texas, the year of his graduation. Later he 
attended medical lectures at the University of 
Louisville, Kentucky, 1874; at the University of 
Maryland, at Baltimore, 1879-80 ; at Tulane Uni- 
versity, Louisiana, 1886, and in 1891 at the Poly- 
clinic, in New York. He continued practice at 
New Danville, in Rusk County, from 1857 to April, 
1862, at which time he entered the Confederate 
army as a private soldier in Capt. J. A. Pegue's 
Company, Waterhouse's Regiment. He was 
appointed Assistant-surgeon of Fitzhugh's Regi- 
ment. McCulloch's Brigade, Walker's Division, 
and was soon thereafter recommended for promo- 
tion by Chief Surgeon of Division Beall, examined by 
the Army Medical Board, passed to the rank of Sur- 
geon, and assigned to duty with the Twenty-second 
Regiment of Texas Infantry, commanded by his 
warm personal friend. Col. R. B. Hubbard (since 
Governor of Texas and United States Minister to 
Japan), and attached to Walker's Division. Dr. Bec- 
ton remained at his post of duty until the war was 
ended and then returned to Texas, and in February, 



1866, located at Tarrant, in Hopkins County, and 
resumed the practice of his profession. In March, 
1874, he moved from Tarrant to Sulphur Springs, 
in the same county, where he continued to reside 
until appointed to his present official position. 

Always a close and enthusiastic student of the 
science and practice of medicine and surgery, he 
has taken only that interest in matters outside his 
profession that good citizenship required. Some- 
what contrary to his tastes and wishes, he was, how- 
ever, chosen to represent his district in the House 
of the Twelfth Texas Legislature. He acquitted 
himself in that body in a manner highly acceptable 
to his large and intelligent constituency and that 
won for him a place among the ablest and most 
patriotic of his colleagues. 

Dr. Becton is known throughout the State as 
unalterably opposed to the liquor traffic and as a 
supporter of its suppression by constitutional and 
statutory prohibition. In the exciting State can- 
vass on that issue in 1887 he took the stump in 
favor of the prohibitory amendment to the State 
constitution then pending before the people and 
delivered a number of ringing addresses that will 
be long remembered and that are destined to bear 
good fruit in the future when the public conscience 
arouses itself to the necessity for adequate action 
upon this vitally important question. 

He is a staunch advocate of organization in 
medicine, is a member of the county and district 
societies where he resided, and of the State and 
national associations. As an evidence of the high 
regard in which he is held by his confreres in Texas, 
he was elected first vice-president of the Texas 
State Medical Association at its meeting at Belton, 
in 1884, and president at the subsequent meeting 
in the city of Houston, in April, 1885, and presided 
as such at the Dallas meeting the following year. 
That meeting marked a crisis in the life of the 
association. It was just before the Ninth Inter- 
national Medical Congress was to assemble in 
Washington City and the question came up on the 
adoption of a resolution, instructing the delegates 
to indorse and ratify the action of the American 
Medical Association at New Orleans, with reference 
to the exclusion of new-code men as delegates to 
the congress by appointment by the committee on 
organization. 

Pending a discussion of this resolution. Dr. 
Becton resigned the chair to the first vice-presi- 
dent and, coming upon the floor, made a speech 
strongly endorsing the resolution and favoring 
instructing the delegates. The report was adopted. 

His administration fell upon a stormy time in the 
history of medicine in this country. Sentiment 



214 



INDIAN WARS AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



was somewhat divided in medical ranks in Texas 
and great care and discretion were necessary in 
dealing with this question, to avoid alienating cer- 
tain members, and thus disrupting the cherished 
organization. Dr. Becton took a bold stand 
for ever preserving the purity and integrity 
of honorable, rational medicine, uncontaminated 
by affiliation with those who would break down 
all barriers and throw to the dogs the code of 
medical ethics, the "bulwark and palladium of 
the profession ; " and yet the meeting was con- 
ducted to a peaceful termination and all elements 
were harmonized. In the course of his speech he 
said, among other things: " We are in the midst of 
the battle, and it is a grand sight to see the old- 
regulars presenting a solid front, standing like a 
'stone- wall' against those who would break our 
ranks. * * * Doubtless there are some good 
and true men who honor the American Medical 
Association and live up to the code, who question 
the expediency of the action taken by the associa- 
tion at its meeting in New Orleans last year ; but, 
because of this, they are not willing to see it dis- 
membered. With these we have no quarrel, but 
are willing to meet them in a fraternal spirit, with 
the view to an honorable and amicable adjustment 
of the pending difficulty. But there are those who, 
tired of salutary and needful restraint, seize upon 
this as a pretext for destroying the association and 
trampling under their feet the Code of Ethics, 
thereby removing the last barrier between them- 
selves and medical quackery. * * * The Texas 
State Medical Association occupies a proud position 
before the medical world on this question. It has 
firmly planted itself upon the eternal principles of 
truth and justice and, strong in the consciousness 
of its own rectitude, fears not the consequences. 
It has flung its banner to the breeze, and upon its 
glittering folds is inscribed in letters of living light : 
' The perpetuity of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation ; the honor, dignity, purity of Ameri- 
can medicine ; for these we live, for these we 
labor.' * * * These must and, with the bless- 
ing of Grod, shall be preserved. Then let us con- 
tinue to stand together ; let us give our hearts and 
hands to this great work, encircling the good and true 
of the profession in that chain of sympathy that binds 
us together as one common brotherhood. Trusting 
to the j ustness of our cause and the sanction of a j ust 
God, let us have the courage to do our whole duty. 

" Courage, the highest gift, that scorns to bend 
To meaQ device for sordid end. 

Courage! An independent spark from heaven's bright 

throne, [alone.' " 

By which the soul stands raised, triumphant, high, 



As an orator. Dr. Becton stands deservedly high 
and his voice is in frequent request, both in and 
out of the medical meetings. 

December 12, 1889, on the occasion of the 
burial of Jefferson Davis, when memorial services 
were held throughout the South, he was chosen by 
his fellow-citizens of Hopkins County to deliver 
the oration at the meeting held by them at Sulphur 
Springs, and this he did in a thrillingly eloquent and 
touching manner . 

At the twenty-fourth annual session of the Texas 
Medical Association held at Tyler, April 26th, 27th, 
and 28th, 1892, he was called upon suddenly to de- 
liver the closing address at the memorial services 
held in honor of deceased members. Although he 
had no adequate time for preparation, his oration 
was pronounced a masterpiece, his references to 
the tragic death of Dr. Keeves calling tears to every 
eye. Dr. Reeves had been superintendent of the 
State Insane Asylum at Austin and, without a 
moment's warning, had been shot down by an in- 
sane assassin. Dr. Becton's beloved wife had been 
recently removed from his side by the hand of 
death. In the early part of his remarks he took 
occasion to say : "To me this is a solemn hour; 
the afflictive hand of Providence has rested heavily 
upon me ; I know what sorrow is ; I know how to 
sympathize with those who are in trouble. One 
year ago four of our fellow-members were with us 
in the enjoyment of health, of happiness and of the 
privileges and pleasures that we this day enjoy. 
Now, they sweetly sleep beneath the shade of the 
trees on the other side of the river. Life's duty 
done, they have no more to do with the things of 
earth;" and then followed the address — one of 
the finest tributes ever paid before the association 
to departed worth. 

As a writer Dr. Becton is polished and forcible. 
He has made several contributions to current med- 
ical literature. 

He was united in marriage, to Miss Mary Eliza 
Dickson, November 17th, 1857. She died in 1866 
leaving three children : Mrs. L. J. Wortham, Mrs. 
J. J. Nunnally and Dr. Joseph Becton. In 1867 
he married Mrs. Olivia L. Smith, widow of Dr. 
P. L. Smith. She died at Sulphur Springs in 1891, 
leaving three children: Mrs. Mary A. Chandler, 
since deceased, Mrs. Ellie Y. McDanell, of Sulphur 
Springs, and E. B. Becton, Jr. She left by her 
former marriage two children, viz. : Mrs. Kate 
W. Garrett, wife of Dr. Garrett, of Sulphur Springs, 
and Mrs. Fannie Laura Sterling, wife of Dr. Stir- 
ling, of Sulphur Springs. 

Dr. Becton is a Presbyterian, a Mason and a 
member of the I. O. O. F. ; also a K. of P. In 



INDIAN WAES AND PIONEERS OF TEXAS. 



215 



politics he is a staunch and unwavering Demo- 
crat. 

In January, 1895, he was appointed, by Governor 
C. A. Culberson, superintendent of the State Institu- 
tion for the Blind, at Austin, Texas, a deserved 
■ honor that met with the hearty approbation of the 
medical profession and people of Texas. The 
board of trustees of the institution, under date of 
November 1, 1895, in transmitting hisoffieial report 
to the Governor, said : " The report of the superin- 
tendent of the Institution for the Blind for the year 
ending November 1, 1895, is so full and accurate 
that we deem it unnecessary to supplement it with 
any suggestions or recommendations. 

"The general health of the pupils has been ex- 
cellent for the past year, better, perhaps, than in 
many years, and the general management of Dr. 
Becton entirely satisfactory in all departments. He 
entered upon the discharge of his duties, January 
1, 1895, with a zeal and enthusiasm which he has 
steadily maintained ; and the good order, fine dis- 
c pline, and general progress and improvement of 
the institution have been such as to commend him 
and the institution to the continued favor of the 
people of Texas." 

One of the first matters that claimed his atten- 
tion upon taking charge of the Institution was to 
thoroughly systematize all the details of its manage- 
ment, dividing the work into departments, over 
which he placed competent heads, to whom he 
delegated sufficient power for the discharge of their 
duties. He sought from the beginning to impress 
them with a proper sense of responsibility. He has 
met with their hearty co-operation. As a result, 
everything connected with the institution moves 
with the well-ordered regularity of clock-work. 
There is no friction or waste of energy and the 
highest state of efficiency has been attained in 
every department. The children regard him with 
the affection that they would a kind and beloved 
father. 

The people of Texas have much to be proud of, 
but of nothing more than of the enlightened states- , 
manship, wise foresight and tender human sym- 
pathy displayed by the founders of the common- 
wealth in making provision for the establishment 
and maintenance of such public benefactions as the 
State Institution for the Blind. 

The absence of no other one of the senses is so 
keenly felt as that of sight ; the deprivation of no 
other one, under ordinary circumstances, renders 
a person so helplessly and hopelessly dependent. 
Yet, thanks to the existence of this institution, the 
blind children of Texas are being taught useful 
trades, by means of which, when they leave its 



walls, they can take their places in the great army 
of bread-winners. Besides, they are receiving 
that culture that will enable them to participate 
with their fellows in some of the pleasures incident 
to higher mental and spiritual life. The delights 
of music are open to them and they are also fur- 
nished with the key to the golden treasure-house 
of literature. Thus, .while it is denied to them to 
view the beauties of the visible universe, to note 
the changes wrought by nature with the progress 
of the seasons — to gaze upon the witchery of hill 
and wood and stream — yet, in being taught the 
science and art of the harmony of sound, they are 
taught that universal language of the soul that 
alone can give expsession to its highest longings 
and aspirations. They are being introduced to the 
thoughts of the great and good of all ages, in- 
structed in the principles of morality and religion, 
and taught the mysteries of the manual trades 
thought to be best suited to their natural capaci- 
ties. They will be sent out into the world 
patient, earnest, hopeful, useful men and women. 
It is a noble work that is being done. How 
deplorable would be their condition but for the 
existence and proper management of this institu- 
tion! 

No Governor of Texas, be it said to their credit, 
has ever been influenced by partisan motives, or 
by the desire for personal aggrandizement, in 
making appointments to the superintendency of 
the Institution for the Blind. Their purpose has 
been to select men of high standing in the medical 
fraternity, superior executive ability and that 
firmness of character, warmth of sympathy for 
others and purity of life that will insure the 
efficient discharge of the duties of the sacred trust 
confided to them. 

Dr. Becton is no stranger to the people of 
Texas. They expected much of him as the official 
head of this institution a