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Sex and Sex Worship 

(Phallic Worship) 

O. A. WALL. M.D., Ph.C, Ph.M/ 




Gift in memory of 




3 1924 104 753 110 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

Sex and Sex Worship 

(Phallic Worship) 

Sex and Sex Worship 

(Phallic Worship) 

A Scientific Treatise on Sex, its Nature and Function, and its 

Influence on Art, Science, Architecture, and Religion — with Special 

Reference to Sex Worship and Symbolism 

O. A. WALL, M.D., Ph.G., Ph.M. 

Author of "Handbook of Pharmacognosy," "The Prescription," "Elementary Lessons 
in Latin," etc., etc. 





CoPVSiOHT, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1922, By C. V. Mosby Company 
(All Rights Strictly Reserved") 

(Printed in U. S. A.) 

Press of 

C. y. Mos'by Company 

St. Louis, U.S.A. 


Years ago, it was my good fortune to have the opportunity to 
examine and read a collection of curious books on sex matters. 
As I read, I made notations of many facts that I wished to remem- 
ber, and I also annexed references to the sources from which I 
had acquired the knowledge. Many of these memoranda, if they 
were short, were literal copies ; longer ones were abridged, others 
were merely paraphrased; all of them were written partly with 
word and phrase signs, such as stenographers used, to make the 
work as little as possible. 

Then, at my leisure I made clean copy of this material, ar- 
ranging it according to subject matter, with numbered references 
to the book in which I had the original material. This latter book 
was destroyed during the cyclone of 1896, together with many 
other of my books, by becoming watersoaked and illegible by 
water coming into a bookcase from damage to the roof im- 
mediately over it. I could not now say which of the facts stated 
were literal quotations, or from what authors, and which were 
passages original with me, or freely paraphrased by me. I have 
attempted to place quotation marks wherever I could remember 
that the matter was a quotation, but I may have failed to properly 
mark other passages as quotations ; I speak of this to disclaim any 
conscious or intentional plagiarism, if such plagiarism should have 
occurred, for I have freely used matter written by others if they 
said anything in an exceptionally good manner. 

The material, prior to 1896, was mainly from the private 
library referred to above, which was sold, I was told, to an eastern 
collector of erotica, after the owner's death. But any reference to 
the subject foimd elsewhere, in current literature, in encyclo- 
pedias, histories, magazines, novels, newspapers, etc., was also 
used and much of the matter was contributed by friends who were 
aware that I was gathering this material. For example, the picture 
of the burning of a negro at Texarkana in 1892 (see page 340) was 
sent me by a member of the State Board of Pharmacy of Texas 
at that time. 

I am sorry that the accident of the cyclone prevents me from 


giving due credit to everyone and every source of information I 
consulted, but it does not affect tlie information itself. 

When "PsychopatMa Sexualis" by Krafft-Ebing, and similar 
works by Moll, Lombroso, etc., appeared in print, I, at the request 
of some of my professional friends prepared a series of lectures 
for them, showing that sexual "perversions," described in these 
works as insanities, were in reality deliberate vices, the results of 
vicious teachings which had come to us by transmission and teach- 
ings from the Greek and Roman schools in which slaves were 
trained in libidinous arts, to make them more valuable to luxury- 
loving purchasers, their masters and mistresses. But of this mat- 
ter little or none is used in this book, which does not pretend to 
treat of that phase of sexual life and sexual practices. 

Recently I was asked to write my studies on sex for publica- 
tion, in order that the work might not be lost. As the views on 
these subjects have materially changed among the learned among 
the public since the time when the collection of this information 
was first begun, I consented, and this book is the result. 

The facts gathered about phallic religion led me to doubt 
whether this was ever a religion from all other religions apart; 
it appeared to me to be merely a phase in the evolution of all re- 
ligions. Nor was it a real worship of the generative organs, but 
rather a use of representations of the phallus and yoni as symbols 
for certain religious ideas which were embodied in nature- worship. 

Mankind, when it gave expression to its first dawnings of re- 
ligious thoughts, wove a fabric of myths and theories about re- 
ligion, the warp of which ran through from earliest historical 
times to our own days as threads of the warp of philosophies and 
theories about sex, male, female, love, passion, lust, desire, pro- 
creation, offspring, etc. ; while the succeeding ages and civilizations 
wove into this warp the woof of the individual religions, the myths 
and fables of gods and goddesses, so that the whole fabric of be- 
liefs, though at first coarse and poor, became more refined as 
mankind itself advanced, by a process of revelation which con- 
sisted in a gradual unfolding of truths in the consciousness and 
consciences of innumerable thinkers, until our present religions 
were produced, and which process of revelation is still going on 
and will continue until all that is fantastic, irrational, unbeliev- 
able, is eradicated from our faiths. 


We read in the Bible (Micah, vi, 8) : "What doth the Lord re- 
quire of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk 
humbly before thy God?" In other words, to act fairly towards 
our fellow-men is all there is of religion that is worth while. 

The theories that are taught and the myths we are asked to 
believe, are non-essential. We can not comprehend how the world 
could exist, without having been created, but neither can we com- 
prehend how it could have been created ; we can not comprehend 
how or where there can be a Power to create a universe, or under- 
stand the nature of such a Power. But the theorizing on such sub- 
jects has formed our religions. Matthew Arnold wrote: 

"Children of Men! The unseen Power whose eye 
Forever doth accompany mankind 
Hath looked on no religion scornfully 
That mankind did ever find." 

Possibly as good a definition of religion as we can find is 
Carlyle's saying: "His religion at best is an anxious wish, — like 
that of Eabelais, a great Perhaps," 

In the course of years I have accumulated maay illustrations 
on art, religion, etc., some of which are used in this book. But 
many that would most drastically (but possibly also offensively) 
have shown the crude phallism of the earlier stages of religious 
thought, such as many sculptures from the temple ruins of Egypt, 
or the collection of paintings, or utensils from the Eoman homes 
in Pompeii or Herculaneum, had to be omitted out of deference to 
modern ideas of propriety, although they would have cast an in- 
teresting and illuminating, albeit lurid light on the history of the 
phallic phase in religions. 

In recording here what I have found in my reading and the 
conclusions at which I have arrived, I do not attempt to even ap- 
proximately exhaust the vast field of details. But I attempt to 
present the truths as recorded in history, as I see them, even 
though, as George Eliot said: 

"Truth has rough flavor if we bite it through." 

0. A. Wa^l. 

St. Louis, U. S. A. 



Primitive ideas about sex, 2; Heaven and earth, 3; Creator hermaphrodite, 5; 
Plato's idea, 5; Hindu story of creation oif animals, 5. 


Definition, 6; Father, 7; Bibles, 8; Brahmanism, 8; Hindu Trinity, 9; Jewish 
and Christian Bible, 9 ; Bibliolatry, 10 ; Oral transmission, 11 ; Koran, 13 ; Statistics 
of religion, 14. 


Shintoism, 14; Taoism, 14; Confucianism, 14; Buddhism, 14; Gautama, 16; 
Lamaism, 18; Statistics, 19; Shamanism, 20. 


Geological ages, 20; Darwinism, 22; Earliest writing, 23; Earth's age, 24; 
Age of man, 24; Pithecanthropus, 26; Alalus, 28; Inhabitants of Pacifi,c Islands, 29; 
Similarity of Aztec and Asiatic civilizations, 31; Aztec crucifix, 33; How many races 
of man, 34; Biblical account, 34; Other accounts, 34; Preglacial art, 35; Early records, 
36; Evolution, 37. 


Mystery, 39; Death and reproduction, 40; Death augel, 41; Styx and Charon, 
43; Disease demons, 45; "Witchcraft, 46. 


Fission, 49; Asexual, 49; Budding, 50; Conjugation, 52; Anabolism, 52; Katabo- 
lism, 53; Evolution of sex, 53; Impregnation, 55; Parthenogenesis, 57; Hermaphro- 
ditism, 58; Atavism, 59; Determination of sex, 61; Nourishment, 61; Parthenogenesis 
in insects, 64. 


In Dahomey, 68; Jus primae noctis, 60; Biblical, 69; Has woman a soul? 70; 
Infanticide, 72 ; Socialistic communities, 73 ; Mosaic law, 74 ; in England, 76 ; Woman 's 
dress, 78; Koraji on woman, 78; Slavery of woman, 79; Whipping women, 82; Chastity 
belts, 83; Census on woman, 89. 


Genesis, 91; Books of Moses, 95; Legend of Sargon, 96; Days of Genesis, 97; 
Koran, creation, 97; Persian version, 97; Years, 98; Months, 98; Weeks, 98; Zodiac, 
99; Days of the week, 99; Sabbath, 101. 



Antichrist, 102; Lucky and unlucky days, and numbers, 103; Creation of the 
world, Philo, 104; Six, 104; Numbers have sex, 104. 


"Writings of Hesiod and Homer, 106; Birth of Venus, 108; Eros, 109; Baby- 
lonian account of creation, 110; Brahmanic account. 111; Buddhism, 112; Origin of 
religious sentiment, gratitude, 114; fear, 116; Ancestor worship, 115; Manes, 115; 
Phallus as a symbol, 116; People without religion, 118; Persian views, 119; Hindus, 
120; Are mythologies religions? 121; Caves, Cybele, 121; Demiurge, 122; Mandaeans, 
123; Assurbanipal 's library, 124; Avesta, 124; Story of flood, 125; Cosmic egg, 126. 


Iggdrasil, 128; Ash tree, 129; Alder tree, 129; Birch, 129; Lupercalia, 130; Fir 
tree, 130; Marriage to trees, 130; Birth trees, 131; Gender of plant names, 131; Sex 
in plants, 134; Fertilization in plants, 136. 


Lilith, 139; Prakriti, 139; Adam a hermaphrodite, 139; Purusha, 140; Breath 
the fertilizing agent, 140; Seed from male alone, 140; Right side of body male, left 
female, 143; Ancient views of sex, 145; Medieval views, 147; Modern views, 149. 


Female, 150; Vulva, 151; Pelvic organs, 151; Menses, 152; Human ovum, 153; 
Pregnancy, 154; Mammary gland, 156; Male, 157; Spermatozoon, 158; Male genitals, 
159 ; Coition, 160 ; Masturbation, 162 ; Onanism, 163 ; Sexual instinct, 166 ; Coition, 
how often, 174; seasons for, 175; Sexual passion, 175; Eutting odor, 177. 


Promiscuity, 180; Monogamy, 181; Family, 183; Marriage by capture, 185; 
Polygamy or Polygyny, 187; Marriage by purchase of wives, 190; Marriage to sisters, 
192 ; Kabbalah, 193 ; Free love, 199 ; Double standard of morality, 200 ; Polyandry, 200 ; 
Concubinage, 202; Prostitution, 204; Celibacy, 205; Asceticism, 207; Skopsi, 211; 
Eunuchs or Castrati, 212. 


Sense of Smell, 213; Perfume for gods, 218; Sacrifices, 219; Human sacrifices, 
222; Druidic sacrifices, 226; Aztec sacrifices, 227; Incense, 228; Perfume for humans, 
230; Odophone, Dr. Piesse, 230; Antiquity of cabarets, 232; Perfumes, forms of, 233; 
Perfume of the human body, 236; Perfuming the bride, 239; Perfume among the 
ancients, 239; Natural odors of the human body, 242; Sense of hearing, 248; Sense 
of taste, 249; Kiss, 250; Love cake, 250; Cannibalism, 251; Sense of touch, 253; 
Sense of sight, 253; Beauty, 255; Long hair, 256; Elliptic shape of women, 257; 
Bosom of woman, 259; waist, 261; Legs and feet, 262; Dance, 263; Religious dances, 
266; Social dances, 267. 



Influence of World's Fairs, 269; Egyptian art, 271; Greek art, 271; Nude in 
art, 273; In churches, 277; Nudity for baptism, 277; Adam and Eve, 279; Chiton, 281; 
Arena, 283; Prostitute, 285; Una, 286; Idealization in art, 287; Modern decadence of 
art, 288; Indecency in art, 289; Eealism, 289; Vulgarity in art, 290. 


Sculpture, 292; Decency, 294; Indecency, 294; Innocence of naked childhood, 
297; Modern photography of the nude, 298; Pompeiian bath-room paintings, 302. 


Rules of proportion of bodies, 303; Heredity, 305; Children, 308; Women, 308; 
Men, 308; Youths and Maidens, 309; Plan of body structure, 310; Wedge shape of 
men, 312; Elliptic form of women, 313; Feminine beauty, 313. 


Magic, 315; An old deer, 316; Educated mermaid, 316; Patron saint of Poland, 
316; Multiple births, 317; Three hundred and siKty-five children at one birth, 318; 
Agnosticism, 319; Atheism, 320. 


Lycanthropy, 321; Witches, 322; Diana and Actaeon, 323; Daphne and Apollo, 


How myths travel, 327; Unitarianism, 330; Trinitarianism, 330; What are the 
Gods? 331; Ancient ideas, 331; Neo-Platonists, 333; Pantheism, 333; Pythagoreans, 
333; Hesiod's fable of hawk and nightingaJe, 335; Homo est creator dei, 337; Religious 
intolerance and persecution, 337; Burning at the stake, 339. 


Fear of Ghosts, 343; Fetiches, 343; African fetich place, 344; Suttee in India, 
345; Dragons, 346; Asshur, 347; Idols, 348; Images, 348; Aztec idols, 350; Teraphim, 
351; Pan, 354; Stones, piUars, steeples, etc., 355; Dolmens, Cromlechs, etc., 356; 
Animals as symbols of deities, 356; Sivayites or Lingayats, 357; Greek statues of 
deities, 357; Ikons, 358; Crucifix or cross, 358. 


Daemones, Greek, 360; Demons, modern, 360; Exorcism, 361; Philacteries or 
charms, 361; Pentagram, 361; Were-wolves, 362; Vampires, 362; Incubi and Succubi, 
364; Manichaeism, 364; Simon Magus, 365; Witches' Sabbath, 366; Trial of Witches, 
366; Fauns, 367; Satyrs, 368; Sileni, 368; Nymphs, 368; Naiads, 369; Angels, 370; 
Genii, 370 ; Valkyrs, 372 ; Sirens, 373 ; Sons of God, 373 ; Incest and Rape, 374. 

Ammon, 375 ; Wodan, 375 ; Demeter, 375 ; Proserpina, 376 ; Lara, 376. 


Osiris and Isis, 376; Juno, 377; Zeus or Jupiter, 377. 


Unity of religions, 378; Phallism, 379; Creator, the father, 380; Lingam, 382; 
Ancestor worship, 382; PhaUus, 382; Male sexual organs, 383; Baal, 384; PhaUio 
pillars, dolmens, etc., 385 ; Asher, Anu and Hoa, 386 ; Male symbols, 387 ; male triangle, 
387; Lotus, 387; Fleur-de-lis, 388; Shamrock, 388; Phallic jewelry and medals, 389; 
Abraxas medals, 390; Salerno trinity, 390; Uas sceptre, 393; Pyramid, 393; Triangle 
symbol for biblical God, 395; Medieval trinity, 398; Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. G. A. 
triangles, 398; Arrow, 399; Thyrsus, 399; Temptation of St. Anthony, 401; Sign of 
the Cross, 403; Trinity, 404; Phallic signs on houses, 405; Holy families, 406; Norns, 


Christmas tree, 408; Maypole, 408; Yule log, 409; Groves (in the Bible), 411; 
Assyrian tree of life, 413; Alchemistic tree of life, 415; Witehhazel, 415; Mistletoe, 
416; Mandrake roots, 417; Love charms, 417; Plant names, 422; Eomauce of plant 
names, 422. 


Turtle, 430; Bull, 431; Goats, 435; Eagle, 436; Owl, 436; Vulture, 436; Pea- 
cock, 437; Doves, 437; Cock, 437; Lamb (Agnus Dei), 437; Scarabaeus insect, 582. 


Age of recorded history, 439; Ishtar's trip to Hades, 440; Phoenicia, 441; Sun 
and moon worship, 442; Persia, 443; Ormuzd and Ahriman, 444; Egypt, 445; Osiris, 
Isis and Horus or Harpokrat, 446; Osiris mysteries, 448; Greece, 449; Old Father 
Time, 450; Zeus, 450; Mars, 452; Oupid or Amor, 453; Dionysus, 454; India, 456; 
Four Great Gods, 457; Siva, 458; Vishnu, 459; China, 460; Japan, 461; Mexico, 461. 


Mother worship, 462; Symbols of the feminine, 463; Vulva, 464; Feminine 
triangle, 465; Abracadabra, 466; Sign of fertility, 467; Ishtar, 468; Cruelty to 
women, 469; Sistrum, 469; Stonehenge, 471; Arches, 471; Shells, 472; Adoration, 474; 
Vesica piscis, 475; Door of life, 476; Medals, seals, etc., 476; Symbol of vulva on 
slate roofs, 479; Labial caressing of woman, 479; Festival of the womb, 482; Worship 
of breast, 488; Madonna worship, 489; Egg, 491; Goddesses of maternity, 492; Aztec 
Madonna, 493. 


Parthenogenesis, 494; Jupiter and Leda, 495; Fornication, 496; Gods born of 
women, 496; Diana of Ephesus, 497; Devaki and Krishna, 498; Isis as a virgin, 498- 
Earth as a Madonna, 499; Juno as Madonna, 501; Queen of Heaven, 502; Madonna 
and St. Bernhard of Clairvaux, 502; Mound builders' Madonna, 503; Eeligion of Hu- 
manity, 504; Goddess of Season, 505; Worship of woman, 506. 



Assyrian and Babylonian, 508; Egypt, 509; Greece, 510; Venus or Aphrodite, 
510; Three Graces, 512; Juno, 512; Hebe, 513; Diana or Artemis, 514; Latona, 515; 
Flora, 516; The Fates, 517; Immaculate Conception, 518. 


Story of Esther, 519; King Oandaules, 519; Conon and his daughter, 520; Cas- 
sandra, 520; Leaena, 521; Tamerlane and Bajazeth, 521; Model mother of China, 521. 


David's shield, 522; Sign of the Gnostics, 522; Swastika, 523; Irish crosses, 
524; Hands in blessing, 524; Adam and Eve, in church decoration, 525; Ikons, 526; 
Iconoclasts, 526; Crux ansata, 527; Hindu holy places, 528; Wedding ring, symbol 
of yoni, 530; Finger symbol of lingam, 530; Suben, goddess of maternity, 532; Posey 
rings, 533. 


Peleus and Thetis, 534; Apple of Discord, 535; Aesculapius' stafE, 535; Hygeia, 
535; Serpent mound, 537; Zuni snake worship, 538; Adam, Eve and serpent, 539; St. 
Patrick, 540; Creation of Eve, 542; Worship of Satan, 543. 


Sun and moon, 545; Stars and planets, 545; Sun myths, 549; Golden fleece, 549; 
Mohammedan crescent, 551 ; Marriage of sun and moon, 552 ; He&ate, 553 ; Lunatic 
554; Planets, 555; Zodiacal signs, 556. 


Sexual life, ancient and modern, 557; Prostitution in Rome, 560; Roman festi- 
vals, 564; Liberalia, 565; Dionysia, 566; Floralia, 568; Lupercalia, 5^; Agrionia, 
570; Bacchanalia, 570; Phallic festivals in India, 574. 


Worship of rivers and river gods, 575 ; Styx, 576 ; Nile, 576 ; Ganges, 577 ; Jordan, 
577; Holy water, 578; Urine as holy water, Persia, 579; Urine as a remedy, 579. 


Cicero's ideas, 580; Kant on immortality, 581; Plato's ideas, 581; Materialistic 
view, 581; Stoics, 584; Zoroastrian beliefs, 584; Buddha's teachings, 584; Nirvana, 584; 
Pre-existence of souls, 586; Seat of the soul, 588; Hades, or hell, 589; Heaven or 
paradise, 590; Have women souls? 591; DevU, 592; Valhalla, 592; Hindu immortality, 
593; Myth of Ahasuerus, 594; Conclusion, 595. 




When primitive man had advanced sufficiently to have ac- 
quired the rudiments of language and the ability to think logi- 
cally, he probably commenced to speculate on the origin or source 
of life or existence. It is not inconceivable that the troglodites, 
living in their caves, depending for food on the hunt and the chase, 
slaying wild animals in self-defence, others for game, robbing 
birds' nests for food, and using all animal substances, even in- 
cluding the dead of their own kind, as provender, came across 
some eggs just as they were being hatched, or upon some wild 
animal just as it was giving birth to young; and generalizing 
from such observations, which corresponded so closely with what 
they knew to be the facts about their domestic animals and about 
their own women and children, they came to the conclusion that 
all things were produced in the same manner as was the case 
among men and women of their own kind. 

To civilized man only man seems personal — a real conscious 
Ego — "Cogito, ergo sum!" I think, therefore, I am. 

But savages, primitive men, conceive every object as living, 
as being personal, endowed with passions and attributes like them- 
selves ; even the most abstract phenomena of nature are regarded 
as persons — sky, earth, wind, fire, etc. 

In the dim ages of long ago, when the dawn of the human 
reasoning power occurred, the distinctions between animal, veg- 
etable and inorganic objects were unknown. There were many 
transitional forms between animals and plants on the one hand, 
while the fossils and petrifactions furnished equally transitional 
forms between animals, vegetables and minerals, or stones, on 
the other hand. 



Mankind in its childhood imagined all things to be alive and 
to have sex like mankind itself. The facts of sex became known 
from experience ; sex was the great mystery* of the ancients, and 
al&o the readiest explanation of reproduction and of life, or even 
of existence of any kind, and so all things, animate and inanimate, 
were supposed to be sexual and to produce either their own kind 
or any other kind of being by processes analogous to those by 
which human offspring was produced. 

Even the soil and stones were supposed to produce human 
beings, and the ancient Greeks called men who sprang from their 
soil "autochthones." 

Our negroes, who still cultivate many features of voodoo 
worship, consider lodestones to be powerful love-charms or fe- 
tiches, and know how to distinguish between "male" and "fe- 
male" lodestones. 

And primitive men extended such ideas to the supernatural 
beings with whom their imagination peopled the heavens above 
them, and the world around them and under them, and to many 
phenomena of nature, as sun, moon and planets, as well as to the 
gods and goddesses, the demons, and the powers of the infernal 
regions, all of which were supposed to be sexual. 

All religions are based on sex; some, like the ancient Egyp- 
tian, Greek and Roman, or the modern Brahmanic worship of 
Siva, very coarsely so, according to modern civilized thought; 
others, like the Christian religion, more obscurely so. 

Hence it will prove interesting to ascertain, if possible, what 
sex is or is supposed to be, and what it was supposed to be. 

We will first give a Dictionary definition, as a sample of 
what such definitions usually are : 

"Sex (from Latin secus, indecl. ; from seco, cui, ctum, care, 1, 
v.a., to cut ; to cut surgically, to cut off or out, to amputate ; to di- 
vide, cleave, separate). 

Secus, indecl. ) ^ e i 

„ /I f a sex, male or remale. 

Sexus, us, ra-, i ) 

' ' Sex : 1. The distinction between male and female ; the phys- 
ical difference between male and female ; that property or charac- 
ter by which an animal is male or female. 

•For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother and shall be joined unto his wife 
and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery. — Eph. v, 31, 32. '' 


"Sexual distinctions are derived from the presence and de- 
velopment of the characteristic generative organs of the male and 
female respectively. 

"2. Womankind, by way of emphasis (generally preceded by 
the definite article the), 

"A tact which surpassed the tact of her sex, as 
much as the tact of her sex surpasses the tact of 
ours." — Macaulay, Hist, of Engl., Ch. xi. 

"3. One of the two divisions of animals founded on the dis- 
tinction between male and female. ' ' 

Originally, in Latin, either the word secus or sexus was used ; 
while secus was more common in the works of the earlier writers, 
the word sexus became more and more common in later times, 
after the beginning of our era, until it finally replaced the word 
secus altogether. 

An explanation of the derivation of the word secus {sexus) 
from the verb seco must probably be sought in the older religions 
with which the Romans were acquainted. 

Heaven and Earth (the deities Uranus and Gea) were sup- 
posed to have been at first permanently united, either in an un- 
ending sexual embrace or as an hermaphrodite deity. The same 
idea was found in many mythologies, in most of which the two 
principles (Uranus, male, and Gea, female) were supposed to 
have been separated later on by cutting apart (hence seco, to am- 
putate, to separate). 

The heaven here mentioned must not be confounded with 
the heaven of the Christian religion which is an idea that the 
ancients did not know; the heaven of the ancients was simply the 
upper atmosphere, the region of the clouds, or above the clouds, 
which seemed to them to encompass the earth on all sides, the 
earth being beneath. 

Lucretius said: "Lastly, you may say, perhaps, the showers 
of rain perish, when Father Aether has poured them down into 
the lap of Mother Earth. But it is not so ; for hence the smiling 
fruits arise, and the branches become verdant on the trees." 

This posture of the male above and the female below, is usual 
during sexual congress among animals, and in the Brahmanic 
writings it is taught that men and women should cohabit in the 


same posture, as to do so in any other posture, or at any time 
except at night, is sin. 

Heaven and Earth, then, were endowed with human parts 
and human passions ; they begat the gods in Greek, Vedic, Hindu, 
Chinese, Polynesian and New Zealand mythologies (although des- 
ignated, of course, by different names in the different languages). 

In these religions they were at first united, but later on sepa- 
rated. The sky was also a god, personal and sexual, among the 
Samoyeds, the North American Indians (Amerinds) and the Zu- 
lus, though not hermaphrodite by union with Earth. 

Uranus (Coelum, Sky) was supposed to be male and to be 
covering Gea (Earth, Terra) in one unending sexual embrace; 
Gea was female. 

In Polynesian, New Zealand, Chinese, Vedic and Greek myths, 
Heaven (Sky) and Gea (Earth, Nature) constituted a hermaphro- 
dite being; their union was perpetual. Only later on were they 
considered as a pair, separated from each other, and each one 

The Maories, natives of New Zealand, told the story as fol- 
lows: The god Eangi (Sky) was a male person who was insep- 
arably united in a continuous union with his wife Papa, and thus 
they begat the gods and all other things; the couple were after- 
wards torn apart or separated by their children (the other gods). 

It does not appear distinctly that there was any idea of anal- 
ogy to vaginismus in any of these mythologies to explain the 
perpetual or prolonged union; the condition of vaginismus, as 
frequently seen in the copulation of dogs, for instance, and as oc- 
casionally, although rarely, occurring during coition of humans, 
may have been known, and may perhaps be implied in the above 
story of Eangi and Papa, who were "torn apart;" but in most 
of the stories of this kind the separation of a hermaphrodite be- 
ing into its two separate natures is distinctly stated. 

Of course, sex was distinctly apparent in the higher animals 
and mankind, but the ideas as to the sexual process were vague 
and wholly unscientific. In fact, the earliest references in the 
oldest mythologies did not always assume two complementary 
principles or agencies (sometimes spoken of as "antagonistic 
principles"), but seem to have taught that the Creator was of 
hermaphrodite nature. 

In imitation of these ancient theories that the Creator was 


androgynous or hermaphrodite, and no doubt derived from the 
same folk-lore, some philosophers held the same view in regard 
to Yahwe (Jehovah or Elohim), the god or the Demiurge of the 
Old Testament. We read in the twenty-seventh verse of the first 
chapter of Genesis : " So God created man in his own image ; male 
and female created He them" {in Ms oivn image; male and fe- 
male created He them). And this is emphasized by repetition 
in the more explicit statement in verses 1 and 2, chap, v, of Gen- 
esis: "In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God 
made he them; and God blessed them, and called their name 

The Talmud (Hebrew Traditions) says that Adam was cre- 
ated androgynous. His head reached the clouds. God caused 
a sleep to fall on him, and God took something away from all 
his members (seco, to cut off — the same idea) and these parts 
he fashioned into ordinary men and women and scattered them 
throughout the world. After Lilith (Adam's first wife, a mother 
of demons and giants) deserted Adam, God separated Adam into 
his two sexual parts; he took one of Adam's ribs and made Eve 
from it. Philo, a Jewish philosopher contemporaneous Avith 
Jesus, said that Adam was a double, androgynous or hermaphro- 
dite being "in the likeness of God." 

Philo said that "God separated Adam into his two sexual 
component parts, one male, the other female — Eve — taken from 
his side. The longing for reunion which love inspired in the 
divided halves of the originally dual being, is the source of the 
sexual pleasure, which is the beginning of all transgressions." 
The Targum of Jonathan relates that Eve was made from the 
thirteenth rib of Adam's right side; even modern theologists 
have held that Adam had one more rib than his descendants. 

Plato, a Greek philosopher, explained the amatory instincts 
and inclinations of men and women by the assertion that human 
beings were at first androgynous ; Zeus separated them into uni- 
sexual halves, and they seek to become reunited. 

The Hindus explain the creation of the different animals in 
this way: Purusha was alone in the world, and very lonesome. 
He therefore divided himself into two beings, man and wife; the 
wife regarded union with him to be incestuous, on account of 
their former close relationship, and fled from his amorous ad- 
vances and embraces, and to elude him changed herself to vari- 



ous forms; but Purusha assumed the same shapes as his wife 
and in these forms succeeded in his pursuit, and begat with her 
the various animals, of the shapes that his wife had assumed. 

In the writings of Hesiod (the old Greek Bible) occurs the 
story of how Cronus (the Latin god Saturn) separated Heaven 
and Earth with a sickle, by cutting off the sexual organs of his 
father Uranus. 

In one of the compartments of the hewn cave temples of 
Elephanta, near Bombay, there are a great many figures of an- 
cient workmanship, representing Siva with his Sakti or wife, 
Parvati, as one being of an hermaphrodite nature. One of these 
figures is about 16 feet high, having both male and female parts, 
or being half male, half female. The androgynous form of Siva 
and Parvati, before separation, was called Viraj. 

The idea that originally gods and men were hermaphrodite, 
and had to be separated into uni-sexual beings, accounts for the 
word "sex," derived from secus, and this in turn from the word 
seco, to amputate, to cut apart. 


Most people have developed, either through the imagina- 
tion of one or a few dreamers and poets, or through the cumula- 
tive efforts of many, some theory of the formation of the world, 
and of the gods that govern this world. The explanations in 
regard to the formation of the world are spoken of as "cosmog- 
onies," while the beliefs in regard to supernatural or non-human 
beings (gods, goddesses, demons, devils, etc.) are called "myth- 
ologies;" or, if a religious worship of any kind is inculcated in 
connection therewith, they are called "religions." There is a 
difference, however, between mythology and religion; only those 
gods or goddesses, or other supernatural beings who are actu- 
ally worshipped, have a religious significance. All those about 
whom the fables are told, but who are not worshipped or pro- 
pitiated Avith sacrifices, belong merely to mythology. 

A religion is the form or embodiment which the devotion of 
a religious mind assumes towards God; it consists of certain 
rites or ceremonials practiced in the worship of God. Cicero de- 
fined religion to be reverence for the gods, the fear of God con- 
nected with a careful pondering of divine things, piety, religion. 


A "true religion" is the religion adhered to by the individ- 
ual believer, while all other religions are usually regarded and 
referred to as "false religions;" or to use a familiar saying — 
"orthodoxy is my doxy, heterodoxy or unorthodoxy is the other 
fellow's doxy." This, at least, has always been the mental atti- 
tude of religious persons. 

The source or origin of religions must be sought in the rec- 
ords of earlier times when they were first proclaimed. What 
primitive men believed from the time of the appearance of the 
Alalus (speechless ancestor) to the time when the dawn of au- 
thentic history occurred, we do not know; there is an impenetra- 
ble curtain drawn over the untold ages, variously estimated by 
scientists from a few tens of thousands of years, to a million 
years or more, during which time man existed but was unable to 
leave us any records of his existence except such as we may trace 
in the stone implements, kitchen middens, dolmens, or fossils, 
etc., that we may find. 

We have no reason to assume that primitive man had any 
religion, or that he bothered his mind with speculations about 
abstruse mental problems. It seems more reasonable to believe 
that the sentiment of religion is a comparatively late acquire- 
ment on the part of mankind, possibly not older than 10,000 or 
25,000 years, a mere trifle in comparison with the ages during 
which he probably existed. It is not our object here to attempt 
the description of the evolution of religions. Did they develop 
one from another? It seems to a certain extent this was the 
case, but we want only to study the religions with regard to 
sex, — to find the bearing religion has to sex, or vice versa, that 
sex has to religion. A part of our inquiry is to see what is 
meant by " Sex- Worship. " 

We are struck by one peculiarity at a very early stage of 
our research. Most Aryan nations speak of their supreme God 
as "Father;" thus at once proclaiming sex as an important fea- 
ture of religion. 

The leading religions of the world are based in great part at 
least on ancient "sacred writings," the authors of which were 
supposed to have been the gods of the respective religions them- 
selves ; or the gods are supposed to have inspired certain writers, 
or to have dictated to them the contents of their writings. These 


writings are called "The Word of God" by the adherents of the 
several religions. 

The Books, or collections of books, are also called "Bibles" 
(from the Greek word hyblon or its plural hyhlia, meaning 
"books") ; thus, the writings of Hesiod and Homer constitute the 
Bible of the ancient Greeks; the Rig-Vedas are the Bible of the 
Hindus; the writings of Moses and the prophets are the Bible 
of the Jews, and the latter, together with the modern writings of 
some Greeks and Jews, called the New Testament, form the Bible 
of the Christians. 

It is probable that the evolution of the human race from its 
pre-human ancestors took place somewhere in Asia. But it is 
not necessary here to make any dogmatic assertions of any kind 
regarding this subject, because there are scientists who believe 
that the human race may have originated in America, and others 
who believe that it originated, when the time was ripe for this 
evolution, in several centers at once, from where they overspread 
the earth. 

Whatever we may individually believe regarding this, sci- 
entists probably all agree that the first traces of inscriptions or 
written records, occurred in the region about the Eastern end of 
the Mediterranean Sea, in Asia Minor, in Assyria, Babylon or 
Egypt, or even in India. The majority of writers, I think, agree 
that this Avas the region of the first home of early mankind. 

The Rig-Vedas are the Hindu sacred writings which are prob- 
ably the oldest literary compositions in the world. They are 
supposed to have been composed between 5000 and 2000 b.c ; 
they were transmitted orally until they were reduced to writing 
about 600 B.C., although some authorities say they were not 
written earlier than about 1000 a.d. The Vedas teach a belief 
in one Supreme God, under the name of Brahma. His attributes 
are represented by the three personified powers of Creation, 
Preservation and Destruction, which under the respective names 
of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, form the Trimurti, or Hindu Trin- 
ity, represented as one human body with three heads, or with 
one head but with three faces. (Tig. 1.) 

At Elephanta, an island near Bombay, is a temple grotto 
carved into a solid cliff. It contains many figures of Hindu dei- 
ties, but many of these, especially those with phallic or yonic 
attributes, were defaced or mutilated by the fanatical zeal of 



early Portuguese missionaries, or the even more fanatical Mo- 
hammedans. In the center of this temple is a bust of the Hindii 
Trimurti, six feet high. 

In more recent times Indra, the God of the Sky (Fig. 2), is 
also much worshipped in India, as well as Agni, the God of Fire. 
Modern Brahmanism is nature worship, and the Eig-Vedas con- 
tain directions for sacrificial ceremonies and hymns of praise. 
When they were reduced to writing, several variant versions 
which had arisen through unavoidable inaccuracies in oral trans- 
missions were united into one collection, without critical editing, 
and some writings, evidently not part of the original collection, 

Fig. 1.— The Trimurti. The Hindu Fig. 2.— India, the God of the Sky; a 
Trinity—Brahma, creator; Vishnu, preser- Hindu god corresponding to the Greek 
ver; and Siva, destroyer. god Zeus. 

were included. In Hindu mythology the gods are represented 
with four, six or more arms, which is simply a conventional sym- 
bolical mode of indicating their superior power, similar to the 
"hundred-handers" of the early Greeks. 

The evolution of the (Jewish and) Christian Bible was sim- 
ilar to that of the Rig-Vedas. It is a collection of sixty-six pam- 
phlets, written in several different languages, by about forty 
different authors. Its composition took about sixteen hundred 
years, from the first to the last book. 

Instead of being a book written by God in Heaven, it is a 


literary collection containing history, law, biography, hymns, 
oratory, proverbs, visions, dreams, epigrams, and even erotic 
love stories ; and one of these, Esther, seems to be a Persian pro- 
duction. The authors of some of the books are unknown, but 
some of the books bear unmistakable internal evidence of having 
been compiled from still older sources, now lost. 

Some of the stories in the Bible, such as that of the flood, of 
the sun standing still to accommodate a hunian hero, of changing 
humans to pillars of (stone or) salt for their curiosity, have been 
found in Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions and Brahmanic 
writings in practically the same form as they are in the Bible, 
while the Assyrian inscriptions are probably a full thousand years 
older than the books of the Bible containing these same stories. 

The older parts of the Bible were transmitted orally for many 
centuries, before they were reduced to writing; and when the 
earliest writing occurred, it was imperfect and primitive. Only 
consonants were in use ; the words were not separated by spaces, 
nor was there a division into sentences or verses. For instance, 
if we were to write the twenty-seventh verse of the first chapter 
of Genesis in the manner in which the ancient Bible was written, 
it would look something like this : 


(So God created man in his own image ; in his own im- 
age created he him ; male and female created he them. ) 

The cantors or recitors in the Jewish synagogues, to facili- 
tate reading of the scriptures, invented signs for "breathing," 
now called vowel points, but these were not part of the text in the 
ancient scrolls, in fact, they were not introduced until 600 a.d., 
and in this form the writings were transmitted for further cen- 

Bibliolatry is a superstitious worship of the Bible, based on 
a claim that every word in the book is a direct revelation from 
God; yet the Bible contains three different accounts of the crea- 
tion of the world; it contains theology or speculations on the na- 
ture of God; eschatology, or speculations on a future life; reli- 
gion, or rules and rites for the proper worship of God, et cetera. 
Many of these subjects were also discussed by the philosophers 


among the Greeks, Chaldeans, Hindus and other nations of those 
early days, and some of these so-called Pagan views resembled 
very closely the Biblical views. 

The Bible consists of two parts; the Old Testament or the 
Bible of the ancient Jews, and the New Testament, the sacred 
writings of the Christians. The Bible of the Christians contains 
both Testaments. The first part teaches that there is one God — 
Jehovah ; the second part teaches views which led to a belief in a 

The Old Testament does not teach that Jehovah was a god of 
the universe, but that he was a tribal god, the God of Israel, or 
the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The other tribes had their 
OAvn gods. Euth said to Naomi: "Whither thoii goest, 1 will go; 
and where thou lodgest, I will lodge ; thy people shall be my peo- 
ple, and thy God my God." (Kuth i, 16.) 

The Jews, when they went out of Egypt, were a crude and 
uncivilized nation of ex-slaves, and during their sojourn in Egypt 
they naturally adopted some of the ideas of their masters. During 
their travels in the wilderness they reverted to these beliefs, and 
erected an Apis bull — a golden calf. The Hebrews were probably 
too ignorant to have understood abstruse speculations on mono- 
theism, so Moses simply established a theocracy, or an absolute 
monarchy with a god as the ruler, for which god he himself was 
the mouthpiece; he pretended to be on intimate speaking terms 
with this god, and he transmitted the commands of this god to 
the people. He made the people believe that they were the "cho- 
sen people of God, ' ' and this belief still prevails. 

There are certain passages in the Bible which seem to imply 
that there may have been other gods besides Yahwe, the "God 
of Israel ; " as for instance when this Jewish God wished to create 
man, he is represented as talldng to some other supernatural be- 
ings, possibly other gods, as in Gen. i, 26: "And God said. Let us 
make man in our image, after our likeness;" Gen. iii, 22: "And 
the Lord God said. Behold, the man is become as one of us;" or 
Gen. iii, 5: "And God doth know, that in the day ye eat thereof, 
then your eyes shall be opened ; and ye shall be as gods. ' ' 

The books of the Old Testament were transmitted orally, as 
just explained, for about a thousand years or more ; then they were 
reduced to writings, but the letters simply served as mnemonic 
signs for the recitation in the synagogues, which was practically 


from memory. The books of the New Testament were written 
when writing was a quite common accomplishment, and they are 
therefore in a more perfect state of preservation. 

Christianity is based on the Jewish Bible, of which it claims 
to be the fulfilment and the object of its prophecies. Christianity 
asserts that the New Testament contains the fulfilment of the Old 
Testament and that the two Bibles therefore really constitute one 
completed work. 

As recent researches have shown that the Old Testament is 
largely derived from the same sources as the Assyrian, Babylo- 
nian, Chaldean and Egyptian religions, it should not surprise us 
to find traces of these religions and of their symbolism in Chris- 
tianity, as will appear farther on in this book. 

The ancients themselves seem to have been well aware of 
the similarity of their myths or theories to those of other neigh- 
boring people ; and this led to accusations of plagiarism or copy- 
ing one from another. 

Lucian, a Greek writer, quoted the story of the flood in the 
writings of Moses, in support of a charge of plagiarism against 
the Jewish writers ; and likewise Celsus says that the authors of 
the "Books of Moses" had simply paraphrased the Greek story 
of Deucalion and Pyrrha. And we now, after the lapse of so many 
centuries, are in a position to judge fairly in regard to these crim- 
inations and recriminations of plagiarism, because we now have 
the proof that both Jewish and Greek writers got their material 
from the folklore common to all Asia Minor, and especially to 
Assyrian, Babylonian and Chaldean writings. 

Much of what is now currently believed by Christians, the 
churches as well as the masses, consists of elements derived from 
folklore, the speculative or dogmatic writings of the church- 
fathers, and from poetical works, such as Virgil, Milton's Para- 
dise Lost, Dante's Divine Comedy, etc.; or of beliefs and practices 
derived from other, so-called Pagan, religions, especially from 
the teachings of Zoroaster, from Manichaeism and Gnosticism, 
and from Buddhism. 

The various councils of the church have modified and ampli- 
fied the earlier teachings; thus, the Council of Nice, in the year 
325 A.D., affirmed the Divinity of Jesus, and the Council of Con- 
stantinople in 381 A.D., declared the Divinity of the Holy Ghost, 


thus completing the Trinity which is believed in by most sects of 
the Christian faith ; practically by all but the Unitarians. 

Protestants who believe in the theory of the Trinity seem to 
forget that this doctrine rests on the same kind of human authority 
as that which more recently declared the Immaculate Conception 
of Mary and the Infallibility of the Pope to be articles of faith. 

The Koran (Qu'ran) contains the teachings of Mohammed, 
who commenced his career as prophet about the year 610 after 
Christ. His teachings show the influence of the Jewish and early 
Christian views with which he had come into contact ; but Moham- 
med claimed that Allah (God) had sent his angel Gabriel to dic- 
tate to him the contents of the Koran. Mohammedan believers 
call the Koran the "Word of God." 

Mohammed could not read or write, but some of his followers 
wrote down his sayings on any available material at hand at the 
time — leather, palm-leaves, stones, and even on the shoulder- 
blades of the bleached skeletons of sheep; these sayings were 
afterwards gathered, without any great effort at editing or ar- 
ranging, either chronologically or according to sense ; like the Old 
Testament, the Koran was originally written in consonants only. 

The Koran contains a peculiar mixture of more or less unre- 
lated materials, such as moral, religious, civil and political teach- 
ings, magical formulas, promises of future rewards for true be- 
lievers and threats of future punishments for unbelievers. 

The Mohammedan Paradise is peopled with "houries" or 
celestial nymphs, sexual pleasure with whom will form the chief 
happiness of pious believers hereafter. 

The three books, the Eig-Vedas, the Bible and the Koran, are 
the bases of the Brahmanic, Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan 
religions respectively; these are the main religions of the world. 
They are really religions, that is, they teach rites and ceremonials 
to be practiced in the worship of God; they are systems of doc- 
trine and worship imagined by their adherents to be of Divine 
origin. They promise a life of happiness hereafter to the faith- 
ful believers and a life of eternal punishment to the unbelievers. 

They have many features in common which they appear to 
have borrowed from each other, or probably, drew from a com- 
mon source, a sort of folklore which had been built up by oral 
transmission in Southern and Southwestern Asia and Northeast- 
ern Africa, during the untold ages which had passed from the 


time of the dawn of thinking among primitive men to the first 
traces of authentic or recorded history. 

These religions are the leading faiths of the world, and their 
adherents are numbered as follows: 

Christians, 564,510,000 

Hindus, 210,540,000 

Mohammedans, 221,825,000 

Jews, 13,052,846 

The Christians are divided in turn into 

Eoman Catholics, 272,860,000 

Greek Catholics, 120,000,000 

Protestants, 171,650,000 

But it does not follow that all who are included in such a 
classification are "true believers." 


Not all beliefs in regard to Supernatural Beings, nor all 
mythological accounts of the creation of the world, or the creation 
of man, can properly be called ' ' religions. ' ' A religion inculcates 
a worship of a god or gods, and without such worship, whether by 
ceremonials, prayers, hymns of praise, sacrifices, or in any other 
manner, a belief is not a religion. 

There are in Asia a number of important beliefs which are 
usually considered to be religions, although they are not really 
such. We will consider a few of these, under the names of Con- 
fucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, and Buddhism. 

The illustration (Fig. 3) represents the Japanese "Mode of 
Life;" it is represented in very many variants, usually in the 
forms of small sculptures, more rarely as paintings or as papier 
mache figures. The group signifies: "Hear no evil! Speak no 
evil ! See no evil ! ' ' 

In Japan the prevailing beliefs are Shintoism and Buddhism, 
or perhaps more frequently a mixture of the two; Shintoism, 
called "The Path of the Gods," is so nearly like Taoism that it 
seems probable that it was derived from the latter. Before the 
introduction of Buddhism into Japan, Shintoism was the only 
faith. Shintoism inculcates no worship of God and has no moral 



code of behavior, because, as one of the writers of Japan observed, 
' ' every Japanese knows how to properly conduct himself, by sim- 
ply obeying the behests of the Mikado." 

Matoori, who lived from 1730 to 1801, said that the will of 

Fig. 3. — The Japanese "Mode of Life." 

Fig. 4. — "Buddha Preaching," discovered at Sarnath, India, in 1904. 

the Mikado is the certain guide to a knowledge of good and evil. 
Shintoism teaches that the Mikado is the direct descendant of the 
sungoddess, therefore a representative of this deity. Shintoism 
also includes elements of hero-worship, especially of the ances- 
tors, of the Mikado; in addition, the Japanese believe that the 



powers of nature are spiritual agencies, constituting, as it were, 
a group of inferior deities. 

Taoism is founded on the teachings of Lao-Tze, who lived 
about 500 B.C. ; he was begotten in a supernatural manner, and his 
mother carried him in her womb for eighty-two years, which time 
he devoted to introspective meditations, and to the elaboration of 
his theory of life. Some Chinese historians vary the story by 
ascribing different lengths of time to this miraculous pregnancy, 
so that an uncertainty prevails regarding this matter, varying 
from 61 to 82 years. To us, for the purpose of our study, it makes 
little difference which period is assumed as the correct one. 

Taoism, or the teachings of Lao-Tze, also called the Chinese 
"Way of Life," is not really a religion, for it teaches no ritual for 
the worship of a god, nor even, that there is any god; the word 
"tao" means "a way," and Taoism teaches the way to live — 
essentially, to practice virtue and to follow the teachings of the 
Golden Eule. 

In addition, the Chinese, as well as the Japanese, worship 
the manes or shades (ghosts) of their ancestors. 

Chung-Fu-Tze, called Confucius in western countries, lived 
about the same time as Lao-Tze, the two having been personally 
acquainted with each other, according to some historians. Both 
taught practically the same tenets. Neither taught anything about 
a god, or a future life, but Confucius formulated a version of the 
Golden Eule or "Eule of Life" which varies from the version 
formulated by Jesus, in being in a rather negative form: "What 
you would not have others do to you, do you not unto them!" 

He does not inculcate any active efforts at doing good to 
others, as is taught, for instance, in the Golden Eule as formulated 
by Jesus: "Do unto others as ye would that they should do unto 
you ! ' ' 

Confucianism can not properly be called a religion, because 
it does not teach a belief in God, or demand any worship of God. 

Taoism, Shintoism and Confucianism teach a way to live 
which conduces to happiness; but none of these similar beliefs 
teach a worship of God, or hold out hopes of future rewards or 
fear of future punishments. 

Gautama, a Hindu prince, lived about 450 b.c. He renounced 
wife and wealth, became an ascetic, devoted himself to religious 
meditations and became a great teacher or Buddha. The word 


Buddha is not the name of the founder of Buddhism but is a 
title — Teacher. In this we see a parallel to the story of Jesus, 
called Jesus Christ ; the word Christ is not a name but a title ; it 
means "Messiah" or "Anointed." Buddha was the greatest ag- 
nostic in the world's history, but after his death his teachings 
were ignored, and he himself became an object of worship to his 
followers, in this regard being paralleled by the history of Jesus, 
who was also deified after his death and is now worshipped as a 
god by the Christians. 

After the death of Gautama, many myths were told of him; 
among the Hindus he is considered as ah incarnation or an "ata- 
var" of Vishnu. 

Buddhism teaches that misery is inseparable from existence, 
and that final bliss consists in Nirvana, a ceasing to exist, or the 
final extinction of the soul. To reach this bliss there are four 
."paths:" 1. An awakening of the heart; i.e., a realization that 
misery and existence always go together ; that unhappiness neces- 
sarily is a prominent part of man's life. 2. Getting rid of impure 
desires and revengeful feelings. 

Foremost among "impure desires" is the love of man for 
woman, the promptings of sex; it is curious that from a very 
early age those who were the religious teachers of the people, and 
who professed to have inside information on the subject, have 
contended that celibacy is the better, nobler and higher condition 
in this life; there were even some among the early Christians 
who claimed that those who became married forfeited the chance 
of going to heaven. So also, the ascetics among the Hindus and 
Buddhists had this same idea; in fact, it is a characteristic of 
fanatical minds in all religions. Gautama abandoned his young 
wife; and Jesus said: "Verily I say unto you. There is no man 
that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, 
or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's, but 
he shall receive a hundred-fold now in this time, houses, and 
brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with 
persecutions ; and in the world to come, eternal life. ' ' 3. Getting 
rid of ignorance; doubt, heresy, unkindliness and vexation, and 
4. Universal charity. 

In a surprisingly short period, by the end of the Fifth Century 
B.C., Buddhism had overspread the major part of Asia, and soon 
even spread to Europe, where it manifested itself as Gnosticism, 



which prevailed widely in the first four centuries of the Christian 
era, and was in fact a powerful rival of the early Christian reli- 
gion. Gnosticism caused the decay and destruction of the. beau- 
tiful and cheerful religions of the Greeks and Eomans. 

There are many different sects of Buddhism, just as there 
are among the Christians, and the rivalry and even hatred 
among these sects for each other, is often in inverse ratio to the 
actual differences of faith. 

The Chinese and Japanese Buddhists retained the worship 
of their ancestors and heroes, which was probably their original 
faith, adding thereto the teachings of Gautama. A view in the 
temple of the 500 gods in Canton, China, is shown (Fig. 5) ; the 

Fig. 5. — Temple of the Five-hundred Golden Gods, at Canton, China. 

images are portraits, or supposed portraits, of a long line of illus- 
trious dead, the departed heroes, teachers and ancestors who are 
worshipped by the Buddhists of China. The figures are carved 
in wood and heavily gilded, wherefore they are sometimes called 
the ' ' 500 Golden Gods ; ' ' this aggregation of gods is presided over 
by Buddha, who is seen seated at the end of the hall. 

Lamaism, or Thibetan Buddhism, shows a remarkable simi- 
larity to the ritual and ceremonial of the Catholic church, although 
not to its religious teachings. Buddhism originated a celibate 
priesthood, the tonsure or shaven croAvn of the heads of the priests 
(the priestHood comprises popes, bishops, abbots, celibate orders 
of monks and nuns), cloisters, the mass with its gorgeous vest- 


ments and its impressive ceremonial ; the Buddhists have and use 
bells, rosaries, images, incense, holy water, religious processions, 
feast and fast days, the confessional, and they believe in purga- 
tory and the worship of the Virgin. They practice endless repe- 
titions of prayers which are counted on strings of beads like the 
rosaries of the Catholics ; as the Buddhists were by many centu- 
ries the earlier practicers of these ceremonials, rites and beliefs, 
it looks reasonable to believe that the Christians obtained these 
things from the Buddhists, although perhaps partly at least by 
the survival of ceremonials of the priests in the temples of Ju- 
piter and the gods of the Roman people. 

The repetition of the name of a deity or saint, or of a prayer, 
a certain number of times, is a very meritorious action ; the Bud- 
dhists have cylinders with prayers inscribed on them (so-called 
"prayer- wheels") which a devotee turns and gets the credit for 
all the prayers thereon, while saving him the trouble of actually 
saying them. Or the cylinders are turned by water power and 
the devotee pays the priests connected with the temple a certain 
fee for a specified time, and gets credit for all the prayers told 
off in this manner, while he himself may go about other business. 

Buddhism is no longer popular in India where it originated, 
although there are still many Buddhists in that country. It is a 
custom among the Hindu Buddhists to train parrots to repeat the 
name of the deity Krishna-Radha, for which the owner of the par- 
rot gets the credit. 

The story of Buddha is almost literally reproduced in the 
Catholic stories of Saints Barlaam and Josaphat, which are 
merely Christianized versions of the story of Buddha, Lakya and 

Taoism, Shintoism, Confucianism and Buddhism agree in 
ignoring the question of the existence of a deity and they also 
agree in teaching to lead a life of purity; also in offering no re- 
ward and threatening no punishment in a life hereafter. Bud- 
dhism teaches that virtue accelerates and vice retards Nirvana, or 
Final Extinction. 

The adherents of these faiths are as follows: 

Buddhism, 138,031,000 

Confucianism, 300,830,000 

Shintoism (Taoism), 25,000,000 


Probably none of these three religions and three "ways of 
life" are followed in their original forms by their nominal ad- 
herents. The two leading religions were handed down by oral 
transmission simultaneously for a thousand years or more in 
Southern and Southwestern Asia, thus forming a folklore com- 
mon to a certain extent to the whole territory, from which folk- 
lore the writers of the Rig-Vedas and the Bible drew the materials 
when these "books" were finally reduced to writing. They were 
no doubt altered by contact with each other, and moreover the 
religions became incrusted with various and similar superstitions 
of common origin, until they acquired many features, beliefs, rit- 
uals and symbolisms in common, some of which we will consider. 

In addition to these faiths there are others of less importance ; 
for instance. Animism, which is a belief in a sort of world-soul 
which inhabits all things ; it is a sort of f etichism conmion in parts 
of Asia and most of Africa, and is estimated to have 158,270,000 

Then there is Shamanism, a belief in magic of which the 
priests are sorcerers, as among the Northern Asiatic people as 
well as among the North American Indians ; this, and some scat- 
tered unclassified faiths, have about 15,280,000 followers. 


This subject is not very easy to answer, nor can the num- 
bers of years be fixed with any degree of accuracy; we must be 
content with the roughest kind of estimates merely. 

To explain the subject thoroughly would really require an 
explanation of the mode of world-formation, as taught in geol- 
ogy, but we cannot burden this book with details. 

Suffice it to say that the geological ages succeeded one another 
in this order. First and lowest, the primitive rocks, in which 
there are no traces of fossils ; the age when they were formed is 
called the Azoic Age or age without life. These rocks were the 
scoriae or slag, or scum which floated on the surfaces of the 
molten materials after the earth had cooled sufficiently to com- 
mence to form a solid crust. Until this surface was cool enough 
to allow the condensed steam from the atmosphere or nebula to 
remain, and to allow life to occur, many hundreds of millions of 
years may have passed. 


These azoic rocks are found extensively on this continent 
in Canada ; also, an island of them existed in Missouri, near Pilot 
Knob (Graniteville). 

Most of the succeeding layers of rock were caused by sedi- 
mentation, although some of them were of volcanic origin; and 
some were sedimentary rocks melted and changed, with all traces 
of fossils destroyed by volcanic heat. 

The lowest sedimentary rocks are called "Huronian" (they 
occur in the neighborhood of Lake Huron) and they contain the 
earliest traces of fossils, or of life, such as the Eosoon Canadense, 
etc. The next layer is the "Cambrian" which contains early 
forms of fossils, of moUusks, such as oysters and clams ; also, fos- 
sils of lobster-like animals and of seaweeds. Above this and there- 
fore next succeeding it, comes the "Silurian" rock, containing re- 
mains of starfish, crinoids, trilobites, early forms of fishes and 
seaweeds. These together are usually called the "Age of Mol- 

Next came an age of fishes, most of which are now extinct, 
although some forms, like the gar, still survive; there are also 
fossils of corals, marsh-plants and gymnosperms. This is the 
Devonian Period, or the "Age of Fishes." 

During the next period there was a great development of 
plant life; the excess of carbon dioxide which still existed in the 
air, and which prevented the existence of life in the air or on the 
land, was absorbed and the carbon thereof fixed and deposited 
in our coal-beds. This period is therefore called the "Carbon- 
iferous Age." Corals and fishes were plentiful and towards the 
end of this period the fishes began to develop into reptile forms. 
Also some amphibians (frogs) occurred. These could venture out 
of the water and live alternately on dry land, as well as in the 
water. Taken together, from the Huronian and including the 
last, or Carboniferous, these ages formed the Primary Period. 

Following this came the Secondary Period. The lowest forma- 
tion of this is the Triassic, with many fossils of reptile forms. 
Then the Jurassic, with fish-like, reptile-like and bird-like fossils, 
and later forms of vegetation. Then the Cretaceous period, so- 
called because chalk formations were common; also later kinds 
of trees, exogenous, "trees, in the which is the fruit of a tree 
yielding seed" (Gen. i, 29). Together, the Secondary Period of 


life formation, marked by animals able to live on land, is called 
the "Age of Reptiles." 

The Tertiary Period followed; it is also called the "Age of 
Mammals" or the "Mammalian Age." The reptilian forms of 
animals developed into mammals, through the marsupials. Mam- 
mals, including man, appeared in this period, as did also the 
birds. Lastly came the Recent Period, also called "The Age of 
Man." This last period is characterized by the fossil records of 
man and his handiwork, such as stone implements, kitchen mid- 
dens, caves .in which are found the evidences of occupancy by 
primitive man, the homes of the troglodites, dolmens and other 
burial places, menhirs, etc. Only one-half of one per cent of the 
sedimentary rock formations which contain the records of the 
life history of the world were formed during this recent period, 
the age of man. As to amount, the age of man is therefore an 
almost negligible part of the earth's record of evolution, yet it 
is the most important. 

We will not argue the question, whether the theory of evolu- 
tion is true or not. It admits of no such discussion for all sci- 
entists agree that it is true in its main features. There may be dif- 
ferences of opinion as to the importance of details. More impor- 
tance is now given to the influence of environment and less to 
the influence of sexual selection ("Darwinism"), but no scien- 
tific writer anywhere now contends that evolution is not true. 

Darwinism, the theory of the influence of sexual selection, is 
now considered only as one factor, possibly not even the most 
important factor, in the unfolding of the life history of our globe. 

Nevertheless, the differentiation of organic beings into male 
and female or the Evolution of Sex, was a wonderful advance 
over previous asexual or hermaphrodite forms because it intro- 
duced an element which contributed greatly to variation in forms 
of living beings. 

Sex antedates the appearance of man by untold aeons of time. 

The estimates of the age of the earth are based on many con- 
siderations; one of these is a calculation how long it must have 
taken for a molten mass of the size and constitution of our earth 
to have cooled down by radiation of heat into space, to its present 
temperature. Large portions of its interior are still incandescent, 
as is shown by the activity of volcanoes and the flows of lava. 

Sir William Thompson estimated that the earth's crust can 


not have been solidified for more than 400 millions of years and 
probably not for more than 200 millions of years. 

The rate of erosion by rain and water, and frost, in reducing 
mountain ranges or excavating river beds, the rapidity (or rather 
the slowness) of formation of stalactites or stalagmites in caves, 
etc., have all been considered. 

The age of life on earth is estimated by some geologists 
at about 72,000,000 of years, yet it may be much older or much 
younger; it is only an approximate guess, but based on the best 
grounds that scientists could find, and the first appearance of 
sex dates back to the first appearance of life on our earth, for 
the first living organisms, the algae, have sex! 

Fig. 6. — The oldest writing known — the Hoffman tablet in the General Theological 
Seminary, New York City; 5,000 B.C. 

The time when the evolution of primitive man from previous 
lower forms took place, is variously estimated, from about 20,000 
years by some scientists to a quarter of a million or to two or three 
millions of years by others. 

The lower estimate must be rejected, because man was too 
far advanced in the earliest days of authentic history, for the re- 
mainder of the 20,000 years to have sufficed for his physical evo- 
lution. Written history, or rather, sculptured history, goes back 
perhaps to four or five thousand years before Christ, or in the 
aggregate, to about 7,000 years ago. 

And since then no material change has occurred in the form 
of man as proved by the sculptures of different races in the tem- 


pie inscriptions of Egypt. At the recorded rate of evolution, the 
13,000 years would not suffice to explain the previous evolution 
from mammalian forms to primitive man. 

When mammals began to change to more or less anthropoid 
forms, man was one of the final outcomes of this evolution. But 
man did not descend from any of the present anthropoid apes, 
although he must have gone through similar forms that are now 
extinct. Man is not a twig from the branch from the mammals 
that produced the apes, but a collateral branch from the mammals 
direct, developing at the same time that the ape-line was develop- 
ing, in a similar direction, but with a higher outcome. 

It is a popular misapprehension of the theory of evolution 
to think that mankind descended from monkeys, as was expressed 
by the little girl in a school essay: "Men are what women marry; 
they smoke and chew and don't go to church. Men and women 
sprang from monkeys, but women sprang the farther. ' ' 

Another estimate of the earth's age is based on a calculation 
from astronomical considerations, or calculations, as to when the 
glacial epoch occurred. This estimate makes the time since the 
end of the glacial epoch until now about 250,000 years. 

Evidence has been found to prove that man existed before 
the glacial epoch. Suppose we assume the evolution of man to 
have taken place about 250,000 years ago, then man dates back 
only about l/288th part of the world's existence; or rather, of 
the time which is assumed to have elapsed since the earth had 
sufficiently cooled off to become a solid globe, formed out of the 
primordial nebular chaos, and far enough advanced to permit life 
to originate on its surface. 

About the end of the nineteenth century a portion of the 
skull of a prehistoric man was found in the ancient bed of the 
Thames Eiver. From various geological indications it was reck- 
oned that this man was drowned and lost in the mud at the bot- 
tom of the river not less than 170,000 years ago, and the struc- 
ture of the skull showed that he by no means belonged to the type 
of the Neanderthal man or the man of Aix Les Chapelles, or of 
the usual primitive ancestral {"Alalus") type (Fig. 7-A) but that 
he was already far in advance of these types. 

The Age of Mammals is divided into several periods, as in- 
dicated in this diagram : 








Of Man 

iFossils of Man and specimens 
of his handiwork, imple- 
ments, etc. 


(Fossil Man of Java) and 

Stone Implements 

Primates, Apes, Anthropoids, 

Recent, or Human 

Pleistocene, or 





Modem Mammals 
Primitive Mammals 


In this diagram the estimated length of the periods is stated 
in years. It is claimed that stone implements have been found in 
miocene -formations; but let us assume only the much stronger 
claim that they occurred in the early or lower Pliocene times, and 
it will put the earliest traces of man's handiwork back to between 
six and eight million years ago ; or suppose we go back to the ear- 
liest period in which fossils of man himself occurred, to the Pithe- 
canthropus (Fig. 7-B) or Fossil Man of Java, in the later or upper 
Pliocene times, and it puts the date of man's first appearance on 
earth back to about two million years ago. This latter time is in- 
dicated by the upper part 'of the heavy line on the left, which 
marks the period in which positive proof of man's existence was 
found by the discovery of his fossil remains. 

In Miocene deposits in France have been found remains of 
a variety of ape as large as man, together with chipped flints, ar- 
tificially cut bones, etc. ; these apes seem to have been higher than 
any anthropoid apes now living, yet their fossils are not human, 
in the generally accepted sense, unless we accept the definition 
"human" to include any being who could make chipped flint im- 
plements. This ape, the Bryopithecus, partook sufficiently of hu- 
man traits, to be considered as a "missing link," if we do not 
wish to consider him archaic human. At about this same time un- 
doubtedly human beings existed in Portugal and California, be- 
fore the end of the Miocene or about the beginning of the Pliocene 



Below, in the Eocene period, is another black line, which 
shows the time of which Ave are positive that man did not exist. 
Between these two black portions of this line, is a dotted portion, 
which marks the geological time during which the evolution of 
man probably took place. 

In Miocene times the evolution of the apes, anthropoids, pri- 
mates, and man probably took place simultaneously. As already 
stated, man did not descend (or ascend) from any now existing 
types of apes, but from a collateral primitive branch; he may 
therefore have been in process of evolution at the same time as 

Fig. 7-A. — "Alalus Europaeus," 
painted by Gabriel Max, according 
to suggestions by Karl Vogt. 

Pig. 7-B. — Pithecanthropus, or the Man 
of Java. After Osborn's Men of the Old 
Stone Age. 

the other Primates, sometime between the end of the Eocene and 
the end of the Pliocene periods. 

At all events, whatever the period at which he was produced, 
and however many or few years we ascribe to these periods, man- 
kind has attained a great age and dates back to very hoary 

There is no reason to believe that the process of evolution 
of man took place in any great number of individuals at the same 
time, nor in any uninterrupted or unbroken series of generations. 
All progress in advancement must have been more or less spo- 


radical, accompanied by reversions of type or degenerations, be- 
cause the process was not a conscious one on the part of primitive 

AVlien our breeders of stock of anj^ kind determine to perpet- 
uate some certain feature, or on eliminating some other feature, 
they are able to get results in a comparatively short time, first, 
because there are so many generations of any kind of stock in 
so short a time ; then the breeder absolutely controls conditions 
of mating and breeding; he selects both males and females and 
permits only those of the offspring to live and breed again, which 
have advanced along the lines he was aiming at, and he kills and 
sends to market those individuals which failed to satisfy his 
expectations. Or, in certain cases, he castrates or spays the in- 
dividuals that he does not Avant to breed again. Thus, in even 
the lifetime of one man, the result aimed at may be achieved, 
and it may be maintained for an indefinite length of time by a 
little care in culling out any specimens that show a reversion in 

But even great and peimianent good results may be had by 
a conmumity of farmers, for instance, buying a high-breed boar 
or bull, and then breeding from him with their ordinary female 
stock, without any further effort at improvement. While in this 
way the offspring will not be pure-bred or high-bred, there will 
be an impress on all the hogs or all the cattle of the neighbor- 
hood, due to the hereditary impulses imparted by the one sire. 

In primitive man, on the other hand, no intelligent control 
was exerted and the changes in the lifetime of one individual or 
generation were possibly hardly appreciated. When one individ- 
ual showed peculiarities that tended in the direction of what we 
now call "higher" development, or more human-like traits, such 
traits may not even have appealed to the other individuals as 
being advantageous; in fact, from the standpoint of a savage 
anthropoid animal, if he reasoned at all, some of these features 
may have seemed a physical drawback rather than an advantage. 

Then interbreeding with the more backAvard individuals con- 
tinued, tending in the offspring towards reversion to a more or 
less uniform type, although, as in the case of the boar or bull 
mentioned above, advantageous traits, physical or intellectual, 
must have been impressed more or less distinctly on all succeed- 
ing offspring, so that distinct, even if slight advancement re- 


suited. This impress of superior individuals would leave its per- 
manent results, notwithstanding the general mediocrity or uni- 
formity of the mass of the race. 

Promiscuous and uncontrolled interbreeding in animals or 
man necessarily retards progress, and tends to make the type 
uniform, but it can not altogether undo the influence of now and 
then an exceptionally highly bred male or female. A sire im- 
presses more the generation immediately following, and is usu- 
ally more noticeable than the influence of a female; the latter 
impresses her influence, however, just as surely, but more slowly, 
in the succeeding generations. 

The advance in humankind must have been infinitely slow, 
and often sadly interrupted by inferior strains in the breeding 
ancestors. Nor is there any ground for the theory that early or 
primitive man formulated any abstract ideas, about religion, for 
example ; and thousands of generations may have passed, making 
slow progress in physical regards, before the "Alalus" (Fig. 7-A) 
had a dawning in his mind, of speech, thoughts, or awe of super- 
natural beings. The Alalus was so named by Vogt, from a Greek 
word meaning "speech-less;" fossil skulls of man have been 
found with chins so shaped that it seems probable that the indi- 
vidual whose skull it was could not have uttered articulate speech. 

Time enough elapsed in this way to account for the scatter- 
ing of man to every part of the inhabitable world, and not once 
only, but repeatedly, and to carry to all parts of the Avorld any 
ideas accepted by man in the early stages of evolution. When 
history began, the world was populated, even many of the isolated 
islands of the Pacific Ocean being the homes of primitive types 
of men. 

The inhabitants of NeAV Zealand, for instance, have a tradi- 
tion that their ancestors were cast on their shores after having 
been lost at sea. When they were discovered by white naviga- 
tors their similarity to the Hawaiians was noticed, and the Mao- 
ries are probably Hawaiian stock. A Hawaiian brought to New 
Zealand can understand the language, or vice versa; and to a 
great extent this is true of other Polynesian islands. 

As an example of how the .Pacific islands became populated, 
we may consider the history of Pitcairn Island, in the East Pa- 
cific. This is a volcanic island about three miles long by two 
miles wide, rising abruptly from the deep ocean, and therefore 


without coral atolls. It has some fertile soil, but no springs or 
streams, but there is usually plenty of water from rainfall, or 
occasional snowfall in winter. Eequiring cistern supply or stor- 
age for occasional drought periods would probably have pre- 
vented this island from becoming the home of a Polynesian 
savage tribe. Yams and some other agricultural products grow 

In the year 1789 the crew of the English ship "Bounty" 
mutinied and set their officers adrift in a small boat ; and the crew 
put back to Tahiti. Here some of the crew left, but nine English- 
men either persuaded or compelled six Tahitians and twelve 
Tahitian women to go with them, and they sailed until they came 
to an uninhabited island. Here they landed and settled down, 
glad to be beyond the reach of the law that condemned mutineers 
to death. To make sure that they would not be found, they de- 
stroyed the evidence by burning the "Bounty." 

Of those who remained in Tahiti, some were found and exe- 
cuted as mutineers, the officers having been rescued and having 
told the story. 

Now the mistake that was made by the settlers on Piteairn 
Island was, that they did iiot take enough women with them for 
all the men, for jealousies and hatreds were engendered which 
resulted in so many murders that by the year 1793 only four 
Englishmen and ten Tahitian women survived; these four Eng- 
lishmen came to an agreement as to the possession of the ten 
women, and quit killing one another ; by the year 1800 all the men 
were dead except one, John Adams, who lived in Patriarchal style, 
taught the children reading and writing, and the Christian 

The island was visited by a passing ship ia 1808, and by an- 
other ship in 1817. By this time there was quite a colony of sober, 
industrious, virtuous inhabitants. In 1856, sixty married men with 
their wives and children (134 in all) abandoned the island and lo- 
cated elsewhere, but in 1858 two men and their families returned, 
and were soon followed by others. The island is now a prosperous 
settlement, proud of their English ancestors and living happily, 
governed by Scotch-English thrift and virtues. 

We can not believe that the evolution of man took place on each 
separate island; in fact, we know that this was not the case, be- 
cause in most of the islands (Australia, for example, and certainly 


in all smaller islands) there were no materials from which, men 
could have been evolved. The conditions in Australia were those 
of the earliest marsupial periods of the Age of Mammals, when 
Australia first became known to modern Europeans; therefore 
man must have come to Australia and other islands from elsewhere, 
and as such an evolution could not have taken place in the limited 
space of a small island, we must assume the islands to have been 
populated by the advent of man from the continents, or adjacent 

"War parties starting out from the continent or from other 
islands may have lost their way; storms may have driven them 
elsewhere ; they may have perished by shipwreck or starvation, or 
have been driven to the shores of other islands, beyond any hope 
or possibility of finding their way home again. 

In these new islands they may have existed until the last of 
them died ; possibly fighting off starvation as best they could, hav- 
ing recourse even to cannibalism or anthropophagy. Nearly all 
Pacific islanders were addicted to cannibalism when first discov- 
ered, due possibly to the difficulty of securing enough food other- 

Or these expeditions of warriors may have been from exoga- 
mous tribes who started out to capture women for wives, and the 
storm that beat them out of their course may have occurred after 
they had secured the female captives they went for. In such a 
case, if the island on which they landed was large enough, they 
founded another isolated tribe or horde which became modified by 
environment and the influence of the traits possessed by the fe- 
males whom they made their wives. And they carried the tra- 
ditions of any primitive folklore with them, so that we find similar 
ideas about heaven and earth and the creation of all things, prac- 
tically of the same type or nature, from the regions of the Medi- 
terranean Sea to the remotest islands of Polynesia, New Zealand, 
etc., as already referred to in the beginning of this book. 

"We find characteristics of bodily structure and of religious 
belief common to the ancient Egyptians and to the Aztecs of 
Mexico and Central America. How could this have happened? 
It is not necessary to believe that in very early days there was 
overland communication from Asia to Alaska, from one continent 
to another. The Aleutian islands would have sufficed for such 
communication; but it is doubtful whether people would or could 


have traveled overland so far, or whether they could have car- 
ried with them religious ideas frora the west of Asia to Central 
America, without leaving more traces of their presence or of 
their faiths to the tribes on the way. Moreover, as the glacial 
period occurred to interfere with travel by an overland route, it 
is almost certain that no communication between Asia and Amer- 
ica occurred in this way. 

Nor is it probable that there was a large continent or island 
in the Atlantic Ocean, which in prehistoric times facilitated com- 
munication between Africa and America, the subsidence of which 
continent is held by some authors to account for the general 
prevalence of the story of the flood in so many religions, both in 
the Eastern and Western continents. Of course, this all might 
have been true, but the probability is that it is not true, but 
simply a myth. 

It was stated in a history of the United States published in 
1891, that "within the last 100 years no less than 40 Japanese 
vessels have been blown ashore on the Pacific coast of North 
America." On some of these ships some of the men were still 
alive; such may have occurred more or less regularly even thou- 
sands of years ago, and there may have been women among the 
survivors of some of these boats so that mankind may have been 
brought here from the place in Asia where many suppose his 
original home was. Or, if we prefer to assume that the evolution 
of man took place on this continent also, the men from Asia may 
have intermarried with women of America, thus modifying the 
regular Amerindian type by the admixture of Asiatic strain, and 
these men may have perpetuated some of their Asiatic religious 
beliefs by ingrafting them on native American religions. 

The British Encyclopedia says that it is most probable that 
the civilization of pre-historic Peru originated in China, and gives 
many reasons for such a statement. 

In Central America tradition said that a white man came 
from overseas (many centuries e.g.). He announced to the peo- 
ple, who were savages at that time, a knowledge of the "god of 
all truth" and built a temple to him. When the Europeans first 
discovered Central America, they found there traces of some of 
the Egyptian and Greek mysteries. It is possible that some an- 
cient Phoenician sailors, who are known to have navigated the 
ocean as far as Great Britain and even Scandinavia, may have 



reached Iceland, and from there America, carrying with them 
knowledge of the mysteries of Western Asiatic and Egyptian 

Another Central American tradition said that at a time which 
corresponded with that immediately before our own era, a party 
filling seven ships under the leadership of Quetzalcohuatl, wearing 
long flowing robes and long beards, came from the east. Another 
tradition related that people came from a region of the frozen 
parts of the earth (about 635 a.d.) who reached Mexico after 
wandering for forty years, and that these latter established the 
Toltec empire. The Toltecs were a tall white people! 

We know that Norwegians discovered Ehode Island as early 
as 1000 A.D., and it is not unlikely that some of them by sailing 
along the coast finally came to Central America. At all events, 
it is very curious that the Central Americans knew about an arc- 
tic or frozen part of the earth. 

Aristotle, Plato and Seneca made references in their works 
to a land hidden far to the west in the western ocean. The Brit- 
ish Encyclopedia says "America had of course been known to the 
barbarian nations of Asia for thousands of years." 

The Toltecs had a tradition, and showed the ruins of a tower 
in proof, of a tower which was built for the purpose of reaching 
heaven ; and that when this was being built God gave to each fam- 
ily its own particular speech. To find here a tradition of the 
story of the tower of Babel, is certainly odd. Combine with this 
the general belief in some circles that the North American Indi- 
ans are the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, and the sup- 
position that there had been communication between East Asiatic 
as well as West Asiatic people and Mexican and Central Amer- 
ican people becomes more than merely possible ; it becomes prob- 
able, and the occurrence of similar religious ideas and symbols 
is accounted for. 

No people were ever more addicted to making human sacri- 
fices than the Aztecs. At the chief annual festival, at the winter 
solstice, of their god of war Huitzilopoehtli, a sort of communion 
was celebrated, at which a large cake, with which the blood of a 
sacrificed child was mixed, was divided among the people. This 
child represented the divinity. 

The Mayas, a people also living in Mexico, had a tradition 
of a white man, or god, who visited them and taught them to ab- 



stain from bloody sacrifices, and to offer bread, flowers and per- 
fumes. This may have been a white man, possibly a white mis- 
sionary, whom fate had carried to America with one of the pre- 
historic arrivals of Japanese junks. The reference to perfume 
seems to point to the introduction of incense, so that this "white 
god" was possibly a Catholic or Buddhist missionary, long be- 
fore Columbus discovered America. 

When the Spaniards first came to Mexico, the missionaries 
were astonished to find that figures of a crucifix were used in the 
religious ceremonies of these people; the figures were made in 
the plastic material which is even now used in that country, sun- 

Fig. 8. — A mould to make adobe figures of the eruciiixion ; prehistoric Mexican ; intaglio. 

baked clay, or adobe. No specimens of these figures have been 
found so far, but in one of the temple ruins was found a stone 
mould, in which a figure of a crucified person was cut intaglio, 
so that the modeled figure would be cameo style (Fig. 8). Here 
is a copy of this mould, after a woodcut in a "History of the 
Cross;" is this a. Christian crucifix? Or was it, as the Spanish 
missionaries thought, an invention of the devil to mock the Chris- 
tian faith? Or perhaps, was it introduced by the "white God" 
of the Mayas, and was the latter a Catholic missionary, cast away 
to these distant shores? We can only guess; it is possible, prob- 
able even, provided only that we assume time enough to have 


elapsed. And time was abundant; the calculation of the age of 
mankind shows that even if we reduce it to one-tenth the time, 
it would still suffice for the scattering of primitive man and prim- 
itive folklore all over the world. 


It does not interest us much, for the purpose of studying 
sex, to inquire whether man is of one species only, or more. 
During slavery times it was customary to assert that the negro 
race was an inferior species, and the argument used was that 
whites and negroes could not perfectly interbreed; that the mu- 
lattoes became infertile and could not reproduce their kind be- 
tween themselves, although interbreeding between mulatto and 
either white or black took place readily. Thus, white men could 
procreate with mulatto women, to produce quadroons and again, 
octoroons, etc., while mulatto women with mulatto mates remained 
sterile. This was probably merely claimed to justify the theory 
that the negro race was of a different species, and thus to justify 
slavery, and the statements were not based on correct premises or 
on facts. 

Man has been studied very thoroughly, but opinions have 
varied very materially in regard to this question. While it is of 
course preposterous to believe that mankind originated from a 
single pair, or that evolution was confined to one restricted dis- 
trict, yet it is possible that this evolution took place in one quar- 
ter of the world only and resulted in one species only, as is be- 
lieved by the majority of writers on this subject; Virej assumed 
two distinct species, and in general, writers often mention "su- 
perior" and "inferior" races of mankind without, however, dis- 
tinctly claiming two or more species in the proper biological sense. 

Jacquinot assumed three species; Kant, four; Blumenbach, 
five; Buifon, six; Hunter, seven; Agassiz, eight; Pickering, 
eleven; Bory St. Vincent, fifteen; Desmoulins, sixteen; Morton, 
twenty-two; Crawford, sixty, and Burke sixty-three. 

The Biblical claim, of course, is one species only ; God created 
man in his own image (Gen. i, 27), only a little lower than the 
angels (Ps. viii, 5), and the variation of races occurred by dif- 
ferentiation among the descendants of the sons of Noah (chapters 
ix and x of Genesis). 




Primitive man was essentially an unreasoning brute, intel- 
lectually but little above other beasts; self -consciousness of race 
probably does not date back much more than 100 or 200 thousand 
years. Some archaeologists maintain that the earliest traces of 
the handiwork of man, arrow-heads and other stone implements, 
were not produced more than about ten thousand years ago, but 
other writers ascribe a vastly greater age ; many such finds have 
been assigned to pre-glacial times, or perhaps 250 thousand years 
ago. For instance, this little figure (Fig. 9), of which three dif- 
ferent views are shown, was found in the borings brought up from 
the bottom of an artesian well near Nampa, in Idaho. The ar- 
rangement of such a well permits only the entrance of the detritus 

Fig. 9. — Three views of the same burnt elay figure, found at Nampa, Idaho; pre-glacial. 

of boring at the bottom; when this well had reached the depth of 
320 feet, this little figure of burnt clay, shown here in about actual 
size, came up with the expelled mud and water. 

The valley, or the place where the well was dug, had been 
filled up by the detritus from the erosion of the mountains to a 
depth of 320 feet below the present surface, when the primitive 
man lived, who fashioned this little figure and threw it into the 
fire where it was burnt to brick. After he had done this, more 
detritus came down into the valley and covered this specimen of 
early American art ; volcanic eruptions took place, and a layer or 
stratum of lava was among the superincumbent layers ; then more 
detritus, etc., was added and the surface rocks, 320 feet above the 
place where this little statuette had rested for so many ages, 
show glacial markings on their surface! They were there when 


the glacial epoch occurred, be this 30 thousand or 250 thousand 
years or a million years ago. 

The recording of thoughts, whether by sculptures, pictures 
or picture writing, ideographs, primitive symbols, or carved or 
written language of any kind, is of comparatively recent date; 
it is generally estimated to have been invented not more than 
about 10,000 years ago. 

Few writers ascribe any greater age to actual records, though 
to works of art involving no language much greater ages have 
been assigned by some authors; it is doubtful, however, how 
much credence can be given to dates exceeding 12000 to 16000 

Pliny, the Elder (I Cent, a.d.), it is true, wrote: "Epigenes, 
a writer of very great authority, informs us that the Babylonians 
have a series of observations on the stars, for a period of seven 
hundred and twenty thousand years, inscribed on baked bricks. 
Berosus and Critodemus, who make the period the shortest, give 
it as four hundred and ninety thousand years. From this state- 
ment, it would appear that letters have been in use from all eter- 
nity. ' ' But this statement is probably due to the early habit which 
exaggerated age, as for instance in stating the ages of the patri- 
archs, in the Bible. 

Yet mankind made more progress intellectually in the last 
two or three Centuries, than in all the previous ages. Even 100 
years ago but few of the modern inventions were known. The 
utilization of natural forces, steam, electricity, etc., for the pro- 
duction of power dates back but little over one hundred years. 
Steam engines, telegraphs, electric lights, telephones, etc., are but 
of yesterday. 

With the exception of a few processes accidentally or empir- 
ically discovered but not intelligently understood, the utilization 
of chemical force was practically unknown 100 years ago. The 
wonderful industrial utilization of chemistry is very modern. 
Photography, the x-ray, the telephone, the phonograph, etc., are 
so recent that some of the readers of these pages remember when 
they were not. 

In physiology the function of the sex-cells, the mystery of the 
sex-elements in the processes of begetting and conceiving, was 
not fully understood forty years ago; probably, is not yet cor- 
rectly understood. I graduated as a physician from Bellevue 


Medical College in the same year that Darwin published his work 
on the Descent of Man; the "Conflict between Science and Reli- 
gion" which ensued, was fought out and the truth of the theory 
of evolution was established within the period of my professional 
career. And with this victory of human thought many supersti- 
tions faded away. 

Eeligious tolerance is a thing of so modern introduction that 
it has not yet been established fully everywhere. 

But little more than 100 years ago the Inquisition in Spain* 
and its colonies still imprisoned and tortured and burnt at the 
stake people who differed in their religious convictions from the 
established church; and persecutions and killings for religion's 
sake are still of daily occurrence in Russian and Turkish Europe 
and in Asia. 

The doctrine of the equality before the law of all citizens 
got its first impetus in the War of the Revolution of the Amer- 
ican Colonies against England, and the French Revolution, to- 
wards the end of the eighteenth century. 

But the recognition of the equality of woman with man has 
not yet been accomplished, except in some states of our union, 
although gratifying progress has been made. The Biblical handi- 
caps, of Asiatic origin, still rest as a curse on the female sex, and 
only within the last few years have some of the Protestant 
churches commenced to give woman some recognition in the man- 
agement of church affairs. 

The admission of women to the higher educational institu- 
tions of learning — co-education — is of quite recent date. 

When I went to the public schools, in my younger days, puri- 
tanical notions still prevailed to the extent that co-education in 
the schools, except in the primary classes, was not tolerated ; girls 
did not go to school with boys, nor women to colleges or universi- 
ties with men. 

Now, more girls graduate from high school than boys, and 
women are freely admitted to our colleges and universities. Prac- 
tically all the professions are open to women, and the philanthro- 
pies and charities are largely under their control. Nine-tenths of 
the teachers in our schools are women, and less than one-tenth of 
our criminals are women. 

•The Inquisition was not finally abolished in Spain until the year 1814. 


Mankind is but just on the threshold of its intellectual accom- 
plishments. Geologists say that present conditions in sustaining 
human life will probably be maintained for at least three millions 
of years more. We are but infants in the evolution of thought; 
a great awakening of human conscience is taldng place, and super- 
stitions and prejudices are rapidly disappearing. 

The world has just been engaged in the most gigantic conflict 
of all time, fighting to save the liberties of all the people from the 
autocratic power of an ambitious ruler. Democracy has been vic- 
torious; and the world will be a better place to live in when 
peace has been fully restored. 

What will the future bring? No one can tell all the bene- 
fits that will accrue to mankind; but two conditions are clearly 
foreshadowed — the Equality of Man and Woman, and Freedom 
of Thought and Conscience. To take our parts intelligently in 
the further development of mankind, men and women must 

Dare to Know! 
"Sapere Aude!" 



Until comparatively recently it was thought improper to de- 
vote any study to the sexual characteristics of human beings; 
pruriency went so far as to set the phenomena of sex outside the 
scope of legitimate investigation, and men who gave thought and 
study to this subject were looked on askance and with suspicion, 
and their work was often submitted to ignorant and prejudiced 
moral censors, who, by their unfair actions, added to the obloquy 
under which this subject rested. 

"The problem of the origin of sex has been so much shirked 
and naturalists have beaten so much about the bush in seeking 
to solve it, because, in ordinary life for various reasons, mainly 
false, it is customary to mark off the reproductive and sexual 
functions as facts per se. Modesty defeats itself in pruriency 
and good taste runs to the extreme of putting a premium on 

What is sex! There are still many mysteries to be solved 
before this question can be fully answered; even now, with the 


riddles of sex and heredity the subject of study of hundreds of 
learned men and investigators, the inmost secrets of life, sex and 
heredity are but imperfectly understood. Yet it will prove in- 
teresting to trace the history of sex, both in the geological rec- 
ords and in the written records of mankind. 

The Bible implies that sex is the most God-like attribute of 
humanity. A class in catechism, in a Sunday school, had been 
drilled for a public examination; unfortunately, the absence of 
one boy interfered Avith the regular sequence of the answers as 
pre-arranged. Said the teacher to the first boy — "Who made 
you ? ' ' and the boy answered ' ' My daddy ! ' ' The horrified teacher 
corrected: "No, no, God made you." "Please, teacher," said 
the pupil, "the boy whom God made, is absent; he's sick." Now 
this boy gave the ansM'^er that has been given by mankind for 
thousands of years, so much so, that ancestor-worship, or parent- 
worship, is the basis of many, if not most, religions. Mankind 
has always attributed creation, genesis, to its parents, and in 
early times the father was given full credit for this act. Hence 
all sacred writings or bibles, devoted much attention to the sex- 
ual relationships of humankind. 

"We read in Genesis (ch. i, v. 27) "So God created man in his 
own image, in the image of God created he him ; male and female 
created he them." The most God-like attribute of man appeared 
to the writer of Genesis (generally supposed to have been Moses) 
to have been the power of creation, or pro-creation. Man is like 
God in this, that he has the power of creating human beings. 

The Lord is represented as having taken extra precautions 
that man should not become immortal; there were in the Garden 
of Eden tAvo trees, the "tree of knowledge of good and evil," and 
the ' ' tree of life ; ' ' and man was forbidden to eat of the fruits of 
either (Gen. ii, 9). If we may believe Adam (Gen. iii, 12), he 
Avas solicited by his Avife to eat of the fruit of the "tree of knowl- 
edge of good and evil;" Adam did, Avhat in our days we would 
call, "hiding behind his wife's skirts," only, in his case, we can 
not say so, because Eve wore no petticoats. But the eating of this 
fruit had the curious effect (Gen. iii, 7) that "the eyes of both 
were opened and they knew that they Avere naked ; and they sewed 
fig-leaves together and made themselves aprons." In an early 
edition of the English Bible the word "aprons" was translated 
"breeches;" this edition of the Bible is knoAvn among bibliophiles 


as the "Breeches Bible." "And the Lord said (apparently to 
his companions, the other godsf), Behold, the man is become as 
one of us, to know good and evil. And now, lest he put forth his 
hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever"— 
(Gen. iii, 22) "he drove him out of the garden, and he placed 
cherubims and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep 
the way of the tree of life" (Gen. iii, 24). 

The result was, that as Adam and Eve were prevented from 
eating of the fruit of the tree of life, eventually they had to die. 
We read in the fifth chapter of Genesis, 1-5 verses: "This is the 
book of generations of Adam: In the day that God created 
man, in the likeness of God made he him. Male and female cre- 
ated he them, and he called their name Adam. * * * and Adam 
begat a son in his own likeness, after Ms image; and called his 
name Seth * * * and he begat sons and daughters * * * 
and he died." 

Note the similarity of the expression "in his own likeness" 
as referring to creation by God as well as by Adam. Note also 
the sequence of all nature — "he hegat * * * and he died." 
That is the everlasting monotonous round of life. 

"The world will turn when we are earth. 
As though we had not come nor gone ; 
There was no lack before our birth, 
When we are gone there will be none." 

(Omar Khayyam.) 

We have already learned that the Hindu Trimurti consists of 
Brahma, the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva the De- 
stroyer. Siva is now the main deity in India, and his function of 
destroying is supposed to include or necessitate the function of 
creating ; he is therefore worshipped in the form of a phallus, the 
image of the male sexual organs, or the male trinity of penis and 
two testicles. But creation implies death, and death implies re- 
placement, or re-creation, procreation, reproduction. 

Death has been the goal as well as the dread of man since 
death existed — which was always since life began. There is no 
life without death and no death without life. 

"Death, so-called, is a thing which makes men weep. 
And yet a third of life is passed in sleep." 

(Byron, in Don Juan.) 


* * * "All that tread 
The globe are but a handful to the tribes 
That slumber in its bosom." 

(Bryant, Thanatopsis.) 

' ' Some men make womanish complaint that it is a great mis- 
fortune to die before our time. I would ask, what time? Is it 
that of Nature? But she, indeed, has lent us life as we do a sum 
of money, only, no certain day is fixed for payment. What reason 
then to complain if she demands it at pleasure, since it was on 
this condition that you received it." (Cicero.) 

Death is the inevitable fate of all — we die; but others take 
our places ; life ceases not on earth, for to obey the first command 
in the Bible — "Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth" 
is the most imperative instinct and impulse in every living being ; 
reproduction is as imperative an obligation on the race, as death 
is an imperative destiny for the individual, and so the race con- 
tinues while the individuals come and go. 

The Psalmist truly says: "What man is he that liveth, and 
shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul from the hand of 
the grave? Selah." — (Ps. Ixxxix, 48.) 

Death among primitive men has probably always been con- 
sidered as the result of violence, either at the hands of human or 
animal enemies, or as the action of hurtful demons or death- 

As the poet Longfellow wrote : 

"There is a Eeaper whose name is Death 
And with his sickle keen 
He reaps the bearded grain at a breath 
And the flowers that grow between." 

The Bible ascribes death to a death-angel; (Eev, vi, 8) "And 
I looked, and behold, a pale horse ; and his name that sat on him 
was Death * * * and power was given to kill with sword, and 
with hunger, and with death" * * * (Fig. 10). 

Again: (II Samuel, ch. xxiv, 15-16) "So the Lord sent a pes- 
tilence upon Israel * * * and when the angel stretched out 
his hand upon Jerusalem to destroy it, the Lord repented him 
of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It 
is enough ; stay now thy hand. ' ' 



Fig. 10. — "Death," from Dore's Bible illustrations. Aeoording to the Apocalypse. 

Fig. 11.— "Death- Angel," from Fig. 12.— "Charon Bowing Souls 

Dor6's Bible illustrations. Over the Styx," from Temple of the 

Muses, XVIII Century. 



In the year 790 b.c. Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem. In an- 
swer to the prayers of the Jews, the Lord's "angel" (a pesti- 
lence) visited the enemy's camp and slew 185,000 Assyrians (Fig. 
11), as related in the Second Book of Kings: "And it came to 
pass that night, that the angel of the Lord went out and smote in 
the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand ; 
and when they arose in the morning, behold, they were all dead 
corpses." (II Kings, xix, 35.) 

In some countries or religions death was looked upon as a 
journey to another world; thus, in Egypt, in the "Book of the 
Dead," a ship is figured, carrying the souls to the other world. 

Fig. 13. — "Charon's Feri-y;" illustration to Dante's Inferno, hy Dore. 

The Greeks thought that the souls of the dead were ferried 
by Charon over the river Styx, which was made up of all the tears 
that had been shed in the world ; the same origin is also ascribed 
to the river Acheron. The Styx was a sacred river among the 
Greeks, as the Ganges is among the Hindus or the Nile, in ancient 
times, to the Egyptians, and they swore "by Styx." 

Charon charged a fee for his services as ferryman, so that, 
when the Greeks buried anyone they provided him with a small 
coin which was placed in his hand, or under his tongue, so that 
he might not be detained at the bank of that dreaded river 
(Fig. 12). 

If a soul had no coin to pay his fare, it was detained for one- 


hundred years, as shown in the illustration from the "Temple 
of the Muses" published in the XVIII Century. From this idea, 
or simultaneously with it, was probably evolved the theory of 
purgatory, believed in by many people. The belief in purgatory, 
adapted from the Grreeks, was made an article of faith for Catho- 
lics by Pope Gregory the Great, about 500 a.d. 

Dante adopted this Pagan idea about Charon and featured 
it in his Divine Comedy; in Dore's illustrations to this work, this 
ferrying of the souls over the river was figured as here shown 
(Fig. 13). 

Together with many other features of Paganism, Christianity 
also appropriated this idea, and so-called "gospel hymns" or 
"revival hymns" utilize it in various versions. 

"When the poet Lamb wrote, in his poem "Hester:" 

****** "Gone before 
To that unknoAvn and silent shore," 

he was justified in doing so, because poets always did utilize 
Pagan ideas when they Avere beautiful. 

But when, in modern hymnology, we find this idea adopted, 
as in the gospel hymn : 

' ' We are waiting by the river 

We are watching by the shore. 
Only waiting for the boatman 
Soon He'll come and roAv us o'er. 

"Though the mist hang o'er the river 
And its billows loudly roar 
Yet we hear the song of angels 
Wafted from the other shore." 

we recognize it as a purely Greek Pagan metaphor, which can 
not be excused or justified by any passage from the Bible. But 
modern revivalists have seized on the idea as a telling one, and 
in their songs as well as in their talks they work on these lines 
in endless modifications. 

"Shall we meet beyond the river 
Where the surges cease to roll. 
Where in all the bright forever 
Sorrow ne'er shall press the soul? 


"Shall we meet in that blest harbor 
When our stormy voyage is o'er, 
Shall we meet and cast the anchor 
By the fair celestial shore? 

' ' Shall we meet, shall we meet. 
Shall we meet beyond the river 
Shall we meet beyond the river 
Where the surges cease to roll?" 

The same motif is found in such songs as : 

"Safe in the Arms of Jesus;" 

"We Shall Meet Beyond the River, Bye and Bye;" 
"The Home Over There;" 
"The Beautiful River;" or 
"That Shining Shore" — with its chorus: 
"For we stand on Jordan's strand. 
Our friends are passing over," etc. 

It is Greek Paganism, slightly modified of course, to suit the 
requirements, but essentially the myth of Charon, the son of Ere- 
bus and Night (Nox) rowing the Manes or ghosts of the departed 
over the Styx, to the judgment seat of Aeacus, Rhadamanthus and 
Minos, the Judges of the Infernal Regions. 

Among savage and barbarous nations diseases and death are 
often attributed to the malevolent influence of evil spirits. In 
some cases these evil powers are supposed to be the ghosts of the 
dead, sometimes, to be imps or devils under the conunand of 
Satan or the Devil, who is a reality to even many of our civilized 
Christians. But in many cases these disease-demons are fantas- 
tic and grotesque creations of the imagination as, for instance, 
disease-demons of the Bohemian gypsies. Among some people, 
these demons are imagined as supernatural beings, endowed with 
special functions; for instance, among some Malay tribes there 
are demons that produce smallpox, others that produce glandu- 
lar swellings, abscesses, bubonic plague, etc. 

We will return to this subject later on, simply stating now 
that the belief in evil spirits and in their power of producing sick- 
ness and death is very widely held, even among Christians. 

Closely connected with the belief in evil demons is the belief 


in witchcraft, a belief which is based on the Bible and must there- 
fore, in the opinion of millions of people, be true. 

In the Second Book of Chronicles, ch. xxxiii, sixth verse, we 
are told of Manasseh that "he caused his children to pass through 
the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom : also he observed times 
and used enchantments and used witchcraft and dealt with a fa- 
miliar spirit and with wizards." And in Exodus (xxii, 18) we 
read: "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live." Or in Deuter- 
onomy: (xviii, 10) "There shall not be found among you any one 
that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or 
that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, 
or a witch." 

In Exodus we are told that God had a talk with Moses in 
which he taught him to do several miracles or tricks by witch- 
craft. (Ex. vii, 1 to 12) "And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I 
have made thee a god to Pharaoh; and Aaron, thy brother shall 
be thy prophet * * * And the Lord spake unto ^oses, and 
unto Aaron, saying, When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, say- 
ing, Show a miracle for you, then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take 
thy rod and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent. 
And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh * * * and Aaron 
east down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and 
it became a serpent. Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and 
the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt they also did in like 
manner with their enchantments. For they cast down every man 
his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up 
their rods." 

To base this belief in witchcraft on the Bible, as has been 
done and is being done, may be like the argument of the little boy, 
who made some assertion and was asked to mention his authority 
for the statement ; he clinched all argument in this manner : ' ' My 
mother said so, and when she says anything is so, it is so, even 
if it isn't so." 

There is an almost universal belief among the uneducated, 
that persons can "sell their souls" to a devil or demon and get 
in return the power of doing supernatural or magical things, es- 
pecially the power to produce sickness or death, or of "bewitch- 
ing" any one. A prominent feature of such a compact generally 
is the signature of the human "party of the first part" in his 
own blood. 


A typical case of such belief in the Christian church is the 
following, found in a secular encyclopedic history of the world, of 
the 18th century. It is the case of a nun, Mary Renata Sengerin, 
who was born at Massan, near Munich, Bavaria; she became a 
nun when she was 19 years of age and at the time of the occur- 
rence of the tragedy I am about to relate (in 1751) she had been 
a nun for 50 years. She had lived a life of great piety and vir- 
tue during these 50 years and was held in great good repute. 
But "inwardly," as it appeared from the records of her trial as 
a witch, "she was the slave of a hellish spirit" and had for ten 
years afflicted the other nuns with much bodily ailment and suf- 
fering, by breathing on them. 

One of the other nuns complained to the authorities of the 
establishment or nunnery and accused Sister Mary of being a 
witch; she was arrested and in her room were found some oint- 
ment, some witch-herbs, a yellow skirt, and also some cats. She 
was "compelled to undergo an interrogation," which probably 
means that she was tortured, and when the evil spirits were driven 
from her by the exorcisms of the priests, these demons confessed 
that they had served the accused nun, who was a witch. She also 
admitted that the cats in her room were hellish spirits. 

Her trial took place at Wuerzburg, in 1751 ; she was duly con- 
victed of being a witch, and was publicly beheaded and her body 
was burned to ashes. 

Such was but one of many, many thousands of cases of sim- 
ilar kind, which took place while the delusion of belief in witch- 
craft lasted in the minds of the people. 

If among our forefathers, but little over a century and a half 
ago, such foolish notions existed, can we be surprised that they 
were and are still common among less civilized peoples? 

Even among physicians disease and death was not always 
recognized as the result of perfectly natural processes, as we 
learn from the History of Medicine; even here, demons and life 
principles, etc., were invoked to explain both life and death. 

But death, as the inevitable fate of most humankind was rec- 
ognized as sure — "Sure as Fate." 

It is true there are a few cases mentioned in the Bible, of 
people tvJio did not die; "Enoch was translated, that he should 
not see death" (Hebrews, xi, 5) ; or in II Kings, ii, 11, "Elijah 
went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 



To some, these cases appear well authenticated; to others, 
they are not quite so convincing. 

But most individuals must die; to count on being "trans- 
lated" is too uncertain, and if all must die, the world would be- 
come depopulated if Siva, or powers like him, did not attend to 

What Is Reproduction? 

We may cut sponges or sea anemones into fragments and put 
them back into their native waters, and each piece will develop 

Fig. 1-1. — Upper row, plasmodia of amoeba; lower row, plasmodium dividing into two 


into a perfect specimen of its kind ; or in spading our garden we 
may accidentally cut a worm in two — the tail end will produce a 
new head and the head end will produce a new tail, and we have 
two individuals. Possibly we should not call them new individ- 
uals, but they are as good as new — for there are now two individ- 
uals where there was only one before ; what we have accomplished 
by accident or design is the usual method of reproduction in many 
animals and plants in which division takes place spontaneously. 
We do not know just what "life" is; but we know its mani- 
festations : Motion, growth, sensation and self-preservation. Hun- 
ger is one form of the impulse of self-preservation and is insep- 



arable from life ; from the one-celled animal or plant to the most 
complex organism, all eat or assimilate food, digest, grow and 
multiply; but growth is limited between certain comparatively 
narrow bounds ; the simplest particle of protoplasm, the simplest 
cell, when it has reached its normal limit of growth, divides into 
two or more. 

In Fig. 14 we see an amoeba cell (upper left) ; in the next 
figure we see commencing division of the nucleus; in the third, 
division commences by constricting; then this process is carried 
further until finally the two halves have separated and there are 
two amoeba. 

Fig. 15. — Division of desmids, above; of cells, below. 

Cell-division is here shown (Fig. 15) in simple cells (lower) 
as well as in desmids (upper). Unicellular organisms of all kinds, 
as well as many large and comparatively complex organisms, 
when they become too large for one individual, divide into two. 
But the resulting forms resemble each other ; they can not be dis- 
tinguished as male and female. This mode of reproduction is 
called asexual, or without sex. A similar process, but not as 
complete, is that by which some of the lower forms of life can 
reproduce lost or accidentally destroyed parts; thus, a snail hav- 
ing one of its eyes cut off, will have a new eye grow out ; or a lob- 
ster, losing a claw, will have another claw grow. 

In the middle ages, when human ctedulity gave credence to 



many preposterous tales, the following story found its way into 
a secular work on history. In the VIII Century Johannis Damas- 
ceni, a soldier in one of the crusades, was captured by the Sara- 
cens, and his right hand was heAvn off by order of one of the Sara- 
cen kings. He prayed to Mary, mother of God, and a new hand 
grew, leaving only a small red scar around the arm at the point 
where it grew. He was canonized for his faith, as evidenced by 
his prayer and its fulfilment, and is now numbered among the 

In cases of the restoration of lost parts it is not complete 
reproduction, but only partial, for while the injured individual 
grows out a new part, the severed part does not reproduce a new 
individual. But, of course, in higher organisms, the severed part 

Pig. 16. — Miraculous reproduction of a hand ; from a secular history of 1740. Madonna 

in a hairy door of life. 

is not reproduced. Certain organs are called "vital" if injury 
to them, or severance, produce death, while others are "non- 
vital" because removal of them does not affect life, or general 
health, but merely entails discomfort or disability. 

If we place a leaf of Bryophyllum* on moist sand, little buds 
form on its margin (Fig. 17) ; as the leaf decays these buds be- 
come separated into individual plants; this is reproduction "by 
budding." Buds may break off from the parent animal or plant 
and become independent individuals, and this method of repro- 
duction is common in many animals, as zoophytes, corals, etc., 
as well as in many plants. 

*A plant of the family of house-Jeeks; has no common English name, except that in Bermuda 
it is known as *'Life-plant." 



The ' ' layering ' ' of grapevines or raspberry plants, the plant- 
ing of slips of fuchsia or geranium, the placing of a twig of ole- 
ander in a bottle of water, and producing a new plant thereby, 
is practically a form of reproduction by budding and we might 
even go further and include here the grafting of a scion on an- 
other plant as a modification of this method of reproduction. The 
bud or slip or scion being a part of the parent plant, there will be 
a growth exactly resembling the parent stock; the resulting new 
individual will show only such variations as may be produced by 

Fig. 17. — Leaf of Bryophyllum forming buds on its margin which become independent 

plants on decay of the leaf. 

more or less favorable environment, but no essential or hered- 
itary variation can take place. This reproduction is also asexual 
or without sex. 

In the protozoa we find that while for many generations the 
organisms may divide and subdivide to form new individuals, a 
time comes when this power becomes less and finally ceases alto- 
gether, and this line of the species threatens to die out. Then two 
or more protozoa approach one another in obedience to an im- 
perative impulse, apparently eat each other — "protoplasmic can- 



nibalism"^ — and coalesce into one large individual from which the 
species takes a new start — by again dividing. This process is 
called "conjugation;" but we see no' difference between the sev- 
eral individuals taking part in the process, and there is no sex 
in the proper sense of the word, yet we must recognize this as an 
early step in the evolution of that wonderful and complex proc- 
ess called "sexual reproduction" in the higher orders of beings. 
In our illustration (Fig. 18) we see three amoeba unite 
(above) to form a Plasmodium, and to the right, a completed 
large Plasmodium with two new nuclei, each of which, with its 
half of the Plasmodium, will form a new amoeba. In the lower 
part of the illustration are shown several individuals of Pan- 

Fig. IS. — Upper low, three amoebae uniting to form a Plasmodium; lower row, con- 
jugation of two pandorinae. 

dorina, the conjugation and coalescence of two individuals into a 
new individual, from which the usual form of reproduction by 
fission or division starts again. 

Every organism is hungry, but some possess the power of 
assimilating food and of elaborating it into complex organic com- 
pounds in a more marked degree than others; a cell of this kind 
is constructive ; assimilation exceeds waste ; income is larger than 
expense and a surplus accumulates, the cell grows large and round, 
and not needing to exert itself to live, it becomes sluggish and 
quiescent. In the gradual differentiation between the cells taking 
part in the process of conjugation (Fig. 19), cells having these 
characteristics are said to be "anabolic;" this process of cell- 



growth is called " anabolism ; " the cell when completely differen- 
tiated, is an ovum — the female rudimentary unit. The cell is 

In other cells growth is retarded, the power of assimilating 
food and elaborating it into more complex organic compounds is 
weakened; waste outruns assimilation; the cell lives beyond its 
means, for it uses up more than it gathers; its organic constitu- 
ents tend to disorganization and death, to a reduction of its con- 
stituents to their elementary condition. The cell is partially 
starved and it must exert itself to maintain life; it therefore as- 
sumes a shape which enables it to hustle for a living, or at least, 
to hurry to accomplish its life mission before it loses its power to 

Highest forms of Life. 



WP Amodioid. 

Louresi forms of-Cife. 


Fig. 19. — The evolution of sex from aseixual reproduction. 

do this ; it assumes a shape that admits of active locomotion. We 
call such a condition ''katabolism;" such a cell, when fully dif- 
ferentiated, constitutes the male rudimentary unit — the sperma- 
tozoon; the cell is masculine. 

In the diagram, starting with the conjugation of two equal 
cells, as in the amoeba, constituting "asexual" reproduction, we 
see a gradual divergence in the cells taking part in conjugation 
until the cells are completely differentiated into the large femi- 
nine ovum and the small male spermatozoon. 

While the ovum may, and in many species and under certain 
conditions does, develop into a new being without the cooperation 
of a male cell, the latter is by itself utterly unable to produce any- 


thing; the male spermatozoon is of value only when required by 
the female cell or ovum; otherwise its katabolic tendency asserts 
itself and the cell perishes; death results — never reproduction. 
When the small and active spermatozoon comes into contact 
with an ovum of the same species, it is absorbed by the latter and 
the coalescence of the two nuclei of these two cells starts a devel- 
opment in the ovum which results in the formation of a new indi- 
vidual which partakes of the natures of the two parent cells. We 
must construe literally what Jesus said of this matter: "Have 
ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning, made them 
male and female; for this cause shall a man leave father and 
mother, and shall cleave to his wife : and they twain shall be one 
flesh. Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh." (Matt, 
xix, 4-6.) 

He (the spermatozoon) and she (the ovum) coalesce and ac- 
tually become "one flesh," partaking of the natures of both the 
father and the mother. This coming together of the spermato- 
zoon and ovum is called fertilization, impregnation, or sexual 

We understand now the essential or fundamental nature of 
sex; the details are being studied by thousands of able investi- 
gators, and many of the secrets of nature, let us hope, will be 
made clear within a few years. Meanwhile the essence of the na- 
ture of sex may be apprehended from the facts just stated. 

In the lowest forms of life there is no sex, but conjugation of 
several equal cells, as in the amoeba, where two or several cells 
form a Plasmodium; then conjugation, limited to two cells, but 
yet without appreciable difference between them; next, conjuga- 
tion between two somewhat dissimilar cells or individuals, and 
lastly, a union, by "fertilization" of two completely differenti- 
ated male and female cells or individuals. 

All excellence of character and all loveliness and seductiveness 
of body serve but to attract two individuals through love, in order 
that a spermatozoon may come into contact with an ovum, to pro- 
duce a new being. 

"For Beauty is the bait which with delight 
Doth man allure, for to enlarge his kind," 

said the poet Spenser, fully 300 years ago. 




To make clear the nature of fertilization I show here the 
mode of reproduction of Peronospora, a mould that grows on the 
potato and causes potato rot (Fig. 20). In fungi the merely veg- 
etative portion consists of more or less loosely or more or less 
compactly matted threads, called the mycelium. In Peronospora 
the mycelium consists of threadlike fibers. The fructification con- 
sists of two kinds of outgrowths from these fibers, one a larger 
round body, or female organ, in which there are one or several 
smaller round bodies — the oospheres or ova (eggs) ; then there 
is also a slim male outgrowth which produces immense numbers 

Fig. 20. — Sexual reproduction in Pero- 
nospora, a mould, above; OTum and an- 
therozoids of Fueus, below. 

Fig. 21. — Cochineal insects on 
cactus leaf; male insect with wings. 

of slender active cells called antherozoids, which correspond to 
the spermatozoa of animals. 

The male outgrowth applies itself to the side of the female 
organ, perforates the walls of the latter, enters it by a tubular 
prolongation, and discharges the antherozoids into it, bringing 
them into contact with the female cells or ova, the oospheres, each 
of which becomes fertilized by absorbing an antherozoid by which 
they become changed into fertile spores that are able to develop 
into new plants. 

We have here, in one of the lowest classes of plants, and one 


of the earliest forms of plants, a forecast of that more complex 
process which we know as coition. 

It will be noticed that in even these very lowly organisms the 
female cells are passive and that the activity necessary to bring 
the male cells into contact with the female cells is exerted by the 
male, or the male organ; even in these fungoid threads "the 
bride does not seek the bridegroom, but awaits his coming and 
his wooing." 

In the lower part of the drawing are seen the shapes of the 
oosphere or female cell or ovum and the antherozoids or male 
cells of bladder-wrack {Fucus vesiculosus), one of the algae. 

In the cochineal insects (Fig. 21) we see this difference of 
sex-disposition plainly exemplified. When the eggs of these in- 
sects are hatched, about 200 females are produced for every one 
male insect. The wingless females move about sluggishly on the 
surface of the leaf of the cactus, while the winged males fly about 
actively from one female to another to impregnate them, which 
having been accomplished their function in life is completed and 
they die. 

The females now attach themselves firmly to the leaf, appear- 
ing like so many warts, storing away the anabolic surplus of food 
in their bodies as carmine, to serve as food for the developing 
young, who feed upon the bodies of their mothers when the eggs 
are hatched. 

We see here again "a vivid emblem of what is an average 
truth throughout the world of animals — the preponderating pas- 
sivity of the females and the predominant activity of the males." 

"Even in the human species this contrast is recognized. Ev- 
ery one will admit that strenuous bursts of activity characterize 
men, especially in youth and among the less civilized races ; while 
patient continuance with less violent expenditure of energy is as 
generally associated with the work of women." 

To see this difference in regard to sexual activity we need 
but glance at the behavior of the rooster among a number of hens, 
or of the male pigeon with his mate, or of the cock sparrow. The 
ancient Eomans had a proverb: "Et musca habet penem," "Even 
the fly has a penis," which corresponds to our modern saying: 
"They all do it!" and which shows this active desire of the males 
very plainly. 

The difference in this regard between males and females of 


the human species is seen in the enthusiasm with which men be- 
come soldiers, for which service women are unfit; and on the 
other hand the exhanstless patience with which women act as 
nurses in the Eed Cross hospitals. There can be no question as 
to the patriotism of either; both, in their spheres, are equally 
loyal, and equally active, but their spheres of activity are dif- 
ferent. Women can not do all the tasks of men, nor can men do 
the tasks of women ; nor did nature intend them to do tasks con- 
trary to their natures. 

Many of the lower organisms, especially plants, are capable 
of producing both elements! — ova and spermatozoa, or ova and 
antherozoids, or pollen — such individuals are called hermaphro- 
dites. In higher animal forms it is more common that one indi- 
vidual produces only ova — it is a female; others produce only 
spermatozoa — they are males. 

In some species, of insects especially, the female has the 
power to produce eggs that can be developed without being fer- 
tilized by a spermatozoon. The males in such species seem to be 
superfluous; or they are rudimentary; or there are no males at 
all. This latter, however, may be due to the fact that the forms 
of males and females of certain species are so dissimilar in size 
and shape, that the two forms have as yet not been recognized as 
belonging together. 

When a female produces eggs that hatch without being fer- 
tilized by a male, the process of procreation is called "partheno- 
genesis," which is a compound Greek word signifying "birth from 
a virgin." This may take place in insects, but it is sometimes 
said to have taken place in much higher forms, as will be men- 
tioned later on — suffice it to say here, that neither true hermaph- 
roditism or parthenogenesis can occur in mammals or in mankind. 

By referring back to page 5, the ancient views, of Philo and 
Plato in regard to a supposed condition of hermaphroditism in 
man will be found. 

Another view, however, was advanced later on, for Scotus 
(or Erigena, IX Cent.) taught that man was originally sinless 
and without sex. Only after the introduction of sin did man 
lose his spiritual body and acquire his animal nature with the 
differentiation of sex ; according to Scotus woman is the imperson- 
ation and embodiment of man's sensuous and fallen nature, but 
on the final return of divine unity (in heaven) all distinction of 


sex will disappear and the original spiritual body will be re- 
gained; this is probably premised on Mark xii, 25: "For when 
they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given 
in marriage * * * ," and Luke xx, 35 :" But they which shall 
be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection 
from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage." 

Recently some writers seriously proposed the theory that the 
males and females of today are but the deteriorated representa- 
tives of original bi-sexual human beings, and that hermaphro- 
ditism is really only a reversion in type to that of the "original 
perfect bisexual man." The authors of this work say that her- 
maphrodites which are now always sterile, were not " always so 
but that there are "scientific records" that such persons have 
assumed the relations of both sexes, sometimes acting as fathers 
and then again as mothers. 

Needless to say, the writer has never met with any ' ' scientific 
record" of this kind; a case from an old history is quoted on 
p. 316 to show the credulity of the human mind. The record of 
science is that hermaphrodites are never bisexually potent in the 
human race. 

What is generally called "hermaphroditism" in humans con- 
sists most commonly in an abnormally developed clitoris which 
may resemble a penis in size, and may be mistaken for one, but 
it never is capable of impregnating a woman. In ancient times 
castrates were called hermaphrodites because while they had the 
general features of men they were used like women, for coitus 
in ano, which was once an exceedingly popular form of sexual 
indulgence, known as "Greek love," and which is referred to in 
Rom. i, 27: "And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use 
of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another ; men with 
men working that which is unseemly * * * ," 

This is as near to a scientific record that men have acted 
both as males and as females as there exists; Nero was fond of 
such relationships, but it does not prove real hermaphroditism. 
Julius Caesar also was addicted to "Greek love." 

When a cluster of cells in an embryo which may develop 
either into a clitoris or into a penis during uterine development 
begins to differentiate, it either becomes a perfect clitoris, with 
all the other parts also feminine, or it becomes a perfect penis, 
with all the other parts also male, or it may become malformed, 


producing what is miscalled hermaphroditism; but it can not 
develop into two distinct forms, clitoris and penis both; only one 
or the other, or imperfect. So with other parts ; when they com- 
mence to differentiate their destiny becomes fixed, as for instance, 
they may become ovaries or testicles, but not both. 

Atavism means reversal to ancestral forms; the possibilities 
for atavisms were laid in very early evolutionary processes; for 
instance, the possibility of having five or six fingers on a hand 
dates back to the Silurian age, the age of fishes, when the fin of 
a fish developed into the five-fingered arm or limb of a reptile ; or 
perhaps even earlier, when the trilobite evolved a limb, as in the 
pterichthys. But the development of most parts in man origi- 
nated later. Yet his conformation was determined in evolution 
in much earlier times than even the mammalian age ; but even in 
those early days of fishes, reptiles, marsupials, early mammals, 
etc., the differentiation of sex- — either male or female hut not 
both — had been fully established, and when man appeared there 
was no more possibility of his having been sexless or bi-sexual, than 
there would be of a perfect man developing the form of a Hindu 
god, with four or six perfect arms, or of a perfect woman devel- 
oping into an angel with four upper extremities, two arms, and 
two feathered Avings. Neither was it possible for a sexless race 
to be produced from mammals in whom sex differentiation was 

Only those who believe in special acts of creation can imagine 
a possibility of sexless or bi-sexual human ancestors ; no scientist 
can give credence to such an absurd proposition. 

When two-headed monstrosities, and similar foetal products 
appear, they are derived from two ova which become united in 
utero; and moreover, monstrosities with multiple parts are usu- 
ally born dead or die soon after birth. At one time such mon- 
strosities were considered to be portents of evil; even Martin 
Luther said of such a monstrosity occurring near where he lived, 
that it "presaged great misfortunes and trials, and might pos- 
sibly mean even the approach of the Day of Judgment. ' ' 

But the human mind is so constituted that many persons can 
believe almost anything. Among the signs and portents which 
preceded the destruction of Jerusalem under Titus, were the fol- 
lowing: A comet appeared nightly for a whole year (a comet is 
even now regarded as a premonition of war, for a large comet 


appeared just before our civil war, and one also appeared about 
1910 prior to the present war; to the superstitious this is proof 
enough) ; a cow was brought into the temple for sacrifice, but 
gave birth to a sheep right before the altar. The clouds appeared 
to resemble warring armies of soldiery. These portents were 
warnings to the Jews that God was about to punish them for hav- 
ing demanded the crucifixion of Jesus. 

The belief that mankind was originally either sexless, or en- 
dowed Avith both sexes in the same person calls for very super- 
stitious and uneducated people. 

In this connection it may be of interest to state that at Spy, 
Belgium, two nearly perfect skeletons were found, one, of a male, 
the other of a female, as well differentiated as the two sexes are 
today; they belonged to the Neanderthal type of mankind (see 
p. 325) and this type existed in Europe from 50,000 to 200,000 
years ago. The differentiation of sex took place, in fact, in the 
algae, the lowest type of plants, probably before any kind of 
animal life existed. 

What Determines Sex? 

Many theories have been proposed to explain the determina- 
tion of sex. I will refer only to the most plausible theory, and the 
one now most commonly accepted by scientists. 

The human body requires a greater time to reach maturity 
than any other organism. During the growth of the body the 
bones and their epiphyses are separate, and they do not become 
solidly united until about the age of 22 or 23 years. 

Here are two x-ray pictures, one of the hand of a young girl 
in which the bones in the fingers are not yet united (Fig. 22) but 
the epiphyses are still separate. 

In Fig. 23 is shown the sciagraph, or x-ray photograph, of 
a woman's hand, showing the location of the point of a needle 
broken off in her thumb, but introduced here to show that the 
bones of the hand and their epiphyses are united, or form one 
bone; the growth of the individual is therefore completed. 

One theory is that a woman who is married before she is 
fully perfected, needs nourishing material for herself and has not 
so much to spare for a child she may carry in her womb, and that 
this lack of sufficient nourishment for the child will prevent the 
fullest development of the latter and it will be born a boy ; while 



a woman fully formed or matured will have more surplus food 
and her child is apt to be a girl. 

This accounts for the fact that the first child of a young 
woman is quite commonly a boy, while later children, when the 
mother is more mature, are girls. 

Incidentally, the too early consolidation of the bones of the 
skull in the negroes is supposed to be the cause of the retardation 
of the brains in this race, and the cause of the inferiority which 
has made this race the servants and slaves of all other races, as 
shown by the history of mankind from the earliest times to now. 



9 \ j^f J 



. i 

Fig. 22.— X-ray photograph of the hand 
of a girl ; not yet fully matured. 

Pig. 23. — X-ray photograph of the hand 
of a matured woman; see broken end of 
needle in thumb. 

The Determination of Sex Depends on Nourishment 

Up to a certain and often quite advanced period of devel- 
opment of the embryo, sex is undetermined, and the individual 
may become either a male or a female. In toads, for example, 
sex is for a long time undetermined, the development of the sex- 
ual organs being retarded until a quite late period; circumstances 
may occur, therefore, quite late, to determine whether the young 
toad will become a male or female, each one having traces of 
both sex-organs in early youth. When tadpoles are left to them- 
selves, females preponderate in the proportion of about 57 in 100. 

I quote only one experiment, made by Yung:* Yung took a 

*Sometimes this name is spelled Young, and sometimes Yung; the latter is probably correct 

62 SEX And sex worship 

brood of tadpoles and divided it into two equal parts; the first 
set, left to itself, produced 56% females, while by feeding the 
other set on the especially nourishing flesh of frogs the propor- 
tion of females rose to 92%. The high feeding increased the an- 
abolic tendency sufficiently to produce 92 females to only 8 males. 
"A robust woman under favorable conditions is apt to give 
birth to a girl, while under unfavorable conditions a boy will 
probably be born. The general conclusion, more or less clearly 
grasped by numerous investigators, is, that favorable nutritive 
conditions tend to produce females, and unfavorable conditions 
males. ' ' 

Probably the majority of parents are proud when the mid- 
wife or doctor announces "it's a boy!" And the hope that it 
will be a boy is ever present in the heart of the prospective mother. 

If it were possible to control the sex of the child in the womb, 
possibly women would be far scarcer than they are now; but, 
fortunately, so far, efforts to control the determination of sex 
have proved futile. 

As long ago as 1672 a French physician collected 262 theories 
bearing on the determination of sex,* all of which he considered 
useless ; and he added another theory, which time and experience 
demonstrated to be equally wrong. 

Cudworth, an English writer, considers the fact that males 
and females are produced in about equal ratio, as a powerful ar- 
gmnent in favor of a teleological plan in the universe. He con- 
tends that no accidental combination of elements could be suffi- 
cient cause to produce that balance of male and female individuals 
on which the preservation of the species depends. 

It is a curious fact that among organisms of the most widely 
different kinds, the males and females are produced in nearly 
equal numbers, with a slight preponderance of males. Among 
humans there are born about 1050 males to 1000 females ; but boys 
are slightly larger, therefore subject to more chances of injury 
during childbirth; they are biologically a little less fitted to live, 
therefore the mortality in the first year or two after birth is 
greater among boys than among girls; and in a few years the 
equality in numbers is practically restored. The less vitality of 
boys is also shown by a large preponderance of still births among 
boys over those among girls. 

•According to Dr. E- Apert. 


And what is still more curious, we find the same ratio of the 
sexes among our domestic animals: Cattle, males 1046 to 1000 
females; horses, 1010 males to 1000 females; ducks, 1050 males 
to 1000 females; etc. 

The latest theory to account for this, is that in the final di- 
vision of the nuclei in forming two spermatozoa, one half of each 
cell becomes a male-producing spermatozoon, the other half a 
female-producing spermatozoon; that is, these two spermatozoa 
differ in their nuclear and chromosome constituents, so that one 
in union with an ovum will produce a male embryo, while the other 
would produce a female embryo. 

These two kinds of spermatozoa necessarily are produced in 
absolutely equal numbers; the chances therefore are even as far 
as the spermatozoa for an impregnation are concerned, as to the 
number of the resultant sexes. 

"In the production of male sexual elements the nucleus of 
the spermatocyte divides up asymmetrically. Half the sperma- 
tozoa have a nucleus identical in structure with that of the ovule 
in respect to the number of chromosomes. The ovules fertilized 
by these spermatozoa will consequently have a symmetrical nu- 
cleus since it is built up of two equivalent parts and these develop 
a female embryo. The remaining spermatozoa have a nucleus dif- 
fering in structure from that of the ovule and the ovules fertilized 
by these spermatozoa are asymmetrical and develop male em- 
bryos." (E. Apert, M.D.) 

The chances for any conception to produce a boy or a girl 
are equal as far as the numbers of male-producing and female- 
producing spermatozoa are concerned; but there is an excess of 
boys. This may possibly be accounted for by a greater activity 
of the male-producing spermatozoa ; it is possible that they share 
the general sex-bias of activity and ascend quicker and in greater 
numbers, so as to make the chances incline slightly in favor of 
male births. 

But if this theory is true, all attempts to control the pre- 
determination of sex must fail, because we can not control whether 
a male-producing or a female-producing spermatozoon will win 
the race to the ovum in the Fallopian tubes. 

In Korea there are sacred edifices where a large stone is 
mounted on a pivot so that it can be turned like a turnstile ; if a 
pregnant woman desires the child to be a boy, she turns this 


stone around once; more frequent turning invokes blessing on 
children she already has. This method of predetermining the sex 
of the offspring is probably just as effective as any of the 262 
methods referred to above. 

The inferiority of the male is strikingly shown in the bees ; a 
queen bee is fertilized by a male during the nuptial flight known 
as "swarming." When she returns to the hive, the balance of 
her life is practically devoted to laying eggs which are cared for 
by the workers. The queen controls the fertilization of her eggs ; 
she can lay either unfertilized or fertilized eggs. The unferti- 
lized eggs develop into males or drones ; the fertilized eggs develop 
into imperfect females or workers ; by special attention and food, 
a worker larva can be developed into a perfect female, or queen, 
in case the queen dies, or a new swarm is to be provided for. In 
other words, a drone, or male, can be produced by the imperfect 
method of reproduction, called parthenogenesis, while the produc- 
tion of females requires the more perfect method of the coopera- 
tion of both sex elements. The Phylloxera, a grapevine pest, lays 
small eggs parthenogenetically, which yield males and wingless fe- 
males; also, large eggs, which are fertilized and yield winged or 
perfect females. 

The excess of assimilation over waste in the female sex which 
shows itself in some of the lower animals by the greater size and 
vitality of the females and by their greater development, mani- 
fests itself in the human female, when she is not pregnant, by the 
peculiar periodical flow of the menstrual discharge, which accom- 
panies the monthly production of an ovum ; and still more mark- 
edly by the supply of nourishment to the embryo during gestation, 
and to the child after birth by lactation. 

Popular opinion, from primitive times to our own times, con- 
sidered the male to be the superior animal, because he has the 
stronger bones and muscles, and because a nation is stronger in 
proportion to the number of its warriors and workers, yet science 
has demonstrated that biologically the woman is the higher man- 
ifestation of life. 

A man has more powerful and intense sexual appetite than 
a woman. His love is sensual, physical, lustful and desirous and 
is aroused by the physical attractiveness, or beauty, of the woman ; 
he therefore is attracted by every pretty woman, and his love is 
inconstant. He loves variety ; he has no periodical states of sex- 



ual activity with intervening periods of inactivity or apathy, and 
he is always ready, and generally also always willing to indulge 
in sexual union if he can do so without social risks. History, reli- 
gion, and the nature of the man show that he was made for polyg- 
amous sexual relationships; monogamy is an artificial and more 
or less unnatural condition and a really monogamous man is the 
exception and not the rule. The man is sexually aggressive and 
his intense sexual desires perpetuate the vices. 

On the other hand, a well-bred woman does not seek carnal 
gratification and she is usually apathetic to sexual pleasures. Her 

Fig. 24 — "Faun ajid Nymph," from 
a painting by Cabanel. 

Fig. 25. — ' ' Joseph and Potiphai 's Wife, ' ' 
from an engraving. 

love is psychical or spiritual, rather than carnal, and her passive- 
ness in regard to coition often amounts to disgust for it; lust is 
seldom an element in a woman's character, and she is the pre- 
server of chastity and morality. So rare is it that this sex-bias is 
reversed and that a woman solicits and a man refuses (except, of 
course, among women who ply sexual indulgence as a trade or 
vocation) that one example of it was deemed worthy of record, 
and the story of Joseph and Potiphar's wife is preserved in holy 
writ for all time in memory of such a curious reversal of the usual 


conditions prevailing in regard to the relationship of the sexes to 
each other. 

But the Bible version of Joseph and Potiphar's wife is not 
the only one, and perhaps it is not a true and correct one. In the 
Koran is another version, which is different, judging from this, 
that Firdonsi, a Persian poet, wrote a poem of 9000 couplets, 
about the loves of Joseph and Potiphar's wife, on a theme taken 
from the Koran; 9000 couplets seem to imply some love-making. 

If women were as salacious as men, morality, chastity and 
virtue would not exist and the world would be but one vast brothel. 

"There is nothing in the human economy of which men and 
women should know more and of which they know less than of 
the sexual relationship. Ignorance is not bliss ; it is the source of 
unhappiness, suffering, crime, vice and sorrow without end. ' ' 

The light of knowledge illuminating this subject would ele- 
vate the present sensual and impure conceptions of the relation- 
ship of the sexes into an appreciation of the real godlike holiness 
and purity of married companionship, and it would go far toward 
checking immorality and prostitution. 

Add to the natural inclination of the man the teachings of re- 
ligion that the woman is the inferior being, that she was made for 
the benefit or enjoyment of the man, and that, as St. Paul says, 
the "natural use" of the woman is coition (Eom. i, 27), and we 
can readily account for the ages-old injustice that has been done 
to woman by man-made laws. 

The Status of Womaji 

Nearly all religions and almost all people, ancient and mod- 
ern, have considered woman to be inferior to man ; few authorities 
have maintained any equality of the sexes, and still fewer have 
claimed any superiority for the female sex. This latter was re- 
served for modern biologists. The weight of authority has always 
been in favor of a doctrine of the superiority of the male; and 
in regard to the human female some religions, like some sects of 
Mohammedans, even maintain that women have no souls; the 
Mohammedans say of women that they are "long-haired and 
short-brained. ' ' 

Philosophers have contended that woman is but an undevel- 
oped man ; hence it was but natural that she was early reduced to 


tlie position of a dependent — a slave. Plato, for instance, con- 
sidered the wife to be merely a part and parcel of the husband's 
estate ; to be, in the same sense as was his horse or dog or slave, 
his property. 

As Shakespeare said in "Taming of the Shrew:" 

"I will be master of what is mine own; 
She is my goods, my chattels; she is my house. 
My household stuff, my field, my barn. 
My horse, my ox, my ass, my anything; 
And here she stands, touch her whoever dare." 

Darwin's theory of evolution by sexual selection presupposes 
a superiority of the male line, inherent in that sex; Spencer 
thought that in woman further development is early arrested by 
her procreating functions, by menstruation, or in a more marked 
manner, by pregnancy. Darwin's man is, as it were, an evolved, 
or developed woman, while Spencer's woman is an undeveloped 
man, arrested in her development before she had arrived at full 

Tiedman regarded every embryo as naturally male, but fre- 
quently some of them failed of full development and became fe- 
males; or as he expressed it, "degenerating to the female state." 

Starkweather was one of the first to recognize the atrocious 
unfairness of such views, and he declared that "neither sex is 
physically the superior, but both are essentially equal in a physio- 
logical sense." 

Up to the middle of the nineteenth century women were prac- 
tically held in a sort of subjection or slavery to the men. They 
were not permitted to engage in the ordinary avocations, or wage- 
earning professions ; the refined and educated women might per- 
haps become teachers and the uneducated could be household 
drudges or servants ("slaveys," as they are still called in Eng- 
land) ; but beyond this few women ventured, for women writers 
of fiction or poetry were comparatively rare. And with rare 
exceptions, women were not paid the same wages as men, even 
when they did the same work. In Babylon of old, as the recent 
discovery of tablets of cuneiform inscriptions from Ashurban- 
ipal's library proves, women were regarded higher than even 
amongst us, and were paid the same price when they took a man's 
place and did a man's work. 


The married women had no civil rights except through their 
husbands; they could not hold property in their own names and 
both they and their children belonged to their husbands. 

Even our Dictionary definitions imply this inferiority of 
women: "Unmanly, = effeminate or childish," certainly implies 
such a comparison. 

We are not surprised at such conditions among savages; for 
instance, in Dahomey about one-fourth of the women are said to 
be married to the fetish, that is, they are slaves of the state and 
serve in the army which partly consists of amazons. All the 
other women are property of the King, who disposes of them as 
he wishes. He keeps for himself whatever women please him. 
He can put in the army whomever he wishes, and he supplies his 
chief men liberally with wives. Of female captives in war the 
physically fittest are drafted into the army, and the remainder 
become camp followers, for the use of the men warriors, or they 
become slaves. 

In Ashantee the king is said to have 3333 wives; this means 
that he has an unlimited number of women to please his desires. 

Such a savage conception of woman's status persisted even 
in highly civilized lands. Thus, in France, up to only about 130 
years ago, every woman belonged legally to the King; the profli- 
gate King Louis XV did not hesitate to commandeer any lady of 
his court for whom he felt a desire. History tells us that he had 
good preceptors, but that by temperament he was altogether bad ; 
his religion was merely superstition and fear, not real religious 
feeling; he was cynical and coldly selfish, allowing nothing to 
interfere with his desires for any pleasure, and he mixed piety 
and debauchery in a gross and abominable manner. He was de- 
vout in confession, and took the absolution by his sycophant con- 
fessors to absolve him from sin and to permit him to continue 
his immoralities. 

It is related that once he commandeered a noble lady of his 
court as a companion for his desires. She apprised her husband 
of the command which they dared not ignore ; so the husband set 
about deliberately to contract syphilis, which he imparted to his 
wife, and she to the king, who died miserably from the malady. 

According to the law up to the time of the French Revolution 
the king of France had the right to sleep with any maiden on the 
first night after her marriage ; this was the notorious "jus primae 


noctis" which was one of the important causes of the French 
Eevolution. Of course, the king could not possibly exert this 
right with every maiden, so he sublet for a consideration this 
right to some one for a province ; this one sublet the right again, 
and so on, until the last purchaser, the seigneur of a castle per- 
haps, possessed this right over all the girls in his district. When 
a man wanted to marry, he could purchase this right to the par- 
ticular girl whom he intended to marry, for a sum of money from 
the seigneur, who charged "all the traffic would bear," unless he 
knew the lass and coveted the privilege himself, in which case 
there was no method of eluding his claims. 

The theory that everything belonged to the king was general 
in feudal times in Europe; the English expressions of the "king's 
army" or the "king's navy" is a survival of those days. 

The Old Testament shows this inferiority of women in many 
passages, but here we will only insert one instance : Lev. xii, 2-5 : 
' ' Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a woman have con- 
ceived seed and borne a man-child : then she shall be unclean seven 
days; * * * ^i^j in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin 
shall be circumcised. And she shall then continue in the blood 
of her purifying three and thirty days : she shall touch no hallowed 
thing * * * But if she bear a maid-child, then she shall be 
unclean two weeks * * * and she shall continue in the blood 
of her purifying three-score and six days." 

In other words, the Biblical theory was that giving birth to 
a girl makes the mother twice as unclean as giving birth to a boy, 
and her penance is twice as great. 

It is asserted by the natives of Africa that instances have 
been known that a gorilla has carried off a human female and 
kept her as a mate. 

The low estimation in which woman is held by many men, 
even at the present time and in civilized lands, is a survival from 
the times when women were slaves. 

This statue of the "Gorilla" by Fremiet (Fig. 26) allego- 
rizes the degraded status of women under such systems and ideas 
of marriage and motherhood. 

This group of the "Captive Mother," by Binding (Fig. 27), is 
a symbolization of woman — "the nourisher of the race, bound 
and hampered in her noblest work by many limitations. She is 
the victim of oppression; she is denied the freedom of develop- 



ment by ties which bind her to false ideas of sex ethics, which 
deny her the social and political equality with her brother to which 
she is entitled. She is held responsible for the education of her 
children, which the laws of many states and countries declare be- 
long to the Imsband and not to her. 

' ' A franker recognition of the essential purity of sex will en- 
noble motherhood and free womanhood from the tragedy which 
now surrounds her." 

St. Augustine raised the question whether Eve derived her 

Fig. 26— "The Gorilla," by Frgmiet. 

soul from Adam or whether Grod imparted to her a soul of her 
own by blowing his breath in her nostrils. Arguments were ad- 
vanced in favor of both views. In some of the nations of Asia 
Minor, where these arguments were known, some sects adopted 
the view that Eve was made from the flesh of Adam but was left 
without a soul. This belief, that a woman has no soul, was even 
held by some teachers in the early Christian Church, for we find 
that the Provincial Council of Macon, as late as the sixth century, 
seriously debated whether woman has a soul or not; and as re- 



cently as 1895 a minister in an Eastern city preached that the 
Bible teaches that -woman has no soul! 

The early church-fathers taught that woman was a tempta- 
tion and a snare ; that her mind was evil and her body unholy and 
impure, and that desire for her was a sin. St. Panl said: "It is 
good for a man not to touch a woman;" "the head of the woman 
is the man" * * * "for the man is not of the woman but 
the woman of the man * * * neither was the man created for 
the woman but the woman for the man. Wives, submit yourselves 
unto your own husbands as unto the Lord * * * for the hus- 
band is the head of the wife * * * therefore as the church is 
subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their husbands in every- 
thing, * * * let the wife see that she reverence her husband." 

Fig. 27. — "The Captive Mother," by Sinding. A replica of this is in the St. Louis Art 


Girls and women have always been considered subject to the 
desires of men, and even St. Paul speaks of the "natural use" 
of woman as being coition. Canonical law says : ' ' Only man was 
created in the image of God, not woman ! therefore woman should 
serve him and be his maid." The inferior position into which 
law, custom and religion thus placed woman is allegorically rep- 
resented in the statue of the "Gorilla" (Fig. 26). 

The same belief, that woman has no soul, is held by some of 
the Mohammedan sects ; this led to a belief that no particular sin 
was committed by killing a woman, and led to the practice that 
if a wife, concubine or slave displeased her master, there was no 


stronger consideration than her money value to deter him from 
disposing of her, which was nsually done by tying her up in a 
sack with some rocks or other weight, and dropping her into the 
Bosphorus. This could be done without incurring any charge of 
murder as the master held the "power" of life and death and 
events that happened in the harem did not reach the public. 

Among the Chinese, also, such a belief prevails, and therefore 
the Chinese have no more hesitation about killing an unwelcome 
female infant than we would have about destroying superfluous 
kittens or puppies. The destruction of girl babies is rather an 
abandonment by leaving the newly-born infants on lots, similar 
to the "dying fields,"* where anyone who wants a girl baby is 
welcome to take what he wants; those that are not rescued in this 
manner soon die, except in the cities where foreign missionaries 
gather them up and rear them in orphan asylums. About a quar- 
ter of a century ago there appeared in a missionary report the 
statement that during a great famine, grown girls were sold to 
the butchers for about $3 each, to be slaughtered and cut up for 
food; to sell girls to become slaves is probably an everyday hap- 
pening in China. 

Infanticide is common among the Asiatics. In ancient times, 
even in Europe, a newborn babe was shown to the father, who 
decided whether it was to be raised or killed. Especially were 
girls thus killed, because they were as expensive and troublesome 
to raise as boys, and when they were old enough to repay for this 
trouble by labor, this labor went to a stranger, the husband. 
Hence arose a custom of demanding a remuneration from the hus- 
band as is still done in many African and Asiatic tribes ; but such 
a gift to the father made the freeborn girl a slave of the hus- 
band, to do with as he pleased. 

In exogamic tribes (tribes that are not permitted to marry 
within their OA\m tribe, but must get wives elsewhere) infanticide 
of girls is due to another cause, the fear of attack by neighboring 
tribes who want to steal their daughters for wives; they kill the 
daughters in infancy, to have no marriageable young women to 
tempt the cupidity of their neighbors. 

Still another reason produced the general practice of infanti- 
cide in nearly all Polynesian (Pacific) islands; the danger of 

*In China fields are set aside to which people may resort, to die without being interfered 
with. Most of those who go there to die. take a large dose of opium. 


famines occurring from overpopulation. The surest way to keep 
doAvn the population was to kill the girl babies, and in many of 
the islands the proportion of girls which might be raised was 
strictly controlled by tribal laws. Of course, in the Christianized 
islands infanticide is no longer practiced, nor are famines apt to 
occur on account of better methods of sending food in case of 

The Bashgalis (a tribe in Afghanistan) freely sell their fe- 
male children to the Mohammedans ; and they pay to the King of 
Chitral an annual tribute in children (of both sexes) whom he 
disposes of as slaves, as a method of raising a revenue for himself. 

In all times there have been efforts to establish socialistic 
communities. We have already mentioned that Plato considered 
the wife to be merely a part of the property or estate of the hus- 
band ; he was an advocate of community of property, and this led 
him also to advocate community of wives. In his works he speaks 
of the "possession and use of women and children," and he con- 
sidered monogamy to be a reprehensible claim to the exclusive 
possession on the part of one man to a piece of property (a 
woman) which ought to be for the benefit and enjoyment of the 

Eepeatedly communistic societies have been wrecked by at- 
tacking marriage and advocating promiscuous intercourse be- 
tween the sexes; the underlying principle being that the women 
were property which belonged to the whole community and which 
it was wrong to appropriate for the exclusive use of one member 
of the community. 

The claim of Petruchio: "She is my goods, my chattels" — 
would not be allowed in a socialistic community. As an example, 
let us take the "Perfectionists," a communistic sect of Oneida, 
N. Y. ; they have put in practice a conmiunity of wives, claiming 
that there is no intrinsic difference between property in persons 
and property in things, and that the same principles or ideas that 
abolish exclusiveness in regard to money, necessarily also abol- 
ish exclusiveness in regard to women and children. 

On the other hand, "the Economists" and the "Shakers" are 
celibate societies, getting new members from outsiders or con- 
verts. The "Separatists" favor celibacy, although they do not 
enforce it, but in their religious declarations they express the be- 


lief that celibacy is more in accord with the Divine will than mar- 

This inferiority of women still continues in most countries, 
and in most states of our own country. Modern laws are based 
largely on the Eoman laws, and in ancient Eome the father (the 
male) held the power of life and death of his slaves, his wife, his 
concubines, and his children; the wife was the property of the 
husband, and the law held that she was acquired solely and exclu- 
sively for the benefit and pleasure of the husband, just as were 
his slaves. 

Even when the civil Eoman laws were supplanted by the 
ecclesiastical laws, the woman's status was not much bettered. 
The Canon law was averse to the independence of the woman, and 
held her in the same subjection as before ; it especially taught that 
the Avife was to be in subjection to the husband, and that she 
was to be obedient to him in all things. 

The Napoleonic Code declared that the woman was the prop- 
erty of the husband. Women, collectively, were the property of 
the state. 

Such laws in their origin were based on the Asiatic idea that 
all women were the property of the head of the household; they 
could be disposed of, sold, transferred or conveyed to others as 
wives or slaves at the will of the men; it possibly dated back to 
the troglodite age, when marriage by capture prevailed, and all 
women were slaves. 

In India the subordination of the wife is abject. The Hindu 
religion prescribes the humble subjection of the wife to the hus- 
band; it commands her to honor and obey him, even when he is 
old or ugly, crippled or diseased, irascible or brutal, cruel and 
fiendish, a drunkard or a criminal, and to worship him as if he 
were a god. 

In the Mosaic law the woman's status was not much im- 
proved ; a husband could divorce a wife at will, but the wife could 
not divorce a husband. Let us consider a few laws of Moses re- 
garding woman. Deut. xx, 13, 14: — "And when the Lord thy God 
hath delivered it (the city) into thy hands thou shalt smite every 
male thereof with the edge of the sword: but the women and the 
little ones, and the cattle, and all that is in the city, even all the 
spoil thereof shalt thou take unto thyself * * * " 

Deut. xxi, 10: "When thou goest forth to war against thine 


enemies and thou hast taken them captive, and seest among the 
captives a beautiful woman and hast a desire unto her, that thou 
wouldst have her to wife * * * thou shalt go in unto her and 
be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. And it shall be if 
thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she 
will ; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money ; thou shalt not 
make merchandise of her, because thou hast humbled her." 

Deut. xxii, 22, et seq.: "If a man be found lying with a 
woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die 
* * * " (Here the offence was to the husband, the owner of 
the woman.) "If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto a 
husband, and a man find her in the city and lie with her ; then ye 
shall bring them both out unto the gate of the city and ye shall 
stone them with stones that they die ; the damsel, because she cried 
not, being in the city. * * * But if a man find a betrothed dam- 
sel in the field, and the man force her, and lie with her, then the 
man only that lay with her shall die. But unto the damsel thou 
shalt do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death; 
for as when a man riseth against his neighbor and slayeth him 
even so is this matter. For he found her in the field, and the be- 
trothed damsel cried, and there was none to save her. (Here the 
offence is not against the maiden, but against the man to whom 
she is betrothed.) If a man find a damsel that is a virgin which 
is not betrothed, and lay hold on her and lie with her, and they 
be found ; then the man that lay with her shall give unto the dam- 
sel's father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife." 

In early England the wife often was the purchased slave of 
the man. The laws of Athelbert directed that if any man ab- 
ducted the wife of an English freeman, he must at his own expense 
buy another wife for the husband. 

The laws were much stricter for women than men. For in- 
stance, if a female slave was convicted of theft she was burnt 
alive, under the laws of Ethelstan. 

By the laws of Canute, adultery on the part of a wife was 
punishable by cutting off her ears and nose, but adultery on the 
part of the husband was an offence so trivial, that the civil laws 
took no notice of it. As late as the latter half of last century 
(that is, only about 50 or 60 years or less ago) the man in Eng- 
land could obtain a divorce on account of adultery on the part of 
the wife, but the wife could not sue for divorce on this ground. 


but had to add other grounds — cruelty, indignities, habitual 
drunkenness, abandonment, failure to provide for her and her 
children, etc. 

Even as late as 1885, as we are told in the British Encyclope- 
dia, adultery by the husband was no crime and was ignored by the 
civil law; the ecclesiastical courts made it a source of income, by 
imposing a fine on the offender, up to the XVII Century, but even 
this was not done later on. 

Up to and in the XVII Century a married woman had no 
rights in England except such as the husband voluntarily granted ; 
her property and her person were entirely subject to his pleasure, 
during his lifetime ; and in some countries, at his death, the wom- 
an 's property, in the absence of a will, went to his relatives, and 
not to her or her children. 

Even until quite recent times in our own country, and even 
now, when an American girl marries a foreigner, if she wants to 
retain her property for herself and children, she has to have it 
transferred before marriage to trustees to hold for her. She her- 
self, however, has the income only at the pleasure of the trustees, 
but this was considered better than to give the capital outright 
to a foreign titled prince who could spend it as he wished, on 
other women, even refusing his wife the necessary amoimts to 
keep her in the style to which she was accustomed. 

After the Eeformation, the law in England became changed 
somewhat; all marriages were solemnized by a priest, but the 
woman had to be covered with a veil ("femme couverte") ; an en- 
gagement to marry was almost of the binding force of a marriage, 
for if the girl changed her mind and married some one else, this 
subsequent marriage was legally null and void. According to 
canon law (church law), the seduction of a woman by her be- 
trothed was not punishable ' ' on account of the betrothal beginning 
to entitle him to the control of her body." 

In some states seduction of an unmarried woman under prom- 
ise to marry her is a crime, but marriage subsequently is a bar 
to criminal proceedings. 

According to old English (King Aethelbright) laws, it was 
decreed: "If a man carry off a maiden by force, let him pay 50 
shillings to the owner, and afterwards buy the maiden from her 
o'WTieT." If she was betrothed, he was to pay 20 shillings to the 


one to whom she was betrothed, and if she became pregnant, 35 
shillings, and 15 shillings to the king. 

In such laws no offence is comnaitted against the maiden, but 
only against her masculine "owner." 

In Massachusetts, quite recently, if a man commits fornica- 
tion with a single woman, each is to be imprisoned for three 
months or to be fined $30 each. Even quite recently the theory 
of the English law in cases of seduction is that the woman herself 
has suffered no wrong ; the wrong has been suffered by the parent 
(or the person who is legally in the place of the owner or parent) 
who must sue for loss of service! 

As to the seduction of a married woman a claim for damages 
against the co-respondent can be made. 

But it is a felony to seduce a girl under 13 years old; after 
that she is assumed to have given assent, and the seduction is 
not a felony. We in this country have framed our laws in con- 
sonance with English laws, and legal retributions for crimes 
against our women have often either failed entirely or were very 
inadequate.- Hence we have tacitly adopted an "unwritten law," 
according to which the injured father, brother, or husband takes 
the law in his own hands and kills the offender. 

The Synod of Elvira established many regulations concern- 
ing the relations of men toward women. 

Article LXI. "If any one after the death of his wife marries 
her sister, she being herself a believer, it is decreed that he should 
be kept from communion for five years, unless perchance the ex- 
tremity of sickness requires that peace be given him sooner." 

Art. LXVII. "It is forbidden that any woman of the faith 
or a catechumen (one under instruction or probation) should 
have hair-dressers or hair-curlers; whosoever do so, let them be 
driven from the communion." 

Art. LXXXI. "Concerning the letters of women. — ^Women 
should not presume to write letters to laymen in their own names 
and not in the names of their husbands ; nor should they receive 
friendly letters from anyone addressed to their names alone." 

Many efforts have been made at various times and by vari- 
ous law-makers, to dictate the styles of clothing, etc., that may 
or may not be used by women; usually such legislation is soon 

In Rome, for instance, a law was passed, "on woman's 


dress," during the Punic war, that "no woman should possess 
more than half an ounce of gold or wear a garment of various col- 
ors, or ride in a carriage drawn by horses, in a city, or any town, 
or any place nearer thereto than one mile; except on occasion of 
some public religious solemnity." 

Livy tells us that the women soon attempted to have this law 
repealed ; ' ' the capitol was filled with crowds who favored or op- 
posed the law; nor could the matrons be kept at home, either by 
advice or shame, nor even by commands of their husbands; but 
beset every street and pass in the city, beseeching the men as they 
went down to the forum, that * * * they would suffer the 
women to have their former ornaments of dress restored. * * * 
The women next day poured out into public in much greater 
niunbers * * * there was then no further doubt but that every 
one of the tribes would vote for the repeal of the law." 

This has always been the result of similar laws to control 
what women shall or shall not wear. 

A few paragraphs from the Salic Law (Teutons, Anglo- 
Saxons) will be of interest: 

Title XIII. "Concerning rape committed by Freemen. 1. If 
three men carry off a freeborn girl, they shall be compelled to 
pay 30 shillings. 2. If there are more than three, each one shall 
pay 5 shillings. 4. But those who commit rape shall pay 63 shil- 

Title XLIV. "Concerning marrying a widow. — ^If a man 
wishes to marry a widow he must pay 3 shillings and 1 denar 
to her former husband's estate (of which she is apparently part 
of the property). If he marries her without approval of the 
authorities he must pay 63 shillings to the one to whom belongs 
the reipus (the payment of the 3 shillings and 1 denar). 

The Koran contains a ' ' Chapter of Women ; ' ' here are a few 
extracts : 

"In the name of the merciful and compassionate God! 0, ye 
folk ! fear your Lord, who created you from one soul, and created 
therefrom its mate, and diffused from them twain many men and 
women. And fear God, in whose name ye beg of one another, and 
the wombs; verily, God over you doth watch. * * * Marry 
what seems good to you of women, by twos, or threes, or fours; 
and if ye fear that ye can not be equitable, then only one. * * * 

"Against those of your women who commit adultery, call 


witnesses, four in number from among yourselves; and if these 
bear witness, then keep the women in houses until death release 
them * * * (Imprisonment for life). But if ye msh to ex- 
change one wife for another, and have given one of them a talent, 
then take not from it anything. ' ' 

After enumerating the forbidden degrees — "but lawful for 
you is all besides this, for you to seek them with your wealth, 
marrying them and not fornicating ; but such of them as you have 
enjoyed, give them their hire as a lawful due; for there is no 
crime in you about what ye agree between you after such lawful 
due, verily, God is knowing and wise. * * * Men stand supe- 
rior to women in that God hath preferred some of them over 
others, and in that they expend of their wealth : and the virtuous 
woman, devoted, careful (in their husband's) absence, as God has 
cared for them. But those whose perverseness ye fear, admonish 
them and remove them into bedchambers and beat them; but if 
they submit to you, then do not seek a way against them; verily, 
God is high and great. ' ' 

The Koran also says that all male and female slaves taken as 
plunder in war are the lawful property of their master; that the 
master hath power to take to himself any female slave either 
married or single; that the position of a slave is as helpless as 
that of the stone idols of Arabia ; but that they should be treated 
with kindness and granted their freedom when they are able to 
ask for and pay for it. 

Among the lowest nations the woman is the prey of the strong- 
est ; the spoil of war or ambush ; the slave of the victor or thief ; 
she has no recognized rights and is practically one of the domes- 
tic animals and like them may be sold or killed according to the 
will of the man. Under such conditions woman is a ware, an ob- 
ject of barter or sale, a thing to satisfy men's lusts, and to work. 
To what extent this inferiority of the woman exists may be seen 
in the cruel barbarity with which she is treated as a beast of bur- 
den in some parts of Africa (Fig. 28). 

Slavery, and worse, has been the fate of women in later times 
as well. In medieval wars girls and women were as much part of 
the legitimate booty of war as valuables of any other kind, and 
this illustrates a scene where two girls are part of the plunder 
acquired in this way (Fig. 29). Civilized mankind flattered itself 
that such things had ceased to be possible amongst themselves 



until the unspeakable Hun under the leadership of a madman, 
reintroduced this medieval conception and enforced the slavery 
of Belgian girls and women as the legitimate prey of the bar- 
barian Huns of modern days. 

In the records of Babylon, recently uncovered, was found a 
boast by Ashur-natsir-pal, III, an Assyrian king : 

"With battle and slaughter I attacked the city and captured 
it. Three thousand of their fighting men I slew with the sword; 
their spoil, their goods, their oxen and their sheep I carried away ; 
many captives I burned with fire. 

Fig. 28. — A chain-gang of women slaves aa burden carriers, a common scene in Portu- 
guese Africa. 

"I captured many of their soldiers alive; I cut off the hands 
and feet of some ; of others I cut off the noses, the ears, and the 
fingers ; I put out the eyes of many soldiers. I built up a pyramid 
of the living and a pyramid of heads. On high I hung up their 
heads on trees. * * * Their young men and their maidens I 
burned with fire. ' ' 

Cruelties of this kind characterized mankind for ages. Im- 
paling on pointed stakes, cutting out tongues, cutting oif noses, 


ears, lips, hands and feet, gouging out eyes, tearing off breasts 
with pincers, hanging up naked bodies by the feet and tearing off 
the flesh with sharp hooks, breaking on the wheel, etc., were com- 
mon punishments. In 1314 a.d. the French King Philip ordered 
some offenders to be executed by flaying alive, dragging over a 
new-mown wheat field, next, cutting off the privates and then 
quartering them. 

We read in II Kings, viii, 12 : " And Hazael said. Why weep- 
eth my lord? And he (Elisha) answered. Because I know the 
evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel; their strong 
holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay 

Fig. 29. — "The Captain's Share," from painting by E. de Beaumont. 

with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip up their 
women with child." 

II Kings, XV, 16: "Then 'Menahem smote Tiphsah * * • 
and all the women therein that were with child he ripped up." 

Hosea, xiii, 16: "Samaria shall become desolate; * * » 
their infants shall be dashed to pieces, and their women with child 
shall be ripped up. ' ' 

Amos i, 13: "Thus saith the Lord; for three transgressions 
of the children of Ammon, and for four, I will not turn away the 
punishment thereof : because they have ripped up the women with 
child * » * ." 

Modern Turks or Kurds have done the same to Armenian 


women, adding thereto the preliminary outrage of laying bets on 
the sex of the embryo while the woman had to stand by, and then 
cutting the woman open and taking out the embryo to decide the 

But this subjection of the woman to the lust and cruelty of 
man was, in the plan of evolution (if there was a teleological 
plan?), a mighty factor in raising humankind from savagery to 
civilization, for it produced in womankind all those gentler traits, 
which, cumulatively transmitted by heredity from generation to 
generation, have made civilization possible. Sexual dependence 
on the pleasures of the man subdued the animal passions in the 
female and brought about that sensual apathy in woman which 
is the main preserver of virtue and morality ; and the fear felt by 
woman for man eventually developed a dread of violence, a gen- 
tleness and sympathy for the oppressed and suffering, and that 
submissiveness to authority which allowed the gentler arts and 
religions of civilization to develop; it made possible the great 
achievements in charity and helpfulness which finds its noblest 
expression just now in the activities of the Ked Cross organiza- 

In some lands the husband had, and still has, the right to 
whip his wife and children if they needed chastisement in his 
judgment, and this whipping was often given for disobedience, 
or because she displeased him in any way; and quite recently de- 
cisions were given in some of our own courts that this right still 
existed in some parts of the United States! 

In England this right was formerly restricted by certain reg- 
ulations, such as that the husband must not use a stick thicker 
than his thumb. But in Eussia there was not, and is not now, 
any such limitation, although the birch rods which are a part of 
the bride's trousseau and which she dutifully presents to her hus- 
band as soon as they are alone after the wedding festivities, are 
the implements most commonly used. 

The Lupercalia were Roman festivals which will be described 
later. One feature of these festivals was, that matrons and girls 
ran about naked so that they could be whipped on the bare poste- 
riors with thongs of dog-skin. This was supposed to insure good 
health, fecundity, and easy childbirth. 

This idea is kept alive among the women of many parts of 
Europe, and is probably the reason why they submit to whippings. 


In Russia, and adjacent lands, especially, the superstition has 
been impressed on the minds of the girls that these whippings are 
essential to their becoming happy wives and healthy mothers. 
A woman whose husband does not whip her thinks he does not 
love her. 

In Poland, for the same reason, the bride is driven to the 
nuptial bed with a rod of fir by her matron friends. 

In a work on this subject published in 1898 in Dresden, it is 
stated that "domestic discipline" is considered very leniently by 
the courts in all parts of Europe (in fact, "everywhere except in 
America"). Formerly the right of the husband to whip his wife 
was formally in the written laws, but nowadays it is only tacitly 
recognized. In Germany, as late as 1898, a husband might whip 
his wife on the bare posterior in the presence of the servants, if 
the master (or husband) thought fit to chastise her. Can we 
wonder much at the brutality of the German soldiery in Belgium, 
France and Armenia in the present war ! 

In some parts of Europe both the female animals and the 
women and maids of the household are whipped on their bared 
genitals by the men of the household on Halloween eve; this is 
supposed to insure fertility, easy delivery and healthy offspring. 

While such practices are not definitely stated as permissible, 
they are not recognized as legal causes of complaint against the 
husband, or as causes for divorce ; they are therefore accepted by 
the women as natural and matter-of-fact consequences of being 
women and wives, and no complaints are made. By the men these 
whippings are inflicted as a matter of right appertaining to their 
status as men and as husbands. 

But the most degrading example of this subjection of the wife 
was to be seen in the use of the so-called "chastity belts" of the 
middle ages — metal frames which were fastened with padlock 
and key about the waist and pelvis of the wife by the husband, to 
prevent her from any chance of having illicit intercourse with 
some other man (Fig. 30). These belts or harnesses were in use 
as late as a century or two ago, and many of them are still shown 
in European museums. 

It is related that during the crusades, a German emperor had 
a blacksmith rivet an iron frame on his wife, the queen, to insure 
her chastity until he would return from the campaign against the 



Some authors state that mothers in primitive communities 
in Europe still safeguard their daughters in a similar manner. 

It has also been stated that in Oriental harems when hus- 
bands perniit a wife or odalisque to visit a friend and they have 
no eunuch slave to send with them as a guard, they fasten an 
arrangement on them which consists of a belt that goes about the 
waist ; to the back of this is attached an iron or leather band that 
passes through a hole in a round wooden stick about four or five 
inches from one end ; this end of the stick is pushed in the vagina 

Fig. 30. — Medieval chastity belts. 

Many of these belts can be seen in European 

and the band is brought up in front, tightly drawn up and locked 
to the belt so that the wood can not be removed from the vagina. 
The lower end of the wood extends to the knees, so that the woman 
is necessarily and uncomfortably reminded that she belongs to 
her husband or master, 

A similar idea, but not so brutally expressed, was the custom 
of Eoman unmarried women of wearing the zona or sona virgi- 
nalis, or belt or girdle worn about the loins or abdomen to indi- 


cate the limit to which the abdomen might expand in a virgin ; on 
the marriage day this girdle was loosened or removed by the hus- 
band to indicate a permission that the abdomen could now enlarge 
in pregnancy. At Troezen (now the village of Damala) there was 
in ancient times a temple to Venus Apaturia, at which Troezenian 
maidens dedicated their girdles before their marriage day. 

Everywhere, to this day, orthodox marriage rituals demand 
of the bride that she shall promise "to obey;" also, she is re- 
minded that formerly she was a slave and to a certain extent, still 
is so, by the custom of a male relative ' ' giving the bride away. ' ' 

The Bible abounds in declarations as to the attitude of the 
man towards the woman and of the woman 's duty to man, and the 
place she shall hold in the family and the community. It teaches 
that the woman was made for the pleasure and convenience of the 
man; it broadly asserts as a fundamental principle the subjection 
and inferiority of woman. It teaches that "the man is the head 
of the woman," that she must learn in silence and in all subjec- 
tion, and that the woman, the wife, must submit herself to man, 
the husband, "in all things," which of course includes submission 
to his sexual appetites and demands. 

Let me quote a few passages from the Bible: I Cor. xi, 3 — 
' ' But I would have you know that the head of every man is Christ ; 
and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is 

xi. 7, 9: "The man is the image and glory of God, but the 
woman is the glory of man. Neither was the man created for the 
woman; but the woman for the man." 

I Tim. ii, 11-13: "Let the woman learn in silence, with all 
subjection. For I suffer not a woman to teach or usurp authority 
over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, 
then Eve." 

Ephes. V, 22 and 24: "Wives, submit yourselves unto your 
husbands as unto the Lord. Therefore, as the church is subject 
unto Christ, so let the wives be to their husbands in everything." 
(Also; Col. iii, 18.) 

I Peter iii, 1: "LikeAvise, ye wives, be in subjection to your 
own husbands." 

I Cor. xiv, 35: "And if ivomen xvill learn anything, let them 
ask their husbands at home." 



The teachings above quoted are the platforms of the churches 
today !* They have never been recalled, and according to the teach- 
ings of the churches there is no power to recall them or to abro- 
gate or modify them in any way, because they are "the word of 
God." They are a well-considered and logical system, taught by 
the Asiatics nineteen hundred years ago, to keep their women 
contented to be slaves in the harem; and they have been kept up 
by the selfish interests of men to apply to the educated women of 
today. These teachings rest directly on the Old Testament, on 
the curse pronounced on woman in the writings of Moses, an Ori- 
ental, about 3400 years ago: Gen. iii, 6. — "He (thy husband) 
shall rule over thee." 

And yet women are the main supporters and believers in a 
system of teachings, that would keep modern civilized woman in 
the same pitiful subjection that was the lot and still is the lot of 
Oriental women or harem slaves today; just as it was when the 
Bible was written by Asiatics several thousand years ago. 

Sapere Aude! Dare to know! Dare to he wise! 

I believe that women have the same right to know that men 
have ; I have always believed so. It is largely due to the debased 
position assigned to women that I have lost faith in any "in- 
spired" nature of man-made Bibles, whether they be the sacred 
writings of the Greeks or Brahmans, of Jews or Christians. 

As was formerly the case with slaves — so with women! Ig- 
norance is the basis on which depends their willing acquiescence 
in their subjection. 

The last half century has been remarkable, not only for all 
the inventions and material advancements which we enjoy, but 
even more, for the Emancipation of Woman from the limitations 
that have bound her during all previous ages, and the progress 
that women have made in extricating themselves from the intel- 
lectual slavery which had oppressed them so long. 

*Yet there are signs that these teachings may change. The following is from the daily 
press of November 24, 1918: 

"The Right Rev. Frederick W. Keating, Bishop of Northhampton, England, and represent- 
ative of English Catholics to the golden jubilee of Cardinal Gibbons at Baltimore, arrived in St 
I/Ouis yesterday afternoon and addressed the Catholic Women's League at the Cathedral auditorium. 

"The subject of the Bishop's address was 'Reconstruction.' He said : 'The war has caused 
the discovery of woman, and the discovery has given immense joy to England, for women went 
hand in hand with the soldiers in winning the war. War work lias inspired ■ English women not 
to be idlers and ornaments, and English women will be intrusted with a great part of the work to 
follow peace. Already the English women have a program, and it would be advisable tor the 
women of this league to take an interest in it. They will study social diseases, find out the causes, 
discover remedies and tactfully administer them.' " 




It is related of Pope Gregory the Great (540-604 a.d.) that 
when he was still a Benedictine monk he saw some English slaves 
of marvelous beauty exposed for sale in the Eoman market. The 
Eoman usage was, as it is now in Oriental slave markets, to ex- 
pose slaves for sale naked (Fig. 31). Gregory was so impressed 
with the beauty and intelligence of these slaves that he said: 

"Non Angli, sed Angeli sunt!" 

[They are not Anglians (English) but angels !] and he determined 
to go to England to convert that country to Christianity. Circum- 
stances prevented this, however. 

!Fig. 31. — ^Ancient Eoman slave market, from painting' by Boulanger. 

So, when we contemplate modern women, we feel tempted to 
say "Angelae* sunt!" (They are angels.) 

When St. Paul wrote that the woman should be subordinated 
to the man — "for Adam was first formed, then Eve" — ^he knew 
nothing of the modern science of biology. The ovum was pro- 
duced in early forms of life even before the sexes were differen- 
tiated, and in many lower forms it can be developed into a new 
being without impregnation by a male. If the production of an 
ovum constitutes the essential of femininity, as it undoubtedly 

*As to the sex of angels, we will find explanation elsewhere. 


does, then the female ("Eve") was formed ages before the male 

The male ("Adam," to use the Biblical term) was therefore 
not first formed, nor was the male as important as the female. 
In the process of reproduction the male's share is so fleeting and 
subordinate, that if his function was strictly limited to that of 
impregnating the female, one man might readily suffice for sev- 
eral hundred women, even as one cochineal male insect suf&ces for 
several hundred female insects. 

From the standpoint of modern science the words of St. Paul 
might well be reversed: 

"For the Female (Eve, woman) is not of the Male (Adam, 
man) but the male of the female. Neither was the female created 
for the male, but the male for the female." 

Many men dread the influence women will exert when they 
have equal political rights with men. But where they have the 
right to vote, no startling revolutions have occurred, but only 
orderly and Avell-matured improvements, so far mainly in the in- 
terest of women and children, though through them in the inter- 
est of all humanity. 

And why should we fear their influence? "Women are an- 
gels!" They are biologically, morally, ethically, physiologically 
and probably intellectually (at all events, intuitively) higher man- 
ifestations of animal life than men; and now, that woman is per- 
mitted to share the same educational privileges as man, she is 
rapidly furnishing proof for the claim that she is mentally 

There is no gainsaying the truth of the last line in the follow- 
ing quotation from Thomas Peacock's poem — The Visions of 

"To chase the clouds of life's tempestuous hours. 
To strew its short but weary way with flow'rs. 
New hopes to raise, new feelings to impart. 
And pour celestial balsam on the heart; 
For this to man was lovely woman giv'n 
The last, best work, the noblest gift of Heav'n." 

The following comparisons, taken from the U. S. census of 
1890, are of interest: 



Males 32,067,880 

Females 30,554,370 


Males 11,535 

Females 3,311 


Males 75,924 

Females 6,405 


Males 36,382 

Females 1,325 


Males 16,511 

Females 770 


Males 8,001 

Females 2,099 


Males 52,940 

Females 42,631 


Males 22,783 

Females 18,500 


Males 27,983 

Females 22,428 


Males 53,264 

Females 52,990 


Males 70 to 85% 

Females 15 to 30% 


Males 4% of total 

Females %% of total 

*Most blindness is caused by neglect of cleanliness during childbirth and is not a result of 
katabolic tendencies. These conditions of neglect will not depend on the sex of the expected 
child, therefore blindness ought to affect the sexes about equally. Yet the katabolic tendency of 
the male makes them weaker in resisting unfavorable conditions, so that blindness is more fre- 
quent in males than in females. 

The strictly defective conditions, feeble-minded, deaf or dumb, stutterers, etc., are dependent 
on katabolic sex-tendencies, therefore the katabolic tendency in the male causes a larger number 
of these defectives in that sex. 

**These conditions are largely produced by economic conditions which have always affected 
females vastly more unfavorably than the males. We should expect a far larger number of insane 
or suicides among women and it is therefore a surprise to find that women far exceed men in keep- 
ing a well-balanced mind in adversity, so that they are far less affected than men by unfavorable 

tNot from the Census, but from a special work on Color Blindness. 


Thus the biological superiority of the Feminine shows itself 
in every comparison, and the katabolic male tendency shows itself, 
especially in regard to insanity, suicide, and crime. 

"0 Woman! Fairest of Creation! Last and best 
Of all God's works! Creature in whom excelled 
Whatever can to sight or thought be formed 
Holy, Divine, Good, Amiable and Sweet!" 



The myths told about creation by various people should not 
be mistaken for religions; neither the stories fabled about their 
gods. Only those gods that are worshipped are to be considered 
as appertaining to religion; not those gods about whom stories are 
told, but to whom no worship is given. 

Cosmogonies are accounts of the origin or creation of the 
world and of the living creatures thereon, as found in the differ- 
ent Bibles of mankind, or told by different people. We will first 
consider the cosmogony in the first chapter of Genesis, which is 
generally ascribed to Moses. 

We can not expect these cosmogonies to be scientifically cor- 
rect, unless we assume that God himself narrated how he made 
the world. Enough has been said to indicate that scientists reject 
this claim, and believe that such accounts are subject to criticism, 
like all other works that assume to present scientific facts. 

Another reason why we can not positively condemn any ex- 
planation of creation is, that our own views are mainly "the- 
ories," or ideas in regard to certain subjects that may or may 
not be true. 

Some of these theories, from their very natures, are not sub- 
ject to proof ; the most we can claim for them is that they are the 
most plausible theories that have been proposed. 

Our experience with the evolution of science should make us 
quite modest as to any claims of absolute truth for any theories 
we now hold ; for no theory seems to be so firmly established that 
there have not been, or are not now, writers who raise objections 
to it. 

The author of Genesis is generally said to have been Moses, 


who lived about 1500 b.c. In comparison with the age of mankind, 
he lived in quite recent times, and the philosophers or scientists 
of his days had made great headway in learning, as we know from 
the history of contemporaneous philosophies of the Greeks, etc. 
We are told that Moses, although a Jew, was brought up by a 
daughter of Pharaoh (Exodus ii, 10) ; he was no doubt educated 
in all the wisdom of the ancient Egyptians, so that his account of 
the creation of the world represents, to a great extent at least, 
the Egyptian views on this subject in his time. The account in 
Genesis has usually been rejected totally by scientists; a close 
examination, especially if we do not insist on a literal interpreta- 
tion, or on the literalness of the "seven days" gives us a much 
higher idea of its merits. 

I will quote some statements from Genesis and follow them 
with some explanatory remarks. 

Gen. i, 1: "In the heginning God created the heaven and the 
earth." We may accept this as correct, if we make the meaning 
of the word "God" wide enough to embrace any agency that 
caused the production or creation of the earth. Herbert Spencer 
says of this Power that it is Unknowable; if Herbert Spencer 
failed to comprehend the "Great First Cause," others will be 
excusable if they fail to explain it. 

The name which is most frequently used for the God of the 
Bible is Jehovah. Among the ancient Jews it was more nearly 
Jahw or Jahwe (Yahwe) or Jhoh. The ancient Jews considered 
the name so sacred that it was sacrilegious to pronounce it; the 
injunction (Exod. xx, 7) "Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain," was construed to mean, not to pronounce 
the name at all, so that the readers (cantors) in the Jewish syn- 
agogues always said "Adonai" when the written text was Yahwe. 
The name means "he who causes to be" or "the Creator." 

Lately, Electricity has been claimed to be the cause of Grav- 
itation, of the union of "ions" and "atoms" in chemical union, 
of the undulations causing the phenomena of light and heat, etc. ; 
some would explain creation as the result of electricity ; this would 
make the terms "electricity" and "God" synonymous. The vast 
majority of people will agree that "God" (whoever or whatever 
he may be) created the heaven and the earth. 


"There is no God, but God, the living, 
the self-sustaining." 


"Father of All! in ev'ry age, 
In ev'ry clime ador'd 
By Saint, by Savage, and by Sage, 
Jehovah, Jove* or Lord." 



Gen. i, 2 : "And the earth was tvithout form and void." Mod- 
ern scientists say that this was the condition of the earth when 
it was in its nebular state — "in the beginning." 

Gen. i, 2: "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of 
the waters." "Waters" possibly means "fluids," as this is 
claimed by some authorities to be a more correct translation; if 
so, this might be construed to refer to the earth when it had con- 
densed from a nebular consistence to a liquid or molten condition, 
or when it was no longer gaseous. Whatever we may understand 
by the "spirit of God," when matter had been assembled, force 
acted upon it, motion resulted and the earth commenced to ro- 
tate. The obloid shape of our globe proves that it rotated be- 
fore it became rigidly solid. 

Gen. i, 3: "And God said, Let there he light, and there was 
light." The nebular mass in which sun, earth, and all planets were 
still undifferentiated glowed with a light consisting of only a few 
vibrations in the blue and green parts of the spectrum, but it was 
not the light of the sun. Later, when the earth had cooled so that 
the gaseous form had changed to liquid, this melted material 
glowed with light which had a perfect spectrum. 

Gen. i, 4: "And God saw the light, that it was good." Gen. 
i, 9, 10: "And God said, Let the ivaters under the heavens be 
gathered together unto one place and let the dry land appear; and 
it was so." It may be, that when the melted mass which became 
our globe began to cool, the scoriae or dross gathered in a single 
sheet on the outside, just as the formation of crystals is apt to 
proceed from the first solid particle that occurs in a solution. 
The materials of which these scoriae consisted were much lighter 
than the metals which constitute the interior of our globe; the 

*The similarity between the Jewish name for God — Jhov or Yahwe and the word stem o£ the 
L,3tin name for Jupiter — Jov — is striking, and may signify the same name. 


specific gravity of our earth, is far greater than the specific grav- 
ity of any of our surface rocks. 

This sheet of floating scoriae afterwards broke apart where 
the Atlantic Ocean now is, and the momentum from the revolu- 
tion of the earth caused the heavier mass to gradually drift east- 
ward. When the melted matters underneath cooled off sufficiently 
for the globe to become rigid, this left the continents composed 
of the scoriae, elevated above the surface of the metal mass, be- 
cause they were lighter. That they were originally one sheet of 
crust or scoriae appears from the fact that the eastern edge of 
the western continent fits into the western edge of the eastern 
continent. Between these elevated masses of scoriae were the de- 
pressions in which the waters gathered when the earth had become 
sufficiently cool to allow the waters to remain. 

The earth had cooled sufficiently for the first solid land to 
appear — the azoic rocks ; and the vast amount of water which had 
been in the atmosphere in the form of clouds was precipitated in 
torrents, and gathered together in the depressions to form the 

Gen. i, 11: "And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, 
and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit 
after his hind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth; and it was 
so." The main difference between plants and animals is that 
plants can assimilate inorganic food, animals can not. Plants 
therefore had to appear before animals could live. Moreover, the 
atmosphere must at first have contained too much carbon dioxide 
to allow respiration by animals, and carbon dioxide was food for 

But this verse is of great importance otherwise; it does not 
say that God created plants, but it says "Let the earth bring 
forth. ' ' This justifies the theory of evolution which is merely an 
effort to explain "how the earth produced." The word "earth" 
does not here mean soil, but the terrestrial globe; plants in the 
water, algae, etc., grew, as well as plants on the dry land. 

Gen. i, 12: "And the earth brought forth grass, and herbs;" 
and "God saw that it was good." The growing plants absorbed 
carbon dioxide and liberated the oxygen, fixing the carbon in 
the tissues of the plants, which became modified to coal later on. 
This rendered the air fit for animal respiration. The atmosphere 
must at first have been densely filled with watery vapors or clouds, 


extending hundreds or thousands of miles farther into space than 
our atmosphere extends now; the sun's rays could not penetrate 
this atmosphere, except just enough to cause a perpetual twilight 
to prevail; but it was enough light for the growth of the plants. 

Gen. i, 14, 15 : "And God said, Let there he lights in the firma- 
ment of the heaven, to divide the day from the night; and let 
them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years. And 
let them 6e for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light 
upon the earth; and it was so." Note that "heaven" is used here 
in the old Greek sense — ^not in the Christian theological sense. 
The vapor had by this time condensed sufficiently to allow the sun 
and moon to be seen on the surface of the earth, if there had been 
eyes to see them. Therefore the "days" mentioned in the cos- 
mogony were not our ordinary solar days, but periods of time. 
The ordinary days and years and seasons, etc., were not "cre- 
ated" till on the "fourth day," or fourth period, of the Genesis 

Gen. i, 20-22: "And God said. Let the waters bring forth 
abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may 
fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. And God 
created great whales and every living creature that moveth, which 
the ivaters brought forth abundantly after their hind, and every 
winged fowl after his hind; and God saw that it was good. And 
God blessed them, saying. Be fruitful and multiply and fill the 
waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth." This 
again says that the "waters brought forth," disclaiming any spe- 
cial creative acts of God, and justifying the theory of evolution. 
It does not conflict with the statements of the scientists that the 
first animal life occurred in the waters, and it endorses the rota- 
tion in which the animal organisms followed each other — ^moUusks 
in the Age of Mollushs, fishes in the Devonian Age, plants in the 
Carboniferous Age, and the reptiles of the Reptilian Age, includ- 
ing the flying saurians, and finally the birds. 

The carboniferous age had completed the purification of the 
atmosphere, so that the earth was fit for the respiration of ter- 
restrial life. 

Gen. i, 24: "And God said. Let the earth bring forth the 
living creature after his hind, cattle and creeping thing and beast 
of the earth after his hind; and it was so." This ushers in the 


Age of Mammals; also by the process of evolution, by means of 
"the earth bringing forth." 

Gen. i, 26-28: "And God said, Let us mahe man in our own 
image, after our own likeness; * * * 80 God created man in 
his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and fe- 
male created he them. And God blessed them, and God said unto 
them. Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth." To 
whom did God speak when he said : ' ' Let ns make ! ' ' The Bible 
does not definitely say that there is only one god ; Jehovah was a 
tribal god, "the God of Israel," and he may have been represented 
as talking to the other gods — the gods of the neighboring tribes 
in the time of Moses; or he may have nsed the "editorial we." 
Both views have been held by different commentators. 

Valentinus (an Egyptian Christian, about 140 a.d.) believed 
that God did not make the world himself, but merely commanded 
a demiurge to do this for him; this would imply that God spoke 
to his demiurge, when he said "we." 

Gen. i, 31: "And God saw everything that he had made and 
behold it was very good." Omitting all references to supernat- 
ural agencies and to the mystical number 6 which is so prominent 
a part of this ancient account of the genesis of our earth and of 
the life upon it, we see that it is a fairly correct account of what 
we moderns consider the process to have been, and it impresses us 
with the superiority of Moses' account of the Creation of the 
World over all other accounts, some of which are more or less 
silly and even grotesque accounts given by the writers of other 
nations, a few of which accounts we will consider further on. 

But it is not certain that Moses composed any of the books 
generally knoAvu as the "Five Books of Moses" or the "Penta- 
teuch;" in fact, it is conceded by nearly all critical commentators 
that he did not write any of the books, or even compose them in 
their present shape, to be handed down orally as the law. While 
it is a Jewish tradition that he was the author of these books, 
there is no proof for such a statement. 

Suppose then that we accept the dictum of qualified judges, 
that Ezra, the Prophet, first gathered the oral or legendary his- 
tory of the Jews, sometime after the Babylonian captivity,* and 
reduced the traditions or folklore to written "books" which were 

•The Babylonian captivity occurred from 597 to 538 B.C. Ezra wrote about 445 B.C., or about 
1050 years after the time of Moses. 


ascribed to Moses ; it is highly probable that Ezra not only gath- 
ered them, hut brought them up to date, in which latter case he 
may have modified the record to include the advancements in 
learning that had been made by Chaldean, Assyrian and Babylo- 
nian scholars. 

At all events, if we omit the references to the supernatural, 
and to the "days," the account is not a poor or irrational state- 
ment of the genesis of the earth as it is conceived by modern sci- 
ence. We must bear in mind that our own "scientific" accounts 
of these occurrences are merely plausible theories, for we have 
no definite or absolute knowledge of how the earth was created. 
Even if Moses is the author of Grenesis, he was not present at the 
creation, and therefore had no better personal knowledge than 
we have of "the beginning," and scientific men reject the idea of 
any supernatural "inspiration." 

Moses lived about 1500 b.c. ; the account in Genesis which is 
generally ascribed to him was orally transmitted for more than 
a thousand years, to about 450 b.c, when it was reduced to writ- 
ing by Ezra, a Babylonian prophet, who was no doubt well versed 
in the learning of the Assyrians and Babylonians some of whose 
writings have been recently found to contain the story of the flood, 
the legend of Sargon, which was a story similar to that of Moses, 
etc., which stories were ages older than the stories told by the 
Jews, and which antedated Moses by more than two thousand 

From The Legend of Sargon 
(Babylonian, 3800 b.c.) 

' ' Sargon, the mighty king, the king of Agade, am I. 
My mother was a princess, my father I loiow not. 
My mother, the princess, conceived me; in a secret place she 

gave me birth. 
She placed me in a basket of reeds, and closed the lid with pitch, 
She cast me in the river which overwhelmed me not. 
The river bore me along. To Akki, the irrigator, it brought me. 
Akki, the irrigator, reared me to boyhood as his own son. 
Akki, the irrigator, made me his gardener. 
And in my gardenership the Goddess Ishtar loved me, 
( ) four years I ruled the kingdom." 



Orthodox Believers claim that the week is founded on the 
story that God created heaven and earth in six days and rested 
on the seventh day. Such is not "a fact" however, because the 
week, as we have it now, is ages older than the account of Crea- 
tion in Genesis. 

Several nations not directly related tO' the ancient Israelites 
had similar views in regard to Creation. 

The Koran says in Chapter L : "We did create the heaven and 
the earth and what is between the two in six* days, and no weari- 
ness touched us." 

This almost sounds as if Mohammed either wrote this to 
show that Allah is greater than Jehovah and did not need a ' ' day 
of rest, ' ' or that he wrote it simply in accord with the idea of the 
"perfection" of the number six in his mind. It is generally con- 
ceded that Mohammed based much of the Koran on Jewish, Chris- 
tian, Gnostic, Manichaean and other religions of neighboring 

In Etruria (Greece), it was believed that God created the 
universe in six periods of time of one thousand years each. Man 
was created -after sun, moon and the planets and plants and ani- 
mals had been created. 

The ancient Persians thought that Ormuzd, the God of Light, 
created the world by his word or command, in six* periods of 
1000 years each. 

Compare with this the fourth verse of the 90th psalm: "For 
a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, 
and as a watch in the night." It is but a figurative way of saying 
"a very long time." 

Sun-worship in some form or other was practiced by nearly 
all primitive or ancient peoples, and the course of the sun in 
the heavens and the succession of the seasons, were the origin of 
the "year;" as the Bible expresses it (Gen. i, 14) : "Let there be 
lights in the heaven, to divide the day from the night; and let 
them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years." 

There may have been other modes of counting years; an 

•For the significance of "six'' see page 104. 


ancient Greek writer tells us that in earlier times the years were 
eight times as long as they were in his (and our) day. 

There were also some authors who have claimed that a "lu- 
nar year," from full moon to full moon, was at one time in use. 
We learn (Gen. v, 27) that "all the days of Methuselah were nine 
hundred and sixty -nine, and he died." If "lunar years" were 
meant, this would make about 74 solar years, which would not be 
unbelievable. Possibly the suggestion of "lunar years" was an 
effort to make the genealogy of the patriarchs of old more plausi- 
ble; but this theory of the years creates other difficulties, for 
"Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah;" this, 
if we figure lunar years, would make Enoch about five (solar) 
years old when he begat Methuselah. On the other hand, if solar 
years were meant, the patriarchs were quite old men before they 
commenced to "beget," which is exceedingly unlikely to have been 
the case. Probably the best solution is to consider the genealogy 
as altogether imaginary and give it no further consideration. 

The most noticeable division of time was the day ; among the 
ancient Jews this was from sunset to sunset; our astronomers from noon to noon, and in ordinary life we count from 
midnight to midnight. 

The next most apparent division of time is based on the 
phases of the moon; from new moon to new moon was a month. 
These months are now called "lunar months;" they do not cor- 
respond to our ordinary months, which were subdivisions of the 
year based on the worship of the "Twelve Great Gods," the zo- 
diacal signs (Figs. 32 and 33). 

In ancient India the new and full moon were religious fes- 
tivals; they were approximately fourteen days apart; dividing 
each period into two, corresponding to the four quarters of the 
moon, gave four divisions, or "weeks." 

Among the ancient Semitic races, also, the new and full moons 
were festivals, and even to this day, the Jews and Christians base 
their Easter festival on the phases of the moon. 

This week of seven days was common to practically all the 
Eastern or Asiatic nations, long before there was a Jewish na- 
tion, probably ages before Moses lived, and therefore a long, long 
time before the Genesis account of Creation was formulated. 

The old Egyptians had a week of ten days ; and it is interest- 
ing to know that during the French revolution, when the Decimal 



System of Weights and Measures was introduced, an effort was 
made to introduce a decimal week. 

Among many nations, especially those of nomadic habits in 
which the shepherds guarded the flocks at night, the heavenly 
bodies were contemplated and studied, and astrology had its or- 
igin. The "Seven Great Gods" were the planets, as then known, 
Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury and Moon. Each 
one of these deities ruled over one day of the week, and the rota- 
tion in which they ruled fixed the names of the days of the week. 

This made a week of seven days which was not based on 

Fig. 32. — Zodiacal signs in bas-relief; 
original in the Louvre, Paris. 

Fig. 33. — "Chaos." Eepresented as 
the wrecking of the Zodiacal constella- 
tions, XVIII Century. 

any motions of the heavenly bodies and this week was common to 
nearly all ancient Asiatic countries, and it is the week we still 
have; but the number of days for the creation has nothing to do 
with this week. 

The English names of the days of our present week are 
from the Old Saxon names, which were as follows: 

Sun's Day, or Sunday, in honor of the sun; Moon's Day, or 
Monday, in honor of the moon; Tiw's Day, or Tuesday, in honor 
of Tiw or Tives, an old Teutonic deity; Wodan's Day, or Wednes- 


day, in honor of the old Teuton and Norse god Wodan; some say 
this is derived from Venus' Day, but this explanation is not gen- 
erally accepted; Thor's Day, or Thursday, in honor of the Norse 
god Thor, the god of thunder (wherefore this day is called Don- 
nerstag, or Thunder's Day, in German) ; Freya's Day (or Friga's 
Day), or Friday, in honor of Freya or Friga, the Germanic vir- 
gin goddess; and lastly, Saturn's Day, or Saturday, in honor of 
the god Saturn. 

In former days, Thursday was also known as Jove's Day; 
Wednesday as Mercury's Day; Tuesday as Mars' Day, because 
Tiw or Tives was the Teuton god of war and was considered iden- 
tical with the Roman god of war, Mars. 

Because the "Seven Great Gods" were worshipped, the num- 
ber seven became a sacred number to which a great many super- 
stitions became attached. Saturn (Greek, Cronus), the first of 
the "Seven Great Gods," exerted many occult and sinister influ- 
ences, among others, on sooth-saying or fortune-telling and witch- 
craft. His bad repute was probably due to his having cut off the 
sexual organs of his father Sky or Uranus. His magical influ- 
ence or power as the god of the seventh day is still believed in by 
many among us, as for instance in the belief in the occult powers 
of the seventh son of a seventh son, in the superstitious veneration 
of the seventh day, in "come seven, come eleven," etc. 

Among some nations in Asia the first day of the week was 
named in honor of the god Saturn, which would make the last day 
of the week Friday ; at that time, however, this day was sacred to 
the goddess Mylitta, the Assyrian form of the goddess Venus; 
this day was consecrated to marriages, and to festivals during 
which practices were indulged in that are now considered indecent 
when done in public, but which at that time were done publicly in 
honor of Venus (Mylitta) in her temples. 

This day therefore became accursed to the early Christians, 
because the church considered the sexual rites in honor of the 
goddess Venus as a gross affront to their own Virgin. 

As we shall see later on, the fish has a shape which reminds 
of the vulva or yoni, and as this was a symbol for various god- 
desses (Ashtoreth, Venus, Isis, etc.) and prominently so for the 
Assyrian goddess Mylitta, the fish became consecrated to this 
goddess and was eaten as a feast on the day of the Virgin, call 
it Mylitta Day, or Freya-Day, or Friday, as you please. 


The fish is still eaten, but as a fast, on the Virgin's Day 
(Freya Day or Friday) by an overwhelming majority of Chris- 

However, an entirely different explanation is also given for 
the sacredness of the fish as a Christian symbol; the Greek 
word i-x^v-i [Ichthys, Fish) is found on many articles, rings, seals, 
amulets, tombstones, etc., of the early Christian period, because 
the letters of the word are the initials of the Greek words Jesus 
Christ, Son of God, Savior. 

The point of importance here, is, that the week of seven days 
was used ages before Moses lived, and -therefore could not have 
been derived from the story in Genesis. 

Nor was the seventh day a sacred or holy day because God 
rested on the seventh day ; all the affairs of the people were regu- 
lated by the priests, according to the days of the week, among the 
ancients who worshipped the deities who presided over the sev- 
eral days. 

In ancient Assyria and Babylonia the first day of the week 
was consecrated to Saturn (the Assyrian god Baal or Bel) and 
the last day of the week to Mylitta, the Assyrian goddess of love, 
wherefore marriages took place on this day; and as weddings 
were always and everywhere accompanied by feasting and rejoic- 
ing, it became the festival day, a day of rest from the ordinary 
avocations or labors; it was the "seventh day." It is still the 
sabbath among the Mohammedans. 

But in quite early times the numbers of the days of the week 
became shifted; the Sun's day was placed first and Saturn's day 
was the last, or "seventh" day, the holy day. 

From the Assyrians the Semitic people (Jews) adopted this 
as their "seventh" day, or day of feasting and rest from work; 
and the myth of its origin was invented by them (or Moses) to in- 
crease its sacredness. 

We read (Lev. xxiii, 2 and 3) * * * "even these are my 
feasts. Six days shall work be done ; but the seventh day is the 
sabbath of rest, a holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein; 
it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings." 

Among the ancient Jews it was observed in the sense in which 
it was instituted, as a religious festival, a day of enjoyment, of 
feasting; but Nehemiah (about 450 e.g.) made it a legal day of 
rest, as may be fully appreciated by reading the thirteenth chapter 


of the book of Nehemiah. He forbade the sale of wine, of grapes 
and of figs, and of fish (Nehemiah, xiii, 15, 16), and other materi- 
als for the festival; and he insisted on attendance in the syna- 
gogues, etc. ; in other words, he was the originator of the puritan- 
ical ideas that have marked all later Christian legislation on the 
sabbath, for previous to Nehemiah 's time the civil authorities did 
not attempt to exert their fanatical zeal to make all others comply 
with their narrow views of what the sabbath signified, or how it 
should be observed. Jesus said "The sabbath was made for man, 
and not man for the sabbath (Mark ii, 27)." 


Arabic numeration as we have it now, was introduced about 
715 A.D. ; it was therefore unkno-\\Ti to the ancients. 

In early Greek times the letters of the Ionic alphabet were 
used for numeration; the letters were consecutively, 1, 2, 3, etc., 
to 24, for the 24 letters of their alphabet. 

Another mode was in use among the Greeks, Hebrews and 
Assyrians (Syrians) ; they used the first nine letters for the 
numbers 1 to 9 inclusive ; the rest of the letters for the tens, hun- 
dreds, etc. In addition to their own letters the Greeks used three 
Phoenician letters for numbering, which they did not use for 

In the old Semitic alphabet of 22 letters, the higher numbers 
were expressed by juxtapositions; in the Eoman numeration, 
which we still use for certain purposes, only a few letters are used 
as numbers — I, V, X, L, C, D, M, — the numbers being expressed 
by juxtapositions. 

Gemetria was a science of numbers that involved many mys- 
tical attributes of numbers Avhich appear very queer to us now. 
The Gnostics, for instance, believed that from God emanated 365 
angels, one as a guardian for each day of the year; these were 
called "Abraxas" because the Greek letters of this word sig- 
nified 365. 

In the Hebrew Mishnah and Kabbalah and in the Christian 
Apocalypse (or Eevelation) we find many examples of this use 
of numbers; I will quote one which refers to Antichrist: Rev. 
xiii, 18: "Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding 
count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man; 
and his number is six himdred threescore and six (666)." 


The words Kaesar Neron (in Jewish letters) figure up 666. 
Therefore many authorities believed the Emperor Nero to be 

Some said that the word "lateinos," whose Greek letters 
added up to the figures 666, was to be construed as meaning the 
Pagan Eoman Empire to be Antichrist. Pope Innocent III (in 
1215) declared the Saracens to be Antichrist, and Pope Greg- 
ory IX (in 1234) called the emperor Frederick II, Antichrist. 
The church called all heretics Antichrist; while the Waldenses, 
Wicliffe, Huss, Luther and others retaliated by calling the Pope 

Mohammed also had an Antichrist in the Koran; he said the 
Antichrist was to be branded on the forehead with the letters 
"C. F. B." At that time no vowels were in use in Arabia, as 
already explained, therefore C. F. R. spelled "Cafir" and was so 
pronounced; this word meant "infidel." 

Gradually the meaning of gemetria was lost; Irenaeus, for 
instance, one of the church-fathers (130-202 a.d.), did not under- 
stand it and made several conjectures as to what it meant, in the 
vision of Daniel, and in the Apocalypse, but none of his conjec- 
tures were correct. 

There were lucky and unlucky days and numbers; the 7th, 
14th, 19th, 21st, and 28th days of the month were unlucky in an- 
cient Babylon and Assyria. The natives of Madagascar believe 
in lucky and unlucky days of birth. If a child is born on an un- 
lucky day, it is killed at once, rather than have it live under the 
dread inspired by its unlucky birthday. 

Thirteen is an unlucky number with us, because the 13 (Jesus 
and his twelve disciples) sat at table together just before Jesus 
was arrested, tried and crucified. Many hotels have no rooms la- 
beled 13 ; there was no "station 13" on the railroad in the World's 
Fair Grounds in St. Louis in 1904, and an accidental company of 
thirteen at a banquet or at table will cause consternation and un- 
easiness for not a few, and that even among people whom Ave do 
not ordinarily consider superstitious. 

The crises in diseases were based on gemetria: "The fourth 
day is the index of the seventh, the eighth of the week following. 
But the eleventh day is to be considered, for it is the fourth of 
another seventh. And again the seventeenth day is to be consid- 


ered, being the fourth from the fourteenth and the seventh from 
the eleventh" (ancient medical idea). 

Friday, as already explained, was deemed accursed by the 
early Christians on account of its association with Mylitta or Ve- 
nus; it was considered particularly unlucky; it was (and is) made 
"hangman's day;" it is considered to be unlucky to start on a 
journey or begin any undertaking on this day, and when the thir- 
teenth and Friday happen to fall on the same day it is supposed 
to portend particularly bad luck. 

Philo Judaeus was a Jewish philosopher who lived in Alex- 
andria, Egypt, from 20 b.c. to 40 a.d. Let us consider a few para- 
graphs from his writings : 

"The Creation or the Woeld" 

"I. Of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they con- 
sider to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, 
while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of ampli- 
fication, have sought to bewilder the people by burying the truth 
under a heap of fabulous inventions. But Moses * * * made 
the beginnings of the laws entirely beautiful * * * neither in- 
venting fables himself nor adopting those which had been invented 
by others * * * ^ 

"II. For some men, admiring the world itself rather than 
the Creator of the world, have represented it as existing without 
any maker * * * _ 

"III. And he (Moses) says that the world was made in six 
days, not because the Creator stood in need of a length of time 
* * * but because the things created required arrangement; 
and number is akin to arrangement; and, of all numbers, six is 
by the laws of nature, the most productive ; for of all the numbers, 
from the unit upwards, it is the first perfect one, being made equal 
to its parts, and being made complete by them ; the number three 
being half of it, and the number two a third of it, and, so to say, 
it is formed so as to be both male and female, and is made up of 
the power of both natures ; for in existing things the odd mmiber 
is the male, and the even number is the female; accordingly, of 
odd numbers the first is the number three and of even numbers 
the first is the number two, and the two numbers multiplied make 
six. It was fitting, therefore, that the world, being the most per- 
fect of created things, should be made according to the perfect 


number, namely, six : and as it was to have in it the causes of both, 
which arise from combination, that it should be formed according 
to a mixed number, the first combination of odd and even num- 
bers, since it was to embrace the character both of the male who 
sows the seed, and of the female who receives it. And he allotted 
each of the six days to one of the portions of the whole, taking 
out the first day, which he does not even call the first day, that it 
may not be numbered with the others, but entitling it one, he 
names it rightly, perceiving in it, and ascribing to it the nature 
and appellation of the unit. 

"VII. Moses says also: 'In the beginning God created the 
heaven and the earth,' taking the beginning to be, not as some 
men think, that which is according to time; for before the world 
time had no existence, but was created either simultaneously with 
it, or after it * * * ; to venture to assert that time is older 
than the world is absolutely inconsistent with philosophy. * * • 

"XI. And after this, as the whole body of water in existence 
was spread over all the earth, and had penetrated through all its 
parts as if it were a sponge which had imbibed moisture, so that 
the earth was only swampy land and deep mud, both the elements 
of earth and water being mixed up and combined together, like 
one confused mass into one undistinguishable and shapeless na 
ture, God ordained that all the water which was salt, and destined 
to be a cause of barrenness to seeds and trees should be gathered 
together, flowing forth out of all the holes of the entire earth ; and 
he commanded dry land to appear, that liquid which had any 
sweetness in it being left in it to secure its durability. For this 
sweet liquid, in due proportions, is as a sort of glue for the dif- 
ferent substances, preventing the earth from being utterly dried 
up, and so becoming unproductive and barren, and causing it, 
like a mother, to furnish not only one kind of nourishment, namely 
meat, but both sorts at once, so as to supply its offspring with 
both meat and drink ; wherefore he filled it with veins, resembling 
breasts, which being provided with openings, were destined to 
pour forth springs and rivers. And in the same way he extended 
the invisible irrigations of dew pervading every portion of arable 
and deep-soiled land, to contribute to the most liberal and plente- 
ous supply of fruits. Having arranged these things, he gave them 
names, calling the dry 'land' and the water which was separated 
from it 'sea.' " 


Ezra, who reduced the traditions of the Mosaic account to 
writing, and Avho lived in the lands in which the pseudo-science of 
gemetria was cultivated, no doubt introduced these mystical spec- 
ulations to "improve" or "perfect" the traditions dating from 
Moses, who probably did not know anything about gemetria. 

That the mystic science of gemetria was known to the Chal- 
deans, Assyrians and Babylonians in the days of Ezra, is certain, 
for in the book of Daniel occur plentiful references to mystic num- 
bers. Daniel was learned in all the msdom of the Chaldeans 
(Dan. i, 4) and in his interpretations of the visions of others, and 
in his OAvn visions occur such phrases as "seven times" — "four 
beasts" — "four wings" — "ancient of days" — "time, times and 
a half," etc. The references to animals, etc., are very similar to 
the "eagle," "the swan," "the raven," etc., of the Rosecrucians 
and the alchemists of later days, who still cultivated the science 
of gemetria. 

Daniel wrote about 600 b.c. ; Ezra Avrote about 450 b.c. ; Philo 
wrote about the beginning of our era; and St. John Avrote the 
Apocalypse about 96 a.d., and all of these writings make use of 
the mystic meanings of numbers according to gemetria, which Avas 
part of the learning of the initiated. 

Anyhow, we see that the story of Genesis has nothing to do 
Avith our Aveek, nor the Aveek Avith Grenesis, but that the story of 
Genesis is based on the supposed "perfection" of the number six. 
It is therefore wasted time to bestow much study or attach any 
importance to the "days" of Creation as related in Genesis. 

And it shows us how deeply sex, or ideas about sex, per- 
meated the thoughts of the ancients, for even the numbers Avere 
male and female. And Philo 's description of the earth corre- 
sponds with the general views held in regard to "Mother Earth." 

These considerations explain many things that Ave might not 
so readily appreciate if we did not knoAV to what extent sex Avas 
the underlying principle in all ancient philosophies. 


The word Biblia (or Bible) means "The Books." It is there- 
fore proper to speak of all sacred "books" as the Biblia (bibles) 
of the respective people among whom they Avere held sacred. 

The sacred books of the Greeks Avere the poems of Homer 


(about 1000 b.c.) and Hesiod (about 800 e.g.). Like the books of 
the Jewish bible, these works were handed down through centu- 
ries by oral transmission from generation to generation, until fi- 
nally the art of writing was acquired by the Greeks, when these 
poems were reduced to writing. 

How anthropomorphic the Greek deities were supposed to be 
can perhaps best be shown by quoting a few passages from Hesiod. 
In enumerating the gods, Hesiod begins by describing the genera- 
tion of gods to which Zeus belonged — only referring briefly to 
Cronos as the father of Zeus. 

Cronos, the oldest god, is sometimes supposed to be the same 
as Chronos (Time) ; they are not the same, only the sounds being 
similar while the spelling is different. 

Thus writes Hesiod: "Begin we to sing mth the Heliconian 
Muses, who * * * with delicate feet dance about the violet- 
hued fount and altars of the mighty Son of Cronos (Zeus) ; and 
likewise having bathed their soft skins * * * are wont to in- 
stitute on the top of Helicon choral dances, beautiful and lovely, 
and move nimbly with their feet * * * _ gy night they Avere 
wont to wend their way, uttering sounds exceeding sweet, while 
they celebrate aegis-bearing Jove and majestic Juno * * * 
and gleaming-eyed Athena * * * j Phoebus Apollo ; Artemis, 
arrow queen; and earth-compassing, earth-shaking Poseidon; 
august Themis; Aphrodite, shooting lovely glances;* and 
Hebe * * * and fair Dione; Aurora and the great Sun, and 
the resplendent Moon; Latona, and lapetus and wily Cronos. 
Earth, mighty Ocean, and dark Night, and the holy race of other 
ever-living immortals * * * ." 

"The Muses * * * Avhom Mnemosyne bare, after union 
with their sire, the son of Cronos * * * ; for during nine nights 
did the Counsellor Jove associate with her, apart from the other 
immortals, ascending her holy bed * * * and many days had 
been completed, then she bare nine accordant daughters whose 
care is song * * * ." 

"In truth then foremost sprang Chaos, and next broad- 
bosomed Earth * * * ij^t from Chaos were born Erebus and 
black Night ; and from Night again spi'ang forth Aether and Day, 
whom Earth bare after having conceived by union with Erebus 
in love." 

*"Making goo-goo eyes.'' 


"And Earth bare first indeed like to herself (in size) starry 
Heaven that he might shelter her around on all sides, so that she 
might ever be a secure seat for the blessed gods; * * * but 
afterwards, having bedded with Heaven, she (Earth) bare deep- 
eddying Ocean, Caeus and Crius, Hyperion and lapetus, Thea and 
Ehea, Themis, Mnemosyne, and Phoebe with golden coronet, and 
lovely Thetis. And after these was born, youngest, wily Cronos, 
most savage of their children; and he hated his vigor-giving 
sire • » * . For of as many sons as were born of Earth and 
Heaven they * * * were hated by their sire from the very first ; 
as soon as any of these were born, he would hide them all, and 
not send them up to the light, in a cave of the earth, and Heaven 
exulted over the work of mischief, while huge Earth inly groaned. ' ' 

Fig. 34. — "Birth of Venus," from painting by Botticelli. 

So Earth conspired with her son Cronos (Saturn) to avenge 
her, and furnished him with a sickle with which to castrate Heaven. 

"Then came vast Heaven, bringing Night with him, and, 
eager for love, brooded around Earth and lay stretched, I wot, 
on all sides ; but his son from out his ambush grasped at him with 
his left hand, whilst in his right he took the huge sickle, long and 
jagged-toothed and hastily mowed off the genitals of his sire, and 
threw them back to be carried away behind him. In nowise vainly 
slipped they from his hand ; for as many gory drops as ran thence, 
Earth received them all; and when the years rolled round she 
gave birth to stern Furies and mighty Giants * * * ," 

"But the genitals, as after first severing them with the steel 
he had cast them into the heaving sea from the continent, so kept 



drifting a long time up and down the deep, and all round kept ris- 
ing a white foam from the immortal flesh; and in'it a maiden was 
nourished; first she drew nigh divine Cythera, and thence came 
next to wave-washed Cyprus. Then forth stepped an awful, beau- 
teous goddess (Fig, 34) ; and beneath her delicate feet the verdure 
throve around; her, gods and men name Aphrodite, the foam- 
sprung goddess, and fair-wreathed Cytherea — the first because 
she was nursed in foam, but Cytherea, because she touched at 
Cythera; and Cyprus-born because she was born in wave-dashed 
Cyprus. ' ' 

Fig. 35.— "Eros," by Thorwaldsen. 

"And her Eros (Love) accompanied (Fig. 35) and fair Desire 
followed, when first she was born and came into the host of the 

"Night bare also hateful Destiny, and black Fate, and Death. 
She bare Sleep, likewise, she bare the tribe of Dreams ; these did 
the goddess gloomy Night bare after union with none." 

The poems of Homer were more human and humane; they 
treated the story of the gods more reverently; there were less 
stories of rape, incest, murder, and of unnatural occurrences, such 
as changing themselves into animals, etc.; in other words, the 


gods and goddesses of Homer compared with the same deities of 
Hesiod, like civilized beings compared with savages — yet the two 
versions became mixed so that the public believed both kinds of 
fiction side by side. 

It will be noticed that Hesiod was later than Homer, and al- 
though but about 200 years difference, the thoughts and ideas had 
undergone marked degeneration or decadence even in that short 


(About 3800 B.C.) 

"Long ago when the heaven above had not been named and 
the earth beneath had no name, and only Apsu (the Ocean), the 
primeval who begat them, and Tiamat, Confusion, who bore them 
both, existed — their waters mingled — and when no fields were 
formed, and no reeds to be seen, when not one of the gods had 
been called into being and named, and no fates had been decreed, 
then were created all the gods. Luchmu and Lachamu were the 
first to be called into being. Ages passed, then Anshar and Kishar 
were created, and long days before Anu, Bel, and Ea were 
created." * * * 

The God Marduk fought against Tiamat (Confusion) and de- 
stroyed Tiamat. 

"Then the lord quieted down, seeing her ( Tiamat 's) corpse. * * 
He tore from her like of a fish her skin in two halves. 
Half of her he stood up, and made it the heavenly dome. * * 
Anu, Bel (and) Ea he caused to inhabit it as their habitation. 
He (Marduk) established the mansions of the great gods. 
The stars, corresponding to them, he fixed, and the annual con- 
He determined the year, (its) limits he fixed, * * * 

That none (of the days) might deviate nor be found lacking. * 

* * * 

He made the moon-god (Nannaru) brilliant, intrusted the night 

to him. 
He defined him as a night-body, to mark off the days (saying), 
'Monthly without ceasing define (the time) with the disc; 

•This refers to the "Seven Great Gods'' the planets, and the "Twelve Great Gods" the 
zodiacal signs. 


In the beginning of the month light up in the evening, 
That the horns shine to mark the heavens. 
On the seventh day make half the royal cap (i. e., show one- 
half of the disc).* 
On the fourteenth mayest thou mark the half of the month.' " 


Some of the earliest records of religion are contained in the 
Vedas of the Brahmans of India. The Vedas are hymns addressed 
to the personified powers of nature — the Dawn, the Sky, the 
Storm-god, etc. 

1. "In the Beginning there arose the Golden child; as soon as 

born, he alone was the lord of all that is. He established 
the earth and the heavens : — ^Who is the God to whom we 
shall offer sacrifice? 

2. "He who gives breath, he who gives strength, whose command 

all the bright gods revere, whose shadow is immortality, 
whose shadow is death: — Who is the God to whom we shall 
offer sacrifice? 

5. "He through whom the awful heaven and the earth were made 
fast, he through whom the ether was established, and the 
firmament; he who measured the air in the sky: — Who is 
the God to whom we shall offer sacrifice n * * * 

7. "When the great waters went everywhere, holding the germ, 

and generating light, then there arose from them the breath 
of the gods : — ^Who is the God to whom we shall offer sac- 
y't&gq ? 

8. "He who by his might looked even over the waters which held 

power (the germ) and generated the sacrifice (light), he 
who alone is God above all gods : — ^Wlio is the God to whom 
we shall offer sacrifice? 

9. ' ' May he not hurt us, he who is the begetter of the earth, or he, 

the righteous, who begat the heaven ; he who also begat the 
bright and mighty waters: — ^Who is the God to whom we 
shall offer sacrifice?" 

•This was the creation of the week. 


To the God Rudra 

{Storm-God, Lightning-God) 

1. "Offer ye these songs to Eudra whose bow is strong, whose ar- 

rows are swift, the self-dependent god, the unconquered 
conqueror, the intelligent, whose weapons are sharp — ^may 
he hear us ! 

2. "For being the lord, he looks after what is born on earth; be- 

ing the universal ruler, he looks after what is born in 
heaven. Protecting us, come to our protecting doors, be 
without illness among our people, 0, Eudra!" * * * * 

From the "First Prapathaka" 

1. "The altar is man, Gautama; its fuel speech itself, the smoke 

its breath, the light the tongue, the coals the eye, the sparks, 
the ear. 

2. "On that altar the Devas offer food. From that oblation seed 


1. ' ' The altar is woman, Gautama. 

2. "On that altar the Devas offer seed. From that oblation rises 

the germ." 

1. "For this reason is water in the fifth oblation called man. 

This germ, covered in the womb, having dwelt there ten 
months,* or more or less, is born. 

2. "When born, he lives whatever the length of his life may be. 

When he has departed, his friends carry him, as appointed, 
to the fire** from whence he came, from whence he sprang." 


Foundation of the Kingdom of Eighteousness 

5. "* * * Now this, Bikkhus, is the noble truth concerning 
"Birth is attended with pain, decay is painful, disease is pain- 
ful, death is painful. Union with the unpleasant is painful, 
painful is separation from the pleasant; and any craving 
that is unsatisfied, that too is painful. * * *" 

*Ten lunar months. 
**Of the funeral pile. 


6. "Now this, Bikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin 

of suffering. 

"Verily, it is that craving, causing the renewal of existence, 
accompanied by sensual delight, seeking satisfaction now 
here, now there — that is to say, the craving for the grat- 
ification of the passions. * * * 

' ' This then, Bikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin 
of suffering. 

7. "Now this, Bikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the de- 

struction of suffering. 
"Verily, it is the destruction, in which no passion remains, of 

this very craving; the laying aside of, the getting rid of, 

the being free from, the harboring no longer of this crav- 

inff. * * * " 
These extracts from some of the various bibles or sacred 
books show the importance attached to sex, to begetting, to seed 
and to germ, to being born, etc., by the ancient writers. It is 
not necessary to enter more fully on this subject at this time. The 
underlying idea of nearly all religions is a gladness that we ex- 
ist, "we're glad we're here," a thankfulness to the Creator, and 
a desire to show our gratitude by worship and sacrifices. 


The bibles to which reference has just been made, are those 
of the Aryan people, the stock from which came modern civiliza- 
tion, the Caucasian stock. 

To define the term "Caucasian" so as to sharply separate 
this race from all other races is impossible; intermixture with 
other races in various degrees, has left an impress on the mixed 
offspring which obliterated sharp distinctions; residence for un- 
told ages in tropical climates has had its influence in modifying 
the complexions; so there is no possibility to define accurately a 
race that has mixed itself for ages with all the other races on 
earth, until we realize that it is subject to great variations due to 
these conditions. But he is of the Indo-European family of the 
human race. 

A Caucasian is not necessarily a white man; he may be very 
dark, as some of the Hindus, from exposure for many generations 
to the tropical sun and climate. He is "Caucasian" from consid- 


erations of body and skull formation, large facial angle, orthog- 
nathous jaw, large cranial capacity and brain capability, etc., and 
not merely on account of his color. This Aryan stock had the 
largest brain, and when the Aryans left their original habitat in 
Asia and scattered to all parts of the world, from Ireland and 
Scandinavia to India and Japan (in which latter country we find 
the white hairy Ainus), they carried with them the traditions of a 
' ' creator " or " father, ' ' and of a religion which led to the highest 
ethical development so far achieved by mankind. 

But other varieties or races (called species by some) of the 
"genus homo" whom we now consider to be barbarians or sav- 
ages, constructed other myths in regard to the creation of the 
world and of man, many of which seem grotesquely absurd to us. 

Eeligion may be considered to be an effort of the human mind 
to explain the relations of mankind to God — to that power which 
is conceived to exist by the majority of mankind. To arrive at 
truth in religion is the highest aim of man's thought, but some re- 
ligions had only a vague dawning of truth while others are eth- 
ically much higher. The underlying truth of religion is the intent 
to formulate the noblest aspirations and conceptions that are pos- 
sible to the fijiite mind of man. The origin of the ideas about a 
supernatural power, or powers, may be ascribed to various causes. 

One is gratitude; thankfulness for life, for existence. This 
led to the Aryan concepts in regard to a creator. The burden of 
our religions is thankfulness to the Creator — "Worship thy Cre- 
ator" — and in probably all Aryan nations this creator was loiown 
as the "father." • 

In many nations, if not in most nations of antiquity, this cre- 
ator was supposed to be the earthly or human father, the paternal 
cause of our being, the paternal parent; and such a view of the 
creator gave rise to ancestor-worship, which was probably the 
oldest and most universal form of religion, and which to this day 
prevails in many lands. 

In more cultivated or advanced races and nations this idea 
was transferred to an imaginary "heavenly father." 

Jupiter was the same deity as the Vedic or Indian god Dyaus 
pitar; he was the Zeios of the Greeks, and the Etruscan god Tina; 
in all these religions he retained his original significance ; he was 
the Graeco-Latinic god who ruled over, the cyclic changes of the 
heaven, over seasons, and years. As Jupiter, he was Jupiter 


Lucretius, the god of the bright sky, and Jupiter Pluvius, the god 
of the rainy sky; he was the god of light and darkness, of thun- 
der and rain. To him every place that was struck by lightning 
became sacred, and it was enclosed by a fence to prevent its dese- 
cration by profane feet. 

In Eome, at an early date, a moral side of his character de- 
veloped, and Jupiter was looked upon as the fatherly ruler of 
mankind, who protected the higher elements of human society and 
guarded the sanctity of oaths; this latter function of Jupiter is 
still recognized by us, for it is no uncommon occurrence for us to 
exclaim "by Jove," as did the ancient Eomans when taking an 

It is surprising to find similar views held by savages in a 
strange and far distant continent. The Pawmees and Blackfeet 
Indians worshipped a deity, Atius Tiraiva (Father Spirit), an 
immaterial spirit who was beneficent, benevolent, and all-power- 
ful. Next came Earth, who had produced them, and to whom 
they returned at death. They worshipped "Mother Corn" who 
nourished and sustained them. The sun, moon and stars were per- 
sons, to whom they prayed. These ideas appear to have been 
taken from the same general fund of folklore, that seems to have 
encompassed the whole world. 

Ancestor worship is a widely disseminated form of religion; 
in some nations, as among the Chinese, it is a literal worship of 
the dead parents, grandparents, etc. ; but this worship is often 
limited to the worship of the father, the mother being ignored as 
a factor in creation. Among the Buddhists the ancient teachers 
and heroes and the ancestors of their rulers are venerated; but 
among some sects of Buddhists, some living persons are consid- 
ered as divine, as the Lamas in Thibet and the Mikado in Japan. 
The Mikados are considered to be direct descendants of the sun- 
goddess, whom they represent on earth, and hence they are divine. 

In other nations, as in ancient Rome, this worship was at first 
a worship of the father, who had the power of life and death over 
his wives, children and slaves. Later on it assumed a less literal 
form, as in the worship of the Manes or Shades or Ghosts of the 

Among the Eomans, the ghosts or the spirits of the departed 
ancestors became the object of a sort of household cult ; they were 


called the Manes, and. daily offerings or libations were made to 

On tombstones there were frequent recognitions of them, and 
"Dis Manibus" ("to the ancestral gods") was a frequent inscrip- 

In some nations these ideas led to a symbolic worship of the 
generative organs of the parents, the penis and testicles, called 
the "phallus" in Grreek and Latin, and the vulva, called "yoni" 
in Hindustani. These two words, "phallus" and "yoni" are gen- 
erally used now in referring to the worship of the masculine and 
feminine powers respectively; these forms of worship are re- 
ferred to as the "phallic worship" — not perhaps the best term 
that might have been chosen, because, strictly speaking, it does 
not include the worship of the feminine, and also because among 
the thinking pagans these organs were not actually worshipped as 
such, but were adored or reverenced only as symbols for the pow- 
ers in nature which they represented. By the word symbol we un- 
derstand any object which is intended to call to mind, or to stand 
for some moral or intellectual idea; it is also called emblem, a 
type or representation which figuratively stands for some abstract 
ideal. "Phallic worship" is therefore also known as "nature- 
worship" but this term implies more than the former term. 

Sex is the greatest fact in human experience, the source of 
life and of nearly all its deepest emotions ; the well-spring of our 
intensest pleasures as well as of our deepest griefs (Fig. 36). 
Solomon said in Proverbs (v, 18) : "Eejoice with the wife of thy 
youth * * * be thou ravished always with her love." In the 
Bible the first command given by God to man was: "Be fruitful 
and multiply" (Gen. i, 28). 

All beauties of body and all graces of mind serve but to 
attract two individuals of different sexes, so that a new being 
may be created. 

Another powerful factor in producing a religious feeling was 
fear. When the worship of ancestors was transferred from the 
living parents to the ancestral dead, gratitude for existence be- 
came less prominent and there entered into religion a fearsome 
element, the universal and superstitious fear of ghosts; this may 
have led to the expression, "the fear of God," or "the fear of 
the Lord." Whatever phenomena of nature primitive man did 
not understand were assigned to some supernatural power. 


In all religions there is a worship of a power greater than 
man and outside of himself; in whatever form this power was 
imagined it almost always took the anthropomorphic form of a 
sexual power that created nature — The Demiurge — The Creator. 

There is no valid reason why we should assign the first dawn- 
ings of the idea of a deity or supernatural power to any very early 
stage of the existence of mankind. No doubt fear of the unknown 
was an early accompaniment of the fear of the loaown. The early 
troglodites, in constant dread of becoming the prey of the saber- 
toothed tiger or the cave-bear were in equal dread of the unseen 

Fig. 36.— "Eternal Spiring," by Rodin. 

force that sent the storm rushing through the forest or that hurled 
the lightning that shattered the trees ; but this may have been an 
indefinite — an indefinable — dread, for which primitive man, per- 
haps not yet even endowed with the gift of speech or language, 
could form no conscious explanation or conception. 

What is called "history" is an infinitely small span of time 
when compared with the hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions 
of years, that elapsed between the first appearance of man with 
the primitive body and the primitive mind and speech and reli- 
gion of the Pithecanthropus or Neanderthal man, and the histor- 
ical period ; between these two periods stretches an inconceivably 


long period of time, regarding which all is darkness and mystery. 

From the first utterances of human articulate sounds until 
man was able to formulate thought into speech of words and sen- 
tences, was perhaps a longer time than from this stage of his exist- 
ence to the time when he was able to record his thoughts in sculp- 
ture, and thus begin the historical period. 

But the first thoughts of man's theories of creation took place 
sometime during this unknown and unrecorded period of his 

Of the period between the time when the first primitive human 
courtship occurred, when the male, seeing a mossy spot under the 
trees that would have tempted the fauns and nymphs of ancient 
Greece, nudged his female companion with a primitive "hm!" 
and she responded with an acquiescing "uh-huh!" until the time 
when man stopped to contemplate the heavens and to speculate on 
cosmogonies, we know nothing. But we know of later people, in 
historical times, even in our own times, who have not yet turned 
their thoughts to any religious speculations. 

Even among ourselves, in civilized nations, the masses are not 
interested in thoughts about cosmogony. It is probable that there 
are few who have not heard about God and who would not be able 
to say when asked who made the world that God made it; but 
it conveys no real thought to their minds. 

A Salvation Army lass once told the writer that one of their 
number had asked a man whether he loiew that Jesus had died 
for him, and he answered : ' ' No, I did not even know that he was 
sick!" Millions of human beings in our most civilized communi- 
ties are equally ignorant and indifferent, and from their own inner 
consciousness are never tempted to think about such matters at all. 

The Esquimaux have no native theory of God or creation; 
except now, such as has been taught them by missionaries. 

The Abipones never bothered themselves as to the nature or 
origin of the heavenly bodies ; they simply accepted them as mat- 
ters of fact, but these natural phenomena inspired no curiosity. 

There are a number of so-called cosmogonies that appear to 
us to be absurd. For instance: The Scandinavians worshipped 
a god whom they called Yniir; the first man and woman sprang 
from his armpit. In similar manner, Minerva sprang from the 
head of Zeus, and Pan from his thigh. 

According to the Bible (Gen. ii, 7) and the belief of the na- 


tives of Australia, New Zealand, Melanesia, Greece, India and 
some other lands, man was fashioned out of clay or the dust of 
the earth ; as the funeral ritual of many of our churches expresses 
it: "Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return;" or in the 
words of the Bible (Gen. iii, 19) : "In the sweat of thy face shalt 
thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it 
wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou 
return. ' ' 

A colored teacher in a Sunday school told his class how God 
had taken a moist lump of clay and had made Adam from it; 
"and God set him alongside of a fence and when he was dry 
enough he blew his breath into his nostrils, and Adam became a 
living soul" (see Gen. ii, 7). "You say God set Adam long-side 
of a fence to dry," said an inquisitive pupil. "Dass what I said," 
answered the teacher. "Well, whar did that fence come from?" 
"Ah, go way, nigger; such questions as dat'U upset any system 
of theology!" 

In Thibet the chief god was Kun-tu-Czang-po, and his wife 
Yom-ki-long-mo was the eternal female principle; from these two 
came all the other gods, all humankind, and the whole world. 

Some North American tribes of Indians say that the muskrat 
created the earth by fishing it up from the depths of the ocean. 

The Quiches, of ancient Mexico and Central America, be- 
lieved that Hurakan ("hurricane") the thunder-god, the "heart 
of heaven," created humankind. 

The ancient Persians said that the first tree and the first bull 
were the ancestors of the human race; they believed that there 
were two "antagonistic" principles, one male and one female, 
primordial fire or heat (the passionate nature of the male) and 
primordial water, or cold (the apathetic nature of the female). 

According to Persian traditions, Meschia and Meschiane, pro- 
genitors of mankind, were created for happiness in this world 
and the next, provided they were good and did not worship Dews, 
the Spirit of Evil. But they were seduced by an evil spirit and 
dressed themselves in black for thirty days, in worship of the 
Spirit of Darkness. Dews then gave them various fruits to eat 
and they forfeited many pleasures ; they covered themselves with 
the skins of dogs and ate dogs. 

Ahriman is represented as a poisonous serpent and Dews 


often assumes the same shape (the same story that we find in 

The Calmucks say that men in the first age of the world lived 
80,000 years; they were holy and happy. But a plant sweet as 
honey sprang out of the earth, of which a greedy man tasted and 
made others acquainted with it. A sense of shame was awakened 
and they began to make themselves coverings and clothes from 
leaves. Virtue fled and vice, murder and adultery spread in the 
land. Thibetan mythology tells a similar story. 

We meet here the same elements of ancient folklore that are 
found in the Bible ; the great age of the first of mankind, the same 
eating of some fruit or vegetable product which caused them to 
become ashamed, the same making themselves clothes from leaves, 
the same fall from the state of innocence. 

Ovid (b.c. 43-a.d. 17) said that man was made in the image of 
the Gods and that he was intended to rule over earth and all the 
creatures of earth. (See charge of plagiarism, p. 12.) The 
same folklore material that appears in the Bible is found in Ovid. 

The Hindus taught that Prajapati ("the universe which was 
soul and only one") made animals from his breath and men from 
his soul ; the same element of folklore that was also utilized in the 

The Brahmans taught that Brahma created man who issued 
from the ground at the divine word (Gen. i, 11: "let the earth 
bring forth") his head appearing first, then his shoulders, body 
and legs. Life was then infused into him, and God made for him 
a companion, a woman, and the two lived together as man and 
wife, tilling the ground {like Adam and Eve), and they had four 
sons. Brahma made Avives for them also, and they and their prog- 
eny scattered to the four quarters of the earth. 

In one regard this account is more considerate than the ac- 
count in Genesis ; a good many people are sensitive about the lat- 
ter story, as they can not understand where Cain, Abel and Seth 
got wives without committing incestuous union with their own 
sisters. The Bible says that Adam and Eve had sons and daugh- 
ters ; one of the apocryphal books, the Book of Jubilees, mentions 
two of the latter, Avan and Azura. The Brahmans tell the story 
so as not to worry these hypersensitive ones, who take these myths 
for actual facts. 

Among the Bushmen of Africa the mantis {Mantis religiosa, 


the insect commonly knoAvn to us as "devil's horse") is supposed 
to have been the creator of the world and its inhabitants; some 
tribes of Bushmen say the creator was a grasshopper; but they 
also say that Cagn (the Mantis) "gave orders and caused all 
things to appear." 

The ancient Greeks also ascribed supernatural powers to this 
insect; the Turks and Arabs believe that it prays with its head 
towards Mecca ; in Nubia it is viewed with much veneration, while 
the Hottentots are said to worship it, and when one alights on 
them, they consider it a peculiarly good omen. 

Even among more civilized people it is considered with awe ; 
it is related that once one of these insects alighted on the hand 
of Saint Francis Xavier (1506-1552 a.d.), who, impressed by its 
pious attitude of prayer, commanded it to sing the praise of God, 
which it instantly did by composing and intoning loudly a hymn 
of praise. 

But are such myths hona fide attempts at forming a theory 
of cosmogony? Are we justified in including them in the list of 
mythologies or religions! 

When a mother amongst us is bothered by the older children 
to tell them where the new little brother or sister came from, does 
she tell them what she really knows? Or does she tell them that 
the doctor brought it ; or that a stork brought it ; or (in some parts 
of Europe) that it was found in a hollow tree, or that it grew on 
a tree? 

There were many primitive people who said that men and 
women came out of caves ; and caves were sacred and symbolical 
of Cybele, a Phrygian goddess, at one time worshipped through- 
out Asia Minor. She was considered as identical with the Gre- 
cian goddess Ehea. 

Did these people believe as a religion that men and women 
came out of caves? Probably not; at least not the more intel- 
ligent ones, who saw in such a story a euphemistic way of saying 
that children come out of the vulva and womb, for which "cave" 
is a symbol in some religions ; the cave is ' ' the womb of nature. ' ' 

Would a "man from Mars" writing about his visit to our 
earth tell his readers that the American Christians are a sect who 
believe that storks create babies, because he had heard a mother 
explain to her inquisitive children that storks brought the babies ? 
Why should we consider such stories of mythology or cosmogony 


to be serious religion for grown-iTps on the part of some other 

We know that savages at a certain age initiate their boys and 
girls into societies or lodges where they are tanght certain truths 
that are religiously kept from the uninitiated or children. When 
strangers interrogate them, they are apt to give them "fairy 
tales" instead of the truth, and these fairy tales seem to be ac- 
cepted by some travelers as the real beliefs of the people whom 
they interrogated. May not this be the case Avith some of these 
tales of cosmogony? 

In nearly all primitive cosmogonies, "a vast abyss of water" 
is assumed to be feminine, and to be "made pregnant" by a male 
god or creator or demiurge. 

The word "demiurgus" (Latin) means a workman, an artif- 
icer, a maker ; one who makes or models anything. TertuUianus, 
a Christian writer of about 125 a.d., wrote: "Figulat hominem 
demiurgus et de afflatu suo animat;" (the demiurge models man 
and animates him with some of his breath). The word figulat is 
from the same root as the word figulus, a moulder, a potter, a 
brickmaker, a worker in clay. 

This "demiurge," as he was called by the Platonic philos- 
ophers, was supposed to be a mysterious power through whom 
God created, an artificer who obeyed the commands of God, as 
for instance, when God said "let there be light," the demiurge 
made or turned on the light. 

In some of the earlier cosmogonies the first thing created is 
light; possibly from an early realization that life depends on 
light and that creation was impossible without light. The Egyp- 
tians said that their god Thoth was the demiurge, the Creator, 
who was said "to have given the world light when all was dark- 
ness and there was no sun." Moses also had God create light first 
and the sun afterwards. 

Now human beings formed by a demiurge of course were not 
born in the ordinary human way ; they were fashioned in a super- 
natural way; they were therefore called "protoplasts" by the 

Also, some writers, like Swedenborg, taught that in heaven 
all will be naked as clothing was introduced through sin; based 
on this idea, writers have said that when we go to heaven we can 
readily recognize Adam and Eve because they have no navels, 


never having been attached through a navel cord and placenta to 
a mother. 

In most religions but little stress is placed on the navel. In 
India Vishnu's navel, symbolized thus: c^^^^ ' ^^ adored. From 
his navel a lotus bud grew, which, when it developed, produced the 

The Mandaeans were an ancient Oriental sect whose religion 
was made up of a mixture of elements borrowed or appropriated 
from Jewish, Christian and Heathen sources. They said that the 
origin of all things was Pira, "the great abyss," associated with 
whom and forming a trinity are Ayar ziva rabba (the "great 
shining ether") and Mana rabba (the "great spirit of glory"). 

Along Avith Mana rabba is D'mutha, his -wife or image, a fe- 
male power. The demiurge of the Mandaeans made Adam and 
Eve, but was unable to make them stand upright ; so Hibil, Shithil 
and Amush were sent by the "first life" to infuse into the forms 
of Adam and Eve a portion of the essence of Mana rabba him- 
self. Hibil then taught the protoplasts to marry and how to 
people the earth. 

The Mandaeans said that Estera (Istar or Venus) is the Holy 
Ghost; the devil of the Mandaeans was Ruha, who was female; 
she gave birth to three sets of children, who were translated to 
heaven and became the constellations; the first set consisted of 
seven, and they became the seven planets (the "seven great 
gods") ; another set consisted of twelve, who became the twelve 
zodiacal constellations or signs (the "twelve great gods") ; but 
the record of what became of her third set of five children has 
not come down to us. 

The Mandaeans were similar to the Gnostics ; they performed 
baptism by total immersion in running water, but their baptism 
does not seem to have been as effective as amongst us, as it had 
to be frequently repeated; their name for holy water was 
' ' Jordan. ' ' 

Their sacred books laid much stress on procreation, and like 
the patriarchs of old they tried to do their duty in this regard by 
practicing polygamy; but history records that few of them were 
rich enough to acquire and maintain more than two wives. 

The "great abyss" of the Mandaeans occurs also in various 
forms in other mythologies. Many primitive cosmogonies con- 


sidered water as a pre-existent material which held in solution, 
or out of which were formed, all other things. Some savage peo- 
ple supposed that the earth grew out of the water, which, inci- 
dently, is how geology tells us that the continents grew. 

The Babylonian mythology, for instance, thought that water 
was the vehicle of life, as in a certain sense it is, for where there 
was no water there was no life — it was a desert. The Babylo- 
nians imagined an abyss of water to have been made pregnant 
by a male creator, who arose from the abyss itself. 

King Assurbanipal's library (about VII Century b.c.) speaks 
of a female primeval flood or abyss called Tiamat and a mascu- 
line power. Another idea, prevalent especially in the Pacific Is- 
lands, is that the earth was raised or fished up from the primeval 
water ; living, as they did, on a comparatively small firm land sur- 
surrounded on all sides by deep water, this was perhaps a quite 
rational conclusion of the islanders. They may have even had 
traditional knowledge of such creation of land, for some of the 
islands were formed by volcanic eruption or elevation. 

The Japanese, also an island-inhabiting people, had a myth 
that a rush grew out of the earth while it was still soft mud (com- 
pare Philo's description of the earth, p. 105) or "like oil floating 
on the surface of water;" this rush produced (as a fruit?) a 
"land-forming god." 

Philo, of Byblus, tells about several Phoenician cosmogonies. 
One mentions Baal and Tanith as the male and female principles, 
the conjugal union of whom produced creation. In another of 
these cosmogonies is mentioned a woman, Baau, which name is 
interpreted as night; probably she was identical with Bohu, the 
Hebrew name in the Mosaic account (Gen. i, 2) which is translated 
chaos, or with the Babylonian Tiamat, confusion. 

The Polynesians speak of the "heaven-god Tangaloa" as a 
great bird hovering over the waters; an idea probably derived 
from the same folklore from which Moses adopted the expression 
"the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters" (Gen. i, 2). 

In the Avesta, the Persian sacred books, which were reduced 
to writing probably a little earlier than were the books of Moses, 
the God Ahura-Mazda is represented as creating the world out 
of nothing by the exercise of his will. 

In the cuneiform inscriptions of about the time of Darius and 


Xerxes, Ahura-Mazda is called the ' ' great god of gods, who made 
heaven and earth and men." 

This abyss of waters, however, was not merely the creative 
flux out of which came creation, but in many cosmogonies it also 
became a destructive agent. Many mythologies believe in suc- 
cessive destructions and re-creations of the world, as for instance, 
the story in the Bible (Gen. vi, vii, and viii) ; this idea ascribes 
to the flood of waters the same function that the Hindus ascribe 
to Siva — Destruction and Eeproduction. This same, or a very 
similar story is known in almost all the mythologies of the world, 
in the old as well as in the new continent. The Assyrian account 
which is about a thousand years older than the Mosaic account, is 
very similar to the latter. 

The idea that the flood was sent as a punishment for the 
sins of the people was also very widespread. That is the reason 
given for the flood in the Bible. It was also the cause of the flood 
in the Hindu sacred writings, which relate that Vishnu became 
incarnated as a fish who held up the earth and thus became its 

Ovid (a Greek poet, b.c. 43 to 17 a.d.) said that the Golden 
Age, or the earliest age of man, was one of simplicity and inno- 
cence, but it gradually degenerated until corruption was so great 
that Zeus sent a flood to destroy mankind. 

Catlin tells us that among the North American Indians there 
is not a tribe that has not a tradition of a great flood ; it is possi- 
ble that such myths as that of the destruction of Atlantis, etc., 
and all the other flood stories are based on the experiences of 
Pacific Islanders, whose "worlds" are subject to occasional par- 
tial or even nearly complete destruction by the tidal waves or 
floods which are caused by the volcanic disturbances in that part 
of the world ; but it is of course also possible that the story of the 
flood was brought to the Indians by early missionaries. 

In India, in 1876, a tidal wave rushed in upon the land, and 
as it retreated to the sea, it carried with it 150,000 of the inhab- 
itants, together with all their belongings. In days before the 
telegraph or mail service, such a disaster would be more or less 
local, but it would live in the memories of the survivors, or of 
the neighboring people, for many generations, and give rise to a 
tradition of a flood, and as such floods may have occurred in va- 
rious places and many times, this would be ample to account for 


a universal tradition of a flood, that need not have been the same 

Like in the story of the Bible, another pair of "first par- 
ents" must be provided, to continue the race of mankind. These 
are either supplied by new creations, or by the survival of a few 
individuals as in the Bible myth which makes Noah and his wife 
"the second Adam and Eve," as they are called by the Arabians. 
Of course the general theories of creation, as^due to sex, make 
such a feature of a deluge myth a necessity. 

Primitive man, at some time or other, must have commenced 
to speculate on the origin or source of life. It is not inconceiv- 
able that the troglodites, living in their caves, depending for food 
on the hunt, and chase, came across some eggs just as they were 
hatching, and generalizing from such observations the egg be- 
came to them an early and primitive conception of the source 
of life and creation; and the "cosmic egg" became a feature of 
many mythologies and cosmogonies. From this egg originated 
our universe and all that it contains, including our earth, our 
gods and men. The myth of a cosmic egg occurs in Phoenician 
Egyptian, Indian, Chinese, Polynesian and Finland mythologies, 
associated with one or another, or several, of the ideas concerning 
the abyss, a male god who fertilized it, mixture, generation, fra- 
gility, the domelike appearance of the sky, and the form of the 
sun, moon and planets. 

No ideas of sex seem to have been connected with the cosmic 
egg in the earlier cosmogonies. The egg was not yet associated 
with, or recognized as a manifestation or characteristic of the 
feminine, as it was later on. 

The Hindu god Brahma who produced it was male. So was 
the Egyptian god Seb, who produced it; the Egyptians figured 
many of their deities in the form of animals and Seb, the producer 
of the cosmic egg, was represented in the image of the goose. 

In the S'atapatha Brahmana is an account of the "primeval 
waters" and a cosmic or world-egg; according to one account this 
egg produced Prajapati, according to another account Prajapati 
produced the cosmic egg. A little later, in India, we find the myth 
of a "self-existent Lord" who created "by a thought." He cre- 
ated the waters and deposited in them a seed which grew into a 
golden egg, from which egg he himself was born as Brahma, the 
"progenitor of all the worlds." 


Apuleius, an ancient Latin writer, "saw in the egg the sym- 
bol of all that was, that is, and that is possible to be," and modern 
biology teaches that the ovum, or egg, is the highest manifestation 
of life, to which all other phenomena of life are subservient and 

In the cuneiform inscriptions of about the time of Darius and 
Xerxes, Ahura-Mazda is called the "great god of gods, who made 
heaven and earth and men." 


The germs of botanical science are found in a rudimentary 
form in very remote antiquity. The beginning of a science may 
be considered to be that time when the subject to which it relates 
first engaged the thought and incited the investigations in regard 
to the particular natural phenomena by early mankind. 

The actual achievements are not of material consideration in 
this connection; the fact that a subject became an object of study 
and speculation at a certain period constitutes the "germ" or 
"beginning" of the science, regardless of the question whether 
these early theories stood the test of time and were found cor- 
rect, or whether they were afterwards abandoned because they 
were proved to be incorrect. 

It can only be in this sense that it can be said truthfully that 
the germs of botanical science are traceable in remote antiquity. 

Figuier, in Vegetable World, says that the ancients already 
held the view that plants were sexual, and says this as if such an- 
cient assumption was based on more or less scientific foundation. 
It is therefore of interest to examine the ancient views on sex, and 
this will show that Figuier 's assertion is erroneous and that the 
idea that the ancients knew plants to be sexual rests on very slim 

Primitive men conceived every object as being personal and 
to be endowed with passions and attributes like themselves ; even 
the most abstract phenomena, like sky, earth, wind, fire, etc., even 
the stones and plants were regarded as persons. All things, ani- 
mate and inanimate, were supposed to be sexual and to produce 
either their own kind, or any other kind of being, by processes 
analogous to those by which human offspring was produced. 

Even the soil and stones were supposed to be able to produce 


human beings, and the ancient Greeks called men who sprang 
from their soil "autochthones." Even our negroes, who still cul- 
tivate many features of voodoo worship, consider lodestones to 
be powerful fetiches or love-charms, and know how to distinguish 
between the "male" and "female" lodestones. 

With such ideas prevailing, it was but natural that all living 
things, animal or vegetable, were considered to be related to each 
other, and that they all, like humankind, were male and female. 
And animals and plants came to be regarded as the ancestors of 
the human race, or at least of certain tribes or people. This is 

While totemism generally considers man as descended from 
and therefore related to certain animals (totems), there are tribes 
who claim to be descended from and related to certain plants. 
Such tribes could not kill any animal for food or use any plant 
that was "totem" to them; such animal or plant was tapu (taboo) 
to them. 

Among the Eed Maize Clan of Omahas (North American In- 
dians) the red maize was considered to be their totem or ancestor, 
and members of this tribe may not eat red maize. 

Among the ancient Norsemen, Yggdrasil was the tree of life 
from which all living beings sprang. It reached with its roots to 
all parts of the earth, and produced all the inhabitants of the 
earth; its roots reached to the lowest depths of the under-world 
and produced the demons and evil spirits; and its branches 
reached up into the air, and produced all the creatures that live in 
the air, and its uppermost branches reached into heaven and pro- 
duced the gods, thus binding all life into one relationship. 

Yggdrasil was an ash-tree (Fraxinus) and was the ancestor 
(or the male ancestor) of mankind. "Fru EUer" {Alder, Alnus), 
according to Norse mythology, was the female progenitress, or 
ancestress, of mankind. Such and similar was the origin of the 
ancient belief that plants had sexual attributes. We will consider 
a few more of these ancient (and modern uncivilized) notions in 
regard to sex. 

The Persians imagined the first tree and the first bull to have 
been the first ancestors of the human race; as the bull was their 
symbol of their male creator, the tree must have been their first 
female ancestress. They discovered, in physics generally, two 


antagonistic, or rather complementary, principles, one male, the 
other female. 

In Maori mythology some of the gods were vegetable, some 
animal in nature. So also in Hindu mythology. 

Those of the people of Ambon who are descendants from 
trees may not use their totem trees for firewood. An Ormon clan 
whose totem is the Kuj-rar tree will not eat of the oil obtained 
from that tree, nor even sit in its shade. 

The Eddas say that the first man came from an ash-tree ; the 
first woman from an alder-tree (the ash-tree a variety of Frax- 
inus; the alder-tree, Alnus incana, "Erie"). 

In making fire by friction a hole was made in a block of alder 
(yonic) and the stick which was twirled in this hole was of ash 
(phallic), the two by friction producing fire (heat and life). The 
ancient Greeks explained that Prometheus brought fire to man- 
kind, hidden in a staff; this explained why, by rubbing staffs to- 
gether, the fire could be set free again. 

The ancient Teutons considered the oak-tree male, because 
the acorn looks like a glans penis with its prepuce (acorn in its 

A modern example of this method of grouping plants into 
male and female prevails in some rural districts of England, with 
regard to the holly {Ilex aquifolium). This plant is dioecious and 
the British Encyclopaedia says that it changes sex from male to 
female with age. The common people, however, distinguish two 
varieties of the plant ; one variety which is prickly and rough and 
is called "he holly," the other variety, which is smooth or non- 
prickly, is "she holly," in analogy to the human body, which in 
the male is bearded and hairy on the body, while the female body 
is smooth and devoid of hair. 

In some parts of Europe children are said to be found in 
lakes, from which they are brought by storks. In other parts they 
are said to grow on trees, or to be found in hollow trees. 

The birch-tree {Betula alba) is considered to be feminine in 
Bavaria, and children are said to come from birch-trees, or to be 
found in hollow birch-trees. A newly-born girl baby is bathed in 
a tub made of birch-wood so that when she grows up she will be 
attractive to the men. 

The beech (Fagus) is considered also to be female, and in 
some provinces it is regarded in the same manner as the birch. 


The Lupercalia were old Eoman festivals on which occasions 
women ran about naked so that they conld be whipped on their 
bare posteriors, to make them fertile. This festival survives in 
some primitive communities of continental Europe. Children are 
whipped Avith birch-switches ("Lebens-ruthen," life-switches), 
otherwise they will not thrive or grow, but remain stunted. In 
many parts of Europe female domestic animals as well as the 
women of the household are whipped on the bare genitals with 
birch-switches on Halloween eve by the men of the household; this 
is supposed to insure fertility and healthy offspring. 

In parts of Russia the husbands whip their wives on the bare 
posteriors with birch twigs to make them fertile and to insure easy 
and safe child-birth. A woman whose husband does not whip her 
thinks he does not love her. The trousseau of the bride contains 
the necessary bundle of birch rods or switches ("Euhte;" also 
in German the name of the male virile organ). 

In Poland, for the same reason, the bride is driven to the 
nuptial bed by the matrons with a rod of fir, which is there con- 
sidered in the same way as the birch is elsewhere. The "up- 
standing" growth of the fir is very suggestive of a prominent 
characteristic of the male member. 

In Japan the fir is a symbol of the masculine ; the plum-tree, 
of the feminine. At weddings dwarf trees of these two kinds are 
used as table decorations. 

In India, when a Hindu plants a grove of mango trees, he 
will not take the fruit of the grove before the trees have been mar- 
ried (with full Brahmanic rites and ritual) to some other kind of 
tree, usually a tamarind, sometimes an acacia. It is considered a 
disgrace if the mango trees commence to bear fruit before this 
marriage has been celebrated. 

In the Punjab a Hindu can not legally be married to a 
"third" woman; he gets around the difficulty by marrying a 
"babul" tree, so that the wife he subsequently marries is counted 
as his fourth. 

In Bengal both bride and bridegroom are married to trees be- 
fore they are married to each other. 

Kipling wrote: "Lalun is a member of the most ancient pro- 
fession in the world. In the West people say rude things about 
Lalun 's profession and distribute lectures to young people in or- 
der that morality may be preserved. * * * Lalun 's real hus- 


band, for even ladies of Lalun's profession in the East must have 
husbands, was a great big jujube-tree * * * for that is the 
custom of the land. The advantages of having a jujube-tree for 
a husband are obvious: you can not hurt his feelings, he looks 
imposing, and he does not become jealous." 

In Germany formerly, when a child was baptized, a "birth- 
tree" was planted; a male tree for a boy and a female tree for a 
girl; this was also done for one of President Wilson's grand- 
children. According to Albert Magnus (about 1250 a.d.), the 
trees used for this ceremonial were the pear-tree, which was mas- 
culine, and the apple-tree, which was feminine. The health and 
growth of the children were supposed to depend on the manner 
in which the trees thrived. 

Among the ancient Greeks and Romans all trees that bore 
fruit were considered female ; grammatically they were considered 
feminine, even if the names had masculine endings ; the adjectives 
were feminine. In our scientific nomenclature we have retained 
this graimnatical gender (or sex). Prunus, i. f., II DecL, plum- 
tree; as Prunus domestica, adj. fem. Amygdalus, i. f., II DecL, 
almond-tree; as Amygdalus communis, var. amara, adj. fem. 
Quercus, us, fem. IV DecL, oak-tree; as Quercus infectoria, adj. 

This applies also to many smaller plants, although not as 
regularly so: Avena saliva, fem., oats; Orysa sativa, fem., rice. 

But enough for the present of plant folklore; it shows that 
no element of- a scientific nature entered into the widespread an- 
cient belief that plants were sexual in their natures. 

In Gen. i, 11, we read: "And God said, Let the earth bring 
forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yielding 
fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself; and it was so." Sci- 
ence teaches us that the first life on earth was vegetable life. And 
very low in the scale of life among the algae we find sex; conse- 
quently sex existed probably before there were any animals. 

In Cruden's Concordance of the Bible, the first edition of 
which was published in 1737, but the edition which I have, and 
from which I quote, printed in 1829, we find the following defini- 
tion of seed: "Seed — that thin, hot and spirituous humour in 
man's body which is fitted by nature for the generation of man- 
kind (Gen. xxxviii, 9). Likewise for that matter which in all 
plants and fruits is disposed for the propagation of the kind," 


The oldest mention of botanical lore was found in Assyrian 
and Egyptian inscriptions. In a tomb at Thebes a wall-painting 
was found which represents a botanical garden, and this is the 
earliest mention of the cultivation of exotic plants (Fig. 37). A 
contemporary record on a temple wall at Thebes states that an 
expedition was sent by Queen Hasop (about 1600 b.c.) to bring 
incense trees from Punt (modern Somaliland) to be planted in the 
gardens connected with the temple for the purpose of cultivating 
incense for the temple ceremonials. 

An early attempt at botanical illustration is a Babylonian 
sculpture (about 680 b.c.) showing Assurbanipal's queen at a meal 

Fig. 37. — A botanical garden, from a tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 1900 B.C. 

(Fig. 38) ; among the plants in the background are a date palm 
and a grapevine, both of which are quite characteristically de- 

In Sardanapal's library (650 b.c.) were figured plants and 
plant parts used in medicine, which were stated to be copied from 
inscriptions going back to between 4000 and 5000 b.c. 

The promoters of botany among the ancient Greeks and Ro- 
mans were not, properly speaking, botanists, but rhisotomce or 
pharmacopolce, gatherers of and dealers in medicinal roots and 
herbs. Aristotle, Mithridates, Cato, Virgil, Dioscorides and the 
elder Pliny, however, all wrote on botany or the wonders of vege- 
tation. The most learned and important works on this subject 



were the works of Theophrastus (IV Century B.C.). He men- 
tions sexuality of plants, but did not determine any special sexual 

Of course it may have been empirically noted at a quite early 
time that some plants never bore fruit, while others of the same 
kind did produce fruit. The ancients considered fruit-bearing 
plants as female by analogy with mankind or themselves; the 
plants that did not produce fruit were therefore male. Some 
dioecious plants, like hemp, were of this kind ; so were date palms ; 
and this empirical observation led the ancients to speak of male 
and female plants without their having any real scientific under- 
standing of the facts. 

The works of Theophrastus remained the most important 

Fig. 38. — An Assyrian sculpture showing date-palm and grape-vine, about 680 B.C. 

works on botany until comparatively recent times, in fact, until 
the times of Linnaeus and his contemporaries. 

Herodotus, who wrote about 450 years b.c, recorded that the 
female date-trees had to be fertilized by shaking among their 
flower-clusters the flower-clusters from the male trees. This pro- 
cedure, as just explained, must have been due to empirical expe- 
rience and not to scientific understanding, and the fertilizing 
power was even ascribed to the multitude of small gnats that were 
shaken out of the male clusters of flowers. 

Thomas de Garbo, in 629 a.d., taught that plants were not nec- 
essarily produced by seeds, but could be produced through fer- 


Alpini, a physician and botanist who lived 1553-1617 a.d., 
wrote: "The female date-palms do not bear fruits unless the 
branches of the male and female plants are mixed together; or, 
as is more generally done, unless the dust found in the male sheath 
or male flower is sprinkled over the female flowers. ' ' There does 
not appear any reason to place Alpini 's opinion on other than 
purely empiric experience. 

When alchemists realized the futility or absurdity of their 
search for the "philosopher's stone" which was to transmute 
baser metals to gold, or for the "elixir of life" which would cure 
all diseases and prolong life indefinitely, they turned their atten- 
tion to the solving of the mystery of generation; the mystery of 
Adam and Eve, the "red man" and the "white woman" of Gen- 
esis in the Bible ; the mystery of sex. 

Caesalpinus (1519-1603 a.d.), a learned Italian scientist, pub- 
lished a work entitled Be Plantis lAbri xvi, in 1583 a.d. In this 
work the author suggested a classification of plants which more 
or less distinctly foreshadowed both the Linnsean system and the 
Natural system of Jussieu and which he based on characteristics 
of flowers, stamens, pistils and fruits. In this work he recognized 
that plants were sexual, but he speaks of the "halitus" (breath, 
exhalation, perfume?) as the fertilizing agent, Caesalpinus, as 
late as 1600 a.d., referred to a "halitus or breath, an immaterial 
emanation, exhalation or vapor," practically the perfume from 
the male plants as causing fertility in the female plant. His views 
on the anthers and pistils, however, do not seem to have become 
generally known nor generally accepted. 

In the year 1682 a.d. Nehemiah Grew, secretary of the Soci- 
ety of London, published his Anatomy of Plants, in which the na- 
ture of the stamens and pistils as the male and female organs of 
plants was distinctly asserted. 

In 1694 a.d. Camerarius, a German botanist, also described the 
stamens as male organs and the pistils as female organs, in a book 
entitled De Sexu Plantarum. 

In 1684 A.D. the French botanist Tournefort published his 
Elements of Botany, being the first attempt to define the exact 
limits of genera in vegetables. Most of his genera are still recog- 
nized in modern classifications. The great mistake of his classi- 
fication, however, Avas his division of all plants into two classes, 


"Trees and Herbs;" the great merit, on the other hand, was the 
importance given to the study of the flower. 
His scheme in outline is as follows: 

Flower-bearing trees: 

Apetalousf^P®*^^^^^' Properly so called 
[Amentacege, having catkins 

Petalous I JKegular, Eosacese 

I^Polypetalous |irregular, Papilionacefe 

Herbaceous plants without corolla: 

1. Plants provided with stamens (wheat, barley, rice, etc.). 

2. Flowerless plants with seeds (ferns, lichens, etc.). 

3. Plants in which flowers and fruits are not apparent. 

Simple-flowering herbaceous plants: 

Corolla monopetalousJ ^ , 


Corolla polypetalous f Jugular 


Compound flowering herbaceous plants: 

While Caesalpinus, Grew, and Camerarius had promulgated 
the idea that plants possessed sexual parts, Tournefort remained 
sceptical and did not accept such views. However, his system of 
classification was so superior to previous systems that it brought 
order where confusion had previously existed, and modern scien- 
tific botany practically originated with Tournefort. 

John Ray, an English botanist, published his Historia Plan- 
tarum in 1686 a.d. ; in this work he laid the foundations for modern 
natural systems of classification. 

The main plan of Ray's system is as follows: 

Flowerless plants 
I'-ts |p,_i.g plants {Sytdttr^ 

Divided into woody trees and herbaceous plants. 
Further subdivisions based on the fruits. 



In 1735 A.D. Linnasus presented the theory that stamens were 
male organs and pistils female organs of plants with such con- 
vincing emphasis that he compelled universal acceptance of this 
view. So little known, apparently, were the previously published 
views of Caesalpinus, Grew and Camerarius, that Linnaeus is gen- 
erally considered to have been the first one to explain the nature of 
stamens and pistils and to firmly establish the fact that plants 
have sex. He rendered the theory popular by basing on it his 
system of classification, which is even to this day used in the 
schools in some European lands. 

The structure of a flower, and the nature of fertilization, are 
shown in Fig. 39. The anther cells produce the pollen grains, 

Fig. 39. — Section of flower, and section of ovuln, above; shows fertilization. Various 

pollen grains below. 

which faU on the stigma of the ovary (female part), and are pro- 
longed into a tube which carries the protoplasm of the male cell 
down into the interior of the ovary where it comes in contact with 
the protoplasmic matter of the ovum or female cell. The result 
is fertilization and the growth of the embryo. 

While modifications of Eay's system constitute the Natural 
systems of modern times, the Linnsean system still forms an arti- 
ficial key to the Natural systems, and the terms of this system are 
generally used in the description of plants and flowers. 

That this demonstration of the sexual nature of plants was 
novel is seen from the interest, even enthusiasm, with which it 
was received. Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Dar- 


win, publislied a poem, "The Loves of the Flowers," which was 
illustrated with a series of fine steel engravings (Fig. 40) ; and 
the rapid acceptance of the Linnsean system everywhere is gen- 
erally known. 

In 1789 A.D. Laurent de Jussieu published his Genera Plan- 
tarum, which is the basis of all modern natural systems of classi- 
fication; we thus bring doAvn the history of taxonomy to our own 

During the last 75 or 100 years many botanists have attempted 
various systems of classification based on the consideration of 





'■' 'i. 



■■ "■■■ ''?f 


'^'■^^'^ ^'''^-'"■i^-' '^<i--' 





Fig. 40. — "Cupid Among the Flowers," from the "Loves of the Flowers," by Erasmus 


the cotyledons ; of polypetalous, monopetalous and apetalous flow- 
ers; upon the mode of insertion of the stamens; names have 
changed, things remain the same ; and if in their details the series 
of families or orders present certain differences it only arises 
from the fact that a linear series is incompatible with the natural 
system, and that the connection of the intermediate groups may be 
expressed in various ways without affecting the general princi- 
ples of the system. 

"While Linn^us established the main facts of the nature of 
the sexual organs in plants, the exact method of fertilization re- 
mained as obscure as that in the case of animals. The pollen was 


recognized as the matter which fecundated the ovary, but it re- 
mained a question as to the manner in which it did so. 

It was at first thought that the grains of pollen broke on the 
stigmas and that the granules were absorbed by the stigma and 
went to form the embryo. In 1823 a.d. Amici, an Italian botanist, 
discovered the pollen-tubes. About 1837 a.d. Schleiden and 
Hoeckel announced that the vegetable embryo preexisted as a germ 
within the pollen grains; it is carried at the end of the pollen- 
tube to the embryonic sac, where it develops into the seed or 

Whether this was a conscious effort to harmonize the fertil- 
ization of plants with the views held so long in regard to animals 
and man (see p. 140), views that were apparently in harmony with 
the teachings of the Bible, that the seed or embryo issued from 
the sexual parts of the male, or father, I can not say ; that it was 
such there can be no doubt. 

Schleiden 's theory of the preexistence of the embryo in the 
pollen grains was shown to be wrong by the observations of 
Brongniart, Amici, Mohl, Unger, Hoffmeister, and others. 

In 1849 A.D. Tulasne published his studies on vegetable em- 
bryogeny and finally established the theory of fertilization as 
taught today, namely, that the male and female elements unite to 
form the embryo. 

About 1876 A.D. the nuclear theory of fertilization was demon- 
strated. The successive steps in karyokinesis and the importance 
of chromosomes were demonstrated. 

This does not mean that all the secrets of the process are 
clear ; hundreds of men of science are still trying to solve further 
mysteries of heredity, etc., but these mysteries, while constituting 
the most fertile field for research and investigation, do not par- 
ticularly interest us now in connection with, this attempt to fix the 
niche which is filled by Linnseus in connection with the develop- 
ment of Vegetable Taxonomy. 


Ancient Ideas 

Of course, sex was more distinctly apparent in animals and 
mankind than in plants, but even here, the ideas as to the sexual 
process were vague and wholly unscientific. In fact, the earliest 


references, in the oldest mythologies, did not always assume two 
complementary principles or agencies (sometimes spoken of as 
"antagonistic principles"), but seem to have taught that the Cre- 
ator was of hermaphrodite nature. I have already stated that in 
early cosmogonies the cosmic egg was not associated with a fem- 
inine or not even with any sexual agency. 

In New Zealand, Chinese, Vedic, Indian and Greek myths 
Heaven (sky) and Earth constituted a hermaphrodite being; their 
union was perpetual. Only later on were they considered as a 
pair, or as unisexual and dual. 

The Purana, a sacred Brahminic book, says: "The Supreme 
Spirit, in the act of creation, became twofold; the right side was 
male, the left was Prakriti. She is Maia, eternal and imperish- 
able." Again: "The Divine Cause of Creation experienced no 
bliss, being isolated — alone. He ardently desired a companion; 
and immediately the desire was gratified. He caused his body to 
divide and become male and female. They united and human be- 
ings were thus made." 

In imitation of this ancient theory that the Creator was an- 
drogynous or hermaphrodite some philosophers held the same 
view Avith regard to Jehovah (or Elohim), the god of the Bible. 
We read in the twenty-seventh verse of the first chapter of Gen- 
esis: "So God created man in his own image; male and female 
created he them." And this is emphasized by repetition in the 
more explicit statement in verses 1 and 2, Gen. v: "In the day 
that God created man, in the likeness of God made he them ; and 
God blessed them, and called their name Adam." 

The Talmud (Hebrew Traditions) says that Adam was cre- 
ated androgynous. His head reached the clouds. God caused a 
sleep to fall on him, and took something away from all his mem- 
bers, and these parts he fashioned into ordinary men and women, 
and scattered them through the world. 

After Lilith, Adam's first wife, mother of demons and giants, 
deserted him, God separated Adam into his two sexual parts ; he 
took one of Adam's ribs and made Eve from it. 

Philo, a Jewish philosopher contemporaneous with Jesus, 
said that Adam was a double, androgynous or hermaphrodite be- 
ing "in the likeness of God." Philo said that "God separated 
Adam into his two sexual component parts, one male, the other 
female — Eve — taken from his side. The longing for reunion, 


which love inspired in the divided halves of the originally bi- 
sexual being, is the source of the sexual pleasure, which is the 
beginning of all transgressions." 

Plato, a Greek philosopher, explained the amatory instincts 
and inclinations of men and women by the assertion that human 
beings were at first androgynous; Zeus separated them into uni- 
sexual halves, and they seek to become reunited. 

The Aryans of India account for the appearance of the differ- 
ent animals in this way: "Purusha was alone in the world. He 
differentiated himself into two beings, man and wife. The wife 
regarded union with him as incest and fled, assuming the shapes 
of various animals. The husband pursued, taking the same 
shapes, and thus produced the various species of animals." 

A similar story was told in Grreece of Demeter changing her- 
self into a mare to escape the pursuit of Poseidon (see page 451). 

"We read in Genesis (ii, 7), "And the Lord formed man of the 
dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ; 
and man became a living soul." And Job said (xxxiii, 4), "The 
spirit of God hath made me and the breath of the Almighty hath 
given me life." 

The "breath of God" was recognized as the vivifying, life- 
giving, fertilizing essence of the Creator, not only by the early 
Jewish religion, but also by other religions of antiquity. 

Many ancient authors believed in the "out-breathing" (hali- 
tus) of the male being the fecundating agent that produced life. 
In medieval times it was held that Mary was made pregnant by 
the "word of God" (a very slight modification of the "breath of 
God") because the Bible tells us that "the word became flesh." 

Pythagoras (500 b.c.) taught that "seed is an immaterial 
ether or vapor, similar to thought, produced by the male." And 
even as late as a.d. 1600, Caesalpinus, an Italian scientist, referred 
to a "halitus" or breath (an immaterial emanation, exhalation or 
vapor — practically the perfume) from the male plants as causing 
fertility in the female plants. But a material substance, or 
"seed," was substituted for the "breath" at a very early age. 

Anaxagoras (a Greek philosopher, about 475 b.c.) taught that 
the embryo was formed entirely from the "seed" of the father 
and that the mother merely furnished the soil in which it grew 
and developed. But this theory was not new. Anaxagoras merely 
gave it more definite expression, and made it generally known and 


popular among the Greeks and the successors to Greek science. 
The earliest traces of this theory are found in the religious -writ- 
ings of archaic times. For more than a thousand years the sacred 
compositions of the Hebrews and the Hindus (the Old Testament 
and the Rig-Vedas) were transmitted orally in Southwestern Asia, 
and from the resulting folklore were obtained the contents of the 
Bible and the Rig-Vedas when these "books" were reduced to 
writings, and in both of these sacred books we find this theory, 
which was taught by Aristotle and Diogenes of ApoUonia, but 
which is most generally ascribed to Anaxagoras, plainly stated. 

In the ancient marriage ceremony of the Hindus, when the 
bride enters her husband's home, those present say: "As a fallow 
field thy wife enters; sow in her, man, thy seed!" 

And in the Bible we read (Gen. xxxv, 11, about 1732 b.c), 
' ' God said unto Jacob, Israel shall be thy name. * * * Kings 
shall come out of thy loins" ("loins" in this connection being a 
euphemistic translation of the Hebrew word meaning phallus or 
genitals). And again (Gen. xlvi, 26, about 1706 b.c.) : "All the 
souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his 
loins * * * were three score and ten." 

It is a peculiar feature of modern translations of the Bible, 
that the translators were ashamed of the plain language used by 
God, and they translated such words as penis, etc., by less objec- 
tionable words. If the Bible is really the "word of God" it should 
be translated correctly, for it is annoying, to say the least, to be 
interrupted in an argument based on the English version of the 
Bible, to be met with the statement, that so and so is not a correct 
translation, but is something different in the original Hebrew text. 

This passage from the Bible is of considerable interest in con- 
nection with the theory of the "preformationists," who held not 
only that the fully formed although microscopically minute or- 
ganism existed preformed in the seed of the father, but that it 
contained or included in itself (like a nest of pill-boxes one within 
the other) all subsequent generations of germs as well. 

This view seems to be implied in the statement just quoted 
from Genesis, that the children and the children's children "came 
out of the loins" of Jacob. Again (about 1004 b.c), the Lord 
said unto David: "Nevertheless thou shalt not build the house 
(the temple) but thy son that shall come forth out of thy loins, he 
shall build the house unto my name" (I Kings viii, 19). The Bible 


therefore teaches this theory. As late as a.d. 64, this theory had 
Biblical sanction, for St. Paul referred to a time before Levi was 
born in this wise: "For he was yet in the loins of his father" 
Jacob (Hebr. vii, 10). 

It is of great interest to, trace the gradual development of a 
knowledge of sex; we will give some older views, but necessarily 
in very concise form only. 

Herakleitos (550 b.c.) said: "Man is kindled and put out like 
a light in the night-time. " " The wisest man is an ape compared 
to God, just as the most beautiful ape is ugly compared to man." 

Anaximander (about 600 b.c.) said: "Living creatures arose 
from the moist element as it was evaporated by the sun. Man 
was like another animal, the fish, in the beginning." Further, he 
says that in the beginning man was born from animals of a dif- 
ferent species. His reason is that, "while other animals quickly 
find food for themselves, man alone requires a prolonged period 
of suckling. Hence, had he been originally such as he is now, he 
could never have survived. * * * Tj^e first living creatures 
were produced in the moist element * * * as time went on they 
came out upon the drier part * * * and changed their mode 
of life." 

Parmenides (about 500 b.c): " * * * The narrower 
circles are filled with unmixed fire, and those surrounding them 
with night, and in the midst of these rushes their portion of fire. 
In the midst of these circles is the divinity (Necessity) that di- 
rects the course of all things ; for she rules over all painful births 
and all begetting, driving the female to the embrace of the male, 
and the male to that of the ferhale. 

"First of all the Gods she contrived Eros. 

"On the right, boys; on the left girls. * * *" 

Empedokles (about 475 b.c.) : "There is no coming into be- 
ing of aught that perishes, nor any end for it in baneful death; 
but only mingling and separation of what has been mingled. * * * 
But when the elements have been mingled in the fashion of a man, 
and come to the light of day, or in the fashion of the race of 
wild beasts or plants or birds, then men say that these come into 
being; and when they are separated, they call that, as is the cus- 
tom, woeful death. I too follow the custom, and call it so my- 
self. * * * Fools ! — for they have no far-reaching thoughts — 
who deem that what before was not comes into being, or that 


aught can perish and be utterly destroyed. * * * The coming 
together of all things brings one generation into being and de- 
stroys it; the other grows up and is scattered as things become 
divided. * * * At one time things grew together to be one only 
out of many, at another time they parted asunder so as to be many 
instead of one. Fire and water and earth and the mighty height 
of air, dead strife, too, apart from these and balancing every one 
of them * * * it is she that is deemed to be implanted in the 
frame of mortals. * * * They call her by the name of Joy and 
Aphrodite. * * * Behold the sun, everywhere bright and warm, 
and all the immortal things that are bathed in its heat and bright 
radiance. Behold the rain, everywhere dark and cold; and from 
the earth issue forth things close-pressed and solid. When they 
are in strife all these are different in form and separated; but 
they come together in love and are desired by one another. 

"For out of these have sprung all things that were and are 
and shall be — trees and men and women, beasts and birds and 
the fishes that dwell in the waters * * * for these things are 
what they are ; but running through one another they take differ- 
ent shapes — so much does mixture change them. * * *" 

"It (Love) made many heads spring up without necks, and 
arms wandered bare and bereft of shoulders. Eyes strayed up 
and down in want of foreheads * * * this marvelous mass of 
mortal limbs. At one time all the limbs that are the body's are 
brought together into one by Love * * * and again they are 
severed by cruel strife. 

"But as divinity was mingled still further with divinity, these 
things joined together as each might chance, * * * some off- 
spring of oxen with faces of men, while others, again, arose as 
offspring of men with the heads of oxen, and creatures in whom 
the nature of women and men was mingled, furnished with sterile 

* * Come now, hear how the Fire as it was separated caused the 
night-born ghosts of men and tearful women to arise - * * » 
whole-natured forms first arose from the earth, having a portion 
both of water and fire. These did the fire * * * cause to 
grow, showing as yet neither the charming form of women's 
limbs, nor yet the voice and parts that are proper to man. * • • 

"But the substance of the child's limbs is divided between 
them, part of it in men's and part in women's (body). 


"And upon him came desire as he mingled with her through 

"And it was poured out in the pure parts; and when it met 
with cold, women arose from it. 

"* * * the two diverging harbors of Aphrodite. 

"For in its warmer parts the womb brings forth males, and 
that is why men are darker, more sinewy and more hairy. * * * " 

This gives some idea of the theories about male and female 
in early days. 

Pythagoras, 500 b.c- — "Semen is an immaterial substance, 
like thought, produced by the male." 

Anaxagoras, 500-426 b.c. — "The embryo is from the male 
only; a drop from the brain." 

Democritus, 470-369 b.c. (?) — "Seed is produced from all 
parts of the man's body." 

Aristotle, 384-322 b.c. — "Seed is produced only by the male; 
it causes coagulation of the menstrual blood and this coagulum 
forms the embryo;" but he added that the seed of the male de- 
termined the form of the embryo; women give no seed and their 
testicles (ovaries) are superfluous and as useless as the breasts 
of the male. 

Diogenes of Appollonia (about 350 b.c.)- — "The embryo is 
formed from the seed of the male." 

Then there was a long list of authors, generally referred to as 
"post-Pythagorean" philosophers, Thessalus, Drakon, Polybius, 
Dioxippus, Diokles, and others, who believed in accord with many 
ancient phallic religions that the male "seeds" were formed in 
the right testicle (On) and the female "seeds" were formed in 
the left testicle (Hoa) ; they believed the sex of the offspring 
could be controlled by tying a string around one of the testicles 
during coition. A string tied around the right testicle prevented 
the male seeds from escaping, so that a seed from the left tes- 
ticle would produce a girl child ; and vice versa, by tying a string 
around the left testicle and allowing only seed from the right tes- 
ticle to be emitted, a boy must necessarily be the result. Galen 
(130-200 A.D.) also taught this theory. 

Mohammed considered the seed to be merely fluid; in the 
Koran, Sura xcvi, he said: "Eead, in the name of the Lord who 
created man from a drop ! ' ' 

But even in these early days there were some who credited 


woman with an important share in the function of creating off- 
spring; thus Alkmaeon (502 b.c.) said: "Both sexes give seed; 
the one who gives most determines the sex of the child." 

About the beginning of our era the Essenes were a secret 
Jewish society who devoted their lives to speculations on reli- 
gious subjects; they lived clean lives and were much respected. 
Among their number were such men as Philo, John the Apostle, 
St. Paul, etc.; it was in these times that the Jews (Essenes) orig- 
inated (or at least formulated) the Kabbalah of which mention 
will be made later on. The Kabbalah contains a mixture of Zo- 
roastrian, Pythagorean, Chaldean, Persian and Jewish vagaries, 
and they invented the speculations about "Logos," the "Son of 
God," the "Mediator," etc.; they placed much stress on the sig- 
nificance of words and letters in scripture, according to the the- 
ories of those initiated in gemetria. By the end of the I Century 
after Christ the Kabbalah speculations about "Logos" had been 
firmly established and accepted by the early Christian writers. 
The Kabbalah considered the right side of the body to be male 
and the left side to be female. 

Athenaeus (68 a.d.) believed that the embryo was formed 
from the menstrual blood, to which the male seed gave definite 
shape and form. The female testicles (as ovaries were then 
called) were useless; they were mainly intended for the sake of 
symmetry. (See Galen, a little farther on.) 

Soranus, as early as 97 a.d., had correctly described the sex- 
ual parts of woman, showing that he had dissected them. He 
denied that the uterus or womb contained "cotyledons" or sep- 
arate compartments. This referred to a theory previously held 
that the womb was made of two lobes, called by some ancient 
writers, "the two harbors of Venus," the one on the right side 
being warm, so that seed which lodged there became developed 
into male children, while the one on the left side was cold and 
wet, so that seed finding its way to this harbor developed female 
children. Soranus calls the ovaries "female testicles," but he 
correctly defined their relation to the pelvic bones; he correctly 
described both hymen and clitoris, and spoke of the sympathy be- 
tween the uterus and the mammary glands. 

Moschion (117 a.d.) also denied the theory that children at- 
tached to a placenta on the right side became males, while those 
attached on the left side became females. He taught, however. 


that women who were trained as professional singers did not 

We will have to refer to the sexuality of the two sides of 
the body again, later on. 

Apollonius, an Alexandrian sophist, about 96 a.d., was much 
addicted to speculations about gemetria, etc.; he taught that all 
who want to become godlike in knowledge, and in the healing art, 
must abstain from the eating of meat and from congress with 

Galen (131-203 a.d.) believed that the right testicle produces 
male children and the left testicle produces female children, but 
he believed also that both sexes contributed seed towards the for- 
mation of the child; he objected to the theory of Athenaeus (see 
above) that form was not always due to the father but that some 
children resembled their mothers in form and features which 
proves that women's semen or seed also had an influence on the 
form of the embryo; the embryo, he said, sucks blood and spirit 
from the placenta; from the blood the flesh and the intestines 
were formed, and from blood mixed with spirit the vessels were 
produced. The brain was formed from a portion of pure seed. 

Galen said that women had the same sexual parts as men, 
only, on account of their colder (more apathetic) nature they are 
placed within her body; the ovaries are testicles and furnish 
female seed ; he said that there are as many cavities in the uterus 
as there are breasts. (This is the theory of uterine cotyledons.) 

Averrhoes (1120-1198 a.d.) believed the female testicles to 
be useless; they merely secreted moisture (for lubricating the 
vagina during coition; now referred to by some as "sympathy 
fluid") ; the embryo is formed from the coagulated menstrual 
blood; the form is due to the masculine seed; the seed in itself is 
impotent but it contains a spiritual or volatile constituent which 
causes impregnation, and he quotes a case in which this volatile 
substance was absorbed by a woman who bathed in a pool in which 
a man had previously bathed and had had an emission of semen. 

Jacob von Forli, professor in Padua, about 1450 a.d., said 
that the embryo in the first month of pregnancy was under the 
influence of Jupiter ("pater," the giver of life); in the seventh 
month under the influence of Luna, who is favorable because she 
is moist and reflects the light of the sun; in the eighth month it 
is under the influence of Saturn, who kills and eats children; he 


is the enemy of life and kills every child who is born in the 
eighth month. In the ninth month, again, the child comes under 
the influence of Jupiter who grants life to the child. 

Agrippa (1486 a.d.) said that animals could be reproduced 
without seed from various heterogeneous materials. He was a 
believer in the mystical and supernatural attributes of numbers 
(gemetria) and he deduced from these attributes, for instance, 
that a prayer to Mary, "mother of God," on a first of April, 
at 8 o'clock in the morning, was more certain to be heard and 
granted than at any other time. 

Cardanus (1501-1576 a.d.) said beavers, rabbits and gazelles 
were produced by the impurities in stagnant water. He also 
thought that a virgin's breasts would give milk if they were 
whipped with nettles. He also taught of the relation of the parts 
of the hand (chiromancy) to the character; the thumb indicates 
strength, bravery and voluptuousness, and is under the influ- 
ence of the planet Mars; the index finger indicates honors, posi- 
tion and rank in state and church and is under the influence of 
Jupiter; the middle finger is under the influence of Saturn and 
indicates aptitude for magic, for work, and ability to bear pov- 
erty and sorrow; the ring finger is sacred to the sim, and friend- 
ship, honor, might, etc., can be judged from the same; the little 
finger is under the dominion of Venus, and it indicates children, 
beautiful women and voluptuousness ; the triangle in the palm of 
the hand is under the influence of Mercury, and indicates wis- 
dom, smartness, acquisitiveness, etc. 

Levinus Lemnius (1505 a.d.) said that crows conceive through 
their eyes, that sharks give birth to young through their mouths, 
and vermin, such as roaches, mice, etc., originate from dirt and 

Ambrose Pare (1510 a.d.) opposed the idea that witches could 
have connection with demons or devils, as the latter were im- 
mortal and immaterial and could not furnish seed. 

Fallopius (about 1523 a.d.) first recognized the similarity 
in structure and in formation, as erogenous zone, between clitoris 
and penis. 

Vesalius about the same time taught that the sexual organs 
of males and females were alike ; only, those of women were within 
the body. 


John Fernelins (about 1558 a.d.) called the ovaries female 
testicles and believed that they produced seed. 

Eustachus (about 1562 a.d.) gave the first correct description 
of the uterus; he also described the anatomy of the mammary 
gland (of a mare). 

Wyerus (1515-1588 a.d.) wrote a book concerning the devil 
in which he combated the theories of the church and inquisition ; 
he asserted that the tricks of the magicians were due to sleight-of- 
hand and not to an assistance of devils ; he denied the existence 
of were-wolves and the possibility of sexual union of devils and 
women witches, etc. 

Ludwig Settala (about 1633 a.d.) wrote a curious work on 
moles, birthmarks, etc. ; he said that a mole or mark on the 
nose was accompanied by a similar one on the penis; one in the 
face was accompanied by a similar one near the genitals, etc.; 
the nearer it is to the nose, the nearer it is to the penis or 
vulva, etc. 

Paracelsus (1492-1541 a.d.) taught that if menstruating or 
pregnant women breathed on a mirror it would injure the health 
of children who looked in the mirror afterwards; he said that 
from the seed of a man, a man could be generated by placing 
the semen in fermenting horse-dung, like chicken eggs could be 
hatched; this was to prove that the woman's part in generation 
was merely to furnish the appropriate soil for the development 
of the male seed into an embryo. 

He explained that the seed is produced by all parts of the 
body and reproduces its kind; the seed from the nose repro- 
duced the nose, from the eye, the eye, etc. 

The elements, air, earth, fire and water each had the prop- 
erties of being hot, dry, cold and wet; therefore there could be 
dry water, cold fire, etc.; which was proved by ice, by luminous 
or phosphorescent decaying wood, etc. 

He believed that the menstrual blood removed poisonous ma- 
terials from the system ; therefore it could not be the cause of the 
embryo; the embryo in the womb got its nourishment from the 
milk of the breasts, which flowed down to the womb. 

Gold was male ; silver, female ; but this was simply in accord 
with general alchemistic ideas. 

Harvey (1578-1658 a.d.) taught that the ovum was the impor- 
tant germ-cell and that it contained in itself the preformed ova 



for the next generation, which in turn held the ovum for an- 
other; this again held one for the next generation, and so ad 
infinitum (like nested pill-boxes) ; it was calculated that Eve at 
her creation held 200,000 millions of human germs within her! 
The advocates of this theory were called " praef ormationists. " 

It is curious to note that Harvey arrived at this conclusion 
by pure reasoning, as he had no microscope and could not posi- 
tively know that the woman produced eggs or ova. 

In Cruden's Concordance of the Bible (1737), we find the fol- 
lowing definition of seed: "Seed — that thin, hot and spirituous 
humour in man's body which is fitted by nature for the genera- 
tion of mankind." 

This may refer to "man" as the male, or it may refer to 
"man" as the species, as mankind; it does not therefore specif- 
ically attribute the "seed" to the male sex alone. 

The " animalculists " on the other hand asserted that the 
spermatozoon is the essential germ, which contained the human 
being complete in all its parts, only exceedingly minute, and which 
only needed to be deposited in a woman's body, like a seed in soil, 
to grow into a child. Von Haller taught this theory as late as 
1677 A.D. 

Such was the authority of the Bible that this view persisted 
until quite modern times. Charles Bonnet taught that before fe- 
cundation the germ is preexistent, and that it contains in minia- 
ture all the organs of the adult. His book. Contemplation de 
la Nature," containing these teachings was published in 1764- 
1765 A.D. Bonnet died in 1793 a.d. 

Leeuwenhoek, in 1677 a.d., made known his discovery of the 
spermatozoa. Dr. Dalen Patius soon afterwards claimed to have 
seen the human form in the spermatozoon, ' ' the two naked thighs, 
the legs, the breast, both arms, etc." 

In France, in 1694 a.d., Hartsoecker published that "each 
spermatozoon conceals beneath its tender and delicate skin a com- 
plete male or female animal. The egg (of the woman) is merely 
the source of nourishment for the real germ contained in the sper- 
matozoon. Each one of the male animals (spermatozoa) encloses 
an infinity of other animals, both male and female, which are cor- 
respondingly small, and those male animals enclose yet other 
males and females of the same species, and so forth in a series 
which are to be produced up to the end of time," And the sci- 


entists of those days seriously calculated when the supply of germs 
which Adam had deposited in Eve, and through her in mankind, 
would become exhausted, and how many human beings were pre- 
formed in the beginning and came "from the loins" of Adam. 
Buffon, the celebrated scientist, and the friend of Bonnet, held 
similar views. 

So it appears that this view of the male furnishing the "seed" 
was predominant from about 1732 b.c. to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, or, if we include the centuries of the oral trans- 
mission of the Bible, for about 4000 years. 

What modern science says about this subject will be con- 
sidered presently. 


"There is nothing in the human economy of which men and 
women should know more and of which they know less than of 
the sexual relationship. Ignorance is not bliss; it is the source 
of unhappiness, suffering, crime, vice and sorrow without end." 

The light of knowledge illuminating this subject would ele- 
vate the prevalent sensual conceptions of the relationship of the 
sexes to an appreciation of the real holiness and purity of married 
companionship and would check immorality and prostitution. 

The universal song of love is a harmonious blending of friend- 
ship, esteem, and companionship with the baser animal desires, 
sanctifying the latter through the holiness of the former. This 
perfect love was symbolized by the Greeks in the myth of Cupid 
and Psyche; Cupid, the god of Physical Love, and Psyche, the 
Soul, the Spiritual Element in Love (Pig. 41). 

Let us first consider the physical or carnal side of love. 

The Female 

Between the thighs of the woman, chastely hidden by the 
hair of the mons veneris, unobtrusive and retiring as the nature 
of the woman herself, lies the vulva — the external sexual organ 
of the woman. When we spread the lips or labia apart we see 
in the upper part the clitoris, consisting of erectile tissue and 
constituting a so-called "erogenous zone;" when this organ is 
excited by friction, or by playful handling, it becomes erect and 
gives rise to voluptuous sensations. Below the clitoris is the open- 



ing to the vagina, into which the man introduces his erect penis 
during coition, thus bringing his pubic hair against the clitoris, 
to increase the titillation which gives the pleasure to the woman. 
These parts are shown in the drawing (Fig. 42). 

Fig. 41.— "Cupid and Psyche," from an antique statue. 

Fig. 42. — Drawing of a vulva, and its Fig. 43. — Section of female pelvis, showing 
symbol, the doubly-pointed ellipse, sexual organ (uterus) of woman. 



This diagrammatic drawing of a section of the woman's body 
shows us the sexual structures of the human female (Fig. 43). 
Her sexual organs lie in the cavity of the pelvis, which has been 
called the "cradle of the human race;" and the vulva is the "door 
of life," or the "door to the womb;" it is the door to the vagina, 
the "vestibule" or "ante-chamber of life" leading to the womb. 

Here (Fig. 44) we see the vagina laid open and the uterus 
in section; attached to the womb we see the Fallopian tubes and 
the ovaries. In the latter an ovum is elaborated or perfected or 
matured once in every four weeks, or in a lunar month, and when 


Fig. 44. — Diagram showing vagina laid open, uterus and Fallopian tubes in section, and 
ovaries, from an old work on "Artificial Impregnation." 

it is freed from the ovary, the ovum is caught up by the funnel- 
shaped ends of a Fallopian tube and passed down to the interior 
of the uterus or womb. 

This disengagement of an ovum is accompanied by a dis- 
charge of blood which we call "menstruation" or "monthlies," 
or in Latin — "menses," and the physical discomfort due to the 
congestion of the ovaries, with the accompanying disturbance of 
the nervous system, forms the physical basis of "sexual instinct" 
in the female. During this process the female is said to be "in 
heat," and connection with the male about this time is particu- 
larly liable to be followed by impregnation ; in fact, among many 



of the lower animals the male refuses to serve the female at all, 
if she is not in heat (Fig. 45). 

According to one theory of the predetermination of sex, the 
fresher the ovum is at the time of impregnation, the more likely 
is it to lead to the formation of a girl embryo; and as it gets 
older, during the passage through the Fallopian tube, the more 
likely is it to produce a boy baby. Therefore some say that coi- 
tion just before the monthlies are expected, is the best time for 
coition if a girl baby is desired, and coition a day or two after 
menstruation is preferable, if a boy baby is desired. The theory 
is not accepted as infallible, however, and for reasons already 
explained, no theory on this subject is absolutely reliable. 

Fig. 45. — The female in heat, from an old 
work on ' ' Artificial Impregnation. ' ' 

Fig. 46. — Explaining the conse- 
quences, from an old work on "Arti- 
ficial Impregnation." 

The speculations on sex determination assumed an undue im- 
portance in recent times, because the Czar and other rulers were 
anxious to secure male heirs for their dynasties. 

The human ovum or egg, of which I show an enlarged draw- 
ing in Fig. 47, is a small round cell about %23 inch in diameter, 
or far less than the smallest pin head in size. If it does not meet 
with a spermatozoon in the ducts or in the uterus, it perishes and 
is discharged from the womb. But if it meets Avith a spermatozoon 
and combines with it — and this can be but with one spermatozoon 
of all the many millions injected by a vigorous male into the va- 
gina during each coition — the ovum absorbs the head or nucleus 
of the spermatozoon or male cell and thereby becomes fertilized 



or impregnated. The illustration also shows the relative size of 
the ovum and the spermatozoon. 

The process of ovulation begins about the age of twelve 
or fourteen years in our climate ; this is called the age of puberty 
and about this time the sexual organs mature, the hips broaden 
and the pubic hair appears; also, the breasts become enlarged 
and assume the beautiful shape that is presented in a beautiful 

Ovulation continues for about thirty years, or with us to 
about the age of forty-five years, after which the woman becomes 



i^pp^^. ■■ 




^^^--^ ' 

^^I^^B Wl fjjf'^^ 

: ■ 



__.-^; ; I; 

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rig. 47. — Human ovum and 
spermatozoa. Reproduced from an 
old work. 

Fig. 48. — Section of pregnant woman; the 
ancient Peruvians placed their dead in the po- 
sition of a foetus, for burial. 

a neuter, or practically sexless, although not incapable of sexual 
intercourse and sensual pleasure, for which, in fact, a liking is 
sometimes developed after the cessation of menstruation. This 
period of the cessation of menstruation is called the "change of 
life" or the "menopause." 

If impregnation occurs, the ovum becomes attached to the 
interior walls of the uterus and develops into an embryo or child. 
As this embryo grows, the abdomen of the woman correspond- 
ingly enlarges and becomes round and full (Figs. 46 and 48) ; the 
woman is " pregnant " or " with child " or " enciente. ' ' Pregnancy 



lasts about nine months (or as the ancients stated it, ten [lunar] 
months) during which time the anabolic sex-bias of the woman 
enables her to elaborate nourishment enough for both herself and 
the growing child within her, until "at term," or at the end of 
the nine months of gestation, the child is expelled by the contrac- 
tion of the womb into independent existence. 

The anabolic surplus of the female mammal is now directed 
to her breasts and milk is produced (Fig. 51). The fulness of 
the mammary glands gives rise to discomfort which is relieved 
by the infant sucking the milk from the breasts. The nipple is 

Fig. 49. — An ape mother and her young. Fig. 50.- 

' Love 's Secret. ' ' 
mother and child. 

Statue of 

an erogenous zone having a structure similar to the cavernous 
portion of the penis, capable of giving a pleasure similar al- 
though weaker than that experienced by the clitoris during coi- 
tion; and the desire to obtain relief from the engorgement of 
the breasts and to feel the pleasure caused by the erection of the 
nipple by the sucking of the infant, is the physical basis of "ma- 
ternal instinct." 

The illustration shows the structure of a human breast-gland ; 
the lobules of cells secrete the milk which is collected by the 


lactiferous ducts which anastomose into larger and more dilat- 
able ducts, which converge to the mamilla or nipple where the 
mouths of these ducts are situated and from which the child can 
obtain the milk by sucking. The nipple is a mildly erogenous zone, 
and sucking it gives a pleasurable sensation, which is the phys- 
ical basis of mother-love (Fig. 51). 

There is a general belief that a Avoman will not conceive while 
she is nursing a child; therefore this process is continued as long 
as possible by many mothers. 

Probably the Papuan women have a similar idea; they keep 
little pigs as pets which the women suckle at their breasts. 

The first articulate sound uttered by the infant of any na- 

Pig. 51. — Section of a human mammary gland, showing the lactiferous ducts. 

tion, by the child of any human mother, is the syllable "ma;" it 
may be repeated, thus "ma, ma;" and the mother, fondly holding 
the child to her breasts, fancies that the child is trying to call her 
name. Hence, in nearly all languages of earth, "ma" or "mama" 
means "mother." Perhaps the next articulate sound will be "ba, 
ba," or "pa, pa," and this is supposed to be the name of the fa- 
ther; except that in some nations the word "mama" means the 
father and the word "papa" the mother, as among the Maori (see 
the story of the god Eangi and his wife Papa, on page 4). 

The most important part of the mother to the child is the 
source of its nourishment — the breasts. These are called, from 
the word "mama," the mammary glands, and animals who have 


such milk-producing glands are called "mammalians" or "mam- 

But the evolution of the female breast or of the mammary 
gland, as a feature of the female animal, dates back probably not 
more than about 25,000,000 of years, though some scientists claim 
it to be not much over 3,000,000 of years old. That is, the age 
of mammals is variously estimated to have begun from 3,000,000 
to 25,000,000 years ago. 

The evolution of the breast was a momentous event ; it marked 
a new epoch, for it ushered in a period when "mother love," the 
care and education of the offspring by the mother, becanie a 
prominent feature of life, and a factor in the development of in- 
tellectual traits. 

The evolution of the mammary gland was a great aid in the 
mental evolution of the animal and humankind. When the off- 
spring is able to shift for itself, either at birth or very soon there- 
after, its instincts will be sufficient for its requirements, and ad- 
vancement is slow and uncertain. 

But when offspring is dependent for nourishment and care 
on its parents for a long time, it is taught many things that are 
not instinctive. When a cat plays with a captured mouse, it is 
not necessarily due to a cruel disposition; if the eat has kittens 
she does this to teach them how to catch their own prey, mice, 
birds, etc. 

The human infant is dependent on its parents longer than 
any young of any species, first, by nursing at its mother's breast 
for a year or more, and then for years, until at least the age of 
twelve to twenty years, for clothing, food and education; the 
result is that the human offspring advances much farther in 
things that are learned by exercising the brain, by thinking, and 
less by instinct, than any other organism, with the result that 
there is mental and intellectual advancement from generation to 

The Male 

Prominent on the front of the pubic parts of the man are his 
sexual organs — bold, self-assertive, and aggressive as is the man 
himself. These organs are the penis, also called "virile organ" 
(from the Latin words vir, a man, and virilis, e, virile, manly), 
and the two testicles, the latter contained in a pendulous sac called 



the scrotum. In these testicles are produced the male cells or 
the spermatozoa. Owing to their prominence and sensitiveness 
these organs are subject to injury; in fights, they offer a hold to 
an opponent which is dangerous to the one whose testicles or 
scrotum are thus seized; from this comes the expression, "to have 
a man by the nuts," which means, to have a man at a great dis- 
advantage. These organs are often referred to as "the privates" 
or "private parts" or as in the Bible, the "secrets;" Deut. xxv, 
11, 12. "When men strive together one with another, and the 
wife of the one draweth near for to deliver her husband out of 
the hand of him that smiteth him, and putteth forth her hand, and 

Fig. 52. — A spermatozoon, enlarged. Eeproduction from an old print. 

taketh him by the secrets : then thou shalt cut off her hand, thine 
eye shall not pity her." 

In ancient Egypt men of the poorer classes wore a kilt and 
girdle only, or went naked when at manual labor ; the Jews were 
slaves in Egypt, and therefore poor, and they probably followed 
the example of the Egyptians as to dress. This made it easy, 
and almost natural, for a woman coming to the rescue of her hus- 
band in a brawl, to put her husband's enemy to the greatest dis- 
advantage she could, which was to seize him by his most sensitive 
and vulnerable parts; but we see from the above quotation that 
she was apt to suffer much for such loyalty to her husband. 

We more commonly call the testicles "nuts" or "stones;" 
Moses already gave them the latter name nearly 3500 years ago; 

Missing Page 


is emptied through a tube called the urethra ; the ejaculatory ducts 
are passages from the seminal vesicles to the membranous portion 
of the urethra; when the vesicles become filled with spermatozoa 
and seminal- fluid, this fulness causes a sense of discomfort which 
prompts to the taking of measures for evacuation, and this sense 
of discomfort is the physical basis of "sexual instinct" in the 

The head and skin of the penis are the erogenous zone in 
man ; friction, handling or irritation of any kind, may produce an 
erection and emission which is accompanied by pleasant sensa- 
tions, but the pleasantest sensation is that caused by the slight 
friction of the back and forward movement of the erect penis in 
the vagina during coition. 

Erection is essential to coition ; it is due to the filling of the 
interstices in the cavernous or spongy portion of the penis with 
blood, under the influence of the erectile nerves which cause the 

tne semen passes iroiu uie beu....^ 

tory ducts to the urethra where it becomes' nu^cf her hand, thine 
the prostatic and some other glands; when this accumulation u. 
fluid IS sufficiently great a convulsive excitation expels it from 
the urethra; this excitation is called "orgasm." The pleasurable 
feeling IS caused by the passage of the semen through the eiacu- 
latory ducts and its accumulation in the posterior part of the 
urethra; it increases in intensity and reaches its acme at emis- 
sion, after which It quickly subsides, leaving a sense of comfort- 
able lassitude. 

If this emission takes place during union in the usual posi- 
tion of coition, the woman on her back and the man on top the 
position of the feminine pelvis is somewhat as in the diagram 



(Fig. 55) ; just in front of the month of the womb is a small cul- 
de-sac of the vagina and the penis reaches to this point so that 
the semen is ejected into almost immediate contact with the mouth 
of the womb; the pleasurable excitement of the clitoris extends 
to the entire nervous complex of the uterine organs, and eventu- 
ates in a sort of spasmodic insufflation by the uterus, by which 
means the semen, which when quite fresh is more or less viscid, 
somewhat more so than white of egg, or even like the chalaziform 
appendage to the yolk of the egg, is sucked up into the uterus 
with some force and is splashed all over the inner surface of the 
womb where it soon liquefies, after which the spermatozoa com- 
mence their excursion up the Fallopian tubes, by wiggling their 
vibratile tails. 

Fig. 55. — Position of pelvic organs, woman lying down; shows pocket in front of mouth 
of uterus for semen in coition. 

This insufflation by the uterus is the "orgasm" in woman, 
and constitutes the moment of intensest gratification to her in the 
sexual congress with her mate. 

Perfect love between man and woman depends on a compati- 
bility of bodily pleasures as well as on spiritual love. Both must 
become excited in coition at the same time; "if either is passive, 
with the genital muscles relaxed and the spirit cold, he or she 
can take no part in the duet of love;" the duet remains a solo, 
and if either is habitually cold and unresponsive the symphony 
of love will be marred by the jangling and jarring sounds and 
discords of "sweet bells out of tune." 


Whether coition will be a mutual pleasure or a one-sided en- 
joyment only, depends on the man, for he can control, to a cer- 
tain extent at least, the emission of the semen ; if he simply thinks 
of his own pleasure and lets the semen go before he feels that his 
mate is sufficiently excited for an orgasm, the woman will be dis- 
appointed and more or less disgusted ; but if he rightly times the 
emission the woman and the man will both experience the pleas- 
ure which is referred to in Prov. v, 18, 19: "EeJQice with the wife 
of thy youth * * * be thou ravished always with her love." 

Virility, or the power to impregnate a woman, continues in 
man from puberty to about the age of 60 or 70 years, but in most 
men probably longer, as far as spermatozoa are concerned, pro- 
vided he retains the vigor to have an erection which is necessary 
to bring the semen to the mouth of the uterus ; if a man loses the 
ability of begetting a child, it is more frequently from inability 
to have erections than from absence of spermatozoa, although the 
latter condition sometimes occurs. Such a condition is called 
"impotence" or "loss of virile power;" this, however, is often 
more imaginary than real, as a result of being frightened by the 
lying advertisements of quacks, who live on the credulity of the 

One of the most common symptoms of "loss of sexual power" 
is, according to these advertisements, that one testicle (usually 
the left) hangs lower than the other. The frightened reader ex- 
amines himself and finds that this dreadful symptom is present 
with him, and he goes to the quack for treatment, which usuallj 
"comes high." 

In reality, it is a wise provision of nature that one testicle 
should hang a little lower than the other, so that they may glide 
out of each other's way when otherwise they might be bruised 
during jumping, wrestling or physical exertions of any kind. The 
important bearing which this relative position of the testicles had 
on religion and religious symbolism will appear later. 


That portion of the nervous system which presides over and 
controls the process of erection is called the "erection center," 
probably situated in the sacral plexus of nerves, but according to 
some authors, in the brain, or in the pituitary gland; it is not 


directly under the influence of the will. The only strictly "in- 
stinctive" excitation of this center is caused by a fulness of the 
seminal vesicles and auxiliary glands, which, by reflex action, 
causes erotic ideas and desires in the waking condition, or "in- 
voluntary emissions" during sleep. 

If awake, this fulness suggests to the male to seek a female 
companion or to masturbate;, the resulting emission relieves the 
discomfort caused by the engorgement of the seminal vesicles. 

Probably the least harmful and most natural way to get re- 
lief is by masturbation. 

Fanatics on sex relations have agitated against the practice 
of masturbation, until probably every youth thinks this is a most 
heinous sin. I have seen it defined in some tracts as the "sin 
against the Holy Ghost" which is supposed to be unforgivable. 
These fanatical writings have sent many people to insane asy- 
lums ; I knew of one young man, who believed that masturbation 
was a wicked sin, and I have seen him seize a knife with intent to 
kill himself because he could not break himself of the habit; he 
had been taught that to find relief with a woman, if he was not 
married to her, would damn him forever. He finally went to an 
insane asylum, where he was when I last heard of him, a hopeless 

Now, as a matter of fact, there is nothing said in the Bible 
about masturbation; from a religious standpoint, therefore, it is 
no sin. 

But masturbation is called by misrepresenting fanatics — 
"the sin of Onan;" hence masturbation is also called "onanism." 

We read in the Bible, Deut. xxv, 5 to 9: "If brethren dwell 
together, and one of them die and have no child, the wife of the 
dead shall not marry without imto a stranger: her husband's 
brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and per- 
form the duty of a husband's brother unto her. 

"And it shall be, that the first-born which she beareth, shall 
succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name 
be not put out of Israel. 

"And if the man like not to take his brother's wife, then let 
his brother's wife go up to the gate unto the elders, and say. My 
husband's brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name 
in Israel, he will not perform the duty of my husband's brother. 


"Then the elders of his city shall call him, and speak unto 
him : and if he stand to it, and say, I like not to take her, 

"Then shall his brother's wife come nnto him in the pres- 
ence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit 
in his face, and shall answer and say. So shall it be done unto that 
man that will not bnild np his brother's house. 

"And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him 
that hath his shoe loosed." 

The Semitic people, to which the Jews belonged, had some 
peculiar customs in ancient times in regard to women or wives. 
A wife who had been procured by purchase by her husband, or 
secured from her father by a contract and a payment of any kind, 
became the slave of her husband and at his death she could not 
marry again at her own will, as she was part of her husband's 
estate or property; she therefore became the property of her de- 
ceased husband's next of kin, who inherited the estate. While 
this remained the custom among other Semitic tribes, especially 
the Arabians until the time of Mohammed, the Jews changed 
this; but they retained one feature of this custom, namely, that 
a widow left childless at her husband's death, was entitled to 
have a child to inherit her husband's name and property; she had 
the right to demand from her husband's brother that he let her 
have enough of the family seed to raise offspring to her hus- 
band's memory, as just related in the passage from Deuteronomy.* 

In some Polynesian islands a similar custom prevailed; a 
widow was taken by the brother of her deceased husband, or if 
there was no brother, some other relative took her, but not to se- 
cure an heir for his brother, but as a wife for himself. 

This custom was also prevalent in ancient Sparta and Athens ; 
possibly in all such cases there was an underlying memory or per- 
sistence of polyandric practices in primitive ancestry. 

Now we also read in the Bible, Gen. xxxviii, 4 et seq: "And 
she (Shuah, the wife of Judah) conceived again and bare a son; 
and called his name Onaji." 

* * * "And Judah took a wife for Er, his first-born, whose 
name was Tamar. 

"And Er, Judah 's firstborn, was wicked in the sight of the 
Lord ; and the Lord slew him. 

*An interesting story in this connection is told in the Bibfe about Ruth and Boaz. 


"And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother's wife, 
and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother. 

''And Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and it came 
to pass, when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled 
it (the seed) on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother. 

"And the thing which he did displeased the Lord, and he 
slew him also." 

We see from this that the sin of Onan was not what we now 
call "onanism," but it was a refusal to heget a child with his 
sister-in-law in memory of his brother. Onan was willing to enjoy 
tlie beauty of Tamar, but when he felt the sensual gratification, he 
withdrew his penis and allowed the semen to fall on the ground, 
thus refusing her her share of the pleasure and the chance to con- 
ceive. The story of Onan has no reference to masturbation, and 
I know of no passage in the Bible that even hints that this prac- 
tice is a sin. 

It is a bad habit and a man would do well to avoid it ; but it 
is not to be worried over if he can not refrain from it. 

To apply the story of Onan to the practice of masturbation is 
about as appropriate as the reproof of the minister who overheard 
a rather profane boy telling another boy to "go to the devil!" 
Taking the boy by the shoulder and looking him sternly in the 
eyes, he said in his most sanctimonious and impressive manner: 
"My boy, do you not remember the commandment, 'thou shalt 
not take the name of the Lord, thy God, in vain.' " 

When we consider Avith what detail the Bible regulates such 
matters as menstruation, or with what women a man may indulge 
in coition, and what women are forbidden to him, and even re- 
garding defecation (see Deut. xxiii, 10-14), it seems significant 
that nothing is said about masturbation, if this had been consid- 
ered a reprehensible practice by Moses; perhaps, as the Jews 
practiced polygamy and could have concubines besides, mastur- 
bation was not as common a practice as it is in monogamous com- 
munities; it was unnecessary because there was practically no 
limit to feminine conveniences to satisfy the sexual desires. 

St. Augustine defined a sin to be "any thought, word or deed 
against the law of God," so that in the absence of such a law, 
masturbation can not be a sin. If we eliminate the superstitious 
dread of sin, then masturbation is the most rational, the most ef- 
fective and the least harmful mode of gratifying sexual instinct. 


except coition with a wife. Misrepresenting masturbation to be 
a heinous sin, and as very destructive to the nervous organiza- 
tion leads multitudes of young men to go to houses of prostitution, 
because coition is commonly regarded as less objectionable than 

But coition with a prostitute involves risks to reputation, to 
social standing and to health, that makes this indulgence much 
more dangerous than masturbation, so that many young men are 
afraid to go to a whore, and so they seduce innocent girls, to 
avoid any risks to themselves ; or some young men go insane over 
their inability to abstain from masturbation. "Warnings against 
masturbating may be well meant, but the pictured evils are vastly 
exaggerated, and the consequent harm done to young men and 
to girls is infinitely greater than any possible harm from indul- 
gence in the habit. 

Masturbation may occasionally do harm to a weak-minded 
subject, but the idiocy or nervous affections, "loss of manhood," 
etc., are less frequently the result of excessive masturbation than 
excessive masturbation is the result of idiocy; idiocy is not the 
result but the cause of masturbation. 

Sexual Instinct 

It is of the utmost importance for an understanding of sexual 
practices and sexual vices and perversions, that we should have 
a full understanding of "sexual instinct," and "sexual passion." 

Science, in the nimiber for November, 1892, said: "All the 
voluntary activities of men and animals are reflex or intelligent, 
the one set originating in sensation, the other in perception. 

"Instincts are not activities, but impulses to activity. They 
are due to the sensation being transmitted from their several lo- 
cal seats to the brain, where they present themselves as cravings, 
desires, appetites, imperatively calling for relief. They prompt 
to both kinds of activities, those which can be performed by reflex 
action, and those which require the adoption of intelligent means. 
Voiding of the feces and urine is a type of the former, the pro- 
viding of food of the latter. The more important instincts are 
the craving for food, the sexual instinct and the maternal instinct. 

"Instinct impels to action but does not guide to its perform- 



Let me repeat and emphasize this last sentence, as it states 
the nature of sexual instinct in unmistakable terms : 

"Instinct impels to action hut does not guide to its perform- 

"If reflex action will appease it the animal has but to will; 
if intelligent measures are required it is the function of the intel- 
lect to adopt them. 

' ' The most important instincts originate in the local action of 
proper secretions, as the contents of the stomach, or bladder, the 
gastric juice, the spermatorrhoeal or lacteal secretions, etc. In- 

Fig. 56 — "Daphnis and Chloe," from Fig. 57. — Papuan women in their best at- 
a painting of an ancient Persian love tire — just a string about the neck, 


stinct is not a lower order of intelligence, nor a substitute for it. 
It is an impulse or spur, and may be called the school-master or 
wet-nurse of the intellect." 

One of the oldest and sweetest of love-stories is the old Per- 
sian tale of Daphnis and Chloe, now better knowTi as "Paul and 
Virginia" (Fig. 56). This story tells of a youth and a maiden 
who grew up in idyllic simplicity and with no thought of carnal 
desire. In the most ancient times, as evidenced by this story, it 


was already recognized that the sexual impulse or instinct did not 
teach the method of gratification known as coition, and that this 
had to be learnt from teaching by others. 

Instinct is not as powerful in man as in other animals be- 
cause there is not the same necessity for it, and in the clothed 
nations there is but little suggestion on which instinct could act, 
so that, even if at one time coition was suggested by instinct, the 
disuse of such a faculty for untold generations must have made 
it inoperative among clothed nations.* 

In the unclothed savage nations the conditions are different, 
but even there, as we are told in the descriptions of these peoples, 
coition and the knowledge of sexual relationship are the result of 
teaching by others. In many savage nations, at the age of pu- 
berty, the boys are sent apart from the tribe for a time, during 
which they are instructed by priests or elder men. When they 
return to the tribe they are "men" or "warriors ;" in other words, 
they know "the ways of men with a maiden." In some of the 
Polynesian tribes the boys are tattooed during this time ; they are 
considered to be minor children until after they have been tattooed. 

In some tribes, as for instance in Arabia, boys go naked until 
they are near the age of puberty, while the girls are put into their 
first clothing when they are about six or seven years of age. 

When the first menstrual flow is noticed in a girl, some tribes, 
as for instance, the Sawaioris (Polynesian), make this the occa- 
sion of a sort of family festival for the women, and the nature of 
this flow is explained to the girl; in ancient Greece and Rome a 
girl at this period of her life was taken by the priestesses to the 
temples of Priapus, whose images were represented with rigid, 
erect penises (whence the term "priapism), and the girl was 
instructed in the uses of the organ of Priapus, or even allowed or 
compelled to have connection with the god, after which she was no 
longer a girl but a woman. 

With us, as a general rule, no information on this subject is 
given to young people ; they are left to gather what they may from 
evil companions, or from obscene pictures or erotic literature, of 
which there is no lack among the boys. Sexual instinct exerts but 
a small influence on our lives, and many persons, especially among 
the more guardedly reared girls, grow to maturity without any 

*A quaint story based on this idea, is "The Harvester," by Gene Stratton-Porter. 


knowledge of the sexual relationship, and are even married with- 
out any anticipation of what the experiences of the bridal night 
will reveal to them. 

Hence there is often great curiosity engendered, which is not 
always contributive to best morality. Some young ladies were 
talking about marriage, and wondering why their married friends 
affected such an air of superior knowledge and experience; and 
they agreed that the first of them to be married should tell her 
experience to the others. 

Soon afterwards one of them became engaged, and in due time 
married; and she kept her promise by writing to her friends: 
"Bead Job xli, 16-17 and Job xl, 16-17."* 

If instinct was sufficient to suggest coition everyone should 
know about this. To what extent habits ordinarily supposed to 
be strictly "instinctive" are really due to teaching is illustrated 
by the advice of Mr. J. F. Ferris, in his work on artificial hatch- 
ing of poultry, that "if the chicks do not readily eat when twenty- 
four hours old, one or two chickens somewhat older should be 
placed with them to teach them to eat. ' ' Of course, when hatched 
by a hen, the hen teaches them this. 

Ignorance of coition in grown men must necessarily be rare ; 
yet I had experience in a case where a man had been married for 
over five years, and although he prayed every night that God 
might bless their home with a child, no baby arrived; finally his 
wife prevailed on him to consult a physician, having first given 
me an insight into the true condition of affairs. When he came, a 
little questioning proved that his wife was still a virgin; he had 
never seen a woman naked and did not know the significance of 
the anatomical difference between himself and his wife and did 
not dream of any other way of getting babies than that God would 
send them, possibly by storks or angels! (Fig. 58). I took him 
with me to the dissecting room and explained to him the anatomy 
and physiology of the parts, and the modus operandi, and im- 
pressed on him that, in this matter at least, God helps those who 
help themselves. 

After several weeks he came back and said that he had not 
succeeded in coition, as every time when he had an erection, by 

*Job xli, 16-17: "One is so near to another that no air can come between them. They are 
joined one to another, they stick together, they can not be sundered." 

Job xl, 16-17: "Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly. 
He moveth his tail like a cedar; the sinews of his stones are wrapped together." 



the time he and his wife had removed their clothing to a sufficient 
extent, his erection was gone. I advised him to take all the clothes 
off his wife and himself when they went to bed, let the light burn 
dimly, and to kiss his wife from head to foot ; to do this every eve- 
ning for a month, but not to attempt coition until after a month, 
so as not to risk humiliating his wife by a possible failure; and 
I advised him to read the fourth chapter of the Song of Solomon, 
or better, to memorize it and repeat it inwardly as he kissed his 
wife. Whether he did as I advised, I do not know, but there were 
several children. 

The point I wish to make is this : That if a knoAvledge of sex- 

Fig. 58.—' ' To Its Earthly Home, ' ' from 
a painting by Kaulbach. 

Fig. 59. — A childbirth, allegorically rep- 
resented in the Kurfuersten Bibel, 1768* 

ual union is not a matter of instinct, then unnatural and unusual 
practices are still less likely to originate spontaneously in this 
way, and especially not in the minds of the comparatively passive 
girls, and perverted practices (such as the Bible refers to in Rom. 
i, 26, 27: "For even their women did change the natural use into 
that which is against nature. And likewise also the men, leaving 
the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward 

*"And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the 
moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars ; and she, being with child, cried, 
travailing in birth and pained to be delivered." Rev. xii, 1 and 2. 


another; men with men working that which is unseemly)" are 
not to be explained or palliated by references to "perverted in- 
stincts." The "instincts" are not perverted, even when the prac- 
tices are so. All sexual perversions are the results of perverted 
teachings ; they are not the results of instinctive suggestions and 
can not be excused as insanities. Some that are insane may be 
addicted to sexual perversions, but the practices are not proof of 
insanity, for they are indulged in all over the world as the re- 
sults of suggestions and teachings. But we can not enter into 
further details, as it is not the plan of this book to treat of sexual 

Sexual instinct is essentially of the same nature as the desire 
to urinate or defecate, being a sense of discomfort from distended 
seminal vesicles in the male or of congested or engorged ovaries 
in the female, just as the other impulses are caused by a full rec- 
tum or bladder. 

In men this discomfort is relieved spontaneously by involun- 
tary emissions, and in women by the menstrual flow, these being 
the primary, normal, natural, and instinctive methods of appeas- 
ing the sexual instinct. 

All methods of relieving the distention of the seminal vesicles 
except involuntary emissions are unnatural in the sense that they 
are not instinctive, but the results of volition. Strictly speaking, 
a method like masturbation which can be practiced by one indi- 
vidual alone, is more natural than a method like coition that de- 
mands the co-operation of another individual who may perhaps 
at the time be indifferent or even averse to the copulation. 

Every voluntary act to satisfy the sexual instinct or passion 
is an intellectual act, and it is sane if it accomplishes the result 
suggested by the sexual instinct — an emission of the semen; all 
the arts of the debauche that achieve this result are rational and 
sane. The man who uses a woman, the masturbator who uses his 
hand, the Turk who uses his eunuch, the pederast who uses a boy 
or man, the Arab who uses his mare, the cowboy who uses a 
heifer, and the libertine who pays a girl to suck his penis, all are 
equally sane, because the method in each case adopted depends 
upon the customs of the country, the opportunities presented, and 
the moral and ethical character of the man. 

The accumulation of semen in the seminal vesicles, with its 
attendant discomfort, is the physical basis of sexual instinct ; but 


any irritation in the pelvic region may be mistaken for fulness of 
the vesicles and may be considered to be sexual instinct, so that 
in many cases when a man congratulates himself on his powerful 
virility he may be merely constipated, or he wants to urinate, or 
has prostatic trouble. 

The early church fathers considered coition to be a sin and 
a fall from grace, and they taught that the unmarried would at- 
tain to greater glories in heaven, some of them saying that those 
of either sex who had indulged in coition, even though in wedlock, 
could not enter into heaven at all. This led to the establishment 
of religious celibate orders; to triumph over one's sexual desires 
was the greatest merit to be achieved, and some church fathers 
and female saints went so far, to gain complete triumph, that they 
had beautiful companions of the opposite sex live with them and 
even sleep Avith them because continence under such circumstances 
was supposed to deserve greater reward hereafter than if it had 
been maintained under less tempting conditions. 

The argument that coition was necessary to perpetuate the 
race was met with the theory that if Adam had not yielded to his 
passion for Eve, he would have effectually rebuked God and com- 
pelled him to invent some harmless mode of reproduction that 
would have dispensed with the co-operation of the sexes, and thus 
the world would have been peopled by innocent and passionless 
beings ; such was the doctrine taught by Justin, Gregory of Nyssa, 
Augustine, and other church-fathers. 

Such views are not extinct! I remember reading in the ex- 
planations of a catechism that it is a sin to bathe all over, because 
the sight of one's naked body gives rise to lascivious thoughts! 
There are some persons who are very easily affected to erotic 
thoughts ! 

I passed one day in front of a theater when the audience was 
just being dismissed; when the doors were thrown open pass- 
ersby could get a glimpse of the stage. With me was a very exem- 
plary gentleman — a minister. When he saw this last scene of a 
Christmas pantomime fairy transformation scene (how we would 
enjoy seeing one again!), he said to me, "Isn't that awful!" 
"What is awful?" said I. "Why, the way those girls show their 
legs ! " I told him that I had taken my wife and children to that 
performance the previous evening and we had found it very beau- 
tiful, and that I had promised the children to take them again. 


"How can you do such a thing! Why, I had an involuntary emis- 
sion from the sight! It's scandalous!" and he advised me to 
pray to God to let me have concupiscent thoughts so that I too 
might appreciate the immorality of such shows. I advised him 
to pray to God to clean his mind of such ideas, so that he could 
appreciate the beauty, purity, and wholesomeness of the human 
body. No clean-minded man, woman or child should have lascivi- 
ous thoughts on account of a fairy scene like that! 

But is it likely that women who have been brought up under 
sach influence and under such religious teachings will make their 
husbands happy? 

Let me quote a few sentences from an essay on Social Purity 
by Lucinda B. Chandler, a would-be social "reformer;" here is 
what she thought of marriage : 

"When a woman has made this agreement * * • she has 
made herself permanently * * * a legal prostitute till death 
or divorce dissolves the contract. — I demand the immediate and 
imconditional ABOLITION of this vilest system that ever cursed 
the earth. Marriage is legalized prostitution. * * * The term 
marriage is more offensive than the terms rape, murder, or pros- 
titution, because it involves all of them, and all combined are 
worse than either alone. * * * The wife is the most degraded 
of all prostitutes * * * a forced prostitute. * * * Popular 
prostitution, bad as it is, is not as bad as the forced prostitution 
of marriage." 

Excessive coition, in marriage or out of marriage, may of 
course be injurious, especially to the delicate nervous system of 
a woman, but it is not likely to be exacted from a wife who allows 
her husband a rational enjoyment of her charms in other ways. 
There can be no suggestion of prostitution in wedlock when sexual 
pleasure is mutual, and it is only the most extreme and rabid 
W-C-T-U-ism that can speak of the wifely relationship as a con- 
dition of legalized prostitution. Marriage, as an institution, is 
one of the most sacred and chastest relationships on earth. 

The old feudal method of valuing a wife as one might a brood- 
mare, according to the number of her offspring, is still upheld by 
orthodox ecclesiasticism, as shown in the opposition to "birth 
control;" it is cruelly exhaustive to the wife and equally injurious 
to the quality of the offspring, for large families, especially among 
the poor, are the source of pauperism, ignorance, vice, crime and 


disease. It must come to be understood that large families are 
as much an evidence of intemperance and even more reprehen- 
sible than drunkenness and other excesses, but it does not follow 
that there may be no sensual pleasures in wedlock, but rather, 
that if caution is not sufficient to prevent impregnation, that some 
of the Malthusian restraints on conception should be practiced, 
as being both more moral and more humane to the wife than too 
frequent and exhausting pregnancies. 

To have recourse to abortion is to commit murder — it should 
not be thought of ! 

Temperance in coition is desirable for many reasons, but it 
is attainable only when the esthetical enjoyment of a wife 's beauty 
is such a matter-of-course affair, that it ceases to have an eroti- 
cally inflaming effect ; for when a wife entertains the too prevalent 
notions in regard to nudity, such temperance is difficult to at- 
tain, for the less frequently the beauty of the wife's body is seen 
the more erotically excitable and desirous is the nature of the man. 

It may be asked, how often may conjugal coition be practiced? 
This will depend on the mutual desires and consent of husband 
and wife, and with us is a private concern, but it has been the sub- 
ject of legislation. In Athens Solon decreed that a man must 
render this conjugal duty to the wife three times a month ; and in 
Mohammedan lands the Koran directs the husband to gratify his 
wife at least once a week on pain of her having the right to de- 
mand divorce if he fails in this duty. 

The Bible does not state how often coition is to be exercised, 
but implies that it should not be long between-times ; ''Let the 
husband render unto the wife due benevolence : and likewise also 
the wife unto the husband. The wife hath not power of her own 
body, but the husband: and likewise also the husband hath not 
power of his own body but the wife. Defraud ye not one another, 
except it be with consent for a time, that ye may give yourselves 
to fasting and prayer ; and come together again, that Satan tempt 
ye not for your incontinency" (I Cor. vii, 3). 

This puts it plainly on the basis of each mate trying to sat- 
isfy the desire of the other, and it is "benevolence" to grant the 

In Arragonia, a part of what is now Spain, at one time and 
at the instance of the queen a law was passed that no husband 


should have the right to demand coition from his wife oftener 
than six times in any one day ! 

Leaving put of consideration the extreme views of six times 
a day, and the other extreme view of Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra 
(about 275 a.d.), that once in two or three years for the sake of 
begetting offspring was enough, the best rule is probably some- 
where between Martin Luther's view — twice in one week — and 
that of some modern writers — once in two weeks ; the best intei - 
val depends on the vigor and health of the man and woman con- 
cerned, and — apart from that — on the pleasure and desire of the 

In summer, no doubt, coition is more enervating than in win- 
ter, which was already recognized by the ancients who believed 
that coition was injurious in all months whose names contain no 
"E," so that their coition season corresponded with our oyster 

Sexual Passion 

As erotic ideas are instinctively caused by a stimulus coming 
from the erection center, so, obversely, this center may be irritated 
by erotic ideas produced in the brain; what we see or hear may 
cause us to have erotic desires, and this, reacting on the erection 
center may cause erections; lascivious thoughts, dreams, stories, 
pictures, etc., may have this effect. 

The disposition to become thus excited by mental impressions 
is under the control of the will to a great extent ; we may encourage 
it and become libertines, or we may discourage it and remain 
continent men. This disposition is therefore not instinctive, but 
is a cultivated habit which constitutes "sexual passion." 

I show here a diagram (Fig. 60) to make clear the difference 
between sexual instinct and sexual passion. Instinct originates 
in the seminal vesicles ; the impulse is transmitted to the erection 
centers in the sacral plexus of nerves and the similar center in 
the brain, and then by reflex action to the penis, causing sexual 
desire and erection. Passion originates in the brain ; the impulse 
is transmitted to the penis and the erection center in the sa- 
cral plexus, causing erection. How sexual passion operates is 
shown in the Bible (II Sam. xi, 2 et seq.) : "And it came to pass 
in an evening tide, that David arose from off his bed, and walked 
upon the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a 



woman washing herself; and the woman was very beautiful to 
look upon. * * * And David sent messengers and took her; 
and she came in unto him and he lay with her. ' ' 

Sexual passion is therefore a result of intellectual disposi- 
tion, or a cultivated habit, which in some is allowed to grow, so 
that it practically controls the disposition of the man until he 
lets his mind dwell on erotic desires all the time. Even uninten- 
tional suggestions of nudity of a woman often have erotic effects 
on some minds, as when a society reporter said of a lady at a ball, 
that "she was magnificently attired in a diamond necklace;" or, 
as occurred quite recently in a theatrical announcement, which 






Fig. 60. — The origin of sexual instinct is in the seminal vesicles; of lust or passion in 

the brain. 

stated that a well-known actress would appear at a certain theater 
in "A Pair of Silk Stockings." 

Ninety-nine times out of a hundred, our acts to secure sexual 
pleasure are not in obedience to sexual instincts, but to secure 
the sensual pleasure that experience has taught us may be ob- 
tained thereby ; in other words, instinct is replaced by a cultivated 
habit or passion, and the methods chosen are equally deliberately 
acquired and practiced. Passion is most frequently stimulated by 
"memory pictures," that is, by creations of an erotic fancy run- 
ning riot in lustful reveries or dreams. 

Iixmany animals the liberation of sex-elements is passive and 


not accompanied by pleasure ; it is strictly of the same nature as 
defecation or urinating, and it concerns the individual alone. Fer- 
tilization is a random matter and although sex exists, sex attrac- 
tion and sexual passion do not. A female fish, for example, lays 
her eggs in the shallow waters near the shore and a male deposits 
his semen in the same waters, and the accidents of wind and wave 
determine whether an egg is fertilized or not. 

A grade higher, true sexual union appears, but between any 
male and any available female ; there may be pleasure in the act, 
but not enough to favor the establishment of passion ; there is no 
pairing, no love in the higher sense; union is promiscuous, as 
among cattle, horses, dogs, poultry, etc. 

As we ascend in the scale of intelligence we find that the psy- 
chic elements in love gain in importance. While the appreciation 
of beauty may be an element in the pairing of even lower animals, 
such beauty alone does not seem to excite erotic desires in an- 
imals ; it may decide the mating, but coition is still only in obedi- 
ence to some other stimulus, especially the rutting odor. Passion 
due to centric memory pictures is essentially a human trait, al- 
though animals trained for stud purposes sometimes acquire an 
unnatural concupiscence. , 

Rutting Odor 

In animals the female exhales a peculiar odor when she is 
physiologically ready for copulation with the male. This odor is 
called the "rutting odor," and in most animals the male does not 
become sexually excited unless this odor is present. 

No doubt everyone is familiar with the behavior of dogs when 
there is a bitch in heat about ; or they have seen the facial contor- 
tions of a bull when he smells the sexual organs of a cow to as- 
certain whether she is in heat. 

But even in quite low animals, as in butterflies and moths, the 
female has this kind of attractive odor and entomologists some- 
times place female moths in small cages, so as to attract the male 
moths so they can catch them with their nets. 

There is a similar odor in the human female about the time 
of menstruation, but in mankind, at least in civilized communities, 
this odor has lost its importance because man has to a great ex- 
tent lost his sense of smell. 


The influence of the rutting odor in a mare had a great in- 
fluence on the history of the world. When Cyrus died he left no 
son to inherit his kingdom, and the chiefs agreed among them- 
selves that they would ride out to a certain hill to greet the rising 
sun (recognized as a deity among the Persians), and the one 
whose horse would neigh first in greeting to the sun should become 
king. The stable master of Darius heard of this agreement, and 
the evening before the chiefs were to ride out to the appointed 
place he took his master 's stallion, which Darius always rode, and 
led him to a mare in heat which he had previously taken to the 
place; there the stallion was allowed to serve the mare at his 
pleasure (Fig. 61). 

Next morning, when the chiefs rode out to the hill, the stal- 

Pig. 61. — "Darius Becomes Kiiig, " from Welt-Gemaelde Gallerie, XVIII Centurj'. 

lion recognized the place and remembered the delights of the pre- 
vious evening and neighed loudly as a call to the mare, which, 
however, was no longer there. But the other chiefs, as soon as 
Darius' horse greeted the rising sun by neighing, dismounted 
from their own horses, and made their obeisances to him and ac- 
claimed him their king. The story adds that soon thereafter a 
thunder storm arose, and this was considered as an omen that God 
approved their choice ; and perhaps it was a fair choice as Darius 
was the husband of a daughter of Cyrus. 

While the rutting odor is no longer of sexually excitant value 
to the clothed nations, it is possible that it retains some amount 
of attractiveness in unclothed nations, but as coition, even among 
the lowest people, is now a matter of cultivated habit and not of 
instinct, the odor of the female body is not of great importance 


as the excitant feature. Nevertheless, the odors of human be- 
ings are also of importance, for although men may not always be 
consciously aware of such an influence, yet the perfume of the 
woman is one of the many subtle influences which attract the at- 
tention and perhaps arouse the affections of the man for a par- 
ticular woman. 

There is a theory that each human being is surrounded by 
an aura or thin cloud of personal emanations, which either at- 
tracts or repels, and there is no doubt that animals perceive this 
even more quickly and certainly than do men and women, who are 
not so dependent now upon the sense of smell as are primitive 

Humboldt in his Kosmos tells of a tribe of South American 
Indians, who could track their game by the sense of smell, as our 
hunting dogs do. 

In the middle ages, and even in some cases to this day, phy- 
sicians diagnosed the sickness of their patients by the sick-bed 
odors; even now, I believe, anyone who ever treated a case of 
smallpox or meningitis would be able to diagnose another case by 
its odor. 

The former importance of the sense of smell in mankind is 
shown by the fact that about one-half of humankind still greet 
each other by rubbing noses together, which caress is known as 
the "salute by smelling." It is also indicated by the frequent 
references to the body odors which occur in the writings of the 
ancients, as for instance, in the Bible. It is therefore no more 
than natural that we should consider this sense in connection 
with sex. 


It is sometimes stated that the institution of marriage, the 
relationship of husband and wife, is the original form of sexual 
relationship, introduced by God when he created Adam, and then 
cre'ated a helpmate for him. 

But in reality married relationship is a rather late institu- 
tion, introduced when man had advanced far enough to appreciate 
the crudeness and coarseness of his evolutionary inheritance in 
this regard. 

We have already learned that mankind was the product of 


evolution from mammals, and not from the higher apes, but as 
a collateral branch to these. Like our domestic animals, cattle, 
horses, goats, sheep, dogs, etc., who resulted by evolution from 
the same sources from which man sprang, when this evolution 
was taking place in regard to man's body, he inherited with his 
physical characteristics also many of the mental traits of his pre- 
human ancestors. It is a characteristic of most herbivorous mam- 
mals that they do not pair, as many birds and many carnivorous 
animals do, but that they live in a promiscuous relationship of the 
sexes, or that they go in droves or flocks of many females attached 
to one male. These two methods of sexual relationships were 
probably the primitive methods of men and women living together. 

Whenever civilized travelers have visited savage nations for 
the first time, they found in most cases the tribal organization not 
based on marriage, but that the men and women of the tribe lived 
together in promiscuous relationship which seemed to be subject 
to no regulation, but only to the immediate and temporary inclina- 
tion of the individual man and woman. In other words, the family 
as it exists in civilized communities, was rmknown in most of the 
lower nations ; and presumably also in primitive conditions of the 
higher nations. 

In such unregulated relationship it is of course impossible to 
determine the paternal ancestry, and only the relation of the 
mother to the child is known. Under such conditions, it was im- 
possible even for a woman to know with any degree of certainty 
who was the father. 

This led to tribal or horde organization, in which relationship 
and inheritance was traced through the mother only, and some 
authors think that, by analogy, the earliest deities were supposed 
to be living together in similar manner and that this led to an 
exaltation of the mother over the unknown father, and that the 
first ideas of deities were of feminine deities; that motherhood 
was deified. 

This is probably true, and family-relationship of gods and 
goddesses, and of men and women, was not known to primitive 
tribes who lived by hunting and fishing, and who had no permanent 
homes. In such people women and children belonged to the tribe ; 
they were community property. 

Herodotus tells us of a Scythian people who held their women 
as common property, "that they might all be brothers." 


Suidas relates that the women in Attica abandoned them- 
selves to unchecked vice, and no man kneAV his father. 

An ancient Hindu work says, that Svetaketu instituted mar- 
riage, and that "before his time women were uncontined and 
roamed at their pleasure." 

The Chinese also believe that marriage was introduced by 
teaching. Fo-hi, a semi-mythical king of China, supposed to have 
been born of a virgin, put an end to promiscuous relations by 
introducing social order, marriage, writing and music. Other na- 
tions had similar traditions about the introduction of married 

Aristotle and other ancient writers reported similar condi- 
tions elsewhere ; and such customs exist in many places to this day. 

In many Polynesian islands promiscuous intercourse between 
the sexes prevailed until the natives were converted by the mis- 
sionaries; or they prevail to this day where they have not been 
converted. In fact, the effort to limit a man to one woman has 
been one of the greatest obstacles to the influence of the mission- 
aries in some of these islands. 

In some of the islands female virtue was highly prized and 
Samoa was pre-eminent in this respect. A woman when about to 
be married had to undergo a special ordeal to prove her virginity, 
and a proof of her immorality disgraced all her relatives. 

In other islands great laxity of morals was the rule. In Ha- 
waii brothers with their wives, and sisters with their husbands, 
possessed each other in common; and in some of the islands, es- 
pecially among the chiefs, brothers and sisters intermarried. 

On the other hand, in some quite low tribes, morality was 
high. In the Andaman Islands the people go absolutely naked, 
except that women in quite recent times have commenced to wear 
aprons of grass behind ; yet a fairly strict monogamy is the rule, 
and transgressions are the exception. They name their children 
before birth ; all names are therefore of common gender, and there 
are only about 20 names, but the different names are usually 
qualified by adjectives. 

In Burmah monogamy is the rule, but husbands can rent or 
lease their wives to strangers for a stated period ; this is not con- 
sidered degrading to the woman, who is generally true to her tem- 
porary husband or master. 

In East India, in early times, the Aryan housewife shared 


with the husband the joys and the trials, as well as the privileges 
of worshipping the gods; she even took part in composing the 
hjTnns to the gods, and some of the finest of these were composed 
by prophetesses. 

The Niam-Niam tribe in Africa, who are cannibals, have a 
genuine affection for their wives, such as does not exist in any 
other African tribe; if a man's wife is captured or stolen, those 
who hold her can get almost anything from the husband, such as 
ivory, etc., in exchange for her liberty. 

In ancient Germany a youth married the girl of his choice. 
The husband presented the wife with arms which she could use in 
emergencies. They were monogamous, except that the princes or 
chiefs sometimes married the daughters of several chiefs for po- 
litical reasons. This continued far into civilized times, in fact, to 
the days of Luther. About 750 a.d. the Germans were very cor- 
rupt, and the sanctity of marriage was almost disregarded. About 
this time the Saxons were still Pagans and offered human sac- 
rifices to their gods. They also married their sisters. 

Among the Sawaioris women occupied a high position and 
could even hold hereditary offices or positions in the tribe. 

The Eskimos are very filthy; owing to the intense cold in 
winter, washing is out of the question. Mothers sometimes wash 
their children by licking them off with their tongues, like cows do 
their calves; they are monogamous, a man having but one wife; 
but the women especially are very low in their estimate of chastity, 
and their husbands and relatives practically ignore any moral 
lapses on the part of the wives. 

In parts of Alaska, among the Aleuts, the women go to meet 
incoming ships, and earn money by associating with the sailors; 
this is considered by the husbands to be a perfectly proper and 
commendable way to contribute to the household maintenance. 

A curious story is told of the Lacedemonians who in a war' 
(3209 B.C.) had sworn not to return to their native land until they 
had taken Messina; this took longer than they had anticipated, 
and at the end of ten years they were still at war. Their wives 
then sent them word to return home and beget children with their 
wives and the daughters who had meanwhile grown up. So the 
Lacedemonians sent a picked number of robust warriors to im- 
pregnate all the women at home; as many of these were young 


women, or virgins, all the children born of this visit of the dele- 
gation were called parthenios, or virgin-children. 

In later days the Greeks frequently .invited especially beau- 
tiful young men to cohabit with their wives and daughters so as 
to have the latter bear beautiful children; this was considered 
eminently proper and did not injure the reputations of the women 
to any degree whatever. 

When Cook and his crew visited the Hawaiian islands 
for the first time, they found promiscuous intercourse the rule; 
they joined in, but as some of the sailors had syphilis this disease 

Fig. G2. — "The Family," the unit and foundation of civilized society; 

soon became general, and this was the cause of a great deteriora- 
tion in the native stock. 

Efforts have been frequently made, even in highly civilized 
lands, to reintroduce this promiscuous relationship, but while it 
exists sub rosa in all lands, it has not met with official recognition. 

During the French Eevolution efforts were made to take the 
ownership of all women and girls from the king and from those to 
whom he had leased his rights in them, and to vest it in the state. 
The state was to lease the women to the men, for breeding pur- 
poses, and to be their maids (the ideas of canonical law being 


Fournier, a French socialist, proposed to reorganize society; 
he believed that the institution of marriage imposes unnatural 
restraints on human nature, which results in vice and misery, and 
that the full and free development of human nature, and the only 
way to happiness and virtue, depends on the unrestrained indul- 
gence of human passion. He proposed that those who desired to 
cohabit should take oiit licenses, good for a certain limited time, 
which would permit them to do so. 

Such a system, under religious sanction, actually exists in 
modern Persia, where temporary marriages for a few hours or 
for a few days only, can be arranged for by the moUah (Moham- 
medan priest) who receives a part of the money paid by the man 
to his temporary wife. This is, of course, merely prostitution, 
but it is camouflaged by a religious setting, and thereby saved 
from being a moral lapse. 

About 1830 Enfantin proposed that the "tyranny of mar- 
riage ' ' should be abolished in France, and that a system of ' ' free 
love" take its place. 

In 1848 the idea was again brougti forward in the legisla- 
tive body in France, when it was demanaed that a law should be 
passed declaring all women and children to be the property of the 
state, and providing regulations for leasing the women to the men 
for certain periods of time as household maids or housekeepers 
and for breeding purposes. 

To a certain extent this effort to reintroduce promiscuous or 
primitive tribe and horde relationship was actually carried out in 
France during the Revolution. A premium was paid to the moth- 
ers of illegitimate children, who were called "les enfants de la 
patrie;" it was forbidden to make any inquiries in regard to the 
paternity of such children, but the seeking out the mothers of 
abandoned children was permitted. 

The tendency of men of the lower classes, when a revolution 
gives them temporary power, to revert to similar ideas, is shown 
by the following report : 

LONDON, Oct. 26, 1918. — Eussian maidens under the jurisdiction of certain 
provincial Bolshevik Soviets become the "property of the state" when they reach 
the age of 18 and are compelled to register at a government "bureau of free love," 
according to the official gazette of the Vladimir Soviet of Workers and Soldiers' 
Deputies, which recently published the Soviet's decree on the subject. 

Under the decree a woman having registered "has the right to choose from 
among men between 19 and 50 "a cohabitant husband." The consent of the man 


chosen is mecessary, the decree adds, the man chosen having the right to maie 
any protest. 

A similar privilege of choosing from among the registered women is given 
every man between 19 and 50 "without the consent of the women." This provision 
is described as "in the interest of the state." 

Children born of such marriages are to become the "property of the state." 
Stringent rules and penalties are laid down for the protection of girls under 18. 

In primitive tribes the women were mainly slaves who were 
captured in predatory raids; they were considered the legitimate 
spoil of war belonging to the victors, they conld be passed along 
from man to man or even from horde to horde ; even the Bible ap- 
proved of this method of getting wives, as we saw in the rules 
about taking captured women as wives (see p. 75), and the Koran 
permitted the same disposal of captives in war (see p. 79). 

The Bible says. Gen. vi, 1, 2: "And it came to pass, when men 
began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were 
born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they 

Judg. xxi, 10 et seq.: "And the congregation sent thither 
twelve thousand men * * * and commanded them, saying. Go 
and smite the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead with the edge of the 
sword, with the women and children. And this is the thing that 
ye shall do. Ye shall utterly destroy every male, and every woman 
that hath lain by man. And they found among the inhabitants of 
Jabesh-gilead four hundred young virgins that had known no 
man by lying with any male; and they brought them unto the 
camp to Shiloh * * * and they gave (the children of Benjamin) 
wives which they had saved alive of the women of Jabesh-gilead. ' ' 

In many primitive people it was considered wrong to marry 
a relative, and as promiscuous intercourse prevented a man from 
knowing who of the women were his "cousins or his sisters or his 
aunts," he could not marry within the tribe at all; he had to buy 
or steal wives from other tribes. Such tribes were called exo- 
gamic, or marrying outside of their own tribes. But this led to 
a form of marriage which is spoken of as "marriage by theft" or 
capture ; and this in early days was probably the most usual way 
of obtaining wives. 

Exogamic tribes were very numerous. In Australia no man 
may marry a woman of his mother's clan, no matter how unre- 
lated such a woman may otherwise be to him. Among North 


American Indians they may not marry within the same totem; 
marriages are forbidden between persons of the same name or 

The Eomans kidnapped the Sabine women (Fig. 63) ; and 
the Bible and Koran both allowed this custom. When large raids 
were made by whole tribes, all the captured women became slaves 
belonging to the tribe and could be used for general or promiscu- 
ous intercourse ; but when women were obtained by personal raids 
of one man, then he claimed the woman as his own slave and kept 

Fig. 63. — "Eape of the Sabines," reproduotion of statue. 

her for his own use ; and where this was the usual method of ob- 
taining wives, it did away with a promiscuous relationship of the 
sexes. Men became jealous and guarded their own ; attempted in- 
fringement on their rights to their own women leading to a polyg- 
amous family life and a defending of their rights even to the ex- 
treme of murder of the infringer. The horde plan of conamingling 
of the sexes was replaced by the herd system as found among deer, 
wild cattle, wild horses, seals, walruses, etc. ; one male with a num- 
ber of females. 


As this was apt to occur more frequently among people who 
had settled habitations, as among agricultural or pastoral peo- 
ple, we find this type of "patriarchal family" among them. One 
man, the oldest, was the patriarch of the family; he had several 
wives, but besides this he could take to himself his slaves, or 

Polygamy was the rule in patriarchal families, as among the 
ancient Jews ; it was not forbidden by the Old Testament ; it was 
common among the Greeks, but less common among the Romans ; 
in nearly all Mohammedan lands it is the customary practice, and 
prevails generally in Asia, Africa, Polynesia, and among the 
American Indians. 

While we generally understand polygamy to imply a plural- 
ity of wives, it strictly means a plurality of husbands as well. The 
term polygyny means the marriage of one man to several women 
at the same time; it would be the better term to use; but polyg- 
amy is so generally understood to mean this that it is hardly 
worth while to change to the use of the term polygyny, especially 
as polyandry is in common use to express the marriage of one 
woman to several men at the same time. 

The Mohanunedans are permitted by the Koran to have four 
wives (the Sultan seven) but there is no limitation to the number 
of concubines that a man may have; also, among the Mohammed- 
ans there are not so many forbidden degrees as among the Chris- 
tians, which accounts largely for the rapid spread of Moham- 

Polygamy was only recently abolished among the Mormons 
of our own land (by act of Congress ; possibly still practiced to a 
certain extent, but not publicly paraded, as formerly). 

Among these patriarchal families the fate of the women was 
of course much better than in tribal or horde relationship; and 
the idea of "family" became a fixed institution. 

Among the Mohammedans the wives and concubines are gen- 
erally kept in seclusion (in harems) and are guarded by castrated 
slaves or eunuchs, the chief of which is the Kizlaer aghassi, or 
the "master of the maidens." Harem means something that is 
forbidden; but is generally supposed to mean the female con- 
tingent of a polygamist's household; it really has a meaning 
something like in our public buildings — "for women only" — or 
"for men only." It is like the gynaeceum of the ancient G-reeks, — 



the apartments of the women — strictly forbidden to strangers — 
"strictly private." Any child born in the harem is supposed to 
be the child of the master, because no other opportunity for im- 
pregnation is supposed to be possible ; if a concubine or slave be- 
comes a mother, the child is free and the mother can not there- 
after be sold; she in effect becomes a wife, although if the man 
has four wives already, the concubine can not be called a wife ; but 
she has the rights of a wife. 

The "harem" (Fig. 64) is an Asiatic institution, but pre- 
vails throughout all Mohammedan lands. The wife is subordinate 
to the husband, practically his slave no matter how he obtained 
her ; Asiatics wrote the Bible, hence these Asiatic ideas regarding 
women and wives were transferred to Christianity, but they were 

Fig. 64. — ' ' In a Harem, ' ' from painting by Cecconi. 

ascribed to the fall, and to a curse which was supposed to have 
been pronounced on Eve by God. 

The wives of Mohammedans are often obtained as with us, by 
betrothal, although all details are arranged by female relatives 
so that the man can not meet or see his bride until after the mar- 
riage; his mother or sisters become acquainted with the women 
of their class in the public baths, where they see them naked (Fig. 
65), and can report about them and their physical attractions. 
But they can buy concubines in the markets (Fig. 66) which, al- 
though now forbidden by law, are still in existence, and those who 
want to buy a slave have no difficulty in doing so. Mohammedans 
are forbidden to have "images" of any living object, just as 



among the ancient Jews; they can not have statues or paintings 
of beautiful nymphs or goddesses, so they buy beautiful slave- 
girls whom they keep as we keep statuary, etc., as something good 
to look at (Pig. 67). Of course, the owner can take any such slave, 
or odalisque, as sexual mate, but most of them are kept, usually 
naked or nearly so, to beautify the home. They are much subject 
to tuberculosis, through insufficient clothing and confinement 

Georgia and Circassia furnished most of the female slaves for 
the Turkish harems ; but in recent times thousands upon thousands 
of Armenian girls were sold to the same fate ; household servants 
are mostly blacks, clandestinely imported from Africa. 

rig. 65. — "Oriental Bath," from a painting by Gerome. 

The Parsees treat their women much better than do other 
Asiatic people; women appear freely in public, and they have 
entire management of the household. 

Among the Persians generally the father is reverenced in an 
extravagant manner, but the highest respect is paid to the mother 
whose word is law in the household; the grandmother also is al- 
most worshipped. 

A Persian is very glad to have his "wife's mother live with her, 
as a mother-in-law is considered to be the best guardian of a 
wife's virtue. Persians are polygamous; in the house the women 



wear a short chemise, which among the rich is of very thin gos- 
samer fabric; a jacket open in front, a skirt reaching only to the 
middle of the thighs, and an abundance of armlets, bracelets and 
anklets, to which many talismans are attached, in which Persians 
have much faith; they go barefoot; the costume therefore prac- 
tically displays all the beauties of the body in the privacy of the 
home ; but when they go out to visit friends, etc., they are so bun- 
dled up in shapeless garments that not even their husbands could 
recognize them. 

In the homes the little girls are dressed like boys (male 

Fig. 66. — "Slave Sale," from painting Fig. 67.- 
by Grerome. 

'An Odalisque," from painting 
by Szyndler. 

clothes) and the little boys like girls (female clothes) until they 
are about ten years old, when they assume the costumes appropri- 
ate to their sex; this is done to avoid the "evil eye," a sinister 
influence which is much dreaded. Among Persians the logical 
wives are considered to be the cousins on the father's side. 

Among the early Hebrews monogamy was the general rule, 
although it was not very strict; later on polygamy and concubi- 
nage became prevalent, to the extent that Solomon had ' ' seven hun- 
dred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines" (I Kings 
xi, 3). When the father of the household died, his wives and eon- 


cubines became the property of Ms heir; they went with the in- 
heritance. Nor were unions between near relatives forbidden; 
Abraham had his half-sister (from same father but a different 
mother) for wife, and in many lands full sisters could be taken 
for wives. 

Caligula, the tyrant of Eome, had sexual congress with all 
his sisters, one of whom, Drusilla, he made his official wife; the 
other two he drove away into misery. He also took any Roman 
matron or woman he desired, and sometimes invited other men 
to share them with him. At the amphitheatre shows, if he did 
not have enough victims to throw before the wild animals, he had 
some of the spectators seized, their tongues cut out so they could 
not denounce him, and then they were thrown into the arena. He 
was finally killed by his own guards. 

Caracalla's mother (some say step-mother) fell in love with 
him and contrived, as if by accident, to be seen naked by him; 
when he saw her he took her as his wife and her name appears as 
his queen on numerous documents. 

Yet this was probably an extreme case ; as a rule it was con- 
sidered improper for a man to cohabit with his mother, or even 
with any other of his father's wives. A sort of Solomonic judg- 
ment is related of Claudius. He was judge in a case in which a 
woman refused to acknowledge that a certain man was her son. 
Claudius ruled that she should marry him, which she refused to 
do, and finally admitted that she could not marry him as he was 
her son. 

In Greece a man could marry his father's daughter by some 
other wife than his own mother but not a "uterine sister;" but 
among the ancient Egyptians a pharaoh usually, or at least often, 
married his full sister; Cleopatra, for instance, was married to 
her brother Ptolemy. 

In many lands in Africa a man may have as many wives as 
he can afford to buy. But then there is no particular trouble 
about keeping them, for they need little or no clothing and they 
do the work in the fields and in guarding the herds. Such is the 
custom in the Congo district; among the Hottentots there is no 
purchasing of wives, but the consent of the parents is obtained by 
presents, etc., and the wife is not considered a slave. 

The most primitive relation of the sexes to each other is one 
of promiscuous intercourse. The lowest form of marriage is 


where the men simply steal or purchase as many women as they 
want and make them their wives, but even this is already the be- 
ginning of family ties, and therefore the beginning of social 

"~ I have already stated that man is polygamous by nature, and 
polygamy is therefore the prevailing type of sexual relationship 
throughout the world. It is the legally recognized relationship of 
the sexes among more than two-thirds of the inhabitants of the 
earth, and is practiced in some form or other by all nations on 
the globe. A strictly monogamic people does not exist, and strict 
monogamy in the individual man is as uncommon as strict celi- 
bacy, even among us. 

Polygamy was first forbidden by law in the early days of 
Eome, when women were so scarce that inen had to steal them from 
their neighbors and it was considered to be unfair for one man 
to appropriate several women for himself while others might not 
be able to obtain any. Forgetting the origin of the laws establish- 
ing monogamy, such laws were kept in force by states which for 
just as cogent reasons should allow polygamy in the interest of 
the excess of women over men who can not otherwise find hus- 
bands. This is not a question of religion, for from both a reli- 
gious and from a moral standpoint as much, or more, can be said 
in favor of polygamy as in favor of monogamy; it is really only 
a question of expediency in a politico-economic sense, whether 
monogamy or polygamy shall be the legally recognized form of 
marriage. I have no doubt that if it were not for the complica- 
tions of property interests, and if men dared to publicly avow 
their convictions, a very large number of men and women would 
admit that legally recognized polygamy would be preferable to 
our present system of monogamy with prostitution or "affin- 

On the other hand there are no doubt many advocates of mo- 
nogamy who favor the present conditions largely from interested 
motives, because it affords them opportunities of enjoyment with 
young and pretty women without the satiety that would come even 
in legally recognized polygamy, when of course the possibilities 
for variety now existing would be exchanged to companionships 
for life. 

Monogamy is not a distinctly Christian practice, for it pre- 
vailed in many pre-Christian nations, and is today practiced by 


some savage tribes; while on the other hand, polygamy was per- 
mitted by the Christian church until about the time of Luther, 
and is not forbidden in the Bible. 

Monogamy means a marriage of one man to one woman ; this 
is the common or legal form of marriage in civilized Christian 
lands. But it is also found in some very primitive kinds of peo- 
ple as well. 

The close relationship of a husband to a wife in such a mar- 
riage is a stronger tie than that of any blood-relationship. 

Gen. ii, 24: "Therefore shall a man leave his father and his 
mother and shall cleave unto his wife; and they shall be one 

Matt, xix, 4-6: "Have ye not read that he which made them 
at the beginning made them male and female, and said. For this 
cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to 
his wife; and they twain shall be one flesh? Wherefore they 
are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined 
together, let no ma,n put asunder." (Also Mark x, 6-9.) 

Ephes. V, 31 : " For this cause shall a man leave his father and 
mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be 
one flesh. This is a great mystery * * *, Nevertheless, let 
every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself: 
and the wife see that she reverence her husband." 

The Kahhalah, a Jewish system of theosophy which claimed 
to have been written in the first century of our era, but which was 
said by some to have been written about the thirteenth or four- 
teenth century, claimed to contain certain mysteries which God 
had taught to Adam in paradise, and which had been transmitted 
by oral tradition until they were reduced to writing. 

It is of course quite possible that the theories contained in 
the Kabbalah were ancient Jewish traditions, which may possibly 
have come down to the time when they were reduced to writing, 
by oral transmission; if so, they were of equal antiquity and of 
equal importance as those which were written down by Ezra, and 
which are now known as the Books of Moses. 

In the Kabbalah it is taught that the highest and most mys- 
terious "God" or "Power" or whatever else we may choose to 
call it, was "En Soph," Pure Thought, Supreme Will; this was 
not composed of matter ; it was purely spiritual. 

From En Soph there were ten emanations of spiritual beings. 



The Kabbalah stated that the "Holy Ghost made all things male 
or female, because otherwise nothing could endure." It described 
the archetypal man (Fig. 68), using many mystic references to 
gemetria, to the peculiar numerical values of words, and to the 
sex of the left and the right side, etc. ; for instance, wisdom was 
located in the forehead and was male while intelligence was lo- 
cated in the left side of the chest and was female ; wisdom, the fa- 
ther, and intelligence, the mother, produced a crown. Love was 
male and was in the right arm, justice was female and resided in 
the left arm, together they produced beauty, residing in the bosom 

Fig. 68. — ^Archetypal man, from the Kabbalah. 

or breasts. Firmness was male and resided in the right thigh 
and splendor was female and resided in the left thigh, and to- 
gether they produced "foundation" or sex, or sexual organs. 

"All the souls of the whole human race pre-existed in the 
world of emanations (from God) and are all destined to inhabit 
human bodies. Each soul, prior to its entering this world, con- 
sists of a male and a female potency, united into one spiritual 
being. When a soul descends on this earth the two parts are sepa- 
rated and animate two different bodies. At the time of marriage, 
the 'Holy One (God), blessed be he who knows all souls and 
spirits,' unites them again as they were before; and they again 


constitute one body and one soul, forming, as it -were the right 
and left of the individual. ' ' 

The Kabbalah claimed that it explains all the hidden mean- 
ings of the Jewish scriptures; the passage just quoted explained 
the quotations from both the old and the new testaments, stated 
above, and explains also our saying that marriages are made or 
ordained in heaven ; and it imparts a greater sanctity to the mo- 
nogamous marriage by teaching that the souls of husband and wife 
were originally before the birth of either, a hermaphrodite spirit, 
both halves of which, after existing without bodies for some time, 
finally are guided together again by the "Holy One who knows 
all souls." 

In connection with this theory of the Kabbalah may be men- 
tioned the doctrine of the Mormons on polygamy. The Mormons 
are not a Christian sect, as some suppose. The chief god of the 
Mormons is Adam (of Genesis fame), while Christ, Mohammed, 
Joseph Smith and Brigham Young are also at least partially di- 
vine. These divinities propagate souls who are destined to in- 
habit the bodies of human beings born in this world. They believe 
it to be the duty of every woman to give birth to as many children 
as possible, because all the souls who do not enter into children 
at birth will have no chance to go to heaven. But as there were 
many more women converted to Mormonism than men, and as it 
was practically a sin for a woman to neglect to become a mother, 
and as her reward in heaven was proportionate to her doing her 
duty in regard to having children, polygamy was introduced as a 
religious duty of this sect. 

Among Oriental slave-holding nations there is little true 
love — no mating in a noble sense; the woman is not courted nor 
asked for consent; she is a slave, and if her appearance and her 
price are satisfactory the man buys her and after that it is to her 
interest to study obedience to her master's desires and pleasures. 

In the human being true mating based on mutual friendship 
is possible only when the woman is not a slave. When the wom- 
an's right to bestow her favors where she pleases is generally ad- 
mitted, wooing or courtship, the psychic or ethical element in 
love, is enhanced and the carnal features of love are purified by 
the emotional sympathies as well as by the intellectual bonds of 


Love in the highest and purest sense, and marriage based on 
nmtiial love and consent, is possible only when the full equality 
of the woman with the man is recognized; and then even only 
when questions of pecuniary considerations like the prospective 
inheritance from the father of the bride or of receiving support 
and a home from the husband are but subordinate or secondary 
considerations. The highest form of love is founded on a mutual 
recognition of mental, moral and social worth, as well as on a 
desire for the person or body, and is possible only when the whole 
personality is loved; not when merely the body is loved, which is 
carnal love or lust, nor when only the soul is loved, which is 
Platonic love. 

When Max Nordau says that "love in marriage is degraded 
into a mere sensuality without the slightest value for the com- 
munity," he refers to marriage as it is ordained now by church 
and state ; not to an ideal monogamic marriage ; he fails to realize 
the purity of bodily pleasures and caresses between man and 
wife when sanctified by the mental and ethical elements of love. 
The carnal side of love is not mere sensuality; it is necessary to 
the perpetuation of the ethical and mental side of love, of which 
coition is merely the physical basis. Men and women should 
marry one another to live together in the joys of the body as well 
as in the communion of souls ; but the spiritual element in the rela- 
tion of the sexes should be paramoimt for it implies companion- 
ship and elevation of the woman while the predominance of the 
sensual element in love involves the subjection, degradation and 
prostitution of the woman, even in wedlock. This is even more 
appreciated among some of the so-called savage nations than 
among ourselves, for among the Iroquois and Hurons young cou- 
ples were obliged to live together without sexual intercourse for 
one year after marriage, to prove that higher motives than the 
gratification of sensual pleasure had brought them together. 

Coition which is not practiced from motives of love for the 
individual woman is not love but lust ; it is essentially of the na- 
ture of masturbation, and although often spoken of as "love" is 
qualified as "carnal love." Except in the mechanism of its grati- 
fication lustful love has little in common with true love, such as 
should actuate husband and wife, and in which ethical elements 
predominate that are entirely wanting in mere lustful love. 


"What is Love? 'Tis not the kiss 
Of a harlot lip' — the bliss 

That doth perish 

Even while we cherish 
The fleeting charm; and what so fleet as this? 

He is blessed in love alone 

Who loves for years, and loves but one ! ' ' 

We read in the 18th and 19th verses of the 5th chapter of 
Proverbs, as follows : "Rejoice with the wife of thy youth. * * • 
let her breasts satisfy thee at all times and be thou ravished al- 
ways with her love." 

Following the methods of onr theological friends, this text 
suggests the following thoughts : 

First. — "Rejoice with thy wife — ." In this sense it is a re- 
proof to those ascetics who teach that sexual enjoyments are 
always evil and to be shunned; the text says: "Eejoice." 

Second. — "Rejoice with thy wife — ." Let sexual pleasures 
be enjoyed in wedlock; not with strange women. "The lips of a 
strange woman drop as a honeycomb, and her mouth is smoother 
than oil: but her end is bitter as worm-wood, sharp as a two- 
edged sword. Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on 
hell" (Prov. v, 3-5). 

Third. — "Rejoice with the wife of thy youth — ." This ad- 
vice urges early marriages, to avoid the "sowing of wild oats" 
during the best years of our lives and then bringing an impaired 
or exhausted vitality as our contribution towards the formation 
of our children. 

Fourth. — "Let her breasts satisfy thee — ." The text opposes 
here the breasts as the emblems of the ethical purity of a woman's 
beauty of body to the vulva as the symbol of carnal or animal 
gratification.* It means that we should find pleasure in the con- 
templation of a wife's beauty, rather than in the coarser and 
grosser sensual caress of coition. 

Fifth. — "Be thou ravished — ." Let all your senses be in- 
toxicated with the bodily and mental pleasures that a wife can 

Sixth. — "Be thou ravished alivays — ." Let the ethical or 

*See explanation of beauty in the Kabbalah (page 193) which accounts for the "breasts" being 
the symbol of beauty in the biblical text under consideration. 


mental element in your love for your wife so fill the mind with 
pleasant thoughts as to exclude carnal desires for all other women. 
Seventh. — "Be thou ravished always with her love." — This 
makes it the duty of the wife so to use the beauty of her body as 
well as her mental charms that her husband may be satisfied with 
the love she gives him, so that he may never be tempted to seek 
elsewhere a love that she denies him. The wife's love, in its 
blending of sensual and psychic attractions, is the anchor that 
holds the husband to morality and continence. 

"Love, thou hast every bliss in store; 
'Tis friendship, and 'tis something more. 
Each other every wish they give : 
Not to know love is not to live." 


Monogamy, based on the equality of the woman with the man, 
is the highest type of sexual relationship, but it is not possible 
under present church and state laws, because neither the state 
nor any Christian church recognizes the equality of the woman 
with the man. 

The ritual of the Church of England says: "The woman's 
will, so God says, shall be subject to the man, and he shall be her 
master; that is, the looman shall not live a life according to her 
own will * * * and must neither begin nor complete anything 
without the man. Where he is she Trmst be, and bend before him 
as her master, ivhom she shall fear and to whom she shall be sub- 
ject and obedient." 

In Germany the Kaiser said : "Woman is for the church, the 
kitchen and for children." ("Die Frau ist fuer Kirche, Kueche 
und Kinder.") 

A Law Digest defines legal disability as "the status of being 
an infant, a lunatic or a married woman." 

In Scandinavia, for the last few years, a commission is at 
work to formulate better conditions for monogamic marriage; 
divorce is to be by common consent, with a reversal of the indi- 
vidual property of man and wife to each, and an equitable divi- 
sion of property accumulated while the marriage lasted. I do 
not know what disposition is to be made of the children, but it 
is reasonable to presume that the present theory that they belong 


to the husband will be modified, and the wonnan's right in them 
will be recognized. 

When the churches are ready to abandon the Asiatico-Biblical 
doctrine of the inferiority and servitude of the wife, or woman, 
and when the laws (of all countries) are ready to recognize the 
equality of the woman as a human being, entitled to her own chil- 
dren and to her own earnings, then monogamie marriage, and 
sexual pleasures based on mutual enjoyment and mutual desires, 
will make marriage the ideal relationship poets have always rep- 
resented it to be. 

"All thoughts, all passions, all delights, 
Whatever stirs this mortal frame. 
All are but ministers of Love 
And feel his sacred flame." 

( Coleridge — Love. ) 

Max Nordau said that "not one man out of a thousand can 
truthfully say on his death-bed that he never in his life had con- 
nection with a woman not his wife." 

Society does not expect continence in a man; it is only ex- 
pected that he keep his sexual digressions from notoriety, "Sow- 
ing wild oats" is tacitly tolerated, if it does not actually make the 
man more desirable or more interesting in society circles and 
among society women. 

The poet Browning wrote: 

Men "love so many women in their youth 
And even in age they all love whom they please ; 
And yet the best of men confide to friends 
That 'tis not beauty makes the lasting love — 
They spend a day with such, and tire the next ; 
They like soul — ^well, then, they like fantasy. 
Novelty even. Let us confess the truth, 
Horrible though it be — ." 

"The world loves a spice of wickedness," says Longfellow; 
natural instincts, cultivated passions, and social customs favor 
unfaithfulness on the part of the man, and a wise wife is conven- 
iently blind and deaf to such a condition. 

Originally in Greece and Rome it was held that a man coidd 


not commit adultery ; this could be done only by the woman. The 
reason why the adultery of the husband is of less serious char- 
acter than the adultery of the wife is of course obvious to every- 
one ; it does not interfere with his ability to give full satisfaction 
to all desires of his wife; it brings no disturbing element into 
the family in the way of offspring; it is unlikely to incapacitate 
him from doing his work or to do his connubial duties; it casts 
no doubt on the parentage of the children; and it does not give 
much rise to scandal if the husband is discreet, for it is generally 
ignored in polite circles; and last, not least, to many wives it is 
a welcome relief from the amorous demonstrations of their hus- 
bands. Many women object to coition as a part of their duty to 
their husbands ; of course, husbands often resent such an attitude 
and either force their attentions on their wives or leave the wife 
and sue for divorce. But if there are children, then for the chil- 
dren's sake divorce should be avoided. Under such circumstances 
a man is a more loving husband if he respects his wife 's antipathy 
to sexual caresses, but goes quietly elsewhere to gratify himself, 
than is the man who enforces his legal rights in the courts. 

On the other hand, the unfaithfulness of the wife in compar- 
ison with that of the husband is morally a much more weighty of- 
fence; public sentiment is such that when it becomes known it 
dishonors the woman and excludes her from all respectable soci- 
ety; it dishonors her family, alienates her friends, throws doubt 
over the parentage of her children and blights their lives with the 
memory of her infidelity. 

I am not discussing here whether this is just, or as it should 
be; I am simply stating what are the conditions in modern soci- 
ety. Of one thing, however, there can be no doubt — the story of 
Jesus and the woman taken in adultery (John viii, 3-11) teaches 
us that we should be more merciful in judging the woman who 
transgresses, and who is generally more sinned against than 
sinning (Fig. 372). 

A curious form of marriage found in Thibet and some other 
Asiatic countries is polyandry, — one woman having several hus- 
bands. It is a question whether we should consider this a distinct 
type of marriage, or simply a relationship depending upon neces- 
sity ; in Thibet women are sold to be wives, and a rich man usually 
buys several women and practices polygamy ; a man who is able to 
buy a woman for himself alone considers himself lucky in practicing 


monogamy ; but when men are too poor to be able to buy a woman 
for individual possession, several club together and buy a wife 
in common, on the principle that half-a-loaf is better than no 
bread, and they practice polyandry. If women in Thibet were 
free to dispose of themselves, many would do as women do amongst 
us, not tie themselves to a few men but accommodate many ; they 
would practice prostitution in place of polyandry. 

Still, polyandry is peculiar in this that the woman is usu- 
ally the wife of several brothers ; this form of marriage, however, 
has brought about a recognized superiority of the women, which 
in many eases amounts to almost a position of being a princess ; 
she governs and rules the household. It has another great advan- 
tage; a number of men have their sexual appetites satisfied in a 
proper and legal manner, and yet the number of children in a 
household is not greater than in a monogamic household, because 
this is limited by the bearing capacity of the one woman; the 
household has a number of providers, and not an unreasonable 
number to be provided for, and therefore there is a condition of 
comfort or even of wealth which would not be possible if each 
man had a wife and a group of children to maintain. The children 
know the oldest of the brothers as "father" and all the others 
are "uncles." And of course, inheritance goes by the mother. 

The practice is not confined to Thibet; the Todas, of India, 
are a tribe in which a woman marries all the brothers of a family. 
Their religion is a sort of Hinduism; they worship their dairy 
cattle. As to their cosmogony, they consider themselves autoch- 
thones — i. e., they believe that they originally grew out of the soil, 
like plants. 

Among the Navis of Malabar, also, a woman has several hus- 
bands, but these are seldom brothers. The woman lives with her 
mother, or brother, or in some cases she has a house where she 
receives her husbands. This of course does not differ very much 
from prostitution among ourselves, except that the arrangement 
is lasting, all the husbands are attached to her and provide for 
her for life. 

A passage in the Mahabharata, a Hindu worK, tells how the 
five brothers Pandava "married the fair Draaupadi with eyes of 
lotus blue;" this seems to indicate that romance is not entirely 
done away with in such unions. 

Caesar spoke of a similar condition existing in Britain, and 



Polybius says it prevailed in Sparta. It is practiced now by about 
30,000,000 of Asiatic people. 

"We have already referred to a similar relationship in Hawaii, 
where brothers had all their wives in common and sisters had all 
their husbands in common. This seems to be like polyandry in 
some regards, but more on the principle of "what is sauce for 
the goose is also sauce for the gander." 

A peculiar relationship of the sexes is concubinage. The 
origin of this arrangement was probably the sterility of the law- 
ful wife. We read in the Bible, Gen. xvi, 1 : "Now Sarai, Abram's 

Fig. 69. — ' ' Presentation of Hagar, ' ' from painting by Steuben. 

wife, bare him no children ; and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, 
whose name was Hagar. And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold 
now, the Lord hath restrained me from bearing ; I pray thee, go 
in to my maid ; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And 
Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai" (Fig. 69); or again: 

"And when Eachel saw that she bare Jacob no children 
* * * she said (to Jacob), Behold my maid Bilbah, go in unto 
her ; and she shall bear upon my knees, that I may also have chil- 
dren by her. And she gave him Bilbah her handmaid to wife ; and 
Jacob went in unto her" (Gen. i, 3-4). 

There are many references to concubines in the Old Testa- 


ment; David had seven wives and ten concubines; Solomon had 
seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines; Rehoboam 
had eighteen wives and sixty concubines ; etc. 

In Mohammedan lands there is no limit to the number of 
concubines a man may possess. 

In European lands concubinage was general imtil quite re- 
cent times, and the position of the concubine was an honorable one. 

It also persists among the European nobility in the form of 
morganatic marriages which are entered upon from love, and 
when later official marriages must be contracted for state reasons, 
these "left-handed marriages" are either discontinued, or are 
maintained on the quiet, along with the official family, thus con- 
stituting polygamy. In such morganatic marriages the title or 
rank is not inherited by the children, but no disgrace attaches to 
them, or to the woman. 

The official marriages, for state reasons, of course furnish 
the heir apparent, the crown prince, or the children who can in- 
herit the title. To make sure that there was no doubt about the 
heirs of a royal house, it was a requirement in medieval times 
that the ministers of state were called in to actually Avitness the 
birth of the children of a queen or empress, so that they could 
officially certify that they were possible "heirs apparent." To 
be a queen or empress had its advantages, but in those days it 
also had its humiliations. 

A similar system is not uncommon among us, but the concu- 
bine is called the mistress, and her position is not considered an 
honorable one, although it is infinitely better than that of a 
prostitute. The practice is tacitly tolerated, but must not be pub- 
licly paraded. 

According to our laws sterility or barrenness of the wife is 
a cause for divorce, but is it not cruel to a woman who, in every- 
thing but this her misfortune, may be a devoted wife, to break 
up a relationship which may be ideally happy in all the ethical 
and sensual relations of marriage? Does not the mental anguish 
of a Josephine, for instance, whom Napoleon so ardently loved, 
but whom he divorced that he might secure an heir, appeal to us 
to permit a less cruel solution of such an unfortunate condition? 

There have been frequent suggestions that the recent world- 
war may make it necessary for some countries to permit either 
some legal form of concubinage, or polygamy, to recoup itself in 


population. There is nothing of a religious character to prevent 
the passing of laws to this effect, as there is nothing in the Bible 
to forbid it; it would be against our prejudices, but state policy 
may demand some action of this kind and it is a matter for human 
legislators to determine. 

A sin is a transgression against the laws of God; the laws of 
God do not forbid ; therefore concubinage or polygamy would not 
be sin. Besides, "laws of God" are not recognized by everybody. 

A vice is a transgression against the laws of nature or against 
oneself; these practices are not against any laws of nature, there- 
fore there could be no objection on this account. 

A crime is a transgression against the laws of the land. Both 
concubinage and polygamy are crimes when they are forbidden 
by the laws, but they are legitimate practices in those lands whose 
laws approve of them. At present they are crimes with us, but 
they would not be if our laws were changed. 

We are apt to feel that our prejudices could decide such mat- 
ters, but there has been so much agitation against an open and 
impartial discussion of these questions, that it is doubtful whether 
legislators would have the courage to discuss such questions at all. 

Prostitution, as universally existing, is but a survival of pro- 
miscuous cohabitation similar to that which existed in the earliest 
types of human tribe organization. History shows that it has al- 
ways existed, and it is probable that it will always continue to 
exist ; there will always be men who can not marry, for economic 
reasons, but who have passions like other men ; there will always 
be women who, rather than become the legal slave of one man, 
will prefer to be the mistress of many men. 

Suppression of prostitution will never be possible ; regulation 
is possible. 

In recent years many educated people, college and university 
bred men and women, rebelling against the unjust degradation 
imposed on the woman by entering legal wedded relations, have 
preferred to ignore the laws and to enter into "free love" unions, 
to be based on mutual consent only, sometimes called "conmion- 
law" marriages. Educated women often prefer such a union, be- 
cause they do not become the slaves of the men, but remain mis- 
tresses of their own destinies; any resulting children are their 
own ; their earnings are their own and they may choose what pro- 
fession or calling they like. Lastly, such unions are based on 


rational modes of living, and control of reproduction is usually 
favored, so that an overproduction of children is avoided; "birth- 
control" is practiced. 

As long as the laws and the rules of the church or of religion 
are as they are, many people will prefer to live together in bonds 
that can be broken when love is gone. As long as love lasts (and 
it is more apt to last in such a union than in any other) free love 
is ideally happy. 

In our own land this is not a burning question, because our 
men tacitly ignore the laws and the church, and do not attempt 
to coerce or control their wives, but let them do as they please; 
but in lands where the full legal rights of the husband are insisted 
on, there have been serious threats on the part of the women, to 
strike against the institution of marriage, and to agree to live in 
"free love" only. We have fought a world's war for democracy, 
for human rights ; it will have been fought in vara if it does not 
bring about the freedom of woman from the disabilities now le- 
gally forced on her. She is a human being also! 


Originally, in Latin, the word virtus meant the attributes of 
a man, something like our word virility ; it meant bravery or cour- 
age, which was esteemed as the highest type of virtue in a man 
among people of the warlike type of the ancient Eomans. Grad- 
ually, however, this meaning of the word became less important 
and another significance, expressing the purity or chastity of 
women, was substituted, so that now it is generally used as equiv- 
alent to castitas or chastity; a virtue which, curiously enough, is 
not a characteristic which is generally ascribed to men. 

Uprightness of living, high ideals of purpose, abstaining from 
vicious desires, especially in regard to sexual indulgences, a high 
and chivalrous regard for the purity of womanhood, a preference 
for virtue for virtue's sake, abstaining from selfish gratification 
at the expense of innocent women, was inculcated as an essential 
characteristic of masculine nobility of thought and action, even 
by pre-Christian ancients. 

The teachings of some of the old Greek and Roman philos- 
ophers, such as Aristotle, Plato and others, were as noble as those 
of any modern writers, even though they were what we now call 


The North American tribe of Chippewa Indians have a secret 
society called Mide ; the moral instructions in this lodge are given 
in songs. Their ancient religion is still taught, and here is one of 
tJieir characteristic songs : 

"Do not speak ill of the Mide 
My Mide brethren 
Wherever you may be 
Do not speak ill of a woman 
My Mide brethren." 

This seems high principled for savages, for though many of 
these Indians are now civilized, their lodge, its teachings and its 
songs, are very ancient. Compare the teachings with the Japanese 
"mode of life" (p. 14). 

In the ages previous to Christianity there were many who 
realized that the best interests of the state required orderly mar- 
riage relationship as contributing best towards happiness and 
the morality of the citizens ; Sparta and other states imposed pen- 
alties on bachelors, and even in modern times it has frequently 
been proposed to impose taxes on bachelors ; some states even sug- 
gesting such a measure to raise funds for assisting unmarried la- 
dies who were in want. Among the Spartans one disability imposed 
on bachelors was that they could not be admitted to the public 
athletic games, at which both young men and young women com- 
peted in athletic games in a state of entire nudity. On the other 
hand, there have been advantages proposed to the married, with 
a view to induce as great a desire to enter the married relation- 
ship as possible; and now, a goodly number of marriages, and a 
goodly number of births are construed to mean a healthy con- 
dition of the affairs of state, so that from both civic and religious 
considerations marriages are encouraged as highly desirable. 

There have, however, at all times been people who have held 
different views. The ascetics taught that man has a spirit which 
is an emanation from God himself — "the breath of God" — and a 
body which was made of matter, which was therefore looked down 
upon and despised and condenmed as evil. Such fanatics believed 
that anything that tended to produce a state of happiness must 
be evil, and they therefore tried to deprive people of everything 
that was pleasant, in order, as they thought, to make them mor- 
ally better. This ascetic tendency was to be found in all ages, and 


among all people of all the religions of earth. It reached its high- 
est development in some Oriental nations, as among the fakirs of 
the Hindus, who inflict curious and painful injuries on themselves, 
such as closing a hand until the nails grow through the palm to 
the back, sitting or reclining on boards studded with pointed nails, 
sitting before hot fires, looking at the sun until they become blind, 
standing on one leg day and night or standing on a pillar for 
years, or indulging in other senseless and cruel penances which 
are supposed to make their souls more godlike. As Prescott ex- 
pressed it; "making earth a hell in order to gain heaven." 

The ascetics of all ages and countries thought that to refuse 
to enjoy the ordinary pleasures of life was a very meritorious act ; 
and the credit given in heaven for such self-abnegation was sup- 
posed to be in direct proportion to the pleasure which was thus 
declined. We would perhaps not be far wrong if we considered 
such mental attitudes to be forms of insanity. 

To live on the coarsest and simplest of foods, to drink only 
water, to sleep on a litter of straw, to go without washing or 
combing or cutting of hair, to let the finger nails grow, to wear 
the coarsest clothing, or to whip themselves with nettles, or with 
thongs into which small pointed wires had been interwoven, were 
all considered to be very meritorious acts in the eyes of God ; and 
as sexual indulgence was one of the greatest of pleasures, absten- 
tion from it was necessarily one of the greatest virtues. 

Only a few years ago, in Denver, if I remember aright, a 
priest fainted while saying mass, who was found to be wearing a 
coarse undershirt to the inside of which dozens of very small fish- 
hooks had been sewed, which caught in his flesh and caused tor- 
ture enough to make him faint; and this self-torture and mortifi- 
cation of the flesh is usually undertaken in the hope that it will 
subdue carnal desire or the natural passion for intercourse with 

For instance, Origen, one of the early Christian church- 
fathers, mutilated himself by emasculating himself, so that he 
might escape temptation while teaching mixed classes of men and 
women the Christian religion. 

St. Anthony is said never to have bathed himself, holding that 
bathing and the care for the body relaxed the body and made it 
more likely to succumb to carnal temptations; it is claimed for 
him that he never saw himself naked. 


Men of this type condemned the most ordinary refinements 
of life as unholy and wicked. St. Bonaventure narrates that at 
the end of the X Century the sister of Romanns Argulus "scan- 
dalized all Venice by an odd and unusual form of luxury," which 
consisted in using a fork instead of her fingers when eating; and 
the chronicler Dandolo, full of horror at such depravity, adds that 
the unhappy woman was "by a chastisement sent from heaven, 
attacked by a disease that caused her body to exhale, even before 
death the odor of corruption. ' ' 

The Essenes were a Jewish sect which practiced very severe 
asceticism ; they did not allow marriage or intercourse with women, 
but not because they thought this particularly wrong but because 
they considered all women to be fickle and unreliable. One sec- 
tion of the Essenes permitted marriage, but strictly prohibited 
sexual intercourse except for the express purpose of the begetting 
of children. The necessity of the sexual act was recognized, but 
the pleasurable feature of it was to be avoided as much as possible. 

The early Christians were mostly poor and ignorant people; 
the faith made most converts among slaves. The disciples of the 
new faith were told to sell all they had and to give to the com- 
munity; "Jesus said unto him. If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell 
that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure 
in heaven, and come and follow me. But when the young man 
heard that saying he went away sorrowful ; for he had great pos- 
sessions. Then said Jesus unto his disciples. Verily, I say unto 
you, that a rich man shall hardly enter the kingdom of heaven. 
* * * it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, 
than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God" (Matt, xix, 
21-24). These early Christians believed that riches and the ties 
of family were hindrances to leading a good Christian life, and 
they were advised to forsake all such ties and follow Jesus. "If 
any man come to me and hate not his father and mother, and 
wife and children, and brethren and sisters, yea, and his own life 
also, he can not be my disciple. * * * So likewise, whosoever 
he be of you that f orsaketh not all that he hath, he can not be my 
disciple" (Lvke xiv, 26 and 33). 

In other words, the early Christians had to forswear every- 
thing that their human nature held dear, and to subdue all human 
desires for family and friends and riches in order to be good 


Christians ; and the means by which this was to be accomplished 
was solitude, poverty, celibacy, penances and fasting. 

Jesus went even further; he said: "there be eunuchs which 
have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. 
He that is able to receive it, let him receive it" (Matt, xix, 12). 
In other words, "let those who can take a hint, do so." 

St. Jerome (Hieronymus) lived in the latter half of the IV 
Century, and acting on such advice by Jesus himself, he became 
one of the main promoters of celibate orders, both monasteries 
and nunneries. He organized associations of this kind, and found 
many enthusiastic disciples, and the church has maintained them 
ever since. St. Jerome himself founded such an order of disciples 
composed of Eoman ladies and maidens who met together in the 
house of Marcella to study the Scriptures under his instruction. 

This movement, once introduced, spread widely; those who 
entered the orders took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience; 
but "chastity" was construed to mean celibacy, which was not 
always conducive to true chastity or virtue, but often led to ex- 
cesses of various kinds. 

For instance, Jeanne Marie Guyon was born in 1648 of 
wealthy parents; she came into contact with fanatics of the kind 
just described, and soon became addicted to mystical thoughts, 
the results of brooding over certain passages in the Bible. In her 
12th year she wore the name of Jesus inscribed (or tattooed) on 
her body, and commenced to practice many austerities. She 
made a vow that she would always subordinate her will to the will 
of God. When she was not quite 16 years old her parents married 
her to M. Guyon, who probably did not find much happiness in 
this union, for she prayed almost uninterruptedly until in 1672 
when she was 24 years old, she drew up a formal solemn mar- 
riage contract or act of consecration by which she became con- 
tracted to Jesus as his spouse, and she sealed this with her ring 
and signed it with her own Mood. Such cases of fanaticism were 
not uncommon. 

One of the most common results of such organizations was to 
make the members very narrow and bigoted. 

Fanatics become intolerant of any other beliefs than their 
own, and they also think those who believe otherwise are wilfully 
impious and they seek to impose their views on them, by force if 
necessary. For instance, Hypatia was a celebrated mathematician 


and philosopher at Alexandria, born about 370 a.d. In the con- 
flicts between the various factions of Christians, when Cyril be- 
came patriarch in 412, she became an object of fear to the monks 
belonging to the church, on account of her caustic agitation against 
the doctrines of the church; the monks together with a mob of 
fanatical followers, and possibly at the instigation of Cyril him- 
self, seized her, tore the clothing from her, and hacked her naked 
body to pieces. 

Others became insane, or intolerantly fanatic, and in later 
times some of these orders became the bigoted promoters of the 
inquisition and of its autos-da-fe, its tortures and its cruelties of 
many kinds. There were even in comparatively early tinies some 
who tried to stem this perverse tendency in the Christian church ; 
Saints Augustine and Chrysostom taught the sanctity of the Chris- 
tian family life, but multitudes preferred to follow the advice of 
St. Paul: "It is good for a man not to touch a woman" (I Cor. 
vii, 1). * * * "for I would that all men were even as I myself" 
(St. Paul was a bachelor). "I say therefore to the unmarried and 
widows, it is good for them if they abide even as I" (I Cor. vii, 

Through such teachings of the early church, celibacy (mis- 
called "chastity") was exalted almost to a (or the) cardinal vir- 
tue and it was even held that those who married could not enter 
into the kingdom of heaven. 

The Council of Gangra, in 363 a.d., anathematized those who 
asserted that marriage was a sin; trying to stem this unnatural 
asceticism of the early church. 

Some of the monastic orders were great missionary bodies 
and did incalculable good in converting many heathen peoples, 
and popes and other ecclesiastical authorities exerted all their 
influence to correct any abuses that occasionally crept in. 

Even in heathen (pre-Christian) times there were priests 
who held such ascetic views; in some temples, even, it was the 
rule that the priests should be emasculated. Celibacy of the 
priesthood was common in Buddhist lands, and was early adopted 
by the Catholic church; in the primitive Christian church the 
bishops had to be married men: "A bishop then must be blame- 
less, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behavior, 
given to hospitality," etc. (I Tim. iii, 2). These laws of the 
church were afterwards changed, not by any additional revelation, 


but by the decrees of synod meetings, until now the celibacy of 
the priesthood is a firmly established policy of the Catholic 
Church, in both the Greek and the Eoman branches. 

The agitation of the question of celibacy versus married life 
gave rise to many aberrations of thought and action; thus, the 
Adamites were a sect which existed about the II Century; they 
claimed to have regained the condition of Adam's innocence be- 
fore the fall and they lived in absolute sexual lawlessness. The 
sect died out soon, but it was resuscitated under the name of 
"Picards" in Bohemia, about 1300 a.d., at which time they lived 
in a state of nudity and held all their wives in common. Such ex- 
cesses led to the opposite extremes, of course, and there were 
many who swore off all sexual enjoyments, even going so far as 
to follow the advice of Jesus : "If thy right eye offend thee, pluck 
it out * * * and if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off * * * 
for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should per- 
ish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell." 

The Skopsi of Eussia began about 1757 a.d.; they emascu- 
lated themselves and practiced flagellation. The order thrived 
in spite of much persecution from the authorities. In 1815 the 
prioress of a flagellant society introduced the practice among 
women, and girls and young women allowed themselves to be 
spayed (ovaries cut out) and to have their breasts cut off, so as to 
be less able to excite sexual desire in the men. The sect thrived, 
and while it is not accurately known how many have been muti- 
lated, it has been stated that the sect numbers about 150,000 

In males there are two methods, cutting out the testicles, or 
total extirpation of penis and scrotum; these are removed with 
cutting implements and the bleeding is checked with a redhot 
iron. This is called the "baptism by fire." Occasionally the 
parts are removed by burning them off with a redhot iron loop. 

In women the operations are varied: cutting off or burning 
off one or both nipples ; amputating one or both breasts ; cutting 
out the labia minora with the clitoris or the clitoris alone ; or the 
extirpation as far as possible of the entire external genitals, labia 
majora, labia minora and clitoris; also, the extirpation of the 
ovaries (spaying). In addition, various marks are branded on 
the body with hot irons, mainly crosses. 

Their "Lord's Supper" consists in cutting off the breast of 


a young woman initiate, and cutting the gland into small bits 
which are distributed among those present, and eaten by them. 
They then place the newly initiated member on a throne and 
dance around her until they fall senseless in convulsions. 

Jesus said to his disciples: "There are some eunuchs which 
were so born from their mother's womb; and there are some 
eunuchs which were made eunuchs of men ; and there be eunuchs, 
which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's 
sake" (Matt, xix, 12). "VVe have just learned something about a 
sect who have "made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of 
heaven's sake," as they imagine. The "eunuchs which were 
made of men ' ' are mainly castrated slaves, in Oriental lands, who 
are much used as attendants and guardians of the women in the 
harems. The word is from the Greek eunouchos, meaning one who 
guards the bed. God forbade the Jews to make eunuchs, but 
nearly all other nations have made them. 

The slave raiders in Africa make some, although the industry 
is said to be mostly practiced in Coptic monasteries; boy slaves 
of about six to ten years old are bought by the monks and the 
operation is done by firmly grasping the penis and scrotum, and 
pulling them away from the body ; then the whole appendages are 
cut off with a long sharp knife; the hemorrhage is stopped with 
a sponge at the end of a stick, the sponge having been dipped into 
boiling oil. A cloth with some soothing ointment or oil is placed 
over the parts, and the boy is kept immobile for a few days by 
standing him in a pit, with his hands tied behind him, and the 
pit filled in with sand to the boy's shoulders. About one out of 
four operated on survives; therefore the fourth one must make 
up in price for the loss of the others besides paying a profit on 
the business. These slaves are highly prized in the Orient. 

Among the ancients, in Greece and Eome for instance, these 
slaves were called "hermaphrodites;" they were especially val- 
ued as men-whores and were used for pederastic coition {coitus 
in ano). It is said that Philip of Macedonia carried with him on 
his war expeditions eight hundred eunuchs for the use of himself 
and his friends. 

In Europe the castrating of boy slaves has been considered a 
crime for many centuries; except that in Eome castrates were 
used for the choirs in the Sistine Chapel. The making castrates 
to be "soprani" or "castrati" in this choir was regularly prac- 


ticed, of course with all possible safeguards as to the life of the 
victim, until it was forbidden by Pope Leo XIII in the year 1880. 
It is also said that some of these castrati later on became 
some of the celebrated tenors of the operatic stage. 

Gratification of the Senses 

"Live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest — for that is 
thy portion in this life — " (Eccl. ix, 9), said Solomon, and he 
gave us a glowing direction in his Song of Songs how to rejoice 
with a wife.* 

Vulgar people think that sexual gratification consists merely 
or even mainly in coition ; but this is placing a very low estimate 
on the tenderest and sweetest relationship in life; this is but the 
lowest element in the psychology of love, and while necessary to 
a complete union of the sexes, and necessary for the God-ordained 
purpose of love — procreation, the enjoyment produced by the 
gratification of other senses forms a nobler and more spiritual 
sexual companionship. Sexual pleasure, to be complete, demands 
that all the senses be gratified; each sense is to contribute its 
share to the total pleasure; "Be thou ravished" — says the Bible. 

Sense of Smell 

Perfumery is the art of manipulating and combining odorifer- 
ous substances for the gratification of the sense of smell. 

"When Solomon (Prov. v, 18-19) said: "Eejoice with the wife 
of thy youth. * * * Let her breasts satisfy thee at all times ; 
and be thou ravished always with her love," he implied that she 
should please all his senses, and that he should be pleased with 
the odors of her body, as well as with all the other features that 
make a wife, or woman, attractive (Fig. 70). 

A woman's toilet is devoted to making herself attractive to 
men; both consciously and instinctively this is aimed at by a 
refined woman. 

The Book of Judith, in the Apocrypha (x, 3 et seq.) tells us 
that Judith, when she determined to meet Holof ernes, "pulled off 
the sack-cloth which she had on, and put off the garments of her 
widowhood, and washed her body all over with water, and anointed 

*We will not discuss here whetlier tliis song is merely eroitic poetry or whether it was written 
by Solomon; even if it is only a pastoral song of youthful and conjugal love, it is beautiful, no 
matter who wrote it. 



herself with precious ointment, and braided the hair of her head 
and put a tiara upon it, and put on her garments of gladness 
wherewith she was clad during the life of Manasses, her husband. 

"And she put sandals on her feet, and put about her her 
bracelets and her chains and her rings, her ear rings and all her 
ornaments, and decked herself bravely to allure the eyes of all 
men that should see her." 

The "Eternal Feminine" is still the same, wherever there is 
a woman; and in every nation and clime she still seeks to be 
pleasing to men (Fig 71). 

The desire of a man for a woman may become excited by 
many charms of her body or her manner. No doubt the most im- 
portant of these is her beauty. 

Fig. 70. — "Among Eoses, " from painting by Duran. 

"Beauty is but the bait, which, with delight. 
Doth man ensnare for to enlarge his kind," 

said the poet Spenser, three hundred years ago. In these modern 
times we must judge the beauty of a woman largely by her face, 
neck, shoulders, back and arms, which society permits to be shown 
quite freely, and by the gracefulness of her carriage. 

Quite recently a self-constituted body of censors deplored the 
relapse of our civilization to Paganism, and they quoted the dress 
of our women as an example of such a relapse. There was not, 
within the last few hundred years, a time when the dress of women 
was so charming as it is at the present time, because it not only 
properly covers the body, but also discreetly displays the perfec- 


tion of its proportions. The female body was made for the ad- 
miration and adoration of men, and its display, in the ball-room 
or at the bathing beach, or in the art photos so much in vogue 
at present, is not only proper but is conducive to a better morality 
than when it was hidden under clothing that did not allow anyone 
to judge of the perfection of the woman's form. 

The claim that civilization tends towards degeneracy is not 
true, for while some weak-minded men can not stand the strain, 
and become degenerate, yet the great mass of humankind has been 
uplifted and made better. 

It is with civilization as with our modes of lighting our cities ; 

Kg. 71.— "The Kiss," by Eodin. 

the more brilliant the illumination the more dense the shadows 
by contrast; yet only apparently so, for they look darker than 
they really are because we just looked at the intenser light. In 
reality the shadows are far more light than when we used dimmer 
illumination, or no lights at all. So the dark spots on our civiliza- 
tion appear gloomier, because in the main civilization has made 
life in general brighter and better. 

Modern customs and costumes are fairly liberal in allowino* 
men to judge of the attractiveness of women; the thin sleeves 



which show the arms, the lowcut dresses which display the 
bosoms, the short skirts which allow the feet and the legs to be 
seen, even np to the bend of the knees when women enter the 
street-cars, are so frequently to be seen that they hardly attract 
attention. The thin and almost diaphanous skirts are not quite 
so common, yet fairly often to be seen when women walk between 
us and the bright sun. 

But the swimming races in the rivers, the public bathing 
places, the pageants in the parks (Fig. 72), the illustrations in 
the supplements of our Sunday papers, bathing scenes in the 
"movies," etc., the fashion plates in the magazines, the models in 

Fig. 72. — Dancing at a pageant in Forest Fig. 73. — Distribution of nerves in the 
Park, St. Louis, 1918. nose. 

the show-windows of the stores, the advertisements of underwear, 
corsets, hosiery, etc., and the pictures of actresses, all contribute 
to the fact that man no longer looks at a woman as "fearfully 
and wonderfully made," for he has become almost as familiar with 
the construction of her wardrobe as if he had seen her put it on, 
piece after piece, beginning with nothing. 

While we are privileged to see the beauty of woman by her 
present modes of dressing, we are also influenced greatly by her 
efforts to make herself attractive in other ways, as for instance, 
by the perfume she uses. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes was not alone in expressing the 


opinion that physical and intellectual qualities do not exert greater 
influence on sex-affinity than that exerted through the olfactory 

Cadet-Devaux, in Revue Encyclopedique, considers the exhala- 
tions of the female the most important sexual attraction. And 
Shakspeare placed the attraction of odor on a level with that of 

An artist can represent most of the attractive features of the 
woman, such as the glory of her hair, her wonderful complexion 
and texture of skin, the soulful eyes, the luscious lips, her volup- 
tuous beauty of bosom and body, and the comely roundness and 
plumpness of her limbs, but one of the most delightful features, 
the odor of her body, can not be represented in statuary, painting 
or photography. 

The artist is therefore compelled to content himself with 
merely suggesting it in some way, as by accompanying the por- 
trayal of woman with flowers; or by scenes of a woman's toilet 
or bath, suggesting both exquisite cleanliness and therefore also 
delicate body odors. 

All statuary or paintings of women bathing may be consid- 
ered as attempts to suggest, if not to represent, the natural per- 
fume of a woman's body. 

There is much that is mysterious about perfumes or odors, 
but it is certain that our sense of smell takes cognizance of invis- 
ible, impalpable and imponderable particles of matter that cause 
the odors. The illustration (Fig. 73) shows the distribution of 
the nerves of smell in the lining membranes of the nose. 

The olfactory nerve is so intimately connected with the brain, 
that Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, the celebrated physiologist, stated 
that it is not a nerve at all, but a part of the brain in intimate con- 
nection with the anterior lobes. 

The particles which act on these nerves are so small that sci- 
ence has not enabled us to see, measure or weigh them, or even 
to estimate their size ; they reach the sensitive nerves in the nose 
and induce in them a kind of vibration which is called a perfume 
or aroma when it is pleasant, a scent when it is indifferent, or a 
stench when it is unpleasant; with, of course, a great many in- 
different odors that are neither pleasant nor unpleasant. 

The sensitiveness of the nerves of smell may be realized from 



the fact that one part of sulphuretted hydrogen gas in one million 
parts of air can be readily recognized by smell. 

The word "perfume" is derived from the Latin words "per 
fumum," meaning "by smoke," or "by fumes." The very word 
perfumery is an evidence that our modern use of perfumery is 
but an evolution from the original use of incense and burnt 

The use of incense consists in the slow combustion of odor- 
iferous substances by fire, so that the aromatic particles are 
driven off by a sort of distillation similar to sublimation; a 

Fig. 74. — "An Offering to Minerva," from a painting. 

process that most people probably have seen in a church at some 
time or other. 

The use of incense dates back for thousands of years, to the 
most remote antiquity. 

Perfume for the Gods 

In ancient Eome it was customary to make an offering of 
incense to the Lares, the spirits of the ancestors, daily; also, to 
make an offering to the Penates, always two divinities who pre- 
sided over the kitchen and the store-rooms of food; this latter 


offering was a burnt offering of a small portion of the food pre- 
pared for the day, the offering being somewhat in the nature of 
our saying grace before eating. 

Burnt offerings were offered to the deities in very early 
times ; it was supposed that the gods were delighted with certain 
odors, and these were produced by burning certain spices and 
resins on an altar, so that the smoke rising heavenward might 
carry with it the odor for the gods (Fig. 74). Or they were placed 
in thuribles, censers or vessels in which glowing charcoal is placed 
and then swung by the priest, so as to keep up enough draft to 
keep the charcoal glowing; the incense is then sprinkled on this 
coal. This is the method of using incense in our churches, just 
as it was used in ancient times in heathen temples. 

Homer taught that gods and kings are best disposed favorably 
through offerings or gifts. A prayer or request to a god was 
usually accompanied by some offering that savored a little of 
bribery; or when the request was made, a vow was also made to 
do certain things in case the prayer was granted. 

It was thought that gods experienced a physical pleasure 
from the offered sacrifice, whatever it was. Nearly all ancient 
people imagined their gods to reside in certain places that were 
holy to them. In Greece, for instance, Jupiter designated these 
places by throwing his bolts at them (striking them with light- 
ning) and such places were fenced in and considered sacred to 
Jove. Or the gods were supposed to reside in certain stones 
(called Beth-el, or "house of God" in the Bible) or in a sacred tree 
or pole (called ashera, or in the Bible — "grove"). 

The offering of a sacrifice consisted in pouring libations of 
wine, or milk, or oil, or the blood of sacrificial animals over the 
holy places, the sacred stone, or on the ground about the sacred 
tree ; and the carcass of the victim was either left on the ground, 
where it usually was consumed by wild animals, and the disap- 
pearance was ascribed to the gods ; or the victim was buried near 
or under the sacred place. 

In ancient times such altars were made of unhewn stones, 
preferably a meteoric stone if it could be found. In the 20th chap- 
ter of Exodus, V. 25, God is represented as saying to Israel, "if 
thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of 
hewn stone, for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast pol- 
luted it." 

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Originally circumcision was probably a sacrifice to the Power 
of Procreation, wMch was supposed to reside in the penis, or to 
be symbolized by the penis. 

Orthodox Jews still practice circumcision as a religions rite, 
it having the place that baptism of the Christians holds. 

Also, the Bible tells us that Jephthah made a vow to the Lord : 
"if thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into my 
hands, then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors 
of my house to meet me, * * * shall surely be the Lord's and 
I will offer it up for a burnt-offering" (Judges xi, 30 et seq.). 

And when he came back, his daughter met him, and • * * 
' ' Jephthah did with her according to his vow which he had vowed. ' ' 
Writers have tried to explain away the hideousness of this 
story by saying that Jephthah dedicated her to the service of God ; 
but there is no use to apologize for the statements in the Bible ; — 
"I will offer it up for a burnt-offering" — and — "Jephthah did 
with her according to his vow" are statements too unequivocal 
to admit a doubt of his having slaughtered her and burnt her body 
as an offering to God Jehovah (provided we accept all that is in 
the Bible as truth). 

And stress is laid on the fact that she was a virgin, therefore 
an exceptionally acceptable sacrifice. 

During the idolatry of the Jews, they offered their children 
as burnt offerings to Molech, the deity of the Philistines. These 
children were offered like any other offerings, slaughtered, cut 
up and burnt; they were not burned alive. The latter practice, 
however, was prevalent at one time in Carthage; and every now 
and then in our own communities some religious fanatic imagines 
he has been commanded by the Lord to sacrifice one of his chil- 
dren, and either attempts to do so, or succeeds in doing so ; only, 
instead of it being regarded as an act approved by God, as in 
Abraham's case, we now call such a person insane and lock 
him up. 

Among the Phoenicians human sacrifices were offered on 
great occasions, and usually a first-born and only son was chosen 
for the purpose. This was because an offering was supposed to 
be acceptable to a god in proportion as it was valued by the wor- 
shippers. It was thought that deities delighted in and demanded 
the costliest and holiest gifts, and this led to the dedication of 
virgins as gifts to temples of Astarte to become temple attendants 


(or temple prostitutes) in the groves of this goddess, and some- 
times virgins or matrons (wives) were given, to be sacrificial 

In later times these human sacrifices were only figuratively 
carried out; for instance, women cut off and burnt their hair as 
an offering, instead of being themselves the sacrificial victims. 

In a similar manner in ancient Egypt, when the inundation 
of the Nile occurred (the Nile was a divinity) a maiden was 
thrown into the Nile as a sacrificial offering; later on, when 
human sacrifices were no longer required, a waxen image of a 

Fig. 76. — ' ' Cain Kills Abel, ' ' from Dore 's Bible illustrations. 

maiden was thrown into the flood; at present, the water is con- 
trolled by dams and locks. When it is to be allowed to flow out 
over the land, a pillar of mud is erected in front of the floodgate, 
which is called "the bride of the Nile" and serves in place of 
the living human victim offered by the ancients. 

Cain killed Abel because the smoke of the latter 's offering 
ascended straighter to heaven than that of his own, or what was 
the same thing to Cain, because Abel's sacrifice was more ac- 
ceptable to God than his own (Fig. 76). 

"Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto 
the Lord (Gen. iv, 3), 



"And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock, and 
of the fat thereof. And the Lord had respect unto Abel, and to 
his offering, 

"But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect" 
(Gen. iv, 4, 5). 

That God might not respect their offerings seems to have 
been much dreaded by the ancient Jews, for God threatens (Lev. 
xxvi, 31) : "And I will make your cities waste and bring your 
sanctuaries into desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your 
sweet odors." 

Among ancient people the idea here stated seemed to be gen- 
erally accepted that the gods preferred bloody sacrifices, because 
they delighted in the smell of blood ; and since such offerings were 
acceptable in proportion as they were valuable to the worship- 

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Fig. 77. — Achilles sacrificing to the manes of Patiocles; from the Faneois tomb, near 


pers, human offerings, the offerings of firstborn sons or of virgin 
daughters were the holiest. 

After all, the idea that the gods preferred virgins was per- 
fectly natural ; all mankind has a special regard for virgins. And 
if any of us were invited to a feast, such as a sacrifice was sup- 
posed to be for the gods, we would be like the gods in appre- 
ciating tender "chickens." Among the cannibals of Central 
Africa, tender young women, properly fricasseed, are still con- 
sidered a special treat and delicacy. 

Among the ancient Greeks at one time human offerings were 
not unusual. This (Fig. 77) represents Achilles sacrificing to 
the shade of his ancestor Patrocles at the siege of Troy (after 
sculptures in an old Grecian tomb). 


Agamemnon had in some way offended the goddess Artemis, 
who demanded that he offer his daughter Iphigeneia in expiation. 
When he was about to sacrifice Iphigeneia, the goddess relented 
and ordered a hind to be substituted for Iphigeneia (the same 
story as that of Abraham offering Isaac), but she took Iphigeneia 
and made her a priestess in a temple of Artemis. According to 
some versions of this story, Iphigeneia was actually sacrificed. 

Polyxena was a daughter of Priam, old Greek legends say. 
Priam was the last king of Troy and Hecuba was the mother of 
Polyxena. She had been betrothed to Achilles, and after the 

Fig. 78. — ' ' The Eape of Polyxena, ' ' by Fedi ; now in Florence, Italy. 

destruction of Troy and the death of Achilles, the ghost of the lat- 
ter appeared to the Greeks and demanded of them the sacrifice of 
Polyxena. The Greeks consented and Neoptolemus, the son of 
Achilles, seized and sacrificed Polyxena on his father's grave 
(Fig. 78). 

Similar was the story of the maidens offered to the Minotaur. 

In early times the Greeks also made human sacrifices to 
Artemis (the moon). 

In Kome sacrifices were offered to various deities; male an- 
imals to gods and female animals to goddesses. The Penates 



were the Eoman gods of the storehouse of food, the larder or 
cupboard. The family hearth was their altar, on which as al- 
ready stated, a portion of the daily food was offered to them. 
They were always accompanied by the Lares or ancestral gods, 
who remained as household deities; to them also offerings of 
food were made. 

The serving of food and drink to household spirits prevailed 
in Eussia, Germany, Lapland, Servia, etc. In Eussia, or rather 
in Siberia, this took a peculiar form. The Eussians who had been 
banished to Siberia believed (or at least pretended to believe) 
that ancestral spirits visited them in their exile, and they set 
food outside of their windows every evening for them. In reality, 

Fig. 79. — ^A Druidie human sacrifice^ 

this food was intended for prisoners who had escaped from the 
mines, and who dared not come in daytime to beg food, and to 
whom the people would not have dared to give food. The offer- 
ings for their "ancestral visitors" outside of their windows were 
occasionally accompanied by little gifts of money and were in- 
tended to help the unfortunates on their way to freedom. 

Young maidens, or virgins, were especially acceptable sac- 
rifices to the gods, and were offered by the ancient Druids (Fig. 
79) as well as by the Greeks ; and the custom extended to nearly 
all parts of the world. 

Until quite recently (last century) a virgin was sacrificed 
annually to Pelee, the female demon deity of the volcano Kilauea, 


by being thrown from the edge of the crater into the seething lake 
of lava below. A hair-like substance is often found in Hawaii 
which is called "Pelee's hair;" it is a sort of mineral or slag 
wool, made by lava being ejected from the volcano, and blown 
by the wind into threads. 

Prescott tells us that the Aztecs, in the times of the Con- 
quest of Mexico, sacrificed annually many thousands of human 
victims to their blood-thirsty God of War, who delighted in the 
odor of fresh blood. 

This illustration (Fig. 80) is copied from an old painting in 
a temple of Mexico, showing the method of making these human 
sacrifices. Several temple attendants, who were made more hide- 
ous by painting their bodies black, seized the victim and stretched 
him on his back over a convex altar stone, whereupon the priest 

Fig. 80. — Aztec sacrifice, from Eangsborough 's Mexican Antiquities. 

made an incision and quickly tore the heart from the body and 
held it up to the idol, so that Huitzilopochtli might smell the 
fragrance of the warm and palpitating heart and of the blood. 

The bodies were then thrown down among the worshippers, 
and afterwards were roasted and eaten. 

We learn from the Bible that, of the Jewish offerings, some 
were completely burned, of others only a few parts were burned 
and the remainder served as food for the temple attendants or 
could be carried back and eaten by the ones who had made the 
offerings; the blood in every case, however, was sprinkled over 
the altar as a grateful offering to the nostrils of Jehovah, and the 

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So far we have spoken of incense or perfume for religions 
uses; but from very early times it was also used in Egypt and 
India for secular purposes, to perfume the home, the clothing and 
the bodies of persons. 

In other words, it was used for the same purposes as our 
modern perfumes. 

The Hottentot women rub their bodies with butter, soot and 
buchu leaves; the Hawaiian women decorate themselves with 

Fig. 81. — "A Message to Cleopatra," from a painting by Miss Coomans. 

wreaths and garlands of odorous flowers; Cleopatra (Fig. 81) is 
identified by both ancient and modern writers with the utmost 
luxury in the use of perfumery and flowers, and our modern 
women delight in receiving gifts of flowers and rare perfumes. 

Dr. Septimus Piesse, one of the most famous, if not the most 
famous of French perfumers, arranged the chief odors used in 
perfumery in analogy to the musical scale, both bass and treble, 
thus assigning its real place to each simple odor and laying down 
rules for the proper combination of odors to form "harmonies" 
or blends, for some odors conflict with others, producing discords. 

According to the theories of Piesse, when a combination of 



odors is desired, they must be such as to form a true harmony. 
This system was called by Piesse the Odophone, or the Science of 
Perfume Harmony. As an example, Fig. 82 shows a proper com- 
bination: A Bouquet in the Sub-Dominant of C. Musk (or sim- 
ilar substances, as ambergris, castor or civet) are in perfume what 

7b/?/(a Bean 


Tube- Camphor \ 

\Tiose ^ose Jonquil 


Fig. 82. — Subdominant chord of C, after Piesse 's Odophone. 

OrangeBlossoTn . 

Acacta -m- ^ Pose. 

)■■ jT^r 



Fig. 83. — Common chord of C, after Piesse 's Odophone. 




Sweet Tea. 

Fig. 84. — Dominant 7th chord of C, after Piesse 's Odophone. 

the pedal notes are in organ-playing, adding to the volume and 
sonorousness of the chord although themselves used only in sub- 
dued quantities. They impart persistence to more delicate odors, 
even when used so sparingly as to be themselves almost imper- 
ceptible to the average nose. 



Another pleasing combination is a bouquet in the Common 
Chord of C (Fig. 83). A bouquet in the Dominant Seventh Chord 
of C is shown in Fig. 84. This musical scale of the odors may- 
be more or less subject to correction or to differences of opinion 
between experts, but it serves as an illustration of the variety of 
odors, and it suggests that a skilled perfumer may be as much 
an artist Avith scents as the musician is an artist with sounds or 
the painter with colors, and that it is only the master-mind that 
produces the finest of odorous harmonies. 

When I was a boy I bought a novel entitled Kaloolah; the 
scene was laid in Africa, most of which at that time was unex- 
plored and unknown territory and for that reason a welcome re- 
gion for the romancer. In this book is described a concert which 

Fig. 85. — An Egyptian at his meal, from plastic models shown at Louisiana Purchase 

Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. ' ■ 

issued harmonies and chords of odors, blown out upon the audi- 
ence as the valves of the organ were opened and closed by play- 
ing on a keyboard much as sounds issue from the pipes of an or- 
dinary organ when air is blown through the sounding tubes. 

Taste is closely related to smell; in food we have "flavor," 
a compound sensation of both smell and taste. We refer to the 
flavor of wine as the "bouquet" of the wine. 

A group from the anthropological exhibit of Egypt (Fig. 85) 
at the International Exhibition, at St. Louis, 1904, represented a 
rich Egyptian being entertained with music and dancing by girls 
trained in these arts, while he is at dinner. The group was mod- 



eled after furniture, masks, and drawings found in Egyptian 
tombs of 2500 b.c. 

Lucullus, 75 B.C., was renowned for the luxury of Ms entertain- 
ments; the most expensive viands, the rarest and costliest wines, 
fountains of perfumed water, incense, beautiful slave dancing 
girls and musicians, all contributed to the splendor of his feasts. 
Our modern cabaret entertainments are but weak imitations of 
these Roman prototypes (Fig. 86). 

The feminine, as a feature of feasts, sometimes took on pe- 
culiar forms ; thus, formerly, and sometimes now, at Russian wed- 
ding feasts the slippers of the bride are used as loAT^ng cups ; they 

Fig. 86. — "Feast of Lucullus," at Tusculum, from a painting by Boulanger. 

are filled with wine and the guests pass them around and drink 
from them, until they become so soggy that they will no longer 
hold wine. 

Perfumes are made in various forms : 

Perfumes proper: — The fluid preparations intended for the 
handkerchief or for spraying on the clothing. 

Scented Soaps: — For the bath; and so-called "waters" (as 
Cologne water, Florida water, etc.), intended mainly to perfume 
the water used for washing or for the bath. Occasionally fas- 
tidious and wealthy women perfume their baths with the petals 
of roses or violets. 

Shin and Hair Preparations: — Cold creams for facial mas- 


sage; "skin foods;" hair oils, pomades, invigorators, tonics, and 
shampoos for the hair. 

Perfumed Toilet Powders: — Starch, orris root, talcum, chalk, 

Tooth Powders and Tooth Pastes: — ^Usually also medicated, 
to cleanse, disinfect, and preserve the teeth; sometimes medicated 
soaps are used. 

Cachoux: — To perfume the breath; usually small pellets made 
of cardamom, cinnamon, benzoin, and other aromatics; often 

Perfume Sachets: — Mixtures of powdered vetivert, lavender 
flowers, sawdust of sandal wood, etc., to which vanilla, musk, 
tonka bean or coumarin, or sometimes more delicately odorous 
substances, as violets, are added. 

Perfume Jars: — Small jars filled with the petals of odorous 
flowers, packed with salt to prevent decay. 

Smelling Salts: — Pungent substances, as carbonate of- ammo- 
nium or glacial acetic acid, are sometimes rendered more pleas- 
ant by the addition of perfumes. 

Pastilles or Fumigating Pastilles: — Cones made of odorous 
substances or incense, with a small percentage of nitrate of potas- 
sium or sodium to cause them to smoulder and burn slowly when 
ignited. The Chinese "joss sticks" are frequently used in our 
houses. These are used by the Chinese like incense in their 

All of these substances are used to render the odors of our 
homes, more particularly the persons and the rooms of our women, 
agreeable to us. 

Unlike animals, mankind has cultivated sexual pleasures as 
luxuries rather than for reproduction. Sexual passion in the 
man is now a habit, artificially fostered, until man is practically 
always ready for the sexual act, without any of the stimuli that 
are necessary for animals. The human male is always ready — 
"semper paratus" — ; he is stimulated by sight rather than by 
odor. Yet it is related of a recent Sultan of Turkey that he was 
fond of going in the bathing pool with his odalisques, and after 
the bath he ordered them to dance until they were in perspiration ; 
he then ordered the one whose perspiration odor appealed most 
strongly to him to go to bed with him for the night. 

It is unnecessary here to consider either the methods of pre- 


paring perfumery, or the materials that are used, except to say 
that some of the most important ingredients, such as musk, castor, 
civet, etc., are obtained from glands connected with the sexual 
organs of animals, while even many of the attars or volatile oils 
from floAvers have important bearing on the sexual functions of 

It is not likely to have been mere accidental coincidence that 
nearly all our most lasting perfumes contain either musk, civet 
or castor, all of ,which are substances obtained from glands con- 
nected with the sexual organs of animals. 

As already explained in the remarks on Dr. Piesse's Odo- 
phone, these substances render delicate and evanescent odors more 
lasting or permanent, and one or the other of these substances is 
therefore apt to be in every perfume. 

However, ambergris, from the intestines of whales, benzoin, 
and "violet-root," the root of Florentine orris, also have similar 
properties, so that one of these may be substituted for the sub- 
stances from the genitals of animals, or they may be added. 

Nor should it be overlooked that there may be personal 
idiosyncrasies respecting perfumes, just as there are in other mat- 
ters of taste, as in music, for example; but it is held by expert 
perfumers that personal preference is not the only guide, nor 
indeed always a safe guide, in the choice of one's perfumes. A 
brunette, for instance, may be very fond of violet, and therefore 
may desire to use violet perfume; but the fact is, that our bodies 
exhale or emit certain acids, and the acid given off by a brunette 
is in direct conflict with the violet odor, so that in a short time she 
will counteract, or "kill" the violet extract on her clothing or 
person. A perfume in which rose predominates is more fitted 
for the brunette. 

Nor may we neglect the effects of the various odors on the 
emotions of mankind. It is said that the odor of magnolia pro- 
duces a combative disposition, while a spirit of placid and saintly 
devotion will mark the person who habitually uses violet; the 
odor of cloves is credited with inciting to suspicion and slander, 
probably on account of its general use as an inter-act condiment ; 
it is claimed that a frivolous and irreverent spirit can be changed 
to that of a meditative thinker by the habitual use of bergamot. 

We have learned from biographies of Schiller that he could 
not write unless he had apples on his writing desk; vervain de- 


velops the artistic temperament; ambergris is recommended as 
a divine essence upon which, poetic genius thrives ; white rose be- 
gets a love of languorous indolence, and the famous patchouly will, 
sooner or later, cause the moral downfall of its devotees. The es- 
sence of verbena is blamed for exciting to the use of strong drink, 
while the odor of the common or garden pink develops a meek 
and pious spirit. The red rose, like spring, will cause the fancy 
to turn, not lightly but rapturously, to thoughts of love. 

The majority of our artists and poets praise the beauty of the 
light-haired, blue-eyed, fair-skinned and violet-scented woman as 
their highest ideal of feminine loveliness. 

The blonde who uses rose or Oriental odors transgresses 
against her own best interests, and sins against nature ; she should 
use violet, or some of the odors akin to violet, such as lilac, acacia, 
apple blossom, etc., so that she and the perfumes she uses may be 
in full accord, each enhancing the sweetness of the other. There 
must be personal harmony between the perfume and the user, or 
the odor of the perfume is destroyed or rendered disagreeable by 
being contaminated by discordant body odors; and there results 
a discord which is generally recognizable though but few may 
understand its nature. 

The clean and healthy human body, fresh from the bath 
(Fig. 87) emits an agreeable odor, which, in the woman because 
she uses no liquors, tobacco or strongly-spiced foods, resembles 
the delicate fragrance of perfumery. These body odors are most 
characteristic about the bosom and the axillas, and in the darker- 
colored races of men, and especially among negroes, are often so 
strong as to be disagreeable to white people. 

Prof. Jaeger, a German scientist, ascribed the characteristic 
odors of the head, axillas and pubes to the hair, but it is probable 
that the hair odors are not as delicate nor as delightful as those 
of the skin itself, especially the skin of the breasts and bosom. 
But it is very possible that the odor of the hair, especially that 
about the pubes, may be more aphrodisiacally exciting (Prof. 
Jaeger's Haar-Duft-Theorie). 

The value of the perfume of shoulders, arms, bosom and axil- 
las is so much appreciated in recent years that these parts of a 
woman's body are practically left bare in ball-costumes; and as 
the axilla itself is frequently shown in modern dance postures, 
safety razors are publicly advertised for ladies' use, to keep the 



axillas smooth-shaved, white and attractive, to intoxicate their 

Novelists are well aware of this, and passages like the fol- 
lowing, from The Prisoner, by Alice Brown, are common: "Once 
within, beside her perfumed presence — yet Esther nsed no vulgar 
helps to provoke the senses, — he forgot that he must be safe and 
took her in his arms. He had been so certain of his stability, that 
he forgot to resist himself and Esther did not help him. She 
clung to him, and the perfume mounted to his brain. What was 

Fig. 87. — An artist's model. 

it? Not, even he Imew, a cunning of the toilet; only the whole 
warm breath of her." 

Every reader of the Bible is no doubt aware of the prom- 
inence given to the odors of the various parts of the bride's body, 
in the Song of Songs, where they are compared to the fragrance 
of grapes, wine, apples, pomegranates, myrrh, frankincense, and 
sweet spices; the Bible contains many references to perfume as 
of sexual importance, as when Euth anointed herself to be attrac- 
tive to Boaz; or when the bride in Solomon's Song says of her 
lover: "Who is it that cometh, perfumed with myrrh, frankin- 



cense and all the powders of the merchants ! ' ' And especially does 
the Bible emphasize the importance of the perfume of a bride. 
(See Song of Songs.) 

We have already learned how Judith prepared herself to 
captivate Holof ernes: "She washed herself all over with water, 
and anointed herself with precious ointment." In Biblical times 
perfumed oils and "precious" or perfumed ointments appear to 
have been the main forms for using perfumery for the enhance- 
ment of bodily attractiveness (Fig. 88). 

Fig. 88.— " Oriental Bath," from a painting by Bedt. 

We read in the Booh of Esther, in the Bible, that King 
Ahasuerus, being displeased with his queen Vashti, sent her away 
and sought a new queen; Esther ii, 2-17 : "Let there be fair young 
virgins sought for the king, and let the maiden that pleaseth the 
king be queen instead of Vashti. * * * So it came to pass that 
many maidens were gathered together * * *, Now, when every 
maiden's turn was come to go in unto King Ahasuerus, after she 
had been twelve months according to the manner of the women 
(for so were the days of their purification accomplished, towit, 
six months with oil of myrrh and six months with sweet odors and 


with other things for the purifying of the women) ; then thus came 
every maiden unto the king * * * in the evening she went and 
on the morrow she returned to the custody of Shaashgaz, the 
king's chamberlain who kept the concubines. * * * So Esther 
was taken unto King Ahasuerus * * * and the king loved 
Esther above all the other women * * * so that he made her 
queen instead of Vashti." 

The preparation of a bride for the nuptials by bathing and 
perfuming is probably universal, but amongst ourselves it is not 
a public function, but a private matter, except that intimate girl 
friends are allowed to see the garments of the trousseau. 

Among Hottentots and some African tribes where the unmar- 
ried women go naked, the bride is perfumed by rubbing the entire 
body with the bruised leaves of buchu or other odorous plants. 

In some tribes on Islands of the Pacific the process of per- 
fuming the bride is a public festival. Patchouly and other fra- 
grant leaves and flowers are boiled during a whole night while 
bonfires burn and general festivities take place. In the morniag 
a large tub or trough is taken to the public square of the village 
and is filled with the odorous decoction ; the bride, naked, is then 
brought by her women friends and placed in this bath to soak 
during the whole day, while general feasting is indulged in until 
in the evening when she is conducted to the home of her future 

In India the bride is prepared for marriage by being fed for 
some days on cakes made by rolling a piece of benzoin in lumps 
of dough and frying in melted butter, similar to our doughnuts. 
As the Hindu religion is a form of sex-worship and they use ben- 
zoin as incense in their temples, this feeding the bride on these 
perfumed cakes may have a religious significance. 

Among the ancient Egyptians wealthy women went naked, or 
nearly so, for their costly veil-like draperies were a protection 
against gnats and flies, rather than protective clothing; poor 
women, and slave women, wore coarse and opaque cotton gar- 
ments, and slave girls trained as dancers and musicians wore noth- 
ing at all. This (Fig. 89) is from an ancient Egyptian painting 
and shows Nefert-Ari-Ahmes ("the beautiful consort of Ahmes"), 
whose garments could not have obscured her physical charms, 
including her bodily odors; but inscriptions of her time, about 



1500 B.C., inform us that women of that period perfumed their 
sexual parts to add to their attractiveness. 

A similar custom still prevails in some of the tribes of Oce- 
anica; and it is probably practiced by a certain class of women 
everywhere, even amongst us. 

Many of the ancients were fond of strong-smelling ointments or 
perfumes, just as are their descendants, the modern Oriental peo- 
ple. The aim of the ancients was to find some pexfume so fully 
in accord with their bodies that the odor might seem as a real 
emanation from their own bodies. But unlike moderns they did 

Fig. 89. — Nef ert-Ari-Ahmes ; from L'Egypte, published by order of Napoleon. 

not seek to accomplish this by mixing different simples to make 
a "blend," as we do today, but by applying different, but har- 
monious scents to different parts of their bodies. 

Lucian, an ancient writer, tells us that the Athenians used 
different perfumes for different parts of their bodies: "Egyptian 
essences for the hands and feet, Phoenician perfumes for the 
cheeks and bosom, marjoram for the hair, and the spirit of wild 
thyme for the thighs." 

And who does not recall in this connection the story of Mary 

SEX ANt) SEX WOftSHIf 24l 

anointing the feet of Jesus with very costly ointment of spikenard 
and wiping his feet with her hair (John xii, 3). 

That I speak mainly of women in connection with perfumery 
is due 

First: To the fact that women use most of it; 
Second: Because men have studied the subject more closely 
in its relation to women; and 

Lastly: Also perhaps on the principle of the old nursery 
rhyme — 

"Snips and snails, and puppy dogs' tails 
Are the things the boys are made of; 
Sugar and spice, and all that is nice 
Are the things the girls are made of." 

"The most beautiful object in the world, it will be allowed, is 
a beautiful woman," said Macauley, and it is but natural that we 
should mentally associate her with everything that is pleasing to 
our senses, sweet perfumes, fragrant flowers, poetry and music, 
and everything else that we delight in. 

"Women fascinate men with many charms, and the use of per- 
fumery is not the least potent of these. Large volumes have been 
written on this subject, but we can only stop to consider a few 
of the most elementary facts. We love to associate women with 
the fragrance of flowers ; we like to see them wear flowers. Most 
women use perfumes in the art of loving. Shakspeare referred to 
this when he said of Cleopatra: "She was so perfumed that the 
winds were love-sick. ' ' 

We read in the Song of Songs: "How fair art thou, my sis- 
ter, my spouse! How much better is thy love than wine! And 
the smell of thy ointments than all spices ! Thy lips, 0, my spouse, 
drop as the honeycomb, and milk and honey are under thy tongue ; 
and the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon!" 

We may divide women into two classes — those who use per- 
fumeries, and those who do not (Fig. 90) ; the latter are apt to be 
of a prosaic turn of mind and with but little sympathy for all the 
higher aspirations of the refined and educated women of today; 
some women abstain from the use of perfumery from a religious 
objection to all daiaty enhancements of bodily attractiveness, be- 
cause they believe that such things lead to sensuality and are 
therefore vanity and sin; others are content with any coarse 

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like exhalations in some women, to fainter violet-like odors in 
other women. It is claimed by many writers that strong mnsk- 
like perspiration is associated with strong emotions and passions, 
and that women who exhale it are apt to love ardently and to 
become jealous easily; they cause similar emotions in men and 
rouse in the latter such violent passions that they often lead to 
vice and crime. 

This type of women is most frequently found in Southern 
climes, where the flowers are more odorous, colors more intense, 
fruits more highly flavored, spices hotter,, bodily exhalations more 
pronounced and passions fiercer. That these odors are really 
aphrodisiac or sexually exciting, is proved by the behavior of 
cats, who are excited by the intimate wearing apparel, such as 
chemises, of women of this type as they would be by valerian; 
even to men the odors of such women are oppressive and sexually 
excitant, having the same effect as that of the close and hot air of 
a ball-room, where bare bosoms, shoulders, arms and axillas, stim- 
ulated by the exercise of dancing, saturate the air with the exha- 
lations of women in their most seductive moods. 

Women of this type furnish many of that class of whom King 
Solomon wrote : ' ' There met him a woman Avith the attire of an har- 
lot, and she caught him and kissed him and said unto him. Be- 
hold, I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes and cinnamon — 
Come, let us take our fill of love until morning!" (Prov. vii, 10). 

Such was Lalun, of whom Kipling wrote : ' ' Her eyes are black, 
and her hair is black, and her eye-brows are black as leeches ; her 
mouth is tiny and says witty things ; her hands are tiny ; her feet 
are tiny and have trodden on the naked hearts of many men. 
But as Wali-Dad sings: 'Lalun is Lalun, and when you have said 
that, you have only come to the beginning of knowledge.' " 

Women of this type, probably impelled by a consciousness of 
the penetrating character of their own bodily odors, use strong 
perfumes, and when they belong to that most ancient of guilds 
which enables women to turn caresses into riches, they drench 
their clothing and their bodies with patchouly, Jockey Club, or 
even with pure essence of musk. 

I have seen a member of Lalun 's calling come into a drug- 
store and buy half-an-ounce of perfume which she poured down 
into her bosom to saturate her body and her underwear with its 
fragrance; and there are such women who inject perfumery sub- 


cutaneously that their skins may exhale fragrant odors for many 
days afterwards. 

Poisonous weeds often have heavy narcotic odors; and it is 
said that the cobra, the deadliest of all venomous serpents, betrays 
its presence by a sickening odor which warns man and beast of 
danger. So these women warn men by the oppressiveness of 
the perfumes they use ; and it is well to heed the warning, for men 
who allow themselves to become infatuated with such women are 
often brought to disgrace and ruin, even to murder and suicide. 

Of course, not all girls or women who use strong perfumes 
are wicked or inclined to be so. Many of them use strong per- 
fumes from no personal necessity, for either their own bodily 
odors are not penetrating, or they can keep them in moderation 
with baths ; some few use them because they sutf er from diseases 
accompanied by disagreeable odors, as in cancer; some others, 
because they have a defective sense of smell and are really not 
aware that they use more than ordinarily strong scents; but a- 
large number use ''loud" perfumes from the same thoughtlessness 
that leads them to wear "loud" dress or to indulge in "loud" 
behavior — to attract attention. 

The latter may not be wickedly inclined, but they play a dan- 
gerous game, for "loudness" of any kind tempts some men to 
take liberties in word or deed, that, even if resented, mortify and 
humiliate, and if not resented, may lead to shame and ruin 
(Fig. 91). 

Then there is the violet-scented girl! more frequently found 
among the daughters of the North, where flowers are less odorous 
but more sweet, colors less intense, fruits and spices milder- 
flavored, bodily exhalations less strong, and passions more easily 
controlled ; it is of such a girl that Longfellow wrote : 

"Blue were her eyes as the fairy flax. 
Her cheeks like the dawn of day. 
And her bosom white like the hawthorn bud 
That opes in the month of May." 

Conscious of the purity and sweetness of her own body 
(Fig. 92) the violet-scented girl neither needs nor uses strong per- 
fumes ; she pours a little lavender in her bath, or places a sachet 
of violet or vetivert among the lingerie in her chiffonier, or per- 



haps she sprays a drop of heliotrope or lilac over her dress and 

When you call on her, as she enters the room, the perfume of 
her presence reminds you of the air coming over fields of new- 
mown hay, or of breezes laden with the fragrance of the eglantine, 
of mignonette, or sweet violets; and she looks so sweet that you 
can almost imagine the frou-frou of her gowns to be the humming 
of bees gathering honey. She arouses no passions that lead to 
ruin, but the mind is calmed with a feeling akin to that which we 
experience when we enter a church, for we feel instinctively that 

Fig. 91. — "Innocence in Danger." 
Playing with an arrow, or, figuratively, a 
lingam, from a painting by Voillemont. 

Fig. 92.— "The Bather," reproduction 
made from a painting. 

we are in the presence of something better and purer than we our- 
selves are. Her presence and her fragrance rouse in our hearts 
all the emotions that tend to make us better men, and we feel, as 
we perhaps never felt before, the truth of the words of the poet : 

"Blessed through Love are the Gods — through Love 
Their bliss to ourselves is given; 
Heavenlier through Love is the heaven above, 
And Love makes the earth a heaven!" 



You may fall in love with such, a woman — it would perhaps 
be a wonder if you did not — and you may ask her to become your 
wife; and if she marries you she will prove an inspiration that 
will spur you on to live a useful and honored life (Fig. 93). 

But if she remains only a friend, or promises to be a sister 
to you, or even if she passes out of your life altogether, you will 
be a better and purer man for having known her, and having in- 
haled the fragrance of her presence. 

And if you never marry, but pass your life solitary and alone, 
without a wife to double your joys and divide your sorrows, per- 

Fig. 93. — "At Last Alone," from a 
painting by Tofano. 

Fig. 94. — "Spring," from painting by 
P. A. Cot. 

haps in some moments of revery your memory will turn back to 
some such girl, and as you think of the might-have-been, you Avill 
perhaps feel with the poet Tennyson : 

"The smell of violets in the green 

Pour'd back into my empty soul and frame. 
The times when I remembered to have been 
Joyful, and free from blame." 

The ancients believed that when they inhaled any odor, a por- 
tion of the object from which that odor emanated became a part 



of themselves; odors are exhalations of real particles of matter, 
and who knows but what the ancients were right, and that when 
we inhale the fragrance of the violet-scented girl, a part of her 
innocence and purity may enter into onr souls and become a part 
of our own being, to inspire in us a desire to lead a life as clean 
and as pure as her own! 

Sense of Hearing 

The sense of hearing is subordinate in importance, yet a 
sweet voice is a pleasant thing; to most men the gushing and 

Fig. 95. — "Eve," from painting by Grandchamp. 

gurgling laugh of a pretty woman is the most entrancing music 
in nature; and possibly all men agree with Shakspeare when he 

"Her voice was ever soft, 
Gentle, and low; an excellent thing in woman." 

The man's voice changes from a boyish treble to a masculine 
bass about the age of puberty and it is not as dulcet as the voice 
of the woman; but the influence of the man's voice over woman is 
not so much in the sound of the voice as in the words spoken; 



women are susceptible to flattery and fall victims to the seducer 
usually in response to his wooing words, but mainly to the mod- 
ern ideas which deny her a knowledge of sexual facts, so that she 
is too innocent and inexperienced to be on her guard. When a 
girl is seduced it is generally the fault of the mother in not in- 
forming her daughter properly so she would be worldly-wise 
enough to avoid harm. 

It was Eve, not Adam, who listened to the beguiling words of 
the serpent. It was for this reason that, as Euskin tells us, the 
serpent in paradise was for many centuries represented with the 
head of a man, as in this illustration Eve, by Grandchamp (Fig. 

Fig. 96. — ' ' Love 's Dream, ' ' from a painting by Mortens. 

Sense of Taste 

The sense of taste runs in a minor key through the universal 
song of love ; yet it gives it some of its most tender chords. The 
kiss is called the "salute by tasting," and it is known to about 
one-half of mankind (Fig. 96). The kiss has been likened to 
Creation — "made out of nothing, but very good!" 

Originally the kiss pointed to an idea of commingling of 
souls, the breath being considered the life of the person, as ex- 
pressed in the Bible, where God blows his breath into Adam to 
give him life. 

The Japanese do not permit kissing except as a caress be- 
tween husband and wife, it being considered so distinctly sexual 
that even parents do not kiss their children, nor are brothers and 


sisters permitted to kiss each other. It is slanderous, however, 
when it is claimed that women have an instinctive feeling that a 
kiss is a sexual caress, and that they kiss one another in obedi- 
ence to the Golden Eule — "Doing imto each other as they would 
that men should do unto them." 

The lover or husband does not restrict his kisses to the lips 
or cheeks of his beloved one, but finds even greater pleasure in 
kissing other parts of her body, as the bosom, etc. 

"I rest content; I kiss your eyes, 
I kiss your hair in my delight, 
I kiss your hand and say 'Good Night!' " 

(Joaquin Miller.) 

"And his kiss! What ecstatic feeling! 
Like two flames that lovingly entwine ; 
Like the harp's soft tones together stealing 
Into one sweet harmony divine, — 

Soul and soul embraced, commingled, blended. 
Lips and cheeks with trembling passion burn'd 
Heaven and Earth, in pristine chaos ended 
Bound the blissful lovers madly twined." 


It is a curious fact that there are traces of the importance 
of the flavor of the woman still persisting. This is not the place 
to consider love-charms ; it will suffice to mention only three which 
are stiU in vogue in primitive communities of Europe. In some 
parts of France mothers carefully preserve the afterbirth (pla- 
centa and membranes) of their daughters; when the latter are 
grown to marriageable age this afterbirth is powdered and a small 
pinch of it is secretly placed in the food or drink offered to de- 
sirable young men, in the belief that this will stimulate their de- 
sire and passion for the girl. 

In the middle ages, and probably occasionally at the present 
time, a girl would bake a "love-cake" to be given to the lover 
whom she desired to secure as a husband. To bake this cake the 
girl had to be naked ; she touched the dough to her breasts, axillas, 
genitals, etc., so that it might absorb some of her sweat, which 


was supposed to convert the cake into a most powerful love-charm. 

Or she took the bloody napkins which she wore while men- 
struating and burnt them to ashes, of which she mixed some with 
the dough for the cake. 

Some authors connect the pleasure by taste, as symbolized by 
the kiss, or as actually carried out in sucking or biting the woman 
during sexual frenzy, with the protoplasmic hunger of lower or- 
ganisms ; it is curious that we should have such endearing expres- 
sions as "sweet enough to eat" or "so pretty, I'd like to eat you," 
and that in the caresses of babies by their mothers playful pre- 
tences of biting or eating should be so universal. 

The eating (or tasting) of human bodies is still a habit in 
certain parts of the world; it is called anthropophagy. In the 
caves of the troglodites human bones were found which had been 
roasted and cracked for their marrow; but so rarely, that we are 
not justified in considering this to have been a habit among prim- 
itive men. In the main, mankind has felt a horror at eating its 
own kind, going even so far that savages could not eat their own 
totems (animals or plants from whom they imagined themselves 
descended and to which they were therefore related). 

Cannibalism was a religious rite in some nations, as among 
the Aztecs who ate the human sacrificial victims, whose hearts 
had been offered to Huitzilopochtli. 

In the Islands of the Pacific cannibalism was probably due 
to necessity or famine; in years of bad crops starvation threat- 
ened all, and therefore the older and weaker were killed and eaten 
to save the rest. 

Cannibalism probably occurred everywhere when famines 
prevailed. In Leviticus (ch. xxvi, 29) we read of God's threat 
against Israel, of dire punishments, including want and famine; 
"And ye shall eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your 
daughters shall ye eat." 

This is said to be still done among the Fuegians, although not 
always from necessity. 

In Hawaii it was formerly practiced as a religious rite, for 
when a great chief or warrior died, the other chiefs ate his heart 
and liver so that his valor would pass into them and thus be pre- 
served to the people. 

In the Fiji Islands cannibalism was part of their religion ; it 


was believed that the souls of the dead were eaten by the gods, 
and the bodies were eaten by the worshippers. 

In Australia it is practiced in .exultation over slain enemies, 
because it is believed the valor of the slain in battle will enter the 
eaters; but sometimes it is a solemn funeral rite and they intend 
to show great respect for their loved dead, by eating them. 

In all times the adherents of persecuted religions have been 
accused of all kinds of evil deeds ; so in the time of the persecu- 
tions of the Christians in Eome, under Nero, Tiberius, Caligula, 
etc., the Christians were accused of being atheists, that they were 
licentious, ate human flesh, etc.; Athenagoras was a Christian 
apologist (II Century A.D.) who Avrote a defence in which he refutes 
these accusations and he in turn bitterly attacked the wickedness 
of the Eomans. 

But human flesh is considered proper and good food by mil- 
lions upon millions of the inhabitants of our earth to this day. 
In all parts of Africa negro slavery continues and slave raids oc- 
cur at all times; formerly these slaves were exported to Amer- 
ica, but since dealing in slaves has been declared piracy, and those 
who are captured with slaves on their ships are hanged, the ex- 
port to America ceased, even before slavery itself was abolished 
in America. Some are still exported across the Red Sea to Asia ; 
but the trade has now been deflected to Central Africa; the sur- 
plus of slaves who are not needed anywhere as servants, are now 
taken to inner Africa, where they are butchered as cattle are with 
us and their flesh is used as food. The live slaves are exchanged 
for ivory, gold, rubber, etc., and a profitable trade is carried on 
in this way by some Arabian dealers and raiders. 

Formerly human flesh was considered a delicacy in Fiji, in 
Sumatra among the Battas, in inner Papua, among the Monbuttu 
of Africa, etc. The Monbuttu in Africa dry the bodies of those 
slain in their raids for future use, and they drive the captives like 
a herd of sheep, to be slaughtered later as they need them for food. 

It is more than probable that human sacrifices would not have 
been in vogue if human flesh had not been appreciated as good 
food; it is unlikely that a feast of human flesh should have been 
offered to the gods, if the offerers had not esteemed it a delicacy. 

Stories of cannibalism on shipwrecked vessels, etc., are not 


Sense of Touch 

Closely allied to the kiss is the pleasure felt in caressing the 
body of a beloved one with the hands. The embrace is essen- 
tially an effort to touch as much as possible of another (Fig. 97) 
at one time, and it finds its intensest gratification in the sexual 
embrace of man and woman. 

The skin of a woman is softer to the touch than silk or velvet ; 
more exquisitely beautiful to the eye, and capable of conveying 
more delicious sensations to the hand of a man, than any other 
substance in the world. The Shulamite bride, in Solomon's Song, 

Fig. 97. — "A Man and a Woman," by Sinding. 

said of her lover: "His left hand should be under my head and his 
right hand should embrace me" (Cant, viii, 3). 

Sense of Sight 

The sense by which we chiefly discover beauty in material 
objects and through which we experience the highest form of en- 
joyment, is the sense of sight. The characteristics taken cogni- 
zance of by this sense are — Color, Form and Motion. There can 
of course be no abstract standard of beauty as regards color, since 
preference in this regard depends on individual or race tastes. The 
white skins of our women, which we consider so beautiful, are not 
so much admired by the men of other races who generally prefer 



the beauty of their own women, even when, to our tastes, they are 
positively ugly. 

Thus among the women of Borneo but few are fairly well 
formed; the majority are ugly. In addition to this handicap of 
nature they think they beautify themselves, and perhaps they do 
in the eyes of their men, by staining their faces blue with indigo, 
their front teeth black and the canine teeth red; we are told that 
the men of Borneo may take as many wives as they want but that 
they rarely take more than three ; after reading about them many 

Fig. 98. — A beautiful blonde girl. 

of US will wonder why they should want any, or why there are 
not more "wild men of Borneo." 

"White men, being better educated and more cosmopolitan in 
their tastes, can appreciate the beauty of color as well as of form 
of women of other races ; for instance, it is well known that many 
superbly proportioned women are to be found among Ethiopian 
and Abyssinian tribes, whose beauty is enhanced rather than 
diminished by their glossy brown-black skins which make them 
look like magnificent bronze figures of goddesses. 

We can appreciate the beauty of these dusky Venuses, we 
may admire the warm sensuous tints of the quadroon or octoroon, 


some of us may prefer the healthy glow of the brunette daughters 
of the South, but there is no doubt that the majority of our writ- 
ers and artists laud the blond beauty of the light-haired, blue- 
eyed and white-skinned Northern women as their highest ideal of 
female loveliness (Fig. 98). 

Of all material qualities that which is most generally and most 
naturally productive of the emotions of beauty is Form. "The 
most beautiful object in the world, it will be allowed, is a beau- 
tiful woman," said Macaulay, and the purest delight we can ex- 
perience is that of seeing beautiful women. 

And this delight in seeing God's most beautiful creation is 
natural and chaste. 

"Beauty was lent to nature as the type 
Of heaven's unspeakable and holy joy, 
Where all perfection makes the sum of bliss." 


The Bible itself teaches us how to enjoy such beauty: "Be- 
hold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea pleasant ; thy teeth are like a 
flock of sheep that are even shorn which come up from the washing ; 
thy two breasts are like two young roes that are twins which feed 
among the lilies. How fair and how pleasant art thou, 0, Love, 
for delights" {Song of Songs). 

Space will not permit us to dwell long on the beauties of the 
human face. If we draw a horizontal line to divide the face into 
two equal halves, we notice that the lower and more animal the 
type, the lower will such a line drop towards the chin, and the 
higher the type, the nearer will such a line approach toward the 
eyes or forehead. 

We see a typical illustration of the animal type of face in 
man, coarse, angular, large-jawed, large-mouthed and brutal, and 
with this line passing through or just above the bulb of the nose 
in the head of the Pithecanthropus, p. 26; while in the intellectual 
type we see an oval, small-mouthed, round-chinned face, with this 
line passing through or near the eyes. 

The highest type of feminine face is a perfect oval, the mouth 
delicately small, and this line passing through the eyes (Fig. 99). 
Even in the highest type of male face some of the animal features 
are retained, for the face is not as perfect an oval, a suggestion 



of angularity about the jaws giving an appearance of greater 
strength and more expression, while the mouth is larger and 
somewhat coarser; and the horizontal line passes just below the 

The highest type of head and face is that of woman, who, in 
her most perfect form, represents the highest achievements of 
creative evolution. 

"What is female beauty, but an air divine 
Through which the mind's all-gentle graces shine." 


The hair has always been held to be one of the loveliest 
charms of woman. The Bible says : "If a woman have long hair, 
it is a glory to her" (I Cor. xi, 15). 

Pig. 99. — Types of faces of highly civilized individuals. 

The most sense-beguiling witchery of woman is when she 
lets her long hair hang loose-flowing over her naked body; 

"Fair tresses man's imperial race ensnare 
And Beauty draws us with a single hair." 


Long hair seems to be a feminine feature, not merely because 
fashion requires it, but because nature so ordains. And in pro- 
portion as the hair of the head is plentiful, the small hair known 
as lanugo ("down") is scant on the body. In the man this down 
frequently is developed into large coarse hair, but then usually 
the hair of the head is scant and the man becomes bald early. And 
when a man retains a full head of hair to past middle age, his 
body is usually hairless like a woman's body. The body of the 
woman is usually soft, smooth and hairless except in the axillas 
and about the pubes. 



If we draw a line to touch the outer points on a woman's 
shoulder, hip and ankle, such a line will be a curve (Fig. 100). 
Nature abhors angularity in a woman and her body presents the 
most enchanting combinations of curves and lines of beauty. Ev- 
ery part is rounded and dimpled, and the entire surface, both in 
its lines and in its texture, seems to have been made to give pleas- 
ure to the esthetical eye and hand of man. 

If we draw two such lines, one on each side of the woman's 
body, they will form an ellipse (Fig. 101), the whole form of the 

Fig. 100. — Curves in a woman's body. 

Fig. 101. — Elliptic form of woman. 

woman thus suggesting a figure, which, as we shall learn a little 
farther on, is symbolical of woman in a most sacred sense. 

This width and fulness of the female hips is considered a 
peculiarly attractive charm and the constriction of the waist in 
tight lacing is a feminine trick to emphasize the beauty of this 
feature. The body of a well-formed woman from the waist to the 
knees is almost a perfect oval, and it is surprising how small the 
upper part of the body appears in comparison. 

Women consciously or unconsciously assume attitudes which 
display this fulness of the hips, and such postures have been im- 



mortalized by artists ever since the ancient Greeks first sculptured 
naked female loveliness in bronze or marble (Fig. 102). 

For the same reason that men admire full hips they also ad- 
mire large nates, and whether this is instinctive or the result of 
ages of inheritance of such admiration or not, it is yet of posi- 
tive benefit to the race (Fig. 103). Who would not prefer the 
girl on the left to the one on the right, and other things being 
equal, prefer to marry such a one, even mthout consciously re- 
alizing that the ample pelvis, indicated by the generous propor- 
tions of her hips and buttocks, mean sensual gratification, easy 

Fig. 102.— "Amor and Hebe 
Feeding Doves of Venus," from a 
painting by Series. 

Fig. 103. — Comparison of hips of women. The 
girl on the right has contracted pelvis. 

childbirth, and a long and healthy life, while the narrow-hipped 
girl has a contracted pelvis, indicating difficult labors with pos- 
sible death in child-bed or an invalid existence ever after the first 
confinement. The full development of the hips and buttocks af- 
fords a better protection against changes in temperature in win- 
ter to a womb in which a child is developing; therefore it means 
a better developed and healthier child as well. 

Some men become sexually excited, and have erotic desires, 
and often involuntary erections and emissions, when they see a 


large-hipped woman walking with that peculiar gait known as 

Such men would be in continual misery if they were sent 
among the Hottentots as missionaries, because Hottentot women 
have buttocks developed to a monstrous size as compared with 
their Caucasian sisters. 

Dimples, which are such charming features of the female face 
and body, are said to be imprints of angels' kisses, and they re- 
main invitations for men to kiss. The woman who has a pretty 
dimple is usually well aware of its value, and 

"You'll seldom find a maiden whom 
The angels kissed at birth. 
But that the dimples in her cheek 
She makes to play at hide and seek 
For every cent they're worth." 

Probably the prettiest dimples are the two in a woman's back, 
immortalized in many a statue of naked goddess and naked nymph. 

The loveliest object in the world is the bosom of a beautiful 
woman. It is to be noted that, for aesthetic reasons, to make a 
young woman attractive in the eyes of the man and attract a mate 
for her, the breasts of the human female are the only breasts that 
are developed before they are intended for use ; but then, the hu- 
man male is also the only male to whom the female breast can con- 
vey aesthetic pleasure, either by sight or touch. This is, no doubt, 
in consequence of the selective preference of men for plump-bos- 
omed women for wives. 

The vulgar and uneducated often consider an enormous ac- 
cumulation of fat about the breast-glands to make a beautiful 
breast, but the lovers of the truly beautiful know that plump, 
firm, even if small breasts, low down on the bosom, without a 
fold underneath, and with their delicate pink nipples pointing 
straight forward, are the classically beautiful breasts of the an- 
tique Greek statues. 

The bosom of woman — "that ivory throne of love" — exhausts 
the possibilities of form-beauty in material objects. 

In the Arabian Nights Tales it is said of Elsett-Budur : "But 
her bosom, blessed be the Gods, is a living seduction. It bears 
twin breasts of the purity of ivory, rounded, and that may be 
held within the five fingers of the hand." 


The bride in Solomon's Banff exclaimed: "My breasts are like 
towers ; then was I in his sight as one that found favor ; a bundle 
of myrrh is my well-beloved one unto me; he shall lie all night 
betwixt my breasts," 

Swedenborg says that in the inmost heaven all go naked, and 
that if a man is good on this earth the breasts of his wife will be 
restored to their virgin beauty, and will then remain things of 
beauty and of joy forever ; truly a much more alluring description 
of heavenly bliss than the usual one, of playing on harps for- 
ever, especially to one who is not fond of music. 

Unfortunately the beauty of the female breast is an ephem- 
eral charm. As the flower expands its petals to attract the pollen- 
laden bee, that it may fertilize its ova, which done, the petals 
wither and die, so the breast, having served its aesthetic mission of 
attracting the male, offers its virgin beauty as a sacrifice to util- 
ity; for after it has once served to nurse a child, it usually be- 
comes more or less pendulous, nodulated or flabby, and the delicate 
pink areola of virginity is replaced by a darker-colored and often 
quite large and ugly zone. 

Such hanging breasts are particularly ugly in the inferior 
races of mankind, as is often seen in North American Indian 

Among some people in Africa the breasts are manipulated 
or pulled down until they hang very low, the gland being con- 
tained in a pendulous sac. The women carry their children slung 
on their backs, and when a child is restless the mother simply 
hands it one of her breasts over her shoulder to nurse it, with- 
out interfering with her work. 

Even among the ancient Egyptians such flabby breasts were 
used to represent hideousness (Fig. 104). Taourt, the feminine 
counterpart of Seth, the Egyptian spirit of evil, was figured with 
ugly breasts, as is shown in the illustration. 

One of the most hideous figures I remember to have come 
across in art, is this figure of Death summoning a queen, from 
the Death-Dcmce of Basle (Fig. 105). The hanging breasts, the 
ugly pendulous folds of the belly, and the emaciated frame, pre- 
sent a veritable "old hag," as such ugly specimens of womankind 
are often called. 

Mankind always abhorred old and ugly women, and to this 
day they are called hags and witches. The Patagonians kill 



their women with a club, when they grow old, but Christian 
people, less merciful, burned no less than four millions of 
witches at the stake in obedience to a superstition that had its 
origin in the dislike for ugliness in women. 

The last witch hanged in America was Bridget Bishop, at Sa- 
lem, Mass., in June, 1692, but little more than 225 years ago. 

A woman's abdomen! how beautiful its charming roundness 
and softness, and its ivory whiteness! 

' ' Thy navel is like a round goblet, which wanteth not liquor ; 
thy belly is like a heap of wheat set about with lilies," said the 
lover in Solomon's Song to his bride (Cant, vii, 2). 

And is there anything that appeals to a husband for more 

Fig. 104. — Taourt; from temple at Kar- Fig. 105. — "Death to the Queen," from 
nak. An evil demon. the Death-Dance of Basle. 

tender and solicitous regard than a wife's abdomen full of the 
promise of future childish laughter and frolic in the home! 

The circumference of a woman's waist should be a little more 
than two-thirds of her height ; so that a woman 5 feet high should 
have a waist a trifle more than 24 inches around, while a woman 
of the average height of 5 feet, 4 inches should have a waist at 
least 26 inches in circumference. By a curious adaptation of 
nature, the average length of a man's arm is equal to the aver- 
age circumference of a woman's waist — or also about 26 inches. 

The difference between an idealist and a naturalist has been 
thus defined: The idealist looks into the eyes of a woman to 



measure their depth ; a naturalist looks at the hips of a woman to 
measure their breadth. 

When choosing a wife it behooves a man to be first a natural- 
ist and only afterwards an idealist. An ample waist and pelvis 
means easy childbirth, good health and probably long and happy 
life, while a narrow or contracted pelvis indicates difficult labors 
with possible death during the first confinement or an invalid 
existence ever afterwards. 

The well-formed woman is endowed, as Chaucer expressed 
it in the quaint English of 500 years ago — "with buttockes brode 
and brestes round and hye;" that is, she is the woman obviously 
best built to bear children and to suckle them. 

"How beautiful are thy feet, 0, Prince's daughter; the 
joints of thy thighs are like jewels!" wrote Solomon. 

Hesiod, one of the writers of the Greek sacred books, was 
fond of referring to the trim ankles of the goddesses ; he tells of 
3000 daughters of Oceanus and Thetis — "tapering-ankled ocean 
nymphs;" another favorite adjective for goddesses was "fair- 

The legs and feet of women are particularly attractive to men. 
When Dolly Dymple asked Charley, as she tied her shoestrings: 
"Why is a woman's leg like bad weather?" and then added, when 
Charley "gave up :" "Because men would like to see it clear up," 
she described a mental trait that has characterized men since 
women first began to hide the beauty of their legs in petticoats. 
There is a sympathy between extremes, opposites attract, and 
many a man's head has been turned by a woman's pretty foot I 

A windy day is thus regarded by the women: 

"The devil sends the wicked wind 
That swirls our skirts knee-high; 
But God is just, and he sends the dust 
That blows in the bad man's eye." 

And a rainy day is judged from the men's standpoint: 

"There's magic in a pretty foot 
And well the ladies know it ; 
And she who has a pretty one 
Is pretty sure to show it. ' ' 

Artists rave over pretty feet, sculptors delight to model them 


and poets have sung their praises; even Tennyson speaks of 
ladies' feet as "sunny gems on the English green." 

"Her feet beneath her petticoat 
Like little mice stole in and out 

As if they feared the light ; 
But, oh, she dances such a way ! 
No sun upon an Easter-day 
Is half so fine a sight ! ' ' 

(Sir John Suckling.) 

Whether we individually prefer the tall girl or the small 
girl, the fair or the brunette, the delicate or the robust, the spare 
or corpulent, the pensive or the frivolous, the demure or the 
saucy, the reserved or the gushing woman, there is one thing on 
which all virile, manly men agree, — that the naked woman is the 
crowning jewel of Creation! And the artists and poets of all 
times, and the men of all nations and of all climes pay homage 
at her shrine, and agree that to portray her in her various moods 
and attitudes is the highest form of art. 

The third characteristic of Beauty is Motion. 

In all times the best display of the charms of women was 
considered to be when they accompanied the display of form with 
the motions of the dance. 

Motion, as an element of works of art, is best seen in the 
dance, especially on the modern stage as danced by Isadora Dun- 
can, Gertrude Hoffman, Maude Allen, and many others. 

Terpsichore, one of the nine Greek muses, the Muse of the 
Dance, is generally represented nude, because artists and the lov- 
ers of the beautiful know that the highest perfection of the dance 
requires nude or nearly nude women. 

Originally dances were ceremonials of a religious signifi- 
cance, and most heathen temples even now have slave girls or 
attendants who perform the sacred dances. 

When Hesiod wrote the Greek Bible, he told of his inspira- 
tion: "Begin we to sing with the Heliconian Muses, who * * * 
with delicate feet dance about the violet-hued fount and altars 
of the mighty Son of Cronos (Zeus) ; and likeAvise having bathed 
their soft skins * * * are wont to institute on the top of Helicon 
choral dances * * *." 

The religious dances of nearly all ancient and of many mod- 



ern people were originally attempts to imitate and exalt sexual 

delights, becaiise all primitive religions were forms of the wor- 
ship of sex. Such are, for instance, the Almeh dances, the Nautch 
dances, and similar Oriental dances, which were introduced to 
the notice of American audiences through the various "World's 
Fairs" held in this country in recent years, and which are popu- 
larly knoAvn as Couchee-Couchee dances. 

In ancient Egypt, and in fact in all the adjacent lands, the 
musicians were women trained in the art; they went naked from 
childhood on, so that nakedness in public did not embarrass 
them; many of the psalms of David are inscribed or dedicated 

Pig. 106. — "Danse du Ventre," from a painting by Bedt. 

"to the chief musician," who, in all probability, Avas the leader 
of the chorus of musicians and singers and like them — a naked 
woman or girl. Dances, also, were executed mainly by naked 
girls; the dances were similar to those performed by Ferida, an 
Egyptian dancer at the Egyptian theatre, Chicago World's Fair, 
which was a marvelously beautiful presentation of sexual or- 
gasm, not at all even hinted at by the many vulgar imitators who 
now perform such dances at "stag parties" in many clubs. 

The Almeh (plural Awalim) dancers are generally also ac- 
complished singers; in fact, from ancient times until now, Egyp- 
tian musicians usually danced while they played or sang. In 



modern times the Almees (or Awalim) perform without being 
naked, and they should not be mistaken for the lower grade 
Ghawazees (singular Ghazeeyeh) who are strolling bands of danc- 
ing girls, who dance erotic dances, and practice, as a side line, 
prostitution, when they are desired by a man. The better class 
Egyptian people consider their dances improper (Fig. 107). 

Most people have national dances, often having a religious 
symbolic meaning. Probably no people ever had cleaner and 
more beautiful dances than the ancient Greeks, and moderns have 

Fig. 107. — Egyptian Ghazeeyeh dance, 
from a painting. 

Fig. 108. — A Ghazeeyeh dancer, from 
a painting by Gerome. 

imitated and reintroduced the ancient Greek dances to the de- 
light of millions of spectators. 

Isadora Duncan was one of the first, and most successful of 
modern "Greek" Dancers. She adopted a number of children 
whom she brought up, like the ancient dancers, in a condition of 
nature. Her idea was that they should act naturally in the nearly 
naked dances she taught them. 

Orgies were certain rites in the worship of Dionysus in an- 
cient Greece. These rites were participated in only by women 
who met in certain holy places in the woods, nearly naked or 


dressed only in fa"wn skins, their hair hanging loose over their 
shoulders; they brandished the thyrsus or sceptre sacred to Di- 
onysus, a staff with a figure of a bunch of grapes or a pine-cone 
at the end, beat cjmibals and danced. They danced until they 
worked themselves into a state of frenzy, even to mad excite- 
ment and convulsions. Then at night they killed a sacrificial bull 
by tearing him to pieces with their teeth, after which they de- 
voured the raw flesh. In early Greek times the sacrificial vic- 
tim was a man, not a bull ; in either case, an important feature of 
these orgies was the adoration of the phallus, or penis, of the 
victim ; or of the image of this organ which was used as an altar 
figure representing the procreative god; the celebrants of these 
orgies were called maenads or bacchantes. 

The Corybantes were dancers who officiated at the temples 
of the goddess Ehea Cybele in Phrygia; her priests castrated 
themselves, and some of the younger ones joined in the orgiastic 
dances, with the blood still dripping from their mutilated 

All Greek dances probably to a certain extent had a phallic 
or sexual significance ; they pictured the relationship of the sexes. 
When danced as by the maenads it produced excitement approach- 
ing convulsions; in camp meetings, especially among negroes, 
the walking around, the clapping of hands, the jumping and shout- 
ing, results in similar ecstasies as in the religious dances in honor 
of Bacchus or Cybele; it may approach to madness. 

The ancient Jews danced religious dances. Ps. cxlix, 2, 3: 
"Let Israel rejoice in him that made him; let the children of 
Zion be joyful in their king. Let them praise his name in the 
dance ; let them sing praises unto him with the timbrel and harp." 
This exhortation to praise the Creator with dance, meant to 
dance the erotic or sexual dances common to all Oriental people. 
Even David danced, II Sam. vi, 14: "And David danced before 
the Lord with all his might; * * * and Michal, Saul's daugh- 
ter, looked through a window, and saw King David leaping and 
dancing before the Lord; and she despised him." 

Salome, the daughter of Herodias, danced a dance similar to 
the couehee-couchee, the ages-old dance of the Orient: "But when 
Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced be- 
fore them, and pleased Herod" (Matt, xiv, 6). At the present 


time such dances are common in various parts of the world (Fig. 

In Madagascar, for instance, when the men are away on a war 
expedition, the women spend much of their time in dancing, for 
they believe that their dancing will inspire their men with courage. 
North American Indians have their war and other ceremonial 
dances. The Zunis have their snake-dance. The national dance 
of the Kamchadales is one of the wildest dances known; it is 
danced by men and women and they dance until every muscle 
quivers. Here also, the dance is phallic ; and there is a deliberate 
effort to show its sexual significance, by making the dance a rude 
representation of sexual passion, which is called obscene by Euro- 
pean observers. And, of course, all who have seen the cancan 
danced, can form some idea of the wild phallic dances of other 

The "whirling dervishes" of the Turks perform a similar 
wild dance, which often eventuates in convulsions, or in madness 
during which they stab themselves until the loss of blood makes 
them fall in a faint. 

Even in the early Christian churches the members of the choir 
danced religious dances while they sang. Some of the early 
church-fathers said that the angels always dance. St. Augustine 
discouraged this, and said: "Melius est fodere quam saltare" — 
"It is better to dig (cultivate the soil) than to dance." 

Not knowing the reason for the condemnation of these reli- 
gious dances of the early church, later preachers and churches 
applied this to all dances, also to those of a purely social, innocent 
and harmless kind, and condemn dancing as a social pastime as a 

Our social dances are of an entirely different character, and 
there is little or no harm in them. They are a pleasant method 
for young people to become acquainted and to enjoy themselves, 
and the ecclesiastical thunderbolts hurled at them by some fanat- 
ical preachers are much of the nature of Don Quixote's charge 
against the vanes of the windmill; they are the sour attempts of 
bigoted kill-joys to reform the world to their way of thinking. It 
reminds of a clever saying by a recent author: "Curious thing 
about reformers. They don't seem to get such a lot of pleasure 
out of their labors unless the ones they reform resist and suf- 
fer, and show a proper sense of their degradation. I bet, a lot 


of reformers would quit tomorrow if they knew their work wasn't 

going to bother people any." 

In the painting bj^ Garnier, entitled "Borgia S 'Amuse," (Bor- 
gia amusing himself) is shown a form of entertainment once al- 
most universal — dancing by naked girls. Browning, the popular 
poet, appreciated the luxury of having naked girls about, as is 
apparent from this quotation from one of his poems : 

"You found he ate his supper in a room 
Blazing with lights ; four Titians on the wall, 
And twenty naked girls to change his plate." 

Fig. 109. — The customary attire of a Salome or dancer on the 

modem stage. 

In most countries, before Christianity had introduced its ig- 
noble conceptions in regard to nudity of body, the dance was exe- 
cuted by naked girls. This was the case in Greece and Rome. 

Caracalla was fond of giving lavish entertainments on the 
Island of Capri, at which the dancers were beautiful Spanish danc- 
ing girls; to shoAv his utter disregard for expense, he had these 
slaves thrown over the cliffs into the sea after the applause that 
greeted their dance ceased. More economical-minded entertain- 


ers put their slaves up at auction, and realized handsome profits 
from the excitement produced by their dancing. 

In Persia, Turkey, Egypt, India, Burmah, and other Oriental 
countries dancing girls are either naked or only very lightly clad. 

The warm-blooded inhabitants of Southern Europe are fond 
of dancing, and the Spanish dances are recognized as most beau- 
tiful to this day. In rural Spain there is a popular dance, during 
which the performers throw off one garment after another until 
they dance in a state of nudity; both sexes indulge in this dance, 
but as far as I could learn it is not accompanied by erotic demon- 
strations among the spectators, only the beauty of the dancers and 
the gracefulness of the motions being taken cognizance of. 

Professional dancers of our own times are as nearly naked 
as conventional rules will allow (Fig. 109) ; and our ballets, and 
Amazonian marches, our dances at the public pageants in our 
parks, display the female form as much as possible without any 
part actually being naked, because they are still covered with flesh- 
colored tights. No one can have any true conception of the sup- 
pleness and beauty of the human body who has not seen naked 
girls swaying and undulating in the rhythmic movements of the 
dance; but the dances should be clean like the Sailor's Hornpipe 
or the Highland Fling, and not of the vulgar Couchee-couchee 


The degree of culture of an individual or a community can 
fairly be judged by their views in regard to the Nude in Art. 
Up to about forty years ago St. Louis was but an overgrown vil- 
lage, with all the narrow prejudices of a rural community. To 
the St. Louisans of those days the gods and goddesses of ancient 
Greece and Eome were shamelessly naked; and when works of 
the Nude in Art were brought to St. Louis fairs or exhibitions 
they were either excluded from the art galleries, or they caused a 
storm of indignant protest in the daily papers from a shocked 
and puritanical public. 

Then came a series of World Fairs — Philadelphia, New Or- 
leans, Chicago, Buffalo, Omaha, St. Louis, etc., which were vis- 
ited by millions of Americans whose views in regard to art were 
broadened and chastened thereby (Fig. 110). 

American cities ceased to be provincial and became cosmo- 



politan. The pretty naked nymph on Union Avenne, in St. Louis, 
familiarly known as "Carrie Kingsbury," ceased to arouse ad- 

Fig. 110. — "Triumph of Apollo," at Festival Hall, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 

St. Louis, 1904. 

Fig. 111.— "The Naked Truth," by 
Wandschneider. Located in Reservoir 
Park, St. Louis. 

Fig. 112. — Conventional Egyptian art, 
from temple at Kamak, Egypt. 

verse comment, and she was less and less frequently garbed over- 
night in a flannel costume; and then came "The Naked Truth" 
in Eeservoir Park (Fig. 111). While the "Naked Truth" is not 


beautiful, she has the supreme merit that she is candidly naked, 
and she has made St. Louisans familiar with, and tolerant of 
representations of the Nude in Art as an element of urban dec- 

Among the ancient Egyptians the mode of representing the 
human body was prescribed by their religion, and while rich 
women went about naked or clad only in a veil-like garment, the 
figures of the gods and goddesses were rendered in a conven- 
tional stiff position, also clothed in a clinging garment that fully 
displayed the figure as in this sculpture from the temple of Kar- 
nalc, Egypt (Fig. 112). 

But art became art in the fullest sense only when the human 
body was represented for the sake of giving pleasure, and this 
mode of representing the human body began in Greece. 

Greek art took an upward tendency in development when 
Bupalus and Athenis lived (about 540 b.c.) in the Island of Chios. 
They were Greek sculptors, but they produced only draped fig- 
ures, because art had not advanced to the delineation of nude 
figures. Even the "Three Graces," now alivays nude, were at 
that time draped. 

Here is shown one of the early, or archaic, Greek works of 
art— "The Haircutter of Tanagra" (Fig. 113). At Tanagra a 
lot of terra cotta figurines were found which represented various 
subjects not connected with temple or tomb art, i. e., art which 
represented homely episodes for amusement and pleasure merely ; 
when this development in art had been reached, art began to be 
art in the modern sense of the word. 

It was a long and tedious way from the crude art of primi- 
tive men, as found in the earliest art of the cave-dwellers, or even 
from the figurines of Tanagra or Nampa, to the statues of Greece 
in the height of its culture and art. 

Euskin said: "Not a single antique statue excels the Venus 
of Melos (Fig. 114) and she has nothing notable except dignity 
and simplicity." This is generally conceded to be the best exam- 
ple of "high art," the most majestic representation of woman's 
form. "High art consists neither in altering nor in improving 
nature ; but in seeking throughout nature for whatever things are 
pure; in displaying to the utmost of the artist's powers such love- 
liness as is in them, and in directing the thoughts of others to 



them by winning art and gentle emphasis." This statue belongs 
to the Louvre, in Paris. 

" To an artist's true and highly trained instinct the human body 
is the loveliest of all objects; • * * the ancient Greeks drew 
the body from pure delight in it, and with a knowledge of it living. 
The Venus of Milo and the Laocoon (Fig. 115) have the forms 
their designers truly liked to see in men and women. * * • The 
Greeks learned to know the body from the living body; their 
treatment of the body is faithful, modest and natural." The 


'The Hair-Cutter of Tana 
' Archaic Greek art. 

Fig. 114. — "Venus of Milo." Antique; 
at the Louvre, Paris. 

Laocoon group belongs to the Museum of the Vatican, Kome. 

"Michelangelo and Raphael learned to know the human body 
essentially from the corpse, and had no delight in it, but great 
pride in showing that they knew all its mechanism; they drew 
the body from knowledge of it dead." 

In the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican, the pope's private 
chapel, where popes are elected and the ceremony of installation 
into their exalted office takes place, there is the most celebrated 



work representing the Nude in Art in the whole world. It is the 
Last Judgment by Michelangelo (Fig. 116). This work was 
ordered by Pope Julius I, and continued under Popes Leo X, 

Fig. 115. — "Laoeoon Group." Antique; at the Vatican, Rome. 

Fig. 116.— "Last Judgment," by Michelangelo; at the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. 

Adrian V, Clement VII, and finished under Pope Paul III. 
Michelangelo worked at it for 15 years. 

The accentuation by Michelangelo of anatomical details that 
can not be seen in the living subject covered with integument, 
has been the basis of reproach to the art of this great artist ; but 



there seems to be a reasonable excuse for this style of drawing. 
Michelangelo was accustomed to draw figures of gigantic size, to 
be viewed from great distances, as, for instance, the figures 
against the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; if drawn natural, the 
details would have been practically lost at that distance, and the 
figures would have appeared flat and lifeless. The artist there- 
fore exaggerated the details, just as the ancient artist did who 
modeled the Farnese Hercules. But working in this manner for 
15 years, it was difficult to avoid the style, even when the work 
of art was destined for a nearer view and hence we see it also in 

Fig. 117.— "Moses, " by Miclielangolo. Tomb of Pope Julius II, Eome. 

Moses which is a prominent feature of the tomb of Julius II, in 
Rome, standing on a level with the beholder (Fig. 117). 

"Not all modern artists, however, indulged in a vain display 
of anatomical knoAvledge. Correggio and Tintoretto, and others, 
represented the human form with all the grace and purity of the 
ancient Greeks. 

"Female Beauty can be found more perfect than that of the 
male, and artists paint and carve it fearlessly, with all right and 
natural qualities. A beautiful woman is the simplest of lovely 
veracities and the representation of this highest type of beauty 
is also the most complex of human arts." 



In a book entitled "Tracts for Young People" by the Eev. 
IFurniss, of Cork, Ireland, there was a story told of a female 
saint who imagined that she had been permitted by God to make 
a personal inspection of hell, and she told of seeing a young 
girl encased in a close-fitting suit of boiler iron and lying in a 
fire which made her suit red-hot, so that her blood boiled and 
sizzled and hissed as the steam from it escaped from her ears 
and nostrils; and she was condemned to lie there forever and 
ever (by a "God of infinite Love and Compassion!") because she 
had seen herself naked in the hath! What a difference between 
the ravings of such ignorant and insane fanatics who believe such 

Fig. 118.— "Love," by Evelyn B. 

Fig. 119. — "Springtime of Love," by 

vagaries, and the educated popes who employed Michelangelo to 
paint the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel ; or the Bible, which tells 
us that Adam and Eve were both naked and "were not ashamed!" 
Opponents of the Nude in Art claim that the pleasure we ex- 
perience in seeing such works of art is due to our sexual natures, 
and say this as if it proved beyond doubt that such works of art 
must be evil (Fig. 118). Suppose we admit that our delight in 
seeing the Nude in Art is due to sex and our sexual natures, yet 
we are taught that nearly all progress, physical, intellectual and 

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Jesus is also represented naked on the cross, in paintings of 
the Eesurrection, etc., and millions of crucifixes with the naked 
Jesus are venerated throughout the world. And in the Pope's 

Fig. 121.— " Episode in Life of St. Pirmin," by Gamier. 

Fig. 122.— "Baptism of Christ," by Fig. 123.— " Christ, " from the Last 
Verrocchi", in Academy^ Florence, Italy. Judgment; Michelangelo, Vatican, Eome. 

own chapel, Jesus is shown naked, when he comes to judge the 
dead and the living, on the Last Judgment Day (Fig. 123). 

If people can look upon the naked form of a Jesus, or even of 
a Magdalen, without feeling lascivious emotions, they could do 



the same with any other naked figure, decently presented, if they 
had teen properly taught to consider it pure. 

During the middle ages nearly every church had a statue or 
a painting of a naked Adam and Eve, probably to inculcate the 
essential purity and holiness of the human body. The celebrated 
altar-piece by the Van Eycks, — "The Adoration of the Lamb" — 
had an Adam and an Eve, both naked, one on the right panel and 
the other on the left. The "Eve" here showi (Fig. 124) still 
exists in the Cathedral at Schleswig, Germany; and on the ceil- 

SJaSiti'rSlnfanq/ S!^lillt(W1^^i|^/ 

?)& SJnfmiii In ^(m 'P^lra^ti6 / 
^ 3BM hfr.'li* ' wi Cot/ ISl>nni6q5«iS: 
IiaraiifftolstlMlslfHtiM^i^aW/ - « 
aJoflrareruiiSiiifodfjaJiiin'ttial. ' . 
"tj ill 

-Fig. 124.— "Eve," from High Altar Fig. 125.- "Adam and Eve," from 
of Cathedral in Schlesvpig, Germany, the "Death-Dance of Basle." The te.xt 
made in a.d. 1520. explains ^yhy pictures of this kind were so 

common in medieval days. 

ing of the church at Hildesheim, Germany (Fig. 120), may be 
seen an Adam and Eve, in a fresco painting, both naked. 

A celebrated edition of the Bible, the Kurfuersten-Bibel, con- 
tains an engraving of Adam and Eve. 

Those who have studied the subject, "know that the Nude, 
presented purely for the sake of Beauty, as most of it is rep- 
resented, demoralizes nobody's mind. It is the straining to con- 
ceal the beautiful Nude, and to suppress it, which injures." 

It is the evil imagination which suggests the thought of im- 
propriety. Unfortunately Macaulay's saying that a "nice man is 
one who has nasty thoughts" is only too true and some of these 


"nice men" are the chief causes of the harm done by some kinds 
of the Nude in Art. 

The propriety of the Nude in Art depends largely on the men- 
tal attitude and the degree of education of the observer, rather 
than upon the representations of the nude themselves; the pro- 
priety or impropriety of such art is mainly subjective — not ob- 

"A beautiful statue or painting carries no bad suggestion, 
except as the evil thought is always present in some minds. Per- 
• feet familiarity with nudes destroys that imagination, which does 
so much harm." 

The disastrous effects of wrong education about the Nude 
in Art and the Nude in Nature is seen in women who have been 
brought up with too puritanical views. Many a marriage is 
wrecked because the wives do not realize the full difference be- 
tween the lovers who courted them and the husbands who married 
them and who are entitled to see them naked. To too many women 
the husband remains merely a "man" in this regard. I recall a 
number of such tragedies ; for instance, one of a sober industrious 
man, who, after marriage, began to drink heavily and stay out 
late at night. He excused himself by the fact that his wife ex- 
cluded him from her bedroom. The final outcome was a divorce 
and the death of the husband from dissipation and tuberculosis. 

This represents the chiton (Fig. 126), the house dress of 
women in classic Greece ; occasionally this dress was even simpler, 
as in Athens, where the women were called "phaenomerides" 
or the "bare-thighed" because this garment, open on one side, 
reached only to the upper part of the thighs ; and Aelian said of 
Melita, the wife of Phocion, that "she showed herself clothed in 
her chastity, that was all her ornament;" and we agree after a 
lapse of twenty centuries, that 

"Loveliness needs not the aid of ornament 
But is, when unadorn'd, adorn 'd the most." 

Exposure of the body to sight was not considered to be im- 
proper in Greece or Eome, until after the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era (Fig. 127). St. Chrysostom said of the Roman ladies — 
"they did not hesitate or blush to appear perfectly naked in the 
presence of the public at the theatres;" and as decency is merely 
conforming to custom or fashion, we can not say that Greek or 



Roman ladies were indecent in following the general custom of 
their times. 

It is related of ancient Greek women that "if they had any 
particularly beautiful features of the body, they left them naked 
that they might be admired." 

The celebrated Venus Callipygis is said by ancient writers 
to have been modeled after two sisters "who were celebrated 
throughout all Greece for the beauty of their buttocks." This 
figure is often referred to as the "Venus with the untranslatable 
name;" callipygis means "with beautiful buttocks." The female 
buttocks were an object of admiration and even of adoration 
among the ancient Eomans ; Petronius (I Century a.d.) referred to 
this secret buttock-worship : puellam invitare ad pygisiaca sacra 

Fig. 126. — The Chiton. Home dress 
of Greek women in classic times. 

Fig. 127. — "Summer Bath at Pompeii," 
from painting by Bouguereau. 

(to invite a girl to the sacred rites appertaining to the buttocks) 
which consisted probably, like all adoration, in kissing them. 

A revolt against all Pagan customs was a characteristic of 
early Christianity; I have already stated that most of the early 
Christians M^ere slaves, or poor; they were naturally incensed 
against the rich, the fashionable, the educated and the refined 
upper classes. As it was a feature of Greek and Eoman life to 



rejoice in the beauty of the human body, the ascetic Christians 
went to the other extreme, of hiding this beauty and being ashamed 
of it ; and by a monstrous perversion of religion and morality it 
came to be believed that a reluctance to show the beauty of the 
body was a particularly virtuous and modest act. This fanatical 
pruriency became so marked a feature of early Christianity, that 
to mortify them, the Christian maidens and women were often 
condemned to become slaves in the public houses of prostitution 
(which were owned and operated by the state) where all the 
women were kept naked for the inspection of the male visitors 
who could choose any of the inmates that appealed to their taste. 
The martyrs were usually stripped naked before being driven 
into the arenas to be crucified, or to be torn to pieces by the wild 

Fig. 128. — "Three Graces," a painting Fig. 129.- 
by Regnault. 

-"Education," by Isidor 

animals, that the exposure of their bodies to the gaze of the as- 
sembled multitude might add keener suffering to their physical 
tortures (Fig. 130). 

Education (Fig. 129) is doing away with the prudery of ages, 
and we are commencing to appreciate the words of the poet : 
"Oh, what a pure and sacred thing 
Is Beauty, curtain 'd from the sight 
Of the gross world, illumining 

One only mansion with her light." 



"Why is it," asked a lady, "that so many men are anxious to 
get rid of their wives?" and Wells, in his work on "Wedlock" an- 
swers: "Because so few women exert themselves after marriage 
to make their presence indispensable to their husbands — this is 
the true reason. The woman who charmed before marriage can 
charm afterwards, if she will, though not of course in the same 
way. There are a thousand ways in which she can make herself 
the particular deity of the domestic paradise." When a man mar- 
ries a woman, he looks forward to a companionship of bodies, as 
well as to an affinity of souls. I have already referred to the nar- 
row prejudices of the early church-fathers who taught that sexual 
passion is an inspiration from the devil. Celibacy and continence 

Fig. 130. — "The Arena," from painting by Labaudere. 

were exaggerated into cardinal virtues, and the most unhappy 
misuse was made of this idea. So pronounced was this unhappy 
tendency in the early Christian church that St. Paul was led to 
protest in very plain words in his First Letter to the Corinthians, 
vii, 4, 5: "The wife hath not power of her own body, hut the hus- 
band; and likewise also, the husband hath not power of his own 
body, but the wife. Defraud ye not one another * * *!" 

Leekey, in his History of European Morals says that "when- 
ever any strong religious fervor fell upon a husband or wife, its 
first effect was to make a happy union impossible ; the more re- 
ligious partner desired to live an unnatural separation in mar- 
riage." There is many a man who is daily oppressed by the su- 



perior and intimidating goodness of his wife. He realizes that 

his household is presided over by a priestess of moral propriety, 
but she does not gladden his heart. She keeps all the command- 
ments with austere fidelity but he vainly strives to make a com- 
panion of her in the practical and delightful sense of the word. 
Wlien the wife does not gratify her husband's reasonable 
craving to see and enjoy feminine beauty, which is inborn in the 
breast of every manly man, she ought not to feel surprised when 
she discovers some day that lie seeks consolation, — not by visiting 

1 ^f W , 

Fig. 131.— "Will-o'-the-Wisp," from 
painting by Lersch. 

Fig. 132.— "The Devil," from painting 
by Koppay. 

an ideal bronze or marble Diana in an art gallery, but by ^dsiting 
a living, breathing, palpitating, passionate Lais or Aspasia. 

The wife who knows how to combine the chastity of a Juno 
with the loving yielding of a Venus, need not fear that her hus- 
band will tire of her, or seek pleasure elsewhere. 

Austerely chaste wives usually have profligate husbands. 
Men are actively sexual, and the wife should not repel her hus- 
band through false modesty; she should be glad that her beauty 
can attract him and hold him to home, family, and morality. " Af- 


finities" are the products of wifely frigidity, and may become the 
will-o*-the-wisps that lure to ruin (Fig. 131). 

Dean Swift said quaintly : ' ' The reason why so few marriages 
are happy is because young women spend their time in making 
nets — ^not in making cages." All writers on the subject agree 
that frigidly chaste wives are the main cause of the prostitution 
that is inseparable from a monogamic life and civilization, and 
civilized clothing. 

"The prostitute (Fig. 132) is to be pitied, not to be blamed; 
she is the necessary product and victim of civilization. Herself 
the supreme type of vice, she is ultimately the most efficient 
guardian of virtue. On that one degraded head are concentrated 

Fig. 133. — ' ' Innocence, ' ' from painting by Benner. 

the passions and desires that might have filled the world with 
shame. She remains, while civilizations and creeds rise and fall, 
the Eternal Priestess of Humanity, blasted for the sins of the 

"The most beautiful object in the world, it will be allowed, is 
a beautiful woman," said Macaulay, and the Bible teaches us how 
to appreciate this Beauty (Fig. 133). Solomon was a wise man, 
and a man of much experience, for he had 700 wives and 300 con- 
cubines ; and he wrote : 

"Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, ye.a, pleasant. Thy hair 
is as a flock of goats that appear from Mount Gilead. Thou hast 
dove's eyes; thine eyes are like the fish-pools of Heshbon; thy 



lips are like threads of scarlet ; thy teeth are like a flock of sheep 
that are even shorn ! Thy neck is as a tower of ivory ! Thy navel 
is like a round goblet that wanteth not liquor ! Thy belly is like 
a heap of wheat set about with lilies ! The joints of thy thighs are 
like jewels! How fair and how beautiful are thy feet, 0, Prince's 
daughter! How fair and how pleasant art thou, 0, Love, for 
delights ! ' ' 

To nearly every man comes a time when he falls under the 
influence of some woman who dominates his mind and his whole 
life; they two may become married and then, if she is a good 

Fig. 134. — Una and the Lion. 

woman, she will be the inspiration of his whole being. She is 
Una, the One (from the Latin adjective unus, a, um, one). 

One day a powerful man, a giant almost, weighing perhaps 
250 to 300 pounds, who worked in an iron works in St. Louis, was 
overcome by the heat of a summer's day, the heat of a puddling 
furnace and overindulgence in liquor, and he ran amuck. He took 
his revolver, and went out in the street, naked to his waist as 
were the others about the furnaces, and he threatened to kill any- 
one he might see. The police stopped the cars from running and 


warned people off the street, and they themselves staid around 
the corners. Meanwhile someone had gone to his house and told 
his wife ; she came, a slight woman of perhaps 125 pounds. She 
went out in the street and called to him, "Here, John, give me 
that gun ! " He did so and she took him by the arm and led him 
home and the danger was over. She was "Una," the only One 
that dared to go to him and disarm him. This is allegorically 
represented in Figure 134. 

"To make the cunning artless, tame the rude. 
Subdue the haughty, shake the undaunted soul 
Yea, put a bridle in the lion's mouth 
And lead him forth as a domestic cur. 
These are the triumphs of all-powerful Beauty." 

Idealization and Vulgarity in Art 

Euskin said that "there are three classes of artists. The first 
class take the good and leave the evil. Out of whatever is pre- 
sented to them they gather what it has of grace, and life, and 
light and loveliness, and leave as much of the rest unknown and 
undrawn (see Fig. 330). 

"The second, or greater class, render all that they see in na- 
ture unhesitatingly, sympathizing Avith all the good, and bringing 
good out of evil also. These may be termed naturalists. They 
realize that sensual pleasure in humankind is not only a fact, but 
a Divine fact ; the human creature, though the highest of animals, 
is nevertheless a perfect animal, and human happiness, health and 
nobleness depend on the cultivation of every animal passion as 
well as on the cultivation of every spiritual tendency." 

The illustration (Fig. 135) shows three Bacchantes, slightly 
intoxicated as becomes the priestesses of Bacchus, the god of wine ; 
the two outer ones are trying to throw the one in the center into 
the water; the group was designed for an ornamental fountain. 
As a representation of the exuberant joy of physical life, it would 
be difficult to find a better example. 

"The third class perceive and imitate evil only. Their art is 
in nowise a Divine institution. It is entirely human, and these 
artists are either useless or harmful men. These men are sensual- 
ists, understand, not men who delight in evil; but men who fail 
to see or represent the best and purest there is in nature." 



The tendency to pander to sensuality is the "modern deca- 
dence of art." "While the greatest artists of all times have been 
naturalists, the world is full of vulgar naturalists, sensualists, 
who bring discredit on all painting of nature." Notice, for in- 

Fig. 135. — "Wrestling Bacchantes," by Petrilli. Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. 

Fig. 136. — ' ' The Women are Dear, ' ' from painting by E. de Beaumout. 



stance, in De Beaiunont's picture: Les Fenimes Sont CJieres (Fig. 
136), which was exhibited in the French Salon of 1870, a negro 
ravishing one of the girl slaves in the standing position. 

"Such paintings violate every instinct of decency and law 
of virtue or life written on the human soul." 

The depths to which artists of this class have descended, I 
can not show, but the most outrageous examples are such paint- 
ings as Belshassar's Feast, or the illustrations of the de luxe edi- 
tions of Balzac's Contes Dr cliques, or the Life of Casanova. 

Fig. 137.— "Leda and the Swan," 
from painting by Saintin. 

Fig. 138.— "Leda and tke Swan," 
from painting by Lejeune. 

Idealization and Realism 

When an artist uses a model he may paint her just as she is, 
as did the medieval Dutch painters, when it is called "realism." 
Occasionally, of course, a model may be so beautiful or perfect, 
that there is nothing to suggest coarse fleshiness merely. 

This difference may be appreciated by conaparing the Leda 
by Saintin (Fig. 137) with the Leda by Lejeune (Fig. 138) ; the 
latter seems improper because she either should be altogether 
clothed or altogether naked, for being partially clothed in modern 
clothing is too anachronistic for the subject of the painting. 


Compare with the two illustrations of Leda and the Swan also 
this statue by Michelangelo, the Swan (Jupiter) having sexual 
connection with Leda (Fig. 139) ; this is "realism." 

Compare with these pictures the one of a girl bathing in a 
hidden nook, but frightened by the rustle of a flying bird (page 

Fig. 139. — "Leda and the Swan," by Michelangelo. 

Fig. 140. — "Leda and the Swan," from painting by Corregio. 

246). She is all alone and as imiocent and pure as an artist can 
paint a naked girl. 

This leads to the consideration of another feature of works 
of art — vulgarity. 



The word is from the Latin adjective vulgaris, e, and means 
common, not refined, in bad taste. Many people think that vulgar 
and obscene mean the same thing. Even a representation of coi- 
tion is not obscene, in a proper sense, because it is a perfectly 
proper and moral act, but it is generally agreed that it is in bad 
taste to represent it in art; a picture representing it would be 
vulgar, but not obscene. 

Vulgar pictures are not necessarily evil, but they are more 
or less apt to be so, and are frequently described as "suggestive;" 
i. e., they are often erotically excitant. 

Fig. 141. — "Paul and Virginia. 

Fig. 142. — "Daphnis and Chloe," by 

Obscenity, on the other hand, represents the vices ; it suggests 
and teaches practices that are not normal or proper and that have 
been decreed by the consensus of opinion of decent people to be 
vicious and immoral, and obscenity is therefore harmful. 

Idealization is somewhat difficult when man and woman are 
represented together and both are naked, but it is often done, mod- 
estly and properly, as in Cupid and Psyche (page 151), antique, 
and Love (page 275), by Eveljm B. Longman, modern. 

More frequently, however, one or both figures are partially 
draped, as in this lovely statue of Daphnis and Chloe (Fig. 142), 
by Courtot. 



Or the passionate nature of the man, the animal instincts of 
sex in man, are allegorized as a wild animal, as in Diana and the 
Lion by Elwell ( Fig. 143 ) . 


Sculpture is the highest, the supreme form of art; the best 
achievement of human skill. For while in a painting we see an 
object from one viewpoint only, in statuary we may have as many 
different representations as there are different angles, and as the 

Fig. 143. — ' ' Diana and tlie Lion, ' ' by 
Elwell. Chicago World's Fair, 1893. 

Fig. 144. — "Venus de Medici." An- 
tique statue, now in Eome. 

statue must look perfect from every angle, it demands the highest 
skill to make a statue. 

And as the beauty of the naked woman is the highest type of 
beauty, the representation of this beauty in sculpture is neces- 
sarily the highest and purest of all the arts. 

Figure 144 is a picture of the most celebrated work of art in 
the world, ancient or modern. Aphrodite, or Venus, being the God- 
dess of Universal Love, is naked; and her posture shows her as 
glorying in the eternally and universally entrancing features of 


the breasts and pubes as the symbols of womanhood. Someone 
said of this statue : 

' ' There was a sculptor named Phidias 
Whose statues were perfectly hideous; 

He made Aphrodite 

Without any nightie 
And so shocked the ultra-fastidious." 

Fanatics teach that all the God-given beauty of the human 
body is corrupt ; that the naked human body is always evil. 

Some people can not see the purest and holiest things with- 
out interpreting them into vice, and the naked glory of a statue 
of a goddess or painting of a naked madonna or a saint, that in 
the pure-minded evokes nothing but emotions of thankfulness to 
the Creator for the blessings of loveliness and goodness with 
which He has enriched our lives, calls forth in their minds las- 
civious thoughts and erotic feelings and desires. 

"Their minds refuse to enter the ideal world to which these 
works of art point, but stop with the symbols and inflame them- 
selves with the emotions which the model's anachronistic freedom, 
coupled with its pulsating vitality, arouses in them. 

"Just in proportion as these likenesses are pleasing with 
ruddy warmth in themselves, they remain flesh and blood to such 
men as these" — and judging others by their own concupiscent 
natures, they imagine all others to be tainted with the same moral 
perversity, and in their "immodest modesty" they would annihi- 
late whatever makes life beautiful and good and pure, and would 
shroud all nature in sack-cloth and ashes; they would blot out 
sunshine and beauty and substitute gloom and ugliness; they 
would close our art galleries and would deprive mankind of the 
pure pleasures of the highest forms of art. 

Such men are of that type of ascetics so well described by 
Prescott : ' ' The Aztec priests were frequent in their ablutions and 
vigils, and mortified the flesh in fasting and by cruel penances- 
drawing blood from their bodies by all those austerities to which 
fanaticism has resorted in every age of the world, in hopes to 
merit heaven by making earth a hell." 

They are survivals of that perverted type of virtue which 
finds its extreme illustration in those fanatics who believed with 
St. Hieronymus that "Woman is the door for the devil, a way to 


evil, the sting of the scorpion," and who crossed themselves and 
repeated the litany for exorcising the devil when they saw a 
woman; or who castrated themselves and lived as hermits like 
Origen, to escape from their supersensitive concupiscence. 

The fanatical pilgrims who drink from the sacred, but pol- 
luted, wells of Mecca and then start the scourge of cholera around 
the world, think they serve God, and are as well-meaning as men 
and women of this kind whose teachings prepare the mental soil 
for the development of that epidemic of vice, the contagion of 
which is poured out over the intellectual world by such men as 
Casanova, Zola, and the many apostles of filth who wallow in 
moral mire like swine in a morass. 

The vast deluge of indecent, obscene and erotic literature and 
art which floods the civilized world is but the harvest of weeds 
that sprout and thrive on the soil so well prepared for their 

The two tendencies of thought, the puritanical which de- 
nounces all nude in art, and the erotic which prefers impure art, 
are responsible for most of the vices in civilization ; ethically these 
trends of thought are as far as heaven and hell apart, but prac- 
tically they are co-workers and boon-companions, cause and effect, 
in the work of breeding moral pestilence. The puritanical views 
teach the mind to see evil in things that are in themselves inno- 
cent and harmless, and the other view furnishes the evil in art 
which those who have been educated to look for evil, can find when 
they look for it. 

Unfortunately Max Nordau was right when he said: "We 
cling like cowards to certain conventionalities whose utter incon- 
gruity we feel with every fibre of our being," else we would not 
allow the opinions of millions of pure-minded and educated people 
to be misrepresented by a few fanatics to whose perverted vision 
purity is distorted into impurity and who consider beauty of body 
the greatest crime, and the admiration of that beauty the greatest 

The Nude is inherently neither decent nor indecent. Decency 
is a conforming to usage, and what is decent at one time and place 
is indecent at another time and place. Thus, when Rawlinson 
said of Nefert-Ari-Ahmes ("the beautiful consort of Ahmes") 
that "she went in an indecently transparent garment," he uses 
an inappropriate expression, as he judges her by the standards 


of decency in Ms time, instead of by those of her own time by 
which alone she should be judged and according to which she was 
attired perfectly decently (see page 240). 

Nudity was considered to be perfectly proper, and evidently 
the thin fabrics with which rich Egyptian ladies enveloped them- 
selves were not worn from a desire to hide their bodies from sight 
but rather as veils to protect them from annoyance by gnats and 
flies. Juvenal speaks of women of his day, who were so delicate 
that they became overheated by wearing a silken veil, and who 
therefore had to go about naked. 

In an abstract sense the naked body is more chaste than the 
clothed. We read in the Bible : " So God created man in his own 
image — and God saw everything he had made and behold it was 
very good ; — and they were both naked, the man and his wife, and 
were not ashamed. ' ' 

That nudity is not incompatible with modesty is seen in many 
of the lower nations ; the Botocudos, for instance, live in absolute 
nudity yet their language has a word for "blushing." It is be- 
cause of its suggestion of an ideal, unearthly world that the em- 
ployment of the Nude in Art has its justification and its necessity. 
The Nude, when elevated by idealization, presents pure being or 
action without the hindering accidents of earthly reality ; it trans- 
ports the mind of the observer back to some golden age, or for- 
ward to some heavenly world where personality is unembar- 
rassed by convention, where character and intention stand out 
clear and undisguised. 

"In an age of commonplace realism like the present, it is 
well for the public mind that it should be occasionally invited to 
enter an ideal world where human life and human labor are pre- 
sented in abstract form." 

It is sometimes said that it is "instinctive modesty" which 
causes a girl to shrink from being seen naked, but this is not really 
so. Children are not ashamed of being seen naked, and it is only 
by the most persistent admonition from their mothers that they 
can be finally made to understand that they should be ashamed 
of their own bodies ; incidently this proves that acquired ideas or 
mental traits are not transmissible by inheritance, even after 
many centuries of persistence. 

The story is told of a little girl who came running out of her 
room dressed only in her nightie, to greet a little boy visitor whose 


voice she heard. Her mother was shocked and sent her back to 
her room saying, "little girls mnst not allow themselves to be 
seen in their nighties." In a few moments the little girl came 
out again, saying, "I'm all right now; I took off my nightie!" 
The story sounds true. Even if it is not true, it illustrates so well 
a child's attitude toward nudity. 

Nor is it instinctive that girls become more sensitive in this 
regard than boys ; there are nations in which the women go naked 
while the men are clothed, which, after all, is but rational since 
in a naked man the genital organs can be seen while they can not 
be seen in a naked woman. Nor is it instinctive modesty which 
determines which part of the body must be kept hidden, for dif- 
ferent parts must be covered in different nations. Among our- 
selves, perhaps the first effort of a girl surprised naked would be 
to hide the sexual parts, but among the Malays a girl or woman 
would under similar circumstances cover her navel with her 
hands ; and the women of some African tribes wear an apron be- 
hind, and if they lose this apron they sit down until another is 
handed to them because it would be very indecent to expose their 
posteriors to sight, while a bare front is perfectly chaste and 

Among Turks, Egyptians and Mohammedans generally the 
faces of the women must be kept hidden, and a Turkish woman 
surprised by a man with her face uncovered will, if no other cov- 
ering is at hand, raise her garments and throw them over her 
head even if by so doing she exposes her naked body from the 
bosom down, rather than that her naked face should be seen. The 
gesture of covering the face when surprised partly or wholly un- 
dressed is not uncommon among our own women, and it really 
implies greater embarrassment and agitation than the hiding of 
the genitals, because it is intended to hide the blushes and per- 
haps tears which are the result of intense self-consciousness of 
shame and mortification. 

In some Arabian tribes modesty requires that the back of the 
head and hair be kept covered, while in China the foot and leg of 
a woman must not be exposed to view, and may not even be men- 
tioned in polite society. Habit and custom, therefore, alone de- 
cide what is proper or improper in these regards, and education 
and not instinct makes us ashamed of nakedness. Nor is the 
wearing of clothes a result of being ashamed of our nakedness, 



but the wearing of clothing has produced this sense of shame. 

Fair-skinned nations feel the need of a covering for their 
bodies more than dark-skinned nations, but it does not always 
lead to the wearing of clothes, for painting the body, or tattooing 
it, often are used instead. In Japan clothing is not worn from 
any sense of shame, for in the rural districts the inhabitants go 
clothed in winter and naked in summer, the clothing being simply 
a protection against the weather. 

Our groMTi folks find nothing objectionable in seeing a baby 
naked and our little ones are often photographed thus. It Avould 

Fig. 145. — ' ' The Sistine Madonna, ' ' in 
the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. 

Fig. 146. — Portrait statue of Marie An- 
toinette and Dauphin Prince. 

be a very nice distinction to say just when this nakedness becomes 
improper; the suggestion that it becomes immodest as soon as the 
child becomes self-conscious of the impropriety will not answer, 
for it does not become thus conscious except from the teaching of 

The innocence of naked childhood is also attested in this, that 
Madonnas are often figured with the Christ-Child naked, or sur- 
rounded by naked cherubs (Fig. 145). 

Swedenborg, the celebrated theologian, says, in commenting 


on this subject: "The angels in the inmost heaven are naked be- 
cause they are innocent and innocence corresponds to nakedness. 
To the innocent and the chaste nakedness is no shame because 
without offence." This is of course a logical conclusion forced 
on us by the Bible, for since clothing was the result of our first 
parents' fall, or sin, it can have no place in heaven where there 
is no sin. 

The noble ladies in the times of Titian, Canova, and even 
later, of Makart, considered it an honor to be permitted to pose 
naked for these great masters. Princess Pauline Bonaparte, sis- 
ter of the great Napoleon, was one of the most beautiful women 
of modern times and she had a portrait-statue of herself made 
by Canova, which is now known as the "Borghese Venus." When 
the work was first exhibited and one of her friends exclaimed: 
"How could you pose like that for Canova?" she showed a much 
more chaste conception than her friend, when she naively replied : 
"The studio was kept very comfortably warm." 

Figure 146 shows a statue of Marie Antoinette and her son, 
the Dauphin Prince, made for her husband, Louis XVI, of France. 

A St. Louis photographer told me that he had frequent re- 
quests from married women to be photographed naked, to please 
their husbands ; this same photographer told me that he had made 
over 2000 photographs of naked women, arrangements for hav- 
ing them made having been attended to by the husbands, who 
in many cases accompanied their wives to his studio; and in an 
interview a New York photographer was quoted as saying that 
he had made about 3000 photographs of naked women in one and 
a half years, and very few of these were immoral women. 

We were told on the authority of a leading photographic 
journal that it is the custom in England (this was before the war) 
among young ladies among the best families to have themselves 
photographed undraped, in "classic poses" (Fig. 147) ; and that 
every young lady in society possesses an album filled with such 
portraits of her girl friends. The practice deserves encourage- 
ment, rather than censure, for it cultivates a healthier and more 
moral appreciation of the beauty and essential purity of the hu- 
man body than has heretofore prevailed, and must lead to happier 
marriages and purer lives. 

Sarony gave much attention to photographing from the nude, 
and many of his published pictures are very beautiful. In recent 



times various photographic journals contained articles asking pho- 
tographers to pay more attention to this branch of their art ; urg- 
ing competitive exhibition of such work at the photographers' 
conventions, and claiming that such portrayal of nude figures is 
the highest form of photographic art, as it is the highest art to 
represent the nude body in paintings and statuary. 

"Purity does not consist in seeing nastiness in everything," 
and when a beautiful bride, a society belle in a Missouri town, 
startled her friends some years ago by having herself photo- 
graphed naked to please her husband, she did a perfectly chaste 
and proper thing by perpetuating the enjoyment of her youthful 
beauty to be a delight to her husband when the inexorable ravages 

Fig. 147. — Modern 
classic pose, popular pres- 
ent-day photography. 

Fig. 148.— "Bath of Court Ladies; XVIII Century." 
From a painting. 

of time and maternity would otherwise have made it but a sweet 
sad memory. When a husband wishes to have such a picture and 
the "wife is willing to please him, there can be no legitimate reason 
for objecting, any more than there is to photographing our chil- 
dren naked ; such pictures are perfectly chaste and not to be men- 
tioned in the same breath A^dth vulgar or obscene pictures. 

It is generally stated that the Japanese are sexually an ex- 
ceptionally pure people, yet in Yeddo there is a large public bath- 
house where men and women swim and bathe in the same pool 



perfectly naked, the two sexes being kept apart by a bamboo pole 
laid across to divide the pool into two compartments; yet there 
is no immorality in consequence. A well-known lady lecturer on 
Japan told me that on one occasion she was invited for a week- 
end party in the country by a prominent Japanese official in 
Tokyo. When she got to the country-home she was introduced to 
the whole family, one member, a grown son, being in a state of 
perfect nudity. Also, in her city home, she could see her neighbor 
sitting in his garden naked, every warm evening. 

Turkish ladies make up parties to take their baths together 
where they lounge and gossip, drink coffee or sherbet, eat confec- 
tions and smoke narghiles, and mothers have opportunities to 
see the physical charms of the eligible girls in their acquaintance- 
ship and report to their sons, to guide the latter in choosing wives. 

There is no reason other than absurd prudery why our ladies 
should not take their baths together as was the custom among the 
court-ladies in the eighteenth century (Fig. 148). The parties of 
ladies in our natatoriums or in our public bathing pools are a 
movement in the direction of rational and healthful enjoyment; 
still more so, the bathing beaches in various parts of the world. 

Every human being should expose the entire surface of the 
body to the air and sunshine for an hour or two a day, if possible, 
and it would do away with a vast amount of sickness and depres- 
sion of spirits. 

The bacilli of disease thrive in darkness, and more light means 
more health, better morals, and longer and happier lives. Now 
only our faces and hands receive the benefit of sunlight, for the 
rest of our bodies is in continual darkness under our opaque 
clothing, or at best, in perpetual twilight in the lighter wearing 
apparel of our women. If to a sunbath were added the cheering 
influence of good company, the human body and mind would both 
be invigorated and cleansed, and it would harm none and be pro- 
motive of better morals and more joyous home-life if the men of 
the family were permitted to look in on such family recreations, 
as they could do in ancient Greece and Rome, for they would not 
then be tempted to go to houses of prostitution, or to keep mis- 
tresses to see what should be a daily delight in their own homes. 
Our clothing is to a great extent the cause of our immoralities, 
and it is the testimony of disinterested observers, that, when civ- 


ilized clothing is introduced into previously innocent heathen 
communities, our vices and licentiousness go with it. 

Because we see the nude so seldom an unexxoected sight or 
suggestion of it gives pleasurable feelings, or even in some who 
have been improperly educated in regard to it, excites erotically. 
Men are fond of sexual things; this explains their fondness for 
pictures or statues of the nude, for erotic stories, for "stag par- 
ties," and for the innumerable suggestive pictures that are extant. 

Men are fond of seeing representations of the sexual act. Fig. 
149 is a photograph of a pipe, found in a mound in Indiana. 
It shows that the earliest inhabitants of America had some of the 

Fig. 149. — A pipe found in a mound in the Uniteid States, in the State of Indiana, 
below ; a modern Meerschaum pipe, above. 

mental traits of the present inhabitants. In Mexico statuettes of 
couples engaged in coition are openly sold, as part of the instruc- 
tion to the young folks and as a pleasant excitement for the older 
folks. Even these figures are not in themselves indecent; there 
are Polynesian tribes in which the newly married couple per- 
form this consununation of the marriage before the assembled 
guests. Speaking of such representations, Ruskin, than whom a 
purer-minded man never Avrote on art, said : " In this breadth and 
realism the painter saw that sexual passion is not only a fact but 
a divine fact; the human creature, though the highest of animals, 
was nevertheless a perfect animal and his happiness, health and 


nobleness depended upon the due power of every animal passion 
as well as on the cultivation of every spiritual tendency. ' ' 

The nude is not always or necessarily chaste ; it may be sug- 
gestive of evil, of course. Nor is it necessary that the figure 
should be naked to express an evil tendency; viciousness may be 
shoAvn in entirely covered figures. The propriety or impropriety 
of the nude is therefore not conditioned upon the mere presence 
or absence of clothing, but upon the motive of the representation. 
Madonnas have been painted naked and chaste, and clothed and 

There are, or rather were before the war, establishments in 
Europe where photographs were made from natural poses, to 
illustrate every possible or conceivable posture in which natural 
or unnatural sexual gratification may be obtained. 

The collection of mural paintings from the bath rooms of 
Pompeii and Herculaneum, now in the Muse Secret, of the latter 
city, are a collection of this kind. This kind of art possibly came 
to Eome from India and Egypt. Collections of such drawings 
were known as the Pictures of Elephantis in ancient Greece and 
Eome, and it is recorded that a rich Eoman matron, Lalage, pre- 
sented a copy of this work to the temple of Priapus with the prayer 
that she might be permitted to enjoy the passionate pleasures over 
which this god presided in all the postures depicted in that cele- 
brated treatise. 

In civilized communities the man who marries burdens him- 
self with obligations towards wife, children and society that de- 
prive him of many personal comforts that he might have enjoyed 
if he had remained single, for he can gratify his passions much 
more economically by occasional visits to a prostitute than by 
establishing a wife in a household of his own. This extra burden, 
therefore, is assumed for the sake of the psychical element of the 
love he feels for the woman he makes his wife, but there is no 
doubt that sensual passion for the loved one is an important or 
even the primary incentive that impels him to marriage. 

La Eoche-Faucauld wrote: "It is difficult to define love; in 
the mind it is nothing but a latent and delicate desire to possess 
the loved object." If it were not for this passion men would ar- 
gue, as I once heard it expressed: "What is the use of keeping a 
cow, when milk can be bought for ten cents a quart?" and prosti- 
tutes would soon outnumber wives. It is therefore necessary in 


the interests of our race, of society and of good morals, that the 
passions of men should over-ride cold calculating reason, for if 
the sexual passion became less strong, or was outweighed by mo- 
tives of selfishness, the majority of marriages would not occur. 

Passion in man must therefore be kept alive and as the nat- 
ural stimulus of nudity at home and among our friends is want- 
ing, smutty stories, obscene pictures, erotic literature and las- 
civious exhibitions have been substituted. The Erotica have a 
legitimate function to perform and can not be suppressed unless 
we return to archaic simplicity of costumes and methods of living. 

On this subject Thomas Case, Professor of Moral Philosophy 
at Oxford, said: "Many books are proper for men which are im- 
proper for women; a man may hear and read things which a 
woman should not. As God has not found some other way to gen- 
erate mankind, it is vital that a woman should be a pure vessel. 
On this point it would be immoral to mince matters. A wife is 
much more the mother of a child, both before and after its birth, 
than the husband is the father. The law of divorce, in condemning 
her more easily, is only following the inexorable law of nature, 
which absolutely demands her purity." 


A thorough knowledge of anatomy is not necessary, or even 
desirable, to judge or to execute works of art ; a trained accuracy 
of observation is sufficient. In fact, a thorough knowledge of 
anatomy is incompatible with the representation and apprecia- 
tion of beauty, in the highest sense, because it tempts the artist 
to work out details that he knows exist, but that he can not see 
in the skin-covered body. 

The simplest rule of proportions is the modern one, of eight 
head-lengths, as shown in Fig. 150. Also, the body is just as 
long as is the distance from tip to tip of the fingers when the arms 
are outstretched. 

The old Greek rule is illustrated in Fig. 151; a line is first 
drawn across from one shoulder (acromion process) to the other; 
the part below that line is divided into three equal parts; the 
part above is % as long as one of these parts, of which the head 
is in turn %; the head is therefore % of %i of the total length 



from the top of the head to the sole of the foot ; this is %3 or very 
near % or %2. 

Our bodily conformation and mental disposition resulted from 
ages of inheritance and not merely from the two individuals 
whom we call parents ; each of us represents the average features 
of innumerable ancestors (Fig. 152). Each of us had two parents, 
foiTr grandparents, eight great-grandparents, etc., doubling for 
each generation; counting at the rate of three generations to the 
century there would have been over four thousand ancestors in 

Fig. 150. — Proportions of human body. Modern rule, eight liead-lengths. 

the year 1500, about the time of the discovery of America ; and in 
the fifty-seventh generation remote, contemporaneous with the 
beginning of our era, about one hundred forty-four quadrillions. 
But all these ancestors added together would give each one of us 
the grand total of over two hundred eighty-eight quadrillions of 
ancestors since the beginning of our era; and man probably ex- 
isted more than a quarter of a million years previously, not count- 
ing the myriads of generations of animal ancestry before our 
first primitive human forefathers were formed. 

These numbers are of course vastly in excess of the actual 



numbers, since they do not take into account intermarriages of 
relatives. Let us suppose that the parents were cousins ; that the 
grandparents were also cousins, and that two of the great-grand- 
parents were children of the same parents although they married 
into unrelated families, and four generations ago, instead of six- 

rig. 151. — Kepresents the proportions as ascertained from an analysis of hun- 
dreds of antique statues. 


l*,096. ■ AT). r500. ' 
1.097,151. - AD. 1100 
I3f ,117.718. - AD. 1000. 
;/,398,o«6,SII,IOi*. - A.D. TOO. 
IVIf:lir,ISB,0rf,BSS,i7l.-TIHt OF CHRIST. 

2SS.2iO,d76pi 7U.7VZ. - Total since Cir/ii. 

Fig. 152. — This diagram shows the complexity of heredity. 

teen ancestors we find but eight. The possibilities of inter- 
national intermingling are suggested by the names of countries, 
but possibilities of race intermingling are intentionally omitted. 
If no other intermarriages than those just mentioned had occurred 



previously since the Christian era began, yet the 288 quadrillions 
of ancestors would be reduced to 144 quadrillions. If we make a 
wildly extravagant allowance and say that our figures are one- 
hundred-thousand-millions times too large, our ancestry would 
still be nearly three millions of different individuals since the 
Christian era began ; however meaningless such figures may there- 


d- -o- -*"*■ 

^. ^^^^.^^^''^Ov,,^ 


E N;Ei ANdT^^^^P^^^!^ 


PRUSSIA. J^\^ jdj^' .^o— 

^ \ 

O P'-V^^»' ? ■^s^^EOirsPdii,,^*^'?-'? — 

^^^ \ 

SWtDEN. ;' / / W 

\ 1 


Fig. 153. — Heredity; effect of intermarriage between cousins, and between persons of 

different nations indicated. 

<^ n a rr^> 

BOAZ wiihRuth. 

DAVID.wifh Bafh-Sheba. 


Pig. 154. — The ancestry as well as the posterity of one man. 

fore be as facts, they still help us to realize the complexity of the 
heredity that made us what we are, bodily and mentally, and the 
infinitely small influence any one of these ancestors of the "long 
ago ' ' can have had on our nature. 

We read in the first chapter of St. Matthew: "Boaz begat 


Obed, of Ruth; Obed begat Jesse; and Jesse begat David, the 
king ; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the 
wife of Urias; and Solomon begat Roboam; and Eoboam begat 
Abia ; ' ' etc. Let ns assume that each in turn begat two sons, and 
we have the lower pyramid. David's blood comes to each one in 
Abia's generation in as direct a line as to himself. It has been 
calculated that there is not a Caucasian today who has not in him 
traces of King David's blood, and this calculation does not even 
depend upon Solomon's efforts in diffusing the strain by having 
700 wives and 300 concubines; nor upon the further statement 
that "Solomon loved many strange women!" 

But David was not an original source of hereditary influence ; 
each individual is but like the focus of the rays of light coming 
through a condensing lens. In David innumerable lines of con- 
verging hereditary influence from all the past ages became vis- 
ible for a brief lifetime, and then radiated again in innumerable 
lines of divergence to the end of time; King David's blood is but 
the blood of Boaz and Ruth, and of all their ancestors ; it blended 
with the blood of all the ancestors of Bath-Sheba, the wife of 
TJrias, and with the blood of all his other wives, and through all 
their offspring it was transmitted to every Caucasian now living. 

And just as David's blood courses in all our veins, so does the 
blood of Phoenician and Persian kings, of Greek heroes and of 
Roman emperors, of Gallic, Teutonic, Norse and Scandinavian 
chiefs, who transmitted their blood in greater currents than other 
men, for many women captured in war became mothers through 
them; thus, the Roman Emperor Prokulus said in a letter to his 
friend Metianus, that in less than fourteen days he had impreg- 
nated one hundred virgins captured in war. 

And not only the blood of kings and nobles, but the blood of 
slaves as well courses in each one's veins, for the "wives" were 
often the pretty daughters of the slaves ! And through the vicis- 
situdes of war and rapine and plunder, princesses became slaves 
and the mothers of slaves, and slaves who found favor in the 
eyes of royal masters became the mothers of princes. 

Add to this the right of the feudal lords to use their female 
serfs; "the law of the first night" which gave the king the right 
of first cohabitation with a bride, and the right to delegate the 
privilege to someone else; and the prevalence of clandestine inter- 
course at all times, and among all classes, and we have influ- 



ences which produced such a blending of hereditary strains as to 
insure the average similarity of physical proportions and mental 
characteristics for the entire Caucasian race. 

In the man the bones are larger, the muscles more prominent, 

Fig. 155. — Muscular back of a man. 

Fig. 156.— Smooth back of a woman. Fig. 157.— Two small children, compared. 



and all anatomical detail is more distinctly shown (Fig. 155) ; this 
shows the muscular back of a man, while the smoothness of a 
woman's body is well shoAvn in Figure 156. 

Of course, this refers to men and women in civilized commu- 
nities; savage women, and hard-laboring civilized women fre- 
quently have Avell-developed muscles and approach the male type 
in appearance. 

In childhood there is no difference of build between the sexes ; 
in the new born child, the whole body is four and one-half head- 
lengths in size, but the body grows more rapidly than the head so 

Fig. 158. — Young girl about ten or twelve 
years old. 

Fig. 159. — "The Young Prisoner," 
by Michelangelo. 

that this proportion changes until the body has attained its full 
growth. This indicates the essential uniformity of build in 
infancy (Fig. 157). 

At the approach of maturity both sexes assume the normal 
sex-characteristics, but up to the age of about ten or twelve 
there is not yet much difference; this shows a young girl (Fig. 
158) compared with the figure of a young boy, the latter shown 
from a statue by Michelangelo, The Young Prisoner (Fig. 159). 

At the age of puberty (Fig. 160) a girl's bosom enlarges and 



the pubic hair appears — two features of beauty to which the 
prophet Ezekiel referred Avhen he compared Jerusalem to a young 
bride (Ezek. xvi, 7) : "Thou art come to excellent ornaments; thy 
breasts are fashioned and thine hair is growm whereas thou wast 

Fig. 160.— "Sweet Sixteen." A model Fig. 161.— "A Nymph," by Toberenz. 
from nature. 


male. ^^ 

Than of 

Fig. 162. — Sex difference in form, diagrammatie. 


naked and bare." While a heavy growth of hair on the pubes 
was highly esteemed by the ancient Egj^ptians and Jews, as it 
is also by ourselves, this hair was removed by the Avomen of many 
ancient as well as modern Asiatic people. Curiously enough, this 
Asiatic bare nions Veneris has become the accepted form in which 
artists now represent this part of the female body (Fig. 161). 

The typical structural sex differences between man and 
woman are illustrated in Fig. 162. Man is the toiler, the bread- 
winner, and the mechanical part of the body preponderates. 
Woman's highest sphere is home and family and her whole body 
is moulded with reference to her chief aim in life — Motherhood — 

Representing the mechanical part of the body by the bones 
and muscles of the arms and shoulders, and the sexual functions 
by the pelvis, the relative importance of these two characteris- 
tics in the two sexes is here diagrammatically sho^vn, and inci- 
dentally the essential difference in shape is also indicated. 

The man's body as a rule is large and strong, with bony 
joints and Avith well-marked muscles capable of great physical 
exertion, with shoulders broad and the body tapering wedge- 
shaped to the feet; the man is aggressive, intellectual, but not 
"beautiful" in the ordinary sense; 

"for contemplation he and valor formed." 


Man chooses his mate mainly for her physical beauty, and the 
woman, through this sexual selection by the man, which has gone 
on for untold ages, has become the most beautiful object in crea- 
tion; small, smooth-skinned, fair, plrnnp, round and dimpled. 

Fortunately we do not go much amiss in choosing a wife for 
her beauty of body; "a fine form, a good figure, beautiful bust, 
round arms and neck, fresh complexion and lovely face, are all 
outward and Adsible signs of the physical qualities that make up 
a healthy and vigorous mfe and mother; they imply soundness, 
fertility, good circulation and good digestion." 

Figure 163 shows the statue of Hercules, now generally called 
the Farnese Hercules because it is in the Farnese gallery in Rome ; 
it shows the cuneate or wedge shape of the male body, by some- 
what exaggerating the development of the shoulders and arms. 

In Fig. 164 is shown a representation of a statue of Anti- 



nous, the favorite of the Emperor Hadrian, of Rome ; in the days 
of Hadrian he was considered the most beautiful man that ever 
lived and Hadrian had many statues erected to perpetuate his 
beauty. After the death of Antinous, these statues were placed in 
the temples and divine honors were paid to them. Modern writers 
often say that the statue of Apollo Belvidere is the most perfect 
type of male form; others object that all Apollos are too effem- 
inate in form. 

But it is only when we see the naked woman that we can ap- 
preciate the full beauty of the human body (Fig. 165) ; she is the 

Fig. 163. — "Farnese Hercules;" antique Pig- 164. — Antinous, favorite of Emperor 
statue in Eome. Hadrian, Rome. 

crowning jewel of Creation! Of her Milton said "for softness 
she, and sweet attractive grace was formed." We have cause to 
be thankful for and to rejoice in the esthetic emotions which en- 
able us to appreciate her loveliness, even though we admit the 
truth of what Spenser wrote 300 years ago : 

"Beauty is the bait Avhich with delight, 
Doth man ensnare for to enlarge his kind." 

The word "Beauty" as applied to the human body (Fig. 166) 



is always applied to feminine loveliness — to woman's shapely 
form and features. Rochester said of Beauty: 

"Oh, she is the Pride and Glory of the World; 
Without her, all the rest is worthless dross ; 
Life a base slavery ; Empire hut a mock ; 
And Love — the Soul of All — a bitter curse." 
And Dryden said of Beauty: 

March her majestick fabrick; she's a temple 
Sacred by birth and built by hands divine." 

Fig. 165. — A beautiful woman. 

Fig. 166. — A beautiful woman. 

"Socrates called Beauty a short-lived tyranny; Plato, a priv- 
ilege of nature; Theophrastus, a silent cheat; Theocritus, a de- 
lightful prejudice; Carneades, a solitary kingdom; Aristotle af- 
firmed that Beauty was better than all the letters of recommenda- 
tion in the world; Homer, that it was a glorious gift of nature; 
and Ovid called it a favor bestowed by the Gods." 

Artists see in the representations of the naked woman the 
end and fulness of art. The highest type of beauty is that of 
naked woman. At the shrine of naked woman the artists of all 
times and the men of all nations and all climes pay homage and 
recognize in her "The Source," the "Spring," the "Fountain," 
and the "Inspiration" for the best work in all the arts (Fig. 167). 



"Who doth not feel, until his failing sight 
Faints into dimness with its own delight 
His changing cheek, his sinking heart confess, 
The Might, the Majesty, of Loveliness." 


A beautiful woman has been described as an edition de luxe 
of the most charming work by the greatest of all Authors; the 
edition is large, and every man should secure a copy for himself. 

' ' Woman ! Whose form and whose soul 
Are the spell and the light of each path we pursue, 
Whether sunn'd at the tropics, or chill 'd at the pole. 
If woman is there, there is happiness, too !" 

Fig. 167. — "The Source," from painting by Thirion. 


It is hard to imagine anything that the credulity of the human 
mind can not accept as believable. This does not mean only among 
the ignorant, but among the educated as well. On the other hand, 
scepticism may become as great an evil as credulity. When the 
discoveries of the x-ray and the phonograph were first announced, 
some scientists regarded the report as a hoax. 


But really scientific men neither accept nor reject such an- 
nouncements offhand, but carefully investigate, before expressing 
an opinion; and even then, they may come to wrong conclusions 
as was the case in the following story, related in an encyclopedic 
history of the world, entitled Welt-Gemaelde Gallerie, published 
in 1740 in 17 volumes, occupying about 5 feet of shelf-room: 

"A poor boy in Saxony (1593) lost a molar tooth in the sev- 
enth year of his age ; but another tooth grew in its place which con- 
sisted of solid gold. Wliereupon the celebrated physician. Jacobus 
Eorsting, Professor at Helmstadt, examined the case and reported 
that there was no fraud but that the tooth really was good ducat 
gold." This case is generally mentioned in works on Medical 

I have frequently seen books, the authors of which said of 
certain things — ' ' it is not known ' ' — or ' ' it can not be explained. ' ' 
In such cases a more correct mode of expression would be "I 
do not know" or "I can not explain," — because in some such 
cases others could have explained to the authors what they said 
could not be explained. Yet there are some statements that are 
so preposterous, so contrary to our experience, that we are justi- 
fied in proclaiming them to be impossible; yet such statements 
may be made and believed in good faith by some who are more 
credulous. This disposition to believe readily, is the basis on 
which rests much of the superstructure of the various religions 
and mythologies of the world. 

I will relate here some circumstances reported as facts in 
the History mentioned above, which I think will not be believed 
by any of my readers. 

Veronace, or Veronica, is the name assigned by tradition to 
the woman cured of an issue of blood by touching the robe of Je- 
sus (Mark v, 25-34) ; she is said to have wiped the perspiration 
from the brow of Jesus on his way to the crucifixion with a napkin 
or handkerchief, and the features of Jesus were thereby im- 
pressed on the fabric. It is said that this napkin is still kept in 
St. Peter 's Church at Eome. 

"At the Court of Emperor Wenceslaus of Bohemia, toward 
the end of the XIV Century, there was a magician who was skilled 
in the black and damnable art of sorcery beyond all others. He 
swallowed a competing sorcerer alive and afterwards passed him 
from his bowels into a tub, to the great amusement of the emperor 


and his court. But at last his master whom he served — the devil — 
caught him up and carried him into the air and tore him to pieces." 

This same history tells us that Wenceslaus showed in infancy 
that he would grow up to be a bad man. It was a requirement 
in those days that those to be baptized had to be naked; when the 
baby Wenceslaus (1368) was immersed in the baptismal font, he 
urinated and defecated into it which was taken as an omen that 
he would grow up an impious and wicked man. 

"In 1380 a very large stag was captured on whose neck was 
a heavily gilded copper collar on which was engraved: 'Hoc me 
Caesar donavit' (Caesar gave me this), from which it followed 
that the stag was about 1400 years old." 

In 1386, according to this same truthful work, we are told 
that "in Flanders a peculiar sea-monster was caught, namely a 
mermaid resembling a woman, which was kept in captivity in 
Harlem and educated so that it could do all sorts of feminine 
work and could hardly be distinguished from a human being, ex- 
cept that it could not talk" (of course this proved that it was 
not a real woman!). 

"About the beginning of the XIV Century the house in which 
the annunciation to Mary was made, was transported by angels 
from Nazareth to Loreto, where it still stands as a shrine for 
pilgrimage" (Fig. 168). 

"In 1284 a delegation from Poland came to Rome to ask the 
pope to give them the body of a saint to become the patron saint 
of their country. The pope went with them to a crypt where lay 
the bodies of several saints, and in a joking manner asked these 
bodies — "Who wants to become patron saint of Poland?" The 
body of the Holy Martyr Florian thereupon raised his hand and 
was taken home to Poland by the delegation" (Fig. 169). 

"In 1628, in Jetzehohe in Holstein, occurred a terrible affair; 
a spook or ghost one night twisted off the heads of twenty oxen. 
In the following year ghosts twisted off the heads of 12 persons 
at Frankfort." 

"In 1694, in Wiirttemberg near Hohen-Asberg, several oak- 
trees produced from their OAvn branches a crop of genuine and 
well-tasting grapes." 

"In 1697 a report came from Rome that a woman who had 
been married for 19 years, suddenly changed sex to that of a male, 
so that the marriage had to be dissolved." 



"Near Rostock, in Mecklenburg, a woman gave birth, to fifteen 
living children at one time, all of whom remained alive." 

"In Eome a woman gave birth to three sons and two daugh- 
ters all of whom remained alive ; the pope granted her an annuity 
to help raise them." 

"In 1605, in the city of Speyer, a girl 12 years old was found 

Fig. 168. — Angels tiansfeiiing the house in which the annuuciation took place, from 

Nazareth to Loreto. 

Fig. 169. — The corpse of St. Florian signifying his willingness to become the patron 

saint of Poland. 

who had not taken food for two years; and a young woman who 
had abstained from all food for seven years." 

"In 1709, at Chareaudun, France, the governor's wife, 50 
years old, gave birth at the same time to four boys and three 

"Near Venlo, France, a 50 year old spinster was found who 


had taken neither food nor drink in fourteen years. She did not 
appear wasted, except that she had to lie in bed continually." 

"The year 1722 was a fruitful year. Many women gave birth 
to triplets. At Ahorn, near Coburg, a woman gave birth to four 
boys, and at Corin on the Lossa another woman had four girls. 
At Petersburg a poor woman gave birth to six living children. 
At Arozzo, near Florence, a woman childless during 47 years of 
married life, gave birth to a son in her 86th year." 

"At Temesvar there were living, in 1727, a couple, the man 
172, the woman 162 years old; they had been married for 146 
years, and their great-grandson was 26 years old." 

"The Bavarian baron, Babone of Ahrensberg, with two wives, 
had 32 sons and 8 daughters, all of whom grew to maturity. 

But the following story takes the medal! "The sister of 
Emperor William of Bavaria, who was murdered in 1256, was 
Margaret, Duchess of Henneberg. Once upon a time a poor 
woman, carrying twins in her arms, asked her for assistance. 
But the Duchess drove her away, calling her a whore, saying that 
it was impossible to have two children at one time from one man. 
The poor woman called upon God to prove her innocence and 
prayed that He would cause Margaret to have as many children as 
there were days in a year; she then went away. At her next 
confinement the Duchess gave birth to 365 children, all living, and 
each of about the size of a little chick, one-half boys and one-half 
girls, all of which were baptized by the Bishop of Utrecht, nam- 
ing all the boys 'John' and all the girls 'Elizabeth.' But they 
all, as well as the mother, died the same day" (Fig. 170). 

And mind you, these stories before publication passed the 
critical (f !) censorship of the editorial force of an Encyclopedia 
of History! They were practically vouched for as true! There 
were a few such stories in regard to which doubt was expressed, 
but this simply emphasized that where no doubt was expressed, 
they were approved as being verified and true. 

It is definitely claimed by some ecclesiastical writers that it 
is better to believe by faith than by reason ; that there are many 
things that our reason may reject, and that it becomes our duty 
to believe them anyhow. This is easily said, but an honest man 
can not do this. As most people look at the subject, things that 
are contrary to reason can not and must not be accepted ; it is dis- 
honest to do so. Nobody would make this a duty, when it applies 



to stories like the above; why should it be a duty in other matters 
even more important than these. 

There are those who can, or pretend they can, believe what 
they are told; they make good "believers." There are others who 
doubt and can not believe until they are convinced of the truth of 
a statement. Whether this statement is actually true or not has 
nothing to do with the case, for if anyone is convinced that some- 
thing is true and he believes it, it might nevertheless be untrue, 
and vice versa. 

Scientific men approach various problems from a sceptical 
standpoint; they hold aloof from conclusions while they inves- 
tigate. Their researches may lead them to believe certain con- 
clusions, or they may be confirmed in their attitude of doubt ; in 

Fig. 170. — Three hundred and sixty-five children at one birth, from Welt-Gemaelde 

Gallerie, 1740-1780. 

the latter case we call this mental attitude scepticism — which is 
practically a despairing of a possibility to know the truth; it is 
an honest doubt regarding what Herbert Spencer called the 

Agnosticism is also a doubt, but one that has not come to any 
final conclusion; it leaves the mind open to further argument. 
Practically, an agnostic is in the position of one who asserts "I do 
not know." The terms "agnostic" and "agnosticism" were in- 
troduced by Huxley in 1869 ; they were suggested by the inscrip- 
tion "agnosto theo" (to the unknown God), Acts xvii, 23. 

Many think that Atheism and Agnosticism are the same thing, 
but they are not. Atheism was very popular about the middle of 
the nineteenth century ; it was characterized by David in the fifty- 


third psalm: "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God." 
The "fool" part of this proposition is not the unbelief in a god, 
but the pretending to a knowledge in regard to the existence or 
non-existence of a god that is not given to man. It is an opinion 
that is as unjustifiable as the positive assertions in regard to the 
existence and to the nature of God made by those of the opposite 
mental temperament. 

Atheism means a denial of the existence of God; most men 
who call themselves atheists are not so in fact; to not believe in 
the existence of a God because we are not convinced that he exists 
is not atheism, but agnosticism; an agnostic does not believe in 
God because he has not been convinced that a God exists, and per- 
haps believes that it is impossible to have any knowledge on the 
subject ; and atheism pretends to know positively that there is no 
God, which is quite another matter. It is for this reason that athe- 
ists are few now while agnostics are quite plentiful. 

The poet Young expressed the sex-difference in regard to 
this subject as follows : 

"Atheists have been but rare; since nature's birth 
Till now, she-atheists ne 'er appeared on earth. ' ' 

Although Cicero thought ' ' that we are led hy nature to think 
that there are gods, and as we discover, hp reason, of what descrip- 
tion they are," neither of these propositions is easy for us to 
accept. We can not, by reason, come to any positive knowledge 
of a God or Creator of the universe; yet it is just as difficult to 
imagine that the universe created itself; if we allow ourselves to 
be influenced by the greater intuitive insight of women, to believe 
that there is a God, we may possibly believe the truth ; but we can 
not know it. Therefore, from the standpoint of reason, alone, 
agnosticism is most alluring; from the standpoint of inherited 
ideas and from intuition, theism appeals to us. But atheism is 
more or less foreign to human nature. 

Pliny the Elder (I Century, a.d.) did not deny the gods, but 
he said: "It is ridiculous to suppose that the great head of all 
things, whatever it be, pays any regard to human affairs." 

Among the ancient philosophers agnosticism was not uncom- 
mon; but among the early Christians faith was substituted for 
reason. It is related of TertuUian, an early Christian writer, that 
he claimed faith to be higher than reason, and gave the following 


as an example : "Crucifixus est Dei filiiis; et mortuus est Dei filius; 
prorsus est quia ineptum est. Et sepultus, resurrexit; certum 
est, quia impossibile est." AVliich means: "The Son of God was 
crucified ; and the Son of God died ; this is true because it is silly. 
And having been buried, he rose again; this is to be depended 
upon, because it is impossible." The age when such reasoning 
was acceptable is fast disappearing. To believe that God could 
make the sun stand still for Joshua is asking one to believe what 
is impossible; to say that it "must be true because it is absurd," 
is worse than no argument at all. 

Hugo Grotius, who lived from 1583 to 1645 was one of the 
first, or possibly the first writer on law, who tried to establish a 
proper basis for the laws of government outside of the Bible; 
and he wrote: "The law of nature is unalterable; God Himself 
can not alter it any more than he can alter a mathematical axiom. 
The law has its source in the nature of man as a social being; it 
would be valid even if there Avere no God, or if God did not inter- 
fere in the government of the world." 

What Grotius says of law is true of all our beliefs. They 
must not go against the laws of nature; if any statement goes 
against the laws of nature, or against common sense, it can not 
be believed ; it is unhelievahle. 


When Lycaon, the first mythical King of Arcadia, introduced 
the worship of Zeus into his country, he invited the god to be his 
guest at a banquet (he made a sacrifice) at which he set before 
the god a dish cooked from human flesh (made a human sacrifice). 
Zeus was so disgusted and offended that he pushed the dish away 
and pimished the King by changing him into a wolf ; according to 
some other authors he killed him with a thunderbolt (Fig. 171). 

Superstitious men in all times believed that magicians, sor- 
cerers, witches and the gods could accomplish changes of this kind 
at wUl; the assuming of the forms of animals or other forms is 
called Lycanthropy, — a Greek word implying a change to a wolf, 
as in the case of were-wolves — ^but is made to include all changes 
of former identity. 

Witches (Fig. 172) made themselves invisible by anointing 
their bodies with an ointment made of human fat ; or they could 



make candles by the light of which they could see, but to others 

the darkness remained, by digging up the body of a child, cutting 
off its fingers and pulling wicks through them and using these as 

Sorcerers changed themselves into were-wolves or vampires, 
or they could fly through the air, etc. Belief in the power of 
sorcerers, fairies, witches, etc., to assume different shapes, or to 
change others into animals was very widespread. Fairy tales and 
folklore abound in stories of this character. 

Of course, what men could do, the gods could also do, and so 

Fig. 171. — Lycaon, chfuiged to a wolf. Pig. 172.— "The Witches," painted about 
Engraving, XVIII Century. 1500, by Hans Baldung. 

we find stories in mythology, especially in Greek mythology, of 
changes of this kind. It is not the intention to enumerate many 
such cases ; a few will suffice. 

A curious story of belief in lycanthropy was found among 
the ancient Aztecs. The prehistoric Mexicans believed that preg- 
nant women would be changed to beasts, and their children to mice, 
if any mistakes were made in the rituals of certain solemn sacri- 
fices which were offered by women in an "interesting" condition. 

An example of lycanthropy was related on p. 5, about Puru- 
sha, a Hindu deity, and the creation of the various animals. 



Alcmene was the wife of Eleetryon, king of Mycena; Jupiter 
fell in love mtli her, and assuming the shape of Eleetryon, while 
the latter was away from home, went to Alcmene and slept with 
her. From this union resulted Hercules, a mortal, who after his 
death was changed into a god. 

Greek legend records that Jupiter fell in love with Antiope, 
the beautiful daughter of the river god Asopus. Jupiter assumed 
the shape of a satyr, and committed rape on Antiope. Then 
Epopeus, King of Sicyon, took her against her will, but he was 
compelled by her uncle Lycus to give her up again. On the way 

Fig. 173. — Title page of Webster's 
work on witchcraft (1719); sho\ys the 
witches as a fever delirium. 

Fig. 174. — Daphne pursued by Apollo, 
changed to a laurel tree. Engraving, 
XVIII Ceoitury. 

home she gave birth to the twins Amphion and Zethus ; some said 
that Amphion was the son of Jupiter, while Zethus was the son 
of Epopeus. 

Ovid relates a story that Actaeon, Avhile hunting in the forest 
with his hounds, came upon a secluded nook where the goddess 
Diana was bathing in company with her attendant nyrnphs. The 
virgin goddess felt so outraged at having been seen naked by 
Actaeon, that she changed him into a stag, who was then chased 
by his own dogs and torn to pieces. 


Jupiter changed himself into a bull, to abduct Europa; into 
a golden rain, to find access to a tower in which Danae was con- 
fined, after which he accomplished his desires by impregnating 
her ; he changed himself into a swan to approach Leda, whom he 
made pregnant; and a number of similar stories are told of this 
amorous god. 

Apollo became enamoured of the nymph Daphne and pursued 
her to commit rape; she appealed to the river god Peneus, who 
changed her into a laurel tree (Fig. 174) ; Apollo decreed that 
ever after wreaths of laurel leaves should be conferred on victors, 
and he himself wore such a wreath. 

As a rule, the sex was not changed in such transformations. 
The Scandinavian god Loki, a spirit of evil, however, changed 
himself into a mare, and foaled the eight-legged horse of Wodan. 

Many transformations into stars are told, but of these more 

The Kingfisher is a bird inhabiting the territory about the 
Mediterranean Sea (the Alcedo ispida of the ornithologists) ; it 
is blue-green above and rich chestnut on the breast. In medieval 
times it was believed to have been the bird which was sent out 
from the ark by Noah; at that time however the Kingfisher was 
a very plain gray bird. It flew straight up to heaven to get a 
wide survey of the waters of the flood, and in so doing came so 
near the sun that its breast was scorched to its present tint and 
its back assumed the color of the sky overhead. 

Its dried body kept in a house protected against lightning 
and kept moths out of the garments. 

In Greek mythology the unfortunate Ceyx and Alcyone were 
transformed into Kingfishers. 


We have no basis for fixing the time when mankind com- 
menced to be interested in speculations about the gods and god- 
desses. When we look at the features of the Pithecanthropus 
(p. 26) we can readily see that such a creature, called "pre- 
human" by some, but generally admitted to have been archaic 
human, could not philosophize on such subjects. His habits were 
probably similar to those of the animals about him; he does not 
look as if he had had speech, and his intellectual wants were 



exceedingly limited. It is doubtful whether his actions were gov- 
erned by reasoning; more likely they were instinctive, satisfying 
his hunger, his sexual desires, etc., and perhaps being able to 
make rude stone implements, or dig shelters or burrows for 
himself. We can not imagine that he formed any ideas of a re- 
ligious character, except perhaps that he may have been afraid 
of ghosts, or dreams, which has even been observed in dogs. But 
the Pithecanthropus, who probably lived from 2,000,000 to 500,000 
years ago, did not live in Western Asia, or in Southeastern Eu- 
rope, in the neighborhoods where we find the first traces of an 
intellectual development of man. 

Nor is it likely that any man of the PiltdoAvn or the Eoan- 

Fig. 175. — Piltdomi man, reconstructed 
from skull found in Sussex, England. 

Fig. 176. — The Neanderthal man; after 
Osborn 's Men of the Old Stone Age. 

thropos (dawn of man) type, the earliest form of man found in 
Europe, who lived there 500,000 years to 100,000 years ago was 
capable of great intellectual accomplishments (Fig. 175). 

In the latter periods of the Glacial age appeared still another 
type of man, who, like the preceding, probably came from Asia, 
but who certainly was not a European product of evolution ; he was 
the Neanderthal man (Fig. 176), who lived in Southern Europe 
(France, Spain, Italy, etc.) 50,000 and more years ago. This gen- 
tleman also does not strike us as having much ability in the way 



of deep thinking or speculating on the UnknoAvn. The man of 
Les Chapelles aux Saints was a relative of his. 

The last invasion from Asia Avas still another type, called 
"Old man of Cro-Magnon" (Fig. 177). A restoration of his fea- 
tures is here sIioaati; teeth are replaced in the skull and the lat- 
ter, or a cast of it, is covered on one side with sculptor's modeling 
wax, to the thickness the soft parts of the head usually have, and 
his type is thus "restored." This man came from Asia, perhaps 
15,000 to 30,000 years ago. He was in all probability the author 
of the wonderful paintings and sculptures that have been discov- 
ered in the caves of Southern Europe, and he was of the type of 

Fig. 177. — Cro-Magnon man; restored by covering the skull with modeler's wax to depth 
of soft tissues on liraig men. 

our European ancestors, who descended from this Homo sapiens 
(the knowing man, or the wise man).* 

This Avas probably the type called "Aryan stock" Avhich, 
originating in inner Asia, spread out over India, AvestAvard to 
Greece and beyond to Eiirope. It Avas probably the first type of 

*It is interesting to learn in this connection that a statement was published in September, 
1918, under the auspices of the French Academic des Inscriptions, regarding the finding of another 
cave in Southern France containing ancient cave paintings. These works of art are estimnted to 
be 30,000 years old, and include figures of reindeers, bisons, horses, bears, elephants, and rhinoc- 
eroses; also, a bas-relief figure of a lion. The most curious ligure is a silhouette of a man in mo- 
tion, whose head and body are joined by an enormous neck; the upper and lower limbs are per- 
fectly human, but the end of the vertebral column is prolonged into a distinct tail, and he goes 


human to whom we can ascribe some of that primitive folklore 
already referred to as having been developed in the regions about 
the eastern end of the Mediterranean basin ; and if this is so, then 
speculations about an unknown world, a world of gho§ts, of de- 
mons, of gods and goddesses, first originated in the brains of this 
mighty type of man, before whom the previous types disappeared, 
whether by war and conquest and extermination, or by being ab- 
sorbed by interbreeding — ^who can tell? 

How Myths Travel and Become Modified 

When primitive man invented a fable to explain any phenom- 
enon of nature, he may not have intended deliberately to start a 
religious belief or theory. But as with the proverbial liar, who 
tells a story so often that he finally believes it himself, some of 
these myths gained credence as facts. Also, as in the case when 
any one of us hears a good story, we like to pass it along, or tell 
it to a new audience. While some of the hearers soon forget such 
fables, others retained them and repeated them, although with 
slight variations which, by many repetitions, became more dis- 
similar but still retaining the general character of the original 

The progress of a story was once illustrated thus : When first 
told, it was a lie ; a few years later it was referred to as a fake ; 
after 25 years it was a fable ; after two centuries it had become a 
myth; after five centuries it was a tradition; one thousand years 
had made it into an accepted belief, and at the end of two thou- 
sand years it had been proclaimed as a dogma of faith. 

The myth of Adam and Eve, for instance, traveled practically 
around the world ; it was known to most of ancient Asia and Africa, 
when Europe was practically terra incognita; later it was dissem- 
inated throughout Europe and on the discovery of America it 
was carried there also. In Ceylon, at Adam's Peak, there is a 
foot-print of Adam to which pilgrimages were made many cen- 
turies ago by the early inhabitants of that Island when our Euro- 
pean ancestors were still savages ; this footprint of Adam is prob- 
ably just as authentic as the one of Jesus, which is shown in the 
garden of a convent on the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem. The 
names of Adam and Eve originated in India; they are Sanskrit, 
and the early Jews probably got their account in Genesis from 
East Indian sources. 



As already referred to, the myth is known to many people 
but in some cases with different names and modified details. It 
was accepted into the sacred writings of the Hindus, Jews, Chris- 
tians, Mohammedans, etc., and is believed in by millions pf peo- 
ple who regard it as fact and not as myth. 

We have also seen how similar ideas were believed in ancient 
Egypt and India and Mexico and Yucatan. How such stories 
were so widely disseminated can not, perhaps, always be traced; 
but we can get some idea from known transmigrations of such 

In Dutch Guiana (South America) there are three tribes of 
descendants of run-away slaves, mixtures of negro and Indian 
blood, who are called by the Dutch "Bosch-Negers." These bush 
negroes have in their religion traces of African Voodooism, South 
American or Indian mythology, together with curious traces of 
former Christian influence; their religion is a curious mixture of 
belief in a number of Pagan deities, but their chief god is Gran- 
god (grand God), his wife is Maria, and his son is Jesi Kist. 

The Javanese are generally Mohammedans, but their original 
religion was a crude animism, a belief in a world-soul which per- 
meates all things; since everything, even sticks or stones, con- 
tains some of this world-soul, fetichism is a part of this belief. 
To this original belief they have added a lot of later ideas, so that 
their present system of belief consists of a mass of incongruous 
conceptions, separate elements having been taken from various 
religions with which they have come into contact. 

They are nominally Mohammedans, and while worshipping 
they utter the Arabic formula "There is no God, but God, and 
Mohammed is his prophet;" but it is doubtful whether they un- 
derstand what it means. They worship a great many spirits which 
they call Hyang or Yang ; every village has its own Hyang on whom 
depends the weal or woe of that community; the altars for these 
Hyangs are erected under trees and offerings of incense or flowers 
are made to them. 

Some of these spirits are equivalent to Disease Demons and 
must be propitiated; thus Mentik causes smut in the rice fields; 
Sawan produces convulsions in children ; Dengen causes gout and 
rheumatism; Ki gives men wealth in exchange for their souls; 
Joseph (from the Koran) gives them beautiful children; they 



pray to Moses for bravery, to Solomon for wisdom, to Jesus for 
learning, etc. 

The Congoese religion (inner Africa) is a gross fetichism or 
animism, and their fetiches are made by their sorcerers from 
snail-shells, bird-dnng, feathers, etc., and are supposed to possess 
great magical powers; but their most potent fetiches are Chris- 
tian crucifixes, to which they ascribe greater magical powers than 
ever did the Christians, and they consider themselves exceedingly 
lucky if they can get one of these charms or phylacteries. 

Abyssinia contains several tribes, but the majority are Cau- 
casians, although of very dark complexion. They are a well-built 
people. Their religion is a primitive Christianity, corrupted by 
many Pagan superstitions and Judaic ritual; for instance, they 
circumcise their boys, follow the Mosaic rules about food, they 
baptize their children according to the Greek church rules and 
keep the feast and fast days of that church; they worship many 
saints and especially they worship the Virgin whom they call the 
Queen of Heaven and Earth, and whom they consider the mediator 
between themselves and God; marriages are patriarchal and po- 
lygamy is permitted, but the children of the same father but by 
different mothers grow up at enmity with each other. They also 
worship the river Gaba, which they consider sacred, as the Hindus 
do the Ganges; on the feast of St. John the Baptist great disor- 
derly crowds of Christians bathe in this river, and again, on 
Christmas day, they bathe but in a devout and orderly manner. 
It seems that one sacred bathing day is tainted with survivals of 
phallic festival ideas, and the other is more in accordance with 
Christian ideas. 

Before the time of Mohammed the Arabs were Pagans and 
worshipped many gods and goddesses ; when Mohammed promul- 
gated his religion the Arabs adopted this religion, the main tenet 
of which is expressed in the formula: "There is no God, but God;" 
this formula is repeated at the beginning of every prayer by a 
Mohammedan, yet the Arabs did not notice anything incongruous 
in continuing the worship of their former deities, who, they said, 
were sons of Allah; in Mecca the goddesses, probably forms of 
Astarte, were considered to be daughters of Allah. 

As is the case with most other religions, they ascribed to their 
gods and goddesses the same sexual relationships that prevailed 
among themselves, and Allah therefore was a polygamist; and he 


had two wives, Al-Lat and Al-Ozza. Mohammed did not combat 
these views but merely ascribed a lower rank to the ancient Pagan 
deities, reducing some of them even to demons and kobolds, etc. 

Abont the time of the beginning of our Era there was a period 
of great unrest among the thinkers of the world. Greek philosophy, 
Platonism, Neo-Platonism, Manichaeism, Montanism, Gnosticism, 
made great inroads on the older faiths, and Judaism underwent 
many changes. Then, when Christianity came, it too met with all 
the other competing ideas, and while at first it was fairly free from 
Pagan ideas, it soon adopted the policy of making converts by 
adapting itself to their views, so as not to make a change from 
one of the other faiths to Christianity too abrupt or difficult. 

The Christian Church took over everything it possibly could 
and gave Christian explanations for the Pagan festivals, philos- 
ophy, etc. ; in this way the simple faith of the early Christians be- 
came swamped with foreign ideas, but the church-fathers amal- 
gamated all the ideas into one more or less congruous mass of 
doctrines, so that it has been fairly said, that "modern Chris- 
tianity is based on pre-Christian Paganism and post-Christian 
metaphysics." Much of what modern Christians believe is not 
based on the Bible, but is derived from other sources. 

For instance, at a very early stage of Christianity, they be- 
lieved in One God; the belief was Unitarian; by about the begin- 
ning of the third century the belief that Jesus was a son of God,- 
and was himself a God, prevailed quite generally, and then when a 
third person, the Holy Ghost, was accepted by the church, the 
belief was Trinitarian. These two divisions were fairly even in 
numbers; but the influence of Origen (a fanatical self -castrated 
zealot) established the theory of the Trinity more and more firmly, 
until by about 40(iA.D. the belief in the Trinity was general. 

The philosophical definition of the Trinity varied much; some 
holding that the Father, Son and Holy Ghost were but different 
names for the same God, but manifesting himself in different 
phases, and that the Trinity was of the same order as when Plato 
and the later philosophers said of man that he was a Trinity of 
Soul, Mind and Body. So God manifested himself as the Creator 
(Father), the Redeemer (Son), and the Giver of Life (Holy 
Ghost) ; but all three were but manifestations of different functions 
or phases of the same thing, of the same God. Others, and pos- 
sibly the majority, believed that each of these three was a dis- 


tinct individuality, and while they still spoke of One God, they 
really had in mind Three Gods. 


The habit of considering one religion (your own) as true and 
all others as false, is as old as the religions themselves; but this 
intolerance was more marked in medieval Christian religions than 
at any other time. 

Most of us, probably, inherit our faiths; it takes courage to 
change them, when convinced that they are wrong. Even then, 
though we are convinced that we can not believe them any longer, 
it is seldom due to any real conviction, but mainly from mere 

After all, the old Greek philosopher Philemon was as near 
right as is posible for the human mind to be, when he said: "Re- 
vere and worship God; seek not to know more; you need seek 
nothing further." 

The Greeks originally merely called the gods theoi — dispens- 
ers, but had no names for them. 

"Whence the gods severally sprang, whether or no they had 
existed from eternity, what forms they bore — these are questions 
of which the Greeks knew nothing until the other day, so to speak. 
For Homer and Hesiod were the first to compose theogonies." 
(Herodotus, about 450 e.g.). 

"We are led by nature to think that there are gods, and we 
discover by reason of what nature they are." (Cicero.) 

In a well-known and very valuable book on Phallic worship 
the author ascribes to Homer a prayer to god : ' ' Hear me, King, 
whoever thou art!" This is misleading; Hom«r had very definite 
ideas about the gods, and according to him each river had its 
own deity. The prayer is ascribed to Odysseus, who is SAvimming 
toward land, but encounters a strong current of a river emptying 
into the sea; he does not know what river it is, but prays to the 
unknown god of that river, and his prayer is heard; he escapes 
from the seaward current and lands safely. 

The fables told about the gods were known to be the imagin- 
ings of their poets and writers by the higher classes among the 

*By gods we mean here all non-natural or supernatural beings, imagined in any form, but 
endowed with human attributes and generally as sexual beings; often, even, as very salacious beings. 


ancients, but by the ignorant plebs or public they were believed 
as true. 

Plato and Socrates candidly confessed that they would not 
attempt to define the great First Cause. 

Menander, a Greek Gnostic, said: "Seek not to learn who 
God is; they who are anxious to know what may not be known, 
are impious." Menander anticipated the views of Herbert Spen- 
cer about the "Unknowable" by several thousand years. 

Some modern, as well as ancient writers say that all gods 
were men ; in other words, that they were deified heroes. This is 
probably true of many but does not apply to all. Herbert Spen- 
cer's idea that the origin of the god idea must be sought in an- 
cestor worship is a similar view. 

Some explain the myths about the gods as a deification of 
elementary forces and phenomena ; thus, rivers are sons of Terra 
(earth) and Oceanus (ocean) ; the evaporated water from Ocean 
falls on Earth (fertilizes her) and streams and rivers result. The 
story of the war of the gods and Titans becomes merely an alle- 
gorical account of the war of the elements. Some of the ancient 
philosophers saw in these stories of gods and goddesses only a 
physical, ethical, religious or historical explanation of the uni- 
verse; Theogenes, for instance, considered Homer's writings to 
be merely a physical philosophy, or as we now call it — ^natural 
philosophy, or Physics. 

Eumerides thought that there was nothing supernatural, and 
that the mythologies were merely attempts at a historical expla- 
nation of physical facts. The early Christians, like Augustine, 
rather favored this view, and they thought that Zeus, Aphrodite, 
and the other Greek gods and goddesses were originally real per- 
sons, not divine, but diabolical, who had become transformed by 
tradition into deities. 

Porphyry ascribed to the myths about the gods a meaning 
which was partly moral and partly deeply theosophical ; the reli- 
gious elements were for the purpose of controlling the masses. 

This was also Aristotle's view, who considered the stories 
as allegories invented by statesmen and legislators, "to persuade 
the many, and to support the law. ' ' 

Plutarch, in an essay on Superstition, said that "ignorance 
about the gods which makes the obstinate man an atheist also be- 
gets credulity in weak and pliant minds. The atheist fears noth- 


ing because he believes nothing; the superstitious man believes 
there are gods, but they are unfriendly to him. A man who fears 
the gods is never free from fear, whatever may befall him. He 
extends his fear beyond his death and believes in the 'gates of 
hell,' and its fires, in the darkness, the ghosts, the infernal judges," 

The Neo-Platonists taught that God and matter were the 
same thing; they believed what is now termed "rationalism," a 
realism amounting to materialistic pantheism: "Omnia unum, 
quia, quicquid est, est Deus." (All things are one, because, what- 
ever is, is God.) 

Pantheism taught that the whole universe was endowed with 
and pervaded by a divine but immaterial mind which manifests 
itself in the plant as well as in the animal and man, in the instinct 
of the bee as well as in men. On the death of any living organism, 
its soul did not perish but simply reverted to the all-pervading 
intelligence, to enter into new organisms as needed. 

"It is not possible for us to set God before our eyes, or to 
lay hold of him with our hands, which is the broadest way of per- 
suasion that leads into the heart of man. For he is not furnished 
with a human head on his body, two branches do not sprout from 
his shoulders, he has no feet, no swift knees, no hairy parts ;* but 
he is only a sacred and unutterable mind flashing through the 
whole world with rapid thoughts." (Parmenides, born 515 b.c.) 

The Pythagoreans said that all things were made of numbers ; 
numbers are the true realities of the universe. The following is 
an account of some of their theories recorded by Aristotle : 

"But amongst these, and prior to them, those called Pyth- 
agoreans, applying themselves to the study of the mathematical 
sciences, first advanced these views ; and having nurtured therein 
they considered the first principles of these to be the first prin- 
ciples of all entities. But since, among these, numbers by nature 
are the first, and in numbers they fancied they beheld many re- 
semblances for entities and things that are being produced, rather 
than in fire, earth and water**; because, to give an instance, 
such a particular property of numbers is justice, and such, soul 
and mind ; and another different one is opportunity ; and it is the 
case, so to speak, in like manner with each of the other things. 

•Meaning, he has no genitals. 
*"The ancient elements of material things. 


' ' Moreover, also in numbers discerning the passive conditions 
and reasons of harmonies, since it was apparent that, indeed, other 
things in their nature were in all points assimilated unto numbers, 
and that the numbers were the first of the entire of nature, hence 
they supposed the elements of numbers to be the elements of all 
entities, and the whole heaven to be an harmony and number. 
* * * Undoubtedly do these appear to consider number to be a 
first principle, and as it were, a material cause of entities, and as 
both their passive conditions and habits, and that the even and 
the odd are elements of number; and of these, that the one is 
finite, and the other infinite, and that unity, doubtless, is composed 
of both of these, for that it is both even and odd and that number 
is composed of unity, and that, as has been stated, the entire 
heaven is composed of numbers. 

"But others of these very philosophers affirm that first prin- 
ciples are ten in number, denominated in accordance with the fol- 
lowing co-ordinate series, nam^ely: — 

Bound Infinite. Square Oblong. 

Unity Plurality. Good Bad. 

Eest Motion. Odd Even.* 

Straight Crooked. Eight Left.* 

Light Darkness. Male Female.* ' ' 

As demonstrated above, numbers are the cause of the exist- 
ence of All Things ; numbers are as the Gods. 

Xenophanes said (about 550 e.g.): "There is one God, the 
greatest among gods and men, neither in form nor thought like 
unto mortals. He sees all over, thinks all over, and hears all 
over. But without toil he sways all things by the thought of his 
mind. And he abideth ever in the same place, moving not at all ; 
nor doth it befit him to go about, now hither, now thither. But 
mortals think that the Gods are born as they are, and have percep- 
tion like theirs, and voice and form. 

"Yes, and if oxen or lions had hands and could paint with 
their hands and produce works of art as men do, horses would 
paint the forms of the Gods like horses, and oxen like oxen. Each 
would represent them with bodies according to the form of each. 
So the Ethiopians malfe their Gods black and snubnosed; the 
Thracians give theirs red hair and blue eyes. Homer and Hesiod 

*For the importance of these series, see Gemetria, p. 104 and p. 194, as having bearing on sex. 


have ascribed to the Gods all things that are a shame and a dis- 
grace among men, thefts and adulteries and deception of one an- 
other. * * * 

"There never was nor will be a man who has clear certainty 
as to what I say about the Gods and about all things; for even 
if he does chance to say what is right, yet he himself does not 
know that it is so. But all are free to guess. 

"There are guesses something like the truth. The -Gods have 
not shown forth all things to man from the beginning, but by 
seeking they gradually find out what is better." 

Protagoras (about 500 b.c.) said: "Concerning the Gods, I 
can not say whether they exist or not. ' ' 

We have previously referred to Hesiod's theories of religion; 
it is practically a history of sexual relations and sexual deeds and 
valor of the ancient gods. 

The helplessness and dependence of men on the will of the 
gods is told by Hesiod in this fable: "Now then will I speak a 
fable to kings, wise even though they are. Thus the hawk ad- 
dressed the nightingale of variegated throat, as he carried her 
in his talons, when he had caught her, very high in the clouds. 

"She then, pierced on all sides by his crooked talons, was 
wailing piteously, whilst he victoriously addressed his speech to 

" 'Wretch, wherefore criest thou? 'tis a much stronger that 
holds thee. Thou wilt go that way by which I may lead thee, 
songstress though thou art: and my supper, if I choose, I shall 
make or let go. But senseless is he who chooses to contend 
against them that are stronger, and he is robbed of victory and 
suffers griefs in addition to indignities.' " * * * 

"When he has suffered, the senseless man learns this. * * * 
Whoso giveth fair Judgment to strangers and to citizens, and 
does not overstep aught of justice, for these a city blooms. * * * 

"For them bears Earth much substance: on the mountains 
the oak at its top indeed yields acorns,* and midway bees ; * * * 
women bear children like unto their sires ; * * * and the fer- 
tile field yields its increase. But they, to whom evil, wrong and 
hard deeds are a care, to them wide-seeing Jove, the son of Cronos, 
destines punishment." 

•Before Demeter taui^bt the Greeks the art ofi agriculture, they lived mainly on acorns. 


Thales (about 585 b.c.) was said to be the first person who 
affirmed "that the souls of men Avere immortal," and he was the 
first person who discovered the path of the snn * * * and who 
defined its magnitude as being seven hundred and twenty times 
as great as that of the moon. * * * But Aristotle and Hippias 
say that he attributed souls also to lifeless things, forming his 
conjectures from the nature of the magnet and of amber. * * * 

And the following is quoted as a saying of his: "God is the 
most ancient of all things, for he had no birth : * * *" 

Cicero (born 105 b.c.) said: "Should I attempt to search into 
antiquity and produce from thence what the Greek writers have 
asserted, it would appear that even those who were called their 
principal gods, were taken from among men up into heaven." * * 

"And this may further be brought as an irrefragable argu- 
ment for us to believe that there are gods, — that there never was 
a nation so barbarous, nor any people in the world so savage, as 
to be without some notion of gods." 

Herodotus (about 450 b.c.) said: "From where each god 
comes, whether they have always existed and what their forms 
may be, all this is known, so to say, only since yesterday and the 
day before that. For Hesiod and Homer, who lived not more than 
four hundred years before me, invented a history of the gods for 
the Hellenes, and gave each god his name and his honors, and who 
designated their accomplishments and their forms." 

Lucretius was a Eoman writer of the last century b.c; he 
wrote largely also on science. He is celebrated for his clearness 
as a thinker, noted for his bold and logical statements of specula- 
tive theories, and his application of them to the interpretation of 
human life and of nature. All moral and physical facts are con- 
sidered by him in their relation to one great organic system or 
power, which takes the place of a deity and which he calls Natura 
daedala rerum (the skilful nature of things) and the most benefi- 
cent manifestations of which he symbolizes and almost deifies as 
"Alma Venus" (propitious or indulgent love). In his concep- 
tion of nature are united the ideas of law and order, of ever- 
changing life and the dependence upon each other of the irmnensity 
of the universe, individuality and all-pervading subtlety under 
which the universe is conceived by his intelligence, and his imag- 

He disclaims a belief in a supernatural government of the 


world by powers in the nature of gods, he does not believe in a 
future life, but the main object is to controvert the popular ideas 
of the Olympian gods and to combat the belief in the horrors of 

Pliny the Elder (about 60 a.d.) believed in a religion of Hu- 
manity which was a precursor of the modern religion of positivism 
or of Humanity as expounded in the nineteenth century by Comte. 
He said : "Nature and nature's work are one ; and to suppose there 
is more than one universe is to believe there can be more than one 
nature, which is madness (furor) ; if there is a god, it is vain to 
inquire his form or shape; He is entirely a Being of feeling and 
sentiment and intelligence and not of tangible existence. God is 
what Nature is ; God can not do what Nature can not do ; He can 
not kill himself, nor make mortals immortal; nor raise the dead 
to life; nor cause one who has lived not to have lived at all, or 
make twice ten anything but twenty." 

He saluted Nature as the parent of all things: "Salve, parens 
rerum omnium Natural" (Hail, Nature, the parent of all things). 

"Homo est Creator Dei!" 

Livy tells of Numa Pompilius, that, in 181 b.c, two boxes were 
found buried at the foot of the Janiculum, one purporting to con- 
tain his body, and one purporting to contain copies of his writ- 
ings. The first was empty; the other contained 14 books relat- 
ing to philosophy which "being found to have a tendency to 
undermine the established system of religion" were immediately 
burned publicly. 

The spirit of persecution for the sake of a difference of 
opinion is old; it compelled Socrates to drink the poisoned cup, 
and it has prevailed in an especially virulent manner during the 
persecutions of the early Christians under Nero, Caligula, Cara- 
calla, and other Roman emperors, as well as under the Inquisition 
in the medieval Christian church. 

The following is a literal translation from an Encyclopedic 
History of the World, published in 1740 to 17,80 : 

' ' In the year 1688 there was a nobleman, Casimirus Linzynsky 
Podsedeck Brzesky, who not only orally denied the true nature of 
God but also tried to maintain such opinions in his writings, and 
who proved thereby that he was a public atheist, which is a rare 


occurrence, since secret atheism and a subtle denial of God is un- 
fortunately much practiced in this world. 

"This nobleman was arrested at Warshau by order of the 
Bishop, because there was found among other horrible blasphe- 
mies in his devilish writings, composed in the hellish sulphur pool, 
the following axiom: 'Deus non est creator hominis, sed homo 
est creator Dei, qui Deum sihi finxit ex nihilo.' (God is not the 
creator of man, but man is the creator of God, who made a God 
for himself out of nothing.) 

"NotAvithstanding this, several devilish Poles, also claiming 
nobility, tried to defend the evil-minded man, by which means the 
trial was actually delayed until the next year. But on the 5th day 
of February, 1689, he was first tried in public council, then deliv- 
ered to the ecclesiastical authorities under the bishop of Lietf- 
land, deputed for the trial, who declared him guilty and delivered 
him to the high court of the realm. Here the Lithuanian bishop 
acted as accuser and submitted especially a book of fifteen sheets 
which Brzesky had written with his own hand, and in which he 
had diligently collected all evidence from heathenish and other 
blasphemous scribes by which the true nature of God is denied, 
and in which he closed each chapter with the final sentence : 'Ergo 
non est Deus.' (Therefore, God does not exist!) And he did 
this not for the purpose of searching for the truth, as was proved 
by this, that he added: 'We atheists believe thus, and this is our 
conviction.' "We omit other blasphemous quotations. 

"The accused asked for an advocate, but this was peremp- 
torily refused. On the 29th of the month Linzynsky's accuser and 
six other witnesses, took the required oath, that they had not 
brought the accused to this trial through malice, and had found no 
other of his writings but those produced in court, consequently 
had withheld nothing that might serve for his defence ; whereupon 
Linzinsky on the first of March recanted his errors in church, on 
which occasion the condemned man lay on a specially constructed 
platform {'chavot' or scaffold) in front of the altar in the pres- 
ence of the whole congregation. After the sermon the bishop sat 
down before him on a chair while a priest read to him a revoca- 
tion and retraction of his hellish errors, which he repeated word 
for word, amidst many tears. When this was concluded the bishop 
granted him absolution for his sins and administered a moderate 
flagellation, after which the bishop descended from the platform, 


whilst the atheist implored the mercy of God, of the king, and of 
the people. 

"On the 18th of the same month the death sentence was pro- 
nounced on the defendant Linzynsky by the Chief Marshal, to 
this effect: that his writings, while he holds them in his hand, 
shall be burned on the market place, after which he shall be taken 
beyond the limits of the city and be burned alive, his goods to be 
confiscated, the house in which he lived to be torn down and the 
place whereon it stood to be left vacant forever. As the sentence 
was being read the Bishop of Rosen and the Bishop of Lieff- 
land approached the throne of the king and asked for a milder 
sentence, whereupon the condemned man spoke, while he fell on 
his knees, and amidst many tears, asked that the torture of having 
his hand burned with his writings held in them, and of his being 
burned at the stake be changed to decapitation, which the king 
graciously granted: The sentence was thereupon executed, so 
that the condemned man held his writings at the end of a stick 
while he burned them; then he was decapitated, his body taken 
beyond the city limits and there burned ; the ashes were loaded in 
a cannon and fired in the direction of Tartary."* 

Julius Caesar Vanninus, of Taurisano, Italy, born at Naples, 
was arrested in 1619 at Toulouse for having uttered "atheistic 
sentiments," and was condemned to be burned at the stake. His 
offence was really that he had good-naturedly ridiculed the pre- 
tensions of some astrologers and said something about the stars 
which was not approved by the ecclesiastical authorities. When 
he was about to be executed, his tongue was torn from his throat 
with pincers and then cut off and burnt, at which, as the editor 
rather gleefully remarks, "he roared like a bull." After that he 
was burnt at the stake. 

These two examples show a peculiar spirit of persecution, or 
intolerance, which made it dangerous to argue about the beliefs of 
the masses or even of individuals. But it was a widely spread 
spirit of intolerance and many thousands of dissenters from the 
authorized faith were burnt at the stake. Between the years 1600 
and 1670 the inquisition in Spain alone burnt alive 31,912 victims. 
Curiously enough, this mode of execution was introduced to avoid 
spilling human blood (Fig. 178). 

*Tartary is sometimes used as a synonym for hell. 



In many countries the victims were burnt naked, so that the 
blistering of the skin and the writhing of the muscles and the 
contortions of the limbs would be more impressive as a deterrent 
for the onlookers. Such was the case for instance in Mexico. 
Also, in German works on history the autos de fe are usually 
figured with the victims naked. 

Fig. 178. — Burning of John Underhill, on Tower Green; Tower of London. 

'■>^l''-:. t , ,^ """ --_... -. - -. - 

Fig. 179. — Burning of negro at Texarkana, Texas, February 20, 1892. 

In Spain, etc., the victims wore a single garment, the "san 
benito," on which were figured devils, etc. ; when the fires were kin- 
dled this garment readily burned away and the victim was prac- 
tically naked. 


A papal bull, in 1816, put an end to torture and death at the 
stake for opinion's sake. 

Burning at the stake has been resorted to, however, in our 
own country by mobs, mainly for the punishment of negroes who 
committed rape on white women or girls (Fig. 179). 

Primitive Beliefs 

There are but few people who have no theories about super- 
natural powers ; most people have some ideas of this kind though 
they may be hazy and lack system; but they may have some in- 
definite dread of certain imknown influences of this kind, akin 
to the fear experienced by many when they are in the dark in a 
strange place. 

The Anamese, of Cochin China, have no religion; they have 
certain ceremonies in honor of their ancestors, but these do not 
seem to be of the nature of worship. 

The Bechwana had no traces of religion or of belief in super- 
natural powers, except such as they have acquired from mission- 
aries, etc., since their first contact Avith other people. 

The Bongo people have no idea of a deity, but they believe 
in a sort of "luck;" they go naked, but wear an ornamental girdle 
about the waist. They are very low in the social scale ; marriage 
is by purchase, but a man may not buy more than three Avives. 

The ancient Greek writers made mention of some troglodites, 
or cave-dwellers in Africa, that they were rude people living in 
caves or excavations in the sides of hills, that they owned the 
women in common (promiscuous cohabitation), were cannibals of 
the stone age, had no religion and no language (meaning no 
Greek?) and that they extended even to Europe. This may be an 
early reference to a tribe or race still very numerous in the dense 
forests of Africa, who still live mainly on hmnan flesh supplied 
through wars, or by Arab traders in slaves, in exchange for gold, 
rubber and ivory. 

In South America, the Charruas of Uruguay (in 1512, as re- 
ported by the missionary Juan Diaz de Solis) had no trace of 
any religion; their habits were very simple, and they had neither 
the vices nor the superstitions of the other South American 

Likewise the Botocudos, another South American Indian 


tribe, had no religion (remember, that religion must be accom- 
panied by worship) of any kind, but they were afraid of ghosts. 
They believed that the moon was the Creator of the world, but 
they did not worship the moon. They had neither a trace of re- 
ligion nor a trace of clothing of any kind. Several tribes of In- 
dians in Brazil are cannibals, and go entirely naked ; they have no 
religion of any kind. 

The Juangs of Bengal, the Fuegians and the Andamanese 
are said to have no idea and no word for God, no idea of a future 
life and no religious ceremonies of any kind. 

The Veddahs are an aboriginal tribe in Ceylon. They are 
a diminutive tribe, the men about 5 feet tall, and the women less. 
They are cave-dwellers, clothe themselves Avith a few leaves, do 
not use fire but devour their food uncooked and eat whatever they 
can get, vermin, reptiles, etc. They can not count, nor have they 
any idea of marking the time of day, much less of weeks and sea- 
sons ; they can not distinguish colors and they never laugh. They 
have no conceptions of any supernatural beings or gods, but they 
believe that there are certain anthropomorphic beings, or evil 
spirits (who may however be real men of neighboring savage 
tribes) and they hold rude dances accompanied by shouts to 
scare away these beings. 

The Hottentots of Africa are not much higher; they can 
count only to 20 ; but they hold their women in very high esteem, 
the men even swearing by their sisters. The only trace of reli- 
gion, if so it can be called, is a form of totemism; the women 
eat apart from the men, but this is on account of a peculiar form 
of tapu; hares and rabbits may be eaten by women, but not by the 
men, while the blood of beasts and the flesh of moles can be eaten 
by men but not by the women. Curiously enough, swine are tapu 
to both men and women and are not eaten at all. 

Eeligion is a feeling, either of fear, or of gratitude, which 
arises in the minds of men in the presence of unknown influences 
which either harm or benefit them ; but it does not necessarily fol- 
low that this feeling is a religion, although it disposes to religious 
sentiments. It is only when man begins to ascribe volition or 
thought to such powers, and when he tries to propitiate them by 
offerings or worship, or to influence them by prayers, that it be- 
comes religion. 

It is extremely doubtful whether early primitive man was 


even as far advanced as the Bechwana, Bongo, Charruas, Boto- 
cudos, Juangs, Fuegians, Esquimaux, or similar tribes, and prim- 
itive man may have continued in such condition for untold ages, 
hundreds of thousands if not several millions of years. In fact, 
man must have made considerable advancement before he had 
any urgent mental disposition to speculate beyond his most im- 
mediate "wants, the ability to satisfy hunger and to gratify his 
sexual desires. But when he felt a need of satisfying a desire to 
understand nature about him, and to speculate about the causes 
of phenomena about him, this primitive religious desire was prob- 
ably an indistinct naturism, or an awe inspired by the natural 
phenomena conjectured as living and conscious powers; it was 
but natural for primitive man to attribute the human character- 
istics of life, action and thought, and especially of sex, to all phe- 
nomena or forces of nature, thus creating in his own mind various 
gods presiding over winds, floods, heat of summer, frost of win- 
ter, etc. ; these creations of the imagination of primitive men have 
been called departmental gods, which must have antedated by 
many generations any higher conceptions of deities. 

Possibly one of the earliest ideas of the supernatural was 
the fear of ghosts ; when the savage dreamt of seeing a departed 
dead friend, he naturally concluded that he saw his friend him- 
self in ghost form; he dreamed of seeing him with his weapons, 
clothes, etc., therefore he knew that these had souls or ghosts 
also; this led to a belief in animism, a belief in a sort of souls 
inhabiting everything, and fetichism was the result. Simple ob- 
jects, such as sticks and stones, feathers, etc., were supposed to 
be capable of exerting magical powers, or to act as talismans, and 
were thought to be able to compel the imknown powers of nature, 
or primitive gods, to work the will of the possessor of the talis- 
mans. A modified belief in fetiches survives even among our- 
selves; for lucky coins, buckeyes, horse-shoes or swastika stick- 
pins, amulets and charms, medallions, and various gems as birth- 
stones, etc., are valued by many. 

Bishop Callaway says that the Bushmen of Africa call God 
Ikquum, which means ' ' Father who is above. ' ' On the other hand, 
a Bushman said that his tribe worshipped two rocks or stones, 
one male, one female. They pray to the male rock for success in 
hunting; the female rock is supposed to be an evil spirit, and if 
they are unsuccessful and fail to secure any game, they beat the 


female rock. As usual, the female gets the worst of it! These 
fetich stones of the African "sacred places" are often meteorites, 
which were everywhere regarded with superstitious reverence and 
awe (Fig. 180). 

The propitiation of ghosts was probably the basis of many 
early religious offerings, among the lower races. 

To keep the ghost of the departed chief contented in the other 
world, his belongings in this world were sent there with him. His 
wives, horses and slaves were killed and buried with him, or in 
many tribes, were buried alive in his grave. 

In some African tribes a deep and large grave was dug into 

Fig. 180. — African fetich place; a tree and two stones. 

which the chief's wives and slaves were put, with their ankles and 
wrists broken, so they could not try to climb out of the pit; the 
chief was laid on top of them and they were left without food or 
drink, but guarded so that none might escape, until all Avere dead 
when the grave was filled up; the clothes, ornaments, weapons, 
etc., of the chief were burned so that the ghosts of these things 
might go to the other world also. Such or similar were the first 
propitiatory offerings to the ghosts, — mention of it is found in 
the Rig-Vedas, the Zend-Avesta, in the early books of the Jewish 


Bible (the Pentateuch) as well as in the writings of the ancient 
Egyptians, Greeks and Eomans. 

Suttee, in India, was a similar practice. It is not a part of 
Brahmanism, but was (or is?) a survival of a very ancient rite. 
On the death of a husband his favorite wife voluntarily went on 
the funeral pile and was burned "with his body, so that she might 
serve him in the other world. The word means "good wife;" the 
practice is now forbidden by law, but there is reason to believe 
that suttee is still practiced in isolated districts. The widow usu- 
ally is intoxicated with stupefying and poisonous drinks, so that 
she hardly appreciates what she is doing, and shortly before she 
goes to the funeral pyre the priests administer a big dose of 
opium, so that it is possible that she is beyond feeling much pain. 

Most nations in Asia, Africa and America sacrificed wives, 
slaves, horses, etc., on the graves of their dead, before they came 
in contact with civilized ideas. 

The music at the wakes of the Irish was originally meant to 
scare away evil spirits which might lie in wait to take the soul of 
the departed. 

Among some North American Indians, they go out in front 
of the dead man's tepee and sing, shout and shoot off their fire- 
arms for a similar reason. In some tribes they light and main- 
tain a fire for four days, to light the way to the happy hunting 

The ancient Greeks and Eomans placed a small coin in the 
mouth of the dead, so the corpse could pay his ferriage over the 
Styx; the Irish place a coin in the dead man's hand — ^no telling! 
He might need it! 

Some tribes in Guinea throw their dead into the sea, so as 
to get rid of the ghosts ; modern Egyptians turn the body of their 
dead around and around as rapidly as possible so as to make the 
soul dizzy; the ghost can not orient itself well, then, and is not 
likely to find its way back ; the natives of Australia tie the hands 
of a corpse together so that it can not scratch itself out of the 
grave to haunt them; in some parts of Southeastern Europe a 
stake is driven through the body of the corpse in the grave, to 
prevent it coming back as a vampire or were- wolf ; and still other 
tribes move their encampment after a funeral, so the ghosts can 
not trace them. In all these measures we see a fear of ghosts. 

The worship among the Greeks of the Manes, or the ghosts 


of the departed, was a part of ancestor-worship, which is a wide- 
spread form of religion, to which reference has already been 
made; in it there is little fear of ghosts, but the latter are sup- 
posed to preside over and to influence the affairs of the living. 
The ghosts became beneficent powers, and were worshipped ac- 
cordingly; they were not feared but honored. 

It is a peculiarity of the human mind and imagination that 
it can not originate anything entirely new ; for instance, there are 
traditions and fables about dragons. A dragon may be a tradi- 
tion reaching back to the memory of man in" early times; the 
Piasa bird which was figured on Chautauqua Bluff in Illinois, was 
possibly due to the memory and experience of early mankind 
transmitted to the moundbuilders who probably painted this bird, 
from the times when pterodactyls flew about, a terror and men- 
ace to primitive man. The dragons of art are composite crea- 
tures, with heads of serpents or eagles, the wings of birds, the 
claws of carnivora, etc., creatures such as never existed except in 
the imagination of man; yet every part of the dragon was like 
something that man had seen, otherwise he could not have evolved 
such a creature from his imagination. 

This applies to religion as well as to art. Whatever primi- 
tive man imagined or fabled about gods and supernatural beings, 
was based on something of which he had knowledge. Man could 
and did imagine gods as spiritual powers, of course ; but he gave 
no shape to such gods. When it became necessary to represent 
them, it was in animal forms, or anthropomorphic. 

Aristotle denied that the gods had ethical virtue, or that 
they concerned themselves about the world or its inhabitants; 
Spinoza says the idea of God being an intelligent being, or an 
Intelligence, who is free to act or to remain passive, or as ruling 
the world, is too anthropomorphic to be true. The general sub- 
stitution of the term "Supreme Being" for "God" means noth- 
ing ; it does not change the underlying idea of Some One who rules 
over us, which idea is rejected by most philosophers, though ac- 
cepted by the masses. Many philosophers accept Herbert Spen- 
cer's term for all supernaturalism ; they call it the "Unknowable." 

But in the main the axiom proclaimed by Linzynski (p. 337) 
is correct: "Homo est Creator Dei." Man necessarily imagined 
gods in shapes with which he was familiar, and whether he fig- 
ured them as men or as beasts or as combinations of both, they 



contained no unkno^vn elements. I show here the Assyrian con- 
ception oi' Asshur, the chief of the gods, as an example of primi- 
tive imagination (Fig. 181). 

Even the Bible taught anthropomorphic ideas, for the dec- 
laration, "God created man in his own image," necessarily im- 
plies a reversed statement that God is like man, for if man is made 
in the image of God then God must have the shape of man. The 
Bible relates a number of occasions when God appeared in liaman 
shape to some of the Old Testament heroes or patriarchs. 

The original religion, naturism or fetichism, or the adoration 
of natural phenomena as living powers, must have developed in 
the course of long ages into anthropomorphic theism or poly- 
theism; and among these many deities one may have become more 

Fig. 181. — The Assyrian god Assluir ; with the pine-eone symbol of the liiigam in his 

right hand. 

and more important, and have come to be worshipped as the main 
god or as the only god. 

Just as man was led to consider the gods as like unto himself, 
he could not imagine the gods as living under other conditions or 
relationships than himself. And as primitive man jjrobably es- 
teemed his sexual appetites as the most important to himself, with 
the possible exception of his appetite for food, so he imagined the 
gods and goddesses to live in similar relationships as men. And 
as they could not conceive any higher social or political organi- 
zation than they had themselves, they imagined the gods to live 


in hordes, or organized tribes, or as kings among their people, 
just as men lived. 

No nation created a single or only god in their thoughts, but 
they peopled the supernatural world with endless numbers of su- 
pernatural beings, fauns, nymphs, sileni, demons, dragons, angels, 
fairies, elves, kobolds, etc., who were the subjects or formed the 
society or community in which the gods lived and ruled. 

In the primitive worships the gods were the forces of nature, 
and were conceived as demons, spirits, or as animal or men-like 
beings. The gods were not the natural phenomena themselves, 
but the lords ruling over and producing these phenomena; thus, 
in India, Rudra was not the lightning, but the god of lightning, the 
god who produced the lightning ; in Greece, Jupiter cast his light- 
ning shafts and thunderbolts ; he produced the lightning but light- 
ning was not the god. Among the Teutons Wodan was the chief 
god, whose son was Donar (Dormer), the lightning god, but light- 
ning and thunder was an effect, not a god. 

When we come to consider the phallus, the male organs of 
generation, and the yoni, or vulva, the female sexual organs, as 
symbols of religion we want to bear this distinction well in mind. 
These organs were not the gods, they were not worshipped, but 
they were the symbols of the powers or gods who manifested them- 
selves through these organs, and the symbols became sacred by 
the reflected godlike attributes they represented. 

Idols and Images 

Idols are figures representing the gods and are worshipped 
in their stead. By the ignorant and superstitious masses, these 
images or idols are regarded as the gods themselves, but by those 
capable of doing some thinking, they are regarded merely as vis- 
ible objects or symbols intended to call to mind the ideal or ab- 
stract powers they represent. Of course these symbols may be 
looked upon with gross or idealized eyes, just as the nude in art 
may call up salacious or pure thoughts. 

It is in regard to Pagan idols, just as it is with our modern 
religions ; the figures of madonnas, saints, etc., are not idols, even 
though some of the more ignorant worshippers attach miraculous 
attributes to such statues, paintings, medallions, etc., while to the 
thinking devotees they merely serve to remind of the ideals these 
figures make concrete for better understanding. 



Among Pagans, the idol itself is often the object of worship, 
but not necessarily always; and among highly educated Pagans, 
as among the Greeks and Romans, the statues of their gods and 
goddesses were not idols but merely images or symbols of the 

Among barbarian nations, it was, and is, a custom to carry 
the gods (or idols) into battle, in the belief that they would aid 
their people in the fight. There can be no doubt of the efficacy of 
this close partnership of god and his people (meaning here not the 
Israelites, but any believers in the particular idols they had with 
them) because it naturally stimulated the valor of the fighting 

Fig. 182. — Wooden idols of tlie Fiji Islanders. 

In Arabia it is the custom for a warlike force to take with 
them some courageous maiden of the tribe, who is mounted on a 
black, or blackened camel; she loudly sings about the prowess of 
her tribes-people and of the aid that Allah is to them, and deri- 
sively about the cowardice and other contemptible traits of their 
enemies; her own people being incited to greater deeds of valor 
and the enemies being depressed by her insults. 

A similar condition prevailed when Joan of Arc led the 
French in battle in the 15th Century. 

"We have already learned that in Madagascar when the men 
go to war the women at home dance war dances; the knowledge 
that the women are dancing, urges the warriors to added bravery. 


In such cases there is a distinct sexual stimulus exerted by think- 
ing of their women while fighting. 

Among the Germans the close partnership of God and the 
Kaiser is practically an article of faith and is a powerful influ- 
ence in encouraging the troops. Whether they believe this to be 
the God of the Bible or the old German war god Odin or Wodan 
is immaterial; the stimulating effect on the courage of the igno- 
rant and superstitious among the Germans in battle is marked. 

Idols or images of gods were used in very ancient times. 
Among the Israelites of old idolatry Avas forbidden, as appears 
from numerous passages in the Bible, of which I quote but one; 
Exod. XX, 4: "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven images 
or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in 
the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; thou 
shalt not bow down, thyself to them nor serve them." 

Fig. 183. — Aztec idols; the first one is male, the second female; the third holds a cornu- 
copia but the sexual parts are not shown. 

Graven images were forbidden, which discouraged sculpture 
and art of every kind ; molten images are forbidden in other pas- 
sages, by Avhich were meant figures cast in moulds ; for instance, 
while Moses went up into the mountains to receive the tablets of 
the law, the Israelites demanded that Aaron, the High Priest, 
should make some visible image of God, which he did by casting 
an image of an Apis bull (a golden calf) made from the orna- 
ments offered by the people for that purpose; the form -^f the 
image was in accord with the Egyptian religion under which they 
had lived so long. The real gist of the commandment, and the 
reason for its enactment was of course in the last sentence, but 
the Jews construed it to mean that such images should not be 



made. That this was not the intention, follows from reading 
Num. xxi, 8: "And the Lord said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery 
serpent and set it upon a pole ; and it shall come to pass, that every 
one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live." If the 
commandment meant to prohibit the making of an image, God 
would not have connnanded Moses to make one (Fig. 184). The 
same is true of the figures of cherubims God directed Moses to 
make and place on the ark of the covenant. 

The Teraphim were Jewish household gods, similar to the 
Roman Penates ; they were also called ' ' images. ' ' Perhaps these 
were some of the "strange gods" referred to in the Bible. 

During the Babjdonian captivity the Jews became acquainted 
with the profuse ornamentation of Assyrian and Babylonian tem- 

Fig. 184. — Serpent erected by Moses in the desert. From a copperplate of 1740. 

pies and imitated it occasionally themselves, but after the captiv- 
ity, when they had returned to their old homes, the prophets be- 
came very active in denouncing the making of images and the wor- 
ship thereof, carrying the above commandment to the extreme, 
construing it to forbid all art, even of architectural sculptural 

This aversion to the imitative arts, at least as far as it is 
applied to images of living beings, was adopted from the Jews 
by Mohammed, to the extent that artists were not even permitted 
to represent the human features for purposes of portraiture. 
Statues or paintings of the human form being forbidden by the 
Koran, could not do away, however, with the appreciation of 
human beauty, but it could be indulged in only by having pretty 



girl slaves or odalisques, whose main dut^^ it was to go about 
naked or very lightly clad in the homes of the wealthy Moham- 
medans; these slaves Avere mainly obtained from Georgia or Cir- 
cassia, which produced and still produce the most beautiful 
women. These slaves did not do much work, but entertained with 
music, songs, story-telling or dancing, or by serving refreshments ; 
they were themselves waited on and guarded by Nubian slaves or 
eunuchs, by way of contrast or foil, the value of which was already 
understood in ancient Egypt. 

In ancient times the Germans had no idols to represent their 
deities; in fact, they did not even build temples. Nor were idols 

Pig. 185. — A menhir or stone pDlar in Japan. 

or images extensively worshipped in ancient Asia Minor, but the 
deities were symbolized by natural objects, such as serpents, trees, 
stones, etc. ; or no images or symbols of any kind were used. For 
example, when the Greeks first settled near the northern shores of 
the Black Sea, in Eussia of today, about 800 b.c, they met there a 
people whom they called the Scythians. Hippocrates and He- 
rodotus both tell us about them, but the only thing we are inter- 
ested in is their gods. Their highest deity was feminine — Tabiti — 
the goddess of the hearth or family. She was probably the same 
goddess as the later Goddess Vesta of Eome, the goddess of the 
domestic fire and the hearth. 



To primitive people making a fire is a slow process, and a fire 
is not allowed to go out. The central fire in a village was a sacred 
symbol of the hearth, and to keep up this fire was the duty of the 
women, or in some cases, of special priestesses delegated for that 
duty ; in Rome, for example, the Vestal Virgins had charge of the 
sacred fire. The hearth was generally esteemed as an altar sa- 
cred to home and the household, hence the goddess of the hearth 
was an important goddess. 

Then after Tahiti came a god of heaven; next, his wife, the 
goddess of earth; a sungod or male god and a goddess of fecun- 
dity or of fruitfulness, the two accounting for the productivity of 
family, fields and flocks; and two gods called by Greek names, 
Heracles and Ares. These two were not peculiarly Scythian, but 
were common to all Iranians, or the inhabitants of Iran or what 

Fig. 186. — The Stone Doctors of Montcouutur ; each figure represents a different saint, 
who, on being invoked, is supposed to have power to cure some particular disease. 

is now Persia, Beluchistan, and from Kurdistan to Afghanistan. 
These deities were purely ideal, no shape being ascribed to them, 
and they were not represented by images or symbols of any kind, 
with the sole exception of Ares who had as his altar a huge heap 
of brushwood and as his symbol a sword ; to Ares were made of- 
ferings of sheep and oxen, and also every hundredth captive taken 
in war. 

The habits and governments of the Scythians were cruel, des- 
potic and bloodthirsty, yet their ideas about their gods with the 
exception of Ares, were far more ethical than was usual in those 
early days. We must bear in mind that even the early Jews in- 
dulged in bloody sacrifices, including human offerings. 

Some of the Iranian gods became heroes and eventually gods 


among the Greeks and Eomans ; Heracles became Hercules, Tabiti 
became Vesta, etc. 

In Greece, in the archaic stage of their art, nndraped figures 
were practically unkno^vn, but as the skill of the artists increased, 
they ventured to make their gods and goddesses nude, as they 
themselves often went about. After the stage of worshipping 
stones or simple pillars as images of their gods, came a period 
representing the body as a pillar, with the head more or less real- 
istic, and on the front either a penis or a vulva to designate a 
distinction of sex. 

Fig, 187.— "The Rock of Ages," a modern statue. 

The Bible speaks of such pillars in various terms — heap of 
witness, stone of help, stone of Israel, rock of our salvation, high 
tower; David said "my rock" and we say "Rock of Ages" (Fig. 

Pan, a Greek god, Avas worshipped mainly in Arcadia. He 
was the herdsmen's god, and the giver of increase in flocks. He 
was a god of music, dance, and song, and he was fond of spending 
his time in chasing, dancing and sporting with the mountain 
nymphs. There are different versions as to his parentage; his 
father was variously said to be Zeus, or Hermes, or Apollo, or 



Odysseus, or quite a number of others; his mother was Oenoe, 
Callisto, or Penelope. When the latter is named as his mother, 
he had no individual father, but his paternal ancestors were said 
to be all the suitors of Penelope. He was represented in the 
fields as a pillar with a brutish head and with a phallus on the 
front of the pillar ; at least this was a much more usual form than 
some other figures which were half hmnan and half goat, like the 
satyrs (Fig. 188). As with all the representations of deities, the 
older forms, before art had advanced far enough to produce more 

Fig. 188. — Woisliip of Pan, who is repvc- Fig. 189. — Young girl confessing her love 
sented as a pillar. affairs to Venus. 

perfect forms, were of this primitive and crude type ; and as art 
developed, the forms of the deities became more beautiful. 

Pan had a very loud, coarse voice ; when he laughed or called 
or shouted, men were seized Avith a "pan-ic;" his name "Pan" is 
said to be from his many fathers, "all" the suitors of Penelope. 

The earliest figures of Venus were similar pillars, but with a 
beautiful feminine head and feminine parts in front (Fig. 189). 

In Great Britain many stones Avere erected by the ancient 
Druids. Some of these were supposed to be male, others female. 
In CornAvall, for instance, there are some rude stone monuments 
called the Nine Maidens and near them is a single stone called the 
Old Man. 


The most celebrated stone monument of this kind is Stone- 
henge, which, according to Stukely, was the cathedral of the Arch 
Druid of all Britain. This temple was originally built in the form 
of a circle of arches, consisting of two upright stones with another 
laid across the top, making a circle (feminine) of arches (also 
feminine) surrounding some gigantic monoliths (masculine). 
Until quite recently this Druidic monument was private property, 
but it was recently presented to the British government, who 
will take measures to preserve this celebrated ruin for all time. 

At Chulpas, in Peru, is a stone circle similar to Stonehenge. 

The round towers of Ireland were symbols of the erect lin- 
gam; the round Tower of Kildarn, Ireland, is 130 feet high. 

In Egypt, in the city of On (the right testicle) was a temple 
with a red granite monolith, still standing, 70 feet high, a symbol 
of the sun or the (male) creator. 

In front of many Egyptian temples were great monoliths, 
often in couples, one male and one female. "Cleopatra's needles," 
one of which is now in Rome, the other in the city of New York, 
were such a pair of phallic pillars. 

So also in Asia Minor, among the Phoenicians, Philistines and 
other neighbors of the Jews, the gods were symbolised as piUars, 
or trees, etc.; Baal, for instance, was represented as a piUar of 
stone, and the cromlechs, or dolmens, were stones of this kind, 
but marked also cemetery locations, as it appears that burials 
were preferably done in holy ground, or in "God's Acre," even 
in very early times. Dolmens and cromlechs are found through- 
out Asia, for instance, in Syria, and are generally considered 
proof of very early occupancy of a country by settled inhabitants ; 
they were the earliest symbols having religious meaning. They 
were rude images of the phallus. Asherah, the stem of a tree, was 
a symbol for Ashtoreth, the Accadian Venus. 

More rarely animals became symbols for certain deities, with- 
out, however, being themselves considered deities. Thus, in Greece, 
the owl was a symbol of Pallas Athena (Minerva) ; it is often 
called the "bird of wisdom." In Egypt, the vulture was the sym- 
bol of Suben, the "mother goddess" of the Egyptians; it was also 
the symbol for "maternity;" but neither the owl nor the vulture 
was considered to be in itself a deity. 

In very early, or Aryan times, the deities of India were ideal 
deities, not represented by idols or pillars. They were of com- 


paratively high ethical value, but their worhsip became degraded 
to a crude and coarse idol worship which still prevails, and which 
abounds in plain and covert symbolism for the penis and vulva. 

The Hindus represent Siva and his Sakti, or consort, by 
coarse phallic and yonic symbols, often plain or coarse representa- 
tions of the male and female sexual parts. 

India is said to have about three hundred millions of deities, 
many of which are represented in idols ; a peculiar feature of these 
idols is that many have four or six or more arms, to indicate the 
greater power of the gods; this idea is, however, very ancient, 
being part of the Asiatic folklore from which the Greeks took 
' their ideas of the "Hundred-Handers" in Homeric times. Prob- 
ably there are more idols in India than in all the balance of the 
world together; but this great profusion of idols is of compara- 
tively recent date — of post-Buddhistic times. 

The Sivayites or worshippers of Siva (also called Lingayats 
or Lingacitas) carry about on their persons amulets in the shape 
of a phallus, which is the sacred symbol of Siva; it is used in 
India in a similar manner as the cross with us. 

Idolatry also prevails extensively in Africa and the Pacific 
Islands, the images often being grotesquely ugly. In ancient Aztec 
religions also, idols were worshipped. 

When idols or images were introduced into the temples of 
Greece and Eome, this led to the development of the noblest form 
of imitative art. The Homeric deities were powerful and very 
anthropomorphic beings, capable of pain and pleasure, able to 
assume any form they wished, as when Jupiter changed himself 
to a swan to seduce Leda, to a bull to rape Europa, or to a shower 
of rain to impregnate Danae. The Greek gods could have sexual 
connection (often by rape) or intermarry with mortal women. 
In the main the Eomans had the same deities but more spiritual- 
ized; that is, the Eoman deities were not as concupiscent and de- 
praved sexually as the gods of Greece. The gods and goddesses 
of Eome were almost pure abstractions, and there were no stories 
about their marriages, amours, etc., until after Greek influence 
began to exert itself in Eome. 

The Greeks were very sunny in disposition, and great admir- 
ers, in a noble way, of human beauty. Their religion was one of 
cheerful influence, and as they conceived their gods and goddesses 
as men and women, but of a most perfect type, the Greek artists 


made every effort to represent their divinities in the most perfect 
and beautiful human forms, but also with the sexual desires and 
failings of men and women. 

Greek art became the best art, and what is good in modern 
art, we owe largely to the influence of the Greek artists ; our art- 
ists choose subjects for representation in sculpture and painting 
from the mythology of the Greeks. 

In modern Christian religions, the two branches of the Cath- 
olic church, the Roman and the Greek, permit the use of images in 
their church services ; these are not to be considered as idols, any 
more than the ancient Greek figures of gods and goddesses. 

At the Council of Trent, a.d. 1545-63, the church of Rome, 
after much debate and many expressions of differences of opinion, 
finally formulated the doctrine regarding images, which is held 
by the church today; the images of Christ, the Virgin Mary and 
of the Saints may be placed in the churches and due honor be paid 
to them, by kissing, genuflexions, prostrations, etc.; but prayers 
before these images are not supposed to be addressed to the im- 
ages, but to the higher ideal personalities represented by them. 

In the Greek Catholic church the sacred images, so-called 
"Ikons," are made in stiff archaic style, to avoid any purely hu- 
man effect that a truthful representation of the body might engen- 
der. Nude, or incompletely or only partially draped representa- 
tions of the human figure are forbidden, and only "half-lengths" 
(from the waist up) are permitted "ut onrnis stultae cogitationis 
occasio tollatur" (that every opportunity for foolish thought may 
be removed). No representation of God or any member of the 
Trinity is attempted, and therefore the crucifix, which is so im- 
portant a symbol in the Roman branch of the Catholic church, is 
not used in the Greek church; the nudity of the crucified Christ 
which has no injurious influence on the Western branch, would 
scandalize the membership of the Eastern branch of the Catholic 

In the Roman branch of the Catholic church the crucifix be- 
came a very sacred symbol. The body of Christ on the cross is 
nearly naked. 

The cross is figured in various shapes: The St. Anthony 
cross is the same as the tau cross, which was probably the actual 



shape of the cross on which Jesus died (Fig. 190). The Latin 
cross is the form of the cross most commonly seen in modern 
Christian art; the groundplans of many churches and cathedrals 
are of this shape. The St. Andrew's cross, or crux decussata, is 
so called because St. Andrew was supposed to have been crucified 
on a cross of this shape. Plato used the cross of this shape. In 
former da3^s it was used to tie criminals who were sentenced to be 
whipped. The Greek cross has four even limbs ; this is the shape 
of the Red Cross of civilized nations. The Maltese cross is used 
in church and secret society regalia and ritual ; probably first used 
by the Crusaders. The Catholic Priest's cross is a Latin cross 
with one cross-bar; the Cardinal's cross has two cross-bars and 


P^ig. 100. — Vfipcr row, tau-cross, Latin Fig. 191. — Murks on ancient potteiy, 

cross, St. Andrew 's cross, Greek cross, citlicr as charms or as trade-marks. The 

Maltese cross ; iower roiy, cardinal 's cross, cross and its derivatives, such as the 

pope's cross, treflee (in heraldry), crux swastika, preponderate, 
ansata, coronation symbol. 

the Pope's cross has three cross-bars; the latter form is frequent 
in Egyptian art. The Treflee is a cross the ends of which are 
trefoil in shape; it is used in heraldry. The crux ansata (cross 
with a handle) was used all over the world from India, Assyria, 
Babylon, Egypt, to Sweden and Denmark (old Eunic) and in the 
Western Continent. In inverted shape it is the coronation symbol 
in European countries. It is the anlxli of the Egyptians, the sym- 
bol of life, because it represents the feminine yoni in union with 
the masculine tau cross. 



Nearly all religions of the world recognize orders of inferior 
or minor deities, spiritual beings which were immortal or nearly- 
immortal and therefore partaking of the nature of the gods. These 
beings rank below the leading deities, or the gods and goddesses 
who are supposed to take part in the government of the world 
and who are worshipped. I do not recall a single religion which 
has only one god or one supernatural being. These lower orders 
of spiritual powers seem to have been needed to satisfy the imag- 
ination of mankind, to be the hoi polloi or the plehs, to make a 
public over which the higher gods could rule. 

Yet some of these beings were conceived to take active part 
in the management of the world and in the affairs of mankind; 
and they are nearly all imagined in the shape of sexual beings, 
some of them in fact as being very concupiscent, except only the 
angels, of whom more later on. 

Spirits such as fauns, satyrs, sileni, gnomes, kobolds, nymphs, 
dryads, elves, fairies, etc., all have sex, 

Hesiod relates that the men of the golden age after their 
deaths became demons, guardians and watchers over mortals. 
The ancient word "demons" (daemones) did not convey the same 
idea that is meant by our word demon; in Greece the daemon 
(demon) was a good spirit or guardian angel, while in Rome this 
spirit was preferably called a genius, also meaning guardian an- 
gel. Among some people they were supposed to be the ghosts of 
the dead, as Hesiod said. 

Empedocles, Plato and others divided the demons into two 
groups, good, kindly and beneficent powers, and evil, malevolent 
and vicious beings. In the Christian religion these good demons 
were afterwards transformed into angels and the bad demons 
into devils, or into hellish imps, a sort of assistant or apprentice 

Belief in demons is by many considered to be superstition, 
but others, as the modern spiritualists and even members of some 
religious sects still consider them to be real existences. Many 
believe these demons to be the causes of various diseases, and per- 
sons afflicted with epilepsy, hysteria, mania, or even with the de- 
lirium of fever, were supposed to be afflicted with evil spirits or 
devils. Exorcisms of various kinds, ranging from the magic of 


savages to the religious rites of Christians, were practiced to ex- 
pel evil spirits or demons, while prayers, amulets, crucifixes, in- 
cantations and phylacteries of various kinds are used to guard 
against them. 

Phylacteries are charms or amulets which are worn as a pre- 
servative against disease or danger of any kind. A crucifix, or 
even the sign of the cross made with the hand became a powerful 
charm of this kind; it could open locked doors; counteract the 
action of poison ; cure bites of rabid animals ; or exorcise evil spir- 
its. The relics of martyrs had similar virtues. 

Pliny, the Elder, said that "true it is that a collar of amber 
beads worn about the neck of young infants is a singular preven- 
tive against secret poison and a counter-charm for witchcraft and 

We read (Mark v, 1-13) that Jesus exorcised a crowd of un- 
clean spirits from a possessed man and made the spirits enter into 
a herd of swine. Cyril, TertuUian, Chrysostom and other church- 
fathers taught that epileptics or "demoniacs" were really under 
the influence of demons or evil spirits, who had to be exorcised, 
justifying themselves in this belief by quoting Jesus as having 
also believed thus. 

The barring of the passage of evil spirits, or their exorcism, 
could be secured by the Pythagorean pentagram (also called 
pentageron or pentagon) which was at one time considered a 
wonderful mystic symbol or figure ; it was used as the sign of the 
cross is now used by the Catholics, and is in fact stUl used from 
Ireland to China as a magic charm. According to Lucian it was 
used by the Pythagoreans as a salutation and as a symbol of 
health, made with the hand in front of themselves, as the Catho- 
lics make the sign of the cross, when they "cross themselves." 

Among the Teutons and Norsemen this sign was supposed to 
represent a footprint of one of the "swanfooted" Norns (see 
page 406) ; when Christianity was introduced the Norns were re- 
duced to witches, and after that this sign, together with the sign 
of the cross, was placed on door-sills and door-frames to keep 
away witches or "drudes." This pentagram is shown in cut A; 
and also the method of making the sign with the hand, in the direc- 
tion indicated by the arrow, sho^m in cut B (see page 362). 

Another powerful charm was that shown in cut C. It consists 
of the Greek letters alpha and omega, the first and last letters of 


the Greek alphabet, combined with the monogram of Christ (ch 
and r). It meant that Christ was the beginning and the end of all 

John Baptisia von Helmont (1577) considered the natural 
phenomena as the action of spiritual powers or demons. Thunder 
is the voice of a demon Kakadaemon, who was the executor of 
God's mil through which the earth and those who dwell therein 
are frightened into being good ; earthquakes are due to blows ad- 
ministered to the earth by this "angel of the Lord;" etc. This 
was therefore a good demon or angel. 

In the apocryphal book Tobit occurs the story of the love of a 
demon, Asmodeus, for Sara, the daughter of Eaguel, whose seven 
husbands were slain in succession by the demon on their marriage 
nights. At last Tobit exorcised the demon by burning the heart 
and liver of a fish. Asmodeus (Jewish) is often called the genius 
of matrimonial unhappiness. 

A. B. C. 

In Bulgaria and adjacent Slavonic lands there still prevails 
the superstitious dread of were-wolves and vampires. The were- 
wolves are human beings who can change themselves by magic 
arts into a demon having the shape of a wolf (see p. 321) ; these 
demons are closely allied to the vampires but differ in being 
living human beings who can change back to the human form. 
They are fond of eating humans, and may attack people whom 
they meet ; or they are fond of eating corpses and are supposed to 
disinter and eat the dead. A mark by which they can be recog- 
nized when they have their human form is that the eyebrows meet 
or are continuous over the nose. 

The vampire is a nocturnal demon, a dead person who comes 
out of the grave, to suck the souls or the blood out of his victims, 
or to eat out the hearts of the living. This superstition is an 
effort to account for wasting diseases, as tuberculosis, etc. There 
are two theories of what vampires are ; the one just stated being 
the more common one. But they are also sometimes thought to 


be like the were-wolves, sorcerers or witches cannibalistically in- 
clined, who can change themselves in form. By "strength" some- 
times is meant semen; the vampires are also nocturnal demons 
who sucked the strength from the penises of their victims; this 
was sometimes merely a fear or sensation caused by nocturnal 
emissions accompanied by dreams, but may have been actual per- 
sons fond of doing this. All through the ages this practice has 
prevailed ; in primitive times sucking or kissing the penis of a chief 
was like the king's touch in England or France, a cure for many 
troubles; it was supposed to be especially efficacious for curing 
sterility in women. Among the Druses the Sheik or chief grants 
audiences on certain days to women who wish to kiss his lingam 
for this purpose; in modern times Brown-Sequard's elixir was 
made from the testicles of slaughtered animals, and a proprietary 
medicine made from testicles is also on the market. Mohammedan 
women kiss the penis of a priest or of an idiot, neither of whom 
is supposed to be erotically affected by such a caress. "Sucking 
the fresh semen is sometimes now considered a sovereign remedy 
for wasting diseases, or, as in the houses of prostitution, an un- 
failing cosmetic remedy to produce a fine complexion. Anyhow, 
when surreptitiously done by night-prowlers, the latter were taken 
to be vampires and the victim was too frightened to make any out- 

The Charaka-Samhita, the oldest Hindu medical treatise ex- 
tant, says: "Of all things that promote strength, the best is the 
flesh of the cock. Of all things that increase the semen is the vital 
seed of the alligator." This shows that the taking of fresh (vital) 
semen of an animal was considered a wonderful remedy for "loss 
of vitality," and sucking it from the penises of men has been a 
practice of both men and women for ages, antedating Browu-Se- 
quard's theories for many centuries. 

When a corpse was the vampire, it was supposed to remain 
ruddy and lifelike in appearance ; if a dead person is supposed to 
be a vampire this can be remedied by opening the grave and driv- 
ing a stake through the body into the ground, but a surer plan is 
to cut off the head and burn it. If the person had heavy eyebrows 
continuing and meeting above the nose, the precautions just stated 
were sometimes taken when he or she was first buried, as a pre- 
cautionary measure. The priests in the Balkan lands also may 


use the formula of the church for exorcism when attending the 

It is almost impossible for us at the present time to realize 
in what dread Christian communities stood of these demons or 
devils. The world or air was full of hosts of evil spirits and of 
contending armies of angels, who battled for the souls of the 

The ancient Assyrians believed in incuhi and succubi, whom 
they called lilit; this belief was transferred to the Jews, probably 
during the Babylonian captivity, and from this came the story 
told by the Eabbinical traditions, the Talmud, of Adam's first 
wife Lilith, a demon. She, however, left Adam and "took up" 
with Beelzebub, or Baal-Zebub, the master of flies, who protected 
mankind from the noxious insects. 

The vampires, or drinkers, and the incuhi and succubi, de- 
mons who cohabit with men and women while they sleep, are 
simply nightmare effects, mainly probably due to involuntary 
emissions of semen while in a half-awake, or dreaming, condition. 
The belief in succubi (nightmares) as demons, led to a belief in 
the vampires. 

In the Zend-Avesta, the ancient sacred books of the Persians, 
demonology was worked out to the minutest details. The Persian 
religion believed in two great rival influences, continuously at 
war with one another; they were Ahura-Mazda (Ormuzd) who 
was a god of light and good, and Ahura-Mainyes ( Ahriman) a god 
of evil; each was attended by innumerable hosts of attendant 
demons, the good spirits being opposed by the evil ones who tried 
to spread sin in the world. 

This belief had great influence on three other faiths from 
which so much that is now called Christianity was derived, namely, 
on the Jewish, or Talmudic teachings, on Manichaeism, and on 
early Christianity. 

Manichaeism was a rival religion with early Christianity dur- 
ing the early centuries of our era. It taught that Satan made 
Adam and Eve; the latter was seductive sensuousness, to which 
Adam fell victim through sexual desire. "We have already learned 
about this elscAvhere. The Manichaeists also believed that Satan 
seduced Eve and that Cain and Abel were the sons of Eve by 

Men or women could obtain weird powers of witchcraft by 



making compacts with these demons, and so general was the be- 
lief that even sober, supposedly scientific men, editors of encyclo- 
paedias, theologians, physicians, professors, etc., believed this. 
It was also thought that magical powers conld be obtained through 
good demons by abstaining from sexual contact -with women, fast- 
ing and pious meditations. 

Simon Magus was a celebrated magician (about 60 a.d.) and 
he caused himself to be taken for God. He was a Gnostic. He 
taught that the apostles were merely magicians. He called him- 
self "the great power of God" — "Ego sum sermo Dei" — "I am 

Fig. 192. — St. Ignatius exorcising evil 
spirits to cure epilepsy. 

Fig. 193. — St. Eadegonde exorcising evil 

the word of God ! ' ' He traveled in company with a certain woman 
named Helena, who was a prostitute whom he had bought in the 
city of Tyre, who, he claimed, "was the first conception of his 
mind, the mother of all things by whom in the beginning he con- 
ceived the thought of making angels and archangels." 

Simon Magus publicly announced that he would ascend to 
heaven on a certain day, and his demons actually carried him up 
in the air to a considerable height ; St. Peter, who was at the time 
in Eome, used exorcisms on the demons, who thereby lost their 
magical powers and were no longer able to raise him farther, but 



dropped him, so that he fell and broke his neck. All this is au- 
thentically related as "history" in a work of 1740. 

Figure 192 shows St. Ignatius exorcising the evil spirits who 
caused epilepsy ; it is copied from a medieval altar-piece. 

Also, St. Eadegonde is shown as exorcising evil spirits from 
a girl who afflicted others by aid of the demons in her (Fig. 193). 

The witches' sabbath was a nocturnal meeting of witches, 
usually said to have been held on the Brocken or Blocksberg, a 
mountain peak of the Hartz mountains, on Walpurgis night. Here 

Fig. 194. — "Eeturn of the Witches," from painting by Falero. 

the witches and the demons cohabited in promiscuous freedom. 
This shows the return from the meeting (Fig. 194). 

The Christian church thought it possible for witches to con- 
ceive and give birth to the fruits of such unions, and multitudes 
of women and their children were tried and convicted and burnt. 
It was thought that wherever the demon had touched the witch, 
she became anaesthetized so that she would not feel anything. 
The mode of examining a supposed witch was to strip her naked 
and cut or puncture her body at many places to find the anaesthe- 
tized spot; she soon became hysterical from fright and no longer 
was conscious of the pain, and so was easily convicted (Fig. 195). 


Another method of trying a witch was to strip her naked and 
then tie her right thiunb to the big toe of the left foot, and the 
thumb of the left hand to the right big toe, her arms thus making 
the symbol of the cross ; she was then thrown in deep water, but 
held by a rope around the waist, in case she should sink. If she 
was a witch she would float ; if she sank she was taken out of the 
water and acquitted. As a naked human body has a specific grav- 
ity a little less than water, the average body will float if the per- 
son does not struggle too much, consequently the average sus- 
pected person would be convicted. Tying the arms in cross- 
fashion was to keep the devils from coming to the aid and inter- 
fering with a fair ordeal trial. 

It is a question whether the witches' sabbath was altogether 

Fig. 195. — "Trial of a Witch," from a painting. 

imaginary, or whether it had a foundation in fact by the secret 
survival of some of the ancient festivals — Faunalia, Saturnalia, 
Liberalia, Floralia, etc. 

We have learned that among primitive people marriage was 
not known, but that promiscuous cohabitation was practiced ; man- 
kind imagined that certain lower spiritual beings practiced this 
type of relationship. The fauns, in Eoman mythology, were minor 
deities who presided over and fostered the productive powers of 
the soil, increasing the crops, and of animals, increasing the herds ; 
they lived in the forests and fields, and in order to set all nature 
a good example, spent much of their time in pursuing and raping 
njTuphs; in other words, they were the original "chippie-chasers" 
(Fig. 196). 


Both the male f annus and the female fauna could foretell the 
future. In honor of these rural gods the festival of the Faunalia 
was celebrated, which Avas supposed to be presided over by Pria- 
pus or Pan, and on which occasions the people indulged in pro- 
miscuous intercourse as a religious rite. As stated above, these 
festivals may have survived in secret, with their unbridled and 
unnatural sexual orgies, and have been the "sabbaths" of the 
\^dtcl^craft courts. Under torture, those arrested may have made 
confessions that were true ; or the victims of torture may in some 
cases merely have confessed to a traditional knowledge of folk- 
lore, of this licentious rite of worship of Pagan gods. 

Satja's were half human, half bestial spirits that haunted the 
woods; they were probably fabled offspring of the union of hu- 
mans with the goats of Mendes (see p. 435). They Avere very 

Fig. 196. — Nymphs were pursued ' ' on sight ' ' by fauns, sileni, satyrs, and gods. This 
shows Apollo pursuing the nymph Daphne. 

salacious, fond of wine and women, and ever chasing nymphs, 
from which characteristic we have the medical term of satyriasis ; 
from the nymphs we get the term nymphomania (Fig. 197). Mod- 
ernized and adopted into Christian mythology they became devils, 
like the demons. 

The sileni were similar to satyrs and fauns, but were of higher 
grade; they Avere educated, learned beings, who often instructed 
humans in useful arts. 

Nymphs were female spirits similar to fauns, but exquisitely 
beautifully human in form; Hesiod called them the "ever-youthful 
maidens of heaven;" he said they lived 9720 times as long as 
mortals. They lived in the fields and Avoods, and were supposed 
to be continually pursued by fauns, satyrs and sileni. The wor- 


ship of nymphs was general in mral districts in Greece and Rome ; 
they AA^ere considered as pretty and kindly spirits, fond of watch- 
ing over and caring for children, but no priesthood was required 
in their service. Offerings were made by the worshippers them- 
selves, consisting of flowers, frruts, and libations of wine. 

Naiads were nymphs of springs and small streams; hama- 
dryads, or dryads, were nymphs of trees and woods ; each partic- 
ular tree or spring or small stream having its own special dryad 
or naiad, just as each larger stream or river had its OAvn river- 

Fig. 197. — A family of satyrs, and a pillar of Pan. 

god. The dryads, from their close connection with trees, were 
supposed, like them, to have sprung from the soil. 

Marriages of humans with nymphs were supposed to be pos- 
sible. At marriages, the nymphs were prayed to for blessings; 
the bride was bathed by her attendants in the spring or sprinkled 
with water from the spring in which nymphs or naiads resided. 

All these feminine forms of minor deities were called "maid- 
ens of heaven" or "daughters of Zeus." They all lived in pro- 
miscuous relations with fauns, satyrs and sileni. 

Mention may be made of a few more of the important de- 
mons. Aziel was the familiar demon (or guardian angel) of Dr. 
Faustus, the myth concerning whom was described by Goethe; 


he is the fallen angel Azael, mentioned in the Talmud; Solomon 
went every day to him for wisdom. Michael, Raphael, Uriel and 
Gabriel guarded the four quarters of the demon-circle. The ex- 
orcisms of the medieval church were addressed to the leaders of 
the demons — Satan, Pluto, Ariel, Petrus and Adonis. 

The good gods of one religion were often reduced to evil pow- 
ers in rival religions, just as the daemones of the Greeks became 
the devils or demons of the Christians. In the same manner, when 
the ancient Aryan religion was divided into the Zarathustrian 
or Persian and the Brahmanic faiths, the Devas, or bright and 
good gods of the Hindus became the evil demons of the Persian 
faith. So also Christianity did not discard the nature-deities of 
Paganism, the Lares, Fauns, etc., but retained them as realities, 
as evil demons, who, in nearly all of their sexual practices were 
represented as evil and sinful. 

But there were also good powers of this kind. The genius 
of the Romans and the daemon of the Greeks was a form of guard- 
ian angel or guiding spirit ; every person was accompanied by one 
of these spiritual guides to lead him or her through the labyrinth 
of life's mysteries. 

The idea of angels is old; Moses already spoke of them. 
Philo calls the word of God- — angel; also — idea of ideas, bread 
of life, light- world, first born of all creatures, etc. 

After the disappearance or merging of the old religions into 
the Christian religion, which took their places, these agencies 
were transformed into "angels," or "guardian angels." These 
were conceived by the Christians as real entities ; for instance, in 
certain districts of France, we are told, the belief in guardian an- 
gels survives in a very realistic form, and when one person meets 
another he salutes not only him, but with a special and profound 
obeisance, also his guardian angel, who, though unseen, is imag- 
ined to be his constant companion. 

According to the Bible there are no female angels; they are 
always referred to as "he" or as the "angel of God." The word 
angel means a messenger or bringer of tidings ; in the Old Testa- 
ment they are represented as able to walk and talk with men, but 
in the New Testament they are only rarely visible, as for instance, 
the angels at the birth of Jesus, and the angel who guarded his 

According to Jewish writers they were regularly organized 


into a hierarchy; Gabriel was one of four great archangels; he 
was named as the angel who destroyed Sennacherib's hosts (see 
p. 43) ; he is supposed to preside over the domestic fire, or all 
fire; over thunder and lightning, the ripening of the crops of the 
soil, etc., shoAA-ing therefore the same attributes as the nature 
gods of Greece and Rome. 

According to the Koran, he dictated this book to Mohammed. 

In the book of Enoch, an apocryphal Jewish book, an account 
of a revolt of some angels in heaven is given ; the conquered rebels 
are expelled from heaven and arrive on earth as "fallen angels;" 
they were all males, they settled down with the daughters of men, 
and produced a race of giants. The rebellion of the angels, under 
the leadership of Satan, is a prominent feature of Milton's Para- 
dise Lost. 

The generally prevailing belief that in the hereafter we will 
become angels in heaven, is based on the teachings of Swedenborg 
and others, on the songs of revivalists, etc., but is not taught by 
the Bible. Such songs as 

"I want to be an angel 
And with the angels stand," etc. 

have given rise to the popular belief; but the Bible implies that 
angels are neuters, or without sex : 

Mark xii, 25 : " For when they shall rise from the dead, they 
neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels 
which are in heaven. ' ' They do not become angels ; they only re- 
semble angels in being sexless. 

In medieval church art they were represented as males, and 
naked because they were without sin. The illustration (Fig. 198) 
shows an angel from a medieval tomb in Florence. 

Our modern method of representing angels is a result of 
the "modern decadence in art;" we would rather see and repre- 
sent pretty women and girls just as artists prefer to paint naked 
goddesses and nymphs and dryads to painting saints in long black 
gowns and hoods. 

Belief in saints, angels, etc., is not considered to be incom- 
patible with a religion professing the worship of one God, because 
these powers are not worshipped, but merely venerated. 

As to what angels are, opinions differed. Philo said they 
were disembodied human souls who inhabit the air; the Gnostics 



said they were emanations from God; Origen said that up to his 
time (about 230 a.d.) the ecclesiastical authorities had not deter- 
mined at what time they were created, or of what nature, or how 
they were. 

While the Christians generally believe that angels exist, their 
history indicates that they are probably entirely imaginary beings. 

In ancient religions there were deities resembling our mod- 
ern angels, feminine, and either good or bad; as for instance the 
daemones of the Greeks and the genii of the Romans. 

The Valkyrs were virgin nymphs of Valhalla, the heaven of 

Fig. 198. — An Angel on a medieval tomb Tig. 199.- 
in Florence, Italy. 

"The Sirens," from a paint- 
ing by Thumann. 

the Norsemen ; they went out armed, and mounted on fleet horses, 
to take part in the battles waged by the Norse warriors. They 
took the warriors, whom the Norns or gods had designated to be 
slain, conducting them over the bridge of the Northlight to Val- 
halla, where they gave them mead (the drink of the gods) from 
the skulls of their enemies. It was a custom in many lands to 
make drinking vessels out of the tops of skulls. The Valkyrs 
therefore were messengers of the gods to summon warriors to 


On the other hand, the Greek sirens were feminine creatures, 
who, like the Lorelei, the Ehine maiden, of German mythology, 
lured boatsmen or mariners to destruction (Fig. 199). 

The God of the Jews and the Christians, Jehovah, is a celi- 
bate male god; for several centuries during the early period of 
Christianity this remained so ; but the Christian theologians soon 
dropped the original Unitarian conception and introduced a meta- 
physical conception of Jesus as the Son of God. 

The expression "sons of God" was very ancient; we find it 
already in Gen. vi, 2 : "The sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair ; and they took them wives of all which they 
chose." The expression "sons of God" is used many times in 
the Old Testament ; the phrase was possibly taken from the Hindu, 
from which the myth of Adam and Eve came, and may be based 
on the Hindu myth that Brahma produced the men, and that his 
sakti or wife, Sarasvati, created women. "Sons of God" or Bne 
Elohim meant illustrious teachers, prophets, etc., who, in a sub- 
ordinate way partook somewhat of Divine nature, by their supe- 
riority over the mass of mankind. The early Jews taught that 
the "logos, the word which was with God from the beginning, the 
first outflow of light from the eternal source of light," lived in 
the saints so that they could cure all diseases, and this same idea 
was taught by the early Greek philosophers, Plato, Pythagoras, 
etc., and wise men, great teachers or physicians, were called proph- 
ets or ' ' sons of god ' ' by the ancient Greeks and in the Orient gen- 
erally. The early Christians misconstrued this term and took it 
literally; the early church-fathers were not great philosophers, 
but they thought that if any great man was worthy to be called 
"son of God," surely Jesus was that man, and they called him so. 
Then as the influence of neighboring faiths made itself felt, 
they introduced the theory that he had been begotten by the Holy 
Ghost (a late development in the idea of the Christian God) and 
that he was born of a virgin. However, in neither Jewish nor 
Christian religion is there reference to marriage. 

But it is different when we turn to the immediately preceding 
religions, the Eoman and the Greek. The Greek is by far the most 
explicit about the amours of the gods, who are represented as 
adulterers, as practicing incestuous, licentious and cowardly re- 
lationships not only with goddesses, but with nymphs and human 
women. The Hindu gods are figured in the same way ; every rela- 


tion that existed between men and women was imagined also 
to exist among the gods; man imagined the deities in his own 

Incest and Rape 

Among men in later times certain women were set apart whom 
they might not marry; but among primitive people such prohibi- 
tions did not exist, any more than among animals. When all the 
women belonged to the tribe or clan, any woman may have been 
taken by any man. 

Probably the earliest prohibition would have been the sexual 
mating of parents with children. We read (Gen. xix, 30-38) : "And 
Lot went up out of Zoar * * * and dwelt in a cave, he and his 
two daughters. And the firstborn said unto the yovmger, Our fa- 
ther is old and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us 
after the manner of all the earth: Come let us make our father 
drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed 
of our father. * * * Thus were both the daughters of Lot with 
child by their father." 

St. Paul, writing to the church in Corinth, said (I Cor, v, 1) : 
"It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, 
and such fornication as is not so much as named among the gen- 
tiles, that one should have his father's wife." 

Julia, the mother of Caracalla, Emperor of Eome, pretend- 
ing not to know that he was present, stripped herself naked. When 
Caracalla saw her beautiful body he exclaimed: "I'd like to, if it 
were lawful!" to which she replied: "If you would like to, it is 
lawful! Do you not know that you are emperor and can make 
the laws!" She then submitted to his embraces and lived there- 
after as his wife and queen. 

It is related that Hippocrates cured the King Perdiccas (436 
B.C.) of Macedonia of a consumption produced by the king's inor- 
dinate but hopeless love and desire for his stepmother Phila. 

The pharaohs of Egypt usually married their sisters and 
made them their queens. Cleopatra was married to her brother 

Cambyses was told that his brother Smerdes was scheming 
to become king in his place; so he had the brother killed, upon 
which their mother committed suicide. Cambyses had taken his 
full sister as wife ; once he arranged a combat between a lion and 
a dog, but when the dog was being overcome, the dog's brother 


who was being held in leash near by, tore loose and the two dogs 
overcame the lion. Cambyses langhed, but his wife (and sister) 
began to cry ; asking her why, she replied it was because some an- 
imals had more brotherly love than some human beings; at this 
answer Cambyses felt so sad and hurt that he had his sister-wife 
killed also. 

The ancient Germans married their sisters ; in Southern Ger- 
many this was not abolished until the end of the VII Century, a.d. 

The Gods Lived Like Men 

Ammon was a great god in ancient Egypt ; he was also called 
"Amen-Ea Kamut-fe," "the husband of his mother." 

The word "Amen" at the end of our prayers has come to 
us from this god, "Amen," "Amen-Ea," "King of the Gods," 
and this appeal to him is used because his people had faith that 
he would hear their prayers ; yet he took his mother to wife. 

Hesiod says: "And earth, in sooth bare first indeed like to 
herself (in size) starry heaven, that he might shelter her around 
on all sides. * * * ; fc-at afterward, having bedded with heaven 
(her son) she bare deep-eddying Ocean, Caeus and Crius," etc. 
This describes the incestuous loves of heaven with his mother 

Odin, Wodan or Watan was the main god of the Teutons or 
ancient Germans ; the sun and moon were his eyes and he supported 
the vault of heaven on his shoulders. BCe carried a hammer which 
the god Mjolner made for him, which was a boomerang for it 
returned to his hand after he threw it at anyone. He begat the 
earth with his daughter Jord; he also had a son by Jord, Thor, 
who consecrated marriages with his hammer; the early Christian 
missionaries told the Norwegian Pagans that Thor was the same 
as Jesus and that his hammer was the crucifix, so as to convert 
them more easily. Thor was the second in rank and the strongest 
of the Aesir, or Norse pantheon; he was the god of storm and 

Demeter (Greek) represents the producing power of the 
earth. The simplest worship of Demeter supposed her to have 
been outraged, whereupon she hid in a cave (winter) where cold 
and death prevailed; at last she bathes in a sacred stream, her 
child is born and the life of spring reappears on earth. 


As Proserpina (also called Persephone), the daughter of 
Demeter, was gathering flowers with her playmates in a meadow, 
the earth opened and Pluto, the god of the underworld, appeared 
and forcibly carried off Proserpina to be his queen in Hades. 
Her mother went about all the world seeking her daughter, and 
when she could not find her, she forbade the earth to bring forth 
any crops of the field; nothing grew, not even grass, and all an- 
imals and mankind would have starved if Jupiter had not com- 
manded Pluto to return Proserpina to her mother. This was cele- 
brated in the Eleusinian Mysteries, a celebrated Greek festival. 

Anymone, daughter of Danaiis, went to get water for her 
home, during a drought ; she had to go some distance, so she took 
her javelin along. On the way she met a stag and threw the 
spear at it, but missed the stag and hit a sleeping faun who awoke 
and pursued her. She was near the sea, so she appealed to Nep- 
tune, who heard her and saved her from the faun, but kept her 
for himself. So she became the mother of Nauplius, by Neptune. 

Lara was a goddess in Olympus, in attendance on Juno ; she 
learned some scandal in connection with one of the amours of 
Jupiter, the husband of Juno, and tattled to the latter. Juno 
probably made things uncomfortable for Jupiter for awhile, so 
Jupiter had the tongue of Lara cut out, and sent her to the under- 
world in charge of Mercury ; he took a fancy to Lara and commit- 
ted rape on her on the way, in consequence of which she gave birth 
to the two Lares. 

And there are many more such stories in all the mythologies 
of the earth ; when these myths were invented, the people were still 
savage, cruel, unethical, coarse ; they saw nothing wrong in com- 
mitting incest or rape themselves, and so could not conceive of 
anything improper in the gods doing likewise. 

Monogamy — Polygamy 

A great many gods and goddesses were married, but fidelity 
and conjugal virtue were practically unknown. We must remem- 
ber that among humans in those early days monogamy was prac- 
tically unknown; that they practiced polygamy; therefore they 
could not imagine a strictly monogamic union for the gods. One 
of the couples to whom little or no scandal attached was Osiris 
and Isis, in Egypt ; they were faithful one to another, and an ex- 


emplary couple if we overlook that they were brother and sister. 

In Greece, Juno was an exemplary wife, but perhaps too 
frigidly chaste, so that she disappointed her husband Zeus, who 
was a regular Don Juan. 

Here is what Hesiod said of Zeus : "Jupiter, king of the gods, 
made Metis first his wife * * * next he wedded bright Themis 

* * * and Eurymone, daughter of Ocean, who had a very fair 
form * * * then he came to the couch of much-nourishing 
Demeter * * * and next he was enamored of beautiful-haired 
Mnemosyne * * * but Apollo and Artemis, a lovely offspring, 
Latona, in sooth brought forth, after union in love Avith aegis- 
bearing Jove * * * and last, made he blooming Juno his spouse 

* * * then to Jove, Maia bare glorious Hermes * * • and 
Alcmene after union in love with cloud-compelling Jove bare Her- 
cules * * * ." And this enumeration says nothing of other 
amours, as with Europa, Leda, Danae, and dozens of other 
"daughters of men," of whom Jupiter was very fond. 

But this is enough to show that in connection with the gods, 
ideas of sex were very prominent among the ancients. 

For an example of birth from a female without a male, among 
the deities, see p. 109. 


This term is generally used when we refer to sex worship; 
strictly speaking it refers only to the worship of the male organs 
of generation — the phallus. 

The British Encyclopedia, in speaking of Christianity, says : 
"All Paganism is at heart a worship of nature in some form or 
other, and in all Pagan religions the deepest and most awe-in- 
spiring attribute of nature was the power of reproduction. The 
mystery of birth and becoming was the deepest mystery of na- 
ture ; it lay at the root of all thoughtful Paganism and appeared 
in various forms, some of them of a more innocent, others of a 
more debasing type. 

' ' To ancient Pagan thinkers, as well as to modern men of sci- 
ence, the key to the hidden secret of the origin and preservation 
of the universe lay in the mystery of sex. Two energies or agents, 
one an active generative (male), the other a feminine passive or 
susceptible one, were everywhere thought to combine for crea- 


tive purpose, and heaven and earth, sun and moon, day and night, 
were believed to co-operate to the production of being. Upon 
some such basis as this rested almost all the polytheistic worship 
of the old civilization, and to it may be traced back, stage by stage, 
the separation of divinity into male and female gods, the deifica- 
tion of distinct powers of nature, and the idealization of man's 
own faculties, desires and lusts, where every power of his under- 
standing was embodied as an object of adoration, and every im- 
pulse of his will became an incarnation of deity. But in each and 
every form of polytheism we find the slime track of the deification 
of sex; there is not a single one of the ancient religions which 
has not consecrated by some ceremonial rite even the grossest 
forms of sexual indulgence, while many of them actually elevated 
prostitution into a solemn service of religion." 

Then the article proceeds to tell how all this is different in 

When we consider that mankind, when they first invented re- 
ligions, were of a low ethical standing, superstitious, cruel, unciv- 
ilized and gross, we can realize that they were not able to formu- 
late religions of a higher ethical development than they themselves 
had. In its origin, the worship of sex was as pure in intent 
and as far removed from any ideas of anything unclean or ob- 
scene as any of our own religions. And the rites which to us now 
seem to have been indecent, were practiced by primitive peoples 
without any idea that they were not pure and devout. 

Yet from such ideas, by gradual evolution or development, 
arose our own religions, presenting identically similar ideas of 
faiths, although in what we consider a purer form. 

The Unity of Religions, one definition of Unitarianism, is 
that all religions seek to Know the Truth, and to worship God, 
or the "Power that works for Good," as Channing expressed it. 
The majority of people believe in revelation as the source of our 
religions; but ancient as well as modern writers have held the 
idea that our religions are due to a process of evolution. 

Cicero thought that "as we are led by nature to think that 
there are gods, and as we discover by reason of what description 
they are, so, by the consent of all nations, we are induced to be- 
lieve that our souls survive ; but where their habitation is, and of 
what character they eventually are, must be learned from reason." 

Even some of the early church-fathers imply that religioup 


sentiment was a natural growth from previous cruder beliefs. 
Clement of Alexandria, for instance, thought so. 

Others have thought so of all other religions except their oivn, 
as is distinctly claimed in the article "Christianity" in the En- 
cyclopedia Britannica. 

David, in the 116 Psalm (v. 11) said: "I said in my haste, 
all men are liars." If he had been a modern man, he might have 
added the polite prevarication — "present company excepted!" 

This polite attitude toward our own religions is adopted by 
some writers on Phallic "Worship for fear of hurting the feelings 
of some readers; it is an attitude adopted by some writers, who 
do not refer to Christian ideas for fear of giving offence, and they 
even misrepresent the truth in this regard. But if we are to have 
a fair knowledge of the subject, the suppression of part of the 
truth, for politeness' sake, is not permissible. 

Our individual religion is rarely the result of study and 
thought, but rather, the result of habit and inheritance; we are 
what we are, Christians, Mohammedans or Pagans, Catholics, 
Presbyterians or Methodists, etc., because our parents were such ; 
and we take the religion we have inherited on faith, because, 
either we have no time, or no facilities, or no ability to study the 
matter critically and impartially to ascertain the truth; or, we 
have not the education that will enable us to judge for ourselves, 
and so the "laissez faire" policy of accepting our inherited faith 
and not worrying about it, may seem best, and probably is best, 
to the greater majority. 

It is related that Bishop Wolfrannum converted the French 
King Eadbodus (713 a.d.) to Christianity. As the king was about 
to enter the baptismal font, he asked the bishop where his ances- 
tors were — in heaven or hell? The bishop said that as they all 
had been heathen, they were no doubt in hell. King Eadbodus 
thereupon stepped out of the font and said that he would rather 
remain as he was and be with a kingly line hereafter, in hell, than 
with a lot of beggars in heaven (Fig. 200). 

In all religions there is a worship of a Power, or Powers, 
greater than ourselves and outside of ourselves, a power, in whose 
grasp we are as helpless and impotent as was the nightingale in 
the claws of the hawk, as told in the fable by Hesiod in the old 
Greek Bible (page 335). 

Primitive man conceived many forms or manifestations of 



Divine Power, and therefore polytheism, or a belief in many gods, 

is a peculiarity of Pagan people. 

In whatever form this Divine Power was conceived, it al- 
most always took the form of the worship of a sexual power that 
created all nature. The burden of most religions is — "worship 
thy Creator." The Creator, in practically all nations of Aryan 
extraction, Avas the "Father," "our Father," "our Father who 
art in Heaven!" 

Among Aryans the most primitive idea was, that Uranus or 
Sky overlay and held Gaea or Earth in one unending sexual em- 
brace, from which resulted the creation of all things ; so thought 
the Greeks and Romans. 

Or the Spirit of God brooded over the waters and generated 

Pig. 200. — King Eadbodus refuses to be baptized. In medieval times tliose about to be 

baptized had to be naked. 

the earth and all that is therein; so thought the ancient Jews. 
Possibly only a male god was intended in Genesis and the ascrib- 
ing of feminine character to the waters may be a later philosoph- 
ical interpretation. 

Power, Strength, Brute Force, in storm or torrent, in man or 
beast, always insioired awe. The flash of lightning, the crash of 
thunder, the roar of the hurricane, struck terror into the heart of 
man and made him recognize his own insignificance in the pres- 
ence of the power that lie imagined to be the cause of these phe- 
nomena (Fig. 201). 

All manifestations of nature which Avere inexplicable to primi- 
tive man, or which he could not produce, control or check, he 
ascribed to a power which he called ' ' God. ' ' 



' ' A voice in the wind I do not know ; 
A meaning on the face of the high hills 
Whose utterance I can not comprehend ; 
A something is behind them: That is God!" 

In all religions the deepest and most awe-inspiring attribute 
of nature Avas the power of procreation or of reproduction. Even 
St. Paul said: "A man * * * shall be joined unto his wife, 
and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery!" 

Nature held no greater mystery than the mystery of birth, 
and the origin of life ; and this deepest riddle of nature attracted 
the thoughts and attention of philosophers since very early times. 

Fig. 201. — "Origin of Religious Sentiment," from a painting by Kauffmann. 

I have endeavored, in the quotations from the ancients to give 
some idea of the great importance of this question to their minds, 
and to give some of the theories they arrived at in the effort to 
solve the mystery. 

In all times since man began to think at all, the secret of his 
own origin and existence must have most profoundly engaged the 
thoughts of man. As long probably as man Avas able to have a 
conscious appreciation of the blessings of life or existence, man- 
kind was thankful to the Creator; and this thankfulness is the 
burden of all religions to this day. All Christian literature is full 
of the command, "Worship thy Creator," but this is not de- 



manded in the Bible, which merely says, "Remember thy Cre- 
ator" (Eccl. xii, 1). 

Ideas as to the nature of the Creator have changed, and the 
tracing of these changes gives us some slight insight into the mode 
of revelation which has imparted to man his ideas of God ; running 
through all religions we find the same thankfulness to the power 
that gave us our being ; in every form of religion we find traces of 
the deification of sex. 

The Lingam: General Considerations 

It must have been noticed at quite an early time that no child 
was born unless the man first copulated with the woman; how 
completely male man claimed the credit for the creation of a new 
human being appears from the theory of Anaxagoras (about 
450 B.C.) that the embryo was formed altogether from the seed of 
the father and that the mother merely furnished the place for its 
development, as the seed of a plant might be placed in the ground 
and grow. (See p. 140.) This theory, that the man "gave chil- 
dren to his wife" is still held by some, as appears from the fre- 
quent use of the expression "he made her a child." In Gen. xxx, 
1, Eachel is quoted as having the same idea for "when Eachel 
saw that she bare Jacob no children, Eachel * * * said unto 
Jacob, Give me children, or else I die." 

Male man, on account of his physical strength, subjugated 
the women and children, so that they looked up to the father of 
the family with awe, as to a sort of household divinity, especially 
as in many tribes, and even in some advanced nations, the man 
held absolute sway over liberty and even over life and death of 
his women, children and slaves. 

Herbert Spencer believed that ancestor worship was the first 
and the original religion. 

The chief characteristic of the man, the male organ of genera- 
tion, came to be looked upon as the symbol of the authority, 
strength and power of the father, or creator of his family, and 
eventually as a symbol for the Creator himself. 

The subordinate position accorded to woman in such religions 
we have already considered (see p. 66). 

Among the Greeks the male organ, penis and two testicles, 
was called phallus, wherefore we call sex worship also phallic 
worship. (Fig. 202.) 



Among the ancient Phoenicians the penis was called " Asher," 
meaning: "The Upright, The Powerful, The Opener." The lat- 
ter term referred to the rupturing of the hymen in the first coi- 
tion with a virgin. Philo tells us about some of the Phoenician 
gods, for instance: One of these accounts tells about "Chrysor, 
the Opener," corresponding to the Egyptian god Ptah, or the 
Phoenician Asher "the opener," which means the one who first 
fertilizes a virgin, he who ruptures the hymen and "opens the 
door to the womb," the Avay to the vagina. Possibly Ptah was con- 
sidered identical Avith "Baal-Peor," the "Master of the Open- 
ing," the "Master of the Hole" or the "Master of the Vulva." 

X-J^ , ,„ / "^'^•^^ 

Fig. 202.— The phnllus and its Fig. 20.3. — Pliallic sj-mbols used by the alchemists in 
symbols. medieval times. 

Similar ideas prevailed among the ancient Israelites; the Bible 
speaks of God Jehovah as the opener; Gen. xxx, 22: "and God 
remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her and opened her 
womb;" Gen. xix, 31: "and when the Lord saw that Leah was 
hated he opened her Avomb;" etc. 

Oaths Avere taken by appealing to some god; or by touching 
something sacred to some god ; among the ancient Jcaa'S, by laying 
the hand on the penis of the one to Avhom the oath Avas given. 
Like elscAvhere in the Bible, the translators Avere ashamed of the 
plainness of the "AA^ord of God" as they found it in the original 
text and undertook to reprove God, by improAdng on his diction. 


and they translated phallus or penis in Hebrew into 

The touching or kissing of the Bible, when taking an oath, was 
the same idea — touching something sacred. And our merely hold- 
ing up our right hand still retains the idea; it implies an appeal 
to heaven to witness the truth of the statement. The oath origi- 
nally therefore was calling on Asher, or Baal, as a witness. 

The Bible tells us that this deity was called "Baal" or "The 
Master;" or " Baal-Peor "— the "Master of the Hole," or Vulva, 
among the Pagan neighbors of the ancient Israelites. Among the 
Hindus the penis is called "lingam," and it is reverenced as the 
visible representation of the Creator by more than three hundred 
millions of Asiatic people today. In the ruins of ancient Egyptian 
temples this symbol is often represented in realistic form, as seen 
in sculptures from many ancient Egyptian temples. And from 
Egypt it was transferred to Greek worship by Melampus. It is 
also represented thus in some of the ruins of Aztec temples. 

Among the Egyptians a figure of it was also used as a char- 
acter in their hieroglyphic writings, "man" or "father;" *■ ivl 

was mainly used as an ideograph, and it meant "in front," "be- 
fore," "generation," or "man." 

But more frequently the lingam was represented symboli- 
cally (Fig. 202) : — as a simple pillar; as a pillar with two stones 
at the base to represent the testicles whence our popular word 
"stones" for testicles, as well as the Biblical word for them (Lev. 
xxi, 20) ; as a pillar with a transverse bar, lUve a capital letter T 
upside down ; or as this could not readily be seen when surrounded 
by a crowd of worshippers it was also symbolized as the "tau 
cross," like a letter T. 

We must always remember that to primitive man, as well as 
to Pagan minds, there is nothing indecent in the natural physi- 
ologic use of any organ of the human body. God did not create 
Adam and Eve Avith a sense of shame regarding their nal?;ed bod- 
ies. Therefore the idea of shame about sex matters was in a 
sense unnatural; to use the figures of the sexual organs as sym- 
bols of creative power was natural and without intention of any 
erotic meaning. The use of these symbols was for religious wor- 
ship; the only other use made of them was for burial places; 
therefore, the temples and the tombs or graves were marked with 



these sacred figures, and it stands to reason that no people would 
desecrate these places with anything that suggested impropriety 
or obscenity or vulgarity to them. 

The erection of pillars of stone was already referred to 
(p. 356) ; dolmens and similar pillars abound throughout the 
world; but these, perhaps for similar reasons as those that influ- 
enced the ancient Jews, Avere plain stones, for the use of hewn 
stones to make an altar was forbidden in Exod. xx, 25; "and if 
thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of 
hewn stone, for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast pol- 
luted it." But in other nations the stones were often hewn, even 
in quite realistic phallic shapes. 


fln^lpM.. Snrlia. Omjui. 5t«~l.- ■'»)««*"■ *1ww<«.>» 

Fig. 204. — Towers, pillars, tombstones and menhirs as symbols of the phallus. 

From these pillars have come our own tombstones, no longer 
phallic except in being erect stones or monuments ; and also our 
towers and steeples of various shapes and sizes, but all uncon- 
sciously retaining the upright form of primitive phallic pillars. 
The tower of St. Vincent's church in St. Louis was originally 
quite realistically phallic, but after the cyclone in 1896 destroyed 
the old steeple, the new on*? Avas not quite so suggestive of the 
original motive of all steeples. There is practically no part of 
the world which is without phallic pillars or towers. 

The phallus was also symbolized as an arrow, the two barbs 
signifying the testicles. 

Man literally created or imagined God in his own image ; the 



penis was "Asher," the powerful, the opener; the right testicle 
was called "Anu" or "On," and was supposed to be superior 
and to produce male offspring (see p.. 144) ; the left testicle was 
called "Hoa" and was supposed to give rise to female offspring. 
Writers have given various reasons why the right testicle 
was male ; it was usually larger than the left one ; or the left hung 
lower and was therefore inferior. Neither statement is univer- 
sally applicable and probably neither one is correct. The rigM 
side of the body was male in antiquity, as Ave learnt in the old 

Pig. 205. — A man showing hair in shape of upright triangle on the pubes. 

theories of the Kabbalah, the Greek theories of conception, the 
two series of the Pythagorean numbers : Eight and Left, Male and 
Female (see p. 334), etc. 

The syllable Ben in Hebrew means Son; thus, Benaiah means 
son of the Lord. We read in the thirty-fifth chapter of Genesis 
(v. 16-20), "And they (Jacob and his people) journeyed from 
Bethel and * * * Eachel travailed, and she had hard labor. 
And it came to pass when she was in hard labor that the mid- 
wife said unto her. Fear not, thou shalt have this son also — 
and it came to pass as her soul was in departing (for she died) 


that she called his name Ben-Oni ; but his father called him Ben- 
jamin. And Rachel died, and was buried. * * * ^n(j Jacob 
set a pillar on her grave." 

The name Ben-Oni means son of On (son of the right testi- 
cle) ; the name Benjamin means, Son of the right side. We may 
recall in this connection the importance of the right side as male 
in connection with begetting and in connection with the theories 
about the womb. Also, this quotation shows the antiquity of 
grave-stones, to which reference is made on page 385. 

The lingam was also represented by a very sacred form, the 

Pig. 206. — Sj-mbols derived from pubie triangle and from pliallus. 

pyramid or upright triangle, "the sacred male triangle," with its 
apex upward, derived from the shape of the pubic hair of the man, 
which is so characteristically ditferent from the pubic hair of 
the woman (Fig. 206). This triangle symbolized the Trinity 
among the most ancient people of whose religion we have record, 
the Hindus, and probably even before them, among their Aryan 
ancestors; so also, among the ancient Egyptians, and as I shall 
presently show, also among modern Christians. 

The lingam was also worshipped in the shape of the lotus 
flower or bud in India, China, Egypt and other Oriental coun- 



tries, and was transplanted from these Pagan religions to Chris- 
tian art as the lily or "fleur-de-lis;" (the lily is often a symbol 
of God the Father in Christian church art, where the Madonna 
and child and lily are symbolical of the "Holy Family;" or the 

lily is conventionalized in paintings W and in sculpture «§• 

also as the thyrsus, (the Bacchus sceptre or sjonbol) or bunch of 
grapes, or as a pine-cone or pine-apple (see for instance the pine- 
cone in the hand of the Assyrian god Ashur (Fig. 181) ; the 
lingam is also sho^vn as a divining rod, a two-forked stick, the 
stick representing the penis, the two forks the testicles; or as a 

Fig. 207. — Temple Dome at Srinugur; capital of Cashmere Valley, India. 

clover leaf or shamrock, or in the shape of the Greek and Rus- 
sian orthodox cross with three cross-bars, Avhich latter is also 
the cross of the pope of the Eoman church, and was already in 
use in the ancient Egyptian religious symbolism, and on the lids 
of sarcophagi. 

The shamrock is an Irish emblem of the Trinity ; it is a leaf of 
any one of several three-lobed varieties of plants {Trifolmm pra- 
tense, T. repens, or other clovers, or of Oxalis, or water-cress). 
The Irish believe that St. Patrick used a leaf of this kind to ex- 
plain the Trinity — one leaf yet three leaflets. On St. Patrick's 
day, every devout Irishman wears a little bunch of shamrock. 

This shows the dome of a temple in Srinugur (Fig. 207), 



the capital of Cashmere, in India. It represents the three mem- 
bers of the phallic trinity. This form is also occasionally seen 
in church windows, built in triplets, with the middle section long- 
est ; its origin is the same as that of the dome. 

Such windows can be seen in a church on South Grand Ave- 
nue in St. Ijouis : a sketch of such windows is shown below : 


In the forests of India there are many shrines with realis- 
tic figures of the lingam to which sterile women make pilgrimages 
that they may touch these holy images with their vulvas, in the 
hope that they may then conceive. Some Hindu sects teach that a 
woman who dies a virgin can not enter heaven; if a girl is pre- 
vented from having connection with a man, as when a man dies 
and leaves a child widow (for girls are married when three to 
six years old, and a widow can not remarry), such a widow goes 
to a shrine and with a sacred stone phallus or lingam ruptures 
her hymen, so that the angel guarding the gates of heaven, when 
he examines her, will find that she has done her duty in regard to. 
coition and will let her in. 

Medals and jewelry in the form of the lingam were worn by 
Greek and Roman matrons and maidens, to make them fertile; 
similar charms are frequently worn as amulets in modern Egypt. 
In some parts of Europe cakes in the form of the male organs 
are eaten by the women on certain festival days for the same 
purpose. Pregnant women wore images of the male organ, in 
the hope that the frequent sight of them might produce boy chil- 
dren by pre-natal suggestion or influence; or they had pretty 
little naked boy slaves to wait on them. (See Fig. 207-A.) 

In the XIII and XIV Centuries the Abbey church of Cou- 
lombs, Diocese Chartres, France, claimed to possess the prepuce 
or foreskin of Jesus, which had been cut off when he was circum- 
cised, and it was believed that when a pregnant woman touched 
this relic, she was assured of a safe and easy confinement. 
Henry V of England borrowed this relic in order that his wife 
Katherine might touch it, after which he returned it to the abbey. 

We have already learned that the main deities of India are a 
Trinity of Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva 



the Destroyer (and Eeproducer) ; these three corresponded to 
the Greek and Eoman Female Trinity of the Parcae or Fates, 
and to the Scandinavian Trinity of the Norns. The Parcae presided 
over the destinies of humans; Clotho, the spinner (Past), presided 
over birth and spun tlie thread of life; Lachesis, the weaver (Pres- 
ent) weaves flowers, or laurels, or thorns into the fabric of life; 
and Atropos, the "Inevitable" (Future) cuts the thread of life 
when the span of life is run (Fig. 208). The Egyptians wor- 
shipped quite a number of deities in sets of three, some male 
only, others in sets of father, mother and child; for example, 
Osiris, Isis and Harpokrat. In Egyptian hieroglyphics "father, 
mother and child" was written tluTS : 


Up to the Second Century Christianity was a monotheistic re- 
ligion, like that of the Jews; but about the time mentioned the 
Bishop of Alexandria introduced first the Avorship of the Father 
and Son, then of Father, Son and Holy Ghost, or the Trinity, to 

Fig. 207-A. — Abraxas Medals; used as charms against disease. No. IV is a phallic 
charm, the god Pan, to cure or prevent sterility. 

facilitate proselytism among the Egyptians, and bj^ the end of the 
Fifth Century, the theory of a triune God was accepted also by 
the other churches outside of Egypt. 

The illustration (Fig. 209) shows a very anthropomorphic con- 
ception of the Trinity which originated among the monks of Sa- 
lerno, whither the idea had probably been brought by some mis- 
sionaries returned from India in imitation of the Hindu Trimurti, 



in the XIII Century. This same form of Trinity was found as an 
altar piece in Catholic churches in the Philippines, when the 
United States acquired them from Spain. 

Images of the fructifying god Pan (see page 355), or Priapus, 
were erected in the fields of ancient Hellas and Eome to insure 
increase in crops, flocks and family. Such figures were usually 
pillars, but often mth a head, or a figure of a phallus in front; 
Figure 210 shows a youthful couple offering flower wreaths to 
Pan, with their petitions for offspring. A figure of a sitting Pri- 


208.— "The Parcae, 

or Fates," by Fig 

209.— The Trinity, invented at Sa- 
lerno, in the XIII Century. 

apus, Avith an erect penis, Avas kept in the temples, to which pros- 
pective brides were taken by the priestesses who explained to 
them the sexual functions of the man's parts. The brides usually 
sat on the lap of the naked god, with his organ introduced into 
their vaginas, thus rupturing their hymens as an offering to the 
deity. From the permanent rigidity or erection of the god's penis 
we have the medical term of priapism. 

In Egyptian temples the walls were much thicker beloAv than 
above; the sides of the doors, or entrances, were therefore of an 



irregular shape, more or less trapezoid ; the sides were narrowest 
above and wider toward the bottom. The sides of the temple 
entrances were iTsnally heavily decorated with sculptures, but the 
space is often divided into two or more panels. Here we see a 

Fig. 210. — "Offering to Pan," from a painting. 

Pig. 211. — Meneplitha offering to Seti, same as 212, but realistically represented. 



panel from such a temple entrance at Karnak, representing the 
Pharaoh Menephtha offering libations to Seti, who was the Egyp- 
tian "Giver of Life." This divinity is here represented in re- 
alistic form, and the object of worship — the phallus, is boldly 
shown (Fig. 211) ; on another panel in the same entrance the 
same thing is shoAvn, but the realistic phallus is replaced by the 
"Uas sceptre," a symbolic representation of the phallus, the 
parts resembling the arrow or the divining rod in their signifi- 

Mg. 212. — Menephtha offering to Seti, symbolical. 

Fig. 213. — Pyramid of Chaeops and Sphinx, Egypt. 



cance (Fig. 212). Male deities in Egyptian temples are often 
indicated by carrying this uas in their hands, but frequently they 
held their real organs in their hands. 

The pyramids of Egypt were gigantic symbols of Seti, the 
Creator. I have already explained the origin of this symbol, the 
sacred male triangle, as based on the shape of the hairy triangle 
on a man's pubes. It was not confined to the wonderful edifices, 
which served as the tombs for the Pharaohs who erected them. 
Chaeops, who built this pyramid, lived about 3050 b.c. The pyr- 
amid is 480 feet high and 764 feet square at the base. Some 

rig. 214. — Two genii guarding a tomb, Gizeh, Egypt. 

authors have surmised that it was at first intended as a tomb for 
an Apis bull (Fig. 213). 

Figure 214 shows the entrance to one of the Eg3^ptian tombs, 
where two genii or guardian deities or angels hold this triangle 
figure of God before themselves in place where the real organs 
would be, had they been represented realistically. 

Euskin criticised this triangle (Fig. 215) from a medieval 
Christian church; he says that Gothic art was so crude that it 
represented an angel in this image, Avith a face so imperfect that 
the mouth was forgotten. Euskin did not know, apparently, that 
this was the sacred male triangle, and that what he mistook for 
eyes and nose was really the "lingam and stones." Or if he 
did know, he did not wish to state the truth. 



In the "Welt-Gemaelde-Gallerie," a work already referred 
to, we find a copper-plate cut of God appearing to Moses in the 
burning bush (Fig. 216). This male triangle represents the male 
god Jehovah. We shall have occasion to see several other cuts 
from this same work. 

The "Kurfuersten-Bibel" is a translation of the Bible by 
Martin Luther, and is so called because in the front part of tlie 
book are the likenesses of the dukes who assisted Luther in the 
work of the Eeformation. It is a very large book, weighs about 
30 or 40 pounds, and is curiously illustrated with fine copper- 
plate illustrations (publ. in 1768). 

Fig. 215. — A Gothic male triangle. 

Fig. 216. — God appearing to Moses in the 
burning bush. 

I show in Fig. 217 a reproduction of the title page. Note 
here the upright triangle or pyramid, inunediately over the head- 
ing "Biblia;" above this on the base of the cornice occur the head 
of an angel — St. Matthew ; the head of a lion — St. Mark ; the head 
of a bull — St. Luke ; and the head of an eagle — St. John. 

The man on the left is Moses, with the two tablets of stone, 
pointing to Jesus on the right, to symbolize that the Old Testament 
was a precursor of Christ who was the fulfillment of the proph- 
ecies of the Old Testament, the Law and the Prophets. 

Christ is represented naked, as he was the "man without sin," 
therefore represented without the insignia of sin — clothing. 



On the base of the structure, on the left, is the Agnus Dei, or 
Lamb of God, a lamb tied ready for slaughter and sacrifice, which 
symbolizes Jesus offered for the sins of humanity; and to the 
right, the cup and plate of the Eucharist, the symbolical sacrifice 
of Jesus in the New Testament dispensation. Most of these dif- 
ferent symbols point to a phallic origin. 

Figure 218 is an illustration of God appearing to Moses on 
Mt. Nebo, delivering the tablets of the Ten Commandments to 
Moses. The sacred male triangle represents the God Jehovah. 
Among the ancient Jews it was forbidden to make images to be 

Fig. 217. — Title page of the "Kur- 
f uersten-Bdbel. ' ' 

Fig. 218. — God appearing to Moses on 
Mount Nebo. 

worshipped. "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, 
or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is 
in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou 
shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them * * *" 
(Exod. XX, 4-5). 

This commandment has been kept by the ancient Israelites, 
and still more strictly by the Mohammedans; the latter take the 
fourth verse of this quotation out of its context, prohibiting the 
worship of all such images, and they prohibit the making of im- 
ages, even as portraits or works of art, so that a rich Turk, in- 



stead of having marble or bronze statues of nymphs, will prob- 
ably keep pretty naked Georgian or Circassian slave girls to orna- 
ment his house. 

So God was represented by symbols and not by images, and 
this triangle was a favorite method of figuring God. 

The "Kurfuersten-Bibel" also has this illustration (Fig. 219) 
of the V Chapter of the Apocalypse of St. John; and the halo 
above the head of God is a male triangle or pyramid. 

Likewise, this same triangle is used as a halo for God in this 

Fig. 219. — God and halo; also Saints 
Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, and the 
Agnus Dei. 

Pig. 220. — A modern picture of a mass; 
God with triangular halo. 

copy (Fig. 220) of a modern print representing the liberation of 
a soul from purgatory in answer to masses said for the repose of 
the souls of the dead. 

In medieval Christian church art a modification of the tri- 
angle was used to represent the Trinity (Fig. 221). The mean- 
ing of tlie male and female triangles seems to have been somewhat 
hazy and tlie female triangle Avas sometimes used for the male 
trinitj'-. Sometimes the two lower side limbs of this triangle 



were curved outward, giving the design the shape of a heraldic 

escutcheon. "Est" means is and non est means is not; "pater" 
is father, "filius" is son, and "sanctus spiritus" is holy ghost; 
and the word deus means God. A slightly different form of it 
can be seen in a stained Avindow in Christ Church Cathedral, 
Episcopal, in St. Louis. 

Yet another use of the triangle (but the feminine or inverted 
pyramid, probably due to ignorance on the part of those who de- 
termined on its use) is that which symbolizes the war work of 
the T. M. C. A. It carries on its three faces the description of 
Plato, of the triune nature of man; Plato taught that man con- 


Fig. 221. — The Trinity. A medieval design, 
but still in use. 

Fig. 222.— The upper is the 
feminine triangle as used by the 
Y. M. G. A. ; the lower, as used by 
the Y. W. C. A. 

sisted of body, mind and spirit. It is of course possible that the 
female triangle was designedly chosen to symbolize that our sol- 
diers Avent to war in defence of the holiest object, pure woman- 
hood, against the brutal attacks and misuses of the enemies (Pig. 
222). In the triangle used by the Y. W. C. A. for their war-work 
the shape is correct — feminine. 

This (Fig. 223) represents a Cupid (Amor or Eros) teasing 
a nymph; it is entitled "Love Eesisted." The God of Love, 
Cupid, is usually represented with a bow and arrow, or a quiver 



full of arrows, which are symbols of the lingam, erect from law- 
ful or conjugal love. (See also Fig. 35.) 

This idea is also found in the art of India (Fig. 224), where 
the Grod of Love, Kama-Deva, is represented as shooting an ar- 
row made of a lotus bud, the latter a symbol of the masculine organ 
or lingam, as already explained. The bow is supposed to be made 
of sugar cane. The god is sometimes figured as riding on a dove, 
or on a sparrow; both emblematic of much coitional ability. 

Dionysus, or Bacchus, the God of Wine, Drunkenness and 

Fig. 223.— "Love Resisted;" the arrow 
is a syinbol of the lingam. 

Fig. 224.— The Hindu god of love. 

Debauchery, was worshipped in ancient Greece and Rome, and 
the rites on his festival days were accompanied by unbridled sex- 
ual excesses. The Dionysus' sceptre was a staff surmounted by a 
figure resembling a bunch of grapes (the latter is called in botany 
a "thyrsus") and is known as the thyrsus sceptre (Fig. 225) ; the 
figure is not very definitely represented and may resemble a pine- 
cone or a pine-apple. This symbol represents the penis erect 
under the influence of illicit love, or passion, or lust; it is a very 
frequent ornament on the roofs of Christian churches, such as 
St. Peter's at Eome, etc. 



This illustration is from a modern painting, and figuratively 

represents a girl playing with the lingam of a man (Fig. 226). 
Figure 227 is an artistic representation of the conflict that goes 
on in a man's mind, between laAvful love and illicit passion or 
lust; the arrow of Eros is the sjonbol of the lingam erect under 
influence of lawful love, while the staff held by the Bacchante, or 
priestess of Bacchus, is the symbol of a lingam erect under the 
excitement of lustful desires. From Eros, the Greek name of the 
god of love, we have such terms as erotic, and from Amor, his 


Fig. 225. — A Faun and Nymph, playir" 
with a Dionysns lod. 

Fig. 226. — Girl playing with a Dionysus 

Roman name, such words as amorous, and all other words which 
are derived from these word-stems. 

The Temptation of St. Anthony (Fig. 228) is a popular sub- 
ject for illustration by modern artists. St. Anthony was a very 
holy man, a celibate recluse, but a preacher of Christianity to 
multitudes who flocked to visit and hear him. His sanctity and 
his continence were above reproach. 

To undermine the influence of this holy man, some heathen 
men tried to have him seduced and then to expose him, caught in 
flagrante. When the beautiful courtesan who was hired to bring 



this about, tried her seductive wiles upon him, to avoid succumb- 
ing to the temptation the saint bit off the end of liis tongiie that 
the pain might divert his thoughts from the lovely vision before 
him, and from the carnal desires she inspired. It is but fair to 
say, that the story is considered to be merely an allegory of the 
"memory pictures" which troubled him in his dreams, while the 
probable explanation is, that the whole story belongs in the same 
category as the story of William Tell and the apple, and George 
Washington and the cherry tree — historical fakes. 

Fig. 227.— Amor and Bacchante, by Les- Fig. 228.— Temptation of St. Anthony. 

Menander, a pre-Christian Gnostic, said: "Of all wild beasts 
on earth or in the sea, the greatest is a woman." Many of the 
early church-fathers held similar views, and the early saints 
taught that Avoman was unholy and made as a temptation to man, 
and that she was to be shunned at all times as one would shun 
sin and evil. Even St. Paul said: "It is good for a man not to 
touch a woman" (I Cor. vii, 1). Sexual connection was the great- 
est of all sins. 


The poet Granville wrote: 

"Mankind, from Adam, have been women's fools; 
"Women, from Eve, have been the Devil's tools; 
Heaven might have spared one torment when we fell ; 
Not left us women, or not threatened hell." 

And Milton sighs in Paradise Lost: 

"Oh, why did God create at last 
This novelty on earth; this fair defect 
Of nature, and not fill the world at once 
With men as angels, without feminine ! ' ' 

When Christianity came, and in fact even long before then, 
many ascetic men thought that the greatest merit was to abstain 
from those things that were most pleasant, and as the most cher- 
ished indulgence was sexual congress with women, these fanatics 
swore off this indulgence altogether, even going so far as to try to 
subdue all desire by fasting, self-castigation and self-denials of all 
kinds, as is still the case in some of our modern religious celibate 
orders; and if these measures did not succeed in deadening all 
desire for woman, these men did not hesitate to castrate them- 
selves, as has already been related of Origen and the Skopsi, 
in order the more surely to escape all temptation, in obedience 
to the command in the Bible-: "But I say unto you:. That whoso- 
ever looketh on a. woman to lust after her, hath committed adul- 
tery with her already in his heart. And if thy right eye offend 
thee pluck it out and cast it from thee : for it is profitable for thee 
that one of thy members should perish and not that thy whole body 
should be cast into hell." 

To show that St. Anthony was not such a self-mutilated 
fanatic, or anchorite, but subject to the ordinary temptations of 
the flesh, the medieval artists affixed the T-shaped symbol of the 
lingam to the regalia of the saint, as in this woodcut of about 
A.D. 1525, by von Leyden. In this illustration the woman tempt- 
ress was the devil in disguise, as shown by the horns, and that 
she was not a chaste woman is implied by her pregnant belly. 
Medieval art was often coarse and crude in expressing itself, 
but it generally succeeded in making itself plainly understood 
(Fig. 229). 



This same idea was also expressed in an altar-piece, at Wei- 
mar, in which the staff is snrmonnted by the tan cross, which on 
this account is also known as the "St. Anthony's Cross." 

This T-shaped cross was the shape of the cross used by the 
ancients for crucifixion. The projection above the head of Jesus 
was not part of the cross, but a label on which was the derisive 
inscription: "Jesus Nasarenus, Rex Judaeorum" (I. N. R. I.). 

In earlier Christian architecture this was also the form of 
the ground-plan of churches and cathedrals, just as at present 
the four-limbed or Latin cross is used. 

Fig. 229.— " Temptation of St. Anthony," by Von Leyden. 

The origin of the latter kind of cross is sought in a figure of 
a staff (the erect lingam) surrounded by a ring (yoni) or circle, 
as still used in many tombstones in Turkish cemeteries, or as 
shown in the cut below : 

Here (Fig. 230) is a picture which shows the same combina- 
tion of staff (lingam) and ring (yoni) and therefore signifies 
coition or the two sexes in union. This explains the meaning of 
what Ruskin said of these two crosses; he said the tau cross was 



the "cross of suffering" (the male unsatisfied by woman), and 
the Latin cross was the "cross of triumph" (the male satisfied 
by union with woman). 

We have already learned that the ancient Aztecs or Quiches 
were acquainted with representations of the crucifixion and that 
the cross was a sacred symbol in Yucatan. Fig. 8 on page 33 
was a mould cut in stone; copies were made in relief by taking 
impressions in moist clay and then drying in the sun, as is done 
in Central America to this day with their statuettes of adobe. 
When the first Spaniards discovered America they found this 
figure in use in religious worship. 

Fig. 230. — Fresco by Fra Angelico da Fiesole, S. Marco, Florence. 

The Trinity 

The earliest form of religion in Babylonia appears to have 
been a sort of fetichism, or Shamanism, which was similar to 
that which is still believed in by the Samoyeds and the subarctic 
tribes of Siberia. According to this belief the world swarmed 
with spirits or demons, to which diseases and disasters were due 
and against which protection was sought in various mascots and 
charms. The cherubs, the winged bulls and other creatures of that 
kind, which guarded the entrances, doors or windows to the 
houses, were charms used to protect against these demoniac agen- 
cies, just like we ourselves use such charms on our own churches 
and houses (Fig. 231). 

The introduction of sex worship and of sex symbols was a 
later development, not only in Babylon, but in probably all reli- 


gions which adopted such ideas. The phallic worship was intro- 
duced from barbarous people, as for instance from Accadia, 
Phoenicia, etc., and although some authors speak of it as incul- 
cating noble ideas and "divine acts," such was not really the 
case, but phallic worship and especially phallic festivals every- 
where seem to have been a degeneration from these forms of 

In Asia Minor several people worshipped Asher, Anu and 
Hoa (page 383), which personified or symbolized the penis, and 
the right and the left testicles. This was probably the first "trin- 
ity" that was worshipped anywhere, and from this were derived 


3.X1J fl. Kwty ■'f*'4 s.a;^jr 

Fig. 231. — Phallic symbols still used on our houses. 

other forms of trinities, not so distinctly or coarsely sexual. 

In Babylon, in quite early times, they worshipped a trinity 
consisting of "Na," the sky, "Ea," the earth, and "Mulge," the 
underworld. The underworld of those days, however, was not 
yet the "hell" of more modern religions, but more like the "ha- 
des" of the Greeks, as will be explained later on. 

The ancient Egyptians believed in a Supreme Being at once 
father and mother (similar to the hermaphrodite gods already 
considered) ; from this idea originated the worship of deities in 
triads — father, mother, and son: Osiris, Isis and Harpokrat, for 

The Egyptian religion extended over a period of more thaai 



5000 years during which it underwent many changes; also, dif- 
ferent districts or provinces, or even cities, had different cults 
and different dialects, so that the names of the gods and goddesses 
seem dissimilar although they may well have meant the same dei- 
ties. The result is a great confusion in formulating in our times 
*a consistent theory of Egyptian mythology or religion. Yet we 
know that many deities were worshipped in sets of three, three 
being a sacred number. 

Only Osiris (father), Isis (mother) and Horus or Harpokrat 
(son) were worshipped in every part of Egypt. Pta or Phtah 
was also generally considered to be the actual creator or demi- 
urge. Thoth assisted Osiris in judging the souls of the dead, and 
he had a wife, (Ma-t, the goddess of truth ; they were worshipped 
as a couple. Ra was the Supreme God, 

Then there were various triads, whose worship was local; 
we will consider them in a tabulated list: 







Khnus $ 



Pakht or 


Imhoten $ 




Pnebto-pkhrut $ 




Khnus $ 




Ankt 2 












Horus, $ 

All Egypt. 

These were the "Holy Families" of Egypt; they were wor- 
shipped more devoutly than the other deities, and their influence 
on more modern ideas and religions will become apparent far- 
ther on. 

It is not necessary here to consider the other deities, although 
some had very distinct sexual significajice, as for instance Suben, 
goddess of maternity, etc. 

The ancient Phoenicians worshipped as a triad or Trinity, 
the Sun, Moon and Earth. The Greeks and Romans had the triad 
of the Fates or Parcae, already considered (p. 390), who sym- 
bolized Past, Present and Future. The Norsemen or Scandina- 
vians had a similar triad; they were three maidens, Urd, Ver- 
dandi and Skuld, who also symbolized Past, Present and Future; 
they sat under the Iggdrasil tree in Asgard and determined the 
fates of gods and men. The Trimurti, or Hindu Trinity, was an 


inseparable trinity of Brahma (middle), Vishnu (right), and 
Siva (left). The syllable Om is the symbol for this trinity, which 
has already been described on page 9. It is explained that the 
letter is a combination (or intermediate sound) of the vowels 
a and m = 0. A stands for Brahma, U* for Vishnu, and M for 
Siva. This trinity in India is however mainly the object of phil- 
osophical belief, for the masses worship Siva alone. 

The Padma Purana (a sacred book) says: "In the beginning 
of Creation the great Vishnu, desirous of creating the world, 
produced from the right side of his body himself as Brahma; 
then in order to preserve the world he produced from the left side 
of his body Vishnu; and in order to destroy the world he pro- 
duced from the middle of his body the eternal Siva. ' ' Some wor- 
ship Brahma, others Vishnu, others Siva; but Vishnu, one, yet 
threefold, creates, preserves and destroys ; therefore, let the pious 
make no distinction between the three." 

The conception of Siva was evolved from Indra, the god of 
the raging storm, for which reason Siva is usually represented 
dark blue, of the, color of the storm-cloud. 

In India the male triangle is sometimes used as a symbol 
for this trinity. 

In ancient Mexico and Central America a trinity was also 
worshipped: Tohil, the thunder; Avihix, lightning; and Gagavitz, 
the thunderbolt. 

The Bible does not contain the word "Trinity;" but the early 
Christians commenced at an early period to philosophize about it, 
and God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost were 
accepted as members of this triad. The idea of God the Father 
was the old Biblical god of the Jews; in the year 325 the Coun- 
cil of Nice affirmed the divinity of Jesus as Christ, and in the 
year 381 the Council of Constantinople added the doctrine of the 
divinity of the Holy Ghost. From this the theory of the Trinity 
was deduced, which is that these three are not separate but to- 
gether constitute only one God — or Unity. The Trinity in Unity 
was de&lared to be an article of faith by the Church. One sect 
of Christians, however, maintained for some time a belief in Tri- 
theisfl), or in Three Gods, separate one from another, like an 
Egyptian triad. 

*ln old alphabets u and v were alike in shape. 


After the Reformation of Luther, Unitarianism became com- 
mon ; this sect believes that God the Father is the only and a uni- 
personal God, as opposed to Trinitarianism, or the belief in the 

In ecclesiastical, art and symbolism, a representation of the 
trinity was common, in the form of the sacred triangle (see 
p. 398). 

About the year 400, Arins taught that there was a time when, 
from the very nature of son-ship, the son did not exist, because a 
father must be older than his son. But the Church, at the Coun- 
cil of Nicaea, decreed that those who say that there was a time 
when the Son of God was not, and that before he was begotten he 
was not, and that he was made out of nothing and is created, or 
changeable or alterable, be cursed or anathematized. This estab- 
lished the Trinity as an article of faith. 

The Sabellians, a Christian sect, taught that the Trinity was 
to be understood as meaning three manifestations or attributes 
of the same god; in other words, the Sabellian god was formu- 
lated in the shape of man as defined by the Greek philosopher 
Plato, who taught that man consisted of body, soul and spirit; 
the Greeks thought that Mother Earth gave man his body, the 
moon gave him the soul, and the sun the spirit. 

But it seems likely, that if human thought had not been so 
thoroughly imbued with the trinity of the phallus, the other triads 
and the trinity might never have been considered or evolved at all. 
The phallus was a trinity, acting as one impregnating unit, al- 
though composed of three separate and differently-functioned 


The worship of trees was prevalent in ancient times, as is 
learned from the frequent mention of "groves" in the Bible. 
The trees, however, were symbols, both of male and of female 
qualities, in different countries and among different people. The 
worship was not as important as that of animals, anthropomor- 
phic gods and goddesses, and natural objects, as sun, moon and 
planets ; in our times the festival of the May-pole and the Christ- 
mas tree are surAdvals of ancient Pagan tree-worship. 

Prior to the V Century, Christmas was not a Christian fes- 


tival; instead, the 25th of March was celebrated as the anniver- 
sary of the Annunciation, or the Conception, by Mary; this day 
was also called Lady Bay in some parts of Europe, where Our 
Lady, etc., are also terms often applied to Mary. But in the 
V Century this festival was made less important, and the hirth 
of Jesus, nine months later at full term, on the 25th of December, 
was made a Christian festival, mainly, probably, to substitute a 
Christian festival for the old Pagan festival of the Saturnalia 
(December 17 and 18) and the Opalia (December 19 and 20). 
The Romans had been in the habit of celebrating these days, by 
an exchange of presents, especially to children who were remem- 
bered with dolls and toys; the rooms were decorated with ever- 
greens and tapers were lighted, because at this festival the old 
fires were extinguished and new fire obtained from the temple of 
Vesta; the transition from such a festival to one a few days 
later, with the accompanying gifts, burning candles, decorated 
evergreen trees, etc., was not abrupt but easy, and the old Pagan 
pretation of the festivities. 

In England the festival in honor of the winter solstice, which 
Saturnalian rites gave way more readily to the Christian inter- 
had been celebrated by the burning of the Yule log, by decorating 
the home with evergreens and mistletoe (which was sacred in 
Druidie times) and with burning candles and much feasting, was 
changed also to a festival with a Christian interpretation. The 
old decorated tree and evergreens were retained, but the associa- 
tion with tree-worship was minimized and finally lost. 

Primitive people generally believed that forests, streams, 
springs, meadows, hills and valleys were populated by supernatu- 
ral beings, but not divine or inunortal or of godlike nature, such 
as fauns, sUeni, dryads, nymphs, etc., who sported about in more 
or less abandon. 

In Arcadia, for example, a row of tall cypress trees were sup- 
posed to be inhabited by spirits called ai irdpeevoi, the virgins ; but 
the most usual name for these spirits was w/i^ai, or nymphs. 

In Germany is a group of three trees which have been ven- 
erated for centuries, called the "Three Graces " (Fig. 232), after 
the "Three Graces" of the Greeks (Fig. 233). The beauty and 
symmetry of the trees readily explains why they were called 
"The Three Graces." 

Figure 180 shows a "sacred place" in Africa; a tree, repre- 



senting the lingam, and two stones, usually meteorites, intended to 

represent the testicles. Moses already called the testicles stones, 
and we still do so in ordinary language, although "nuts" is also 
frequently used. The ancients said that the goddess Astarte in- 
vented the use of "inspired" (meteoric) stones, which were used 
in tlie treatment of the sick by waving them over the patient 
in practically the same manner as the North American Indians 
wave "big niedicine" stones over their patients. These stones 
were sometimes dressed in robes, or they were held in the hand 
while offering sacrifices. Philo said that meteoric stones were 
sacred, because tliey were considered to be divine messengers. 

Fig. 232. — Three gigantic trees in Ger- Fig. 233. — ' ' Three Graces, 
many, named the "Three Graces" on sen. 

account of their graceful proportions. 

by Tliorwald- 

having fallen out of heaven; they were usually worshipped in 
connection with trees (see page 344). In the days of early aero- 
nautics, when MontgoMer and other Frenchmen developed the art 
of ballooning, a balloon passed over a village but above the clouds 
so that it could not be seen. The balloon was rapidly falling, so 
ballast was thrown out, and among the articles throA^m out was a 
three-legged wooden stool ; the descent of this stool was observed, 
and the priest was notified, and the stool was placed in the church 


as a very sacred relic — because it had fallen out of heaven! A 
similar idea rendered the meteorites sacred. 

The sacred stones were not considered to be idols, but were 
merely venerated as symbols of the deities. But occasionally they 
were supposed to be inhabited by the god whom they symbolized. 
This was also the view held in regard to sacred trees or groves, 
of which some mention is due. 

In Caanan, in ancient times, plant worship was common, and 
the Israelites frequently lapsed into idolatry connected with tree 
worship, as is evidenced by the numerous references in the Bible 
to the "groves;" this is said to be a euphemistic translation of 
the places where the grossest forms of sexual excesses and aber- 
rations were practiced in honor of Baal Peor (the Master of the 
Hole, or Vulva) and Ashera, the female principle in nature. 
Ashera meant the "Happy One," and the symbol was the trunk 
of a tree. According to some authors, Ashera meant the symbol 
or idol of Ashtoreth, rather than the name of the goddess herself. 

The goddess Ashtoreth, Astoreth, Ashtaroth, Astarte (Gr.), 
Ishtar (Assyr.), Istarah (Pers.), was the same goddess; the name 
is from the Greek word aarrip (Lat. aster), a star. She was sym- 
bolized by the moon or by the planet Venus. According to some 
authors the words "grove" or "groves" in the Bible should be 
"Ashtoreth" (sing.) or "Ashtaroth" (plur.) ; the word "grove" 
being an error in translation. 

These "groves" are referred to in the Bible with great dis- 
approval, and their worship was considered as idolatry; it is 
true, that in very ancient times, long before the times of Moses, 
Abraham planted a grove and this is mentioned without being 
condemned; Gen. xxi, 33: "And Abraham planted a grove in 
Beer-sheba and called there on the name of the Lord." But 
more usually the planting of groves is strongly condemned ; Deut. 
xvi, 21 : " Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any trees near unto 
the altar of the Lord;" or I Kings, xvi, 33: "And Ahab made a 
grove ; and Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God of Israel to 
anger than all the kings of Israel that were before him. ' ' Also — 
II Kings, xvii, 16: and Israel "made them molten images, even 
two calves, and made a grove * * * and served Baal." 

We shall learn more about Baal later ; we are considering here 
only his temples or places for worship — the groves. 

Baal was often represented by sun-pillars or stones, and 


Ashera by trees, the word "groves" meaning the heathen com- 
bination of these male and female symbols. The African "sacred 
places" (p. 344) are survivals of the "groves" of the Bible. 

The earliest use of stone pillars used in ancient Israel and in 
Canaan were probably not phallic in shape or significance, but 
merely marked "holy places," as is referred to in Gen. xxviii, 
20-22: "And Jacob vowed a vow, saying. If God will be with me, 
and will keep me in this way that I go and will give me bread to 
eat, and raiment to put on, so that I- come again to my father's 
house in peace; then shall the Lord be my God: and this stone, 
which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house." 

But later on, by the times of Moses, the pillars seem always 
to have had phallic significance and were condemned, and in the 
groves the trees or tree-stems stood for Ashera and the pine- 
cone for Baal. 

In these temples or groves of Canaan were congregated many 
priests, also temple attendants, female and male prostitutes (sod- 
omites) whose earnings went into the temple treasury. 

The Hindus believed that Krishna brought with him from 
heaven the sacred tree Parijata, which drives away hunger, thirst, 
disease, old age and other evils. In India, also, a plant was (and 
is) worshipped which is called Soma; it grows in Northern India 
{Asclepias acida) from which in Vedic times an intoxicating 
drink was made, which was gratifying to men and gods. This 
plant is sacred. Also, the lotus is worshipped in India, as well 
as in Egypt and other countries. 

In Egypt there grow white, blue and red lotus flowers; the 
white {Nymphaea Lotus) and blue {Nymphaea caerulea) lotus 
were sacred in ancient Egypt and are an essential ornament in 
temple ornamentation (see Fig. 234) ; the open flower symbol- 
ized the lingam, but the bud was also used for the same thing. 

The Buddhists practice plant-worship, although it is not spo- 
ken of in their writings. 

The Hawaiians worshipped as a deity a plant which yielded 
a very fine textile fiber; fish-nets made of it have been known to 
have been in use for over fifty years. It is called Olona {Touchar- 
dia latifolia) and it gives the strongest and most durable fiber in 
the world. 

In ancient Assyria the "grove" or "tree of life" was repre- 
sented in sculpture as shown in Fig. 235; the central pillar 



represents a lingam, with its apex in contact with a symbol which 
represents the clitoris; the arch is the "door of life" or yoni, 
and the thirteen flowers which it bears mean the thirteen men- 
strual epochs of the woman in a year ; menstruation is still spoken 
of as the "flowers." 

In later times the alchemists used a similar symbolism; in 

' .1 % ' 

Fig. 234. — Ofifering to Seti by Pharaoh Menephtha; see lotus tlower and buds behind 

the god. 


Fig. 235. — An Assyrian Tree of Life. 

this illustration of the marriage of the sun and moon, the par- 
ents of the "philosophers' stone," the plant also has these thir- 
teen menstrual "flowers" (Fig. 236). 

In ancient Greece and Eome trees were supposed to be the 
habitations of dryads, nymphs, fauns and satyrs; many still be- 



lieve such creatures to exist, but now under the names of fairies 
or elves, "the little people," "the good people," and in Ireland, 
the banshee. 

Dodona, in Epirus, was the seat of an ancient Greek sanc- 
tuary and oracle; the latter was considered second only to the 
oracle at Delphi, which was the most celebrated of all Greek 
oracles. The method of gathering the response of the oracle 
was by listening to the rustling of the leaves of an old oak tree, 
which was supposed to be the seat of the deity ; this was perhaps 
but a reminder of tree-worship of former times. 

In Eome and Greece there were also goddesses who presided 

Fig. 236. — Marriage of the sun amd moon, parents of the Philosopher's stone; 


over plants, as Ceres, the goddess of crops, Flora, the goddess of 
flowers, Pomona, the goddess of fruits, etc. 

The wife of Tyndareus, the King of Sparta, attracted the 
notice of Zeus by her beauty, and he seduced the queen. From 
this union resulted a daughter, the goddess Helena, who pre- 
sided over the welfare of children. Unmarried maidens cele- 
brated festivals in her honor, and at these festivals she was wor- 
shipped in the form of a sacred tree. 

Then in various countries "hotanomancy" or divination from 
leaves (usually sage or fig) was practiced ; letters were written on 
leaves and then the Avind was allowed to toss these leaves about; 


after a certain time those that remained were arranged to spell 
words or sentences, which were accepted as the answers from the 
gods. The fig-tree and the fig were sacred; Adam and Eve cov- 
ering themselves with fig-leaves. The names of two rivers in 
paradise, the tree of life, and the seducing serpent in Genesis, are 
originally Persian and Hindu stories. The fig is a symbol of the 
feminine, because it resembles in size and shape a human uterus 
or womb. 

In various parts of the world tree worship is still extant ; for 
instance, in America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Even in Eng- 
land we find reminders in such names of places as Holywood, 
Holyoak, etc.; among the people known as the Chersonese, the 
spirits are still worshipped in groves of trees, or in the forests — 
the good spirits in groves of deciduous trees and the bad spirits 
in groves of coniferous trees; the latter are supposed to be 
haunted by the North American Indians.* 

The Wych (witch) Hazel {Ulmus montana) is indigenous in 
Great Britain, and in parts of Europe. It has had an extensive 
cult, as its name ("witch") implies, in connection with super- 
natural powers or witchcraft; it was the favorite source for ob- 
taining the divining rod with which to find water for wells, hid- 
den deposits of minerals, lost articles, etc. ; in many parts of Eu- 
rope twigs of this tree are used when driving cows to the bull. 

Divining rods are of great antiquity (Hosea iv, 12) ; Agric- 
ola, in 1557 a.d. mentions their use in locating veins of ore. Their 
use in finding water is still practiced amongst us. 

Plants were worshipped in Scandinavia (the Norse tree 
Iggdrasil) and in Germany (Fru Holler, etc.) ; they are still a 
very important feature in China, Japan, etc. 

Asgard was the home of the Aesir (or the Olympus of the 
Norse gods). When the Aesir, the pantheon of the Norse gods, 
created men they connected Midgard, the home of men, with As- 
gard, the home of the gods, by a bridge which men call rainbow, 
which also leads to the sacred fountain of Urd, situated in the 
shade of the tree Iggdrasil where the gods take council. Three 
of the Aesir found two trees, one an elm tree from which they 
fashioned the first woman, the other an ash tree, from which they 
fashioned the first man. 

*An interesting example of this superstition is described in tlie novel To Have and to Hold, 
by Mary Johnston. 


The Druids held the oak-tree and the mistletoe in great ven- 
eration, especially when the latter was found on an oak-tree, thus 
combining the sanctity of the two plants; when thus found, a 
priest clad in white garments cut the mistletoe with a knife made 
of gold, and then two white bulls were sacrificed under the oak 
tree on which the mistletoe was found. 

Pliny records that the Druidic name for mistletoe meant 
"All Heal," or "Heal AH;" he also said that mistletoe was con- 
sidered good " conceptum foeminarum adjuvare, si omnino secum 
haheant" (to aid conception on the part of women, if they have 
a little of it with them"). In olden times, as we learn from the 
Bible, women took pride in being fertile and in having children; 
they were not desirous, as is now too frequently the case, to avoid 
the pains of childbirth and the bother of rearing children. 

Mistletoe was also supposed to be a charm of particular bene- 
fit in women's troubles of various kinds, and was therefore kept 
in the rooms of a married couple. 

It was sacred to the Goddess Mylitta in Phoenicia, in whose 
temples it was used for decorative purposes. Every Phoenician 
woman was obliged, once in her lifetime, to have connection with 
a man not her husband, as a religious rite in the temple of My- 
litta; when she was ready to do this, she went to the temple and 
sat under a sprig of the suspended mistletoe, and any man who 
saw a woman "under the mistletoe" could ask her to accompany 
him to one of the alcoves provided for the purpose, where, after 
having paid her some money, he had connection with her. The 
money was offered by the woman on the altar of the temple to the 

One of the botanical names of the mistletoe is Mylitta; and 
when we see a girl or woman under the mistletoe at Christmas 
time, when it is extensively used as a decoration, we may kiss 
her ; but we can not expect the privileges originally conferred by 
the plant. 

The custom of employing holly and other plants for decora- 
tive purposes at Christmas time, is regarded as a survival of the 
customs of the Roman festival of the Saturnalia, or of the old 
Teutonic custom of hanging evergreens in the dwellings as a ref- 
uge for the sylvan spirits, to shelter them from the frost, snow 
and sleet of outdoors. 


Mandrake Roots 

When a plant or plant-part bore a resemblance in shape to a 
hnman body, or to human parts, superstitious people attached 
certain virtues to these plants or plant-parts, and especially were 
they regarded as potent charms to compel love on the part of 
persons of the opposite sex for the one who was the possessor 
of such a charm. This belief was very widespread and was based 
on the Bible. 

Gen. XXX, 14-16: "And Eeuben went in the days of wheat 
harvest, and found mandrakes in the field and brought them to 
his mother Leah, Then Eachel said to Leah, Give me, I pray thee, 
of thy son's mandrakes. And Jacob came out of the field in the 
evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said. Thou must come 
in unto me; for surely, I have hired thee vath my son's man- 
drakes. And he lay with her that night." 

Also, in the Song of Songs, the bride says : ' ' Come, my be- 
loved, let us go forth in the field ; * * * let us get up early in 
the vineyards; let us see if the vine flourish, whether the tender 
grape appear, and the pomegranate bud forth; there will I give 
thee my loves. The mandrakes give a smell,* and at our gates 
are all manner of pleasant fruits, new and old, which I have laid 
up for thee, 0, my beloved" (Cant, vii, 13). 

In some of the old herb books may be found drawings of 
plants which are supposed to represent plant-parts in human 
shapes; for instance, this illustration from the Ortiis Sanitatis 
or Garden of Health, published in Augsburg in 1486, represents 
on the left a "paradise tree" and on the right a Narcissus plant 
(Fig. 237). 

As already stated, the superstitious esteem of mandrakes 
dates back at least to 1750 b.c, to the times of Jacob. It is fre- 
quently represented in medical books, when books were still writ- 
ten by hand, centuries before jthe invention of printing from mov- 
able type. 

A drawing of such mandrake (or alraun) roots is here shown 
(Fig. 238) from a very old medical work. 

When a mandrake plant was found, the ground was partly 
removed from about the root, and it was tied to a dog; the mas- 

*Cruden, in the Concordance^ says that there are male and femala mandrakes; the female 
mandrakes have a fetid odor, while the male mandrakes are fragrant. 



Fig. 237. — Prom the Ortus Sanitatis, 1486. Para- Pig. 238. — Mandrake (or al- 

dise tree and Narcissus. raun) roots; very old illustration. 

h "^ 

"in - 

Fig. 239.- — Mode of gathering mandrake roots. 

Pig. 240. — Mandrake Boots, from the Codex NeapoHtwmis, at Vienna. 



ter of the dog then went to some distance, and called the dog, 
who straggled till the root came loose; the man put wax in his 

Fig. 241. — The goddess Heuresis giving Fig. 242. — Mandrake (false) at one 

mandrakes to Dioscorides; 512 a.d. time property of Emperor Rudolpli II, of 


Fig. 243. — Two carrots. 

Fig. 244. — A carrot. 

ears and blew on a horn so that he could not hear the fearful 
yelling of the mandrake root, which would have killed him if he 
had heard it (Fig. 239). 



This shows a drawing of mandrake roots, after figures in 

the Codex NeapoUtanus in the National Library, at Vienna (Fig. 

The goddess Heuresis giving mandrakes to Dioscurides; from 

the Codex Constantinopolitanus, a.ii., 512 (Fig. 241). 

Fig. 245. — A parsnip root. Fig. 246. — Two parsnip roots grown together. 

Figure 242 shows a false mandragora, which once belonged 
to the Emperor Rudolph II, of Germany. Such a root was often 
dressed up and kept as a kind of minor idol, or charm; it was 
considered of great value in obtaining the love of anyone of the 
opposite sex, and a compliance mth sexual desires, by anyone 
on whom the owner had set his heart. 

Of course, this is merely a superstition, but the appearance 
of some plant parts almost compelled such beliefs. 

Figure 243 shows two carrots, which on account of their 
bifid appearance, would in olden times have been such charms. 

And also a carrot (Fig. 244), which much more closely re- 
sembles a female body than those just shown. Ginseng roots are 



Fig. 247. — A sweet potato and a scar on a pieoe of oak bark. 


Fig. 248. — ^An ordinary potato. 

Fig. 249. — Elecampane root, altered by 
adding a head of cork. 


very often suggestive of human bodies or human parts, and are 
very highly prized as aphrodisiacs by the Chinese. 

How close this resemblance to a human body may be, is 
shown in this photograph of a parsnip root, absolutely untrimmed 
or unaided by art, just as it grew (Fig. 245). 

Also, these two parsnip roots (Fig. 246) were grown together 
in this peculiar manner ; a student who had heard my lectures on 
reproduction in plants, sent me this, with the remark that he did 
not believe a word of what I had said of sexual reproduction in 
plants, because he had "caught 'em at it." 

Here (Fig. 247) is a potato and a piece of oak-bark with a scar 
on it ; they remind strongly of certain parts of the human body, and 
would have been well adapted to confirm believers in such love 
charms in their ideas. 

Figure 248 is a potato having a striking phallic resemblance. 
In fact, if anyone is on the lookout for such growths they can be 
found in almost unending profusion; nevertheless, some people 
help them along by trimming, cutting off some parts or adding 
others ; the illustrations shown are of unaltered specimens. I add 
one, however, of Elecampane root (Fig. 249), in which the head was 
made of cork and was glued or nailed on. 

Plant Names 

How much the minds of men ran on sex matters, when they 
named the plants and ascribed to them various attributes sug- 
gesting men and women, may be inferred from the following 
story. To read it aright, ignore the botanical names and read 
down the right-hand column of English names. 


Chapter I 

(In the Pulpit) 

Ipomoea purpurea Morning glory. 

Lobelia Cardinalis Cardinal 

Strychnos St. Ignatii Saint Ignatius; 

Arum triphylVum Jack-in-the-pulpit, 

Pyrus malus {var.) Minister; 

Aconitum Napellus Monkshood 

Mitella diphylla Bishop's cap, 

Impatiens pallida Slippers 

DipsacVfS pilosus Shepherd's staff 



Solidago odora 
Alyssum saxatile 
Impatiens fulva 
Ascyrum Crux-Andreae 
Asphodeles ramosv/s 
Sanunculus acris 

Golden rod 
Basket of gold 
Speckled jewels, 
St. Andrew's Cross, 
Silver rod, 
Gold eup. 

Lychnis dioica 
Linaria biennis 
Fyrus Malus (var.) 
Gnaphalium polycepJialum 
Salvia verbenaca 
Chamaelirium Carolimianum 
Ornithogalum nutans 
Angelica officinalis 
Gnaphalium dioica 

(The Sermon) 

''Cross of Jerusalem 1 


Never fail. 

Live forever; 

Christ's eye 

Blazing Star 

Star of Bethlehem; 

Holy Ghost! 

Life everlasting!" 

Chaptee II 
(Father Confessor) 

Tragopogon pratensis 
Hernandia sonora 
Scutellaria lateriflora 
Aeonitum Napellus 
Nupha/r advena 
Amaranthus melancholicus 
Actaea alba 

Friar's cowl 
Brandy bottles 
Nun's whipping rope 
White beads. 

(Penitent Sinners) 

Agrostis alba 
Eupatorium perfoliatum 
Brotmis secalinus 
Senecio Jacobea 
Muhlenbergia diff'usa 
Triodria cuprea 
Oryza sativa 
Fhleum pratense 
Capsella bursa-pastoris 
Dicentra cumtllaria 
Aristolochia Sipho 
Capsella bursa-pastoris 
Senecio cineraria 
Lychnis flos-oueuli 
Bidens bi-pinnata 
Echinospermum Virginicum 
Sapona/ria officinalis 
Nigella Damascena 
Bidens frondosa 
Mantisia (var.) 
Dianthus barbatvis 

Bed top 
Joe Pye, 
Cheat ; 

Stinking Willie 
Nimble WiU, 
Tall red top 
Pick- pockets; 
Dutchman's breeches 
Dutchman's pipe 
Shepherd's purse; 
Dusty miller; 
Ragged robin 
Beggar's stick 
Beggar's lice; 
Bouncing Bet 
Bagged Lady, 
Cuckolds ; 
Opera girls. 
Sweet William 



Fhlox maculata 
Artemisia Airotanum 
Osmorrhiza longistylis 
Trillium pendulum 
Viola tricolor 
Atriplex liortensis 

WUd Sweet William, 
Boy's love; 
Sweet Cicily, 
True love; 
Bonny dame. 


Pyrus Malus (var.) 
Galatea glabella 
Castilleia coccinea 
Lathyrus pratensis 
Fyrus Malus (var.) 
Satureia hortensis 
Lemna minor 
Salvia officinalis 
Trifolimm arvense 
Linaria vulgaris 
Solamum Dulcamara 
Nasturtium officinale 
Valerionella olitoria 
Fyrus Malus (var.) 
Coffea arabica 
Fyrus Malus (var.) 

Victuals and drink; 
Milk pea 
Painted cup 
Everlasting pea; 
Hominy ; 
Duck's meat, 

Babbit's foot 
Butter and eggs; 
Water cress 
Lamb lettuce 
Green cheese. 

Chapter III 
(In the Meadow) 

Mirabilis Jalapa 
Mirabilis longiflora 
Claytonia Virginica 
Fyrus Malus (var.) 
Erigenia bulbosa 
Ehexia Maricma 
Clematis vitalba 
Nepeta glechoma 
Manunculws aconitifolia 
Lilium bulbiferum 
Bosa centifolia 
Bellis integrifolia 
Osmorrhiza brevistylis 
Abrus precatorius 
Spiraea saliafoUa 
Nepeta glechona 
Fyrus Malus (var.) 
Sisyrinchimm Bermudianum 
Eupatorium purpureum 
Spiraea lobata 

Four 'clock 
Afternoon ladies; 
Spring beauty 
Sweet June 
Harbinger of Spring. 
Meadow beauty 
Ladies' bower; 
Hedge maids 
Fair maids of France, 




Sweet Cicily, 

Blaok-eyed Susan, 



Eed cheek. 

Blue-eyed Lily 

Queen of the meadow, 

Queen of the prairie. 

(The Bath; Diskobing) 
Polygonicum persiaaria Ladies' thumb 

Anthyllis vulneraria Ladies' fingers 



Digitalis purpurea 
Capsicum tetragonum 
Liatris scariosa 
Melia Aeedarach 
Coptis trifolia 
Digitalis purpurea 
Polygonum sagittatum 
Alchemilla vulgaris 
Shcs ootinus 
Narcissus iulbocodium 
Croton tinctorium 
Clematis vitalba 
Cesium veneris 
Cardamine pratensis 
Chionanthus Vvrginica 
Fhalaris Canariensis 
Lotus oorniculata 
CypripediMm puhescens 
Cypripedvum spectahile 
Nymphaea odorata 
Cypripedvum oandidum 

Dipsaous sylvestris 
Nymphaea odorata 
Naias flexilis 
Proserpinaca palustris 
Spiranthes autumnalis 
Adiantum Capillus-Veneris 
Adiantum, pedatum 
Scandix Fecten-Veneris 
Colchumm autumnale 
Aplectum hyemale 
Mantisia (var.) 
Naias Canadensis 
Pyrws Malus (var.) 
Specularia perfoliata 
Speoularia speculum 

Fairy fingers; 

Scotch bonnets, 

Gay feathers 


Gold thread ; 

Ladies' gloves 


Ladies' mantle 

Purple fringe; 

Hoop petticoats 

Bed patch; 


Venus' girdle, 

Ladies' smock 

White fringe; 


Shoes and stockings. 

Lady's slipper 

Showy ladies ' slippers ; 

Sweet Lily, 

Small white Venus' slipper. 

Venus' Bath; 

Water lily, 


Mermaid ; 

Ladies' tresses 

Venus' hair. 

Maiden's hair, 

Venus' comb; 

Naked ladies 

Adam and Eve 

Dancing girls 

Water nymph. 


Venus looking glass, 

Ladies' looking glass. 

(Surprised by Hunters) 

Chenopodium Bonus-Benrious 
Sarracenia purpurea 
Polygonum orientale 
Pyrus Malus (var.) 
Spiraea hyperacea 
Iris versicolor 
Draoocephalum parviflorum 
Centcmrea Cyarms 
Mertensia Virginioa 
Scabiosa arvensis 
Pyrus Malus (var.) 
Arum triphyllum 

Good King Henry 
Huntsman's cap 
Prince 's feather ; 
Queen Anne 
Bridal wreath; 
Blue flag 
Dragon's head; 
Blue bells. 
Blue buttons. 
Lord and Ladies 



Saponaria officinalis 
Sarracenia fiava 
Equisetum hyemale 
Eippuris vulgaris 
Eleusine Indioa 
Cynoglossum officinale 
La/urus nobilis 
Dipsacus Sylvestris 
Mirdbilis Jalapa 
Pyrus Malws (var.) 

London Pride. 



Mare 's-tail 


Hound's tongue, 


Venus' bath 

Wonder-of -the- world 1 

Maiden's blush. 

(The Peeper) 

Alaria officinalis 
Jatropha stiTmilosa 
Aiies communis 
Celosia cistula 
Arundinaria maorosperma 
StilUngia Sylvatica 
Cytisus Laburmim 
Hydrastis Canadensis 
Euphrasia officinalis 
Vinca major 

Tread lightly 
Cockscomb ; 

Golden chain 
Golden seal; 
Hundred eyes. 

(The Temptation) 

Nigella Damascena 
Chelone glabra 
Ophioglossum vulgatum 
Ipomoea pandurata 
Chamaelirimm Carolinianum 
Citrus Aurantium, 
Frenanthes serpentaria 
Viola tricolor 

Adder's tongue; 
Devil's bit, 
Forbidden fruit, 
GaU-of -the-earth ; 
Love in idleness. 

(The Fall) 

Nigella Damascena 
Eumex Fatientia 
Ligustrum Vulgare 
Fotentilla palustris 
Fisum Sativum 

Love-in-a-mist ; 



Five fingers; 


Chapter IV 

(The Next Night) 

Pyrus Malus (var.) Sumjner 

Solanum nigrum 

Ornithogalum umbellatum 

Circaea Lutetiana 

Mirabilis Jalapa 

Aletris farinosa 

Clematis (var.) 

Ten 'clock 

Enchanter's nightshade 
Beauty of the night 
Blazing stars. 
Ladies' bower. 



(Sleeping Innocence) 

Solanum somniferum 
Clematis erecta 
Galium verum 
Galium triflorum 
Galium verum 
Ligustrum vulgare 
Sisyrinchvwm Bermmdianum 
Dianthus deltoides 
Lilimn Canadensis 
Mirdbilis Jalapa 
Antennaria Margareticum 
Houstonia caerulea 
Polytricham vulgare 
Dianthus caryophyllus 
Tulipa Gesneriana 
Leuoanthemum vulgare 
Bosa canina 
Galium verum 
Viola tricolor 

Sleepy nightshade 

Upright virgin's bower, 

Yellow bed-straw 

Sweet-scented bed-straw 

Our lady's bed-straw; 


Blue-eyed lily, 

Maiden pink 

Nodding Lily; 




Golden maiden hair; 



White daisy 


Maid's hair 

Heart's ease. 

(The Tempter) 

Dianthus harhatus 
Graphalium arenarimm 
Poljfgomm persicaria 
Poly^omim Bistorta 
Staphylea trifolia 
Solidago odora 
Solidago rigida 
Stillingia sylvatica 

Sweet John; 
Golden locks. 
Bed shanks. 
Bed legs 
Bladder nut 
Bed rod 

Rigid golden rod. 
Queen 's delight. 


Artemisia Ahrotanum 
Nymphaea odorata 
Viola tricolor 
Lactuca sativa 
Cannabis Indica 
Viola tricolor 
Lilvum candidum 
ColoMcum autumnale 
Nigella Damascena 
Lichen igniarius 
Taxus Canadensis 
Impatiens pallida 

Lad's love; 

"Sweet Lily, 

Kiss me! 



Cuddle-me-to-you I ' ' 

White LUy 


Love-in-a-puzzlo ; 



Touch me not I " 

(The Rape) 

Bumex Patientia 
Viola tricolor 
Tritoma uvaria 

Bed-hot poker 



Impatiens pallida 

Quick in the hand. 

Brassica rapa 


Sedim album 

Prick madam 

Fhytolacea decandria 


Bidens fondosa 

Stick tight 

Polyanthus tuierosa 

Mistress of the night 

Amaranthus melanoliolicms 


(His Escape) 

Berchemia voluiilis 

Supple Jack 

Junous effusus 


Veronica officinalis 


Viola tricolor 


Humulus Lupulus 



Buta graveolens 


Gnaphalium decurrens 


Chapter 'V 


Gentiana Pneumonanthe 

Autumn bells ; 

Brunella vulgaris 


Buiigo alnea 


Senecio a/urea 

Female regulator 

lanacetum vulgare 


Euphrasia heliosoopa 

Little good; 

Triticum repens 


(The Baby) 

Halesia tetraptera 

Snow drop 

Leucoium vernum 

Snow flake. 

Limnanthemum laounosum 

Floating heart-, 

Amaranthus hypochondriacus 

Lovely bleeding 

Pyrm Malus (var.) 


Pyrws Malus (var.) 


Arum Maculatum 

Cocky baby ; 

Carica Papaya 


(Her Folks) 

Samhucus Canadensis 


Aralia hispida 

Wild elder 

Asclepias curassivica 

Red head 

Artemisia Abrotanum 

Old man 

Bubia tinctoria 

Madder ; 

Pyrus Malus (var.) 

Brother Jonathan 

Medicago lupulina 


UeracUum lanatum 

Madness ; 

Andropogon rrmrioatus 


Aralia racemosa 





Antirrhirmm majws 
Typha latifolia 
Yucca aloefoUa 
Aralia spinosa 
Capsieum cmmmm 
Atropa Belladonna 
Centcmreoi Niger 
Ly thrum hyssopifolia 
Achillea Millefolium 
Nuphar ad-vena 
Digitalis purpurea 
Fyrus oommiunis 
Bumex sanguinea 
Ciouta Maculata 


Oat-o '-nine-tails, 

Spanish, daggers 

Hercules' club 


Deadly nightshade; 


Loose strife 



Bloody fingers 

Blood good 

Bloody dock 


(The Funeral) 
Monotropa uniflora 

Corpse plant 

Black Jack 


All bones 

Man-in-the-ground ; 


Dead men's bells. 

(The Mourner) 

Scabiosa atropurpurea Mourning bride; 

Quercus nigra 
Fraxinus Americana 
Boecella iinctoria 

Convolvulus panduratus 
Viburnum prunifoli/um 
■ purpurea 

Sedum telephium 
Bumex Fatientia 
Melissa officinalis 
Brunella vulgaris 
Scabiosa atropurpurea 
Buchnera Americama 
Cypripedium pubescens 
Pinus Strohus 
Daphne alpine 
Myasotis arvensis 




Heal-all ; 

Mourning widow 

Blue heart 

Bleeding heart 



' ' Forget-me-not I ' ' 

(Apologetically Explanatory) 

The style of this narrative is somewhat abrupt and jerky, and there is an 
unusual scarcity of verbs; the story is suggestive, rather than descriptive. 

But it's the old, old story, sung and told a thousand times in a thousand 
variations since the days of Good Queen Margaret of Navarre. 

The Moral? Well, the same as in the Heptameron: "Beware of the Men!" 

(Chorus or Ebaders) 
Castanea Americana " Chestnut 1' 



In early stages of the development of religious thought in 
savage nations, animals were -worshipped as divine, and as the 
nations and their thoughts advanced to a higher plane, these 
animals ceased to be considered as the divinities themselves and 
became merely symbols for more or less anthropomorphic gods. 

Many primitive people believed that they were descendants 
from certain animals, which were their totems, and while this 
idea is now restricted to savage tribes, it was at one time com- 
mon even among such people as the ancient Greeks, who, how- 
ever, in those days were not much above savages; while totems 
were not worshipped, they were regarded with a sort of reverence, 
and could not be killed nor eaten, but it does not imply that these 
totems were considered as divinities. 

A curious account of their totem is that of the Thibetans be- 
cause it almost gives the idea that they have a traditional belief 
in their relationship to the apes, etc., dating back, perhaps, to the 
times of the evolutionary stages, ages ago. The Thibetans claim 
to be descendants of an ape and a female demon; these had six 
children of whom they tired and whom they abandoned in a for- 
est. Years afterwards the ape returned and found that the six 
had increased to five hundred descendants from the original six 
brothers and sisters; of course, incest was not known or ab- 
horred in primitive horde communities, any more than among 
animals. These descendants were very poor, in need of every- 
thing, and hardly able to keep themselves from starving. So the 
ape asked the god Chenresig to be their guardian, to which the 
latter consented; he threw out five kinds of grain which the ape- 
demons ate, whereupon their tails and hair grew shorter, and 
they began to speak and to clothe themselves, and finally became 
changed to men and women.-' 

A very ancient conception of god is the turtle, on account of 
the resemblance of its head and neck to the lingam. The turtle 
therefore became a symbol for the lingam, the demiurge or actual 
creator, the Origin and Sustainer of all things. In the Hindu cos- 
mogony (Fig. 250) the earth was supposed to be supported on the 
backs of four elephants, which in turn were supported on the 
back of a turtle which swam about, like a gold fish in a fish-globe, 



within the celestial crystal spheres that upheld the sun, moon and 

Medieval churches were often decorated with paintings or 
sculptures of Adarh and Eve, sometimes with representations of 
coition between animals, more rarely between humans, or other 
references to the divine creative sexual powers; here is shown, 
in a carved banister in a German church, coition between animals, 
the head of the penis carved in the shape of a turtle's neck and 
head (Fig. 251). This turtle head was the origin of our speaking 
of the glans penis as the "head of the penis." 

Fig. 250. — Hindu Cosmogony. 

It was largely this kind of ikons or images that were de- 
stroyed by the iconoclasts of medieval times. 

In ancient Assyria the bull was the actual male creator or 
progenitor of mankind; he was generally represented as winged, 
to indicate his divine nature. The bull was also worshipped in 
other Oriental lands, from Egypt eastward, in India, Japan, etc. ; 
in Egypt, for instance, as the Apis bull. 

The Apis bull was supposed to be an incarnation of Osiris, 
the male principle in nature, but this bull was not merely a symbol 



for Osiris, he was Osiris himself. He was supposed to have been 
born of a virgin heifer, who was rendered pregnant by a moon- 
beam or a flash of lightning. When an Apis bull died, another 
was sought by the priests, who recognized him by certain birth- 
marks, a black hide with a white triangle (male pyramid) on his 
forehead and a crescent on his side, and under his tongue a swell- 
ing or tumor like a scarabaeus insect ; as the priests always found 
a new Apis bull, this seems to show that the Egyptian priests were 
experts in marking or branding cattle, and could produce the re- 
quired characteristics of the Apis god at will. 

When the new god was discovered he was taken to Nilopolis 
where he was specially housed and fed on milk for four months. 
When mature enough, he was taken to a ship, at the time of the 
new moon, M^hich was a festival in Egypt, and conducted in cere- 
monious state to the temple at Memphis, where for the first forty 
days after his arrival he was seen and attended only by women 

Fig. 251.- 

-Wood c-arvings from a frieze in a church at Andlan (about 1050 a.d.). See 
first pioture (coition) in upper row. 

who fed him and exposed themselves to him, by submitting to 
sexual union with him, for this was the custom with the bull at 
Memphis and the ram or goat at Mendes ; this practice is referred 
to in the edict of Moses in Lev. xviii, 23: "Neither shalt thou 
lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith; neither shall any 
woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto; it is confusion." 

The mother of the god Apis was housed in a separate temple 
compartment and was attended by a special detail of priests ; she 
was the goddess Athor, represented in sculpture like a woman 
with a cow's head. She was the Venus of the Egyptians. 

Because Isis was the wife of Osiris, of whom the Apis bull 
was an incarnation, Isis was often represented in sculpture as a 



cow, or a goddess with a cow's head, but she was not worshipped 
in the form of a living cow. The cow, in Egyptian art, was also 
a symbol for the "sky" or "dawn," for which symbol she was 
represented with her belly painted blue and dotted "with stars. 

When gods and goddesses were represented as animals, or 
as human bodies with animal heads, they were of more or less 
savage and coarse nature; the Apis bull and the Athor cow rep- 
resenting in the coarsest and plainest manner the male and female 
powers in nature. 

When the Apis bull died he was supposed to have resumed 
his heavenly form of Osiris for a while; the dead bull was em- 
balmed or mummified, and placed in a tomb amid great demon- 

Fig. 252. — The Egyptian goddess Isis; sometimes represented as a woman, as a woman 
witli a cow's headj or as a cow, nursing her child Horus. 

strations of national mourning. He was called Sarapis or Ser- 
apis, and the tombs where the bulls were buried was called the 
Serapion; as in the case of the Pharaohs and their queens, so 
also in the case of the dead Apis bull, the genitals were gilded, 
although in some cases, either to do special honor to the bull, 
or to a queen, the penis of the Serapis was placed in the vagina 
of a queen and buried in that way. 

Cows were sacred to Isis, and were not offered as sacrifices 
in Egypt ; only bulls being offered in the temple rites. 

Egyptian mythology lasted more than 5000 years, and some 
of their stories about their deities became modified in the course 
of time, so that earlier and later accounts do not always tally; 
moreover, every town in Egypt had its own sacred animals or 



fetiches (mascots) and its own local divinities; also separate 
dialects of speech, and hence varying names. This has created a 
great confusion in trying to make a correct account of Egyptian 

The Israelites during their sojourn in the wilderness remem- 
bered this Egyptian worship and prevailed on Aaron to erect for 
them the image of the Apis god (a golden calf) while Moses was 
on the mountain with God, to receive the tablets with the Ten 
Commandments; also, under various kings, they lapsed to this 
kind of idolatry. 

In Greece, Minos, a mythical king of Crete, became a god 

Mk I 1 

Fig. 253. — Sacred bull in Ummernath Cave, India. Many thousand pilgrims come 
to this cave annually to worship this bull (see at foot of the man). 

after death, and became the judge of the dead; he was considered 
to be the same as the sun-god, his wife Parsiphae being the moon- 
goddess. They were symbolized as a bull and a cow. Parsiphae 
fell in love with the bull of Minos, and gave birth to the fabled 
Minotaur, which was half human, half bull. 

Jupiter changed himself to a bull to rape Europa. 

In India, also, the bull was and is worshipped ; as, for instance, 
a sacred bull at Hallibeeb, India. 

Here the cow also was held in great honor, but the extent to 
which this worship is now carried in India is comparatively mod- 
ern; for instance, in Nepal, a small independent state northeast 



of Hindustan, up to quite recent times, it was considered to be 
murder to kill a cow, and this was punishable by death. 

The Hindus believe that the God Indra, god of the sky, some- 
times assumes the shape of a bull and lives for a time on earth. 

In Persia, the urine of the cow is used as holy water is used 
in our Catholic churches. 

Figure 254 shows a statue of a bull in a park in Tokio, Japan ; 
the devotee touches the sacred form in the hope that this will cure 
her rheumatism. 

Among the ancient Assyrians the goat was the symbol for 
sexual vigor, and was worshipped as a lingam god or deity. The 

Fig. 254. — A bull in a park in Tokio, Japan. 

goat was also worshipped at Mendes, in Egypt; here men cohab- 
ited with she-goats and women with male goats or bucks in honor 
of the Eam, who was the god of Mendes. He had no special name, 
but was simply called the Eam, but his worship was similar to 
that of the Apis god, but was not limited to a few privileged 
women, but any woman could resort to the temple and submit 
herself to one of the male goats which had been trained to enjoy 
the unnatural union; or men could cohabit with female goats. 
This theme furnished a favorite motif for wall-paintings in the 
bath rooms of Eoman villas in Herculaneum and Pompeii. 

The origin of the fabled satyrs may possibly be sought in 
these strange unions, for the belief that coition with animals can 



result in pregnancy was common at one time and is not yet en- 
tirely extinct. The Greek satyrs were supposed to be inordi- 
nately concupiscent, ever chasing nymphs, whom they seized and 
raped whenever they could; from this characteristic we have the 
term satyriasis. 

Later on, the satyrs, or sileni, which were similar, became 
changed in popular belief or superstition into the popular Chris- 
tian notion of the devil, with bats' wings, horns, tail and cloven 

Cattle, cats, monkej^s, ibises, and other animals were and still 
are sacred in many Oriental countries, although not necessarily 
revered as deities or as symbols for sexual divinities. 

The Zulus, North American Indians, Chinese, Peruvians and 

Fi<r. 255 

-Goat worship at Mendes, in Egypt. 

some other people believe that "thunder-birds," snakes, dragons, 
and other beasts inhabit the heavens, and hunt the sun and the 
moon, attempting to swallow them, thus causing eclipses; many 
of these people, when they see an eclipse beginning, clash their 
shields, shout, beat drums or tom-toms, shoot firearms and make 
as much noise as possible to scare away the beast that is trying 
to devour the sun or moon. 

Certain animals were associated with certain deities, with- 
out however being worshipped; although occasionally, they were 
considered as symbols for the deity, as the owl for Pallas Athena 
in Grreece, or the vulture for Suben, the goddess of maternity, 
in Egypt. 

Thus, the eagle was sacred to Jupiter, the owl to Athena, the 



peacock to Jimo, the doves to Venus, the raven to Apollo, the 
hawk to Odin (Norse), etc. 

In ancient Assyria doves (or pigeons) were sacred to Semi- 
ramis (a mythical queen) who was merely a variant of Ashtoreth, 
the Assyrian and Accadian Venus, later on the Venus of the Greeks 
and Eomans ; the reason why the doves were sacred to these deities 
was because the sound made by cooing doves sounded like the As- 
syrian word for coition. 

The ass was sacred to Hestia or Vesta. A legend said that 
the goddess was sleeping in a pleasant meadow when Priapus 
saw her ; in obedience to liis nature, he sneaked towards her with 

Fig. 256. — Athena and cocks as symbols 
of -victory; from a vase given as a prize 
in the Olympian Games. 

Fig. 357. — The god Priapus as 
from a Greek temple. 


the intent of committing rape on her. The ass of Silenus was 
browsing in the same meadow, and to thwart Priapus he brayed 
so loud that the goddess and all the gods of Olympus were aroused 
and Vesta's virtue and reputation were saved; but this was not 
done with the intention of saving Vesta, but for the purpose of 
annoying the god Priapus. 

In Christian symbolism the dove is the Holy Ghost, the lamb 
represents Jesus (as the Agnus Dei, or lamb of God), the snake 
represents the devil; Matthew is accompanied by or represented 
by an angel, Mark by an ox, Luke by a lion and John by an eagle. 


The cock, or rooster, on account of his almost unlimited activ- 
ity as a male, was at an early time made a symbol of masculine 
power and vigor. This drawing (Fig. 256), from a vase given 
as a prize at the ancient Olympian games, shows victory symbol- 
ized by Pallas Athena, with the cock on a phallic pillar. 

We still use the cock as a symbol of victory in politics; and 
we call the penis itself a "cock." It was used on the Christian 
tombs in the catacombs of Eome to express the victory achieved 
by the resurrection of Jesus, over death. 

And finally, this is the representation of a bronze figure of 
Priapus which was found in an ancient Greek temple (Fig. 257). 

We have learned that the anthropophagi imagined that when 
they ate a fallen enemy, his valor or other good virtues were con- 
ferred on them; similar ideas were held in regard to certain ani- 
mals, the Charaha-SamJiita, an ancient Hindu medical work, teach- 
ing, for instance, that to eat the flesh of the cock will confer his 
vigor as a male on the eater. 

While some other animals were occasionally used as symbols, 
or connected with various superstitions, the above is sufficient to 
give us an idea of their worship, either as deities, or reverence 
for them as symbols for anthropomorphic gods. 

Asajnian and Babylonian 

It is beyond the scope of this book to mention in detail the 
various theologies and mythologies and the gods and goddesses 
thereof; but it ynll prove of interest to learn how much sex had 
to do with them, and the theories about them. 

Beginning with the Assyrian and Babylonian gods, we learn 
that the most ancient recorded religion among these people was 
a Shamanism or demon worship similar to that which is still 
prevalent among the people of Northern Asia. 

Some of their spirits or demons were later on promoted to 
gods, at the head of which was a triad or trinity — Na or Anna, 
the Sky, Ea, the Earth, and Mulge, the Lord of the Underworld. 
The various attributes of deity were conceived of as separate 
deities and the sun-god gradually rose to the highest place, thus 
leading to a solar worship. 


The neighboring people, all of them Semitic, adopted this 
same belief; the old trinity of Anna, Ea and Mnlge became Ann, 
Ea and Bel (or Baal) who were all children of Zica or Zicara 
(the Sky) ; Ea was now the god of life and knowledge, the Lord 
of the Abyss and the husband of Bahu (the Bohu of Gen. i, 2) ; 
Bel was the Demiurge and Bel-merodach became the special god 
of Babylon. 

In accordance to Semitic ideas, each god had a female princi- 
ple or goddess as consort; each Baal had a Baalat ("every laddie 
has his lassie"), who was some modification of Ishtar or Astarte. 

Bel with his consort Serna headed the pantheon. 

Then there was a moon-god, a sun-god, and an air-god, these, 
together with the previously mentioned Anu, Ea, Bel and Serna, 
making the "Seven Magnificent Deities." 

The next social rank was that of the "Fifty Great Gods;" 
then the "Three Hundred Spirits of Heaven" and the "Six Hun- 
dred Spirits of Earth;" among the latter were seven spirits who 
were born without father or mother, and these seven produced all 
the sickness and evils that prevailed on earth. 

The five planets then known were added to the seven "Mag- 
nificent Deities," making together the "Twelve Chiefs of the 

Pliny, the Elder (born 23 a.d.), wrote: "Epigenes, a writer 
of very great authority, informs us that the Babylonians have a 
series of observations on the stars for a period of seven hundred 
and twenty thousand years, inscribed on baked bricks. Berosus 
and Critodemes, who make the period the shortest, give it as four 
hundred and ninety thousand years. From this statement it would 
appear that letters have been in use from all eternity." 

The Babylonians originated many myths which were adopted 
by the Semitic people (including the ancient Jews) as for instance 
the story of the flood as later found in the Bible. The Babylonians 
said that Tam-zi, the "Sun," rode in his ark above the rain- 
clouds during the rainy season ; the story of the creation and the 
fall of Adam and Eve, of Abraham's attempted sacrifice of Isaac, 
have all been found in the cuneiform records ; from the Assyrians 
they were learned by Moses (or Ezra). 

"Some authors state that the "twelve great gods" (and goddesses) were the following Greek 
deities: Zeus, Poseidon, Apollo, Ares, Hephaestos, Hermes, Here, Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite. 
Hestis and Demeter, This, however, is not the generally accepted version. 


The Babylonian Hades, the Jewish Sheol and the Greek Hades 
were practically identical. 

One Babylonian story tells how Ishtar descended into Hades 
in search of her dead husband Duzi. Bahu, the Queen of the Un- 
derworld, afflicted Ishtar with many diseases and kept her a 
prisoner in Hades until the sun-god, brother of Ishtar, complained 
to the moon-god, who sent a sphinx to Hades ; the sphinx poured 
the waters of life on the imprisoned Ishtar and liberated her. 

When Ishtar entered Hades, "the land whence none return, 
the place of gloom," the queen of Hades commanded the warder 
"fling wide the opening of the gate for her, and as old rule re- 
quires, strip her of all she wears!" 

Then the warder 

"took the mighty diadem from off her head * * * 
He took away the jewelled earrings from her ears * * • 
He took away the golden chains about her neck * * * 
He took away the ornaments of her breast * * * 
He took away the studded girdle of her waist * * * 
He took away her bracelets and anklets * * * 
He took away the garment covering her nakedness." 

As soon as Ishtar entered the land whence none return, Al- 
latu saw her * * * Then AUatu said : 

"Go, open my gate and cast forth Ishtar 
With disease of the eyes strike her * * * 
With disease of the loins strike her * * * 
With disease of the legs strike her * * * 
With disease of the heart strike her * * * 
Her whole body strike with disease." » * # 

"The sun-god went and stood before his sire, the moon, 
Yea, in the presence of King Ea flowed his tears ; 
'Ishtar,' he cried, 'from deeps of earth returns no more. 
Since Ishtar has entered the land whence none return 
The bull has not served the cow nor the ass the she-ass. 
No male has approached the female.' " 

The moon-god then takes pity and orders that Ishtar be set 
free ; and all usual sex-life is restored on earth. The above are 


extracts from the Assyrian cuneiform account of Ishtar's trip to 

From this same folklore, no doubt, was derived the similar 
Greek story of the descent of Proserpina to Hades. 

In the Assyrian (Accadian) hymns to the gods are many 
passages that remind of the psalms of David : ' ' My God, my cre- 
ator, take mine hands — guide thou the breath of my mouth — 0, 
Lord of Light ! — In heaven, who is high ? thou alone art high — 0, 
Lord, my transgressions are many; great are my sins — ." 


In Phoenicia the chief god was Baal-Samaim or Lord of the 
Skies; his wife or mistress was Tanis, the Tyrian Astarte. (The 
Sidonian Astarte was supposed to be a virgin goddess.) The 
Phoenicians offered human sacrifices to Baal (called also Moloch 
in the Bible). To Moloch parents offered their first-born children 
by burning them as burnt offerings; and during periods of idol- 
atry the ancient Jews made the same kind of offerings to Moloch. 

Baal means lord, owner, especially as expressing the rela- 
tion of the husband to the wife; Baal is the sun-god or the male 
principle in nature. Among the Chaldeans, Bel (or Baal) was 
the highest god; he divided the darkness from the light and cut 
the woman who ruled over "the all" into two halves, out of which 
he then fashioned heaven and earth. 

The Phoenicians called their chief god "Asshur" (Asher, 
the penis, the "happy one"), "the king of all the gods." 

The Sun or heaven-god had a wife, but she was sometimes 
said to be the Moon, and in other records, the Earth. 

The Phoenicians were great travelers and traders ; it is re- , 
corded that they went as far as Wales to trade products of their 
own lands for the tin of the Welsh mines; they introduced the 
knowledge of the alphabet to various people. Also, they carried 
information about their gods wherever they went, and the Scan- 
dinavians adopted an originally Phoenician god, Thor, who be- 
came the Norse God of Storms or Thunder-God. 

Among the Philistines prevailed the worship of Dagon. 
When Samson was captured by the Philistines they put out his 
eyes and put him to work grinding corn; they took him to the 
temple of Dagon, to rejoice over his captivity and it was this 


temple, together with the assembled multitude, that he destroyed 
by pulling down its pillars (Judges xvi). 

Dagon was represented as half human and half fish; he was 
widely worshipped and many temples were erected to him. He 
had a wife who was called Ashtaroth or Atargates; her temple 
was at Ascalon. She was represented as a fish Avith a human 
head. She was a modification of Istar or Ishtar or Astarte. 
The fish was worshipped as the symbol of fertility, both on ac- 
coxmt of its own fertility, a female fish laying millions of eggs, 
and because it lives in the life-giving and generating element — 

According to Philo the chief gods of Phoenicia were two 
triads — Sun, Moon and Earth, and Elvers, Meadows and Waters. 
Mountains were sacred because they were nearer to heaven than 
the plains; hence the esteem in which "high places" were held 
among the Philistines. The prophets waged war against the 
worship on the high places, as recorded in the Bible. 

Philo (of Byblus) said that El was the highest god of Byblus 
and that Elohim was subordinate to him ; El was the first to order 
circumcision and to demand the sacrifice of the first-born, either 
an only son or a virgin daughter, to the sun-god. In historical 
times the sun was the chief god, but he was worshipped in two 
of his attributes; when he was adored as the god of heaven, the 
earth was regarded as his wife ; but when he was the god of light, 
the moon was his wife. 

The Phoenicians believed that El wandered off over the earth 
towards sunset, leaving Byblus to the management of his wife or 
queen Baaltis during his absence; this accounts why her wor- 
ship was more important in Byblus than that of El himself. Baal- 
tis becoming lonesome accepted the attentions of a youthful lover, 
Eliun or Shadid; but when El returned he killed Eliun with his 

In other places Astarte, the moon-goddess, was said to be 
the wife of El; Baaltis and Astarte were probably the same, and 
their worships were alike, consisting largely of wild orgies of 
sexual excesses. 

The religions of the Canaanites and Israelites were both 
based on a worship of the powers of nature, which were consid- 
ered as antagonistic to their welfare by the ancient Jews, while 
the Canaanites considered them to be favorable and benign. 


The Jews were stern and moral in character, the Canaanites, 
tender, sensuous and immoral in tendency. 

The Canaanites worshipped Baal (the Lord) and his wife or 
consort Ashtoreth or Asherah (the happy one) ; there was also 
a masculine form of the word Asherah, Asher (the lingam, the 
happy one). 

When Leah had a son she said: "Happy am I for the daugh- 
ters will call me blessed; and she called his name Asher" (Gen. 
XXX, 13). The symbol for Asherah was the stem of a tree, and 
for Baal or Asher the cone of the pine. The worship consisted 
mainly in licentious sexual practices in the "groves" or holy 
places, which worship was also indulged in by the ancient Jews 
during periods of idolatry. 

"And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to com- 
mit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the 
people unto the sacrifices of their gods" (Num. xxv, 1-3). 

During the idolatry under King Manasseh the Israelites went 
back to their former half-pagan idea of Jehovah, and they as- 
cribed to him a consort or wife to whom they gave the name 
"Queen of Heaven." They wanted their god to enjoy the same 
privileges that all the other gods of the neighboring tribes had, 
the sexual enjoyments that a wife can give. 


Hermippus recorded that Zoroaster lived about five thousand 
years before the Trojan war, the date of which was believed to 
be about two thousand years b.c, or about four thousand years 
ago; this would make the age of Zoroaster about nine thousand 
years ago. 

But this date depends on the same disposition of the mind 
of early man to exaggerate the ages in former times, as we see 
in the ages of the patriarchs in the Bible. 

Xanthus said that Zoroaster lived six thousand years before 
Xerxes ; Aristotle also said that he lived at a very early date. All 
ancient writers agreed that he was a real and not a mythical 

Modern scholars accept the latter conclusion but place his 
age at about the time of Moses (1400 b.c.) or even later, about 
1000 B.C. 


Zoroaster (or Zarathustra) was the founder of the Persian 
or Iranian mythology or religion. The main idea of his theology 
was that there was a dualism, Good and Bad, that were at ever- 
lasting war with each other. The sacred books are the Gathas, 
which together constitute the Zend-Avesta. At the beginning there 
were two spirits — Ahura-Mazdao (Ormuzd) represented Good, 
and Angro-Manyush (Ahriman) was Evil. Both spirits were 
demiurges, or creators. The Parsees say that both of these gods 
evolved themselves out of primordial ooze; this seems to be an 
attempt at explaining their genesis in a natural manner. 

Ormuzd was Light and Life, Law and Order, everything that 
is noble, good and true. Ahriman on the other hand was Dark- 
ness, Death, Evil, everything that is filthy and objectionable in 
the world. Plutarch, a Greek writer, said in regard to this Zoro- 
astrian theory of an evil deity, as well as of a good one, that, "if 
nothing can happen without cause, and good can not furnish cause 
for evil, it follows that the nature of evil, as of good, must have 
an origin and principle of its own." 

Each had his followers, attendant spirits who were practi- 
cally the armies of the two lords ; whenever they met, these two 
armies would fight for the possession of the human souls after 

After death the soul of the departed came to a bridge over 
which lay the way to heaven ; here a record of "his life was made 
by an accountant; if the soul had a good record it was per- 
mitted to cross the bridge and go to heaven, but if evil predom- 
inated in the account, it was sent to hell ; if the record was evenly 
balanced the soul went to an intermediate place which was a kind 
of purgatory where it remained to the final day of judgment. 

Man can help Ormuzd, or Good, by being pious and upright, 
or he can help Ahriman, or Evil, by being wicked. In this theol- 
ogy there is little or nothing of a sexual nature; in fact, it is 
singularly free from the usual conceptions of those early times. 

The Parsees worship Zarathustra, and the sun and fire as 
symbols of Good ; on getting up in the morning a Parsee first says 
his prayers to the sun; he then rubs a little holy water, called 
nirang (cow urine), on his forehead to protect him against the in- 
fluence of the devas or evil spirits, the attendants of Ahriman; 
for this, nirang is an infallible specific. 

During the captivity of the Jews they adopted some of the 



Zoroastrian demonology, including a belief in Ahriman (Beelze- 
bub, Satan), the Spirit of Evil; and the belief in the devil was 
adopted in turn from the Jews by the early Christians. So also, 
a belief in purgatory ; although a form of this idea was also known 
to the Greeks, from which it may have been taken by the Christians. 


The Egyptian religion is difficult to explain, because it lasted 
nearly 5000 years and underwent many changes ; then there were 

Fig. 258. — Justice ; a madern abstract idea, symbolized or personified as a goddess with 

sword and scales. 

many dialects so that the same deities were known by different 
names; different cities had different cults; etc. All of this gave 
rise to much confusion. 

It is held by some that the Egyptian religion was a mono- 
theism to the initiated, while to the masses it was an almost un- 
limited polytheism ; this is explained, that the different attributes 
of the one god were personified by various symbolic gods; that 
many of the gods and goddesses were simply personified ideas, as 
when we figure Justice like a woman holding a scale, or Piety as 
a woman kneeling, and supporting the crucified and dead Christ. 


However, the masses conceived these attributes as separate 
deities. Most of the male deities had mates, or female deities or 
goddesses, but these were of subordinate rank and totally unim- 
portant, being imagined only for the comfort and pleasure of the 
corresponding gods who would have been lonesome if they could 
not enjoy occasional sexual delights. 

There were two main orders of deities, the group of Ra and 
the group of Osiris. Ra is the sun; Amen-Ra signified the intel- 
lectual attributes of Ra; his group consists of Ra, Mentu, Atmu 
and Shu. Mentu and Atmu are merely a division of Ra into his 
two phases, the rising and the setting sun, the sun of the upper 
and the sun of the lower world, while Shu is the Light of the sun ; 
Shu is the son of Ra, and his wife, Tefnet, is the daughter of Ra. 
Marriages of brothers and sisters were proper among the Egyp- 
tians, so the gods might be expected to marry their sisters also, 
because men always imagined their gods to be like themselves. 

The Osiris group was not related to the Ra group. Seb and 
Nut had a son Osiris, who became the main god of this family 
connection ; he married his sister Isis and they had a child, Horus 
(or Harpokrat). Horus married Hathor. Hathor and Isis were 
nearly alike and the cow was sacred to both; also, both were at 
times represented as a cow. 

Osiris was the Sun and Isis was the moon. Osiris was the 
masculine begetting principle in nature; to show his power and 
vigor in this capacity, he was sometimes represented with three 
phalli; Isis was the feminine principle; their most sacred symbol 
was the lotus with red blossoms ; symbolic of the rising and setting 
sun, because it opened at sunrise and closed at sunset. Both 
Osiris and Isis were supposed to have been originally Greek de- 
ities, hence this order of deities was not related to the Ra family ; 
they were, one might say, naturalized foreigners. The Egyptian 
religion was sombre, sad, despondent, gloomy; at their festivals 
a coffin was brought in as a reminder of the ultimate destiny — 

Horus is said to have introduced the more cheerful Greek 
views of religion. 

Ammon was the local god of Thebes ; he was often represented 
with the head of a ram. Various cities in Egypt worshipped their 
gods under different animal shapes, and the inhabitants of such 
cities could not eat the animals like their gods in shape. It is 



probable that this animal worship was but a survival of early 

The god Ptah or Phtha was the god who prepared the mat- 
ter from which Ea or Amen-Ea created the world; Ea was the 
sun-godj the soul of the world, of the masses of Egyptians. Chnum 
was the breath of Ea, which stirred the primeval waters. 

Thoth or Tauut was the measurer of time and weights. 
He was said to be the husband of Ma't, the goddess of Truth. 
He was the reputed author of the Egyptian books on 
medicine, and of the "Eitual of the Dead." To this god the 

Fig. 259.— The Worship of Seti, the 
Creator; from a sculpture in the ruins of 
Karnak, Egypt. 

Fig. 260. — The goddess Netpe, 
bearing the ankh, or symbol of life 
and the feminine sceptre. 

Egyptians ascribed forty-two books on medical practice, but 
Seleueus ascribed to him twenty thousand books, and Manetho, 
thirty-five thousand, five hundred and twenty-five books. He is 
particularly concerned in securing the welfare of the souls in the 
underworld, wherefore his worship was very important in connec- 
tion with the funeral rites. 

Thoth was the moon-god, and was called the "tongue of Ea," 
thongh Ea is also said to have created the world by a word of 
command. Thoth, Thoti or Tet was the same as the Greek god 


Hermes, the god of letters or learning; he was ordinarily repre- 
sented mth the head of an ibis and as carrying a tablet and a reed 
pen in his hands, but sometimes also with the iias. Among his 
titles were "lord of truth," "the chief in the path of the dead," 
and the ' ' scribe of the truth. ' ' It was his special office to be pres- 
ent in Amenti (underworld) when the souls were judged, to see 
their deeds weighed in the balance and to record the result. It 
was also he, who in the realms below wrote for the good souls, 
with his own fingers, the "Book of Eespirations " which protects 
them, sustains them, gives them life, and causes them to breathe 
with the souls of the gods forever and ever. Thoth was an author 
of many medical books, and of the "Eitual of the Dead" which 
treated of the funeral rites. 

Only Osiris and Isis were worshipped throughout Egypt. All 
the other gods and goddesses were of a local character. 

The symbolism of the Egyptians was very phallic ; many gods 
showed a penis or carried a penis sceptre (Fig. 259). Many a 
goddess was figured with the sacred feminine triangle (Fig. 260), 
or showed her bare breasts, or carried the female sceptre of the 
profile breast. And many a deity carried the anhh or symbol of 
life ; and many of the gods are represented as masturbating. 

Yet with this excessive display of sex symbolism the Egyp- 
tians did not cohabit with women in their temples, as did the 

"None of the Christian virtues," said Chabas, "is forgotten 
in the recorded Egyptian code of morality ; piety, charity, gentle- 
ness, self-command in word and action, chastity, protection of 
the weak, benevolence towards the humble, deference to superiors, 
respect to property in its minutest details, all is expressed there." 

The Osiris Myth or Mysteries 

Very early in savage communities certain mysteries were 
kept from the general knowledge of the public and imparted only 
to members of certain secret societies; these organizations cele- 
brated and perpetuated certain stories about gods or goddesses, 
as for instance in Greece the Eleusynian mysteries about Demeter 
and Proserpina. So there were mysteries in ancient Egypt about 
Osiris and Isis. 

Osiris was the Good Principle; he was at enmity with his 
brother Seth (Typhon), the Bad Principle, and the two were in 


endless conflict for the salvation or destruction of human souls. 
Seth schemed to destroy Osiris, so he made a beautiful chest, and 
at a celebration offered to present it to anyone who could lie 
down in it. "VATien Osiris tried it, Seth closed the lid and had it 
nailed up and then threw it in the Nile. 

Isis then wandered about Egypt hunting her husband Osiris. 
(The same folklore myth that we find in the Greek story of De- 
meter, or in the Assyrian myth of Ishtar.) She finally found the 
chest but it was empty; Seth had found it and taken out the 
body of Osiris which he cut into little bits which he scattered all 
over Egypt. Isis hunted the fragments and buried each one on 
the spot where she found it, which accounts for the numerous 
graves of Osiris in Egypt. She found all the parts except the 
phallus, the genital organs; so she had a realistic model of these 
parts made and dedicated them in a temple, where they were 
worshipped, and this accounts for the introduction of phallic wor- 
ship in Egypt. This Osiris myth formed the nucleus of the Osiris 
Mysteries, or the teachings of one of the secret societies of 


Cronus was the youngest of the Titans, the children of Ura- 
nus (Sky) and Gaea (Earth). After he had castrated his father 
Sky, he became the ruling god; he married his sister Ehea. It 
had been foretold to him in an oracle that he would be deposed 
by one of his own children, so he swallowed them one after an- 
other as soon as they were born. He swallowed Hestia, Demeter, 
Hera, Hades and Poseidon. At last Ehea gave birth to Zeus 
(Jupiter), but she hid him and handed to Cronus a rock wrapped 
in swaddling clothes, which Cronus swallowed. When Zeus grew 
up he administered an emetic to his father Cronus and saved all 
of his brothers and sisters alive. Among them, also, Cronus threw 
up the stone; this stone was kept at Delphi, and divine honors 
were paid to it. 

Similar swallowing stories, probably derived from the same 
stock of folklore, were found among the Bushmen, Kaffirs, Basutos, 
Indians of Guinea, etc. 

The Eomans called Cronus Saturn; he was the god of agri- 
culture, hence he was represented with a sickle ; in astrology and 



alchemy his symbol is a male cross with a sickle, the same as is 
now used to express neuter forms in animal and plant life (see 
p. 531). 

Our "Father Time" with his scythe is Saturn modernized. 
Fig. 261 is entitled "The Flight of Time;" old Father Time is 
hurrying an immlling victim along. 

Saturn's wife was Ops (Plenty), an earth-goddess of crops 
and harvest ; she was the goddess of property, wealth, riches and 
power ; also, she was the patroness of husbandry, the benefactress 
of farmers. The festival of the Opalia, in her honor, occurred on 
December 19th and 20th. 

In honor of Saturn the festival of the Saturnalia was held; 

Fig. 261. — Tempus fugit (Time 
Flies), and drags his unwUling vic- 
tim with him. 

Fig. 262.— Our "Father Time" is de- 
rived from Saturn (Cronus) by mistal^e; 
the Ti'ord Chronos (time) and Cronus (Sat- 
urn) were confounded. 

during this festival his feet were untied, but otherwise they were 
kept tied so that the god could not run away. 

Zeus was the same as the Vedic god Dyaus pitar; in Etrusca 
or ancient Greece he was known as Tina; in Eome as Jupiter. 
The Greeks addressed him in their prayers as Ztv-irdTep (Zeupater), 
"Zeus the Father." In both Greece and Kome he always re- 
tained the attributes of ruler over the natural phenomena, the 
changes of the heavens, the variety of seasons, etc. He was 
Jupiter Lucretius, the god of the bright sky, as well as Jupiter 


Pluvius, the god of the rainy sky ; the god of light and of darkness, 
of the thunder and of rain. 

In Greece he remained a nature god, and many sexual ad- 
ventures were related of him, but in Eome a more moral char- 
acter was attributed to him, and he was worshipped as a fatherly 
ruler of mankind; the guardian and protector of the higher in- 
terests of human society, and the especial guardian of the sanc- 
tity of oaths. The Eomans swore "by Jove," and we still do so 
to this day. 

The word-stem of Jupiter is "Jov" (pronounced Yohv), 
which reminds of the Jewish name for God — Yahwe or Jhov. 

Zeus, by whatever name he was called, was heaven or sky; 
Leto was the same as Gea or Earth. In Greece Hera (Latin, 
Juno) was his official or chief wife, and therefore the Greeks rec- 
ognized Earth or Leto merely as one of Jupiter's concubines. 

Homer represented Zeus as a powerful but good-natured and 
amorous deity and tells many stories of his amours, but none of 
lycanthropous changes, or transformations to animal forms, to 
carry out his amours, such as are told by Hesiod. 

Zeus combines many features of early and late Greek periods, 
and these stories do not always seem to be consistent with each 
other; the animal stories told by Hesiod are probably reminders 
of totem times; Zeus is called the "aegis-bearing," that is, clad 
with a goat pelt; this seems to refer to the Greek goat-clan, to 
which also Athena belonged (see p. 220). 

Zeus was very profligate, and the number of his inamoratas 
was legion; not only goddesses and nymphs but also human 
queens, and ordinary daughters of men, if only they were fair- 
looking, appealed to his taste ; but his service or worship was not 
of a phallic type, nor were phallic symbols employed in connection 
with Zeus as they were with Dionysus. 

Poseidon (Latin: Neptune) pursued Demeter to commit rape; 
she changed herself into a mare and fled, but the god pursued her, 
and as a result she gave birth to the winged horse Arion. This is 
a similar story to the Hindu tale about Purusha and the origin of 
the various animals. 

Mercury, or Hermes, had many children by mortal women 
but only one by the goddess Aphrodite (Venus) ; this one was 
named after both his parents — ^Hermaphroditus. Mercury car- 


ried the caduceus, a male sceptre around which two serpents were 
tAvined, signifying the lingam erect from sexual passion. 

Hermes (Greek) was represented as a pillar supporting a 
bearded head, and with a phallus on the front ; such pillars stood 
all over the city of Athens. Hermes was the god of fertility and 
reproductive power; he also bestowed wealth in flocks and herds. 
Like the sileni, Hermes, or Mercury, was an ardent pursuer of 

Mars was the Roman god of war ; his name is supposed to be 
derived from mors, death; but some say from mas, male ; his spear 
was a thunderbolt and his shield a storm-cloud. As a heaven-god 
and giver of rain he presided over fertility and increase ; for this 
reason, probably, he was worshipped, together Avith Juno the god- 
dess of women and child-birth, in religious ceremonies connected 
with marriages, by Eoman matrons at the festival of the 

A goddess named Nerio was sometimes mentioned as his wife. 
There was also a goddess Bellona, goddess of war, who was some- 
times said to be a daughter or sister of Mars, at other times a 
wife of Mars. Greek mythology recounts quite a number of 
amours of Mars with Venus, the wife of Vulcan (Gr. Hephaes- 
tus), and he had a number of children by several human women. 

As opposed to these warlike deities, Irene was the Greek god- 
dess of peace. 

The Greeks relate how once Ares (Mars) gave Demeter oc- 
casion to be jealous, although she was not his wife, and to con- 
vince her that she had no cause for jealousy, he castrated a ram 
and showed her the testicles, saying that they were his own. The 
same story, however, was also related of Zeus and Demeter. 

Mars was said to be the son of Zeus and Juno. 

Vulcan (Gr. Hephaestus) was the God of Fire; the volcanoes 
were supposed to be the chimneys of his forge. Aphrodite (Ve- 
nus) was his wife, although some authors mention Maia (or 
Majesta) as his wife. At a festival called Volconalia animals were 
thrown into the fire as sacrifices; in early times the victims were 
human beings. Caeculus and Servius TuUius were called "sons 
of Vulcan" because their mothers had been impregnated by sparks 
flying from the anvil of Vulcan; some say, by sparks flying from 
the fire of the hearth. 

Pluto was the god of the underworld in Greek mythology ; he 


was also called Hades. He was a son of Cronus and Rhea, and 
was a brother of Zens and Poseidon, His wife was Proserpina, 
daughter of Demeter, whom he carried off by force, and whose 
adventures gave rise to the Eleusanian mysteries. The under- 
world was called Hades, after the god who presided over it, but 
in it the dead reposed in a lethargic existence, no idea of either 
punishment or reward after death being held by the early Greeks 
or Romans. 

Pluto therefore has no similarity to the Christian devil, be- 
cause he is only the guardian of the souls after death; he is not 
a tempter or seducer of mankind, since all, the good as well as the 
bad, finally came to rest in his care. 

Cupid or Amor (Gr. Eros) was the god of love and desire; 
hence such terms as amorous, erotic, etc. He was a son of Zeus 
and Gea, or of Zeus and Venus, or of Zeus and Artemis, or of 
heaven and earth, or of Night and Erebus. The ancients said he 
was the most beautiful of all the gods; he was generally repre- 
sented as a child with wings, and with bow and arrows. He was 
a nature-god presiding over love as seen in sexual passion in hu- 
man beings. He was a constant attendant on Venus (Fig. 35). 

It is not necessary to describe in detail all the Greek and 
Roman gods, but it is desirable that we become acquainted with the 
most licentious one of them — Dionysus (Latin, Bacchus), the god 
of the vine (or wine), sometimes called the god of drunkenness 
and debauchery ; he was the son of Semele, a daughter of Cadmus, 
the king of Thebes, by Zeus. 

He was also the god of the fertilizing spring rains, and there- 
fore of the resuscitation of life in spring, after the winter sleep. 

His mother died while he was an infant, so Hermes (Mer- 
cury) brought him to the nymphs at Nysa, by whom he was reared. 

When he grew up he traveled extensively, to introduce the 
culture of the vine and the making of wine, and incidently, he 
taught the women how to indulge in the wilder orgiastic super- 
sensual excesses, such as were taught later on in special schools in 
Rome, to slave girls who then commanded specially high prices in 
the slave markets from luxury-loving purchasers. These sexual 
excesses have been kept alive in the memories of men and women 
by the practices in the houses of prostitution; they are the so- 
called "perversions" of our own times, but since they are trans- 
mitted by teaching from generation to generation, they cannot be 



said to be due to "perverted instincts." They were the popular 
themes of the paintings in the bathrooms of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii and other Eoman villas. These practices constituted the 
main elements of the festivals in honor of this god, the Dionysia, 
or Bacchanalia. 

Pentheus, king of Thebes, opposed the aberrations introduced 
by Dionysus, but he was killed by his wife, who mistook him for 
a wild animal, during one of her frenzied spells. 

Lycurgus, a Thracian king, also attempted to oppose the 
practices taught by Dionysus, and attacked Dionysus, who saved 
himself by jumping into the sea where the nymph Thetis received 
him kindly. 

Where Dionysus was favorably received he rewarded this 
by instructions in the raising of the vine and the making of wine. 

Fig. 263. — Erigone, daughter of learius, priest of Bacchus, commits suicide. 

He taught Icarius how to prepare this drink but Icarius told some 
ignorant peasants and laborers about it, and when they made 
wine and got drunk, they imagined that they had been poisoned, 
and they killed Icarius and thrcAV his body into a ravine; his 
daughter Erigone sought him, and her dog discovered his body, 
whereupon she hanged herself; but modern artists, realizing that 
in art one who himg himself or herself is a repulsive sight, substi- 
tuted suicide by poisoned wine, which looks better. However, at 
the festivals in honor of Dionysus, trees were decorated by hang- 
ing small images of Erigone on them (Fig. 263). 

The features of the Dionysus cult to be remembered, are the 
drunkenness and the sexual excesses, of which more will be said 
under "festivals." 



Dionysus became acquainted with Ariadne, at Naxos, where 
Theseus had abandoned her; she became the wife of Dionysus, 
and the celebration of this marriage formed a prominent and ex- 
uberant feature of the festivals in honor of Dionysus. 

The leopard was sacred to Dionysus ; for this reason Ariadne 
is usually represented as lying on a leopard skin rug, or as riding 
on a leopard. The goat, ass and bull were also sacred symbols of 
this god (Fig. 264). 

The stories about him are probably Indian (Hindu) in their 

Pig. 264. — "Ariadne and the Leopard," by Danneker. 

origin, King Soma, an intoxicating Hindu drink, being the origin 
of them. 

Dionysus was worshipped at Attica with rude and very gross 
symbolism, every variety of exuberant sexual aberration being 
perpetrated in his temples in his honor. His symbols were the 
thyrsus sceptre, a rod surmounted by a thyrsus or bunch of grapes, 
or a pine cone, but the main one was the image of the phallus 
which was carried by men and women in the processions in honor 
of Dionysus, and very prominently displayed in his temples. 

In art he was represented as wearing an ivy wreath and car- 
rying the thyrsus; also frequently as a pillar, sometimes with a 


human head, but more frequently with merely a phallus in front. 

Dionysus was supposed to go away in the fall and to return 
in spring; when he came back in spring all nature revived, the 
plants sprouted and animals mated; this gave rise to the festival 
called the Greater Bionysia, which festival still continues as our 
Easter festival, with the same giving of ornamental eggs, etc. 
As usual, the church has put a Christian explanation on this fes- 
tival; instead of the old folklore stories of a return of Demeter 
or Persephone, or of Ishtar, or Dionysus from the winter's sleep 
in the underworld, the festival is said now to celebrate the resur- 
rection of Jesus after his trip to the underworld, or to hell. 

Pan or Priapus, as god of fertility, has already been men- 
tioned; this god was worshipped more especially among rural 
communities in a sort of harvest festival which was accompanied 
by extravagantly wild sensual and sexual indulgences. 


Probably in no country has the worship of the powers of na- 
ture as symbolized by the genital organs of man and woman, been 
carried to greater excess than in India. 

Veda, in Sanskrit, means knowledge, more particularly, in- 
spired knowledge. The oldest Hindu sacred writings, or Bible, 
includes the Eig-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Yagur-Veda and the 
Atharva-Veda, which are generally spoken of as the Vedas. They 
are written in verse (see extracts on p. 111). To the Sanhita (col- 
lection of hymns) of each Veda was added a Brahmana, or prose 
commentary; Upanishads, or speculative treatises; Sutras, short 
sentences or aphorisms; Vedangas, books on pronunciation, me- 
tre, grammar, vocabularies, astronomy and ceremonial, all of 
which are necessary to a full understanding of the Vedas. The 
Vedas are supernatural or divine, but the other books mentioned 
are human. 

The Vedanta are philosophical treatises on religion; the 
modern ones are pantheistic. 

The Puranas are legendary accounts of the universe; they 
emphasize some of the special Brahmanic theories, but they are 
comparatively modern ; probably not over one thousand years old. 

The Tantras are later than the Puranas ; they are the sacred 
writings of the Saktas, who are Hindu worshippers of the wives 


of the g'ods of the Trimurti. The Saktas, therefore, are really 
worshippers of the feminine powers of nature. This worship ap- 
plies especially to the sakti of Siva, under any of her various 
forms, as Parvati, Devi, Kali, Bhavani, Durga, etc. This wor- 
ship is already indicated in the Puranas hut is much elaborated 
in the Tantras, where many magic and mystic rites, consisting 
largely in gross and licentious practices, according to our stand- 
ards, are taught. 

The Mahabharata is a very ancient epic poem, of about 100 
B.C., which contains some statements that show its antiquity by 
reference, for instance, to a polyandric union of the princess 
Draaupadi with the Pandu or Pandava princes. 

In very ancient times the Hindus worshipped Dyaus Pitar 
(Zeus pater, or Jupiter), together with Varuna, the all-embracing 
firmament, Mitra (or Mithra), the light of day, and Surya, the 
life-giving sun. 

Some of the oldest myths in India say that heaven and earth 
begat all the other gods, which is the same folklore stock with which 
we have already become acquainted in the Greek Bible by Homer 
and Hesiod. 

Prajavati is sometimes ranked with the gods of the Trimurti, 
and is then called the Fourth God ("Four Great Gods"), but 
others say he is the creator of all the gods and of the world 
(probably identifying him thus with Heaven). 

Also, in olden time the phallus was not as promiscuously 
displayed and adored as now, for Urvasi, according to a Vedic 
myth, was not allowed to see her husband Pururavas naked, "for 
such is the custom of women." The same idea is told in the story 
of Amor and Psyche, by the Greeks. 

In the oldest of the Vedas, the Eig-Veda, probably com- 
posed from 1400 e.g. on, but at first orally transmitted, Indra 
(Fig. 2) was the god of the Sky, the Atmosphere, the Cloud- 
Compeller, the god of thunder, or thunder ; he was the chief god, 
who in company with Agni, or Fire, was adored by the Hindus. 
In those early days, the women were held in great esteem and 
suttee was unknown; the Ganges was not yet sacred; and the 
Trimurti were as yet unknown. 

The Trimurti (Trinity) were the Three Great Gods, some- 
times grouped with Prajavati as a Fourth, to constitute the. 
"Four Great Gods." Each of the Trimurti Gods (Brahma, 


Vishnu and Siva) or male principles, had a sakti, or female 
consort or female energy. Vach or Sarasvati was the wife of 
Brahma, and was regarded as the goddess of speech and learning ; 
Sri or Lakshmi was the wife of Vishnu and is the goddess of 
beauty and fortune; Uma, or Parvati, is the wife of Siva, but 
Parvati is also called Kali (the Black One) or Durga (the Ter- 
rible One) or Maha-Devi (the Great Goddess). While Siva was 
the god of destruction and reproduction, in more modern times 
he is more generally described as a male generative god, and is 
symbolized by the lingam or phallus; and his sakti or consort. 
Kali, is now more generally recognized as the destructive agency. 
This is simply an early exemplification of Kipling's line: "The 
female of the species is more deadly than the male." 

To explain the frequency of the figures of the lingam in the 
temples and the groves of the forests, the Hindus relate, that 
once upon a time the gods were called together to consult about 
some important matter, but when all had arrived Siva was still 
absent. After waiting for a long time, they finally sent a mes- 
senger to look up Siva and bring him to the conference. This 
messenger knocked at Siva's door, but receiving no answer, he 
walked in and found Siva busy with Parvati, in sexual activity; 
nor would Siva quit, but kept right on, and told the messenger 
to tell the gods that he would come when he had finished with the 
work he was then doing. The other gods ordered that .in com- 
memoration of Siva's activity, the whole country should be filled 
with phalli, and that the lingam should be the symbol for Siva 
ever thereafter. 

There are many other gods; Indra, the god of the sky, was 
also called the god of the East; Agni (Fire or Fire-god) was also 
god of the Southeast; Surya, the Sun, of the Southwest; etc. 
The wives of these other gods were called Apsaras, or Lovely 

Eudra is the "God of the Eoaring Storm;" he represents 
Siva in his capacity as destroyer, and is sometimes identified 
with Siva. Siva is also symbolized as "Nandi" the Sacred Bull, 
which animal is sacred to Siva, symbolizing his creative or sexual 

The popular belief at present in India pays little worship 
to Brahma; it is mainly a worship of the elementary forces of 
nature, symbolized as supernatural beings with the sexual pow- 


ers of men and women, and Avith intellectual powers greater than 
those of man. 

The four castes in India sprang from the mouth, the arms, 
the thighs and the feet of Purusha who is the Hindu demiurge. 
The Brahmans are the highest of these castes, and are believed 
to be "twice-born," once as a divinity and once as a human be- 
ing. A Hindu may not marry a woman of a higher caste than his 
own, but he may marry a girl of any caste or of each caste lower 
than his own, provided he has a wife of his own caste. Hindus 
are polygamous, but may not marry a fourth woman; when they 
have married three wives, they next marry a babul tree, then a 
fifth, a woman, and so on. 

Since the beginning of our era, the worship of Brahma has 
almost ceased; there are only two or three temples in his honor, 
now existent. 

Vishnu, the Preserver, is still worshipped. In ancient times 
he was the god of the shining firmament, but Indra, the god of 
the sky or atmosphere has taken his place, to a great extent. 

In his function as Preserver or Eedeemer, Vishnu has ex- 
perienced a number of "atavars" or incarnations. The first 
time he assumed the shape of a fish, and warned Manu of the 
coming of the flood. Next, he appeared as a turtle, and carried 
the world on his back, and thus saved it from destruction when 
the other gods "churned up the sea," or, metaphorically, "rocked 
the boat." The eighth time he was incarnated as Krishna, the 
ninth time as Buddha. He will reappear once more in a tenth 
atavar, after which will come the destruction of the world. 

In his eighth atavar Vishnu appeared as Krishna ; his mother 
was Devaki; Kama, a demon king, tried to kill him, but his fa- 
ther, a warrior, hid him. When he was a young man he mar- 
ried two wives, but he also spent much time among sixteen thou- 
sand milkmaids ; his favorite among these was his mistress Badha. 

The Eajputs are an aristocratic clan of the population of 
Karauli, a native state of India, who claim to be descendants of 
Krishna ; they should be a very numerous clan, if they also claim 
as ancestresses his milkmaid companions. 

In this incarnation Vishnu had one thousand names, one of 
which — Juggernaut — is well known; the name means "Lord of 
tho world." Some of his other names mean "Savior," "Ee- 


dteemer," etc., and some of the stories told about Mm are similar 
to stories told about Jesus. 

Siva and Ms m£e Parvati are the most important deities in 
India at the present time. 

Worship or adoration among the lower classes in India con- 
sists in frequently repeating the names of the deity ; some of them 
train parrots to do this for them, they getting all the credit for 
the repetitions of the holy name ; the names of Vishnu, Krishna- 
Eadha, and of Sita-Eam are thus adored. 

Among the Hindus it is considered a great disgrace to have a 
daughter unmarried; to obviate this, infanticide of females is 
practiced, because Brahmanic weddings are very expensive; for 
the same reason, to run no chance of their remaining unmarried 
the girls are married off when three to six years old; in those 
tropical countries girls are of marriageable age when ten or 
twelve years old. But the main reason for these early marriages 
is a religious requirement that coition, or the consummation of 
marriage, should take place immediately after the first appear- 
ance of menstruation. Puberty occurs in that tropical country 
at about ten to twelve years; so the girls are married young so 
that when menstruation occurs, no time will be lost in comply- 
ing with the religious demands. But some husbands do not wait, 
but use their little girl wives, often lacerating, crippling and para- 
lyzing them and ruining them for life. 


The Chinese "Book of Changes" by Wan Wang (1150 b.c.) 
teaches that all material things in this world were produced by 
two great male and female vivifying elements, the Yin and the 
Yang, which proceeded from the Tai-Keih, or the First Great 
Cause. The Chinese philosophers say that when from the union 
of the Yin and the Yang all existing things, both animate and in- 
animate, had been produced, the sexual principle was conveyed 
to and became inherent in all of them. Thus heaven, the sun, the 
day, etc., are considered to be male, while earth, moon, night, etc., 
are female. 

This idea of sexuality pervades every department of knowl- 
edge in China, and is constantly referred to in every subject, 
anatomy, medicine, botany, etc. The emperor, whose ancestor 


was a miraculously born son of heaven, worships as high priest 
the two divinities, heaven and earth, which appear to correspond 
to the old Greek Uranus and Gaea (Heaven and Earth). 


The Ume (plum-tree) is usually accompanied Avith its insep- 
arable companions, the pine-tree and the bamboo, all in the form 
of dwarf-trees. These three have come down the ages from time 
immemorial as symbols of all that is desirable in life. One of 
the first things taught a child is that "Sho-chiten-bai" (or pine- 
bamboo-plum) means good luck and happiness. The pine-tree 
is the symbol for masculine strength, endurance, loyalty and lon- 
gevity. The plum-tree is the symbol for the feminine, and stands 
for sweetness and chastity, the fundamental virtues insuring do- 
mestic joy. The bamboo, because it bends before the storm with- 
out breaking, has the significance of moral uprightness and of 
grace ; though pliant it never breaks. 

The three virtues, endurance, sweetness, and strength in 
yielding, make a trinity of virtues that to the Japanese appear to 
be absolutely satisfying. 


We have already considered how religious ideas may have" 
come from Europe or Asia to America in prehistorical times, so 
will need to say nothing farther on that matter here. 

In Guatemala the creator was the "Feathered Serpent" 
whose name was Gucumatz. 

The Toltecs worshipped Quetzalcoatl, who was a great deity, 
a white man with black hair and a long beard ; he taught them to 
lead a virtuous life, to hate war, to sacrifice no men or beasts on 
the altars, but only bread and flowers and perfumes. 

The ancient Mexicans counted time by cycles of fifty-two 
years. At the beginning of a new cycle a new sacred fire was 
kindled on the naked breast of a human sacrificial victim. They 
had a supreme god, "Teotle;" also a rival deity of evil; these are 
supposed to have been brought from Asia (see page 31). 

Tonatiuh and Motztli were nature gods — sun and moon. The 
war god Huitzilopochtli was said to have been supernaturally con- 
ceived; according to one account he was a deified great warrior; 


but according to another account he was the head of the Mexican 
pantheon. His idol was a huge basalt rock on one side of which 
was his image, while on the other side was his wife, the goddess 
of war Tayaomiqui. 

Centeotle was the goddess of the all-nourishing maize or 
Indian corn; she was the patroness of the earth and the "mother 
of the gods." There were also other deities, a goddess of pleas- 
ure, a god of pulque (strong drink), etc., and the usual subor- 
dinate nature-spirits of hill and vale, woods, rivers, etc. 

General Considerations 

We pass on to the consideration of what Goethe called "Das 
Ewig Weibliche" (The Eternal Feminine), the attributes of con- 
ceiving and producing, and of nourishing. 

Fertility was always highly prized, as when Moses said: 
"The Almighty shall bless thee with blessings * * * of the 
breasts and of the womb" (Gen. xlix, 25) ; or when the Psalmist 
sings : ' ' Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of thine 
house; thy children like olive plants round about the table" (Ps. 
cxxviii, 3). 

On the other hand, sterility was recognized as a curse, as 
when Hosea invokes the wrath of God on Israel for their sins : — 
"Give them, 0, Lord! a miscarrying womb and dry breasts." 
(Hosea ix, 14). 

The relationship of the woman to the child and her agency 
in producing a new being obviously must have been recognized 
before reasoning connected the sexual act of the man with this 
process. Her power to produce may have been recognized at a 
quite early time as a divine power, presided over by a deity enti- 
tled to homage and thanks. 

The priority of the recognition of the relationship of mother- 
hood makes it probable that the earliest ethical inspirations of 
the race were associated with the name of "Ma" — Mother — even 
as the first articulate sounds of the human child — "ma, ma," — 
are believed to utter her sacred name; therefore the most primi- 
tive conceptions of a creative power or deity probably took the 
form of worship of the feminine, of motherhood, of the woman, 
the "Madonna." 



When a preacher once described to his hearers the creation 
of Adam and Eve, he told them that "God created Adam in his 
own image." "Glory to God!" responded some of the audience. 
"And then," continued the preacher, "God created Eve, also in 
his own image, but with a difference ' ' — and ' ' Thank God for the 
Difference!" came the response from the congregation. Thank 
God for the Difference! 

The two things which would attract our attention first in a 
naked woman (Fig. 265), are the peculiarly feminine charms of 
the beautifully rounded breasts, and the mons. Veneris with its 
covering of hair. This hirsute adornment of the pubes of the 

Fig. 265. — The origin of the sacred femi- 
nine triangle. 

Fig. 266. — The origin of feminine sym- 
bols; the circle represents the breast, the 
feminine triangle the mens veneris. 

woman is in the form of an inverted pyramid, a triangle with its 
apex down, the reverse of the sacred male triangle. Compare 
with this figure the mons veneris of some unfortunate girl to 
whom the goddess Ossipaga has been unkind (see page 514), 
and to whom she has given an insufficiently developed pelvis ; such 
a girl has a contracted pelvis, a pelvis which has a masculine build, 
and the pubic hairy triangle is also masculine in form. 

These features of the vigorous, well-formed woman gave rise 
to the sacred symbols of the feminine Powers in Nature — the 
Circle, and the "Sacred Feminine Triangle" (Fig. 266). 


Besides these we have the variations — the circle with a dot 
in the center, the breast with its nipple; the "Assyrian beU," 
really the breast in profile, which, at the end of a staff constitutes 
the Egyptian feminine sceptre; the triangle with a slit, as the 
pubes would appear if they were devoid of hair; the doubly- 
pointed ellipse, the conventional figure for the vulva, to which Job 
referred nearly 3500 years ago as "the door of my mother's 
womb" (Job iii, 10) and which in religious symbolism is known 
as the "door of life" because it is literally the door through 
which we were ushered into life; and lastly, the oval and the 
diamond or "lozenge," as conventionalizations of the doubly- 
pointed ellipse. 

The deity who presided over the feminine functions was wor- 
shipped as a goddess in various religions, for instance, as the 
moon, as Ma, Isis, Cybele, Ishtar, Ashtoreth, Astarte, Diana, 
Freya, Venus Genetrix, etc., and was then represented either as 
a realistic beautiful woman, or symbolically as just explained, 
or in the form of some animal, as a cow, etc. 

While in most religions the male principle was acknowledged 
as the most important there were religions in which the female 
principle was the principal deity, as for instance, Tahiti, the 
highest deity of the ancient Scythians. According to the accen- 
tuation of one or the other of the feminine attributes, the creative 
or the nourishing powers, one or the other set of the symbols of 
the circle or the triangle was used. 


The external feminine sexual parts (page 151), the vulva, is 
called "yoni" in India; it is still very Avidely worshipped in Asi- 
atic religions and the worshippers of feminine attributes are 
called "Yonicitas." In subsequent references to the vulva we 
will speak of it as the "yoni." 

Yoni is Sanskrit and means vulva, uterus or origin ; it is the 
female power in nature. The Supreme Being, wishing to begin 
creation, divided himself into two parts, Brahma and Nature; 
from Brahma all males originated ; from Nature, all females ; but 
the female is regarded as the real force in nature and most de- 
serving of worship. 

We will first speak of the worship of the producing or crea- 



tive power, and the symbols derived from the yoni. This draw- 
ing (Fig. 267) shows the figure of an idol found by Schliemann 
in the ruins of the ancient City of Troy; it is probably over 4000 
years old. Note the triangle, and the swastika symbol in the 
triangle. Compare this figure Avith the one of Ishtar (page 468) 
and notice that the pubic curls are represented in a similar man- 
ner, which was probably due to primitive implements. 

A similar figure was found among the carvings of the trog- 
lodites, the ancient primitive cave dwellers in Southern Europe, 
to which an age of about 30,000 years is attributed. 

As man values the sexual parts of his wife as Ms most sacred 

Fig. 267. — An idol found in the ruins 
of Troy, by Schliemann ; note the swastika 
sign in the triangle. 

Fig. 268. — An Egyptian goddess holding 
a feminine sceptre before her. 

and exclusive possession, the feminine triangle of the mons Ven- 
eris became a most sacred sjanbol, standing for everything in life 
that is holy, pure, chaste and true. It is used in this sense in 
innumerable figures of goddesses in Egyptian temple ruins, as 
for instance in the figure of the goddess Netpe (Fig. 260, p. 447) ; 
this also shows the sacred feminine sceptre, a profile breast on 
a staff, shown also in the temple sculpture (Fig. 268). 

In Gnostic and early Christian times word-charms were much 


used. One of the most popular of these was the Abracadabra 
charm; the word was said to be from Ab, Ben, Euach, ACADosch, 
Hebrew for Father, Son and Holy Ghost. When engraved on a 
medal it constituted a powerful charm to protect against disease 
and misfortune. The word was generally arranged in the form 
of the feminine triangle, thus : 







The derivation of the triangle with a slit or fissiire in the 
lower part of the triangle became very apparent when a woman 
sat with outstretched legs on an altar in the temples of yonic wor- 
ship ; or in Oriental harems where etiquette reqiiires that the pubes 
shall be kept denuded of hair, by shaving, pulling out, or by de- 
pilatories ; or in girls before puberty. 

At the age of puberty a girl's hips widen, the breasts enlarge, 
and the pubic hair appears ; unlike Orientals, who have this hair 
removed. Occidental people allow it to grow and consider it beau- 
tiful in proportion to its profuseness. 

Tn an Egyptian mural painting the mistress of the household 
was represented as clad in a diaphanous robe, plainly allowing 
the hairy pubic triangle to be seen; from the remarks on per- 
fumery, you Avill remember that the Egyptian women took pains 
to make this feature specially attractive by perfuming it. Among 
the ancient Egyptians and Jews, a heavy growth of pubic hair 
was considered a great physical charm, and Ezekiel compared 
Jerusalem to a young bride in these words: "Thou art come to 
excellent ornaments; thine breasts are fashioned and thine hair 
is grown whereas thou wast naked and bare" (Ezek. xvi, 7). 
Among us, men are fond of admii-ing this feature of women, fond 


of toying with the little curls, and they playfully call it "pussy." 
Women are usually more or less apathetic to sexual caresses 
and often it becomes necessary to produce in them a proper de- 
gree of excitement by manual or labial caresses, to dispose them 
favorably for sexual enjojonents ; probably the caress most gener- 
ally resorted to by the male is the manual caressing of the breasts 
or of the yoni with its little curls of hair. In Oriental lands, as 
well as in the Bible, the yoni was called "the door to the womb;" 
the caress just referred to was resorted to by the lover in Solo- 
mon's Song (Cant, v, 4) where the bride says: "My beloved put 
in his hand by the hole of the door, and my bowels were moved for 


Fig. 269. — Fertility sign in a field in Mexico ; Zuni and Aztec. 

him." When he caressed her yoni, she became erotically excited. 

The naked mons of a young girl is exquisitely beautiful, as 
is showm in this plaster-cast of a virgin mons (Fig. 270). Notice 
the lines of the angles between the mons and the thighs, between 
the two thighs, and the slit between the labia or lips. This gave 
rise to the "sign of fertility" which signified not only potential 
powers of fertility, but also was a symbol of virginity. 

Here is a photograph (Fig. 269) of the symbol of fertility 
erected in a field of Mexico to invoke the blessings of fertility or 
fruitfulness for the seeds that were sown in this field. 

In precisely the same manner and for the same purpose this 



sign is used by the Hindus in India, as shown in cut A, and by the 
Zunis in New Mexico, as sho^^m in cut B. 





Our artists represent neither the pubic hair nor the slit in 
their paintings or statues. Tlie ancients, on the other hand, glo- 
ried in perfect womanhood and deified and adored the attributes 
thereof. This is a figure of Ishtar, the daughter of Bel or Baal, 
the goddess of fertility of the ancient Phoenicians. The conven- 

Fig. 270. — A plaster cast of a virgin Fig. 271. — TTie Phoenician Goddess 
mons veneris; the origin of the sign of Ishtar; after a small ivory figure in the 
fertility. British Museum. 

tional method of indicating curls is quite peculiar, but frequent. 
The original of the figure shoAvn is a small ivory statuette now 
in the British Museum (Fig. 271). 

Among the Greeks and Eomans Aphrodite or Venus, being 
the goddess of physical and promiscuous love, was represented 
naked, and her posture called attention to her womanly charms — 
the breasts and the pudendum or sexual parts (Fig. 144, p. 292). 


In her temples men and women worshipped by indulging in 
coition in her honor. The genitive of her name is Veneris, and 
by changing the last syllable to the infinitive ending, the verb 
"venerare" was obtained, and from this in turn the word ven- 
eratio, or veneration, which originally meant the form of worship 
just mentioned, but which with us now means merely an act of 
veneration or worship. 

While on the one hand the worship of the Feminine led to 
extravagant forms of adoration or veneration, it also led to the 
opposite extreme, fiendish excesses and cruelties. For instance, 
there are frequent references in the Old Testament to the follow- 
ing practice : Moses commanded the Israelites to destroy all males 
of their enemies utterly, and that not even the unborn males might 
escape, he said, "Now therefore kill * * * every woman that 
hath knoAvn man by lying with him" (Num. xxxi, 17) ; and we are 
told in the Second Book of Kings, of Menahem, the son of Gadi, 
ruler over Israel, that ' ' Menahem smote Tiphsah, * * * and 
all the women therein that were with child he ripped up" their 
bellies (II Kings xv, 16). 

Hosea, the prophet, pronounced this curse on Samaria: "Sa- 
maria shall become desolate ; their infants shall be dashed to pieces 
and their women with child shall be ripped up" (Hosea viii, 16). 

This seems to have been a peculiar feature of warfare among 
people of Asia Minor ; a few years ago, Avhen the Turks massacred 
the Armenians long before the present war, when they captured 
a pregnant woman they made bets as to the sex of the foetus in 
her womb, after which they cut open her belly to decide the bets. 

The Sistrum (Fig. 272) is sometimes spoken of as a musical 
instrument, because it was used as a sort of rattle to accompany 
religious dances and ceremonies in the ancient temples of Egypt. 
It is really a symbol of the yoni locked or barred, and there- 
fore of virginity, and in this sense is here shown as carried by 
the goddess Isis, who was worshipped as a virgin mother of 
Horus, just as Mary is worshipped as a virgin mother of Jesus. 

The origin of this symbol must perhaps be sought in a cus- 
tom which still survives in the Soudan, and which has no doubt 
been brought down from remote antiquity. In Africa women are 
property or chattel, and are bought and sold. Virginity is highly 
prized, there as elsewhere, and in some parts of Africa the father 
rivets an iron ring through the labia of his child-daughter (Fig. 



273) which remains until she is sold to a husband, when the latter 
removes the ring with a file and replaces it with a padlock or har- 
ness of which he alone has a key. 

A similar procedure was in vogue among our own ancestry 
until comparatively recent times; in fact, some writers say that 
it is still in use in some of the primitive communities in Europe. 

The medieval "chastity belts" figured on page 84 were com- 
mon, and many are still shown in European museums. Such 
things were possible only in an age when the patient Griseldis 
was a possibility; when wives were taught to think, as expressed 
by Eve to Adam, in Paradise Lost: 

Fig. 272. — lais, holding the sistrum or Fig. 273. — Origin and meaning of the sistrum. 
symbol of virginity. 

am * * ^]-^a,t thou bidst 
Unargued I obey; so God ordains; 
God is thy laAV, thou mine ; to know no more 
Is woman's happiest knowledge and her praise." 

This is the Christian or New Testament doctrine. We read 
in the letter of St. Paul to the Colossians, ii, 22: "Wives, submit 
yourselves mito your husbands as unto the Lord * * * there- 
fore, as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to 
their husbands in everything." 

I will not devote much space here to the symbolic representa- 



tions of the yoni and the womb. As ancient religions were 
mainly sexual explanations of natural phenomena, many natural 
objects were explained with these religious ideas; for instance: 
Among the Greeks and Romans Oceanus was the father, Gaea or 
Terra (Earth), the mother, and the rivers were the children. 
Caves, grottoes, etc., became symbols of the womb; arches, the 
entrances to caves or to tombs, became symbols of the "door to 
the womb," the yoni. In some Asiatic temples the lower part, or 
auditorium, was oval and symbolized the feminine, while the stee- 
ple symbolized the masculine. So also, arks of various kinds were 

Fig. 274. — Eock-carved entrances 
tombs, in Palestine. 

to Fig. 275. — Stonehenge consists of a circle 

{fern.) of arches (fern.) surrounding some sin- 
gle (masc.) monoliths. 

supposed to represent the feminine — the ark of the covenant, for 

Many grottoes were sacred in ancient, as well as in modern 
times, not only in Pagan lands but in Christian lands as well. 
For instance, Ummernath cave, in India, is a shrine of pilgrim- 
age, Avhere a "sacred bull" is Avorshipped. Wliile this is a very 
sacred shrine, the bull is very small, being only knee-high to the 
man; it represents a zebu bull, no doubt (see Fig. 253). 

In modern times the association of the virgin with the grotto 
is well known — ^Lourdes, for example. 



Church windows, niches, etc., are often made in shapes to 
suggest the yoni, and frequently serve as recesses for the hous- 
ing of religious statuary. 

In some religions the devotees passed through arches or yoni- 
shaped holes in stone slabs, as a symbol of "being born again," 
or of being jourified and cleansed of their sins. 

The shell as a sjanbol of the yoni is common ; Venus is often 
represented with the sliell (Fig. 276). This has been explained to 
refer to her birth from sea-foam, associating the shell with the 
sea; but there are so many illustrations of shells in art, in which 

Fig. 276.— "Venus in a Shell," by Finelli. 

this explanation will not fit, that we must seek another and more 
plausible interpretation. 

As Venus is the goddess of physical love, the meaning of the 
shell in connection with Venus is not difficult to understand; it 
is a symbol of the joni. 

I showed the triangle in two guardians of an Egyptian tomb, 
indicating by its position the meaning of this triangle as a lingam 
(p. 394). In a similar manner the shells, as held by the njanphs 
in this votive tablet from a temple of Aesculapius, show their 
meaning as symbols of the yoni by the position in which they are 
held (Fig. 277). 



When the Barrison sisters came to this country, they were 
advertised as the wickedest girls in the world; they were dancers 

and singers. They are here (Fig. 278) represented in their cele- 

Fig. 277. — A votive tablet in a Roman temple of Aesculapius; nympha hSldiug shells as 

symliols of the yoni. 

Fi<^. 27S. — The Barrison Sisters, in their song and dance: "Do you see my little pussy?" 

brated song and dance, entitled: "Do yon see my little pnssyl" 
The manner in which they hold the little kittens shows to what 
"pussies" they had reference; this renders clear the meaning of 
the shells in the votive tablet referred to. 



When the Romans went to a temple they dipped their hand 
or fingers in a font of "holy water," before they adored the 

gods or goddesses ; this was done by kissing the hand and waving 
it toward the gods (throwing a kiss) or by kissing the image, 
or the feet of the image of the deity ; this method of adoration is 
still in vogue in the Catliolic church, both as to the use of holy 
water and as to the form of adoration by kissing holy objects or 
images. The font in which the holy water is contained is often in 
the shape of a shell, or a shell is held by an angel. 

Figure 279 represents Maya-Deva, a Hindu goddess, in two 
different poses, or rather in two variations of the same pose, that 

Fig. 279. — The goddess Maya-Deva, showing 
her yoni ; India. 

Fig. 280. — Lower, Horus worship- 
ping his motlier, Isis, symbolized by 
a yoni ; upper, a door of life, from 
-a. dagopa in India. 

of calling attention to the sacred symbol of the yoni ; in one pose, 
the yoni is rather realistically shown as a doubly-pointed ellipse, 
in the other more figuratively or symbolically, as a diamond 
shaped lozenge. 

In the illustration showai in Fig. 280, the upper figure is a 
"door of life" from an ancient Dagopa of Junnar Cave, Bombay 
Presidency, India. The lower figure represents Horus worship- 
ping his mother Isis, who is s3miboliz;ed by the yoni, often euphe- 
mistically referred to as the "lozenge;" both figures are symbols 
of the "door of life" or yoni. 



In modern ecclesiastical symbolism this figure is explained as 
the "vesica piscis;" this is especially the case when it is an oval 
or elliptic aureola enveloping the whole figure of Christ, or of 
Mary, or of a saint; it is explained to mean a fish, or a fish- 
bladder. The Greek word for fish, ix^-i's, contained in consecutive 
order the initials of the Greek words for "Jesus Christ, Son of 
God, the Savior. ' ' Hence it, and the fish, became sacred in Chris- 
tian art. In the Brahmanic religion it is taught that Vishnu, in 
one atavar, or incarnation, assumed the form of a fish to act as the 
savior of the world. 

Fig. 281. — Elliptic shape of woman. 

Fig. 282. — Immaculate Conception; from 
the Eosary of the Blessed Virgin, 1524. 

The doubly-pointed ellipse is the best-known symbol or rep- 
resentation of the yoni; it adorns or disfigures nearly all public 
"comfort" places, urinals, etc., and is probably one of the first 
figures a boy learns to draw or to understand. But it does not 
necessarily always mean the yoni ; it is sometimes used merely as 
a symbol for a woman, because the body of a well-formed woman 
with its full hips and pelvic development has this eUiptie shape. 

Among the ancient Eomans a woman of easy virtue, a haetera 
or a public prostitute, was simply called a "cunnus," which 



Fig. 283.— Meeting of Mary and Eliza- pjg, 284.— "The Resurrection," from a 
beth. Altar-piece in Cologne (about painting by Raphael and Perugino. 

1400 A.D.). 

Fig. 285. — Mary in a door of life, Fig. 286. — A few impressions of medieval 
from an altar-piece by Niccolo Alunno, seals, in the shape of the circle (breast), the 
A.D. 1500. female triangle (pubes) and the oval or ellipse 

. i (yoni). 


meant exactly the same thing as when among our lower classes 
she is called a "cunt," while a decent woman is called a "skirt." 

So in ancient religions, the most characteristic feature of 
the woman, the yoni, was used to symbolize the whole woman, 
but not as a lewd woman, but as a moral woman or even as a god- 
dess, as in the representation above, of Harpokrat or Horus wor- 
shipping his mother Isis. 

Occasionally this figure signifies the womb, as in this illus- 
tration of the "Immaculate Conception" from a book entitled 
"Eosary of the Blessed Virgin," which was published in Venice 
in 1524, and which was approved and licensed by the Holy 
Inquisition ( Fig. 282 ) . 

This is a medieval altar-piece, painted about a.d. 1400, and 
now in Cologne. It represents the meeting of Mary and Eliza- 
beth, to each of whom the angel had announced that she would 
conceive and bear a son. Here again the doubly-pointed ellipse 
symbolizes the womb, rather than the vulva. Note the figure of 
St. John in the womb of his mother Elizabeth, kneeling in adora- 
tion before Jesus in the womb of Mary (Fig. 283). 

Jesus said "I am the door," and "I am the resurrection and 
the life." In Fig. 284 "The Eesurrection," by Eaphael and Peru- 
gino, Jesus is represented as the door to Eternal Life, but the 
figure is that of the East Indian door of life — the yoni. 

This shows a demon of disease attempting to destroy a babe ; 
the mother prays for help and Mary appears in a door of life and 
frustrates the designs of the demon. The painting is by Niccolo 
Alunno, about 1500 a.d. (Fig. 285). 

Saints, Madonnas, etc., are often shown in the door of life; 
the seals of many abbeys, cathedrals, etc., and the sacred or 
blessed medals from many shrines are in the same form; I have 
a large collection of impressions of such seals and the doubly- 
pointed ellipse and its modification, the oval, are common among 
them. Sacred medallions and amulets are often in this shape. 
The oval is the groundplan of the old Mormon tabernacle in Salt 
Lake City. In the ancient land of Sheba (recall the Queen of 
Sheba) the groundplan of temples was oval; Ishtar was one of 
the goddesses in whose honor this shape was adopted (Fig. 286). 

In Yemen (in South Arabia) the temples were built with 
elliptic groundplan, in honor, probably, also of Ishtar. But then, 



the oval and the ellipse were merely modifications of the same 
figure, representing the same idea. While many temples existed 
in Yemen (Saba, in ancient times) but little is known about the 
religion taught in them; Athtar was their sun-god and Sin their 
moon-god ; the mother of Athtar seems to have been the sun itself. 

Euskin figured this mndow of Dumblane Abbey (Fig. 288) 
which he declares is the most beautiful window in all England. 
Comparison with the drawing of a vulva (Fig. 42, p. 151), shows 
what this window really represents — a yoni complete in all its 

Fig. 287.— Seal of Lichfield Cathedral, Fig. 288.— Window of Damblane Abbey, 
England. England. (Compare with Fig. 42.) 

parts — labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule and orifice. 
In some medieval churches a realistic yoni was sculptured on the 
keystone of the arch of the main door. 

At one time, when a female camel or a mare died, the yoni 
was cut off and nailed to the stable doors to ward off evil, or what 
is the same — ''for good luck." Later on the horse-shoe Avas sub- 
stituted as being less coarse, or more euphemistic. 

From similar motives symbols of the yoni were attached to 


houses or built in in churches, etc., as we saw in the window of 
Dumblane Abbey. We now use the Hindu diamond-shaped sym- 
bol of the yoni, the lozenge, which is sho-wai as held before her by 
Maya-Deva, in Fig. 279, on our slate roofs, the inner slate red, to 
represent more realistically the mucous membrane Avithin the lips 
of the yoni. Based on a partial coimt I estimate that this sacred 
emblem of the yoni occurs more than 100,000 times in the city of 
St. Louis alone. 

We will now consider a peculiar form of the adoration of the 
Feminine, which is based on a widespread, if not universal habit, 
the caressing by passionate men of the bodies of their sexual 
mates with lips and tongue. Such labial earessings are common 
enough in animals, as for instance among' cattle, Avhere the cow 
licks the body of her calf; among the Esquimaux, where the in- 
tense cold makes bathing, or even washing, impossible, the mother 
washes her child as the cat does her kitten, by licking it with her 

Figure 289 shows one of the griffins so common on medieval 
buildings in Southern Eiirope; the large figure is from the roof 
of the church of Notre Dame in Paris, and a modification of it 
can be seen on the DeSales church tower in St. Louis. 

The loAver figure is copied from Euskin who says that it is 
an ornamentation on the church of St. Mary the Beautiful, in 
Venice ; it is also used hundreds of times in the same city as well 
as elseAvhere. 

Kisses on all parts of the body of a woman are recognized as 
normal in sexual earessings by most writers on the subject. In 
one of the letters submitted as evidence in the celebrated Cail- 
laux trial in Paris (1914), Caillaux Avrote to Mrs. Caillaux: "With 
a thousand million kisses on all parts of your adorable body, I am 
yours, etc." 

In India the lingam and yoni, and various combinations of 
the two, are worshipped by many millions of devotees, as repre- 
senting Siva and his Sakti Kali. The principal ceremony in their 
worship of the feminine principle requires a yovmg, beautiful 
and naked Nautch girl or temple attendant, as the living repre- 
sentative of Kali, the yoni goddess. To the living yoni of this 
girl the priest addresses his homage; she is seated on the altar 
Avith legs spread wide apart to display the sacred symbol, which 
the priest kisses and to which he offers food and libations in sa- 



cred vessels called "argha" which are shaped like a yoni. After 
these offerings have been consecrated by touching them to the 
living yoni, they are distributed among the Avorshippers and par- 
taken of as a sacred religious rite, analogous to the cakes eaten 
in honor of Huitzilopochtli, in Mexico, or the consecrated phallic 
cakes in medieval Europe, or to the Lord's Supper in Christian 
ritual ; this is followed by the chanting of sacred texts and dances 
by Nautch girls, the dances resembling the danse du ventre or 
"belly dance" of Egypt. 

This worship is indicated in this representation (Fig. 290) of 

Fig. 289. — Large figure from roof of Fig. 290. — Maha-Kali, wife of the god 
Notre Dame, Paris; small one, from Siva, India. 

Church of St. Mary the Beautiful, Venice. 

Maha-Kali, consort of the god Siva, the Destroyer, by her putting 
out her tongue. 

Near Yeddo, in Japan, is a grotto (symbol of the womb) in 
which there is a colossal but realistic sculpture of a yoni to which 
pilgrim devotees pay adoration now as they have done for ages 
past ; this sculpture has been worn smooth and polished from the 



myriads of kisses and caresses with the tongue that have been 
bestowed upon it by the devout worshippers. 

Figure 294 shows a curious pillar found in an Egyptian tem- 
ple, and figured by Rawlinson. The opened lotus flower is a sym- 
bol of the lingam while the two lotus buds are the testicles; the 
heads over these masculine symbols do not protrude their tongues; 
on the front (and presumably on the reverse) is a head with pro- 
truding tongue and below it is a yonic oval to show the object to 
which the adoration is directed. 

In some Asiatic nations, a guest kisses the yoni of the hostess. 



Fig. 291. — Aztec head, from Mexican 
Antiquities, by Kingsborough. 

Fig. 292.— The Egyptian god Phtha, the 
Opener, adoring virginity, symbolized by the 

or touches his food to it, as a sign of gratitude for hospitality 

In this sculpture from an Egyptian temple we see Phtha 
adoring the sistrum, or barred yoni, the symbol of virginity or 
chastity to which Phtha, the Opener, pays his devotions, by mas- 
turbating and by protruding his tongue (Fig. 292). 

In Syria there is a peculiar sect — the Nezaires. Their religion 
is a queer mixture of depraved Christianity, intermingled with the 
sex-worship of other Asiatic people. They worship God, but be- 
lieve Christ to have been merely a prophet like Mohammed ; they 
pray to the prophets of the Old Testament, the apostles of the New 
Testament, and to the Virgin Mary; they practice polygamy. 



They celebrate several festivals, the most solenm of which 
is the "festival of the womb." On this festival day they gather 
in their places of worship to perform the most sacred and solemn 

Fig. 293. — A totem pole in Alaska, from a Kg. 294. — ^A curious pillar in 

model at Chicago World's Fair, 1893. an Egyptian temple. After 


Fig. 295. — Aztec serpent worship, from Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities. 

ceremonies of their religion; the women bare themselves and the 
men salute the women with a holy respect, reverently kneeHog 



before them, embracing their thighs, and humbly and devoutly 
kissing their abdomens and genitals, which is done promiscuously, 
from which feature of their devotions comes their title: "The 
Adorers or Worshippers of the Womb." 

Here is the figure of a totem pole from Alaskan countries 
(Fig. 293) ; note the legs spread wide apart — a woman's legs, for 
they are labeled by the symbols of the yoni and the profile breast 
on each foot; the Alaskan artist did not know how to represent 
the act of adoration with lips and tongue except by turning the 
face the wrong way, but the tongue is where the yoni would be, if 
the legs alone had been figured ; or where the tongue would touch 
the yoni if the head were turned around. A model of this totem 

Pig. 296. — Aztec calendar stone. 

pole was at the World's Fair in Chicago and is now in the Field 

This adoration seems to have been imiversally known, for it 
is found on both continents and on the islands of the Pacific ocean, 
"from Greenland's icy mountains, to India's coral strand," This 
(Fig. 291) is the same gesture from an Aztec temple in Yucatan, 
Central America; and in the opposite illustration (Fig. 295) from 
an Aztec temple, showing serpent worship, the women show the 
same facial gesture. 

That these mean the same worship of woman, or of the Fem- 
inine, is shown in this sculpture of the "Aztec Sun," or calendar 
stone, from a monument at Xochicalco, Mexico (Fig. 296) ; the 
sculpture is in the form of a cross. One author says of this figure : 



"In all Mexican monuments it is indicated with protruding tongue, 
expressing the light and heat poured upon the earth." 

We might possibly accept such an interpretation, for want of 
a better one, if it were not that below and in front of the tongue 
we see the yoni, which shows that here we have the same idea as 
in the sculptures of the Eastern Continent, the humble adoration 
by man of the creative and generative powers and functions of 
w^oman, symbolized here by the sun-god adoring Eternal Fem- 
inine Nature, the yoni. 

In Oceanica the same worship prevailed; this (Fig. 297) is 
an elaborately carved window frame from New Zealand, which 
was published in an Auckland magazine or paper. Unfortunately 






Fig. 297. — Maori window, Sandwich Islands. 

the editor of the paper thought that the important feature in the 
illustration was the Maori girl, and he cut down the top of the 
frame; but enough is left to show that the same adoration was 
meant in the carved frame. 

I came across a design of wall paper of which Fig. 299 is a 
photograph ; it was an expensive and handsome paper in gold pat- 
tern on a maroon ground. Notice the satyr-heads. Unfortu- 
nately the colors did not allow of getting a good photograph ; but 
by painting the pattern in white a better result was obtained 
(Fig. 298). There is the fleur-de-lis symbol of the lingam; the 
satyr head protrudes his tongue, ready to caress the vulvas, for 
one of which each paw is reaching out. 



It follows from these considerations that the head mentioned 
by Enskin as occurring on the church of St. Mary the Beautiful, 
in Venice, really means abject self-abasement in adoration of 
womanhood or of virginity. 

Fig. 298. — One motif of wall paper, painted white to give better contrast. 

Fig. 299. — A modern wall paper design. 

The practice is not obsolete amongst us, although it is now 
considered merely as a loving caress and not as a religious rite. 
While labial sexual caresses are considered vices by some, oth- 



ers believe hetero-sexual labial and lingual endearments quite 
proper. Sivartha, in a curious book entitled The Booh of Life, 
says : 

"The human form exhausts the possibilities of form-beauty 
in our solar system (Fig. 300). The more beautiful curves, the 
ellipse and parabola, are repeated many times. The bosom of 
woman — the ivory throne of Love — derives its exquisite beauty 
of form from both the ellipse and the parabola. 

"Viewed as a whole the front of the face and of the body is 
attractive, and the back is repulsive. The organs of sense, the 


l^«, - 

Fig. 300.— From the ' ' Book of Life, 


Fig. 301.— From the "Book of Life," by 

eye, ear, tongue, nose and tactile sense are all located in front." 
Note that, as showoi in this figure, the breast and pubes are 
ruled over by Venus, while the nates are under the malignant 
influence of Saturn, and are the seat of aversion, whence the al- 
most universal invitation to kiss them, when one wishes to express 

"The physical tise of every part of the face (Fig. 301) is the 
base of its mental use — the social organs, or those of affection 
and love ' are sweet. ' The affection of the mother is actually con- 
nected with the physical nourishment of the child. The faculties 



of sex-love, such as devotion, desire, mating and luxury, have 
their signs in the fulness and breadth of the red part of the lips. 
The lips are the most sensitive organs of touch of any of the face 
and this sense is closely connected with all expressions of sex- 

"The body is the foundation on Avhich the mind is built 
(Fig. 302). Each division of the bodily functions corresponds in 
its character with a division of the mental faculties — which retain 
a close sympathy of action with the corresponding parts of the 
body. The front part of the brain is connected Avith the front 

Fig. 303.— From the "Book of Life," by Sivartha. 

part of the body and limbs, and the back Avith the back part of 
these. The upper and the lower parts of the body repeat each 
other in action and sympathy. The anatomists have shown that 
the nose is connected Avitli the anus; the upper lip with the peri- 
neum ; the mouth with the genitals ; the tongue with the penis and 
the clitoris and the chin with the pubes." 

Marcellinus (IV Century a.d.) said of Roman patricians, 
"when anyone meets and begins to salute them * * * they 
offer their knees or hands to kiss;" persistent flatterers tried to 
kiss their thighs, but when the patron impatiently turned away, 
the kiss was apt to be bestowed on the back part of the thighs, or 
even on the nates. 



Worship of Alma Natura, or of the Nourishing Power of Nature 
(Worship of the Breast) 

We now come to the consideration of the worship of the 
breast. The most beautiful feature of a woman is, beyond doubt, 
the bosom with the breasts; the Kabbalah (p. 194) makes it the 
symbol for beauty. The bosom of the woman has been held sa- 
cred in all times as the throne of love, the seat of affection, and 
among the ancients was held especially sacred to Venus, Goddess 
of Love. 

Fig. 303. — Venus nursing the Loves. 

One writer said that the bosom of woman exhausts the pos- 
sibilities of form-beauty, and that nothing more exquisitely beau- 
tiful exists or can be imagined. 

The breast, apart from the aesthetic function of charming 
the male, is for the purpose of nourishing the offspring, as shown 
in this illustration, entitled: Venus Nursing the Loves (Fig. 303). 

The breast of woman has been worshipped from time im- 
memorial, and has given rise to the most sacred religious senti- 
ments and symbols. About the breast have clustered some of the 
sweetest memories and the purest practices of mankind. Man 
finds refuge from business cares and worries, finds peace and con- 
tentment in the "bosom of his family." The calm delights of 


handling, fondling, kissing and caressing the breast of his wife 
far outweigh in lasting happiness the intenser, briefer and less 
refined pleasures of sex. 

"My beloved is like a bundle of myrrh to me; his head shall 
lie between my breasts all the night ;" sang the bride in Solomon's 
Song; and Solomon said in Proverbs (v, 18, 19): "rejoice with 
the wife of thy youth; let her breasts satisfy thee at all times; 
and be thou ravished always with her love." 

Roman lovers Avere in the habit of having their drinking cups 
modeled after the shapes of the breasts of their sweethearts or 
mistresses ; a cast of the breast was taken and the interior of the 
cup was moulded upon the outside of this cast, often in gold. 

In some Arabian tribes a man who is pursued in blood-feud 
and closely pressed by his enemies, will take refuge in a strange 
tent or camp and kiss the bare breast of a woman ; he thereby be- 
comes a son to her, a brother of her sons and a relative of her 
relatives, as well as a member of her tribe, and he will be pro- 
tected as such, for it is considered that he has sucked at her 
breast. This same idea was already expressed in the Song of 
Solomon (viii, 1) : that thou wert as my brother, that sucked 
the breasts of my mother ! ' ' 

The adoration of the breast, in the form of the worship of 
motherhood, or Madonna-worship, is the highest type of worship, 
and is ages older than the Christian religion. Its symbols are the 
purest and the least carnal of the symbols of sex- worship; "the 
circle," says Emerson in one of his Essays, "is the highest em- 
blem in the cipher of the world." 

The breast as an object of worship is here shown (Fig. 304) 
in profile on the bosom of an Egyptian goddess. That she is a 
goddess is shown by her holding the ankh or symbol of life in her 
hand, as well as by the sceptre with the profile breast. 

In ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics the signatures of kings, 
queens, etc., were enclosed in a panel-like figure, called a cartouche. 
The deciphering of these hieroglyphics was made possible by the 
finding of the "Eosetta stone" on which was an edict in three 
different languages, two of which were known, and led to the 
deciphering of the third in hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics in early 
times were a form of ideographs or picture-writing, but later on 
became phonetic representatives or letters, only these letters were 
in the shape of animals, etc., instead of the arbitrary signs we use. 



The language was old Coptic, a language which was known when 
the Eosetta stone was found. 

Consider the cartouche or signature of Cleopatra (Fig. 306), 

Fig. 304. — Ma or Maut, the Great Mother. Fig. 305.— The goddesses of North 
Egyptian temple sculpture. Egypt and South Egj^pt, cro-miing Ptol- 

emy. Notice the breasts. 




Fig. 306. — Oartouehe or signature of Fig. 307. — Annunciation, from the 
Cleopatra, from the Eosetta stone. Bi-uchsaal Evangelarium, Carlsruhe, end 

of XII Century. 


in the upper line; the lower line is that of Ptolemy. The first 
sound in Cleopatra is that of K; the Gothic word for knee was 
keloi ; therefore the triangle of a bent knee was used to represent 
this letter. The name for lion was lanoi, therefore the figure of 
a lion represented the first letter of the word — 1^- and so on. 

The interesting part of the signature of Cleopatra and other 
Egyptian queens is that the name is followed by the representa- 
tion of an egg and a profile breast, which means that the signa- 
ture is that of a female — a woman. The cartouche of Ptolemy — 
male, a man — is followed by no symbols. 

"We have already met with a similar condition in the figure 
of an Alaskan totem pole (Fig. 293) in which the legs are labeled 
as feminine by a figure of a yoni and a profile breast. Ailcient 
Egypt and Alaska were far apart before Columbus discovered 
America, yet we have here the same symbolism to express the 

In a most literal sense modern science teaches Yonicitas doc- 
trines, for it maintains that the highest manifestation of life, to 
which all other manifestations are subordinated, is the ovum or 
egg. In a scientific sense the human ovum, then the ovary which 
produces it and the womb in which it develops into a child, and 
consequently in a wider sense, woman, who contains them all, is 
symbolic of the best and greatest achievement of creative power 
in nature. 

The egg has in all ages been considered a sacred emblem of 
spring; of the rejuvenation of nature after the winter sleep. In 
Pagan times ornamented eggs were presented to friends, to cel- 
ebrate the re-awakening of life in the spring; and this Pagan 
festival, but thinly disguised as being emblematic of the resur- 
rection of Christ, persists in our Easter festival and its attend- 
ant gifts of Easter eggs. 

Apuleius, an ancient Eoman writer, said: "I saw in the egg 
the emblem of inert nature which contains all that is and that is 
possible to be." 

Two eggs are given to a Chinese bridegroom on the day of 
his marriage, as a token of the wish that his wife may prove 

Pictures of the annunciation often contained symbolic sex 
references during the middle ages (Fig. 307). The angel that 
appeared to Mary announced to her (Luke i, 31) : "Behold thou 



shalt conceive in thy womb and bring forth a son and thou shalt 
call his name Jesus." We recognize here the conventionalized 
"fleur-de-lis" or lily, a symbol of God, as the agency by which 
Mary was to conceive. When the Christian era, or our present 
chronological system began, about the Sixth Century, it was calcu- 
lated that Christ was "conceived in the womb" on the 25th of 
March, year 0. However, a mistake in calculation was made, and it 

Fig. 308. — A bronze figure found in Fig. 309. — Assyrian goddess of maternity, 
some subterranean temples in Sardinia. of about 2100 B.C. 

is now known that Christ was born in the year 4 b.c, or four years 
earlier than is ascribed to the beginning of our era. The 25th 
of March is now celebrated as the feast of the Annunciation. 

Later on, it was perhaps realized that the act of begetting is 
generally a rather private affair, so the birth of Christ was chosen 
as a festival, and was celebrated nine months later, on the 25th 
of December. 

An angel also announced to Elizabeth that she would bear a 
son who was to prepare the way for Christ. Fig. 283 on page 
476 represents the meeting of Mary and Elizabeth, by an artist 



of Cologne, about the year 1400, or about 500 years ago. Note 
that in this altar-piece both are represented "with child" or preg- 
nant, as indicated by the fulness of abdomen as well as by the 

Fig. 310. — Aztec Madonna; painting. 

Fig. 311. — Aztec Madonna; sculpture. 

symbol of the ' ' door of life. ' ' John kneels in the womb in adora- 
tion of Christ and Mary. 

Quite recently some valuable finds were made in some under- 
ground temples in Sardinia. Among them were bronze figures 
of a woman and child (Fig. 308). These figures may have been 


votive offerings, but if, as is more likely, they represented a 
mother-deity, then it is the oldest madonna-worship of which we 
know, as these figures are estimated to be about ten thousand 
years old, or about six thousand years older than the Assyrian 
goddess of maternity who had before this find been supposed to 
be the oldest madonna idol; and it is five or six thousand years 
older than the Egyptian Isis-worship, of which we have many fig- 
ures and representations. 

Figure 309 represents the Assyrian Goddess of Maternity, 
just referred to. This figure is estimated to be about four thou- 
sand years old. This same idea, the worship of motherhood, is 
shown in this Aztec painting of a madonna (Fig. 310), found in 
a pre-historic Yucatan temple ruin ; the madonna sits on a throne, 
suckling her child. Here is another Aztec madonna (Fig. 311), 
resembling more or less closely our modern sculptures of a 


Supernatural impregnation, or conception by a virgin, so- 
called "parthenogenesis" or "immaculate conception" is a fea- 
ture of many religions; it was believed by the credulous and 
superstitious of many lands that a virgin might conceive without 
a man, supernaturally; the idea occurs in many mythologies and 

Heitzi-Ibib is a Hottentot deity who was believed to have 
been born of a cow; sometimes, however, a human virgin is said 
to be his mother; she became pregnant after eating of a certain 

The Thlinkeets of Alaska relate of their god Yehl that he 
was miraculously conceived by his mother who swallowed a peb- 
ble which impregnated her. 

The Eig-Veda says that Indra was miraculously born of a 
virgin cow, a heifer. 

The Apis god in Egypt was said to have been miraculously 
born of a virgin cow who was impregnated by a moonbeam or a 
flash of lightning. 

The Mexican god of war, Huitzilopochtli, was born of a vir- 
gin, a devout person who one day while attending in a temple, 
saw a ball of feathers floating before her in the air ; she took the 


feathers and deposited them in her bosom, soon after which she 
found herself pregnant and in due course of time the dread deity 
was born. 

The Greeks believed that after the god Jupiter in the form 
of a- swan had impregnated Leda, she laid two eggs (Fig. 312) 
from each of which twins were hatched ; Castor and Clytenmestra 
issued from one, and Pollux and Helen from the other. These be- 
came prominent characters in Homer's Hiad. 

The Greeks accepted as a fact that a virgin or a female could 
give birth to children without the cooperation of any male, not 
even a god; Hesiod related as clear a case of parthenogenesis or 

Fig. 312. — "Leda and Swan," from a painting. 

genesis without a male, as is that of the phylloxera (see p. 64). 
Hesiod said: "Night bare also hateful Destiny and black Fate, 
and Death ; she bare Sleep, likewise, she bare the tribe of Dreams ; 
these did the goddess gloomy Night bare after union with none." 

A somewhat peculiar version of supernatural birth is the 
Greek story of Pygmalion ; he was a sculptor and fell in love with 
a statue he had made ; beseeching Venus, the goddess of love, to 
give life to the statue, the goddess heard his prayer, and Pyg- 
malion married the miraculously born virgin. 

Also, Ehea, a vestal virgin, bathing in a water sacred to 
Mars, became pregnant and gave birth to twins, Eemus and Eom- 
ulus. Amulius, king of Alba, threatening to punish her for her 



transgression of the vows of chastity taken by vestal virgins, she 
claimed that Mars himself was the father, and she was spared but 
the two children were exposed, but were saved by being suckled 
by a "she-wolf" — a lupa (Fig. 313). 

In connection with this story it should be borne in mind, that 
an arch in Latin is called "fornix;" that under the arches of the 
Colosseum congregated the lowest class of prostitutes in Eome, 
who there eonunitted all the crimes and practiced all the perver- 
sions they could conceive of or that were demanded by their male 
visitors, hence "fornicatio" meant the practices committed under 
the arches; from this we have our English word "fornication." 

Frequently also, these women robbed or even murdered un- 
wary men who displayed wealth or perhaps were drunk; hence 

Fig. 313. — Remus and Roinulus, nursed by a she-wolf. 

they were called "she-wolves," and it was one of these women, 
Laurentia by name, who, coming upon the exposed infants, was 
touched with instinctive motherly pity, and adopted and raised 

It was said of many of the eminent teachers and heroes of 
antiquity that immaculate conception was their origin. For in- 
stance: Budantsar, the first ruler of the Mongols, was miracu- 
lously conceived by a widow. Gautama (Buddlia) in India was 
born of a virgin; so was Fohi of China; the Shakarf of Thibet. 
In Thibet many chutulctus (cardinals) are considered to be in- 
carnations of deities just as are the lamas. The early Christians 
adopted the same theory to account for the birth of Jesus, of 



The Chinese believe that once a maiden walked in the fields 
and a rainbow descended from heaven and embraced her, in conse- 
quence of which she conceived ; her son became the first emperor 
of China. The rainbow, in China, is a serpent deity; therefore 
China is called the Celestial Empire, because the first emperor 
was begotten by a celestial deity. The emperor of China is called 
the "Son of Heaven." 

Of Lao-Tze, already mentioned, who was a celebrated Chi- 
nese philosopher who lived about fifty years before Chung-fu-tze 

.^^^^■■^■v 1 


"^^^MwdT " ^¥^Bm 








Jj^ig. 314. — The goddess Anukah nurs- 
ing the pharaoh Rameses; Egyptian tem- 

Fig. .315. — Tlie Ephesian Diana, now in 
the Vatican Museum, Rome. 

(Confucius), it is related that a meteor fell from heaven and 
impregnated his mother (see also p. 16). 

Some theologians of the middle ages believed that Mary was 
impregnated through her ear (!) because the Bible says: (John 
i, 1) "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God," (John i, 14) "and the Word was 
made flesh, and dwelt among us." 

Similar ideas were held in Egypt about some of the Phara- 



ohs, "vvho were generally worsMpped as gods ; the goddess Anukah 
nursed the pharaoh Eameses II (Fig. 314). 

Among the oldest forms of madonna-worship of which we 
have positive knowledge is the worship of Isis ; she was the mother 
of Harpokrat, or Horns, the myths regarding whom resembled 
closely some of those told about Jesus. Isis was sometimes rep- 
resented as a cow, or mth a cow's head. In the Louvre is a beau- 
tiful bronze statue of Isis in human form. (See also p. 433.) 

Originally the madonna and virgin worships were probably 
not the same; for instance, I can recall no story that Diana had 

Fig. 316. — Devaki nursing Krishna ; the tray full of animals has the meaning of 
the heads on the base of the Diana of Ephesus ; the worshipper forms the male and 
female symbols \\'ith the fingers of her right hand. 

a child or children. But these two worships became blended in 
such a way that sometimes Isis was considered as a virgin-mother, 
while others considered her as a matron, the wife of Osiris and 
mother of Horns or Harpokrat. 

After the introduction of Christianity in Egypt the Isis- 
worship and other idolatry Avas discouraged by the bishops of the 
Christian church, although often against the wishes of the Egyp- 
tian Christians. About the year 500 a.d. there was such a strong 
tendency in Egypt to forsake Christianity and go back to the wor- 



ship of the Feminine, or Isis, that Cyril, at that time Patriarch or 
Bishop of Alexandria, introduced the Isis-worship into Christian- 
ity by declaring Mary, the Mother of Jesus, to be worthy of divine 
worship. Thus was Maryolatry, the worship of the Feminine, 
introduced into Christian worship. 

The myth that Mary was a virgin when she gave birth to 
Jesus may be merely the transplanted Isis-myth; but it is more 
generally and probably more correctly ascribed to an error of 
translation from Hebrew into Greek; the words for "young 
woman" and "virgin" in Hebrew resemble each other just as 
closely as the equivalent words "Junge Frau" and "Jungfrau" 
in German; the translator of the gospels from Hebrew to Greek 
made the error of translating the Hebrew word for "young 

Fig. 317. — Mother Earth as Madonna, Alchemistic; goat nursing Hercules, and a she- 
wolf nursing Eemus and Romulus. 

woman" into the Greek word for "virgin," and the error in 
course of time became an article of orthodox belief. 

You have no doubt read in the Book of Acts, how St. Paul 
came to Ephesus to preach, and how it happened to be a holiday 
and all the populace was shouting: "Great is the Diana of the 
Ephesians!" (Acts xix, 28 and 34). 

This (Fig. 315) is the statue of the goddess who was wor- 
shipped in the temple at Ephesus at that time; it is now in the 
Museum of the Vatican, at Eome. Her multiple breasts signify 
that her nourishing powers sufficed for all created beings, which 
is further symbolized by the many animal heads on the pedestal. 

Figure 316 is not a picture of the Madonna Mary, but is an 



ancient picture of Devaki nursing Krishna, who was an atavar or 
incarnation of Vishnu, and is reputed to have been born much 
earlier than Gautama or Buddlia; I have failed to find a definite 
date for the birth of Krishna, but it was probably between 1000 
and 500 e.g. The myths concerning Krishna resemble those told 
also about Horns and Jesus, and some authors believe that they 
are one and the same stories accepted by different people. All 
three were called Saviors or Eedeemers. 

The trays full of animals have the same significance as the 

Fijy. 31S. — Jmio as a Madonna. 

Fig, 319.— " Madonna and Child," by 

heads of animals on the base of the pedestal of the Diana of the 
Ephesians. Note the hands of the worshipper; the sign of the 
yoni made with the thumb and the index finger, and the other three 
fingers extended as a symbol of the masculine triad or trinity. 
We often speak of "Mother Earth;" Earth, as Gea, is as 
old a deity as the beginning of Greek mythology. The conceit 
is old and general and the names given to this goddess in various 
lands were so similar as to argue a common origin. Ma or Mama 
means Mother in nearly all languages of the world. Ma or Maut 



was an Egyptian deity; she was Earth, the "Grood mother." We 
learn from the Rig-Vedas, the sacred books of the Hindus, that 
all things were produced by Brahma through union with Maya, 
the "good mother of all the gods and all other beings." Maya 
is still worshipped in India. She was also worshipped in ancient 
Greece and Rome, under the name of Maia, the daughter of At- 
lantis; she was "Bona Dea" the good goddess, the good Dame, 
the mother of the gods; her worship extended over Europe, as 
Maye in France and Spain, May Queen in England, etc. In pre- 

Fig. 319-A.—" Jesus and St. 
John," by Raphael. Church of St. 
Peter, Perugia, Italy. 

Fig. 319-B.- 
by Hugues. 

' Mother and Child, ' ' 

historic Mexico she was worshipped as Mayoel, the "mother of 
the gods and men;" and since about 500 a.d. her worship has 
been officially recognized by a large portion of Christendom under 
the name of Maria (Ma-[r]-ia), the good mother, our Lady, Notre 
Dame, Mother of God, Madonna, Queen of Heaven. 

Ma means Earth or Nature, and the whole worship means 
thanks to Mother Earth who brought forth, nourishes and sus- 
tains. Figure 317 represents Mother Earth as a Madonna. 

Juno, the wife of Jupiter, was also represented as a madonna 



by the ancient Greeks and Eomans (Fig. 318). She was called 
"Mother of the Gods." 

Here is a copy of a painting by Lorenzetti, a well-kno-vvn 
Italian painter, of the "Madonna and Child" (Fig. 319). Euskin, 
speaking of the worship of Mary in Florence, said: "The Ital- 
ians would not now worship the Madonna, if countless Greeks and 
Goths had not for ages bowed in adoration before the Virgin;" 
and in another place, speaking of Giotto, he says: "But Giotto 
came from the fields and saw with his simple eyes a lovelier worth, 

rig. 320. — The Madonna gives St. Bern- 
hard of Clairvaux a taste of her milk. 

Fig. 321. — Mary, Queen of Heaven. 

and he painted — the Madonna and St. Joseph and the Christ — 
yes, by all means if you choose to call them so, but essentially — 
Mamma, Papa, and the Baby." 

It was related of St. Bernhard of Clairvaux that the Virgin 
Mary appeared to him and granted him a taste of miUc from her 
breast as a mark of especial favor. This painting (Fig. 320) is 
of the year 1450 a.d. In Germany a wine is made which is called 
"Lieb-frauen-milch" (dear lady's milk or madonna milk), which 
is reputed peculiarly well-flavored and is highly esteemed. 

Madonna-worship is the Christianized worship of the breast, 



or of motherhood. The words "Ma donna" are Italian and mean 
"my lady." The madonna is generally represented in altar- 
sculptures as holding her child, more rarely as nursing it ; she is 
sometimes crowned, even with a real jeweled crown in richer 
churches, and is called "Queen of Heaven" (Fig. 321). 

Human ideas have never conceived a holier object for our 
sympathy and tender regard than a mother with her child, and 
the religions of all ages have delighted in holding before us this 
subject for our adoration. The mother and child is a popular sub- 
ject for illustration in modern art (see Fig. 319-B). 

Fig. 322. — A madonna figure (clay pot- 
tery) found where Bast St. Louis, Illi- 
nois, now is. The figure belongs to Prof. 
H. M. Whelpley, of St. Louis. 

Fig. 323. — Madonna consolatrice, by Bou- 

Even in the art of the mound builders this subject is repre- 
sented (Fig. 322). I am not sufficiently familiar with the mound 
builders' art to venture a guess about the motif of this vessel, but 
some authorities on the subject do not think it had any reference 
to madonna worship. To me it appears to be the same idea ex- 
pressed in the Aztec art — ^madonna cult ; but even if it merely shows 
a mother and her child, it shows that this subject appealed to the 


esthetic emotions of the prehistoric inhabitants of North Amer- 
ica, as it did to other people elsewhere. 

The "Consoling Madonna," by Bougnerean, is an example 
of the ideally highest type of womanhood, the madonna consol- 
ing a mother on the death of her child (Fig. 323) ; we find this 
type among the "sisters" of the Catholic church, among the 
"deaconesses" of the Protestant churches, and among the nurses 
of our hospitals, and especially among the heroic nurses of the 
Eed Cross; God bless them all, Protestant, Catholic or Infidel; 
these Sisters of Charity deserve the adoration of every true man ! 

Scott expressed the same idea in one of his poems : 

"0, woman! In our hours of ease 
Uncertain, coy and hard to please; 
And variable as the shade 
By the light quivering aspen made; 
When pain and anguish wring the brow 
A ministering angel thou!" 

During the French Revolution, toward the end of the Eight- 
eenth Century, the French people worshipped woman in the shape 
of a statue of Nature, from whose bare breasts flowed streams 
of water. Also, as an actual woman, the "Goddess of Reason" 
(Fig. 324), who was carried in triumph through the streets of 
Paris to the Cathedral, where she was placed on an altar and 
worshipped as a Divinity. 

Underlying all yonic forms of religion are the same ideas 
which we find in Comte's "Religion of Humanity." This rejects 
all theories of the supernatural and declares that the Supreme 
Object of the individual love and devotion should be Humanity. 

"Humanity is but an abstraction and forbids the glow of 
adoration with which service is touched in all religions which 
offer a personified object for adoration. As an aid to their faith 
nearly all religions recognize sacred symbols, not indeed to be 
confounded by clearer minds with the original object of adora- 
tion, but worthy of reverence in its place as its special repre- 
sentative and reminder. In precisely this sense the sacred em- 
blem of Humanity is Woman. In woman Humanity is enshrined 
and made concrete for the homage of man. 

"The adoration of woman, which may almost be called the 



natural religion of the modern man, springs from his recognition, 
instinctive when not conscious, that she is in an express sense, 
as he is not, the type, the representative and the symbol of the race 
from which he springs, of that immortal and mystical life in 
which the secret of his own is hid. She is this, not by virtue of 
her personal qualities, but by virtu© of her mother-sex which 
consecrates her to the interests of the race." 

"Woman, any woman, every woman, is marvelous enough. 
But when we think of all they stand for, the fineness of them 
compared with our man grossness, that wonderful power of crea- 
tion in them — their mother-sex — their exquisite delicacy, com- 
bined with the big-souled capacity for sacrifice and suffering that 

Fig. 324. — "Goddess of Reason," French Revolution, from a painting by Coessin. 

dwarfs any of men's petty burdens into insignificance — God 
knows, a man should bow his knee in adoration before even the 
least of them!" 

The extent to which the mention of "mother" appeals to our 
minds, especially in times of distress, was shown at one of the 
largest cantonments when a great opera singer asked the soldiers 
to select the song they wanted sung. Out of a dozen popular num- 
bers submitted, the choice was overwhelmingly in favor of a mother 

This adoration of woman finds expression in many defer- 



ences and courtesies that real men pay to women, and it finds its 
most striking expression in the "Law of the Sea:" "Women and 
Children First!" 

No nobler example of the worship of woman was ever seen 

Fig. 325.— Sinking of the Titanic. 

Fig. 326.— "The Lion in Love," by Gardet. 

than in the case of the Titanic Disaster (Fig. 325), when 1,500 
men went to their deaths, that women and children might live. 

"Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down 
his life for his friends" (John xv:13), says the Bible, Then the 
laying down of life for strangers, only because they are women, 



It is religion- 

-the Worship of the 

must be greater than love. 
Mother-Sex ! 

"The Virgin-ideal has been set up by the larger part of 
Christendom as the object of Divine honors. The Feminine, not 
the Masculine, ideal supplies the inspirations of art and the ro- 
mance of literature. Man's tendency to worship woman, while 
naturally blending with his passionate attraction toAvard her, 
does not spring from the instinct of sex, but from the instinct of 
race" and is found in its highest development among the most 
civilized people. 

Fig. 327.— " Worship, " by Sinding. 
This statue represents the admiration, 
adoration, adulation and veneration of 
woman by man. 

Fig. 328.— "Night," by de Courton. 
(See poem on next page.) 

They who think most reverently on tliis mystery of sex, feel 
the pre-eminence of woman most profoundly and they realize the 
influence which Woman — Mother — ^Wife — SAveetheart — has over 
our thoughts and actions. They appreciate the words of the poet 
Moore in his poem, "Sovereign Woman:" 

"Disguise our bondage as we will, 
'Tis Woman — ^Woman rules us still!" 


This is often symbolically represented in Art; the more ani- 
mal and passionate nature of man is allegorized by a wild ani- 
mal which is tamed and held in control by gentle woman, as in 
this statue of The Lion in Love (Fig. 326). 

In ancient Eome, in the theatres, etc., the same idea was 
often very realistically represented. Gigantic winged phalli were 
represented as being saddled, bridled or harnessed, and ridden or 
driven by naked women; these frescoes or sculptures were in- 
terpreted as ' ' Minerva, or divine wisdom, the feminine side of in- 
telligence, guiding and controlling masculine energies and pas- 
sions;" similar representations are seen in Kaulbach's painting: 
"Who Buys Love-Gods?" 

This idea of adoration of womanhood was well expressed in 
this wonderful statue, entitled "Worship," by Stephen Binding, 
a Norwegian sculptor (Fig. 327). 

"God took the dust and said: 'Lo, I am there!' 
And threw it forth on the Empyrean free ; 
And Nature saw a star burst forth and be 
A throne of Life and Light divinely fair ! ' ' 

"Then fell a rain-drop in his hollow hand; 
'Be thou its sovereign ocean,' murmured he, 
And there arose a silver-turbaned sea 
To frame the tropic glory of the land." 

"A spirit hovered near; he staid its flight; 
'Love, rule this life, and compass all the earth!' 
And lovely Woman sprang to instant birth, 
And where she reigns are Joy, and Peace, and Right!" 


Some goddesses have been mentioned in connection with the 
gods, and in the general considerations in previous pages, — ^we 
need not repeat. 

Assyrian and Babylonian — Mylitta was the Phoenician god- 
dess of love ; she conferred the pleasure during coition. In prac- 
tically all countries of Asia Minor some goddess similar to or 
identical with Mylitta was worshipped. 


Astarte was the Aceadian form of this goddess ; she was wor- 
shipped in what is now Mesopotamia. From the Accadians prob- 
ably originated all the coarser, or unchaste ideas and practices of 
worship. From them also was obtained the consecration of the 
seventh day, which was transmitted from them to the ancient 
Jews, from whom we inherited it. The Tyrian Astarte (also called 
Tanis) seems to have been propitiated by licentious and promis- 
cuous sexual excesses in her temples. 

Ishtar or Astarte (Ashtoreth, Ashera, Cybele, etc.) had a sim- 
ilar function as Siva in India— Destruction and Eeproduction. 
From the Accadians, Phoenicians, etc., her worship extended to 
Greece, but here she became known as Aphrodite, the goddess of 
beauty and sensual love ; the Greeks considered doves and pigeons 
sacred to her, because they are the most prolific of birds. 

Of the Zodiac signs, Virgo, the Virgin, represented Ishtar, 
the Assyrian Venus or Isis ; these goddesses were said to be both 
mothers, and virgins; just as is the case in modern Christian 

Semiramis was a mythical queen of Assyria, but what is told 
about her is only a variant of the Ishtar or Astarte myth. The 
great charms of Semiramis and her sexual excesses are simply 
stories about the sexual indulgences in the Astarte or Ishtar 

Egypt. — Isis or Hathor corresponded most closely to Ishtar, 
and many of the attributes of the Phoenician goddesses applied 
to these two goddesses, Isis, the wife of Osiris and Hathor, the 
wife of Horus. 

Bast or Bubastis was an Egyptian goddess, the counterpart 
of the Greek Diana, goddess of chastity. 

The "Great Goddess" of Thebes was Maut, Muth or Mut, 
which means Mother. Similarly, Ishtar or Ashtoreth was called 
the Spouse, the Mother, the Nurse. 

The ancient Celts (Irish) worshipped Ana, the wife of their 
chief god Ogma, as the "mother of the gods." 

Cybele or Ehea Cybele, mother of Zeus, was originally a 
Phrygian goddess ; her worship originated in Asia Minor and was 
probably due to the same ideas as the Ishtar worship; in Crete 
and Phrygia her worship was accompanied by orgiastic dances, 
of the "danse du ventre" or "couchee-couchee" type, intended 
to arouse sexual emotions. In Phrygia she was the goddess of 


mountains, caves and of the haunts of wild animals. Her name 
Cybele was the Phrygian word for cave, and the cave was the sym- 
bol for the "womb of nature." 

Cybele was called the "mother of god" by the Greeks; this 
name was applied to many goddesses in many different mytholo- 
gies, and formed part of the folklore from which all mythologies 
drew their ideas. 

Among the Lydians Cybele was known as Omphale; it was 
part of the fate of Hercules to serve for a time as slave to Queen 
Omphale (see Fig. 371). 

Sesostris was an Egyptian pharaoh (2300 b.c.) ; he conquered 
the greater part of the then known world, including the greater 
part of Africa, Lybia, Palestine, and even parts of Europe, and 
as far east as India. Wherever he went, he introduced the worship 
of Isis (the worship of the Feminine) by erecting pillars with a 
yoni or doubly-pointed ellipse or door of life carved on their 

The Bistoria Universalis, published in 1740, says that he did 
this to humiliate the nations he had conquered, by suggesting that 
they were not men but a race of women. This indicates that at 
the date of publication, little or nothing was known in regard to 
the worship of sex; the deciphering of Assyrian, Egyptian and 
other ancient sculptures is of so recent a date that we- may expect 
a far greater knowledge on this subject in the course of time. 

Greece. — The worship of all goddesses in their capacities as 
mothers was adopted by the Greeks, and especially in the form of 
Aphrodite the sexual attractiveness of vomankind was deified 
and personified. 

"We recall Hesiod's account of her birth from sea-foam 
(p. 108) ; because she originated from the genitals of the castrated 
Uranus (Sky) she was also called Urania, but nevertheless this 
Greek derivation of one of her names does not make her a Greek 
goddess ; she was originally an Asiatic deity, Astarte of the Phoe- 
nicians, the Mylitta of the Assyrians, etc. 

Paphos was a city on the west coast of Cyprus ; the city was 
of Phoenician origin. Here was a great temple devoted to the 
worship of Venus, wherefore she was sometimes called the Pa- 
phian goddess. The cultus was Asiatic, that is, it abounded in 
sexual excesses in the temples, which were not of Greek origin but 
of lower and more savage Asiatic origin. This is important to 


remember when we consider the festivals, as the unchaste and 
obscene practices are by many writers described as Greek in 
character, whereas they were of Barbaric introduction. Diony- 
sus, too, as we have learned, was of Asiatic origin, and these two 
deities, Dionysus and Aphrodite, were mainly responsible for the 
coarser and more carnal features of worship among the Greeks 
and Romans. 

Venus (Aphrodite), goddess of beauty and love, was essen- 
tially the goddess of the sensual or carnal feature of love. She 
was married to Vulcan (Gr. Hephaestus) but she was not particu- 
larly noted for fidelity and chastity ; her amours with Adonis, and 
also with Mars, were celebrated in many an ancient poem. Amor 
(Gr. Eros) was said to be her son. 

Before the introduction of sculpture, she was represented by 
a stone or pillar, just as Ashera, Ishtar or Isis were represented, 
but after; the introduction of sculpture she was represented as a 
woman ; it was easier to represent her draped, therefore her most 
archaic sculptured forms are as a draped woman. The most noted 
figures of Venus are the Venus at Cnidos [now lost, but of which 
fi^i the Venus de Medici (Fig. 144) is probably a copy] and the Venus 
of Milo (Fig. 114). The half -draped Venus of Milo is a transi- 
tion form from the fully draped figures to the totally nude forms. 

When Praxiteles made a statue of Venus for the temple at 

Cnidos, the people went wild over its beauty. When Venus heard 

of this statue in her honor, she went to the temple to view it, and 

■ ' when she saw it, she was astonished, and exclaimed complainingly : 

"When did Praxiteles see me thus unveiled?" 

As the universal goddess of love, she presided or reigned 
over every phase of nature and reproduction; her worship was 
based on the same imderlying ideas of the Ishtar-Astarte-Mylitta 
worship of Asia Minor; her worship was introduced into Greece 
about 1500 B.C., and therefore she had become sufficiently identi- 
fied with Hellenic religion to have become a Greek goddess by 
Homer's time. 

She was the goddess of love and beauty, and no people ever 
venerated and adored physical beauty more highly than did the 
ancient Greeks. At first she was considered the goddess of do- 
mestic or connubial love, but later she also was regarded as the 
goddess of the hetaerae or public women; in this capacity she 
provided opportunities for coition or sexual enjoyment for men 


who otherwise might have tried to seduce or rape young maidens, 
and she was therefore considered, like Artemis, a guardian over 
the chastity of young women. In some places she was considered 
like Ilithyia, a goddess of childbirth. 

In all ages since Praxiteles ' time, artists have exhausted their 
skill in representing her as the most beautiful naked woman in 
sculpture or painting. 

Venus had as attendants the "Three Graces" or the Char- 
ites; Satyacravas is a Hindu name for the sun; charis is an old 
adjective meaning "bright," originally applied to the light-illu- 
mined clouds at sunrise (the dawn) ; the dawn became personified, 
like most other natural phenomena and the goddess Charis was 
born. As the sun gives light, life and fertility, Charis became his 
attendant goddess, a goddess of the freshness and vigor of life, 
of fertility and of growth. 

In Greece the Indian goddess grew into a triad, and the Three 
Graces (Fig. 233) became the incarnation of all sensuous loveli- 
ness of appearance and grace, of cheerfulness and attractiveness 
in nature and in the mental traits or morals. They were Aglaia, 
Euphrosyne, and Thalia ; they were attendants at the court of Ve- 
nus, adding to the attractiveness of her retinue. In early art, 
before the artists had become skillful enough to make nude stat- 
ues, they were represented draped, but on account of their loveli- 
ness they were at an early date represented naked, and are now 
always so figured. 

Another important goddess of the Greek pantheon was Hera 
(Juno) ; she was a daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and was there- 
fore a full sister of Zeus as well as his wife. Mankind in those 
early days had no ideas of incest, and gods and men freely mar- 
ried their sisters. Some authors do not agree that Juno was iden- 
tical with Hera, but the above is a statement of the more popular 

Juno was a more important divinity in Rome than in Greece. 
She was not an Aryan, or Asiatic, goddess, but was a native 
Etruscan (early or archaic Greek) divinity, which accounts for 
the much purer worship and conception of her character, for the 
coarsely sexual ideas held in regard to Venus are almost entirely 
absent from her worship. She is concerned almost entirely with 
human affairs; she protected the state and society, and was the 
patroness and careful guardian of women. Her various functions 



were separately worshipped, so that lander the name of Virginen- 
sis she watched over and protected young maidens; as Promiba 
Jugalis, Domiduca, etc., she presided over marriage ceremonies 
and inducted maidens into wifehood; as Matrona she presided 
over their married life and as Lucina she was their helper and 
supporter in their trials during childbirth. In her honor the fes- 
tival of the Matronalia was held in March, at which only women 
of unquestioned reputation, maidens and matrons against whom 
there had never been even the whisper of insinuation, could par- 

She had as attendants also innumerable spirits, called Ju- 
nones, female genii, or guardian angels, one of whom accompanied 
and watched over every girl and woman. A woman swore by her 
Juno, a man by Jove, but a lover swore by the Juno of his sweet- 

Juno is the most moral goddess of antiquity, one of the few 
goddesses against whom no rumor of scandal was raised ; she was 
perhaps too frigidly chaste, even according to our present stand- 
ards, and like in human society today, her husband sought else- 
where the happiness that her austerity denied him; she was the 
ardent advocate of conjugal fidelity and the bitter foe of infidelity ; 
wherefore we find the many stories of her persecutions of the 
companions of her husband in his love affairs; they form the 
theme of many a Greek poem. Juno had four children, Mars, Vul- 
can, Hebe and Ilithyia. 

"When her son Vulcan married Aphrodite, she became the 
mother-in-law of the latter, and no doubt had many bitter mo- 
ments over the escapades of her daughter-in-law. 

Hebe was the daughter of Zeus and Juno. In Greek house- 
holds the unmarried daughters served the refreshments to the 
guests of the home. As the gods were fashioned on the pattern 
of the humans, Hebe became the cup-bearer in Olympia to dis- 
pense the nectar or ambrosia to the guests at her father Zeus' 

On one occasion, while serving the drinks to the gods, she 
accidentally fell, in such a manner as to expose her body so as to 
shock the modesty of Minerva, who demanded that she be relieved 
as cup-bearer. Soon afterwards Hercules died and was made a 
god and Juno gave him Hebe for wife. 

lo was a high priestess of Juno (or Hera), and Jupiter fell 


in love with her; she was changed into a white cow, but the ac- 
counts vary as to the "why;" some say Jupiter changed her to 
hide her from the rage of Juno, others say that Juno changed her 
in jealous revenge. 

Artemis, or the moon, presided over childbirth and assisted 
women suffering from the peculiar ailments of women; she was 
therefore a gynecologist. Associated with her was Carmenta, the 
goddess of midwifery. Carmenta had two assistants, goddesses 
who presided over the positions of the foetus in the womb; they 
were Prosa and Postverta, and they were implored for assistance 
according to whether it was a frontal or an occipital presentation. 
After birth the goddess Ossipaga took charge of the child and pre- 
sided over the growth of the bones; of course, the shape, nature 
and growth of the bones largely determined the development of 
the infant and therefore among a beauty-loving people like the 
Greeks, Ossipaga was of considerable importance. 

In the Moon Fairy, by Kaulbach we have a modern represen- 
tation of the moon as the spender of blessings on the people 
(Fig. 329). 

Among the goddess attendants of Juno was Iris, the rainbow ; 
as the rainbow united heaven and earth. Iris was called the golden- 
winged messenger of the gods to men. 

Hesiod said: 

"Eurybia too, bare to Crius, after union in love, huge As- 
traeus and PaUas * * *, 

"And next Phoebe came to the much-beloved couch of Coeus; 
then in truth having conceived, a goddess by love of a god, she 
bare dark-robed Latona * * *." 

Zeus had been married to a number of other goddesses be- 
fore he married his sister Hera or Juno. One of these earlier 
wives was Metis (Intelligence). Just what became of his earlier 
wives, whether he got rid of them by divorce, or like Henry the 
Eighth of England, by killing them, I do not know ; but he swal- 
lowed Metis, in consequence of which Pallas was formed and was 
born from his brain. 

She was known also as Pallas Athena and among the Romans 
as Minerva. She presided over skill and industry, and she in- 
vented spinning and weaving, or the manufacture of textile fab- 
rics; she tamed horses, played the flute and developed to some 
extent the arts of medicine. 


As an elemental or nature-goddess she presided over what 
took place in the sky ; she became a war goddess, referring to the 
wars (storms) in the clonds. But her main function was to pre- 
side over the accomplishments of the human mind. The owl 
was sacred to her, and was therefore called the bird of wisdom. 

Latona, mentioned above, was made pregnant by Zeus, and 
wandered about trying to find a place where she might be deliv- 
ered and avoid the persecutions of the jealous Juno. She came 
to Delos, at that time a rock which floated in the sea; but when she 
alighted on it the gods fixed it firmly to the bottom of the sea, so 
that Latona might rest and be confined. 

Fig. 329.—' ' The Moon Fairy, ' ' by Kaulbach. 

She gave birth to twins, Apollo and Diana, about whom more 
is said on page 549. 

In Lycia Latona was a goddess of fertility, and was identi- 
fied with the earth goddess ; the names Leto, Leda and Latona are 
variants of the Lycian word Lada, which means Lady. 

Demeter Thermophorus was the goddess of marriage, and her 
worship was limited to women. 

Fortuna, a Eoman goddess, was sometimes called Fortuna 
virilis; women prayed to her because she secured and maintained 
for them the affections of their husbands. 



Flora was the Eoman goddess of flowers (Fig. 330) ; Ceres 
was the goddess of crops. 

Flora was an ancient Italian deity ; she was not a Greek deity ; 
she was married to Zephyr, the Westwind. She was said to have 
been a courtesan who became very wealthy, and she established a 
festival in her own honor, the Floralia, the main features of 
which were indulgences in the practices of the profession in which 
she had accumulated her wealth. Naturally this idea suggested 
many licentious ceremonies. While Flora was not an Asiatic 

Fig. 330.— Flora, Goddess of Flowers. 

goddess, her worship was clearly framed after the model of that 
of Venus and the other Asiatic goddesses. 

About Ceres (Demeter) we will speak under the heading 
"Festivals" on page 568. 

The Teutons and Norsemen had goddesses who were very 
similar to the goddess Fortuna. The Norse goddesses Lofa and 
Vor were protectors of lovers — the first because she united the 
faithful in marriage, the second, because she punished the faith- 
less. The Teutons had a mother goddess by the name of Zizi; 
from her name the Germans no doubt got the word sitsen for 
teats or nipples, and we in turn the word "titties" or "titts." 


From absurd ideas of propriety these two words, common as they 
are, are not defined in some dictionaries. 

The Erinyes were Greek goddesses who were the avengers of 
human misdeeds or iniquities; they were called Furies by the Rom- 

The Moerae, or Parcae, or Fates, were similar to the Norse 
Norns or "Weird Sisters," representing Past, Present and Fu- 

In the later Greek myths the Erinyes were also three ; Alect 
(hatred), Megaera (jealousy), and Tisiphone (revenge). 

Many of the gods and goddesses of Greece and Egypt were 
alike, except in name, as the languages were so different. We 
have already learned that many of the ideas of the Egyptians and 
Aztecs were similar. 

Nath, Pakht, Sekhet, Mut, Suben and Nati were all deities of 
the female principle in ancient Egypt. It does not mean, how- 
ever, that these were all different goddesses but they may have 
been merely different names in different parts of Egypt for the 
same idea. They corresponded in a general way with the Ishtar- 
Venus cult. 

When and how the Egyptian ideas were transferred to Mex- 
ico, or vice versa, has caused much speculation ; the British Ency- 
clopedia says that there can be no doubt that communication ex- 
isted between these two lands. At all events the Aztecs had god- 
desses that were equivalent to Ceres, Lucina, Flora, and Venus, 
of course under Aztec names. 

The early Christians, as has already been stated, were a so- 
cialistic society mostly made up from members of the lower 
classes, slaves, laborers, etc. ; necessarily, they were also more or 
less ignorant and superstitious and credulous enough to accept 
beliefs that could not appeal to the educated classes. The belief 
in parthenogenesis, birth from a virgin, was so general a feature 
of religious folklore that it was accepted as the truth by people 
from the extreme east, as China, to the extreme west, not only of 
the eastern continent, but of the western continent as well; we 
have cited examples of this belief from Quiche and Mexico to the 
Thlinkeets of Alaska. 

Add to this the adoration of the Roman emperors as gods 
(which was really only extravagant flattery and not believed by 
the educated people) and it was but natural that the early Chris- 



tians should have adopted such a belief in regard to their own 
God, and therefore it was taught at a comparatively early period 
that Jesus was miraculously born of a virgin. The Prot-Evan- 
gelium Jacohi (Second Century) relates some particulars about 
Mary that are interesting; her father was a shepherd named 
Joachim and her mother was Anna, who had remained childless 
to old age, over which the aged couple grieved very much. An 
angel announced to Anna that she should conceive, and in due 
course of time Mary was born. From her third to her twelfth 
year Mary spent her time in the temple "as if she were a dove 
that dwelt there, and she received food from the hand of an 
angel ; ' ' Joseph was made her guardian by the priests. When it 
was discovered that she was pregnant, Joseph and Mary were 
brought before the high priest ; both asserted their innocence but 
they were acquitted only after they had been tried with * ' the water 
of the ordeal" (see Num. v, vs. 11 to 31). That she was a virgin 
when she gave birth to Jesus is accepted as a doctrine by the 
Catholics as well as by most Protestant Christian faiths. 

But in the Fifteenth Century a theory was broached that 
Mary herself had been conceived in a similar manner because the 
church considered it improper for a mere mortal woman "born 
in sin" to be the mother of Jesus. At the council of Basle, in 
1439 A.D., it was decreed that it was not contrary to reason to be- 
lieve that her mother Anna conceived her in a supernatural man- 
ner; but this belief was left optional with the laity. Some uni- 
versities in France made belief in this doctrine a condition for 
a degree, but it was not until 1849 that Pope Pius IX promulgated 
the theory of the "Immaculate Conception" to be an article of 
faith, and that not to believe was heresy. The "Immaculate 
Conception" therefore does not refer to the pregnancy of Mary, 
but to the pregnancy of Anna. 

Nearly thirteen hundred years earlier than the proclamation 
of Mary's immaculate conception the church had disputes over 
the conception of Jesus; in the earliest periods, Jesus was con- 
sidered a man like other men, and the Christians were what we 
now call Unitarians. Nestorius, the patriarch of Constantinople 
(428-431 A.D.), said in a sermon: "Let no one call Mary the Mother 
of God, for Mary was a human being, and that God should be born 
of a human being is impossible." Nestor and his followers did 
not deny that Mary was the mother of Jesus, nor that Jesus was 


Christ, the Son of God, but they protested against calling her 
Theotokos or "Mother of God." However, the influence of Cyril, 
patriarch of Alexandria, prevailed, and the general folklore, which 
named so many goddesses "Mother of God" or "Mother of the 
Gods" was also accepted into the Christian faith. 

These remarks about Mary were placed under the heading 
of "Goddesses," not because Mary is considered as a goddess, 
but because she is considered as apart from all human women by 
virtue of her miraculous conception of Jesus and her omti miracu- 
lous birth. Moreover, she is worshiped to a degree far above the 
adoration of the saints. She is prayed to as an intermediary be- 
tween mankind and her son Christ, or God. 

Mere Mortal Women 

In the classical period of Arabian supremacy in literature, 
during the "dark ages" in Europe, it was an established rule 
that all poems, or quasidehs, no matter what their subject might 
be, must begin with passages or stanzas mentioning women and 
their charms, "so that the hearts and the minds of the readers 
might become favorably disposed toward the poem." For this 
reason the En-Nerib, a celebrated Arabian poem, begins with 
verses treating of women and love. 

A story somewhat similar to that about Ahasuerus and 
Esther (see p. 238), is told about a Lydian king. The story of 
Esther is Persian and is foreign to Jewish literature. In Asia 
Minor, as in the Mohammedan lands today, women were kept in 
seclusion; therefore Vashti was rightly offended when her hus- 
band, the king, wanted to show her to his guests. Eemember that 
in those days, a queen wore but little more than a veil (see Nef- 
ert-Ari-Ahmes, Fig. 89). 

Long before Alexander the Great, the Greeks imported silk 
at Cos, where it was woven into a gossamer tissue, the famous 
cos vestis, which revealed rather than clothed the form. This 
fabric was also called ventus textilis, or textile breath, in view 
of its extreme thinness and transparency. A similar fabric was 
worn by rich women in all Oriental lands. 

About 1170 B.C. there was a Lydian king, Candaules, who had 
an exceedingly handsome wife of whose beauty he boasted to his 
highest minister, Gyge. The latter did not say much and Candau- 
les thought that he doubted his word. 



Candaules hid Gyge in his room so that when the queen un- 
dressed, Gyge might see the queen's beauty for himself. But 
when Gyge attempted to sneak from the room, the queen saw him, 
and he confessed how he came to be there. She was very angry 
and sent him Avord that either she would have him killed, or he 
should kill the king and become her husband, as it was not right 
that anyone should live that had seen her naked, except a hus- 
band. So Gyge chose to become king. 

Under the reign of Cambyses (500 b.c.) a man by the name 
of Conon was condemned to be locked up in a prison, without 
food or drink, until he starved to death. His daughter asked 
permission to visit him daily, which was allowed her, but she was 
first carefully searched that she might smuggle in no food nor 
drink. When after some time her father showed no signs of weak- 

Fig. 331. — Antipater murders his mother Thessalonica. 

ening a watch was kept on her and she was caught in the act of 
giving her father the milk from her breasts, for she Avas a nurs- 
ing mother; it was reported to the authorities, and was consid- 
ered so notable an example of filial love and duty (piety, as it Avas 
called in earlier times) that they pardoned the father and re- 
Avarded the daughter. 

Cassandra left tAvo sons, each of Avhom aspired to the croA\Ti. 
Antipater (about 320 b.c), the older, thought that his mother, 
Thessalonica, inclined to favor the younger and he became so 
angry that he went to kill her himself. She implored him "by the 
breasts that had nourished him," at the same time exposing her 
bosom to his sight, but he killed her nevertheless. History re- 


lates this as if the act of impiety towards her breasts was a very 
heinous aggravation of her murder (Fig. 331). 

When Nero (36-68 a.d.) sent executioners to kill his mother 
Agrippa, she bared her belly to them and asked them to stab her 
in the abdomen because it had borne such a monstrosity as Nero. 

Under the emperor Tiberius a traitor, Sejanus, was arrested, 
and he and his whole family were sentenced to be beheaded. 
Now it happened that he had a daughter who was immarried and 
still a virgin; but Eoman law said that no virgin might be put 
to death. So Tiberius ordered the executioner to ravish the 
daughter of Sejanus in public, so that it might be generally 
known that she was no longer a virgin ; he then had her beheaded. 

Hipparchus, King of Athens, sought to seduce Harmodium 
to "Greek Love" {coitus in ano), but was refused by Harmodius. 
Hipparchus thereupon seized and raped the sister of Harmodius, 
who in turn revenged his sister by stabbing Hipparchus to death, 
but was arrested by the guards. The concubine of Harmodius, 
Leaena, was put to the torture to find out any accomplices of 
Harmodius, but she bit off her tongue and spat it at the inquis- 
itors so she could not say anything against the friends of Har- 

Tamerlane (1402 a. d.) defeated the King Bajazeth. He 
carried Bajazeth about with him in an iron cage, in which he was 
fed on what he could secure, after the . dogs had been fed, from 
their leavings, with his hands tied behind his back. He was 
taken from the cage and compelled to get down on hands and 
knees as a stool when Tamerlane wanted to mount his horse. 
And Bajazeth 's Avife, a beautiful princess of Servia, he kept as a 
slave to serve him at table, nearly nude, with Bajazeth in his cage 
brought where he could see this. Bajazeth at last beat out his 
brains against the bars of his cage. 

Mencius (about the third century b. c.) was a great Chinese 
philosopher, considered second only to Confucius. His father 
died when he was three years old, and he was brought up by his 
mother. Her praises were sung by a great writer in the last 
century b. c, and ever since, for 2,000 years now, she has been 
adored as the "model mother of China." 

Heinrich von Meissen (1260-1318 a.d.) was a poet better 
laiown as Frauenlob. He wrote poems about the Holy Virgin; 
he Avrote in favor of saying "Frau" instead of "Weib," and he 



wrote much in exaltation of woman. Hence he is called "Frau- 
enlob" (the Praise of Woman). 

And in these days, when the question of "votes for women" 
is so much and so favorably discussed and acted upon, the fol- 
lowing, from Persia, is refreshing and encouraging: Bahi or 
Bahy is a modern Persian sect. Persia is the least orthodox of 
the Mohammedan lands, for the prophet himself is considered 
second to his successor, Ali, and his sons. It was founded by 
Teyed Mohammed Ali, assisted by three apostles and one woman, 
Zerryn-Taj, better known as Grourred-Oul-Ayn ("consolation of 
• the eyes") bestowed in admiration of her exceeding loveliness. 
The doctrines are pantheistic, their morality is pure and cheerful 
and women are treated better than by any other Asiatic people. 
Concubinage and polygamy are forbidden, as well as asceticism 
and mendicancy. A council of nineteen members presides over 
the sect and it is a rule that at least one member of this council 
shall be a woman. 

Light is dawning in the East! 

General Considerations 

Conjugal couples (sexual union) were worshipped in many 
countries; in fact, nearly all gods in all nations are supposed to 
have a sexual mate ; as Brahma and Maya, Siva and Kali, etc., in 
India; Osiris and Isis, Ptah and Pasht, etc., in ancient Egypt; 
Jupiter and Juno, Vulcan and Venus, etc., in ancient Greece and 

In the early period of Christianity there was a sect called 
"Gnostics" whose peculiar doctrine was, that it is a prime duty 
of every man to follow the suggestions of his instincts or desires. 
At one of their festivals the men and women assembled in a 
darkened room, all naked, and every man seized a woman and 
cohabited with her; in the darkness this led to promiscuous and 
incestuous license in the name of religion. 

The sign of the Gnostics (Fig. 332) consisted of a six-sided 
star, composed of the male and female triangles intertwined, just 
as the real pubic hairy triangles of the man and woman would 
also form this six-sided star during coition. This sign is known 
among the Jews as "David's Shield," and is used as an archi- 
tectural ornament on their synagogues, altars, etc. ; it is also em- 



broidered on the canopy held over the bridal couple during an 
orthodox Jewish wedding. 

In India it is called SwastUva, meaning a sjTubol or amulet 
of good luck ; the Saivas mark their sacred vases with this sign ; 
the upright pyramid signifies Siva, who with these three points 
unites in himself the attributes of purity, truth and justice; the 
inverted or female triangle is his consort, Sakti or Kali, with the 
same attributes. 

The Eosicrucians used it frequently in this form and with 
various explanations, and also in another form, two stone or wood 
triangular blocks superimposed one on the other. 

By the early Christians this sign was engraved on medals 
which were worn as amulets to ward off evil and disease; it is 
now often used as one of the pendants in the markers for hymn 
and prayer books ; also occasionally as an architectural ornament. 

Fig. 332 — Sign of the Gnostics. Known rig. 333. — Thor'a Hammer, or Swaa- 
to the Jews as David's Shield. Usual tika symbol. A symbol of polyandric 
form on left; on the right, an alchemistic union — one woman and several men. 
foi'm. See this sign in pubic triangle in Fig. 


It is part of the seal of the theosophic societies and is fre- 
quently seen as part of the mystic signs of secret societies. It 
was much used also by the alchemists. 

The symbol also occurred in ancient or pre-historic Aztec 
ruins, in Yucatan and Central America; it was found, for in- 
stance, in the ruins of Uxmal, in Yucatan; and it was found in 
Aztec temples in Mexico. 

The shape of an ornament that is quite popular with us at 
present is shown in Fig. 333, on the left; it is also called "Swas- 
tika" and is a charm to conjure good luck. 

Like the sign of the Gnostics it represents sexual union, but 
of the polyandric type. It was used by the ancient Phoenicians 
and other Orientals, and was called by them the "cross of the 
Four Great Gods." It is based on the peculiar Asiatic custom. 



still prevalent in Thibet, of polyandry, one woman having sev- 
eral husbands. It represents, figuratively, four male organs 
serving for one female organ. The derivation, more coarsely 
represented, is also sho-\\Ti (Fig. 333). 

This symbol was considered in Scandinavian or Norse myth- 
ology to represent lightning, and was called Thor's Hammer; but 
it also had a phallic significance, for with it Thor was supposed 
to bless or consecrate the newly married couples. 

In the Eddas it is related how the god Thor lost this ham- 
mer at one time, it having been stolen by the giant Thrym; the 
latter refused to surrender the hammer to its owner, except on 

Pig. 334. — An Irish cross ; some were 
Pagan, others early Christian, but all were 
symbolic of polyandric union. 

Fig. 335. — Hands in blessing: First, 
male trinity; second, Hindu symbol 
through which worshippers gaze at sa- 
cred objects; third, male and female 
symbols; fourth and fifth, sexual union. 

the condition that the goddess Freya should be given to him for 
a wife. Upon this Thor disguised himself as a woman, pretend- 
ing to be Freya, thus succeeding in meeting Thrym ; he then slew 
the giant and recovered his hammer. 

This cross was used in its realistic form, as shown in the 
right-hand figure, both in heathen a