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Cornell University 

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T. PARE, B.A. 




o RMC ^ 








The information contained in these pages api:'eared 
almost in its present form as part of a series of popular 
historical articles entitled " Eound Old Poulton," 
which were published week by week in " The 
Morecambe Visitor." 

As I think that the gleanings in regard to the direct 
ancestors of the first President of the United States 
will appeal to a wider circle than that encompassed by 
the readers of a local paper, the articles which dealt 
with the immediate neighbourhood of W;arton and its 
associations with the Washington family have been 
only slightly altered to suit the present publication. 

The interest in these English ancestors of George 
Washington should be quickened from the fact that 
one of the schemes in celebration of the Peace Cen- 
tenary in December, 1914 is the purchase of Sulgrave 
Manor, in the county of Northampton, the former 
home of the Washingtons who migrated from Warton 
•early in the sixteenth century. 

Although Warton is situated but a mile from 
Oarnforth Junction, where is the parting of the waxa 
for southern tourists to the Lake District, via Grange 
or Kendal, yet its quiet beauty is almost entirely 
neglected, because it is not generally known that it 
is an excellent centre for many pleasant excursions in 
sylvan and hilly country. 

Between 1710 and 1742 John Lucas wrote a 
■"History of Warton," which still remains in manu- 
script. A cop3^ of it was sent to the late Eev. T. H. 
Pain at Warton Vicarage in 1879, and I am indebted 
to the Eev. E. W. A. Olgiivy, the present Vicar, for 
allowing me to inspect it. I have made several 
extracts, which are instructive because they were 
written two hundred years ago. The following addi- 
tional extracts will no doubt be read with interest : 

" The houses of this town and parish are all of 
^tone strongly laid in and rough cast with lime, whicli 


makes a substantial, warm, and not unhandsome 
building. The street is rocky, uneven, and abounds 
with W(ormwood. Over against the East End of the 
church are the remains of a large old building which 
probably was the seat of Will de Lancaster and Walter 
de Lyndsey, antiently Lords of Warton ; it now belongs 
to the Impropriator and Vicar ; before the Vicarage is 
a fine row of Sycamore trees. Near the Vicarage is 
the Tithe Barn wherein the Tithe Corn is yearly laid. 
In this Parish the farmer of the tithe hath a custom to 
take the best lamb in ten and the best fleece of wool in 
ten and set in order acccording to the judgment of his 
eye. The 'Maj Pole stands near the Church Gates, 
the Stocks, also the Whipping Post for the punishment 
of Malefactors. " 

" Before the Reformation Seats' or Pews were not 
allowed nor any different apartment assigned to any 
distinct person (except the Patron who was allowed to 
have a seat within the Quire as you enter into the 
Body of the Church joining the Cancelli ; the Farmer 
of the Tithes of this Parish has his seat there at this 
day in this Church) but the whole body of the Church 
was common, the whole assembly in the more be- 
coming postures of kneeling or standing were promis- 
cuous and intermixed. The Church was furnished 
with pews soon after it was di^-ested of its supersti- 
tious ornaments. These characters are neatly cut 
upon one of them, LB. 1571. The Seats are so 
ordered that the men sit by themselves and the women 
by themselves according to primitive usage. The seats 
for the men have only a board at the back ; those for 
the women having nothing, which prevents any sleep- 
ing, etc., too common among country people. The 
first seats on the left hand of the Nave are two large 
pews which belonged to Sir Eobt. Bindloss, of Borwick 
Hall, on which are B.R.M., 1612. And on the right 
hand a large pew belonging to Sir George INIidleton, 
of Leigh ton Hall, on which are 8 Escutcheons very well 
cut in Bas Eelievo. Over the Pew door is a large 
Escutcheon of 8, underneath is 1614 jM. T.K., on the 
inside IVI. G.A. 1662, to the west part of the pew is 
fixed a small marble monument having this inscription, 

' Here lies the body of Sir Geo. Midleton, of Leighton, 
Knight and Bart.', who died 27 Febr. 1673. Aged 
74 years.' In a panel over Sir Eobt. Bindlosse's pew 
is the picture of the Virgin Mary and below four persons 
in the habit of monks kneeling, especially the first and 
third, which is receiving the Bishop's blessing, and 
the Archibishop has on his robes and mitre. There 
was formerly inscriptions belonging to tlT^m but now 
not legible. The South Aisle has been cieled and 
painted under the roof like the rood loft, but no figures 
are discernible but the Sun and Moon in several 
places. " 

The Hare Stone is a little above the School and 
is so called from the encampment of an army there 
(Hare or Here in the Saxon language signifies an army) 
and this is the most likely to have been when the 
Danes invaded this part of the country. They landed 
at Coat Stones, where from hence the Saxons might 
see them land and observe all their motions, and if 
they thought themselves not strong enough to engage 
with them they might easily and safely retire to the 
craggy mountains." 

In conclusion I thank most heartily the following 
ladies and gentlemen who have rendered me valuable 
assistance : E. B. Dawson, Esq., for information about 
Warton Hall and. for permission to visit various his- 
torical remains on the Crag ; the Bev. J. K. Floyer, ex- 
Vicar of Warton, and the Bev. E. W. A. Ogilvy, Vicar 
of Warton; J. Eawlinson Ford, Esq., for information 
about early members of the Washington family ; the 
Misses Wren for their courtesy in allowing me to go 
over Warton Hall; Mrs. Bichardson and Mrs. Escolme 
for information about Tewitfield ; the Librarian and his 
assistants at Lancaster for ready and courteous help on 
all occasions. 

For the benefit of those readers who are mainly 
interested in the Washington family, a list of all the 
Washington entries in the Warton parish registers and 
a brief genealogical table will be found at the end. 


The :\Iiddle School, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 1012. 


I know of no place in England where the view across 
the sea is so beautiful as at Morecambe. 

It must be a very misty day indeed if the nearer hills 
of Warton Crag and Arnside Knott cannot be distinguished; 
usually the background of the great Cumbrian mountains 
provides a panorama pleasing indeed to the eye. Those 
who visit Morecambe only in the summer can never see the 
view across the Bay at its best. They want to come in the 
early spring when the sun is shining over the sands and sea 
at half tide. From Warton Crag right round to Barrow 
the belt of lower land that skirts the Bay looms dark and 
away in the distance the heights of the Lake Mountains 
rear their snow-clad peaks clear cut against the darker 

That is a picture which cannot be seen in the summer, 
and I rather fancy that Morecambe people do not appre- 
ciate the many pleasant walks and afternoon excursions 
which can be made round Warton. The place is looked 
upon as a little sleepy town consisting of one straggling 
street flanked by rough-cast substantial stone cottages and 
houses, and nothing more. Let me try to dispel that 

Go up Warton main street until you have just passed 
the church and inn. On your left is the Crag road : you 
will find that for the first two or three hundred yards it is 
very steep, but at the top there are two comfortable seats 
and an excellent view in the direction of Lancaster and 


A mile along the Crag road there is a sudden dip and 
you see a farm — Scar Close — n.estling in the shelter of the 
Crag. Beyond the lane leading to the farm the road 
ascends and the second gate on your right gives access to 
what is known as the Dog Lots. There is a notice-board 
warning off trespassers. ]Mr. E. B. Dawson, the Constable 
of Lancaster Castle and the owner of the Crag will not 
allow the general public access to this secluded valley, owing 
to the wanton damage done in times past. Personally, I 
am indebted to him for information about the ownershiip of 
Warton Hall and for permission to explore the " forbidden 


From the road you can see to the left of the gate a 
circular depression in the ground, and there are others in 
the allotment. These are considered to be nre-historic pit- 
dwellings; also a good many rock cavities all over the Crag 
could easily have been converted into rude habitations. In 


a part consisting of waterworn limestone, deeply fissured 
and scored all over, there is an underground passage known 
as the Dog Holes Cave. In the fissures are many ferns and 
small trees and bushes ; there is a large ash tree just at the 
entrance to the cave. 


It is only three years ago since the cave was scientifically 
explored by Mr. J. W. Jackson, the assistant keeper of 
Manchester Museum. The entrance is by way of a vertical 
shaft due to the falling in of the roof; it is boarded up and 
padlocked for safety, it is thirteen feet to the bottom of the 
shaft and the total length of the cave is seventy feet. At 
the first exploration animal remains of the dog, sheep, goat, 
Celtic shorthorn, and, in less abundance, the horse, red 
deer, roe deer, and fallow deer were found. Also human 
remains of at least eleven individuals were discovered. The 
teeth onlj' of the urus, the reindeer, and the Irish elk were 
found. There were some metal objects including a small 
Celtic bronze, and red fragments of early first century 
pottery pointed to an earlier occupation of the cave than 
the period of the withdrawal of the Roman arms from this 



In the summer of 1910 Mr. Jackson continued the 
search for remains. Further fragments of pottery were 
found. Also a small sharpened lione awl made from the 
metatarsal of a sheep, several small objects of iron, a blue 
and red enamelled bronze pendant, and a pair of beautiful 
patinated lironze scale pans and beam, the pans being 
decorated on the interior with the dot and circle design. 
The scales are probably of late Roman date, the fourth or 
fifth centui-y, a.d, and they were most likely brought to 
the cave by some Romanised Briton who lived there. 
During the exploration many big boulders had to be 
brought to the bottom of the shaft, hauled up, and stacked, 
as can be seen, to the right of the photograph. In the 
bottom left-hand corner you may be able to distinguish 
some of the bone relics, left beiiind after due examination. 


On the eastern side of Warton Crag is a small fissure 
cave situated in the face of a cliff immediately below one of 
the numerous limestone terraces. It is called the Fairy 
Hole, which trends for twenty-five feet in a north-easterly 
direction. In this cave also there were fragmentary human 
remains. Acording to report the cave extends to Leighton 
Hall. It certainly does not come to a full stop at the limit 
of twenty-five feet. If more debris were removed the 
chamber would open \ip considerably. Old people used to tell 
of the fairies, having been seen by other old people, dancing 
about heaps of gold or silver or bleaching fine linen or they 
were frequently heard batting their clothes. There are 
still some of the old people in the village who believe that 
the passage from the Fairy Hole extends to Leighton Hall. 

The Dog Holes Cave is known locally as " Three- 
fingered Jack's Cave." According to tradition the cave 
consisted of two storeys and a highwayman used one for his 
horse and the other for himself. 


Of the late Celtic period is an iron sword with bronze 
hilt and sheath, now in the British Museum, found early 
in the nineteenth centiiry under a heap of stones in the 
district of "Warton. 



Not far from the Dog Lots is a large natural seat in 
the face of a great limestone boulder, which towers to a 
height of eleven feet. The seat will accommodate three 
or four people, and is known as the Bride's Chair. It was 
customary years ago when a marriage took place at Warton 
Church for the bridal party to repair to this spot and for 
the bride to sit in this seat and look out over the wide 
expanse of Morecambe Bay. By doing so happiness in their 
married life was ensured to the newly wedded couple. 

Almost sheer down two hundred feet below is the road 
to Silverdale, and in the direction of that village can be 
seen the large stone column at Jenny Brown point. 


Still keeping along the Crag Road, take the first turn 
to your right, not far away, over the lower northern 
shoulder of the Crag. At the highest part of this occupa- 
tion road you can see, to your right, the summit of Warton 


The approach from the north side is not at all steep, 
but there are leg-breaking fissures in the water-worn lime- 
stone terraces. Near the summit are the remains of a 
defensive wall put up in Celtic times. Originally there 
were three of the ramparts, but only the topmost one is now 
fairly complete. Of ancient fortresses defined in Class A. 
by the Earthworks' Committee for the Victoria County 
Histories, viz., " Fortresses partly inaccessible by reason of 
precipices, cliffs, or water, additionally defended by arti- 
ficial works, usually known as promontory fortresses," 
there are only two examples in Lancashire, and one of them 
is Warton Crag in the parish of Warton-with-Lindeth. 

A full description of the ancient remains of these de- 
fensive works is given in the Victoria County History. The 
stone-walled enclosures, semi-lunar in form, to the east of 
the summit, were evidently early habitations. There are 
more of the semi-lunar rock habitations near the first wall 
of defence, now not much more than a line of moss-covered 
stones. From the summit, by the double-stemmed gnarled 
and half-burnt tree, a grand view all round can usually be 
enjoyed. It is one of the recognised places for beacons in 
olden times;. No doubt when " the fiery herald flew " from 
height to height in 1.588, the " streak of blood red light " 
shone forth on Warton Crag, though Lord ^lacaulay in his 
fragmentary " Armada " leaves it out when he writes: — 

" Till Skiddaw saw the fire that burned on Gaunt's 

embattled pile, 
And the red glare on Skiddaw roused the burghers of 


I '2 


In order that you may better understand Dock Aci'e it 
Avould be advisable to approach it along the main road from 

The road is an excellent one, but the scenery is not very 
striking", as for two miles just on your left is the raised 
embankment of the railway, and on your right the country 
is flat. But I want you to notice the lie of the land, be- 
cause our first objective is an old water-camp or " sea- 
burgh," most likely constructed by the ravaging Danes. 
Not quite a mile out from Carnforth the road crosses the 
Keer, the river from which Carnforth (Kernford) takes its 
name. Although now the stream is not wide nor yet deep 
at this point, if you look carefully at the land now drained 
by the Keer you will see that it is very low-lying, and you 
will be better able to understand that less than a thousand 
years ago many of these fields were under water, and that 
a wide arm of the sea existed between Warton Crag and 
Carnforth as far inland almost as Borwick. 


I find on an ordnance map that three quarters of a 
mile further along the road the land there is only 25 feet 
above sea level. Just before you come to the place where 
the road from Warton to Borwick crosses the main road you 
can see on your left a very large artificial hollow. The 
road has been constructed partly alongside it and partly 
across the channel which connects it up to a very large 
" dock " on the right side of the road. Just beyond the 
dock is the farm known as Dock Acre Farm, and the people 
there courteously gave me permission to examine the old 
chain of docks and to take photographs. I did not have 
time on the two occasions when I visited the place to make 
an exact survey, but I am quite sure that if the site were 
visited by experts from one of the historic oj- antiquarian 
societies the time would be well spent. 


The large clock near the farm can easily be seen 
through a gateway from the main road. It still has water, 
though the drought of the summer of 1911 very nearly made 
it a dry dock. 

The photof;;raph shows the steeD south slope down to 
the marshy and reed-covered bed. This was the innermost 
construction of the Danish water-camp, quite capable of 


acccmmodatiiig all the Aeet. Mention lias been made of the 
channel which at the south-west connects up with another 
dock, but there is also a well-marked channel cut out at the 
south-eastern end. 


It looks as though it were cut to communicate directly 
with the Keer, but there are two small connecting channels 
between the main outlet, and a large heart-shaped dock, 
which is nearly 350 yards in circumference. The diameter 
is just over one hundred yards, and in places the bottom 
appears to have been covered with cobble stones. 

To the north of this dock and separated by a high bank 
there is a small V-shaped depresssion, which might have 
been a " naust " or slip where galleys could be taken for 
repairs. From the high bank a ssries of terraces, five of 
which can still be distinctly traced, leads to the marshy 
level. Both the large heart-shaped dock and this small 
one open out naturally towards the Keer. At the present 
day a small feeder of the Keer flows within twenty yards of 
the V-shaped dock. 




From the Anglo-Saxon "Chronicle" for the year 966 
A.D.J I take the following translation of the original: " This 
year Thored Gunner's son ravaged Westmorland, and that 
same year Oslac obtained an ealdordom." Was this 
Thored's water-camp ? The name Berwick is interesting 
because it implies Danish origin. A well-known Danish 
place-name is wich or wick signifying a creek. Traces of 
genuine Danish camps are rare and I believe the best known 
one is near to the town of Bedford at Willington on the 
Great Ouse. The water-camp there consists of a harbour 
at right angles to the river, a ditch running from the head 
of the harbour and two hollowed depressions. 


Having explored the old docks, go down the road on 
your right, past Dock Acre Farm and a mile along the way, 
after crossing the old coach route from Kellet to the north, 
you v.'ill come to the Lancaster and Kendal Canal from the 
bank of which I took the photograph of Borwick Hall. 

The Hall is now no longer o]ien to the public, it is Ijeing 
restored in order to serve as the residence of Mr. J. A. 
Fuller Maitland. No doubt many inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood have in times past visited the place and 
been instructed in its past history and tradition, chiefly 
the latter, hy [Mrs. Jackson, who lived at the gate-house, 
and who came from Bare. 


The gatehouse, with its two corbelled chimneys and no 
windows to the front on the ground floor, was evidently 
huilt for defence. Over the archway is a square-sunk panel 
with the initials B. over RR. and the date 1650 underneath. 
This panel was most likely inserted half a century after the 
erection of the gatehouse, for the style is of the same period 
as the hall and also as of Heysham Old Hall (built in 1598). 
On the walls of the big barn adjoining the gatehouse is a 
large irregular stone slab with the inscription : — 
Ao Dni 1590. 

R. B. 

A. B. 

At the top of the staircase inside the hall is a large 
rectangular stone table-like erection supported by a dozen 
small pillars and round the edge is inscribed: — 

" Alexander Bbinsmead Mason, 1595." 



The initials on the dated stones refer to members of the 
Bindloss family. Christopher Bindloss was an Alderman of 
Kendal in 1579, and in that town's " Book of Record " he is 
described as a " Chapman " who died in 1581. His son, 
Robert Bindloss, is mentioned as a Freeman of the Borough 
in 1575. 

The Bindlosses, as heads of the Kendal cloth industry, 
established a regular service between Kendal and London 
for the conveyance of their woollens, and Robert Bindloss 
is said to have erected the big barn and outbuildings along 
the line of the road to shelter the men and horses employed 
in the trade. His chief mason was no doubt Brinsmead. 
The staircase ,at the top of which is the inscribed slab, is in 
the south-west building that contains the hall and the 
drawing-room ; and the year 1595 no doubts marks its com- 
pletion. I think the initials " R.B. " and " A.B.," which 
are on the barn, refer to Robert Bindloss and his first wife 

The initials over the big doorway no doubt refer to 
Robert Bindloss and his wife Rebecca. He was the grand- 
son of the other Robert, and he became the owner of 
Berwick in 1629. He was made a baronet in 1641, was a 
memljer of Parliament for Lancaster during the years 1645- 
1653, and a member for Lancashire in the Convention 
Parliament of 1660. He was also High Sheriff of the County 
in 1658, 1672, and 1673. When Prince Charles, afterwards 
King Charles II., was on his way from Scotland to lose the 
battle of Worcester in 1651, he was at Kendal on August 
10th, spent the same night at Berwick Hall, and was at 
Lancaster on Augiist lltb. On the 24th October, 1672, Sir 
Robert Bindloss was elected !Mayor of the Borough of 
Lancaster, but owing to ill health he retired from office 
in the folloAving April. He died in 1688 and was buried in 
Warton Church. 


His daughter married a Standish, and their daughter 
Cecilia Standish, married William Towneley, and so 
Berwick Hall came into the possession of the Towneley 
family. The marriage of Cecilia Towneley with Charles 
Strickland brought the hall into the possession of Thomas 
Strickland their sen. His grandson, Walter Charles 
Strickland, sold Berwick Hall in 1854 to George Marton, of 
Capernwray Hall. 


Most of Berwick Hall was built by Robert Bindloss 
during the years 1590-1595; but the big tower in the right- 
hand part of the photograph, though very much altered, no 


doubt formed tli,' nucleus of a very early defensive home. 
It is one of the old Peel Towers similar to Arnside Tower 
and the Tower at Hazelslack. They were a favourite form 
of ahcde in the fourteenth century and for long afterwards 
throughout a regiDii r.rsottled ' pud liable to raids from 
across the Scottish border. 


The leaden rain-water spout heads bear the date 1812, 
and were put up during the occupation of the Hall by 
Charles Strickland and his wife Cecilia (nee Towneley), 
Soon after Mr. George Marton bought the place, the fore- 
court and south-west front were opened to the public as a 
sort of tea-garden, and the back was inhabited by a farmer. 
The farm which you passed on your way from Dock 
Acre is now being built to accommodate the farmer, who 
will soon have to take up his new quarters. 


Th-^re used to be a wooden paling as a parapet to the 
great front ; but the present stone one is an exceedingly fine' 

and original example of Jacobean balustrading, and was 
moved from a terrace on the north-east side of tlie house 
where the main gardens were situated. The iDorch gives 
into the banqueting-hall which has a massive stone chimney 
arch bearing the initials of the first Robert Bindloss. 

The restoration which is now being carried out, will be 
completed in a very conservative manner and the old 
arrangements, with added neatness, will survive. 

In the sleepy main street are many substantially built 
houses, some with seventeenth century dated stones, and 
immediately opposite the church is the vicarage, to the 
left of which is a picturesque ivy-clad ruin, all that remains 
of the old rectory or parsonage court. 

From 1903 until 1908 the Rev. J. K. Floyer was the 
vicar of Warton,, a scholar and antiquarian, who lias 
written much upon the early history of Warton, more 
especially about the church, and it is to him more than to 
anyone else that I am indebted for mv information about 
St.' Oswald's. 


The iiiins just mentioned consist chiefly of a high 
gabled end wall supported by a stepped buttress, and pierced 
by a quatrefoil window of unusual shape, forming the end 
of what was a large hall. This was lighted by two windows 
on the east and one on the west, of which all traces have 
disappeared except some large freestone quoins at the 
south-east. In the south-west corner is a plain square- 
headed doorway leading to another separate building of 
two rooms. The chief entrance to the main building was on 
the west side, and a large pointed archway exists. Another 
ar'^hway leads to a garden on the east side. 

Standing nearly at right angles to this large building 
was another consisting of two rooms, one above the other\^ 
forming now part of the vicarage house. In a lease of 
1678 the lower room is mentioned as the "old kitchen.'* 
The upper room has a large traceried window high up on 
the east, which is flanked by two small slit windows at a 
lower level. The room was very likely constructed far an 
oratory, as it appears of set purpose placed directly east 
and west, and the east window is set high to allow for th^ 
erection of a small altar below. 


At any rate in the Parsonage Court buildings there is 
a dwelling-house of large size with hall, dormitory, offices, 
kitchen, and possibly an oratory, which date from the early 
fourteenth century. During this period the Warton portion 
of the Kendal Barony came into the hands successively of 
two brothers of the name of Thweng, both of whom were 
rectors of Warton. Probably Robert, who came into the 
estate in 1341, was the builder of the old Parsonage Court 
or Rectory. 


The gate which leads into the church yard is on the 
north side, and over the north porch near the tower are 
the arms of Croft, described as " bendy-chequey " or 
" lozengy." They are in a very old stone vrhich has been 
removed from the older porch at the time of the sixteenth 
century restoration of the church. Pass in through the 
porch and notice in the south-west corner the twelfth 
century barrel font. 

Soon after Charles II. came to the throne, 1660, this 
font was relined with lead, the stone dressed, and it was set 
on a new base under the care of Robert Bindloss, vSir George 
Middleton, and Nathaniel West, whose initials it now l)ears. 
Introduced into the lead work are the Tudor rose and the 
fleur-de-lys. In 1848 it was re-set on its present base, into 
which are worked three stones of the old hase : one with a 
Jacobean i^attern ; another has a device which may be an 
allusion to a coat of arms, i.e., three chevrons; the third 
stone has the date 1661. 


Inserted in the back of one of the pews are nine coats 
of arms. They were formerly in Sir George ^Nliddleton's 
pew, and originally on the rood screen. The brass monu- 
ment to the memory of Sir George, who died on February 
24th, 1674, is still on a pillar above this seat. In the 
vestry are certain wooden labels, beautifully carved. One 
has the date 1571 and the initials " LB." for James 
Backhouse. Another such label with " B. — R.M.,, 1612," 
was in the pew belonging to Sir Robert Bindloss, of Borwick 
Hall. The label for the new pulpit in 1712 is also in the 

Repeated restorations have done away with many of 
the old features, viz., the chantry on the south-east of the 
church, a fine rood loft, the old pews, the gravestones inside 
the church, etc. 


When you have sufficiently examined the interior pass 
out by the north door and turn to you left to look at the 
outside of the tower. You Avill see that the western door- 
way, leading into the tower, is now half built up. When 


it was open it was used only once a year at the annual 
rush-bearing, on the Sunday nearest to the first of August, 
because St. Oswald's Day was Auguct 5th and the church 
was dedicated to St. Oswald. The following is an account 
written by a man about two hundred years ago : — 

'" They cut hard rushes from the marsh, which they 
make up into long bundles, and then dress them in hne 
linen, ribbons, silk, flowers, etc. Afterwards the young 
women take the burdens upon their heads and begin the 
procession (precedence being always given to the church- 
wardens' bundle), which is attended with a great multitude 
of people, with music, drums, ringing the bells, and all other 
demonstrations cf joy they are able to express. When they 
arrive at the church they go in at the west end, and setting 
down their bundles in the church they strip them of their 
ornaments, leaving crowns or garlands placed over the 
cancelli. Then they return to the town and cheerfully 
partake of a plentiful collation provided for that i^urpose, 
and spend the rest of the day and evening in dancing about 
a I\Iay-pole adorned «ith greens and flowers, etc., or elso 
in some other convenient place." 


The same writer, in 1720, says: " On the north side of 
the steeple door, about six or seven feet from the ground, are 
the arms of Washington well cut in the stone, which is a 
plain indication that this family, ancient and yet credible 
in the town, where the Rev. Mr. Lawrence Washington has 
a good estate, have been large contributors towards the 
building of this fabric." 

For many years the shield remained hidden, because all 
the outside of the church was covered with a rough-cast of 
pebbles and lime ; but in the year 1885 some of the rough- 
cast outside the tower fell off, and the long-lost Washington 
shield was exposed to view. Now a glass covering has been 
placed over the relic to preserve it from further decay 
occasioned by atmospheric changes. The photograph shows 
the shield in its original positon about seven feet up from 
the ground, over the north spandrel of the west door. It 
is very much worn, but the three mullets at the top {i.e., in 
chief, in heraldic terms) can easily be distinguished. They 
have only four points, though there ought to be five. The 
two bars below are cut into the stone, not left in relief, and 
in the centre of the shield, between the two bars, there 
appears to be a semi-circular depression due to the ravages 
of time. It used to be a crescent which now, by the wear- 
ing of the stone, has become merged into the lower bar. 
The shield is 9^ inches in length and 7 inches in width. 

I have described this stone memorial of the fifteenth 
century at some length, because I believe it is the most 
ancient representation of President George Washington's 
coat of arms; and the builder of Warton church tower, 


Robei't Washington, who died in 1483, was a direct ancestor 
of the first president of the United States of America. 


Pass round to the south side of the church. Two-thirds 
of the south ^^-all is of the decorated period and is the oldest 
part of the huilding. Notice the two two-light windows and 
the door which belong to the fourteenth century and appear 
to be in their original position. There is a sun-dial amongst 
the gravestones on this side. Go round under the east 
window and you will see the only gravestone giving any 
record of the Washingtons still remaining in the churchvard. 



Many of the members of the Washington family were buried 
within the church, as specified in tlie wills which are still 
preserved ; but when the interior of the church was restored 
in 1892 many memorial tombstones were sold to be used for 
flags for footpaths in the village. One stone, dated 1670, 
and in memory of Nathaniel West, a member of Baron de la 
War's family, was sawn in half, and the upper part, bearing 
the arms of West and part of the inscription, used to form 
one of the flagstones in a path leading up to a house at the 
north end of Warton ! Its original position was in the floor 
of the nave of the church. Perhaps, if some of the old 
flagstones in the village were turned over, even now an 
inscription to the memory of a Washington might come 
to light ! 


But the tombstone under the east window records the 
resting-place of the last of the Washingtons of Warton. It 
is to the memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Washington, who died 
in 1751, and to the Rev. Thomas Washington, Vicar of 
Warton, from 1799 until his death in 1823. 

The first part of the inscription on the plain rectan- 
gular sandstone, as the photograph shows, is cut in large 
straggling letters: " Mrs. Elizabeth Washington, June the 
15th, 1751," and the Rev. J. K. Floyer thinks that the Rev. 
Thomas Washington himself did it, because it is like his 
handwriting. A specimen of it can be seen in one of the 
old Wartnn church registers, for in the year 1685 there is 
this baptismal entry: — " Lawr., son of Robt. Washington 
of Warton, 27th September," and below an asterisk in the 
margin the Rev. Thomas Washington has inserted: "Grand- 
father of Thomas (son of Robert), minister of Warton in 
1796." The Rev. Thomas Washington was the headmaster 
of Archbishop Hutton's Gi'ammar School at Warton in 1773, 
and he became curate in 1779. 




This straggling village, chiefly known for the number 
of locks on the Lancaster and Kendal canal, might be 
visited in the course of an excursion which could include 
Warton Church, Dock Acre, and Borwick Hall. 

When you have inspected the church and the church- 
yard go up to the north end of the main street. On your 
right is a road, and the finger-post indicates Borwick. 
Go along for some distance, not forgetting to turn round 
to look at the picture made by the crag and the village 
nestling at its foot. 

About a mile along the road you will pass under the 
railway and get into the main road at Dock Acre, an 
account of which has already been given. Turn to your left 
along the main road and in less than ten minutes' time 
you \^-ill come to the bridge over the canal at Tewitfield. 


The most pleasant route from Carnforth to the same 
spot is to go all the way by the canal side. The "\^^lit Beck, 
which most likely gives the name to the village and divides 
the parish of Priest Hutton from the parish of Warton, 
flows under the Ijridge, and at this very place many years 
ago stood the old mill. If you were to go into the field on 
your left and approach as near as possible to the spot where 
the stream disappears from view you would hear a fall of 
water which occurs a few yards away under the bridge. It 
indicates the place where the old mill iised to be, and if you 
want to see a part of one of the old mill-stones, it forms 
a step at the back door of Tewitfield Farm. A little 
further along the road is the Longlands Inn, which was 
moved to its present position in 1824 in order to be on the 
' new road. The old coacli road cuts in at an angle by the 
side of the inn and passes Greenlands Farm on the other 
side cf the road up Br.ckstone Hill. 


Near the top of the hill is a huge stone in the hedge to 
the right of the road. This is the Buck Stcne, and in olden 
days, when the passenger-. rD?d to toil vn the hill behind the 
coach, a practical ioke was oftsn nl.qved on guileless 
travellers. They used to be told +o put their heads near the 
stone to listen to the tide coming in ever the Pay miles 
away, and if they did so theii- heads wers knocked against 
the stone. Now the narrow old coach road is private, but 
Mr. Bainbridge at Greenlands Farm would allow anyone to 
inspect the stone if desired. His residence was built for 
an inn, but when the old inn was moved w to its ]ire'^ent 


position no second licence was granted. The out-buildings 
in connection with the farm comprise much the oldest house 
in Tewitfield and for that reason Greenlands farm has been 
pointed out as the residence of George Washington's 
ancestors in early times. Go back to the bridge, and on 
your right as you go back, but on your left if you have just 
come in from Warton, you will see a narrow lane vrhich goes 
past a white-washed cottage by a rnundalinut r^ute to 
Tewitfield Farm. 


The white-washed cottage is almost obscured by a 
unique specimen of rosemary planted over thirty years' ago 
by Mr. Sandham who inhabits the cottage. ' It reaches 
almost to the roof and is shaped like a huge letter H to 


allow tor the windows. Every year it is carefully trimmed 
and It still makes good growth, and its abundant flowers 
at the top are well-known to the bees. 

Go along the lane to Tewitfield Farm, where Mr. and 
Mrs. Escolme live. They will readily give you permission 
to look at the old mill-stone, the old barns on the left of the 
house, and the mound in front of the house, where a few 
protruding stones indicate the position of an earlv home of 
George ^yashington's direct ancestors. Remains of this old 
house were used for building and other purposes not so 
many years ago. Part of an old fire-place and a large slab 
of worked stone over six feet in length were seen bv Mr. 

/- ,/ 


The present farm was built in Stuart times; the back 
part has not been altered much, but the front has been 
modernised. There is an old oak staircase, and in the big 
kitchen is a fine old-fashioned fireplace. This farm was 
most likely built by a Middleton, of Leighton Hall. On 
the front wall of the big barn there is an irregular stone 
with the initials " T.M. " and the date "1673." 


Now one of the Catholics who redeemed his estates by 
paying a composition in 1629 to the King when he needed 
money for the war in Ireland was Thomas Middleton, of 
Leighton. As he paid the highest sum, viz., £100, and 
the fines were in proportion to the lands held, his estates 
mvist have been very large indeed. He erected in 1614 the 
original pew in Warton Church, ■\\'hence come the nine coats- 
of-arnis there now. His son, George, at the restoration of 
the pew in 1662 put the date and his own initials on the 
oak pew label. 


The double line of trees at Tewitfield Farm appear to 
have led to the older building now no longer in exis- 
tence. The photograph shows some of the old stones in the 
foreground and the trees in front of the farm. 

The Tewitfield estate, which was formerly in the pos- 
sessions of the Middletons, was the subject of a family 
settlement in 1658. After the Middleton estates were 
divided in 1711 between the heirs of George Middleton 
Oldfeild, Tewitfield was sold. Now it is part of " William 
Heysham's Charity," of Lancaster. It was purchased in 
1900 from the trustees of the will of James Henry Johnson, 
of Hall Garth, Over Kellet, but the family of Johnson had 
not been the owners for long. If only the deeds had dated 
back far enough, it could have been seen whether the 
Washingtons were the owners or the tenants of Tewitfield 
from the middle of the fifteenth centurv to about 1530. 


The earliest members of the family took their name 
from Washington-juxta-Ravensworth, a little village some 
miles to the north of Richmond in Yorkshire, now called 
Whashton. In early Norman times the manor of 
Washington was in the possession of Bond de Ravensworth, 
otherwise called Bond de Washington. From this parent 
stock came the Washingtons of Westmorland, and those 
who inhabited Millburne in that county were the ancestors 
of the Washingtons of Carnforth, Tewitfield, and Warton. 

The earliest of the Washingtons who had any terri- 
torial connection with these parts was Robert, the son and 
heir of Robert de Wessington or Washington, Lord of 
MilV)urne, who in right of his wife Amicia held lands in 
Carnforth in the time of Edward I. (1301). The third son 
of this man was also named Robert Washington. He was 
a follower of the ill-fated Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, but 
he was pardoned in 1318. His is most likely the name 
which occurs as a witness to a crant by Roger de Croft, 
dated Michaelmas, 14 Edward II. (1321). 


Of the four sons to this Robert, the eldest was named 
after his father and was lord of Carnforth, the third was 
Thomas of Bolton, the fourth was named William, but the 
second son, John, was the first of the Washingtons to settle 
in Warton. He married Alianora, the daughter and heir of 
John de Warton. Both John Washington and his wife 
were living in 1386, as they are mentioned in William de 
Lancaster's will. 

John's two sons were named John and Edmund, and 
John's son accompanied Henry V. to France and was 
wounded at the battle of Agincourt, 1415. The eldest son 
of this soldier was Robert Washington, who held Tewitfield 
in the parish of Warton. This was the man who caused 
the church tower of Warton to be built. 


He died in 1483, leaving no will, but an enquiry into 
his possessions was held before John Green, Escheator, on 
the 22nd of April, 1484, when Edmund Laurence and others 
on their oath said that Robert Washington on the day on 
which he died held a certain tenement called "Intwhj'tefeld" 
in Warton, that he owed certain military service for the 
same at Lancaster Castle, and that the value of it was 
forty shillings per annum. 

Amongst his other possessions were certain lands and 
tenements in Silverdale, o^ie tenement in Middleton, one 
messuage in Melling called " Saiobar," three messuages in 
Arkholme, certain lands and tenements in Gressingham and 
Tatham, one messuage in Houghton called " Suere," two 
messuages in Heysham of the wife of Thomas Harrington, 
two messuages in Horton and Over Kellet, one tenement in 
Dalton, six bui'gages and eighteen acres of land in Preston, 
and fifteen burgages in Warton in Lonsdale. 

Many of these possessions were in the King's hands 
because they were part of the Duchy of Lancaster, and 
military service had to be paid for them at Lancaster Castle. 
His eldest son, John, succeeded to his possessions in Warton, 
biit Robert, his second son, received Tewitfield. John, the 
son of Robert, succeeded to the estate of Tewitfield, and like 
several of his ancestors he made a very fortunate marriage. 

I believe this John Washington was the last of the 
family to hold Tewitfield. 


As you come out into Warton by the tield-patli from 
Carnforth, immediately opposite to you is a large building, 
the right of which is a farm and the left Warton Hall. In 
early times the whole of the building was the Hall, but now 
the outward appearance has been transformed. A new roof, 
new bay windows and a porch make it appear a house of 
modern date ; but the solid walls, the old beams, the massive 
front door, and above all the fine Spanish mahogany stair- 
case, black with age, i^olished like a mirror, and with well- 
wrought carving at the end of each stair all testify to the 
antiquity of the Hall. The following extract from the 
history of Warton written two hundred years ago. is very 
interesting : — 

" ..Idjoining the ware is a pleasant seat, the habitation 
of Mr. Will Dawson, captain of the Trainbands commanded 
by Sir Henry Houghton, of Houghton Tower. It formerly 
belonged to the Kytsons, a flourishing family, one of which, 
called the rich Kytson, was born here, and was sheriff of 
London, 1553; in the time of the Oliverian faction Thomas 
Kytson, of Warton, gentleman, compounded for his estate 
here, paying £390." 


The Hall is now occupied by two ladies, the Misses 
Wren, who courteously allowed me to look over the place and 
to take photographs. The owner is Mr. E. B. Dawson, 
J. P., of Aldcliffe Hall, the Constable of Lancaster Castle, 
and a descendant of Captain William Dawson. mentiDned 
above. His family connection with the Hall goes back as 
far as the reign of Henry VII., though Mr. W. Tilly, of 
Morecambe, who is the deputy steward of the manor, has 
not in his possession any earlier roll than one dated 1668, 
but the first name on that is a member of the Dawson 
family. Evidently the Dawsons in the first instance pur- 
ch^r^d Warton Hall from the Kytsons or they were owners 
by marriage into the Kytson family. 

Descended from these early Dawsons was Mr. Edmund 
Clowes, from whom Mr. E. B. Dawson bought the estate, 
comprised in which was the Hall. Robert Dawson, the 
immediate ancestor of the present Constable of Lancaster 
Castle, lived at Cote Stone, and moved to Aldcliffe about 
1733 on his marriage with Miss Leigh, whose grandfather 
had bought Aldcliffe Hall from the Crown. 




In Warton main street beyond the church on the left- 
hand side is the i-eading room and opposite the entrance 
doorway on the wall is a six by five inch engraving of 
Holbein's portrait of Sir Thomas Kytson, the original 
painting being now at Hengrave Hall "in Suffolk. On the 
mount inside the frame you will see this inscription : — 

"Sir Thomas Kytson, son of Robert Kytson, of 
Warton. Born at Warton Hall, 1485. Became Sheriff 
of London in 1533. His sister, Margaret, married John 
Washington, of Tewitfield, in Warton, and became the 
direct ancestor of George Washington, President of the 
United Stataes. Sir Thomas biiilt Hengrave Hall in 

This Sir Thomas was a great merchant adventurer; he 
first of all dealt in Kendal cloths, then b° extended his 
transactions to Holland and Flanders, held cloth fairs at 


Antwerp and other continental towns, and he amassed great 
riches. In the City of London, where he was an Alderman 
in lo33, his influence was such that on one occasion he said : 
" My Lord Cardinal (Wolsey) has such words from me before 
the Aldermen and Commoners, that the voice goes about 
the city that it \\as much long of me that the Court 
pressed' so great a sum at this time." And after noticing 
that they had assessed him in the sum of £100, he added, 
" The King hath had of me every year this 16 or 17 years, 
one with another, four or five hundred marks for cost and 
subsidy." In all probability Sir Thomas Kytson induced 
his brother-in-lav,', John Washington, to leave North 
Lancashire and to engage in the wool trade of the Midland 

Hengrave Hall, near to Bury St. Edmunds, has a triple 
bay window with this inscription : — 

" Opus hoc fieri fecit Thomas Kytson. In Dieu et 
mon Driot. Anno D'ni MCCCCC tricesimo octavo." 

"vYhen Sir Thomas Kytson died at Hengrave in 1-540 he 
was possessed of vast riches, and a fine monument was set 
up to his memory in the old Parish Chui'ch of Hengrave, 
now a private Chapel. It is in the north-east angle, lavishly 
ornate, constructed of marble and coloured freestone, to 
the memory of Margaret, Countess of Bath, and her three 
husbands, Sir Thomas Kytson, Sir Richard Long, and John 
Bourchier, Earl of Bath. The figures of the Earl and 
Countess on a raised altar recline imder a canopy supported 
by sis pillars. On the step in front of the tomb is placed 
a recumbent figure of Sir Thomas Kytscn, in armour ; he 
has a round head of hair, and a smooth chin, and his feet 
rest against a unicorn's head. 


In the big banqiieting-hall at Hengrave the noble 
families who were allied to the Kyt.:.ons have their associa- 
tions perpetuated by coats of arms in the stained glass of 
the l)ay window. There are nine in all, and to perpetuate 
the alliance of Margaret Kytson with John Washington the 
ninth shield has the Washington coat of arm;j. Ihe for- 
tunes of the descendants of John and [Margaret Washington 
will be detailed later. 





You have already learned that there are two memorials 
of the Washington family at Warton Church — the stone 
shield on the tower and the gravestone under the east 
window Half-way up the main street on the right-hand 
side is a small butcher's shop and just beyond it on the same 
side of the road is the " Washington " house. It is an old 
stone house, ivy-clad, with iron railings in front. The ivy 
has been carefully trimmed so that two dated stones high up 
between the second storey windows can be easily seen. The 
stones no doubt belong to an earlier building, but the 
Lancashire ciistom of utilising the dated stones of the older 
building AAhen a new house was being put up has been 
follo\\ed in this case. 

The stone to the right has the Tudor rose viith the 
crown above and the initials "I.E."; in the centre is the 
date, 1612. and below are the initials "R.W.S." The rose 
and crown and the date. 1612, all indicate that the top 
initials denote "James Rex," and the initials Ijelow refer 
to Robert Washington and his wife. 


At one tim.e the Washingtons of Warton had possession 
of the mills in the parish of Warton. They were situated 
on the Keer near to the part now known as Dudley, and 
the fields sloping up from the mires, which are crossed by 
the field-path from Carnforth to Warton, are named Far 
Mill Head and Near Mill Head. They would be the mills 
to «hich reference was made in 1658 v,h?n the jury found 
that " Mr. Cooper shall, before Martinmas next, make a 
sufficient foot-bridge over the place called the Stone Bridge 
into Allison Myers out of the Milne head upon pain to 
forfeit six and eightpence ; and ^Nlr. Hinde to 
repair that end next to mill head, and ]Mr. Hinde and the 
occupiers of Washington's laund to repair the way between 
the stone bridge end and the laund gate before the said 

When the Chantry of St. Mary in Warton Church wks 
dissolved there were ten cottages and more than twentv 
aci-es of land in the proi^erty, and six of the tenants did 
not give up their holdingsi. One of these tenants was 
Leonard, son of Thomas Washington. 



One of the Chantry priests was most likely the teacher 
of Matthew Hiitton, the founder of the school at Warton, 
who was born at Priest Hutton in 1529. He became 
Bishop of Durhani and Archbishop of York. The school is 
on the left-hand side of the main street as you go nj), before 
you come to the Church. The inscription on it is : — " Anno 
Domini, 1594, Deo et bonis Uteris, Matt. Hutton, Epus 

The Rev. Thomas Washington, who was the vicar of 
Warton from 1799 until his death in 1823, became head- 
master of Archbishop Hutton's Grammar School in 1773, 
and amongst other subjects he taught classics. The Hutton 
family withheld the endowment in 1808 and for some years 
the charity lapsed ; the almshouses were let and the school 
and the almshouses were the subject of a suit in Chancery 
which was decided in 1829. The Rev. James Barns, the 
vicar who succeeded the Rev. Thomas Washington in 1823, 
was the plaintiff in the suit. 

Although the almshouses and the school were revived, 
drastic changes were made by the Court of Chancery against 
the expressed wish of the parishioners. The almshouses were 
rebuilt, but the small annual pension paid to the vicar was 
dropped. The school, which had really been a church 
school, was now no longer such and the standard of educa- 
tion was lowered, so that teaching of elementary subjects 
only now comprised the curriculum. Really the school 
could have been made of the same type as Lancaster 
Grammar School. 


The derivation of "Warton" is given by Lucas, who 
wrote, two hundred years ago: " The Ware is a large tarn 
or pond which yearly is contracted. I make no doubt but it 
formerly comprehended not only the Mires but also that 
large flat of meadows and mosses in Warton, Carnforth, 
Borwick, and Caponwray ; this will appear no improbable 
conjecture if we do but consider how natuial it is for pools 
and lakes where there is no great depth of water to become 
gradually firm ground by alteration. The Ware is remark- 
able for breeding abundance of eels." Two hundred years 
before this was written, Leland, the antiquary, thus des- 
cribes Warton: " From Lancaster I rode over Lune toward 
Warton, a vi miles of, where Mr. Kitson was borne. A ii 
mile from Lancastere the cunteri began to be stoney and a 
litle to wax mountainous. Half a mile from Warton 1 
passid Keir River dimming out of Hilles not far of, and 
ther ebbing and flowing and about Lune Sandes going into 
the salt water." And the sentence immediately following 
is still appi'opriato : "Warton is a preti street for a 



In dealing with Warton and its chnrcb and Tewitfield 
information has been given about members of the family 
of Washington ^^•ho liad possessions in that neighbourhood 
centuries ago. 

So now I will explain the connection between the 
Warton and Tewitfield Washingtons and the immediate 
ancestors of George Washington. 

It has already been stated that John Washington of 
Tewitfield married a sister of Sir Thomas Kytson, of 
Warton Hall, also that Sir Thomas Kytson, the great 
merchant adventurer, induced his brother-in-law to try his 
luck at the wool trad© in the Midlands. 


Lawrence Washington, the son of John Washington, of 
Tewitfield, married for his second wife Amee Pargiter, of 
the county of Northampton, and he was entered at Gray's 
Inn, London, to take up the profession of the Law. But 
no doubt his relationship to two of the greatest persons 
interested in the wool-trade were powerful factors in induc- 
ing him to forsake the Law for business. Sir Thomas 
Kytson's influence with John Washington, the father of 
Lawrence, has been explained. In addition, the powerful 
Spencer family were interested in Lawrence Washington. 
His wife was the cousin of William Pargiter, who had 
married Abigail Willoughby, the sister of Lord Spencer's 
deceased wife, at Brington, in the County of Northampton, 
in 1601. Also Catherine, the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Kytson, married Sir John Spencer of Wormleighton in 

At any rate Lawrence Washington left London and 
came to Northampton. He was twice Mayor of Northamp- 
ton, in 1532 and again in 1.545, and became the owner of 
the Manor of Sulgrave, in the southern part of the county, 
at the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. 


It was a common belief that the owners of confiscated 
Church property could not long prosper. It was so in 
Washington's case. Trouble overtook the family; they 
became impoverished, and the eldest son of Lawrence (his 
name was Robert) was obliged to sell Sulgrave. Also con- 
cerned in the sale in the year 1610 was Lawrence, the son 
of Robert and the grandson of Lawrence Washington, 
Mayor of Northampton. At this crisis in the affairs of the 
Washingtons Lord Spencer, of Althorp, provided a home 


for them at Brington near by, and memorials of the family 
are still to be seen at Sulgrave Church and at Brington. 

The occupation of Sulgrave by the Washingtons did 
not last for even two generations, although the purchaser, 
iu 1539, enjoyed his possession for 45 years. Year by year 
American pilgrims visit Sulgrave to look at the Manor 
House and the stone slab in the church, on which were 
originally six separate brasses relating to the Washingtons. 
The two brasses representing the four sons and the seven 
daughters were stolen in August 1899. Amee Washington's 
brass and the head from Lawrence Washington's have long 
been missing. 

When the Garter King of Arms, of the year 1791, Sir 
Isaac Herd, was asked to supply the pedigree of George 
Washington, he found in the visitation of Northampton- 
shire in 1618 the names of John and Lawrence, sons of 
Lawrence Washington, of Sulgrave. This latter Lawrence, 
it must be remembered, was the grandson of the Mayor of 
Northampton ; he, along with his father, Robert, sold 
Sulgrave, and ho died in 161fi, leaving five sons besides John 
and Lawrence. 

It was known that about the year 1659 two brothers 
named John and Lawrence Washington, emigrated to 
America, and that John Washington was the great- 
grandfather of President George Washington; so Sir Isaac 
Herd assumed that these two were the emigrants and the 
pedigree was drawn up accordingly. But Colonel Chester, 
a- famous genealogist, many years ago proved that the elder 
of these was Sir John Washington, of Thrapston, who died 
before 1678; and that Lawrence Washingto]i l)ecanic Rector 
of Purleigh in Essex. 


After this the report was started that the emigrants, 
John and Lawrence, were the sons of Leonard Washington, 
baptised at Warton in 1625 and 1627 respectively. But 
there are no entries whatever in those two years of any 
Washington name in the Warton registers. By the 
courtesy of the Rev. E. W. A. Ogilvy, the Vicar of Warton, 
I have been able to look up all the "Washington" entries 
in the Warton Chiirch registers which begin in the year 

The only two baptismal entries of a John Washington 
are in 1586 and in 1640, and I am not able to trace what 
became of the latter John, who was son of a Lawrence 
Washington, but he is not the emigrant ancestor of the 
first President of the United States. John, the emigrant 
ancestor, has been proved to be the son and not the brother 
of Lawrence Washington, who was Rector of Purleigh in 
Essex from 1633 to 1643. 



Deposited in the British Museum there is a small 
pamphlet of twelve pages entitled, "A summary of the 
evidence that Lawrence Washington, M.A., Rector of 
Purleigh, 1633 — 1643, was great-great-grandfather of 
General George Washington; and father of the first 
Washingtons who emigrated to Virginia." In it two facts 
are proved : 1st, that Lawrence Washington, Rector of 
Purleigh was married to a lady whose Christian name was 
Amphillis; 2nd, that their eldt-st son John was the John 
Washington of Virginia, great-grandfather of General 
George Washington. 

Besides many minor incidents there are two main points 
which prove the first part. Mrs. Elizabeth Mewc« (nee 
Washington) sister of Lawrence Washington, Rector of 
Purleigh, left by will in 1676 a legacy to her niece, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Rumball, or Rumbold. Again Mrs. Martha Howard 
(nee Washington), daughtei- of Lawrence Washington, 
who was the hiisband of Amphillis, calls Mrs. Elizabeth 
Rumball her "eldest sister." Now if one's brother has the 
same names as one's niece's father, they must be the same 

Mrs. M©wce's brother was Lawrence Washington, the 
Rector of Purleigh. Her niece's father was Lawrence 
Washington, the husband of Amphillis. Therefore, the 
Rector of Purleigh was the husband of Amphillis. 

As regards the second fact proved, it is known from 
Mr. Andrew Knowling's will that Lawrence Washington, 
the Rector of Purleigh, had the following sons and 
daughters: John, Lawrence, William, Elizabeth, Margaret, 

Now Lawrence Washington, of Virginia, in his will, 
1675, mentions his loving brother John ; and John 
Washington, in his will, also of the year 167.5, speaks of his 
brother Lawrence and of his sister Martha. Martha (Mrs. 
Howard) in her will ,1697, mentions her eldest sister 
Elizabeth Rumbold and her other sister Margaret. 

It will be seen that the names of the emigrant's sisters 
correspond exactly with the names of the da lighters of 
Lawrence Washington, Rector of Purleigh; only the name 
of the William is not mentioned. He most probably waS 
dead before the different wills quoted were drawn \ip. 


The actual descent of the President from the emigrant 
John Washington is well known. Briefly, John Washington 
was twice married. His second wife, whose maiden name 
was Anne Pope, was the widow of Walter Brodhurst, a 
planter who had emigrated from Shropshire. By this 
second marriage there was a son, Lawrence Washington. 
He fcad a son, Augustine, who married Mary, the daughter 

of Colonel Ball, and they were the parents of George 
Washington, first President of the United States of 
America . 

Thus it will be seen that though the emigrant ancestor 
of the President did not come direct from Warton, yet the 
direct ancestors of George Washington can be traced from 
Virginia in America to the Washingtons of Northampton, 
and still further back to the Washingtons of Warton. 


The Rector of Purleigh proposes to restore the Tower 
of Purleigh Church, at an estimated cost of £600, as a 
Washington Memorial. To celebrate the Peace Centenary 
of the Treaty of Ghent, ratified in December, 1814, between 
England and the United States of America, one of the 
schemes to be carried out is the purchase of Siilgrave Manor 
House and preserve it as a Washington Memorial. 

At Warton, nothing so far has been proposed, perhaps 
because the substantial church tower needs no restoration 
and it possesses the most remarkable Washington Memorial, 
for on it can be seen the oldest representation of the 
Washington Coat of Arms. 


Two accompanying photographs require some explana 
tion. One is of a hitherto unpublished poi-trait of George 
Washington. The original portrait in oils is now in South 
Cave Castle, East Yorkshire. It was copied at the instance 
of Lord Spencer from an original portrait done in America 
for the Prince of Orange. The vessel in which it was being 
brought across the Atlantic to Holland was captured and 
so the portrait did not reach its intended destination. 

Now, at my solicitation a copv is published, not from 
one of mv own nhotogranhs, for the copyright belongs to 
Mr. W. Richardson, of South Cnve, bv. whose kind per- 
mission the portrait appears in tin's publication. 


The other portrait of George Washington is from a 
fine copper medal in my possession. It is three inches in 
diameter, with George Washington's bust in high relief on 
the obverse and, around, the legend, " General Washington. 
Inscribed to his memory by D. Eccleston, Lancaster, 
MDCCCV." On the reverse there are four concentric 
circles, with the legend: "He laid the foundation of 
American Liberty in the XVIII Century; innumerable 
millions yet unborn will venerate the memory of the man 
who obtained their countrv's freedom." In the small inner 
circle is the figure of a Red Indian and the legend, /'The 
land was ours." 


^'"^'^"^''^•1 OV. Richardson, South Cave 



Daniel Eccleston was a versatile man who, born at 
Carna Row m the Fylde, after an adventurous life settled 
m Lancaster and died there in 1821. He says about 
George Washington: "During my residence in Virginia, 
when at Alexandria, I had the pleasure, and, I may add, 
the honour of meeting General Washington, who gave me 
an invitation to call and spend a few days with him on his 
estate at Mount Vernon." 




One hundred years ago the United Kingdom was at war 
with the United States of America. It was at that critical 
period when practically all the Continental European 
powers were subject to the great Napoleon, and certain 
restrictions in regard to Continental trade which were 
enacted by the British Parliament so hampered American 
commerce that war was declared. Fortunately the foolish 
struggle did not last long, and no great damage had been 
inflicted on either side when the Treaty of Ghent put an 
end to the war in December, 1814. 


Now, there is a great international movement to cele- 
brate the one-hundredth anniversary of peace among 
English-speaking peoples. Two influential committees 
have been appointed, of which the chairmen are ex-President 
Roosevelt and Lord Grey. Many projects are to be carried 
out before December, 1914, and the most interesting from 
an Englishman's point of view will be the purchase, by 
public subscription on both sides of the Atlantic, of Sul- 
grave Manor in Northamptonshire, the one place in 
England most closely associated with the name of 
AVashington, because its manor house is the ancestral home 
of the emigrant John Washington, the great-grandfather 
of George Washington, who was the first President of the 
United States. 


Because, as far as I have been able to discover, the 
oldest representation of Washington's coat-of-arms is 
carved in stone on Warton Church tower, I want to draw 
attention to the similarity ])etween it and the flag of the 
LTnited States of America. Of course there are many other 
representations of the ooat-of-arms scattered up and down 
the country. A beautiful stained glass window in the 
clerestory of Selby Abbey shows the Washington Shield ; 
there is another in the banqueting-hall at Hengrave Hall 
in Suffolk ; also in Fawsley Chrch, Northamptonshire, are 
several stained glass shields from out of the big kitchen at 
Sulo;rave Manor and one with the Washington coat of arms 
is depicted in an accompanying photograph. 


The proper heraldic description of the Washington 
Arms is : — 

.4.r;/iA' — Argent, two bars gules ; in chief, three mullets 
of the second. 

Crest — A raven with wings endorsed proper, issuing out 
of a ducal coronet or 

In every day language the arms are a silver or white back- 
ground with three red stars above and two red bars below. 
Above the shield the ornament is a raven rising from a 
golden coronet. 


To any superficial observer the similarity between the 
coat of arms of the Washington family and the national flag 
of the United States of America is at once apparent ; there 
are the stars, there are the stripes, and to one unversed m 
heraldry it would seem that there was an inner meaning in 
the device. William Penn's motto was " No cross, no 
crown," and a somewhat similar idea seems to be con- 
veyed in the Washington arms — " No stripes, no stars." 
One modern poet reads into it another meaning when he 
says : — 

" United States, thy standard bears two emblems, one 

of fame, 
Alas! the other that it bear reminds us of your shame; 
The standard constellations type white freedom by the 

But what's the meaning of the stripes ? They are your 

niggers' scars !" 

It is still a doubtful question : Did the Washington 
" mullets " and " bars " suggest the " stars " and "stripes" 
of the flag of the United States ? 


A play was written by Martin Farquhar Tiipper for 
the Centenary of American Independence in honour of its 
founder. It was entitled " Washington," and was a drama 
in five acts. These words are put into the mouth of 
Franklin : 

" Yes, Natham, I proposed it to the Cloneress. 
It was their leader's old crusading blazon, 
Washington's coat, his own heraldic shield. 
He never heard of it till fixed and done. 
For on the spur when we must choose a flag, 
Symboling independent unity. 
We, and not he — all was unknown to him — 
Took up liis coat of arms and multiplied 
And magnified it every way to this 
Our glorious national banner. 


I've searched it out and known it for myself, 
When late in England there, at Heralds' College, 
And found the Washingtons of Wessyngton, 
In County Durham and of Sulgrave Manor, 
County Northampton, bore upon their shield 
Three stars atop, two stripes across the field. 
Gules — that is red — on white, and for the crest 
An eagle's head upspringing to the light, 
Its motto, Latin, ' Issue proveth acts.' 
The architraves at Sulgrave testify 
As sundry painted windows in the hall 
At Wessygton, this was their family coat. 
They took it to their new Virginian home; 
And at Moimt Vernon I myself have noted 
An old cast iron scutcheoned chimney-back 
Charged with that heraldry." 

There is a good deal of poetic licence about these lines. 
The Washingtons of the little town of Washington in 
Durham countv were not the direct ancestors of President 
Washington, though they were a branch of the family. It 
is a raven's head and not an eagle's on the crest. The 
translation of the Latin motto — Exitus acta prohaf — is 
right; it was \ised by George Washington on his carriage 
panels, on his book-mark, and on his last watch seal. The 
only reason that I can give you for the presence of a ducal 
coronet in the crest is the marriage of Sir William 
Washington (brother of a direct ancestor of George 
Washington) with the sister of George Villiers, Duke of 
Buckingham. That Washington's coat of arms was pro- 
nosed in Congress as the national flag is pure fiction on 
the poet's part. 


The following circumstantial story is told about the 
origin of the flag: — " The descendants of Mrs. Betsy Ross, 
an upholsterer, who resided in Arch Street, Philadelphia, 
the maker of the first flag combining the stars and stripes, 
claim that a Committee of Conaress, accompanied by 
General Washington, who was in Philadelphia in June, 
1776. called xipon Mrs. Ross and engaged her to make the 
flag from a rough drawing, which, at her suggestion, was 
re-drawn by General Washington in her back parlour, and 
the flag thus designed was adopted by Congress," 





But the following facts do not seem to tally with the 
story. In June, 1775, the Philadelphia Light Horse had 
adopted thirteen stripes, alternate blue and white, as the 
canton or union in their banner. That was a year before 
George Washington was said to have originated the " Star 
spangled Banner." Stripes had been familiar to Americans 
as the standard of the East India Company, which had 
established Manhattan Island (New York) as a trading 
port. That flag had on it thirteen stripes, alternately red 
and white, with St. George's Cross on a white canton. In 
an engraving of " The late Battle of Charlestown," pre- 
sented with the September number, 1775, of the " Penn- 
sylvania Magazine," the American shin which is taking 
part in the fight has an ensign on a staff at the stern com- 
posed of eleven vertical stripes and a canton with the 

Four months after the time when the Philadelphia 
stripes were recognised as emblems of colonial union, viz., 
on Janary 1st or 2nd, 1776, the great union flag was raised 
at Washington's headquarters at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
It is rather a significant fact that the Philadelphia Light 
Horse escorted General Washington when he went to take 
command of the army at Cambridge. Therefore it seems 
as though the stripes of the flag do not owe their origin to 
the bars of the Washington arms. 


With regard to the " stars " in the arms of Washington, 
they stand for " miillets," which in heraldry are denoted by 
a figure in shape like the rowel of a spur, used as the filial 
distinction of the third son. The rowel of the spur is 
symbolised in the " mullet " with five points. If there 
were six or more points it would be a star ; and it is in- 
teresting to notice that though now there are six-pointed 
stars on the coins of the United States, they iised to be 
five-pointed mullets during the presidency of Washington. 

The Washington shield is entirely red and white, 
whereas in the flag the stars are white on a blue ground. 
On the other hand in the boat flags used by vice-admirals 
and rear admirals of the American navy, the stars — ^one 
of the former, two in the latter — are red, 


Th«re were no stars on the flag which George 
Washington raised at the beginning of 1776 at Cambridge. 
The flag consisted of thirteen red and white stripes, with 
the crosses of St. Andrew and St. George at the right hand 
upper corner, the crosses being on a blue held. When the 
Independence of the States was declared in .Tidy, 1776,, in- 
stead of the British crosses thirteen white stars were sub- 
stituted. According to Major-General Schuyler, this change 
in the flag did not take place until June, 1777. The 
President of the Board of War in the States then was 
John Adams, so that the question of the new flag came 
under his consideration. In the possession of the family 
of Adams of Massachusetts is an heirloom, consisting of a 
seal representing an eagle holding in its beak a lyre with 
thirteen stars scattered over the latter, and the motto, 
"Nunc sidera ducit " ("Now it leads the stars.") These 
stars radiate into another set of thirteen, «hich form a 
circle round the whole. The drawing of the first flag of 
the United States in the State Department of Washingtoii, 
represents the thirteen stars in a circle. Which was 
designed first, the flag of the United States or this heirloom 
of the Adams family ? 

George Washington, on April 30th, 1789, took the oath 
as first President in the city of New York. In 1792 
Washington was again chosen President, but he refused to 
be a candidate at the election of 1796, when John Adams 
became the second President. When the grandson of this 
man, John Quincy Adams, was Secretary of vState in 1820, 
he substituted for the arms of the United States on its 
l^assports, contrary to the i^ractice of nations, the device 
above described of the lyre of Orpheus on the Adams heir- 
loom. It appears as though he wished to bring forward 
prominently the origin of the stars on the flag. How 
remarkable that there should have been so much in com- 
mon between the arms of Adams and of Washington ! 


The Washington Entries, 
Extracted from the Warton Registers. 

1584 Elizabeth Washington, bapt. 2nd January. 

1586 Ann Washington, bapt. 22nd May. 

1586 John Washington, bapt. 7th October. 

1593 Mary, daughter of Lawrence Washington of Warton, 
bapt. 14th May. 

1597 Anna, daughter of Lawrence Washington of Warton, 

bapt. 28th February. 
1600 Robert, son of Lawrence Washington, of- Warton, 

bapt. 22nd July. 

1603 Brigget, daughter of Lawrence Washington of 
Warton, bapt. 3rd July. 

1616 Robert, son of Leonard Washington, bapt. 8th 

1616 Alrice, daughter loi John Washington, bapt. 12th 

1618 Leonard, son of John Washington, bapt. 16th March. 

1619 Jane, daughter of Leonard Washington, bapt. 4th 


1622 Francis, son of Leonard Washington, bapt. 4th 

1638 Ellen, daughter of Lawrence Washington of Warton, 

bapt. 28th October. 

1640 John, son of Lawrence Washington, bapt. 18th 

1643 Robert, son of Lawrence Washington, bapt. 15th June. 

1645 Leonard, son of Lawrence Washington, bapt. 20th 

1685 Lawrence, son of Robert Washington, bapt. 27th 

1718 Matthew, son of Revd. Lawrence Washington and 
Elizabeth Washington, bapt. 10th November. 


1583 Lawrence Washington and Alice Godsalve, 18th 

1637 Lawrence Washington and Mary Croft, 2nd October. 

1639 Robert Bugg and Ann Washington, 17th October. 



1584 John Washington, buried last day of April. 
1588 Elizabeth Washington, buried 13th April. 
1588 Wife of Leonard Washington buried 30th March. 
1618 Wife of John W^ashington buried 25th March. 
1622 Lawrence Washington buried 29th May. 

1657 Alice Washington of Warton buried 17th July. 

1658 Thomas Washington of Warton buried 17th February. 
1668 Robert Washington of Warton buried 14th September. 
1670 Lawrence Washington of Warton buried 7th Sept. 
1670 Thomasin Washington of Warton buried 10th Nov. 
1675 Mary Washington buried 30th November. 

1698 Leonard Washington buried 5th March. 

1699 Robert Washington of Warton buried 18th January. 


























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T. PAPE, B.A. 





Hairdresser, Tobacconist, 
and Fancy Goods Dealer, 





Socks & Stockings knitted & re-footed 
to order. 


Splendid Accommodation for Visitors at the 


ALES AND STOUTS in fine condition. 
WINES & SPIRITS of Cfioicest Brands. 



When you are in the District — Kindly CALL and inspect our 
Varied and Up-to-date Stock in 



Vidona Buildings. 




Joseph Walmsley & Son, 

Plumbers, Glaziers, l^ou$e=Paintcr$, 
Oecoraiors, $lciii=Wrjfcrs, and 

Paper = f>atlder$. Large stock of Paperhangings. 

Messrs. Steele & Bainbridge 

(Late J. KNOWLES). 

Complete House Furnishers, Undertakers, 


Gramaphones and Edison Phonographs. 


Cabinet and Upholstery Work. 

& CO., 

Wholesale Bakers and Confectioners, 


Sole District Agent for the Manufacture of 




M.P.S., F.I.O., 



Photographic W\>rk of all kinds„ 

Prompt Dellve y. Reasonable Prices. 

Full Stock of Kodaks, Kodak Films, and 

The Best Makes of Plates, P.O.P., 
Bromide, and Gaslight Papers.