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Full text of "The Cuba review"

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CVBA1REVI 



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VIEW 




Durante mas tie 20 aiios nuestras LOCOMOTORAS estan al ser\ icio de dis- 
tintos ferrocarriles e ingenios de Centre y Siir- America y son apreciados nniy par- 
ticularmente por su construccion maciza y esmerada. Los perfeccionamientos cpie 
se han introducido durante los ultimos anos nos j^onen en condiciones de asesjurar 
([ue, en resistencia, superioridad de materiales y duracion, nuestras niaquinas no 
son hoy superadas por las de nintjuna otra fabrica. Con Talleres bien habilitados 
y surtido abundante de los materiales necesarios, podemos garantizar prontas en- 

•■"• Slr\a!;o dirigir la correspondeiicia a 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS, 43 cedar st., new york, ee. uu. 



JAMES M. MOTLEY, Gerente 



CATALOGOS Y PRESUPUESTOS SE REMITEN A SOLICITUD 



JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
NEW YORK 



Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO. LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 



Los productos de estas Fahricas abarcaii 




A Eolicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. 
Direccion cablegrafica : JAMOTLEY. New York (Se usan todas las claves) 



Locomotoras 

Carros para cana 

Rieles y accesso- 
rios 

Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 

Calderas 

^liujuinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 

Tanques 

Tornos 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maquin- 
aria para Ingen- 
ios de Azucar 

Calentadores de 
agua de alimen- 
tacion 

Alambiques para 
agua 

Madera, pine am- 
arillo 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 
cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de \% tone- 
ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac- 

Carros de Ingenios idad de so toneiadas. 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, iiicluyendo los juegos de rue- 
das, completamente armados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos com- 
pletes para cnnstmir los carros a su destino de maderas del pais. 



I 




^;-:ff |pe^^^-j erg _- mny ' — gfe ^^P 



RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., NEW YORK, N. Y. "ble address 

' ' ' RAMALIAM 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, PRES. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 



Phone Broad 

4266-4267 



Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure 

15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U. S, A ^iisTB-y ^i^g? 



Night Phone 

105 Bay Ridge 

1368 Richmond Hill 



WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 



FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



SUGARS 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



82 Wall Street, New York 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal— the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

/^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

\j"|J|3.I18ll8lV f^°"^ 5 ^- ^^- to 8 P. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

^=^^^^=: Fare (Round Trip), $1.40 

g^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

\j"|JUI^^3 ■■■■ from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train ir.io P. M. 

=^^^^^^ Fare (Round Trip), $1.92 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANAS FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) |o.o6 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A.M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A.M. to 11 P.M. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW ichen loriting to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 







JACKSON 


^^^HMIIi 




S^^^Sk 


\ TUBULAR BARROWS 


TT Tubular Barrow— 3 Cu. Ft. 


y are made with extra deep pressed trays. 
No seams or rivets to pre\ent complete 
discharge of load. 

WRITE FOR CATALOG 


The 


Jackson 


Manufacturing Co. 




HARRISBURG, PA. 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 




A\oid imitations, insist upon getting WALKER'S 
METALLIC '-LION" PACKING. Look for "The 
Thin Red Line" which runs through all the 
Genuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Labels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 



JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 



Western Railway of Havana 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 

6.15 
8.24 



PM 



PM PM AM AM AM' Fare 



2-55 
4-24 
5SI 
6.05 
6.56 
840 
P M 



I-4.S 
3-55 



10.15 
12.24 



65*; 5-45 'St cl. 

8 24 7-35 $2.65 

9-5" — ^ 5-19 

10.05 5-^2 

10.56 7.30 671 

12.40 11.45 8.83 

P M AM 



Lv. Cen. Sta...Ar 
.Ar. .Artemisa. .Lv 
.A r. Paso ReaL.Lv 


Fare 
3dcL 
J1.40 
2.54 
2.74 
325 
4.22 


AM 
720 
5 '5 

A M 


AM 
11.09 
9.40 
8.05 
7.4S 
6.5.1 
5.20 

A.M 


PM 
12.01 
9-45 


PM 
320 
'•'5 


PM 

7.09 
5-40 
4.05 
3-48 
2-55 
1.20 

pm: 








Ar Guane. . .Lv 


AM 


P M 



PM 
8.00 
545 

6.00 
2.00 
PM 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares From Havana To 

Arroyo Xaranjo 24 cts. Rancho Boyeros 38 cts. 

Calabazar 26 cts. Santiago de las Vegas. . .50 cts. 

Rincon 60 cts. 

Leaving Central Station every half hour from 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 P. M., 
and every hour thereafter to 11.15 P .VI. 

"WEEK-END" TICKETS 

FIRST- AND THIRD-CLASS 

are on sale from Havana to all points on the Western Railway of Havana west of 
Rincon and vice versa. These tickets are valid going on Saturdays and returning 
on any ordinary train the following Sunday and Monday, and are sold at very low 
rates. 



t'Uiixc mention THE CUBA REVIEW when icriting to Advertisers 



THL CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX DECEMBER, 1920 No. 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — A Typical Cuban Street Corner. 
Frontispiece — Alameda, Santiago de Cuba. 

PAGE 

Cuban Commercial Matters: 

British Trade with Cuba 24 

Cuba as a Market for Electrical Fixtures 22, 23 

Cuban Market for Southern Pitch Pine and Hardwood 23 

Exports of Machinery to Cuba 24 

Extension of Prohibition on Importation of Rice 22 

Leather Exports from Spain to Cuba 24 

Cuban Financial Matters: 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 25 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 25, 26 

Cuban Government Matters: 

Cuban Delegates to League of Nations 7 

Extension of Moratorium 7 

Financial Adviser from the United States 7 

First Secretary of the U. S. Legation in Cuba 7 

National Revenue 7 

New Municipalities 7 

New Postmaster General 7 

Havana Correspondence 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 

Nuevitas 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 

The Sugar Industry: 

Crop of Cuba, 1919-1920 28 

New Sugar Company 27 

Railroad Project 28 

Record Beet Seed Crop 32 

Sugar Industry in Brazil 27 

U. S. Consumption for Six Months 31, 32 

World's 1920-1921 Sugar Crop Estimates 29, 30, 31 

Sugar Review, English 33, 34 

Sugar Review, Spanish 35, 36 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




THE 



LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 



CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1920, bji the Munson Steamship Line 



GAKUisM 



Volume XIX 



DECEMBER, 1920 



Number i 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



CUBAN DELEGATES TO LEAGUE 
OF NATIONS 

The Cuban delegation to the League 
of Nations is taking a prominent part in 
the proceedings of the assembly. 

Cul^a is represented on the following 
committees : General Organization, Dis- 
armament, Blockade ; Mandates and Ad- 
mission of New States 

From Cuba Sr. Aristides Aguero has 
been appointed on the Committee for 
Technical Organization, and Sr. Ortiz on 
the Court of International Justice and 
Finances of the League. 



Antonio de las Yegas, Province of Ha- 
vana ; and Tateras, Province of Santiago. 



EXTENSION OF MORATORIUM 
By Presidential decree dated November 
30th, the moratorium in Cuba has been 
extended until December 31st. 



FINANCIAL ADVISER FROM 
UNITED STATES 
Mr. Albert Rathbone, former Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury, has been chosen 
to serve as financial adviser to the Cuban 
Government. Mr. Rathbone left for Cuba 
early in December and will confer with 
President IMenocal and other officials re- 
garding plans for relieving the existing 
financial conditions. 



NEW MUNICIPALITIES 

The Cuban Congress has recently passed 

law"s providing for the establishment of 

the following municipalities : Aguada de 

Pasajeros, Province of Santa Clara ; San 



NEW POSTMASTER GENERAL 
Sr. Carlos M. Barnet, Assistant Post- 
master General of Cuba, has been ap- 
pointed Postmaster General by presiden- 
tial decree, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of the late Sr. Miguel Paniagua. 
Mr. Barnet's old post will go to Sr. 
Manuel Linares. 



NATIONAL REVENUE 
In 1919 the national revenue of Cuba 
was $79,078,325, which, compared with the 
$64,478,772 collected in 1918, shows an 
increase of $4,599,553. The revenue was 
derived from the following source's in 
1919 : Customs, $44,337,713 ; contributions 
and taxes, $15,450,291; stamp tax, $3,- 
605,775 ; loan tax, $4,561,009 ; national lot- 
tery, $4,429,921 ; sundry revenues, $1,673,- 
S58 ; communications revenue, $2,133,622 ; 
port Improvement taxes, $1,599,318 ; prop- 
erty and State taxes, $408,732. 



FIRST SECRETARY OF U. S. LEGATION 
IN CUBA 
The Havana Post reports through in- 
formation from Washington, that Mr. 
Francis White, who has served as First 
Secretary at the American Legation in 
Cerro since January last, will leave 
shortly for a new post in Buenos Aires. 
He will be succeeded in Havana by Mr. 
P. L. Cabel, who has been attached to the 
American Embassy in Paris. 



THE C V r. A 11 E V 1 E W 



HAVANA CORRESPONDENCE 



XovcmiMT •_•:'., r.»i.'o. 

HA\ANA WINTER RACE MEET: Tlic 1'. >-_N )- 1 <. ti' 1 llavjiiiii WiiitiT Race Meet, which 
Is to (ipt-u Thursday, Thanksjriviiig Day, seems io have been gotten ready with especial 
care this season, as several new owners of race horses are to have their stables trans- 
ferretl to Havana for tliis meet. Improvements have been made to the CKib House at 
Oriental Parlj. The grounds have been attended to with much care during tlie sununer 
and the management are deserving of great praise for the work that has been accom- 
plished. The Oriental Tark of the CuV)an-American Jockey Chib has been numbered 
among the most beautiful race courses in the Americas and the reputation is indeed 
well earned. Many splendid races are to be run this season for very attractive purses 
and the officials of the club are sure of hearty support not only from the local Cuban 
population, but from the large tourist population that is assured Cuba for this y(>ar. 

DESTRUCTIVE FIRE ON OFICIOS STREET: On the afternoon of November ISth 
fire destroyed the plant of the West Indies Oil I{etining Company of this city, which 
is the subsidiary of the Standard Oil Company in Cuba. The fire raged the entire 
afternoon and part of the night and damage to the amount of about .$400,000 was 
done. The cause of the fire has not been ascertained. 

AEROPLANE MAIL SER\'ICE ESTABLISHED: The much talked of aeroplane mail 
service between the United States and ('ul>a has been estal)lished and daily trips are 
now made between Key West and Havana. The aeroplanes carrying the mails are 
spacious machines indeed and bring passengers as well as mail. The contract entered 
into between the two Governments and the aeroplane company calls for a daily trip 
between the two cities — which is being maintained. The trip of 00 miles takes about 
an hour and a half. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE BASEBALL CLUB HERE: The appearance in Havana of the 
New York National League l)aseball players has been enjoyed l)y the Cuban baseball 
fans for the past four weeks. The famous home run hitter, "Babe" Kuth, made 
his appearance and drew large crowds to the grounds to watch his performances. A 
three-team league was formed with the "Giants," "Almendares" and "Havanas" and 
many interesting and close games were played. "Babe" Ruth did not make as many 
home runs as it was expected he would, but he was a great attraction, since he 
shifted his position from fielder to first base and then to pitcher and again to catcher. 

Havana's tourist outlook: From what we are able to observe, this coming 
winter is to be the banner year for tourists in Havana. Many new buildings have 
been splendidly fitted up as boarding and rooming houses to take care of the crowds 
and the hotels are ready for record crowds this year. Tourists will find Havana 
this winter still more modernized than ever with the introduction of the "Palisades 
Park" on the :\Ialecon, which very much resembles the world famous Coney Island in 
New York except that it has not the proportions. Then, too, the number of English- 
speaking residents of Cuba has increased consideralily during the past few years and 
the inability to speak Spanish is not the handicap to the present-day tourist that it 
was in years past. Today tlie number of Cubans speaking English is very large, and 
with its twelve months of smishine, delightful breezes, and hospitable, fun-loving 
people, the Island is fast becoming wliat has always been said of it, "The Garden Spot 
of the World." 

HAVANA TEMPLETE OPEN: The Havana "Templete," said to have been erected 
on the very site where the City of Havana was founded in 1519 by the Spaniard 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Velasquez, was opened for inspection on November 16tli, the only day in the year 
that it is to be viewed by the population of the city. Inside the Templete are to be 
found three celebrated paintings by the artist Escobar. These pictures depict the 
installation of the first Municipal Council in Cuba, the second and largest the cele- 
bration of the first mass that was held, and the third depicts the inauguration of the 
Chapel itself, 

POLITICAL SITUATION: Although to date no Presidential candidate has been 
formallj' declared, it is generally acquiesced that Dr, Alfredo Zayas, the candidate 
of the National League, a fusion of the Conservative party, the Zayistas and some 
Liberals, who were strongly attached to Dr. Zayas, has won. The delay in making 
kAown the victorious candidate has been caused by I'eason of the fact that some of 
the Electoral Colleges had to take a second vote as some of the provisions of the new 
Crowder Electoral Law were not fully understood by the judges. From the claims 
of the two parties on the Island, it would seem that Cuba has eleven provinces instead 
of six, for the reason that the Liberals claim the victory in five of the six provinces and 
the National League makes claim on exactly the same amount of territory. The 
National League concedes the Province of Havana to the Liberals, claiming the 
victory on the rest of the Island, while the Liberals concede the Province of Santiago 
de Cuba to the National League, claiming the victory for the balance of the Island. 

The election was carried otf quietly for the most part. In one or two small 
outlying towns disturbances were noted, but the Rural Guards were on hand and 
quickly quelled any attempt at disorders. 

Not content with the decision reached by the Electoral College, the Lil^erals have 
sent a commission to "Washington to register a vigorous protest against the methods 
of the National League in conducting the election. It is claimed that throughout 
the Island the soldiery of the Cuban Government, under the influence of the officers, 
intimidated the populace to such an extent that the Liberals were discouragd in the 
idea of casting their votes and remained away from the polls, while the National 
League sympathizers were encouraged to cast their votes. This commission has 
represented to the Washington Government that it is the duty of the United States to 
cause another election to be held and this time under American supervision, for the 
purpose of ascertaining which candidate is to have the honor of conducting the 
affairs of the Island for the next four years. To date there is no indication that the 
Government of the United States will act on the representations of this committee of 
the Liberal party. It is a fact, however, that there is much dissatisfaction here over 
the result of the election. 

FINANCIAL SITUATION : The loan which it was contemplated that American 
bankers were to make to the Cuban Government in the amount of $100,000,000 did 
not mature, after having been reduced to $50,000,000 and then to $30,000,000. The 
explanation is vouchsafed that "diversity of interests" is the reason why the loan 
cannot be put through, and no little anxiety was felt when the announcement was 
made. The press has devoted columns to the financial situation, but, as far as we 
can learn, the question has never been picked to pieces in an orderly manner and the 
situation discussed calmly. In the first place, the general opinion is that one loan was 
to be made. To the contrary there were two loans under consideration, one a loan 
from American bankers to Cuban banks, and the second a loan from American bankers 
to the Cuban Government, which latter funds were specified to be devoted to the 
financing of the coming sugar crop. The first loan has been called off for the reason 
mentioned above of "diversified interests" and the second is still pending for the reason 
we are advised, that the election results in Cuba have not been finally announced. 
The explanation "diversity of interests" is rather vague and is generally considered 
to mean that the financial transactions of some of the banking institutions on the 



10 T II E C U B A It E V I E W 



Islaiiil :iio not considered as having boon undertaken witli a view to tlie best interests 
of tiio respective banks. As for tlie loan to the Cuban Government, although no 
President has been declared to have boon elected, Dr. Alfredo Zayas is undoubtedly 
thq landidate who received the necessary votes to win. The question of why no 
President has been declared, however, is discussed in another paragraph of this letter. 

The suddenness of the putting into effect of (ho inoratoriuni was most remarkable; 
out of a perfectly clear sky the blow fell. A week before the moratorium was put in 
o(Te<-t the prosperity of the Island was at its height. Prices were high with a splendid 
demand for commodities of every kind. Real estate had risen in leaps and bounds 
for the past six months, new enterprises were meeting with encouragement from all 
sources, building was going on in all parts of the city on an extensive scale; th^re 
was no evidence anywhere of unemployment, when on Thursday, October 7th, the 
rumor quickly spread over the City of Havana that a run was being experienced by 
three of the banks of the city. On the Sth one of the banks closed its doors and it is 
felt sure that the half day Saturday was the only thing that saved the other two 
banks from closing their doors also. Sunday, after a hurried conference with the 
President of the Republic, General Menocal, the moratorium was decreed and made 
effective on Monday, the 11th of October. It took business several days to realize 
that conditions had indeed changed. From extreme activity to absolute dullness 
took but the space of a day and the public awaited the solution of the trying probliMu. 

The first effect of the i)laciiig of the moratorium in force was evidenced in a 
general scramble for cash. Checks were not permitted in payment for bills due and 
the scarcity of money caused an immediate cessation of all business. Investigations 
were started, but little information was meted out to the public. Heads of banks 
made trips to the United States in an endeavor to raise funds for the relief of the 
l>anks here and, for a time, cash poured into the Island. It is estimated that about 
$35,000,000. was sent to Cuba and the banks disbursed these funds to their depositors 
•or loaned this money out subject to checking accounts without the bounds of the 
moratorium. 

The situation was relieved in a general way, but the chief concern of today is the 
restoration of normal conditions in order that legitimate business may secure funds 
for the carrying out of its projects now paralyzed. The Banco Espanol de la Isla 
•de Cuba, of which institution Sr. Jose Marimon is the President, has petitioned the 
Pi'osidont of the Republic for an extension of the moratorium, in an endeavor to 
straighten out its affairs. The Banco Internacional has made strenuous efforts in the 
last fortnight to interest local capital in its affairs and resume payment to its 
creditors. As for the Banco Nacional de Cuba, at one time it was rumored that this 
bank had been purchased by Northern capital and that Sr. Jos6 Lopez Rodriguez, 
Chairman of the Board of Directors, had been forced to resign. Another rumor had it 
that the National City Bank of New York had purchased the Banco Nacional de Cuba. 
It now seems that the Cuban Government is apt to take over the Banco Nacional de 
Cuba since it is the National Depository. Tliis bank has always had large sums 
of money, against which sums the Government issued its checks and drafts. 

It is the consensus of opinion that the banks are not, at this time, in condition 
for the raising of the moratorium. Many advance the opinion that the moratorium 
should be raised gradually, extending same over a period of possibly three or four 
months and permitting those who wi.sh to withdraw funds to do so in small amounts, 
the idea being that faith in the solvency of the banks will have been restored by that 
time. One thing is certain: President Menocal has decided not to extend the mora- 
torium, but will leave it to the Cuban Congress to take what measures they deem 
best. The Cuban Congress, which is supposed to convene the first Monday of Novem- 
ber, did not do so until Monday, November 22nd, with a full quorum, and are now 



THECUBAREVIEW 11 

studying what measures will be adopted, for the relief of the situation. An extension 
of the moratorium will not, we believe, relieve the situation. Sounder methods will 
have to be adopted if any good is to result. 

What will eventually be done in the matter is still withheld from the public, but 
even the public know enough of affairs in general to feel that some serious question 
of mismanagement has been the cause of the suspension of payment of their funds 
entrusted to these institutions for safekeeping. 



PORT CONGESTION : In spite of the fact that there are fewer vessels in the Bay 
of Havana today awaiting discharge and, also, the optimistic tone of the press in 
general, it is our impression that the port congestion of Havana shows little, if any, 
improvement. The question considered from the point of view of the steamship 
lines entering the port is somewhat complicated in view of the fact that, whereas 
formerly the removal of merchandise from the wharves was a question of warehouse 
space of the consignee to accommodate their merchandise, today, with the moratorium 
in effect and the consequent difficulty of merchants raising cash for the payment of 
drafts and duties on their very large importations, it is difficult to see wherein 
conditions have improved. 

The congestion dates back to January of this year. At that time an importer 
had placed an order with a house in the United States for a bill of goods. These 
goods were shipped, after some delay, and when they reached their port of embarkation 
they were held up on account of an embargo which the steamship company had 
placed in effect. In many cases, at this juncture, the shippers advised the consignee 
that they could secure space on a different steamship line to Cuba from another port 
and the consignee duplicated his oi'der with the understanding that the goods would 
be despatched to Cuba immediately. 

This despatch was accomplished, but in many cases the goods came on some newly 
organized steamship service which had no wharf accommodations in Cuba and the 
ships remained in the bay awaiting berth, in some instances, and in still others 
awaiting barges to be made empty to accomplish their discharge. In the meantime 
the consignee of these goods was being called upon by his clientele to deliver the goods 
ordered. Prices were high and the prospects of splendid profits good, and the con- 
signee was assured by his representatives in the North that such and such a line had 
raised its embargo against Cuban ports and he permitted his agents to despatch a 
third order for the same goods by this line hoping to receive same promptly. In the 
meantime, the first and second orders placed by the consignee may have been delivered 
and his orders filled from these. Shortly after the moratorium was placed in effect 
his third order arrived in Havana and he found to his amazement that he was unable 
to arrange accommodation for the funds necessary to obtain this third shipment. 
And in this we have the^ost logical explanation, we think, for the condition of the 
bay today. Storage charges were assessed against his shipments on the wharves and 
this storage had to be added to the cost price of the goods. 

With the publication of the fall editions of catalogues this consignee was amazed 
to find that prices were quoted at from 10% to 35% reductions. He was caught with 
large stocks on hand, money very tight, and reductions of prices staring him in the 
face. Many consignees refused to accept delivery of their merchandise and drafts 
were reported liy the banks as being unpaid. American exporters made hasty trips 
to Cul;a to adjust matters and endeavored to induce their customers to accept these 
goods, but in many cases without results. 

To the logical mind it would seem that the farseeing American exporter should 
have been reluctant to ship to an importer three times the amount of merchandise 



12 THECUBAREVIEW 

— - - 

that tliis iinpiTtor had hocn purcliasing ordinarily. Surely the fact that the popula- 
tion had not increased in so short a time to these proportions was well known to the 
exporters ; ])ut the shipments were made, greatly overtaxing the ports of the Island 
Qnd the people therein to assimilate the merchandise and, when the price fall came, 
the merchants were not prepared for the blow. Tliis was the situation of the rice 
controversy over which there has been so much written and said. 

Today one of the principal steamship lines to the Island of Cuba has required 
that guarantees be fin-nished it to the effect that the consignee is in position to take 
immediate delivery of goods ordered before permission will be granted to ship. Much 
criticism was lieaped on this steamship line when these guarantees were first de- 
manded, but today, thirty days after tlie imposition of the requirement, nothing but 
praise is heard for the attitude taken by this line that wishes to serve the public and 
not collect abnormal storage charges from consignees not in position to accept delivery 
of their merchandise. 

SUGAR: In the two previous letters which we have written we predicted that 
the average price for the coming crop would be in the neighborhood of 10 to 12 cents, 
but indications now point to tlie attainment of a still lower average for the 1920-21 
crop. The recent low level of 5.275 cents reached in the United States, at which time 
considerable January and February delivery was offered with no takers, causes us to 
incline to the view that if the average for the coming crop reaches eight cents it will 
have done well in the face of the fact that there are now in Cuba some three hundred 
thousand tons of last year's crop unsold, and the possibilities for the coming crop 
are in the neighborhood of five million tons. Allowing for the large stocks of sugar 
on hand in the United States, tlie material increase in the production of sugar in 
foreign countries this year, and the general price decline that has been experienced in 
all lines of business, we feel that eight cent sugar, as an average for the entire crop, 
is as high as may be expected. 

The growers on the Island have recently met and endeavored to organize them- 
selves for the pui'pose of holding their sugars for higher prices, l)ut this will be very 
hard to attain for the simple reason that the banks of the Island are not in position 
to make the liberal loans this year that they were in years past. Of course, should 
the loan from American bankers to the Cuban Government be put through and this 
money be used solely for the aiding in financing this sugar crop, material assistance 
would be rendered the glowers and producers in their efforts. The one issue that has 
caused consternation among the growers and producers has been the tremendous drop 
from the highest level ever attained by Cuban sngai's to the extremely low level 
attninc'd in recent (|uotations. Those having nioiu'v invested in sugar lands or centrals 
have been receiving splendid n'tiinis on their investments for the past four years. 
This year, however, after liaving made large punhases of niiichinery, etc., at the very 
peak of the high prices, to require that they acce]it less than eight cents for their 
sugar is going to mean that a complete readjustment take place. Let us bear in mind 
that when prices were high the average grower did not i)ut his money away in banks 
to draw interest, but reinvested it in high-priced land :in<l ('([uipment with high 
expectations for the future. A loolv over tlie Island today will tpuckly confirm this 
statement. Where formerly the laborers lived in crude huts and the cane was hauled 
in antiquated ox-carts, today you will find splendid "l)arracones" are provided for 
the laborers (and substantial wage increases have been granted also) and modern 
tractors are bauling the cane to the mills for grinding. A marked improvement in 
the personnel of the centrals is also very evident. High salaried administrators have 
been installed, together with cai)al)le chemists and well organized offices, witli first- 
class accommodations for all. Whereas, a few years ago four and five cent sugar 
rendered a substantial income on the investment represented in a sugar central, it 
will take, today, at least seven cent sugar to return the same proportional profit. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



13 




A View of the Hills of Santiago. 




Morro Castle, Santiago. 



VITAL STATISTICS IN HAVANA 
The vital statistics for 1919 in the dis- 
trict of Havana were as follows : births, 
4,471 boys and 3,991 girls of the white race 
and 739 boys and 707 girls of tlie black 
race, or a total of 9,908 births. Deaths 
were : 3,495 males and 2,234 females of 
the white race and 815 males and 1,085 
females of the negro race, or a total of 
7,629 deaths. Th;re were 2,780 marriages 



among white persons and 337 marriages 
among negroes, giving a total of 3,123 
marriages. 



NEW HOTEL FOR CIENFUEGOS 
It is reported that the Urban Improve- 
ment Company at Cienfuegos proposes to 
construct a modern hotel in that city at. 
an estimated cost of $208,060. 



14 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




\'ie\v of tlif Hills ut Santiago fruin I'Miniatu Koat 




Morro Castle, Santiago de Cuba. 



PROPOSED FUEL-OIL STATION 
The estnblislmient of ;i fuel-oil siijiiily 
terminal at I'unta Pietlra, oiic-lialf mile 
from Antilla, is l^eing ('ontemi)late(l l).v a 
company already establislied in Ciil)i!. At 
that point the water lias a sliore deptli of 
but 4 to 5 feet ; 1,000 feet from shore the 
depth is 20 feet ; 2,200 feet from shore it 
is 22 feet. The company plans to erect 
two stora.se tanks of n.l.fKiO barrels ca- 



pacity each, pmnp liouses, and a doclc to 
be at least 1,000 feet long. Vice Consul 
P.uck states that this company is already 
estaldished at Havana, ]\ratanzas, Cien- 
fnegos, Manzanillo, Nnevitas, and Ciennga 
and Regia. the two latter places being .just 
outside of Havana, and has "M.OOO-barrel 
tanks at each jxiint. It is said that simi- 
lar tanks will be built at Sajitiago de 
Cuba. 



T H E O U B A R E y I E W 15 

NUEVITAS 

By Consul John S. Calvert 



Tlie Province of Camaguey (formerly Puerto Principe), which forms the 
Nuevitas consular district, is the second in size of the six provinces of Cuba, having 
an area of about 10,190 square miles. It is, however, the most thinly populated of 
them all. According to the 1907 census it ranked sixth in population, with 118,000 
people, of whom 91.3 per cent, were Cubans, 7.1 per cent. Spaniards, and 1.6 per cent, 
of other nationalities. In race 81.7 per cent, were white, and 18.3 per cent, negro. 
The present population is estimated at about 200,000, with the foreign element, 
especially that composed of other West Indians, proportionately larger. The capital, 
Camaguey, has now about 35,000 people, Ciego de Avila, the second town, about 
15,000, and Nuevitas and Moron between 5,000 and 10,000. 

Camaguey is located inland, 45 miles by rail from Nuevitas, which latter town 
has become one of the most important sugar-exporting ports on the island, and bids 
fair to become in the immediate future one of the two or three leading ports in this 
regard. The district was formeily noted for cattle raising, but within the past half 
dozen years the raising of sugar cane and the grinding of it into raw sugar has be- 
come the important industry. Nuevitas has no other important manufacturing in- 
dustries, and it imports practically everything consumed. 

ALTITUDE TEMPERS THE HEAT IN THIS DISTRICT 
The greater part of the district is a central plain several hundred feet above 
sea level. The climate is tropical and insular, and the heat, while not extreme for 
the tropics, extends throughout the year, there being very few days which are really 
cool. The mean temperatvn-e for the year at Camaguey City is 77.3° F. The rainy 
season usually occurs during May and the summer months, but even at other seasons 
there is considerable humidity in the atmosphere. At Nuevitas the prevailing wind 
is northeast. 

The customs and manners of the district are those of Latin America, influenced, 
to a certain degree, by its proximity to the United States. The standards of living 
create a demand for the better grades of food and clothing, and, to some extent, 
luxuries. Houses are generally of the one-story type, and not modern in their 
arrangements. 

UNITED STATES FIRST IN TRADE WITH NUEVITAS 
The Nuevitas district has always enjoyed a large trade with the United States, 
this country taking most of its exported products, and furnishing the larger share 
of its imports. Since the outbreak of the European war, however, owing to. the 
restricted production in European lands and the difliculties of transportation, the 
United States has p^ractically absorbed the import trade of the district in all com- 
petitive lines, and takes all of its exports, except such raw sugar as is now by 
arrangement exported to the United Kingdom. 

For instance, during • the calendar year 1918, of the total value of imports 
through the port of Nuevitas, amounting to $2,946,875, according to custom house 
figures, $2,816,461 represented American goods, and the balance, $130,414, repre- 
sented imports from foreign countries by way of the United States. Of these trans- 
shipped goods, Spain and England furnished the larger portion, which consisted 
mostly of wine and canned goods from Spain, and jute sacks from England (British 
India). 

In 1913, the last pre-war year, $867,716 of the total imports of $1,155,262 came 
from the United States, $152,831 from Great Britain, $27,169 from Spain, $255 from 
other countries, and $107,291 from foreign countries shipping through American 
ports. At that time a certain, though not considerable, amount of foreign goods 



IG 



THE CUBA H E ^' I E W 



Jmported tlironsh the United States, consisted of sugar niarliinery fnmi France and 
Germany. 

ritlNCirAL IMrORTS FROM ALL COUNTRIES 
Detailed statistics of imports for tlie calendar year lOlS are not as yet available. 

In lieu of this, the figures for the primipal imports in litlT. and the preceding year, 

are given below. It is understood that the imports during lOIS as respects articles 

and quantities are very nuich the same as tliose for tiie two preceding years, any 

differences being due to tlio war-time contrul ovim- exports exercised by the United 
States Government : 

1916 1017 
Articles. 

Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 

Farm implpments, kilos 7,829 $6,119 15.169 $1.3,945 

Coal, iuithrrtoite, tons 20 62 40,9.53 210,968 

Lumber, pino, not planed, M feet 1,628 19,342 2,745 82,561 

Cement, barrels 22,588 30,482 20,728 41,327 

Oils, refined, gallons 13,485 3,110 145,094 41,075 

Iron and steel: 

Iron bars and rods, kilos 24,609 1,4.37 8.57,918 66,004 

Iron plates and sheets, kilos 243,435 24,170 227,014 37,097 

Steel rails, kilos 1,931,642 59,485 3,382,977 246,340 

Tools, kilos 34,773 12,632 59,382 29,028 

Nails, kilos 54,398 5,806 271,479 25,097 

Pipes and fittings, kilos 180,266 14,660 568,305 62,294 

Clothing, ready-made, kilos 57,809 84,275 48,735 98,717 

Sugar bags, kilos 315,890 66,477 1.53,399 41,150 

Furniture, wooden, kilos 296,735 47,438 271,341 53,022 

Shoes: 

Men's, pairs 41,799 87,760 45,224 105,465 

Women's, pairs 21,585 31,620 20,704 42,039 

Children's, pairs 4,050 3,286 10,747 11,239 

1910 1917 
Articles. 

Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 

Machinery: 

Sugar mill and accessories, kilos 1,240,705 .?100,942 423,373 $82,088 

Electrical, kilos 13,760 7,909 63,873 32,710 

Locomotives, kilos 1 1,503 2,876 30,333 13,834 

Other, kilos 112,104 32,409 374,941 116,284 

Vehicles: 

Coaches and accessories 568 51,634 

Automobiles, number 38 17,665 

Carts, kilos 37,984 4,211 190,333 26,043 

Meat, and meat products: 

Hams, etc., kilos 316,122 06,055 289,135 80,040 

Lard, kilos 212,560 2.5,007 118,263 20,632 

Wheat flour, barrels 10,203 59,892 11,125 112,832 

Potatoes, kilos 609,645 28,980 631,009 44,723 

Coffee, pounds 43,125 6,404 143,379 20,815 



MANY IMPORTED GOODS RECEIVED FROM HABAXA 
Tlie figures given for 1918 and 1913 were taken from the records of the Nuevitas 
custom house, and those for 1916 and 1917 from an annual publication of the Cuban 
Treasury Department. They do not furnish, how^ever, a complete index to the trade 
of this district for the reason that it has always been customary to rely upon 
Habana, and to a smaller extent Santiago, to supply the needs of the Province in 
certain lines. A great part of the merchandise brought from Habana by coastwise 
steamer consists of transshiped goods that are entered at the Nuevitas custom 
house, but it has been found impossible to obtain data with respect to the move- 
ment by rail. Generally speaking, however, it may be said that the bulk of the 
foodstuffs — flour, lard, hams, bacon, potatoes, etc. — and coal, cement, and lumber, 
are imported via Nuevitas. The United States has ahvays furnished most of these 
goods. The same is true in regard to hardware, steel rails, and machinery, although 
the heavy sugar-mill machinery, which has only been imported to any great extent 
since the outbreak of the war coincident with the development of this Province as 
a sugar producer, is mostly brought in via the Key West-Habana Rail Ferry, being 
handled through without breaking bulk. Naturally most of this machinery comes 
from the United States. 



THECUBAREVIEW 17 

Textile goods, with ttie exception of men's cotton clothing, are mainly purchased 
in Habana, and since the outbreak of the war American textiles have been sold in 
increasing quantities and have held a commanding position in that trade. It is esti- 
mated that there are 500,000 Spaniards on the island of Cuba. The wholesale and 
retail trade is virtually in their hands, and they favor European, particularly Span- 
ish, textile goods, their purchases of the American article so far having been 
■ apparently chiefly due to their inability to obtain textiles from the former sources. 

American shoes have bettered their hold on the market, and it is very rare that 
other imported shoes are seen. American automobiles and trucks monopolize the 
trade to its limited extent, as do also American railroad equipment and structural 
material, sewing machines, typewriters, etc. 

PRODUCTS EXPORTED THROUGH NUEVITAS AND HABANA 

- Since the war Camaguey Province has become an important sugar-producing 
section. Prior to that time there were onlj^ a few mills, and the Province was noted 
chiefly for cattle raising. Native beef has never been exported, being consumed 
locally, nor have hides or other animal products foimd an exit to any extent through 
the port of Nuevitas, The amount of products other than sugar and molasses 
shipped from that port is almost negligible, the exports consisting mainly of grape- 
fruit, grown by American colonists in this district, with occasional shipments of 
honey, tortoise shell, and glue stock. 

The bulk of the hides exported from Cuba are shipped through the port of 
Habana. In the fiscal year 1913-14 their value was $2,530,132, of which $1,514,084 
represented hides sent to Germany and $884,944 to the United States. In the fiscal 
year 1916-17 the entire exports, valued at $3,151,378, were taken by the United 
States, Germany being out of the market. While no statistics covering the point 
exist, it is assumed that a large proportion of these hides came from Camaguey 
Province, as that Province has long been the most important cattle-raising district. 
of the island. 

SUGAR THE CHIEF EXPORT FROM NUEVITAS 
The value of exports from Nuevitas during 1918 totaled about $23,000,000, ship- 
ments consisting almost entirely of sugar, of which nearly $16,000,000 worth was 
sent to the United States and the balance to the United Kingdom. The figures for 
the United States are the values declared at the consulate, but those for the United 
Kingdom are based on information received from various sources, as no exact 
statistics are available. A comparison of values and countries of destination for 
the years 1913 and 1918 shows the following: 

United United 

Year. States. Kingdom. Germany. Total. 

1913 $1,323,000 SI, 323 $1,324,323 

1918 15,908,374 $7,000,000 22,908,374 

Based on a $7,000,000 valuation, a 325-pound bag, and an f, o. b. price of $4.60 
a hundred pounds, there were 468,227 bags of sugar, 152,173,913 pounds exported to 
the United Kingdom, as compared with 1,046,051 bags, or 339,966,786 pounds, ex- 
ported to the United States. There were also about 80,000 gallons of molasses, a 
small shipment of honey, and some tortoise shell exported to the United Kingdom. 

RAPID INCREASE IN SHIPMENTS FROM NUEVITAS 
The increase in the shipment of all these products appears in the following table 
of the declared exports to the United States in the calendar year 1918 and also in 
the last five months of the year 1917, covering the period since the establishment 
of this consulate in August, 1917 : 



IS T H E C IT B A 11 P: V I E W 



Auk. 1 to Doc. 31. 1017. 1!»1S 

Articles. Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 

Beeswax, pounds 4,G14 $1,012 

Coconut, number 33,100 $819 3,502 88 

Copra, pounds 14,413 1,000 

Glue .stock, pounds 2.'j,20l 059 22,349 871 

Grapefruit, i)oxes of 2}4 cubic feet .599 719 18,666 43,271 

Honey, Kallon.s. . 3,350 3,027 18,716 34,333 

Lime products (citric) 187 

Mola.s.ses. gallons 6,630,000 278,250 

Sugar, pounds 27,.523,925 1,443,871 339,000,786 15,.501,761 

Tortoise shell, pounds 2,017 10,226 5,037 33,389 

Turtles, number 05 420 



Total 1,407,828 15,893,575 

The Nuevitiis c-uslom liuuse statLsties for the ciitiro caluiidtir year 1917 showed 
the value of exports to the United States to be $4,242,222, aud that of shipments to 
the United Kingdom, $1,669,817. The value of the exports from Xuevitas to the 
United States in the calendar year 1918 amounted to $ll,6r>l,3r>.3 more than those 
cf 1917, representing a gain of 274 per cent. 

It will be noted that Nuevitas has rapidly increased in importance as a port 
of exit for sugar. The estimate for exportation in 1919 is ?>,000,(X)0 bags, which 
would put Nuevitas in second or third place among sugar ports of flie island. 

SHIPPING AND INLAND TRANSPORTATION 

The district is served by ships that enter its ports and by railroad from Ilabana, 
Santiago, and other cities of the island. The Munson Steamship Line maintains a 
regular freight service, New York to Nuevitas, and from Mobile to Nuevitas. 
Full cargo carriers also bring coal and lumber, and, together witli ships 
that come in ballast, move the raw sugar of the district from its ports, Nuevitas, 
Jucaro, Santa Cruz del Sur, and San Fernando. There is some traffic by small sail- 
ing vessels along the coast, and coastwise steamers from Ilabana to Santiago make 
regular calls. 

The railroad line of the Cuba Railroad Co. traverses the Province from east to 
west, forming a link in the Habana-Santiago line, a branch from Nuevitas to 
<:!amaguey connecting the port with the main line. The Cuba Nortliern Railroad 
lias recently completed its line along the north coast from Nuevitas to Moron, from 
which place there is a line to Ciego de Avila which extends to the south coast at 
Jucaro. The sugar mills usually have \hv\v short-line railroads covering the ter- 
ritory which they serve. 

PORT MOVEMENT AT NUEVITAS 
The following statement shows the port movement for 1918 as taken from rec- 
ords kept in the consulate. These figures do not include coastwise tratiic : 

Ships entered: • Number 

From American ports 70 

From other ports ( mostly Cuban ) 70 

Wit h general cargo 23 

With coal 56 

With lumber 18 

In ballast ^^ 

Ships cleared: 

For American ports 95 

For Great P.ritaiu 19 

For other ports (mostly Cuban) 26 

With general cargo (mostly sugar) 22 

With sugar "1 

With molasses 7 

In ballast 40 



THECUBARBVIEW 19 

The Cuban Government records show totals of 80 vessels entered and 67 cleared 
in 1917 against the 140 entered and 140 cleared, as indicated above, in 1918. 

PORT FACILITIES AND RAILROAD CONSTRUCTION 
The terminals and docks at Nuevitas are owned by railroad companies. In recent 
years, the Cuba Railroad, after purchasing the line from Camaguey to Nuevitas, 
bas extended it some three miles to Pastelillo, a little farther out on the coast of the 
bay, and has built there excellent terminal facilities, completing, in 1918, yard 
and warehouse accommodations for 280,000 bags of sugar. This capacity has since 
been increased. There are three docks, sufficient to accommodate half a dozen 
steamers, and by dredging, 27 feet of wa.ter has been obtained at the docks. Three 
large molasses tanks were installed, and work has now been commenced by an 
American oil company on the construction of tanks for fuel oil. 

To the completion of this terminal is due the present importance of Nuevitas 
as a sugar-exporting point, as it was formerly a lighter port. An increasingly larger 
share of the sugar grown and groimd on the main line of the Cuba Railroad finds 
exit through Nuevitas, the apparently logical port for a considerable extent of ter- 
ritory. The Cuba Railroad did not engage in the construction of any new railroad 
line in the district during the year. This railroad is an American owned and man- 
aged corporation. 

NEW COAST RAILWAY 
• During the year work proceeded on the construction of the Cuba Northern 
Railroad, familiarly known as the North Coast Railroad, and its line was completed 
from Moron along the coast to Nuevitas in the spring of 1919. This road was built 
by Cuban interests, and was rather heavily subsidized by the Government. It is 
understood that it will eventually construct a line from Moron to Caibarien, and It 
already has a branch connecting Moron with the main line of the Cuba Railroad at 
Ciego de Avila. Its operation will serve to bring sugar for export through Nuevitas 
from the territory around Moron and the western part of Camaguey Province. This 
movement started in the spring of 1919. The road will also open up a section of 
Cuba which has been hitherto practically untouched. A considerable amount of 
timber will be reached, but the greatest development is expected in sugar, large 
enterprises being already on foot to plant cane and build mills along the line. 

At Punta Tarafa (formerly Punta Guira), iy2 miles from Nuevitas, the Cuba 
Northern has constructed extensive terminal facilities, with concrete docks and 
warehouses. At present there is not sufficient water at the docks for vessels to load 
there, and during the spring and summer of 1919 such sugar as was handled was 
loaded from lighters. The Cuban Government has undertaken, however, to dredge 
for a sufficient depth at the docks and to deepen and straighten the channel which 
leads to them. 

DOCKS AND TERMINALS OWNED BY RAILWAYS 

It will be seen that the two railroads own the docks and the terminals at 
Nuevitas. There is no individual enterprise that caters particularly to the needs 
of shipping. Coal is not for sale except by the railroad, as a matter of occasional 
accommodation. Water must also be obtained in the same way, and it is rather 
expensive, being brought in by tank cars. The water used locally is caught in cis- 
terns. There is no ship chandlery in the small town of Nuevitas. 

There is plenty of water in the bay, but the entrance is long and narrow, and 
pilots will not bring in ocean steamers at night. The current makes one or two 
places rather dangerous, although the worst spot, where one steamer went ashore 
during the year, could probably be rendered safe by blowing up a rock there. Ample 
protection and s.e# ^opm are found iji the bay itself. 



20 THECUBAREVIEW 

SUGAR PRODUCTION 

The priucipal agricultural [n-oduct of the district is sugar cant'. In 101.*?, this 
section produced only 171,000 tons of the island's total production of '2.129,2-H) tons, 
while In 1918 the 'crop was 470,000 tons ot the total production of :{.444,G05 tons. 
For the 1919 season it was estimated that 5,6:35,000 hags would he inoduced, whidi 
would leave the district only slightly surpassed by Santa ("liiia mid Oriente Prov- 
inces as sugar producers. The estimate for 1019 has now been almost reached. 

The cane is ground by local mills and exported in the form of raw sugar and 
molasses. The grinding at some mills starts in November, but grinding begins 
usually in December, and continues subject to conditions connected with the coming 
of the rainy season until the close of the following spring, summer, or early fall. 
The cane is hauled to the mill by high-wheeled oxcarts, and by the short-line rail- 
roads which the mills maintain. In this district most of the fields are new, and the 
stumps, which were left standing, have not had time to rot away. This is said to 
militate against the emitloyment <»f tractors, of which there are very few. The 
unimproved roads make hauling dillicult in the rainy season. There was very 
little rain during 1918, and the grinding in most places continued until the crop was 
finished. 

CATTLE RAISING 

This district, the I'rovince of Camaguey, has always been considered the fore- 
most cattle-raising district of the island, but statistics on this point do not seem to 
be available. However, according to the census of 1907, there were 2,570.492 head 
of cattle in Cuba, and it is probable that there are now well over 3,000,000 head, 
a large number of which are found in this district. The central plain furnishes 
good grazing land for cattle, and there is still nuich of it available which has not 
been taken for sugar. The extension of the .sugar industry, however, naturally 
reduces the extent of pasturage from year to year. 

Cattle, except such as are slaughtered locally, are shipped on the hoof to the 
Habana market, that market governing the prices. Most of the hides and other 
by-products also find their way to Habana for export. A very modern meat-freezing 
and packing plant was completed at Camaguey during the .vear lOlS, but it clostnl 
down after operating only a few months and has not since been oi)ened. With the 
exception of milk sold locally by individuals, there is practically no dairying in- 
dustry. Very little cheese is made, and no butter. Eggs are largely imported frouj 
New York. 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL PKODrCTS 
Very little else besides sugar cane is raised in this district, the principal vege- 
table products being squash and sweet potatoes. Cabbages, beans, peas, and other 
vegetables are imported to a great extent from the United States, and ludst of the 
fresh vegetables obtainable from local sources are raised by Chin.inicn who have 
settled near two or three of the larger towns. 

Grapefruit, oranges, bananas, pineapples, mangoes, and a few other fruits are 
obtainable in season. Grapefruit is the only fruit raised for export, and it is grown 
only by American colonists of the district, mainly at La Gloria, Ceballos, and one 
or two places near Nuevitas. There is no local market for this fruit, which is all 
shipped to New York by steamer from Nuevitas. During 1918 the import restric- 
tions of the United States Government affected this industry adversely. In the vicin- 
ity of Nuevitas, on the mainland, and on the key called Cayo Romano, some henequen 
is grown, and shipped to Matanzas for manufacture there. 

MANUFACTURING AND MINING 
With the exception of the 24 sugar mills, which grind the caae into crude sugar 



THECUBAREVIEW 21 

and molasses, there are no large industrial plants in the district at present. There 
are, however, on a small scale, a condensed-milk factory and a few soap, match, 
bottling, and henequen factories, brick yards, sawmills, and tanneries. 

Although it is understood that there are some valuable deposits of copper, 
chrome, nickel, and other ores in the Province, similar to those that have been de- 
veloped in Oriente Province, they have not so far been worked on any considerable 
scale. Reports on these fields have been made and published by the United States 
Geological Survey. A reason for the delayed interest in this locality is the lack of 
adequate transportation facilities. 

TIMBER AND FISHERIES 

Mahogany, cedar, and other woods are fomid in the district. At present around 
Nuevitas and Camaguey there is not much timber available for export, but it is 
understood that some mahogany is now being exported from the port of Santa Cruz 
del Sur, on the southern coast of the Province, There is reported to be much timber 
on the newly opened line of the Cuban Northern Railway, between Moron and 
Nuevitas, which will eventually be taken out and marketed. 

While fish are plentiful and of good variety near Nuevitas, fishing has never, 
heretofore, been engaged in on a large commercial scale. Recently a group of indi- 
viduals from Caibarien have started in the business at Nuevitas, and the industry 
should soon develop beyond the individual fisherman stage. There is a good demand 
for fish in the interior of the island, and the recent completion of an ice plant at 
Nuevitas makes it possible to ship them with better results. 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE 

The telegraph lines are owned and operated by the Government in connection 
with the postal service. The rates are based on the number of Provinces crossed 
by the message, being, for instance, 2 cents a word (counting address and signature) 
for towns within the Province or in the adjoining Province, and 3 cents a word on 
messages destined for Habana or towns at a similar distance. Except at Camaguey, 
telephone offices are not open at night, the one at Nuevitas closing at 10 p. m. 

There are no cable offices in the district, cablegrams being routed either by 
Cienfuegos or Habana. To the cable toll a charge of 4 cents a word for the land 
service is added. There are no wireless stations in the district at present, except 
a small one operated by United States Marines now stationed at Camaguey. 

The Cuban Telephone Co. of Habana has lines in the Province, so it is possible 
to make long-distance calls from Nuevitas and other points to the cities of the 
island. This company has also a local city service at Camaguey and at Ciego de 
Avila. At Nuevitas there is a local telephone system, just put into operation. 

BANKING FACILITIES 

The National Bank of Cuba, the Royal Bank of Canada, and the Spanish Bank 
of the Island of Cuba have for some time served this district, having branches at 
Camaguey City and at several of the larger towns (Bank of Canada and Spanish 
Bank only at Nuevitas). The National City Bank of New York has recently entered 
the field, establishing a branch at Camaguey. There is also an agricultural bank 
at that city. 



IMMIGRATION IN 1919 as against 10,640 in 1918; Chinese, 1,236, 

During 1919 the total number of im- as against 237 in 191S ; Americans, 1,227, 

migrants to Cuba was 80,485, as against ^s against 771 in 1918 ; Porto Ricans, 

37,320 in 1918, or an increase 43,165. . „„_ . , _^_ . ^„^„ ^ ^. , 

^ . ^ J, L ^ -.-, . .. •,... 1,005, as against 39o m 1918 ; English, 

Immigrants of the following nationalities 

entered Cuba: Spaniards, 39,573, as '45. as against 256 in 1918 ; Mexicans, 263, 

against 14,292 in 1918 ; Jamaicans, 24,187, as against 244 in 1918 ; and French, 188, 

as against 9,184 in 1918 ; Haitians, 10,044, as against 118 in 1918. 



22 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CUBAN COMMERCIAL MATTERS 



EXTENSION OF PROHIBITION ON 
IMPORTATION OF RICE 

The Cuban prohibition on the iuipor- 
tulion of rice has been exteniled to March 
:n, 1!>21, by a decree of Xoveinber liJlli. 
(The foriiKT proliibition on the iiiiporla- 
tion of rice was to be in effect until Janu- 
ary, 1021.) This new decree differs from 
the old one only in the text of article 0. 
The decree cannot annul itself auto- 
matically, and the shipper is not respon- 
sible for tlie clearance of docks, as pro- 
vided for by the orij^nal article 0. Ac- 
cording to article of the new decTee, the 
right of annulment is reserved to the 
President. 



CUBA AS A MARKET FOR ELECTRICAL 
FIXTURES 

Cuba is an important held for the sale 
of electrical fixtures because of the in- 
creasing use of electricity on the island 
and of the comparatively slight develop- 
ment of the trade there up to the present, 
according to the Foreign Trade Bureau 
of the Guaranty Trust Company of New 
York. Moreover, physical and social re- 
lations between Cuba and the United 
States tend to make the latter the 
natural source of supplies. Before the 
war the United States furnished more 
than three-fourths of Cuba's electrical 
supplies, and all of them during the 
war. With the elimination of German 
rivalry, there is now no important com- 
petition, and with right methods the 
United States should continue to control 
the market for these goods. 

The largest cities, including Havana, 
Cienfuegos, Santiago and Matanzas, are 
the best fields for the development of 
electrical trade. Day service as well as 
night current is furnished in them alone. 
The trade in Havana has been most high- 
ly developed and this city is practically the 
only one where both electrical fixtures and 
combination gas and electric fixtures are 
in demand. The other localities have no 
gas plants and therefore use fixtures de- 
signed only for electricity. The various 



sugar estates have their own electiuc 
power plants which furnish electricty for 
the sugar mills and also for the homes in 
their vicinities. 

In the smaller cities, the fixtures used 
in the illuiniiiation of houses and stores 
commonly consist of drop lights with re- 
tlectors. The fixtures should be suitable 
for high ceilings, and for store use 
especially, and .should be capable of light- 
ing large spaces. In the larger localities 
some kind of chandelier is generally used, 
and tlie iii()st popular is that covered with 
glass or crystal. The two-arm or four- 
arm pendant is in common use, wuth the 
arms and ceiling rod covered with glass 
and often different sorts of glass orna- 
ments. 

More elaborate fixtures are found in the 
homes of the well-to-do, and in hotels and 
clubs. The designs vary widely accord- 
ing to the purchasing power and taste 
of the buyers. Most are made of crystal 
or crystal and bronze. Cubans are very 
1(111(1 (if the ornate types of fixtures sur- 
rounded with ropes of crystal and numer- 
ous diamond or pencil shaped pendants, 
etc. American designs are said to be 
suitalile to Cuban trade, but our dealers 
must meet competition in price from the 
Spanish dealers. 

Supply dealers in Havana are pushing 
the sale of American domes, indirect and 
semi-indirect fixtures and table lamps. 

There are practically no manufacturers 
of electrical goods in Cuba, and only a few 
minor concerns there make chandeliers 
and drop lights. 

Fixtures for store use are very crude 
in most places, and the buildings are old- 
fashioned. The merchants on the whole 
have been conservative about the intro- 
duction of modern fixtures. The newer 
stores, however, are using well-designed 
fixtures. Show-window lighting has been 
slow^ to develop. 

Street lighting fixtures should find valu- 
able markets in Cuba as many cities there 
are installing electric street lighting 
systems for the first time. Other cities 
are bringing their antiquated systems up- 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 



CUBAN COMMERCIAL MATTERS 



to-date. Havana should be an especially 
good market, for this municipality is pro- 
viding electric lights on all streets. Fine 
hundred watt gas-filled incandescent 
lamps have been substituted for the arc 
lamps previously used in some streets. 
The arc lamps are mounted in the hoods 
from which other mechanism has been 
removed, instead of purchases of new 
fixtures being made for this purpose. 
Bracket arms are used to suspend the 
lamps to distribute the light as evenly as 
possible. 

Sign lighting is scarcely known in Cuba 
outside of Havana and Santiago, but such 
of this equipment as is used Is imported 
from the United States. The market is 
comparatively small therefore, but fairly 
constant and should afford reasonable 
development. 

Electric fans are much used in season. 
In stores and restaurants the ceiling fan 
is most used, and because of the high 
ceilings an extra length pipe must be fur- 
nished. Any but the plain type of pipes 
must be imported. Wall or desk fans of 
12 and 16 inch sizes are most common, but 
the market for 6 inch sizes is growing. 
American fans are popular, and the de- 
mand, especially for those not finished in 
the ordinary black enamel, is increasing. 



quantities of cypress lumber are also used 
in this district. The following table gives 
the quantity and value of imports of plain 
undressed lumber during recent years at 
the port of Cienfuegos. In addition to 
this, considerable lumber is also imported 
through Caibarien and Sagua la Grande, 
which ports are also in this consular 
district : 

Thousand 
Year Feet Value 

1912-13 (fiscal year) 2,039 $29,104 

1918 9,791 253,465 

1919 8,100 220,534 

1920 (first six months) . . 5,602 200,134 

There is practically no market here for 
American hardwood, the limited demand 
of the local furniture makers being amply 
supplied by native hardwood varieties. 

No regulations which limit the use of 
pitch-pine lumber are known to this con- 
sulate. The recent increased importa- 
tions are understood to be in anticipation 
of the program for the construction of 
new ofiice and residence buildings in this 
and other cities in this district. This 
program is believed to have been delayed 
because of the uncertainty of the labor 
situation and of the high prices of build- 
ing materials — rough lumber selling at 
about $100 a thousand, cement at $10 a 
barrel, and bricks at $50 a thousand.' 



CUBAN MARKET FOR SOUTHERN PITCH 
PINE AND HARDWOOD 

Consul Frank Bohr, Cienfuegos, writes 
as follows regarding the Cuban market 
for Southern pitch pine and hardwood : 

There has been for some years a con- 
siderable market for pitch pine in Cien- 
fuegos which at present seems to be even 
increasing. The supply has been imported 
mostly by schooners from different ports 
of the Gulf of Mexico, but recently ship- 
ments have also been received from Jack- 
sonville, Fla. In the past, lumber was 
also received from different Canadian 
ports. In addition to pitch pine, limited 



COTTON PIECE GOODS 
The following table shows the October 
shipments to Cuba of British cotton piece 
goods : 

1918 1919 

2,553,400 yards 2,662,000 yards 



EXPORTS OF PEANUTS TO CUBA 
Export of peanuts from the United 
States to Cuba during the calendar year 
1919 amounted to 747,593 pounds valued 
at $107,589. 



24 TliECUfeARteVlBW 

CUBAN COMMERCIAL MATTERS 



r.i:iTisii TKAhi; with ci t.a 

Kctiinis of Great Briljun's trade witli Cuba during the first ([uaiter of l'.)L'(> dis- 
close that iiniiorts from ("iilta, when compared with the correspoiidiii.u period of liHO, 
sliowed an increase of .$7.(iOO,<KK). 

Compared witli January-Marcli, lin:>, tlie vahie of Culnui inUMUts iiii'icased to 
ten times their vahie in l'.>i:!. 

'I'lie value of imiiorts rnun ("nli;i into tlH> I'nited Kingdom during January-March, 
I'.ii;;, 1!H9, and I'.'i'd is slH>\\n in I lie rnlidwing siaiement (conversions to American 
currency made at tlic nornmi lalc of .^j^-l.sC)!;.")) : 

Jainiani-Mdrch — 
3913 1919 1920 

Imported from Cuba .$2,187,i;{2 .$ir,,s:!C,,112 .$22,792.1.".! 

The following table sliows the cxiiorts to Cuba from tlie Tnited Kingdom during 
.January-March, 191^, 1919, and 192u : 

Jan Hari/-M(irch — 
1913 1919 1920 

Exported to Cul)a .<;2,0G9,(i94 ,$2.(i( -.2,462 .?5,-149,351 



KXl'OKTS OF MAClll.\i:i:V TO CUBA 
The tables below, sliowing the domestic exports of machinery from the United 
States to Cuba during August, 1920, were prepared by the Statistical Division of the 
Bureau of Foi-eign and Domestic Conmierce. 

Exports of cotton carding and spinning niacliin(n*y to Cuba during August amounted 
to .$2,040. 

The following taltli' shows the value of the domestic exports of lathes, other 
machine tools, sliarpeiung and grinding machines, and all other metal-worlcing ma- 
chinery fi-oiii tlie rniied Stales to Culia during August, 1920: 

Lathes .$s,(iOs 

Other machine tools 41,208 

Sharpening and grinding machines 14.874 

All other 23,420 

Exports of excavating nnichinei'v to Cuba during August were valued at .$1,971. 
There were .$10,028 worth of aii'-<-omin'essing machinery sliipi)ed to Cuba during 
the month. 

Domestic exports of refrigerating machinery to Cuba amounted to $4(5,400. 
Below is a table showing the shipments of mining machinery to Cul)a from the 
United States during the month under review : 

Oil well .$14,90S 

All other 44.284 

I'umps and pmnping maclunery valued at .$112. 202 were exported fi-om the United 
States to Cuba during the month of August. 



LEATHER EXBOKTS FUO:\I SrAIX TO CUBA 
Spanish exi»oits of dressed sheep, Morocco, and other leathers to Cuba have been 
as follows: (Figures indicate metric tons.) 

1919 (10 
1912 1913 1914 191.J 191G 1917 1918 Months) 
61 70 48 68 78 42 . . 12 

The following table shows the Spanish exports (metric tons) of shoes to Cuba 
for the period of 1912-1919 : 

1919 (10 
1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 Months) 
292 311 267 202 267 160 ... 54 



THECUBAREVIEW 25 



CUBAN FINANCIAL MATTERS 



THE PREVAILING PRICES FOR CUBAN SECURITIES 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnnre & Co., New York. 

Bid Asfced 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds g3 gg 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1944 ^g yg 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 ^g gQ 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 4i/^% Bonds of 1949 q^^/ q^ 

Havana City First Mortgage 6% Bonds g5 95 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6% Bonds g5 95 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 50 60 

Cuba Railroad Co. First Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 gO 65 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 75 go 

Cuba Company 1% Cumulative Preferred Stock 75 85 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Consolidated Mortgage 5% Bonds 62 66 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock. 85 105 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Common Stock 75 90 

Cuban- American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 93 100 

Cuban- American Sugar Co. Common Stock 30 31 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock $16 $17 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

The earnings of the Cuba Railroad for the month of September and for the three months 
of the fiscal year compare as follows : 

1920 1919 .1918 1917 1916 1915 

September gross $1,194,589 $1,094,970 $875,549 $690,124 $522,444 $411,923 

Expenses 1,3.33,228 762,015 695,396 614,227 3.39,597 242,922 

Septembernet 138,639 332,954 180,153 75,896 182,846 169,001 

Other income 10,244 9,709 12,582 1,377 854 

Net income .. . ." 128,394 342,664 192,7.35 77,273 183,701 169,001 

Fixed charges 116,028 99,106 95,154 '93,886 87,091 72,012 

Other interest charges '. 11,750 

September surplus 244,422 243,557 85,831 16,612 96,609 96,988 

From July ist : 

Three months gross. . . $3,436,374 

Three months net 153,172 

Other income 37,890 

Fixed charges 348,342 

Other interest charges . . 4,069 



$3,071,833 


$2,968,678 


$2,273,713 


$1,652,262 


$1,248,646 


753,323 


831,657 


581,810 


705,499 


576,481 


22,768 


36,656 


3,901 


2,546 




297,563 


284,236 
35,833 


281,897 


261,531 


216,294 



Surplus $467,693 $478,528 $548,243 $303,813 $446,514 $360,186 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS. 

Weekly Receipts : 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Week ending Oct. 23 /18,657 

Week ending Oct. 30 16,104 

Week ending Nov. 6 15,320 

Week ending Nov. 13 16,962 

Week ending Nov. 20 16,766 



/17,196 


;^11,499 


^10,441 


/9,518 


/8,679 


18,760 


11,652 


10,833 


8,961 


. 7,809 


16,469 


11,611 


10,399 


7.977 


7,876 


16,123 


10,733 


11,721 


7,641 


7,932 


16,835 


11,242 


10,772 


7,995 


9,396 



26 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO. 

Month of September : 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Gross earnings $9fil,934 $792,317 $714,696 $617,641 $507,ri62 $443,502 

Operating expenses 537,031 390,720 323,241 260,586 187,561 183,372 

Net earnings 424,903 401,597 391,455 357,055 320,001 260,130 

Miscellaneous income 12,615 8,251 15,463 9,046 10,840 8,052 

Total net income 437,518 409,848 406,918 366,101 330,841 268,182 

Surplus after deduct.fixed chgs. 259,134 240,607 228,464 212,745 201,587 161,344 

p Months to September joth : 

Gross earnings $8,312,325 6,724,847 6,042,507 5,036,586 4,407,453 4,108,935 

Operating expenses 4,272,833 3,322,616 2,765,347 2,185,469 1,692,626 1,683,839 

Net earnings 4,039,492 3,402,231 3,277,160 2,851,117 2,714,828 2,425,096 

Miscellaneous income 84,795 79,610 107,957 106,450 99,929 76,917 

Total net income $4,124,287 $3,481,841 $3,385,117 $2,957,567 $2,814,756 $2,502,013 

Surplus after deduct, fixed chgs.$2, 438, 719 $1,798,796 $1,914,155 $1,-544,153 $1,660,101 $1,524,847 



EARNINGS OF THE CAMAGUEY AND NUEVITAS RAILROAD. 

Month of September : 1920 1919 

Gross earnings $140,629 $143,127 

Operating expenses 138,013 81,078 

Net earnings 2,615 62,049 

Other income 81 

Net income 2,696 62,049 

Surplus for Month 2,696 62,049 

Gross earnings from July 1 $434,440 $428,607 

Net earnings " " 231 175,940 

Other income " " 351 

Surplus $583 ' • $175,940 



EARNINGS OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA. 

Ueekty Receipts : 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Week ending Oct. 23 /55,796 ^.54,478 /43,269 7^^9,881 /30.423 ^26,.590 

Week ending Oct. 30 55,094 54,472 41,624 38,805 32,018 26,663 

Week ending Nov. 6 53,279 .56,895 41,468 40,781 33,374 26.772 

Week ending Nov. 13 58,403 57,713 39,448 40,683 31,885 26,987 



. EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY. 

JPee/cly Receipts: 1920 1919 

Week ending Oct. 23 ^13,191 ^10,140 

Week ending Oct. 30 14,571 10,036 

Week ending Nov. 6 14,113 10,438 

Week ending Nov. 13 13,730 10,408 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



27 



THE SUGAR INDUSTRY 



SUGAR INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL 

Every State in Brazil produces sugar 
cane. Reliable statistics, however, are 
not obtainable, as most of the production 
is for local consumption. Moderate esti- 
mates give the approximate number of 
bags of sugar produced as follows in 1911, 
1914 and 1917: 1911-12, 5,000,000 bags of 
60 kilos (132 pounds each bag) ; 1914-15, 
5,196,000 bags; 1917-18, 7,350,000 bags. 
The States of Pernambuco, Sao Paulo, 
Sergipe and Bahia lead in the production 
of sugar in the order named. 

In 1917 Brazil had registered 215 sugar 
factories, classified as follows : 105 fac- 
tories grinding less than 100 tons of cane 
in 12 hours ; 77 grinding from 101 to 200 
tons ; 17 grinding from 201 to 400 tons ; 
3 grinding over 401 tons ; 13 for which no 
details of production were given. 

The cane is all crushed in the country. 
In many places in the interior rudi- 
mentary appliances, made of hardwood, 
are still used to crush the cane. These 
establishments, producing dark-brown 
cake sugar ("rapadura"), consumed by 
the laborers on the farm, do not figure 
in any statistics, and the total production 
cannot be estimated. It is large, however. 
Small American crushers with three verti- 
cal steel cylinders are often used on farms 
and in small factories, driven by human 
or animal power. Some factories have up- 
to-date machinery ; only one factory so 
far, however, has introduced the diffusion 
process in Brazil — the Uzina Esther, in 
Sao Paulo, with a daily capacity of 125 
tons of cane. 

Most of the production is used for con- 
sumption in Brazil ; only the surplus is 
exported. Exports in the years 1914 to 
1919, inclusive, were in the following 
quantities (one metric ton equals 2,204.6 
pounds) : 

1914 1915 
Metric Metric 
Kinds Tons Tons 

White sugar 1,365 2,833 

Demerara 20,876 22,064 

Brown sugar 9,619 34,178 

Total 31,860 59,075 



1916 1917 

Metric Metric 

Kinds Tons Tons 

White sugar 31,201 98,179 

Demerara 12,974 10,541 

Brown sugar 9,650 22,789 

Total 53,825 131,-509 

1918 1919 

Metric Metric 

Kinds Tons Tons 

White sugar 94,720 (*) 

Demerara 8,984 ( * ) 

Brown sugar 11,9.30 (*) 

Total 115,634 69,429 

(*) Classification not yet available. 

Sugar cane in Brazil is not an annual 
plant ; it remains on the fields for several 
years. Seasons of planting and crushing 
are governed by weather conditions, wet 
or dry, varying greatly according to the 
districts. As a rule sugar cane is planted 
during the rainy season and crushed when 
the dry season sets in. These seasons 
differ widely in the various parts of 
Brazil. 



NEW SUGAR COMPANY 
Announcement of the organization of 
one more new sugar enterprise, the Colo- 
radas Ca^e Corporation, has been made. 
The company has a nominal capitalization 
of .$5,000,000, of which $80,000 has been 
subscribed. Its purposes are the produc- 
tion of cane and the operation of mills on 
the estates of Majibacoa and Coloradas, 
in the Holguin district of Oriente. Its 
promoters have also formed a company 
with a nominal capitalization of $500,000 
to do a banking business under the name 
of the Bank of Oriente. 



SANTA CECILIA SUGAR CORPORATION 
On July 22, Mr. M. H. Lewis resigned 
as president of the Santa Cecilia Sugar 
Corporation and Mr. C. B. Goodrich, pre- 
viously vice-president and general mana- 
ger, was elected to succeed him. Mr. 
Robert L. Dean was elected vice-president 
and treasurer. Mr. R. H. Caplan was 
elected secretary to succeed Mr. Dean. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CROP OF CUBA 1919-1920 



Ports 



Centrals Bags 



Matanzas 23 3,102,<il.'4 

Cardenas 18 2.(;06,7]0 

Havana 23 2,317,3!»S 

Cienluego.s 2o 2,110,24tJ 

Sagua irt 1,969,945 

Caibarien 1-j l,s42,204 

lis 13,948,527 



Bags, 
320 lbs. 



Tons, 
2240 Iba. 



Six ports 1,992,647 



Nuevitas 17 3,228.926 

Jucaro 9 2,864.9(;4 

Antilla and Nipe Bay 11 1,292,008 

Puerto Padre 2 999,614 

Manzanillo 10 750,909 

Guantananio 12 740,143 

Santiago do Cuba 7 727.592 

Banes 1 479,671 

Manati 1 373 150 

Sta. Cruz del Sur 1 345,667 

Gibara 1 245,006 

Trinidad 1 80,592 

Zaza 1 26,057 



Other ports 1,736,328 



Crop 3,728,975 



74 12,154,299 ( 
Our estimate of the crop: 

December 16, 1919 4,446,429 Tons 

April 13, 1920 3,925,000 

May 13, 1920 3,700,000 

Crop of 1909-1910 1,804,349 

" " 1910-1911 1,480,217 

" 1911-1912 1,893,687 

" 1912-1913 2,429,240 

" 1913-1914 2,596,567 

" " 1914-1915 2,582,845 

" 1915-1916 3,006,624 

" " 1916-1917 3,019,936 

" " 1917-1918 3,444,605 

" 1918-1919 3,967,094 

" " 1919-1920 3,728,975 

NOTE 

The preceding and persistent long drought Avhich i»revailed during a part of the 
year 1919 and continued during all the season of 1919-20 has been the cause of the 
great decrease in production compared with the result which was generally expected. 

H. A. HiMELY. 

Havana, October 16, 1920. 



RAILROAD PROJECT 

A new railroad to serve sugar and 
mining interests in the Baoma section in 
Oriente province is to be constructed short- 
ly by the Baoma Sugar and Railway 
Corporation, it is reported. 

The railroad will run to Port Aranjo 
and will be about 125 miles long, single 
track. The existing road, it is said, is 
unable to take care of the business that 



has developed in the territory in question 
and residents of the locality are among 
those who have invested and are press- 
ing completion of the new line. 

A concession for the line is said to have 
been granted by the Cuban government, 
and the work of laying out the route is to 
begin soon. The railroad is capitalized at 
$25,000,000. 



THECUBAREVIEW 29 



WORLD'S 1920-21 SUGAR CROP ESTIMATES 



The world's sugar crop estimate for 1920-21 is over 1,700,000 tons greater than 
the production of 1919-20. While definite advices have been received from many- 
sources, some of the reports are only partial and are subject to adjustment, and it 
must be understood that in a great many instances there are still two or three months 
of growing weather that can materially affect the present outlook. Under such con- 
ditions these crop estimates must be looked on as more of an indication than an 
estimate, but nevertheless they are quite valuable in determining what the prospects 
of supplies are for the next sugar year. Very frequently these indications give quite 
accurate results, and the final outturn of the crops do not vary much from the indica- 
tions given. 

CANE CROPS— EUROPEAN BEET CROP 

As regards Cuba, while the usual inquiries have been sent to the factories, reports 
are coming in very slowly, due perhaps to the unsettled financial situation there. The 
centrals hesitate in giving any indication of their probable output until conditions 
improve. The Cuban weather during the growing season has been favorable in the 
western half of the Island; the eastern half has been lacking somewhat in rainfall- 
Santa Clara Province was affected by a light rainfall. Increased planting has been 
reported in a number of sections. Ten or twelve new factories that are either complete 
or under construction may add something over last year's production. For the present 
the Cuban crop indication can be placed at 4,000,000 tons. 

San Domingo and the British West Indies have all been affected by a more or 
less serious drought during the growing season and in some cases crops are reduced. 
The weather in Porto Rico has been irregular, but no material change is expected in 
the production. Formosa and Japan will show increased outputs. Dry weather 
prevailed in Natal and the Fiji Islands. 

Our preliminary figures issued several months ago, based on sowings, are not 
likely to be attained in the European beet crop. Many contributing circumstances 
have been the cause ; partly irregular growing weather, lack of coal, transport ma- 
terials, labor, etc. Our figure for Germany, based on a yield per hectare much below 
a normal acreage, indicated on the area planted a crop of 1,300,000 tons, but even 
the low yield per hectare used by us will not be reached, and it is hardly likely that 
a crop in excess of 1,150,000 tons will be made in that country, Similar conditions 
obtain in Czecho Slovakia ; latest official advices from there ' state the crop would 
reach only 650,000 tons raw value. France is showing quite an improvement over 
the preceding crop and will probably have a production of 100,000 tons more than 
its last one. Spain also shows a material increase. 

AMERICAN AND CANADIAN BEET CROPS 
Regarding conditions in the United States, the output of the beet crop in Ohio 
is estimated at 45,000 tons, Michigan at 145,000, Colorado 250,000, Nebraska 75,000, 
Utah, 140,000, Idaho 50,000, and California 151,000. In this last state the campaign is 
so nearly over that the figure given will be very close to the actual outturn. The 
production of the various other states going to make up the estimate totals 94,000 tons^ 
The above estimate is freely confirmed by the United States Government, which 
estimates the crop of beet roots as of November 1 as 8,812,000 tons. Using an average 
yield of the past three years (including last year's poor outturn) gives a crop indi- 
cation of 900,000 tons. This year's yield will exceed the three years' average materially^ 
according to present prospects. 

According to advices, prospects in Canada are very good, and with the material 
increase in sowings the indications are that a crop of at least 35,000 tons will be made. 



30 T II E C I' B A K E V I E W 

The total indicated world prodiutitui U>v l!)Jii-l.'l of liotli ciinr uiul btvt sujiar is 

17,0isr>,r(00 tons, against the last canipaigni of 15,810,824 tons, an increase of 1,774,676 

tons. The largest world's ])rodn(ti(>n on rocord w;\s tlio ini.'i-14 fanii)aijrn, when the 
production totaled lS,Wi7,.".r»9 tons. 

SUGAR CUOl'S OF THE WORLD 

Tin: FOLLOWING AKK WILLETT \ (iUAV's L.\TEST ESTnrATKS : 

Hfirvcsting 1!»20-21 ini'.t-2u 1!»1S-19 

Period TonH Tons Tons 

United States— Louisiana Oct.-Jan. 1 75.000 108,035 250,802 

I'orto Rico JiiiL-JMnt' 4:'.5.(MM) 4:{a,825 ::<i2,G18 

Hawaiian Islands N<»v.-.Tuly .-,27.4(Hi .-)(t5.50() 5:{8,!)1.3 

West Indies — Virgin I.slands .Ian. -.Tunc .-),(io() 12,4(i(i It.iKtO 

Cuba I >t'c.-.Tune 4.<i<iO,(M)0 3,7:!n.()T7 :;,'.>71.77r) 

British West Indies— Trinidad laii.-.Iune (UVmmi ."..s,41(; 47.S50 

Barbados lan.-.Tune .50.(Mi(» 7>[),(m\ 75.271 

Jamaica Tan.-.Tune 45.0(i0 4(i.S75 4:!.u00 

Antigua Feb.-Jiily 13,.5(io 15,540 12,841 

St. Kitts l-eb.-Aug. S.Ouo 10,030 10,001 

Other British West Indies .TaiL-.Tuiic lO.Odd 5,651 7,580 

Frendi West Indies— -Martinique .lan.-.Iuly 20,(i(io 22,000 10,027 

Guadeloiipe .Tan.-.Tuly 25.<Mio 31,0(X> 2(;.(;04 

San Domingo .laiL-.Tune IsO.Ood 175,730 l.".s,:;iiO 

Hayti Dec-June 5,oo0 5,00<» :!,.3(M> 

Mexico Dec-June Kio.oiiu !f2,(MlO 70.000 

Central America — (Juatemala lan.-June 1.-;.(iu(t 15,0(]0 i:'..441 

Other Central America Tan.-June 2o,oo(» 20.000 14,240 

So. Amerifa— Demerara Oct.-Dec & May-June liMi,(MiO 06,000 lo7,560 

Surinam Oct.-Jan. 12.000 12,(Ml0 8,000 

Venezuela, crisis Oct.-Dec. 2o,0o0 18.000 16,970 

Ecuador Oct.-Feh. 8,000 7,000 7,000 

Peru • Oct.-I' eh. 350.000 :'.50,000 :;o0,0<i0 

Argentine ^ray-Nov. 225,0(H) 202,1 in 130,266 

Brazil Oct.-Feb. :',oo.O(M» 177,1."i5 183,079 

Total in America i;.71 7,900 (;.2S9,3.".6 6,379,348 

British India (consumed locally ) Dec-May .",.000.000 3,049.1.57 2,370,000 

Java May-Xov. 1,515,000 1,:;35.76:! 1.749,408 

Formosa and Japan Nov.-June 350,000 283.482 415,678 

Philippine Islands, exports No v.- June 300,000 203,000 195,289 

Total in Asia 5.165,000 4.871.402 4,730,375 

Australia June-Xov. 175,000 175,01)0 209,853 

Fiji Islands June-Xov. 60,000 60,000 80,000 

Total in Australia and Polynesia 23.5,000 2.35,000 289,853 

Egypt (•con.'jumed locally) Jan.-June 80.000 90.000 75,899 

Mauritius Aug.-Jan. 24(X(X)(> 235,490 252.770 

Reunion Vug.- Jan. 4<^K0OO 40,fM10 .50,(X!0 

Natal May-Oct. 160.0OO 150.000 185,000 

Mozambique :May-Oct. 40,OoO 35,000 20,615 

Total in .\frica 560,000 550,490 584,284 

Europe— Spain Dec- June 5,000 6,048 6,618 

Total cane sugar crops 12,682,900 11.9.52,296 1 1.990,478 



T HE r 



REVIEW 



31 



Europe— Beet— Germany Sept.-Jan. 1,150,000 750,000 1,324,579 

Czecho-Slovakia . /. Sept.-Jan. 6-50,000 535,000 

Hungary and Austria Sept.-Jan. 700,000 

France Sept.-Jan. 50,000 50,000 

Belgium Sept.-Jan. .300,000 154,444 110,096 

Holland Sept.-Jan. 225,000 146,918 74,183 

Russia (Ukraine, Poland, etc.) Sept.-Jan. .300,000 238,692 173,436 

Sweden Sept.-Jan. 175.000 225,000 336,616 

Denmark Sept.-Jan. 175,000 145,000 127,467 

Italy Sept.-Jan. 165,000 160,000 144,600 

Spain Sept.-Jan. 17.5.000 182,843 106,682 

Switzerland Sept.-.Ian. 175,000 81,650 139,409 

Bulgaria Sept.-Jan. 10,000 8,550 10,800 

Roumania Sept.-Jan. 10,000 10,974 2,441 

f 5.000 

Total in Europe ■ 

3,565,000 2,689,071 3,250,309 

United States— Beet July- Jan. 950,000 652,957 674,892 

Canada— Beet Oct.-Dec. 35.000 16,500 22,.300 

Total beet sugar crops 4,550,000 3,358,528 3,947,501 

GRAND TOTAL— Cane and Beet Sugar 17,232,900 15,310,824 15,937,979 

Estimated increase in the world's production. . 1,922,076 

— Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal. Xov. 11, 1920. 



UNITED STATES CONSUMPTION FOR SIX MONTHS 



We present in this issue a concise table showing the principal items comprising 
the consumption of sugar in the United States for the sis months from January 1 
to June 30, which is 2,207,428 tons refined value. Last year's figure for the same 
period was 2,120,609 tons. The sis months' consumption this year, therefore, shows 
an increase of only 86,819 tons, or 4.094% over that of the same period in 1919. 

A part of the trade had been calculating on an immense increase iii the con- 
sumption this year, which was attribvited to the increase in the consumption of 
candies and soft drinks chiefly due to prohibition, but although there is an increase, 
the estent of the increase was curtailed to a large degree by high prices, and the 
inability at times of buyers to secure sugar due to many causes, such as railroad 
congestion, strikes, etc. During the half year under review, a good business was done 
by the Atlantic Port refiners, but in New Orleans, even with the addition of several of 
the Louisiana cane factories which have been melting Cuban raw sugars, the increase 
is not as large as usual. The operations of the Galveston and Savannah refineries 
disclose a good increase, accounting to some estent for New Orleans not showing as 
good a result as the other sections. San Francisco refineries ai'e forging ahead the 
fastest of all. In this connection, it will be remembered that these refineries this 
year are refining about 200,00 tons of Hawaiian raws which, in previous seasons, 
have been shipped to the Atlantic Ports refiners. The consumption of beet sugar has 
not been so large this first half year as in other similar periods, but this was because 
of the fact that so much of the 1919-20 crop was used up in 1919, the carry-over on 
January 1 being relatively small. 

When consumption figures are compiled for the calendar year, it is possible in 
January to arrive at a very acciu-ate result because in most instances that is just at 
the beginning of the new crop season and old crops have been eshausted and stocks 
in all hands from producer to ultimate consumer have run down to a very low point 
in anticipation of new crop sugars (with usual accompanying declining prices). 



32 THECUBAREVIEW 

However, in July the reverse is usually the case ; sometimes stocks are large not 
only in producers' hands but in jobbers', manufacturers' and even in the household — 
buyers anticipating their spring and summer demand, part of which is to be consumed 
after July 1st, but which necessarily must be included as a refiner's delivery during 
the first six months and hence considered consumed during that period. For this 
reason, consumption of sugar during the first half of the year usually is in excess 
of that of the second half. Therefore, it is not exactly correct to take the consumption 
of the first half year and double it with the expectation of having an approximate 
figure of the consumption for the entire calendar year. 

SIX MONTHS' CONSUMPTION OF SUGAR IX TUP] UNITED STATES 
AS ESTIMATED BY WILLETT AND GRAY 

Refined and/or Consumption Value 

Tons 2,240 lbs. 1920 

Jan. 1/June 30 

Consumption through United States Atlantic Ports 1,272,89.3 

Consumption of Foreign and Porto Rico tliough New Orleans, La 273,123 

Consumption of Foreign and Porto Rico through Galveston, Texas, and 

Savannah, Ga 92,746 

Foreign Sugar through Interior 15,879 

Consumption through Atlantic and Gulf Ports 1,654,641 

Consumption through San Francisco 261,360 

Total Consumption Sugar from Foreign countries, Hawaii, Porto 

Rico and Philippine Islands 1,910,001 

Louisiana Cane Crop consumed 20,313 

United States Beet Sugar consumed 259,331 

Various Sugars from Foreign Molasses, United States Maple, etc 11,783 

Total consumption of Sugar produced in Continental United States. . 291,427 

Total Consumption of all Sugar in the United States — (6 Months) . . 2,207,428 
Increase 86,819 tons, or 4.094 per cent. 

— Weekly Statistical Sugrir Trade Journal, yov. 11. 1920 



RECORD BEET SEED CROP twelve months ending June 30th, the de- 

[lartment states, brought the apparent 
carry-over of stocks in the country on 



Sugar beet seed production in the 

United States this year has exceeded the , ^ „ , ^ ,.« ^^,^ ^r^ 

J f ir^-in V. u 4- ^ftnnn J^^Y Ist of this year up to 22,500,000 

record crop of 1919 by about 70,000 ■' ^ . . -.oo/^ft^^rtft 



pounds, as compared with 13,600,000 
pounds on July 1, 1919. Imports since 
July 1st have been 3,509,737 pounds in 
July and 8.jS,40O povmds in August. 



pounds, according to the estimate of the 
Department of Agriculture, which places 
the 1920 output at 6,770,000 pounds. 

Reports to the bureau of markets, the 
department announces, show an average 

yield per acre of 870 pounds, from 7,780 SUGAR MACHINERY PLANTS IN 

acres harvested. GERMANY 

Idaho produced one-third of the total There are at present not more than six 

crop, or 2,260,000 pounds, followed by factories in Germany especially equipi)ed 
Colorado, with 1,815.000 pounds; Mon- for turning out machines for sugar pro- 
tana, 910,000 pounds; California, 900,000 duction. These factories are receiving 
pounds; Michigan, 515,000 pounds, and orders from the Dutch colonies in Java 
Utah. 265,000 pounds. All other states for new machines, and they also t»xpect 
together produced about 95,000 pounds. contracts from northern France and Bel- 

Heavy importation tif seed during the giiun. 



THECUBARBVIEW 33 

SUGAR REVIEW 

specially written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, New York, N. Y. 



Since we last wrote you on October 2Sth we have issued our new estimates of the 
sugar crops of the world for the 1920-21 season. There have been a few slight changes 
in these estimates since they were first published, but the latest figures are given in 
the table herewith. We place the grand total of cane and beet sugar to be expected 
during the new campaign at 17,232,900 tons, an increase of 1,922,076 tons over the 
latest figures for 1919-20. Of this amount the total cane crops are estimated at 
12,682,900 tons and the beet crops at 4,550,000 tons. As regards Cuba, reports have 
been slow in coming in on account of the unsettled financial conditions in the Island, 
which causes some of the factories to hesitate in giving out any estimates until 
conditions improve. Weather in the Island, however, has been quite favorable gen- 
erally, although the eastern half has not had as abundant rainfall as could be desired. 
There has been an increased planting reported in quite a number of sections and 
furthermore there are a number of new factories now complete or in com-se of con- 
struction which will add to the outturn. Many of the old plants have increased their 
capacity, all of which would naturally tend to show an increased production. For 
the present, therefore, we are satisfied to put the indication for Cuba down at 4,000,000 
tons, which appears to be conservative. The Porto Rican crop we estimate at about 
the same as last year, while in the Hawaiian Islands a small increase is looked for. 
Our domestic crop in Louisiana will be nearly double last year's, although same has 
by no means reached the normal of other years. Owing to the very favorable weather 
and other conditions affecting ovir domestic beet crop we also look for a material 
increase there and an outturn of 950,000 tons is not at all unreasonable. 

The New York raw sugar market was quoted at 7%c cost and freight at the time 
of our last report, since which date further decline has been recorded until the 
quotation is now on the basis of 4%c c. & f., at which there is only a small buying 
interest, the demand for sugar at this price being limited on account of the very 
light demand which our refiners are still experiencing for refined sugars. Quotations 
for refined have also followed the course of the raw market and are today on the 
cane granulated basis of 9c f. o, b. seaboard refining point generally, with the 
exception of one refinery in New York, which quotes 8%c less the usual discount 
of 2% for cash. Sugars held by second-hands have of necessity been offered at less 
than refiners' prices and granulated could probably be bought today from this source 
at 8%c basis. 

Regarding Cuba, movement of the old crop continues normal for the season of 
the year, arrivals at shipping ports and exports being only small and reflecting the 
small amount of business being done in Cuban sugar. Stock on the Island at latest 
date was reported as 265,857 tons, while 137,884 tons were reported at the same time 
last year. According to private cables received here, one central, the "Baguanos," is 
reported to have started grinding the new crops, while eight were working at this 
time last year. Our correspondents, Messrs. Guma-Mejer, have sent us a very interest- 
ing table showing the outturn of the 1919-20 crop by ports as under : 

CUBA CROP, 1919-20 — Outturn Ijy Ports. — Messrs. Guma-Me.ier's report, dated 
October IS, 1920 : 

Havana 23 Centrals 2,317,374 Btigs 

Matanzas 23 " 3,101,133 '" 

Cardenas IS " 2,607,493 ^' 

Cienfuegos '^o " 2,-362,169 " 

Sagua 16 •• 1,747,171 " 

Caibarien .15 - 1,S42,204 •' 

Guantanamo 12 " 74<1,19S " 

Cuba 7 " • 727,5 1 7 " 



34 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Maii/.iinillo 

SjintM ("ni/. dfl Sui- 1 

XiU'vihis I'l 

Aiitillii I- 

Nipo Ray 1 

.Tucjirti n 

(Jil)ar:i aiitl Puerto T'adrc 3 " 

Bancs 1 

Manati 1 

Zaza 1 

Trinidad 1 

192 C-iitrab 
'I'ons :!.7:!o.(i77 



7o4,r»;^7 " 

:',4r).(i(;7 " 

2,n72,7!»2 " 

1.209,178 " 

:5r):?.9S3 " 

2.844,974 " 

l,244,r,20 " 

479,ti71 " 

37.'^.l.-0 '• 

2<;,(i,")7 " 

S(),.-.92 " 

L'li.i i(».r.4(> Bags 



Tlie nioratnriuni, which it is rumored will l)e rontiiuied in Culia for anotlier 
thirty days, has not hud as material an el'fect on tlie suj;ar situaHon as it was at 
first thought. The negotiations liere for a loan to Cuhan hanks are at a standstill 
on account of the lack of the necessary legislation by the Cuban Congress. 

From abroad we have some interesting figures on the consumiition of sugar in 
Germany which is officially announced as 940,940 tons for fiscal year 1910-20, against 
1,32S.G94 tons in 1918-19 and 1.004,79.") tons in 1917-18. We are in receipt of an 
interesting cable from the United Kingdom stating that the English Government has 
decided to abolish all household rationing so that consumers can now purchase all 
the sugar they desire withf>ut any restrictions whatsoever. The only restrictions 
now in force in England ai'e for the manufacturers and these regulations are not over- 
strict. There are more and more indications that tlie control of sugar in England is 
likely to be ended at the close of the year. 

The exports of sugar from Java to the United States and other countries for the 
month of Octolier total 198,000 tons, of which 110,000 tons is destined either for 
European ports or for United States Atlantic seaboard, and it is likely thflt the larger 
part of this sugar is for the latter destination. 

There were no exports of sugar frfun the I'liiliiipines diuung the month of October 
in any direction. 

New York, X. Y.. November 29, 1920. 



SUGAR BULLETIN 

TIk' SiifK/r BuJJ'.tin, the lirst number of 
which appeared under date of November 
9th, is a weekly digest of sugar news of 
the world, published by the Bureau of 
Statistics of the United States Sugar 
Manufacturers" Association at Washing- 
ton, under tlie editorship of Truman G. 
Palmer. 

The purpo.se of the l?iif/ar BnUetin is 
to give the reader a brief outline of all 
the sugar news of the day, indicating 
where it is set forth in more detail, giving 
the name, date and page of the publica- 
tions in which it appears, together with 
the names of the nutboi-s and the approxi- 
mate number of words. Peaders desiring 



to ac(|Uaiiit tliemselv(>s with more than 
tl;t^ outline given can refer to the original 
publication, if in their files, can secure 
copies direct from the pulilishers, or can 
obtain typewritten copies from the office 
of the siif/ar liiillctiu at regular steno- 
graphic rates. 

The liiiUctin is of letter size, punched 
for filing, and the items are consecutively 
nuniliered to facilitate reference. For 
furtlier convenience the items are classi- 
fied under several headings. 

This liulletin is an innovation in the 
field of sugar literature and its value will 
be apparent to all who are interested in 
keeping in touch with current events in 
the sutrar world. 



THECUBAREVIEW 35 

REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita especialmente para la CUBA REVIEW por Willett & Gray, de Nueva York. 



Desde nuestra ultima revista del 2S de octubre liemos publicado los nuevos calculos 
de las coseclias de azucar del mundo para la estacion de 1920-21. Desde que se 
publicaron estos calculos ha liabido algunos ligeros cambios, pero en la tabla adjunta 
se dan las ultimas cifras. Calculamos que el gran total de azucar de cana y de 
remolacha que se espera durante la nueva estacion sera 17,232,900 toneladas, tm 
aumento de 1,922,076 toneladas mas que las ultimas cifras de 1919-20. De esta cantidad 
el total de las cosechas de aziicar de cana se calculan en 12,682,900 toneladas y las 
coseclias de azucar de remolaclia en 4,550,000 toneladas. Respecto a Cuba, los informes 
ban tardado en Uegar a causa del estado financiero por que esta atravesando la Isla, 
lo cual bace que algunas fabricas de azucar vacilen en dar calculo algimo basta que 
mejore la situacion. Sin embargo, el tiempo en Cuba ba sido bastante favorable 
generalmente, aunque en la parte ordental no ba babido lluvias tan abundantes 
come se deseaba. Segun noticias ba babido un aumento en la plantacion en bastantes 
regiones, y lo que es mas ahora ya se ba terminado la construccion de bastantes 
fabricas o estan en vias de construccion, lo cual aumentara la produccion. Mucbos 
de los ingenios ban aumentado su capacidad, todo lo cual naturalmente conducira a 
un aumento en la produccion. Por lo tanto, al presente estamos satisfechos en indicar 
para Cuba una produccion de 4,000,000 de toneladas, lo cual parece ser moderado. 
Calculamos que la cosecha de Puerto Rico sera aproximadamente la misma del ano 
pasado, mientras que en la Islas Hawaii se espera un pequeno aumento. La cosecba 
en la Luisiana sera casi el doble de la del ano pasado, aunque esta de niugun modo 
llego a la normal de otros anos. Debido al tiempo muy favorable y a otras causas 
que influyen en nuestra cosecba de azucar de remolacba del pals, tambien esperamos 
un buen aumento, y una produccion de 950,000 toneladas no es en modo alguno una 
cosa fuera de razon. 

El azucar crudo en el mercado de Nueva York se cotizaba a 7%c costo y flete 
cuando se publico nuestra ultima revista, desde cuya fecba ba tenido lugar mayor 
ba.ia, basta que abora la cotizacion es bajo la base de 4%c costo y flete, a cuyo precio 
hay poco interes en bacer compras, la demanda por azucar a esta precio siendo 
limitada a causa de la poca demanda que tienen nuestros refinadores por azticares 
refinados. Las cotizaciones por azucar refinado tambien ban seguido el curso del 
uiercado de azucares crudos y son hoy bajo la base de 9c por el azucar de caiia 
granulado libre a bordo el litoral maritimo de la refineria generalmente, a exception 
de una refineria en Nueva York que cotiza S%c menos el acostumbrado descuento 
de 2% por el pago al contado. Los azucares retenidos por comerciantes de trasmano 
por necesidad ban sido ofrecidos a menor precio que los de los refinadores, y probable- 
mente el azucar granulado podria comprarse hoy de ese modo bajo la base de 8i/^c. 

Respecto a Cuba, el movimiento de la pasada zafra continua normal en esta 
estacion del ano, las Uegadas de azucar a los puertos de embarque y las exportaciones 
siendo solamente en pequenas cantidades e indicando el poco negocio que se esta 
llcvando a cabo en el azucar de Cuba. Las existencias en Cuba segun ultima fecba 
se fijaban en 265,857 toneladas, mientras que en la misma epoca el ano pasado eran 
137,884 toneladas. Segun noticias recibidas aqui por cable privado, se dice que un 
Central, el "Baguano's," ha empezado a moler la nueva zafra, mientras que el ano 
pasado habia ocho centrales empleados en la molienda el ano pasado por esta epoca. 
Nuestros corresponsales, los Sres. Guma-Mejer, nos ban enviado una tabla estadistica 
muy interesante que muestra la produccion de la cosecba de 1919-20 por puertos, del 
modo siguiente: 



3b THECUBAREVIEW 

ZAFRA DE CUBA, 1919-20 — rrddiicciou iiur I'uertus. — Iiifoniu' de los Sres. (iuma- 
Mejer. fechado el IS de octiibrt' d«^ 1!>L*<): 

Ilalmna --^ CVntnilfs i.',:!17,.".7-4 Sacos 

Matanzas -^ " :'..nn.i:',:! •' 

Cardenas IS - i',iM»7,4!ta " 

Cienfiiejrcs -':^ " 2.:{r,2,ir,0 " 

Sajrua T'> " 1,747.171 " 

Caihavieii !•"' - 1,842,204 " 

Giiantaiianio 12 " 74<^),l!»s " 

Cui)a ~ " 727,."i77 " 

Manzanill(. '•• • 7:;4,r,:i7 " 

Sai>ta Cruz d»4 Snr 1 " ?!4."»,ti(;7 " 

Nuevitas V\ " 2.1l72.7!l2 " 

Antilla 12 " 1.200,178 " 

Xipe Bay 1 - :msm " 

Jucaro 9 " 2,s44.974 " 

Gibara y rnerto Tadiv o " l,244.f.20 " 

Banes 1 " 47!»,(;71 " 

Manati 1 " :i78,150 " 

Zaza 1 " 20,057 " 

Trinidad 1 " s(t,o92 " 



192 ( "iMitrales 2t;.no..j40 Sacos 

Toneladas 3,730,077 

EI nionitoi-ium, que sej:un riiiiinrcs (•ontiimara en Culm iior treinta di:is mas, no 
ha afeotado la situaciou del azucar tanto coiuo so crela al principio. Las negociaciones 
aqui para un prestanio a los bancos de Cuba se ban paralizadci a causa de que la 
legislatura del Congreso cubano no ha sancionado los pasos necesarios para su efecto. 

Del extranjero tenemos cifras Interesantes acerca del consunio de aziicar en 
Aleniania, que se anuncia oficialniente ser 946,940 toneladas para el ano econ6mico de 
1919-20 contra 1,328,694 toneladas en 1918-19 y 1,004,795 toneladas en 1917-1918. Hemos 
reciltido de la Gran Bretana ini despacbo interesante por el cable nianifestando que el 
Gobierno de Inglaterra ha decidido abolir toda la restriccion de raciones para usos 
doniesticos, asi es los consuniidores pueden abora coniprar todo el aziicar que quieran 
sin restriccion alginia. Las tinicas restricciones abora en vigor en Inglaterra son para 
los fabricantes, y estas i-estricciones no son muy estrictas. Hay cada vez mas indicios 
de que la administracion del azticar en Inglaterra por el gobierno probablemente ter- 
minara al acabar el ano. 

Las exportaciones de azucar de .lava a los Estados Unidos y a otros paises durante 
el mes de octulire dan un total de 198,000 toneladas, de lo cual 110,000 toneladas se 
destinabau para puertos de Europa o para puertos del Atlantico en los Estados 
Cnidos, y es probable que la mayor parte de diclio aziicar es para este ultimo punto. 

Durante el mes de octubre no bubo exportaciones de azucar de las Filipinas en 
direcci6n alguna. 

Xueva York, noviembre 29 de 1920. 



NEW SPANISH TEXT BOOK countries. 



Hougliton Mifflin Company, Boston, ECONOMY FUSE AND MANUFACTURING 

Mass., have published a Spanish text book COMPANY 

entitled "Terry's Short Cut to Spanish," yij.^ c. B. Merrell, who has been for a 

by T. Philip Terry, price $2.00. number of years in. the general offices of 

This book gives a new, easy, and quick the Economy Fuse & Manufacturing Com- 
merhod for learning the Spanish language pany, has been appointed District Sales 
and is combined with a pocket interpreter Manager of the Philadelphia Office, 523 
of pronouncing phrase liook for English- Widener Building, vice E. J. Watson, re- 
speaking travelers in Spanish-speaking signed. 



THECUBAREVIEW 37 

Cable "Turnure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK— 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of 
Collection and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public 
and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection 
of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and 
Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, 
Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 

HAVANA : N. Gelats & Co. PARIS : Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO : Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 

LONDON : The London Joint City & Midland Bank Ltd. 

i Banco Urquijo, Madrid 

SPAIN : I Banco de Barcelona, Beurcelona 

( Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

The Cuba Review has ready for delivery a Map of the Island 
of Cuba, showing the location of all the active sugar plantations 
in Cuba and giving other data concerning the sugar industry 
of Cuba. Size 29^ x 24. Price $1.00 postpaid. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 

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General bankiivj; l)usiness transacted 
with special facilities ior handlinjj 
Cuban items throutjli the National 
Bank of Cuba and its 92 branches 
and agencies. 

We are especially interested in dis- 
counting Cuban acceptances. 

Current Interest Rates Paid on Deposit Accounts 
subject to check. 

Loans, Discounts, Collections and Letters of 
Credit will receive our best attention. 

W. A. MERCHANT President 

J. T. MONAHAN ------ Vice-President 

CHAS. F. PLARRE Cashier 

L. G. JONES Asst. Cashier 

]. W. ALBAUGH Asst. Cashier 

Se habla Espaiiol 



Established 1876 



N. GELATS & COMPANY 

Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 
HAVANA 



SUGAR INDUSTRIES, INC. 
The name of the organization doing 
business at 82 Wall Street, New York, as 
the Sugar Producers' Distributing Cor- 
lioratiou, has been changed to Sugar In- 
dustries, Incorporated. The new name, it 
Is announced, represents more exactly the 
business aims of the company, of w^hich 
Mr. W, G. Cooke, recently head of the 
Xew York office of Alexander & Baldwin, 
is president. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW tchen writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



Economy renewable Fuses 

EASIER THAN EVER TO RENEW 

The first renewable fuses usiiio- an inexpensive bare renewal link for restoring a blown fuse to its 
original efficiency to be APPR'^^^/FP [V AM. CAPACITIE'^ bv the Underwriters' Laboratories 




Full Protection ! 



Full Efficiency ! 



Full Economy ! 



Economy renewable Fuses have a long and distinguished record for giving dependable pro- 
tection, high efficiency and low operating costs in use on electrical circuits in sugar mills and on 
plantations in the United States and Cuba. 

The knife-blade type Economy renewable Fuse is easier than ever to renew. Simply 
unlock the wmged washer, remove the fused Imk, insert a new Economy " Drop Out" renewal 
Link, relock the washer and the fuse is ready for continued service. No loss of time, no inconven- 
ience, no waste, for all that is destroyed in a blown fuse is the inexpensive strip of fusible metal. 

Economy Fuses cut operating costs 80% as compared with the use of "one time" fuses. 

Economy Fuses and Economy "Drop Out" renewal Links, since December 1, 1919, have 
carried the "Underwriters' Laboratories Inspected" labels and symbols IN ALL CAPACI- 
TIES— from to 600 amperes in both 250 and 600 volts. 

Install Economy Fuses at once. 
Sold by leading electrical dealers and jobbers everywhere. 

ECONOMY FUSE & MFG. CO., - - - CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

Economy Fuses also are made in Canada at Montreal. 



|^^1|J^y*oc — Ofrecemos sujetas a 
y^***'^'^* "•* venta prior las sig- 
uientes calderas de uso : 

lO-B & W 275 H. P. 

125 lbs. Presion 

12"Sotter Bros. 140 H. P. 

de retorno tubular — 90 lbs. Presion 

CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE 
National Sugar Refining Co. of N. J. 

YONKERS, N. Y. (U. S. A.) 



Old Volumes of 

The Cuba Review 



Mr. Alberto Peralta, Apartado 2349, 
Havana, Cuba, is desirous of obtaining 
complete volumes of The Cuba Review 
for the following years : 1903, 1904, 1905, 
1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910. 

Any of our readers who may be able to 
supply these will communicate with Mr. 
Peralta, stating price for the collection. 



MAXiIMUM PRICE FOR SUGAR IN SPAIN 



The following maximum prices for the 
sale of white granulated sugar in Spain 
have been authorized: At the mill, 250 
pesetas (peseta equals $0,193 at normal 
exchange) per 100 Mlos (kilo equals 2.2 
pounds) ; at the wholesale distributors, 
265 pesetas per 100 kilos; at the retail 



dealers, 280 pesetas per 100 kilos. Prices 
for lump sugar : At the mill, 280 pesetas 
per 100 kilos ; at the wholesale distribu- 
tors, 295 pesetas per 100 kilos ; at the 
retail dealers, 310 pesetas per 100 kilos. 
Dry beet pulp for use as stock food is 
not to be sold at a price greater than 225 
pesetas per metric ton (metric ton equals 
2,204 pounds). 



Pleuae mrnfion THE CUBA liEVIEW wlien irritiiig to Aduertiser-H 



40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Til i<: 



Crust Company of Cuba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL - 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$750,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsby President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgood Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Whitner Manager Real Estate 

and Itisurance Depts. 



%^ 



^9 



WATERPRO0F, 
MBEUriNG 




6ARANTIZAMOS QUE ESTA 
COHREA ES PERFECTA 
POR SU CALIDAD Y 
PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUEBA 
VUELVE- 




'rS^^ 



k 



GERENTE P.N.PIEDRA.- ---^te^ 
-.^r CABLE "PEN I COPE"; *^-^ 







J.BACHMANMSCO: 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 

16-16 REA^E ST. ""^ 



NEW YORK.N.Y 



/^ 



Our established relations with manufac- 
turers and lar^e volume of business, 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes of 



RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda Bicarbonate -Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils Greases -Waxes 

Gums— Glues— Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filterint; Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences Herbs Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 



We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you are 
next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 
140 Liberty St., New York 

2 & 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cienfuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives : 
UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 



Oficianas Tanca No. 2 



San Juan, P. R 



The Royal Bank "'Canada 

Fundado en 1869 

Capital Pagado - - - - - $15,000,000 
Fondo de Reserva - - - - IS.OOO.OOq 
Activo Total - ----- 420.000.000 

QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SUCURSALES 

VEINTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONORES : 2 Bank Buildings. Princes Street 

NEW YORK: 68 William Street 

BARCELONA : Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Se expiden CARTAS DE CREDITO 
para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS ESTERLI- 
NAS y PESETAS, valederas sin descuentoalguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTO DE AHORROS se 
admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO PESOS 
en adelante. 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana : Obrapia 33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozarkna F. W. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F. J. Beattv 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. II 
PM 


No. 1 

PM 


No. 7 

PM 


No.19 

PM 


No. 5 

PM 


No. 15 

AM 


No. 3 

AM 


No. 9 

AM 


(A 

1 


HAVANA 


No. 2 

AM 


No. 8 

A M 


No. 20 

AM 


No. 6 
PM 


N0.I6 
PM 


No. 4 

PM 


No. 10 

PM 


No. 12 

AM 


* 

10.35 


10.30 
AM 
13.41 


9-30 
11-43 
4.00 

5-15 
915 
AM 


4.01 
6-35 

8.50 
PM 


1. 01 
3-12 
6.13 
II. 15 


11.51 

2.25 
PM 


8.20 
10 12 
12.50 
3 35 
7-30 

4-30 
PM 


6 20 
8.52 
1250 
3-35 
7-30 

4.30 
PM 


58 
109 

179 
230 
180 
195 
241 
276 
340 
520 
538 


Lv. Ar 
Central Station 
Ar. Lv. 
. . Matanzas . . 


6.23 

4.10 
AM 


7-5° 
5.26 
12.05 

11-55 
8.00 
PM 


9-50 
7-05 

500 
AM 


3-16 

T.02 
PM 
930 

6.25 


6.01 

3-15 
PM 


7.18 
5.06 
1.40 
11-55 
8.00 


9-30 
6-59 
3-50 
11-55 
8.00 


* 

6.30 














...Caibarien... 
.Santa Clara. . 


11.00 






6.00 




q.OO 






7.40 






6.45 
AM 




11.00 
AM 


11.00 
AM 


10.00 


9-55 

11-45 
PM 
3-05 










Sancti Spiritus 

Ciego de Avila 

. . .Camaguey . . 

Antilla .... 


4-45 

3-45 

12.15 
PM 










PM 








AM 

255 

6.00 
PM 
4-45 

6.10 
PM 












12.40 
AM 
9-15 
PM 
10.40 

930 

AM 
















































3-00 

AM 










. . . Santiago . . . 


12.01 
AM 



































Sleeping cars on trains i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 12. 
♦Via Carreno. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES— UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From Havana to 

tienfuegos 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Camaguey 

Antilla 

Santiago de Cuba 



Lower 


Upper 


Compart- 


Drawing- 


Berth 


Berth 


ment 


Room 


3.60 


$300 


$8.00 


lio.oo 


3.60 


3-00 


8,00 


10 00 


360 


3.00 


8.00 


10.00 


4.20 


3-50 


10.00 


12.00 


6.00 


5.00 


14.00 


18.00 


6.00 


5.00 


14.00 


18.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



U S. Cy 

Antilla $30-37 

Batabano i .99 

Bayamo 26.82 

Caibarien 13 84 

Camaguey 20. 14 

Cardenas 7 05 

Ciego de Avila 16.53 

Cienfuegos 11.33 

Colon 7.20 

Guantanamo 3326 

Holguin 27.56 



U. S. Cy. 

Isleof Pines $7-50 

Madruga 3-9i 

Manzanillo 28.59 

Matanzas 4-i6 

Placetas 12.36 

Remedios I3-S3 

Sagua 1008 

San Antonio -81 

Sancti Spiritus i4-55 

Santa Clara 1 1.09 

Santiago de Cuba 31-35 



Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighs 
no pounds or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in third-class. 



44 



W^eek-End" Tickets 



FIRST- AND THIRD-CLASS 



are on sale from Havana to all stations of the United Railways (except Rincon and 
such as are located at less than twenty kilometres from Havana) and vice versa, valid 
going on Saturdays and returning on any ordinary train the following Sunday or Monday 
at very low rates. 

UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 

FRANK ROBERTS, General Passenger Agent 

PR ADO, 118 HAVANA, CUBA 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPHCIALTIHS 
88 BROAD ST.. Cor. Stone. NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion directa de todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munsoii Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York ; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool; Vapores 
Traiisatliinticos de A. Kolch & Co., de Barcelona, 
Espana. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET 17'21 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established 50 Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 

JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 
Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones: } J°°^^| Bowling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone 316 Henry Night Call. 2278 Henry 



The Snare and Triest Company 

Contracting Engineers 

STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 

We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office. 8 West 40th Street 

Havana OITice : Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address ; Kunomale, New York 
Telephone, 3300 South 



Telephone 
213 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Elzchmng* 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar Makers, 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 Summit Street 

Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



Daniel Weill s enc. 

COMERCIANTE EN GENERAL 
Especialidad en Ropa Hecha de Trabajo 

Am in a position to push the sales ot 

American high class products Would 

represent a first-class firm. 

APARTADO 102 CAMAGUEY, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

( ■ M M I S S IC) X M K It C II A N T 

P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either on a 
commission basis or under agency arrangement!. 
Also furnishes all desired information about landi 
in eastern Cuba. 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

iEngraupni- - iFiiif ^tatimin-y 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



F. W. Hvoslef 



E. C. Day 



R. M. Michelion 



BENNETT. HVOSLEF & CO. 

Steamship Agents & Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 
Cable "Benvosco" 



I'lcaae iiioilion THhl CUBA REVIEW ivhen writing to Advertisers 



THECUBAREVIEW 43 

Munson Steamship Line 

GENERAL OFFICES : 

82 Beaver Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES : 

Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Keyser Building, BALTIMORE. MD. 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

Leave Arrive Leave Arrive 

New York Antilla Antilla New York 

S/S"MUNAMAR" Dec. 23 Dec. 27 Dec. 31 Jan. 4 

" Jan. 8 Jan. 12 Jan. 15 Jan. 19 

" Jan. 22 Jan. 26 Jan. 29 Feb. 2 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular Sailings as follows : 

Matanzas Every Week | Sagua Every 3 Weeks 

Cardenas. .. Every 3 Weeks I Caibarien... " " " 
Havana Every Week] Nuevitas.... " " " 



Antilla Every 3 Weeks 

Santiago ,, ,, ,, 

Cienfuegos . . ,, ,, ,, 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER — Montevideo-Buenos Ayres Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 



NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

New York to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Ayres 

S/S MARTHA WASHINGTON (b) January i 

S/S HURON (a) January 19 

S/S AEOLUS (a) February 9 

(a) ist, 2d and 3d class (b) ist and 2d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Havana Every OtherVThursday 

A STEAMER — Baltimore-Cienfu egos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 

NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Vera Cruz, Tampico and Progreso„ 



The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels^or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



44 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Machinery Handles All Products 

in sugar lactories, from dumping the cane to storing the bagged sugar. 
Our leadership as engineers and builders of efficient conveying systems for 
sugar estates and refineries is the result of years of experience. 

Send for our new 136 page catalog No. 355. 

LINK-BELT COMPANY 

299 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY 




American Car and Foundry Export Co. 



Direccion Telegrafica, 
• CAREX " NEW YORK 



165 Broadway, New York, U.S. A, 




LisTA Para Entrega inmediatamente 

Aqui se ve el grabado de uno de nuestros carros mas modernos para mercanclas. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias capacidades para uso en Cuba, Puerto Rico, Slid America, America Central y 
Mejico, con baslidores y jaulas de madera o de acero, Produccion annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA Representante para Cuba 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW rolien tcriting to Advertisers 




V isr — r?- -S3^ 

:ear ^NUARY, 1921 lOCentsAGR 

(non nvf ha Mimenn ^l-A^mckm t mn i^7-Q7 R^.^w^m Qii^A^i NauiYm'L Til 



THE c i: K A K 1-: \ i i: w 



Chuchos o Cambiavias, Ranas o Corazones, 

CRUZAMIENTOS. CABALLETES DE MANIOBRA PARA 
FERROCARRILES. RIELES. &c. 




DURAX FE nicis cie 35 anos iiuestros Talleres — siem- 
pre montados a la moderna — se han dedicado a la 
fabricacion de Rieles, Chuchos, Cruzainientos y 
otros Accesorios para los Ferrocarriles Americanos, 
y siempre hemes procurado corresponder a las nec^sidades 
de nuestros clientes suministrandoles materiales de primera 
al precio mas reducido. 

Nuestra Seccion Tecnica esta a disposicion de nuestros 
clientes, y para avudarnos interpretar debidamente sus nec- 
esidades y evitar demoras inconvenientes, al pedir precios 
6 remitir encargos, es sumamente importante nos den los 
detalles correspondientes. 

Sirvase dirieir la coriesnondenria a 

WEIR FROG COMPANY 

43 Cedar St., New York, E.E. U.U. 
JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente Direccion cablegrafica : JAMOTLEY. NEWYORK 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
NEW YORK 



Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO. LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 



Los productos de estas FSbricas abarcan 




Locomotoras 

Garros para caiia 

Rieles y accesso- 
rios 

Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 

Calderas 

Maquinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 

Tanques 

Tornos 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maquin- 
aria para Ingen- 
ios de Azucar 

Calentadores de 
agua de alimen- 
tacion 
I Alambiques para 
agua 

Madera, pino am- 
arillo 



A fo'icitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. 
Direccion cablegrahca : JAMOTLEY. New York (Se usan todas las claves) 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 
cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de Ij^ tone- 
ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac- 
CarrOS de IngeniOS idad de so toneladas. 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, inclu5'endo los juegos de rae- 
das, completamente arraados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos com- 
pletos para'construir los carros i su destine de maderas del pais. 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., NEW YORK, N. Y. ^*^^^mal?a"^ 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 



W. S. HOLBROOK, PRES. 



Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 



Phone Broad 

4266-4267 



Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure 

15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



Night Phone 

1 105 Bay Ridge 

1368 Richmond Hill 



WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 



FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



SUGARS 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



82 Wall Street, New York 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal— the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

/^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

^jUlg^^l^g^^lg^Y' f^o"^ 5 ^- ^I- to 8 P. U. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

Fare (Round Trip), $1.40 

/^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

^jUlll^^g _«■ from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 

^=Z^==^^^ Fare (Round Trip), $1.92 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANAS FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) |o.o6 

Guanabacoa ( Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Bianca and Cabafias Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A.M. To Casa Bianca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A.M. to 11 P.^I. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW vhen icriting to Advertisers 



THE CUBA RE\'IEW 




TT Tubular Barrow — -3 Cu. Ft. 



JACKSON 

TUBULAR BARROWS 

are made with extra deep jiressed trays. 
No seams or rivets to prevent complete 
discharge of load. 

WRr.E'FOR CATALOG 



The Jackson Manufacturing Co. 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 




Avoid imitations, insist upon .^ettina; WALKER'S 
METALLIC '-LION' PACKING.' Look for "The 
Thin Red Line" which runs through all the 
(ienuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Labels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 



JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 



Western Railway of Havana 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 
8.24 


P M 

».55 
4.24 
5SI 
6.05 
6.56 
8.40 
PM 


P M 

1.45 
3-55 


AM 
10.15 
12.24 


AM 

8 24 
9-51 
10.05 
10.56 
12.40 
PM 


A M Fare 
5-45 'St cl. 
7-55 : 1265 1 

5-62 

7.30 : 6 71 
11.45 1 8.83 
AM 1 









P M 


PM 


PM 



I Fare AM AM 
Lv. Ceil. Sta.. .Ar 3d cl. ! 7.20' 11.09 
Ar. .Arteniisa..Lv^i.40 515; 9.40 

Ar. Paso Real.. Lv 2.54 | 8.05 

Ar. Herradura .Lv 2.74 ( 7.4S 

Ar.Piiiardel RioLv 3.25 j 6.55 

Ar Guaiie...Lv| 4.22; I 5.2b 

AM I AM 



P M P M 



12.01 
9-45 



3 20 
1-J5 



AM P M 



PM 
7.09 
540 
4.0s 
3.48 
2-55 
1.20 

PM 



P M 

8.00 
545 

6.00 
2.00 
P M 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares From Havana To 

Arroyo Naranjo 24 cts. Rancho Boyeros 38 cts. 

Calabazar 26 cts. Santiago de las Vegas. . .50 cts. 

Rincon 60 cts. 

Leaving Central Station every hall hour from 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 P. M., 
;ind every hour thereafter to 11. 15 P M. 

"WEEK-END" TICKETS 

FIRST- AND THIRD-CLASS 

are on sale from Havana to all points on the Western Railway of Havana west of 
Rincon and vice versa. These tickets are valid .going on .Saturdays and returning 
on any ordinary train the following Sunday and Monday, and are sold at very low 
rates. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when toriting to Advertisers 



THE CUBA RLVIlW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An Illustratea' Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX JANUARY, 1921 No. 2 



Contents of This Number 



Cover Page — Victor Mendoza Park, Havana. 

Frontispiece — United Fruit Company S. S. "San Pablo" on the Rocks at the Entrance to 
Havana Harbor. 

PAGE 

Cuban Financial Matters : 

Central Sugar Corporation 30 

Cuba Cane Sugar Corporation 22, 23, 24, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 20 

Punta Alegre Sugar Company 30 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 20, 21 

Cuban Government Matters : 

Extension of Moratorium 7 

JMission of General Crowder 7 

Secretary of the Treasury 7 

Cuban Purchasers of Railroad Rolling Stock 16, 17 

Direct Telephone Between Cuba and the United States 13, 16 

Foreign Commerce of Cuba 18, 19 

Havana Correspondence 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 

Production of Glycerine from Sugar 31 

Sugar Review, English 32 

Sugar Review, Spanish , 33, 34 



T 11 K C r H A K K V 1 IC W 




THE 
CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1^21, by the Miinson Steamship Line 



Volume XIX 



JANUARY. 1921 



Number 2 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



EXTENSION OF MORATORIUM 
On December 31st President Menocal 
signed a decree extending the moratorium 
until January 31, 1921. 

This action was taken at the request 
of Senators and Representatives in order 
that the Legislature might be given time 
to enact measures for solving the existing 
financial problems. 

Congress convened on December 29th. 
Continuation of the moratorium on a 
modified basis for four months would be 
authorized under the terms of a bill 
adopted by the Senate. The measure has 
the sanction of President Menocal, and 
is reported to be acceptable to Major Gen. 
Enoch Crowder. The bill now goes to the 
House for consideration. 

Under provisions of the measure, drafts, 
promissory notes and other commercial 
■obligations contracted before October 10, 
1920, the date of the issuance of the first 
moratorium decree, and now due, or fall- 
ing due before April 30 next, would be 
payable in four instalments. Fifteen per 
cent, would be paid before January 31, 2.5 
per cent, before February 28, 2.5 per cent, 
tefore March 31, and 35 per cent, before 
April 30. Bank deposits bearing dates 
prior to October 10, 1920, would be sub- 
ject to withdrawal as follows : 15 per 
cent, before February 10, 15 per cent, be- 
fore March 10, 20 per cent, before April 
10, 25 per cent, before May 10, and 25 
per cent, before June 10, 1921. 

Adoption by the Cuban government of 
as much of the United States Federal Re- 
serve Banking system as is legally possi- 



lile has been recommended to President 
^lenocal by Senor Jose Manuel Tarafa, a 
prominent Cuban financier. In case 
there are legal obstacles to Cuba being 
admitted to the United States Federal 
Reserve System, Senor Tarafa declares 
the latter would be invited to co-operate 
with Cuba in re-establishing in Havana a 
bank of emission. Another plan suggested 
is that an invitation be extended to 
American banks to join the conference of 
the Federal Reserve Board to establish 
in Havana in agreement with the Cuban 
government a bank of emission under the 
same regulations as the government of the 
United States Federal Reserve Bank. 



MISSION OF GENERAL CROWDER 
President Wilson has sent Major Gen- 
eral Enoch Crowder to Cuba to confer 
with President Menocal relative to the 
test means for remedying the present diffi- 
cult financial and political situation 
there. 

General Crowder is probably the best 
informed American authority on the pres- 
ent political situation in Cuba. The Cuban 
national elections were held under regu- 
lations drafted by him. 



SECRETARY OF TREASURY 
Dr. Leopold Cancio, secretary of the 
treasury in the Cuban government, has re- 
signed and President Menocal has appoint- 
ed Senor Miguel Irrabarren, former head 
of the Internal Revenue Department, to 
fill the vacancy. 



THE C I' B A H i: ^■ I E W 



HAVANA CORRESPONDENCE 



December 31, 1920. 

PORT CONGESTION: This subject, so iimch aiscussed both at lioino and abroad, 
still presents a solid front to those who would undertake to relieve the situation. 
That conditions aiv in any large measure improved cannot be clainKHi nor admitted. 
The General Wharves are piled high with freight and private wharves are taxed to 
their utmost capacity in an endeavor to despatch vessels arriving for the established 
factors in the shipping Industry in Cnba. 

During the month of December perishable freight valued conservatively at ^••loO,- 
0(X> has been dumped into the sea upon orders from the Departmert of Sanitation 
since condition of the merchandise was considered a menace to the health of the 
public of Havana. This means simply that the foodstuff dumped into the sea could 
not lie taken from the wharves before it decomposed and wovild hardly indicate that 
conditions have improved. Among the connnodities that were dumpi'd were rice. Hour, 
codfish, salmon, olives, olive oil, canned tomatoes, corn, beans, condensed milk and 
sardines. When it is remembered that all of this merchandise was tKlibii', a reason 
for the pi-esent high cost of living in Cuba is furnished. The estimated value of 
merchandise in the Bay of Havana is $40,000,000. 

With the idea of relieving conditions in Havana, a ilecree was recently signed 
by President Menocal whereby all vessels entering the Bay of Havana are to take 
their turn for discharging their cargoes regardless of the wharf to which they are 
assignetl. It will be remembered that all wharves, whether public or private, work 
under what is known as a concession from the Cuban Government and the position 
that has been taken is a perfectly legal one, although it will work a tremendous 
hardship upon the established factors in the American-Cuban maritime trade. The 
enactment of this decree would mean that all shipping interests engaged in Cuban 
trade would be on equal basis and those fly-by-night concenis that have not a cent 
invested in Cuban wharf or harbor facilities would enjoy the same privileges as the 
older establishetl lines who have invested millions in Cuba in establishing themselves 
for the efficient handling of freight into the Island. This measure is to be combatted, 
and we believe justly, since it would extend privileges to shipiiing ci^ncerns who are 
not, and never have been, interested in the development of the Island of Cuba, but 
who are now operating with the sole purpose of extracting handsome profits during 
these trying times and then, when competition has resumed, intesu! to desert the 
trade and seek other lucrative fields. We say "extracring" handsome profits because 
instances have been repeatedly called to oin- attention wherein freight rates far in 
excess of the published tariffs used by the established lines into Cuba have been 
assessed and double landing charges in addition. Instances have been repeatedly 
brought to our attention wherein consignees of freight have been required to pay 
excessive demurrage charges on lighters for the handling of their freight to some 
wharf when the bill of lading held by consignee specifically stated rhat the handling 
charge covered "Wliarfage and handling OR lighterage." 

Recently Colonel Despaine was appointed l\v President Menocal as special repre- 
sentative of the Government, with instructions to study conditions in the Bay of 
Havana and relieve the congestion which has been prevalent for the p^ist ten months. 
Colonel Despaine has held many positions of trust in Cuba and is recognized as an 
exceedingly capable and hardworking official and his advent upon his new duties 
will be observed with keen interest by all concerned. That he has a serious and 
knotty problem to solve is fully realized and he has been offered all assistance 
possible by the Ajnerican shipping interests in Havana. 

Whereas in other industries wages paid labor have been reduced somewhat, it 
cannot be said that dock workers are in any way menaced, for the present at least, 



THE CUB A R E V I E \V 






Views Showing the Congestion on General Wharves in Havana Harbor, 



10 



T H E c r 1'. A K i: \ I K \v 




Congested Wliarves in Havana Harbor. 



in this direction. Tlie age old rule of supply and demand plays a large part in a 
ctmtroversy of this kind and as long as the facilities of this port, and indeed the 
rest of the ports on the Island, are overworked as they are at the present, little 
improvement tending toward a reduction of freight rates may be looked for. Dock 
labor today is not etficient. However, being well organized and with more work 
offering than can pos.sibly be accomplished, labor's position is unique in Cuba. On 
the other hand, the building trades and other industries find a surplus of labor at 
this time owing to the great numbers thrown out of work by the financial crisis that 
has Iteen eminent for the past three months, and wages have been successfully 
xedut-ed and the efliciency augmented. 



CUBA.N FIN.ANCIAL SITUATIO.N" : Although President Menocal extended the mora- 
torium last month until the 31st of December, little improvement has been noted 
in conditions prevailing in Cuba. With a continually falling market and Cuba's 
evident inability to work out means for the floating of a loan either for the banks 
or for the coming sugar crop, the Island seems to l>e facing the necessity of a liquida- 
tion that will tax the resources of Cuba to the utmost. 

A finanncial adviser to the present administration was called from the United 
States and Mr. Arthur Kathl>one, New York banker, was sent by the Washington 
Government for the punxise of working out some solution of the trying situation, 
but to date it would seem that the question is one that will have to be studied out 
and this t^^pable financier has not yet had time to devise ways and means for tiding 
over the crisis that would seem to be looming on the horizon. In one or two state- 
ments issued by Mr. Eathbone the text has been devoted to retrenchment and more 
attention to saving in every way possible. 

However, to us it would seem that what was deemed the impossible six months 
ago is about to happen : the closing of the doors of several banks that have not been 
able to readjust or better their position during the eighty days of the moratorium. 
Business of all kinds is completely in the dark as to what the future holds forth 
and the con.sequence is that very little <>r practically no business is being done 
esc-ept that on a cash basis. 



THECUB A REVIEW 11 

Rumor had it that paper monej^ was to be introduced— without gold reserve — in 
an effort to relieve the situation, but to date the Cuban Congress has been unable 
to meet, due to the lack of a quorum, and since the issuance of paper money would 
have to be accomplished through this agency just what will be done cannot be pre- 
dicted at this time. The matter had been much aired, however, and adverse criticism 
has been heaped upon those that would seek this tmfair method for diverting a 
seeming calamity when the public mind has been furnished enough of the details of 
the present financial situation to realize that banks that were unable to strengthen 
their position sufficiently during the past three' or four very lucrative years will 
surely not be aided by the extension of the moratorium nor the introduction of 
unsecured paper money in the present crisis. 

Sugar speculation and inflated real estate values are blamed for the conditions 
that exist today, but this movement of deflation is world-wide and has been felt 
throughout all lands, the main difference between Cuba and other countries being 
that here we were less prepared for the blow when it fell, on account of the extremely 
optimistic turn of the Latin mind. There was not the farseeing, conservative element 
among us to warn against too much indulgence in a fool's paradise and thus we 
drifted, seemingly unaware that a readjustment had to come. 

SUGAR: With a dozen mills grinding at this time this year as against 100 last 
year, the outlook for the bumper crop that was predicted several months ago seems 
doomed to be a disappointment. Conditions today furnish a marked contrast with 
conditions of six months ago. The price for sugar hovers around four cents, whereas 
large tracts of new land were put into sugar with the expectation of securing a 
price of not less than twelve to fourteen cents per pound. At present prices there 
is little incentive to the producers to harveist the crop as it ig heavily mort- 
gaged in most instances, and if prices do not show a decided improvement during 
the coming months of the grinding, the sugar industry will indeed be hard put to 
meet their obligations — nmcli less pay dividends on the capital invested. 

In conversations with mill owners and cane growers we have come to know 
intimately the inside stories of the methods employed in the financing of some of 
the large deals executed last spring when sugar sold at the highest price in the 
history of the Island. One purchaser related how he had ^purchased a mill for the 
handsome sum of $6,500,000, paying $1,000,000 cash and' the balance of $5,500,- 
000 in notes to mature each year for a term of years and bearing 8 per cent, interest. 
This mill produces about 160,000 bags of sugar which, at present prices, would bring 
less than the interest on his indebtedness. This party told us candidly that he fore- 
saw clearly his ruin and that he would be required to turn the mill back to the 
former owners and lose the million dollars that he had paid as the initial payment 
on the purchase. This million dollars represented a legacy inherited by all the 
members of his family from his parents. Still another related that he had purchased 
a cane colonia at $5,0.00 a caballeria, whereas present prices would indicate that the 
land is worth possibly $500 per caballeria. 

Another feature that would indicate a low price for this year's crop is the in- 
crease in the production of North America and Europe in the beet sugar industry 
of about 36 per cent, over the crop of 1919. This means that the demand in these 
countries is to be lessened by just this amount and, naturally, with a lessened demand 
lower pri<2es result. 

HAVANA TOURISTS : The year 1920-1921 promises to be one of the best years that 
Cuba has experienced in the Avay of its tourist visitors. Already the steamship lines 
to Havana have reported that bookings are taken full until the middle of February 
and the hotels of Havana have increased their facilities in order to accommodate 



12 THECUBAREVIEW 

the jiiil loiijijit' this yi'iir. Sfvcnil iii'w hotels liave been opened and some of the 
older hiistclfics Iiavo heen fiilar^'cd t'or tht- handling tjf the tourists this season. 

HAVANA RACE MEET: Contrary to the general expectations, the horse race meet 
SO far this year has met with splendid success. The crowds attending liave been 
very large and the management lias made every effoit to offer particularly attractive 
cards for tlie entertainnieiit nf the local ixtpulalioii and the visitoi'S. 

PROTEST FILED AGAINST INCREASE IN INLAND FREIGHT RATES: Much in- 
terest and ci-iticisni lias been manifested in the recent increase in the freight and 
passenger rates of the United Railways of Havana and attiliated lines. It seems that 
about eighteen months ago the Railroad Commission in Cuba periintted the United 
Railways to materially increase its freight rates, with the understanding that the 
needs of the railroads had been satisfied for the coming two years. However, recently 
anotlier increase was put into effect and it is claimed by some of the newspapers that 
this is an injustice to the Cuban public. In defense of the railroads we know that 
labor costs have risen perceptibly during the past twelve months and the cost of 
maintenance generally has also increased. New etjuipment orders have been placed 
by the T'nited Railways and affiliated lines that will call ff>r the outlay of millions 
and this feature, we feel, should lie taken into consideialion. 

AMERICAN PHYSICIAN WARNS OF PENDING EPIDEMIC IN HA\ANA: Dr. D. T. 
Laine, a Cuban-born American physician, recently startled the jiopulace of Havana 
by denouncing the Department of Sanitation jiublicly. Dr. Laine is considered one 
of the most competent physicians and surgeons in Cuba, lie has been here many 
years and has always made "ruldic .Sanitation" a close study. Dr. Laine pleads for 
the separation of the Department of Sanitation from its political affiliation and that 
more competent and trustworthy workers be procured. Dr. Laine warned that if 
vigorous steps were not inunediately taken smallpox would be raging in Havana. 
He also calls attention to the slack methods that have been used in recent years in 
the fight against tlie mosquito. Dr. Laine's letter is full of interest and discloses a 
very close knowledge of his subject. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY' EXPERT TO RELIEVE FOREIGN FREIGHT CAR CON- 
GESTION IN CUBA: Mr. W. C. Kendall, Chairman of the Car Service Department Ol 
the American Railway Association, and widely known as "the man who moves ^.noO,- 
000 cars a year," recently came to Havana at the joint request of the Florida East 
Coast Railway and United Railways of Havana, for the purpose of aiding in solving 
the problem which has always faced the car-ferry officials regardinc the disposition 
of the great quantities of American freight cars that are always on the Island. De- 
lays of the customs officials in desi>atching the mercliandise contained in American 
equipment has always been maintained by local officials and this feature will be 
given s])ecial attention during Mr. Kendall's visit. It is to be hoped tliat this prob- 
lem will be solved iis a i-esult of these conferences. 

HAX'ANA's MONTE CARLO REOPENS: Having gi'eatly enlarged Their jirenuses 
and completed extensive new decorations, the Marianao Casino was opened the fore 
part of this month and offers extravagant entertainment to those interested in this 
cla.ss of diversion. Tourists visiting Havana this winter will find themselves in the 
midst of unusually attractive entertainment since the management of the Casino 
has gone to great expense in bringing to Havana the very cream of the variety stage 
as well as several very noted chefs from prominent exclusive restaurants in New 
York. Splendid meals are served to those patronizing the Casino and wonderful 
music is rendered for the dancing. Gaming is the order of things from 11 P. M. until 



THE CUBA REVIEW 13 

2 A. M., and those who wish to test their skill at roulette will have an opportunity 
which is not afforded anywhere else except in Europe. 

IMMIGFIATION : "While we learn from newspapers that immigrants from Europe 
are flocking to the United States in unprecedented numbers, Cuba too has been re- 
ceiving her share of immigrants. Spain is the country from which most of the 
immigrants arrive, although some Portuguese and Frenchmen have arrived also. We 
give below comparative figures for the past eleven years which are significant : 

Year First Six Months Last Six Montlis Total 



1909 


31,197 


79,861 


111,058 


19J0 


51,437 


109,499 


160,936 


1911 


42,961 


96,722 


139,685 


1912 


62,595 


131,848 


194.443 


1913 


55,433 


95,567 


151,000 


1914 


38,123 


28,473 


66,596 


1915 


15,285 


35,074 


50,359 


1916 


22,167 


40,080 


62,247 


1917 


20,394 


52,657 


42,051 


1918 


14,395 


5,773 


80,168 


1919 


18,500 


53,220 


71,720 


1920 


59,593 







Although the figures for the second sis months of the year 1920 are not available, 
from all accounts and judging from the appearance of very numerous vessels that 
have arrived from Spain during the period, we are confident that 1921 is going to 
prove a banner year. 

HARBOR NOTES: During the mouth of December the number of vessels in the 
Bay of Havana either discharging or awaiting discharge averaged 96, which would 
indicate that, although Havana has been heralded around the v.-orld as suffering from 
severe congestion, it is still being used as much as ever as a port of call. 

S. S. "pOZNAN": This vessel, operated by the Polish- American Line, sailed dur- 
ing the month for New York, whence it had sailed some thi-ee months previous. This 
vessel, carrying some 7,000 tons of freight for Cuba, was 'unable to obtain a berth to 
effect her discharge and, after a wait of many days, returned to New York with her 
full cargo. 

S. S. "SAN PABLO": The United Fruit Steamer "San Pablo" went ashore .iust 
at the head of the Prado on December 14th and to date the effort.s of the Merritt- 
Chapman Wrecking and Dredging Company have not been successful in getting her 
off. We understand that the captain of the "San Pablo" endeavored to enter the Port 
of Havana without the assistance of a pilot and, as it was just about dusk, he mistook 
the buoys in making his course £vnd found himself high and dry on the coral rocks 
just to the west of the entrance to the harbor. It was feared for a time that, should 
the San Pablo sink, she would block the harbor, but it now develops ihat she has not 
taken much water and the efficient efforts of the Merritt-Chapman wrecking crew 
will doubtless soon rescue the vessel. It is not considered that the vessel has been 
very seriously damaged. 

NEW CAPTAIN OF THE PORT APPOINTED: On December 1st Col. Armando 
Andre was appointed Captain of the Port of Havana. Colonel Andre has many friends 
among the shipping interests of the Port of Havana and all expressed much gratifi- 
cation at the appointment of this capable official. One of the first acts of the new 
Captain of the Port was to require that a fully manned sea-going tug be placed at the 
wharf in front of the Captain of the Port's office every Saturday afternoon and until 
Monday morning, to be used in emergency. This measure has caused a feeling of 
security among the shipping interests as formerly, since the boatmen of the Bay of 



14 THECUBAREVIEW 

Havana enjoy what is known as the "English Week" ((insisting of 44 liours oC work, 
the harbor was unprotected from noon Sntnidny until Monday nidininu at 7 A. M. 

NEW PASSENGER AND FI^EIGHT STEAMSHIP SERVICE TO CUBA: Operating the 
splendidly equipped motor-driven steamship '•Cul)a," the Miami Steamship Company 
has inaugurated a passenger and freight service hctween .Ta«;ksonville, Fla., and 
Havana, Cuba, witli ti'i-weekly sailings. This is a inucli needed addition to the 
transportation fadlities of the Island and a splendid success is assured this new 
venture. 

GRAPEFRUIT SITUATION: Quite a stir was created on the Isle of Pines recently 
upon cahle advice from the United States that California and Florida citrus fruit 
growers were to introduce a bill in Congress wliich would place a prohibitive tariff 
on grapefruit, which are sliipped in very large quantities from the Isle of Pines to 
the northern market. It is considered that should this bill pass the Upper House 
in the United States a death blow would be dealt to this fruit industry of the Isle 
of Pines. On account of its geographical position and the absence of frost, the Isle 
of Pines has been able to get its grapefruit to the northern market in advance of the 
offerings of the Florida and California growers, and an advantage has always been 
felt to exist in favor of the Isle of Pines product. 

When the years and work Avhich it has taken to develop this industry on the 
Isle of Pines are taken into consideration, together with the enormous expenditures 
involved, it would seem that any legislative act taken by the United States Congress 
should at least provide for the protection of the Isle of Pines grower in that he 
should be given time to readjust his situation and devote the lands which are now 
producing grapefruit to other connnodities should this new law levy a burden upon 
grapefruit too heavy to bear. 

The position of the United States Congress will be watched with great interest 
by the Isle of Pines fruit growers and it is to be hoped that no innnediate action 
will be taken. 

TOURISTS TO THE ISLE OF PINES: According to the statement of Mr. Wm, J. 
Mills, General Manager of the Isle of I'ines Steamship Company, the number of 
tourists which have already visited the Isle of Pines this year is very promising 
and the prospects for this season are bright. We believe many tourists miss much 
of the attraction of Cuba when they overlo(51v a visit to the Isle of Pines. The Isle 
is a show place for well-kept orange and grapefruit groves, good roads are abundant 
and comfortable hotels are well placed for the convenience of tourists. One feature 
that stands out in the Isle of Pines as regards the hotel situation is the moderate 
price at which visitors may enjoy the particular privileges of this delightful spot. 



TERMINAL PORT CLOSED TO ENTRY new sugar crop. It is believed that the 

existing moratorium has contributed to 
Consul George G. Duffee, at Xuevitas, ^^^^^^ ^^^^.^^^ j,^ bringing about this con- 
Cuba, advises that the Cuba Railway o-pction 

Company has closed its terminal port, " .^^ ,,;^^ ^^ conditions warrant the port 

Pastelillo, three miles distant from Nue- ^^.jj^ ,^^ reopened and notice thereof given, 

vitas, to incoming vessels until further outgoing freight is cared for as usual, as 

notice, because of the great congestion j^ j^ ^^^ interrupted by the change in 

of inward freight, crowded warehouses (mpsfion 

and local yard tracks, .onpled with the ^j^^ ^,;,^^^. Xuevitas port. Puerto Tarafa. 
scarcity of cars. . belonging to the Northern Railway Com- 
This has Ijeen done in order to en- pany, is unaffected and btisiness is being 
deavor to clear the accumulation of diverted from Pastelillo to that port, and 
freight now on hand and to get the ware- other vessels are lightering incoming car- 
houses emptied for the reception of the goes from Xuevitas Bay. 



THECUBAREVIEW 15 

DIRECT TELEPHONE BETWEEN CUBA AND THE 

UNITED STATES 



Cuba and the United States will soon be holding conversation with each other 
by telephone, this being possible by means of the installation of three telephone cables 
between Havana and Key West. 

The Government of the United States, as well as that of Cuba, has granted 
permits for the laying of the cables, terminals have been installed, and a commercial 
service between New York and Havana by means of three circuits is promised for 
the time when the new President of the United States takes office. 

The Cuban-American Telephone and Telegraph Company, which holds the per- 
roits, has had the three cables constructed in a way that overcomes the peculiar 
physical difficulties which the enterprise encountered, and which presented some 
absolutely new difficulties to the engineering profession. 

The establishment of this service will unite the two countries more closely 
commercially, especially in so far as the large ports of New York and Havana are 
concerned, between which ports there is a constantly growing trade. It will supply 
the most advanced and in many respects the most important bridge across the canal 
which separates Cuba from the continent, a barrier of water already less formidable 
by communications of steamers, ferries, telegraph, radio and aeroplanes. 

Aside from the commercial importance of the plan developed to facilitate com- 
munication between the two busiest ports of the Western Hemisphere, there are 
other important aspects which point to this enterprise as of extraordinary magnitude. 
The cables will be the longest used in the world for submarine telephonic com- 
munications. It will be the first time that a submarine telephonic cable has been 
placed at such a great depth, and in order to give a complete, clear and perfect 
service from Havana to New York or to any other American city, mechanical re- 
peaters will be used which will work under conditions never before attempted. 

Special attention has been given to the protection of the cables against the 
temperature of the tropical seas and the action of the insect know^n as the "Teredo," 
which perforates everything, has been overcome. Also, special attention has been 
given to the great pressure of the water at a depth of 1,000 fathoms. 

New York will have three telephonic circuits with Havana by means of three 
distinct cables. This arrangement has been made in view of the fact that Havana's 
importations through the Port of New York are the largest of any of the New Con- 
tinent and New York at the same time is the city that receives the greater part of 
the exportations from Havana. For this reason, and in order to reduce the. pos- 
sibility of a complete interruption in the service as much as possible on account of 
any accident, the three circuits with New York will be established with distinct 
cables. 

In spite of this preferred attention to New York for the reasons stated, the 
Districts of Central and Southern United States will also be served by two circuits 
across from the central offices of Jacksonville and Key West, respectively, connected 
directly with the Havana central. 

The Cuban-American Telephone and Telegraph Company, which will establish 
this service so beneficial to Cuba, is owned jointly by the powerful American com- 
pany, American Telephone and Telegraph Company of New York, known as the 
Bell system, and by the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation of New 
York. The latter will develop international telephonic service in Latin-America and 
among its associates is the Cuban Telephone Company, which, with all its lines in 
Cuban territorj^ forms a chain of international communications. 

The distance between Havana and Key West is approximately 100 land miles. 
The longest submarine telephone cable working at the present tii)ie is that from. 



l«j T H E C U B A R E V I E W 

Abegeith to Howth in England, which is only 63 nautical niilos. This cable, due to 
its nut having to stand the great water pressure which the cable which unites 
Havana with Key West will have to stand, is of nnich smaller diameter. Of the 
type of cable which will have to be used to unite (iilia with the Tnited States, the 
longest which is in operation at the present time is the one joining Dunkirk with 
St. Margarets, which has an extension of only 40 nautical miles. 

When these cables are installed they will represent an investment of about two 
nullion dollars, but notwithstanding this it is expected that the great traflic between 
Havana and New York will over-merit the investment of such an enormous sum of 
money ; and furthermore, the engineers claim that it will be possible to carry on 
conversations with the same success and efficacy between Montreal, Chicago, St. Louis, 
New Orleans and any point in Cuba. 

The numerous iiroblems of engint^erinii- which have presented themselves in the 
realization of stich an important project have been studied and solved by Mr. Ban- 
croft Gherardi, Vice-President and Chief Engineer of the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company, with the co-operation of other engineers of said corporation, 
and of Sir William Slingo of London, Consulting Engineer of the International Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Corporation, 

The officials of the Cuban-American Telephone and Telegraph Company are aa 
follows : Mr. Hernand Behn. President ; Mr. Charles D. M. Cole, First Vict^Presi- 
dent; Col. Sosthenes Behn, Second A'ice-President ; Mr. Carlos I. PSrraga, Secretary, 
and Mr. Manuel Ilerrera, Treasurer. 



CUBAN PURCHASERS OF RAILROAD ROLLING STOCK 

There are three classes of i)ui(liasers of rolling stock in Cuba. First, tliere are 
the steam railroads for the public service which were all built and are controlled by 
private capital. The two leading railroads operating in Cuba are the United Railways 
of Havana, serving the western end of the Island, and the Cuba Railroad Company, 
serving the eastern end of the Island. Both these railroads were built by British 
capital, the latter being the original Van Home railway, but now controlled by New 
York interests. The United Railways of Havana, which includes several subsidiary 
roads, is still controlled from London and the majority of its senior officers are British. 
During the war many of its officers were American, but during recent months several 
British engineers and railway officials have arrived to take over various departments. 
Mr, Morson, general manager for many years, has been superseded by Brig. Gen. Jack, 
formerly director of British railways in France. 

The Havana United is buying large quantities of rolling stock of which it is 
badly in need, and all of which has come from the United States. 

There are several smaller railroads in Cuba, constructed to serve isolated portions 
of the Island. Most of these are standard gauge, however. 

In the second place, there are electric tram lines built for passenger traffic in 
the leading cities of Cuba. Most of these are comparatively small corporations, as 
Havana is the only city in Cuba with a population of over 100,000. The United 
Railways of Havana control all the Havana electric properties except the Havana 
Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. 

In the third place, a considerable amount of railway mileage is owned by 
ingenios, or individual sugar mill corporations. Throughout the Island the sugar 
mill owners have laid their own tracks witliin the area from which their cane la 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 17 

derived. Such tracks are built pi'imarily for coiiA-eying tlie cane from tlie colonias, 
or cane plantations, to the mills to be grovmd. In some parts of the Island not well 
served by the railway companies the mills have built small-gauge (3-foot) roads. 
For the most part, however, the cane roads are standard gauge and laid to connect 
up with the railways, so that rolling stock may move freely over all lines. All the 
narrow-gauge cane roads buy their own rolling stock. Many of the standard-gauge 
cane roads have been using railway rolling stock. Recently the tendency has been 
for the larger sugar mills to buy their own cane cars and locomotives. The reasons 
for this have been the difficulty of procuring a sufficient number of cars frojn the 
railroads for moving the cane to the mills, and the desire of the mill owners to be 
independent of the railroads. 

There are at present 193 operating sugar mills in Cuba, with some 16 or 20 
more in course of construction. These mills vary in capacity from 4,000 l^ags (a bag 
contains 320 pounds) annually to 700,000, the total production of the Island being in 
the neighborhood of 30,000,000 bags for the last season. It is estimated that at least- 
half of the Cuban sugar mills buy their own rolling stock. The track mileage owned 
by a single mill is from 60 kilometers (kilometer equals 0.621 mile) to over 300 
kilometers. A prominent engineer recently estimated that 100 sugar mills in Cuba 
each operate an average of 150 cane cars and 6 locomotives, and laid or used annually 
15 kilometers of track. This estimate would mean that Cuban sugar mills themselves 
own and operate a minimum of 15,000 cane cars and 600 locomotives. The building 
of cane cars alone for Cuba would offer a splendid market for the car manufacturer. 

The American car manufacturer, however, considers that he need never fear 
competition in the Cuban market. The Cuban customs tariff has placed a heavy- 
general ad valorem rate on railroad rolling stock of all kinds (except locomotives)^ 
amounting to 31.25 per cent. The American manufacturer, then, gets a reduction from 
this rate of 20 per cent. This means that a Canadian car would pay 31.25 per cent, 
duty as against only 25 per cent, charged the American car. The result has been' 
that for many years American rolling stock has had practically a monopoly of the- 
Cuban market, although previous to the war Cuba imported some 10 per cent, of her 
rolling stock from the United Kingdom and Germany. 

The following is a list of Cuban railways, with particulars, where available, 
of their mileage, and rolling stock: United Railways of Havana (Ltd.) (681 miles) ^ 
4.81/^ gauge, 248 locomotives, 6,740 cars; Western Railway of Havana (147 miles), 
4.81/^ gauge, 30 locomotives, 760 cars; Cuban Central Railways (Ltd.) (340 miles),- 
4.81/^ gauge, 22 miles 3 gauge, 98 locomotivies, 3,725 cars. All under management of 
Brig. Gen. .lack, Central Station, Havana, Cuba. Havana Central Railroad Co. (68 
miles), 4.81/^ gauge, 15 locomotives, 324 cars. Cuba Northern Railways Co. (177 milts), 
i.SVz gauge, 43 locomotives, 1,075 cars. The Cuba Railroad Co. (7.38 miles), 4,8 1/^ 
gauge, l.W locomotives, 5,257 cars. Gibara & Holguin Railroad Co. (51 miles), 3 gauge, 
6 locomotives, 37 cars. Guantanamo Railroad Co. (78 miles), 4.8% gauge, 8 locomo- 
tives, 372 cars. Guantanamo Railroad (108 miles), 4.8 1/^ gauge, 15 locomotives, 
568 cars. 

The electric tram lines are : Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co., Insular 
Railway Co., Monte No. 1, Havana. United Railways of Havana, Central Station, 
Havana, Cuba, comprising Havana Terminal Railroad, Havana Central Railroad, 
Marianao Railway, Western Railway of Havana (partly electrified). Hershey Rail- 
road, Manzana de Gomez, Havana. Cienfuegos-Palmira Light & Power Co., Cienfuegos, 
Cuba. Camaguey Electric Railroad, Camaguey, Cuba. Matanzas Electric Railroad, 
Matanzas, Cuba. Cardenas Electric Railroad, Cardenas, Cuba. Guantanamo Electric 
Railway Co., Guantanamo, Cuba. — Weekly Bulletin, Canada. 



18 T II !■: c r B A II I-: \- i i: w 



FOREIGN COMMERCE OF CUBA 



Tin- toial Viiliif nf tlu' forci.mi <uiiiiiifrfc of the Kciuililic n\' Ciiliii iluring the fiscal 
j-ear r.MS-l'.>. afcortliiij: lo ti;:nivs puhlished reoently liy Ciilciii Secretary of Treasury, 
aniounied to $T94,:>4 1,078. divided as follows: IiiU'ortatinii. .$." 11 3,085,867 ; exporta- 
tion, .$477,221,803; re-exportation, ?;i,433,84S. 

The value of the expoi-ts exceeded that of the iini)urts l»y .">l(jl,r>3o,lJU0, showing a 
greater halance of trade in Cuba's favor than that of any year since 1899-1900. Al- 
thoujrh the ))alauce of trade during the past seventeen years lias been constantly in 
Cuba's favor in a greater or less degree, the nearest approach to the present amount 
was in 191.J-1G, when the balance was $135,777,000. 

Of the total commerce during the fiscal year 1918-19, the value of money imported 
exceeded $2,520,000 and that exported $6,963,000, giving a balance against Cuba of 
$4,443,000 in this relation. 

The total value of tlie imports, including money, was greater than that of the 
preceding year by $13,062,000, tlie chief increases being in tlie following classes of 
merchandise: foodstuffs, 4 per cent.; metals and metal manufactures, 12.8 per 
cent. ; and miscellaneous imports, 21 per cent. With the exception of money imports, 
which show a decrease of $3,103,000; and customs-free articles, all classes of imports 
show increased values during the fiscal year 1918-19, compared with the previous 
year. 

Tli(> vahic (if the imports into Cuba, by classes, during the fiscal years 1917-18 
and 1'.)ls-ll> follows: 

Ooioal Groups l!)17-is 1918-19 

Free of d-Jtv Sl9..5,-53,000 $16,928,000 

Foodstuffs 1 11, 172,000 115,854,000 

Textiles and their manufactures ;!9,6S4.(X)0 41,572,000 

Instruments, machinery and apparatus 39,033,000 40,120,000 

Metals and their manufactures 19,517,000 22,.399,000 

S^ubstances emploved in pharmacy, chemical industries, 

perfumerv. etc 20,*',91.000 21,812,000 

Animals and animal products 13,694,<X)0 15,500,000 

Stones, earths and ceramics 12,726,000 14,813,000 

Wood and other vegetable materials 7,398,(XK) 7.437,000 

Paper and paper wares 4,725,000 5,949,000 

Miscellaneous 8,508,000 10,773,000 

Money 5.623,000 2,520,000 

Total $302,024,0(10 $315,686,000 

The value of the exports, including money, was greater than that of the preceding 
year by $97,430,000, largely owing to the raw sugar exports, which .show an increase 
of $86,824,000 during the fiscal year 1918-19 over 1917-18, while raw tobacco exports 
increased in value by over $6,000,000, 

The value of the exi torts by general groups from Cuba during the fiscal years 
1917-18 and 1918-19: 

Gemral Groui>H 1017-18 1918-19 

Crude sugar $314,205,000 $401,029,000 

Products derived therefrom (refined sugar, artificial 

honev, spirits, liquors, preserves) T 10,266,000 8,600,000 

Raw and stemmed tobacco 20,.329,000 26,471,000 

Manufactured tobacco 11,700,000 14,366,000 

Cocoa, coffee, fruits, vegetables, etc 2,484,000 2,150,000 

Woods, textile fibers, dyes and tans 994,000 748,000 

Animal, leather and other animal products 2,878,000 3,389,000 

Honey of bees and beeswax 1,593,000 2,103,000 

Iron, copper, manganese, gold and asphalt 11.773,000 10,647,000 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



1R 



Sponges, tortoise shell, etc 211,000 264,000 

Miscellaneous 447,000 492,000 

Money 2,904,000 6,963,000 

Total . .'. $379,784,000 $477,222,000 

The total imports during 1918-19 show an increase of 4.1 per cent, over those of 
the previous year, and the total exports an increase of 20.4 per cent. 

The United States stands first among the countries of origin of imports, the 
total value, including money, having amomited to $235,727,000 in 1918-19, compared 
with $228,102,000 in 1917-18, an increase of $7,62.5,000. Imports from Great Britain in 
1918-19 amounted to $9,349,000, a decrease in value of $3,159,000 compared with the 
previous fiscal year ; imports from Spain amounted to $13,332,000 in value, against 
$13,695,000 the previous year; and imports from France $8,265,000 against $6,875,000. 

Classification of the destination of exports by countries shows that the United 
States leads as a market for Cuban products, with shipments amounting in value 
to $350,316,000 in 1918-19, compared with $278,704,000 in 1917-18, an increase of 
$71,612,000. Cuban exports to Great Britain in 1918-19 amounted in value to $96,- 
814,000, an increase of $20,092,000 over the previous fiscal year ; exports to Spain 
amounted to $6,057,000 in value, against $4,199,000 the previous year ; and exports to 
France $11,324,000, against $8,965,000 during the preceding twelve months. — Consul 
General Carlton Bailey Burst, Havana. 



POSTAL SITUATION IN HAVANA 
The Director of Communications in 
Havana, Cuba, reports that of the piles 
of mail sacks which have been congest- 
ing the post oflice in that city all have 
now been opened, and between 85,000 and 
90,000 packages have been delivered. This 
improvement in the postal situation is 
due partly to the overtime work of the 
employees and partly to the authorization 
of the delivery of partial shipments. 



PERSONNEL OF PAN-AMERICAN FI- 
NANCE GROUP 

United States Secretary of the Treas- 
ury Houston has announced the person- 
nel of the twenty permanent American 
group committees, appointed on recom- 
mendation of the first and second Pan- 
American financial conferences to study 
financial and economic problems in con- 
nection with the Southei-n countries, to 
which they are assigned. 

Bach committee consists of twelve mem- 
bers, and will work in co-operation with 
the Secretary of Commerce and the Pan- 
American Union, and collaborate with the 
Inter-American High Commission and the 
permanent committee on communication. 

Mr. Franklin O. Brown of New Yprk 
heads the Cuban committee. 



NEW TELEPHONES FOR CUBA 
Cuba has ordered 8,000 new telephones 
for installation in 1921, as against 5,000 
in 1920 and 4,500 in 1919, according to an 
announcement by the International Tele- 
[)li()ne and Telegraph Company. 

It is estimated that the end of next 
year will find 40,000 telephones in opera- 
tion in the Island. 



IMMIGRATION THROUGH SANTIAGO 
DE CUBA 

During the month of April the follow- 
ing agricultural immigrants entered the 
Republic of Cuba through Santiago de 
Cuba : Spaniards, 952 ; .lamaicans, 2,663 ; 
Porto Ricans, 107 : Dominicans, 26 ; 
Haitians, 1,394; and from Curacao, 112. 



CUSTOM HOUSE RECEIPTS 
During the month of May the Havana 
Custom House collected $4,277,530; the 
Santiago Custom House, $50,590; the 
Sagua la Grande Custom House, $110,120 ; 
and the Matanzas Custom House, $168,355. 



MARIANAO 
The municipal budget of Marianao for 
the fiscal year 1920-21 gives the estimated 
receipts as $204,231 and the estimated 
expenditures as $203,619. 



20 THECUBAREVIEW 



CUBAN FINANCIAL MATTERS 



THE PREVAILING PRICES FOR CUBAN SECURITIES 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co., Mew York. 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds g^; gg 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1944 ^5 «^7 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 y.j .^g 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 41/270 Bonds of 1949 go g4 

Havana City First Mortgage (5% Bonds g5 95 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6% Bonds g5 95 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 45 55 

Cuba Railroad Co. First Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 UO 62 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 70 75 

Cuba Company 7% Cumulative Preferred Stock 70 80 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Consolidated Mortgage 5% P.oihIs g5 68 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock 80 90 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Common Stock 70 80 

Cuban- American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 93 95 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Common Stock 28 29 >^ 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock $16 $16>^ 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

The earnings of the Cuba Railroad for the month of October and for the four months 
ended October 31st compare as follows : 

1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

October gross .$ 99:i,842 .$1,069,773 $753,181 $587,890 $504,336 $391,108 

Expenses 1,363,161 807,459 655,613 498,425 358,438 249,153 

October net 369,319 262,314 97,568 89,464 145,898 141,954 

Other income 34,921 11,036 13,583 1,267 933 

Net income 334,397 273,350 111,151 90,732 146,832 141,954 

Fixed charges 115,532 99,106 95,154 93,886 87,091 72,012 

Other interest charges . . 3,992 

October surplus 449,929 174,243 12,005 3,153 59,740 69,942 

From July /sf: 

Four months gross $4,430,217 $4,141,606 $3,721,860 $2,861,604 $2,156,599 $1,639,755 

Four months net 522,491 1,01^,637 929,225 671,275 851,398 718,436 

Other income 72,811 33,804 50,239 5,169 3,480 

Fixed charges 463,874 396,670 379,390 375,784 348,623 288,306 

Other interest charges . . 4,069 39,825 

Four months surplus.... $917,623 $652,771 $560,249 $300,660 $506,254 $430,129 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS. 

Weekly Receipts : 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Week ending Nov. 27 ;^27,254 ^17,543 ;^12,517 ^12,747 /9,073 /9,789 

Week ending Dec. 7 12,360 12,588 8,788 9,026 

Weekending Dec. 13 17,707 11,637 12,356 9,564 10,247 

Week ending Dec. 18 23,322 ^0,236 15,809 12,55^ 9,647 10,139 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO. 

Month of October: 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Gross earnings $1,017,031 $871,621 $733,443 $635,822 $532,358 $463,385 

Operating expenses 577,641 409,432 341,519 281,685 197,205 188,820 

Net earnings 439,390 462,189 391,924 354,137 335,153 274,565 

Miscellaneous income 4,786 6,890 6,847 11,909 11,014 15,083 

Total net income 444,176 469,079 398,771 366,046 346;167 289,648 

Surplus after deduct.fixed chgs. 263,635 290,613 220,317 211,688 213,622 182,480 

ID Months to Ol tuber j/st : 

Gross earnings $9,329,356 7,596,468 6,775,950 5,672,408 4,939,812 4,572,321 

Operating expenses 4,850,474 3,732,048 3,106,866 2,467,154 1,889,831 1,872,659 

Net earnings 4,478,882 3,864,420 3,669,084 3,205,254 3,049,981 2,699,662 

Miscellaneous income 89,581 86,500 114,804 118,359 110,943 92,001 

Total net income $4,568,463 $3,950,920 $3,783,888 $3,323,613 $3,160,924 $2,791,663 

Surplus after deduct, fixed chgs.$2,702,354 $2,089,409 $2,134,472 $1,755,841 $1,873,723 $1,707,328 



EARNINGS OF THE CAMAGUEY AND NUE VITAS RAILROAD. 

Month of October: 1920 1919 

Gross earnings $101,808 $158,815 

Operating expenses 147,547 90,515 

Net earnings 45,738 68,299 

Other income 103 ......... 

Net income 45,634 68,299 

Surplus for Month 45',634 68,299 

Gross earnings from July 1 $536,249 $587,422 

Net earnings " '' 45,506 244,239 

Other income " " 455 

Surplus .$45,050 • $244,239 



EARNINGS OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA. 

Weekly Receipts : 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Week ending Nov. 20 ^57,249 ;^57,446 ^36,569 ^40,331 ;^35,160 ^27,783 

Week ending Nov. 27 57,309 56,840 35,491 42,062 33,889 27,045 

Week ending Dec. 4 57,031 58,627 36,389 45,237 35,152 29,401 

Week ending Dec. 11 57,262 55,986 24,738 49,904 36,177 32,973 



EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Weekly Receipts: 1920 

Week ending Nov. 20 /13,126 

Week ending Nov. 27 13,905 

Week ending Dec. 4 14,174 

WeekendingDec.il - 14,427 



1919 

^10,214 
10,638 
11,329 
11,048 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CUBA CANE SUGAR CORPORATION 

I'MFTII ANNUAL REl'OHT 
Fob the Fiscal Ykab Ended Septkmheu ."Kt, r.>2i) 

November T), 1020. 
To THE Stockholders : 

Your Board of Directors is iiiatilicd to l)e able to sulmiit its Fifth Annual Report 
witliin six weelcs followint: llie termination of tlie fiscal year ending September 30, 
1020, wliicli is a testimonial to the etliciency of the Accounting Department. 

Owing to the general drought throughout the Island of Cuba, the early cane 
estimates of the 1919-1020 crop were not realized and, consequently, the total Cuban 
sugar crop aggregatetl only 20,2.37,242 bags (.3.748,177 tons) against 31,050,000 bags 
M,435,714 tons) as estimated on December 24, 1919, by Messrs. Gnnia-Mejer, and 
against 27,802,435 bags (3,071,776 tons) made the year before. 

As is well known, labor unrest has I)een universal. Cuban plantations and railroads 
have not been free from labor troubles and attendant sti'ikes, although perhaps affected 
in a lesser degree than industries in other countries. 

In view of the general labor situation it is a great achievement on the part of 
Cuba to have harvested her crop, transported it over her railroads to the shipping 
ports and placed it at the disposal of consumers, within a shorter period than in 
previous years, even making allowanct* for the smaller crop. 

All your Corporation's plantations finished grinding before May 30, with the 
exception of Moron, which completed its crop of 011,031 bags (88,654 tons) on .Tune 8. 
The output at Moron is the largest production of any single estate made in Cuba this 
crop. The increase in production at this estate from the 170.203 bags (24.323 tons), 
made during the first crop after its purchase by your Corjtoralion to the 011,031 bags 
(88,054 tons) produced this year, is very gratifying and justifies the action of your 
management in increasing that plantation's machinery and cane fields. 

The sucrose content of the cane throughout the Island was again unsatisfactory, 
probably due to the irregularity and scarcity of the rain precipitations, for, as stated 
in the previous report, the sucrose content in the inne is dependent upon weather 
conditiotis. 

As was anticipated, sugar prices once "de-controlled" after two years of (Jovern- 
mental regulation, began to show wide variations; in fact the range increased far 
more than could have been foreseen, running from O^^c — at which some new crop 
sugais were sold in the fall of 1919, when it was realized that the United States 
Government would no longer control sugar — to 23 %c in May, the highest price reached, 
soon to be followed by a precipitous decline to 0%c, the price ruling at present. 

The proportion of the Cuban crop sold at the highest prices was relatively small. 
The peak having Iteen reached during the months of May and .Tune when there was 
very little cane being ground, neither the colonos nor the plantation owners i)articipated 
to any great extent in the high prices. 

There still remains in the Island, unsold, about one-tenth of the crop. The prob- 
abilities are that the average price obtained for the entire crop, when the remnant is 
finally sold, will be between 10c and lie per pound. 

The great variation in prices experienced during this first year of "de-controlled" 
sugar jiroves the wise policy of having had sugar under Govermnental regulation and 
control during the last two years of the World War. The chief cause for the variation 
in prices was the uncertainty resulting from the "de-control" of sugar by the United 
States Government last fall. Under such extreme variations it is readily seen what 
difficulties have attended the selling of sugars. 



THECUBAREVIEW 23 

Tour Corporation followed a conservative policy in the selling of its own sugars. 
That portion of the crop belonging to the colonos (tenant farmers) was treated as 
entirely apart, j'our Corporation selling it as fast as acquired under its colono con- 
tracts, seeking to avoid either loss or gain therefrom. 

The Corporation's own sugars, as well as those acquired from the colonos, were 
sold prior to the recent rapid market decline and have been delivered and paid for. 
It follows, therefore, that this Corporation was not adversely affected by the decline 
nor is it adversely affected by the generally unsatisfactory financial situation arising 
therefrom which prevails at present in the Island of Cuba. 

CANE GROUND 

As already stated above, cane estimates for the 1919-1920 crop were not realized 
because of the drought. 

The following table gives comparison of cane ground at your mills during the 
last crop : 

Western estates 256,311,250 arrobas (2,860,951 tons) 

Eastern " 186,678,508 " (2,083,466 " ) 

Total 143,019,818 arrobas (4,944,417 tons) 

The above figures are about 20% under the early estimate. 

The cane sold to outsiders this year was 2,590,357 ari-obas (28,910 tons) in the 
Western estates and 8,818,853 arrobas (98,425 tons) in the Eastern estates, i)oth much 
smaller quantities than during the 1918-1919 crop. 

RATES PAID TO COLONOS FOR THEIR CANE 
The following table shows the average percentage of sugar per 100 of cane paid 
to the colonos during the past five years: 

1915-16 1916-17 191T-18 1918-19. 1919-20 

Western estates 6.713% 6.849% 6.891% 6.901% 6.902% 

Eastern " 5.079 5.020 5.115 5.130' 5.153 

Average 6.383% 6.337% 6.254% 6.168% 6.124% 

The average percentage paid to the colonos will diminish still more from now 
on as your Corporation has acquired one additional plantation in the East and has 
increased the capacity of its other Eastern mills. 

SUCROSE IN THE CANE 
The following table shows the average percentage of sucrose at the plantations of 
your Corporation during the five crops : 

1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

13.87% 13.00% 13.31% 13.02% 12.95% 

By the above table it is seen that the sucrose content has not been high for the 
last four years ; such a continuously low percentage of sucrose in the cane is most 
unusual. 

LOSSES IN MANUFACTURING 
The losses in manufacturing at your plantations during the last five years have 
been as follows: 

1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

3.07% 2.67% 2.36% 2.32% 2.37% 

Under present labor conditions it is difficult to maintain the highest efiiciency 
methods at sugar plantations, where such efficiency depends greatly upon the regularity 
with which the ^ne is delivered to the mill, for such i-egularity requires uniformity 
of railroad operations, and this, of course, has not been possible imder present labor 
conditions. 

YIELD OF 96° CENTRIFUGALS 
The yield of the five crops in 96° centrifugals has been as follows : 
1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

11.25% 10.76% 11.41% 11.15% 11.02% 



24 THB CUBA RBVIBW 

COMPAHATIVE RECEIPTS I'EU I'OUiND OF SUGAR 
For the purpose of comparing the f. o. b. price per pound of sugar manufactured, 
obtained during the last five crops, the proceeds from "Mohisses" and "Other Earn- 
inps" are included in tlie following: 

1915-16 191G-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

4.112c 4,479c 4.630c 5.398c 10.345c 

In order to afford a comparison witli previous years, it has been necessary to 
include the colono sugars in tlie above figures. 

COST OF PRODUCTION 
In order to show the cost of production on an f. o. b. basis per pnund of sugar 
manufactured at your factories, including the cost of colonos' cane, as we have done 
in the past five years, we give the following figures : 

1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

2.748c 3.431c 3.998c 4.606c 8.523c 

From the above it is seen that there has been an increase of 3.917c over last year, 
l)ut this increase is mainly due to the higher price paid for the colonos' .sugars. The 
cost of production depending .so much upon the price at which we liquidate the colonos' 
sugars, it is preferable to follow the same method indicated in the previous Annual 
Report, showing the cost of production, excluding cane, thus giving a comprehensive 
idea of the increases in other items, cane excluded. On this basis, the cost of manu- 
facturing and delivering the sugars on l)oard steamers, compared with previous years, 
is as follows: 

191.5-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

0.715c 1.072c 1.4.56c 1..555c 1.940c 

Till- increases were, consequently, 

0.357c per pound increase 191(»-17 over 1915-16 
0.384c •• •• •• 1917-18 " 1916-17 

0.099c •' •• " 1918-19 " 1917-18 

0.385c " " '• 191!)-20 " 1918-19 

The above increase of 0.385c i)er pound in 1919-20 over the previous year is chiefly 
due to a shorter crop being made and to the fact that there was a decrease in sugar 
content of the cane. These figures are of great value when we come to consider the 
cost of production for the future, when prices are likely to be lower. It nuist be borne 
In mind that the cheaper tb(^ labor, the lower the cost, and labor will certainly not be 
higher next year. 

OPERATING PROFITS PER POUND OF SUGAR 
Following the same basis as in our previous report and deducting from the pre- 
ceding f. o. b. prices at which the crop was sold, the cost of production, including 
cane, Operating Profits made per pound, are as follows: 

191,5-16 1916-17 1917-18 191.8-19 1919-20 

Receipts 4.112c 4.479c 4.630c 5.398c 10..345c 

♦Production 2.748 3.431 3.998 4.606 8.523 

Operatiiig profit 1..364c 1.048c 0.632c 0.792c 1.822c 

As explained in the previous Annual Report, the colono while sharing in the benetit 

of high prices, which was the case this year, will also shai'e the burden of low prices, 

when they come. 

*The increase in cost of producing sugar this year was divided as follows : 

3.532c per lb. Cane (This higher cost in cane, however, is recovered 
by the higher price obtained for the colonos' 
sugars, as already explained). 
0.385c per lb. Wages and other expenses. 

COMPARISON OF CROPS MADE BY YOUR COMPANY 
The production has been divided between the Western and Eastcin estates as 
follows : 



THECUBAREVIEW 25 

Western Eastern Total 

Bags Tons Bags Tons Bags Tons 

1915-16 2,616,301 or 372,589 557,867 or 79,446 3,174,168 or 452,035 

1916-17 2,383,866 " 345,373 877,755 " 127,169 3,261,621 " 472,542 

1917-18 2,437,926 " 351,742 1,175,399 " 169,586 3,613,325 " 521,328 

1918-19 2,653,620 " 382,783 1,665,569 " 241,318 4,319,189 " 624,101 

1919-20 2,130,519 " 308,570 1,633,396 " 236,584 3,763,915 " 545,154 

PRODUCTION OF THE EASTERN MILLS IN DETAIL 
The following table sho%A"s the production of each of the Eastern mills during the 
hist five crops : 

1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 

Moron 170,263 181,045 315,439 524,940 611,031 

Stewart 378,097 416,560 506,494 445,784 

Jagueyal . 233,545 251,013 326,200 353,168 371,609 . 

Lugarefio 154,059' 67,600 117,200 280,967 204,972 

557,867 877,755 1,175,399 1,665,569 1,633,396 

Lugarefio suffered greatly from the effects of the severe drought, which caused 
a decrease in production of nearly 76,000 bags of sugar under last year. Its plantings 
have been increased so that, with propitious weather, it should be able to work to its 
full capacity in 1922-23. 

PROPERTIES ACQUIRED 

During this year your Corporation purchased, at the price of $3,500,000, the entire 
stock, free of all encumbrances, of the Violet Sugar Company, a Cuban corporation 
owning the sugar estate Violeta of 494 caballerias (16,467 acres) in the Eastern section 
of the Island adjacent to Moron, located on the line of the Cuban Northern Railroad, 
with a cjipacity of 200,000 bags (last year's production being 180,000 bags). Your 
management has made plans to increase the capacity of Violeta to 500,000 bags for 
the crop of 1921-22. When this has been done, the mill capacity of the Eastern 
plantations will have reached about 2,500,000 bags. 

In addition to Violeta, your Corporation has exercised, in the interest of the 
F^a stern Cuba Sugar Corporation — a Cuban corporation, all the stock of -which is 
owned by your Corporation — options to acquire the properties known as Redencion 
and Rio Maximo, consisting of 1,436 caballerias (47,867 acres), and also a lease of 
the lands of the Alegrias Land Company, comprising 864 caballerias (28,800 acres), 
with option to purchase, and further, a long-time lease on 1,634 caballerias (54,467 
acres), comprising the property called Velasco. The average prices paid for the 
above lands, including the option price on the Las Alegrias property, are very 
reasonable, not exceeding $1,200 per cab ($37 per acre). 

The above purchases and leases comprise 4,428 caballerias (147,600 acres), situated 
on the Cuban Northern Railroad east of Moron, between that estate and Lugarefio 
a very strategic position for their future development. With the acquisition of these 
lands the production in the Eastern mills can be increased to 3,000,000 bags, which 
would be a great achievement as against the 557,867 bags made in that district 
during the first year of your Corporation. 

The small Estate San Ignacio in the West, making only 79,000 bags and with a high 
cost of cane, has been sold. 

LANDS 

Your Corporation now owns in fee 11,110 caballerias (370,333 acres) of land and 
holds under lease, many of these being for long periods, 6,896 caballerias (229,867 
acres) of land. The total lands owned and leased therefore are 18,006 caballerias 
(600,200 acres). 



26 THECUBARBVIBW 

In addition to tlie above, the Violet Sugar Coinpiiny owns 404 cal)allerias (16,467 
acres) and tlie Kastcrn Cuba Sntrar Corporation will own, nfter tlie abov«' tninsactions 
are consmnniafod, 1,4r>6 cal):ill<'riiis ( 17,S(;7 acres) jind bold inidcr lonj; term leases 
2.4!>S cabfilloriMs (S.",,il(;7 acres). Tlie irriind totiil of Ibe lands directly coiit roiled 
Ity your Corporation will tberelore be l.'L',4:;4 eaballerliis (747,S0() acres). 

RAILROADS 

Your Corporntion now owns and ojierates for tbe tr:ins|iortiition of its i)roducts 
and supplies 1,1(»8 kilometers ( 71.'() nnles) of railrojid, of wbicli si»o l<ilometers (.HO 
miles) are standard }.'auge and 'MS kilometers (21(; miles t iire narrow ^ftuge ; togetlier 
with equipment consisting of \'V2 locomotives, of whicli it" :ire standard gauge and 
35 narrow gauge, and 3,668 cane nnd otlirr r;\v<, of wliicli '2,'2'.H\ ai'e standard gauge 
and 1,372 are narrow gauge. 

In addition to tlie above llie Violel Sugar ("omiiany owns and operates 25 kilometers 
(16 miles) of standard gauge railroads; togetlier witli e(iiiiiiment consisting of 4 
locomotives and 132 cane and other cars. 

rROI'KKTV .VCrolLNT 

Original Cost of tlie 17 IMantations, Including Taxes, Notary Fees, etc.. . $48,1)83,296.68 

Additional Purchases: 

Central Stewart $ 8,4<¥),(XK).00 

Warehouses 15!),6(K).00 

Lands 2,577,395.64 

Taxes, Notary Fees, etc., thereon 125,981.08 



.$11,262,976.72 
Less Sale of Mills, Lands. Machinery, etc .3,184,750.67 



$ 8,078,226.05 
Additions, Improvements, etc.: 

Fiscal \\'(.Ht<rii Kaslcrn 

Year l'Unit(iti<)i\x I'ldiitdlioiix Tofal 

19]5-191(i .5 264,60,3.1:; $ 1,->,5.131.0S $ 419,7.34.21 

1916-1917 2..376,12;!.95 2.6.57,22!>.S(; 5,0.3.3,353.81 

1917-1918 1,83.5,0.50.42 s.ii46.:M:'..7(» 10,081.364.12 

1918-1919 730,0<M.32 .3,309.3.34.<!,S 4,039,.3.39.(tO 

1919-1920 1,278,9()5..52 2,177,979.08 3.456,944.60 



.$6,484.747.:!4 .S1<;..545,9SS.40 .*2.3,0.30,735.74 



.$:!1,1<»8.961.79 
Less amount written off to cover (lis'n;in!lini: aiil relo- 
cation of machinery 1,2(mmmmmk» 29.!H>8.;M51.79 



$7S,892,2.5.S.47 
Machinerv and Construction Mnlcrial on II iml (i9.5,417.46 



Total as per balance Sheet $79,.587,675.93 

RENEWALS, BETTERMENTS AND DEPRECIATION 

Following the customary iiractice. your Corporation has made adequate exiiendi- 
tures for renewals, repairs and changes in the location of machinery, all of wiiich 
have been charged to operating exitenses before arriving at tlie operating iirotit. 

In addition to the cost of above renewals and repairs, y<pni- I'.oard of Directors 
has made a charge of .$3,500,00() for I ):>i)reciatioii. 

RECEll'TS AND ENPEXSES 

FISCAL YEAR EiNDEU SEPTEMBEK 30, 1920 

RECEIPTS— 

Production, 3.763.915 Rags Per Bag 

Sugar Sales $124,938,995.64 $33,193 



T H E C U B A II E V I E W 27 

Molasses Sales 435,327.40 A 16 

Other Earnings 948,834.00 .252 



^126,323,157.10 $33,561 

EXPENSES— ^ ^ 

Cost of Cane per 100 arrobas $18.15 $ 80,387,237.71 $21,357 

Dead Season Expenses (Salaries and "Wages, Materials 

and Supplies, Repairs and Renewals) $ 5,820,314.15 $ 1.546 



Crop Expenses (Salaries and Wages, Materials and Sup- 
plies, Fuel, Maintenance, Administration— Cuba and 
, United States) , $ 9,382,749.29 $ 2.493 



Fiscal Year Charges-: 

General Insurance $ 294,864.14 $ .078 

Cuban Taxes on Sugar 649,882.07 .173 

Cuban Taxes on Molasses 66,788.28 .018 

Cuban Taxes on Real Estate 271,761.77 .072 

Legal Expenses 78,979.78 .021 



Total Fiscal Tear Charges $ 1,362,276.04 $ .362 



Sugar Expenses : 

Sugar Bags and Packing $ 

Sugar Inland Railroad Freights • 

Sugar Shipping Expenses 

Sugar Insurance 

Selling and Landing Expenses 



2,-347,893.74 | 


; .624 


1,637,366.54 


.435 


1,689,219.07 


.449 


251,698.95 


.067 


1,195,381.31 


.317 



Total Sugar Expenses $ 7,121,559.61 ' $ 1.892 



Total Expenses F. O. B , $104,074,1.36.80 $27,650 



OPERATING PROFIT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR $ 22,249,020.30 $ 5.911 



This compares with an Operating Profit last year of $ 11,069,880.76 

and a Profit per bag of $ 2.563 

STOCKHOLDERS 
To show the distribution of the stock of your Corporation, the number of stock- 
holders at the end of the last four fiscal years. is given in the table below : 

1917 1918 1919 1920 

Holders of Preferred Stock 3,840 4,494 4,880 5,755 

" Common " 1,843 1,860 2,584 2,204 



Total 5,683 6,354 7,464 7,959 

The continuous increase in the number of stockholders is gratifying. 

GENERAL REMARKS 

The Operating Profits this year are $22,249,020.-30 

Deducting disbursements for : 

Interest, Discomit and Exchange.... -$2,156,584.29 

Taxes (Reserve) 4,248,301.48 

Dividend on Preferred shares 3,500,000.00 9,904,885.77 



leaves a Balance of . $12,344,1.34.52 

This is equal to about. $24.70 per share on the 
500,000 shares of Common Stock of the Corpora- 
tion, before making allowance for Depreciation. 



28 T II E C U li A U !•: \ I K W 



. After (Ipducting : 

Uesorvo for Dcpn-cialioii :!,.-.( Ki,(KtO.OO 

thore ivinains a P.alanck i.f $8,844,134.53 

(MHial to alioiit $17.70 per sliarc on the ('oniinoii Stock. 

SiRPM s acconiit on Soptonibcr :'M lltliO. aniouiitt'd to. . $23,473,102.04 

In addition to tliis tlicre lias liccn set aside ont of 
earninjis for doi)r(Hiation since tlie or-xani/ation of 
the Corporation the sum of 10,000,000.00 

maldng a total of $:!:*..473,1O2.04 

equal to about $07 per share on the Coniinon Stock that has accumu- 
lated out of the earnings of the Coritoration since its organization^ 

In order to avoid any stoppages for lack of coal or oil resulting from strikes 
on the railroads, your management has acciniinlati'd a large stock of both fuels at 
your factories, as well as an adequate quantity of empty bags and other supplies for 
the coming crop. This accounts in iiart for the large amount appearing against 
Materials and Supplies in the Balance Sheet. 

Your Corporation has sold about 20% of its own portion of the coming crop, 
not including colono sugars, at much higher prices than those ruling at present. It 
has also sold half of the molasses for the coming crop -at double the prices obtained 
for last crop. 

Respectfully submitted, 

By order of the Board of Directors, 

Manuel Rionda, President. 



BALANCE SHEET— SEPTEMBER 30, 1920 

ASSETS 

PROPERTIES AND PLANTS $78,802,258.47 

MACHINERY AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL ON- 
HAND 0!)5,417.46 $79,587,675.93 



INVESTMENT IN SHARES OF ST'l'.STDIATtV COM- 
PANY AT COST 2,7.38,230.65 

CURRENT ASSETS, ADVANCES TO COLONOS AND 
GROWING CANE : 

Cultivations— Company T'ane $ 2.110.020.73 

Materials and Supplies 6,801,153.14 

Advances to Colonos less Reserve for Doulitful .Ac- 
counts 7,397,947.11 

Advances to Stores and Sundry Advances 121,872..36 

Molasses on Hand at Net Contract Prices 105.049.46 

Accounts and Bills R(>ceivable 2,687,.589.08 

Cash in Banks and on Hand: 

In New York $20,078,579.31 

In ("ul.a 2.mi70.06 20,.328,749..37 39,618,987.25 



CASH AND BONDS DEPOSITED FOR REDEMPTION OF LIENS 

AND CENSOS ON PROPERTIES— per Contra 566,643.05 

DEFERRED CHARGES : 

Insurance, Rents, Taxes, etc.. Paid in advance $ 421,225.45 

Discount and Exi)enses in connection with Issue of 
Ten Year 7% Convertible Debenture Bonds Due 
1930, less Proportion written off 1,148,908.00 1,570,133.45 



$124,081,670.33 



THECUBAREVIEW 29 

LIABILITIES 
DECLARED CAPITAL: 

As per last Balance Sheet $52,500,000.00 

Represented by 500,000 Shares of 7% Cumulative 

Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $100.00 

each, and 500,000 Shares Common Stock without 

nominal or par value. 
Add : 
Amount transferred from Surplus in connection with 

the authorization of 416,667 additional Common 

Shares without nominal or par value, such 

shares being reserved for the conversion of 

$25,000,000.00 of the Corporation's Convertible 

Debenture Bonds 2,083,335.00 $.54,583,335.00 



TEN TEAR 7% CONVERTIBLE DEBENTURE BONDS, DUE lO.'^.O : 
Convertible into Common Stock at a price not exceeding $60.00 per 
share, in accordance with the terms of an indenture dated 
January 1, 1920 25,000,000.00 

SHORT TERM DRAFTS OUTSTANDING $ 2,457,482.89 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND ACCRUED CHARGES. . . 3,890,-329.00 

ACCRUED INTEREST 7% CONVERTIBLE DEBEN- 
TURE BONDS 437,500.00 

PREFERRED DIVIDEND NO. 19 (Payable October 1, 

1920) 875,000.00 7,660,311.89 

LIENS ON PROPERTIES— Cash Deposited per Contra $ 172,736.19 
CENSOS ON PROPERTIES— Cash and Bonds Deposited 

per Contra 393,906.86 566,643.05 

RESERVES : 

Taxes and Contingencies $ 2,022,194.74 

Depreciation 10,000,000.00 12,022,194.74 

DEFERRED LIABILITIES : 

Balances in Respect of Purchases of Lands 776,083.61 

SURPLUS ACCOUNT : 

Balance 23,473,102.04 



$124,081,670.33 



PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 1920 

Operating Profit for Year Ended September 30, 1920 $22,249,020.30 

s : 

Interest, Discount and Exchange $2,156,.584.29 

Reserve for Taxes, etc., Including Income Tax, 

United States and Cuba 4,248,301.48 

Reserve for Depreciation 3,500,000.00 9,904,885.77 



Balance, being Net Profit for the Year Carried to Surplus Account $12,344,134.53 



SURPLUS ACCOUNT AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 1920 

Balance at October 1, 1919 $16,712,302.51 

Deduct : 

Amount transferred from Surplus to Declared Capital in connection 
with the authorization of 416,667 additional Common Shares 
without nominal or par value, such shares being reserved for 
the conversion of $25,000,000.00 of the Corporation's Convertible 
Debenture Bonds 2,083,335.00 



$14,628,967.51 



30 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Add: 

Net Profit for Ycsir as per I'rolit mid Loss AccdUiit 12,344,134.53 

.i;20,973,102.04 
Deduct : 

Dividends on Preferred Stock : 

No. 10, January 1, 1920 $s7r..000.00 

No. 17, April 1, 1920 s7n,000.()0 

■ No. IS, July 1, 1920 s7r).(i00.(X) 

No. 19, October 1, 1920 S7."),(XM,>.00 3,500,000.00 

Balance. September 30, 1920 $23,473,102.04 



CENTRAL SUGAR CORPORATION 
The Central Sugar Corporation has an- 
nounced an issue of .$3,000,000 ei.clU per 
cent, ten-year conyertible gold notes, the 
purpose of the issue being to reimburse 
the treasury of the corporation for ex- 
penditures through advances to its Cuban 
subsidiary, Central Fe, S. A., and in 
developing additional cane lands and 
increasing the capacity of the cen- 
tral expenditures which were previously 
financed in part through short term obli- 
gations. 

Upon the completion of the improve- 
ments, it is said. Central Fe will have a 
capacity of 300,000 bags and the supply 
of cane from lands owned and controlled 
by the company will be sufficient to keep 
the plant fully employed. 

The capitalization of the company con- 
sists of $4,000,000 eight per cent, ten-year 
convertible gold notes, of which $3,000,000 
are outstanding ; $3,000,000 seven per cent, 
cumulative preferred stock of $100 par 
value, all outstanding; and 80,000 common 
shares without par value, of which 50,000 
are outstanding. 



PUNTA ALEGRE SUGAR COMPANY 
The annual report of the Punta Alegre 
Sugar Company for the year ended May 
81, 1920, shows large profits. After taxes 
and charges there was a surplus of 
$6,690,652 as compared with $1,613,117 In 
the previous year. After dividends for 
the fiscal year just passed there was a 
balance of .?.">.646,708, whereas in the 
previous report the same item amounted 
to $1,574..505. The total surplus of the 
company now stands at $9,136,016. 



Tlie balance sheet shows an increase 
of about $3,000,000 in the value of real 
estate, plant and equipment. It is stated 
in the report that the crop of last season 
was sold at varying prices from 6% cents 
a pound f. o. b. Cuba to 22 1/^ cents, with 
an average net return of 11.14 cents a 
pound. The small balance remaining un- 
sold is inventoried at 10 cents a pound. 

The balance sheet shows total current 
assets (if $15,956,085 as compared with 
current liabilities of .$8,7.35,8.55. In the 
previous report current assets amounted 
to $7,224,930 and current liabilities to 
$0,384,951. 



WEST INDIA SUGAR FINANCE CORPOR- 
ATION 

At a recent meeting of the Board of 
Directors of the West India Sugar Fi- 
nance Corporation the following officers 
were elected for the (>nsuing year : 

President, Thomas A. Howell ; Vice- 
Presidents, Howard J. Pullum and H. W. 
Wihnot ; Secretary, Lorenzo A. Arm- 
strong; Treasurer, J. Bliss Coombs; As- 
sistant Secretary and Assistant Treas- 
urer, Arthur Kirstein, Jr. 



THE CUBAN-AMERICAN SUGAR 
COMPANY 
Notice is hereby given that the two 
million ($2,000,000) dollars par value of 
first lien six per cent, serial gold notes 
f Series C) maturing .January 1st, 1921, 
together with the coupons thereon, should 
be presented for payment to The Cen- 
tral Union Trust Company of New York, 
No. 80 Broadway. New I'oi-k City, on or 
after January 3rd, 1921. 



THECUB A REVIEW 31 

PRODUCTION OF GLYCERIN FROM SUGAR 

[Prepared by the Research Division, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.] 



At the beginning of the war Germany "was "swimming in sugar," to use an ex- 
pression of the Frankfurter Zeitung (May 22, 1915.) Production had been greater 
than ever ; large quantities left from the previous campaigns were still available ; 
exportation had stopped. One of the 10 "war commandments," proclaimed on bills 
posted in all railway stations, advised the people : "Use plenty of sugar with your 
meals ; sugar is an excellent food." Certain measures of the Government, however, 
soon made it impossible for the people to follow that advice, and sugar became scarce 
in the market, although it was known that stocks were plentiful, for the production 
of the 1913-1914 campaign had yielded 2,71.o,ST0 metric tons of sugar. Germany had 
been the leading sugar-producing country of Europe, and yet the people suffered from 
scarcity of sugar during the war and were compelled to use honey and saccharin as 
substitiites. It was supposed that owing to the shortage of fats the Government was 
trying to conserve the stocks of sugar. It now appears that large quantities of sugar 
that had been withdrawn from human consumption were used in the manufacture of 
glycerin for war purposes. The process of production is described by Dr. W. Conn- 
stein and Dr. K. Ludecke in Die Naturicissenschaften. 

The consumption of glycerin in the manufacture of cosmetics and for other pur- 
poses, chiefly in the manufacture of explosives, increased enormously during the war, 
while the supply of the raw materials — fats — was constantly diminishing. It was 
therefore necessary to seek other sources, and sugar was selected, as its chemical 
structure is somewhat similar to that of glycerin. The transformation of sugar into 
glycerin was accomplished by the biochemical method. It had been known for a long^ 
time that in the ordinary fermentation of sugar with yeast small quantities of glycerin 
would be produced, amounting to about 3 per cent, of the sugar. By adding alkalis ta 
the liquid in fermentation the production of glycerin was increased. It was found 
that almost any salt with an alkaline reaction could be used for that purpose. Ex- 
periments were made with acetate, bicarbonate, and dibasic phosphate of sodium and 
with carbonate of ammonia. The yield of glycerin was increased to 12.7 per cent, 
but the alkaline mash was f oiind to be an excellent breeding place for all kinds of 
acid-forming bacteria, which would pollute the glycerin. This fault was remedied 
by the use of sodium sulphite, which acts as a poison to the bacteria of lactic acid 
and others, but does not, even in large quantities, affect the yeast cells ( Saccharomy- 
ces). When sodium sulphite was employed as an antiseptic the yield of glycerin was- 
increased proportionately to as much as 23 to 36.7 per cent, of the sugar. 

The ordinary fermentation produces not only alcohol, carbonic acid, and glycerin, 
but also small quantities of acetaldehyde. When the sulphite is added in increasing 
quantities the yield of acetaldehyde and glycerin increases, while that of alcohol and 
carbonic acid decreases. The acetaldehyde was used largely for war purposes. The 
production of glycerin from sugar had a great practical value in war time, according 
to German writers. The manufacturing process, patented in 1915, was exploited on a 
large scale, and the production of glycerin exceeded 2,200,000 pounds a month. The 
invention also possesses an unusual theoretical interest as it shows how the trans- 
formation of materials by bacteria can be influenced by the addition of chemicals. 
In the words of a German writer (Prometheus, Nov. 1, 'l919), "the biochemical pro- 
cesses open up new prospects for the future and seem to be destined to provide many 
substitutes to a people robbed of all raw materials." 

Attempts made during the war in Austria-Hungary to produce glycerin from' 
sugar do not seem to have met the success claimed for similar attempts in Germany. 
Complaint was made by the Bohemian journals of Prague that carloads of sugar had 
been wasted in recovering negligible quantities of glycerin, and doubts were expressed 
whether such waste of food could be justified even by the exigencies of war. 



S2 THE CUBA REVIEW 

SUGAR REX'ILW 

specially vriUm for The Cuba Rczicur by Willctt & Gray, Xezp York, .V. 1' 



At the time of our last review of the Xew York sugar market raw sugars were 
quoted on the basis of 4%c c. & f. and further declines resulted until the low point 
for the year of o%c c. & f. was reached on December 15th. Since that date, how- 
ever, there has been a slight reaction and raw sugars returned to the level of -J^c 
c & f. At this level, however, the advance could not be maintained, the pric-e bring- 
ing out more sugars than buyers were willing to take and a lower level was soon 
established on the basis of 4%c c. & f., which we quote at this writing? The market 
has been very quiet throughout the entire period with little inc-entive for buyers or 
sellers to do business, influenced by the lack of demand for refined sugars. The 
latter market followed the course of raws and the lowest price now named is 7.90c 
less 2 per cent, for cash quoted by two New York refiners, with practic-ally all the 
other cane refiners in the coimtry quoting on the seal>oard basis of Sc. The demand 
is strictly hand to mouth with buyers Kx»king for still lower prices. Exiwrt business 
in refined sugar has also been very light, resulting in concessions being made. Sales 
of exr»ort have been reported as low as 6c net cash in bond, although refiners' views 
are now generally 6^c to 6%c in bond. 

The work of harvesting and grinding the new crop in Cuba commenced on 
November 24th, or about two weeks later than the start last year. Private ad%-ices 
today report that seventeen factories are now at work as compared with one hundred 
and eight this time last year. The weather has continued imsettled, which has had 
a slight deterreaat effec-t upon the start of grinding operations and the fact al.so that 
there is stiU a good stock of old crop sugars tmsold in the Island together with the 
prevailing low prices have also had their influence. 

There has been little of interest from the Continent since our last report. In 
the United Kingdom efforts are being made to discontinue the Food Control and 
instructions have l>een given to do so as scfon after December 31, 192»j, as practicable, 
although it Ls likely the Royal Commission will be in process of liquidation for some 
months to come. Mr. Lacht, the German statistician, has issued his estimates for 
the European beet croins for 1920-21, the detaiLs of which are as under: 

1920-21 V.nU-2(t 

Ton* Tom 

Germanv 1,200,«!0 7:a>.54S 

Czecho-Slovakia T25.000 4S0,366 

Austria 10,000 5.132 

Hungarv 25,000 S,019 

Poland" 200.000 14^».000 

Fran<-e 300.0r« 172,495 

Belgium 235.000 146,918 

Holland 300.00<-> 2:5S,692 

Total 2,995.0C»ri l,fm:M70 

Bussia and Ukraine 50.000 ^86.691 

Other countries 725,00ri 597,31S 

TcAsl ! 3,770,0(^ 2,624,179 

Our cable from the Philippine Islands reports no exports of sugar to the United 

States during the month of November. 

Our cable from Java reports 5S,00r» tons shipped during November and destined 

either for Atlantic ports or Europe with probably the major portion of this quantity 

coming to the Atlantic ports. 

New Y..rk. N. Y.. EH^cMnber 27. 1920. 



THECUBAREVIEW 33 

REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita especialmente para la CUBA REVIEW por WiUett &• Gray, de Ntteva York. 



Cuando publicamos nuestra ultima revista del mercado de azticar de Nueva 
York, los azucares crudos se cotizaban bajo la base de 4%c costo y flete, siguiendo 
mayores bajas liasta llegar al punto mas bajo del ano el 15 de diciembre, o sea 3%c 
costo y flete. Sin embargo, desde entonces ha tiabido una ligera reaccion, y los 
azucares crudos volvieron al precio de 4%c costo y flete. Sin embargo, el precio no 
pudo sostenerse a diclia cotizacion, que trajo al mercado mas azticar de lo que los 
compradores estaban dispuestos a tomar, y Men pronto tuvo lugar im precio mas- 
bajo la base de 4%c costo y flete, que cotizamos al escribir esta resefia. El mercado 
ha estado muy quieto durante todo este periodo, con poco incentivo por parte de los 
compradores y vendedores en llevar a cabo transacciones, influenciados por la falta 
de demando por azucares refinados. El mercado de estos ultimos azucares siguio el 
curso de los azucares crudos, y el precio mas bajo a que se cotizan ahora por dos 
refinadores de Nueva York es 7.90c menos 2% por pago al contado, mientras que 
practicamente todos los otros refinadores de azticar de cana en el pais cotizan bajo 
la base de 8c en el litoral de la costa. La demanda es estrlctamente en poca cantidad, 
los compradores esperando atin precios mas bajos. El negocio de exportacion de 
azticar refinado ha sido tambien muy escaso, resultando en que se hagan con- 
cesiones. Las ventas para la exportacion segtin datos obtenidos hau llegado al bajo 
precio de Gc pago neto al contado por azticares en deposito, aunque las ofertas de 
los refinadores son ahora generalmente de 6%c a 6^c por azticares en deposito. 

Los trabajos de recoleccion y molienda de la nueva zafra de Cuba empezaron el 
24 de noviembre, o sea como dos semanas mas tarde que el ano anterior. Noticias 
particulares manifiestan que ahora hay diez y siete ingenios en operacion comparado 
con ciento ocho ingenios en estas fechas el ano pasado. El tiempo ha continuado 
variable, lo cual ha causado alguna indecision en el comienzo de la molienda, y 
asimismo el hecho de que todavia hay en Cuba bastantes existencias de azticar de la 
antigua zafra sin vender, junto con los precios bajos que rigen, ha dejado tambien 
sentir su influencia. 

Desde nuestra ultima revista ha habido poco que relatar del Contiuente europeo 
que merezca interes. En la Gran Bretana se estan haciendo esfuerzos para poner 
fin a la administracion de subsistencias por parte del gobierno, habiendose dado 
instrucciones para hacerlo asi pasado el 31 de diciembre tan pronto como sea prac- 
ticable, aunque es probable que la Comision Real contintie en vias, de liquidacion 
todavia durante algtmos meses. Mr. Licht, estadlstico aleman, ha expedido sus cal- 
culos sobre las cosechas de remolacha en Europa para 1920-21, de lo cual damos 
detalles a continuacion : 

1920-21 1919-20 

Toneladas Toneladas 

Alemania 1.200,000 739,548 

Czecho-Slovakia 725,000 489,366 

Austria 10.000 5,132 

Hungria 25,000 8,019 

Polonia 200,000 140,000 

Francia 300,00<) 172,495 

Belgica 2.35,000 146,918 

Holanda 300,000 2:38,692 

Total 2,995,000 1,940.170 

Rusia y Ukraine 50,000 86,691 

Otros palses 725,000 .597,318 

Total 3.770,0<X» 2,624,179 



3^ 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Las noticias que lienios recibido por cable do las Islas Filipinas luaiiitit'stan que 
durante el nies de novienibre no hubo exportaciones de azucar a los Estados Unidos. 

Las noticias recibidas por cable de Java dicen que durante novienilire se ex- 
portaron 58,000 toneladas do azucar, con destino a puortos del Atl5,ntico o a Europa, 
la mayor parte d^ esta cantidad probableniente viniendo a puortos del AtlS,ntico. 

Nueva York, diciembre 27, 1920. 



INCREASED SUGAR-CANE CROP FOR 

TRINIDAD 
It is anticipated that tlie sugar-cane 
crop of Trinidad for the new crop year 
is likely to be between 25 and 30 per cent, 
greater than for the last year, making a 
record crop for Trinidad. The high prices 
which have prevailed for sugar during the 
last several years have caused a great 
deal more land than ever to be put into 
sugar cane. 

The annual cane farming and sugar- 
crop returns of Trinidad for the year 
1920, as prepared by the local firm of 
Edgar Tripp & Co., show for the crop 
year of 1919-20 a total of 58,416 tons of 
sugar made, as compared with 47,850 tons 
for the previous year. The highest sugar 
output for Trinidad during the last 20 
years was in 1916-17, when 70,891 tons of 
sugar wore made, but the next year the 
output, owing to the froghopper pest, fell 
to 45,2.jG tons, from which subsequently 
there has been a gradual recovery. During 
the last crop year there were 14,536 East 
Indian cane farmers and 10,824 West 
Indian cane farmers engaged In the local 
sugar industry, as compared with 12,370 
East Indians engaged in the industry dur- 
ing the previous year. 

During the last several years there has 
been considerable increase of efficiency in 
local sugar manufacture and considerable 
extension of factory facilities. The sugar 
estates and factories controlled in Eng- 
land have generally spent considerable 
amounts in recent years for improvements 
and extensions. 

There is every indication of a late crop 
of coco in Trinidad this year, the earliest 
output expected being about the end of 
December or the first half of .January. 



The crop of 1919-20 was estimatetl to be 
about 60,000,000 pounds, which was about 
an average crop. There is consid(>rable 
discouragement at present over the de- 
cline in prices, which has amounted to 
about 35 per cent, since early in June. 
The English and continental markets have 
lately seemed practically closed to Trini- 
dad coco. The United States soems the 
only dependable buyer of Trinidad coco. 
The consumption of coco is obviously ad- 
versely affected by the scarcity of sugar 
necessary for its manufacture into choco- 
late, but it is hoped that with the much 
easier market now prevailing for sugar a 
greater consumption of coco and improved 
prices may result. — Consul ncnri/ D. 
Bahcr, Trinidad, Briiish West Indies. 



PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION 
Word has been received here of the pro- 
posed organization of Philippine sugar i)ro- 
ducers into an association, which by super- 
vising the marketing of the Philippine 
crop will be able to protect its members 
against market disturbance and maintain 
more stable conditions. The association 
is to be modeled* it is stated, along the 
lines of the recently formed organization 
of Cuban producers. A somewhat similar 
organization, which controls sales of the 
bulk of the crop, also exists in Java. 



CUBA CANE SUGAR CORPORATION 
A quarterly dividend of $1.75 per share 
has been declared upon the Preferred 
Stock of this Corporation, payable Janu- 
ary 3rd, 1921, to stockholders of record 
at the close of business December 15th, 
1920. 



THECUBAREVIEW 35 

Cable " Turnure " FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK— 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of 
Collection and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public 
and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection 
of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and 
Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, 
Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 

HAVANA : N. Gelats & Co. PARIS : Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO : Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 
LONDON : The London Joint City & Midland Bank Ltd. 
( Banco Urquijo, Madrid 
SPAIN : I Banco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

( Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

The Cuba Review has ready for delivery a Map of the Island 
of Cuba, showing the location of all the active sugar plantations 
in Cuba and giving other data concerning the sugar industry 
of Cuba. Size 29^ x 24. Price $1.00 postpaid. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 

82 Beaver St., New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS and MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 
Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

A. KLING, Prop. IV/IORII F AI A STEAMSHIP WORK 

JAS. S BOGUE, Supt. IVlV-^DlLiE-, /\Li/\. ;^ SPECIALTY 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton. Night Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address : "Abiworks" New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Maiiers & Manufacturers. Steamsliip Repairs in ali Branches. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
Installation, Oil Fuel Installation, Carpenter and Joiner Work. 

18-20 Summit Street— 1 1 -27 Imlay Street Near Hamilton Ferry BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Agents for " Kinsrliorn " Multiplex Valve 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



30 T H E C U B A R E V I E W 



Cane Hauling 

At Lower Costs 



Slow moving oxen and lost time while carts are being loaded 
reduce your profits. \'aluable cane land that must now be 
used as pasture for oxen curtails production. 

You can now eliminate such drawbacks and haul cane speedily 
and economically by using trucks equipped with the 



THOMAS 

Demountable Cane Body 
for Motor Trucks 



( PATENT APPLIED FOR 

This body is simplicity itself. No gears or winches to jam or 
get out of order. No need to use skids. The truck is con- 
stantly kept on the go hauling cane. 

Initial investment is low and the average total cost of hauling 
is less than 25 cents per kilometer per 100 arrobas. In addi- 
tion, that land now used for pasture can be released for pro- 
duction. 

SPECIALLY MADE FOR ALL SIZES OF 
WHITE TRUCKS AND SOLD ONLY BY 



pjRANK ROBINS [a 

• HABANA • 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



37 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Cana Neto 

Sistema nueva patentada por 
Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 
constructor de trasbordadores superiores 

Funciona por motor, levantando. pesando, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cana por un hombre y 
imprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo " La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



Subscription 



$3.00 Per Year 



Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



l^o |rl^f*o c — Ofrecemos sujetas a 
y^****^^* **2> venta prior las sig- 
uientes calderas de uso : 

10--B & W 275 H. P. 

125 lbs. Presion 

12--Sotter Bros. 140 H. P. 

de retorno tubular — 90 lbs. Presion 

CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE 
National Sugar Refining Co. of N. J. 

YONKERS, N. Y. (U. S. A.) 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836, AT 105 WALL ST. 

Cable Address, " Tide, New York " 



BANK OF CUBA IN NEW YORK 

34 Wall St., New York 

Associate Bank of National Bank of Cuba 

General banking business transacted 
with special facilities for handling 
Cuban items through the National 
Bank of Cuba and its 92 branches 
and agencies. 

We are especially interested in dis- 
counting Cuban acceptances. 

Current Interest Rates Paid on Deposit Accounts 
subject to check. 

Loans, Discounts, Collections and Letters of 
Credit will receive our best attention. 

W. A. MERCHANT President 

J. T. MONAHAN ------ Vice-President 

CHAS. F. PLARRE Cashier 

L. G. JONES -------- As.st. Cashier 

J. W. ALBAUGH ------ Asst. Cashier 

Se habia Espanol 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business, 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office : Aguiar 1 08 
HAVANA 



WANT E D!! 

Back volumes of ''The International 
Sugar Journar' for the years 1896- 
1901-1904-1905-1908-1911 ; " Louis- 
iana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer" 

from July 1889 to June 191 8 ; "Cuba 
Review" from January 1903 to July 
1919; and -'Sugar" from January 
1899 to October 19 19. 

Those willing to sell should correspond 

with the Secretary, Sugar Bureau, 

PUSA, BIHAR, INDIA. 



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38 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Bomba Kinney Para Mieles 




Presion I'ositix a. Envolos Kotatorios, Sin 
Miielles ni ValvuK^vs. Forrado interiorniente 
(le Hronce. La Mds econ6niica para bombear 
liciuidos espestos, conio niirles.acieites guar- 
apos, etc. Funciona actualmente con el 
mejor exito en muchos ingenios y refinerias. 
Capacidades de 50 a 800 galones por minuto. 

Pidanse preclos y pormenores A 

Newell Manufacturing Company 

SINGER BUILDING - NEW YORK 
Agentes para Cuba y la demas Antillas 



Economy renewable Fuses 

EASIER THAN EVER TO RENEW 

The first renewable fuses using an inexpensive bare renewal link for restoring a blown fuse to its 
original efficiency to be APPROVED IN ALL CAPACITIES by the Underwriters' Laboratories 




Full Protection ! 



Full Efficiency ! 



Full Economy ! 



Economj- renewable Fuses have a long and distinguished record for giving dependable pro- 
tection, high efficiency and low operating costs in use on electrical circuits in sugar mills and on 
plantations in the United States and Cuba. 

The knife-blade type Economy renewable Fuse is easier than ever to renew. Simply 
unlock the winged washer, remove the fused link, insert a new Economy " Drop Out" renewal 
Link, relock the washer and the fuse is ready for continued service. No loss of time, no inconven- 
ience, no waste, for all that is destroyed in a blo\\Ti fuse is the inexpensive strip of fusible metal. 

Economy Fuses cut operating costs 80% as compared with the use of "one time" fuses. 

Economy Fuses and Economy "Drop Out" renewal Links, since December 1, 1919, have 
carried the "Underwriters' Laboratories Inspected" labels and symbols IN ALL CAPACI- 
TIES— from to (iOO amperes in both 250 and 600 volts. 

Install Economy Fuses at once. 
Sold by leading electrical dealers and jobbers everywhere. 

ECONOMY FUSE & MFG. CO., - - - CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

Kconomy Fuses also are made in Canada at Montreal. 



CUPEY SUGAR COMPANY 
At a recent meeting of the Board of 
Directors of the Cupey Sugar Company 
the following officer.s were elected for the 
ensuing year : 

President, Thomas A. Howell ; Vice- 
President. H. W. Wilmot ; Treasurer, 
Howard .J. Pullum ; Secretary, Lorenzo 
D. Armstrong. 



GUANTANAMO SUGAR COMPANY 
The Hoard of Directors has declared a 
dividend of fifty cents (50c.) per share on 
ihe new no par value stock of the com- 
pany for the quarter ending December 'j\. 
1920, payable January 3, 1921, to stock- 
liolders of record at the close of business 
December IS, 1920. The Transfer Books 
will not be closed. 



Please rueiition THE CUBA REVIEW ichen writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



THE 



Crust Company of Cnbn 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL - 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$750,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsby President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgood Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Whitner Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts. 





WATERPROOF 
.^ BELTING 
ISWAIEF^i 

GARANTiZAMOS QUE ESTA '{^''^1 ~ 
CORREA ES PERFEGTA C 
POR SU CALIDAD Y &-" ' 

PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUE8A 
VUElVE- 

3ERENTE P.N.PIEDRA,- 
* '->-- '/. CA e L £ "PEN I COPE" : 




J.BACHMANNS 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 



jrl6-iaREAgEST. 



NEW YORK,M.Y. 




Our established relations with manufac- 
turers and large volume of business, 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes ot 



RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda — Bicarbonate -Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid - Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases —Waxes 

Gums — Glues — Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filtering Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences Herbs - Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 



We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you are 
next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 
140 Liberty St., New York 

2 & 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cienfuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives : 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R 



The Royal Bank "'Canada 

Fundado en 1869 

Capital Pagado - - - - - $15,000,000 
Fondo de Reserva - - - - IS.OOO.OOq 
Active Total - 420,000,000 

QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SUCURSALES 

VEINTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONDRES : 2 Bank Buildings, Princes Street 

NEW YORK : 68 William Street 

BARCELONA : Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Se expiden CARTAS DE CREDITO 
para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS ESTERLI- 
NAS y PESETAS, valederas sin descuentoalguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTO DE AHORROS se 
admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO PESOS 
en adelante. . 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana : Obrapia 33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozarena F. W. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F. J. Beatty 



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40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



United Railways of Havana 









CONDENSED 


TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH 


TRAINS 








No. II 
PM 


No. 1 
P M 


II' 
No. 7 No.19 No. 6 No. 15 No. 3 

P M ] P M PM AM j AM 


No. 9 
AM 


CO 


HAVANA 


N0.21N0. 8N0.2ON0. 6 No. 16 No. 4 

AM A M 1 AM PM ^ PM PM 


No. 10 No. 1 

PM 1 AM 


• 

10.35 




10.30 
AM 

12.41 


9.30 
11.43 
4.00 
5-15 
915 
AM 


4.01 1. 01 

6.35 3»2 
8.50 6.11 


11.51 

2.25 
PM 


8.20 
10 12 

12.50 
335 

7-30 

4.30 
PM 


620 

8.52 
1250 
3-35 
7.30 


58 
109 
179 
230 

iSn 


Lv. Ar 
Central Station 
Ar. Lv. 
. . Matanzas . . 


6.23 

4.10 
AM 


750 
5-26 
12.05 
"55 
800 
PM 


950 

7.05 

500 
AM 



3.16 
1.02 

PM 

930 

6.25 


6.01 

315 
PM 


7.18 
5.06 
1.40 
"55 
800 


9.30 
6.59 
3.50 
".55 
8.00 


* 

6.30 




PM 




11.15 










. ..Caibarien. . . 
.Santa Clara. . 


11.00 






6 00 




Q.OO 






7.40 






6.45 








11.00 

AM 




AM 


955 

11.45 
PM 
305 










PM 


241 
276 
340 
5^0 
538 


Sancti Spiritus 
Ciego de Avila 
. ..Camaguey . . 

Antilla 


4-45 
3-45 

12.15 
PM 










AM 


PM 








AM 
255 

6.00 
PM 
4 45 

6.10 
PM 












12.40 
AM 
9-15 
PM 

10.40 
















































3-00 
AM 










. . . Santiago . . . 


12.01 
AM 



































Sleeping cars on trains i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 12. 
* Via Carreno. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES— UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



Front Havana to 

Cienf uegos 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Camaguey 

Antilla 

Santiago de Cuba 



Lower 


Upper 


Compart- 


Drawing 


Berth 


Berth 


ment 


Room 


3.60 


$3.00 


|8.oo 


$10.00 


3.60 


3.00 


8.00 


10.00 


3.60 


3.00 


8.00 


10.00 


4.20 


3-50 


10.00 


12.00 


6.00 


5.00 


14.00 


18.00 


6.00 


5.00 


14.00 


18.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACI-iED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



U S. Cy. 

Antilla J30.37 

Batabano i .99 

Bayamo 26.82 

Caibarien 13 84 

Camaguey 20.14 

Cardenas 705 

Ciego de Avila 16.53 

Cienfuegos 11.33 

Colon 7.20 

Guantanamo 33-26 

Holguin 27.56 



U. 



S. Cy. 

Isle of Pines $7.50 

Mad ruga 3.91 

Manzanillo 28.59 

Matanzas 4.16 

Placetas 12.36 

Remedios 13.53 

Sagua 10.08 

San Antonio .81 

Sancti Spiritus 14.55 

Santa Clara 11.09 

Santiago de Cuba 31 .35 



Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighs 
110 pounds or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in third-class. 



44 



Week-End" Tickets 



FIRST- AND THIRD-CLASS 



are on sale from Havana to all stations of the United Railways (e.xcept Rincon and 
such as are located at less than twenty kilometres from Havana) and vice versa, valid 
going on Saturdays and returning on any ordinary train the following Sunday or Monday 
at verj' low rates. 

UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 

FRANK ROBERTS, General Passenger Agent 

PRADO, 118 HAVANA, CUBA 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPECIALTIES 
88 BROAD ST., Cor. Stone. NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion directa de todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York ; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool ; Vapores 
Transatlanticos de A. Folch & Co., de Barcelona, 
Espana. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET I7/2I 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established 50 Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 

JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 
Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones : | ,'°°^^| Bowling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone 316 Henry Night Call, 2278 Henry 



The Snare and Triest Company 

Contracting Engineers 

STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 

We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office, 8 West 40th Street 

Havana Office : Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address; Kunomale, New York 
Telephone, 3300 South 



Telephone 
2 1 5 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Exchange 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar Makers, 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 Summit Street 

Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



Daniel Weill s enc 

COIWERCIANTE EN GENERAL 
Especiaiidad en Ropa Hecha de Trabajo 

Am in a position to push the sales of 

American high class products. Would 

represent a first-class firm. 

APARTADO 102 CAMAGUEY, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

COMMISSION MERCHANT 

P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either on a 
commission basis or under agency arrangements. 
Also furnishes all desired information about landl 
in eastern Cuba 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



F. W. Hvoslef 



E. C. Day 



R. M. MichelioD 



BENNETT, HVOSLEF & CO. 

Steamship Agents & Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 
Cable ' ' Ben vosco ' * 



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42 



** atE CUBA It E \- 1 E W 




Till- i\fii>iui/>iil I'iei at MaiilialUiii lii\uli, Califoi iiia. I itu sliowiiif; Dfck. 



Reinforced Concrete Piers 

AND OTHER HARBOR WORK 

Built to Withstand the Ravages 
of Time and Teredo 



THE FOUNDATION COMPANY 

Engineering Construction 

CITY OF NEW YORK : HAVANA, CUBA ; 

120 LIBERTY STREET HORTER BUILDING 



Tlif Mrniitipa/ Pin at Manhattan lieach, Cali/oi iiia. Vific shouim: Stjiic'iiir. 




■^ 



- THE - 

FOUNDATION COMMNT 

WOLWORTK BtOC.iew YBKOIY 






T H E C U B A R E V I E W 43 

Munson Steamship Line 

GENERAL OFFICES : 

82 Beaver Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Keyser Building, BALTIMORE. MD. 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

Leave Arrive Leave Arrive 

New York Antilla Antilla New York 

S/S"MUNAMAR" Feb. 5 Feb. 9 Feb. 12 Feb. 16 

" Feb. 19 Feb. 23 Feb. 26 Mar. 2 

" Mar. 5 Mar. 9 Mar. 12 Mar. 16 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



Matanzas .... Every Week 
Cardenas . Every 3 Weeks 
Havana Every Week 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular Sailings as follows : 

Isabela de Sagua . .Every 3 Weeks 

Caibarien '' " " 

Nuevitas " " " 

Guantanamo " " " 



Antilla .. .Every 3 Weeks 
Santiago. " " " 
Cienfuegos " " " 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER — Montevideo-Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil r^Ionthly 



NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger'Service 

New York to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires 

S/S HURON (a) January 19 

S/S AEOLUS (a) February 9 

S/S MARTHA WASHINGTON (b) March 2 

(a) 1st, 2d and 3d class. (b) ist and 2d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER — Baltimore-Cienfuegos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 

NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-w^eekly sailings from New York for Vera Cruz, Tampico and Progreso. 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



44 



THE CUBA li E V I E W 



|-TNli^«BlEl[t«T 

Machinery Handles All Products 

in sugar factories, from dumping the cane to storing the bagged sugar. 
Our leadership as engineers and builders of efficient conveying systems for 
sugar estates and refineries is the result of years of experience. 

Send for our new 136 page catalog No. 355. 

LINK-BELT COMPANY 

299 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY 




American Car and Foundry Export Co. 

•'^CAREX'^NEvv^YORK ^ 65 Broadway, New York. U.S. A. 




LisTA Para Entrega inmeoiatamente 

Aaui se ve el grabado de uno de nuestros carros mas modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias capacidades para uso eii Cuba, Puerto Rico, Sud America, America Central y 
M6jico, con baslidores y jaulas de madera o de acero. Producciou annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA Representante para Cuba 



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1. nc^ 



:VBA REVIEW 




Year FEBRUARY, 1921 lOCentsACop^ 
ished bjrthe Munsoniteamsliip Line~8Z-9?Beaver Street, NewYork Cit 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



Chuchos o Cambiavias, Ranas o Corazones, 

CRUZAMIENTOS, CABALLETES DE MANIOBRA PARA 
FERROCARRILES. RIELES. &c. 




\ 



DURANTE mas de 35 aiios nuestros Talleres — siem- 
pre montados a la moderna — se han dedicado a la 
fabricacion de Rieles, Chuchos, Cruzamientos y 
otros Accesorios para los Ferrocarriles Americanos, 
y siempre hemos procurado corresponder a las necesidades 
de nuestros clientes suministrandoles materiales de primera 
al precio mas reducido. 

Nuestra Seccion Tecnica esta a disposicion de nuestros 
clientes, y para ayudarnos interpretar debidamente sus nec- 
esidades y evitar demoras inconvenientes, al pedir precios 
6 remitir encargos, es sumamente importante nos den los 
detalles correspondientes. 

Sirvase dirisjir la coriesponcieiuia a 

WEIR FROG COMPANY 

43 Cedar St., New York, E.E. U.U. 
JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente (Direccion cablegrafica : JAMOTLEY, NEWYORKi 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
NEW YORK 



Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO. LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 



Los productos de estas Fabricas abarcaii 




A solicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. 
Direcci6n cablegrafica : JAMOTLEY. New York (Se usan todas. las claves) 



Locomotoras 

Garros para cafia 

Rieles y accesso- 
ries 

Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 

Calderas 

Maquinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 

Tanqnes 

Torn OS 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maquin- 
aria para Ingen- 
ios de Azucar 

Calentad ores d e 
agua de ahmen- 
tacion 

Alambiques para 
agua 

Madera, pino am- 
arillo 



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Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 
cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de 1^ tone- 

-^ , _ . ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac- 

CarrOS de IngeniOS idad de 30 toneladas. 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, incluyendo los juegos de rue- 
das, completamente armados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos com- 
pletos para construir los carros a su destino de maderas del pais. 



I 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., NEW YORK, N. Y. cable address 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, PRES. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 



Phone Broad 

4266-4267 



Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure Night Phone 

15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U. S. A. ,368R'ic'h^o''nd1^m 



WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 

SUGARS 



FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



82 Wall Street, New York 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

/^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

^jll r|H fll rJ-V from 5 A. M. to 8 P. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

Fare (Round Trip), $1.40 

g^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

VjUmCS ■"■■ from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 p. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 

^ZIZ^^=^^^ Fare (Round Trip), $1.92 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANAS FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) |o.o6 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Blanca and Cabaiias Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 m.idnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A.M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A.M. to 11 P.M. 

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T n E c t; b a r i: \- 1 1: \\- 




TT Tubular Barrow — 3 Cu. Ft. 



JACKSON 

TUBULAR BARROWS 

are made with extra deep pressed trays. 
No seams or rivets to prevent complete 
discharge of load. 



WRITE FOR CATALOG 

The Jackson Manufacturing Co. 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 

A\ old imitations, insist ujion sj^etting; WALKER'S 
METALLIC -LION • PACKING. ^ Look for "The 
Thin Red Line" which runs through all the 
Genuine and the '"Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Labels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 




Western Railway of Havana 

TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 

6.15 
8.24 



P M 



PM 


PM 


AM 


AM 


A M 


Fare 


*-55 


1-45 


10.15 


6.5,S 


5-45 


ist cl. 


4.24 


3-55 


12.24 


824 


7-55 


$2 65 


5SI 






951 




5-'9 


6.05 






10.05 




S.h2 


6.56 






IO.e6 


-■30 


671 


840 






12.40 


11-45 


8.83 


P M 


P.M 


PM 


PM 


AM 





Lv. Cen. Sta. 
.Ar. .Arteniisa 
.•\r. Paso ReaL.Lv 
Ar. Herradura .Lv 
Ar.Pinardel RioLv 
.■\r Guane. . .Lv 



I Fare 
Ar 3dcL 
Lv J1.40 
2-54 



2.74 
325 
4.22 



AM AM PM' PM PM 



ti.09 
q.40 
8.05 
7.48 
6.55 

5-20 

AM 



12.01 
9-45 



3 20 

1-15 



AM P M 



7.09 
540 
4.0s 
348 
2-55 
1.20 

PM 



PM 

8.00 

545 

6.00 
2.00 
PM 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares From Havana To 

Arroyo Xaranjo 24 cts. Rancho Boyeros 38 cts. 

Calabazar 26 cts. Santiago de las \'egas. . .50 cts. 

Rincon 60 cts. 

Leaving Central Station every half hou'- from 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 P. M., 
and ever>' hour thereafter to 11.15 P M. 



"WEEK-END" TICKETS 

FIRST- AND THIRD-CLASS 

are on sale from Havana to all points on the Western Railway of Havana west of 
Rincon and vice versa. These tickets are valid going on Saturdays and returning 
on any ordinary train the following Sunda}- and Monday, and are sold at very low 
rates. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW uhen irritinn to Advertisers 



THL CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX FEBRUARY, 1921 No. 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — Gardens, Central Cunagua, Province of Camaguey. 
Frontispiece — Monument of Indians of Cuba, Oriente. 



PACE 



Cuban Commercial Matters: 

Advice to Cuban Shippers .,. f-'^ 

Exports of Shoes to Cuba -^ 

Exports from Nuevitas to the L^nited States ;^6 

Four Per Cent. Commercial Tax -^ 

Fuel Stocks and Fueling Facilities at Cienfuegos 29 

Importation of Leather and Shoes into Cuba -8, ^9 

New Coal Company -£ 

New Corporation -£ 

Norwegian Paving Blocks for Cuba -^ 

Trade with Canada -'' 

Cuban Financial Matters: 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities •■• 30 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 30, 31 

Cuban Government Matters: 

Diplomatic Appointments ' 

The Financial Situation ' 

New Elections ' 

Cuba's Tobacco Industry, Illustrated, by H. O. Xeville....l4, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 12, 23, 24, 25 

Havana Correspondence 8, 9, 10, 11, 1-, 13 

Laws of Cuba with Respect to Personal Property 13 

Statue to Cuban Poetess 



13 



Subway for Cuba 3 

'The Sugar Industry: 

European Sugar Prospects 3- 

Jamaica Sugar Crop for 1920 ^° 

Sugar Exports from Cuba to the United States •''- 

Sugar Review, English 33, 34 

Sugar Review, Spanish 34, 3o 



Tlli: CT'BA REVIEW 




Monument of Indians of Cuba, Oriente. 



THE 
CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, ig2i, by the Munson Steamship Line 



NEW V( .:k 
BOTANICAL 



Volume XIX 



FEBRUARY, 1921 



Number 3 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



THE FINANCIAL SITUATION 

Tlie moratorium in Cuba wliicli became 
effective last October by Presidential de- 
cree ended on January 31st, and Cuba lias 
entered upon the legislative program for 
solving the financial difficulties with a 
sliding scale of payment. 

The new moratorium law, effective 
February 1st, provides for gradual pay- 
ments of obligations, starting with 15 per 
cent. Mercantile establishnients have 105 
days, if they request it, to liquidate obli- 
gations, and banking institutions 135 
days, if they also ask for it. However, 
any concern availing itself of the privi- 
leges of this law and then failing to meet 
any one of the payments upon the speci- 
fied dates will fall forfeit to the applica- 
tion of the law. 

Another law, which is regarded as of 
great importance, provides the machinery 
for the liquidation of such banks or com- 
mercial houses as may become obliged to 
suspend payment and also for their reor- 
ganization in every way. This law has 
been founded upon the fundamentals of 
the law governing Federal receiverships 
in the United States. 

Bank deposits in Cuban banks which 
have been made since October 10, 1920, 
are generally considered by the public to 
be exempt from the moratorium, and 
prospective depositors have been assured 
of that fact by the banks. However, a 
Presidential decree might be passed to 
subject such deposits to a moratorium or 
bank depositors might pass a resolution 
to hold the deposits. No judicial decision 
has been handed down on this question, 



although bankers feel that the Supreme 
Court would hold that the decree of 
October 10 applied only to obligations al- 
ready existing on that date. 



NEW ELECTIONS 

Partial elections in districts where the 
courts or election boards have nullified 
the results of the Cuban Presidential elec- 
tion last November will be held about 
March 1, according to an annovmcement 
made by Maj. Gen. Enoch Crowder. These 
elections will be marked by absolute im- 
partiality and will determine the ques- 
tion as to the candidate who will be the 
next President of Cuba. The results in 
enough districts to leave the election in 
doubt have been annulled. 

The rules laid down by the Central 
Electoral Board under the recent legis- 
lation passed by Congress will govern the 
partial elections. 



DIPLOMATIC APPOINTMENTS 
The Ministry of Foreign Relations has 
extended permission to Senor Tose Buigas 
to exercise the functions of Spanish Con- 
sul in the City of Havana. The Ministry 
has also authorized the transfer of the 
following chancellors : Senor Marino 
Estrada y Velazquez from the consulate 
at Bordeaux to La Havre ; Senor Rogelio 
Tonarely y Chaumont from the consulate 
at Piome to Bordeaux ; Senor Valentin 
Rivay Abreu from the consulate at Mobile 
to Coatzacoalcos ; and Senor .Tose Barra- 
que y Gonzalez from Coatzacoalcos to 
Mobile. 



T HE err. a u k v 1 1: w 



HAVANA CORRESPONDENCE 



jMininry -'f.tli. 1<,)21. 

PRESIDENT HOLDS NEW YEAR's DAY RECEPTION: On January 1st President 
and Mrs. Mi-ndcal received, as is the usual eustoiii in Cuba. The Diplomatic Corps, 
Supreme Court, Senators and Representatives, Provincial Governors, Mayor of the 
City of.' Havana, Consular Corps and representatives of the press called at the Presi- 
dential Palace. The official reception extended from 1 o'clock P. M. to 4 ::iO P. M. The 
diftereni i^roups were received separately, and both President Menocal and Mrs. 
Menocal cliatted for a few moments with the different members of the groups as they 
were presented by the Secretary of State. This custom had its inception witli the 
first President of the Republic, don Toraas Estrada Palma, and has been steadfastly 
maintained throughout the different administrations of subsequent Presidents. 

COLLECTOR OF CUSTOMS INSISTS THAT DUTIES ON MERCHANDISE BE PAID: 
Mr. O. P>. <ians, Acting Collector of Customs of the Port of Havana, has issued a 
circular calling attention to existing laws and regulations covering the withdrawal 
from customs warehouses of merchandise declared and liquidati^d for the payment 
of duty. In future the regulations will be strictly followed, and merchandise on 
which duties are not paid within three days following liquidation by the customs 
authorities will be sent to General Stores, wharfage and storage will be charged 
against it. and after due announcement it will be sold at public auction. 

It is believed that this step has been under consideration by Treasury officials 
for some time as a means for the rapid clearing up of the wharves, but that great 
pressure has been brought to bear both locally and from abroad to prevent it. Deputy 
Collector Gans' announcement W'ould seem in indicate that determined action will 
now be taken and that private interests are to be sacrificed if necessary for the 
general good. 

"QUEDAN" SYSTEM TO BE ABOLISHED: Following representations made by the 
Merchants' Association of Havana to the Secretary of the Treasury in connection 
with the large sums of money deposited by the merchants with the Collector of Cus- 
toms to guarantee payment of duties on merchandise withdrawn from the Custom 
House under the "Quedan"' system, the Secretary of the Treasury has issued a state- 
ment declaring that the department will proceed with all despatch possible to liquidate 
these "Quedans." This will mean that a sum exceeding .$1,CKK),000 will be refunded 
to merchants in Havana. This action on the part of the Secretary of the Treasur.\ 
has met with the general approval of the merchants of Havana, since it has always 
been the case that money which is deposited with the Government in such instances 
is returned only after exceeding long delays and the importers in Havana have 
always had large sums outstanding with the Government to cover deposits whi<-h 
they have made on merchandise. 

RAILROADS ASK PRESIDENT TO VETO BILL PREVENTING RATE RAISES: 
The railroad passenger and freight rate increases which became effective the middle 
of this month have met with a general protest from the public as a whole, and the 
situation has become so acute that the railroads have petitioned the President to 
veto a bill recently passed by the Cuban Senate preventing the raises in fivight and 
passenger rates which had been allowed by the Cuban Railroad Commission. Th.e 
railroads maintain that the increased cost of maintaining and operating the railroads 
will not be entirely covered by the recent raise which was permitted l)y the Railroad 
Commission. l)ut at the same time the public considers that these excessive rates arc 
prohil)itive. What the outcome of this controversy will be we are not in position 
at this time to say. 

CRIME WAVE SEEMS TO BE WORLD-WIDE: The crime wave which has been so 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



marked during the past six montlis in the North has not left Cuba untouched. There 
is a noticeable increase in the number of robberies which are occurring both in the 
city and outlying districts and recently several gruesome murders have been com- 
mitted in Havana, which cases are baffling the local police forces in their efforts to rion 
down the perpetrators. The criminals are becoming bolder and much attention hag 
been given to their activities by the police forces of the city. 

FALSE RUMOR OF UPRISING IN CUBA: We have noticed from the American 
press that credence was given to the report that an uprising of the colored race in 
Cuba was imminent. That this uprising is not going to take place is absolutely sure, 
and as far as we can ascertain there is no discontent in Cuba among the colored race 
at tills time, nor has there been for some years. 

NEW BANK ORGANIZED IN HAVANA: The Mercantile Trust Company, located 
at No. 198 Monte St., Havana, has been granted a charter to engage actively in the 
banking business in Cuba with a paid-up capital of $250,000. The officers of this 
bank are Bernard L. Barker, President ; Sr. Manuel E. Alarcon, Vice-President and 
General Manager ; the Secretary is Dr. Heliodoro Gil, and Sr. Luis Valladares will 
act as Treasurer. The list of officers is suggestive of strength, and we have every 
reason to believe that this bank will enjoy a signal success. 

BANCO NACIONAL DE CUBA RETRENCHING: With the idea of effecting econ- 
omy until the present financial crisis has passed, the Banco Nacional de Cuba has. 
closed practically all of its branches on the Island, which numbered one . hundred 
and thirty, leaving only those open for business located in the largest cities of each 
province. In Havana only the central office of the Banco Nacional is open, all of the- 
many branches throughout the city having been closed. This action, of course, has- 
thrown many out of employment. It is stated that this closing of branch houses is- 
only temporary and that they will be reopened as soon as conditions become normal.. 
Just when this will be there is no telling. 

HARBOR NOTES: The United Fruit Company steamer "San Pablo," whicb 
grounded at the entrance to Havana Harbor during December, was successfully 
floated by the Merritt & Chapman Wrecking & Dredging Company tug "Relief." 
After slight repairs in Havana had been made to the "San Pablo" she was towed to- 
Key West by the tug "Relief," from which port she will be taken to New York to- 
undergo extensive repairs which are necessary. The Swedish steamship "Marmen," 
which arrived in Havana on January 12th, had a narrow escape from suffering the 
same fate as the United Fruit steamer "San Pablo," in that when entering the harbor" 
with a pilot aboard the steering gear of the ship failed to operate and for a time it 
was feared that she would surely go ashore. However, the engines were reversed 
and the pilot by clever manipulation finally managed to bring the ship safely into 
the port. 

The port authorities are taking vigorous steps to safeguard health on the Island 
by insisting upon frequent fumigation of ships from Mexican ports and also by 
sending any suspect cases among immigrants arriving from Spain to Triscornia for 
observation. Recently, however, three members of the crew of the Italian steamer 
"Savoia" were found to have well developed cases of yellow fever and these were 
immediately given necessary attention by the harbor physician and the cases were 
isolated. Recently the Port of Veracruz, Mexico, was included among those against 
which Cuba maintains a quarantine. 

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS : Although the Cuban courts are finding that some 
irregularities took place throughout the Island during the recent Presidential elec- 
tions, due in most instances to a misunderstanding of the new Crowder Electoral 



10 T 11 !•: c I n A K i: \- 1 1: \v 

Law, it is jjci^iKTuUy conc-inled tluit Dr. Alfedo Zayas is the clioico of the Cuban people 
for Preisidem. While in tlie I'rovinces of Santa Clara, Cainafjuey and Oriente tlie 
Supreme Court has found that sonic of ilic ch'iloral precin<'ts sliowed irregularities, 
it is not considered tliat tlie result of tluir liiidings will materially affect the victory 
of Dr. Zayas. General Kiioch 11. Cmwdci-. who was sent to Cuha by the American 
Government to investigate the recent elections as well as other questions of im- 
portance, has not been able to find that the irregularities which were so nuich talked 
of by the Liberal party really have a material effect upon tlie ultimate outcome of 
the elections, and we understand he has cominimicated this information to the Wash- 
ington Government. Rumors tliat President Menocal would resign the I'residency 
as a result of tlie findings of General Crowder liave been ollicially denied and we 
are not inclined to believe that any credence can be given them. 

SUGAR: On the 15th of January there were 121 centrals grinding, as against 
197 at this time last year. This fact is significant of the price that will doubtless 
maintain for this crop. The growers of sugar cane are, and we believe with justifica- 
tion, alarmed at the failui'e of sugar to rise out of the depressed low level to which 
ib fell the latter part of 1920. At present prices (about four and a half cents) there 
is absolutely no profit in manufacturing or growing sugar and one of the main reasons 
given for the fact is that labor, administration and operating costs have not been 
reduced in anything lilce a reasonable proportion to the drop that has been ex- 
perienced by sugar. The present price is on a parity with pre-war prices, but ferti- 
lizers, fuel, labor and administration have made no appreciable concessions and the 
ingenios and growers find themselves operating with scant, if any, profit. 

The attitude of labor lias been the cause of some alarm to sugar iilanters on the 
eastern end of the Island, since they have practically refused to work in the fields 
at any material reduction in their wages. It must be acknowledged that they have 
•some argument on their side of the controversy, since foodstuffs, clothing, shoes, 
etc., have been reduced only slightly as compared with the reduction in wages that 
"the laborers are required to accept. It is true that here in Havana on every hand 
jire to be seen announcements of great reductions in prices, but a close analysis of 
these reductions reveals that, in many instances, the dealers are simply working 
■off surplus stocks of shop-womi merchandise. In the interior, we are reliably in- 
formed, even these reductions have not taken place, and had they done so they would 
■not materially affect the common laborer, as his principal requirement is food as 
ftie is usually scantily clad and only possesses enough clothing for his immediate 
needs. The great ma.iority of the laborers who come to Cuba are here for the sole 
purpose of accumulating a few hundred dollars and returning to their native land. 
An effort has been made by the plantation owners to improve living conditions tor 
the laborers, but their efforts have not met with much encouragement since the 
foreign laborers, and particularly those from Haiti, are of a very low grade of 
intelligence and cannot adapt themselves to sanitary living conditions. 

Freights on sugars have been lowered somewhat, but here again we find that it 
is next to impossible to adjust the freight rates, if the cargoes are to be shipped in 
Sbijiping Board vessels, since the wage concessions that have been accorded organized 
seafaring men will not permit of profitable operation of these vessels. Consequently, 
foreign vessels are making great inroads on this trade. 

Planters and mill owners are trusting that the next month will show an increase 
in the price of Cuban sugars, a level of six cents being conceded as that on which 
sugar can be produced with a profit on the investment made. Present indications are 
that the United States is fairly well stocked with sugar from last year and the crop 
of Louisiana cane sugar and Northern beet sugar would indicate a smaller demand 
from that source. Europe, from reports we have before us, is to produce considerably 
more beet sugar this year than last and the demand from that source will doubtless 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 11 



be mucli less than heretofore. If the price does not improve indications are that 
the full crop of Cuban sugars wiU not be harvested and the outlook for business for 
this year is gloomy indeed. 

FINANCIAL SITUATION : With the moratorium extended until June of this year, 
conditions promise to remain unsettled until that time, unless the visit to Cuba of 
General Enoch H. Crowder, who was sent by the American Government to make a 
thorough investigation of general conditions, should mean that his recommendations 
will be adhered to and that those banks which are found to be in bad condition, will 
be allowed to take the consequences of their mismanagement. 

General Crowder arrived in Havana aboard the battleship "Minnesota" and has 
been in almost constant conference with members of the Cuban Government and 
prominent citizens of Havana. It is understood that, besides the financial situation, 
he will undertake to clear up the doubt that has prevailed in the minds of the Cuban 
populace as to the outcome of the recent presidential elections, and that he will also 
investigate the port congestion at Havana. That he is stirring up things in general 
is very manifest; the Cuban Judiciary, so long silent on the question of the final 
outcome of the recent elections, has had sufficient pressure brought to bear upon it 
that a partial report has been rendered on some of the outlying districts and con- 
ditions have been aired which cause many to believe that another election may be 
held in March. Bankers of the city have also been in conference with General 
Crowder and we are led to believe that he will insist upon the moratorium being 
lifted, and if certain banks were careless in their manner of handling public funds 
they are to be made to suffer the consequences of their mismanagement. 

Disturbing rumors are afloat with reference to the ability of the Banco Nacional 
de Cuba to meet its obligations, Avhile it is very evident that the Banco Espanol de la 
Isla de Cuba and the Banco Internacional are involved beyond their ability to recover. 

An interesting commentary on the bank situation in Cuba is furnished in the 
activities of those individuals and firms which were caught by the moratorium owing 
sums of money to the banks affected. We were recently told how one large business 
house in Havana that owed the Banco Internacional $104,000 purchased checks from 
depositors of this institution at a discount of about 52 per cent, and repaid the loan 
with checks drawn on the bank itself for about $50,000. This same thing has been 
done with the other two banks affected, only the discount paid, in the case of the 
Banco Nacional de Cuba, has been slightly less than that mentioned above, or around 
25 to 30 per cent. We know of one concern in Havana which recently liquidated its 
account with the Banco Nacional de Cuba for a clean 20 per cent, discount. Another 
case that has come to our personal attention is that of a large sugar mill owner who 
was caught with about $700,000 in one of the affected banks. He secured his funds 
In full (although under the moratorium he was only legally permitted to withdraw 
10 per cent., since it was an active account) by paying one of the officials a substan- 
tial fee for his accommodation. Many stories of this nature are heard on the streets 
daily, but we have quoted the above as among those of which we were reasonably 
sure of the veracity. However, one of the outstanding facts of this situation is the 
absence of the looked-for failures among the large business houses of the Island. 
These concerns, many of which were not expected to weather the storm, have shown 
great activity since the moratorium was declared and have thus far withstood the 
strain better than was considered possible. Of course the final test of their strength 
will come when the moratorium is lifted. In the meantime, business is sorely affected. 
Cash in most instances is demanded, and few among the large business houses are 
able to pay cash. On the other hand, many large Havana business houses have ex 
plained the situation fully to their American connections and have secured permission 
to sell on liberal terms as an evidence of good faith. Money, however, seems to be 
plentiful, since places of amusement are crowded to capacity and the horse races are 
very well attended, as is also the Havana Casino, where gambling is permitted under 



12 Til K C U B A U K \ 1 K W 

Goveniineiit licens*'. The jai alai Fronton (a very popular Spanish si>ort in Cuba, 
somewhat similar to lawn tennis except that no net is used) is enjoyiii;; a tremendous 
prosperity and a new l)uilding to house this sport is being completed at a cost of over 
$350,tMM>. This l)uilding will have a large dancing floor, palm roof garden, and l 
special restaurant for the entertainment of the sport lovers of the City of Havana. 
With tlie Cul)an national lottery, horse racing, the Casino furnishing roulette, the 
jai alai, cock figliting, garden play (lawn tennis), and a dozen roof gardens with 
all-niglit cabaret, it would certainly seem that Havana is well provided with the 
means for relieving the fun-loving public, both native and tourist, of its supply of 
surplus casli. To one watching the passing throng no indication could be found that 
a moratorium is in force nor that the principal product of the Island has reached 
the lowest price in many years. 

PORT CONGESTION: The progress being made by Colonel M. Despaigne, who i.s 
working under a special ajipointment from President Menocal, in his endeavor to 
clean up the wharf conditions in Havana is everywhere evident and it must be con- 
ceded tliat, should he be allowed to continue unhindered, conditions in the next few 
months in the Bay of Havana will be vastly improved. The fore part of this month 
Colonel Despaigne directed his efforts principally against what are known as the 
"Public Wharves" in the Bay of Havana and the iniiiroveiiient there is indeed notice- 
able. Many thousand dollars' worth of merchandise that was in a rotted condition 
has been hauled to sea and dumped overboard, while thousands upon thousands of 
packages which have been left by consignees upon these wharves have been carted 
to various open lots and vacant spaces in the city and there stored at consignees' 
expense. Shijipers should not gather from this that these goods are abandoned when 
deposited in these vacant places in the city. When they arrive they are carefully 
checked and records taken of each and every lot and customs guards are on duty 
da.v arid night protect iiig them for .ultimate delivery to consignees. They are pro- 
tected from the elements by tarpaulins and despatched in every case the same as 
though they were on the wharf. In this work of clearing the wharves, Colonel Des- 
paigne is demonstrating his sterling worth to his country. 

The vessels entering the Bay of Havana showed a slight decrease last month and 
to us it appears that the bay seems less crowded than it was six months ago. There 
are several vessels lying at anchor, however, that have been here six months awaiting 
discharge, but these, in most cases, are vessels that are being operated by the so- 
called "fly-by-night" concerns and the agents thereof have not been supplied with 
sufficient funds for the proper handling of said vessels. Several of the agents of 
these new concerns that have entered this field have reiiudiated their obligations with 
lighterage companies in the Bay of Havana and it is l)ecoiiiiiig very difficult for these 
concerns to obtain floating equipment to handle the discharge of their vessels. Nono 
of them is equipped with either wliarves, lighters, or tugs of their own. 

Another feature of the situation here is the recent extension of the moratorium 
by the Cuban Congress until June of this year. The bill has been passed by the 
Cuban Congress, but must be ratified by the House of Representatives before it be- 
comes law, and it is generally felt that if this takes placei conditions in Cuba will be 
badly afl'ected. Today tliosc iiiciwliaiits who are anxious to receive the merchandise 
that they have on order, and who are making an honest effort to improve conditions, 
are hindered in tlieir activities on account of the scope of the moratorium, which 
permits those who wish to do so to withhold payment of their obligations until the 
moratorium has been lifted. As a consequence, many merchants have not sufficient 
funds to pay duties on incoming merchandise, and the immediate effect is felt on the 
wharves and in the warehouses of the established shipping interests who have no 
other alternative than to i)ei-mit the goods to remain in their warehouses and accumu- 
late storage charges. Just here a word on the storage charges assessed on merchan 
dise in Havana might tend to clear up misunderstandings which we have noticed 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



13 



during the past few months. When the wharves in Havana became blocked with 
freight the first part of 1920, a law was enacted permitting the shipping interests to 
fissess very heavy storage charges against merchandise left on the wharves beyond 
what is termed "free time," which, with very few exceptions, is five days after ship 
has completed her discharge. This law, at the time it was enacted, was intended to 
assist the shipping interests to meet the tremendous increase in the cost of operating 
their piers and warehouses, since by strikes and threatened strikes the laborers on 
the wharves had managed to insist upon their imreasonable demands for wage in- 
creases. The merchant^ soon found themselves unable to discharge their merchan- 
dise as warehouse spa^e in the City of Havana was found to be inadequate. The 
established lines, however, more than met those consignees who were known to be 
honest in their intentions halfway, and refunded, in many instances, a portion of 
the warehouse charges in an endeavor to assist the merchants and themselves. Others, 
operating private wharves and warehouses, did a very lucrative business during these 
months, however, and collected enormous amounts in storage for merchandise left on ^ 
their wharves. This feature has tended to work against those concerns, however, 
and we find today that the consignees and shippers as well are returning to the 
established factors in Cuba and routing their merchandise via the lines that tried and 
are still trying to clear up the situation and revive business on a normal basis. 



SUBWAY FOR CUBA 

The Railways Commission has approved 
the project of a company organized to 
construct a subway in the Province of 
Havana, 180 kilometers long. This rail- 
way will run from Havana through the 
neighboring towns of Calvario, Managua, 
Nazareno, San Antonio de las Vegas, 
Batabano, Melena del Sur, Nueva Paz, 
Los Palos, Pipian Madruga, Casiguas, 
Tapaste, Santa Maria del Rosario, etc. 
The company is capitalized to .$2.5,000,C0O 
and its president is Senor Jose Manuel 
Govin. 

This project is viewed with great favor 
In Havana, wliere the stree^'s are con- 
gested, and it is reasonably certain that 
the venture will amply repay the capi- 
tal expended. 



STATUE TO CUBAN POETESS 
The Department of Public Instruction 
and Fine Arts of Cuba has called an in- 
ternational contest for the erection of a 
statue to Avellaneda, the noted Cuban 
poetess. The poetess is to be sculptured 
as s'^ated and wearing a crown of laurel, 
which she received in Havana in 1S60» 



The artists may use any material except 
that the figure itself must be of white 
marble of the finest quality. The statue 
will be placed in the Pablo Trias Plaza in 
the City of Camaguey. The models will 
be received at the Arts and Crafts School 
of Havana up to April 10th of the present 
year. 



LAWS OF CUBA WITH RESPECT TO 
PERSONAL PROPERTY 
The Cuban law of leases is contained in 
the Civil Code, articles 1542 to 1603, in- 
clusive. The Cuban laws make no pro- 
vision for chattel mortgages. Personal 
property may be mortgaged according to 
the Cuban laws only when permanently 
situated in buildings, and must then be 
mortgaged jointly with the buildings. 
Liens on chattels may be created by 
pledge, but the property pledged must be 
placed in the possession of the creditor 
or of a third person by common consent. 
The Cuban law of pledge is contained in 
the Civil Code, articles 18.57 to 187.3, in- 
clusive. There is no separate law in 
Cuba regulating conditional sales of per- 
sonal property, such as the uniform 
conditional sales act in the t'nited States.. 



14 



THE CI B A 14 K V 1 K VV 




,.'v L:-'..-: ;.\: ..-.r-g. Havana. 
'Totecco Factory.) 



CLBA-5 TOBACCO INDL'STR^' 



O. Xez'iUe 



In the September issue of The CrsA Remew the writer presented an article 
relating to the agricultiiral features of the tobacco indastry of Cuba, giving briefly 
the principal facts regarding the growth, cultivation, harvesting and farm treatment 
of leaf tobacco, and covering its classification into the various grades found in our 
Cohan markets. Indication was made that in a future article information would be 
given of the steps by which the raw leaf is c-onverted into the finished product^ 
^uniliar to all who enjoy the pleasures derived from close c-ommmiion with one's 
favorite cigar or cigarette. It is the purpose of this article to fulfill this promise. 

In our la>T article we traced the tobacco leaf through aU the processes to which 
It is subie:--: rill it is at last snugly encased in the covering so kindly pro\-ided by 
Nature fc-r Lj-as rich product, and even went a step farther and saw the bales of 
tobacco deposited in some warehouse. A word regarding these is of interest. 

Throughout the City of Havana, and in some of the larger towns of the interior 
«f the Island in the tobacco producing sections, massive masonry structures, tisually 
ooe or two stories in height, broad and capacioas, are found, in which the tobacco 
baled np in the various coxmtry classification houses is placed to receive its fin^.l 
treatmoit and curing. Entering one of these warehouses, one finds himself in prac- 
tically total darkness, in an atmosphere where warmth and dampness prevail, and in 
an odor that to the initiated teUs of a product that is passing through a fermentation 
oat of which it will c-ome sweet and aromatjc, ready to give delight to its c-onsumer. 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 15 

Frequently tlie passer-by, unaware of the presence near Mm of one of these ware- 
houses, will suddenly find his nostrils filled with an odor, not perfume, yet sweet, 
with the faint trace of ammonia that characterizes tobacco in' this stage of the curing 
process, and on investigating will find himself near a masonry wall pierced with some 
limall windows, one or two of which will be open, and he will discover that from 
these is coming the odor that attracted his attention. If his curiosity leads him to 
investigate further, he will find himself in the darkness just referred to, and after he 
ha& penetrated this darkness, ameliorated by the light from the electric lights witli 
which all these warehouses are provided, he will see in the dimness long rows of 
tobacco bales extending down the sides of the aisles which provide communication 
from one department of the warehouse to the others. As we indicated in the last 
paragraph of our other article, these bales will be fotmd on their sides or ends, piled 
two, three or more deep, depending on the stage of their curing, and the number 
of windows open in the various departments of the warehouse will depend also on 
the extent to which the tobacco in that particular department has reached its final 
condition. A great deal depends on the intelligence of the man in charge of these 
warehouses, for ignorance or delay in changing the position and loc-ation of tobacco in 
accordance with its condition as received and just after reception from the country 
has been the cause of serious loss. 

These warehouses may form part of the plant of one of the large cigar-making 
establishments in Havana, or may belong to one of the many important leaf tobacco 
dealers so numerous in this city. If the former is the case, the tobacco will be held 
till ready for use, and till orders are received for cigars for the making of which the 
grade of tobacco in storage is required. If the latter is the case, the tobacco after 
thorough curing will be placed in some part of the warehouse where good but con- 
trolled ventilation exists, there to be held till some buyer from abroad presents 
himself, or till some one from the city purchases it for home requirements. 

The reader who has foUowed us in our first article will know that these tobaccos 
consist of three principal classes, wrapper, filler, and the lowest grade and small leaf 
used solely for cutting up into cigarette making material. He will also know that 
the material in the bales consists of the entire tobacco leaf. From this, in the case 
of filler and wrapper, the mid-rib has to be removed before the leaf can be used in 
the making of cigars. This has given rise to an industry separate from that con- 
nected with warehousing tobacco or making it up into its finished products, viz., that 
of stripping tobacco, as it is called. In various places in Havana, and in some places 
in the country, stripping factories devote themselves to taking the leaf as it comes 
from the bales, remo^-ing the mid-rib, and packing the product in one of several ways 
for consumption here or abroad. The process through which the leaf is put is the 
same whether done in the cigar factory for consumption therein, or for exportation. 
Some of our stripping factories operate for their own accoimt : that is, purchase the 
leaf in the bale, strip it. and then sell it at a price permitting profit : or in other 
instances, they operate for the account of firms who send them the raw material, they 
stripping it for a certain price per hundred pounds or other unit. Of late, nearly all 
such operations have been based upon weight, though before the organization of the 
tobacco workers was perfected during the period of the late war, the work was largely 
paid for at so much per "'carrot" or "manojo." 

A stripping factory or the department of a cigar factory where this work is done 
usually consists of a long roomy hall, in which the strippers are arranged in rows 
extending the length and breadth of the room. These strippers are for the most 
part women, men being used almost exclusively for those duties where strength or 
particular skill is required. The tobacco in the "carrot" is first taken from the bale, 
enough being taken out at one time to fill the requirements of the following day. 
These carrots are then broken up by cutting the bands holding the "hands" of which 
they are composed together, and these are then taken by men and immersed quickly 
in a tank containing water, shaken out till nearly all the surplus water is removed. 



16 



T 11 H <■ r n A K K V I K \V 




Drying Racks. 




Stripping Room. 



THE CUBA RE VIE W 17 

and then placed on end for several hours to allow the water to soften all the leaves 
uniformly and to let the surplus drain off. The hands in this condition are then 
delivered to the strippers, who, with a deft motion, remove the mid-rib from about 
the lower two-thirds of the leaf, if filler, or from the entire leaf, if wrapper. Of 
course, in the case of cheaper grades of filler, rough work is frequently allowed, but 
in the case of wrapper the greatest care is essential, as not only must the entire 
Til id-rib be removed, but also care must be taken not to injure the edges of the leaves 
in any way, as the wrappers come exclusively from the outer portions of the leaf. 
As the work progresses, the strippers place the stripped leaves in small piles upon 
narrow boards provided for the purpose. After the day's work of the strippers is 
received by the foreman in charge, another narrow strip of board is placed above 
the piles, and the stripped material is then removed to another department, where 
it is allowed to partially dry. It is then removed from the boards, the leaves by 
this time having assumed a permanently flat condition, and placed on long racks 
composed of narrow strips separated by spaces about an inch wide, with from six 
to eight inches between the series or strips, these racks being in a department where 
ventilation can be controlled and where final drying is received. From here the 
leaves are placed in small barrels, usually pierced on all sides with openings to allow 
further ventilation, in which they are held till desired for shipping, if to be exportedl 
in this form, or till needed by the cigar makers, if to be used in our local factories. 

It would seem that the simple work of taking out the mid-rib of tobacco leaves 
would not permit of much variation, but actual practice in our various stripping: 
factories shows that selection of the one utilized can frequently be made with con- 
siderable profit. In some of the stripping establishments, where the work is done- 
for others at so much per hundred pounds, careful supervision of the workers has- 
resulted in considerable saving of leaf. It not infrequently happens that whereas in- 
some establishments the loss due to carelessness or hasty work- is as much as thirty- 
five per cent, of the weight of the tobacco as taken from the bale ; in others the same- 
tobacco has been stripped with a loss not greater than twenty-six or twenty-eight 
per cent. In the same way the loss through the conversion of leaf into small pieces^; 
called and sold as "scrap" is much greater in some establishments than in others^ 
It has even occurred that dishonesty in the stripping factory has resulted in the~ 
replacement of a certain part of the tobacco originally delivered by a poorer and 
lower priced material, the part thus removed being utilized by those in charge of the 
factory for their own profit. The same practice sometimes obtains in those establish- 
ments of this nature that are operated for the account and profit of their owners. 
The ease with which a small percentage of low priced material can be worked in and 
the difficulty of detection until the material is finally employed in making up cause 
this practice to be more general than it otherwise would be. It thus behooves the 
purchaser who has his tobacco stripped for his own account to ascertain carefully 
the reputation of the firm by whom this operation is performed. 

The final step in preparing stripped tobacco intended for export consists in re- 
moving it from the small barrels in which it has been stored and placing it in large 
capacious barrels holding from 100 to 120 pounds, in which it is placed carefully 
layer on layer, the barrels usually being lined with oiled paper to prevent further 
drying out and ventilation of the contents. When sufficient tobacco has been placed 
in the barrels, the head is placed over the top, and by means of heavy presses is 
forced into position, where it is held by a cross strip and hoop securely nailed to the 
staves of which the barrel is composed. In some instances the tobacco is shipped in 
packs composed of gunny sacking, though the objection is often made that this results 
in the breaking up of considerable leaf. Only the need of economy permits this 
method of shipment, a saving at the present time of about two dollars per pack being 
possible due to the high price now demanded for barrels. The proper marks are then 
placed on the barrel or bale, shipping papers are prepared, and the tobacco is then 



18 



THE Ci;i5A KEVIEW 




Wrapper Selection. 




Tobacco Warehouse. (Bales of Tobacco in Storage. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 19 

ready for delivery to the transportation line wMcli carries it to its final destination. 

With the withdrawal from the bales in the warehouse of our tobacco factories 
of the tobacco for each day's task begins the careful calculations necessary for their 
most economical operation. With the present high cost of wrapper tobacco, averag- 
ing easily, even here in Cuba, $300 per bale, this grade of tobacco has to be treated 
like gold leaf, and only enough is removed each day to permit the wrapping of the 
following day's manufacture. The care that is required in this can readily be realized 
when it is considered that in every factory a considerable number of sizes and grades 
of cigars is being made at the same time. To wrap them a certain number of leaves 
of probably each of the .various sizes and grades of wrapper held in the warehouse 
will be required. These are removed, taken to the "casing"' (wetting) department, 
wet down as described, and later on delivered to the strippers. They are then carried 
to the wrapper classification department (rezagado), where they are classified accord- 
ing to size, grade, and roughly as to color, and they are then delivered to the various 
cigar-makers as they will be required by each according to grade and size of the 
cigar each is working on. In the same manner, the filler has been distributed after 
the blend for the particular brand of cigar being made has been made. This is a 
department of itself, and on the results obtained has depended in the past much of 
the celebrity of the marks of some of our local cigar factories. 

At the present time all Havana cigars are hand made. Machine made cigars 
have never been turned out in any number by our local factories, and today it can 
be said that none are being made. Thus in e^ch of our factories when running at 
full capacity long rows of men, each seated at his table, can lie seen, seated the length 
and breadth of ample rooms, each with his supply of filler and wrapper, the latter 
well protected from drying out, and each busy in his own way according to the 
grade of cigar that he is turning out. The necessary quantity, of filler is taken by the 
operator, molded roughly into the form of the finished cigar, Avrapped in an extra 
large leaf (sometimes specially provided for this purpose), and then around this is 
placed the wrapper, previouslj» cut to the desired shape. Skill and care are required 
in this final step, the time required for this operation increasing as the quality of the 
cigar being made becomes better. In the same way the remuneration of the operator 
per hundred cigars increases according to the grade of cigars turned out hy liim. It 
is very interesting to watch the skill with which the expert cigar-maker uses liis 
fingers in adjusting the wrapper to the partially molded cigar, smoothing out all 
wrinkles, concealing carefully in the highest grade goods the edge of the wrapper 
so that it will blend in- one uniform color over tl^e whole cigar, making the diameter 
ot the cigar conform to the standard set for the size that he is working, patching up 
a small defect in the wrapper, and finally cutting off to the exact length the cigar he 
has made. The cost of some of our most perfect cigtirs can be accounted for when 
it is known that in this grade n? cigars expert workers will turn out only about 
twenty per day, and that tbc .most cjireful s-lectioii is made of all the materials, 
especially the wrappers, that go into them. 

At the end of the day's woi'k e:icli cigar-maker tics his day's product into bundles 
containing 25 to .50 cigars, places his number on each bundle, and delivers them to the 
•collector, by whom they arc taken to the inspection department. Here they are care- 
fully examined, one at a time, and the defects of each workman noticed, so that he 
may be advised to avoid a repetition the following day. In this inspection all defects, 
no matter how small, are detected. Cigars of the same grade must l)e of the same 
length (not approximately, but exactly), and of th«^ same diameter (ring measure- 
ment), and furthermore, in the better grades the wrapper must be free from flaws 
and patches, and the cigar properly finished. 

From this department the cigars are then taken to the selecting department, 
where they are placed in large cedar cabinets for several days to begin seasoning, 
after which they are taken out and examined ong by one and divided into groups 



20 



THE CUBA R K \ I !•: W 




Classifying Cigars. 




lUug a.^.i lu:=pecuiig Cigai": 



THECUBAREVIEW 21 



according to color of wrapper. The carefiilness of this work depends altogether on 
the demand of the party for whom the cigar is being manufactured. It will, of 
course, be realized that between the dark brown of the darker wrapper and the clear 
light color of the "claro" cigars there are an infinite number of tints, so it is mani- 
festly impossible in the ordinary work of the factory to have all the cigars in any 
pack exactly the same tint. Yet orders are received at our factories from particular 
smokers who can afford to satisfy their whims that demand such careful selection 
that all the cigars in packs often of several thousand must be of exactly the same 
tint. This, of course, adds considerably to their cost, as it is frequently necessary 
in order to pack one thousand such cigars to handle and inspect as many as fifty 
thousand. In the ordinary factory run, hov.ever, it is found that four distinct colors 
can be distinguished, these being "claro" (the lightest), "Colorado claro," "Colorado 
maduro" and "maduro" (the darkest grade). It will thus be noticed that the only 
difference between the cigars of the same brand and grade is that of the color of their 
wrapper, the filler found in them being of the same strength and material. 

In this same department where the selection of the colors is made the cigars are 
placed in their final packages. All deficient cigars, whether their defects are of 
length, ring-measurement, workmanship or material, are thrown out. The perfect 
cigars are placed in boxes or other package, according to the demands of the pur- 
chaser, the customary trade package being the varnished cedar box seen everywhere 
where cigars are sold. The boxes containing the lower and medium grade cigars are 
placed, after receiving their contents, beneath presses, \\iiere they are subject to con- 
siderable pressure for several hours, it being found that this irons or smooths out all 
wrinkles and presents a beautiful and uniform top row to the eye when the box is 
opened. The higher grade cigars are subjected to very little pressure, often only a 
fairly heavy board being used, the careful workmanship in making these cigars having 
produced a product already practically smooth and uniform. The boxes used for 
commercial purposes contain 25, 50 or 100 cigars. 

In addition to the commercial package described, there is a vast variety of pack- 
ages employed on special order. One of the most usual is the heavy, plain, round 
cornered, unvarnished cedar box, with delicate polished hinges and clasp, each layer 
of cigars separated from the other by a thin strip, also of unvarnished cedar, used 
for special packs of the very best selected goods. Large cedar cabinets, containing 
from 500 to as many as 15,000 cigars, are also turned out for special customers ; and 
even solid mahogany cabinets, with selected assorted sizes, have been turned out. 
These same assortments are frequently demanded in cedar cabinets, and smaller 
packings are turned out in cases made of Cuban hard woods. Lithographed tins 
lined with cedar veneer are also used considerably. The package, as can be seen, 
depends altogether on the whim and purse of the purchaser of the cigars. 

From the selecting and packing department the cigars in their boxes or cases 
now go to the banding department, where girls take them out and place around them 
the lithographed bands seen on all good cigars. After this is done they are returned 
carefully to their former containers, this work being so well done that no change in 
appearance can be detected. The packages then go to the final trimming departmenr, 
where they receive their outside labels and are closed. Here is fixed the Government 
label, the placing of which on all packages of Havana cigars for export is obligatory, 
this label being so placed on every package as to seal it and prevent replacement of 
the contents without the destruction of the label. 

From this department the smaller packages of cigars are now taken to the de- 
partment where they are gathered together to be boxed or otherwise prepared for 
shipping to their final destination. The usual package for this purpose is a strong 
wooden box, of such size as to hold exactly the number of smaller boxes or cases to 
be shipped. These large boxes are carefully closed, and then bound with metal strips 
or wire bands, in such manner as to be perfectly secure and protect their valuable 



22 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




]*>o.\ing for Sliipnient. 




Ready for Boxing. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 




Display Case of Cigars. 



contents, no matter how far distant may be the land where they will finally be 
consumed. 

Has the reader ever stopped in front of a cigar stand and carefully examined 
the various sizes, shapes and names of the cigars exposed for sale? If he has, and has 
done this at intervals, he will have observed a great variety and number of these. 
But he perhaps would be astonished did he know that in our large factories a very 
important department, where everything is most carefully card indexed, is that 
devoted to the records of names used by the various customers of the factory during 
tlieir long period of purchasing. From all over the globe have come requests from 
individuals asking that a certain shape and size of cigar be put up in a package and 
given a certain name. This request has been complied with when investigation in 
the files of the factory shows that that name has not yet been used for any customer. 
Thus it has happened that today thousands upon thousands of names have been given 
to the same cigar, so that a name now means nothing. In the same way the range 
of sizes is limited only by the caprice of the purchaser. In the matter of shapes, 
this is not so much the case, there being certain standards, such as "Coronas," "Per- 
fectos," "Bouquets," "Londres," "Brevas," etc., variations from which have often been 
made, though not with the same bewildering frequency as has been the case with 
names. 

That some of the most popular shapes have been the result of accidents is seen 



24 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




La Corona, Special Box. 



when the story of the beginning of the "Corona" form is known. It is said that a 
cigar-maker in one of the old Cul)an factories in ISir), when ligliting by lamp and 
candle only was in vogue, set his candle down on his bencli one evening. Happening 
to notice its form, tlie thought came to him that it would be a good shape to adopt 
for a cigar. He at once placed his idea into practice, resulting in the straight well- 
drawing cigar known by this name wherever high-grade cigars are consumed. 

Changing economic conditions have driven from the markets of today the cheaper 
sizes that formerly prevailed. The tremendous increase in the cost of the raw 
material, and the still greater increase in the cost of labor and workmanship, have 
today rendered impossible the production in our high-class factories of the class of 
cigar formerly obtainable for from $4.5 per thousand up. Today prices range from 
$80 per thousand to $400, not to mention even higher prices for fairly standard 
goods, and orders that will average less than $120 per thousand are not sought and 
cannot be filled with profit. The recent increase in duties levied on tobacco and 
cigars by various of the European countries, principally England, with its .50 per 
cent, ad valorem tax, and in prospect in the United States, at present tends to make 
everything connected with the cigar making industry in Cuba black in the extreme. 
So hard hit has been the industry that we are given to understand that by the end 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



25 




Cigarette Machine. 



of this month practically all operations by our larger factories will have ceased, 
save for a small demand for cigars from the Island itself. This demand increased 
very appreciably during the period of wild spending resulting from the high sugar 
prices of last spring and summer, but since the moratorium has gone into effect con- 
sumption of the same low-grade products formerly customary has been resumed. 
These are almost entirely manufactured by the smaller shops found everywhere 
throughout the Island. Prospects indicate that an extended period will intervene 
before the world conditions will be such as to allow our cigar industry to again 
assume its one-time importance, and during this period no one can guess what 
changes may be introduced due to the ever active propaganda against the use of 
tobacco that seems to be quietly but surely making its advances, and that some day, 
like that for the elimination of alcoholic drinks, gives promise of accomplishing its 
object. 

No mention has been made in this article of the cigarette industry in Cuba. It 
Is needless to say that this is important, and that the use of the cigarette is on the 
increase here as it seems to be the world over. This department of our cigar factories 
has relied much less upon exportation than have their cigar departments, but as the 
production of cigarettes is largely accomplished by means of machine work, its im- 
portance to the Island as an employer of labor is small in comparison. The cost of 
the raw material in this line has also greatly increased, raw materials formerly 
costing from $12.50 to $15 per 100 pounds today cost $50, so that profits have been 
considerably lessened, notwithstanding the increase in retail price per package from 
5 cents prevailing before the war to that of 8 cents now bejng received. Moreover, 
if the cigar industry slows down as indications now seem to predict, the cigarette 
industry cannot replace it in the consumption of the high-grade and high-cost tobaccos 
of Vuelta Abajo and Pai-tidos, and these districts will suffer severely and will prac- 
tically have to find some other product upon which to rely as their money crop. 



26 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CUBAN COMMERCIAL MATTERS 



ADVICE TO CUBAN SHIPPERS 
From receut weekly cables received 
from Consul General Hurst, Havana, 
which have been published in Commerce 
Reports, and from other sources of in- 
formation, it would appear that the ooii- 
irestion at Havana is being considerably 
rclie\ed by the energetic action of Col. 
•Manuel Despaigne, the newly appointed 
supervisor of the port. Tlu' wharves are 
being cleared of accumulated merchan- 
dise by moving it by trucks and other 
means of transportation to spaces ac- 
quire<l by the Government for use as 
temporary warehouses, and to privately 
bonded warehouses. The clearance of 
goods currently received is facilitated by 
permitting partial dispatch, clearance 
with guaranty rather than payment of 
custom duties, and by other means. A 
real and fairly succcsslnl I'tlVn-t is being 
iiijide to put into practice all of the rec- 
onnnendations of the Joint Cuban-Ameri- 
can Conniiission on ptu't congestion. 

However, there are a number of dif- 
ficulties still to be met. One of the most 
serious of these is the disposal of mer- 
chandise refused by the consignee and 
not removed by the shipper. If no action 
is taken l)y the consigntv, the goods will 
be removed to (Jovernment storage and 
held for about 10 days (the length of 
time depending on the kind of goods), 
after which it will be auctioned off, prob- 
ably at a low price. In considering this 
condition. American shippers must realize 
that no matter where the responsibility 
lies, they are apt to be put to great loss 
iniless they can make prompt ad.iu.stment. 
In some cases undoubtedly the only 
.iu.stifiable action is to refuse to take back 
the goods ;uid to initiate suit against iIk^ 
consignee. In other cases an ad.lTistnieiir 
can be reached by the two parties winch 
will lead to accei)tance of the merchan- 
dise by the consignee. . But in perhajis 
the greater nmnber of cases adjustment 
has been triefl without success and the 
shipper has let things drift without tak- 
ing stock of his interests. He would do 



well to consider whether it would not be 
(o his advantage to take back the goods 
and appoint an agent to dispose of them 
on the ground. Especially is this true if 
be is not certain of bis legal position or 
is unwilling to place the cas(> in the bands 
of the congested courts. 

The agent nuist be local so that he will 
have a thorough knowledge of the con- 
ditions, coupled with sufficient local 
standing and influence to secure prompt 
action. He may be able to reach a set- 
tlement with the consignee under the 
original contract or enter into a supple- 
mental agreement of a definite nature. 
Failing this, he will probably be able to 
sell the goods at a sum which may be 
lielow their real value but above the 
amount they would later bring at imhlic 
auction. 

The best way di' wurkinu \\\\< out pfac- 
tically will ditfei- with dilfcrent firms. 
Some already kimw of i-r|intable .\m»Mi- 
can houses which can act for them. 
Others can combine to send a repivsenta- 
tive to Havana to clionse a local agent. 
Still others can adojtt neither of these 
courses. If these latter will bring their 
problem to the attention of the Latin 
American Division of the Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Conunerce, Washing- 
ton, D. C. an efl'ort will be made to se- 
cure from the consulate general's office 
in Havana the name and address of h 
reliable Americiui luMise which will a<t 
as agent. 



EXPORTS FROM NUEVITAS TO THE 
UNITED STATES 
Sugar is the principal item of export 
from Xuevitas. Cuba, to tb(> FnitiMl 
States: 8SS,S71,5G0 jiounds. valued at $07,- 
0(i:;.24(t, were shipped during the past 
year, as compared with 502,29S.n04 
pounds, valued at .$35,538,10(5 in 1010. 
This accounts for the increase from %'i'i.- 
771.780 in 1010 to $08,207,055 in 1020 in 
the total declared exports from that con- 
sular district to the United States. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



27 



FOUR PER CENT COMMERCIAL TAX 

The Cuban Government, in a decree 
dated. September 30, published on October 
26, gives tlie following detailed informa- 
tion regarding the incidence of the 4 per 
cent, commercial tax. The substance of 
the legislation referred to is : 

(1) All business concerns domiciled in 
Cuba will pay 4 per cent, of their profits 
if their capital exceeds $10,000 or if their 
profits are $2,000, and also foreign busi- 
ness concerns if the capital employed or 
profits eariied in Cuba come within those 
limits. 

(2) Net profits are defined as the bal- 
ance resulting after deducting all expenses 
from receipts. 

In expenses may be included municipal 
and provincial taxes, but not amounts 
paid to the State in respect of this tax 
for the preceding year, nor amounts 
placed to reserve funds. The salaries of 
directors, managers, and partners are in- 
cluded in profits, as are also any other 
gain produced by the concern or its par- 
ticipation in other companies, even though 
these may pay taxes to the State (e. g., 
stock exchange operations). 

(3) This tax is leviable on all busi- 
ness concerns, which do not pay other 
specifically decreed taxes, and its collec- 
tion will commence on January 1, 1921, 
general and private firms trading accord- 
ing to article 5 of the decree of July 1 
being liable from January 1, 1921, and 
mercantile associations from July 1, 1920. 

(4) Transference of or cessation from 
business must be notified to the Govern- 
ment within 10 days. 

(5) Balance sheets, supported by state- 
ments of debit and credit balances and a 
detailed statement of all expenses, must 
be presented every six months and also 
annually, and assessments of the amount 
payable will be made 30 days after such 
presentation, appeals from such assess- 
ments being permitted to the Treasury 
and therefore to litigation. 

Failure to produce such balance sheets 
(or. other documents required by the Gov- 



ernment) will involve assessment on the 
basis of the previous year, the State re- 
serving the right to amend such assess- 
ment at the expense of the defaulter. 



TRADE WITH CANADA 
Figures showing the Canadian import 
and export trade with Cuba for 1919, as 
compared with 1918 and 1913, are ap- 
pended in the following table : 
Imports from Cuba 
1913 191S 1919 

$4,306,817 $2,034,654 $12,565,712 
Exports to Cuba 
1913 1918 1919 

$1,850,468 $4,879,779 $5,042,675 



EXPORTS OF SHOES TO CUBA 
Cuba was the chief importer of shoes 
from the United States during November, 
being credited with 669,108 pairs, valued 
at $2,646,396. Cuba took 277,605 pairs of 
women's shoes, valued at $578,081 ; 287,- 
432 pairs of children's, valued at $1,740,- 
390, and 104,071 pairs of men's, valued at 
$327,925, from this coimtry. 



NORWEGIAN PAVING BLOCKS FOR 
CUBA 

Consul Frank Bohr reports that a Nor- 
wegian schooner arrived at Cienfuegos, 
Cuba, late in December, bringing some 
250,000 granite paving blocks from Fred- 
erickstaad, Norway, which are intended 
for use in Santa Clara. 



NEW CORPORATION 
The Colorados Cane Corporation has 
been organized, with a capitalization of 
$5,000,000, for the production of cane and 
the operation of mills in the Holguin dis- 
trict of the Province of Oriente. The 
Bank of Oriente has also been formed by 
the same promoters, with a capitalization 
of $500,000. 



NEW COAL COMPANY 
The Cuban International Coal Company 
has been organized with a capital of 
$1,000,000 for the importation and dis- 
tribution of coal. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



IMPORTATION OF LEATHER AND SHOES INTO CUBA 



The value of leather iiuriorts into Cuha, as published ollicially by the Secretary 
of the Cuban Treasury, amounted during the fiscal year 1918-19 to $14,703,773. For 
purposes of comparison the following table giving the value of leather imports botti 
manufactured and unmanufactured for live fiscal years is of importance: 

Year Hides and Skins Manufactures 

1014-ir. $756,818 $5,532,295 

1915-1(; 1,113,848 7,072,899 

19](i-17 1,207,958 8,250,171 

1917-18 2,423,018 - 10,020,581 

1918-19 2,396,202 12,307,511 

The countries of origin of these imports are given below: 

Countries of Origin Hides and Skins Manufactures 

United States $2,313,186 $11,499,465 

Other American countries 4,626 858 

Spain 64,023 694,580 

France 8,230 24,689 

Great Britain 6,177 26.132 

Other European coiMiti-it's 2,112 

All other countries 20 59,675 

Total $2,396,262 $12,307,511 

The leading classes of Cuban leather imports, and also the imports of shoes, with 
countries of origin and quantities and values during the fiscal years 1917-18 and 
1918-19, are shown in the following table: 

1917-18 1918-19 

Article and Countries of Origin Quantity Value Quantity Value 

Tanned hides and skins : Kilos Kilos 

United States 983,759 $1,639,777 938,965 $1,673,935 

British Antilles 37 44 

Colombia 180 152 

Ecuador 31,367 15,248 

Haiti 316 112 

Mexico 33,667 29,085 641 659 

Santo Domingo 1,237 1,180 429 405 

Spain is.43r, 31,622 22,482 50,110 

France 14 138 11 153 

Great Britain 32 289 302 1,995 

Total 1,068,827 $1,717,451 903.047 $1,727,453 

Dried hides an<l sldns: 

United States 30..541 $2<i,8;^9 

Fine skins : 

United States 80,323 $205,440 00,059 $205,288 

Mexico 1.127 3,058 032 2,341 

Porto Rico 308 244 

Spain 10.580 18,665 .... 

France 1,409 5,635 149 1,449 

Great Britain 128 1,017 330 3,013 

Total 99,567 $233,821 68.084 $212,335 

Cut skins : 

United States 20.142 $23,409 17,236 $37,795 

Spain 26 420 126 537 



THECUBAREVIEW 29 



France 2,309 7,262 1.040 6,628 

Great Britain 78 124 22 904 

Total 22,555 $31,275 18,424 $45,864 

Boots and shoes for men: Pairs Pairs 

United States 1,218,163 $3,615,852 1,394,341 $5,214,124 

Canada 14 83 

Mexico 112 192 

Spain 121,197 284,250 66,378 152,726 

France 72 92 66 215 

Great Britain .... .... 2 38 

China 316 206 328 124 

Japan 514 232 1,750 429 

Total 1,340,374 $3,900,824 1,462,879 $5,367,739 

Boots and shoes for women : 

United States 2,265,718 $3,568,626 2,070,434 $4,060,399 

Mexico 179 403 

Venezuela 180 78 

Spain 133,169 182,217 75,684 94,565 

France 238 1,693 

Japan ._ 430 111 542 182 

Total 2,399,914 $3,753,128 2,152,660 $4,164,146 

Boots and shoes for children : 

United States 1,845,720 $1,658,735 1,278,784 $1,337,934 

Spain 56,399 24,909 26,194 10,807 

France 84 35 

China 90 52 

Total 1,902,203 $1,683,679 1,305,068 $1,348,793 

Riding boots : 

United States 52 $403 76 $807 

Alpargatas : Dozens Dozens 

United States 26,971 $39,129 302 $533 

Colombia 15 76 

Spain 295,254 433,986 191,676 371,310 

China 32,266 38,211 

Japan 75 89 3,649 4,359 

Total 322,315 $473,230 227,893 $414,413 

— Consul General Carlton Bailey Hurst, Havana. 



FUEL STOCKS AND FUELING FACILITIES the Cuban Central Railway pier. 

AT CIENFUEGOS Cienfuegos reported at the end of 1920 
At the Port of Cienfuegos, Cuba, there 200,000 barrels (of 42 gallons each) of 
was a stock of coal on hand on December fuel oil on hand. Fuel has been avail- 
31, 1920, of 5,000 tons, points of replen- able at this port for only about a year, 
ishment being Newport News, Norfolk, and much of the oil imported has been 
and Philadelphia. Under normal condi- on contract with sugar estates, railways, 
tions, and for ordinary quantities, no ad- and local consumers. As to methods of 
vance notice is required for bunker coal, delivery one of the Mexican companies 
The supplies are kept in barges anchored has a 12-inch pipe line on the Cuban Cen- 
in the Bay of Cienfuegos and also de- tral Railway pier with 6-inch side con- 
posited on shore. From the barges ships nections to supply oil to vessels at any of 
could be bunkered direct, or by means of the berths along the pier. The price 
lighters, and from the shore, supplies by quoted on the last day of 1920 was $3 to 
lighters or by means of freight cars on $3.25 per barrel. 



30 T H E C U H A U i: \- 1 K W 



CUBAN FINANCIAL MATTERS 



THE PREVAILING PRICES FOR CUBAN SECURITIES 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York. 

Hid Asked 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds Yq 75 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1044 yg gQ 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 ^g Yg 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 4^/^ % Bonds of 1949 64 gg 

Havana City First Mortgage 6% Bonds g5 95 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6% Bonds g3 90 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stocli 30 50 

Cuba Railroad Co. First Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 gg 72 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 70 75 

Cuba Company G% Cumulative Preferred Stork 70 80 

Havana Electric Ily. Co. Consolidated Mortgage 5% Bonds 71 73 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock 85 — 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Common Stock 75 — 

Cuban- American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 9i}4 95 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Common Stock 29 — 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock 13 14^ 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

The earnings of the Cuba Railroad for the month of November and for the five months 
ended November 30th compare as follows : 

1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

November gross $1,087,457 $1,022,351 $472,391 $646,825 $501,174 $.387,173 

Expenses 1,401,750 801,196 505,045 544,544. 421,616 241,406 

November net 314,293 221,155 32,653 102,281 79,557 145,767 

Other income 75,316 12,806 13,645 1,448 673 

Netincome 238,976 233,961 19,008 103,730 80,231 145,767 

Fixed charges 108,690 103,113 95,012 93,483 95,216 78,262 

Other interest charges . . 19, 799 

December surplus 347,666 130,847 133,820 10,246 14,985 67,505 

From July ist : 

Five months gross $5,517,674 $5,163,957 $4,194,252 $3,508,429 $2,657,773 $2,026,929 

Five months net 836,784 1,236,792 896,572 773,556 930,956 864,203 

Other income 148,128 46,610 63,884 6,617 4,153 

Fixed charges 572,564 499,784 474,403 469;403 443,840 366,569 

Other interest charges . . 4,069 59,624 

Five months surplus $1,265,289 $783,619 $426,428 $310,906 $491,269 $497,634 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS. 

V{/eekly Receipts : 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 

Week ending Jan. 1 ;^23,823 /32,594 ;^19,209 /17,906 /16,106 ;^15,896 

Week ending Jan. 8 30,532 37,708 23,081 23,558 19,802 21,373 

Week ending Jan. 15 27,696 39,777 25,063 28,120 25,521 23,562 

Week ending Jan. 22 28,585 43,066 29,256 27,600 25,975 26,134 



THE CUBA REVIEW 31 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO. 

Month of November : 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 

Gross earnings $1,037,352 $879,741 $690,704 $643,403 $517,627 $481,315- 

Operating expenses 575,679 399,802 332,865 284,492 194,101 178,828 

Net earnings 461,673 479,939 357,839 358,911 323,526 302,487 

Miscellaneous income 2,595 6,163 5,220 9,961 16,676 32,704 

Total net income 459,078 486,102 363,059 368,872 340,202 335,191 

Surplus after deduct.fixed chgs. 257,204 307,839 179,605 218,532 206,385 227,442 

II Months to November joth : 

Gross earnings $10,366,708 8,476,209 7,466,653 6,315,811 5,457,438 5,053,635 

Operating expenses 5,426,153 4,131,849 3,439,731 2,751,646 2,083,932 2,051,487 

Net earnings 4,940,555 4,344,359 4,026,923 3,564,165 3,373,506 3,002,148 

MisceUaneous income 86,986 92,663 120,024 128,320 127,620 124,705 

Total net income $5,027,541 $4,437,022 $4,146,947 $3,692,485 $3,501,126 $3,126,853 

Surplus after deduct, fixed chgs.$2,959,558 $2,397,248 $2,314,077 $1,994,373 $2,080,108 $1,934,769- 



EARNINGS OF THE CAMAGUEY AND NUE VITAS RAILROAD. 

Month of November : 1920-21 1919-20 

Gross earnings $156,946 $87,859' 

Operating expenses 152,471 71,696 

Net earnings 4,475 16,162 

Other income 1,938 

Net income 6,414 16,162 

Surplus for Month 6,414 16,162 

Gross earnings from July 1 $693,195 $675,281 

Neteammgs " " 41,030 260,402 

Other mcome " " 2,394 

Surplus $38,636 $260,402 



EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Weekly Receipts: 1920-21 1919-20 

Week ending Dec- 18 /14,415 /10,334 

Week endmg Dec. 25 15,375 12,221 

Week ending Jan. 1 14,508 11,727 

Week ending Jan. 8 15,241 11,795 



EARNINGS OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA. 

Weekly Receipts : 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 

Week ending Dec. 25 ;^65,155 /72,493 /60,338 ;^54,965 ^40,885 ^40,742 

Week ending Jan. 1 62,548 76,074 60,210 56,416 44,987 50,780 

Week ending Jan. 8 68,520 87,087 72,303 66,306 52,145 55,487 

Week ending Jan. 15 85,689 87,762 45,896 77,401 54,824 55,475 



32 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



SUGAR EXPORTS FROM CUBA TO UNITED STATES 



The increased price of sugar accountiHl for tlie large increases in the value of 
the declared exports from Cuba to the United States during the past year, as com- 
pared with 1919. The total exports and the exports of sugar from the various consular 
districts in that country during 1919 and 1920 are shown in the following table : 

1919 1020 

Items Pounds ^'aluc Pounds ^'(l^un 

From Antilla : 

Sugar 635,663,050 $37,345,087 585,108,839 f78,4f)n,816 

All other articles 1,478,444 2,506,106 



Total 



$38,823,531 



$81,005,922 



From Cienf uegos : 

Sugar ; 589,617,280 $35,172,742 322,524,800 $39,470,078 

All other articles 1.528,273 1,.">27,108 



Total 



$36,701,015 



$40,997,186 



From Caibarien : 

Sugar 416.243,525 $22,.-.09.079 389,04.3,8.50 $44,798,841 

All other articles 84.782 70,066 



Total 



$22,593,861 



$44,868,907 



From Sagua la Oraiide 

Sugar 

All other articles 



Total 



4(;4.:U>0,(l2;t .'S2.").1(I7,S44 447,:'.01.20(> .$.50,420,446 
2(J8,083 454,654 



$25,375,927 



$50,875,100 



EUROPEAN SUGAR PROSPECTS 
To quote from the Stock Exchange 
■Gazette (London) : 

In the beet countries of Europe there 
Is every probability of increasing yields 
of sugar, but respecting cane sugar there 
Is more imcertainty. German raw sugar 
factories are fully occupied, and the qual- 
ity of the harvested beet is stated to be, 
on average, better than last year. A 
yield of 22 to 23 million hundredweight 
of sugar appears certain — an increase of 
^ to 7 millions over 1010. This yield, 
however, will not obviate the necessity of 
Germany continuiiii: to import sugar for 
Its own needs. 

In Australia also there is prospect of a 
good harvest, but here, again, domestic 
requirements will not be satisfied with- 
out imports. In Czcchnslovakia the har- 
vest is estimated to reach 17 tn 18 million 
hundredweight, a result which will per- 
mit between and 10 millions being ex- 
ported ; it is stated that contracts for 



the sale are now being made. In Jugo- 
slavia the Government has established a 
monopoly for financial reasons and be- 
cause of insufficient home production. 
Hungary anticipates an improved crop, 
which, however, will not obviate the 
necessity of imports. 

Poland should have 1 to 2 million hun- 
dredweight for export. In Scandinavian 
countries a sufficiency for domestic con- 
sumption is expected, but no surplus, and 
the same conditions apply to Holland and 
Belgium. The production of France is 
estimated to reach 6 million hundred- 
weight, against 3% millions last year; 
France, however, requires 18 million hun- 
dredweight anniinlly. Italy and Spain 
will iiroduce enough for their needs. 

In England large contracts for cane 
sugar liave been made, there has been a 
reductiiiii in in'icc, the retail sale of Gov- 
ernment sugar has lieen extended, free 
sugar is allowed an open market, and 
control will iii-nbiil>ly cease nt an early 
date. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 33 

SUGAR REVIEW 

specially written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, New York, N. Y. 



The lack of demand for refined sugar in the United States has continued to have 
a depressing effect on the raw sugar situation and quotations for the latter have de- 
clined until at this writing they are established at the basis of 3 % c c. & f., at which 
level buyers are showing a little more interest. 

Quotations for cane granulated sugar are on the seaboard basis of T^^c less 2 
per cent., although there is considerable competition among the refiners for the small 
business obtainable, and while some refiners are consigning sugars to many sections 
where it has been unusual in the past to do so, other refiners offset this by guarantee- 
ing prices against decline up to the arrival of the sugar at ultimate destination. In 
central territory there has been considerable competition between cane and beet 
sugars and a series of rapid declines have resulted until cane sugars are now on the 
basis of 7.45e, with best granulated on the basis of 7.40c in territory east of Chicago 
and 7.35c in territory west of Chicago, instead of the usual 10 and 20 point differen- 
tials respectively below cane sugars. 

Since our last report we have issued our figures on the United States consumption 
of sugar. 

The consumption of Continental United States for the calendar year 1920 was 
4,084,672 tons refined or consumption value. This is an increase over the consumption 
in 1919 of 17,001 tons or 0.418 per cent., against an average increase in consumption 
of 5.263 per cent, for 98 years. The per capita consumption in 1920 was 86.56 pounds. 

The year 1920 was the most remarkable and historic in the sugar trade. The 
year started off with very small or practically no invisible stocks and with the 
cessation by the Government of the control of sugar prices, all consumers, from the 
housewife to the jobber and manufacturer, started in to protect themselves with a 
supply of sugar and the very large imports of sugar together with the rise in prices 
and heavy speculation during the first part of the year gave most people the idea 
that there would be an immense increase in the United States consumption for 1920. 
The so-called shortages were in many cases not shortages in relation to previous 
normal supplies, but shortages only in relation to abnormal demand. However, after 
the peak of raw sugar prices was reached May 19th the ensuing decline was carried 
to such an extent that the public drew on their own Invisible stocks instead of taking 
on more new sugar and for this reason the production of Continental United States, 
both beet and Louisiana cane, coming as they do at the end of the calendar year, 
suffered most, and this accounts for the small amounts of their sugars consumed. 

The operations of the Atlantic Ports refiners show an increase as compared with 
their outturn of last year, both considered as to the amount of their product con- 
sumed in this country and also the aggregate of their operations, including the 
exports, even though the exports of this year were less than last year. The con- 
sumption through New Orleans is also increased. This was caused to a great extent 
by the large amount of sugars which were imported through that port and which 
went into consumption in the raw or plantation state. Savannah and Galveston 
figures are also largely in excess of those of the previous year, as was also the con- 
sumption through the Port of San Francisco. It must be remarked in passing that 
through all these principal ports of entry, due to the high prices and delays in refiners' 
deliveries, there were imported large quantities of white or other raw sugars which 
found their way into direct consumption. This will be evidenced when the net figures 
for this class of sugar are taken into consideration, the amount this year being 
609,902 tons, against 167,727 tons in 1919. 

We have already noted above the small consumption of the United States beet 



34 T HE CUBA 11 E \' 1 E W 



and Louisiana cane sugars tliis year, the lij:urt>s of wliich being only about lialf of 
those of last year's nuay appear extraordinarily low at lirst glance, but it nuist be 
remembered tliat the carry-over of both these crops on the tirst of January, 1920, was 
very small, while just the reverse obtains on the first of January, 1921. 

The Virgin Islands, Porto Rico and the Philippines all showed sizeable increases, 
but because of the smallness of the consumption of sugar produced in Continental 
Uniti'd States, the total of 1,390,954 tons covering sugar grown in Continental I'nited 
Stati's or its Insular Possessions is considerably sniallfr than last year's figure of 
1,942,SS2 tons. 

Cuba held its proportionate increase even in the face of the large carry-over of 
1920 old crop sugars remaining in the Island at the end of the year. Of course, the 
item of largest increase, as every one would expect, was in the figure of full duty 
sugars which were consumed. This amount increased almost ten-fold over the 
previous year. The figure 554,019 tons consumed must not be confuseil by our read- 
ers with the total amount of full duty sugars imported, which latter, of course, was 
very much larger than the figure .iust mentioned. 

In Cuba 142 centrals are grinding new crop sugars against 1S3 last year. The 
lateness of the crop and its delinquency in the matter of production is shown by the 
visible production to date w^iich amounts to only 140,(MX) tons against 5G0,(mX) tons 
last year. It is usually the case when the crop makes a late start that the shortage 
caused thereby can never be entirely made up and it would seem as if the small 
production so far will sooner or later be felt, although at the present time because 
of chaotic conditions prevailing in the sugar industry in this country the matter of 
Cuban production is not a determining factor. The moratorium continues in effect, 
but according to reports received here, the financial and political conditions are 
slowly progressing towards the desired results. Our Cuban correspondents, Messrs. 
Guma-Mejer, have issued an estimate for 1920-1921 of 3,993,142 tons against Mr. 
Himely's estimate of 4,051,000 tons, but both estimates are subject to a satisfactory 
adjustment of the uncertain state of affairs now prevailing. 

We have slightly revised our estimate of the United States domestic beet crop 
now drawing to a close, placing the figure at 935,000 tons against 9.50,0<t0 tons previ- 
oiisly estimated. The beet crop in Canada also shows promise of a smaller yield and 
we have revised that figure to 30,000 tons. 

Our monthly cable from Java reporting exports during December is very interest- 
ing, showing as it does only 3,000 tons shipped to the West and which may be destined 
either to European or Unitetl States Atlantic ports, witli f¥),000 tons shipped to the 
Far East. 

New York, X. V., .Iniiuary 27, 1921. 



REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita especialmente para la CUBA REVIEW por U'illctt & Gray, de Nueva York. 



La poca demanda por el azucar refinado en los Estados Unidos ha continuado 
ejerciendo un efecto desanimador en la situacion del azucar crude, y las cotizaciones 
por este ultimo han bajado, hasta que al escribir esta revista se han establecido bajo 
la base de 3%c costo y flete, a cuyo precio los compradores muestran un poco mas 
de interes. 

Las cotizaciones por el azticar de cana granulado son bajo la base de IVzC menos 
2% en el literal de la costa, aunque hay mucha competencia entre los refinadores por 
las pequenas transacciones obtenibles, y mientras que algunos refinadores est5,n 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



consignando azticares a muclios pimtos del pais donde no ha sido usual hacerlo asl 
en el pasado, otros refinadores compensan esto garantizando precios contra la 
baja hasta la llegada del azticar a su ultimo punto de destinacion. En el territorio 
central lia habldo muclia competencia entre los azticares de cana y de remolaclia, 
dando por resultado una serie de bajas rapidas, liasta que los azticares de cana se 
cotizan aliora bajo la base de T.45c, con el azticar de remolaclia granulado bajo la 
base de 7.40c en el territorio al este de Chicago y 7.35c al oeste de Chicago en vez 
de los 10 y 20 puntos acostumbrados de diferencia respectivamente por bajo los 
azticares de cana. 

Desde nuestra tiltima revista hemos expedido nuestras cifras sobre el consumo 
de azticar en los Estados Unidos. 

El consuuio de azucar en los Estados Unidos durante el ano 1920 fue de 4,0S4:,6T2 
toneladas de azticar refinado. Esto es un aumento de 17,001 toneladas 6 0.41S por 
ciento sobre el cousumo en 1919, contra im aumento por termiuo medio de 5.263 
por ciento en el consume durante 9S anos. El consumo por persona en 1920 fue de 
86.56 libras. 

El ano 1920 ha sido el mas notable e historico en el comercio de azticar. El 
ano empezo con existencias inuy pequenas 6 verdaderamente no visibles, y con la 
terminaciou por el Gobierno de la administracion de los precios del azticar todos los 
consumidores, desde las familias hasta el comerciante al por mayor y el fabricante, 
empezaron a protegerse adquiriendo cantidades de azticar, y las grandes importa- 
ciones de azticar jimto con el alza en los precios y la grande especulacion durante 
el primer periodo del ano hizo que la mayor parte -de los consumidores se formaran 
la idea de que iba a liaber uu iumenso aumento en el consumo en los Estados Unidos 
en 1920. La asi llamada escasez no era escasez en muchos casos en relacion a las 
existencias normales en otras ocasiones, sino escasez solamente en relacion a la 
demanda anormal. Sin embargo, despties que se hubo llegado al punto mas alto de 
los precios del azticar crudo el 19 de mayo, la baja que siguio llego a tal extreme 
que el ptiblico hizo uso de sus propias existencias invisibles en vez de volver a 
adquirir mas azticar, y por este motive la produccion en los Estados Unidos, tanto 
del azticar de remolacha come de cana de la Luisiana, que llegan al mercado al final 
del ano, fue la que mas se perjudico, y esto es la causa de las pequenas cantidades 
de azticar que se consumieron. 

Las operacienes de los refinadores de los puertos del Atlaiitice muestran un 
aumento cemparado con su rendimiento del ano pasado, ambos censiderados respecto 
a la cantidad de su producto consumido en este pais asi como el conjunto de sus 
operacienes induyendo las exportaciones, aunque las expertaciones de este ano fueran 
meneres que las del ano pasado. El consume en Nueva Orleans ha aumentado tam- 
bien. Esto fue causade en gran parte por la grande cantidad de azticar importada 
per ese puerte y que fueron al consumo en estado crudo o desde los iugenies. Las 
cifras de Savannah y Galveston son tambien grandemente en excese de las del ano 
anterior, asi come el consumo de azticares per el puerto de San Francisco de Cali- 
fornia. Debe hacerse notar al hacer esta relacion que por todos estes puertos prin- 
cipales de entrada, debide a los altos precios y a las demoras en las entregas de las 
reflnerias, se importaron grandes cantidades de azticares blancos 6 de otros azticares 
crudes que se destinaron para el consumo directo. Esto sera evidente cuande las 
cifras netas por esta clase de azticares se temen en consideracion, la cantidad este 
ano siendo 609,902 toneladas, contra 167,727 toneladas en 1919. 

Ta hemes indicade anteriermente el pequene consumo este ano en azticar de 
remolacha de los Estados Unidos y de azticar de cana de la Luisiana, cuyas cifras, 
siendo solamente como una mitad de las del ano pasado, podran parecer extraordi- 
nariamente bajas a primera vista, pero debe tenerse en cuenta que el sobrante de 
estas dos cesechas el primero de enero de 1920 fue muy pequefio, mientras que sucede 
lo centrarie el primero de enero de 1921. 



3G T HE CUBA II E V 1 E W 

Las Islas VIrgenes, Puerto Rico y las Filiitinas todas luostraron auinento en la 
cantidad, pero a causa del poquefio consunio de a/.ucar itr<»ducido en los Estados 
Uiiidos, el total de 1,396,954 toneladas comprendiendo el azdcar producido eii los 
Estados Unidos o en sus posesiones es muclio luenor que las dfras de 1,942,882 
toneladas del ano pasado. 

Cuba retuvo su auuiento proporcional aim a pesar del jrrande sobrante de a/.<i- 
cares de la pasada zafra de 1920 que pernianeciS, en la Isla al fin de ano. Tor 
supuesto, el detalle del mayor aumento, como era de espei'arse, consistfa en las citras 
de azucares con todos los derechos que fueron consumidos. Esta cantidad amncntd 
casi en diez veces mS,s sobre la del ano pasado. La <iri;i de .'r.j,<il'.i toneladas de 
aziicar consumido no debe ser confundida por nuesiids hMtoics cun el total de la 
cantidad de azucar con todos los derechos que fue impcirtadn, sicndo esto, por su- 
questo, mucho mayor que la cifra acabada de mencionar. 

En Cuba hay 142 centrales dedicados a la molienda de azuciir de la mieva zafra, 
contra 1.s:3 el ario pasado. El atraso de la zafra y su falta en el asuntu de producci6n 
se nuiestra por la visible produccion hasta la t'edia. y (pie solo asciende a 14^>,000 
toneladas contra oOOjOUO toin>ladas el aiio pasado. Sucede freneralmente cuando la 
zafra enipieza tarde que la escasez ocasionada con .tal motive munca puede re- 
cuperarse enteramente, y parece que la pequeiia producci6n hasta ahora se dejarfi 
sentir mfis tarde o mas temprano. aunque al presente. a causa del estado tan anormal 
que rige en la industria del azucar en este pals, la cuestion de la producci6n de 
azticar en Cuba no es un factor determinante. El moratorio continda en efecto, 
pero segiin informes recibidos a(iul. el estado financiei-o y politico va lentamente 
progresando hacia los result ados deseados. Nuestros corresponsales en Cuba, los 
Sres. Guma-:Me.ier, ban expedido un calculo para 1920-1921 de 3,993,142 toneladas, 
contra el calculo de Mr. Ilimely de 4,051,000 toneladas, pero arabos calculos est5,n 
sujetos a un arreglo satisfactorio acerca del estado tan incierto que rige ahora en 
los negocios. 

Hemes revisado algo nuestro calculo de la cosecha de remolacha en los Estados 
Unidos y que esta para terminar. dando la cifra de 935,000 toneladas contra 950,000 
toneladas calculadas previamente. La cosecha de remolacha en el Canada tambi^n 
muestra indicios de monor rendimiento y hemos revisado ese calculo en 30,000 tone- 
ladas. 

Las noticias que hemos recibido por cable desde Java acerca de las exportaciones 
de azticar durante diciembre son muy interesantes, al mostrar que solamente se 
embarcaron 3,000 toneladas de azucar al Oeste y que pueden ser destinadas a puertos 
de Europa o a puertos del Atlantico en los Estados Unidos, con 90,(mX» toneladas era- 
barcadas al lejano Oriente. 

Nueva York, enero 27 de 1921. 



JAVA SUGAR CROP FOR 1920 1^'1^»- »J"t a decrease compared with the 

^^ ,. , ^ ^ , • , , +■ mon ^f output of 1918, which amounted to 28,- 

The estunated total yield tor 1920 of _ ^ . , 



Java sugar is given in the Dutch East 
Indian Archipelago as 24,631,000 piculs 
(picul equals 136 pounds in the Dutch 
East Indies). Of this amount 22,206,000 
piculs are credited to mills now combined 
in the Java Sugar Association, which, by 
the end of August, had produced 15,500,- 
000 piculs. The yield for 1920 represents 
an increase over the 21,683,000 piculs of 



714,000 piculs. 



CARLOS M. VARONA 



MERCADERES No. 5 
HAVANA. CUBA 



THE CUBA REVIEW 37 

Cable "Tumure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK— 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of 
Collection and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public 
and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection 
of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and 
Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, 
Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 

HAVANA : N. Gelats & Co. PARIS : Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO : Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 

LONDON : The London Joint City & Midland Bank Ltd. 

( Banco Urquijo, Madrid 

SPAIN : \ Banco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

' Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

Showing the location of all the active sugar plantations in Cuba 
and giving other data concerning the sugar industry of Cuba. 

Size 29^ X 24. Copyrighted 1918. 

Price 50 cents postpaid. 

THE CUBA REVIEW 

82 Beaver St., New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS and MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 
Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

A. KLING, Prop. MORTT F Al A STEAMSHIP WORK 

JAS. S. BOGUE, Supt. IVlV-fDILii:., ^\LiJ^, f^ SPCCIALTY 

Telephone, 33 Hamilton. Night Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address : "Abiworks " New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Makers & Manufacturers. Sfeamsiiip Repairs In all Branches. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
Installation, Oil Fuel Installation, Carpenter and Joiner Work. 

18-20 Summit Street— 1 1 -27 Imlay Street Near Hamilton Ferry BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Asents for " Kinshorn " Multiplex Valve 

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38 



THE CUBA li E \- I E W 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Cana Neto 

Sistema nueva patentada por 
Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 
constructor de trasbordadores superiores 

Funciona por motor, levantando. pesando, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cana por un hombre y 
iniprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo " La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



Subscription - $3.00 Per Year 



Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



1*^1 J^y*^Q — Ofrecenios sujeta.s a 
^-'***'-*^* ^** venta prior las sie:- 



iiienles caUki'as de uso : 



10--B & W 275 H. P. 

125 lbs. Presion 

12--Sotter Bros. 140 H. P. 

de retorno tubular— -90 lbs. Presion 

CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE 

National Sugar Refining Co. of N. J. 

YONKERS, N. Y. U. S. A. . 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836. AT 105 WALL ST. 

Cable Address, " Tide, New York " 



BANK OF CUBA IN NEW YORK 

34 Wall St., New York 

Associate Bank of National Bank of Cuba 

(ieneral l)aiikin,<i l)usiness transacted 
with special facilities for handling 
Cuban items through the National 
Bank of Cuba and its 92 branches 
and agencies. 

We are especially interested in dis- 
counting Cuban acceptances. 

Current Interest Rates Paid on Deposit Accounts 
subject to check. 

Loans, Discounts, Collections and Letters of 
Credit will receive our best attention. 

\V. A. MERCHANT President 

J. T. MONAHAxV Vice-President 

CHAS. F. PLARRE Cashier 

L. G. JONES Asst. Cashier 

]. W. ALBAUGH Asst. Cashier 

Se habia Espanol 



Established 1876 



N. GELATS & COMPANY 

Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 
HAVANA 



WA NTE D!! 

Back volumes of "The International 
Sugar Journal" for the years 1896- 
1901- 1 904- 1 905- 1908- 19 1 1 ; •■ Louis- 
iana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer" 
from July 1889 to June 1918 ; "Cuba 
Review" from January 1903 to July 
1919 ; and "Sugar" from January 
1899 to October 1919. 

Those willing to sell should correspond 

with the Secretary. Sugar Bureau, 

PUSA, BIHAR, INDIA. 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



THE 



Cru$f Company of €uba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL ■ 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$900,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsby President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgfood Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Whitner Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts. 



»6 



%9 



WATERPROar 
. BELTING' 
JSWATERP^ 

6ARANT1ZAM0S QUE ESTA \^\{!,l 
CORREA ES PERFECTA .\X, ' 
POR SU CALIDAD Y *«- " 

PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUE8A 
VUELVE- 

GERENTE P.N.PIEDRA.- 
4-^rA CABL£"PENICOP£" f. 





JmCHMANMSCO/^ 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 

il6 - IS REA^EST. -~J?g>^- - NEW YORK .M.Y. 



Our established relations with manufac- 
turers and large volume of business, 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes of 



RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda — Bicarbonate - Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid— Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases — Waxes 

Gums — Glues — Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filtering Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences Herbs— Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 



We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you are 
next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 
140 Liberty St., New York 

2 & 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cienfuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives : 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R 



The Royal Bank «• Canada 

Fundado en 1869 

Capital Pagado ----- $15,000,000 
Fondo de Reserva - - - - 15,OOO.OOo 
Activo Total ------ 420,000,000 

QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SUCURSALES 

VEINTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONDRES : 2 Bank Buildings, Princes Street 

NEW YORK : 68 William Street 

BARCELONA : Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Be expiden CARTAS DE CREDITO 
para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS ESTERLI- 
NAS y PESETAS, valederas sin descuentoalguno. 

En el DEPART AMENTO DE AHORROS se 
admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO PESOS 
en adelante. 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana : Obrapia 33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozarena F. W. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F. J. Beatty 



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40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. II 
PM 


No. 1 
PM 


No. 7 No.lSNo. 6 No. 15 No. 3 
PM P M PM AVI AM 


No. 9 

AM 


Z 


HAVANA N <)-2 No 8 No.20 
AM AM AM 


No. 6 No. 16 No. 4No. ION0. 12 
PM PM PM 1 PM j AM 


• 

10.35 


10.30 
AM 
IJ.41 


9.30 4.01 1. 01 
"■43 6-35 3 '2 

4.00 8. so 6.13 
PM 


1 1. 51 8.20 

2.25 10 12 
PM 
12.50 

in 


6 30 

8.52 
1250 
3-35 
730 

4.30 
PM 


58 
109 

179 
230 
180 
195 
241 
276 
340 
5-0 
538 


Lv. Ar 

Central Station 6 23 7.50 

Ar. Lv. 

. . Matanzas . . 4>o 5 26 

AM 
...Cardenas 12.05 

.Sagua ; 11. ss 


9.50 

705 

500 
AM 


316 

1.02 
PM 
930 

6.25 


1 
6.01 7.18 9.30 

3.15 5.06 6.59 
PM 
1-40 3.50 

•1-55 II. ^^ 


• 
6.30 






9 15 
AM 






730 

4.30 
PM 


. ..Caibarien. . . 

.Santa Clara., ii.oo 


800 

PM 


8 00 


8.00 






6.00 








7.40 








AM 




1 




in oa 


9-55 

11.45 
PM 

305 








Sancti Spiritus 4 45 

Ciego de Avila 3.45 

. . .Caniaguey . . 12.15 
PM 








AM 


AM PM 








AM 
255 

6.00 
PM 
4 45 

6 10 
PM 












12.40 
AM 
9-15 
PM 
1040 

930 
AM 


1 










1 






















3-00 
AM 








. . . Santiago . . .' 12.01 

; AM 























1 







Sleeping cars on trains i, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 12. 
•Via Carreno. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From Havana to 

Cienf uegos 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Camaguey 

Antilla 

Santiago de Cuba 



,o\ver 


Upper 


Compart- 


Dra wing- 


Berth 


Berth 


ment 


Room 


3.60 


$300 


$8.00 


lio.oo 


2,.bo 


300 


8.00 


10 00 


360 


3.00 


8.00 


10.00 


4.20 


3-50 


10.00 


13.00 


6.00 


5.00 


14.00 


18.00 


6.00 


5.00 


14.00 


18.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



U S. Cy 

Antilla f30-37 

Batabano 1 .99 

Bayamo 26.82 

Caibarien 13 84 

Camaguey 20.14 

Cardenas 7 05 

Ciego de Avila 16.53 

Cienfuegos 11.33 

Colon 7.20 

Guantanamo 33-26 

Holguin 27.56 



V. S. Cy. 

Isle of Pines $7-5° 

Madruga 3-9' 

Manzanillo 28.59 

Matanzas 4.16 

Placetas 12.36 

Remedios '3. .53 

Sagua 10.08 

San Antonio .81 

Sancti Spiritus 14-55 

Santa Clara 11.09 

Santiago de Cuba 31-35 



Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighi 
f 10 pounds or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in third-class. 



44 



Week-End" Tickets 



FIRST- AND THIRD-CLASS 



are on sale from Havana to all stations of the United Railways (except Rincon and 
such as are located at less than twenty kilometres from Havana) and vice versa, valid 
going on Saturdays and returning on any ordinary train the following Sunday or Monday 
at very low rates. 

UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 

W. T. MEDLEY, Commercial Agent 

PRADO, 118 HAVANA, CUBA 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST' 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPECIALTIES 
88 BROAD ST., Cor. Stone. NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion directa de todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York ; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool ; Vapores 
Transatlanticos de A. Folch & Co., de Barcelona, 
Espana. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET I7/2I 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established 50 Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 



JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 

Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones : | l°°l\\ Bowling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone 316 Henry Night Call, 2278 Henry 



The Snare and Triest Company 

Contracting Engineers 

STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office, 8 West 40th Street 

Havana Office : Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address; Kunomale, New York 
Telephone, 3300 South 



Telephone 
2 I 5 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Elxchaiise 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar Makers, 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 Summit Street 

Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



DANIEL Weill s enc 

COMERCIAIMTE EN GENERAL 
Especialidad en Ropa Hecha de Trabajo 

Am in a position to push the sales ot 

American high class products Would 

represent a first-class firm. 

APARTADO 102 CAMAGUEY, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

COMMISSIOX MERCHANT 

P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either'on a 
commission basis or under agency arrangement! 
Also furnishes all desired information about land* 
in eastern Cuba. 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

lEttgrattPrB- - Mm ^taltott^r^ 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana St», P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA. CUBA 



F. W. Hvoslef 



E. C. Day 



R. M. Michdion 



BENNETT, HVOSLEF & CO. 

Steamship Agents & Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 
Cable "Benvosco" 



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42 



THE CUBA KEVIEW 




I'll) Jot the I'litt of Astoi la, 4^2 feel wide by 1600 feel lutif; . 
Built by The Foundation Company, 



Harbor Works Built for 
Service as well as Appearance 



REFINERIES, PIPE LINES, POWER DEVELOPMENTS, 

INDUSTRIAL PLANTS, WATER AND SEWER SYSTEMS, 

RAILROADS AND RAILWAY STRUCTURES 

BUILT RAPIDLY AND ECONOMICALLY 



THE FOUNDATION COMPANY 



Engineering Construction 



City of new York: 
120 LIBERTY Street 



Havana, Cuba : 
Horter Building 



yiir >if-7i' Astoria Pier built by The Foundation Company 





















J 












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ijj^^H^ 


ll^^ 


m 

■ m 


■ 

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flii 




-- ---.r,! 




w*- 


^ 






HP 




1 


.- ^:_- 












—'-» 


jmn^i^ 




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THECUBAREVIEW 43 

Munson Steamship Line 



GENERAL OFFICES : 

82 Beaver Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Keyser Building, BALTIMORE. MD. 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

Leave Arrive Leave Arrive 

New York Antilla Antilla New York 

S/S " MUNAMAR " Mar. 5 Mar. 9 Mar. 12 Mar. 16 

" Mar. 19 Mar. 23 Mar. 26 JMar. 30 

" Apr. 2 Apr. 6 Apr. 9 Apr. 13 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



Matanzas .... Every Week 
Cardenas . Every 3 Weeks 
Havana Every Week 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular Sailings as follows : 

Isabela de Sagua . .Every 3 Weeks 

Caibarien " " " 

Nuevitas " " " 

Guantanamo " " " 



Antilla .. .Every 3 Weeks 
Santiago. " " " 
Cienfuegos " " " 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Montevideo- Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 

NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

New York to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires 

S/S MARTHA WASHINGTON (b) March =5 

S/S HURON (a) .March 23 

S/S AEOLUS (a) April 6 

(a) ist, 2d and 3d class. (b) ist and 2d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Cienfuegos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 

NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Progreso, Tampico and Vera Cruz, 



The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



44 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




No. SS-96 

Steel Conveyor 

Chain 

FOR MODERN CANE CONDUCTOR 
INSTALLATIONS 

No. SS-96 was designed particularly 
for use in cane feeder carriers and the 
conductors to the Mills. It is now almost 
mviversally used in this work. It is the 
effective chain for cane conductors. 



Look for our 



> 



— < 

Trade .Mark on every link. r:^ 

Write for Catalog No. 355. ji 

LINK-BELT COMPANY ^ 
299 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK CITY 




American Car and Foundry Export Co. 



Direccion Telegrafica. 
"CAREX" NEW YORK 



165 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 




LisTA Para Entrega inmeoiatamente 

Aqui se ve el grabado de uno dc nuestros carros mas modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos upos y de varias capacidades para uso eu Cuba, Puerto Rico, Sud America, America Central y 
Mfejico, con bastidorcs y jaulas de madera o de acero. Produccion annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 
OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA RepresenUnte para Cuba 



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THE 



REVIEW 




)0 A Year MARCH, 




THE CUBA R E \ I E W 



Ruedas de 
Hierro Enfriado 
y Ejes de Acero 
para Carros 
y Coches de 
Ferrocarril. 



t-\ razon porqut- las 
ruedas de Hierro , 
^ Knfriado proce- 
dentes de miestras fii- \ 

bricas tienen preterencia sobre las otras se debe a que el hierro enfriado puede resistir 
mejor cjue cualquier otro metal las car.^as excesivas, las grandes velocidades y el roz- 
amiento jjenerado por los frenos modernos. Talleres iiiontados a la nioderna y condi- 
ciones ventajosas para obtener las niaterias primas nos ponen en cundiciones de cot- 
izar precios atractivos. 

NEW YORK CAR WHEEL COMPANY 

JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente 
°''j'am'otl.Ey'''new YORK "^^ CEDAR STREET, NEW YORK, E.E. U.U. 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
NEW YORK 



Gerente del Departamento de Veritas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO. LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 



Los productos de estas Fabricas abarcaii 




A solicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. 
Direcci6n cablegrafica : JAMOTLEY, New York (Se usari todas las claves) 



Locomotoras 

Carros para cana 

Rieles y accesso- 
rios 

Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 

Calderas 

Mi'iquinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 

Tanques 

Torn OS 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maquin- 
aria para Ingen- 
ios de Azucar 

Calentadores de 
agua de alimen- 
tacion 

Alambiques para 
agua 

Madera, pino am- 
arillo 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 

cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de \% tone- 

-^ , - . ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac- 

Carros de Ingenios idad de 30 toneiadas. 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, incluyendo los juegos de rue- 
das, completamente armados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos com- 
pletos para construir los carros a su destine de maderas del pais. 



I 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., NEW YORK, N. Y. cable address 

' ' RAMALIAM 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, PRES. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 



Phone Broad 
4266-4267 



Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure 

15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



Night Phone 

1 105 Bay Ridge 

1368 Richmond Hill 



WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 



FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



SUGARS 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



82 Wall Street, New York 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal— the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

f> _^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

VXUSHlSllSiy ^^^^ 5 A. M. to 8 p. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

^^^^^^^= FARE $1.00 

f^ -*-^^^ Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

V^UlIlGS ■■■■■ from 5-50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 

^^==^=^ FARE $1.25 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANAS FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry ) |o.o6 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) ii 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A.M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A.M. to 11 P.M. 



Please mtiition THE CUBA REVIEW ichau icriting to Advertisers 



THE CUB A U !•: V I E w 




TT Tubular Barrow — 3 Cu. Ft. 



JACKSON 

TUBULAR BARROWS 

are made with extra deep pressed trays. 
No seams or rivets to prevent complete 
discharge of load. 



WRITE FOR CATALOG 



The Jackson Manufacturing Co. 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



Bomba Kinney Para Mieles 




Presi6n Positiva. Envolos Rotatories, Sin 
IMuelles ni Valvulds. Forrado interiormente 
de Bronce. La Mas economica para bombear 
h'quidos espestos, como mirles.acieites guar- 
apos, etc. Funciona actualmente con el 
mejor ^xito en muchos ingenios y refinerias. 
Capacidades de 50 a 800 galones por minuto. 

Pi'danse precios y pormenores d 

Newell Manufacturing Company 

SINGER BUILDING - NEW YORK 
Agentes para Cuba y la demAs Antlllas 



United Railways of Havana 
WESTERN DIVISION 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



P M 

8.24 


P M 

»-55 

4-24 

5SI 
6.05 
6.56 
8.40 
P M 


P M 

1.45 
3-55 


AM 
10.15 
12.24 


AM 

6.55 
824 

9-51 
10.05 
10.56 
12.40 
P M 


AM 

5-45 

7-55 

7 30 
11-45 
AM 


Fare 
istcl. 
$2.65 
5.19 
562 
671 
8.83 








PM 


PM 


P M 



Lv. Gen. Sta.. .Ar 
Ar. .Arteniisa. .Lv 
Ar. Paso Real. .Lv 
Ar. Herradura .Lv 
Ar.Pinardel RioLv 
Ar Guane. . .Lv 



Fare 
add. 
$1.40 
2-54 
2.74 
3-25 
4.22 



AM 

7.20 
5 15 



AM 
11.09 
q.40 
8.05 
7.4» 
6.55 

5-20 

AM 



PM 
12.01 
9-45 



3 20 
1-15 



PM 
7.09 
5-40 
4.0.S 
348 
2-55 
I 20 

P M 



PM 
8.00 

5 45 



6 00 
2.00 
P M 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares From Havana To 



Pinos 15 cts. 

Arroyo Naranjo 25 cts. 

Calabazar 30 cts. 



Rancho Boyeros 40 cts. 

Santiago de las Vegas. . .55 cts. 
Rincon 65 cts. 



Leaving Central Station every half hour from 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 P. M., 
:ind every hour thereafter to n.15 P M. 



Please luoition THE CTJBA REVIEW nhen nriting to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 





V\ /yHEREVER packing is required to withstand strenuous service — 
VV regardless of climatic or operating conditions 

"Lion Packing" 

will measure up to every requirement. 

Be sure that you get the genuine LION PACKING— the KING 

of power and rod saving packing with the metal studs. 

A FREE SAMPLE AWAITS YOUR REQUEST 

James Walker & Company, Ltd. 



46 WEST STREET 



NEW YORK CITY 




'-^ \, ^^,Vj!^^ F^ 



^'§^^5 _L^l\^i^~^~ «^l 




Romanas 



Howe 



De 



Suspension 



Para 



Cuarapo 



Con brazos de registro que estampan los pesos sobre papeletas. 

Graduados en tipo metrico. Libras Americanas 6 Espanolas. 

Brazo que no es de registro y pesos en tipo que no sea el de brazo de registro, 

si se desea. 

Aparatos de Tanques Sencillos para Miel. 

Otras Romanas de todos tamanos y descripciones. 

The Howe Scale Co. of New York, IM.Y. 



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r 11 ]•: c V i\ A K i: \' i k \v 



GREGG 




La Compania Gregg de Cuba 

FABRICANTES E IMPORTADORES 
EQUIPOS FERROVIARIOS 

Carros para caiia de todas clases, tamanos o capacidades, para cualquier ancho de via, etc. 

Carros planchas, gondolas, casillas, tanques, tolvas, de volteo, etc. 

Vias Portatiles — Carritos para usarse en Vias Portatiles — Trasbordadores de Caiia — 

Gruas — Ranas— -Chuchos, etc. 

Oficina y Almacen, Aguiar 118, Habana 

TENEMOS EXISTENCIA COMPLETA PARA EMBARQUE INMEDIATO 





II. No. 521- Paiabra de Clave YEHJO II. No. 522- Palabra de Clave YEHOH 





II. No. 523 Palabra de Clave YEHOD II. No. 524— Palabra de Clave YEHNU 



1— H 




II. No. 525-Palabra de Clave YEHMY 




II. No. 526— Palabra de Clave YEHMI 




II. No. 527— Palabra de Clave YEHOA II. No. 528 Palabra de Clave YEHLU 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



The 

Weather = 
Proof 
Roof 



FULL WIDTH 

|(- 26 INCHES ■ sj 



that Lasts 
a Century 




"OLD CHATEAU" 



Pure zinc does not rust or decay. Needs no painting or re- 
pairs. Roofing problems vanish forever once zinc is put on. 
In Europe, where its value as roofing has long been known, 
there are many zinc roofs that are in perfect condition after 
a century of exposure to the weather. 

"Old Chateau" is made in corrugated patterns. Corru- 
gations 3 inches, 2I/2 inches or i^^ inches. Any length up 
to 120 inches. All gauges. 

Prompt shipments can be made on all sizes. 

Packed securely for export handling. 



WRITE FOR FULL INFORMATION 



The American Zinc Products Co. 

271 AMERICAN AVENUE 

QREENCASTLE, INDIANA 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 
50 Church Street 



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T HE CUBA K E V 1 E W 



B ELMONT I RON WORKS 

ll^ PHILADELPHIA I NEW YORK W W EDDYSTONE 

Engineers • Contractors • Exporters 
STRUCTURAL STEEL 

Especially for S//o'ar Mills 
MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS 



NEW YORK OFFICE 
15 PARK ROW 

\ * CSICI II \^ II ll^ll I 

PHILADELPHIA ( '"'ve Letter Edition \ cABLE ADDRESS " BELIRON ' 

llustrated Catalog in English, !■ rencli ami Spanish tiiailc-d on request. 



\ CODE : 

22d & Washington Ave. Western Union 

/ Five Letter Edition 



P^wiB Niwm^ii & Co. iNo. 



Direccioii Cable: 

NEWMADAVID 

Telephone : 

Hanover 



\ 5010 
t 5011 



79 Wall Street 
New York 



CLAVES : 
A.B.C All Editions 
Western Union 
Liebers 
Bentley Simplex 



Somos el centre para 

Rieles Usados 

de todos pesos y descripciones. 

Siempre podemos dar cotizaciones a. los precios mas bajos 
del mercado 6 bien F. O.B. cualquier puerto del Atlantico 
6 del Golfo 6 C.S.F. cualquier puerto de Cuba. 
Sera a su ventaja confrontar nuestras cotizaciones antes de 
colocar sus pedidos. 



TRADE WITH BOSTON 

Year Endinf/ Year Ending 

May, 1920 May 31, 1920 J/av. 1919 Mai/ 31, VJ19 

Imports from Cuba $ 8,798,986 $44,.508,G74 .$.3,980,850 $1:5,119,713 

Exports to Cuba 2,066,903 12,313,4.35 1,474,113 13,.376J40 

Year Ending Year Ending 

June, 1920 June 30, 1920 June, 1919 June 30, 1919 

Imports from Cuba $17,0.57,929 $59,344,923 $2,221,680 $25,351,350 

Exports to Cuba 1,794,-388 12,859,989 1,247,834 1.3,779,.501 

Year Ending Year Ending 

July, 1920 July 31, 1920 July, 1919 July 31, 1919 

Imports from Cuba $11,222,991 $68,8.32,417 $1,735,497 $25,484,205 

Exports to Cuba 700 12,859,353 1,336 12,890,404 



HEW Y(*HK 
giOTANlCAL 

o A. Vf ^f^ 

THL CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX MARCH, 1921 No. 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — Boiler House, Central Chaparra, Oriente Province. 
Frontispiece — Central Hershey, Havana Province. 



PAGE 



Cuban Government Matters: 

Cuban Act Creating a Temporary Banking Liquidation Commission 11, 12, 13 

Diplomatic Appointments 13 

Inauguration of Governor of Havana Province 13 

New Postal Rates 13 

Havana Correspondence 14, IS, 16, 17, 18 

Imports and Exports 28 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 28 

The Sugar Industry: 

Cuban Sugar Industry — Its Immediate Past, Present and Future, by H. O. 

Neville 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 

Graph of Cuban Raw Sugar Prices for 1920 19 

Sugar Estate Statistics of the Island of Cuba 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 

Sugar Review, English 40, 41, 42 

Sugar Review, Spanish 42, 43, 44 



10 



Till-: err. A ki:vii:\v 




THE 
CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, ig2i , by the Munson Steamship Line 



Volume XIX 



MARCH. 1921 



Number 4 



CUBAN ACT CREATING A TEMPORARY BANKING 
LIQUIDATION COMMISSION 



The following, in substance, is the translation of the text of a law, known as the 
Torriente Law No. 2, passed by the Cuban Senate and recentlj^ signed by the Cuban 
President, creating a Temporary Banking Liquidation Commission : 

Art. I. The provisions of this act are applicable to credit companies and to banks 
of issue and discount referred to in Sections YII and YIII of Title I, Book II of the 
Code of Commerce in force, and to all such mercantile companies and private bankers 
the principal business of which may be to receive money on deposit and to keep current 
accounts with or without interest and savings deposits with any corporation, company, 
or persons. 

Whenever the word bank is used in this act it must be understood as referring to 
all or anj' of the companies, corporations, and persons mentioned in this article. 

Art. II. There is hereby created a commission to be composed of three memliers, 
which shall be known as the Temporary Banking Liquidation Commission, and when- 
ever the word commission is used in this act it must be understood to refer to that 
commission. The members of said commission shall be appointed by the President of 
the Republic. One of them shall be the secretary of the treasury, who Avill preside 
over the commission, and the other two members shall be persons of known fitness in 
banking matters and not connected in any way with those banks in regard to which 
the commission is to exercise its functions. The commission shall cease in functions 
within 60 days from the final termination of all the business devolving upon it under 
the present act, and all the other instrumentalities created by this act shall cease in 
like manner. 

Art. III. In any of the cases contemplated liy Article T of this act the commission 
shall be authorized and required to take possession of, to control, and administer all 
the property, rights, and rights of action of any kind, cash on hand, and securities, as 
well as assets and liabilities of the Itank, to exercise all kinds of actions, to receive 
rents, collect all debts due to the bank under its administration or liquidation, and to 
compromise the same whenever it shall be necessary in its judgment. It is to make 
transfers or cessions of said credits and to contract and enforce oliligations in the due 
course of administration of the bank, and generally to do all such acts and carry out 
such measures in connection with all the foregoing as the commission may deem neces- 
sary to the ends of this act, including the payment of outstanding debts of the bank 
and the distribution of the money and other properties that shall remain over among 
those entitled thereto. All the acts above referred to regarding the administration of 
any bank pursuant to this act shall be carried out with a view either to re-establish 
its solvency within the briefest possible period, or to bring about the final liquidation 
and accordingly the definitive cessation of the same. 

Art. IY. Of the powers vested in and duties imposed upon the commission by 
this act, those relating to the administration and liquidation of any bank under its 
jurisdiction shall be executed through a liquidation board, separately created for each 
such bank, and which shall be under the inspection, direction, and control of the com- 
mission. "^Tienever the word board shall lie used it must be understood that the same 
refers to the liquidation board. 

Art. Y. Banks established in the Republic and included in Article I (jf this act 



12 T II E C U B A 11 E V I E W 



sliiill 1k> (Icenu'il to ho in a condition of suspension of payments for all the pnriioses 
and ends of this act whenever they shall come under the cases defined in articles 870 
and S71 of the Code of Commerce as amended hy the law of June 24, 1911. 

Within 4S hours of their heing in such a condition, their directors, managers, or 
adnihiisinitors shall sul)nnt to the comndssion a statement setting forth the causes 
whicli comjiel them to request of the conunission that they he considered in the con- 
ditii>n of suspension of payments. 

IVrsons who .shall he in the situation tlelined hy the first paragrai)h of article 
87(i of the Code of Commerce and any creditor liaving an ohligation evidenced hy a 
title of credit of any hank and slmwing that the hank has ceased in the ordinary pay- 
ment of its ohlisations, or who may have an oldigation du(> to him from a hank, evi- 
denced hy a title of credit, which may be due and collectihle in whole or in part, 
pursuant to the law of linuidation of the moratorium granted hy decree of October 10, 
1920. of the executive power, may also request in writing of the comndssion that the 
hank in defavdt be deemed to he in a condition of snspeiisioii of i.ayments for all the 
purposes and ends of this act. 

Articles VI. VII. VIII, IX, and X deal with examination of the petitioner's claims 
against the hank : the designation of representatives, respectively, of the creditors of 
the hank and of the owners of the l>ank : the examination of the books of the hank ; 
the taking charge by the board, for the commission, of the control of the bank and of 
Its reorganization or liquidation : and the composition and methods of procedure of 
the hoard. 

FURTHER PROVISIONS OF THE ACT 
Further iirovisions of the act are: 

Art. XI. Resolutions on all questions decided hy the Imnrd n-liiting to concurrent 
and preferred creditors, to propositions for reorganization or ii(|ni(lation of the hank, 
and to amounts to lie paid to the creditors of any class, shall noi br final until after 
10 days from the notification of the interested parties. * * 

Oidy in regard to resolutions referred to in this article may any interested party 
have .iudicial recour.se, the which shall be to the Civil Chandler of the Supreme Court 
by petition in writing signed by a lawyer accompanied by a certified coiiy of the reso- 
lutidii whiih the hoard shall issue to the interested parties within the 24 hours following 
the ai)iilication therefor. As soon as said chamber shall receive such petition, it shall 
make it known to the board in the most speedy manner in order that it may suspend 
enfoi-ct>ment of the resolution and within 10 days the chandler shall decide what it 
may deem just. Against this decision no other recourse may be had than a petition 
for rehearing. When the said chamber shall have rendered a final decision in the 
matter, it shall notify the board by means of a certified copy of the same and said 
hoiird shall carry out the decision of said chamber. Within the period fixed for its 
decision, the chamber miiy hear the board in writing. 

.MI matters submitted to the chamber shall be decided by it according to. the 
provisions of law in force, and in the absence of such provisions, according to custom, 
to the general princiiiles of law, or to commercial usages, so that in no case shall it 
fail to decide what may be sul>nutted to it for decision. 

Art. XII. From the moment that the commission declares the state of suspension 
of i)ayments according to the provisions of this act, no creditor can initiate any 
exe<'Utory process or exercise any special action, excepting the creditors who may 
have mortgages or pledges to the extent of recovery out of the properties mortgaged 
or jiledged. 

Proceedings that may be ] lending, except as otherwise provided in this act, may be 
continued, but executory proceedings .shall be suspended at the stage of enforcing the 
judgment and ordinary actions at the stage of execution of judgment. 

All pending actions, and all proceedings thereunder, instituted at any time prior 
to the taking effect of this act, by any bank comprehended in the first article of this 
act or by the creditors of said banks against them, under the provisions of the bank- 
rui)tcy laws contained .in the Code of Commerce and in the Ley de Enjuiciamiento 
Civil, or of the law of suspension of payments of June 24, 1911, shall not be exercised 
or contiiiued from the time of the taking effect of this act, hut shall cease from the 
moment of the taking effect of this act. and said bank shall immediately become sub- 
ject to the conunission established by the same and shall be liquidated or reorganized 



THE CUBA R E T I E W 



13 



by said commission, according to tlie provisions of this act. During ttie period and to 
the extent of tlie operation of tlie provisions of this act, wliatever is provided for in it 
shall exclude all other classes of proceedings that may modify or change its effects and 
no existing laAv shall he held operative in so far as inconsistent with the provisions 
of this act concerning the matters which the same embraces. 

Aet. XIII. Within three months after the commission has issued its decree 
declaring the suspension of payments, the board shall submit to the commission, to 
the creditors, and to the stockholders or owners of the bank a plan of reorganization 
whenever it may be possible to pay the creditors in installments that in the aggregate 
do not exceed the period of one year and in the event that the bank shall not have 
lost an amount greater than 50 per cent, of its capital subscribed and paid. Should 
the case be otherwise, the board will decide to liquidate, as also in case neither the 
creditors nor the owners of the capital stock accept the reorganization plan. For 
approval of this plan the votes of the stockholders or persons representing three-fourths 
of the capital and the votes of the creditors representing three-fourths of the credits 
shall be necessary, and the plan must also be approved by the commission. 

Articles XIV, XV, and XVI relate to the question of the personal responsibility 
of members of the commission and its representatives and to matters of fraud discov- 
ered and concealment of property. The chief provisions concluding the act are as 
follows : 

Art. XYII. The provisions of this special act shall 1)e deemed complementary 
of the other law of liquidation of the moratorium granted by the executive power on 
October 10, 1920, and, accordingly, shall be applicable only to banks, private bankers, 
and savings banks to which the same relates and to all corporations, companies, or 
persons included in the first article of this act, which may be comprehended within 
Its provisions during the time in which the commission created by it may be functioning 
on the work devolving upon that body. 

ADDITIONAL Article. The provisions of this act do not include the funds of any 
kind belonging to the State, the Provinces, nor the municipalities, nor to other official 
organisms, or that appear in the name of special public officials for payments on their 
account, or the account of private individuals who have turned in such funds to that 
end, nor those of the International Pan-American Office for the protection of industrial 
and trade-marks. Likewise, they do not include the funds donated in any manner 
for the advancement of learning and for prizes to students. 

[The unpublished portion of the law can be examined at the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce by referring to file No, 22752.] 



DIPLOMATIC APPOINTMENTS 

Senor Augusto Merchan, the Consul of 
Cuba in London, has been appointed 
charge d'affaires at Quito, Ecuador. 

Dr. Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Cuban 
minister to the United States, has been 
appointed minister to Argentina. 



Spain, Philippines and the republic of 
America, the rate on second-class mail is 
one cent per pound or fraction of a pound, 
when dispatched by publishers or their 
agents, and one cent for every four ounces 
or fraction thereof, when dispatched by 
others. 



NEW POSTAL RATES 
The director general of communications, 
Havana, has addressed a circular to post- 
masters throughout the Island, calling 
their attention to the fact that under the 
new postal convention between Cuba and 



INAUGURATION OF GOVERNOR OF 

HAVANA PROVINCE 
Major Alberto Barreras. for the second 
time in his career, took the oath of office 
as governor of Havana province on Feb- 
ruary 25th. Mayors of the leading towns 
in the province attended the ceremony. 



14 Til E c L" r. A K i: \ 1 i; w 

HAVANA CORRESPONDENCE 



F(-l)ruar.v 2(\, 1921. 

PORT CONGESTION: Tlio Tort of Ilavanii today i)iest'iits a striking contrast to 
wliar it was six niontlis airo and tlie great majority of the credit for tlie good worl£ 
dune itmiii-rly belongs to Col. Manuel Despaigne, working under a special appointment 
from rrtsident Menocal with instructions to clear up the congestion. The General 
Wharves (property of the Government) were first attacked and the progress made 
A\as fast and the work well done. Thousands of tons of merchandise of all kinds were 
renioveil to vacant places throughout the city. Merchants gave tlie relief in other 
instances, and in still other cases tons and tons of perishable merchandise was towed 
to sea and dumped overboard when it had remained on the wharves long enough to 
have become spoiled. 

There are still many vessels in the Bay of Havana, but the majority of them 
are awaiting orders to proceed to other ports for loading cargoes for the North. There 
are but very few awaiting their discharge and the terrible congestion which prevailed 
during the greater part of 1920 can be considered as relieved, although it is pointed 
out by Col. Despaigne — and we believe with very good judgment — that unless the 
consignees continue to give the prompt removal of their merchandise the closest atten- 
tion and keep continually after the removal of cargo once it has been discharged op 
the wharves, the congested condition will return and Havana will again be a port 
shunned by all shipping interests. 

Although this splendid ivlief has been noted on the General Wliarves, the tendency 
on the privately-ownod wharves is toward a renewal of the congestion, since the 
.steamship lines operating into Cul>a find themselves powerless to bring the same 
relative i>ressure to bear on tlu' merchants as was brought to bear by Col. Despaigne, 
who is employed by the Cuban Government. Whereas the Government could authorize 
its agent to remove merchandise from wharves, private companies had to take into 
consideration the fact that the merchants would lie antagonized should pressure be 
brought to bear on them, which would result in the loss of business. As a conse- 
quence, we find that without exception the privately-owned wharves are finding it 
necessary to keep continually behind consignees to have them remove freight as 
promptly as possible after the ships are discharged, in an eftort to continue to operate 
their vessels on a regular schedule. 

A condition that undoul)tedly helped to tiring on this relieved condirion is the 
financial crisis that befell Cuba during last October. Inunediately the situation 
became strained, many cancellations were effected and, naturally, smaller amounts 
of cargo were brought to Cuba. However, today it is pleasant to note the renewal 
of Inisiness generally and our optimistic predictions seem to have been well founded, 
if the revival of business can be taken as meaning that confidence lias been renewed 
in the solvency of the Island of Cuba. 

SUGAR: .Many new developments have come to pass during the past month and 
we are led to lielieve that the growers and manufacturers of sugar are, after all, to 
obtain something of the relief that has been so sorely needed since the connnencement 
of the present grinding. For one thing, the Government has passed legislation which 
is materially assisting the Cultan banks in their endeavor to weather the financial 
storm that has lieen pending since last October — and was temporarily assisted by the 
Presidential decree calling into force a moratorium — by the enactment of the Torriente 
Law, which extended the time for liquidation of all outstanding accounts to May 30, 
1021. Another feature that has materially assisted the great majority of the pro- 
ducers of sugar is the recently formed commission for the control of the sale of 
sugars. In order to form this commission it was necessary to obtain the approval 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 15 

of 75 per cent, of the cane growers, which was secured. The first effect of the estab- 
lishment of this commission was the immediate rise of sugar of about 1% cents 
per pound, or from 3.50 cents per pound to nearly 5 cents. This commission is to 
pass on and approve all sales of Cuban sugars, the object being the prevention of 
sales for less than a fair price in order to guarantee fairly substantial returns for 
the sugars sold. 

There are those who protested strenuously against the appointment of this Com- 
mission, but the consensus of opinion holds that it was the only means that could 
be adopted. The producers of sugar had gone to enormous expense in the purchase 
of new and up-to-date machinery and also in the preparation of vast new tracts of 
land for the production of sugar for the grinding of the 1920-1921 crop. With the 
prices as quoted at the beginning of the grinding, namely 3% cents per pound, the 
sugar producers stood to lose exactly $5.00 per bag on every bag of sugar made. .It 
is generally admitted that there will not be any great amount of money made on 
5 cent sugar, but those most concerned in this industry estimate that the Ingenios, 
at this price, will be permitted to at least meet their outstanding obligations and 
prepare themselves for lower prices which are expected to obtain for the next crop, 
that of 1921-1922. 

One of the adverse developments of the past monfli is the enactment in the United 
States of the Fordney Tariff Bill, which will increase the duty on raw sugar from 
about SO cents per 100 pounds to $1.60 per 100 pounds. From Associated Pi-ess News 
it has been gathered here that President Wilson intends to veto this act if it is passed 
and the sentiment is strongly against the incoming American administration's review- 
ing the measure with the ultimate intention of passing it. Legislating against Cuban 
sugar is, it is believed, sure to affect the price to the ultimate consumer, since the 
producers, it is generally agreed, cannot absorb this extra duty this year or next. 

Labor is adjusting itself to these ne-.v conditions very slowly and it is believed 
that, although labor will have to be content with lower wages for the coming crop, 
little toward a materially reduced wage can be accomplished this 3^ear, since the cost 
of living has not declined to any appreciable extent so far. 

CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS: The partial elections that were scheduled to 
be held March 1st luive been postponed until March 10th, Avhen it is expected that 
the question of the next President of Cuba will be settled definitely. Dr, Alfredo 
Zayas, it is declared, will surely remain the people's choice, although some of the 
Liberals are of the opinion that General Jose Miguel Gomez Avill be found to have 
received the necessary plurality. For a time the situation was somewhat tense be- 
tween the contending parties, but within the last few days, the papers announce, a 
partial reconciliation has been effected and the forthcoming partial elections will 
doubtless be carried out without disturbances of any kind. The uncertainty of the 
situation has precluded the possibility of Dr. Zayas making any announcements as 
to who will comprise his cabinet, should he be finally elected, and the Liberals have 
never, it would seem, felt that they were sure enough of the election to have made 
decisions either. 

General Crowder, author of the' new Cuba Electoral Law, who was sent to Cuba 
by the Washington Government for the purpose of rendering what assistance might be 
needed, remains in the city awaiting, we assume, the final outcome of the elections 
before returning to the United States with his report of conditions as he found them 
in Cuba. 

FINANCIAL CONDITIONS: The Torriente Law, whereby affected banks were 
granted until May 30, 1921, to liquidate their outstanding obligations, is working 
splendidly so far and much praise has been extended to Representative Torriente 
for his broad-mindedness in shaping this splendid law which will mean so much 



in THE CUBA REVIEW 



f.ir the bankins institrti.ms. X..11.' of tli-' l.iinks that it was felt would close their 
doors when the iiioratoriuiii liail expired have done so, but on the contrary are paying 
out the 2(1 per rent, called for under the law with little or no difficulty. However, 
rumor has it that some very distressing details of the manipulation of these banks 
have been withheld from the puldic and we are not of the opinion that the institu- 
tions afifected will be able to reinstate themselves in the good graces of the Cuban 
business men in any short time. President :Mer(haiit of tbe Banco Nacional de Cuba 
has resigned his position and Sr. Portirio Franca has l»een appointed to this important 
place. Sr. Porfirio Franca was formerly one of the Managing Directors of the National 
City Bank of New York in Havana and is a very capable and well-known banker in 
Havana. Much success should crown his efforts as his sterling character and splendid 
ability will mean nuich to the Banco Nacional de Cuba. 

INCREASE IN CUBAN RAILROAD TARIFF BEING VIGOROUSLY COMBATTED: 
The re<<>nt increase in freight rates granted by the Railroad Conunis.sion of Cuba 
and of which we made mention in our last two letters has brought forth strenuous 
protest from all parts of the Island. It has been less than two years since the 20 
per cent, increase in freight rates was permitted the railroads in Cuba and with the 
additional increase which was recently granted, it would seem that the public is to 
be compelled to stand almost prohibitive prices for all commodities at interior points 
of the Island. One company alleges in a letter of protest to the Government that 
while a year ago a shipment of oil from Havana to Cienfuegos paid freight charges 
of Sr»0.63. now the same shipment would pay $128.41, which advance in freight will 
have to come out of the ultimate consumer of this oil, thus making the price to him 
very high. Under the new tariff commodities have been increased as much as 125 
per cent, and from the attitude of the Cuban populace it would seem that the law per- 
mitting these increases is to be stubbornly contested. While it is true that the cost of 
operating and maintaining the railroads in Cuba has increased, the consensus of opinion 
is that these newly published freight rates cannot be permitted to be assessed. 

A rather distressing condition of affairs exists in Cuba at this time in that the 
United Railways of Havana from Havana to Santa Clara and the Cuba Company 
(formerly called the Cuba Railroad Company) from Santa Clara to Santiago, have 
discontinued the exchange of equipment. We understand it is now necessary for 
shipments en route from Havana destined to Santiago to lie discharged at Santa 
Clara and reloaded for the trip from Santa Clara to points on the Cuba Company. 
The United Railways of Havana recently had an expert from the United States in 
Cuba devising ways and means for expediting the handling of their rolling stock and 
it is certainly to be hoped that the recommendations of this capable railroad official 
will be carried out and the situation here relieved. 

NEW HIGH RECORD FOR IMMIGRANTS TO CUBA: During the year 1920, 101.798 
immigrants arrived at the Port of Havana. This is the largest number entering Cuba 
as immigrants in the history of the Republic. Of this number 83,182 were Spaniards, 
13,046 Chinese, and 5,822 .Jamaicans. The balance was distributed among Haitians, 
Italians, North Americans, etc. The Island at present has a large floating labor 
population and, with the present low prices maintaining for sugar, conditions are 
bad and immigration to Cuba has been somewhat discouraged, since it is felt by 
Government officials that the Island cannot support many more of this class of labor. 
Therefore, it has been concluded that the year 1921 will see a falling off in the number 
of immigrants arriving in Cuba and especially will the Jamaican and Haitian immi- 
gration be discouraged since this class of labor does not absorb well into the country 
and they are more likely to become public charges than the Spanish immigrants or 
those from other countries. 



THE CUB A RE VIE W • 17 



GOVERNMENT SENDS EMISSARIES TO PRESIDENT-ELECT HARDING S INAUGURA- 
TION : President Menocal has designated ttie Minister of Cuba in Argentina, Sr. Calde- 
ron; tlie Minister of Cuba in tlie United States, Sr. de Cespedes, and the Cuban 
Secretary -of War and Navy, General Marti, to represent the Government of Cuba at 
the inauguration of Warren G. Harding as President of the United States. Due to 
their pressing duties in Cuba, neither Sr. Desvernine, Secretary of State, nor Sr. 
Hernandez, Secretary of the Interior, could serve on this commission. 

FIRES IN CANE FIELDS : There have been numerous fires in the sugar cane fields 
throughout the Ishind. Among the most recent ones were "El Crisol" Colony, which 
grinds for two large centrals, "Jatibonico" and "Algodones." The losses were at 
first estimated at about 8,000,000 arrobas, while later reports are to the effect that 
only 4,000,000 arrolias cane were burnt. 

NEW SAND COMPANY ORGANIZED: A company, at the head of which are Sr, 
Gustavo Gutierrez and Sr. Eliseo Cart:iya. has recently been organized under the name 
of Compaiiia Arenera Xa clonal (National Sand Company) with a capital of .$100,000.00. 

RETAIL PRICE OF FISH CONTINUES HIGH: Considerable complaint is being 
heard on account of the high retail prices being charged by dealers in Havana for 
ash of all kinds. It is stated that while at first it was thought that this was primarily 
due to the high prices demanded by the fishing companies, such is not now the case. 
The fishing companies allege that they sell their product to the dealers and fish stands 
at 17 cents per pound, while the cost to themselves is 15 cents per pound. This leaves 
them only a small margin of profit, particularly when it is considered that large 
quantities of fish are daily thrown out on account of lack of adequate space on the- 
fishing boats. The dealers instead of lowering their prices to the public continue- 
to charge 30, 40 and even 50 cents per pound. It is claimed that a certain inferior 
kind of fish which is being brought over in large quantities from Key West, where- 
it retails at 5 cents per pound, is sold in Havana at 20 cents per pound. 

CARNIVAL SEASON : The yearly Carnival, which has always proven so interesting- 
to American tourists to Cuba and which extends through the Lenten season, is in. 
full force and seems to be gayer this year than for some years past. Many beautifully 
decorated floats filled with merry-makers filed through the principal streets and. 
Havana has been given over to days and evenings of frolic and fun for the past three- 
weeks. As is the usual custom, a Queen of the Carnival, together with her Maids 
of Honor, were chosen from among the Cuban working girls and her Majesty has 
been feted and banqueted in royal fashion. 

GRITO DE BAIRE CELEBRATED : The annual National holiday set aside for cele- 
brating the "Grito de Baire," which marks the beginning of the last war waged by 
Cuba for her independence from Spain, was celebrated on February 24th throughout 
the Island. Patriotic meetings were held and the day was made a gala day at 
Oriental Park, where horse racing is maintained during the winter and spring season. 
The "Grito de Baire" is one of the Cuban holidays similar to the Fourth of July in 
the United States and means much to the Cuban people since it marks the beginning 
of the last effort, which was successful, in gaining their freedom from the Government 
of Spain, 

WINTER TOURISTS : The mild winter experienced in the North this year has had 
its effect in Cuba and we are constrained t© believe that the number of tourists visiting 
the Island this year is somewhat less than last year, although the hotels are well 
filled at this time. Many tourists this year have availed themselves of the tourist 
agencies in the United States, which bring to Havana personally conducted tours 
touching at other points in the West Indies, and we have noticed a decided increase 



18 T H E C U B A R E \ 1 E W 



In the imiiil'.-r ol' Wvsr pniti.-s :iiri\ iii;i in IIav:>ii:i. lUiriug tln' war these person: illy 
cniiiliictiMl lours w.-r.' siispi-iul.'d and tlitn are jusr lieginnintr to again I.ec.inie popular 
with Auieriian tourists. 

FRENCH BATTLESHIP ENTERS HAVANA: Tlie Freiioli i>attle cruiser "Jeanne 
dArc" entered tlie Bay of Havana on Saturday, Feliruary 19th, and was accorded 
a very hearty weh-onie l>y the Culian pinndace as well as hy the American hattleship 
"Miiniesota." winch is still in the harl»or. The French Minister to Cuha gave the 
oflicers of the Freneli cruiser a splendid lian(iuet at tlie Hotel Sevllla. Tlie "Jeanne 
d'Arc" sailed on rel.ruary •2~>\h after six days of sumptuous entertainment. 

CUBAN SHIPS AT HAMBURG: The information reaches Havana that three steam- 
ers owned hy the Cuban (Jovernment and oiierated by a recently formed Cuban 
steamship company, which are now in the Port of Hamlnn-g. Germany, are exiieriencing 
dire trouble on account of difficulties in securing cargoes for return movt'uient and 
trouble with their crews. Funds seem to be wanting for the payment of salaries to 
oflicers and crews of these vessels and from reports it would appear that these ships 
will not be able to continue in the service of this new company. 

HARBOR LABORERS THREATEN STRIKE: With a view to pressing their claims 
for higher wages, the laborers owing allegiance to the Federation of Harbor Workmen 
recently visited the Secretary of Government, Col. Charles Hernandez, and laid 
before him their side of the story. Although it was deemed that the wages paid to 
laborers were coming down, it would seem that a determined effort is to be made to 
at least maintain present wages if not increase them somewhat. It must be admitted 
that the cost of living in Havana has not been lowered to any noticeable degree, Init 
reductions in prices are looked for from day to day. 

SCHOONER ENTERS HA\'ANA IN DISTRESS: The four-masted schooner "Cecilie 
M. Dunland," carrying a cargo of coal from Savaiuiah, Ga., was towed into Havana 
Harbor on February ISth, having called for assistance after experiencing a severe 
gale off the Florida coast. The rigging of this vessel was lost in the gale and it was 
only with difliculty that the tug sent to her assistance was able to rescue and bring 
Jier to a safe berth in Havana. 

PORT OF HA\ANA CONGESTION RELIEX'ED: In striking conirast to conditions 
Mhich maintained only a few months ago, the Port of Havana looks i)ractically empty 
as compare<l with its record for the past year. Col. Despaigne, acting on a special 
appointment from President Menocal to clear the docks and Bay of Havana, has done 
such splendid v\-ork that it is hard to realize that only a few months ago the Port 
of Havana was shunned on account of the congestion maintaining there. AVhere an 
average of from 85 to 100 vessels were always lying in the bay either awaiting dis- 
cbarge or in process of discharge, there are now less than thirty vessels, most of 
which are lying in port awaiting orders or just finishing their discharge. We believe 
that shippers will be gratified to know that it is now safe for them to resume shipment 
to Cuba as the General Wharves of the Cuban Government have l;»eeu cleared and 
piivately-invned wharves are also getting in proper shape. 



PAYMENT OF OBLIGATIONS INCURRED nient in full may l)e demanded on ^March 

DURING CUBAN MORATORIUM 1~>, the date of expiration. It is believed. 

Payments of obligations incurred dur- tlierefore, that creditor institutions should 

ing the moratorium in Cuba may be de- -extend the period of payment and be 

nianded on the date of expiration at the lenient in their collections so that debtors 

full face value. For instance, in the case in difficulty ma.v not be required t<» meet 

of an obligation incurred November 15, their obligations until conditions are re- 

1920, to become due March 15, 1921, pay- lieved. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



19 




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20 THECUBAREVIEW 



CUBAN SUGAR INDUSTRY— ITS IMMEDIATE PAST. 
ITS PRESENT AND FUTURE 

By H. O. Neville 



Wo do nut lifliove that in any other country of the world docs the success, or 
faihire in either in-oducing or profitably marketing one crop have so serious an 
efft><t as does that accompanying these operations in the sugar crop in Cuba. Indus- 
trially. Cuba is beyond doubt a country in which all its eggs art' in two baskets, and 
witli the restrictions being imposed upon the tobacco industry daily becoming more 
and more onerous, tending toward complete stagnation in the production of the finer 
grades of cigars that have always constituted such a large percentage of the exporta- 
tion of the finished product from Cuba, every indication points towards the elimination 
of one of these baskets, reducing to the other and the results secured therefrom the 
determination of the degree of prosperity that the Island will enjoy. It will therefore 
not I (" without interest to glance over the position of this industry as affected by 
the (ondiliuiis ]irc\ ailing in the innnediate past and at present ruling throughout the 
world. 

Everyone having even the most superficial comiection with the world's sugar 
Industry during the past three or four years will have some knowledge of the place 
that sugar has enjoyed during the war. and of tlio importance that lias been given 
It as a condensed food, cajtalde of sustaining ((Hiiiiuc dtiring crucial periods, and 
demanded by the soldiers at tlic front. He will laiow of the restrictions imposed 
in its consumption upon the civilian population of nearly all nations in order that 
the smaller sujiply availal)le, due to smaller production, might be sufficient to fill 
the absolute reriuirements of the soldiers, and yet leave a moderate quantity with 
which to fill the home demands. He will remember the two years of control by the 
United States Equalization T'.oiird, during which period Cuba sold her crop at the 
uniform price of 4.r.0c per Hi. in 191T-101S and 5.50c per lb. in lOlS-1919, and the 
profits of refiners were limited to fixed figures, so that the cost of su.sar to the ultimate 
consumer was held within very reasonable bounds. But still more deeply engraved 
in his memory will be the period after war control ceased, during which, following 
a period of guessing and of sales based upon the opinion of many closely connected 
with the Culian industry, at figures around 6.50c per 11)., and spurred onward by the 
ever smaller estimates of the total possible production of the 1019-1920 Cuban crop, 
the market broke away from all control, advancing by leaps and liounds to formerly 
unheai-d of prices for Cuban raws, resulting likewise in extreme costs of refined for 
consumption, until a high for the former was established at about 23i/^c, and for 
the latter of whatever the small grocer cared to ask and could get. Very prob- 
ably there are unpleasant memories among the children of the North regarding 
this period, during which mother's sugar supply was extremely low and what she 
had of it was cherished as never before in the youngsters' memories. 

Much has been written concerning the causes of these extremely high prices, 
and much adverse comment has resulted regarding the attempt of the Cul)an pro- 
ducers to hold the ■world up and demand whatever they could get for their product, 
regardless of the cost to them of its production and of the great profits that were 
being derived. We cannot refrain from commenting on the criticisms that were 
made of the rapacity .shown by these producers and of the attempt to lay at their 
doors the l)lame for the high cost of this daily necessity to the Northern consumer 
and the loss suffered later by all holders who had purchased at the high prices 
prevailing during a considerable period of the spring and early summer of 1920. 

We do not believe that the Cul>an producer is to blame, nor do we believe that 
even the Cuban speculators who attempted to hold about 10 per cent, of the crop 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 21 

for prices that would result in a profit to tliem can be blamed for tlieir position. 
All connected with the sugar trade will remember that during the fall of 1919 and 
the winter months of 1919-1920, exportations from the United States to the whole 
world were very heavy. Doubtless contracts for forward delivery of very large 
quantities of merchandise were also held by the producers of practically every class 
of merchandise, among these being those whose product demanded sugar in its manu- 
facture. It was also well known to all sugar consumers at that time that the statistics 
covering sugar production in the world showed that given anything like normal dis- 
tribution and consumption, as indicated by past figures, the total crop would in all 
probability not be sufficient to supply the demand. This conclusion was reached after 
the preliminary estimate of the prospective Cuban crop was given out in December 
by the statisticians of the Island, showing a possible record production of some 
4,500,000 tons. Under these conditions, faced by heavy demands for products 
containing sugar and consequent needs of a reliable supply, it is only natural that 
the manufacturers of such goods in the United States should watch with extreme 
interest every turn in the sugar situation. The possibility of a sugar scarcity doubt- 
less also reached the private consumer, and this vast army was watching events, and 
knew that any change in the total possible crop would have its effect upon the cost 
to him of the sugar that he would require. 

All know of the lai'ge sales that were made for forward delivery by Cuban 
producers in the late summer of 1919 at prices around 6.50c per lb. Doubtless these 
sales were made by men cognizant of the general sugar situation, and founded upon 
the belief that normal development of the crop in Cuba would continue. That the 
entire summer and fall in Cuba should pass with only a very sub-normal rainfall 
could not be predicted, and it was the natural belief at the time these sales were 
consummated that the splendid development of the fields shown in early August 
would continue, and that, therefore, a huge crop would result. That this same 
belief entered into the calculation of the estimates of the possible crop, and were 
justified by the appearance of the fields, is also evident, but here again the drawing 
out throughout the entire winter of the extremely dry ^^eather that had made possible 
the beginning of the crop as early as November 15th was not considered probable. 
The world at large, therefore, counted upon a production from Cuba of a quantity 
of sugar about that given out by her statisticians, and so was on the watch, but quiet. 

It was not long after the commencement of the harvest, however, that the actual 
conditions in the fields began to be known among those closest in touch with the 
situation. Especially from Oriente Province did early tales come of the great shortage 
of cane and the low per acre yields. Such reports soon spread to include Camagiiey, 
and later to many plantations in Santa Clara Province. These reports undoubtedly 
had their effect, resulting in the purchase of sugars at continually higher prices 
till ov-er 10c per lb. was reached for December delivery and over 12c for January. 
Later on demand became less and prices dropped in sympathy till during February 
sugar could be had at slightly more than 9c per lb. to again reach 12c and over during 
March. Then the bomb burst. Revised estimates of the probable crop were given 
out, showing a possible lowering of the supply available from Cuba by over 500,000 
tons, and doubtless confirming in the opinions of sugar consumers the belief that 
had formerly been only a thought, that prompt purchase of as large a quantity as 
possible was the only method of ensuring a supply such as would satisfy what they 
considered to be their requirements. A further revision of estimated production, 
lowering it by almost another quarter million tons, was made in May, with a further 
acceleration of the upward race in prices, resulting in the sale of one lot of sugar 
for delivery in New Orleans at 23 %c per lb., a. price which we believe to represent 
the high of this remarkable year. 

But the point that we wish to bring out is that the ever upward trend in prices 
was produced through the competition among themselves by the Northern manu- 



THE CUB A U E V I E W 



fiirliii-crs (iC imxliHls !■( (|uii-iii.L^ si:;;:!i- in ilifir (■i>iiiin>siiiun, ami 1 liroiiuli llic iii:iiiiu«r 
ill wliicli ii(',i;«'tiiitioi!s lor snirar wfic (.-irricd mi. Vvmu every (luar'fr of ilic I'liilt'd 
!St;it«'s niiin'als weiv iiiiuli' imt tuilx lo recouiiized sujrar faelors lirir in Ciilia, but 
filso to every one wliose ilauie as a resident of Cuba had lieeoiiie known in the Inited 
States, to seeure the aii|iealiiiy- parties tlie sniiply oC sii;:ar tliat they rci|iiir<'ii. In 
very many eases no price was speciiied. s.. tiiat tlie supidies were purchasi'd at tlie 
niarl^et pri<'e prevaiiiiii:- at tlie time: lui! in many oiher cases, perhaps tlu' j^reat 
ma.iority. liauuiiiii;- was indulged in, neither Imyer imr seller hein^' willing lo iiialve 
strai^jiit oflVr, witli the result that many orders lor piir<hase were liiially closed at 
prices two and three cents ahove the fiuures piexailiiiL; wiicn the iiei:orialions began — 
for it was a seller's market, pure and siniiili". I'nder these conditions no one can 
attacli the slightest blame to any one el.se who, knowing that there exists an active 
demand for his product, asks therefor a )»rice slightly aliove that prevailing at the 
tiiiK". taking the position that if not accepted by the first comer, it would be by the 
next. 

Thus matters contiimed till late in :May when sugar had reached the high of 
l'.".V2C c. & f. New Orleans. About this time, doubtless, consumiition had begun to 
decrea.se in the North aiming the households whose members i-efu.sed to pay the prices 
ruling for retined. and it is also probable that the shadow of the great de<-rease in 
exportation of food products of all kinds bad cast itself across the commercial horizon, 
.so that greater cantion began to rule. Later events proved also that heavy imrchases 
of foreign sugars, wliicli in normal times foinid a m.-irket in oVIhm- lands, had bi-en 
made for futnre delivery in the I'nited States. The residt was that i)eginniiig in 
late May prices began to sag, and that after June a downward tendency set in that 
found no stopping jioint until a level somewhat lower than that now prevailing was 
readied. It was during the earl.v days of this period that the holders of sugar in 
Cuba, many of whom had actually made heavy piii(lias;'s of this jiroduct at prices 
ranging around litic, and others of whom had I'oimd themselves with their latest 
production on hand, for atioiii half of wliicli lliey bad paid theii' cane ]iroducers at 
the high average pilces iirevailing in late May and .lime, iiaiideil themselves together 
and chose the members of tlie "Sugar Sales Commiilee." and came out with the 
statement that their sugars would be held till the iirice secured therefor was such as 
to leave them a nominal iirofit in the transaction. All the sugar left in C'ulta at that 
time rejiresented only a small ]ier cent., about ten at the outside, of the total crop,* 
and only a part of this was ever idenlilied with that held by the Sugai' Sales Coin- 
mill ee. but in the o]>inioii of the sugar world of the .North, all was cla.ssed under the 
s;ime head. Quite a number of individual ludders of crojt remnants, some (juite large, 
offered their sugar at less than market quotations as the price came down, without 
finding takers. The damage had been done. The scarcity in the I'liited States that 
had been heralded by every one. even the statistical heads of deiiartments of the 
Government, had been transformed by jiurcliases of otlu'r outside sugars, by a limita- 
tion of consumption by the general public, and by the tremendous decrease of demand 
from abroad for goods containing sugar, into an actual siiridus, evidence of which 
became greater and greater as time passed, with the result that holders of heavy 
supiilies of sugar began to get out from under, offering their sugars at ever decreasing 
pri(es and taking their losses as opportunity offered, so that at no time was a recovery 
possible. Actual losses by Northern holders who could sell, and paper hisses by 
holders in all countries who found it impossible to dispose of their product, were 
piled up, emliarrassing both holders and their bankers and producing a condition of 
financial stringency that has left its imiiress on all sugar producin:; countries, and 
from which time alone will bring about a cure. 

To the onlooker, the effects of these conditions fii Cuba has been very interesting. 
During the years of United States Govei-miient control of prices of sugar, the sales 
effected at the piices fixed for our ]irodiict left good or iiK^dium iirotit depending on 



T 11 E C U B A R E V I E W 23 

the effltiency of the organization of the producing company or tlie farm wlaere the 
cane wiis grown. Higher costs, of course, ruled, due to tlie greater prices that had 
to be paid for everything utilized in cane growing and sugar making; yet during 
the most of tliese two years liigher sugar prices preceded higlier cost of production, 
so that good profits were the rule. Enthusiasm, therefore, prevailed, and continued 
increase in area planted and the establishment of new mills and improvement of 
installation of those already in operation were general. The results are seen in the 
ever greater crops produced since the outbreak of the war, interrupted only by causes, 
such as the drought of 1019, impossible of control by man. This enthusiasm not only 
was demonstrated in the sugar industry, but in all other lines. Land values began 
to advance, suburban additions of great extent and involving heavy preparatory 
expenses were opened up on all sides near all our large towns and cities, Ijuildlng 
in both country districts and in towns was the rule, merchants were open to the 
agents of manufacturers of every kind of merchandise that could possibly be marketed 
among a people with whom money was plentiful, and credit was free and given to all. 
With the closing of the period of Government control of sugar prices, some slight 
hesitation was shown, but with the declaration of the 10.5c per lb. price at which the 
sugar of the cane producers was liciuidated for December, 1919, confidence returned, 
and with the ever increasing prices of sugar during the spring of 1020, a period of 
riotous spending and speculation in everything that could cater to the pleasure or 
need of our people set in that seemed to have no limit. Every indication that these 
conditions had come to stay for at least a period of four or five years was in evidence, 
and it was freely predicted that during this period sugar would sell for at least 8 or 10 
cents per lb. This, of course, meant that in Cuba anything connected with sugar 
production could leave nothing but profit, so that the price of sugar properties, whether 
mills or cane farms, soared to the skies. Transactions in properties of this nature 
were everyday affairs, and the sums represented were in many cases fabulous. Ten, 
twelve, and even fifteen thousand dollars were paid per caballeria (about 33 1/3 acres) 
for merely planted cane, the land not being included in the transaction ; and equiva- 
lent! y high prices were paid for mills. The significance of this will be recognized 
when it is known that the cost of preparing, planting, and cultivation to harvest a 
caballeria of cane in 191-1 in the eastern provinces of Cuba was estimated to be about 
$1,200.00, and that even with the tremendously increased costs of all operation.^ 
connected with cane planting and cultivation during 1919, a conservative estimate 
of the expense involved was not more than .$5,500.00 per caballei'ia. But the fever 
was on, and increased in degree as the spring passed, and higher prices ruled for 
sugar. Those who in the early spring had sold their properties, tempted by the 
apparently high prices then offered iii comparison with those ever offered before, 
came back into the game and purchased much larger properties than those disposed 
of by them and at higher prices than those obtained when they had sold. In this 
they were abetted by the banks, who seemed to have lost their sense of perspective 
and offered freely credit for such transactions as in a more sane period would have 
been turned down in a moment. Yet at the same time these same institutions, through 
their higher officials, were advising those of their clients who consulted with them 
regarding the advisability of accepting tempting offers, to accept them and close 
the deal without delay. We thus find that solid substantial companies like Punta 
Alegre disposed of their cane farms (the cane stubble, not the land upon which it was 
growing), preferring to take advantage of the high offers made and to buy the cane 
from the grower at the percentage prevailing in the property, rather than continue 
growing the cane for their own account. And the wonder of the whole thing is that 
some of these same cane farms were purchased by the owners of mills who had made 
a killing during the crop, and who, in the acquiescence of these companies to part 
with their holdings, should have sensed something that should have deterred them 
from entering in where wiser and more experienced heads were ready to get out. 



24 TEIECUBAREVIEW 



In the same way in the urhan real estate line, lionscs and hind < hanjied hands at ever 
Incn-aslng prices, as liigh as $100.00 per scpiarc mdcr lia\ing Ix-en paid for raw 
residence property in Havana's favorite residenrc disirirt, Uu- X'fdado. One real 
estate subdivision, located some six miles from tlie City of Havana, opened u\) (tnly 
In map form, and in wliich no improvements liad as yet been made, was sold cnniplete 
In a week, at the opening price of $6.00 per niclcr. It goes without saying that a very 
large percentage of the lots thus disposed of will be turned back to the sellers, and 
that the purchasers will lose the instalments paid in, while in many other transac- 
tions in which numerous instalments have been paid, adjustments will have to be 
made. 

Reference has already been made to the freedom witb which our merchants placed 
orders for merchandise of every description. This has undoubtedly been one of the 
principal causes of the financial events which have since happened. The i)r(»sperous 
condition of the country, the undoubtedly favorable future of itS' iirinciiial industry, 
and the remarkable freedom with which ci-edits were urnnted not only in ( 'uba but 
by foreign firms, had led to the formation of many small c(jncerns here with limited 
capital. Notwithstandiiig the smallness of ilie capital of these firms, they bad been 
able to place orders for merchandise to the value, in nmny instances, of many times 
their capital. Other firms of long standing and large resources had placed orders for 
very large quantities of goods, and under oi-dinary circumstances would have been 
able to take care of these orders without difHculty. The tremendous increase, how- 
ever, in imports into the Island without a coiicsiionding increase in the port facilities 
required for taking care of such an additional (luantity of cargo, brought about port 
congestion in those of our ports where our general cargoes have in the past ])een 
mostly received, that is, in ?Iavana, Santiago de Cuba and Cienfqegos. In addition 
to this port congestion, the transportation ditticulties of the North, in fact of nearly 
all countries exporting to Cuba, are well remembered, so that frequently shipment of 
merchandise would be very niucli delayed. This resulted in a considerable number 
of cases in further orders for goods of the same nature being placed with firms whose 
representatives stated positively that they could secure innnediate shipment from the 
North. Instances have come to the writer's knowledge, in which a third order for 
The same goods had been placed witliout the cancellation of the two previous orders, 
and it so resulted that when transportation could be secured for the third order, tlie 
same was possible for the first and second, so that the merchant found himself in 
the embarrassing situation of receiving simultaneously three orders of practically the 
same character. Undoubtedly also advantage was taken by foreign shippers to send 
to Cuba in fulfillment of orders very large quantities of merchandise which had not 
been sent previously due to the possibility of sale to others at higher prices than 
those mentioned in contracts with the Cuban merchants. Tlien the period came when 
the drop in tlu' price of merchandise of practically every character began in the North, 
with no innnediate prospect of recovery, so that doubtless they thought that it would 
be better to ship the goods to Cuba and trust to their being received by our merchants, 
notwithstanding the difference between contract price and market price at the date 
of shipment, rather thaii for the shippers themselves to risk carrying the goods for 
their o\\ni account. Our merchants in many cases received without a murnuir the 
goods thus sbiiiped, Imt the lo.sses represented by the difference between market price 
and contract jn-ice finally became so great that trouble liegan. The failvu-e on the 
part of our merchants to receive and take out from the customs warehouse these 
goods increased the nornnil congestion due to the unusually heavy shipments, with 
the result that ndllions of dollars were tied up in the fixed assets represented by 
this merchandise. 

There is no doubt whatever that certain of our financial institutions had made 
heavy loans on sugar, based upon prices in instances as high as 15c per lb. The rapid 
drop in price after the break in May soon left these sugars at the mercy of the bank- 



THECUBAREVIEW 25 

ers, but in most cases they seemed to be of the same opinion as the sugar liolders, 
that is, tliat the lowering prices were merely the result of a temporary weakness and 
recovery would soon be seen. That they were all mistaken has since become evident. 

Thus had been laid the groundwork for a period of extreme financial embarrass- 
ment beginning last October, Growing difficulty in securing credit and higher money 
rates contributed toward the feeling that all was not well with our banking institu- 
tions. Little by little this feeling became extended and strengthened, until in the 
week beginning October 3rd, when, especially during the latter part of the week, 
runs were commenced on the local banks, that is, the Spanish Bank of the Island of 
Cuba, the National Bank of Cuba and the International Bank, these runs developed 
full strength on Saturday morning, October 8th. Luckily for the banks Saturday was 
only a half day, so that funds were disbursed only during the morning hours, but 
during this period very large sums had been distributed to depositors. Saturday 
afternoon and Sunday conferences were held betw^een the principal bankers of the 
city, President Menocal and other Government officials, and the decision was reached 
to declare a moratorium to be effective till November 1st, by the terms of which 
the payment of all mercantile debts contracted previous to October 10th or that Avould 
fall due before November 1st would not be enforceable till this date. Congress should 
have opened its sessions on November 1st, but due to political dissension this did 
not take place during the entire month of November, resulting in a further extension 
of the moratorium to January 1st, President Menocal stating toward the end of 
December that if Congress did not meet before January 1st, no further extension 
of the moratorium would be decreed. This woke the legislative bodies up, with the 
result that the House of Representatives held its first session on December 30th, 
petitioning President Menocal, through a committee appointed for that purpose, to 
grant a further extension of the moratorium, thus giving Congress time to act. This- 
resulted in a further extension till January 31st. During this interval the Torriente 
law was passed, by which the payment of debts to the banks by debtors thereof must 
b*^ made according to a schedule granting 105 days from January 31st, in which the 
complete debt must be settled, and granting the banks 135 days from January 31st 
in which to settle the accounts due by them to their creditors. The schedule of pay- 
ment by tlie banks' debtors is as follows : 15% within fifteen days after January 
31 st, 25% within the next thirty days, 25% within the next thirty days, and 35% withira 
the next thirty days. Failure to pay any one of these installments or to have paid the 
full amotmt within the period of 105 days mentioned gives the creditor the privilege 
to enforce the payment by law. The schedule of payments by the banks to their 
creditors is as follows: 15% after the first fifteen days, 15% after the next thirty 
days, 20% after the next thirty days, 25% after the next thirty days, and 25% at the 
end of the next thirty days. The failure by a bank to pay any one of these install- 
ments gives the bank's creditors the privilege of proceeding according to law. 

During this period in which the enforcement of the payment of debts was prac- 
tically impossible, financial quiet, of course, prevailed. Yet under the surface much 
true liquidation was going on. Many of oiir retailers paid up in part their debts to 
wholesalers, who in turn applied these funds on the payment of debts to the banks, 
which in turn used the funds thus secured to give amounts to their most needy de- 
positors exceeding the 10% of funds on current deposit as of October 9th, and the 12% 
of savings deposits, payment of which was required by the original moratorium decree. 
Also, at least one of our local banks began to reduce its branches and its staff, and 
commenced a propaganda among those who had been favored by it in an endeavor 
to secure such co-operation from them as would enable the bank to continue in 
operation. After the passage of the Torriente Law, both the Spanish Bank of Cuba 
and the National Bank of Cuba proposed plans by which their creditors should accept, 
in lieu of the amounts the bank owed them, certificates of deposit or bonds drawing 
interest at the rate of 5% and 6% respectively, the former due one year from March 
1st and the latter subject to call. 



26 THE C U B A U E V 1 E W 



'I'll.- iii.'Msiirfs thus tjikfii liiivc .-iiiiltlcd CuI.m to i-iiss iliroii;rli tlic (iiianciiil stniln 
Willi vrry few sciiuiis lailiin-s. TluM-e is no tlniihi w iiah'vcr ll):i( liefure the liiial 
l.iiyiiii'iits ht'coiiic (hie liy our iiu'rchaiits, i-itht-r heavy iaihu-«>s will occur or else these 
linns will have to lie assisted hy others tinancially more iiowerful, hut at all events 
up to the present lime n-sulls have itet'ii secured that w«' lielieve could have heeii 
hroufiht ahout in no other way. Conections have j.M-adual!y heeu made, and as the 

demand for suL'ar I im.- inoir .Mrivc. it is felt that the financial strain will he 

removed. 

This hrin^'s us to a cousideralion ot conditions in our suirar industry in relation 
to I lie present crop. Every one connected with this industry knows the hesitation on 
the jtart of foreijrn sujrar purchasers to enter the market and make purchases of any 
considerahle (juantity of su^'ar. This has resulted in the exportations of sujrars of 
this crop heinf: little more than half in vohmie of those to the same date of the crop 
of last year. It has. of course, trreatly auirravated the scarcity of funds with which 
to make the crop, ami as a result has led our planters to offer in the past their 
suirars u]!on the market practically as fa.st as they have heen produced, thus hringing 
ahout a seliin.ir competition lietween producers. This, of course, could have only one 
result, that is, that of a <'ontinual lowerinji of iirices, until these have reached a point 
nuich helow the cost of jiroduction. The outlook has hecome so serious that the large 
suLar interests of the Island presented a itetition to President Menocal asking that 
he in some way intervene, with the result that the decree was issued hy which a 
co:iimiliee called the Sugar Finance Committee was amiointed, consisting of two 
hacendados rei»resenting large sugar producers, two others representing the smaller 
liroduc«'rs, two of Havana's most important hankers, iind the Secretary of Agriculture, 
Commerce and I-ahor, through which and oidy through which future sales of the 
sugars of this crop can he effected, and Mithout permission from which no sugar of 
this crop can he exported. This decree woidd not go into effect until after sugar 
mills which last year had produced 7o% of the total crop of the Island had indicated 
their willingness tit ahide hy its terms. The allegiance of a sutticient numher of 
mills was not secured until a week ago today, so tliat it was not ijossihle for Secretary 
of Au:ricidture (Jeneral Agramonte to announce that the decii'e was in operation until 
last Tuesday, the '2'2n(\. at which time mills which last year had produced 21.100.8:^0 
hags had expressed tlu'ir conformity with the terms of the decree and their willing- 
ness to ahide l)y them. 

The effect of the decree was instantaneous. Innnediately preceding its pulilica- 
tion, sugar had heen sold as low. we helieve, as ?>%c per 11). c. & f. New York, hut 
immediately after its puhlication the market became firmer and tlie i»rice rose until 
sales wi're made as high as 4%c, after wiiich tlie market ha:; apparently hecome 
stahle at 4%c. Sales of a cfmsideralde volume of sugar have heen reported to Japan 
at 4.0c f. 0. h. Cuba, with further sales to Northern inteivsts at 4%c c. & f. New 
York. The greatest change, however, lirought alxuit has heen that tlie Northern 
refiners, instead of continuing their former attitude of waiting in order to give our 
Iiroducers an opportimity to further hid down the market against themselves, have 
hegun i)urchasing for future requirements, the sales effected during the last two 
weeks having been, we believe, fidly as great, if not nuich greater, than during the 
entire j receding month. The decree lias been issued without the slightest idea of 
fixing any given price. Imt merely for the purpose of preventing the competition 
among sellers which would have resulted so disastrously. It is the purpose of the 
comiTiittee to offer CuIki's sugar gi-adually as the markets can take it. at a price on 
a parity with that being obtained in these markets for sugars of other countries, 
or even at a price at a shade lielow, thus preventing a repetition of what occurred 
last year when the sugars of the world were given uninterrupted entrance into the 
United States through the determined holding on the p:irt of Cuba of her unsold 
remnant of the crop at prices which were ridiculous. 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 27 

Just what the total crop will be we believe it impossible to predict. The fine 
growing weather of last spring was followed by a summer somewhat dry, to be 
succeeded by a wet fall with very heavy rains in late November and even through 
December. The result has been a heavy tonnage of cane in the fields, but a retarded 
ripening that is causing the sugar yields in our mills to be considerably below normal. 
Very few of our mills at this Avriting are getting as high as 11% rendiment, while 
usually at this time of the year a percentage considerably above this is being secured. 
The financial difficulties, the late arrival of machinery and interruptions in its 
installation, Avith the heavy rains of the fall, brought about a late commencement 
of the harvest which very prolial)ly cannot be overcome. There is doubtless cane 
in the fields in Cuba, notwithstanding the abandoning of many thousands of acres 
due to lack of funds with which to care for them, sufficient to make well over 4,000,000 
tons of sugar under normal extraction conditions, but A^ith the kite commencement 
of the harvest, the low sugar yields being obtained, and other difficulties, we believe 
that if the total crop reaches 3,500,000 tons it will be all that can be expected. We 
have all the conditions necessary for the making of Cuba's record crop : mill capacity, 
quantity of cane in the fields, transportation facilities, labor tranquillity, good har- 
vesting weather and a reasonal)le supply of labor, but against these have been the 
late start of grinding, the unripened condition of the cane, and the eouseciuent low 
sugar yield in our mills. 

With regard to the future of our industry, we cannot but be optimistic. Many 
of those who began cane growing or became identified with sugar production during 
last spring and early summer will have to retire through lack of financial means of 
fulfilling the obligations entered into, but their places will be taken by others coming 
in on lower levels, and who will, therefore, not be required to bring to the business 
such great financial strength. There have during the past few years been opened 
large bodies of virgin soil, especially in the two eastern provinces, and these will 
continue to produce cane at a comparatively cheap price for a long time to come. 
The average cost of production will undoubtedly become less as the cost of living 
and that of articles required in the production of cane and sugar recedes. Doubtless 
as time passes, the price of our product will also lower to become more like that 
prevailing before the war, but we believe that the lowering of costs will compensate 
lowering of selling price, so that we will be in a position to compete quite favorably 
\vith other cane producing countries and with the best producing countries of Europe, 
which formerly were our strongest competitors. Doubtless also the world's purchasing 
power will gradually improve as normal conditions become restored, so that the 
quantity of sugar consumed will resume the gradual upward trend so plainly indicated 
before the war. There is, therefore, we believe, no reason for fear with regard to 
the future of this, Cuba's greatest industry, though a trying period is doubtless before 
many of those who entered it during the period of inflation through which we have 
just come and from which we are just beginning to recover. 



GUANTANAMO SUGAR COMPANY CUBA CANE SUGAR CORPORATION 

The Board of Directors has declared a 

dividend of fifty cents (50c) per share on Preferred Stock Dividend. 

the no par value stock of the Company 

for the quarter ending March 31, li;!21. A quarterly dividend of .*?1.75 per share 

payable April 1, 1921, to stockholders of has been declared upon the Preferred 

record at the close of business March 25, Stock of this Corporation, payable April 

1921. The transfer books will not be 1st, 1921, to stockholders of record at the 

closed. close of business March loth, 1921. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



THE PREVAILING PRICES FOR CUBAN SECURITIES 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York. 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1044 yy yy 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 104i) ^q ,j- 

Republlc of Cul)a Exterior Loan 4^^ % Bonds of 1949 gg gg 

Havana City First Mortgage »i% Bonds g5 95 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6% Bonds g5 95 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 40 55 

Cuba Railroad Co. First Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 g5 70 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 70 80 

Cuba Company 7% Cumulative Preferred Stock 70 80 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Consolidated Mortgage 5% Bonds 73 75 

Havana Electric Ry., Ligbt & Power Co. Preferred Stock 80 90 

Havana Electric Ry., Ligbt & Power Co. Common Stock 70 80 

Cuban- American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock — — 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock 12^4^ 13 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



Total values of merchandise imported from and exported to Cuba during June, 
July, August, September, October, November, December and January, compared with 
corresponding periods of the preceding years, have been made public by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce, as follows : 

Month of June Twelve Months Ended June 

1920 1919 1920 1919 

Imports from < "11! )a $12.5,064,99.5 .$38.51>3.:!.S7 .$045,571,828 $337,054,142 

Exports to Cul)ii 43,.507.160 10 040,010 390,595,049 229,545,704 

Month of Jul II Seven Months Ended July 

1920 1919 1920 1919 

Imports from Cuba $118,084,356 .$38,404,320 $581,005,739 $273,704,138 

Exports to Cuba 35,189,-584 15,290,837 278,493,581 140,-391,007 

Month of A up. Eight Months Ended Aug. 

1920 1019 1920 1919 

Imports from Cuba $73,242,308 $24,301,939 $654,248,107 $298,066,077 

Exports to Cuba 38.4^3,457 24,544,960 316,977,038 164,935,967 

Month of Sept. Nine Months Ended Sept. 

1920 1919 1920 1919 

Imports from Cuba $28,481,189 $42,369,736 $682,729,296 $340,435,813 

Exports to Cuba 44,0-35,213 22,27-3,715 361,016,251 187,209,682 

Month of October Ten Months Ended October 

1920 1919 1920 1919 

Imports from Cuba $11,265.0<X> ,$-34,874,826 $693,994,-386 $.375,310,639 

Exports to Cuba 51,884,014 27,357,181 411,964,865 214,566,863 

Month of Novem her Eleven Months Ended November 
1920 1019 1920 1919 

Imports from Cuba $17,079,241 -$27,405,440 $710,896,219 $402,806,079 

Exports to Cuba 57,679,-324 28,676,383 469,669,269 243,243,246 

Month of December Ticelve Months Ended December 
1920 1919 1920 1919 

Imports from Cuba $10,799,686 $1-5,804,184 $721,69-5.905 $418,610,263 

Exports to Cuba 45,-357,125 35,147,976 515,082,549 278,391,222 

Month of January Seven Months Ended January 

1921 1920 1921 1920 

Imports from Cuba $12,970,474 -$4-5,421,493 $272,-342.971 $228,671,938 

Exports to Cuba 46,405,3-39 30,222,646 319,112,291 183,513,698 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



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40 T II E C U B A R E V I E W 

SUGAR REVIEW 

SCcdalty u'rilten for The Cuba Rcviexv b^' W'illctt 6" Gray, New York, N, Y. 



The principal item of interest since our last review has been the announcement 
of the formation of a committee in Cuba to control the balance of the Cuban crop 
of 1920-21. 

In this connection a sul)-connnittoe has been formed in New York and offerings 
are being made to our refiners with sales of some 80,0<X) tons of sugar reported and 
having the effect of advancing the market to the basis of 4%c c, «& f. 

Owing to the uncertaintj' in regard to our supplies on account of the above Cuban 
control, our refiners have been reluctant sellers of refined sugar and an advance has 
been established to the basis of 7.75c f. o. b. refining centers for granulated with 
gome refiners entirely out of the market at this writing. The Emergency Tariff Law 
now in the hands of President Wilson is also lending to the uncertainty and until 
the status of tliis bill is definitely settled same will continue. 

In the meanwhile, the crop in Cuba is making satisfactory progress with 186 
factories now grinding, although the visible production to date is over 400,000 tons 
behind last year. The following are the terms included in the law now in effect which 
supersedes the moratorium : 

Cuban Moratortim. — The following are the terms included in the Moratorium 
Law recently passed in Cul)a : 

Commercial Bank 

Obligations PaiiahU Ohliyations Payable 

15% in 1"> days 15% in 15 days 

25% in 45 days 15% in 45 days 

25% in 75 days 20% in 75 days 

35% in 105 days 25% in 105 days 

25% in 135 days 

With regard to the above mentioned Cuban control the following is said to be 
the form of contract covering sales and shipments of Culian sugar under the proposed 
Connnission plan issued New York, February 17, 11121 : 
To THE SufiAR Finance Committee: 

The undersigned for and on behalf of (here Insert name of Culjan producer — 

giving location of factory in Cuba) during season of 1019-1920 INIade bags 

of sugar and expects during season of 1920-1921 to Make bags of sugar, 

all of which will belong to the above companies, does hereby accept in the name of 
the foregoing sugar companies, each and every one of the provisions of the decree 
No. 155 of February 11, 1921, and further does hereby agree to sell for the account 
of the foregoing sugar companies the entire production of the foregoing centrals for 
the 1920-1921 crop, less the amount already sold or covered by special written agree- 
ment of the character set forth in article fifth of the said decree as per schedule 
hereto annexed, through the sugar finance committee constituted in and by the afore- 
said decree, and does hereby authorize and empower the saivl sugar finance com- 
mittee to sell the same upon the following terms and conditions : 

1. The amount to be sold and shipped from time to time and the price thereof 
shall be such as said committee may decide in their sole and exclusive judgment and 
discretion; but all sales made by the committee from the date of the operation of 
the said decree and all shipments shall be allotted amongst all the jiroducers parties 
to this agreement, pro rata according to their production as estimated by the sugar 
finance committee, which estimate shall be sul)ject to revision by such committee from 
time to time as the crop progresses and subject to final adjustment upon the com- 



THECUBAREVIEW 41 



pletion of the crop. Adjustments shall be made from time to time by the committee to 
ensure to each producer his pro rata share of shipments. 

2. Said committee is authorized to constitute a fund by retaining % of 1% 
of the invoice price of all sugars shipped to ports of the United States and Canada, 
from which the committee may pay any brokerage that it may deem necessary or 
desirable to pay to the United States or Canada in connection with any sugar sold 
by it; the balance of such a fund to be distributed to the parties interested on the 
final accounting. 

3. Said committee is also authorized to retain from the selling price % of 1% 
of the invoice price of all sugars shipped to ports other than the United States and 
Canada, to pay brokerage in connection with such sales. 

4. The committee is also authorized to retain Ic per bag on all sugars shipped 
out of Cuba to constitute a fund from which the committee may pay Cuban local 
brokers such brokerage as it may in its judgment deem advisable for their services 
as brokers in connection with the sale of sugars and the adjustment of the fortnightly 
and monthly average settlement prices and for similar services. 

5. Inasmuch as sales will l)e made from time to time at different prices, the 
following method of settlement will be followed : 

The committee shall from time to time fix and announce a basic price upon- 
which payments shall be made to the shipper on account of all shipments made by 
him. The shipper shall draw with shipping documents attached, on the buyers desig- 
nated by the committee for 95% of the basic price, the remaining 5% of said basic 
price to be paid by the buyer in cash to shipper upon final liquidation of each 
shipment. 

The difference between the invoice price and basic price shall be collected by 
drafts drawn by the shipper against the buyer to the order of the sugar finance 
committee, such drafts shall be delivered to and collected by said sugar finance com- 
mittee, and out of such collections they shall pay all charges, brokerage fees, clerical 
hire and other similar expenses incurred by the committee (but not including any 
compensation to such committee) and the balance thereof should be distributed pro 
rata from time to time as rapidly as possible. 

6. If the said decree should be repealed or should for any reasons cease to be 
in effect, the sugar finance committee may at any time on two weeks' published notice 
terminate this agreement. 

7. It is understood that the individual members of said sugar finance committee 
are acting herein as volunteers in a purely administrative capacity without compensa- 
tion and that, therefore, they shall not incur any personal liability, individually or 
collectively, in connection with the sale and shipment of sugars, nor be responsible for 
any damage of whatever kind connected with any matter or thing related thereto, 
nor be responsible or liable for any act, fault, or misconduct of any agent or person 
employed by them ; and the sellers hereby release the individual members of said 
committee from any and all claims of AA'hatever character for personal liability or 
responsibility as aforesaid. 

For this purpose of carrying out the above-mentioned agreement on its behalf, 
the undersigned for and on behalf of the foregoing sugar companies does hereby 

irrevocably appoint and constitute the agent and 

representative of the foregoing sugar companies, to act for and represent it in all 
transactions or dealings of every kind with the sugar finance committee in connection 
with the sale of its sugar production for the crop 1920-1921 and all shipments thereof 
and payments to be made therefor, with full power to execute any and all agreements, 
receipts and other documents with regard to the sale of its sugars and the shipment 
thereof and the payment therefor, as said agent may in its exclusive discretion deem 
proper, hereby ratifying and confirming all that its said agent may do in the premises. 



42 T H E C I H A R E V I E W 

It has been reported here recontly that the Hawaiian sugar growers liave made 
arrangreinents to divert altont 150,W0 tons of Hawaiian raw sugar, half to American 
and half to Howell, altlmugh original arrangements had been made to refine the 
entire crop on the Pacific t'ciast. 

We have this week received ciililc advices fnnu the United Kingdom stating that 
it has boon olticially announced that contrnl of all sugar will be abolisheil today, 
February 2Sth. However, arrangements have been made with the English refiners 
to take over the raw sugar owned by the Royal Commission from time to time at 
market price the day the sugar is accepted. 

New York. X. Y., PVbniary 1.N, Mr2'[. 



REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita especialmente /'oni la CUBA REl'IEW [^or U'illctt & Gray, de Nneva York. 



El asunto principal do intcres desde nuestra ultima revista ha sido el haberse 
formado un comit6 en Cuba para hacerse cargo del resto de la zafra de Cuba de 
1020-21. 

En conoxion con esto se ha fonuado en Xucva York un subconiite, y se e.stS.n 
ha<icndo ofertas a nuestros refinadores, aniniciandose ventas de unas 80,000 toneladas, 
dando por resultado el alza del mercado bajo la l)ase de 4%c costo y flete. 

Debido a la incertidunihi-e respecto a nuestras existencias a causa de haberse 
hechii cargo del azucar el comire cubano antedicho, nuestros refinadores no ban estado 
muy dispuestos a efectuar ventas del azucar refinado, habiendose establecido un alza 
en los precios del azucar granulado bajo la liase de T.Toc lil)re a bordo los centres 
refinadnres. con algunos refinadores enteramente fuera del mercado al escribir esta 
resona. La Ley de Emergencia sobre la Tarifa. ahora en manos del Presidente Wilson, 
tamlilen esta conduciendo a la incertidumbre, y hasta cpie se haya arreglado definitiva- 
mente el esta tu to de dicha Ley continuarS, la incertidumbre. 

Entretanto, la zafra de Cuba esta pi-ogresaudo satisfactoriamente, decicandose 
ahora a la inolienda 186 fal»ricas, aunque, la produccion visilde hasta la fecha es de 
m^s de 400,000 toneladas menos que el ano pasado. La siguieute tabla muestra las 
condiciones incluidas en la Ley ahora en efecto, la cual substituye al Moratorium : 

MoRATORiiM Cuba NO. — Las siguentes son las condiciones incluidas en la Ley del 
Moratorium recieiitemenre jiasado en Cu1)a : 

(ihliii icioncH Bfiurarins 
a Pdfjar 

1~i% en 1.") dias 

15% en 4.") dias 

20% en To dias 

2.">% en 10.". di:is 

2.'5% en Ki.j dias 

Respecto a lo (jue se ha dicho antes acerca del comite cubano, .se dice que lo 
siguiente es la forma de contrato coniprendiendn ventas y embarques de aziicar de 
Cuba ba.io el iiTaii jiropuesto por la Comisi6n exitedido en Xueva York el IT de 
febrero do 1021 : 

Al Comite Finaneiero del Azucar : 

Los abajo firmados, por y en nombre de (insertese aqui el nombre del productor 
cubano — dando la localidad de la fabrica en Cuba) durante la estacion del 1919-1920 



Ohl 


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THECUBAREVIEW 43 



produjo sacos de aztiear y durante la estacion de 1920-1921 espera producir 

sacos de azucar, todo lo cual pertenecera a las companias antedichas, 

por la presente acepta en nombre de las antedichas companias de azucar cada una y 
todas las provisiones del decreto No. 155 de 11 de febrero de 1921, y aun mas, por la 
presente conviene en vender por cuenta de las antedichas companias de azucar toda 
la produccion de los centrales antedichos para la zafra de 1920-1921, menos la cantidad 
ya vendida comprendida en el arreglo especial por escrito del caracter expresado 
en el artlculo quinto de dicho decreto segun clausula aqui anexa, por medio del comite 
flnanciero del azucar constituido en y por el susodicho decreto. y por la presente 
autoriza y da poder al susodicho comite flnanciero del azucar para que venda el 
azucar segun las siguientes condiciones : 

1. La cantidad para ser vendida y embarcada de vez en cuando y el precio de 
la misma sera como dicho comite decida en su unico y exclusivo juicio y raciocinio ; 
pero todas las ventas heehas por el comite desde la fecha de la ejecucion de dicho 
decreto y todos los embarques seran distribuidos a pro rata entre todos los pro- 
ductores que forman parte de este acuerdo, segun su produccion segun calcule el 
comity flnanciero del azucar, cuyo qalculo estara sujeto a revision por dicho comite 
de vez en cuando segun progrese la zafra y sujeto a un ajuste flnal a la terminacion 
de la zafra. De vez en cuando se haran ajustes por el comite para asegurar a cada 
productor su cuota de pro rata en los embarques. 

2. Dicho comite esta autorizado para constituir un fondo reteniendo % de 1% 
del precio de la factura de todos los azucares embarcados a puertos de los Estados 
Unidos y el Canada, del cual el comite pueda pagar cualquier corretaje que juzgue 
necesario 6 conveniente a los Estados Unidos al Canada en conexion con cualquier 
aztiear vendido por ese medio ; el resto de dicho fondo para ser distribuido a las 
partes interesadas en la cuenta flnal. 

3. Dicho comite esta tambien autorizado a retener del precio de la venta Vz 
de 1% del precio de factura de todos los azucares embarcados a puertos que no sean 
los Estados Unidos el Canada, para pagar corretaje en conexion con dichas ventas. 

4. El comite esta tambien autorizado a retener Ic por saco de todos los azucares 
embarcados de Cuba para crear un fondo del cual el comite pueda pagar a loS 
corredores locales de Cuba el corretaje que en su juicio crea conveniente por sus 
servicios como corredores en conexion con la venta de azucares j por el ajuste quin- 
cenal y mensual del promedio del arreglo en los preclos, y por servicios semejantes. 

5. Una vez que se haran ventas de vez en cuando a distintos precios, se seguirS, 
el siguiente metodo para el arreglo : 

El comite de vez en cuando fijara y anunciara un precio de base por el cual 
se har^n los pagos al embarcador a cuenta de todos los embarques liechos por el. 
El embarcador, con los documentos de embarque adheridos, cobrara a los compradores 
designados por el comite el 95% del precio de base, el resto de 5% de dicho precio 
de base siendo pagado por el comprador al embarcador al contado a la liquidaci6n 
final de cada embarque. 

La diferencia entre el precio de factura y el precio de base sera colectado por 
letra girada por el embarcador contra el comprador a la orden del comite flnanciero 
del azucar, dichas letras seran entregadas y colectadas por dicho comite flnanciero 
del azucar, y de tales colectas ellos pagaran todos los gastos, corretaje, sueldos de 
los empleados de oflcina y otros gastos semejantes incurridos por el comite (pero sin 
incluir compensacion alguna a dicho comite) y el resto debera ser distribuido a pro 
rata de vez en cuando tan pronto como sea posible. 

6. Si dicho decreto fuera abrogado por cualquier motivo cesara de tener efecto, 
el comite flnanciero del azucar podra en cualquier ocasion terminar este convenio en 



44 THE CUBA REVIEW 



dos stMiinnas do aviso por inodio do la inihlicaciOn. 

7. Ila do darse por entendido que los iniombros individunles de dicho coralt6 
flnanoioro dol azucar estS.n actuando en oste caso voluntarianiente en una capaoidad 
[luramoiito adininistrativa y .sin conipensaoiCn, y que por lo tanto no incurrirfin en 
ninguna rosponsabilidad, individual o coloctivaniente, on ronexi6n con la vonta y 
oiubarquo do azilcaros, iii sorSn rosponsablos por ninyun dano de cualquior clase que 
sea, en oonoxi6n con ninjiun asunto o cosa a que esto tenga relaci6n, ni serSn ro- 
sponsablos o culpablos por cualquior acto, falta o mal procetler de ningun agento o 
persona enipleada por olios ; y los vendedores por la presente oxiniiran de rosponsabili- 
dad o culpabilidad, como ya so ha dicho, a los niiembros individuales do dicho coniit6 
do cualquior y toda recTamaci6n de cualquior clase que sea. 

Con el objeto de llevar a cabo el convonio antodicbo on su nombi'o, los al)ajo 
firmados. por y en nonibro de las antodichas coinpanlas de azucar por la prosente 

irrovocablomente nonibran y constituyen conio agoiito y 

ropresentante de las antedichas companias de azucar, para quo actue y las reprosente 
en todas las transacciones y negociacionos de toda clase con el comite finnciero del 
azlicar en conexion con la vonta de su producci6n de azticar para la zafra do 1920-1921 
y todos los einbarques de dicha z;>fra y pagos que so hagan do la niisnia, con coniploto 
[)oder para ejecutar cualquior y todos los acuerdos, recibos y otros docuniontos en 
relacion con la venta de sus azucares y su embarque y ol pago do olio, sfgun dicho 
agente considere justo en su juicio exclusivo, por la presente ratilicando y confirniando 
todo lo quo dicho agente puode hacor en oste caso. 

So ha anunciado aqui rocientenieute que los productores de aziicar de Hawaii 
ban hocho arreglos para distribuir como unas 150,000 toneladas de azucar crudo de 
Hawaii, la mitad a la refinoria American y la otra mitad a Howell, a posar de que 
so hablan hecho arreglos primitives para refinar toda la cosocha on la costa del 
Pacifico. 

Homos recibido esta semana avisos de la Gran Brotana por medio del cable 
manifostando que se ha anunciado oficialmente que la administracidn del azucar por 
ol gobierno sord abolida hoy, 28 do febrero. Sin embargo, se ban hecho arreglos con 
refinadoros inglesos para que tomen de voz en cuando el azucar crudo on podor de 
la Comision Ileal a los procios del morcado ol dia sea acoptada el azucar. 

Xncva York, folirero 2S, 1921. 



CUBAN-AMERICAN SUGAR COMPANY ^idod for the sinking fund and not used 

will revert to the company. The issue is 



The National City Company, New York, 
is offering $10,000,000 in ten-year 8 per 
cent, sinking fund first mortgage bonds 
of the Cuban-American Sugar Company 



callable in whole but not in part at 107f/j. 
The company further agrees to main- 
tain net quick assets equal to the value 
of outstanding bonds at all times. The 



at nar. 

'■ company's earnings last year wore in the 

The bonds are a direct obligation of „eifrhborhood of .$19,116,000, before pro- 
the Cuban-American Sugar Company and ^.jgion ^^.^^g ^^^^^^ f^j. Federal taxes, and 
are secured by about $10,000,000 in first ^^^ five-year average of earnings avail- 
mortgage bonds of subsidiary companies, ^ble for taxes and dividends was about 
representing property valued at approxi- $ii,600.000. The smallest earnings re- 
matoly $.'}4,000,000. Under the terms of turned in any one year in the last five 
the agreement, the company is to main- was about $8,000,000. Proceeds of the 
tain a sinking fund of $2.50,000 quarterly, bonds will be used to reduce outstanding 
to purchase bonds in the open market up bank loans and to give the company ad- 
to and including 10.5. Any money pro- ditional working capital. 



THECUB A REVIEW 45 



Cable "Turnure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK— 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of 
Collection and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public 
and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection 
of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and 
Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, 
Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 

HAVANA : N. Gelats & Co. PARIS : Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO : Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 

LONDON : The London Joint City & Midland Bank Ltd. 

I Banco Urquijo, Madrid 

SPAIN : I Banco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

' Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

Showing the location of all the active sugar plantations in Cuba 
and giving other data concerning the sugar industry of Cuba. 

Size 29^ X 24. Copyrighted 1918. 

Price 50 cents postpaid. 

THE CUBA REVIEW 

82 Beaver St., New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS and MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 
Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

A. KLING, Prop. MORll FATA STEAMSHIP WORK 

JAS. S BOGUE, Supt. lVH-/DlL.Ei, /\L./\. ^ SPECIALTY 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton. Night Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address : "Abiworks" New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Mailers & Manufacturers. Steamship Repairs in ail Branclies. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
Installation, Oil Fuel Installation, Carpenter and Joiner Work. 

18-20 Summit Street— 1 1 -27 Imlay Street Near Hamilton Ferry BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Agents for " Klnghorn " Multiplex Valve 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



46 



THE CUBA K E \ I E W 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Caiia Neto 

Sistema nueva patentada por 
Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 
constructor de trasbordadores superiores 

Funciona por motor, levantando, pesando, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cana por un hombre y 
imprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo " La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



Subscription 



$3.00 Per Year 



Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



Old Volumes of 

The Cuba Review 



Mr. Alberto Peralta, Apartado 2349, 
Havana, Cuba, is desirous of obtaining 
complete vohimes of The Citha Review 
for the following years : 1903, 1904, 1905, 
1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910. 

Any of our readers who may be able to 
supply these will communicate with Mr. 
Peralta, stating price for the collection. 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836, AT 105 WALL ST. 

Cable Address, " Tide, New York " 



BANK OF CUBA IN NEW YORK 

34 Wall St., New York 

Associate Bank of National Bank of Cuba 

General banking business transacted 
with special facilities for handling 
Cuban items through the National 
Bank of Cuba and its 92 branches 
and agencies. 

We are especially interested in dis- 
counting Cuban acceptances. 

Current Interest Rates Paid on Deposit Accounts 
subject to check. 

Loans, Discounts, Collections and Letters of 
Credit will receive our best attention. 

\V. A. MERCHANT President 

J. T. MONAHAN Vice-President 

CHAS. F. PLARRE Cashier 

L. G. JONES Asst. Cashier 

J. W. ALBAUGH ---..- Asst. Cashier 

Se habia Espaiiol 



Established 1876 



N. GELATS & COMPANY 

Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world 



SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 

HAVANA 



WANTED!! 

Hack volumes of '' The International 
Sugar Journar' for the years 1896- 
iijoi 1904-1905-1908-191 1 : "' Louis- 
iana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer" 
tioni July 1889 to June 1918 ; '"Cuba 
Review'' from January 1903 to July 
19 19; and "Sugar"' from January 
1S99 to October 1919. 

Those willing to sell should correspond 

with the Secretary. Sugar Bureau, 

PUSA, BIHAR, INDIA. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



47 



THE 



Crust Company of €uba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL ■ 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$900,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsby President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgood Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Whitner Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts 



%% 



99 




WATERPROOr 
. BELTING' 

ISWATERPBJ 

GARANTIZAMOS QUE ESTA 
COfiREA ES PERFECTA jV^^'' 
POR SU CALIDAD Y ^-'° 

PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUE8A 
VUELVE- 



SERENTE P.N.PIEDRA,- 
k^^-A CABLE "PEN I COPE" 



J-BACHMANNSCO: 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 

16-lfiREAg£ST. •— ^ NEW YORK,N.Y 




Our established relations with manufac- 
turers and large volume of business, 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes ot 



RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda — Bicarbonate Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid— Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases— Waxes 

Gums — Glues — Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filtering Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences Herbs- Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 



We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you are 
next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 
140 Liberty St., New York 

2 & 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cieiifuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives : 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R 



The Royal Bank "'Canada 

Fundado en 1869 

Capital Pagado - - - . . $15,000,000 
Fondo de Reserva - - - - 15,000.00o 
Actlvo Total ------ 420,000,000 

QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SUCURSALES 

VEINTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONDRES : 2 Bank Buildings, Princes Street 

NEW YORK: 68 William Street 

BARCELONA : Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Be expiden CARTAS DE CREDITO 
para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS ESTERLI- 
NAS y PESETAS, valederas sin descuentoalguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTO DE AHORROS se 
admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO PESOS 
en adelante. 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana : Obrapla 33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozarena F. W. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F. J. Beattv 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when icriting to Advertisers 



4S 



THE CUBA n K \ I !•: W 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. II No. 1 

P M 1 P M 


No. 7 
P M 


No. 6 

PM 


No. 3 

AM 


No. 9 

AM 


w 1 

58 
109 

«79 
230 

180, 

«95 

241 

276 

340 

5'0 
538 


10 31 

* 


10.01 
AM 

ia.17 
405 

6.00 

9-45 
6.00 

9 55 

"■35 
PM 
3.10 
AM 

3-45 
AM 


4.01 

640 
840 
PM 


I.OI 

3-23 
550 

923 


10 01 

11-54 
2 00 

4 47 
!>35 


701 

925 
•2 37 
PM 






9.00 



7.10 
AM 


7.10 
PM 








PM 

a-55 

6.10 

2.10 
6.45 
P M 














HAVANA 



Lv. Central Station Ar. 



Ar Matanzas.. .Lv. 

.Cardenas 



Sagua 

Caibarien. . . . 

. . .Santa Clara. . . 

Cienfuegos. . . 

. . Sancti Spiritus . 
. Ciego de Avila. 
Camaguey . . . 



Antilla 

. Santiago . . . 



Sleeping cars on trains 1,2,5, 6, 
♦Via Carreno. 



and 12. 



No. 2 

AM 



6 50 

415 
1205 
PM 
10.45 

7-25 
11.00 



4-45 



12.15 
AM 



No. 8 No. 6 

AM ' PM 



6.52 
5 00 
AM 



12.01 
AM 



1. 10 
10 00 

645 



7.40 



No. 10 No. 4 No. 12 

PM i PM AM 



6.30 

350 
1.20 
PM 



12.40 I 
AM 

9 00 

PM 
10.40 
9 00 
AM 



5.06 



12 10 
PM 

8.15 
AM 



PM 

" 15 
AM 



6.30 



10.15 
PM 



SLEEPING CAR RATES UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From Havana to 

Cienfuegos 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Ciego de Avila 

Camaguey 

Bayamo 

Altro Cedro 

Santiago 



Lower 
Berth 


Upper 
Berth 


Compart- 
ment 


Drawing 
Room 


$5.00 


$400 


I12.00 


$15-00 


550 
6 00 


4.30 1 
5.00 ) 


15.00 


18.00 


7.0fj 


6.00 ) 






8.00 


7 00 ( 


20.00 


25.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



U S. Cy. 

Antilla $2921 

Batabano 2.95 

Bayamo 26.24 

Caibarien 14 81 

Camaguey 20.57 

Cardenas 796 

Ciego de Avila 17-47 

Cienfuegos 1233 

Colon 8.12 

Guantanamo 3 [-70 

Holguin 26.87 



U. S. Cy. 

Isle of Pines |io.oo 

Mad ruga 4.25 

Manzanillo 27.74 

Matanzas 4.60 

Placetas 13-54 

Remedios i4.,S0 

Sagua 11.98 

San Antonio 1.80 

Sancti Spiritus i5-5i 

Santa Clara 12.08 

Santiago de Cuba 30.08 



Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weigh* 
110 pounds or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in second-class. 



ROUND TRIP TICKETS-First and Second Class 

are on sale from Havana to Matanzas, Jovellanos, Cardenas, Col6n, Union, Sagua, 
Caibarien and Cienfuegos, valid for three days after date of sale. 



UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



W. T. MEDLEY, COMMERCIAL AGENT 



ARCHIBALD JACK, GENERAL MANAGER 



HAVANA, CUBA 



Please )iu)ition THE CUBA REVIEW tchen writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



49 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPECIALTIES 
88 BROAD ST., Cor. Stone. NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion directa de todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York ; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool ; Vapores 
Transatlanticos de A. Folch & Co., de Barcelona, 
Espafia. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET I7/2I 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established 50 Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 



JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 
Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones : | g^n [• Bowling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone 0316 Henry Night Call, 2278 Henry 



The Smre and Triest Company 

Contracting Engineers 

STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 

We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office, 8 West 40th Street 

Havana Ofifice : Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address ; Kunomale, New York 
Telephone, 3300 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Elxchange 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar Makers, 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 Summit Street 

Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



CARLOS M. VARONA 



MERCADERES No. 5 
HAVANA, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

COMMISSION MERCHANT 

P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either on a 
commission basis or under agency arrangements. 
Also furnishes all desired information about land* 
in eastern Cuba. 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

SttgrawrB- - 3Fttte ^tattottf rg 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA. CUBA 



F. W. Hvoslef 



E. C. Day 



R. M. Michelion 



BENNETT, HVOSLEF & CO. 

Steamship Agents & Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 
Cable "Benvosco" 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when ivriting to Advertisers 



50 TiiK nr. A It E V I E w 



THE FOUNDATION COMPANY is an Organ- 
ization of Construction Engineers special- 
izing in the building of difficult Super- 
structures and Substructures. The enviable repu- 
tation gained in its early history for trustworthy 
underground construction has followed it into the 
field of General Engineering Contracting. Included 
among the structures successfully completed by The 
Foundation Company are the following : 

Refineries. 

Industrial Plants. 

Foundations, Shoring and Underpinning. 

Bridge Piers and Bridges. 

Sea Walls, Wharves, Bulkheads and Piers. 

Mine Shafts. 

Tunnels and Intakes. 

Dams and Hydro-electric Developments. 

Power Plants. 

Buildings, Offices, Warehouses, Factories. 

Housing Developments. 

Railroads and Terminals. 

Filtration and Sewage Plants. 

Highways. 

THE FOUNDATION COMPANY 

Engineering Construction 

CITY OF New York : Havana. Cuba : 

120 LIBERTY STREET HORTER BUILDING 



Please meution THE CLBA REVIEW ithen i':riting to Advertisers 



THECUBAREVIEW 51 

Munson Steamship Line 



GENERAL OFFICES : 

82 Beaver Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Keyser Building, BALTIMORE. MD. 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

Leave Arrive Leave Arrive 

New York Antilla Antilla New York 

S/S " MUNAMAR " Apr. 2 Apr. 6 Apr. 9 Apr. 13 

" Apr. 16 Apr. 20 Apr. 23 Apr. 27 

" Apr. 30 May 4 May 7 May 11 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



Havana Every Week 

Matanzas Bi- Weekly 

Cardenas . Every 3 Weeks 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular Sailings as follows : 

Isabela de Sagua . . Every 3 Weeks 

Caibarien " " " 

Nuevitas " " " 

Guantanamo " " " 



Antilla . . . Every 3 Weeks 
Santiago. " " " 
Cienfuegos " " " 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT QNLY 

A STEAMER— Montevideo-Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 



NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

New York to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires 

S/S AEOLUS (a) April 6 

S/S MARTHA WASHINGTON (b) May il 

(a) ist, 2d and 3d class. (b) ist and 2d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER — Baltimore-Cienfuegos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 

NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Progreso, Tampico and Vera Cruz. 



The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



62 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




No. SS-96 

Steel Conveyor 

Chain 

FOR MODERN CANE CONDUCTOR 
INSTALLATIONS 

No. SS-96 was designed particularly 
for use in cane feeder carriers* and the 
conductors to the Mills. It is now almost 
universally used in this work. It is the 
effective chain for cane conductors. 

Look for our 

> < 

Trade Mark on every link. 
Write for Catalog No. 355. 

LINK-BELT COMPANY 

299 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK CITY 




American Car and Foundry Export Co. 

PJ!.A'=Di?v.TMl^'Ai;?'^?,o.r 165 Broadway. New York. U.S. A. 

CAREX NEW YORK ^ 




LisTA Para Entrega inmediatamente 

Aaui se ve el erabado de utio de nucstros carros mis modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias capacidades para uso en Cuba, Puerto Rico, Sud America, America Central y 
M6jico, con baslidores y jaulas de madera o de acero, Producci6n annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA Representante para Cuba 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when tcriting to Advertisers 




:VBA REVIEW 




DAYear APRIL, 1921 lOCentsACopy 

Ickai-lk/fhaMiincAn^fia^mchinlinp fi7WallStKPAt NaW York Ot 



T H E C I" H A U E V 1 K W 



Ruedas de 
Hierro Enfriado 
y Ejes de Acero 
para Carros 
y Coches de 
Ferrocarril. 



tA. razon porqiit- las 
ruedas de Hierro 
^ Kntriado proce- 
dentes de miestras fa- 

bricas tienen preferencia sobre las otras se debe a que el hierro enfriado puede resistir 
niejor que cualquier otro metal las cargas excesivas, las grandes velocidades y el roz- 
aniiento generado por los frenos modernos. Talleres montados a la moderna y condi- 
ciones ventajosas para obtener las materias primas nos ponen en condiciones de cot- 
izar precios atractivos. 

NEW YORK CAR WHEEL COMPANY 

JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente 

Direccion cableerafica : 40 CEDAR STREET NEW YORK E E U U 

JAMOTLEY, NEW YORK ^"^ CtUAK S 1 Ktt. 1 , nnw I UKFv, Ct. U.U. 




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NEW YORK 



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Locomotoras 
Carros para caiia 
Rieles y accesso- 

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Chuchos y ranas 
Aserraderos 
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Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 
cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de 1^ tone- 
ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac- 

Carros de Ingenios idad de 30 toneiadas. 

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pletos para constmir los carros a su destino de maderas del pais. 



I 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., NEW YORK, N. Y. cable address 

' ' ' RAMALIAM 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, PRES. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 



Phone Broad 
4266-4267 



Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure 

15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



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FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



SUGARS 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



82 Wall Street, New York 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

/^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

\j"|J[3,ri8llSlV ^ro^ 5 ^- M. to 8 P. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

FARE $1.00 

f^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

VjVllTlCS ■■■■ from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M, 

=^===^=^ FARE $1.25 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANAS FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) ' |o.o6 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A.M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A.M. to 11 P.M. 

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T 11 E CUBA U E \- 1 E W 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 

.\\i)i(l imitations, insist upon . netting WALKER'S 
METALLIC "LION" PACKING. Look for "The 
riiin Red Line" wliich runs through all the 
(lenuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Labels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 




United Railways of Havana 
WESTERN DIVISION 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



P M 


PM 


PM 


AM 


AM 


AM 


Fare 


6.15 


»-55 


1-45 


10.15 


6.5.S 


5.45 


ist cl. 


8.24 


4.24 
6.05 


3-55 


12.24 


824 
95' 
10.05 


7-55 


$2.65 
5.19 
5.62 




6.56 
8.40 








7-30 
"■45 


671 
8.83 








12.40 


PM 


P M 


P M 


P M 


P M 


A M 





Lv. Cen. Sta.. .Ar 
Ar.. .Arteniisa. .Lv 
Ar. Paso Real. .Lv 
Ar. Herradura .Lv 
Ar.Pinardel RioLv 
Ar Guane. . .Lv 



Fare 
3dcl. 

I1.40 
2-54 
2.74 
3.25 
4.22 



AM 

7.20 



AM 



AM 
11.09 
9.40 
8.05 
7.48 
6.5.S 
5.20 

AM 



P M I P M 
12.01 
9-45 



3 20 
1.15 



AM P M 



PM 
7.09 
540 
4.0'; 
3.48 
2.55 
1.20 

P M 



P M 
8.00 

5 45 

6 00 
2.00 

P M 




Round Trip Fares From Havana To 

Linos 15 cts. Rancho Boyeros 40 cts. 

Arroyo Naranjo 25 cts. Santiago de las Vegas. . .55 cts. 

Calabazar 30 cts. Rincon 65 cts. 

Leaving Central Station every half hour frotn 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 P. M., 
;nid everv hour thereafter to 11. is P NI. 



TRADE WITH BOSTON 

Year KndUxi 
Aiifj.. 1920 All!/. -.'A, VS2(\ 

Imports from Cuba .$9,011,olo !i;7x.4-i:;,'.»2T 

Exports to Cuba 1,221,332 14,080,G8."', 

Year End in f/ 
.S'^/>^. 192! > S<i>t. 30, 192l» 

Imports from Cuba $2,(v)9.421 $7T,r>7."i,ii.-.7 

Exports to Cuba 209.137 13,109.449 

Year Endiufi 
Oct.. 1920 Off. 31. 1920 

Imports from Cuba .$1,1.")3,S39 .$74.or)S.(».")4 

Exports to < 'uba G8S.283 12,9.")1,413 



Year EiidUuj 

.iHf/.. 1910 .l?/f/. 31, 1919 

82,008,408 82-"'>.944,728 

1,798,777 12,154,944 

Year End in a 

s'ri,t.. 1919 .SV/)/. 30, 1919 

8:;.428.( I! ) 1 82r).!>3r,,.532 

l,lso,:!73 12.340,088 



Oct.. 1919 

84,771,042 

846,319 



)'<(ir Endinq 

(hf.:\\, 1919 

8l'9.281,947 

12,000,432 



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THE, CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 67 Wall Street, New York 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX APRIL, 1921 No. 5 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — Statue to Jose ^Maria Heredia, Poet, Santiago de Cuba. 

Frontispiece — Casino, Havana. 

Cuban Commercial Matters: 

Cuban Market for Optical Goods 18 

Extension of Import Embargo on Rice in Cuba 17 

Lumber ^Market in Cuba 19, 20 

New Stores Company 17 

Port Tonnage of Cienfuegos for 1920 17 

Spanish Duty on Cuban Cigars 17 

Cuban Financial Matters: 

Cuban- American Sugar Company 23 

Guantanamo Sugar Company 25, 26, 11, 28 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 23 

Santa Cecilia Sugar Corporation 24, 25 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 21, 22 

L'nited Railways of Havana 23 

Cuban Government Matters : 

Condition of the Treasury 8 

Consular Changes 8 

Cuban Honorary Consul 7 

Delegate to International Institute of Agriculture in Rome 7 

Election Results 7 

General Budget for 1921..... 8 

International Chamber of Commerce 7 

Invitation to Cuban Government 7 

Payment of Overdue Debts 8 

Spanish Immigrants 8 

Cuba's Courts and Civil Laws 15 

Cuba's Lands — Title Thereto and Taxation 16 

Havana Correspondence 9, 10, 11, 12 

Inauguration of Direct Telephone with Cuba 12 

Xew Cable Link 12 

Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines 13, 14, 15 

Payment to the League of Nations 12 

The Sugar Industry : 

Cane Wax ^ 29 

Cuba's Income from Su-gar 29 

Important Development in Cuba's Cane Hauling Industry, illustrated 32, 33 

Production of Blackstrap Molasses in Cuba 30, 31 

Sugar Financing & Export Company 33 

Sugar R.eview, English 34, 35 

Sugar Review, Spanish i(>, 37 



THE CUBA R E V I E \V 




THE 
CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1921, by the Munson Steamship Line 



Yr 



Volume XIX 



APRIL, 1921 



Number 5 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



ELECTION RESULTS 

Partial elections in Cuban districts 
where the returns of the November presi- 
dential elections had been thrown out be- 
cause of fraud charges resulted in the 
election of Dr. Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso 
to the Presidency, but under conditions 
which only accentuated the bitterness of 
the political strife in the republic. Mem- 
bers of the Liberal party, whose candi- 
date was General Gomez, obeyed the or- 
der of its Executive Committee against 
participation in the balloting, and in the 
four provinces outside of Havana where 
elections were held only forty-two Liberal 
ballots for President were cast as against 
12,419 for Dr. Zayas. 

Under the supervision of Major-General 
Enoch H. Crowder, the special representa- 
tive of the American Government, every 
precaution had been taken to prevent 
violence and fraud, and election day 
passed without disorders. General Crow- 
der made an inspection tour of several 
provinces and kept a close watch to pre- 
vent a recurrence of the partisan clashes 
which caused several fatalities at the 
November elections. 

The Executive Committee of the Lib- 
eral party has ordered Liberal members 
of Congress to abstain from all official 
duties and also has ordered all Liberals 

cxi holding minor offices "on strike" — their 

^ hope evidently being to force action by 
the American Government. They pre- 

^ pared to offer strenuous protests against 
the acceptance of the election returns. 

^ Dr. Zayas, it is reported, predicts that the 



situation will clear in a short time, and 
has coniSdence that enough members of 
Congress will take their seats to form a 
quorum, proclaim his election and enable 
him to constitute a successful govern- 
ment on May 20. 



INVITATION TO CUBAN GOVERNMENT 
The Cuban Government has accepted 
an invitation of the United States War 
Department to send officers to the United 
States Army Air Service schools. Two 
officers, one to attend the observation 
school at Fort Sill, Okla., and the other 
the pilot school at Arcadia, Fla., Avill be- 
gin training in the near future. 



INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF 
COMMERCE 
The President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Industry and Navigation of the 
Island of Cuba has received an invitation 
from the International Chamber of Com- 
merce at Paris to become a member of the 
International Chamber of Commerce. 



DELEGATE TO INTERNATIONAL IN- 
STITUTE OF AGRICULTURE 
IN ROME 
Dr. Francisco F. Falco has been ap- 
pointed by the Cuban Government as dele- 
gate to the International Institute of 
Agriculture ,in Rome, Italy. 



CUBAN HONORARY CONSUL 
President Menocal has signed a decree 
appointing Carl W. Widmann honorary 
Cuban consul at Sheffield, England. 



T UK C U 15 A K K \ 1 E \V 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



CONSULAR CHANGES 

I'rt'siik'iit Mfiiucal has made the fol- 
luwhig clianges of posts and l)^oluotion^• 
in the eonsular service : Transfers — 
Consul (Jeneral Luis Rodriguez Emhil 
from Rotterdam to Hamburg; Consul 
Frederico Sanchez from Honolulu to Bos- 
ton; Consul Alberto S. lliria from Bos- 
ton to Honolulu ; Vice Consul Jose A. 
Ramos from New York to Cleveland ; 
Second Class Consul Guillermo Godoy 
from Mayaquez to Marseille ; Second 
Class Consul Juan P. Stable from Mar- 
seille to Alicante ; Second Class Consul 
Fernando Paine y Pols from (Jijoii to 
Coruna ; Second Class Consul Leon de 
Le6n y Lazo from Milar to Gijon; Sec- 
ond Class Consul Leopoldo Pereira from 
Seville to Vera Cruz ; and Chancellor 
Lorenzo Bias Verde fi'om Quito to Ali- 
cante. Promotions — Vice Consul Crecen- 
cio Sacerio at Cleveland to consul general 
in Rotterdam ; Vice Consul Pedro E. Des- 
vernine to second class consul in New 
York ; Vice Consul Nicolas Bilbac I'uig 
at Hamburg to second class consul in 
Bremen ; Vice Consul Jose Robleda at 
Vera Cruz to second class consul in Se- 
ville ; A'ice Consul Alberto G. Al)reu San- 
chez in Ottawa to second class consul at 
Mayaguez ; and Vice Consul Alfonso Fer- 
nandez SarrasI in Barcelona to second 
class consul in Malaga. The resignation 
of Senor M. Fernandez Sarrasi, second 
class consul in Alicante, has lieen ac- 
cei)ted. 



GENERAL BUDGET FOR 1921 
President Meuocal has presented to 
Congress the general budget for the coun- 
try for 1921. The revenues are reckoned 
as follows: Customs receipts, $53,802,- 
707 ; port and improvement taxes, $1,894,- 
322; consular fees, $1,445,723; revenues 
from means of communication, $2,392,919 ; 
taxes and various contributions, $25,849,- 
925; property and rights of the State, 
$384,736; different products, $1,558,125; 
taxes of the loan, $4,942,195 ; national lot- 
tery, $4,366,432; and extra tax on sugar, 
$7,500,000; total revenues, $104,137,085. 



Till' expenditures as reckoned in the budget 
are as follows: Debts of the Republic, 
.$9,92S,902; legislative (unver, $2,163,000; 
judicial power, .f;.".,S69,9;54 ; presidential 
staff, $253,850; state, $1,544,204; justice, 
$347,920; Government. .$12,131,420; treas- 
ury, $4,364,0S7; addition.-il iiudget of the 
treasury, $1,559,nu4 ; puldic works, $6,349,- 
987; additional puldic works, .$2,5,942,172; 
agriculture, conunerce and lalxtr, $1,413,- 
428; i)ublic instruction and tine arts, 
$10,615,549; sanitation and charity, $6,- 
20S,260: war and navy, $17,444,508: total 
exi.cndiliircs, $104,137,085, 

CONDITION OF THE TREASURY 
The receipts and expenditures effected 
by the (Jeneral Treasury of Cuba during 
the seven months from March 1 to Sep- 
tember .30, 1920, were ns follows: Bal- 
ance on hand on February 2S. 192;>, 
$6,.582,272 ; receipts in the .seven months, 
public revenues, $06,294,240 ; reimburse- 
ments, $3,472,0,32; and special funds, 
$2,934, 75(t, showing a total in the treas- 
ury on September 30 of $79,284,200. The 
expenditures by budgets, laws, and de- 
crees for the seven months amounted to 
,$08,705,419. and for special funds, $1,802,- 
367, or a total expenditure of $70,,507,786. 
or a favorable balance of .$8,77<">.414. 



PAYMENT OF OVERDUE DEBTS 
The Cuban Government has decided to 
liquidate the overdue debts owed various 
companies and private individuals for 
the general transi)ortation of the State 
up to 1918-19. The total of the.se balances 
is .$,301,790, distributed as follows: T'nited 
Railroads of Havana. $229,894; Railroad 
of the West, $17,888 ; Cuban Central Itail- 
ways, $22,604; Havana Central Railroad, 
$7,183; and to other companies and indi- 
viduals, $24,199. 



SPANISH IMMIGRANTS 
During the first six months of 1920 
fully .39,745 Spanish immigrants arrived 
in Cuba. According to the figures of the 
Superior Council of Immigration of Spain, 
59,593 persons emigrated from that coun- 
trv during the six months mentioned. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HAVANA CORRESPONDENCE 

March 26, 1921. 

PRESIDENT MENOCAL TO TAKE VACATION : Rumor lias it that President Meno- 
cal, upon his retirement from the Presidency of Cuba, will take an extended vacation 
in Europe, visiting first tlie United States, Avhere he will pass several months, and 
proceeding from there to France and Italy. It will be remembered that President 
Menocal lias been in control of Government affairs in Cuba during eight years of 
very trying times and a long rest of the nature outlined above is necessary for him 
to recuperate fi-om the strains of the many complications which arose during his 
administration. 

BY-ELECTIONS HELD ON MARCH 15tH: On March loth the partial elections 
which were scheduled for March 10th took place and an overwhelming majority of 
the votes were cast in favor of Dr. Alfredo Zayas, who was the candidate of the 
National League for the Presidency. There are yet to be held partial elections in 
Oriente Province, but it is generally conceded that no matter which way these elec- 
tions might go it will not materially affect the ultimate outcome, since Dr. Zayas has 
a sufficient margin to afford to lose completely these coming partial elections and yet 
remain the popular choice of the Cuban people for the Presidency. 

Much was said prior to these last elections concerning possible disorders while 
they were being held, but no outbreaks or reports were heard of any disorders any- 
where on tlie Island. The Liberals, who Avere opposed to Dr. Zayas and the National 
League party, issued a proclamation several days prior to March 15th, calling on 
the Liberal voters to remain away from the polls on election day as a demonstration 
against what they deemed to be unfair measures which were to be adopted by Presi- 
dent Menocal regarding the elections. The results of the elections would indicate 
that this proclamation was strictly adhered to, since a very small Liberal vote was 
cast. Subsequent to the elections, rumor had it that the Liberal members of the 
Senate and House of Representatives would refuse to meet prior to May 20th to 
declare a new President of the Republic elected, but this resistance seems to have 
lessened and it is now generally understood that a reconciliation between the two 
parties is about to be effected. That Dr. Alfredo Zayas has been legally elected is 
beyond doubt and that he will serve the next four years is assured. 

SUGAR: The price of sugar, under the administration of the Sugar Commission, 
has recovered somewhat and those interested in its production have hopes that this 
year will yet prove slightly profitable and not show the tremendous loss that it was 
estimated would be shown for the 1920-1921 crop. 

There are today about 95 per cent, of the centrals on the Island grinding, but 
the production of sugars to date is only about one-half what it was at this time 
last year. This same proportion holds for the amount of sugars exported, some 
633,629 tons, whereas last year at this time there had been taken from the Island 
about 1,280,000 tons. 

Quite out of the season also, it would appear, are the rains that have retarded 
the grinding season this year. In the Guantanamo Valley, where the yield has 
usually been very good, we find that the twelve centrals located in this rich district 
have a production this year of about 50 per cent, of last year's crop and the sugar 
content of the cane is considerably lower, due, we understand, to the excess of rain 
this year as against other grinding seasons. 

Strange as it may seem, it is a fact that large numbers of Spanish laborers are 
returning to Spain now and at the same time the Eastern Provinces of the Island 
are complaining about tlie scarcity of labor. The reason seems to be in the price 
offered for labor this year as against that offered last. Then, too, many of the 
laborers have been intimidated about engaging themselves to the centrals on the 
Eastern end of the Island, by persistent rumors of the prevalence of typhoid fever 



10 T II E C U H A U K \' I E W 

and other diseases caused by iiii|inip<'r wnlcr supply mid Imd liviiiu' ronditlous. 
Haitian and Janiaiean labor has iiuL proved as satisl'uetory as Spanish and Italian 
and there is always a demand for the Spaniard, whereas the other class ol' lalior is 
only enconrajxed when an acute scarcity is felt. 

The Suiu'ar Connnission which was appointed by I'ri'sidriil Mt-nocal has prrlected 
its organization and is functioning wcU. In issuing the permits and allocating the 
percentage of sugars to be shipped by the different centrals, the Connnission always 
allots a certain percentage of the last crop to assure the consumption of this sugar 
before the grinding ceases for this year. The price is not expected to advance very 
inucli beyond the present one (5.25 cents), although June and July shipments usually 
l)ring slightly ailvanced prices, but with the price firm at 5.25 cents, sugar can, even 
today, be profitably ground and a return that will warrant a dividend is guaranteed. 

PORT CONGESTION: As to this we tiiid thai there is very little to lie written, 
since tlie conge.stion in Havana Harbor has In-en practically cleared u|i. The work 
of Col. M. Despaigne has been done (pilckly and effectively and be has eariu'd the 
praise of all in Havana who have had an opportuiuty of viewing his splendid work. 

From our close observation, the question of clearing up the wharves and ware- 
houses of the waterfront was simply niie of coiitaulnn since. ;is soon as it was 
ob.served that Col. Despaigne was in earnest in his determination to relieve these 
distressing conditions, the consignees of freight in Havana innnediately co-operated 
with Col. Despaigne and the result was very soon evident. 

Today there are less than fifty vessels in the Bay of Havana, and of this number 
only a very few are awaiting discharge, and those are, singularly, ships operated 
by so-called fiy-by-night concerns which brought cargo to Havana at exorbitant freight 
rates and whose agents and operatois had no docking facilities in Havana. Then, 
too, these ships, after having lain in the bay for months awaiting discharge, attempted 
to assess consignees for so-called demnrrage incurred to the vessels and these con- 
signees promptly refused to accept their merchandise. The result is that the opei'ators 
of these ves.sels are awaiting an ad.iustment of some kind before discharging. 

Both shippers and consignees have learned their lesson with regard to entrusting 
their shipments to new shipping concerns. The established lines into Cuba will 
have little difficulty in the future in retaining this business. However, it cannot be 
gainsaid that American shipping interests suffered a setback when these new con- 
cerns operated into Cuban ports, since the importers have gained the impression that 
the whole matter was a worked-up affair and done to afford these new enterprises 
an opportunity to abuse the confidence of Cuban business men. 

FINANCIAL DE\'ELOPMENTS: Much satisfaction is manifested throughout the 
Island at the splendid showing made by the different l)aid\s of Culta to meet their 
obligations as they have fallen due under the Torriente Law. All of the banks, with 
the exception of the Banco Internacional de Cuba, have made payments promptly 
and confidence has again been restored in the Island's financial institutions. 

A recent development was the retirement from the presidency of the Banco 
Nacional de Cuba of Mr. William A. Merchant and the installation of Sr. Porfirio 
Franca to this important position. Sr. Franca has been for years managing director 
of tlie Havana branch of the National City Bank of New York and is a man of 
pronounced ability and has a great many friends throughout the Island. 

The Banco Espanol de la Isla de Cuba (known as the Spanish Bank), we under- 
stand, has under consideration a plan for the sale of the bank and bank propeity 
to New York bank interests and in this maimer it is believed that the Spanish Bank 
will be able to meet its obligations in full. Should this plan not mature, it is deemed 
certain that, iniless the depositors will be willing to accept new bonds representing 
the amount of the indebtedness of the bank to them, this tiank will find itself unable 
to carry out the provisions of the Torriente Law and will be forced to close its doors. 



T H E C U B A li E V I E W 11 

LABOR CONDITIONS : The attitude of labor in the Harbor of Havana is anj'tbing 
but encouraging at this time. Especially disappointing is this attitude since it is the 
desire of the steamship lines operating into Havana to reduce freight rates and 
handling and wharfage charges to a more normal basis than that maintained for 
the past two years. The harbor unions are closely interrelated and have steadfastly 
refused to make any concessions as far as wages are concerned. On the contrary, 
they now have a movement on foot whereby captains of lighters and barges are to 
be paid additional wages besides their salaries as captains. These wages are not to 
be on a straight day's work basis, but on a piece work basis, and will make lighterage 
costs higher than ever before in the history of the Bay of Havana. Whether their 
demands will be granted has not yet been decided, but it certainly is to be hoped 
that the steamship lines and operators of lighterage companies in the Bay of Havana 
can organize and combat this seemingly unjust award. 

HIGH COST OF LIVING IN CUBA: At this time, although material reductions 
have been noted in prices for all lines of food and clothing in the United States, it 
must be admitted that prices in Cuba have been reduced but little if any during the 
past six months. Clothing has been marked down, but these reductions are not 
noticeable in the better grades of clothing. Shoes of standard make are still about 
$20 per pair and bread, although the price of flour in the States has been reduced, 
is still twelve cents per pound, and coffee and milk at the local cafe is eight cents 
per cup, although sugar has been reduced in Cuba from thirty-five cents per pound 
(when the price of a cup of coffee was increased to eight cents) to ten cents per 
pound. 

CLEARING HOUSE TO BE ESTABLISHED IN HAVANA: Much attention has been 
given recently to the question of establishing in the City of Havana, a clearing house 
for the banks of Havana and the Island of Cuba in general, and also to include the 
private bankers. This clearing house has been the one facility which Havana bankers 
have always lacked and this inauguration will mean that Cuban banks and bankers 
are on a par with those of other countries which enjoy this institution. 

NEW CABLE LINE: A decree has been signed by the Secretary of Govern- 
ment whereby permission is granted the All America Cable Corporation to lay various 
lines of cable between the American Naval Station at Guantanamo, in Oriente 
Province of Cuba, and the United States. 

CHINESE IMMIGRATION: The Secretary of Agriculture, General Sanchez de Agra- 
monte, has granted permission to Chinese immigration agents to bring to Cuba one 
Chinese immigrant for each 100 Chinese population which the Island already has. 

HARBOR NOTES: Col. M. Despaigne has given notice to all the importers here 
whose goods have been taken to the old Espada Cemetery and deposited there, that 
unless these goods are called for within the next thirty days, they will be sold at 
public auction to cover the charges which have to date accrued thereon. Col. Des- 
paigne "has also warned the importers that if they persist in neglecting the handling 
of their importations he will not deposit their merchandise in Espada Cemetery, but 
rather within the confines of the customs zone where high storage charges prevail. 

NEW SHIPPING BOARD HEAD: Much interest was displayed in Havana recently 
when it Avas rumored about the city that Mr. Alfred G. Smith, president of the Ward 
Line, was to be appointed by President Harding to head the U. S. Shipping Board. 
Cuban shipping men realized that with a man like Mr. Smith at the head of the 
Shipping Board, American shipping interests would progress rapidly, since Mr. Smith 
is a man of broad experience and recognized ability in the shipping world. 

COREAN LABORERS FOR MANATI SUGAR COMPANY: The Mexican steamship 
"Tamaulipas" put into the Bay of Havana the early part of this month, having run 
short of water and fuel, and a few days later proceeded on her way to Manati, Oriente 
Province, where she disembarked some 600 Coreans which she had on board for the 



12 



THE C r r. A REVIEW 



M:in!itl Sugar Company. Tlio iiiiporfatioii of iliis Corciui lalior is only iuiothtT illus- 
tration of tlio aruto shortage of lalior in (niia. wliich shnrtaiio is causod \>\ the poor 
prifi-s Ix'inu' paitl Iliis yoar. 

NEW JAI-ALAI FRONTON FORMARIANAO: A new cniiipauy lias hccii funned to 
»'r«'<i a Jai-Alai Emnlon on property fronting tlio Marianao Casino. This undertaking 
is expected to prove a splendid paying proi)osition. The Casino at Marianao lias 
liad anotlier very iirolitable season and it is estinnited that the gross profits so far 
this yi'ar are in the ntMghhorhood of .$12,500,000. The Cuban populace is very en- 
thusiastie for .lai-.Vlai and it is considered that this new Fronton will enjoy a 
s)ilendid patronagt". 

HAN'ANA TOURISTS: The City of Havana, although prepared to entertain a 
reeonl nmnher of tourists this year, was considerably disappointed. A large number 
of tourists liave this year taken advantage of the splendid excursions conducted by 
diflerent .steamship lines. I'alatial steamers bring capacity crowds to Havana for a 
stay of two or three days, from which port they pass on to other West Indies Islands' 
ports for short visits, returning to New York after some thirty to sixty days spent 
aboard the slii]i. 



INAUGURATION OF DIRECT 
TELEPHONE WITH CUBA 

Hirect telephone connnunication be- 
twe«'n the United States and Cuba was 
opentxl on April 11th by I'resident Hard- 
ing and President Mcnocal, who ex- 
changed renewed assurances of friendship 
and good-will. 

Completion of the undersea circuit was 
marked by a formal ceremony at the I'an 
American Building, Washington, where 
Mr. Harding, several members of his 
Cabinet, and other officials gathered, 
wliile a sinnlar group of notables par- 
ticipated at Havana. 

As an added feature, Washiimton and 
Havana, as well as other cities scattered 
across the count ry, listi'iied to a report 
from a wireless telephone operator at 
Catalina Island, in the Pacific Ocean. Tlie 
distance from Catalina to Cuba is 5,700 
miles, and the feat is said to have estab- 
lished a new distance record for trans- 
mission of the human voice by a circuit 
of radio, wire and cable. 

The ceremony here was in charge of 
the American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company and the National Press Club, 
and the invited guests, numbering several 
hundred, were provided with receivers 
connected with the new circuit. 

After the conversation between the 
Executives, Secretary Hughes talked with 
the Cuban Secretary of State, George 
Desvernines; Secretary Mellon spoke to 



the Cuban Secretary of the Treasury, 
Seiior Hernandez; the Cuban Minister at 
Washington spoke to Boaz Eoiig, Ameri- 
can Minister at Havana, and Secretary 
Weeks spoke to the Cuban Secretary of 
War and Navy, Senor Marti. 

The new enterprise, which will make 
|)ossible telephonic conversation between 
Cuba and any part of the United States, 
cost approximately $2,000,000. 



NEW CABLE LINK TO CUBA 
Announcement has been made by Clar- 
ence II. Mackay, president of the Postal 
Telegraph-Commercial Cable System, of 
the laying of a new submarine cable by 
that system between Miami and Havana, 
Cul)a, which supplements the present 
cable of that system from New York to 
Havana, Cuba, thereby furnishing an al- 
ternate route. 

The new cable landing at Miami will 
be connected by direct wires with the 
offices of the Postal Telegraph system to 
all parts of the United States. 

PAYMENT TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 
According to the Bulletin of the Pan 
American Union, the Government of Cuba 
has ordered the payment of .$12,100 to 
the general secretariat of the League of 
Nations, as the country's quota of its sup- 
port in accordance with the budget of the 
League of Nations for expenses to De- 
cember 31, 1920. 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 13 

NUEVA GERONA, ISLE OF PINES 

By Consul W. Bardel 

Tlie consular disti-ict of Nueva Gerona comprises all of the Isle of Pines, which 
is located some 81 nautical miles south of the western end of Cuba and is officially 
attached to the Province of Habana. The island has an area of about 797 square 
miles ; it comits about 3,500 inhabitants, of whom about 600 are Americans, the 
rest being native white Cubans and Spaniards, and negroes born in Cuba or coming 
from the other West Indian Islands. 

The government of the island is in the charge of a civil governor, called "Al- 
calde," and a military officer commanding a detachment of rural guards. The judicial 
functions are in chai'ge of a judge who presides over the Court of First Instance, 
the Correctional, and the Civil Courts. Another jvidge has charge of the Mvinicipal 
Court. The seat of all of these authorities is at Nueva Gerona. The island has two 
customs districts, the one at Nueva Gerona, with the port of Jucaro as an auxiliary, 
and the other the district of Los Indios on the southwest coast. The latter, however, 
has had to be closed temporarily on account of the destruction of the dock there by 
the hurricane of September, 1917. It is expected that this customs district will 
again be in operation by the last of 1919, when the dock will be rebuilt. 

MOST OF THE ISLAND ADAPTED TO AGRICULTURE 

With the exception of two ridges of small mountains — the highest peaks of which 
have an elevation of about 1,600 feet — one on the northeast coast near the town of 
Nueva Gerona, and the other a ridge of smaller importance on the south coast, the 
territory of the island is rolling, partially cultivated, and partially covered with 
palms and pines, the latter giving the island its name. 

Agriculture is the leading industry. 

Nearly 90 per cent, of the cultivated and uncultivated land of the island is in 
the hands of Americans, who raise citrus fruit — principally grapefruit — and early 
vegetables, such as peppers and eggplants, almost all of these products being exported 
to the United States. Cultivation is always fraught with some risk of loss by the 
elements, especially hurricanes which at times strike the island. Agriculture proved 
fairly successful up to the year 1914, when prices in the American markets became 
so low owing to overproduction that citrus fruit had to be sold at little or no profit. 
When the market conditions became better, transportation, after the entry of the 
United States into the war, was very difficult and expensive, and fertilizers, which 
are required on this island for every kind of production, could be had only at prices 
so high they were almost prohibitive. 

AGRICULTURAL HANDICAPS 

In September, 1917, about the time the grapefruit began to ripen, a terrific 
hurricane struck the island, devastating nearly half of it, carrying off fruit and 
packing houses, and damaging the trees seriously. Not only was the crop ruined 
completely, but the groves were left in such a deplorable state that it will take 
at least two years before they can be brought back to their original healthy condi- 
tion. Besides many other difficulties, the farmers here have been handicapped by a 
shortage of labor, many able-bodied men having gone to Cuba or the United States, 
where on account of war conditions they could earn larger wages. 

It has been, and to a great extent still is, the custom among the farmers to 
give all attention to the cultivation of citrus fruit and tropical vegetables, disre- 
garding the raising of foodstuff for their own consumption. This has necessitated 
their buying many products at high prices which they could have raised on their 
own farms for almost nothing. Some of the farmers here have become wiser in this 
respect, however. 

EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES 

As the following statement of annual declared exports to the United States from 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



this (lislrirt shows. lh»- (|ii:iiil il.v of urMiu-rruil cxiM.rlfil in I'.ils. cxc lusiv.ly i.. tlir 
I'liited Stati's. wjis less ih.iii mic-third ol" llu- iiiumtity t'xported in I'.HT. and the 
quantity <.f vc^rctahlcs was r.<» ],vy cent. It'ss in I'.Us tlian in li)lT. Grapefruit hrought 
niucli hiu'h.T prhes lliaii in Innncr years, as did also the vegetaljles, off.setting to 
f^oMie exl««nt the smaller quantities. Imt trade conditions are still far fnan satisfa'-- 
tor.v. Kveryone liere is hoi.iny that thr lovsciit line prospects for a laru'e crop in ilic 
eurrent year may he realized. 



I)fcl;ire<l exjiorls for the two years were 
Artiolps. 



Grnppfruit, crates. 
Pino.Hpplos, cratps. 
Shooks. <loni(»sfic. 
VcKctahles. crates. 



Total 



1017 






191.S 




Quaiitity. 


\alue. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


109.070 
l.CSG 


?19(;.32f) 
3 372 




35.000 


$70,608 






6,100 
21,602 


1.885 


55.256 


60,617 


83,789 




2(ll),31.i. 






156,282 



.MIXIXt; AXI> OTllKK IXDUSTIUES 
(~>ne source of uretit relief for this island may come with the exploittition of the 
iron mines discovered here. Nothing of grejit importance lias developed as yet, hut 
of the IS or 20 mines so far staked out all over the northeastern part of the island 
two show most promising prospects. The managing engineers pronounce the ore 
to 1)6 of the finest qujility, and claim that it is only tlie prohlem of proper trans- 
portation that still d(>lays tlie successful exidoitation of the mines. 

I'.i'sidcs a large hox factory which turns out over 1,UUU,000 hoxes annually for 
the packing of Cuhan pineapples, two canning estahlishments, four sawmills, one 
marhh^cutting shop, and a turpentine plant under American control, there is no 
maiuifacturing of tiny inqiortance done liere. Nearly all articles needed for living 
pin-pt>ses, even most of the foodstuffs, have to he eitlier hought in Cuha or imported. 
During the war all imported articles used here came from the United States. 

MKHciiAXKisi': i.mi*(»i:ti:i> fijom thk txited states 

Tlie tahle helow indicates the quantity in kilos (1 kilo is equivalent to 2.2040 
pounds) and value of articles imported directly from the United States in 19.18. • 
A com[)arative .statement can not he furnished, :is till records of the custom house 
of this port were destroyed in the liurricane of 1917. It is probable that nearly tis 
ir.any more American goods ai'rived here througli Hahana merchants, so in view 
of the comparativel.v sinjiU conmninity, the figures for inqiorted American goods 
make a fairly good showing: 



AKricuttural implements. 
Automobile accessories. . 
Butter and substitutes. . 

C'aimeil goods 

Cement 

C'errals and (Trains 

C'lieniiral products 

China ware 

Cotton p,r.!- 

Cutlerv 

Dry BOO. 1~ 

Earthenwari.- 

Fertilizer 

Flour 

Fruit, dried 
Fruit. fre.~h 
Furniture 

Gasoline 

Glassware 

Groceries 

Hardware and tools 

Household goods 



Kiln<. 



.910 

.2S7 

.879 

,362 

65 

,530 

,073 

47 

,201 

16 

,817 

9 

,743 

324 
,980 
,905 

855 
,590 
,074 
,296 

205 

952 



Value. 

SI, 366 

2.034 

2.122 

2,6.52 

13 

1,894 

1,.342 

40 

1,332 

39 

2,023 

4 

4,.552 

2,454 

526 

181 

200 

340 

172 

2,740 

2,617 

845 



Articles. 

1 ronware 

Leaf her ware 

Machinery 

Musical instruments 

Paints, varnish, etc 

Paper 

Petroleum 

Pharmaceutical preparations. 

Photographic supplies 

Rubber goods 

Shoes 

Soap 

Sugar 

Tins, empty 

Tobacco 

Toys 

%'egetables, fresh 

Wooden articles 

Woolen goods 

AH other articles 



Kilo.^. 

1S5 

310 

18,686 

54 

1,214 

18,814 

2,851 

28 

136 

693 

3,298 

3,923 

309 

1,003 

1,219 

328 

20,832 

408 

4 

8,257 



Value. 

897 

235 

6,89f) 

54 

304 

i.on.s 

llu 

17 

2,53 

730 

2,427 

799 

OS 

313 

1,000 

130 

1,139 

734 

8 

2,907 



Total . 



49,734 



THECU BARE VIEW 15 

AMERICAN STORES PREDOMINATE 

Wliile tlie Americans residing liere are a small minority of the total population, 
they control, almost entirely, the trade and agriculture of this island, most of the 
better stores being owned by them and patronized by everyone. American goods 
being preferred to all others, it is to be expected that with the betterment of general 
conditions and improvements in transportation, this district will always be a fair 
tield for the introduction of American products. 

Until the port of Los Indios, at which ocean-going vessels could formerly land, 
is supplied with a new dock, all shipping to and from this island will be done through 
the port of Nueva Gerona and its auxiliary port at Jucaro. This shipping, on accoimt 
of the shallowness of the water, has to be performed by small steamers owned by 
the Isle of Pines Steamship Co., or by small sailing vessels. 

The banking facilities for the island are furnished in a most satisfactory manner 
by an American bank AA'hich has correspondence in all parts of the United States 
and Cuba. 



CUBA'S COURTS AND CIVIL LAWS 

By the Cuban constitution, residents, non-residents, and strangers in Cuba receive 
equal protection as regards life, liberty, and property, provided the non-residents and 
those not citizens submit to the laws, taxes, judicial decrees, and regulations in the 
same manner as citizens and natives. 

There are three different courts in which proceedings may be brought. Where 
the amount in controversy does not exceed .$300, the action corresponds to that of the 
courts of justices of the peace, or inferior magistrates' courts, in the United States ; 
where the amount involved is not more than $1,500, the action is like that of the 
circuit or county court ; while amounts greater than .$1,500 come within the jurisdiction 
of the highest court of record. 

The ordinary lawyer's fee is 10 per cent, of the amount involved, and a minimum 
fee for reputable and high-class lawyers is $10. The business of collecting small 
amounts is usually regarded as beneath the dignity of the average lawyer of standing, 
although some firms keep clerks Avho are attorneys to attend to such small matters. 

Non-residents are not required, because of their status as such, to give security 
for the costs before commencing action, but the court may on motion require it, if it 
seems that the action is frivolous or the plaintiff obviously has no case. 

If the costs taxed against a losing defendant are objected to by his coimsel, the 
judge will refer the entire matter to the Havana Bar Association, which is an incor- 
porated and quasi-judicial body. Three officers of the association will then revise or 
retax the costs ; this action is ratified by the judge and is final. In other parts of the 
Island members of the bar may be appointed as referees. 

The civil law, as amended and amplified, prevails in Cuba. It has been largely 
changed from its original form by legislation and by judicial decrees and interpre- 
tations. 

There is an insolvency law, very much like the United States bankruptcy 
act. The proceedings may be for respite, involuntary, and voluntary. Involuntary 
insolvency proceedings may be brought about by one or more legitimate creditors who 
prove (1) that two or more executions are outstanding against the debtor; (2) that 
no property has been found free from other charges sufficient to cover the amount 
claimed: (3) that the debtor has not fulfilled in whole or in part the agreement of 
composition or respite, in which case he may be declared an involuntary insolvent at 
the instance of his creditors, or any three of them, even though there be no execution 
pending against him. 

On the whole, the laws of Cuba are adequate and are administered by competent 
courts. Non-residents are under no disadvantage as against residents. 



THE CUB A R E V I E W 



CUBA'S LANDS— TITLE THERETO AND TAXATION 



TIktc art' im iniMii- liiiids in CuIki in the sense that w-e of the United States 
nndcistaiid the term. Along the eoa.sts there are some keys or "eayos" that liobody 
owns and ovt>r wldch the Government exercises sovereignty, but there is no public 
doiiiahi. The cliange from Spanish sovereignty was effected without dispossessing 
any persons of tlieir holdings. Thus all the land in Cuba has some sort of a claim 
of ownership upon it. Many of these old grants are most indefinite and vague. Persons 
acquiring the land would do well to engage the services of a reputal>U' lawyer specializ- 
ing on land niatters and have a searching invi'stigation made, paying no money imtil 
the title has been i)ronounced good. 

The prices of lands vary greatly, being higher, of course, the nearer they are to 
means of transportation. In particularly favorable localities, such, for instance, as 
tlie proven tobacco district of the Vuelta Abajo in Tinar del Ilio, they are very expen- 
sive. In the remote districts, liowever, land may be bought for from $4 to $7 per 
acre. The system of registration of titles under the Cuban Government is effective, 
but more expensive than in the Unitetl States. The notarial fees, stamp taxes, record- 
ing fees, and the lik«', amount to about three times as much as those necessary in 
our own country. Investors should be extremely careful, for out of the confusion 
of old titles, or squatter claims, or lack of documentary evidence of title, many em- 
barrassing and frequently expensive situations are likely to arise. 

The lands in Cuba that are not under cultivation are not taxed at all. The tax 
on lands where diversified cultivation is practiced is based with reference to that 
crop that gives the largest I'eturns. In any case the tax is less than it would be in 
the United States. The tax on sugar estates or "centrals" is based on the price of 
each 100 arrobas (an arroba is equivalent to 25 pounds) of cane, the price varying 
according to the zone of production. Taking into account the wagonloads of cane, 
each of KK) arrobas. after deducting SO per cent, for the exiienses of cultivation and 
manufacture, a tax of S per cent, is imposed on the remaiiung returns. 

The tax on city property is determined at the rate of 12 per cent, of its rental 
value, or, in other words, 12 iier cent, of the rent goes for taxes. When the property is 
unoccupied or occupied l)y the owner, the tax is based on the rental value of the ad- 
jacent property, or if the adjacent property is not rented, then the next property or 
property in the neighborhood. City taxation does not vary with the necessity of the 
n)vnucipality for revenue; it may be considered as fixed on the above basis. 

Every profession and trade is taxed, the tax never being higher than $10 annually 
In any case. It is assessed and collected by the respective municipal governments 
and forms the principal part of their revenue, aside from the tax on property. 

Commercial houses and factories pay taxes according to a tariff that varies in 
proportion to the number of inhabitants in the city or town where they are estab- 
lished. These taxes are also assessed and collected by the municipal governments, 
and in no case is the tax more than .$200 on any one firm, individual or corporation. 

Mortgages are subject to a tax of I14 per cent., assessed and collected by the 
municipality in which the property is located or the mortgage registered. 

The necessity of the Cul)an Government for additional revenue may necessitate 
the imposition of an export tax on sugar and tobacco, such measures having been 
under consideration by the Cuban Congress in 1917. Such legislation is, of course, 
being vigorously opposed by the sugar and tobacco interests of the Republic. Export 
taxes on iron and copper ore appear likely to be imposed. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



CUBAN COMMERCIAL MATTERS 



PORT TONNAGE OF CIENFUEGOS FOR 
1920 
The following table gives the national- 
ity, number, and gross and net tonnage 
of the total foreign shipping, exclusive of 
coastwise, at the Port of Cienfuegos dur- 
ing 1919 and 1920 : 

1919 

Tonnage 

WationaUty Number Gross Net 

American 220 521,743 331,580 

British 49 168,897 102,563 

Norwegian 12 18,647 11,238 

Spanish .... .... 

Japanese 2 10,345 6,809 

Dutch 3 200 192 

Danish 5 9,487 6,261 

Cuban 3 4,158 2,S41 

Swedish .... .... 

Honduran 2 520 520 

All other nation- 
alities 6 9.369 4,819 

Total 302 743,366 496,823 

1920 

Tonnage 

Nationality Number Gross Net 

American 276 780,914 506,435 

British 101 388,160 184,843 

Norwegian 31 51,891 31.992 

Spanish 8 24,987 15,902 

Japanese 6 30,976 21,947 

Dutch 6 19,1.35 12..303 

Danish 6 14,762 10,093 

Cuban 4 4,200 2,752 

Swedish 3 8,235 4,972 

Honduran 3 633 617 

All other nation- 
alities 5 12,235 7,681 

Total 449 1,-336,128 799,537 

The tonnage for 1920 is understood to 
represent a record for this port despite 
the present marked decline in shipping, 
covering the period from the establish- 
ment of the Cuban moratorium in October 
and the beginning of the new sugar ship- 
ments, which will probably be delayed for 
six weeks to two months. 



EXTENSION OF IMPORT EMBARGO ON 
RICE IN CUBA 
In accordance with a decree signed by 
the Chief Executive on March 22, 1921, 
the prohibition on the importation of rice 
into Cuba, originally decreed on Septem- 
ber 7, 1920, is to remain in force until 



SO per cent, of the merchantable rice in 
Cuba at the time of the promulgation of 
the decree shall have been disposed of. 
In order to enable the authorities to as- 
certain the amount of rice in stock and 
the progress of its disposal, the decree 
provides for reports on existing stocks 
of merchantable rice within eight days 
after the pronndgation of the decree and 
subsequent bi-weekly reports on salss. 
The requirement in regard to reports is 
restricted to holders of merchantable rice 
in amoimts exceeding 500 tons at ports 
of entry. 



SPANISH DUTY ON CUBAN CIGARS 

Custom duties on Cuban cigars entering 
Spain will be in future assessed on the 
basis of the Spanish gold peseta instead 
of the silver peseta as heretofore. 

This amounts to a 50 ])er cent, increase 
in the duties on cigars imported to Spain. 
The new system was decided upon by the 
Compania Arrendataria de Tabacos, a 
lessee company operating under a mo- 
nopoly concession granted by the Spanish 
Government. 

Cuban manufacturers of cigars have 
cabled a protest to Madrid and have pre- 
pared a resolution for presentation to the 
Cuban State Department, asking that 
diplomatic representations be made to the 
Spanish Government. 

Cigars shipped from Havana to Spain 
in 1919 amounted in round numbers to 
11,000,000. Figures for 1920 are not avail- 
able, but estimates place the number of 
cigars sent to Spain in that year at double 
the shipments in 1919. These cigars have 
paid a duty of 48 pesetas per kilogram, 
a surtax of 12 per cent, and a 3 per cent, 
commission collected by the monopoly 
company. 



NEW STORES COMPANY 
A new stores company under the name 
of Compania Xacional de Almacenes, with 
a capital of $3,000,000, has been formed 
in Havana. The storehouses of Lluria, 
Garagol y Compania, in the port of Car- 
denas, are a part of the company's prop- 
ertv and are worth $2,000,000. 



ic 



rili: (THA REVIEW 



CUBAN MARKET FOR OPTICAL GOODS 



Tlic Miiirkcl in tlir Siiiiliiiiio dc Ciilci disiricl for «i|(ti(:il .iiooils is new siiiipiic*! 
nliiinsi fxclusivt'Iy by AiiH'iicnii iiiMiiuriHtunTs. Tliero are no statistics avaiiaide 
slmwliif.' tlH' annual imports of oi>li<al jkhuIs into tliis rrovince. In order of inv 
pi.rtani-i'. tlie trade uses (\veglasses. ciieap jrrades made up, better grades with lenses 
ninnnted acronlin^' to examination of siulit : unmounted lenses; gold and gold-filled 
and aluminum frames; and imitatinii slicll rims \\>v spectacles and nose glasses. 
There is a lair demand for autoniohil(> .u..-ul.-s. but the demand for opnra and field 
glasses is linuled. L(n-gnett«'s have been in voiiue in tlie larger clti.-s. luil their use 
Ijas Imh'II and is relatively small. Tiiere is no demand for microsco[u>s. excepting the 
(•lu'aper grades of magnifying and sun glasses. 

Tile mo.st po|tular styles of nose glasses and spectacles are the GO size rims with 
flat lenses, being considered as standard, and the 40 and 42 millimeter round rims. 
There is a good demand for rimless glasses. In Die larger places meniscus or tori(,- 
lenses are heconung more iiepnlai-. l>ue to the jirevailing bright sunlight, tinted 
lenses in neutral tints, as amber, amelliyst and blue, are largely used. 

SUri'LY OF MARKET 
Today practically the only goods in the niari<et are American made, and the 
tendency of the trade is to consider tliem reliable, especially eyeglass frames, lenses 
and instruments used for examining the eyes. French opera glasses and German 
artificial eyes are still favored. American manufacturers witli a little effort could 
command the trade in the latter articles. There are no obstacles in the way of 
American manufacturers in optical lines holding and extending their trade if they 
will give the demands of this market due attention, as the natives and most of the 
foreign dealers in these lines are favorable to American goods. I" should be con- 
sidered, however, that the almost exclusive use of these goods is due in a large 
measure to restrictions of trade with Europe during the war, and that European con- 
cerns are already seeking to renew trade connections and will, as soon as oppor- 
tunities are afforded, hid strongly for Cuban business. 

The only demand for materials for domestic manufacture is l\.r lenses in the 
rough and uncuts. and the necessary emei-y, rouge, iiitch, cement, etc., used in grind- 
ing and polishing. 

DISTRIBUTION OF Ol'TICAL GOODS 
Optical goods are distributed mainly through wholesalers located in the larger 
cities. Some goods are sold direct to the retailer by salesmen, representing the whole- 
saler or manufacturer, who carry samples only, rovmtr.v districts are often supplied 
by traveling jewelers and opticians who carry stock with them. Retailers as a rule 
purchase through island wholesalers. Some retailers carry small stocks. There 
are no agencies in this district, but there are several in Havana, which distribute 
through salesmen. 

Wholesalers and manufacturers supi)lying this market furnish catalogues and 
other advertising matter, such as blotters, pamphlets, cuts for papers and magazines, 
and motion-picture slides, to the dealer. The printed matter is in Spanisli, the lan« 
g.iage of the country. They are generally distril)uted free. This depends, however, 
ftn the cost of the medium used. If quite expensive, a slight charge is made. Some 
r-oncerns send out free literature for distribution by the retailers. 

On small quantities the most practical method of shipment is by insured or 
registered parcels post (in packages not exceeding 4i/4 pounds each). Large orders 
should be forwarded by freight. Fault is often found in the packing of American 
goods, which in some instances is particularly careless for goods as fragil as optical 
lines. Complaints are heard also in reference to poor invoicing, which causes delays 
in the customs and is a source of annoyance and loss to the importer. — Vice Con.iul 
John L. Griffith, Santiago. 



THECUBAREVIEW H^ 

LUMBER MARKET IN CUBA 

Cuba takes approximately three-fourths of the lumlier exports from the United 
States to the West Indies ; in the case of certain items the Cuban proportion is still 
larger, having been practically four-fifths of yellow pine in 1920. The rapid growth 
in the lumber trade with Cuba is indicated by the statistics, as yet incomplete, of 
the 1920 trade, for the total value of only 5 of the larger items is nearly 100 per cent, 
njore than the total of 29 items in 1919. 

REMARKABLE GAIN IX LUMBER EXPORTS. 

Recent gains in quantities as well as values are shown by the following table of 

exports of lumber from the United States to Cuba in 1918, 1919, and 1920, the record 

for last year including only the five large items for which complete statistics have 

l)een compiled : 

1918 1919 1920 

Items Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value 

Logs and round timber: 

Yellow pine M feet. . 

Hardwood do ... . 

Softwood, other do. . . . 

Hewn timber: Hardwood do. . .,. 

Sawed timber: 

Pitch pine, long-leaf do.... 

Softwood, other do ... . 

Boards, planks, etc. : 

Cypress do ... . 

Fir do. . . . 

Gum do ... . 

Oak do 

Pine, white do ... . 

Pine, yellow, pitch — 

Long-leaf do ... . 

Short-leaf do. . . . 

All other do 

Poplar do ... . 

Redwood , do ... . 

Spruce do ... . 

Softwood, other do. . . . 

Plardwood do ... . 

Shingles M . . 

Lumber, n. e. s 

Doors, sash, etc 

Pox shooks 

Cooperage Number. . 

Shooks, n. e. s do ... . 

Staves do. . . . 

Pleading 

Plouse moldings 

Railroad ties number. . 



409 


$7,890 


684 


$29,719 


68 


$13,627 






152 


13.308 


104 


16,140 






12 


900 


185 


11,719 


1 


42 


4 


288 


38 


3,826 


8,631 


234.384 


4,541 


146,761 


6,144 


262,441 


1,280 


25,747 


17 


626 


410 


20,501 


3,345 


135,619 


2,674 


117,167 


2,368 


222,172 


411 


11,365 


9,280 


316,608 


12,527 


625,404 


1,173 


32,204 


577 


22,773 


579 


33,620 


24 


1,660 


294 


11,244 


52 


7,637 


4,211 


201,096 


5,491 


264,831 


6,894 


505,018 


168,753 


4,873,939 


154,843 


5,431,858 


253,959 


13,935,321 


2,406 


67,919 


1,709 


55,449 


2,603 


129,313 


2,860 


71,588 


3,755 


116,744 


4,656 


334,984 


724 


24,796 


248 


9,442 


325 


21,10-0 


490 


16,944 


434 


20,632 


184 


18,071 


87 


3,494 


1,525 


47,737 


1,041 


72,343 


486 


9,577 


31 


1,102 


1,520 


101,141 


305 


14,131 


359 


16,548 


266 


38,134 


126 


714 


454 


2,968 


236 


1,235 




, 72,516 




45,833 




23,257 




17,516 




24,953 




69,648 




569,416 




696,871 




1,248,954 


173,074 


221,431 


227,939 


261,130 


168,395 


279,102 


101,842 


48,5T9 


151,874 


58,068 


22,222 


12,761 


5,722,020 


138,919 


1,707,686 


108,777 


8,090,548 


286,787 




118,909 




78,307 




142,616 




45,459 




65,779 




82,941 


471,713 


536,908 


319,224 


412,347 


621,230 


1,464,426 



Total $7,502,702 $8,378,770 $19,984,239 

Despite the business depression in Cuba in the latter part of 1920, due largely to 
the fall in the price of sugar, certain items in the lumber trade showed an increase 
in quantity over the record of the corresponding period in the preceding year. For in- 
stance, the shipments of railroad ties in December, 1920, amounted to 13G,SC9 ties, 
valued at $296,523, compared vdth 58,941, worth $86,080, in December, 1919. On the 
other hand, exports to Cuba of yellow pitch pine (long leaf) in boards and planks 
were 5,471,000 feet, valued at $317,004, in December, 1920, while in December, 1919, 
they amounted to 20,500,000 feet, valued at $828,808. The exports for the entire year 
1920 show Cuba as the world's largest purchaser of American yellow pine boards, 
Argentina being second with less than half of Cuba's receipts, and Mexico third with 
somewhat more than a third of Cuba's record. 

The conditions affecting the market for American lumber in various sections of 
Cuba, together with notes on the production, consumption, and exportation of native 
woods, appear in the following extracts from reports of American consuls : 

CIEXFUEGOS IMPORTS PIXE AXD EXPORTS MAHOGAXT. 

Consul Frank Bohr reports a good demand for lumber in Cienfuegos. One of the 
most important items of lumber imports, pitch pine, comes almost exclusively from 
the Gulf ports of the United States and from Jacksonville, Fla., though one cargo 
was recently received from the west coast. Comparatively little building was done 



20 T II E C U B A R E V I E W 



in l!iL'n. us Imildrrs were Wiiiliiij.' ti»r the pritH's of iiuih-rinl ami l:ili(pr to ,u.> down. 
Witli llu' return of iinniijil (•(•iiditioiis. ('iciiriit'.LMs will uiulonlilcilly cniitiiuic lo hi' ji 
hii-K'' nijirki'l for lmiilu>r iiiid I'cr :irli(lfs maiiufiicl urcd nf woimI. 

Sitiiic inalKipin.v ^'rowii in tin- ( ■jciiruci^iis disirin is smt In IIa\ana Inr cxiH.it. 
lldwt'Vi'r. tlu'n' is so niucli demand lor niaisouany in I lie lar;:cr Cnhan cilies llial 
coiiipanitiveiy litll«' is jiviulalde lor export. I.oeal e\i>orlers of inalio-any slii)! hy 
seiiooiu-rs from tlie nearest seaiiorts. Maliouaiiy is cut iMincipaih in I lie interioi- 
places, stieli as Camairney and (Meiro <le A\ila. 

i,r.Mi:i;i; at cakdenas am» cai.mam'.ua XATiNf: iiAKhwonns I'ou 

FrUMTlUK. 

At Cardenas a lack of native timber leads to the importation of consideralde 
(pianiilies of American Inniher, says Consular A^enl (Jeor^c A. M-iUinson. V(>llo\v 
pine from liotli the east and west coasts of Florida comitrises tlie hulk u\' the liim- 
her imports, Imt small shii)ments of wiiite pine occasionally come from northern 
ports iiarticularly \e\v York. In addition to the nsiial demand for hnildin;:- mate- 
rial, (pianlities of lumber are ordered for local harue and cai' construction and for 
furniture inakiiifr. .Malio;;any logs are shiiiped from Caim.-mera oi- I'o(|ueidn, in sizes 
from s indies sipiare U]! and ■'< feet uji in lenulh. rejiorts Considii' Aucnt Kal|'h 
Conrad, in nieasniim;'. the full len,i:lli of the lou is taken lirst, and then the ciri'um- 
ference at the middle. If round, every ."> indies of circumfcr<'n<(' e(|uals 1 inch s(iuar>'. 
r.otli roimd and s(|uai'e loi;s ar*> scdd accordinj; to ('uh.-in nieasurcnienls. 

rradically all the furniture manufactured in .Matanzas is made from native wo;id. 
rejiorts Vice Consul Thomas McKnelly. The cost of the domestic hardwood is not 
only less than that of imported tine woods, hut it uives heller rcsidS-, since it is im- 
nnme to the attacks of the conie.jen or horin.i;' ani of the tropics which is desti'uctive to 
wiiod imported from more temperate climates. For tliese reasons there is no market 
here for imported line woods, but linnber of otlier kinds was imjiorted through 
Mataiizas in the liscal year 101(5-17 to the amount of 1.i):;s.7l'J kilos valued at $45,0G:{, 
and in IMlT-ls to the quantity of 181,(is.-, kilos valued at $17,.".."0. 

\'ice Consul John L. (Jritlitli, of Santiago, rei^orts tliat the principal lumber 
imports are barrel .slKxtks, used in making containers foi- lionc\. molasses, and rum. 
Tlie lundier shipments from Santiago include mahogan.v. ccdai-, and lignum-vita\ In 
the I.sle of Pines the recent demand for lumber has led to the development of the 
lumbering industry. The. island has large areas of jiine timber. 

.XA.MKS AM) USES OF SOME CFI'.AX WOODS 
The Cuban .\gricultural Station, in charge of Dr. Juan T. Koig. has published a 
list of about r.ud v;ii-ieties of native woods of Cuba. The following extract gives tlie 
common names, characteristics, and uses of some of the more import-iut wo(»ds: 

li'oods Dcscriptio}i Uses 

.\cana Hard, heavy, fine grain In anchors, signs, tialiistrades, etc. 

Care.v de Costa Fine, shell like \'eneer work, canes. 

Carillo de Costa Takes fine polish Cabinet work, cooperage. 

Kbano carbonero Hard, brittle, non-decaying. \'eneer, musical instruments, umbrella han- 

P.lack at heart, same as ebony. dies, etc. 

(.ranadillo wood Very fine Castanets, cabinet work, instruments. 

Guayacan pneto Very hard and resistant Machinery, mortars, water vessels, etc. 

J''l"' Said to petrify in water Posts, crossties, piles, etc. 

Mabon de Sabana Hard, resembling ebony Underflooring. water wheels, etc. Also 

used as fuel. 

Mangle Colorado Red, hard, non-decaying in Wharves, etc. Also as fuel. 

water. 

Mangle pneto Black, hard resistant. Ship construction, wharves, all hydraulic 

works. 

Quebracho Said to petrify in water Pilework, posts, crossties, etc. 

Sabien Lysitoma Durable, adapted to naval con- Cane mills, cart hubs, naval work. 

struction. 
^'^' Strong and durable Crossbeams, fences, stakes, etc. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

The earnings of the Cuba EaUroad for the month of December and six months 
ended December 31st, 1920, compare as follows : 



December gross 
Expenses' 



1920 1919 

$1,373,421 $1,158,179 

1,352,449 873,299 



1918 1917 1916 

$772,172 $1,043,086 $517,402 

649,663 680,369 465,280 



1915 

$513,369 

265,990 



December net 

Other income 

Net income 

Fixed charges 

Other interest charges 

December surplus 

From July ist : 
Six months gross. . . . 



20,971 

10,783 

31,754 

108,606 

1,458 



284,879 

21,784 

306,664 

103,030 



122,508 
12,580 

135,088 
95,191 
12,041 



362,716 

1,305 

364,022 

166,370 



52,122 247,378 

901 

53,024 

95,133 86,179 



78,310 203,634 



27,855 197,651 42,109 161,199 



Six months net 

Other income 

Fixed charges 

Other interest charges 



5,891,095 

815,813 

158,912 

681,171 

5,527 



$6,322,136 

1,521,672 

68,395 

602,814 



$4,966,425 

1,019,080 

76.465 

569,595 

71,666 



$4,551,515 

1,136,273 

7,923 

635,638 



$3,175,176 $2,540,298 

983,087 1,111,582 

5,055 

538,973 452,748 



Six months surplus $1,343,600 $987,253 $454,284 $508,558 $449,159 $658,834 



The earnings of the Cuba Railroad for the month of January and for seven months 
ended January 31st, 1921, compare as follows : 



1921 

January gi'oss $1,606,385 

Expenses 1,238,357 

January net 376,090 

Other income 8,062 

Net earnings 368,028 

Fixed charges 108,487 

Other interest charges . . 4,818 

January surplus 262,784 

From July ist 

Seven months gross. . . . 8,497,481 

Seven months net 447,784 

Other income 166,974 

Fixed charges 789,658 

Other interest charges. . 10,346 

Seven months surplus.. . $1,080,815 



1920 
$1,158,100 
869,164 



1919 
$1,166,270 
901,427 



1918 
$1,231,834 
777,663 



1917 1916 

$761,118 691,479 

552,582 292,181 



303,253 

14,317 

288,935 

102,910 

3,264 



277,099 
12,255 

264,843 
95,070 
12,041 



455,789 

1,618 

454,171 

105,551 



210,963 

2,527 

208,435 

95,012 



405,296 

6,097 

399,198 

87,120 



197,078 



7,480,237 

1,810,608 

82,713 

705,725 

3,264 



169,987 



6,132,695 

1,283,924 

88,720 

664,665 

83,708 



350,238 115,950 318,175 



5,783,350 

1,590,444 

9,542 

741,189 



3,936,295 

1,191,514 

7,582 

633,986 



3,231,778 

1,510,781 

6,097 

539,869 



$1,184,331 $624,271 $858,797 $565,110 $977,009 



EARNINGS OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA. 

Weekly Receipts : 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 

Week ending Feb. 5 ;^165,707 ^47,298 ^"75,531 /83,337 ^60,884 ^59,783 

Week ending Feb. 12 168,608 91,707 84,346 90,464 54,800 59,337 

Week ending Feb. 19 176,634 97,495 85,202 91,119 -56,593 61,003 

Week ending Feb. 26 181,795 98,258 90,820 92,742 60,733 60,829 

Week ending Mar. 5 190,660 84,957 38,951 93,236 61,623 59,997 

Week ending Mar. 12 185,601 100,549 37,967 93,769 62,463 61,089 

Week ending Mar. 19 172,859 100,871 92,148 88,932 65,529 65,134 

Week ending Mar. 26 183,523 97,423 91,313 88,002 66,579 60,792 



NOTE: 



The earnings for igai include the receipts of the Cuban Central Railways and the Western Railway 
of Havana, which have been amalgamated with the United Railways. 



TUB CUBA UEVIEW 



KAKNIN<;S OF TIIH ClUAN CKNTKAr. RAILWAYS. 



Ufeklv Receipts: l!>i.'l 

Week eiulinc Feb. fi /"41 .(il :i 

Week en.liiii,' Feb. 12 4:),S()() 

Week emlint: Feb. lit 4!t,r)71 

Week endintr Feb. Jti 49,.'i:J:{ 

Week emliiig Mar. fi 5t5,6rvJ 



11»12() 
/•js,,si:t 
4(;,its7 
4i,;)s:{ 
4:t,74.') 

48,920 



i;»i!t 
/-:i:.,()42 
:i7,()ii 

:f7.417 
:!(3,54<) 

:ii,6io 



litis 

/:t:t,(ii7 
:is,i72 
;J7,7<JG 
;{H,733 
41,451 



li>17 

2.S,80r» 
28.1)58 
30.553 
30,671 



H)1G 
.^25,080 
2G,959 
20,992 
27,369 
26,658 



EARNINGS OF THi: II.VVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & TOWER CO. 

Janiiarv /gjo : 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 

Gross earnings .$1,089,076 $883,118 $726,358 $645,010 $547,487 $492,074 

Operating e.xpenses 638,180 437,055 378,319 . 282,302 229,965 186,285 

Net earnings 450,896 446,063 348,039 363,708 317,522 305,789 

Miscellaneous income 6.265 6,052 9,011 8,847 6,368 9,794 

Total net income $457,161 $452,115 $357,050 $371,555 $323,890 $315,583 

Surplus after deduct.fixed chgs. 223,355 207,379 161,920 238,954 192,012 200,192 



EARNINGS OF THE HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY, 

Ueckly Receipts: 1921 

Week ending Jan. 15 ;^15,964 

Week ending Jan. 22 16,170 

Week ending Jan. 29 1 7,985 

Week ending Feb. 5 1 7, 1 63 

Week ending Feb. 12 16,538 

Week ending Feb. 19 16,833 

Week ending Fel). 26 16,915 

Week ending Mar. 5 17,278 

Week ending Mar. 19 17,474 

Week ending Mar. 21 16,973 

Week ending Mar. 26 16,878 



1920 
/1 1,614 
12,273 
11,431 
12,053 
13,206 
12,767 
i:i,312 
13,407 
13,947 
13,023 
13.650 



EARNINGS OF THE CAMAGUEY AND NUEVITAS RAILROAD. 



Statement d 



Gross earnings 

Operating expenses. 



Earnings and Expenses for Month of December 1920 

1920-21 1919-20 

$117,898.78 $131,811.98 

161,053.08 93,170.11 



Net earnings.. 
Other income. 



43,154.30 
38.33 



38,641.87 



Net income 

Surplus for Month 



Gross earnings from July 1 . 
Net earnings " '' 
Other mcome " " 



43,115.97 



38,641.87 



$43,115.97 



$38,641.87 



$811,094.75 

84,185.12 

2,432.93 



$807,093.80 
299,043.94 



Surplus $81,752.19 $299,043.94 

Statement of Earnings and Expenses for Month of January 1921 

1920-21 1919 20 

Gross earnings $180,909.45 $148,402.15 

Operating expenses 149,910.00 100,960.44 

Net earnings .TTTTTTTT^ 30,999.45 " 477441.71 

Other income 179.33 

Net income ^ 

Surplus for Month 

Gross earnings from July 1 $992,004.20 

Net earnings '. 53',185.67 



31,178.78 



47,441.71 



$31,178.78 



Other income 
Sarplu? 



$47. 441.71 

$955,495.95 

346,485.65 



2,612.26 



$50,573.41 



$346,485.65 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



2:j 



CUBAN FINANCIAL MATTERS 



THE PREVAILING PRICES FOR CUBAN SECURITIES 
As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York. 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds ^q 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1944 n„i . 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 ^"^ 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 41/2 % Bonds of 1949 gg-^ 

Havana City First Mortgage 6% Bonds gg 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6% Bonds g_5 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock ^g 

Cuba Railroad Co. First Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 72 

Cuba Company G% Debenture Bonds ^5 

Cuba Company 7% Cumulative Preferred Stock 75 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Consolidated Mortgage 5% Bonds 75 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock 95 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Common Stock 85 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 92 

Cuban- American Sugar Co. Common Stock 23>^ 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock 12^ 



Asked 

75 

81 

81 

71 

95 

95 

52 

72>^ 

85 

85 

80 
lOONI 

90N1 
Sale 
Sale 



CUBAN-AMERICAN SUGAR CO. 

The National City Company. New York, 
is ottering .$10,0(:W,000 in ten-year S per 
cent, sinking fund first mortgage bonds 
of the Cuban-American Sugar Company 
at par. 

The bonds are a direct (jbligation of 
the Cuban-American Sugar Company and 
are secured by about $10,000,000 in first 
mortgage bonds of subsidiary companies, 
representing property valued at approxi- 
mately .$34,000,000. Under the terms o£ 
the agreement, the company is to main- 
tain a sinking fund of $2.",O,0OC'i quarterly, 
to purchase bonds in the open market up 
to and including 105. Any money pro- 
vided for the sinking fund and not used 
will revert to the company. The issue is 
callable in whole but not in part at 
1071/2. 

The company further agrees to main- 
tain net quick assets equal to the valu? 
of outstanding bonds at all times. The 
company's earnings last year were in the 
neighborhood of $19,110,000, before pro 
vision was made for Federal taxes, and 
the five-year average of earnings avail- 
able for taxes and dividends was about 
$11,000,000. The smallest earnings re- 
turned in any one . year in the last five 
was about $8,000,000. Proceeds of the 
Ijonds will be used to reduce outstanding 
bank loans and to give the company addi- 
tional working capital. 



UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 
An issue of $0.<JOO,00') in United Rail- 
ways of Havana fifteen-year 7% per cent, 
equipment trust gold certificates is being 
offered by Dillon, Read & Co., New York, 
at 99 and interest. 

This financing is indication of the shift- 
ing of financial l)urdens from London to 
New York, for the L^nited Railways of 
Havana is owned by British interests and 
all financing has been done in the Lon- 
don market. The certificates will be is- 
sued under the Philadelphia plan and the 
equipment trust will follow the same 
general rule as the equipment trusts 
created l)y the Canadian National Railways 
and Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, whose 
equipment issues were sold liy the same 
bankers. This plan will provide that the 
company must purchase and retire $200,- 
000 certificates each six months if avail- 
able in the market at or below 103 for 
the first ten years and thereafter at or be- 
low 102% until maturity. To the extent 
that certificates are not so ol)tainable the 
company may pay cash to the trustee to 
be invested in United States Government 
securities matviring not later than the 
maturity of the issue. 

The certificates will be issued for ap- 
proximately only 55 per cent, of the cost 
of the equipment, all of which was pur- 
chased in the United States. 



24 T HECUBA REVIEW 

SANTA CECILIA SUGAR CORPORATION 

ANN! AI, KKl'OUT A.\l> (MONKIJAI. llALANCi: SIII:i;T 
Yi:ai{ I;m>ki> .Ii i.v .".1, r.>l-'n 
In llli Stotl.llDlilrrs : 

Tin- follow iii.i: rfporl of opcriilioiis of \oiii- < "oi-poiiitioii dnriim liu- l:isf lisciil 
y.'.-ir with <;(MU'riil ISjiImiki' SIhtI Mim.'Xfd. is irspi'd fiillx siil.iiiitt.d : 

<;iiii(iin.L: l>o;.'!iii Dt'cfiiilx-r •_".», V.HU, iiiul I'litlcd May il. I'.tL'H, duriiij,' wiiicli periiKl 
I lie fiiclorv LTouiul .">S,!>ril Spaiiisli tons of caiic of 'J,ri<l(t llts. each, aiitl made otJ.Tritl 
liMiTs of siit:ar id' :!l'o ll>s. cadi. Tiit' yield of suyar was llI.C.iiM per cnil. of liic weight 
of caiii', tlio av»'ra;.'(' polarity of tlif sn,i:ai- licinu- it.'.. .").•', dc;:i-('cs. .Molasses |ii-odueed 
was l.'io.Uft.s {.'alloiis of L's.TT di'jrivos polarity. 

tJros.s iiK-oiiie from suf.'ar sales aiiiouiiled to .Sl.f'iip,.",! 1. 1.'. : from molasses sales 
and ndseellaneoMs sources .$:n,:!7:!.t»:'.. Cost of iiioduct ion. iiicludini,' repairs and 
rcplaci-nients, a j:;.' reflated $ 1, 2! H »,.",( i! ».;»(;. The ;:ross prolits were .$:Ul,17s.4-_'. After 
deductinj; $l<l4,4sn.!t4 for deiireciation at the same rates as heretid'ore, .f!(;;!."J '.COT for 
interest on current and funtled dehr. and .i;;t,(;s:!.'.i.". reserve for income taxes, the net 
jtrolit amonntiHl to .'!;i(i.'>.777.4(i. 

The unpreced»'nlcd droufrht experienced ovei' tiie entire Island of ('ulia durini; liie 
normal cane jirowinj; period resultetl in curtaile(l prodn.iion. while costs of lahor 
and material were extremely hi^di thron.i^hout the year. 

The sum of ,$!M;,7.V.i..")n was exjiended for the retirement of .>f l(i(i,(Hi(i jirincipal 
a.nount of First Mortjrajie I'.oiids. reducin;: the amount outstandinu' to .^t-'.'iOO.utid as 
shown in r.alanco Slieet. 

<'apit^i<l Kxiienditures for the year wt're .f;i;!!».7.")l.(i4, distrihuted as follows: Fae- 
tory Improvements completed and in iirocess, $4(;.l(Ml.S7 ; Itailroad and E<iuipment, 
.S7^.lln.::<i : Field i:(|uipment. etc., .$1 1,1ns. 4.". ; .MisceUaneous Improvements. $4,<ir)l>.(i:2. 
.Net I'Xpenditures for lU'w cane plantinjis dui-inj;- the year amounted to .$'.»,!) lO.ris 
Weather conditions throujihout the district this season liave heen favoralde. and 
a f^ood c-rop for tlie coming year is reasonahly assured. Youi- ]iropei-ty has heen well 
maintained and all factory and iilantation ecpiipment is in excellent condition. 

To the re;:ret of the I'.oard (d" Directors, :\Ir. M. II. Lewis, on July 1'2, V.y2i), 
resigned as I'rt'sideiit. Occasion is here taken to express appreciation of devoted 
service rendered your cori>oralion hy Mr. Lewis over a long period of .vears. 
r.y authority of tlie Hoard of I>irectors. 

C. B. Goodrich, 

Pri sith III. 
GEXKKAL r.ALAXCK SIIEICT 
July 8L 1I»l'0 
ASSETS 

I'ltOPERTY AND Pl.ANT : 

riantation 10,(J17 acres, of which 4,7ri."i acres are in 
use for cane; L'M'O acres for pastures, and 118 
acres for liateyes; witli roads, hridges, fences, etc., 

at hook cost $2,470,808.12 

Build in.irs, ^L•H■llinery, Raili-oad and lOipupment 078,880.05 

Work .\nimals, per Inventorv. Julv :!1, I'.r.'o 44,071.08 

Auto Trucks, etc 10,331.58 $3,515,691.43 

INVE.STMENTS I.N OTHER COMPANIES— AT COST 4,250.00 

CrRUFNT Assets and Growing Cane: 

rianted and Growing Cane !?212..300.47 

Advances to Colonos and Contractors 20,180.50 

Materials and Supplies 147,420.83 

Sugar on Hand — all contracted for — at estimated net 

proceeds 2n7,031.40 

Accounts Keceivahle 17,808.34 

Casli in Banks and on Hand 38,041.80 044,301.40 



THECUBAREVIEW 25 

Treasury Stock : 

Preferred — 1,318 shares acquired from Reorganiza- 
tion Committee $ 1.00 

Preferred 182 shares at cost 13,267.50 

1,500 shares 13,268.50 

Deferred Charges : 

Unexpired Insurance $ 8,115.24 

Repairs Applicable to 1920-1921 Crop 25,881.21 33,996.45 



$4,211,507.87 

LIABILITIES 
Capital Stock — Autliorized and Issued : 

7% Cumulative Preferred— 10,000 shares of $100 

each $1,000,000.00 

Common — 105,000 shares without nominal or par 

value 1,750,000.00 $2,750,000.00 

First Mortgage 6% Sinking Fund Gold Bonds — Due 1927 : 

Authorized and Issued $750,000.00 

Less— Redeemed and Cancelled 250,000.00 500,000.00 

Current Liabilities : 

Notes Payable $355,000.00 

Accounts Payable 188,212.93 

Accrued Wages 928.08 

Accrued Interest 1,579.90 545,720.91 

Reserve for Cuban and Federal Income Taxes 9,688.95 

Reserves for Depreciation : 

Manufacturing Plant $81,095.38 

Buildings 32,989.24 

Railroad and Rolling Stock 27,315.80 141,400.42 

Surplus : 

Balance per last statement $312,535.31 

Deduct — Income and Profits Taxes in 
respect of the year ended July 31, 

1919, and prior years $40,879.58 

Expenses in liquidation of sugar and 
molasses on hand at July 31, 1919, 
in excess of estimates 14,980.60 55,860.18 

$256,675.13 
Add— Net Profit for year 163,777.46 

$420,452.59 
Deduct — Dividends declared and paid : 

Preferred Stock $59,500.00 

Common Stock 96,2.50.00 155,750.00 264,702.59 



$4,211,507.87 



GUANTANAMO SUGAR COMPANY 

FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

FOR THE 

Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1920 

jf'o the StockJiolders of the Guantanamo Sugar Company : 

The Directors beg to submit the accounts of your Company for the year ending 
September 30, 1920, and a copy of the balance sheet, together with the report of the 
General Manager on the operations of the Company is attached. 



TUB CUBA REVIEW 



Till- :i ml i>( ciiiic ;.'riniii(l \v:is :;::l',i ;.'.."> tuns iiiid sii;.';ir iiiinlc :;s.r.7(i Inns, iis 

.uiiii'Mn-tl wltli '>-lX>U- tons ciiiu' t.'iniMi<l and ."iT.oi:'. tons sii;rar iiiiuk' in V.)\U. Tin- 
siiiiill <-n>i» "f "''^ >'"'"■ ^^'"* ''""■ '" ""■ ''^^t '■•'"'<' «lii)ii;:lit fxiicrit'iiccd diiriiiii the 
;:r..\\inu' soasun. Tlu' avfram' rainfall was only lis.uii iiiclics, C.'.i per cent. t>\' normal. 

In spit • of lln' siiiall oiitpnt of sii.uaf. tin- linancial results of last year's operations 
;iie liie best ill tile ( "oiiipMiiy's iiistory. The -loss I'l-otiis were s:'..l'.il.1<'.4.sl», from 
wliieh has heeii <liaij.'e»l olT ."<4.' 1,111 ri.4r. to cover depn-ciarioii on hiiildin.iis, machinery 
and equipment and for replanting: cane: proportion of difference hetween actual cost 
and pre-war <ost of capital expenditures made in r.»is. .S:;:',.4T'.».:;'.i and S'.i (i,(i(>;i.Ml 
lor taxes, leavin.u a net in-olit of $1, si «;,(•.( ;'.».( (4. 

Al a special meeting' the stockholders, who were represented l.y proxy, voted 
nnaniiiioiisly to authorize the issue ol' live shares of slock of no par value for each 
share of .$.".( I.CU par value then outstanding:. In ai cordaiK-e willi this vote, cert ilicales 
for slock of no par value have heeii i-xchan^^'d for cei-tilicates of tlie nld slock. Your 
stock lias also heen listed on the New York Stock l-^xchanire. 

Kefiular (luarierly dividends were iiaid at the i-ate of Id per cent, annually 1'or 
the qnarti'is ending' ]»ecemlier :!1, March :;i, and June :;(i. An extra dividend of 
$ri.(;o i»er sliare was iiaid on June ."in. Since the aiiilioriy.ation of the no par value 
slock there has heen jiaid a rej:ular dividend <>i od cents p.er share and an extra 
dividend (d' .".(> cents for the (piarter eiidinj: Septeinher :'.<•. The caiutal outlay for 
the year for additions and improvements to your property amounted to $4l2i),:>l)l.(i7, 
as specified in the (leiieral Manafxer's r«>port. 

r.eltermeiits include additional houses for employees and scliool and welfare 
liiiildinL;s. In the factories a new crusher ami enuiiie have heen installecl at Soledad, 
an addilional evaporatoi- iiody al Ysaliel and llie hoij.'i- replai-emenis at Ysahel and 
I.MS ('alios have lu'eii completed. 

.\ numher of imiiortant iniprox cmeiiis will lie ready for opera! ion al the hefrinnin^ 
of the comini: crop. .\11 mills will have a crusiier and twelve rolls. A mill which 
has heen mo\('d from Central Ysaliel has heen installed as a fourth mill at Soledad. 
.\t Ysahel an entirely new crusher and twelve-roller mill is now heinj? installod. It 
is anlicipate<l that considerahly heller results will he ohiained at tlu'se factories on 
account of these improvements. 

There is anticipated a very considerahle sa.vin^ to the Company in fuel cost, for 
a favorahle contract for the jiurchase of fuel oil to till our re(piiremt>nts lias heen 
eiiterfHl into. The (Jiiaiitananio Kailmad has formerly luinied coal which can he 
l»roimIit to Cnha only ;it very hiL:h cost. For the comiiiL' season the railway locomo- 
tives liave heen equipped 1o Imrn fuel oil. There has heen installe(l the necessary 
eqiiipiiieiit of tanks and hurners so that fuel oil may also he used at tin- factories. 

Taken as a whole thi' jiast season has heen one of unusual jirosperity, your 
factories have heen jrreatly inqiroved and your Company is in very stroni: linancial 
position. The i)rositec'ts are that the coming' crop will he coii.sidi'rahly larger than 
that of the past year. 

r>y order rd' the I'.oard ol' Directoi's. 

Jamks II. I'OST, 

\'i((-Pr( sitjcnt. 

T'.AT.AXCK SIII:i:T SKI'TKMl'.KK .-.(l, I'.H'n 
ASSISTS 
Cost of I'kopkhtiks : 

lieal estate, cane lands, huildinus. eqiiiiimeiit and other pei'man"nt 

investments .$.j,r.SS,.'?46.S0 

yn7/»c/— Betterments <liarutHl t(» surplus. .lulv 1, IKll, to .June '.',0, 
U>lo ; 425,043.07 

$5,202,703.82 



THECUBAREVIEW 27 



Advances to Guantanamo Railroad Company 888,198.23 

7,688 Shares Held in the Guantanamo Railroad Company. , 1.00 

Current and Working Assets : 

Growing crop carried over to 1020-1921 season $437,236.91 

Inventories : 

Raw sugar on liand— 102 bags $3,540.67 

Molasses 2,743.17 

Stores and supplies in stock and in transit, 

at cost 924,880.63 

Materials and spare parts, at cost 99,405.88 1,030,570.35 



Insurance unexpired, etc 70,263.93 

Sundry accounts receivable and advances to 

Colonos, less reserves 820,394.99 

Investments, at cost 1,714,438.46 

Casli in bank and on hand (New York and 

Cuba) 100,92.5.62 4,173,830.20 



$10,324,733.31 



LIABILITIES 
Capital Stock : 

Authorized — 300,000 shares of no par value 
Issued and outstanding : 

123,335 shares of no par value $1,233,350.00 

35,333 shares of unconverted $50 par value stock 
(old issue) 1,760,650.00 



Current Liabilities : 

Sight drafts unpaid $ 45,000.00 

Accounts payable 269,748.51 

Provision for taxes and contingencies 910,530.43 



Unexpended Funds : 

For 1920 dead season current repairs and maintenance. . $ 75J0O0.0O 

For depreciation and extraordinary repairs 984,423.99 

For depreciation of live stock 91,990.17 

For replanting 428,889.09 



$3,000,000.00 



1,225,278.94 



Surplus : 

Balance at September 30, 1919 $3,537,482.08 

Add — Profit on operations for the year as per account 

annexed 1,806,669.04 



1,580,303.25 



$5,344,151.12 
Dc(Zhc?— Dividends 825,000.00 4,519,151.12 



$10,324,733.31 



PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT 

For the Tear Ending September 30, 1920 

Gross sugar sales, less sea freight, commissions, etc $7,796,161.80 

Molasses sales 51,691.80 



$7,847,853.60 
Deduct — Producing and manufacturing costs and shipping 
expenses, including New York and Guantanamo oiBce 
expenses 5,057,844.82 



Profit on operations, before providing for deprecia- 
tion of mills and equipment or for replanting of 
cane $2,790,008.78 



r II i: <• r r. a k k v i i: w 
■'''''• 

Inft-n-st (lift » ."<l.il',ll'l\.j( 

lJ,.nts ( n.-t . Jl.':VJ4n.'.»4 

.Mis<vli!iiu'..iis ( lu'I I l^S.oOi: (U) 

4((4,i.'.t;.ii 

$:?,1"J4,104.S'J 
/,,,7,„./_l'i-,, vision fur lU'pn'ciatinii nf mills and cquiii- 

ni.Mii anil ti>r n-plantiiig of cano 454,0lG.46 

$2,740,14.S.43 

jt,(li((l I'rnvisiun for taxes and contini.'cncies, estiniatod 'Jl Xt.tXHJ.OO 

$1,840,148.43 
Deduct — Approximately on«'-tliird of the difference l)e- 
tween pri'-war and actual <ost of new work charged 
to capital during the year ending September 30, 1018.. 33,470.39 

Profit f..r y.'ar $1,806,009.04 

GUANTANAMO RAILROAD COMPANY 



llALAXCK SIIKKT JUNE IMJ, VS20 
ASSETS 

Capit.\l Assets : 

Cost of road, land, hulldings, rolling stock, (Hiuiiiment, etc. 

WORKI.NG Asskts : 

Fuel $ G.230 85 

Material and su|»iilies 87,049.80 

Insurance unexpired 1,930.34 

Clkkknt Assets : 

Accounts receivable, including claims, cash, etc 

LIAIULITIES 

Capital Stock : 

Authorized— 10,000 shares of $100 each $1,000,000.00 

Lcsa — 11 shares unissued 1,100.00 

9,989 shares outstanding 

IX)AN — Guantanamo Sugar Company $ 78^^,198.23 

Current accounts 111,.503..?8 

Cl'RRENT LlAIMI.niKS : 

Ix)an, reiiayalde in services $ 93,013.82 

Audited voucliers unpaid 31,350.88 

Miscellaneous accounts payable 15,581.86 

Resebves : 

For maintenance of way and structures $ 55,353.41 

For maintenance of equipment 115,812.06 

For depreciation 52.8.54.72 

MLscellaneous 19,937.18 

Surplus : 

Balance at .Tune 30, 1919 $ 201,476.17 

.l(fff— Profit for year ending June 30, 192o 828.28 



$2,263,123.48 



95,816.55 

125,875.96 

$2,484,815.99 



$ 998,900.00 



899,701.61 



139,952.56 



243,957.37 



202,-304.45 



$2,484,815.99 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 



THE SUGAR INDUSTRY 



CUBAS INCOME FROM SUGAR 
Cuba's income from sugar and molasses 
crop was $1,005,451,080, tlie average sell- 
ing 11.95 cents per pound and molasses 3 
cents per gallon. 

Up to February 1, sugar mills to the 
number of 152 had begun grinding the 
1921 crop, compared to 1S5 on the same 
date last year. 

A number of these have since shut 
down, owing to financial diSiculties, cane 
shortage or labor shortage. It is esti- 
mated that 330,891 tons of sugar of the 
present and last crops are now in ware- 
houses in Cuba for sale. 

According to statistics of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, last year's sugar 
production in Cuba was 3,735,425 tons, 
or a falling off compared to the previous 
crop of 274,312 tons. 

By provinces, Pinar de Rio increased 
its yield 5.77 per cent, and Camaguey 
4.85 per cent. The other provinces showed 
decrease in production — Havana 7.15 per 
cent., Matanzas 14.76 per cent., Santa 
Clara 3.16 per cent., and Oriente 15.46 
per cent. 

The average production of sugar by 
weight as compared to weight of cane 
was 10.99, against 10.76 for the previous 
crop. The mills having modern ma- 
chinery secured a production of 11 pounds 
of sugar to 100 of cane. 



CANE WAX 

The West India Committee Circular 
prints the following interesting article on 
cane wax : 

It is a well-known fact that the sugar- 
cane contains amongst its constituents, 
other than sugar, a considerable quantity 
of a wax which, when purified, resembles 
Carnauba wax, and is consequently an 
extremely valuable product. It exists to 
a varying extent in the cane, and is most 
apparent in the rind. Indeed, some va- 
rieties of cane owe their external ap- 
pearance of "bloom" to its presence. The 
wax finds its way into the juice during 
the milling, an(f. is found in the filter-press 
cake, in which it exists to a considerable 



extent, 10 per cent, of the crude wax being 
no uncommon proportion. On the aver- 
age, it may be stated that 100,000 tons of 
cane would yield in the press cake up- 
wards of 250 tons of the crude wax. 

The only working process of extraction 
extant is by drying the cake and digesting 
it with benzine, which is a solvent of the 
wax. The mixture is then filtered, after 
being washed with benzine to extract the 
last of the wax; the benzine solution is 
distilled, the wax being left as a residue, 
and the benzine being condensed for fur- 
ther use. During this process the loss of 
benzine is stated to be only 1 per cent. It 
is diflicult to believe, however, that in a 
tropical country, with a volatile body like 
benzine, the loss is not greater. The resi- 
due of the press cake, after extraction 
with benzine, is in a good condition for 
use as a manure. 

The wax thus obtained is in a hard, 
brown condition, and resembles beeswax. 
It contains about 60 per cent, of pure 
wax, but is shipped in the impure form. 

It unfortunately happens that, in many 
instances, the filter presses, instead of 
giving a cake containing not more than 50 
per cent, of water, yield a mud rather 
than a cake. This condition, of course, 
would complicate the solution consider- 
ably. 

From some cause, a natural explana- 
tion of which is the cost of working, the 
process has been far from being generally 
adopted. The fact remains, however, that 
the canes contain a valuable by-product 
which has not as yet been utilized. Any 
experiments in connection with the sub- 
ject should, of course, be carried out on 
the estate. It unfortunately happens, 
however, that estates' chemists have their 
time fully occupied with other matters 
during the crop season, the only time 
when the work of investigation can be 
carried out. It would, however, be possi- 
ble, if cake be dried and sent to some ex- 
pert at home for purposes of experiment, 
that a more feasible process of extraction 
might be discovered. 



30 T H E CUB A It E \' I E W 

PRODUCTION OF BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES IN CUBA 



Tlif itihicipMl (lojiltTs in ('ulii\ii ItliicUstriip molasses state that a fair averafio 
analysis of tliis prodiut will show 10 to IT iter cent, water, :Hi per cent, ("lerjret sujiars, 
Hi per cent, filneose, and the remainder lilx'i-. .mmis, and salts, these last mniicd being 
h.v-p>''»il"<"f^ wliicli are noti now utilized. 

ESTIMATE OF ALCOHOL DISTILLED— rUOLAHLE DE.MAND KoH 
15LACKSTKA1' MOLASSES 

It is elaimed thai under an elheient process the averaj-'e .uallon of l.hukslrai) 
molasses will distill from 0.:^ to 0.5 gallon proof alcohol. II would tluTel'ore appear 
that few products are hotter adapted to the manufacture ol alcohol. 

I'roducers and dealers in iliis district express the oiiinion that the demand for 
l>lackstrap molasses will steadil.v increase, e.specially if alcohol comes into .ueneral 
u.<o as a substitute for gasoline in ruinnng motors. Moreovei-, it is believt'd that the 
growing demand for the use of raw molasses in the manufacture of certain stock 
foods will offset the loss of the market occasioned by the prohibition of the maini- 
facture of alcoholic beverages in the United States. 

USE OK .Mol.ASSKS .VS FUEL BY SUGAR INIILLS— NECESSITY FOR FAIR 

MARKET PRICE 

Due to the higli price of sugar as compared with that of molasses, this latter 
product is often burned by the sugar mills as fuel in connection with other refuse, 
instead of being stored by them until shipment can be made. 

A proper interest in the storage and conservation of blackstrap molasses by the 
sugar mills depends largely on the offering of a fair market price; and if excessive 
profits are gained by any of the parties handling the pi-odtict, the margin will become 
too narrow to be profitable to the others. 

ESTIMATED PORT STORAGE CAPACITY 
.\ more careful conservation would also create a demand for steel storage tanks 
l)oth at the sugar mills and various points of shipment. It is stated that the port 
of Matanzas has storage capacity for over 16,000,000 gallons; Havana, 8,000,000; 
Cienfuegos, 0,000,000; Santiago de Cuba, Monaco, Jucaro, Antilla, Xuevitas, and 
Puerto I'adre 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 each ; Boqueron, Caiharien, and Sagua, under 
2,000,0<JO gallons ea(-h. Important improvements are under way at Matanzas and it 
is believed additional storage will soon l)e available at that point. Shippers of 
molasses claim a total of approximately 705 tank cars of 5,000 gallons each, and the 
United Railways have available some 40 tank cars of less capacity. 

EXPORTS OF CUBAN MOLASSES— ESTIMATED PRODUCTION OF 1920 
The following figures given by the ('uban Government cover the quantities of 
molasses exported during the years 1917 and 1918, also the first six months of 1019. 
Statistics beyond this date are not yet available. It is, however, estimated that the 
production for 1920 has reached 180,000,000 gallons ; of this amount prol)ahly 20,000,- 
000 to SO.OOO.OfiO gallons have been used locally in the maiuifactui'e of fuel alcohol: 

1917 lOls 1919* 

From — GfiUons GaUona Gallons 

Caiharien l,07s.lM)3 978,090 1.302,400 

Cienfuegos 45,149,480 43,587,509 11,992,540 

Guantanamo 2,404,508 3.092,723 2.750,861 

Havana 14,879,142 16,990,893 5,810,859 

•TiK-aro 6,000,000 4,975,000 1,000,000 

Manziunllo 3,923,832 2,208.143 886,000 

Mariel ........ 73.244 

Matanzas 71,069.082 66,377^987 15,191,722 

Nipe 1,906.972 10,726,289 4,302,080 

Nuevitas 3,570,000 

Puerto Padre 46,362,531 4,824,514 683,517 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



31 



Sagua 5,415,798 4,711,767 4,491,812 

Santa Cruz 940,524 1,000,000 1,350,000 

Santiago 62,950 5,500 

Total 199,193,722 163,716,219 49,782,231 

* First 6 months. 

SHIPMENTS TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES 

Tlie quantities reported in tlie Cuban Governmental statistics as shipped to 
foreign countries are g■i^•en below : 

1917 1918 3919* 

Country Gallons Gallons Gallons 

United States 179,244,289 161,033,117 45,925,447 

Canada 224,737 

British West Indies 5,500 

France 4,371 

England 19,945,062 2,458,385 3,851,281 

Total 199,193,722 163,716,219 49,782,231 

* First months. 

— Vice Consul Hernan C. Tof/cnit.::, Havana. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 

Sucreric, DistiUcrie cG Industries Ariri- 
coles, published by the Societe des Pub- 
lications Industrielles et Agricoles, Paris, 
France. This illustrated trade journal 
is something unique and above the cur- 
rent trade publication in literary style. 
It is published quarterly by the publish- 
ers of the Journal des Fabricants de 
Sucre, and the first number, in French 
and Spanish, contains the announcement 
that all succeeding numbers will contain 
an English section. 

A Guide to the West Indies, revised 
edition, with all the latest information 
to 1921, by Frederick Ober. published by 
Dodd. Mead & Co., New York. A Guide 
to the West Indies, Bermuda and Pana- 
ma, with maps and many illustrations. 

Sailing South, with illustrations, by 
Philip S. Marden. published by Houghton, 
Mifflin Co., Boston and New York. Price 
$3.50. 

Cotton Facts, edition of December, 1920, 
compiled and edited by Alfred B. Shep- 
person: revised and enlarged by C. W. 
Shepperson-Bull. Published by Shepper- 
son Publishing Co., New York. 



WEIR FROG COMPANY 
The Weir Frog Company, 43 Cedar St.; 
New York, will soon have ready for their 
friends in Latin-America a catalogue in 
Spanish descriptive of their products. 
This company has been manufacturing 



switches and special track work for the 
principal railroads in the United States 
and Canada during the past thirty-five 
years and their product is recognized as 
the standard by leading railroad engi- 
neers. 

Lender the active management of Mr. 
Jas. M. Motley, Avho has been identified 
with the company for more than twelve 
years, the Weir products are now in use 
on the principal railroads and plantations 
throuahout Latin- America. 



THE GERMAN SUGAR CROP 
A report by Mr. Howard W. Adams, 
representative of the Department of 
Commerce at Berlin, states that the Sta- 
tistisches Reichsamt (Federal Statistical 
Bureau) estimates the total German 
sugar crop for 1920-21 at 65,600,000 dou- 
ble centners (double centners equals 
220,4 pounds). During the year 1919-20 
it is estimated that the yield of sugar 
amounted to 810,150 tons. 



SUGAR PRODUCTION IN FRANCE 
The ciuantity of sugar produced in 
France from September 1, 1920, to Janu- 
ary 15, 1921 — that is, for the first four 
months of the 1920-21 sugar-crop year — 
amounts to 285,375,383 kilos, against 148,- 
653,158 kilos for the same period of the 
previous crop year. 



32 



THE CUBA li E V I E W 




Thninas Cane I'x 



f.ir .MdtDi- Trucks, Koady fcr Loa<lini;. 



IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA'S CANE HAUL- 
ING INDUSTRY 

An iiivfiition of vital interest to tlie sugar industry of the Island is that of Mr. 
1>. K. Thomas of Havana of a cane hauling body that bids fair to revolutionize the 
present method of getting sugar cane from field to mill. 

The invention is the result of five years of study and experiment here in Cuba 
and among the main features of the device are its simplicity and adaptability to con- 
ditions that have always confronted those interested in the economical hauling of 
cane. 

Today the same method of hauling cane is used as was employed one hundred 
years ago — with l)ull carts — but this unique idea will mean the introduction of the 
automobile truck into its legitimate field and effect a saving which will mean much 
to the sugar grower of the Island. 

The outstanding features which would recommend this cane body to the sugar 
grower are its simplicity, low initial cost, and the fact that repairs of any nature 
can be effected liy the local blacksmith or carpenter. Two bodies are employed for 
ea<-h truck placed in the cane hauling service, one remaining in the field being loaded 
while the truck is engaged in transporting the already loaded body to the mill or 
railroad siding. Thus the truck is continually in service, thereby eliminating what 
would be termed "dead time" during the loading operation. A two-ton truck does 
the work of three of the "carretas" now universally used in cane hauling. 

The following is a brief description of the '"Thomas Cane Body," on which patents 
have been applied for in both the United States and Cuba : 

A two-ton truck with two bodies costs f. o. b. Havana approximately ?4,000.00. 

Additional bodies .$300.00. 

Body consists of a platform mounted on four collapsible legs, which are hooked 
to the under side of the body when the truck is traveling. 

The truck is equipped with a device placed directly behind the driver's seat 
which raises the body in position to be loaded and lowers the body onto the truck 
when loaded. 

The wheels of the trucks are equipped with special cane hauling rims which give 
them S in. bearing surface per gross load ton, as against the ordinary "carreta" with 
its two to three inches per load ton. These special rims come into play only when 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



33 
















Ilkistrating How Truck Is ^^"ithdra\vn From, or Spotted Under, the Thomas Cane Body. 

the truck is operating on soft ground, the regular rubber tires coming into use when 
traveling on stone roads ; tlxus speed is not sacrificed and no change of rim is required. 

During the off season, the trucks may be employed in any kind of ordinary work. 

The expense of moving 100 arrobas one kilometer with a two-ton outfit will not 
exceed 30 cents, and with a live-ton outfit the expense is given as less than 25 cents. 

Loading and unloading is effected in exactly the same manner as with ox carts. 



SUGAR FINANCING & EXPORT COMPANY 

A banking syndicate headed by the 
Guaranty Trust Company of New York, 
the National City Bank and the Royal 
Bank of Canada has vmderwritten an ac- 
ceptance credit to be granted to the Sugar 
Financing and Export Company, a Cuban 
company formed by leading sugar and 
financial interests to assist Cuban grow- 
ers and manufacturers of sugar. 

The Sugar Financing and Export Com- 
pany is to have a paid-in capital of 
$2,000,000, all of which has been sub- 
scribed by the Cuban Cane Sugar Cor- 
poration and the Cuban-American Sugar 
Company and their associated and sub- 
sidiary companies. 

The sjaidicate proposes to grant this 
company a six months' open credit, 
drafts under which are to be secured by 
sugar stored in Independent Warehouses 
in Cuba and or in process of exporta- 
tion. The principal amount of the drafts 
at any one time outstanding will not 
aggregate in excess of 820,000,000. The 
drawings are to be on the basis of $8.00 



a bag and are not to run longer than nine- 
ty days. Bills drawn under this credit will 
be eligible for rediscount with or purchase 
by Federal Reserve Banks under the regu- 
lations of the Federal Reseiwe Board. 

The National City Bank, the Royal 
Bank of Canada and the Banco Mercan- 
til Americano de Cuba, acting as Trus- 
tees, on behalf of the syndicate will re- 
ceive and hold for the benefit of the ac- 
cepting banks the warehouse receipts and 
or shipping documents against which 
drafts are to be drawn. 



HAVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & 
POWER COMPANY 

A semi-annual dividend of $3.00 per 
share on the preferred stock and a divi- 
dend of $3.00 per share on the common 
stock will be paid on May 16, 1921, to 
stockholders of record at the close of 
business on April 20, 1921. Checks will be 
mailed. 

Stock transfer books will be closed from 
April 21st to May 19th, 1921, both inclu- 
sive. 



ui 



T II E CUB A U E \' I E W 



SUGAR REVIEW 

Si'cciiilly 'uriltcii for The Ctilui A\"!i':i' />v ll'illctt &■ Gray, A'cit' York, N. Y. 



We wmtc ytui hist on I'cbniMry lis, IKi'l. since \\lii<li ihite th.o Cuhiiii SujTiir 
FiiiaiMt' Cuiiiiiiitttf has (((iitiiiiiccl to luiictiuii, and liaviii;^ sold tlu'ir full valiu! quaiitity 
olTi'lvd iif HKt.CKiU t<»iis CuIkiii raws on the ."ic c. & f. hasis, followed with an announce- 
nieiit of a lu'w priee of r>V4<" t-. & f. hasis, whicli announcement luul the efiecr of 
stinuilatinir liie demand for sujrars materially, and quite heavy sales have heen made 
of sugars, jiarlicularly those outside of the control, Porto Kico, I'liili|i|pines. full 
duty, etc 

The followin.L' iiro-forma coniract for sales of Cuban sugars no doubt will lie of 
interest to your readers: 

rUoroK-MA OF KAW sr(;AK COXTKACT 

Employed by the Sugar Finance Conunittee to Covi-r Sales of Culian Sugar, 

Cost and Freight 
StfiAR FiNANCK Committee Contract No. 

Havana, Cura 110 Wall Street 

New York, 

Blyer 

Seller. — Sugar Finance Conniuttee. a Connnission duly constituted and appointed 
hy I'residential Decree No. I'm of the Iie])ublic of Cuba, dated Havana, Cuba, February 
11, lllUl, and by virtue of the powers therein containi'd. has this day sold to you tor 
account of its principal in Cuba, who will be named to you on or l)efore declai'ation 
of steamer. 

(,>rANTiTY. — Two TiiorsA.M) Five IUndred (2,rit)0) Tons (of 2,1.'40 

|tounds net each) of Clua Cextrifl'gal Sugar, fair average quality of the Crop of 
1!>L'li-i:i. Delivery of live per cent, more or less than this ani6unt to be settled for at 
the market price of like sugars on day of arrival. 

Siui'.MENT. — Shipment to be made First half of .March i)y steamer or steamers, 
to be named as .soon as possible for the port of 

I'RicE. — At a Price of Four and Three-Quarter (4%c) Cents per pound, Ccst 
A. Ml Freight, basis 9G°, average outturn polarization. 

Polarization Allowances. — Settlement to he made on the accepted average 
polarization with allowance of .09c per pound for each degree above the selling basis 
up to U7' and .04.jc per pound from 97° to 98° or .09c per pound for each degree below 
the felling basis down to 91°. Fractions in proportion. No sugars to he delivered 
below 91°, unless on account terms mutually satisfactory to consignee and seller. 

Weights. — Net Landed Weights and outturn polarization at port of discharge. 
Usual Conditions of sampling and polarizing. 

Delivery. — Sugar to be delivered at a customary .safe wharf or refinery as directed 
by the buyer. 

Force Ma.jeure. — Should delivery in whole or in part be prevented or delayed by 
any cause of Force Majeure, War, Strikes, Rebellion, Political disturbances, Civil 
commotion, Regulations or Restrictions imposed by any Government or Governmental 
Agency, Fire or any other cause beyond Seller's control. Seller shall advise Buyer of 
such fact and of quantities thereof, and the latter shall have the option of cancelling 
the contract for the quantities so prevented or delayed, and in the event of not 
immediately exercising such option, shall take the sugar at contract price as soon as 
it can be delivered. 

Payment.— The Seller to draw on the Buyer by ten days sight draft with shipping 
documents attached for do% of the basic price established by the Sugar Finance 
Committee, which basic price will be named to the Buyer by the Committee on 
declaration of steamer. The Seller also to draw on the Buyer in favor of said Sugar 
Finance Committee by like draft, for the difference between 95% of the said basic 



THECUB A REVIEW 35 



price and 95% of the contract price named above. Tlie remaining balance of tlie 
contract price to be paid by the Buyer to the Seller after final settlement of weights 
and tests, with interest on same at rate of 6% per annum to begin to run ten days 
from entry of steamer at Customs. 

INSURA]XCE. — MARiiS^E RiSK. — From shore to shore including craft risk loading 
and discharging and including lighter and craft risk in Cuban ports while awaiting 
arrival of vessel assigned to transport sugars, but attaching not more than seven (7) 
days prior to the due date of the arrival of said vessel to be covered by Buyers. 

SUGAR FINANCE COMMITTEE, 
By George Logan, 
Frank C. Lowry, 
e. h. costello, 
Representing the Committee. 

A.s will be shown by the following table there is considerable quantity of sugar in 
Cuba which is outside of the committee's control, and Mr. Himely, the Cuban expert, 
writes that previous to the date when the selling decree became effective the following 
companies had sold the number of bags of sugar opposite their name, these sugars 
consequently not being under control of the commission: 

Bags Bags 

Czarnikow-flionda Co 1,433,000 Cia. Azucarera Gomez ^Tena.... 600,000 

Cuban-American Sugar Co 460,000 iNIiranda Sugar Co 200,000 

F. Atkins & Co 2,035,676 Zaldo & Co 72,000 

Baragua Sugar Co 500,000 Galban, Lobo & Co 60,700 

Central Cunagua 530,000 United Fruit Co 1,000,000 

Meanwhile crop making in the Island continues in a satisfactory manner, although 
weather has been unsettled at times. One hundred and ninety-one factories are at 
work, and according to our special cable covering the crop up to February 28th, the 
production has reached the figure of 857,082 tons, Avhich, however, is materially behind 
last year's figure of 1,247,842 tons. 

In the United States a special session of Congi-ess has been called for April 11th, 
and as botJi branches of Congi-ess and the President are said to favor the passage 
of an Emergency Tariff Bill, it is more than likely that such bill will be introduced 
and passed promptly. The understood program is to pass the previous Emergency 
Bill which was vetoed by President Wilson, this bill including a duty of 2c per lb. 
for non-preferential countries and 1.60c per lb. for Cuban sugars of 96° test. 

Advices from beet growing countries in Europe give no positive figures as to 
sowings for the next crop. Optimistic reports are being received from some sections 
of Ein-ope, but an important increase over the sowings of last year is not likely. 
The following table gives the stock in the principal countries : 

STOCK IN PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES at latest uneven dates. Tons. 

Germany, January 1st — Licht 

Czecho-Slovakia, February 1st 

France, February 2Sth 

Holland, January 1st 

Belgium, January 1st 

England, March 5th ■. . 

United States, March 23d 

Cuba, March 19th 

Tons 
New York, N. T., March 28, 1921. 



1921 


1920 


828.919 


582,059 


558,316 


430,804 


138,000 


54,000 


166,218 


81,878 


187,160 


103,058 


188,653 


87,748 


154,-543 


139,536 


749,005 


612,551 


2,970,814 


2,091,634 



M 



T HE C U U A U E \' I E W 



REVrSTA AZUCARERA 

I srri^ii csrecialiiicnlc /'.i-.i hi CL'BA REl'U-.W /-.t Willctt & Gray, dc Xiic-.a Yorh. 
DesdP que se pulilicd miestra ultima revista con fecha 28 de febrero de V.r21, el 
Coiiiiie rinauciero del Aziicar Iia continuadi) linicionando, y habieudo veiidido toda la 
cautidad ofn-cida de l(Mt,(Mio toiieladas de aziicar eruda de Cuba bajo la base de oc costo 
y tlete, auunei6 uu nuevo preclo bajo la base de oViC costo y tlete, euyo aviso dio por 
resultado el estiuudar la deuiauda por azucares luaterialmeute, hal)iendose efectuado 
ventas bastaute graudes de azticares, particularmente azucares fueia de su posesi6n, 
couio de Puerto Kiro, las Filipinas. con todos los derechos, etc. 

La sijruieute forma de contratn para las ventas de azucares de ("ubii iiuludalde- 
meiite interesara a luiesiros lectores : 

FOK.MA DE CONTKATO l»i; AZrCAR CKUDO 
I'sado por el ("iiiiiite Fiiiaiiciero del Aziicar para las ventas de aziicar de Cuba, 

costo y flete 

COMIII'; EiNANCIERO 1>KI. AZIH AH. CoUtlilto Xo. 

IlAiiANA, CritA. Ill' \Vall street 

JsuEVA York. 

('OMI'IJADOR •' 

Vkndedor. — El Comite Fiuanciero del Aziicar. inia CDudsion del)idaniente consti- 
tuida y nond)rada por Decreto No. 155 I'residencial de la Kepublica de Cuba, fecbado 
en la llabana, Cuba, el 11 de febrero de 1921, y en virtud de los iX)deres en ella cou- 
tenidos. ha vendido a Yd. en este dia por cuenta de la parte principal interesada en 
Cuba, la cual le sera nombrada el dia de la declaraci6n del vapor o antes. 

Cantidad. — Dos mil quinientas (2,500) toneladas (de 2,240 libras 

netas cada una) de azucar Centrlfugo de Cuba, promedio calidad buena de la zafra de 
1920-21. La entrepi de un cinco por ciento mas o nienos de esta cantidad se liquidara 
al precio del mercado de aziicares semejantes el dia de la llegada. 

Embakqie. — El emliarque se har§, en la primera mitad de marzo por el vapor o 
vapores (lue se nombren tan pronto como sea posilde para el puerto de 

I'REcio. — Al precio de cuatro y tres cuartos (4%c) centavos por libra, costo y 
tlete, base 90°, promedio rendimiento de polarizacion. 

CoxcESioNES DE PoLARiZACioN. — La liquidaciou se hara ba.jd el promedio aceptado 
de polarizaci6n, con concesiSn de .09c por libra por cada grado que exceda la base 
de venta liasta 97° y .045c por libra desde 97° a 98° o .09c por libra por cada grado 
bajo la liase de venta hasta 91°. Las fracciones en proporcion. Xo se entregaran 
aziicares por bajo de 91°, a menos que sea bajo condiciones de descuento a satisfaccion 
mutua del consignatario y vendedor. 

Pesos. — Los pesos netos en tierra y el rendimiento de polarizacion en el puerto 
de descarga. La cata y polarizaci6n segiin la manera usual. 

ExTREGA. — El aziicar sera entregado en un nuielle seguro o reflneria segiin sea 
indicado por el comprador. 

FcERZA Mayor. — En caso la entrega por completo o en parte fuera impedida o 
demorada por alguna causa o por fuerza mayor, guerra, liuelgas, rebelion disturbios 
politicos. tumulto, reglamentos o restricciones impuestos por algiin Gobierno o Agenda 
de Gobierno, incendio o alguna otra causa fuera del poder del vendedor, el vendedor 
debera a visa r al comprador de tal becho y de las cantidades afectadas, y este ultimo 
tendra opcion a cancelar el contrato por las cantidades asf impeilidas o demoradas. 
y en caso de no ejercer imnediatamente tal opcion, tomara. el aziicar al precio del 
contrato tan pronto como pueda ser entregado. 

Pago. — El vendedor girara sobre el comprador por giro a diez dias vista junto con 
docunientos de embarque por 95% del precio de base establecido por el Comite Finan- 
ciero del Azucar, cuyo precio de base sera expresado al comprador por el Comite a 
la declaraci6n del vapor. El vendedor tambien girara sobre el comprador a la orden 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



de diclio Comite Financiero del Azticar por un giro semejante, por la diferencia entre 
el 95% de diciio precio de base y el 95% del precio del contrato arriba mencionado. 
El balance restante del precio del contrato sera pagado por el comprador al vendedor 
despues del arreglo final de pesos y polarizacion, con interes a razon de 6% al aiio, 
que empezara a contarse a los diez dias del registro del vapor en la aduana. 

Seguro. — RiESGo Maritimo. — De costa a costa incluyendo el riesgo del buque al 
cargar y descargar e incluyendo el riesgo de lanchaje y del buque en puertos de Cuba 
mientras se aguarda la llegada del buque asignado para transportar azticares, pero 
no incluyendo mas de siete (7) dias con anterioridad a la feclia en que debia llegar 
diclio buque a riesgo de los compradores. 

COMITE FINANCIERO DEL AZUCAR, 
pp. George Logan, 
Frank C. Lowry, 
e. h. costello, 
Representantes del Comite. 
Como se muestra por la siguiente tabla, hay una considerable cantidad de azticar 
en Cuba que no esta bajo el dominie del Comite, y Mr. Himely, el cubano perito, 
manifiesta que con anterioridad a la feclia en que empezo a regir el decreto de las 
ventas, las siguientes companias babian vendido la cantidad de sacos de azticar indi- 
cados a coutinuacion de sus nombres respectivos, y por consiguiente estos azticares 
no estaban bajo el dominio de la comision : 

Bags Bags 

Czarnikow-Rionda Co 1,433,U00 Cia. Azucarera Gomez Mena 600,000 

Cuban-American Sugar Co 460,000 Miranda Sugar Co 200,000 

F. Atkins & Co 2,0.35,676 Zaldo & Co 72,000 

Baragua Sugar Co 500,000 Galban. Lobo & Co 60,700 

Central Cunagua 530,000 United Fruit Co 1,000,000 

Entretanto la operacion de la zafra en la Isla contintia de una manera satisfac- 
toria, aunque el tiempo en varias ocasiones lia estado revuelto. Hay en operacion 
191 xabricas, y segtin las noticias que hemos recibido por cable comprendiendo la 
zafra liasta el 28 de febrero, la produccion ha llegado a la cifra de 857,082 toneladas, 
lo que sin embargo es muclio nienos que la cifra de 1,247,842 toneladas del ano pasado. 

En los Estados Unidos se va a reunir el Congreso en sesion especial el 11 de 
abril, y como se dice que ambas camaras del Congreso asi como el Presidente estan 
en favor de sancionar un proyecto de ley de emergencia del arancel, es mas que 
probable que dicho proyecto sea presentado a las Camaras y liecho ley prontamente. 
El objeto segtin se comprende es sancionar el anterior proyecto de ley de emergencia 
que fue rechazado por el Presidente Wilson, este proyecto de ley incluyendo un 
derecho de 2c la libra para paises no preferenciales y 1.60c la libra para los azticares 
de Cuba polarizacion de 96°. 

Los avisos de los paises productores de remolacha de Europa no dan cifras 
positivas acerca de las siembras para la proxima cosecha. De algunas partes de 
Europa se estan recibiendo noticias optimistas, pero no es probable liaya un aumento 
importante sobre las siembras del aiio pasado. La siguiente tabla da las existencias 
en los principales paises : 

Existencias en los principales paises segtin varias feclias, en toneladas. 



Alemania, enero 1 — Licht. 
,Czecho-Slovakia, febrero 1 . 

Francia, febrero 28 

Holanda, enero 1 

Belgica, enero 1 

Ingla terra, marzo 5 

Estados Unidos, marzo 23. 
Cuba, marzo 29 



1921 


1920 


828,919 


582,059 


5.58,316 


4.30,804 


1.38,000 


54,000 


166,218 


81,878 


187.160 


103,0.58 


188,6.53 


87,748 


1.54,543 


139,5.36 


749,005 


612,551 



Toneladas 2,970,814 2,091,6.34 

Nueva York, marzo 28, 1921. 



3S 



THE CUB A 11 E ^' I E \V 



Cable "Turnure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deiiosits of Securities, we takm.c: char.sje ol 
Collection and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public 
and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection 
of Drafts Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and 
Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, 
Spain, Me.xico, Puerto Kico. Santo Domingo and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 

HAVANA : N. Gelats & Co. PARIS : Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO : Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 
LONDON : The London Joint City & Midland Bank Ltd. 
I Banco Urquijo, Madrid 
SPAIN : , Banco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

' Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

Showing the location of all the active sugar plantations in Cuba 
and giving other data concerning the sugar industry of Cuba. 

Size 29^ X 24. Copyrighted 1918. 

Price 50 cents postpaid. 

THE CUBA REVIEW 

82 Beaver St., New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS and MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 
Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

A. KLING, Prop. IVAORII F AI A STEAMSHIP WORK 

J..\S. S BOGUE, Supt. lyiKJDll^E^, /\Lu/\. ^ SPECIALTY 



Telephone, 35 Hamilton. XIkIiI Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address : "Abiworks" New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Makers & Manufacturers. Steamship Repairs in all Branches. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
Installation, Oil Fuel Installation, Carpenter and Joiner Work. 

18-20 Summit Street— 1 1 -27 Imlay Street Near Hamilton Ferry BROOKLYN. N. Y. 

Asfonts for " KinKliorn " 3Iultiplex Valve 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertiser" 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Cana Neto 

Sistema nueva patentada por 
Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 
constructor de trasbordadores superiores 

Funciona por motor, levantando, pesando, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cana por un hombre y 
imprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo " La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



Subscription - $3.00 Per Year 



Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836, AT 105 WALL ST. 

Cable Address, " Tide, New York " 



BANK OF CUBA IN NEW YORK 

34 Wall St., New York 

Associate Bank of National Bank of Cuba 

General banking business transacted 
with special facilities for handling 
Cuban items through the National 
Bank of Cuba and its 92 branches 
and agencies. 

We are especially interested in dis- 
counting Cuban acceptances. 

Current Interest Rates Paid on Deposit Accounts 
subject to check. 

Loans, Discounts, Collections and Letters of 
Credit will receive our best attention. 

W. A. MERCHANT President 

J. T. MONAHAN ------ Vice-President 

CHAS. F. PLARRE ----- Cashier 

L. G. JONES -------- Asst. Cashier 

J. W. ALBAUGH ------ Asst. Cashier 

Se habla Espanol 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 
HAVANA 



TRADE WITH BOSTON 

Year Ending Year Ending 

Islov., 1920 l<fov. 30, 1920 'Nov., 1919 Isiov. 30, 1919 

Imports from Cuba $1,977,287 $74,085,684 $1,949,6-57 $29,582,921 

Exports to Cuba 461,330 11,408,033 2,004,710 13,253.505 

Year Ending Year Ending 

Dec, 1920 Dec. 31, 1920 Dec, 1919 Dec. 31, 1919 

Imports from Cuba $ 698,698 $73,885,811 $ 898,571 $29,860,677 

Exports to Cuba 1,234,264 11,152,726 1,489,553 13,427,923 

Year Ending Year Ending 

.Jan., 1921 Jan. 31, 1921 Jan.. 1920 Jan. 31, 1920 

Imports from Cuba $ 507,367 $70,130,887 $4,262,291 $31,944,178 

Exports to Cuba 1,013,589 11,807,418 358,897 11,362,045 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when icriting to Advertisers 



I' hi: < ' r r. a k e n' i e w 



T II 



Cru$f Companv of Cuba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL ■ 
SURPLUS 



S500.000 
S900.000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornshy President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. H opened Vice-Presuleiit 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicriip Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. VVhitner Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts. 



%% 



99 



WATERPRO0K 
^ BELTING 

ISWATERP 

6ARANTIZAM0S QUE ESTA ^.v,, 
CORREA ES PERFECTA W^^l 
POR SU CALIDAD Y *^ 

PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUE8A 
VUELVE- 




GERENTE P.N.PIEDRA.- ;^-' 

CABLE. "PEN I COPE" • ^ 



kr^rf. 







D-BACHMMicd:* 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 

K-iaREAgEST. *-> NEW YORK, M.Y. 



l^&^ffi^ 



Our established relations with manufac- 
turers and lar.ije volume of business, 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes ot 



RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda— Bicarbonate -Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid — Nitric Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases -Waxes 

Gums — Glues Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filterins Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences Herbs Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 



We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you are 
next in tlie market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 
140 Liberty St., New York 

2 & 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cieiifuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives : 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R 



The Royal Bank »• Canada 

Fundado en 1869 

Capital Pagado - - - - - $15,000,000 
Fondo de Reserva - - - - 15.000.00o 
Activo Total 420.000.000 

QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SUCURSALES 

VEIMTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONDRES : 2 Bank Buildings, Princes Street 

NEW YORK: 68 William Street 

BARCELONA : Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Se expiden CARTAS DE CREDITO 
para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS ESTERLI- 
NAS y PESETAS, valederas sin descuentoalguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTO DE AHORROS se 
admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO PESOS 
en adelante. 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana: Obrapia33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozare.na F. \V. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F. J. Beattv 



Phase mention THE CUBA REVIEW %chen icriting to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. II 

P M 


No. 1 

P M 


No. 7 

PM 


No. 5 

PM 


No. 3 

AM 


No. 9 

AM 


S 

58 
109 

I79| 
2301 

180 

195 

1 

241 

276 

340 

520 
538 


10 31 
* 


10.01 
AM 
IJ.17 

405 

6.00 
945 
6.00 


4.01 

6.40 
8.40 
PM 


I.OI 

3-23 
5-50 

922 


10 01 

11-54 
2.00 

4 47 

8.35 


7.01 

925 
1237 
PM 






9.00 


7.10 
AM 


7.10 
PM 





9 55 

"•35 
PM 

3.10 
AM 

.V45 
AM 










PM 

2-55 

6.10 

2. ro 

6.45 
P M 



















HAVANA 



Lv. Central Station Ar. 



Ar Matanzas .. .Lv. 

.Cardenas 



.. .Sagua 

. .Caibarien 

.Santa Clara 

..Cienfuegos 

Sancti Spiritus . . . , 

.. Ciego de Avila. . . 
Camaguey 



Atitilla . 
Santiago 



No. 2 

AM 



6.50 

4-15 
12.05 
PM 
10.45 

7-25 



4-45 



12.15 
AM 



12.01 
AM 



No. 8 

AM 



6.52 
5 00 
AM 



No. 6N0. 10 No. 4 No. 12 

PM PM i PM I AM 



1. 10 
10 00 



6.45 



7.40 



12.40 

AM 
9 00 
PM 

10.40 
9 00 

AM 



6.30 ! 7.25 ! 6.30 



3-50 
1.20 
PM 



5.06 



12.10 
PM 
8.15 

AM 



PM I 

" 15 
AM 



10.15 
PM 



Sleeping cars on trains i, 2, 5, 6, 11 and 
"Via Carreiio. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES— UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From. Havana to 

Cienfuegos 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Ciego de Avila 

Camaguey 

Bayanio 

Altro Cedro 

Santiago 



Lower 
Berth 



S5 00 



550 
6 00 



7.00 
8.00 



Upper 
Berth 



$4.00 

4.50 I 

5.00 ) 

6.00 I 

7.00 i 



Compart- 
ment 



$12.00 



Drawing- 
Room 



$15.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



U S. Cy. 

Antilla , £2921 

Batabano 2.95 

Bayamo 26.24 

Caibarien 1481 

Camaguey 20.57 

Cardenas 796 

Ciego de Avila 17.47 

Cienfuegos 1233 

Colon 8.12 

Guantanamo 3 [.70 

Holguin 26.87 



U. S. Cy. 

Isle of Pines $ lo 00 

Madruga 4.25 

Manzanillo 27.74 

Matanzas 4.60 

Placetas " 13.54 

Remedios 14. 'o 

Sagua 11.98 

San Antonio 1.80 

Sancti Spiritus 15.51 

Santa Clara 12.08 

Santiago de Cuba 30x8 



Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighs 
no pounds or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in second-class. 



ROUND TRIP TICKETS-First and Second Class 

are on sale from Havana to Matanzas, Jovellanos, Cardenas, Col6n, Union, Sagua, 
Caibarien and Cienfuegos, valid for three days after date of sale. 



UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



W. T. MEDLEY, COMMERCIAL AGENT 



ARCHIBALD JACK, GENERAL MANAGER 



HAVANA, CUBA 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRr(](>IST 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPF.CIAI.TIHS 
88 BROAD ST.. Cor. Stone. NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importaci6n directa de todas los 
centros nianufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Muiisoti Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward iS: Co., New York ; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool ; Vapores 
TransatLliiticos de A. I'olch & Co., de Harcelona, 
Espana. 

INDEPENDENCIfl STREET 1721 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



EstaMished so Years Shipi)int; Trade a Specially 

JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 

Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones: j ^-^^^ '• Howling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone o:(i6 Henry .Nitjht Call, 22->i Henrv 



The Snare and Triest Company 

Contracting Engineers 

STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 

We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office. 8 West 40th Street 

Havana OlfiCL- : Zulueta 36 I) 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

Sngraufrs- - iFiitr ^tcitimtrrij 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA. CUBA 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address ; Kunomale, New York 
Telephone, 3300 South 



Telephone 
213 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Exchanse 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulk KRS, Spar Makers, 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 Summit Street 

Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



CARLOS M. VARONA 

MERCADERES No. 5 

HAVANA, CUBA 



M. J. CABAiN A 

< • O .M .M I S S I<) N' M K R ( • II A N T 

P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either on » 
commission basis or under agency arrangemeni» 
Also furnishes all desired information about land» 
in eastern Cuba. 



F. \V. Hvoslef 



E. C. Da 



R. M. Michel. 



BENNETT. HVOSLEF & CO. 

Steamship Agents & Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 
Cable "Benvosco" 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



43 



Munson Steamship Line 



GENERAL OFFICES : 

67 Wall Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Keyser Building, BALTIMORE. MD. 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 



Leave 
New York 



Arrive 
Antilla 



S/S "MUNAMAR" Apr. 30 

May 14 

May 28 



May 4 
May 18 
June I 



Leave 
Antilla 

May 7 
May 21 
June 4 



Arrive 
New York 

May II 
May 25 
June 8 



FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



Havana Every Week 

Matanzas .Every 2 Weeks 
Cardenas . Every 2 Weeks 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular Sailings as follows : 

Isabela de Sagua . .Every 3 Weeks 

Caibarien " " " 

Nuevitas " " " 

Guantanamo " " " 



Antilla ...Every 3 Weeks 
Santiago. " " " 
Cienfuegos " " " 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Montevideo-Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 



NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

New York to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires 

S/S MARTHA WASHINGTON (b) May 15 

S/S HURON (a) May 29 

S/S AEOLUS (a) June 15 

(a) ist, 2d and 3d class. (b) ist and 2d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Cienfu egos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 

NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Progreso, Tampico and Vera Cruz. 



The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



44 



tin: <• r i: A u i: v i i-: w 




No. SS-96 

Steel Conveyor 

Chain 

FOR MODERN CANE CONDUCTOR 
INSTALLATIONS 

No. SS-96 was designed particularly 
for use in cane feeder carriers and the 
conductors to tiie Mills. It is now almost 
universally used in tiiis work. It is the 
effective chain for cane conductors. 

Look for our 



< 



Trade Mark on every link. 
Write for Cataloo; No. 355. 

LINK-BELT COMPANY 

299 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK CITY 




American Car and Foundry Export Co, 

Direccion Telesrafica. "165 BPOadwaV. NGW YOPk. U. S. A . 
•CAREX" NEW YORK uiuau..«j^ ..w «_. . ^./^ 




LiSTA Para Entrega Inmediatamente 

Aaui se ve el grabado de uiio de nuestros carros mas modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias capacidades para uso en Cuba, Puerto Rico, Sud America, America Central y 
M6jico, con baslidores y jaulas de madera o de acero. Proriuccion annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA Representante para Cuba 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



r m ^ 



1 HE 



;VBA REVIE 




A Year MAY, 19 21 10 CentsACop 



THE C ili A RKl'IEW 



Ranos o Corazones, 



Chuchos o Cambiavias, 

CRUZAMIENTCS, ( AHALLETES DE MAMOBKA PAKA 
FERROCARRILES. RIEL S, &c. 





DURANTE mas de 35 anos nuestros Talleres — 
siempre montados a la moderna — se han dedicado 
a la fabricacion de Rieles, Chuchos, Cruzamien- 
tos y otros Accesorios para los Ferrocarriles 
Americanos, y siempre hemos procurado corresponder a 
las necesidades de nuestros clientes suministrandoles 
materiales de primera al precio mas reducido. 

Xuestra Scccion Tecnica esta a disposicion de nuestros 
clientes. y para ayudarnos interpretar. debidamente sus 
necesidades y evitar demoras inconvenientes. al pedir 
precios 6 remitir encargos. es sumamente importante nos 
den los detalles correspondientes. 

Sirvase dirigir la corrcspondcncia a 

WEIR FROG COMPANY 

43 Cedar St., New York, E.E. U.U. 

JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente (Oireccion cablearaflca: JAMOTLEY. NEWYORK) 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
^ NEW YORK 

Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE, WEIR FROr. COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GL(A ER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO.. LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 
STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 

Lus pioductos dc estas Fabricas abarcan: Locomotoras 

^ Carros para cana 

ii Rieles y accesso- 

L— •— °^ -A. ^'°^ 

■ - ^ Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 
Calderas 

Maquinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 
Tanques 
Tornos 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maqui- 
naria para Inge- 
nios de Azucar 
Calentadores de 
agua de alimen- 
tacion 
Alambiques para 

agua 
Madera, pino ama- 

A solicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. riHo 

Direccion cablegrafica: JAMOTLEY, New York (Se usan todas las claves). 




Phase mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



1 



Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 
cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de 1 V2 tone= 
ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac= 
idad de 30 toneladas. 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, incluyendo los juegos de 
ruedas, completatnente armados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos 
completos para construir los carros a su destino de maderas del pais. 



Carros de Ingenios 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St, NEW YORK, N. Y. ^^'''^ '''— 



RAMALIAM 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, Pres. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 

Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure Niffht Phone 

''42°66i26°7' 15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U. S. A. i,lfk?clL^^i%n 

WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 



FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



SUGARS 

82 Wall Street, New York 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

^M • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

I yl 1 A Tl a Ifl V from 5 A. M. to 8 p. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

•^ ^ FARE - - $1.00 

/-^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

t llJlll^Q from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 

:=:^^^^^^=z=. FARE - - $1.25 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANA FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) $0.06 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A. M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A. M. to 11 P. M. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE C LB A R K I I E IV 



Bomba Kinney Para Mieles 

Presion Positiva. Envolos Rotatorios, Sin 
Mudlcs ni X'^alvulas. Forrado interiormente 
dc Bronce. La Mds economica para bombear 
liquidos espcstos, como mirlcs, acieites guar- 
apos, etc. Funciona actualmente con el 
mejor exito en muchos ingenios y refinerias. 
Capacidades de 50 a 800 galones por minuto. 

Pfdan.se prccios y pormenores a 

Newell Manufacturing Company 

SINGER BUILDING - NEW YORK 

Agentes para Cuba y la demas Antillas 




Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 

Avoid imitations, insist upon getting WALKER'S 
METALLIC "LION" PACKING. Look for "The 
riiin Red Line'' wliicli runs through all the 
( lenuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Labels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 




United Railways of Havana 
WESTERN DIVISION 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 
6.15 
8.24 


PM 
2.55 
4.24 
5.51 
6.05 
6.56 
8.40 
PM 


PM 
1.45 
3.55 


A .M 
10.15 
12.24 


.\ M 
6.55 
8.24 
9.51 
10.05 
10. .56 
12.40 
PM 


AM 
5.45 
7.55 


Fare 
1st cl. 
.S2.65 
5.10 
5.62 
6.71 
8.83 








r.36 

11.45 
AM 








PM 


PM 


PM 



Lv....Cen.Sta.....\r 

.■Vr .\rteinisa Lv 

.Kt . . Paso Real. . .Lv 
Kt . . Herradura . . . Lv 
\r. Pinar del Rio. Lv 
Vr Guane Lv 



Fare 
3dcl. 
SI. 40 
2.54 
2.74 
3.25 
4.22 



AM 
7.20 
5.15 



AM 



AM 
11.09 
9.40 
8.05 
7.48 
6. 55 
5.20 
AM 



PM 
12.01 
9.45 



AM 



PM 
3.20 
1.15 



PM 



PM 
7.09 
5.40 
4.05 
3.48 
2. 55 
1.20 
PM 



PM 
8.00 
5.45 



6.00 
2.00 
PM 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares from Havana to 



Pinos .15 cts. 

Arroyo Naranjo 25 cts. 

Calabazar 30 cts. 



Rancho Boyeros 40 cts. 

Santiago de las Vegas. . . .55 cts. 
Rincon 65 cts. 



Leaving Central Station every half hour from 5.1.5 a. m. to 
and every hour thereafter to 11. lo p. m. 



.1-5 p. M., 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 67 Wall Street, New York 



MUNSON STEx^MSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year - - - - 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX MAY, 1921 No. 6 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — Normal School, Santiago de Cuba. 

Frontispiece — Agricultural School near Santiago de Cuba. 

Page 

Cuban Clearing House 33 

Cuban Government Matters: 

Aqueduct of Oriente 7 

Coinage of Cuban Money 7 

Japanese Consul 7 

The New Cabinet 7 

New Highway 7 

Proclamation of New President 7 

. Venezuelan Minister 7 

The Fertihzer Industry in Cuba, illustrated, by H. O. Neville ... 15, 16, 17, 18, 

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 

Havana Correspondence 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 33 

The Sugar Industry: 

Estimated German Sugar Consumption for Production Period of 1920-21 34 

New Refinery at Cienf uegos 34 

Output of Sugar in Spain • . . 37 

Operating Results in Cuba 34 

Sugar Review, English 35, 36 

Sugar Review, Spanish 36, 37 



THE C V li A li K 11 K IV 




THE 



LIBRARY 

NEW • r;^^K 
BOT.^«CAL 



CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1921, by the Munson Steamship Line 



OAkobJ^ 



Volume XIX 



MAY, 1921 



Number 6 



Cuban Government Matters 



Proclamation of New President 

On April 29th a joint session of congress 
formally proclaimed Dr. Alfredo Zayas 
president and General Francisco Carrillo 
vice-president of the Republic of Cuba. 
The new officials will be inaugurated 
May 20th, when President Menocal will 
relinquish office. 



Guiteras is well known in the United 
States for his medical research work. 



The New Cabinet 

According to press reports from Havana, 
the new cabinet, to serve under Dr. 
Alfredo Zayas, who will take office as 
president of the Republic of Cuba on 
May 20, will be composed as follows: 

Secretary of the Presidency — Dr. Jose 
Manuel Cortina. 

Secretary of State — Dr. Rafael Mon- 
toro. 

Secretary of Government— Dr. Fran- 
cisco Martinez Lufriu. 

Secretary of Treasury — Sebastien Gela- 
bert. 

Secretary of Sanitation — Dr. Juan Gui- 
teras. 

Secretary 
Freyre. 

Secretary 
gueiferos. 

Secretary of Public Instruction — Dr. 
Francisco Zaj^as y AKonso. 

Secretary of War and Navy — Dr. 
Demetrio Castillo Duanj^ 

Secretary of Agriculture — Not named. 

Senor Gelabert is a financier and banker, 
who has not been active in politics. The 
Secretary of Public Instruction is a 
brother of President-elect Zayas. Dr. 



of Public Works — Orlando 



of Justice — Dr. Erasmo Re- 



Japanese Consul 

The Japanese Government has appointed 
M. Someya Japanese consul in Cuba. 
This is the first Japanese consul to be 
sent to Cuba, the work having been 
attended to previously by the English 
consul. 



Venezuelan Minister 

The Government of Cuba has recog- 
nized Licenciado Jose L. Andara as envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
of Venezuela. 



Coining of Cuban Money 

During the year 1920 the Philadelphia 
mint coined Cuban money of different 
denominations to the value of $37,548,000. 



New Highway 

The Cuban Government has authorized 
the payment of $56,608 to acquire land for 
the building of the highwaj^ from Palmira 
to Manacas, and through Palmira to 
Cuatro Caminos. 



Aqueduct of Oriente 

President Menocal has authorized the 
expenditure of $100,000 monthly for the 
building of the Oriente aqueduct, for 
which $2,000,000 was appropriated. This 
aqueduct is to supply the city of Santiago 
de Cuba. 



Till. (Ln.l R K I 1 1: l\ 



Havana Convspondence 

April 25, 1921. 

Sugar: The price of sugar has remained about the same throuj^hout tlic month 
and the market is very quiet. Large stocks of sugars have been accumuhited at all 
ports of the Island and the sugar centrals also have large (juantities in their private 
warehouses awaiting sale and shipment. The Sugar Connnission ajijiointed by President 
Menocal is working diligently to give relief to the congested condition of the warehouses 
where these sugars are stored but, with a very small demand for sugars in the North, 
it is hard to dispose of the accumulated stocks and maintain a fair price for the product. 

Should the Fordney bill of the Emergency Tariff bill be passed by the American 
Congress in Washingt.on it is deemed that additional hardships will be placed upon the 
Cuban sugar producer which will make the already critical condition of the Island's 
finances more serious. To us the Emergency Tariff h\\\ is legislation that will work to 
the benefit of the American manufacturer since it will ])revent the (lumi)ing of cheap 
foreign goods on American markets, but when it is considered that Cul)an sugars are 
produced with highly paid, efficient labor it will be realized that the enactment of this 
legislation against Cuba will mean a curtailment of business with the United States and 
consequent losses in business for American manufacturers with the Island Republic. 
During the calendar year, 1920, Cuba purchased from the United States merchandise 
valued at aj^proxiniately 8520,000,000.00, being surpassed ONLY as purchasers of Ameri- 
can goods by the covuitries of England, Canada and France. Cuba purchases (for a 
population of 2,800,000 people), more goods from the United States than do Argentine, 
Brazil and Mexico, who have a population of over 50,000,000. The largest per capita 
trade of any country in the world is enjoyed by Cuba. Over 75% of Cuba's impor- 
tations come from the Ignited States, but should legislation against sugar be en- 
acted a large part of Cuba's purchases are going to be made in other countries than the 
United States. Tariff privileges have always been enjoyed by Cuba in its relations 
with the United States from the inception of the Republic, and Cuban sugar is going 
to find it increasingly hard to compete with sugar production from other parts of the 
world where production costs are lower (on account of low wages paid labor, etc.) and 
where additional advantages in the present rates of exchange are enjoyed. Cuban 
money is American money and there are no discounts to be taken advantage of. 

Then again, the enactment of this legislation is bound to react against American 
capital, since about 60 per cent, of the sugar mills on the Island are controlled by 
American capital and, too, American inteiests predominate in the shipping, commercial, 
banking, insurance, public service, dock and warehouse, water, electric lighting, tobacco 
and other industries. Therefore, American interests will suffer most from prohibitive 
legislation. Cuban raw products are exchanged for American finished products, which 
accounts for the volume of trade done between the two countries, but with a high pro- 
tective tariff in effect, Cuban raw products are bound to find their way to other countries 
and the exchange for the finished ]H'oduct is bound to be effected with the country to 
which the raw products are shipped. The agitation against the enactment of the Fordney 
bill is evident, we notice, in most Central and South American countries where sugar is 
produced in large quantities and shipped to the Ignited States. 

During the month considerable agitation was worked up against the legality of the 
Cuban Sugar Commission and an attempt was made to discredit it because it controls 
prices at which Cuban sugars are to be sold. The agitation, of course, is at the hands of 
American refiners as they claim that the Cuban Sugar Commission is a foreign organi- 
zation attempting to fix prices in the United States for sugar. It is true that, were it 
not for the Sugar Commission, much sugar would be sold at lower prices than are at 
present demanded but it was just against tliis feature that the commission was appointed 
by the president. The situation of some of the sugar mills is such that \\\q\ are almost 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



compelled to accept practically any price for their product since the need for funds is 
so very great at the present time, but the best interests of the Island are, we believe, 
undoubtedly being served in the maintenance of prices by this commission. The 
restoration of the prosperity of the Island rests with this organization, we believe, and 
the element of market manipulation of this product has also been eliminated for the 
crop of 1920-1921. 

Financial Situation: During the month of April much has happened to disturb 
the financial equilibrium, which it was deemed was about to be reached in Cuba. The 
appointment of Sr. Porfirio Franca to the presidency of the Banco Nacional de Cuba 
was considered as having stabihzed that institution, which had gone through so much 
during the past six months. 

The Island was astounded on April 9th to learn that the Banco Nacional had, after 
experiencing a run of two or three days, closed its doors. The directors concluded that 
the only step which could be legally taken was to hquidate the bank's assets and start 
anew with a clean slate. Much unfortunate pubhcity was directed at the Banco Nacional 
de Cuba in the Cuban press of the Island and this propaganda seems to have had its 
effect in causing a large number of the depositors in this institution to withdraw their 
funds, thereby weakening the position of the bank. When it was ascertained that the 
obhgations falhng due under the Torriente Law could not be met, Uquidation was the 
only means which could be resorted to. These pernicious attacks by the Cuban press 
continued against the American banking institutions established in Cuba for so many 
years, and the Royal Bank of Canada found it necessary to appeal to the British Minister 
to take the matter up through diplomatic channels with the Cuban government, with 
a view to having the Cuban press show legal cause for these pernicious attacks or cease 
their efforts to discredit banking institutions which could show themselves solvent and 
the best of friends to Cuban business. 

The demoralizing effect of unwarranted propaganda of this nature can readily be 
seen since, if the public is convinced that the banking institutions are not solvent, the 
immediate withdrawal of many thousands of smaU accounts would naturally render the 
banks unable to extend credits to legitimate industries badly in need of funds. The sugar 
interests of the Island at the present time have never been in more urgent need of ready 
cash and if one will consider that the banking interests found it necessary to curtail 
legitimate loans to active sugar interests of the Island, the effect can easily be imagined. 

Much credit is due the American daily newspaper "The Havana Post" for having 
given publicity to the damaging propaganda which was being spread throughout the 
Island by the Cuban Press. The "Havana Post" published broadcast statements from 
the directors of the Royal Bank of Canada and other American financial institutions 
in Cuba, to the effect that the banks were absolutely solvent and the only result of this 
pernicious propaganda would be in the tightening of credit and creating of hardships on 
legitimate business in Cuba. This airing of unwarranted propaganda which had been 
instituted against these foreign banks has stabihzed conditions again and these institu- 
tions have even gone so far in the way of demonstrating their goodwill towards the Island 
as to bring down large sums of money (estimated at twenty million dollars) which are to 
be loaned to the sugar centrals needing the money and also to other legitimate business 
interests in Cuba. 

It is understood that the Banco Espanol de la Isla de Cuba (The Spanish Bank of 
Cuba) has about completed its arrangements for its reorganization with a capital of 
140,000,000.00 instead of $8,000,000.00 and that Spanish and American interests are to 
take over the institution, under new management, and under the name of Banco Espaiiol 
de las Americas. This institution was caught in the great slump in the price of sugar 
with large quantities of sugars on hand and it was felt, and in fact is stiUfelt, that if the 
present arrangements for the introduction of new capital do not materiahze the bank 
will be forced to follow the action of the Banco Nacional and hquidate. 

Strikes: During the month the shipping interests in the bay of Havana reduced 
the wage scale for the skilled and unskilled labor employed at the different marine 



u. T 11 /; ( I li A y." ;•; /■ / k /r 

railways. This resulted in a refusal on the part of the carpenters and caulkers to accede 
to the acceptance of the reduction. The shippinp; interests contended that since the 
cost of living has been reduced throughout tlie Island, labor should accept a reduction 
of about 2o^f. and especially in view of the fact that the same class of laborers are 
employed in other ports of the Island at smaller wages than are paid here in Havana. 

The strike of the carpenters and caulkers is well organized but since there is a 
tremendous surplus of labor (at present unemploj'cd) in Cuba and especiallj'^ in Havana, 
it is deemed that the strikers will eventually find it convenient to accept the reduced 
wage and return to their employment. 

The attitude of organized labor at the present time in Cuba is very distressing and 
annoying. The laborers are not even willing to compromise the reduction in wages 
offered, but hold out absolutely for the full scale. When it is realized that labor leaders 
are petitioning the Cuban Government to put a ban on immigration for the present on 
account of the surplus of 40,000 laborers on the Island, we cannot conceive how organ- 
ized labor can maintain its position that the extremely high wages paid labor at present 
can continue. The outcome of the present strike is awaited with much interest, but the 
feeling prevails that if the shipping interests maintain a firm attitude in the stand which 
the}' have taken, the strikers will be compelled to accept a reduction in wages, thereby 
permitting the shipping interests to operate more economically and inaugurate reductions 
in the present rates which arc charged in the bay of Havana for the pcrfornianco of 
lighterage, etc. 

During the month the union emploj'ees of the Cuban Portland Cement Company 
at Mariel declared a boycott against the company because the com])any found it neces- 
sarj' on account of the moratorium to reduce the working force. The lack of work on 
account of present conditions seemed to carry no weight with the strikers, their main 
objective being to remain on the payroll. Inasmuch as the moratorium has caused the 
suspension of many contemplated building operations on the Island, the question of 
eflBciency of employees is considered when the w^eeding-out process is made. The boycott, 
however, is proving ineffective, as the company is going right along with its plans for 
an enlargement of the plant. 

Political Situation: Although General Jose Miguel Gomez, former president of 
Cuba and Liberal Candidate this election for president, made a special trip to Washington, 
D. C, to protest against the elections held in Cuba and particularly against the National 
League Candidate's \-ictory, the American Government, after carefully weighing the 
e\ndence produced, has decided that the election was fairly conducted and that Dr. 
Alfredo Zaj-as was legally elected to the presidency and General Francisco Carrillo was 
elected "\ice-president. Great preparations are now under waj' for the inauguration. 
A large banquet is now being arranged to be held at the new home of the "Jai Alai," 
where it is expected that the greatest gathering that has ever taken place under one roof 
in Cuba will be held and at this banquet it is hoped that a reconciliation of all parties 
will be effected. 

International Telephone Service Inaugurated: Possibly the greatest 
advancement in modern engineering development was accomplished during April 1921, 
when the international telephone system was finally established between the United 
States of America and the Island of Cuba. A submarine telephone line was laid between 
Key West, Fla., and Havana, Cuba, and on April 11th the President of the United 
States and the President of Cuba held telephone conversation between Havana and 
Washington, exchanging greetings and feUcitations of good will. Other points in North 
America were connected as well at the same time. A splendid bancjuet was arranged at 
the general offices of the Cuban Telephone Company on April 11th to celebrate the 
inauguration of this wonderful accomplishment. President Menocal and his entire 
cabinet were assembled, as well as the diplomatic corps and hundreds of in\ited guests 
to "listen in" on these conversations, which were the longest ever held. 

Promptly at 5:00 p.m. on April 11th, the telephone on the desk in front of President 
Menocal was called from Washington, D. C, and answered by Mr. Sosthenes Behn, 



THE CUB A REVIEW 11 

president of the Cuban Telephone Company of Havana. Washington stated that an 
extensive program had been arranged for the occasion, but before the presidents of the 
two repubhcs held conversation it was the intention of the American Bell Telegraph 
and Telephone Company to connect Havana, Cuba, with the Santa Catalina Islands 
(off the south coast of California) to illustrate the practicability of this wonderful inven- 
tion of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. The roll was then called; Washington summoned 
Key West, Palm Beach, Jacksonville, Brunswick, Charleston, Richmond, Washington, 
Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, Omaha, Denver, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Los 
Angeles and then the Santa Catalina Islands. As these cities were called, each answered 
and gave the name of the manager of the Telephone Company at the point speaking. 

The distance of the above mentioned connection was 5,470 miles and when it is 
remembered that the connection from Havana, Cuba, to Key West was via submarine 
cable (laid in many places at a depth of one and one-half miles below the surface of the 
guK of Mexico) and that from the coast of California to the Island of Santa Catalina via 
radio telephone, some idea of the height of the perfection to which this very important 
twentieth century achievement has been brought may be conceived. The voices of the 
speakers at a distance of 5,470 miles were as clear as though the conversation were 
being held with a person in the very next room. Greetings were exchanged and the 
weather conditions maintaining at the two extremes of the telephone conversation were 
described. The sensation, to one listening in spellboimd amazement to this wonderful 
conversation, can well be imagined. 

At exactly 5:30 p.m. President Harding and President Menocal were connected on 
the telephone and exchanged very cordial greetings for several minutes, President 
Menocal acknowledging in cordial language the expression of sincere friendship from 
President Harding. Later the different members of the cabinets of the two repubhcs 
exchanged greetings and General Pershing saluted his friend and companion, General 
Enoch Crowder. The American Minister to Cuba, the Honorable Boaz W. Long, 
exchanged greetings with Dr. Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Cuban Minister to Wash- 
ington. 

After the conversations a splendid banquet was held and music was rendered by 
Max Dolin's orchestra. 

The telephone connection between the two countries had been in course of comple- 
tion for some time and much has been said for and against the completion of the line 
because of the enormous expense, and it was, for a time, questionable whether it was 
piacticable to hold these long distance conversations and whether or not the toll rates 
would not be prohibitive. This aspect of the question has been definitely decided oow 
since it has been found that the traffic of the present thi-ee cable connections, one to 
Key West, Fla., one to Washington, D. C, and the third to New York, N. Y., is so great 
that additional cables will have to be laid in the near future for the efficient handhng of 
the business. The rates are very low considering the distance and the service has already 
proved popular beyond the expectations of the officials of the companies operating the 
cables. 

U. S.S. "Minnesota" Leaves Havana: After a four months' stay, the U. S.S. 
"Minnesota," which during that time has been the official home of General Crowder 
and staff, sailed from Havana on Friday afternoon, April 4th. General Crowder remains 
in Havana and has moved his official headquarters to the American Legation in Cerro, 
while he is making his home at the Hotel Sevilla. Before leaving, the commander of the 
"Mirmesota" addressed a letter to the captain of the port, Sr. Armando Andre, thanking 
him for the courtesies shown both the officers and men of the "Minnesota" during her 
stay in Havana. 

Assistant Secretary of Navy Roosevelt Visits Cuba: Colonel Roosevelt, 
Jr., Assistant Secretary of the Navy, arrived in Havana on April 20th via aeroplane. 
Col. Roosevelt after a short stay in Havana, during which time he was the guest of honor 
at a banquet at the American Legation, left for Guantanamo to review the maneuvers 
of the American sailors and marines stationed at that place. 



THE CIBA li i: II K If 



Foodstuffs in Bad Condition DrMPp:D at Sea: Colonel Mauiiol Dcspaigne 
found it nocossary tliis month to condemn a larfje (luantity of i)otatoes, rice and beans, as 
well as a consiilerable amount of merchandise which the consifrnees had refused to remove 
from the general wharves and which was valued at S;:J5,0()().00. All these foodstuffs 
and merchandise were hauled out to sea and dumi)ed overboard. The sanitarj^ depart- 
ment recently became somewhat alarmed at the conditions around the waterfront in 
Havana, and Colonel Dcspaigne was only too willing to cooperate with the department 
in its effort to improve the conditions. 

New Steamship Service Between Pacific Coast Ports and Havana: The 
sliipping interests in Havana liave been reliably informed tliat the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company is to inaugurate a service from the Pacific Coast to Baltimore, including 
Havana, Cuba, as a port of call. Some of the steamers of the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company will touch Havana after having passed through the Panama Canal, while 
others will make the trip around the Horn, calling at ports of Central and South America. 
This service should prove interesting to passengers, since the time consumed from San 
Francisco through the Panama Canal and touching at Havana will be about twelve days. 

CuNARD Liners to Call at Havana: It is also understood that during the month 
of June, the Cunard Line will inaugurate a service between Europe and Central and South 
American ports via New York, including Havana as a port of call. 

Rice Embargo Temporarily Lifted: The embargo which was in effect against 
importations of rice has been temporarily lifted it would seem. On April 7th, the Japanese 
steamer "Chenad" arrived in Havana with 80,000 sacks of rice. We have not noticed 
any official bulletins recalling the embargo which has been in effect for some months, 
but presume special permission was secured from the Cuban Government to import 
this large cargo. 

S.S. "Zeelandia" Brings Large Number of Passengers: The fore part of 
this month the Royal Holland Lloyd Steamer "Zeelandia" arrived at Havana with 917 
passengers for Havana and general cargo, besides other passengers and cargo in transit 
to Vera Cruz, Mexico, and New Orleans, La. The Royal Holland Lloyd has enjoyed 
a ver\' encouraging business since the inauguration of the service including Havana as 
a port of call. 

Proposed Semaphore Station at ]Morro Castle: Mr. C. A. Gibson, special 
representative of the U. S. Shipping Board, has pending with the Havana port authori- 
ties the question of establishing a semaphore system at Morro Castle for night signaling 
to ships calling at Havana for orders. Consideration is also being given to the establish- 
ment of a wireless system of communication for day signaling. Heretofore it has been 
necessarj'- for vessels calling at the port of Havana for orders, especially at night, to 
either enter that port, or, if calling by day, to have these orders brought to them by pilot, 
which arrangement has never been satisfactory. The new plans, if they are carried 
out, will mean much to the companies operating vessels in these waters. 

Government Wharves Practically Empty: It has recently been noted that 
while the government wharves are practically devoid of merchandise, many vessels are 
docking and unloading at private wharves in distant parts of the harbor. This pro- 
cedure entails additional difficulties and expense to the importers, which is entirely un- 
called for, and an appeal to the Collector of Customs to rectify the matter has been made. 

Almendares Bridge Opened to Public With Appropriate Ceremony: On 
February 27th, the Almendares Bridge, connecting ^'edado, one of Havana's most beau- 
tiful suburbs, and the new Miramar Subdivision, was opened to the public. There was 
an address made by Sr. Ramon Mendoza. Other prominent citizens spoke and a high 
mass was held in one of the new parks adjacent to the new Miramar Subdivision. This 
new bridge connects Havana with the Country Club, the race track and other outlying 
pleasure resorts. It is a boon to motorists since many fine roads are laid out there, and 
it has also greatly increased the value of suburban property. Large sums of money have 
been spent on the development of these suburbs, and the results are pleasing to all 
interested in the development of city suburbs. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 13 

New Legislation Affecting Shipment of Fruit and Vegetables to U. S.: 
The United States Secretary of Agriculture, in an order issued to become effective April 
1st, states in part that inasmuch as there exists in Cuba, the Bahamas, Jamaica and 
the Canal Zone, Costa Rica, India and the Philippine Islands, a certain black fly infesting 
citrus fruits, necessary precautions must be taken with shipments of fruit from the 
Island. The order in effect states that after April 1st, in order to prevent the introduc- 
tion of this pest into the United States, until further notice no fruits, vegetables or 
plants in their natural state may be imported into the United States until permission 
is secured from the agricultural department. 

However, a later ruling by the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States per- 
mits the importation of fruits, vegetables and plants from the above mentioned coun- 
tries, provided a certificate is furnished by proper government officials that the ship- 
ments were not raised in, or came into contact in any way with, the zone or section in 
which the black fly pest has been discovered. This ruling covers aU edible fruits, such as 
bananas, oranges, grapefruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers and lettuce, and portions 
of plants or twigs, but no restriction is placed upon processed or canned fruits. 

General Wood Not to Come to Cuba Now: Answering the many rumors that 
General Leonard Wood was expected to come to Cuba upon a trip of investigation. 
Secretary of State Desvernine advises that the rumor is unfounded. There has been no 
intimation by the United States to Cuban authorities that General Wood will make such 
a trip and it is expected that soon after President Harding's inauguration he will endorse 
the work of General Wood and continue him in his present capacity until the work 
is complete. 

The announcement that General Wood will not come to Cuba is disappointing to 
many Cubans, as the General is well liked throughout the Island and still popularly 
remembered for the good work he did at the outset of the American occupation after the 
close of the Spanish-American War. 

National Editorial Association Visits Havana: The city of Havana was 
honored on March 26th, by the arrival of a large representation of the National Editorial 
Association, consisting of many prominent and distinguished editors and writers from 
all parts of the United States. They were received at the Presidential Palace by President 
Menocal and were given an honorary banquet at the Casino de la Playa by Cuban 
newspaper men. Local sightseeing and a trip to the interior over the United Railways 
were enjoyed by the editors and they left with a very high opinion of the Island and 
its people. One of the novel features of entertainment provided during their stay in 
Havana was a luncheon tendered by the "Acera del Louvre" (The Boys of the Sidewalk) 
Association, arranged by Colonel d'Estrampes, the leader of the "Acera." The novel 
experience of eating and drinking on the sidewalk proved interesting and amusing 
to the visitors. During the luncheon many distinguished public men addressed the 
association, including Dr. Alfredo Zayas, president-elect of Cuba. 

Passports No Longer Required : On April 4th, the State Department at Wash- 
ington decreed that passports would no longer be necessary for American citizens leaving 
or entering the United States. This ruling does not affect the status of aliens, who must 
continue to have their passports viseed. The ruling is receiving much favorable comment 
from Americans residing here, as well as the numerous visitors, who have been annoj''ed 
by the red tape previously required in order to travel between the two countries. 

To Honor Mothers of Cuban Republic: Cuba will have a Mothers' Day, 
patterned after the one now observed in the United States, if the motion presented by 
Victor Munoz, vice-president of the Municipal Council, is carried. The motion, if 
entertained, will designate a day in the second week in May for the celebration by acts 
of veneration, of the living mothers, and remembrance of those who have passed away 
by the wearing of white flowers. 

Plans in Progress for an Anglo-Saxon Hospital in Havana: At a meeting 
of a number of leading business men of the city several months ago, it was decided that a 
hospital to accommodate the English-speaking people of the city of Havana should be 



14 THE (' IJi A RKIIEW 



established at tlie earliest possil)le moment. A committee was formed, known as the 
Anglo-Saxon Hospital Committee, and plans were formiilatetl for a vigorous campaign 
for funds. This committe(\ composed of several of the leading business men of the city, 
formed a corporation entitled the Anglo-Saxon Realty Company for the holding of title 
to property and buildings, and the solicitation for funds from individuals and business 
houses was begun. However, owing to the financial crisis on the Island, the matter was 
temporarily discontinued. Now that the business situation is improving, the committee 
is going ahead with renewed energy in the carrying out of the original plans. The 
amount necessar\' to build and equip the hospital is estimated at about §300,000.00 
and a drive is now on to secure this amount, by means of committees. 

If the plans of the promotors prove successful, this hospital will be of inestimable 
benefit to the English-speaking people not only of Havana, but throughout the Island. 
There is a strong need for such an institution at the present time. 

International Wrestling Tournament: Twenty wrestlers, representing twenty 
nationalities, are competing in an elimination tournament at the National Theatre in 
Havana for the world's championship. Many of the best known wrestlers of the world 
are entered, among whom might be mentioned Chas. Cutler and J. Levvitt, representing 
the United States; K. Lemle, Austria; R. de Rohuen, France; M. Nestor, England; 
T. Lutoff, Russia and others. The results are being watched with interest by those 
members of the sporting fraternity interested in wrestling. 

Merchants Association Discusses Railroad Rates: At the weekly luncheon 
of the Merchants Association held at the Restaurant Paris, the question of railroad 
tariffs and rates was again discussed. A committee appointed at a former meeting 
reported having conferred with the management of the United Railways relative to a 
reduction in the tariff upon several commodities, and advised that the management had 
agreed to ascertain from members of the Chamber of Commerce upon what specific 
articles the recent increase in rates was working a hardship. 

This is a step in the right direction and it is thought that some changes in the present 
rates will result which will be satisfactorv to the business interests of the Island. 



Cuba-Jamaica Passenger Service authorities, wlio are Studying ways and 

The British steamship "La Belle Sau- means for putting it into effect, 

vage," of 530 gross tons, has recently en- It is planned to build a large filtering 

tered the Cuba-Jamaica passenger service plant and make use of waters from the 

and plies between the ports of Kingston Almendares River. 

and Santiago. According to the operators, It is said that prompt action will be 

Messrs. Lindsay, Swan, Hunter (Ltd.), of taken, and that residents of the capital 

Kingston, the vessel has accommodation may expect before long to enjoy an ample 

for 25 cabin and 240 steerage passengers, supply of water. 

The first-class fare from Kingston to San- Water now brought from Vento Spring 

tiago is £6 and £3 for steerage. At pres- is sometimes turbid as a result of rains, 

ent a bi-weekly service is maintained ^vith and the present plan includes the filtering 

saiUngs from Kingston on Monday and of this supply as well as that from the 

Thursday afternoons, the voyage occupy- "ver. The water tax at present collected 

ing approximately eighteen hours. There from property owners will not be increased 

are seven steamships in the service. to pay for the contemplated improvement. 

New Banking Institution 

The Mercantile Trust Company has 



Havana Water Supply 



The plan originating in the city council been established as a bank with an initial 

for securing an abundant supply of water capital of S250,000 cash in the city of 

for the city of Havana has been approved Havana. This bank will carry on the 

by the Departments of Public Works and business of loans, drafts, pignorations, 

Sanitation and returned to the municipal savings and other banking operations. 



THE CUB A REVIEW 



15 




A Plantation Fertilizer Factory, Santa Clara Province 



The Fertilizer Industry in Cuba 

By H. 0. Neville 

There is no doubt that the ahnost universal impression among those not familiar 
with the details of Cuba's agriculture is that her soils are rich beyond imagination, and 
that, as a consequence, the use of fertilizers would be superfluous. There is no doubt 
also that broadly speaking there was a period in Cuba's history when by far the largest 
part of her area was covered with immense virgin tropical forest, and that at that time 
the use of fertilizer or even that of cultivation in order to further the growth of crops was 
non-essential. Even yet there are to be found in various parts of the Island, especiallj^ 
in the three eastern provinces, Santa Clara, Camagiiey and Oriente, areas of land covered 
with the virgin forest which met the view of Columbus as he sailed along the Island's 
northern shore, and here, when these lands are cleared of the timber and small growth 
covering them and are planted to cane or other of our crops, the use of fertilizer is unneces- 
sary and years pass by without their becoming impoverished. But in the three western 
provinces, Matanzas, Havana and Pinar del Rio, and also in many parts of the Province 
of Santa Clara and in some of the older parts of . Camagiiey and Oriente provinces, culti- 
vation of the same crop, sugar cane, has been carried on continuously for so very manj' 
years without the return to the soil of the plant food removed therefrom by the crops 
grown thereon, that the use of fertiUzer and of the more rhodern and careful agricultural 
practices connected therewith are imperative, if reasonably abundant returns are desired 
from the labor put forth. 

It is also a fact that scattered throughout the Island practically in all provinces, 
but especially occurring in the central portion of Camagiiey Province, the east-central 
of Santa Clara Province, the west-central of Matanzas Province, and in a very large 
area in the central and western portions of Pinar del Rio Province, there are found large 
bodies of land which apparently have never been covered by forest and whose fertility 
has always been very much lower than that of the wooded areas surrounding and adjacent 
to them. In the periods of ordinary agricultural activity in Cuba, these areas of soil have 
been avoided by the native agriculturist, but in periods of great profit from certain crops, 



16 



THE C in A RKVIEJV 




Nitrate of Soda in Ligrhters in Havana Harbor 



small portions of tliese areas have been utilized, advantage being taken of the benefits 
to be derived from fertihzation ; and the gradual improvement through cultivation and 
fertilization have transformed considerable bodies of these one time useless lands into 
soils of moderate fertility which respond bounteously to proper agricultural treatment. 
Especially has this been the case in the tobacco lands of central and western Pinar del 
Rio Province, where the small farms on which the tobacco has been grown have gradually 
extended in area through the gradual improvement of the lands immediately surrounding 
the small wooded areas where tobacco was originally planted and where the finest quality 
of leaf is still produced. It is also true that considerable areas of the light, red, porous 
"savannah" of Matanzas Province have been rendered valuable through the use thereon 
of high grade fertilizers in abundance, so that during the last two or three years of high 



THE CUBA REVIEW 17 

or acceptable sugar prices the profits taken from these not long ago "worthless" soils 
have been great. 

That proper conclusions may be arrived at by the investigator into the possibihties 
of the fertilizer industry in Cuba, a resume of the soil characteristics found in the various 
provinces of the Island will be helpful. In Pinar del Rio Province, in the extreme western 
portion, is found a small body of red land, in places a sandy loam, in others a heavier 
clay underlaid with limestone, which in many places appears above the surface as the 
well known "dog-tooth" rock formation so prevalent in many localities in Cuba. The 
lighter of these soils have been devoted for many years to tobacco growing, and have 
proved to be excellently adapted to the production of Irish potatoes, onions and other 
vegetables, and the use of fertilizer on all these crops has proved profitable. Irrigation 
water can be obtained in great abundance and at no great depth, so that the conditions 
for growth of these crops during the dry season are favorable. To the east of the 
Cuyaguateje River are found very large areas of true sandy loams, in all of which the 
use of fertilizer is essential in order that profitable crops be secured. To the north of the 
mountain range extending practically the whole length of the province and to the south 
of the central plain in which the sandy loams just referred to occur, are found large areas 
of black heavy clay soils, very fertile in their original state, now in places exhausted on 
account of the loss of the organic matter originally held by them, on which the use of 
fertilizers has not conclusively shown profit. Farther east in the central portion of the 
province and extending into Havana and Matanzas provinces, are large areas of red 
soil of two classes, one a heavy clay, the other a lighter pervious clay, both varying in 
depth from only a few inches overlying the limestone to a great many feet, both extremely 
productive in their original condition and even today under the proper use of irrigating 
water, capable of producing even without fertilizer, very acceptable crops. On the 
heavier of these red clays, the use of fertilizer has frequently been shown to be profitable, 
but as frequently the increase in the crop due to the fertihzer has not offset its cost; 
but on the rather more pervious red soils, known in Cuba as "terreno Colorado de pol- 
villo, " failure to obtain profitable results from the use of fertilizer accompanied by normal 
care in cultivation has been very rare, and can be traced usually to the faults of the 
agriculturist himself. Interspersed throughout these large areas of red land are found 
quite large bodies of soils of heavier type and of colors varying from a deep black through 
brown to yellow on which the profitable use of fertilizer is a question of locality, as only 
by experiments carried out on individual farms can the advisability of the use of fertilizer 
in each farm be ascertained. 

The Province of Santa Clara generally consists of more virgin soils than those being 
farmed in the three western provinces. In the western portion of this province occur 
considerable bodies of the red soils which we have just mentioned, and these respond 
abundantly and surely to the use of fertilizer; but there are also found in this province 
very large areas of land, some of which have been under continuous cultivation for a 
great many years, and in which, due to their physical characteristics, the use of the 
ordinary commercial fertilizer has been shown to be unprofitable. These soils are 
uniformly of a very heavy type, are usually underlaid by a rather impervious clay, and 
through the many years of cultivation without the return to them of the organic matter 
which has been removed from them, have become inert mineral masses, the improve- 
ment of which is possible only through the mingling with them of large quantities of 
coarse materials such as the refuse of our filter presses "cachaza, " stable manure, and 
the plowing under of several leguminous crops. Even after this is done, these soils go 
back very rapidly to the condition in which they were found before this improving treat- 
ment, and it is generally acknowledged that about the only method to obtain fairly 
satisfactory results from their use is to prepare them thoroughly and after planting to 
give them the very best of cultivation. In the central portion of this province there is 
found quite an area of rather heavy sandy clay soils, very poor and lacking in drainage, 
on which the use of fertilizers accompanied by the proper agricultural methods has given 
good results. 



IN 



THE (■ I li J R K r I ]■: If 







^ w^-, -^~->1' 




Acid Phosphate in a Plantation Fertilizer Factory 




Fertilizer Materials in Stock in a Plantation Fertilizer Factory 



THE CUBA REVIEW 19 



Camagiiey Province varies in soil characteristics perhaps as much, if not more, 
than any other province of the Island. Here lines of transportation have been estabhshed 
only within the last few years, so that five years ago there was a vast forest area occupy- 
ing her northern shores, and there is still today a similar large forest area covering the 
lands between the Cuba Railroad and the south shore, broken only where plantings 
have been made for the sugar mills estabhshed to the east of Ciego de Avila during the 
last three or four years of high sugar prices. In the extreme western portion of the 
province and extending to the east of Ciego de Avila, and pretty well along the entire 
north coast between Moron and the Maximo River, is found a body of red land in many 
places of great depth, of wonderful original fertihty, but which is already beginning to 
feel the need of fertihzers, on which these can be and are being used with profitable 
results. Similarly in the fighter lands of the central plain, there are considerable areas 
on which the use of fertilizers is commercially profitable. 

Only Oriente Province is left to be considered. As a whole the province is very new 
from an agricultural standpoint. In the Guantanamo district, however, quite a number 
of sugar miUs are located within a limited area, compelfing their owners to make the most 
intense use possible of the lands subject to their control, with the result that here the 
fertility of the soil has been greatly reduced and the necessity for restoring to it the plant 
foods removed has been recognized for some time, and we understand that quite satis- 
factory results have been obtained from the use of fertihzers in particular classes of the 
soil in the Guantdnamo Valley. However, it is doubtful whether the use of fertilizers 
on 90% of the soils of this pro\'ince will ever prove profitable, as they consist mostly of 
the heavy black types underlaid at no great depth with a more or less impervious clay, 
which have resisted all attempts to improve their crops through fertilization. 

From the above, a brief summary indicates that the areas of land which respond to 
the proper use of fertihzers are as follows: A large portion of the Province of Pinar del 
Rio, especially south and east of the mountain range; a considerable area in Havana 
Province, this consisting mostly of the fighter type of red soil; a very large percentage 
of the Province of Matanzas, consisting also of varying quafities of red soil; a consider- 
able area in the western portion of Santa Clara Province, and a smaU area in the central 
portion thereof; similarly a considerable area in the western portion of Camagiiey Pro- 
vince, some small areas along the north coast near and to the west of La Gloria, and an 
area of considerable size in the central plain of this province; and in the Guantdnamo 
VaUey a small area of lands long devoted to the cultivation of sugar cane. 

The history of the fertifizer industry in Cuba is quite similar to that which would 
result from the attempted introduction of anjrthing new to the Latin-American agri- 
culturist in any other country. Our farmers are always "from Missouri" with regard 
to anything with which they are not famifiar and which they have not seen tried out 
practicaUy. It was, therefore, no surprise when the first small fertifizer factory or mixing 
plant, estabfished near Havana about 1884 or 1885, by Conde Ibanez and Edgar Car- 
bonne, failed. The managers of the business were similar to the planters to whom 
they intended to sell their fertihzers, in that they themselves were not familiar with the 
mdustry which they were attempting to introduce. 

The history of the fertifizer business here can be divided into three phases: that 
of the introduction and use of Peruvian Guano, that of the introduction and use of 
commercial fertihzers prepared abroad and imported, and that of the preparation in 
Cuba of the same class of fertifizer. 

Peruvian Guano was introduced to the agriculturists of Cuba about 1881, through 
the European firm Ollendorff Fertifizer Works, in connection with H. Upmann, one of 
Cuba's bankers. The business was continued later between 1885 and 1894 by Sr. 
Bonifacio Pinon, in connection with the Peru\dan Corporation, and still later between 
1894 and 1898 by the Compagnie Generale Commercial Francaise, also in conjunction 
with the Peruvian Corporation, these firms working through S. F. Bemdes & Co., of 
Havana. In 1898, this business was transferred from the French Co. to W. R. Grace 
& Co., who, with the Peruvian Corporation and R. Berndes, continued shipping this 



20 



T H E C U BAR E V I E W 




material into the Island. This relationship was continued until 1904, during which 
inter\-al four cargoes had been received, these coming in the steamers "Flor de Lys," 
"Capac," "Cacique" and "Condor." The crudeness of the fertihzer industry here at 
that time is indicated by the fact that the material from each of these vessels was sold 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 




Fertilizer Mixing Machinery in a Plantation Fertilizer Factory 



under the name of the steamer bringing it as a trade mark, no reference whatever bemg 
made to analysis of the Guano. 

The result secured from this material, which was used entirely to fertihze tobacco, 
was excellent, as long as the old deposits on the Peruvian Coast wBre bemg worked 
but when these were exhausted and the newer deposits were drawn on, the material 
taken therefrom contained such a high percentage of chlorine as to mjure the burnmg 



22 



THE C IB A R E Ji i: ly 




The Dutch Steamer "Ridondo" in Havana with Cargo of Nitrate of Soda 




Nitrate of Soda Storage Warehouse, Regla, Havana 



THE CUB A REVIEW 23 



qualities of the tobacco fertilized with it. This caused, of course, the demand to drop 
off, this continuing until the business was destroyed and importation ceased. The 
prejudice against it had become so great that some of the cigar manufacturers in Havana 
placed a label on top of each box of cigars, stating that the tobacco used in making the 
cigars had not been grown with the use of Peruvian Guano as fertilizer. 

The period of the importation and use of Peruvian Guano and that of the intro- 
duction and extension of the use of modern commercial fertiUzers prepared abroad and 
imported into Cuba overlapped by about three or four years. We have seen that the 
last cargo load of Peruvian Guano was received in 1904; about four years previously, 
however, Messrs. Fred & Henry Piel, operating from Havana, introduced genuine 
chemical fertiUzers under the trade name "Estrella." We understand that these goods 
were obtained from the American Agricultural Chemical Co. in the United States, and 
thus represented the first entry of this firm in the fertilizer business of Cuba. The 
Piel Brothers sold a first class fertilizer coming up to its analysis and giving satisfactory 
results on the tobacco crops to which it was applied, and began the demand for a white 
fertiUzer for tobacco, which has ever since prevailed. About this time also the American 
Agricultural Chemical Co. through other agents in Cuba sold a considerable quantity 
of their goods, and thus paved the way for a more intimate connection with our fertilizer 
industry in later years. Slightly later also the firm of Frank Robins & Co. introduced 
the goods of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co. to the tobacco growers of Pinar del 
Rio Province, and Swift & Co. also began to place their products among these people. 
Other firms, for instance, Zabala & Co., as representatives of Baker Bros., of New York, 
also were influential in increasing the demand for fertilizers. As early as 1901, Zabala 
& Co. had issued pamphlets giving instructions to our planters regarding fertiUzers 
and their use, and we believe that it was through them that the first sound experiments 
were made on the use of fertiUzers on sugar cane in Cuba, and as early as 1904 the fer- 
tilizer imported by this firm amounted to nearly 4,000 tons during the 1904 calendar 
year. 

The first indication of the establishment of fertiUzer factories in Cuba, in which the 
goods to supply the ever growing demand for fertilizers might be prepared, was the in- 
stallation in the city of Pinar del Rio, in 1907, of a fertilizer factory in which the holders 
of the majority stock were W. R. Grace & Co., of New York, other stockholders being 
Berndes & Co., and other private individuals in Cuba. At the time that this factory 
was established, the use of fertilizer on sugar cane was in reality just beginning, and 
doubtless wisdom seemed to point to Pinar del Rio as the best place in which the factory 
could be built, inasmuch as nearly all the fertilizer then being employed in the Island 
was being used to fertilize tobacco in the Province of Pinar del Rio. This factory 
continued operations until 1909, meeting with indifferent success, but in the latter year 
one of Cuba's severe cyclones destroyed the factory building, leaving the company 
with a large stock of raw fertilizer materials on hand. The indifferent results secured 
from the previous operation of the business caused the company to decide to liquidate, 
thus leaving the stock of raw materials on the hands of W. R. Grace & Co., who had 
apparently no way in which to utilize it. This difficulty, however, was solved by the 
estabUshment in Havana of a branch of the Nitrate Agencies Co., one of the many 
units of this organization, a subsidiary of W. R. Grace & Co., whose object is the sale 
direct to the consumer of raw fertiUzer ingredients of all kinds. Further mention will 
be made of this agency a little later. 

About the time that this factory was being destroyed, the American Agricultural 
Chemical Co. established a mixing plant in the warehouses of the United Railways Co. 
on the shores of Havana Harbor in Regla. This we beUeve to have taken place in 1909, 
since which date the increase in demand for the company's products has compeUed the 
gradual extension in area occupied by the plant, until at this writing eight sections of 
the warehouses of the United Railways are devoted to the work of the company. The 
plant is so situated as to have deep water connection and railroad connection with aU 
the principal lines operating throughout Cuba, thus facilitating the reception of the 



'_'t 



T II K CUBA REVIEW 




Finishini; up a Batch of about 1,000 Tons of Fertilizer Mixed by Hand at Elizalde, Matanzas Province 

raw materials required and the shipping both l)y boat and rail of the manufactured 
product. The American Agricultural Chemical Co. has maintained an excellent repu- 
tation for its goods, and through active agents has established a first class solid business 
in Cuba and has the good will and friendship of a large percentage of our agricultural 
population. 

Mention has been made of the Nitrate Agencies Co. It has alwaj^s been the policy 
of this Institution to encourage the farmers to know as much as possible about the 
fertilizers tliat they use on their farms, and to purchase the ingredients required for making 
up their fertilizers, mixing these themselves on their own farms or in small cooperatively 
operated fertilizer mixing plants. As a result of their endeavors here, a considerable 
number of small mixing plants have been established throughout the Island, some being 
operated by indiv-iduals, others by companies of small capital, and others by sugar mills 
for the purpose of being able to supply their cane growers with high quality fertilizers 
at the lowest possible price. Among the mill organizations that have made the greatest 




Rebagging Nitrate of Soda in Regla Warehouses, Havana 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



25 




Laboratory of Sugar Mill Fertilizer Factory, Comite del Nitrato de Chile, Havana 



advance in this line, is that of the Cuban American Sugar Co., at two of its mills, "Tin- 
guaro" and "Constancia." Mr. Caldwell, the manager of Tinguaro, has for many 
years had connected with his agricultural department a research laboratory in which 
analyses have been made of soils, fertilizers, etc., and the chemist in charge of this work 
has also had charge of experiment work with fertilizers in the lands from which the cane 
supply of "Tinguaro" is obtained. This company operates over a very large area con- 
taining many different classes of soils, so that many different experiments were required 
in order to ascertain the class of fertilizer best adapted to each of the varieties of soil. 
In the same way at "Constancia" investigation work has been carried on for a number 
of years, the results obtained now being sufficient to standardize pretty accurately 
the requirements of each of the soils from which her cane supply is obtained. Other 
mixing plants of a similar capacity have been established at Centrals "Mercedes," 
"Cuba," etc., etc., some of these plants having attained a production as great as 8,000 
tons per year. Some of them supply the needs of their own cane growers, and also sell 
a part of their product to growers not immediately connected with the estate. Among 



26 



THK C in A REriEJf 




View of Motive Power Used in Plant 



the private plants operated for profit may be mentioned those at Cdrdenas and CaUmete, 
the Compania Cubana de Abonos, Sucesores de Gancedo, Toca & Co., and at Matanzas, 
Bea & Co., who have also recently become intere.sted in the fertilizer business and have 
erected the buildings required for the installation of the machinery that they will require. 
A proAnsion of fertilizer materials has already been made by this firm for this year'.s 



THE CUB A RE VIEW 27 

trade. In Havana also the by-products of the slaughter houses are utilized for fertilizing 
purposes, at one of the slaughter houses suitable machinery having been installed for 
the purpose of crushing bone and of mixing complete fertilizers utilizing their waste 
products with other materials furnishing nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash imported 
from abroad. 

The fertilizer activities of Armour & Co., in the United States, have dated back 
a great many years, but the former managers of the Cuban branch did not seem to con- 
sider this phase of their business as of possible profit in Cuba. When, however, Mr. 
Geo. Younie took charge of Armour's business here, he came to the conclusion that 
a broad field lay ahead of the fertilizer business here, and as a result established a mixing 
plant on the shores of Havana Harbor, in Hacendados, this being about 1911, and later, 
about 1916, began the construction of what today is the only complete fertilizer manu- 
factory in Cuba on the north shore of Matanzas Harbor, about two miles east of the city 
of Matanzas. Here a fine wharf has been built, at which deep draft sea going vessels 
can unload, and railroad communication has been established through the lines of the 
Matanzas Terminal Railway Co. with the United Railway Co., and through it with all 
the other lines in Cuba. The plant is a complete unit, containing all the machinery 
and apparatus necessary for the handling of raw rock phosphate, its transformation 
into acid phosphate and the mixing of this material with other fertiUzer ingredients 
imported from abroad. No other fertilizer company in Cuba is in a position to make 
acid phosphate, and we doubt if any other company here has the same broadness of 
facility for securing certain of the fertilizer ingredients so necessary, especially for our 
cane fertilizers. Every mechanical device has been installed at this plant that would 
conduce to rapidity and economy of operations, so that it seems as if Armour & Co., 
though one of the latest of our fertilizer units to branch out and occupy a prominent 
position in our industry, has surrounded itself with these conditions which wiU enable 
it to compete to advantage with all competitors. 

Since the establishment of the fertilizer industry in Cuba, one of the healthy in- 
fluences tending always towards the increase of knowledge of fertilizers and their use by 
our agriculturists has been the propaganda carried on by the German Kali Works, repre- 
sentatives in Cuba of the Potash Syndicate of Germany, who at first through commercial 
agents and later through a regularly established propaganda office in charge of H. C. 
Henricksen, published and distributed free pamphlets and other Uterature, and for 
many years (until the War) gave advice of an unprejudiced character to all those who 
requested it. In a similar manner in 1912, the Chilean Nitrate Committee, the pro- 
paganda agents for the dissemination of knowledge regarding the use of nitrate of soda, 
established an office in Havana under the charge of the writer, and from this office as 
headquarters information has been as broadly given as has been possible. The use of 
both potash and nitrogen in Cuba is subsidiary and dependent on that of phosphoric 
acid, and as a consequence both the propaganda of the German Kali Works and of the 
Chilean Nitrate Committee have had to recognize the essential character of phosphoric 
acid in our fertilization, and, consequently, has had to recommend the use of so called 
complete fertilizers. In this way the work of these two organizations has been of 
assistance to those units of our fertilizer industry which have been operating with honesty 
as their keynote, and there is no doubt that the influence of the two offices mentioned 
has been helpful and beneficial to our agricultural population. 

From the above it will be seen that from the original small failure of 1885, and the 
first active steps toward the introduction of chemical fertihzers about 1900, rapid and 
steady progress has been made, until now considerable capital is invested in the fertihzer 
industry in Cuba and a heavy demand has arisen. At this writing, of course, the fer- 
tilizer business here is affected, as it is in every other country, the low price of agricultural 
products compelling the farmer to go slow, thus restraining him from using as large 
quantities of fertilizer as he otherwise would, but this situation will doubtless last only 
for a short time, until normal conditions again prevail in the markets for our agricultural 
products. The total fertilizer consumption of the Island can only be guessed at, as 



2.S 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




Mixing a Small Batch of Fertilizer for Experimental Purposes 




The First Step Toward What Became a Large Fertilizer Business, Central Providencia, Havana Province 



THE CUBA REVIEW 29 

information regarding the output of each one of the units supplying the demand is difficult 
to obtain. Estimates made by those closely in touch with the situation vary all the 
way from about 60,000 tons to as high as 120,000. 

As has already been indicated, the consumption of fertiUzer in Cuba began in the 
tobacco fields of Pinar del Rio Province, Peruvian Guano being at first the only material 
employed, but later on with the introduction of chemical fertihzers by Piel Brothers, 
the demand sprang up among growers of this crop for a "white" fertilizer, which has 
since persisted. Analysis of the fertihzers used in the tobacco fields and also the com- 
ponent materials used in their manufacture vary somewhat, but we believe that a repre- 
sentative analysis is 3% ammonia, 6% to 8% phosphoric acid and 3% to 6% potash, 
the quantity of potash depending in recent years upon the price at which this material 
could be provided. The materials used in the standard tobacco fertilizer are: sulphate 
of ammonia and cotton seed meal as sources of nitrogen; ground bone, single and 
double acid phosphate as sources of phosphoric acid; and high grade, practically 
chlorine free, sulphate of potash or nitrate of potash as the source of potash. A pre- 
judice has existed in the minds of nearly all tobacco growers against the use of nitrate 
of soda as a source of nitrogen for tobacco fertilization, but the result of experiments 
covering a considerable number of years in various classes of soil, not only in Pinar del 
Rio Province but also in the Partidos District of Havana Province, has shown con- 
clusively that a part of the nitrogen in tobacco fertilizers can be obtained advantageously 
from nitrate of soda. In the experiments mentioned, one-half of the nitrogen was 
obtained from nitrate of soda and one-half from sulphate of ammonia in the fertilization 
of plats which year after year gave the largest crop of tobacco of the nest burning quality. 
The quantity of fertihzer used is so much per 1,000 plants, the Cuban unit "arroba" 
being employed and the quantity varying from one arroba to one and one-half arrobas 
per 1,000 plants. An arroba is 25 pounds, and planting is so made that from 12,000 to 
17,000 plants occupy an acre. 

When citrus planting in Cuba assumed sufficient importance to entitle it to the name 
of an industry, by far the largest area planted had been in the newer richer lands of the 
two eastern provinces, Camagiiey and Oriente, but considerable areas had been planted 
in the sandy lands of Pinar del Rio Province and in the fighter clay loams of Havana and 
Matanzas Provinces, and some acreage in the poor soils of central Santa Clara Province. 
The result has been that the use of fertilizers on these lands for this crop has demon- 
strated that the results were so favorable that, taking into consideration the small total 
area planted, the consumption of fertilizer for citrus production is quite large. The 
most successful growers have, without variation, been those who have accompanied 
generous fertilization with sufficient irrigation to offset the most serious effects of our 
customary long winter drought. The fertilizers usually employed by our citrus growers 
differ in nitrogen and potash content, depending upon the age of the grove, the higher 
nitrogen content being utilized for young groves rapid growth of which is desired, and 
the more heavily potashed fertilizers being used on older producing groves, especially 
on those whose fruit, such a grapefruit, must be shipped abroad in order to find a market. 
A representative formula for the young grove not yet in full production might be given as 
5% ammonia, 6% to 8% phosphoric acid and 3% potash, while for the older fully pro- 
ducing groves a representative formula may be taken as 3% to 4% ammonia, 6% to 
8% phosphoric acid and from 6% potash up. It has become customary also among 
our citrus growers to make an appHcation of nitrate of soda alone, usually in December 
if conditions are favorable, otherwise in the early spring, with the idea of forcing an 
early bloom, so that fruit ripening in August and September can be obtained, thus secur- 
ing the high prices paid for fruit coming into market at this off-season period. The 
success achieved by those of our growers who have been generous with their fertihzers 
and have been in position to give a hmited amount of irrigation has been remarkable, 
contrasting greatly with the results of the work of those who have been parsimonious 
in the use of fertilizers and have not been in position to give the irrigation required to 
overcome the retarding influence of the dry winter months. 



;{() 



THE CUBA RKriEW 




A Group of "Guajiros" Taking Les^scns in the Mixing: of Chemical Fertilizers Near Consolacion 

The sweet potatoes, nialangas, yams, corn and other food crops grown l)}- the native 
Cubans for home consumption, are all grown without fertiUzer, notwithstanding the 
fact that experiments have demonstrated that, especially on the root crops, the use of 
fertilizer gives a very great increase in the yield. When this statement is made, of 
course, it is understood that this increase is obtained on those lands which are universally 
recognized as best adapted for the growth of this class of crop, that is, the lighter or 
sandier loams. But the native Cuban who usually lias more land than he can po-ssibly 
cultivate to such crops, prefers doubling the area in order to obtain the quantity of these 
roots that he requires eitlier for his own home consumi)ti()ii or for market, as at the 
season when these crops are planted his time is usually valueless, rejiresenting nothing 
to him. while the purchase of fertilizer, of course, would involve a cash outlay. There is, 
however, another class of vegetable grower in Cuba whose product, consisting of peppers, 
eggplants, lima beans, summer squash, tomatoes and okra, are intended for exportation 
to the markets of the northern portion of the United States. Tlur-^o ]ilantings, of course, 




Interior View of Factory 



THE CUBA REVIEW 31 

are made only where favorable conditions therefor exist, irrigation water in abundance 
being a prime necessity, and, therefore, these plantings are found either in the Guines 
District where abundant irrigation water is available, or in west central Pinar del Rio 
Province, where a sandy loam of good quality is found along the edges of small ponds, 
lakes and streams, these furnishing the water required for irrigation. In the Guines 
District, as also in Pinar del Rio, we believe that the growth of vegetables was begun 
by Americans who saw the opportunities lying ahead of farmers who would take scientific 
advantage of the facilities available, and as these parties had been familiar with the 
growth of these crops in the North, it was very natural that the use of fertilizers should 
have commenced from the very beginning of these plantings. It has also been found 
that these people have lent themselves most readily to the home mixing of fertiHzers, 
as by following the practice the quality of their fertilizers is assured and the component 
materials can be varied, thus better adjusting the fertilizers to the particular period of 
growth of the plant. The majority of growers of vegetables of this class utiUze a ferti- 
lizer containing from 4% to 6% ammonia, 6% to 8% phosphoric acid and 5% to 6% 
potash, the ammonia being obtained from a combination of nitrate of soda and sulphate 
of ammonia during the early part of the season, and later from nitrate of soda alone, 
the phosphoric acid from single or double acid phosphate, and the potash from high 
grade sulphate of potash. A few of the most successful growers also like to include 
among the fertihzer materials supplying ammonia, sufficient liigh grade tankage to 
furnish about one-third of the total ammonia in the fertihzer. 

It is well known that the principal product of Cuba is sugar, and, of course, the cane 
from which this is produced is grown entirely on the Island. Cuba's record crop of 
sugar has been practically 4,000,000 long tons, for the production of which, assuming 
an average sugar production of 12% of the weight of the cane ground, would require 
the grinding of 33,333,333 long tons of sugar cane, which, assuming an average production 
per acre of 20 tons, would require the cultivation of 1,666,666 acres. As we have pre- 
viously indicated, the quantity of high grade fertilizer used per acre on those sugar plan- 
tations where fertilization is practiced is high, averaging at least about 600 pounds per 
acre, so that if the total acreage planted were fertilized at this rate, practically 500,000 
tons of fertihzer would be required. It is doubtful, however, if even 20% of the lands 
planted to cane in Cuba are thus fertiUzed, so that we presume that an outside estimate 
of the quantity of fertilizer required for sugar cane would be 100,000 tons. Nowhere 
else in the world that we know of are analyses of cane fertiHzers so high, as one of the 
favorite formulge during the past two or three seasons has analyzed 10% ammonia, 
and 14% available phosphoric acid, while such a formula as 7% to 8% ammonia, 
8% to 10% phosphoric acid and 3% to 6% potash (in the days when potash was at a 
normal price) can be considered standard. The materials of which the fertihzer is 
composed have been found not to be of particular importance, as sugar cane appears 
to be able to obtain its nourishment from practically all classes of raw materials, but the 
most favorite sources of plant foods are tankage, dried blood, nitrate of soda and 
sulphate of ammonia as sources of ammonia; ground bone, single and double acid 
phosphate as sources of phosphoric acid; and sulphate of potash as the source of potash. 
Of course, with this crop it is not essential that the chlorine content of the sulphate 
of potash be Hmitedj'as is the case with tobacco. 

The fertihzer industry in Cuba is untrammeled by such requisites as exist in the 
United States, whereby the consumer is protected and the manufacture of fertihzer 
compelled to make his goods correspond to the analysis under which they are sold or 
else suffer the consequences. There is a requirement in Cuba that the manufacturer 
must either print on the bags or on a tag attached thereto the guaranteed mimmum 
content of ammonia, available and total phosphoric acid, and potash contained in 
the goods within the bag, but no system of inspection is in vogue, so that each consumer 
has to protect his own interests sending for analysis samples of the goods he has pm'chased 
either to the Government Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas or else at his OTv-n 
expense to private chemists. The result of this lack of supervision has been that loose 



THE CUBA REl'IEJr 




Home Mixing Scene, Herradura, Province of Pinar del Rio 



habits have been cultivated by a great many of our fertiUzer manufacturers, especially 
those managing locally organized companies. These have not been any too careful in 
the selection and use of the raw materials employed to make up their goods, nor in re- 
quiring definitel}^ that their manufactured products conform to the analysis under which 
they are sold. The trying period of the fertilizer industry into which we are entering, 
will, however, sift the chaff from the wheat, and we believe that it will not be long before 
only the solid substantial companies putting out worthy and meritorious goods in which 
implicit confidence can be had, will continue to supph' the demand for fertihzers in Cuba. 
The prospects of the fertilizer industry here at present are similar to those con- 
fronting practically every other industry, not only here but throughout the world. 
Througliout the United States wheat, corn, cotton, peanut, rice, fruit and truck growers 
have all felt the influence of smaller demand and lower prices. Just so in Cuba, the 
growers of our principal crops, sugar and tobacco, have found the demand much below 
nonnal, and prices obtainable very much low'er than even the cost at which these pro- 
ducts are being grown, with the result that the greater the crop the heavier the loss. 
Naturally no incentive remains for the use of fertilizers, especially on a crop like cane, 
which stands in the field for so long and is harvested at such a late date after planting, as 
to enable calculations regarding the possible price to be obtained therefor to be rather 
hazardous. Therefore, we believe that in the cane industry fertihzers will be used only 
by those whose lands without fertilizer would produce so little as not to return the 
cultivation expense, or by those who are so favorably situated as to enable them to pro- 
duce with extraordinary cheapness. But this condition must be only temporar5^ There 
is no doubt that prosperity will return, and with its leturn a heavier demand for all 
classes of necessities, and also a demand for a great many luxuries will spring up, so 
that there will again be a request for fertilizers in large quantities among our sugar and 
tobacco planters, and the more careful and intelligent preparation of the soil and 
cultivation of the planted fields that will be required in this more normal period to 
come, will cause the returns from the use of fertilizers to be considerably greater dollar 
for dollar of the money involved. There is no doubt whatever that the present fertiUzer 
manufacturing capacity of the Island is fully sufficient to meet any demands that may 
spring up until the full return of the normal period to which we have just referred, but 
it seems possible that at that time further expansion will be necessary among these 
companies who have been so managed as to live through the present depression. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



33 



The Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds 65 68 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1944 81 83 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 79 82 

RepubUc of Cuba Exterior Loan 43^% Bonds of 1949 70^ 

Havana City First Mortgage 6% Bonds 85 95 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6% Bonds 85 95 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 40 45 

Cuba Railroad 1st Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 67 70 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 67 80 

Cuba Company 7% Cumulative Preferred Stock 68 77 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Consolidated Mortgage 5% Bonds 72 75 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock 80 90 

Havana Electric Ry., Light & Power Co. Common Stock 70 80 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 85 87 J/^ 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Common Stock 193^ 20 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock ll/€ 12M 



Cuban Clearing House 

The Cuban Clearing House opened in 
Havana Monday with the following mem- 
bers: National City Bank, American 
Foreign Banking Corporation, Mercantile 
Bank of America in Cuba, Royal Bank of 
Canada, Bank of Nova Scotia, Canadian 
Banlc of Commerce, Trust Co. of Cuba, 
Pedro Gomez Mena y Hijo, Banco del 
Comercio and N. Gelats y Cia. 

Opening of the Clearing House is 
expected to facilitate business between 
banks greatly and to aid in clearing up the 
congestion which moratorium transactions 
have caused. The next moratorium 
pajnnent is due on May 15th, and 100% 
by the end of June. Most of the foreign 
banks have been forced to carry 100% 
reserve against their deposits during the 
crisis, so that the payments have caused 
them no inconvenience. 



Internal Revenue Stamps on Consular 
Invoices 

Circular No. 16 of the Cuban Treasury 
Department, dated October 28, 1920, states 
that an internal revenue stamp for the 
total value of the invoice must be placed 
on each sheet of every consular invoice that 
is presented for clearance of goods in Cuban 
custom houses. 



Independent Warehouses, Inc., of Cuba 

The Independent Warehouses, Inc., 
which now operates fourteen storage ware- 
houses in the metropohtan district of New 
York, has organized Independent Ware- 
houses, Inc., of Cuba, with an authorized 
capital of S500,000. The new company 
has acquired and is now operating twelve 
warehouses in Cuba. 

At the present time the company is 
specializing in the storage of sugar in large 
volume. However, the charter of the or- 
ganization provides for the conduct of a 
general warehousing business. 



New Fuel Oil Company in Cienfuegos 

It is reported that representatives of 
the Royal Dutch Shell (Anglo-Mexican 
Petroleum Co.) have been making in- 
vestigations and are seeking a site for the 
erection at Cienfuegos of a fuel oil tank, 
and the estabhshment there of a station 
for the importation and sale of the 
Mexican product. Fuel oil companies at 
present established at this port are the 
Sinclair Cuba Oil Co., the Texas Co. and 
the West India Oil Co. 

According to present plans, the com- 
pany is understood to be confining its 
proposed operations to the ports of Habana, 
Cienfuegos and Matanzas. A very 
desirable site is reported to have been 
acquired at Habana, and the construction 
of a tank to have been begun there also. 



34 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



The Sugar Industry 



Operating Results in Cuba 

Under date of May 7th, Facifi About 
Sugar gives the following information 
on operating results in Cuba: 

Figures showing tiie operating results 
obtained by a number of important Cuban 
sugar mills, up to about the end of March, 
indicate the extent to which the 1920-21 
campaign has been subject to interruption 
from unfavorable weather and give data 
on the showing of the current crop in 
sucrose content, purity and yield. 

Among the mills reporting are those 
of the Punta Alegre Sugar Company, 
the American Sugar Refining Company's 
Central Cunagua, several other large mills 
in the eastern provinces and one or two 
in Santa Clara. The data are as follows: 
Percentages 

Yield 

Sucrose Normal juice 96° 

in cane Sue. Pur. sugar 

12.82 13.19 81.62 11.37 

12.07 13.76 79.10 10.38 

11.84 13.82 82.37 10.62 

13.20 15.21 83.67 11.7.5 

12.21 14.11 82.48 10.84 
12.20 14.02 80.21 10.57 
11.35 13.10 80.39 9.85 
12.16 14.61 84.06 10.69 
13.13 15.08 84.60 11.43 
12.99 15.59 83.80 11.21 
12.43 14.38 84.18 11.15 
12.65 14.24 81.00 11.53 
12.90 15.00 84.75 11.19 
13.43 .... .... 11.40 

The highest i)ercentages of sugar re- 
covery among the mills in this table is 
shown by Central Florida and the lowest 
by Central San Agustin. Sucrose in 
cane was highest at San Ramon and 
lowe.st at San Agustin. Sucrose in juice 
was highest at Caracas and lowest at 
San Agustin. Purity of juice was highest 
at Soledad and lowest at Rio Cauto. 

The highest percentage of time lost 
during the campaign is reported by 
Punta Alegre, 32.66%, the figures for other 
mills reporting being as follows: Trinidad, 
31.44; Rio Cauto, 28.73; Caracas, 
27.21; Cunagua, 26.27; Florida, 19.72; 
Soledad, 18.39; Hormiguero, 18.02; Ermita, 
17.24; San Agustin, 15.79; Agramonte, 
12.88. The eastern mills in this group 
have, on the average, lost more time than 
those in the western provinces. 



Consumption of fuel oil to weight of 
cane ground was greatest, among mills 
reporting in this particular, at Caracas, 
7.20%. Ermita was next with 4.35%. 
The percentages for the other mills are: 
Jatibonico, 3.37; Trinidad, 3.05; Soledad, 
2.63; Rio Cauto, 2.34; Punta Alegre, 
2.24; Cunagua, 1.42. 



New Refinery at Cienfuegos 

The formation at Cienfuegos of a new 
company for the operation of a sugar 
refinerj^ has just been announced. It 
is known as the Damuji Refinery and 
is capitaUzed for S125,000. Construction 
operations have been begun, and it is 
announced that the plant will be read)' 
for operation about the middle of July. 
It will have a capacitj^ of about 100 bags 
of sugar daily. 

The officers of the company are Enrique 
Regalado, president; Roberto Caballero, 
vice-president; Rafael Fiol Caballero, 
secretary; Florencio Rafael Velis, trea- 
surer; Justo Regalado, manager. The 
directors are Cipriano Arias, Carlos 
Trujillo, Antonio 0\iedo, Federico Laredo 
Bru, Donato Artime, Ricardo Guerra, 
Luis Emilio Hernandez and Emilio Mon- 
tano. 



Estimated German Sugar Consumption 
for Production Period 1920-21 

Mr. Howard W. Adams, representative 
of the Department of Commerce, reports 
from Berhn that it is estimated that the 
German sugar production for the 1920-21 
period will reach a total of 970,000 tons. 
It will probably be necessary to supple- 
ment this amount by an importation of 
20,000 tons. The retail price of sugar 
during the current production year has 
averaged 8 paper marks per kilo (2.2 
pounds), and the average price for im- 
ported sugar has been about 12 paper 
marks per kilo. With these prices as a 
basis for calculation, the total expen- 
diture in paper marks by the consumers for 
the production year 1920-21 will be as 
follows: Sugar of domestic production, 
7,760,000,000 marks; imported sugar, 
240.000,000 marks: total, 8,000,000,000 
marks. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 35 

Sugar Review 

Specially written for THE CUBA REVIEW by Willett & Gray, New York, N. Y. 

Our last review for this magazine was dated March 28th, at which time Cuban 
sugars were quoted on the basis of 5 J^c. cost and freight. Influenced by lack of demand 
for refined sugar, the raw situation has continued very much depressed throughout the 
entire period and declines have been established until the market is now on the basis 
of 3KC- c. & f., with sales of both outside sugars and sugars controlled by the Cuban 
Finance Committee at this basis. Another factor which has influenced the market has 
been the delay in tariff legislation, same affecting Porto Rico sugars particularly, of which 
there is considerable quantity pressing on the market and being unsaleable except at 
concessions. 

The Senate Finance Committee today ordered favorably reported the Emergency 
Tariff Bill. The strictly tariff features of the bill including sugar were agreed in the 
exact form as the bill passed in the House, the only changes being in the anti-dumping 
and adjustment of Depreciated Exchange features and the addition of an amendment 
by Senator Knox to continue war control of dyes. It was said that the biU will be 
formally reported probably on April 30th, when the Committee will meet again to read 
and adopt the text of its report. It will be brought up in the Senate under the 
present plan on May 3d. 

Tariff. — The following are the rates of duty on each degree as passed by the House 
of Representatives. 



Basis 
Test 


On Full Duty 
Cents per Degree 


Differential Duty. 

20% off on 

Cuban Sugar 

Cents per Degree 


Basis 

Test 


On Full Duty 
Cents per Degree 


Differential Duty. 

20% off on 

Cuban Sugar 

Cents per Degree 


100° 


2.16 


1.728 


87 


1.64 


1.312 


99 


2.12 


1.696 


86 


1.60 


1.280 


98 


2.08 


1.664 


85 


1.56 


1.248 


97 


2.04 


1.6.32 


84 


1.52 


1.216 


96 (Stan. 


Basis) 2.00 


1.600 


83 


1.48 


1.184 


95 


1.96 


1.568 


82 


1.44 


1.152 


94 


1.92 


1.536 


81 


1.40 


1.120 


93 


1.88 


1.504 


80 


1.36 


1.088 


92 


1.84 


1.472 


79 


1.32 


1.056 


91 


1.80 


1.440 


78 


1.28 


1.024 


90 


1.76 


1.408 


77 


1.24 


.992 


89 


1.72 


1.376 


76 


1.20 


.960 


88 


1.68 


1.344 


75 


1.16 


.928 



The production of sugar in Cuba continues large; in fact, the crop is making a verj^ 
remarkable showing, for this season of the year. The stock of new crop sugars at the 
shipping ports of the Island has passed the million ton mark, and now stands at 1,002,083 
tons, in addition to which there are some 40,000 tons of old crop sugars in stock. Another 
factory has recently started to grind, making 197 now at work as against 172 at this time 
last year and 195 two years ago. The weather, while unsettled, is not sufficiently so to 
interfere materially with cane-cutting or sugar-making operations. However, the un- 
favorable financial situation is likely to be the determining factor in the final outcome, 
as a few factories in the Island have now become so involved that they will very hkely 
have to cease operations. Owing to the uncertainty due to the abnormal conditions 
now prevailing, we have been adjusting our figures of indicated out-turn from week to 
week, using the crop of 1918-19 as a basis. The production to date is 2,090,000 tons 
compared with 2,320,000 tons to the same date in 1918, and using 1918-19 crop as a basis, 
indications now point to an out-turn this season in the neighborhood of 3,750,000 tons 
of sugar. 

We have an interesting cable from the Philippine Islands this week stating that the 
Philippine crop is estimated at 289,000 tons, of which 172,000 tons are Centrifugal sugars. 
This is the first time that Centrifiigal sugars have exceeded the old-fashioned Muscovado 



.•}(; THE CUBA R E V 1 E f\ 

sugars in the history of the sugar industry in the PhiHppines. Exports for the month 
of March inchidc 1,000 tons to tlie I'liited States Atlantic ports and 6,000 tons to San 
Francisco. 

ConsideraV)le interest is beinp manifested at this time in tlie indications in regard 
to beet sowings in Europe for the 1021-22 crop whicli will be harvested next Sej^tember. 
While no definite figures are yet obtainable from our correspondents, some indications 
as reported to us are given below: 

In Germany it is generally considered that the entire country will show an increase 
in sowings of about \b%. 

France reports that an important increase is very likely, although the present dry 
weather, if it continues, will affect the out-turn. 

In Italy it is expected that with the fixing of favorable prices for sugar in that 
country the indications are that a further extension will take place in sugar production, 
making them independent of outside supplies. 

A very important increase is anticipated in the sowings in Hungary, and it is thought 
that sufficient sugar will be produced to take care of their needs. 

An increase of 40 ';c of the sowings over last year is expected in German Austria. 

Increases are also looked for in Holland and Belgium. 

New York, X. Y., April 2S, 1921. 



Re vista Azucarera 

Escrita especialmente para THE CUBA REVIEW por Willett & Gray, de Nueia York. 

Nuestra liltima revista para esta publicacion estaba fechada el 28 de marzo, en cuj'a 
fecha los azucares de Cuba se cotizaban bajo la base de 5 J^c. costo y flete. Debido a la poca 
demanda por azucar refinado, la situacion del aziicar crudo ha continuado muy desani- 
mada durante todo ese periodo, habiendo tenido lugar algunas bajas, hasta que ahora 
el mercado esta bajo la base de 3>^c. costo y flete, con ventas bajo esta base tanto de 
azucares bajo el dominio del Comite Financiero Cubano como de azucares independientes. 
Otra causa cjue ha influido en la situacion del mercado ha sido la demora en la legislacion 
de la tarifa, afectando esto particularmente a los azucares de Puerto Rico, de los cuales 
hay ima grande cantidad en el mercado y que no pueden venderse a menos que sea por 
medio de concesiones. 

El Comite Financiero del Senado delibero ho}' favorablemente acerca del proyecto 
de ley sobre la Tarifa de Emergencia. Las clausulas estrictas de la tarifa en dicho 
proj'ecto de lej', incluyendo el azucar, fueron de acuerdo exact amente en la forma en 
que el proyecto de ley fu6 aprobado en la Camara de Representantes, los linicos cambios 
siendo en lo que se refiere al arreglo de la depreciacion del cambio y a la adicion de una 
enmienda por el senador Knox para continuar la administracion de los tintes como 
durante la guerra. Se dijo que el proyecto de ley seria deliberado como es debido el 30 
de abril, cuando el Comite se reunira de nuevo para leer y adoptar el texto del informe. 
El 3 de mayo sera presentado al Senado bajo el plan actual. 

Tarifa. — Lo siguiente son los derechos por cada grado segun fue aprobado por la 
Cdmara de Representantes: 







Derech 


o Diferencial 






Derecho Diferencial 


Base 


Con todos los 


Rebaj 


la de 20% en 


Base 


Con todos los 


Rebaja de 20% en 


Polari- 


Derechos 


el azucar de Cuba 


Polari- 


Derechos 


el azucar de Cuba 


zacion 


Centavos por grado 


Centa^ 


OS por grado 


zacion 


Centavos por grado 


Centavos por grado 


100° 


2.16 




1.728 


87 


1.64 


1.312 


99 


2.12 




1.696 


86 


1.60 


1.280 


98 


2.08 




1.664 


85 


1.56 


1.248 


97 


2.04 




1.632 


84 


1.52 


1.216 


96 (Stan. 


Basis) 2.00 




1.600 


83 


1.48 


1.184 


95 


1.96 




1.568 


82 


1.44 


1.152 


94 


1.92 




1.536 


81 


1.40 


1.120 


93 


1.88 




1.504 


80 


1.36 


1.088 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



37 







Derech 


Diferencial 


Base 


Con todos los 


Reba; 


ja de 20% en 


Polari- 


Derechos 


el aziioar de Cuba 


zacion 


Centavos por grado 


Centavos por grado 


92 


1.84 




1.472 


91 


1.80 




1.440 


90 


1.76 




1.408 


89 


1.72 




1.376 


88 


1.68 




1.344 



Base 
Polari- 
zacion 

79 

78 
77 
76 
75 



Dereeho Diferencial 

Con todos los Rebaja de 20% en 

Derechos el aziicar de Cuba 

Centavos por grado Centavos por grado 



32 
28 
24 
20 



1.16 



1.056 
1.024 

.992 
.960 

.928 



La produccion de azucar en Cuba continua en grande escala, en realidad la zafra so- 
bresaliendo de una manera muy notable por esta estacion del ano. Las existencias de 
azucar de la nueva zafra en los puertos de embarque en Cuba pasan de un millon de tone- 
ladas, y ahora Uegan a 1,002,083 toneladas, ademas de lo cual hay como 40,000 toneladas 
de azucar de la zafra pasada en existencia. Otra fabrica ha empezado hace poco la molienda, 
lo cual hace que ahora haya 197 centrales en operacion, contra 172 por esta epoca el 
ano pasado, y 195 hace dos anos. El tiempo, aunque variable, no es tan malo para que 
impida el cortar la cana o las operaciones de hacer azucar. Sin embargo, la situacion 
financiera desfavorable es probable sea causa determinante en el resultado final, pues 
algunas fabricas en Cuba se hallan ahora en un estado tan complicado que muy probable- 
mente tendran que cesar sus operaciones. Debido a la inseguridad con motivo del estado 
anormal que prevalece ahora, hemos estado arreglando nuestras cifras de la produccion 
de semana en semana, haciendo uso de la zafra de 1918-19 como base. La produccion 
hasta la fecha es 2,090,000 toneladas comparado con 2,320,000 toneladas en la misma 
fecha en 1918, y haciendo uso de la zafra de 1918-19 como base, los indicios indican 
ahora una produccion esta estacion alrededor de 3,750,000 toneladas de azucar. 

En esta semana recibimos de las Islas Filipinas un cablegrama interesante mani- 
festando que la zafra de las Filipinas se calcula en 289,000 toneladas, de las cuales 172,000 
toneladas son azucares centrifugos. Esta es la primera vez que los azucares centrifugos 
han excedido a los antiguos azucares mascabados en la historia de la industria del azucar 
en las Filipinas. Las exportaciones durante el mes de marzo incluyen 1,000 toneladas 
a los puertos del Atlantico en los Estados Unidos y 6,000 toneladas a San Francisco de 
California. 

Por ahora se manifiesta bastante interes por los indicios respecto a las siembras de 
remolacha en Europa en 1921-22, cuya cosecha sera recogida el proximo mes de septi- 
embre. Aunque no se han conseguido aun cifras definitivas de nuestros corresponsales, 
a continuacion damos algunas indicaciones segun se nos han comunicado. 

En Alemania se considera generalmente que todo el pais mostrara un aumento en 
las siembras de un 15 por ciento. 

De Francia se nos informa que muy probablemente habra un aumento, aunque si 
continua el tiempo seco como al presente, afectara la produccion. 

En Italia es de esperarse que al fijar precios favorables por el azucar en dicho pais, 
los indicios son que tendra lugar mayor extension en la produccion del azucar, haciendoles 
independientes de proveerse de azucar del exterior. 

En Hungria se anticipa un aumento importante en las siembras, y se cree que se 
producira azucar suficiente para atender a sus necesidades. 

En el Austria alemana se espera un aumento de 40 por ciento en las siembras sobre 
las del ano pasado. 

Tambien se esperan aumentos en las siembras de Holanda y Belgica. 

Nueva York, abril 28 de 1921. 



Output of Sugar in Spain 

Commercial Attache Cunningham, of 
Madrid, states that according to a recent 
report by Spanish sugar producers it is 
pointed out that during the past season 
Spain manufactured 200,000 tons of 
sugar. The normal consumption of the 



country is stated to be 140,000 tons. It is 
said that 300,000,000 pesetas of Spanish 
capital are invested in the sugar industry, 
that 200,000 families are employed, and 
that 250,000 tons of coal are consumed 
annually in the manufacture of the 
sugar. 



38 T II K CUBA REVIEU 



Cable "Turnure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK- 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE «& CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we takinj^ charge of Collection 
and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial 
Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, 
etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments l)y Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana 
and' other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, vSpain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo 
Domingo, and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 
HAVANA: N. Gelats & Co. PARIS: Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO: Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 
LONDON: The London Joint City & Midland Bank, Ltd. 
(Banco Urquijo, Madrid 
SPAIN: iBanco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

(Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

Showing the location of all the active sugar plantations in Cuba 
and giving other data concerning the sugar industry of Cuba. 

Size, 29^ X 24. Copyrighted igiS. 

Price 50 cents postpaid. 

THE CUBA REVIEW 

67 Wall Street, New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS and MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 

Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

A. KLIXG. Prop. TVyiriRIf F At A STEAMSHIP WORK 

JAS S ROGUE. Supt. IVH^DIL.11., /\L./\. a SPECIALTY 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton. Night Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address: "Abiworks" New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Makers and Manufacturers. Steamship Repairs in All Branches. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
Installation, Oil Fuel Installation, Carpenter and Joiner Work. 

18-20 Summit Street— 11-27 Imlay Street Near Hamilton Ferry BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Agents for "Kinghorn" Multiplex Valve 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when -icritincf to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Cana Neto 

Sistema nueva patentada por 

Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 

constructor de trasbordadores 

superiores 

Funciona por motor, levantando, pessndo, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cafia por un hombre y 
imprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo "La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



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Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



Correction 

In the table of active sugar plantations, 
Matanzas Province, March issue of The 
Cuba Review, centrals Cuba, Flora, 
Santo Domingo and Saratoga were listed 
as being of Cuban-Spanish ownership. 
These mills are owned by American- 
Cuban interests. 



Established 1876 



N. GELATS & COMPANY 

Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world. 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 
HAVANA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836, AT 105 WALL STREET 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



FOR SALE 



4 — 7,200 Gallon Wooden Underframe 
TANK CARS now located in 
Cardenas, Cuba. Will sell com- 
plete or tanks alone at sacrifice, 

ALLIED COMMERCE CORPORATION 

501 Fifth Avenue - New York, N. Y. 



Imports and Exports 

Total values of merchandise imported from and exported to Cuba during February, 
1921, and the eight months ended Februarj^ 1921, compared with corresponding periods 
of the preceding year, have been made pubhc by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, Department of Commerce, as follows: 

Month of February 8 Months Ended February 

1921 1920 1921 1920 

Imports from Cuba $28,183,409 $72,746,700 $300,526,380 $301,418,638 

Exports to Cuba 25,503,646 31,434,027 344,618,937 214,947,725 



Please msntion THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



10 



THE (• LB A li E ri E IV 



THE 



Crust €oiiipanv of €uba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$900,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsljy President 

( laudio Ci. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgood Vice-President 

Rogclio C'arbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Wliitnor Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts. 



%% 



*§ 



WATERPROOF 

BELTING^ 
ISWATERPl^ 

6ARANTIZAM0S QUE ESTA 
CORREA ES PERFEICTA 
POR SU CALIDAD Y 
PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUEBA 
VUELVE- 




GERENTE P.N.PIEDRA.- 
k^^-A CABLE. "PEN I COPE" ^ 



'/^ 



% 




J.BACHMANNgCOr' 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 



W-ISREA^EST. 



NEW YORK,N.Y. 



CasaTuxiafl j| 



( )ur otalilisluil relations with manufac- 
turers and large volume of business 
allow us to quote advantasrenusly on 
all clas'-cs of 

RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda — Bicarbonate — Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid — Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases — Waxes 

Gums — Glues — Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sug:ar Bleach and Filtering Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences — Herbs — Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 

We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you 
are next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 

140 Liberty St., New York 

2 and 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cienfuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives: 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R. 



The Royal Bank^'Canada 



Fundado en 1869 



Capital Pagado 
Fondo de Reserva 
Activo Total - 



$15,000,000 

15,000,000 

420,000,000 



QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SU CURS ALES 

VEINTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONDRES: 2 Bank Buildings, Princes Street 

NEW YORK: 68 William Street 

BARCELONA: Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Se expiden CARTAS DE CRE- 
DITO para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS 
ESTERLIXAS y PESETAS, valederas sin 
descuento alguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTODE AHORROS 
se admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO 
PESOS en adelante. 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana : Obrapia 33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozarc.na F. W. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F. J. Beatty 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. 11 

PM 


No. 1 

PM 


No. 7 

PM 


No. 5 

PM 


No. 3 

AM 


No. 9 

AM 


J 

i 

58 
109 

179 

230 

180 

195 

241 

276 

340 

520 
538 


HAVANA 


No. 2 

AM 


No. 8 

AM 


No. 6 

PM 


No. 10 

P M 


No. 4 

PM 


No. 12 

AM 


10.31 


10.01 
AM 

12.17 
4.05 

6.00 

9.45 

6.00 


4.01 

6.40 
8.40 
PM 


1.01 

3.23 
5.50 

9.22 


10.01 

11.54 
2.00 

4.47 

8.35 


7.01 

9.25 
12.37 
P M 


Lv Central Station Ar 

Ar . . .Matanzas. . .Lv 
Cardenas 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

.... Santa Clara .... 


6.50 

4.15 
12.05 

PM 
10.45 

7.25 

11.00 


9.40 

6.52 
5.00 
AM 


3.31 

1.10 
10.00 

6.45 


6.30 

3.50 
1.20 
P M 


7.25 
5.06 


6.30 




12.10 
P M 
8.15 
AM 


* 






9.00 




7.40 






7 10 


7.10 
P M 






P M 
11.15 
AM 


10.15 


AM 


9.55 

11.35 
P M 
3.10 
AM 






. . . Sancti Spiritus . . . 
. . . Ciego de Avila . . . 

Camaguey 

Antilla 


4.45 

3.45 

12.15 
AM 








PM 






P M 
2.55 

6.10 

2.10 
6.45 
PM 








12.40 
AM 
9.00 
PM 

10.40 
9.00 
AM 


































3.45 
AM 








Santiago 


12.01 

AM 























Sleeping cars on trains 1, 2, 5, 6, 11 and 12. 
* Via Carreno. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES— UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From H.4VAN.A. TO 

Cienfuegos 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Ciego de Avila 

Camaguey 

Bayamo 

Altro Cedro 

Santiago 



Lower 
Berth 



S5.00 



5.50 
6.00 



7.00 
8.00 



Upper 
Berth 

S4.00 



4.50 
5.00 



6.00 ) 
7.00 ] 



Compart- 
ment 

.S12.00 

15.00 
20.00 



Dra wing- 
Room 

$15.00 

18.00 
25.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



U. S. Cy. 

Antilla $29.21 

Batabano 2.95 

Bayamo 26 . 24 

Caibarien 14 . 81 

Camaguey 20.57 

Cardenas 7.96 

Ciego de AvOa 17.47 

Cienfuegos 12.33 

Colon 8.12 

Guantanamo 31 . 70 

Holguin 26.87 



U. S. Cy. 

Isle of Pines $10.00 

Madruga 4.25 

ManzanUlo 27.74 

Matanzas 4.60 

Placetas 13.54 

Remedios 14.50 

Sagua 11.98 

San Antonio 1-80 

Sancti Spiritus ■'■^ • ?i 

Santa Clara 12."" 



Santiago de Cuba 30.08 

Passengers holding fuU tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighs 110 pounds 
or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in second-class. 

ROUND TRIP TICKETS— First and Second Class 

are on sale from Havana to Matanzas, Jovellanos, Cardenas, Colon, Union, Sagua, 
Caibarien and Cienfuegos, valid for three days after date of sale. 

UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



W. T. MEDLEY, Commercial Agent 



ARCHIBALD JACK, General Manager 



HAVANA, CUBA 



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42 



T HE CUBA RE V I E JV 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST 
PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPECIALTIES 
88 BROAD STREET, Cor. Stone, NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion directa dc todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, Xew York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool; Vapores 
Transatlantxos de A. Folch& Co., de Barcelona. 
EspaiiH. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET 17/21 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established .")() Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 



JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 

Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones: I coco f Bowling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone O.UO Henry Night Call, 227S Henry 



THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 
Contracting Engineers 

STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office, 8 West 40th Street 
Havana Office: Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address: Kunomale, New York 
Telephone 3300 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 180 
Maritime Exchange 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

CAULKERS, SPAR MAKERS, 

BOAT BUILDERS, ETC. 

No. 9 Summit Street 
Near Atlantic Dock, BROOKLYN 



CARLOS M. VARONA 



ICam^pr 

MERCADERES No. 5 

HAVANA, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

COMMISSION MERCHANT 

P. 0. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either on a 
commission basis or under agency arrangements. 
Aho furnishes all desired information about lands 
in eastern Cuba. 



P. RUIS & BROS. 

Sngratierfi - - JFine ^tattonpry 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



F. W. Hvosk-f E. C. Day R M. Michelson 

BENNETT, HVOSLEF & CO. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

Cable "Benvosco" 



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THE CUB A RE V I EW 43 

Munson Steamship Line 



GENERAL OFFICES: 

67 Wall Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Diexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA, Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. 1H West Wash;ngton Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Keyser Building, BALTIMORE, MD. 708 Common Street, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

Leave Arrive Leave Arrive 

New York Antilla Antilla New York 

S/S "MUNAMAR" June 4 June 8 June 11 June 15 

June 18 June 22 June 25 June 29 

FREIGHT ONLY 

I Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 

' Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings as follows : 



Havana .... Every Week 
Matanzas. Every 2 Weeks 
Cardenas. Every 2 Weeks 



Isabela de Sagua. .Every 3 Weeks 

Caibarien " " " 

Nuevitas " " " 

Manati " " " 



Guantanamo . Every 3 Weeks 

Antilla 

Santiago... " " " 
Cienfuegos. " " " 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER — Montevideo-Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 



NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

New York to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires 

S/S "AEOLUS" (a) June 15 

(a) 1st, 2d and 3d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— BaHimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Cienfuegos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 



NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Progreso, Tampico and Vera Cruz. 



NEW ORLEANS— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New Orleans for Tampico and Vera Cruz. 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



44 



THE CUBA RE V I E W 



Machinery Handles All Products 

in sugar factories, from dumping the cane to storing the bagged sugar. 
Our leadership as engineers and builders of efficient conveying systems for 
sugar estates and refineries is the result of years of experience. 

Send for our new 136 page catalog No. 355 

LINK-BELT COMPANY 

299 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY 




American Car and Foundry Export Co, 

Pr^'l^x^'^NF^'^YORK 165 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 




LISTA PARA ENTREGA INMEDIATAMENTE 

Aqui se ve el grabado de uno de nuestros ca ros mas modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias c: pacidades para uso en Cuba Puerto Rico, Sud America America Central y 
M^jico, con bastidores y jaulas de madera o de acero. Producci6n annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA, Representante para Cuba 

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THE 



CVBA REVIEW 




ear JUNE, 1921 10CentsACo| 



K ■ % M 



THE C V li A li E 11 E IV 



Ruedas de 
Hierro Enfriado 
y Ejes de Acero 
para Carros 
y Coches de 
Ferrocarril. 



A razon porque las 

ruedas de Hierro '^ 

Enfriado proce- 
deiites de nuestras fa- 

bricas tienen preferencia sobre las otras se debe a que el bierro enfriado puede resistir 
mejor que cualquier otro metal las cargas excesivas, las grandes velocidades y el roz- 
amiento generado por los frenos modernos. Talleres montados a la moderna y condi- 
ciones ventajosas para obtener las materias primas nos ponen en condiciones de 
cotizar precios atractivos. 

NEW YORK CAR WHEEL COMPANY 

JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente 
Direcdon c;^We|:^afica^^ YORK ^^ CEDAR STREET, NEW YORK, E.E. U.U. 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
^ NEW YORK 

Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO.. LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 

Los pioduclos de estas Fabricas abarcan: LocomOtoraS 

n, Carros para caiia 

V Rieles y accesso- 

*^ Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 
Calderas 

Maquinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 
Tanques 
Tornos 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maqui- 
naria para Inge- 
nios de Azucar 
Calentadores de 
agua de alimen- 
tacion 
Alambiques para 

agua 
Madera, pino ama- 

A solicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos ril.O 

Direccion cablegrafica: JAMOTLEY, New York (Se usan todas las claves). 




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THE CUBA REVIEW 



Para todos usos y de todos tamanos, de los para 
cana con cuarto ruedas y capacidad de 11/2 tone= 
ladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capac= 
idad de 30 toneladas. 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, incluyendo los juegos de 
ruedas, completamente armados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos 
completos para construir los earros a su destine de maderas del pais. 



Carros de Ingenios 



I 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., NEW YORK, N. Y. ^SiSS 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, Pres. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 

Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure 

15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U. S. A. 



Phone Broad 
4266-4267 



Night Phone 

1105 Bay Ridge 

1368 Richmond Hill 



WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 



FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC 



SUGARS 

82 Wall Street, New York 



RAW AND 
REFINED 



Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 
from 5 A. M. to 8 P. M, Last train 11.20 P. M. 



Guana jay 
Guines — 



FARE 



$1.00 



Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 
from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 



FARE 



$1.25 



SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANA FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) ^0.06 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) n 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and iiourly 
thence to 5 A. M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A. M. to 11 P. M. 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 

Avoiil imitations, insist upon getting WALKER'S 
METALLIC "LION" PACKING. Look for "The 
Thin Kl(1 Line" which runs through all the 
Genuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Laljels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 




United Railways of Havana 
WESTERN DIVISION 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 
6.15 
8.24 


PM 

2.55 
4.24 
5.51 
6.05 
6.56 
8.40 
PM 


PM 
1.45 
3.55 


AM 
10.15 
12.24 


AM 
6.55 
8.24 
9.51 
10.05 
10.56 
12.40 
PM 


AM 
5.45 
7.55 


Fare 
1st cl. 
$2.65 
5.10 
5.62 
6.71 
8.83 


Lv Cen. Sta.... Ar 

Kt Artemisa Lv 

.A.r...Paso Real...Lv 
.Kr . . Herradura . . . Lv 
Kt . Pinar del Rio Lv 
hx Guane Lv 


Fare 
3dcl. 
$1.40 
2.54 
2.74 
3.25 
4.22 


AM 
7.20 
5.15 

AM 


AM 
11.09 
9.40 
8.05 
7.48 
6.55 
5.20 
AM 


PM 
12.01 
9.45 


PM 
3.20 
1.15 


PM 
7.09 
5.40 
4.05 
3.48 
2. 55 
1.20 
PM 


PM 
8.00 
5.45 








7'30 
11.45 
AM 














6.00 












2 00 


PM 


PM 


PM 


AM 


PM 


PM 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares from Havana to 

Pinos 1.5 cts. Rancho Boyeros 40 cts. 

Arroyo Naranjo 25 cts. Santiago de las Vegas. . . .55 cts. 

Calafcazar 30 cts. Rincon 65 cts. 

Leaving Central Station every half hour from 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 p. M., 
and every hour thereafter to 11.15 p. m. 



Trade with Boston 



imports from Cuba... 
Exports to Cuba 



Feb. 1921 

82,514,730 

§479,899 



Year Ending 
Feb. 28, 1921 

$67,481,856 
§11,833,6.50 



Feb. 1920 

S5, 163,761 
$4.53,667 



Year Ending 
Feb. 29, 1920 

$33,282,417 
$9,990,754 



Trade with United Kingdom 

The foUow-ing table shows the trade of the United Kingdom with Cuba for 1913, 
1919 and 1920, according to British customs returns: 

1913 1919 1920 

Imports from Cuba §3,674,896 817,882,831 §25,628,855 

Exports to Cuba 2,214,386 1,983,027 7,245,839 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 67 Wall Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year - - - - 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX JUNE, 1921 No. 7 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — San Juan River, Matanzas. 

Frontispiece — Painting in City Hall, Santiago de Cuba — First Mayor of 
Santiago. 

Cuban Commercial Matters: 

Exports of Automobiles to Cuba 19 

Exports of Corn Syrup to Cuba 19 

Exports of Piece Goods from United Kingdom 19 

Exports of Steam Locomotives to Cuba 19 

German Trade with Santiago de Cuba 18 

Importations of Cement 18 

Importations of Cement into Santiago 18 

Leather Belting 18 

Proposed Harbor Improvements at Caibarien 19 

Trade of Cuba in Vegetable Oils and Vegetable Oil Material 19 

Cuban Government Matters: 

Customs Receipts 7 

Fund for Pubhc Works 7 

New Appointments in Cuban Army 7 

New Army Chief 7 

New Italian Minister .7 

Regulation of Taxes on Mines 7 

Reorganization of Cuban Army 7 

Treasury Payments during February 7 

Dr. Alfredo Zayas, New President of Cuba 8 

Emergency Tariff 27 

Financial Condition of Cuba 9 

General Jose Miguel Gomez 9 

Havana Correspondence 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 

Havana's Subway 21, 22, 23, 24 

Inauguration of the Telephone Service between the United States and Cuba 

(illustrated) ^^' ^^' H 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 20 

Sugar Review, English ^'^' ^^' 07 

Sugar Review, Spanish 35, 36, 37 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads -^^ 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




THE 
CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1921, by the Munson Steamship Line 



LIBRARY 

NEW Yoqg^ 

""■'^mcajl 



Volume XIX 



JUNE, 1921 



Number 7 



Cuban Government Matters 



New Italian Minister 

Count Naselli, director general of the 
foreign ministry of Italy, has been ap- 
pointed minister to Cuba. 



Fund for Public Works 

By presidential decree, the sum of 
$441,100 has been placed to the credit 
of the Department of Public Works as an 
amplification of the appropriation already 
available for street-cleaning purposes, 
during the months of April, May and June. 



Treasury Payments During February 

During the month of February, the sum 
of $12,596,300 was paid from the Cuban 
Treasury for different accounts, the larger 
part being expended on public works. 



Reorganization of Cuban Army 

Reorganization of the Cuban army is one 
of the tasks facing the new administration 
of Dr. Alfredo Zayas. The Menocal 
government took a preUminary step by 
abolishing the custom of promotion of 
officers by selection. The presidential 
decree effecting this reform wiU become 
operative on July 1. 

The motive for army reorganization is 

economy. 

While the army itself numbers only 

_^__ about 11,000, the high salaries paid and the 

cvi cost of supplies have run the total cost of 

^ this branch of the national defense to more 

than $6,000,000, a figure considered ex- 



New Army Chief 

Colonel Rogerio Caballero has assumed 
the post of chief of staff of the Cuban army, 
to which he was appointed by President 
Zayas. Colonel Caballero rose to his pres- 
ent rank from sergeant in the rural 
guards, formed during the period of 
American intervention, and his appoint- 
ment is considered the first step in the 
proposed reorganization of the army. 



New Appointments in Cuban Army 

Two well-known Cuban army officers 
recently received appointment to im- 
portant posts of high command. 

Colonel Alberto Herrera y Franchi has 
been appointed assistant chief of staff, and 
Colonel Matias Betancourt has been 
appointed quartermaster-general. 



Customs Receipts 

The Treasury of the Republic of Cuba 
received $250,000 in customs receipts 
for February from Santiago de Cuba; and 
$250,000 from Isabela de Sagua. Habana's 
customs receipts for that month were 
$4,988,940. 



Cvi 



cessive. 



Regulation of Taxes on Mines 

In March President Menocal issued a 
decree modifying the existing laws govern- 
ing the taxes on minerals and mines. 
The fee paid to the treasury yearly on 
mining concessions will be 20 centavos 
per hectare, and mining property must pay 
a tax of 6 per cent of its profits. 



T 11 }. ( iH A m: ri i: iv 




DK. ALIKEDU ZAYAS, NEW PRESIDENT OF CUBA 

Dr. Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso was inaugurated the fourth President of Cuba on May 
20th. He took the oath of office before a brilliant assemblage in the National Palace 
in Havana. 

Dr. Zayas was educated in the University of Havana. He is one of the most pre- 
eminent figures of Cuba and is well known in all institutions of Cuba as a noted orator 
and writer. He is also a distinguished attorney at law. 

In the War of Independence he served as delegate of the revolutionary party from 
Havana, for which he was imprisoned in 1896. When independence was declared he 
was made Lieutenant Mayor of the municipality of Havana and was elected to the con- 
stitutional convention in 1901. Later he was senator from Havana and President of 
the senate from 1902 to 1908. From 1909 to 1911 he was Vice-President of Cuba. 



T HE CUB A REVIE W 




General Gomez, Ex-President of Cuba 
General Jose Miguel Gomez 

General Jose Miguel Gomez, former 
President of Cuba, died in New York on 
June 13th. 

Funeral services were held in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, New York, on June 16th, and 
at the Gomez Mansion in Havana on June 
19thi The Cuban patriot was buried at 
Colon Cemetery with ceremonies attended 
by the greatest popular demonstration 
ever known in the history of Havana. 
Full military honors were accorded the 
General both in New York and in Havana. 

General Gomez, for many years a 
political factor in Cuba, was successful 
in gaining the chief magistracy of the 
Island in 1908. His efforts to obtain 
political supremacy made him a feared 
but picturesque figure among Cuban 
leaders. He won honor in the Cuban War 
of Independence. During the first Ameri- 
can intervention in Cuba, General Gomez 
served for almost a year and a half as 
Civil Governor of the Province of Santa 
Clara. He was a member also of the 
Constitutional Assembly. 



After the troubles in regard to the 
administration of President Palma and the 
subsequent interA^ention by the United 
States, General Gomez was elected Presi- 
dent and served for a term of four years. 
A candidate again for the Presidency last 
November, he was defeated by Dr. Alfredo 
Zayas. 

Financial Condition of Cuba 

From President Menocal's message read 
to congress in April are taken the following 
data relative to the economic condition of 
the republic: 

Public Debts: payments for the last 
five months on the loan of §35,000,000, 
issue of 1904, $1,020,000; amortization on 
the internal debt, issue of 1905, 832,400; 
interest on the same, $253,652. 

Payments for foreign debt: amortiza- 
tion and interest to the seventh monthly 
pa3anent of the second year on the bond 
issue of 1919, §425,000; amortization on 
the issue of 1917, S401,000; interest on the 
same, -S 146, 462; series A of the issue of 
§30,000,000 of 1917, $639,700; series B 
of the same issue, $584,100. 

In September, 1920, there was a balance 
in the treasurj', aside from the funds on 
hand in the Banco Nacional, ainounting 
to $8,776,514; and the receipts up to 
February were $51,872,894, which, added 
to the sum collected from back payments, 
special funds, and money minted, gives 
a total of $61,914,315, a sum which added 
to the balance makes a grand total of 
$70,690,829. 

The expenditures up to February for all 
purposes amounted to $54,647,247, leaving, 
therefore, $16,043,582 on hand, in spite 
of increases in the expenditures of the 
Government. 

The tax of 10 cents a sack on sugar'' 
brought in during the period indicated 
$386,882; the tax of 4% on profits is being 
collected without difficulty. 

From October 20, 1920, to March 14, 
1921, coin to the value of $69,197,726 
was received. This contributed largely 
to solving the money crisis. The Ad- 
ministration has minted silver coins to a 
value of $1,751,140, and nickel coins to the 
value of $693,780, which makes a total 
of $2,444,920. The minting of these coins 
cost $1,616,065, leaving the treasury, 
therefore, a profit of $828,855. 



10 



THE CUBA REl'IKU 



Ha\'ana Correspondence 

Havana. May 23, 1921. 

Sugar: Unusually favorable weather conditions during the month permitted the 
continuous prindinp; of cane, which is very encouraRinp; indeed in view of the business 
depression which is being experienced throughout tlic Island. Unfortunately, o\\-ing 
to the strike on the Culia Railroad, practically all of the centrals located in the eastern 
part of the Island were compelled to close down for a few days liecause of their inal)ility 
to get the sugar transported to the ports for shipment. The Cuba Railroad is the only 
means of transportation for this part of the Island and the centrals are deiKMident upon 
this railroad for handling their sugars to port of shipment. As a consecjuence of the 
complete tie-up of the Cuba Railroad, considerable congestion is being experienced at 
the ports. 

As an indication of the healthy growth of the sugar industry in Cuba, despite the 
handicap encountered by reason of the financial stringency through which the Island 
has been passing, it may be noted that there are 194 centrals grinding cane at the present 
time, as compared with 168 at this period last year. This fact is very encouraging and is, 
no doubt, the forerunner of a return to normal conditions. 

Opposition to the Fordney Emergency Tariff measure is growing, and the Chamber 
of Conmierce has gone on record decisively against the discrimination against Cuban 
exjiorts which this measure would invoke. It is felt by the leading business and agri- 
cultural interests of the Island that the enactment of this law will prove a serious mistake 
and be a great detriment to the future development of the Island. 

To relieve financial stringency affecting the sugar industry, a corporation was formed 
by American bankers bearing the name "Cuba Finance and Export Company" for the 
distribution of some §20,000,000.00 at 10^ interest among the industry as a means of 
relie\-ing the financial situation. When it is realized that there are thousands and thou- 
sands of tons of sugar in warehouses at everj' port of the Island, some idea of the financial 
stringency may be gathered. The Sugar Finance Committee, which has governmental 
sanction, would seem to be making a strenuous effort to release these sugars propor- 
tionately, but much criticism has been heaped upon this committee as to the methods 
employed. The committee was originally organized for the purpose of regulating the price 
of Cuban sugars and the idea was well conceived but it now develops that, in its effort to 
maintain prices, it finds itself somewhat embarrassed because other sources of supply 
are under-selling Cuban sugar producers and the natural consequence is the condition 
above referred to — the overcrowding of warehouses with sugars awaiting sale and export. 

Many maintain, and we believe their point is a strong one, that it would have been 
better for the sugar industrj' of Cuba to have remained uncontrolled since, although it 
is admitted that the price would undoubtedly have been slightly less than that which is 
being received, the sugars would have moved more promptly and afforded the growers 
and sugar mills more readj' money with which to operate. This operation would doubt- 
less have been conducted with a slight net loss, and relief would have been afforded to 
the interior of the Island which, to say the least, is indeed much needed at this time. 

Conditions in the interior of the Island are much more grave than many have any 
idea of; laborers in the fields remain unpaid, owners of sugar lands have received only 
partial paj-ment for their product from the sugar mills, and the mills in turn have only 
been able to sell portions of their finished product to the northern refineries. The net 
result is that Cuba today is face to face 'w-ith the proposition of furnishing relief to the 
great masses of laborers and employers of labor throughout the Island, and a condition 
of star\'ation is vaguely visible in the distance. As a result of the financial stringency 
throughout the Island, business generally is chaotic and what the future holds forth for 
Cuba is only to be guessed at. Among the best informed it is frankly admitted that a 
betterment of conditions will not be effected until the end of the next grinding, when 
conditions will have been adjusted to the new scale of low prices. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 11 



Financial Situation: It is believed by well-informed persons closely connected 
with finance that the financial situation at the present time is much more acute than 
at any time since the enaction of the Moratorium. During the past few weeks there 
has been a flurry in financial circles which resulted in a run on three private banking 
institutions. One of them was compelled to close its doors after the first day. It is 
believed that confidence is being gradually restored and that these runs are now about 
over. 

Sr. Jose Marimon of the Banco Espanol de la Isla de Cuba, who has been in New 
York for some time in connection with the arrangement of financial aid for his institu- 
tion, recently sailed for Europe to complete further negotiations for the securing of funds 
for the Banco Espanol. 

The Havana Clearing House, a project which has been under contemplation by bank- 
ing interests for some time, has finally been put into operation and has offices in the Trust 
Company of Cuba Building at Aguiar 71. The full membership of banks represented, 
is as follows: 

N. Gelats & Co. 

Pedro Gomez Mena 6 Hi jo 

The Royal Bank of Canada 

The Trust Company of Cuba 

Banco Mercantil Americano de Cuba 

National City Bank of New York 

American Foreign Banking Corporation 

Banco del Comercio 

Canadian Bank of Commerce 

Before commencing operations it was decided to obtain the services of an expert on 
the subject, and Mr. Clarence E. Bacon, Assistant Manager of the New York Clearing 
House, was invited to come to Cuba and organize the work. The clearings during the first 
ten days have averaged approximately S3,000,000, and Mr. Bacon has expressed great 
satisfaction at the result of the first few days' operation of the institution. 

A digest of a recent extensive report issued by the Secretary of the Treasury shows 
a balance of trade in favor of Cuba in the proportion of 323^% of the total commerce, 
determining an important balance in favor of Cuba and an average in transactions of 
$419,000.00. Estimating the sale of the present crop at anticipated figures and allow- 
ing for the decline in market prices of commodities consumed, which will tend to diminish 
the value of the imports, the report advises that the mercantile balance on June 30, 1921, 
may be safely estimated $300,000,000.00. 

As an indication of the clearing of the financial skies, the Cuba Cane Sugar Cor- 
poration, the largest sugar producing concern in the world, is planning to build a new 
central in Eastern Cuba, with an estimated output of 250,000 bags of sugar annually. 

Mr. F. C. Bailey of Joshua L. Bailey & Co., which concern enjoys a large trade in 
Cuba, in writing to the American Manufacturing Export Association, recently advised 
that in his opinion Cuban customers should not be pressed for settlements just now, giv- 
ing as his reason that such procedure would simply enforce liquidation at unfavorable 
prices and decrease the feeling of goodwill toward American houses. Mr. Bailey spoke 
very highly of the moral character of the Cuban merchants, who in the face of heavy 
losses, are doing everj^hing to scrupulously fulfill all of their obligations as promptly 
as possible. 

Labor Conditions: On April 26th a strike which lasted for thirteen days was 
declared against the Cuba Railroad Company by the Union employees as the result of 
a disagreement between the railroad officials and the Union arising from the dismissal 
of several of the men for various causes. The strike, coming as it did during the height of 
the grinding season, was a most unfortunate occurrence, necessitating the closing of many 
sugar centrals in the eastern portion of the Island served exclusively by the Cuba Rail- 
road, as well as causing the enforced idleness of the laborers of the mills at a time when 



I.' T II K CUBA UEriKlV 



thoy ouuld ill afford to sufTor the loss. Inasmuch as wages havo tleclinod considerably 
during the past year, and living expenses have not decreased proportionately, the con- 
sequence of the time lost hy th(> closing of the centrals was keenly felt and many hard- 
shii)s resulted. 

Much distress was caused the province aflfected as a consequence of the lack of tran.s- 
port.ation of foodstuffs and sui)plies; practically no rolling stock, with the exception of 
an unsuccessful attempt to operate the mail trains, moved during the thirteen-day 
duration of the strike. The attempt on the part of the officials of the railroad to operate 
the mail trains was met with determined oi)positiou on the part of the Union employees 
and their sympathizers, which resulted in the complete burning of a mail coach, as well 
as many minor ilepredations which were committed during the progress of the strike. 
\'arious efforts of mediation on the part of the government were o{)i)osed for various 
reasons by both the railroad officials and the union. However, repeated efforts by govern- 
ment agencies brought forth the desired results and the men agreed to a temporary 
resumjition of work, pending the final decision regarding the reinstatement of the dis- 
missed employees over whose dismissal the strike was called. The railroad comjiany agreed 
to reinstate five of the several employees in cjuestion and to further consider the cases 
of those not as yet reinstated. 

The unemploAanent situation is still grave, there being many thousands of men idle 
throughout the Island. The situation is due to lack of new building operations caused 
by the financial situation and the closing of many of the sugar centrals due to the con- 
gestion of sugar at the docks awaiting shipment. It is not as yet known what steps the 
incoming administration will take to relieve the situation, if any, but it is hoped that 
some legislation will be enacted which will in measure help to solve the gravity of this 
unemployment problem. 

New President Ixaugur.\ted: Simplicity was the keynote of the inaugural 
ceremonies of Dr. Alfredo Zayas, the new Chief Executive of the Republic of Cuba, on 
May 20th. 

Dr. Zayas was escorted from his home to the Presidential Palace, wliere the oath 
of office was administered, by the Cuban Cavalry troops, receiving the i)laudits of the 
thou.sands of spectators Avho filled the streets along which the new president passed 
from his home to the executive mansion. Immediately alter the ceremonies, General 
Menocal, the retiring executive for tw^o successive terms of four years each, departed for 
a tour of Europe, via New York, from which port the ex-president will leave on the 
steamship "La France," after spending a few days in New York Cit^^ 

iVIay 20th, aside from ]:)eing Inauguration Day is also Independence Day in Cuba, 
and while the inauguration ceremony itself was very simple in character, the dual holiday 
afforded the enthusiastic ])0]5ulace the opportunity which it desired for celebrating. 
The day was spent in merriment in which many diversified sports were a prominent 
feature, lasting until a late hour at night. 

President Zayas established a precedent by reading his own presidential message to 
the assembled members of both houses of Congress, all the former presidents having 
written their addresses and sent them to the Senate to be read. 

The new Cabinet of President Zaj-as is as follows: 

Secretary of State — Dr. Rafael Montoro 

Secretary to the President — Sr. Jose Manuel Cortina 

Secretary of the Treasury — Sr. Gelabert 

Secretary of War — General Demetrio Castillo Duany 

Secretary' of the Interior — Sr. Martinez Llufriu 

Secretary of Justice — Dr. Regueiferos 

Secretary of Sanitation — Dr. Juan Guiteras 

Secretary of Pulilic Works — Sr. 0. FrcATe 

Secretary' of Public Instruction — Dr. Francisco Zayas 

To date the Secretary of Agriculture has not been named. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 13 



Harbor Notes: The Special Commission appointed by Pres. INIenocal to relieve 
the harbor congestion and which under the able direction of Col. Despaigne has accom- 
plished remarkably good results in a very short period of time, has advised the president 
that conditions are now normal and there is, therefore, no further need of continuing 
in this capacity. 

Customs Receipts at Antilla: During the month of April, the port of Antilla 
collected the sum of $185,220.95 in customs duties, which figures show that this port, in 
spite of its having been almost entireh^ neglected by the government, is rapidly becoming 
an important port of entry. 

Steamship Company Resumes Service: Announcement has been made by the 
United Steamship Company of the resumption of its service, effective at once, between 
the ports of Galveston and Houston and West Indian ports, as well as the service from 
New Orleans to Santiago, Cienfuegos, Matanzas and Santo Domingo City. 

The United Steamship Company is already very favorably knowii to the shipping 
interests and merchants in Cuba, being among the important contributing factors to the 
upbuilding of the Island. ^Maintaining as it does, direct ser^dce from Galveston, which is 
the principal port for the handling of the various products of the Southwestern and 
Central States, this company will no doubt, b}^ resuming its ser\'ice, be an important 
factor in restoring normal conditions in Cuba. 

Steamer "Cuba" Now in Operation: The P. & 0. S.S. Co. has added a new 
steamer, recently completed at Cramps Shipyard, Philadelphia, to the regular fleet 
operating between Key West, Fla., and Havana. The "Cuba" is of modern construction, 
has three decks, is 341 feet long and has accommodations for 419 passengers. The Havana 
"christening" was attended hy many prominent society members of the city, special 
entertainment being pro\'ided by the company, thus gi\dng the public an opportunity 
to inspect the steamer before she commenced her regular runs. 

Heavy Pineapple Shipments from Cuba: A record-breaking shipping season 
of pineapples from Cuba ^da Key West to the States is reported, keeping the railroad 
officials at that place very busy providing empty cars for transporting the fruit to northern 
points. 

Governor Stokes Praises Cuba: The Hon. E. C. Stokes, a prominent business 
man of Trenton, N. J., and former governor of the state, after a recent ^-isit to Havana, 
verj^ enthusiastically praised the progress which has been made in development during 
the last few years, particularlj" in beautifying the suburbs. Mr. Stokes expressed the 
opinion that it would be of great benefit to those merchants situated along the Atlantic 
seaboard to investigate the opportunities pro\'ided for trade reciprocitj^ with the Cuban 
market. 

International Hospital Assocl^tion: Appreciable progress has been made 
in the securing of funds for this project, the name of which has been changed from the 
Anglo-Saxon Hospital Association to the International Hospital Association. It was 
thought by the sponsors that the new name more clearlj' indicated the purpose of the 
institution and the scope and character of the project which is contemplated. Plans are 
being made for an intensive campaign for the securing of much needed funds and it is 
hoped that building operations may be started in the very near future. 

Havana-Key West Air Record Broken: AU previous flying records for hydro- 
planes were broken when the "Columbus" of the Aeromarine Corporation's fleet, flying 
between Havana and Key West, made the trip in one hour and fifteen minutes. 

General Crowder to Leave Havana: General Enoch Crowder, who has been 
in Cuba for several months on a special mission, will return to the United States ^lay 
23d, on the S.S. "Niagara." General Crowder fulfilled his mission to Cuba in a highly 
satisfactory manner to both governments. 

It is rumored, however, that General Crowder, after a brief vacation in the West, 
wiU return to Cuba and continue in an advisory capacity to the new administration. 



11 



THE C I' H A R E II E W 



WoHLu's t'nAMi'ioNsHii" C'liKss ToiRNAMK.NT Held i.\ Havana : A.s a Fcsult of a 
scries of matches which have just, been concluded between Dr. Knuuiuel Lasker, of Ger- 
many, for many years the world's champion chess player, and Raul Capablanca, the 
rounp: ('ul)an i)layer. the latter is now the acknowledged chess champion of the world 
i)y reason of his winning four and securing a draw out of fourteen games played. A bill 
has been introduced in the Hou.se of Representatives to provide Sr. Cajiablanca a pension 
of $4,o(K) per year for his accompli.^^hment in the winning of the world's championship. 

Wireless Telephone Service i.\ Cuba: By a recent decree signed by President 
Menocal, Cuba has shown her interest in the api)lication to public utility of recent scien- 
tific discoveries, in which a concession has been granted to the Insular Radio Telephone 
Co. to in.stall a wireless telephone service throughout the Republic. The company is 
given a period of five years in which to get the service into operation and will be allowed 
three-(iuarters of a cent per kilometer for three minutes of service. This, however, is but 
a provisional rate and may be increased or lowered when the entire co.st of the system is 
a.'^certained. 

President Steinhart to Pl.\ce Data Before U. S. Legislature: President 
PVank Steinhart of the American Chamber of Commerce of Cuba, left Havana the latter 
part of April for the United States. During his stay there he will place data before various 
senators to prove the harm that would result to Cuba should the proposed duty contem- 
plated by the Fordney Emergency Tariff Law be enacted. Mr. Steinhart is well qualified 
to .speak on this subject and has the backing of the Chamber of Commerce in his appeal. 

Red Cross Society has New Building: The Cuban Branch of the Interna- 
tional Red Cross Society recently moved into its beautiful new building, which is one of 
the most pretentious edifices in the City of Havana. The ceremony consisted of a re- 
ception to the President of the Republic and addresses by many prominent officials, 
including General \'arona. President of the Cuban Chapter of the Red Cross Society, 
who spoke upon the contemplated work of the society throughout the Island. 



Cuba Cane Sugar Corporation 

According to information taken from 
the Bulletin of the Pan American L'nion, 
the Cuba Cane Sugar Corporation has 
asked for a branch of tlie customs service 
to be extended to the subport of Palo 
Alto in the port, district of Jucaro, pleading 
the necessity of such service to relieve the 
base harbor of unloading and loading 
vessels bound to and from foreign ports. 
In decree 166, February 5, an insert.ion 
states that inasmuch as the Cuba Cane 
Companj' agrees to furnish a suitable place 
for the storage of merchandise subject 
to taxation, and inasmuch as the Cuba 
Cane Company is willing to pay the 
salaries of the cu.stoms officials, the 
Government has agreed to equip the sub- 
port of Palo Alto for the entrance and 
clearance of national or foreign vessels, 
whether from overseas or the coastwise 
trade, and for the loading and unloading 
of general merchandise, either import or ex- 
port. It also authorizes the administrator 
of customs of Jucaro to act as delegate 



administrator to handle all the documents 
necessary to the loading and unloading 
of shipping, and to handle all the customs 
collections for which this administrator is 
respon-sible. 



Cuban- American Sugar Co. 

At the special meeting of the Cuban- 
American Sugar Co. stockholders unani- 
mously approved the issue of .?10,000,000 
first mortgage collateral 8% bonds. 

It was brought out at the special meeting 
that the National City Co. bought the 
810,000,000 bonds at 95. Officials of the 
company believe that on the basis of 
o-cent sugar prices the present §4 a share 
on the common stock will be more than 
earned. Although production to date 
of the Cuban-American Co. is less than 
50% of the amount up to the same date 
last 3'ear, it is believed that the final 
outturn of the crop will be as large or 
larger than in the 1919-1920 season. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



15 




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THE v v n A li E r 1 1: iv 




Pli(itoitraiif) l>y AnuTlcan Photo Co. 

PRESIDENT MENOCAL TALKING FROM HAVANA TO PRESIDENT HARDING 
The two Presidents and other government officials talked over the first international undersea telephone 
for more than an hour on April 11th. From left to risht : Dr. Rafael Montoro, Secretary to President 
Menocal ; G«n. Eutrenio Sanchez Atrramonte : Col. Charles Hernandez ; President Mario G. Menocal ; 
Gen. Enoch Crowder : Mr. Herman Behn, of the Atlantic Telephone & Telegraph Co. : Dr. Pablo 
Desvernir-.-. S.<-.-.-tary of State of Cuba ; Mr. B< az Lonjr, United States Minister at Havana. 




Photograph by .\merican I'lioto 

CELEBRATING THE OPENING OF THE CUBAN-AMERICAN TELEPHONE 
The diplomatic corps and the families of cabinet members were gathered at the headquarters of the 
Atlantic Telephone & Telegraph Co., at Havana for the inauguration ceremonies. Seated on the plat- 
form at the far end of the room Secretary Desvernine is talking with Secretary Hughes in Washington. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



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THE C IB A li K J' I K Jr 



Cuhan Commercial Matters 



Importations of Cement 

Importations of cement into Cuha dur- 
inn tlie fiscal year iniS-19 show a decrease 
compared witii those of 11U7-1S. How- 
ever, during the latter period the United 
States was the only country from which 
cement was imported. The (luantities and 
values of cement imports during the two 
most recent fiscal years for which statistics 
are available were as follows: 1917-18 — 
United States, 1,456.839 barrels, worth 
S2.0:i2.74-1: France, 2.968 barrels, worth 
? 10,042; total, 1.459,807 barrels, worth 
S2.042.78fi; 1918-19— United States, 787,- 
338 barrels, worth 81,392.967. 

It is stated that large amounts of Ger- 
man, Belgian, and Norwegian cement are 
l>eing imported into Cuba and are cjuoted 
in all parts of the island. They are said to 
comi)are favorably in tests and quality 
with American cement. Local dealers in 
cement and large construction companies 
state that the price of American cement at 
the mills in the United States is practically 
the same for the different grades as the 
price of the European product at the mills 
where it is manufactured, and that, there- 
fore, the mill j^rice would permit a suc- 
ce.ssful competition on the part of dealers 
in American cement, on account of the 
preferential tariff and because the standard 
brands of American cement are well known 
and preferred in this market, even in the 
fact of fractionally higher prices. 

It is also claimed that inland freight and 
handling charges for cement at United 
States ports are higher in about the same 
ratio than those in Europe and that this 
fact also adds to the consumption price 
which dealers must charge for American 
cement. It is the general belief that in- 
creasing quantities of European cement 
will be marketed in Cuba as the result of 
the conditions set forth above. 

— Consul General Carlton Bailey Hurst, 

Habana. 



district from the United States is due 
principally to the suspension of l)uilding 
operations, owing to the financial crisis 
and economic depre.ssion which Cuba has 
been experiencing for the past six months, 
with increasing intensity up to the present 
time, rather than to foreign comjietition in 
prices and freight rates. Importations of 
cement into this port in the first three 
months of 1921 were only 1,624,493 kilos 
(1 kilo=2.2 pounds) from all sources, as 
against 8,655,825 kilos, all from the United 
States, during the first three months of 
1920. Statistics furnished by the Santiago 
customhouse show the following importa- 
tions through this port during the year 
1920 and the first three months of 1921: 



Countries 



United States. 
Netherlands. . 

Canada 

.Jamaica 

Germany 

Spain 

Belgium 



Calendar 
year 
1920 

Kilos 

16,240,291 

180,000 

142..555 

73,600 

17.640 

4,525 



January- 
March, 
1921 

Kilos 
774,353 



760,140 
' 90, 000 



Total 16,058,611 1,624,493 



German Trade with Santiago de Cuba 

The values of imports of merchandise 
into the port of Santiago de Cuba from 
German}' in 1920 amounted to 8275,231. 
The customhouse statistician who fur- 
nished this information states that the 
principal articles imported from Germany 
were hardware (tools, cutlery, and alumi- 
num ware), cement, beer, pianos, and 
toys. Up to the end of the year no textiles 
were imported. Dutch vessels brought 
about 90% of the imports from Germany, 
American vessels about 5%, and Nor- 
wegian vessels about 2%. 



Importations of Cement into Santiago 

Consul Harold D. Clum, Santiago, 
states in a recent report that the diminu- 
tion in imports of cement into the Santiago 



Leather Belting 

Leather belting exported to Cuba from 
the United States in 1920 amounted to 
359,106 pounds, valued at §807,715. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



19 



Proposed Harbor Improvements at 
Caibarien 

According to a report received from the 
American consular agent at Caibarien, 
permits have been requested from the 
appropriate Cuban authorities for certain 
harbor improvements in that port. There 
is, however, as yet nothing certain as to 
when any of these improvements will be 
begun, particularly in view of the reported 
decreased demand for wharf space during 
the present season. The proposed im- 
provements are as follows: The Caibarien 
Transport Co. has requested permission for 
the construction of a wharf at a cost of 
about $60,000. Messrs. R. Cantera and 
Co., S. en C, of Caibarien, have also 
requested permission for filling in certain 
parts of the water front and constructing a 
wharf at an approximate cost of $70,000. 
Messrs. H. Pita and Co., S. en C, have 
likewise asked permission to make an 
addition in length to their present wharf 
at a cost of about $15,000. 



Exports of Corn Syrup to Cuba 

Exports of corn syrup from the United 
States to Cuba during 1918 and 1919 were 
as follows: 

1918 

Pounds Value 

2,154,695 1129,241 

1919 

Pounds Value 

2,183,069 $127,923 



Exports of Piece Goods from 
United Kingdom 

The exports of linen piece goods from the 
United Kingdom to Cuba for 1913, 1919 
and 1920 are set forth below: 



Yards Yards 

1913 1919 

Quantity.. 7,065,400 741,800 

Value £216,034 £105,773 



Sq. Yds. 

1920 

3,677,100 

£787,319 



Trade of Cuba in Vegetable Oils and 
Vegetable-Oil Material 

The following statement gives statistics 
on the imports and exports of vegetable 
oils and vegetable-oil material by Cuba 
during the fiscal years ending June 30, 



1917, 1918, and 1919. This compilation 
is one of a series giving figures on the trade 
in vegetable oils and vegetable-oil ma- 
terial for the three latest years for which 
statistics are available for all countries 
that give statistics for these commodities 
in their trade reports. 

Quantity Value 
Vegetable oils: 

Oils for the manu- 
facture of soap — 

Imports — Gallons 

1916-17 331,817 

1917-18 304,933 

1918-19 313,683 

Olive oil in casks or 
barrels — 
Imports — ■ 

1916-17 2,207,050 

1917-18 1,037,558 

1918-19 1,408,336 

Reexports — • 

1918-19 18,900 

Olive oil in bottles — 

Imports — Dozen 

1916-17 9,173 

1917-18 4,567 

1918-19 782 

Re-exports — 

1918-19 1,734 

Cottonseed oil — 

Imports — Gallons 

1916-17 1,246,462 

1917-18 1,565,096 

1918-19 673,723 

Re-exports — 

1918-19 3,655 

Coconut oil — 
Exports — 

1916-17 733 

All other vegetable 
oils — 

Imports — 

1916-17 434,792 

1917-18 326,701 

1918-19 309,801 

Vegetable oil material: 
Copra — 

Exports — Pounds 

1916-17 2,156 

1917-18 11,975 



$195,608 
302,870 
320,119 



1,862,653 
1,114,023 
2,226,528 

71,254 



18,000 
12,339 

3,888 

45,730 



$1,046,113 

2,021,902 

978,596 

7,065 
6,173 



313,576 
293,001 
347,999 



128 
860 



Exports of Steam Locomotives to Cuba 

During the year 1920, exports of steam 
locomotives from the United States to 
Cuba numbered 288, valued at $8,369,082. 



Exports of Automobiles to Cuba 

Exports of passenger automobiles from 
the United States to Cuba for the year 
1920 amounted to 5,286 cars. 



20 



THE (• ili .1 R E I I E iV 



The Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 

As quoted b\ Lauretue Turnitrr ir Co., New I'ork 

Hid A. 'iked 

Republic of Cuba Interior Ltian o'c Bonds 67 70 

Republic of Cuba Kxterior Loan 5' f Bonds of 1044 81 81^ 

Republic of Cuba Kxterior Loan o' J Bonds of 1949 79 81 

Republic of Cul)a Kxterior Loan 4' •.>' r Bonds of 1949 70 70^^ 

Havana Citv 1st Mortnafie 6' o Bonds 85 100 

Havana Citv 'Jd Mort^au'e {\'"c Bonds 85 100 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 45 50 

Cuba Railroad 1st Mortna^e 5' ; Bonds 1952 68 72 

Cuba Company (1' i Debenture Bonds 67 75 

Cuba Company ti' ,' Cumulative Preferred Stock 70 80 

Havana KJectric Rv. Co. Cons. Mortgafje 5'^ Bonds 75 76 

Havana Klectric Ry. Lipht iS: Power Co. Pfd. Stock 90 100 

Havana Klectric Ry. Light iV: Power Co. Com. Stock 85 95 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 78 80 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Common Stock 16 16H 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock 9 9J^ 



Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 

E.\RNINGS OF THE H.WAXA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO 

.\fonth of February: 1921 1920 1919 1918 

Gross Earnings $1,0.34,871 $864,439 $703,1.56 $617,071 

OperatinK expenses o74,040 437,960 3.52,146 279,333 

Net earnings 460.831 426,473 351.010 337,738 

Miscellaneous income 6,190 6.69.5 5.498 10,106 

Total not income 467.021 433,168 356, .508 347,844 

Surplus after (icducting fixed charges 238,830 188,241 166.267 218.655 

2 Months to February 2Slh: 

Gross earnings 2.123.947 1,747,557 1.429,514 1,262.081 

Operating expenses 1.212,220 875,021 7.30.465 501.634 

Net earnings 911,727 872, ,536 699.049 700.447 

Miscellaneous income 12,455 12.747 14.509 18,953 

Total net income 924,182 885,283 713,558 719,400 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 462.205 395,620 328,187 .462,193 

Month of March: 1921 1920 1919 1918 

Gross earnings 1,0.55.030 927.785 657.255 642.110 

Operating expenses 605.621 475.893 325.203 306.190 

Net earnings 449.418 451.892 332.0.52 335.920 

Miscellaneous income 5.894 7.041 5.789 16,603 

Total net income 455.312 458,933 337,841 352,523 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 227,711 211,106 129,910 191,277 

3 Months to March 31st: 

Gross earnings 3,178,977 2.675.342 2.086.769 1,904,191 

Operating expenses 1,817,832 1,350,914 1,0.55,668 867,824 

Net earnings 1,361.145 1,324.428 1,031,101 1,036,367 

Miscellaneous income 18,349 19.788 20,298 35..557 

Total net income 1,379.494 1,344.216 1.051,399 1,071,924 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 689,916 606,726 468.097 588,187 



1917 

$504,325 

210,852 

293,473 

8,088 

301,561 
131.970 



1.051,813 

440,816 

610,997 

14,456 

625,453 
303,448 

1917 
■545,397 
237,386 
308,011 

21,295 

329,306 
163.849 



l.,597.210 

678,202 

919.008 

35.751 

954.759 
467,297 



EARNINGS OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA. 

Weekly Receipts: 1921 1920 1919 

Week ending April 2,3d £174,,3.30 £92,963 £89,108 

W eek ending April .30th 173,057 110,283 94 549 

J eck ending May 7th 1.50,113 100,219 93,976 

V, eek ending May 14th 1.52.527 94.809 86,105 



£80,142 


£67.622 


79,287 


67,987 


78,916 


64,624 


76.983 


57,951 



EARNINGS OF HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Weekly Receipts: 1921 1920 

Week ending April 16th £17,474 £14,451 

Week ending April 23d 16,672 14,467 

Week ending April ,30th 18,843 14 075 

Week ending May 7th 17,276 14,531 

Week ending May 14th 16.282 14 809 

Week ending May 21st 16.826 15^002 



THE CUBA REVIEW 21 



Havana's Subway 



In a 'previous issue of The Cuba Review ive published a note on the proposed new subway 

for Havana. 

The $45,000,000.00 required for the construction of this railroad, which will serve 
not only the city of Havana but also the entire province of the same name, will be 
subscribed to by American and English capital. The Havana subway will be similar to 
the Metropolitan of London and Paris, the New York subway, and those of Berlin, 
Buenos Aires, Madrid and others of the world's principal cities. 

The name of the new company that will build the subway is the Cuba North & South 
Railroad Co. (Compahia Ferrocarrilera del Norte y Sur de Cuba) and the plans for the 
projected lines have been laid out by Messrs. Serafin Sanchez Govin and Ramiro de 
Onate, engineers and architects of the city of Havana, who have been studying the 
undertaking, laying out plans, etc., for the past seven years. The company, which is a 
Cuban organization, was formed before Notary Testar Fonts on June 5, 1918, and at 
the present time has already issued 12,5,000,000.00 in capital and stock and another 
•$25,000,000.00 in bonds earning 6% interest, which according to our understanding 
has been taken up by a banking house in the United States in charge of placing same 
among American and English capitalists who are to finance the enterprise. During the 
months of September, October and November of last year Sr. Sanchez Govin, together 
with a member of the firm of Onate & Sanchez Govin, engineers and architects, and Dr. 
Juan Antigas, auditor of the company, spent some time in New York City making a 
general study of conditions there so as to familiarize themselves with the latest im- 
provements made in subway building. Sr. Sanchez Govin and Dr. Antigas also made 
the preliminary arrangements for the placing of the stock and bonds by holding a series 
of conferences with different Wall Street bankers. Duriag the month of May of this 
year these gentlemen will again leave for New York, vested with full power to make the 
final arrangements for the commencement of the actual work in the city of Havana 
within the coming year. 

Uniting the Towns of the Province 

According to the data which we have been able to obtain, the Cuba North & South 
Railroad Co. will have its initial station for the handling of passengers and freight at 
the Plazoleta de San Francisco (practically in front of the Lonja del Comercio Building), 
at which point the central subterranean station will be constructed. By means of this 
subway the city of Havana will be placed in direct communication with different im- 
portant towns of the Province of Havana, such as Calvario, Managua, Nazareno, San 
Antonio de las Vegas, Batabano, Melena del Sur, Nueva Paz, Palos, Pipian, Madruga, 
Casigua, Tapaste, Santa Maria del Rosario and San Francisco de Paula, thus forming a 
circuit embracing a number of North and South Coast points which will have its center 
at a conveniently situated place, the town of Calvario. 

The passenger trains will leave the central station every fifteen minutes simultaneously 
with the incoming trains; and all trains, both passenger and freight, upon arriving at 
the town of Arroyo Apolo will enter the subway and proceed to the terminus at San 
Francisco Plaza. The total length of the lines through the province will be 185 kilo- 
meters, and that of the subterranean lines 15 kilometers. The motive power of both 
passenger and freight trains will be electricity. It is stated that the passenger rates will 
be 30% less than those in effect via the United Railways of Havana and affiliated lines, 
and that a reduction of 50% will be made in the freight rates on fruit and other farm 
products. As regards the transportation of sugar cane to the centrals located within 
radius of the road, a 25% reduction will be made on the rates at present in effect. 

The subterranean part of the railroad will commence at Arroyo Apolo on privately 
owned property, and the tunnel will be constructed under the lines of the Havana Central 



7///; (■ [■ i: .1 R i: I' 1 1: n- 



'Cuba North and South Rail Road Co 
Proyecto de Subxa/av en la 





PROYECTISTAS. 



-ME 



'a 






Habana, Mavo 20,1921 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 




'2^ THE C I' B A R K V I K Jy 



Railroad Co. at a depth of alxuit ton meters, contimiins its course to the city of Havana 
under Marques de la Habana St. in La Vibora. San Benigno and Tamarindo Sts. in 
Jesus del Monte. Quinta Covadonga and Lombillo St. in the Cerro. Quinta del Obispo 
and Sixth St. in Vetiado. Reparto San Antonio and Calle 15; alon^ L Street to the Na- 
tional University, thence under Xeptuno St. to Central Park. Zulueta St.. Cristo Park 
and Amargura St. to the central station. The tunnel formins the entrance for the sub- 
wav into the city will consist of three lines and will be Iniilt of reinforced concrete and 
steel and the depth will be from lo to 17 meters, dependinji upon the natural slope of 
the ground. 

The passenger stations through the city are to be situated at the following points: 
Plazoleta del Cristo. in front of Central Park, at Galiano and Xeptuno Sts., Xeptuno and 
Belascoain Sts.. at the Xational University. L and loth Sts., G St. (Avenida de los 
Presidentes) and 15th St., at Paseo (Avenida de los Alcaldes) and 15th St. and 6th and 
15th St. in Vedado: at Calzada de Zapata and 6th St.: 5th and 37th Sts. in Reparto 
^an Antonio. Calzada de Ayesteran and Lombillo St.. Lombillo St. and Calzada del 
Cerro. Tamarindo and San Benigno Sts.. San Benigno and Santa Irene. Marques de la 
Habana ami Estrada Palma. Patrocinio St. and Calzada de la ^'ibora. and at the entrance 
of the tunnel at Arroyo Apolo. Outside of the city, stations will l)e built at Loma de 
San Juan. Calvario. Chorrera. Managua. Xazareno. Menocal. San Antonio de las Vegas. 
La Julia. Batabano. Surgidero de Batabano on the Southern Line and on the X'orthern 
Line at San Francisco de Paula. Sant^ Maria Tapaste Casiguas. San Antonio, Madruga, 
Pipian, Josefita. Los Palos, Xueva Paz. San X^icolas. Guira de Melena, Providcncia, 
Union, etc.. without counting the numerous stopping places at different points which 
will be increa.se<l as soon as traffic warrants it. 

It is estimated that the total cost of building this railroad, including the subway 
entrance at Arroyo Apolo and the lines encircling the province of Havana, will be 
S30.(XK).000.00. The subterranean lines alone will cost approximately .>1. 000,000.00 per 
kilometer, equal to .? 15,000.000.00 for the fifteen kilometers which will comprise the 
city subway. The work will be carried out by contract, and offers are to be sul^mitted 
by the principal concerns taking part, in the construction of the Xew York subway, 
among whom will be the Subway Construction Co. of Manhattan, considered one of the 
most expert of its kind. 

Handling of Freight 

Elevators are to be installed at the San Francisco station and in this manner freight 
cars will be lifted to street level, thereby greatly facilitating the loading and unloading 
of cargo directlv into and from the cars at the wharves. 



Officers of the Company 

According to information given recently the list of officers of the Cuba Xorth & 
South Railroad Co. will include the original projectors, Messrs. Onate and Serafin 
Sanchez Go\-in. as well as Messrs. Jose Manuel Covin. Ignacio Pla y Muro, Ernesto 
Perez de la Riva, Jacobo Mujica, Teodoro and Victor Cardenas, Dr. Juan Antigas and 
Daniel Conte, also several well known capitalists of the province of Havana, some of 
whom will also form part of the board of directors. The balance are to be designated by 
the American and English stockholders subscribing the capital required for this under- 
iaking. 

The information which we are giAing to the readers of The Cuba Review in this 
-article has been obtained through the courtesy of Sr. Serafin Sanchez Go\-in of the firm 
•of Onate & Sanchez Go%-in, engineers and architects, whose office and studio are located 
at Xo. 62 Villegas St., Havana, which also serves as office for the Cuba Xorth & South 
Railroad Co. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HAVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER 
COMPANY 

Ninth Annual Report of the Directors for the Year ended December 31, 1920, 
FOR Submission at the Annual Meeting of the Stockholders 
Called for May 19, 1921 

To the Stockholders: 

Your directors beg to submit their Ninth Annual Report. 
The gross earnings for the past five years were as f oUows : 

1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 

13,017,708.59 16,989,599.33 $8,176,544.76 §9,397,452.46 §11,477,937.27 
A condensed statement of the results of the operations during the same five years is : 

1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 

Gross earnings $6,017,708.59 $6,989,599.33 $8,176,544.76 $9,397,452.46 $11,477,937.27 

Operating expenses 

and taxes 2,443,885 . 33 3,385,469 . 83 4,376,655 . 65 4,979,685 . 22 6,448,451 . 78 



Net income .$3,573,823.26 $3,604,129.50 $3,799,889.11 $4,417,767.24 $5,029,485.49 

Miscellaneous in- 
come (net) 144,561.49 149,754.70 140,894.91 64,538.26 47,783.85 



Total net income. .$3,718,384.75 $3,753,884.20 $3,940,784.02 $4,482,305.50 $5,077,269.34 
First charges 1,297,093.23 1,138,623.30 989,138.16 979,710.79 968,759.31 



Net profits from 
operation and 
miscellaneous in- 
come $2,421,291.52 $2,615,260.90 $2,951,645.86 $3,502,594.71 $4,108,510.03 



Out of the net profits from operation and miscellaneous income for the year 

under review, namely $4,108,510. 03 

There has been set aside as Reserve for Depreciation 1,222,987.38 



Leaving a balance of $2,885,522.65 

The balance at credit of Profit and Loss Account, January 1, 1920, was 3,158,503.32 



Total $6,044,025.97 



and the following disposition was made thereof: 

Amortization of bond discount and expenses $24,250 . 04 

Provision for sinking fund in respect to English bonds of Compania de Gas y 

Electricidad de la Habana 14,500 . 00 

Provision for sinking fund in respect to the Consohdated Mortgage Bonds of 

the Havana Electric Railway Company 120,195 . 17 

Provision for sinking fund in respect to the General Mortgage Bonds of 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Company 99,572.62 

Dividends paid during the year (6% on the Preferred and Common Shares) . . 2,155,609.38 
Profit and Loss Accoimt — Balance carried forward to 1921 3,629,898.76 



Total $6,044,025.97 



The following is a summary of the operation of the various departments during 
the year 1920: 

Operating 
Gross Expenses and 

Earnings Taxes (not 

from including 

Departments Operation First Charges) 

Electric Railway $5,079,734 . 53 $3,559,026 . 86 

Electric Light & Power . . . 4,564,576 . 73 1,671,351 . 15 

Gas 1,786,675.82 1,176,214.15 

Omnibus 46,950.19 41,859.62 



PerC 


ent. 


Net Earning 


rs 


Per Cent. 


of Gross 


from 




of Gross 


Earnings 


Operation 




Earnings 


70 


.06 


$1,520,707. 


67 


19 


.94 


36 


.62 


2,893,225. 


58 


63 


.38 


65 


.83 


610,461 . 


67 


34. 


17 


89 


.14 


5,090. 


57 


10. 


86 



m,477,937.27 $6,448,451.78 56.18 $5,029,485.49 43.82 



■_' t ■> 



Tin: ( r n .1 m: r i k ir 



Your :itt(>nti()n is invited to thr acc()nii)anyins dotailod report of the Renenil manager, 
from which you will see that the growth of your comjiany's business was greater than 
in any preeeding year, notwithstanding that all departments suffered from scarcity of 
labor of all kinds, and from the difficulty of olitaining an adequate supply of materials 
for both current consumption and permanent installation. 

The uncertainty and irregularity in the receipt of materials, especially of anthracite 
coal, have been a cause of anxiety throughout the year. 

The prevalence of high prices and increase in the rate of wages paid to labor have 
also increased the operating expenses; nevertheless, the gain in net earnings has been 
larger than ever before. The gross earnings from operation of the entire projierty were 
22.\i^'c greater than in 1919; the total operating expen.ses 32.9% greater; the total net 
earnings from operation 11.9''c greater, and after deducting United States and Cuban 
taxes the gain was 13.8%. These figures must impress upon you the fact that the results 
obtained speak, most highly of the efficiency, loj^alty, and heartj' cooperation of the officers 
and personnel of your company, to whom we express our sincere appreciation and thanks. 

The unrest among wage-earners that led to the two short sympathetic strikes during 
1919 continued in 1920, and increased as the year advanced, notwithstanding the fact 
that your company voluntarily increased wages bj' 29% in the first seven months of the 
year. In the latter i>art of July, 1920, the carmen presented demands which could not 
be granted, as the terms w-ere so unreasonable that they reallj' amounted to transferring 
ownership of the company from you to the Carmen's Union; and on August 7th they 
declared a strike. Rumors were put into circulation that the strike had been pre- 
arranged between the company and the Carmen's Union to force the government to 
consent to increase the rate of fare. The absurdity of the possibility of such an agree- 
ment was communicated b\^ j'our general manager to the authorities both in person and 
in writing. All carmen on strike were considered to have left your company's employ, 
and steps were taken to replace them. Progress along this line was made daily and 
comjilete service reestal)lished on August 21st. All but about three hundred of the old 
carmen, considered undesirable, were taken back at the rates of pay they had rejected — 
convinced that increasing wages and the increasing prices, with the public bearing the 
burden, cannot go on forever, and cannot bring about reduction in the high cost of living, 
which latter was the basis for their demands. 

This was the first strike against your company since its organization, and the first 
in the hi.story of the railway division since 1906. It is to be regretted that the gross 
earnings of the railway decreased during the strike period, but it is hoped that the old 
employees of the company are now' aware of the danger of letting strangers run their 
organization. The crj' for increased w^ages had become a semi-annual habit, and a two- 
cent increase in fare would only have satisfied the demands of about 50% of your 
employees, for the time being, and the remainder were only awaiting the outcome of the 
struggle to make like requests. 

We recognize that the same reasons which induced the authorities in the United 
States to permit street railway, electric light and gas companies to increase their rates 
are much more applicable in Cuba on account of the higher costs due to ocean freights 
and import, duties. The desire of your company, however, to contribute in bringing 
about cheaper living costs is the primary reason why we are still working on a five-cent 
fare with right to one transfer, and why we are still charging the same rates for electric 
light and gas as were established twenty years ago. 

From the report of the general manager you will note that — 

Gross receipts from all sources for 1920 were $11,525,721 . 12 

The total deductions for operation, maintenance, and ac- 
crued taxes were 6,448,451 . 78 

The total expenditure for construction account was 1,150,653 . 35 

Customs duties on Imports into Cuba were 172,675. 11 

Other Cuban taxes paid amounted to 136,962.28 

United States taxes paid 219,361 49 



THE CUBA REVIEW 27 

Special attention is invited to the following data pertaining to the railway service: 

The total number of passengers carried was 97,019,389 

Passenger car miles were 13,668,249 

Passenger earnings per car mile were . 3549 

The Electric Light and Power Department has contributed 57.6% of the total net 
earnings of the company. The increase in gross earnings from electric light and power 
during 1920, over 1919, was substantially equivalent to the entire net earnings from 
this source five years ago. But it must be remembered that the average cost of steam 
coal delivered during 1914 at the plant was S4.50 per ton, whereas during 1920 it was 
$15.18 per ton; and that the wages of common labor in the same period increased to the 
unprecedented extent of over 240 %. 

The Gas Department also advanced in relative importance. The most interesting 
fact in the 1920 opeiation of this department is the reduction in operating expense 
relative to the output and the notable improvement in operating ratio during a j^ear 
when the price of coal and gas-oil and the rates of wages, which constitute the principal 
elements of expense in the manufacture and distribution of gas, were higher than ever 
before. 

The new 2,310,000-gallon steel tank purchased from the Sinclair Oil Company was 
completed and in readiness for use when the oil shipment was due. A platform scale of 
20 tons capacity was installed, and a new 14-foot diameter Hinman drum tj^pe station 
meter has been contracted for. This meter, together with the new drum ordered for the 
existing 14-foot meter, will more than double the meter capacity at the gas works. The 
business of this department is steadily increasing and the manufacturing capacity must 
be enlarged during the coming year. 

The project for the improvement of the harbor frontage of the gas works property, 
etc., referred to in our last year's report, was approved and authorized by the president 
of the Republic of Cuba, and preparations are being made to construct a reinforced 
concrete wharf, 341 feet long, in conjunction with a similar wharf that the Havana 
Central Railroad Co. is to build in line with it, and adjoining it at the westerly end. 

The continuous construction of cars prevented the remodeling of the railway shops 
which must be reorganized and extended. Thirty-two new passenger cars were finished 
and eighteen more were nearly completed at the end of the year; while nine passenger 
cars were reconstructed, making approximately one new car per week. It has become 
apparent that the increase of passengers relative to car miles is too large. Accordingly, 
designs for an improved passenger car are now being worked out. The outstanding 
features thereof are an increased capacity, less dead weight and a decrease in time required 
for construction. It is expected that early in 1921 one of the new cars will be ready 
for trial. 

Your power plant has continued to operate reliably and economically. The total 
net output was 76,764,351 k.w.h., and 73,874 tons of coal were consumed, equal to 2.156 
lbs. per k.w.h. 

None the less, the necessity of adding to the electric generating capacity in the 
Consolidated Power Plant referred to in our report for 1919 was made more evident by 
the increase of 18.7% in output over 1919. 

In May, 1920, contracts were made with the Westinghouse Electrical International 
Company to furnish two 25,000-k.w. turbine generator units and auxiUaries, and it is 
expected that one of the units will be shipped about August, 1921, the other about 
April, 1922. 

Your present power plant was started in 1914, but all of the three generating units 
were not ready till the end of that year. The output of 1920 was 82% more than in 
1915, and if the increase of output in 1921 equals that of 1920, the end of that year 
will find the generators now in service with about all they can properly do. So it is 
hoped that by then the first of the two new units will be ready for service. 

It is with great sorrow that your board of directors is called upon to record the 
death, on April 25, 1920, of Mr. David T. Davis, first vice-president, general counsel, 



28 Till-: ('(HA li K JI K ir 

and a director of your company, and the death, on August 23, 1920, of Don Emeterio 
Zorrilla. second vice-president and director. 

To each member of the lK)ard Messrs. Davis and Zorilla had endeared themselves, 
both by their genial personality and by the most valuable services rendered to your 
company in faithful devotion to its affairs since its organization. 

The vacancy in the board of directors as vice-president and as general counsel, 
occasioned by the death of Mr. Davis, was filled by your board of directors through the 
election. May 27. 1920, of Mr. R. R. Loening; and the second vice-presidency, made 
vacant by the death of Mr. Zorilla, was filled by the election, on October 14, 1920, of 
Mr. Antonio San Miguel, formerly the third vice-president. Mr. Dionisio Velasco of 
your board was elected, October 14, 1920, third vice-president to succeed Mr. San 
Miguel. Mr. Zorilla's place on the board of directors remained unfilled during the year. 

Messrs. Davis, S\Tximes & Schreiber, of New York, were appointed associate counsel 
May 27, 1920. 

The accounts of your company, as in former years, are audited monthly by Messrs. 
Deloitte, Plender, Griffiths & Co. ' 

For the board of directors, 

F. Steinhart, President. 
Havana, Cuba. April 21. 1921. 



BALANCE SHEET, DECEMBER 31, 1920 

ASSETS 

Propertu!^, Plant and Equipment, as per December 31, 

1919, report $57,084,626.06 

Net Additions during Year 1,150,653.35 $58,235,279.41 

Investments (at cost) 312,861 . 88 

Current .,4s.s(7.s.' 

Cash in bank.s and on hand .'$994,162.31 

Accovuit.^ and notes receivable after providing for bad 

and doubtful debts .' 2,282,369.01 

Materials, Merchandise and Supplies on hand 1,649,2.56.99 

Materials in transit 660,348.62 5,586,136.93 

Payments in Advance, Dejerred Assets and Charges, etc.: 

Advance payments on contracts §296,636 . 34 

Insurance paid in advance, deferred charges, etc .39,464.34 336,100.68 

Capital Stock oj Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power 

Company .$17,522 . 74 

Held in reserve in respect of the following: 
Capital Slock oJ Havana Electric Railway 
Company, O ul. standing. ■ 
To be exchanged for capital stock of 
Havana Electric Railway, Light 
& Power Company S14,975 . 00 

Capital Stock oj Campania de Gas y Elec- 

tricidad de la Habana, Outstanding: 

To be exchanged for capital stock of 

Havana Electric Railway, Light 

& Power Company '. 2,547 . 74 17,522 . 74 

,• /V?'^,^~-'^ Moratorium wa.s declared bv the Government of the Repub- 
hc of Cuba on October 10, 1920, and is still in force. 



$64,470,378.90 



THE CUB A RE V I EW 29 

LIABILITIES 

Capital Stock: 

Authorized and issued: 
Co7nmon: 
150,000 shares, par value $100.00 each, fully paid 

and non-assessable $15,000,000.00 

Less: Held in treasury: 

516.54 shares, par value $100.00 each 51,654.00 $14,948,346.00 

6% Cumulative Prejerred: 

210,000 shares, par value $100.00 each $21,000,000 . 00 

Less: Held in treasury: 

215.23 shares, par value $100.00 each 21,523.00 20,978,477.00 

$35,926,823.00 
Funded Debt: 

As per schedule attached hereto 18,481,690.71 

Bank Loans: 

(Paid off since close of fiscal year) 700,000 . 00 

Current Liabilities: 

Accounts payable $575,525 .35 

Dividends and interest due but unpaid 94,577.73 

Accured interest on bonds 285,105.90 955,208.98 

Dejerred Liabilities: 

Being consumers' and other deposits, etc 582,071 .05 

Reserve for Taxes: 

(Estimated) ., 456,445.21 

Special Reserve 524,040 . 61 

Reserve jor Depreciation 2,076,121 .24 

Corporate Surplus: 

Profit and loss account — Credit balance as per state- 
ment herewith $3,629,898.96 

Funded debt retired through income and Surplus: 
Consohdated Mortgage 5% Gold Bonds of 

Havana Electric Railway Company. . . . $702,000 . 00 
Thirty-seven Year English 5% Mortgage 
Bonds of Compania de Gas y Electrici- 

dad de la Habana 156,116.63 

General Mortgage 5% Sinking Fund Gold 
Bonds of Havana Electric Railway, 
Light & Power Company 89,000.00 947,116.63 

Sinking Fund Reserves: 

Consolidated Mortgage 5% Gold Bonds of 

Havana Electric Railway Company .. . 127,274.17 
General Mortgage 5% Sinking Fund Gold 

Bonds of Havana Electric Railway, 

Light & Power Company 63,688.54 190,902.71 4,767,978.10 

$64,470,378.90 



Schedule of Funded Debt December 31, 1920 

Consolidated Mortgage 5% Gold Bonds of Havana Electric 
Railway Company, dated February 1, 1902, and due 

February 1, 1952 $8,759,111 .09 

Less: In treasury 687,541.09 $8,071,570.00 

6% General Consolidated Obligations of Compania de Gas 

y Electricidad de la Habana, called for redemption on 

June 15, 1917 6,100.00 

Fifty- Year 6% Mortgage Bonds of Compania de Gas y 

Electricidad de la Habana, 1904 $3,998,000 . 00 

Less: In treasury 96.00 3,997,904.00 



30 THE C IB A li i: JI K Jf 



Thirty-sovfii-^car Knulish 5'~c Mortgage 
Hoiuls of Coiniiafiia do Gas y Electri- 

ciilad (le la Habana, 190G (£117,700) $568,883.37 

Less: In treasury (£ 1,400) 6,766.66 

(£116,300) §562,116.71 

General Mortgage o'^c l^inking Fund Gold Bonds of Havana 
Electric Kaihvav. Light & Power Company, dated 
September 1, 19i4, due September 1, 1954 §8,531,000.00 

Less: 

Deposited with trustee under Sinking 

r,nui §89,000.00 

Deposited with Cuban Government 52,000.00 

In treasurv' *2,546,000 . 00 2,687,000 . 00 5,844,000 . 00 



§18,481,690.71 



* Of this amount, $1,250,000.00 were on deposit December 31, 1920, as collat- 
eral for bank loans and have been returned to the Company's Treasury since close 
of fiscal year. 



Condensed Profit .\xd Loss Account for the Year Ended December 31, 1920 

Railway Light & Power 

Department Department Total 

GroRs Earnings frotn Operation §5,126,684.72 $6,351,252.55 §11,477,937.27 

Operating expenses 3,495,568.34 2,583,565.30 6,079,133.64 

§1,631,116.38 §3,767,687.25 §5,398,803.63 



Deduct: 

Taxes, U.S. A §91,949.80 §123,000.00 §214,949.80 

Taxes. Cuba 10,000.00 141,000.00 151,000.00 

Trigo annuities 3,368.34 3,368.34 

Interest on funded debt 553,986.36 408.317.39 962,303.75 

Interest on bank loans 3,227 . 78 3,227 . 78 6,455 . 56 



§662,.5.32.28 §675,545.17 §1,338,077.45 



§968,584.10 §3,092,142.08 §4,060,726.18 



Deduct: 

Reserve for depreciation §381,396.45 §841,590.93 §1,222,987.38 



§587,187.65 §2,250,551.15 .§2,837,738.80 



Add: 

Miscellaneous Income: 

Interest on deposits and securities, less loss on securities sold, etc.. . . §13,352.88 

Rents 34,430.97 



$47,783.85 

$2,885,522.65 
Deduct: 

Amortization of bond discount and expenses $24,250.04 

Provision for Sinking Fund of 37-Year English 5% 
Mortgage Bonds of Compania de Gas y Electricidad 
de la Habana 14, .500 . 00 

Provision for Sinking Fund of Consolidated Mortgage 
5% Gold Bonds of Havana Electric Railwav Com- 
pany ' 120,195 . 17 

Provision for Sinking Fund of General Mortgage 5% 
Sinking Fund Gold Bonds of Havana Electric Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company 99,572 . 62 258,517 . 83 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



31 



Net Profit for the year 

Balance at credit of profit and loss account, January 1, 1920. 



Dividends Paid: 

On Preferred Shares: 

May 15, 1920, on $20,978,477.00 at 

3% $629,354.31 

Nov. 15, 1920, on $20,978,477.00 at 

3% 629,354.31 

On Common Shares: 

May 15, 1920, on $14,948,346.00 at 

3% $448,450.38 

Nov. 15, 1920, on $14,948,346.00 at 

3% 448,450.38 



$1,258,708.62 



896,900.76 



$2,627,004.82 
3,158,503.32 

$5,785,508.14 



Balance carried to Balance Sheet. 



2,155,609.38 
$3,629,898.76 



Statement of Operation of the Light & Power Division for the Year ending 

December 31, 1920 



Operating Expenses: 

Manufacture 

Distribution 

General 



Electricity 



Total Operating Expenses. . . 
Net Earnings from Operation for 1920. 



$875,085.22 
215,513.71 
362,754.84 



51,453,353.77 
3,111,222.96 

14,564,576.73 



Operating Expenses: 

Manufacture 

Distribution 

General 



Gas 



Total Operating Expenses . . . 
Net Earnings from Operation for 1920 . 



Interest 

Taxes 

Reserve for Depreciation 

Net Income for the Division for 1920 . 



$767,756.87 
174,389.51 
188,065.15 



Electricity 
Earnings : 

Sale of Electricity $4,461,614.06 

Miscellaneous Earnings 102,962 . 67 



Gross Earnings . 



$1,130,211.53 
656,464.29 

$1,786,675.82 

$411,545.17 
264,000.00 
841,590.93 

2,250,551 . 15 

$3,767,687.25 



$4,564,576.73 

$4,564,576.73 



Gas 
Earnings: 

Sale of Gas $1,644,921 .92 

Miscellaneous Earnings 141,753 . 90 



3 J 



TIIK C V li A REVIEW 



Groas Earnings 

Net Earnings for the Dirision for 1920. 



S1,7SG,G75.82 
§1,786,675.82 
§3,767,687.25 
$3,767,687.25 



Statement of Operation of the Railway Divlsion for the Year Exdixg 

December 31, 1920 
OPER.\TiN-n Expenses: 

Maintenance $653,498.94 

Transportation 2,505,107 . 93 

General 295,450.20 

Gasoline Omnibuses 41,511 .27 

Total Operating Expenses $3,495,568 . 34 

Xct Earn iugs from Operation for 1920 1,631,116 . 38 

$5,126,684.72 

Interest $557,214. 14 

Taxes 101,949.80 

Trigo Annuities 3,368 . 34 

Reserve for Depreciation 381,396.45 

Xet Income for the Dirision for 1920 587,187.65 

$1,631,116.38 

Earnings: 

Car Earnings $4,986,829.39 

Miscellaneous Earnings 92,905. 14 

Gasoline Omnibus Earnings 46,950. 19 

Gross Earnings $5,126,684.72 

$5,126,684.72 

Net Earnings from Operation for 1920 $1,631,116.38 



$1,631,116.38 



The West India Sugar Finance 
Corporation 

Notice has been given that coupon 
4 and all subsecjuent coupons covering 
interest clue on and after June 15, 1921, 
on the TSc Secured Sinking Fund Gold 
Bonds of the West India Sugar Finance 
Corporation will be paid at the office of 
the Trustee. The Guaranty Trust Com- 
pany, 140 Broadway, New York. 



American Beet Sugar Co. 

\Vitli a prt)duction last season of 
1.461,799 bags of sugar, representing an 
increase of 35 per cent over the previous 
year, the American Beet Sugar Company 
ended its fiscal vear 1920-21 on Marcli 



31 with net earnings of 8431,058.50, and 
a deficit, after deducting dividends pay- 
able on the preferred stock at the rate 
of 86 a share, of 8166,491, as compared 
with a surplus of 8925,810 at the end 
of the vear 1919-20. 



The Cuban- American Sugar Company 

Preferred and Common Dividend 
The Board of Directors has declared the 
following di\'idends: On the Preferred 
stock, a dividend of 81.75 per share; on 
the Common stock, a dividend of Fifty 
Cents (8.50) per share, payable July 1st, 
1921, to stockholders of record at the 
close of business on June loth, 1921. 
The transfer books ydW not be closed. 
Checks will be mailed. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 33 

Sugar Review 

Specialhj written fw THE CUBA REVIEW hy Willett & Gray, New York, N. Y. 

Our last review for this magazine was dated April 28th, at which time the raw sugar 
quotation was on the basis of 3J^c. c. & f., but since that date the market has shown 
an upward turn and the quotation at this writing is 5.06c. duty paid with sales of full 
duties and other sugars at this equivalent. The Sugar Finance Committee, however, 
have maintained their price unchanged at S^c-, c. & f., at which price they have 
recently sold some 75,000 bags Cubas. The market continues stead}^ and practically 
all refiners have participated in the buying with a result that a large part of the sugars 
held in store here or nearby on lighters has been cleaned up. 

In the refined situation there is no change to report, with business at the moment 
rather light, although a large demand has been experienced during the past two or three 
weeks, which has tended likewise to influence the raw situation. Refiners' quotations 
are irregular, ranging from 6.30c. to 6.60c. less the usual 2% for cash. One of the incen- 
tives to purchase has been the withdrawal of the Tariff clause from refiners' contracts 
and also the willingness on the part of some refiners to accept 30-daj^ contracts. 

The Emergency Tariff Bill, which assesses 60c. per 100 pounds additional duty on 
96° test Cuba sugars, has now passed Congress and awaits, at this writing, the signature 
of the President. The bill is expected to become effective immediately after signing. 
It looks to us as if the additional amount of duty must cause some increase in the prices 
of refined sugar as it does not seem reasonable to expect the refiners to assume the entire 
60c. per 100 pounds additional, there being no indication that the raw sugar market will 
dechne to any such extent. 

There is no special change to report in conditions in the Island of Cuba. The 
Centrals are now beginning to close down rapidly and at this writing 172 are at 
work. The weeklj'- receipts at the shipping ports recently have continued to exceed 
the receipts for the corresponding weeks last year. The stock of sugar held in the Island 
is very large and the past week has seen a new high record, the stock now amounting 
to 1,283,445 tons of new crop sugars and 28,798 tons of old crop. The \asible production 
to date stands at slightly better than 2,500,000 tons against 2,950,000 tons last yeax 
and 2,940,000 tons in 1919. Owing to the uncertainty of the outturn of the crop, clue 
to the abnormal conditions now prevailing in Cuba, we have been adjusting our figures 
of the expected outturn from week to week using the crop of 1918-19 as the basis. Under 
these conditions the crop now harvesting indicates, at the present time, an outturn of 
3,620,000 tons. 

Since our last review we have compiled our figures on the outturn of the domestic 
beet crop in this country for the season 1920-21 and same is appended herewith. 

American Beet Crop 1920-21. — (Final Figures.) — ^We have now completed the 
compilation of the outturn of the 1920-21 Beet Sugar crop in the United States, and give 
below the results as obtained from the reports of the 97 factories which operated. 

The outturn during the season 1920-21 was the largest on record, amounting to 
969,419 tons of sugar, and far exceeding any previous yield in the history of our domestic 
industry. The largest previous production was 779,756 tons in 1915-16 which latter crop, 
it is interesting to note, was produced by only 67 factories. Production in 1919-20 
amounted to 652,957 tons and in 1918-19, 674,892 tons. The favorable weather during 
the growing and harvesting periods contributed largely to this greatly increased pro- 
duction. 

The State of Colorado continues to lead as the largest producing State, with an 
outturn of sugar during this campaign amounting to 262,941 tons. California continued 
as the second largest producer with 149,997 tons, and Michigan third with 148,936 tons. 
The State of Utah was fourth with 145,170 tons and Nebraska fifth with 79,924 tons. 
Ohio showed a good increase over last year's crop, outturning 42,190 tons of sugar. 



3t THE CUBA REVIEW 



Tlio total tonnaso of beets sliced amounted to 7,()l)4,()o9 tons, of which Colorado 
sliced l.<)33,oi)o tons; Utah, 1,121,472 tons; Michigan, 1,112,301 tons; and California, 
942, ion tons. 

Tlie total acreage harvested amounted to 842,980 acres, as against 679,822 acres 
harvested in 191!)-2(). and r)i)3.()40 acres harvested in 191S-19. 

The average yield of sugar jier acre was l.lo tons against 0.90 tons last year and 
1.13 tons in 191.S-i9. 

I'\ictories which did not operate during the jiast season were those at Lamar, Colo.; 
Chino, Cal.; Hamilton City, Cal.; Tracy, Cal.; Whitehall, Mont.; North Yakima and 
Sunnyside, Wash. 

The following table gives the 1920-21 and 1919-20 croi)S in comi)arison: 

«T3 "^ -a m "3 rr ""3 B^'?-> "O to "^ m 

STATE8 || tl I'M? N=i I 2 It |-?ji S^li 






—1920-21— —1919-20 — 

Ohio 5 47,562 339,881 42,190 5 30,265 260,878 28,450 

Michigan 17 149,442 1,112,301 148,936 16 134,619 948,740 117,034 

Nehra.ska 5 72,296 597,915 79,924 4 59,329 494,731 54,349 

Colorado 17 207,778 1,933,595 262,941 15 174.022 1,479,987 173,446 

Utah 18 112,080 1,121,472 145,170 18 103,809 809,269 90,085 

Idaho 8 43,335 354,097 50,630 7 24,-569 195,286 23,809 

California 10 113,681 942,109 149,997 10 100,091 722,353 120,421 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Montana [ tl7 96,806 692,629 89,631 *15 53,118 373,936 45,363 

Kansas I 

Wyoming 

Iowa I 

Washington J 



Total 97 842,980 7,094,059 969,419 90 679,822 5,285,180 652,957 

flndudes 5 factories in Wisconsin, 3 in Wyoming, 3 in Iowa and 1 each in Indiana, 
Illinois, Minnesota, Kansas, Washington and Montana. 

*lnchi(l(s 4 fnctorics in Wisconsin, :i in Wyoming, 2 in Washington and 1 each in Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas and Montana. 

According to our Canadian correspondent some increases have also been made in 
the Canadian tariff and details are as under: 

Ca\ad.\ Tahikp". — Special Telegram received by us from Toronto, Ont., May 10, 

1921. — The budget was brought down last night and proposes new sugar duties in cents 

per pound as follows : 

Preferential General 

Sugar above No. 16 D. S. and refined: 

88° test or under 1 . 50 2. 00 

99° test and over 1 . 79 2. 39 

Sugar not above No. 16 D. S. : 

75° test and under 70 1 . 1608 

96° test 85 1.68712 

99° test and over . 87^ 1 • 83^ 

Sugars over 16 Dutch Standard imported by Refiners w^ere assessed a higher duty 
than the 96° sugars under 16 D. S., but under the new West Indian Trade Agreement 
Refiners can import washed sugars which may be over 16 D. S. at the same duty as the 
96° testing sugars. In other words, there is no penalty imposed for sugars bright in color 
and the only basis on which the duty will be assessed will be the actual polariscopic test. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 35 



On 96° the old Preferential Duty was l.OS^c, with Non-preferential duty 1.375c.; 
while on refined sugar the old duty was 2.09c. 



New York, N. Y., May 26, 1921. 



Revista Azucarera 

Escrita especialmente para la CUBA REVIEW por Willett & Gray, de Nueva York. 

Nuestra ultima revista para esta publicacion estaba fechada el 28 de abril ppdo., 
en cuya ocasion la cotizacion del azucar crudo era bajo la base de 3%c. costo y flete, pero 
desde esa fecha el mercado ha tornado un giro hacia la alza y la cotizaci6n al escribir esta 
revista es 5.06c. derechos pagados con ventas de azucares con todos los derechos y otros 
azucares a este equivalente. Sin embargo, el Comity Financiero del Azucar ha sostenido 
su precio sin cambio a 3J^c. costo y flete, y a cuyo precio han vendido recientemente 
unos 75,000 sacos de aztlcar de Cuba. El mercado continua estable y practicamente 
todos los refinadores han participado en las compras, dando por resultado que una gran 
parte de los azucares almacenados aqul o en lanchones cercanos ha sido vendida. 

En la cuesti6n del azucar refinado no hay que anotar cambio, los negocios al pre- 
sente siendo de poca importancia, aunque se ha experimentado una grande demanda 
durante las ultimas dos o tres semanas, lo cual igualmente ha influido en la situacion 
del azucar crudo. Las cotizaciones de los refinadores son irregulares, variando de 
6.30c. a 6.60c. menos el acostumbrado descuento de 2% por el pago al contado. Uno 
de los incentivos a comprar ha sido la revocaci6n de la cMusula de la Tarifa en los contra- 
tos de los refinadores, asi como el acceder algunos refinadores a aceptar contratos de 30 



El proyecto de ley de la Tarifa de Emergencia, que impone 60c. las 100 libras como 
derecho adicional en los azucares de Cuba polarizacion de 96 grados, ha sido aprobado 
por el Congreso y aguarda ahora sea firmado por el Presidente. Es de esperarse que 
esa ley tenga efecto inmediatamente que la firme el Presidente. Segun nuestro parecer, 
los derechos adicionales causaran algun aumento en los precios del azucar refinado, 
pues no parece razonable esperar que los refinadores asuman por su cuenta enteramente 
el recargo de 60c. adicionales las 100 libras, no habiendo indicios de que el mercado del 
azucar crudo baje en precio a ese extremo. 

Respecto a la situacion en la Isla de Cuba no hay cambio especial que anotar. Los 
Centrales estdn empezando ahora a cerrarse rdpidamente, y al escribir esta revista hay 
172 en operacion. Los recibos semanales en los puertos de embarque recientemente 
han continuado en exceso de los recibos por las correspondientes semanas el ano pasado. 
Las existencias de azucar en Cuba son muy grandes y la semana pasada han Uegado 
a una cantidad extraordinaria, ascendiendo las existencias a 1,283,445 toneladas de 
azucar de la nueva zafra y a 28,798 toneladas de la zafra pasada. La produccion visible 
hasta la fecha es algo mas de 2,500,000 toneladas contra 2,950,000 toneladas el ano 
pasado y 2,940,000 toneladas en 1919. Debido a la inseguridad del rendimiento de la 
zafra a causa del estado anormal que prevalece ahora en Cuba, hemos ajustado nuestras 
cifras sobre el rendimiento que se espera de semana en semana, tomando la zafra de 
1918-19 como base. Bajo estas condiciones la zafra que se esta recogiendo ahora indica 
al presente un rendimiento de 3,620,000 toneladas. 

Desde nuestra ultima revista hemos compliado nuestras cifras sobre la produccion 
de la cosecha de azucar de remolacha del pais para la estacion de 1920-21, que damos 
a continuacion. 

Cosecha de Azucar de Remolacha de 1920-21 en los Estados Unidos (Cifras 
finales). — Hemos completado ahora la compliacion del rendimiento de la cosecha de 



36 THE C IB A REVIKJV 

azikar ilc riMnolaclia dc 1!»2()-L'l en los Estados Unidos, y damos a coutimuifiun los resul- 
tados sopi'in ohtcnidos do infornics de las 97 fdbricas que hubo en operaci6n. 

Kl rendiinieiito durante la c.staci6n de 1920-21 fu6 el mds grande de que se tenia 
conocinuento, asconiliendo a 909.419 toneladas de aziicar y excediendo en mucho a 
cualquier jirexio rcndiiniento on la hi-storia de nuestra industria de azucar en el pals. 
La producoion mils tirande con antorioridad fuc 779, 7.56 tonoladas on 1915-16, cuya 
j>ro(lucoion, digna do notarso. fuo jHoducida por 67 fiihrioas solanionte. La producoion 
on 1919-20 ascondio a ()r)2,9a7 tonoladas y en 1918-19 a 674, S92 tonoladas. Kl tioni])o 
favoralilo durante los jioriodos del creciniiento y recoleccion di^^ la romolacha contribuy6 
en gran jiarte a osta jiroduocion tan en aumento. 

Kl Kstado do Colorado continua a la cabeza como el Estado de mas producoion 
con un rendiniionto de azucar durante esta estacion que asciende a 262,941 tonoladas. 
California continua ocujiando el sogundo lugar como uno de los mds grandcs productores 
con 149,997 tonoladas, y Michigan el tcrcero con 148,936 toneladas. El Estado de 
Utah ha sido el cuarto con 14.5,170 toneladas, y Nebraska el quinto con 79,924 tonoladas. 
El Estado de Ohio mostro un l)uon aumento sobre la cosecha del ano pasado, j^roduciondo 
42,190 tonoladas do aziicar. 

El total de tonoladas do romolacha preparada para el azucar ascondio a 7,094,059 
tonoladas, de las cualos Colorado proparo 1,933,595 tonoladas, Utah 1,121,472 toneladas, 
Michigan 1,112,301 tonoladas y California 942,169 toneladas. 

El total de tcrreno de romolacha cosechada ascondio a 842,980 acres de superficic, 
contra 679,822 acres de terreno cosechados en 1919-20 y 593,640 acres cosechados en 
1918-19. 

El promedio del rendimiento de azucar por acre de terrono fuo 1.15 toneladas contra 
0.96 toneladas el ano pasado y 1.13 toneladas en 1918-19. 

Las fabricas civio no funcionaron durante la pasada estacion fueron las de Lamar, 
en Colorado; Chino, en California: Hamilton City, en California; Tvsicy, en California; 
Whitehall, en ^lontana; Xo. Xakima, y Sunnyside, en Washington. 

La siguionto tabla da las cosechas de 1920-21 y 1919-20 en comparacion: 



CO 



EsT.\DOS 



.- t 



i -S2-5 ■fJ-S.n 



? c = 



—1920-21— —1919-20— 

Ohio 5 47,.5(i2 ;:!:J9,ssl 42,190 5 30,265 260,878 28,4.50 

Michigan 17 149,442 1,112,301 148,936 16 134,619 948,740 117,0.34 

Nebraska .5 72,296 .597,915 79,924 4 59,329 494,731 .54,349 

Colorado 17 207,778 1,933,595 262,941 15 174,022 1,479,987 173,446 

Utah 18 112,080 1,121,472 145,170 IS 103,809 809,269 90,085 

Idaho 8 43.-335 354,097 .50,6-30 7 24,5(i<) 195,286 23,809 

California 10 113,681 942,169 149,997 10 100,091 722,353 120,421 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Montana • 

Kansas 

Wyoming 

Iowa 

Washington 



tl7 96,806 692,629 89,631 *15 53,118 373,936 45,-363 



Total 97 842,980 7,094,059 969,419 90 679,822 5,285,180 652,957 



flncluye 5 fabricas en Wisconsin, 3 en Wyoming, 3 en 
de Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Kansas, Washington y A 



Iowa y 1 en cada uno de los Estados 
Montana. 
*lncluye 4 fabricas en Wisconsin, 3 en Wyoming, 2 en Washington v 1 en cada uno de 
los Estados de Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas y Montana. 

Segun nos comunica nuestro corresponsal del Canada, tambien ha habido algunos aumentos 
en la Tarifa del Canada, cuyos detalles damos a continuaci6n: 



THE CUBA REVIEW 37 



Tarifa del Canada. — Telegrama especial que hemos recibido de Toronto, Ontario, 
10 de mayo de 1921. — ^Anoche se rebajo el presupuesto y se propusieron nuevos derechos 
en centavos por libra como sigue: 

AzucAR QUE Pase DEL Prejerenciol General 

Azucar que pase del Tipo Holand^s No. 16 y refinado. 

Polarizacion 88° y mas baja 1 . 50 2 . 00 

Polarizacion 99° y mas alta 1 . 79 2 . 39 

Azucar que no pase del Tipo Holandes No. 16. 

Polarizacion 75° y mds baja .70 1 . 1608 

Polarizacion 96° 85 1 . 68712 

Polarizacion 99° y m^s alta 87^ 1.83M 

A los azucares que pasen del Tipo Holandes No. 16 importados por los refinadores 
se les impuso un derecho mas alto que a los azucares de 96° por bajo del Tipo Holandes 
No. 16, pero bajo el Acuerdo del Comercio de las Antillas los refinadores pueden importar 
azucares blanqueados que pasen del Tipo Holandes No. 16 con los mismos derechos que 
los azucares polarizacion 96°. En otras palabras, no se imponen derechos por los azucares 
blanqueados, y la unica base bajo la cual se impondran derechos sera por la polarizacion. 

En los azucares de 96°, el antiguo Derecho Preferencial era l.OB^c. con el derecho 
no-Preferencial de 1.375c.; mientras que en el azucar refinado el antiguo derecho era 
2.09c. 

Nueva York, May 26 de 1921. 



Emergency Tariff 



The Emergency Tariff Bill became law on May 27th and took effect on May 28th. 
Below is the portion of the law affecting sugar and a table showing the duty to be assessed 
on each degree of polarization : 

"20. Sugars, tank bottoms,, sirups of cane juice, melada, concentrated melada, 
concrete and concentrated molasses, testing by the polariscope not above seventy-five 
degrees, one and sixteen one-hundredths of 1 cent per pound, and for every additional 
degree shown by the polariscopic test, four one-hundredths of 1 cent per pound additional, 
and fractions of a degree in proportion; molasses testing not above forty degrees, 24 
per centum ad valorem; testing above forty degrees and not above fifty-six degrees, 
3K cents per gallon; testing above fifty-six degrees, 7 cents per gallon; sugar drainings 
and sugar sweepings shall be subject to duty as molasses or sugar, as the case may be, 
according to polariscopic test." 



Basis 

Test 


On Full Duty 
Cents per Degree 


Differential Duty 
20% Off on 
Cuban Sugar 

Cents per Degree 


Basis 

Test 


On Full Duty 
Cents per Degree 


Differential Duty 

20% Off on 

Cuban Sugar 

Cents per Degree 


100° 


2.16 


1.728 


87 


1.64 


1.312 


99 


2.12 


1.696 


86 


1.60 


1.280 


98 


2.08 


1.664 


85 


1.56 


1.248 


97 


2.04 


1.632 


84 


1.52 


1.216 


96 (Stan. 


Basis) 2.00 


1.600 


83 


1.48 


1.184 


95 


1.96 


1.568 


82 


1.44 


1.152 


94 


1.92 


1.536 


81 


1.40 


1.120 


93 


1.88 


1.504 


80 


1.36 


1.088 


92 


1.84 


1.472 


79 


1.32 


1.056 


91 


1.80 


1.440 


78 


1.28 


1.024 


90 


1.76 


1.408 


77 


1.24 


.992 


89 


1.72 


1.376 


76 


1.20 


.960 


88 


1.68 


1.344 


75 


1.16 


.928 



as THE C V li A li K J' I K Jf 



Cable "Turnure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NEW YORK— 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection 
and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial 
Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, 
etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana 
and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo 
Domingo, and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS t 
HAVANA: N. Gelats & Co. PARIS: Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO: Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 
LONDON: The London Joint City & Midland Bank, Ltd. 
|Banco Urquijo, Madrid 
SPAIN: .Banco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

(Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

Showing the location of all the active sugar plantations in Cuba 
and giving other data concerning the sugar industry of Cuba. 

Size, 29% X 24. Copyrighted 191 8. 

Price 50 cents postpaid. 

THE CUBA REVIEW 

67 Wall Street, New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS AND MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 

Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supphes. 

A. KLING. Prop. MORTI IT Al A STEAMSHIP WORK 

JAS. S. BOGUE, Supt. IVlUDlLIL, AL.A. a. SPECIALTY 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton. Night Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address: "Abiworks" New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Makers and Manufacturers. Steamship Repairs in All Branches. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
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THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



The Royal Bank°'Cana(la 



Fundado en 1869 



Capital Pagado 
Fondo de Reserva - 
Active Total - - 



$15,000,000 

15,000,000 

420,000,000 



QUINENTAS CINCUENTA SUCURSALES 

VEINTE Y OCHO SUCURSALES EN CUBA 

CINCO SUCURSALES EN LA HABANA 

LONDRES: 2 Bank Buildings, Princes Street 

NEW YORK: 68 William Street 

BARCELONA: Plaza de Cataluna 6 

Corresponsales en todas las Plazas Bancables 
del mundo. Se expiden CARTAS DE CRE- 
DITO para viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS 
ESTERLINAS y PESETAS, valederas sin 
descuento alguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTODE AHORROS 
se admiten depositos a interes desde CINCO 
PESOS en adelante. 

Sucursal Principal en la Habana : Obrapia 33 

Administradores 

R. De Arozarena F. W. Bain 

Supervisor de Sucursales 

F'. J. Beatty 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 



Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world. 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 
HAVANA 



India's Sugar Cane Crop of 1920-21 

The final general memorandum of the 
Department of Statistics, India, on the 
sugar cane crop of 1920-21, based upon 
the reports received from provinces con- 
taining about 99% of the area in British 
India under sugar cane, estimated the 
area sown at 2,553,000 acres, a decrease 
of 5% from the estimated acreage of last 
year, and a total yield of raw sugar at 
2,465,000 tons as against the estimate of 




Our estabhshed relations with manufac- 
turers and large volume of business 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes of 

RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda — Bicarbonate — Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid — Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases — Waxes 

Gums — Glues — Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filtering Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences — Herbs — Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 

We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you 
are next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 

140 Liberty St., New York 

2 and 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cienfuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives : 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R. 



3,036,000 tons last year. The estimated 
shrinkage in the yield of 19% is prima- 
rily due to droughts during November 
and December in the United Provinces, 
Punjab, Bahir and Orissa, which include 
practically 90% of the sugar cane area of 
India. 

Imports of Refined Sugar 

India's imports of refined sugar (16 
Dutch standard and above) for the first 
ten months of the fiscal year, April, 1920, 
to January, 1921, were 203,000 tons 
compared with 332,000 tons for the corre- 
sponding ten months of the preceding 
fiscal year and 408,000 tons for the fuU 
fiscal year ending March 31, 1920. Java 
furnished 173,000 tons for the first ten 
months of the fiscal year just ended and 
349,000 tons for the total preceding fiscal 
year. 



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H) 



THE C IB A RKllEW 



THE 



Crust Company of Cuba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$900,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 

BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsby President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgood Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Wbitnor Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts. 



WATERPRO0F 
y BELTING 
!SWATEI^Ft( 

GARANTIZAMOS QUE ESTA 
CORREA ES'PERFECTA 
POR SU CALIDAD Y 
PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUEBA 
VUELVE- 

GERENTE P.N.PIEDRA.- 
fc-^'A CABLE "PEN I COPE" ^ 







i^(' ' 



J.BACHMANN£COf' 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 



te-lfi 



REAg 



EST. 



NEW \'ORK,M.Y. 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Cana Neto 

Sistema nueva patentada por 

Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 

constructor de trasbordadores 

superiores 

Funciona por motor, levantando, pesando, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cana por un hombre y 
imprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo "La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



Subscription - $3.00 Per Year 



Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836, AT 105 WALL STREET 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



FOR SALE 
TANK CARS 

4 — 7,200 Gallon Wooden Underframe 
TANK CARS now located in 
Cardenas, Cuba. Will sell com- 
plete or tanks alone at sacrifice. 

ALLIED COMMERCE CORPORATION 

501 Fifth Avenue - New York, N. Y. 



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THE CUBA REVIE TV 



41 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. 11 

PM 


No. 1 

PM 


No. 7 

PM 


No. 5 

PM 


No. 3 

AM 


No. 9 

AM 


i 

58 
109 

179 

230 

180 

195 

241 

276 

340 

520 
538 


HAVANA 


No. 2 

AM 


No. 8 

AM 


No. 6 

PM 


No. 10 

PM 


No. 4 

P M 


No. 12 

AM 


10.31 


10.01 
AM 

12.17 
4.05 

6.00 

9.45 

6.00 


4.01 

6.40 
8.40 
P M 


1.01 

3.23 
5.50 

9.22 


10.01 

11.54 
2.00 

4.47 

8.35 


7.01 

9.25 
12.37 
PM 


Lv Central Station Ar 

Ar . . .Matanzas. . .Lv 
Cardenas 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

.... Santa Clara .... 


6.50 

4.15 
12.05 

PM 
10.45 

7.25 

11.00 


9.40 

6.52 
5.00 
AM 


3.31 

1.10 
10.00 

6.45 


-6.30 

3.50 
1.20 
PM 


7.25 
5.06 


6.30 


* 


12.10 
PM 
8.15 
AM 








9.00 




7.40 






7.10 


7.10 
P M 






PM 
11.15 
AM 


10 15 


AM 


9.55 

11.35 
PM 
3.10 
AM 






. . . Sancti Spiritus . . . 
. . . Ciego de Avila . . . 

Camaguey 

Antilla 


4.45 

3.45 

12.15 
AM 








PM 






PM 
2.55 

6.10 

2.10 
6.45 
P M 








12.40 
AM 
9.00 
PM 

10.40 
9.00 
AM 


































3.45 
AM 








Santiago 


12.01 
AM 























Sleeping cars on trains 1, 2, 5, 6, 11 and 12. 
* Via Carreno. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES— UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From Havana to 

Cienfuegos 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Ciego de Avila 

Camaguey 



Altro Cedro . 
Santiago . . . . 



Lower 
Berth 



S5.00 



5.50 
6.00 



7.00 
8.00 



Upper 
Berth 

S4.00 



4.50 
5.00 



6.00 

7.00 



Compart- 
ment 

S12.00 



15.00 



Dra wing- 
Room 



S15.00 

18.00 
25.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 

U. S. Cy. 

Antilla S29.21 

Batabano 2.95 

Bayamo 26.24 

Caibarien 14.81 

Camaguey 20.57 

Cardenas 7.96 

Ciego de Avila 17.47 

Cienfuegos 12 . 33 

Colon 8.12 

Guantanamo 3 1 . 70 

Holguin 26.87 

Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighs 110 pounds 
or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in second-class. 

ROUND TRIP TICKETS— First and Second Class 

are on sale from Havana to Matanzas, Jovellanos, Cardenas, Colon, Union, 
Caibarien and Cienfuegos, vaHd for three days after date of sale. 

UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



Isle of Pines 


U. S. Cy. 
SIO 00 


Madruga 


4.25 




27.74 


Matanzas 


4.60 




13.54 


Remedies 


14 50 




11.98 




1 80 




. 15.51 




. 12 08 


Santiago de Cuba 


30.08 



W. T. MEDLEY, Commercial Agent 



ARCHIBALD JACK, General Manager 



HAVANA, CUBA 



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T U E C V B A It E V I E IV 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

•rASSOL" SPKC'IAT/riES 
88 BROAD STREET, Cor. Stone, NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion dirccta de todas los 
centros manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York; 
Serra Steamship Company. Liverpool; Vapores 
Transatlinticos de A. Folch & Co., de Barcelona, 
Espana. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET 17/21 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established 50 Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 

JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 

Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Ti-lephones: | ^^^y \ Bowling Green 

Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone 0310 Henry Night Call, 227S Henry 



THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 
Contracting Engineers 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office, 8 West 40th Street 

Havana Office; Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address: Kunomale, New York 
Telephone 3300 South 



Telephone 
21.') Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Exchange 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

CAULKERS, SPAR MAKERS, 

BOAT BUILDERS, ETC. 

No. 9 Summit Street 
Near Atlantic Dock, BROOKLYN 



CARLOS M. VARONA 



MERCADERES No. 5 

HAVANA, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

COMMISSION MERCHANT 
P. 0. Box 3, Cainaguey 

Haiidles all kinds of merchandise either on a 
commission basis or under agency arrangements. 
Also furnishes all desired information about lands 
in eastern Cuba. 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

SngranrrB - - Ifint ^latintipry 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



F. W. Hvoslef E. C. Day R. M. Michelson 

BENNETT, HVOSLEF & CO. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

Cable "Benvosco" 



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THECUBAREVIEW 43 

Munson Steamship Line 

GENERAL OFFICES: 

67 Wall Street, New York 

BRANCH OFFICES: 

Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Keyser Building, BALTIMORE, MD. 708 Common Street, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

Leave Arrive Leave Arrive 

New York Antilla Antilla New York 

S/S "MUNAMAR" Julv 2 July 6 July 9 July 13 

July 16 July 20 July 23 July 27 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 



Havana. . . .Every Week 
Matanzas. Every 2 Weeks 
Cardenas. Every 2 Weeks 



MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings as follows : 
Isabela de Sagua.. Every 3 Weeks 

Caibarien " " " 

Nuevitas " " " 

Manati " " " 



Guantanamo. Every 3 Weeks 

Antilla " " 

Santiago... " " " 
Cienfuegos. " " " 



MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER— Montevideo-Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 



NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

S/S "MARTHA WASHINGTON" (b) July 2 

S/S -AMERICAN LEGION" (c) July 20 

(b) 1st and 2d class. (c) 1st and 3d class 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 



BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER — Baltimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER— Baltimore-Cienfuegos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 



NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Progreso, Tampico and Vera Cruz. 



NEW ORLEANS— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New Orleans for Tampico and Vera Cruz 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels oi 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



I y 



r II i: ( r 11 .1 ukjikiv 



Link- Beitl^t 

Machinery Handles All Products 

in sut;ar factories, from dumping the cane to storing the bagged sugar. 
Our leadership as engineers and builders of efficient conveying systems for 
sugar estates and refineries is the result of years of experience. 

Send for our new 136 page catalog No. 355 



LINK-BELT 

299 BROADWAY 



COMPANY 

NEW YORK CITY 






pw 


96^ 



American Car and Foundry Export Co. 



Direccion Teleiirafiia: 
"C:AREX" new YORK 



165 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 




LISTA PARA ENTREGA INMEDIATAMENTE 

Aqui se vc el grabado de uno de nuestros ca ros mas modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias c pac dades para uso en Cuba Puerto Rico, Bud America Am<^ric Central y 
M6jico con bastidcres y jaulas de madera o de acero Producci6n annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, OficioS 29-31, HAVANA, Representante para Cuba 



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:<'■%' 



^WBM 



9 



.Y, 1921 lOCentsACo 



T II K C V B A R E V I E Jl 



Ratios o Corazones, 



Chuchos o Cambiavias, 

CRUZAMIENTOS. tAHALLETES DE MAMOBRA PARA 
FERROCARRILES. RIELES. &c. 




DURANTE mas de 35 anos nuestros Talleres — 
siempre montados a la moderna — se han dedicado 
a la fabricacion de Rieles, Chuchos, Cruzamien- 
tos y otros Accesorios para los Ferrocarriles 
Americanos, v siempre hemos procurado corresponder a 
las necesidades de nuestros clicntes suministrandoles 
materiales de primera al precio mas reducido. 

Xuestra Seccion Tecnica esta a disposicion de nuestros 
clientes. y para ayudarnos interpretar debidamente sus 
necesidades y evitar demoras inconvenientes, al pedir 
precios 6 reniitir encargos, es sumamente importante nos 
den los detalles correspondientes. 

Sirvase dirigir la corrcspoiidencia a 

WEIR FROG COMPANY 

43 Cedar St., New York, E.E. U.U. 

JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerente (Direccion cablegraflca: JAMOTLEY. NEWYORK) 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
NEW YORK 

Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLO\ ER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO., LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 

Los pioductos dc estas Fabricas abarcan: LocomotoraS 

Carros para cana 
Rieles y accesso- 
ries 
Chuchos y ranas 
Aserraderos 
Calderas 

Maquinas, de va- 
por y de gaso- 
lina 
Tanques 
Tornos 

Trapiches y toda 
clase de maqui- 
naria para Inge- 
nios de Azucar 
Calentadores de 
agua de alimen- 
tacion 
Alambiques para 

agua 
Madera, pino ama- 

A solicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. riUo 

Direccion cablegrafica: JAMOTLEY, New York (Se usan todas las daves). 




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THE CUBA REVIEW 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, Pres. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 

Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure Night Phone 

^\^l^r,f 15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U. S. A. isel^li^h^o'^ndlni 



WILLETT & GRAY, Brokers and Agents 
noMF^r'ir^'''' SUGARS ^^w and 

DOMESTIC ^_____^^__^^ REFINED 

82 Wall Street, New York 

Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

Guana jay 



Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 
from 5 A. M. to 8 P. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 



Guines- 



FARE - - $1.00 

!ry hour daily from CENTRAL i 
A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train i 

FARE - - $1.25 



Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 
from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 P. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 



SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANA FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) $0.06 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A. M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A. M. to 11 P. M. 



The Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co , New York ~ — 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds 69 693^ 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1944 79 81 

Repubhc of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 76 79 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 4^% Bonds of 1949 68 69K 

Havana City 1st Mortgage 6% Bonds 85 95 

Havana City 2d Mortgage 6% Bonds 85 95 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 35 45 

Cuba Railroad 1st Mortgage 5% Bonds of 1952 , 62 65 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 65 70 

Cuba Company 7% Cumulative Preferred Stock 70 80 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Cons. Mortgage 5% Bonds 74 75 

Havana Electric Ry. Light & Power Co. Pfd. Stock 90 95 

Havana Electric Ry. Light & Power Co. Com. Stock 85 90 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 72 80 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Common Stock 13}4 13K 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock 7% 8}4 



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Till-: CUBA REJ'IEW 



Bomba Kinney Para Mieles 




Prcsi(')n Posiliva. Eiivulos Ri>l;ili>rii)S, Sin 
Muclles ni Valvulas. Forrado intcriormente 
de Bronce. La Mas ccononiica para bombear 
liquidos espestos, como mirles, acieitcs guar- 
apos, etc. Funciona actualmcnte con cl 
mcjor dxito en muchos ingcnios y refincrias. 
Capacidades de 50 a 800 galones por minuto. 

Pidanse precios y pormcnores a 

Newell Manufacturing Company 

SINGER BUILDING - NEW YORK 
Agentes para Cuba y la dcmas Antillas 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 



1^^%%%%%^]! 



Avoid imitations, insist upon getting WALKER'S 
METALLIC "LION" PACKING. Look for "The 
Thin Red Line" which runs through all the 
Genuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Labels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 



JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 



United Railways of Havana 
WESTERN DIVISION 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 

6.15 
8.24 


PM 
2.55 
4.24 
5.51 
6.05 
6.56 
8.40 
PM 


PM 
1.45 
3.55 


AM 
10.15 
12.24 


6.55 
8.24 
9.51 
10.05 
10.56 
12.40 
PM 


AM 
5.45 
7.55 


Fare 
1st cl. 
S2.65 
5.19 
5.62 
6.71 
8.83 


Lv....Cen.Sta.....\r 

Pii .\rtcmisa Lv 

.\r . . . Paso Real . . . Lv 
.\r.. Herradura. . .Lv 
.\r..Pinar del Rio. .Lv 
.\r Guane Lv 


Fare 
3dcl. 
$1.40 
2.54 
2.74 
3.25 
4.22 


AM 

7.20 
5.15 

AM 


AM 
11.09 
9.40 
8.05 
7.48 
6.55 
5.20 
AM 


PM 
12.01 
9.45 


PM 

3.20 
1.15 


PM 
7.09 
5.40 
4.05 
3.48 
2.55 
1.20 
PM 


PM 
8.00 
5.45 








11.45 
AM 


















6 00 












2 00 


PM 


PM 


PM 


AM 


PM 


PM 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares from Havana to 



Pinos \o cts. 

Arroyo Naranjo 25 cts. 

Calabazar 30 cts. 



Rancho Boyeros 40 cts. 

Santiago de las Vegas . . . .00 cts. 
Rincon 65 cts. 



Leaving Central Station every half hour from 5.15 A. M. to 7.15 p. m., 
and every hour thereafter to 11.15 P. M. 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 67 Wall Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year - - - - 10 Cents Single Copy 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 

Vol. XIX JULY, 1921 No. 8 

Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — Monument to Francisco Vicente Aguilera, Santiago de Cuba. 
Frontispiece — - Building of the Department of State and Justice, Havana. 
Cuban Commercial Matters: Page 

Exports of Naval Stores from the United States to Cuba 32 

Foreign Commerce of Cuba during 1919-1920 29, 30, 31, 32 

Piece Goods Exports from United Kingdom to Cuba 32 

Cuban Government Matters: 

Customs Duties Collected at Havana 7 

Plans for Federal Reserve Bank in Cuba 7 

Proposed Emergency Legislation 7 

United States Legation in Cuba 7 

Havana Correspondence 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 

Mail Order Shipment of Tobacco Products 12 

New Cable to Cuba 12 

Pineapples in Cuba, illustrated, by H. O. Neville. .13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 

21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 3 

Shipment of Vegetables and Grapefruit from Isle of Pines 12 

The Sugar Industry: 

Maple Sugar Production 34 

Sugar Crop of Hawaii 37 

United States Sugar Trade 33,34 

Sugar Review, English 35,36 

Sugar Review, Spanish 36, 37 



THE C IB A HKI'IKJi' 




THE 






CUBA REVIEW 

''ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1921, by the Munson Steamship Line 



Volume XIX 



JULY, 1921 



Number 8 



Cuban Government Matters 



Proposed Emergency Legislation 

President Zayas and members of Con- 
gress agreed at a conference on June 23d to 
sink political differences and rush through 
emergency measures to meet the financial 
crisis. A commission will be named to 
review proposed remedial acts and submit 
recommendations to Congress with assur- 
ances that they -will be enacted imme- 
diately. 

Revision of taxes was declared to be 
necessary in view of the Government's 
financial difficulties. 

Various port duties have been eliminated 
by a decree signed by President Zayas. 
They include, among others, extra charges 
for demurrage and inspection of bills of 
lading, and are revoked as part of the 
administration's campaign to decrease 
the cost of primary necessities. 

The decree canceling the payment of 
cost of living bonuses to federal, pro- 
vincial and municipal employees was 
returned by the President for revision 
when it was found it did not include the 
national police, soldiers and sailors. Another 
decree is expected to be promulgated 
soon, revoking a ruling of the Menocal 
Administration prohibiting the importa- 
tion of rice. It seems practically certain 
that although the customs revenues have 
been the most fruitful source of income 
♦—in Cuba they will be decidedly less during 
j^ the year 1921. A bill has already passed 
■•~ one house of the Congress of Cuba aug- 
-". menting salaries in the diplomatic and 
consular service, and to cover the greater 
^ ; outlaj^ consular fees will be increased. 



The fee for invoices of merchandise ex- 
ported to Cuba will be raised from 10 
cents per $100 to one-half of 1 per cent, of 
the invoiced value of the merchancUse. 

Plans for Federal Reserve Bank in Cuba 

According to press reports plans for 
a banking institution similar to the Federal 
Reserve Bank of the United States are 
being prepared by President Zayas , and 
win be submitted soon to the Cuban Con- 
gress. Details of the organization are 
still imsettled, but the proposal is for an 
institution which would be a combination 
of Cuban and American banks, subject 
to governmental intervention and control. 



U. S. Legation in Cuba 

Honorable Boaz W. Long, Minister of 
the United States to Cuba, left Cuba on 
June 11th for a leave of absence. 

Mr. Philander Cable, First Secretary of 
the Legation, it is understood, wiU become 
Charge d'Affaires and Mr. Cord Meyer 
will assume Mr. Cable's duties. Mr. 
Meyer has been acting as Second Secretary'. 



Customs Duties Collected at Habana 



In spite of the 
the present year 
duties amounting 
collected by the 
during the first four 
$13,300,000 durinj 
period of 1920. 



financial depression of 
and the moratorium, 
to $19,590,000 were 
Cuban custom-houses 
months of 1921 against 
g the corresponding 



7///. cm A liKJIKU- 



Ha\'ana Correspondence 

June 10, 1921. 

Sucar: The situation m so far as the vast accunuilation of sugar at the various 
IX)rt.s awaiting siiipnient is concerned, has experienced httle if any cliange during the 
past month. The strike on the Cuba Kaih-oad lieljied to aggravate an ah-eady serious 
situation by keeping the sugar from mo\ing. for hick of transjwrtation, to tlie outl)Ound 
port^. When the strike was eventually tleclared at an end, the accumulated sugars 
covering the grinding of several weeks were rushed to the docks, which tended to greatly 
increase the hundreds of thousands of bags of sugar already awaiting removal. The 
grinding season is rapidly coming to a close, some IGO centrals having ceased to grind 
(luring the past three or four weeks. Many more will close down in the next few weeks, 
which will afford an opjwrtunity to relieve the present congestion at the ports. The 
future outlook is no brighter than it has been for some time, due to the inability 
of the central and colonia owners to secure money for the planting of next season's crop. 
Many fields are lieing left uncultivated for this reason as the l)anks are unable to lend 
money for development purposes and it is impossible to secure funds from other sources. 
This necessarily will result in a largely decreased crop in 1922. 

There seems to be a wide difference of opinion as to the benefits derived from the 
work of the Sugar Finance Commission, and it has been the target for many attacks, 
the most prominent of which being made by the former Secretary of the Interior who 
characterized the Commission as "A trap set by foreign interests to absorb Cuban prod- 
ucts." However, the prevailing opinion among those in closest touch with the situation 
and who are in a position to know just what the Commission is accomplishing for the 
sugar industPv", is that to abolish it at this time would bring disastrous results. This 
^^ew is shared by former President Menocal, who recently stated that in his opinion the 
abolishment of the Sugar Finance Commission would mean "the economic and financial 
ruin of Cul)a." The question has been discussed bj' President Zayas and at a recent 
cabinet meeting it was decided to recommend to Congress that the work of the Com- 
mission be continued. 

A bill is now before Congress which, if enacted, will provide for the registration of all 
financial obligations entered into and loans made for the purpose of cultivating or har- 
vesting the sugar crop by the central or colonia owners. This bill is patterned after the 
present law now in effect in Puerto Rico and undoubtedly will be of great benefit to sugar 
interests here if enacted. Under the present system there is nothing to prevent any 
hacienda or colonia owner from contracting as many obligations as he may care to, 
without regard to his financial resources or ability to liquidate same w'hen the time 
arrives. 

A vers' liopeful sign for the stabilization both in financial circles as well as in the 
sugar industrj' was the re-opening on June 16th of the stock exchange, which had been 
closed since the early part of October. The Cuban Sugar Finance and Export Corpora- 
tion, which was created for the sole purpose of lending mone}' to the centrals and growers 
at a reasonable rate of interest until such time as the moneys for the sale of the crop were 
received, is now functioning and has already advanced large sums of money against 
sugar in Cuban warehouses. 

The future immigration of laborers to Cuba from Spain for the purpose of working 
in the cane fields will be largely determined by what means are taken to relieve the present 
unemplojanent of laborers from this country now in Cuba. At the present time there 
are some fifteen hundred Spanish laborers being taken care of by the Spanish Consulate 
here and the number is increasing rapidly. This may discourage future inunigration of 
this tjTje of laborers to Cuba and consequently result in a labor shortage during the coming 
years. 

FixAxciAL Situation: Little surprise was manifested in financial circles when it 
was announced that the Banco Espanol de la Isla de Cuba (Spanish Bank of Cuba) 
had finally been compelled to close its doors. Early in the moratorium period it was 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



predicted that this institution would not be able to withstand the strain and, while 
the failure was a large one, involving several milUon dollars, it had practically no effect 
upon business. The merchants had anticipated for a long while such a happening and 
were prepared for the outcome which they had from the first regarded as inevitable. 
Strenuous efforts, however, have been made for some months to raise funds, both in 
the United States and abroad, but seemingly without results. This institution expanded 
greatly during the war period, its numerous branches throughout the Island being probably 
second to those of the Banco Nacional, which was compelled to close its doors several 
months ago. The Banco Espanol was reputed to have had the largest amount of savings 
deposits of any bank on the Island and the closing of its doors has been a severe blow to 
those persons least able to bear the losses. We feel, and our view is borne out by those 
best in position to know, that the liquidation of the Spanish Bank will be the "turning 
point" and that this will be the last banking institution forced to liquidate. 

One of the largest contributing factors to the present financial stringency which is 
causing so much suffering throughout the Island has been the unstabUity of the financial 
institutions, causing many millions of dollars to be withdrawn and hoarded in the homes 
of the former depositors. It is estimated by rehable authorities that approximately 
$100,000,000 has been withdrawn from circulation since the advent of the moratorium 
last fall. While this is a natural result of the weakening of the faith of the people in the 
banking institutions, nevertheless, a strong effort wiU necessarily have to be made to 
re-establish the faith of the public in the banks so that this money may again get into 
circulation. The matter is receiving thoughtful consideration on the part of financial 
experts and when the problem is solved it will be a great aid in helping to bring the 
country back to normal. 

The new administration is giving thoughtful consideration to the financial problem 
and while no tangible solution has as yet been recommended, it is felt that some measure 
of relief from the chaotic conditions at present prevailing will be drawn up and submitted 
to congress. There has been a strong rumor in circulation of late that a Cuban branch 
of the Federal Reserve Bank will be established in Havana. While no confirmation of 
this report is obtainable at the present writing, the subject is causing favorable comment 
among the banking interests, as it is felt that the establishment of such an institution 
would be of unestimable assistance in stabilizing the money situation. The work of the 
clearing house which was estabhshed a short time ago is progressing very nicely, ful- 
filling a long needed requirement for the expeditious handling of commercial paper. 

Political Matters: The new administration with President Alfredo Zayas at 
the helm is making a remarkably fine start and is inspiring the confidence of all who reahze 
that many reforms are vitally necessary before the Republic emerges from the depression 
under which it has been laboring for the past several months. Quite a number of 
measures of rehef have been advocated by the new administration, chief of which has 
been the cutting down of the annual budget for government operation from approxi- 
mately $130,000,000 to about $60,000,000. It is reahzed that before Cuba can 
again get back on her feet solidly, she must cut down the tremendous overhead expenses 
which are causing too heavy a burden, in the form of taxation, for the people to bear. 
Another reform advocated by the new President which has received much favorable 
comment, is the abolition of the "botellas" or bogus office holders who are on the govern- 
ment payrolls but who do no work, not even going to the trouble of drawing their pay, 
but in the majority of cases, selling their pay vouchers to outsiders who draw the money 
in their stead. 

Legislation has been introduced in congress, the object of which is to reduce the 
present high living expenses by placing higher duties on such articles as jewelry, liquors 
and luxuries with a corresponding tariff decrease on the necessities. The President has 
sent a special message to congress on this subject and it is beheved that this much needed 
legislation will be enacted very soon. 

Another important matter that is receiving attention from the new administration 
is the question of the proposed national highway connecting Havana with Santiago de 
Cuba, as weU as the general improvement of highways throughout the Island. It is 



10 '/ // /; ( [■ I! .1 y.' /■: /' / /•: if 



estimated that those improvonuMits will involve an outlay of some thirty to forty million 
dollars, hut as a lar^e portion of this expense will he l)orne by the various jirovinees 
affecteil, it will not be necessary for the (Jovernment to float a bond issue to secure funds. 
If this work is undertaken at this time when there are so many thousands of men out of 
employment it will assist materially in reducing the number of unemployed. 

Among the reconmiendations of the President in his first message to congress was the 
l)assage of a measure seeking to eliminate the spreading of reports or propaganda tending 
to undermine public confidence in financial or other public institutions. Considering 
the vicious attacks which ha\e been made by certain newsixij^ers of late against even 
such strong institutions as the National City Bank of New York and the Royal Bank of 
Canada, causing slight flurries from time to time and tending to increase the lack of 
confidence which the jieople as a whole have in banking institutions all over the Island, 
this measure, if passed, will prove of great assistance m restoring confidence. 

De.\th of General Jos6 Miguel Gomez: The entire country was profoundly 
shocked upon receiving the news of the sudden death of former President General Jose 
Miguel (Jomez in New York on Monday, June 13th. The Government immediately 
orclered that all places of public amusement be closed; that all flags be placed at half 
mast, and decreed that the nation be in mourning for ten days as a mark of respect to the 
memory of CJeneral Gomez. 

"Jos? Miguel," as he was popularly known to his fellow coimtrymen, was iield in 
deep esteem by the majority of the Cuban jjcojile, and lived a life in which reverses were 
mingled with glor>'. While cjuite young he enlisted in the cause of Culxm liberty and 
was an outstanding figure in the successful campaign for liberty which Cuba waged against 
the tyranny of Spain, finally rising to the rank of Major General. He was not only 
a skilled jiolitician but a shrewd diplomat as well and during the administration of Gov- 
ernor-General Magoon, whom President Taft appointed to administer the affairs of the 
Island after the second American intervention, the advice and counsel of General Gomez 
was freciuently .sought by Governor Magoon. At the el(>ction in 1908, General Gomez 
was the successful candidate and guided the destinies of the Republic successfulh^ for 
four years. 

In the passing of General Gomez, Cuba loses the services of one of her strongest 
patriots and statesmen, a man who at times may have conmiitted errors, it is true, but 
whose i)atriot.ism and zeal and lo^•e for his native land has never been ciuestioned even 
by his most bitter enemies. 

The funeral, which was held on Sunday, June 19th, was the largest ever witnessed 
in Cuba, being attended by at least 25,000 persons. The floral display was magnificent, 
hundreds of handsome wreaths being sent by the many friends and admirers of General 
Gomez. Eighteen hearses were required to convey the flowers and wreaths to Colon 
Cemeteiy. 

MiLiT.\RY Forces Reviewed by President: Shortly after taking office the com- 
bined army and naval forces were reviewed l)y President Zayas. This was one of the 
most notable niilitar}^ pageants ever seen in Havana. In addition to the President and 
his staff in the reviewing stand there were the various foreign diplomatic representatives 
and consuls; the American Minister to Cuba Hon. Boaz W. Long; General Crowder, 
representing the President of the United States, and the commanders of the U. S. S. 
"Niagara" and the "Libia," an Italian battleship which arrived from Italy to participate 
in the inaugural ceremonies. The review furnished considerable favorable comment 
upon the completeness of eciuipment as well as the excellent training of the men. 

Severe Storm in Eastern Portion of the Isl.\nd: One of the most severe 
rainstorms ever experienced in the eastern part of the Island occurred on June 2d, causing 
many thousands of dollars of property loss, submerging many miles of railroads and re- 
sulting in the complete ce.s.sation of those sugar centrals not already closed down. For- 
tunately, no lives were reported to have been lost. 

Empire Day Observed by British Residents: Empire Day was celebrated here 
by the two leading organizations of Cireat Britain, namely, the British Club and the 



THECUBAREVIEW 11 



Rovers Club. Autographed photographs, which by the waj^ are said to be the only ones 
ever given to any Club outside of the British Isles, were proudly displayed and a banquet 
was held in the evening at which President Zayas was the guest of honor. 

Death of Colonel Dady: Colonel Michael J. Dady, President of the engineering 
company bearing his name, who died in Brooklyn on June 2d, was one of the pioneers in 
the upbuilding of the Republic of Cuba. He installed the sewerage system of Havana 
and did considerable work in the improvement of Havana harbor. Colonel Dady divided 
his time between Cuba and Brooklyn, where he was for many years one of the most 
influential leaders in Republican politics. 

Havana Electric Railway Has Prosperous Year: A study of the annual report 
of the Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Company reveals 1920 as having been 
the most prosperous year in the history of the Company. An increase in gross earnings 
of $4,488,337.94 over the year 1917 is shown, while considerable money has been spent 
in improvements, rolling stock, power plant equipment, etc. 

Plan to Open Emergency Stores: At a meeting of a group of leading business 
men in Havana, serious discussion was held as to the feasibility of opening a chain of 
emergency stores for the sale of foodstuffs at slightly above cost. Adopting as their 
slogan "The people must eat," and realizing the pitiable condition in which many thou- 
sands of the poor people find themselves by reason of the depression and lack of employ- 
ment, it is their behef that such a system would be of great benefit. One of the greatest 
questions that the Island has to face at the present time is the means of reducing the cost 
of living which is so high that it is causing much suffering and privation. 

Soldiers May Work on Farms: In a statement issued by the Agricultural De- 
partment recently, it was recommended that soldiers be permitted to work on farms in 
order to further promote the growing of vegetables, which are largely imported at present. 

Beautiful New Park to be Laid Out Around Maceo Statue: The Secretary 
of Public Works has announced the opening of a contest for plans for the new park which 
is to be constructed around the statue of General Antonio Maceo situated on the Malecon. 
The contest will be closed on July 12th and prizes will be awarded for the best plans sub- 
mitted. The first prize will be $600, the second $300 and the third, $200. The cost of 
the proposed park is not to exceed $60,000. 

Labor Conditions: There are reports of complaints from laborers in the cane 
fields because of their inabihty to collect their pay, "vales" or store vouchers being 
given them instead. This custom is said to be prevalent in many parts of the Island 
and is the cause of many hardships. 

Strike on the Cuba Railroad: While the recent protracted strike on the part 
of the employees of the Cuba Railroad Company has been temporarily settled, persistent 
rumors of a fresh outbreak are constantly heard. On June 10th a strike was called but 
no action was taken as the company announced that the old working regulations would 
continue until July 1st, pending a satisfactory adjustment. It is stated that during the 
discussion, the railroad officials pointed out that any further outbreak would cause the 
entire cessation of work on the road, even including the office force, until such time as 
the men were ready to resume work. 

New Cuba-South American Steamship Service: The Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company has announced the inauguration, effective July 1st, of a service between Central 
and South American ports and Havana, via the Panama Canal. 

U. S. S. "Niagara" Leaves Port: The U. S. S. "Niagara," which for a time was 
the official headquarters of General Crowder before he moved his office to the American 
Legation, has left for Key West where it is said a change of personnel Avill take place. 
General Crowder, however, will remain in Havana indefinitely, continuing to act in an 
advisory capacity to the new administration as he did to the previous one. 

Cost of Living to be Reduced: Dr. Espino, Sub-Secretary of the Department 
of Agriculture, in a note to the Mayor of Havana asked that steps be taken at once to 
bring down the prevaiHng abnormal rents in Havana and vicinity. He also suggested 
that some action be taken to reduce the cost of foodstuffs. It is further recommended 



■/•///•; C V li A RKJIKW 



that, tlio prices in m>^taiiraiit.s c-atciiiifj; to the laborin.c; classes be reduced. Good results 
from tliese recommendations are already discernible in many places and it is hoped that 
tlie prohibitive jirices l)eing char{j;eil will assume a downward trend in \\w immediate 
future. 

('iKNEitxL (loETHALs May Sii'KKvisE RoAD HriU)iXG Here: At an honorary 
luncheon tendered Major General Goethals at the Midday Clul), he expressed his will- 
ingness to come to Guba and direct the construction of the proposed national highways 
which the new administration will construct. General Goethals, from his experience in 
road-building in Panama, recommends the use of a concrete roadway as best adapted 
for the Island, considering the nature of the soil and the economy of upkeep of such a 
roadl)ed. During his stay in Cuba a conference was held with President Zayas, in ad- 
dition to inten-iews on the suljject with many distinguished public citizens and officials, 
but no definite decision has as yet ])een reached. 

Hotel Plaza Changes Management: Announcement of a change in management 
of the Hotel Plaza, one of the leading hotels in the city of Havana, has just been made, 
and it is reported that the yearly rental is .§120,000. The new managers, F. Mestre 
& Co., are well known to residents and tourists, having managed the Hotel Florida 
restaurant for several N-ears. The Plaza has always been a very popular rendezvous for 
Americans and under the new management undoubtedly w'ill continue so. 



Mail Order Shipment of Tobacco 
Products 

A liill to permit Cuba to ship cigars, 
cigarettes and cheroots into the United 
States in ciuantities of less than 3,000, the 
minimum shipment under existing law, 
has been introduced in Washington by 
Chairman Fordney, of the House, Wa5'S 
and Means Committee. 

The measure was offered at the request 
of the Treasuiy Department and its 
passage would permit de\-elopment of 
mail order shipments to this country of 
Cuban tobacco products. 



Shipments of Vegetables and Grape- 
fruit from the Isle of Pines 

The season for shipping vegetables 
from the Isle of Pines to the United 
States lasts from about January 1st to 
May 31st. In 1920 early shipments were 
much interfered with by transportation 
difficulties in Havana. These difficulties 
were later removed and the season 'on 
the whole proved successful. 

The outlook for a good season this year 
is highly promising. During the months 
of January and February, 1921, vege- 
tables shipped to the United States 
reached a total of 4,784 crates, valued at 
S6,440. During the corresponding months 
of 1920, vegetable shipments aggregated 
3,732 crates, valued at .S4,962. 



The late crop of grapefruit is also being 
shipped to the United States in large 
ciuantities. The shipping season lasts 
from the middle of Januarj^ to the end of 
April. In January and February, 1921, 
there w^ere 15,144 crates of grai)cfruit 
shipped to the United States, with an 
invoice value of S54,286, as compared with 
8,966 crates, valued at S30,72o, for the 
corresponding months of 1920. — Consul 
Charles Forman, Nueva Gerona. 



New Cable to Cuba 

Direct cable communication between 
New York and Santiago, Cuba, was in- 
augurated June 13th by All America 
Cables, Inc., wdth the opening of its 
office in the latter cit3^ The company 
reaches Santiago through an extension 
of its existing line to Fisherman's Point, 
Guantanamo. The new cable puts All 
America Cables system in closer touch 
with the eastern end of Cuba, and also 
w^ith points in Puerto Rico, Jamaica, St. 
Thomas, St. Croix, Guadeloupe and the 
British West Indies. 



Toilet Preparations from United States 

Exports of perfumeries, cosmetics and 
all toilet preparations from the United 
States to Cuba during the year 1920 were 
valued at .8975,320. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 13 



Pineapples in Cuba 



By H. 0. Neville 

Even many years before the War of Independence, the \'isitor to the country dis- 
tricts immediately surrounding Havana would have found large areas of flat reddish 
colored soil occupied by low thornj^ plants, the long slender leaves of which, resembling 
those of a cactus, sprang from a central axis or stem attaining a height of from eight to 
eighteen inches, depending on the vigor of growth and variety of plant, topped during 
the months between January and June with a fruit slightly longer than broad, running 
from four to six inches or more in diameter and from four to eight inches in length. If 
unknown to him, upon inquiring he would ascertain that this plant and fruit was the 
pineapple, whose luscious quality has made it a favorite in practically all lands to which 
it has been shipped. Even at that early day, the pineapple industry was a rather im- 
portant one, bringing in considerable profit to the Island, though the results were not as 
favorable as would have been the case had greater care of the fruit been taken and better 
packing and transportation methods prevailed. Since then the importance of the in- 
dustry has increased along with the number of crates produced, until at one time about 
1,250,000 crates were being shipped, this quantity having been lowered during the recent 
period of high prices of sugar until at the present time the area planted would yield in a 
normal agricultural season about 1,000,000 crates, and this year due to the effect of 
drought will probably produce about 800,000 crates. 

An article on the pineapple in Cuba must necessarily treat the three phases of the 
industry relating to production, harvesting and preparation for market, and marketing. 

The pineapple is more or less of an air plant, demanding as it does a free circulation 
of air about its roots. The soils, therefore, upon which pineapples can be favorably 
grown are hmited to those whose drainage is good, the lighter class of soil as a general 
rule being given preference. In Cuba excellent results have been obtained in the red 
soils of Havana Province and in the sandy loam district of Pinar del Rio Province and 
of the Isle of Pines, though in these soils the use of large quantities of first-class fertihzer 
is essential. Nearly all the pines grown for export, except those of the Smooth Cayenne 
variety grown on the Isle of Pines, are produced on the light red soils already referred to, 
though a fairly large percentage of Cuba's total crop is produced on a somewhat heavier 
type of red soil, the plantings being so made as to furnish excellent drainage with the 
consequent easy penetration of air into the soil around the roots of the plants. 

Three varieties of pineapples are grown in Cuba for commercial purposes. These 
are in order of importance: the Red Spanish, the Sugar Loaf, known also as Pina 
Blanca or Pina Criolla, and the Smooth Cayenne. The Spanish pineapple is that 
found in at least ninety-nine per cent, of the commercial plantings of this fruit 
throughout the Island, but it is considered a pineapple for export or for local use 
only in making pineapple drinks, ices, etc., although even for this purpose the Sugar 
Loaf is preferred. Its fruit is slightly longer than broad, and when properly ripened is 
of a deep orange red color. For eating purposes as a fruit and also for the making of 
drinks, pineapple ices and other local uses of this character, the Sugar Loaf pineapple 
is the favorite among all Cubans, as its almost fiberless flesh and delicate sweet flavor 
lend themselves admirably to these purposes, presenting a decided contrast to the rather 
tough, coarse flesh and somewhat acid flavor of the Red Spanish. The fruit of this 
variety is slender, averages about four to five inches in diameter, and six to eight inches 
long, its skin is of a light yellow color when ripe, with an almost pure wlaite flesh. It is 
edible when much less mature than any other variety. The Smooth Cayenne pineapple 
was introduced to Cuba by the Americans who settled in the La Gloria District of 
Camaguey Province and in the Isle of Pines. It is a fruit entirely distinct from either 
of the other two just mentioned, being much larger, averaging under favorable cultural 
conditions from ten to twelve pounds, and being composed of a luscious, tender flesh of a 
deeper yellow color than that of the well-ripened Red Spanish, and of a very agreeable 



li 



THE CUBA RKlIKn- 



<F.*?-^- 









., ,'v.:-' rH-.-:i--r 



View of Pineapple Plantation, Pinar del Rio Province 







Scene in Pineapple Plantation Showing Laborers with Baskets Used in Harvesting the Fruit 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



15 




Showing Method of Packing in Ox-cart for Transporting from Field to Packing House 




Showing Type of Cart Used to Transport Fruit from Field to Packing House 



k; 



THE (• in A REJIKU- 




Smooth Cayenne Pines, as Grown and Packed in Isle of Pines 




Fruit in Packing House Ready to be Packed 



THE CUBA REVIEW 17 



flavor, finding favor with many. The mature fruit is much longer than broad, and of a 
deep yellow color when thoroughly ripe. Its large size and the extreme care with which 
this fruit has to be treated in transportation, make it, however, a fruit not for the masses 
but for only select trade, as the price at which it must be sold to give a profit prevents it 
competing with the other varieties mentioned. 

From a commercial standpoint, therefore, the Red Spanish pineapple is pre-eminent. 
In size it is adapted to the use of the individual or small family. It is a tough fruit lending 
itself to much more careless handling and transportation methods than is possible with 
either the Sugar Loaf or Smooth Cayenne varieties. Moreover, when properly matured 
and brought to the right degree of ripeness before removal from the plant, its flavor is 
excellent, its flesh tender and juicy, and its aroma strong and fragrant, excelled by that 
of no other variety. For these reasons its plantings have been extended until today 
they form, as we have said, about ninety-nine per cent, of the commerical plantings of 
the Island. 

Careful preparation of the soil before planting is essential. It should be thoroughly 
plowed, cross-plowed and harrowed, and these preparations repeated a sufficient number 
of times to convert the soil into a finely subdivided mass furnishing a suitable medium 
in which the plants can develop their root systems -with rapidity and freedom. The plan 
of planting varies with different individuals. Some plant on the flat, that is, without 
hilling up the soil at all, while others mound the soil up in beds sufficiently wide to contain 
from two to as many as six or eight rows of plants. In Cuba, however, the number of 
rows of plants is almost always confined to two rows at most to each bed. Experience 
indicates, however, that when the best class of soil is selected, planting on the flat is 
best, as it prohibits the too great drying out of the soil in our winter dry season, during 
which the pineapple almost invariably forms its fruit, the conservation of the soil moisture 
being necessary in order that the fruit attain the desired market size. 

Pineapples are not grown from seeds, although the production of new varieties is 
brought about through planting them. Small plants springing from various parts of the 
parent plants are used instead. From the central stem of the pineapple plant there 
spring young plants, some of these coming from buds situated on the stem below the 
ground and others from those found in the axils of the leaves of the parent plant. These 
young plants are known as suckers, and those springing from beneath the ground, unless 
too numerous, are left attached to the parent plant, in order to continue production in 
the fields after the first crop of fruit is taken off. They send out roots of their own and 
each soon becomes an independent plant. Thus the second year the field contains 
double or treble the number of plants as during the first season. The suckers springing 
from the axils of the leaf are removed and used for setting out new fields, they being 
merely set in the soil, soon sending out roots from the portion under the short leaves at 
their base. Another class of plant springs from the stem of the fruit itseK just beneath 
the fruit. The number of these varies from three or four to as many as a dozen. These 
young plants are called shps. They are always smaller than the suckers, and are planted 
in the same way, but they require a longer period in which to produce fruit than do the 
latter. A further means of propagation is furnished by the crown or tuft of leaves found 
upon the top of each pineapple and by still smaller shps which in some varieties and in 
some instances spring from immediately around this crown. These young plants, how- 
ever, are always very small and are used for propagation only in case of extreme necessity 
or when the variety to be propagated is a very valuable one. The crowns, of course, 
can be utihzed only when the fruit is used for local consumption, as it is always left at- 
tached to the pineapple when it is sold for export. 

It can be readily reahzed that the weight of a maturing pineapple at the end of a 
stem from eight to eighteen inches long, increased in weight by rain, and blown by the 
wind, would very soon bend over and even break down the pineapple plants themselves, 
if these were left unaided to sustain the burden of their fruit. It is for this reason that the 
method of planting prevalent has been adopted, in which the plants are set at distances 
varying from twelve to twenty-four inches apart in the rows, and at slightly greater 



18 



THE C i n A JiKJIKJf 



ifiyMt^M;., 



_ ::^X^\^s^i£iS^^ 




Carts at Packing House Ready to be Unloaded 




THE CUBA REVIEW 19 



distance between rows when these are planted in beds. If the fruit falls over so as to 
expose a side to the direct effect of the sun, burning or scalding results, thus destroying 
the symmetry and beauty of the fruit, injuring greatly its market value, and this furnishes 
a further reason why the plants should be so set as to mutually support themselves in 
the field. In the case of the very heavy varieties such as the Smooth Cayenne pineapples 
this is doubly essential, but in these cases the very heavj^ and vigorous plants, if planted 
at the distance just mentioned, will form a network of leaves so dense that it is almost 
impossible for the plants to escape from a practicalh" perpendicular position. 

When, therefore, the soil is well prepared and ready to receive the young plants, 
these are brought to the field and delivered along the beds or rows. If the surface soil 
is such as tends to dry out quickly, it is best to remove from an inch or more of the base 
of the young plants the small short leaves under which are found the eyes from which 
the young roots spring, but if the soil is retentive, these j^oung leaves soon decay, permit- 
ting the roots to have direct access to the earth. Thej^ soon establish themselves. In 
very light soils, inclined to blow, the hearts of the j'oung plants should be filled with some 
such material as cotton seed meal or dried blood, preventing them from being filled and 
caused to decay by sand or earth that other-^vise would blow into them. These sub- 
stances also act as a fertilizer, the rains carrying down to the j'oung roots the plant food 
contained in them. 

Thorough cultivation of the fields is essential, in order that the soil may not become 
too compact and to keep down the weeds and grass that otherwise would smother the 
young plants. This cultivation is done largely by means of manual labor, although in 
many of our plantations a sufficient width between beds is left for the passage of a mule 
and cultivator. It is not very long, however, until the spread of the leaves of the plants 
is so great as to prevent such operations and to require further work to be done by hand. 
As we have already indicated, the greatest care is necessarj^ to prevent water from stand- 
ing in the fields, and in reality drainage should be provided of such a character as to 
prevent the surface twelve inches of soil from becoming waterlogged at any time during 
the life of the crop. This cultivation must be continued until shortly before the blooming 
period of the plant commences, this being from eight to twelve months after planting, 
depending upon the class of plants used, whether suckers or shps, upon the climatic con- 
ditions, and upon the care, cultivation and fertilization that has been given the field. 

Here, fertilization of the pineapple fields is not the rule, Cuba suffering in this respect 
a great contrast to Porto Rico, where a pineapple industrj^ of considerable importance 
also exists. Tests with fertilizers have been made in Cuba on the soils best adapted to 
the growth of pineapples, and they have invariably shown favorable results, increasing 
not only the size of the fruit, but also the number of pineapples obtained from the fields 
and the quality and resistance to shipping of the fruit. Those familiar with the market 
conditions governing the sale of Porto Rican pines have beyond doubt noticed the higher 
prices that are invariably obtained for them during the period of heavy shipments of 
fruit from Cuba, and the writer understands that this difference is largely due to the 
superior quality of the Porto Rican fruit, the result of its being picked when in a riper 
condition than is possible with the Cuban fruit, this being possible on account of its 
better carrying qualities. Anyone who has had opportunity of comparing the luscious, 
aromatic flesh of a pineapple which has reached almost complete ripeness upon the plant, 
with the hard, tough, fibrous, almost tasteless and aromaless flesh of the average Cuban 
pineapple as sold in the North, can realize the tremendous importance that attaches to 
the harvesting of this fruit at the latest possible moment that will allow it to reach the 
market and be sold while still in good condition. The care, cultivation and heavy ferti- 
lization with proper fertilizers given the Porto Rican pineapple has enabled the growers 
there to leave their fruit upon the plant until it has those qualities which make this fruit 
the really luscious edible that it is. Our chemists have shown that the pineapple is one 
of the very few fruits whose sugar content is not increased through the coloring or "ripen- 
ing" process after the fruit is once detached from the plant, the sugar in the fruit coming 
only from the stem and leaves of the plant itself. This explains why the gathering of 



20 



T U K C IB A HKlIKJy 




A Basket of "Pines" Ready for 
Wrapping 




Special Pack 
for Largre, 
Smooth Cay- 
enne Pine- 
apples 



Special Pack Used for LarKc 

Smooth Cayenne Pineapples 

from Isle of Pines 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 




Placing Each Pineapple in a Paper Bag, Used Instead of the Ordinary Paper Wrap 




A Packing House Crew 



Tin: CUBA RE II Ely 




Interior of PackiriR House, Showing Method of Unloading Fruit in Baskets 




^!?9msmimmmmm^mmmmmL 



Packed Pineapples, Ready for Shipment 



THE CUBA REVIEW 23 

the pineapple before it is thoroughly ripe detracts from its good qualities. It is the 
writer's beUef that the thorough fertilization of the Cuban pine would place it upon an 
equality with that of Porto Rico, in size, depth of color, and luscious flavor and aroma. 
Some of our growers seem to be awakening to the possibilities along this line, and are 
seeking information and making trials to a greater extent each year. 

As we have already indicated, some of the suckers springing from the parent plants 
at the time these bear fruit, come from the stem of the plant below the soil. These, of 
course, are in position to put out new and independent roots of their own, and, therefore, 
they are left in the field, to continue it for a further year's production. Two or three 
suckers are usually left to each plant. These are cultivated and cared for as was the 
original field, and under favorable circumstances each of these suckers bears a fruit, 
though this fruit almost always averages smaller in size than the fruit from the original 
plant. This process of suckering continues, under extremely favorable conditions, .for 
as many as five or six years, though we believe the average to be three or four. The 
original strength of the soil and the care and intelligence with which cultivation has been 
practiced, influence the number of years that the field can be continued in profitable 
bearing, and we have no doubt that this period can be increased by the proper use of 
fertilizers. 

The heavy period of fruiting of the pineapple in Cuba begins with December and 
January of each year, at which time deep down in the heart of the plant the small j^oung 
leaves turn a somewhat lighter color, followed by the appearance of a button-like bud 
surrounded by leaves tinged with the brightest crimson, which upon developing becomes 
a mass of small somewhat purplish blossoms surrounding the top of a heavy sturdy stem. 
As growth progresses, the fruit takes on its true form, the color changing gradually from 
a rather light green to a deep dark green, the "eyes" from which the small blossoms had 
protruded graduallj^ become large and more open, and finally the deep green color begins 
to change near the junction of the fruit with the stem to a light yellow, which, as ripeness 
becomes more complete, changes to a deep orange yellow, gradually covering the fruit 
from its base to the crown. For home consumption the fruit is always allowed to become 
at least one-half colored before it is cut from the plant. But in this condition it is quite 
delicate and must be handled with extreme care, and because complete ripeness is reached 
very promptly thereafter, and allowance must be made for the time required for picking, 
packing, shipping and distribution to the consumer in good condition, harvesting for 
export begins before any change of color is noticeable upon the majoritj^ of the fruits 
themselves. This operation is pei formed by men of experience who can judge at a 
glance when the fruit has reached the stage of maturity desired, and who, armed with a 
long knife and accompanied by laborers carrying large flat baskets on their heads, go 
up and down the rows of pineapples severing the stems of those fruits which are in proper 
condition to be taken, leaving only a very short portion of the stem attached to the fruits. 
These are then placed in the baskets, which, when filled, are taken to the carts that 
await them in the roads bordering the field or left at certain intervals throughout the 
plantation, in which, piled carefully in regular rows, as can be seen in one of the illus- 
trations, they are carried to the packing houses. Here they are received and placed 
in large bins or piles, fiom which they are removed and classified by eye by skilled workers 
into the different sizes required to fill the crates. In the packing houses of the most 
progressive growers and packers, it is customary also to classify the fruits accorchng to 
their condition of ripeness, thus securing uniformity in the fruit occupying each crate. 
The various sizes of fruit packed in Cuba are such that twelve, eighteen, twentj^-four, 
thirty, thirty-six, forty-two and forty-eight fruits will fill the standard crate. The 
sizes most in demand in the maiket are, we are told, twenty-four's, thirty's and thirtj^- 
six's, sizes larger than these being demanded only by the fancy trade, while sizes smaller 
than thirty-six's should in reality be utilized for canning and preserving. After sizing ■ 
and classification according to ripeness, each pineapple is then wrapped in a sheet of 
paper or else placed in a paper bag. They are then placed in the crates in regular order, 
the crowns of the fruit toward the top and bottom of the crates, leaving the fruits them- 



•JV 



Tin: (• Lli A IxEJlElV 




Trucks Delivering Pineapples to Steamer, Havana 




Shipping Crated Pineapples from Packing House to Havana, There to be Loaded on Steame 

for the North 



THE CUBA REVIEW 25 



selves protected in the interior. The crates are then marked with the brand of the 
packer, the number of fruit contained therein, the degree of ripeness of the fruit, and the 
name and address of consignee in the North, and in this condition they are ready for 
shipment. 

The above refers to the Red Spanish pineapple. In the case of the larger varieties 
such as the Smooth Cayenne, special methods have been adopted for securing their 
arrival at market in first class condition. Because this pineapple is a fancy fruit and 
commands a fancy price, the greater expense involved can be taken. We thus find that 
in the Isle of Pines special cardboard cartons have been utilized, in each of which, 
wrapped in excelsior, a Smooth Cayenne pineapple is placed, and two or four of these 
cartons are placed in a special crate, shipment being effected in this manner. Of course, 
many of the smaller sizes are merely wrapped in paper and shipped as are the Red 
Spanish pineapples, but this fruit is so heavj^, so luscious and full of juice, that arrival at 
market in good condition, if picked at a stage of maturity that will bring out its best 
qualities, is frequently doubtful. For this reason the cultivation of this variety of 
pineapple, we believe, can never become general, and its success must depend upon the 
creation and continuation of a special market for them. 

The transportation of our pineapple crop from the packing house to the consumer was 
formerly effected exclusively by freight train in Cuba and bj^ steamer from Cuba to the 
North. It was thus not an unusual sight during April, May and early June to find train 
loads of crated pineapples on the docks in Havana and Hacendados, being unloaded by 
means of gang planks from the cars to hghters, and in them transported to the steamers 
waiting in the open harbor, in which they were stowed. That part of the crop going to 
New York and other eastern markets is still handled in this manner. At times these 
steamers carry as many as 15,000 to 25,000 crates in one voyage. A great number of 
handlings was thus required in order that a crate of pineapples arrive at its destination, 
and surprise wiU not be caused when the reader learns that the loss from decay and from 
broken packages due to this method of shipment and to the lack of care shown by all 
connected therewith was very heavy, small mountains of fruit being found on the decks 
of the steamers and on the docks after unloading each cargo. In the early daj^s of the 
industry barrels were utihzed as containers in which to ship pineapples, the first crates 
not having appeared in Cuba until utilized by Col. S. S. Harvey, whose experience in 
Florida had taught him the ad\dsabihty of their use. Now the shipment of pineapples 
in barrels is never practiced, except occasionally by direct steamer to Tampa or Key 
West for local use there. The advent of the car ferries between Key West and Havana 
gave our pineapple growers another outlet, which has been received with favor and has 
resulted in profit to tliis industry. Previous to the coming of the car ferries, almost all 
the pineapples shipped had gone to New York and eastern markets, resulting in their 
prompt glutting each season, and the consequent lowering of prices and loss to our growers. 
Shipments, however, had begun to be diverted by steamer to New Orleans, thence by 
rail to Chicago. But with the coming of the car ferry all this has been changed. The 
ventilated cars used are run alongside the packing houses, filled with their cargoes, and 
these go north via Key West without change or movement, their routing and final desti- 
nation being determined by the distributor in the North, the fruit thus arriving in sound 
condition in undamaged and sightly packages, attractive to the consumer. It has been 
proved that the fruit can be picked when more mature for shipment in tliis way, tliis 
being a further and great advantage of this route. Direct shipments all rail to Chicago 
have become greater and greater in volume, until now a very large percentage of the 
crop is marketed from that point as a distributing center. Those in position to know 
state that the western markets are much more favorable than are those of the east, and 
are capable of taking a very much larger volume of fruit without the lowering of price 
that formed such a serious drawback to the industry during the days of marketing almost 
exclusively through New York. 

The methods employed by those connected with the pineapple industry in Cuba in 
regard to the production, packing and sale of the crop differ widely. We have, for in- 



'26 



T II K (' r li A RKJIKfV 




Truck§ Delivering Pineapples to Steamer, Havana 




Steamer Waiting to Receive Pineapples, Havana 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



27 




Railroad Cars Being Loaded with Pineapples for Shipment North via "All Rail Route" 




Sample Cases of Pineapples, Ready for Market 



28 THE V IB A REJIKIV 

stiince, important srowers who own tlioir own lanils and tlir()Ufz;h lihvcl labor plant, 
cultivate and han-ost the fruit, packing it in their own jiacking houses and sellinp; it 
tlirouph either their own or selected agencies. In other instances, by far in the majority, 
the growing is done by parties whose connection with their product ceases after its sale 
to the owners and delivery at the packing houses. In many cases of this character, 
the packers advance to these growers funds with which to carry on their agricultural 
ojierations. these funds being repaid at the time of the pineapple harvest. The fruit 
when bought in the fielil is paid for at so much i)er dozen, the price varying according 
to the average size and ciuality of the fruit, as also with the conditions prevailing in the 
j)rinoi])al markets to which the fruit must be shipped. At different periods prices for 
pineai)ples delivered at the packing houses have varied from twenty-four cents to as 
high as fifty-five cents per dozen, the latter price, however, being for the very best grade 
of fniit at a period of high market prices in the North. Our packers here market through 
agencies estal)lished in the North or through the commission houses situated in the points 
to which the pines arc shipped. 

During the early days of the j)ineai)ple industrj^, the names of Milian Alonso & 
Company, Berragorri k Pricto, Moreno Lopez and A. Califat were those of firms of 
importance, while at the present time among Cuban factors and arranged somewhat 
in order of importance are the Godinez Brothers, the Pine Box & Lumber Company, 
Jos^ Perc^z, Dardet & Company, A. Califat, Modesto Ledon, Bartolo Ruiz, Lopez Pereira, 
and one or two others. All of these carry on the business as we have already indicated, 
the majority of them packing the product purchased from the actual growers. Sales of 
the j)roducts thus packed are effected through the northern firms the West Indies Fruit 
Importing C\)mpany, Saitta & Jones, McCormack, Hubbs & Company, Mills Brothers, 
Manniello Brothers and Maj^son, and others, the West Indies Fruit Importing Company 
controlling by far the largest output from the Island. During the early daj's of the 
industry before the production liad passed 700,000 to 800,000 crates per year, the busi- 
ness was quite profitable. Low prices for sugar, however, and the profits derived from 
pineapi)les, caused an increase in plantings, until the total crop reached about 1,250,000 
crates. The short marketing period, covering only two to three months, caused this 
quantity to prove greater than could be profitably accepted by our northern markets, 
with the result that prices fell off and profits practically disappeared. With the increased 
prices of sugar, however, brought about by the recent war, many of our unprofitable 
pineapple fields were plowed up and planted to cane, resulting in a smaller total pro- 
duction, this for the past three or four seasons having run between 800,000 and 1,000,000 
crates. An improvement in price has been the result, so that the selling prices during 
these recent years have varied from .S3. 50 to .S7.00 per crate, as compared with an average 
expense seldom greater than about S2.00 per crate, leaving a handsome margin of profit. 
Judging, therefore, from the experience of these past few years, it woukl seem that the 
industry can look forward with promise to the future, provided that plaiUings are not 
increased to yield a total crop of more than about 1,000,000 crates. 

The home consumption of pineapples in Cuba is relatively small. Canning is carried 
on to only a verj- limited extent, and the extraction of the juice for use in the making of 
soft drinks is very limited. A factory at Bainoa and two or three factories of less im- 
portance in and near Havana compose the consuming field in this line. For home con- 
sumption a limited quantity of fruit is obtainable the year round, as out of season fruits 
ripen practically throughout the year, but for commercial work of any character the 
season is limited to that between about April loth to July 1st. It is quite possible that 
the discovery of some method by which the fresh juice of the ripe pineapple in its original 
flavor could be preser\-ed indefinitely would result in a further local demand for this 
fruit, that would enable the area in which it is planted to be largely increased with profit 
to the growers. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 



Foreign Commerce of Cuba During 1919-20 

Consul General Carlton Bailey Hurst, Habana 

The total foreign commerce of Cuba during the fiscal year 1919-20 exceeded 
$1,290,000,000, which, compared with 1918-19, shows an increase of $504,000,000, or 
64 per cent. The unusual growth is largely owing to Cuban exports, which surpassed 
those of the preceding year by $385,000,000, while the value of the imports was only 
$119,000,000 more than the year before. 

The increase of $119,000,000 in importations is noted chiefly in the following items: 



Alimentary products 

Textiles 

Machinery 

Stones, earths and ceramic 
products 



Increase 



$49,800,000 
25,800,000 
18,740,000 

5,100,000 



Per Cent, 

of 

Increase 



41.0 
21.6 
15.7 



Animals and animal products 
Chemical products and per- 
fumery 



Increase 



5,900,000 
2,300,000 



Per Cent. 

of 

Increase 



This marked advance in the value of Cuban imports is accounted for in large measure 
by the phenomenal rise in prices of merchandise in the markets of origin. The increase 
in Cuban importations from the United States and Porto Rico amounted to $88,800,000, 
or 37%, the natural result of the intimate commercial relations existing between the two 
countries. Spain's shipments to Cuba increased by $6,500,000; those from France by 
$4,800,000; and from the United Kingdom by $4,800,000. Commerce with European 
nations that was quiescent during the war is beginning to assume its normal activity 
in this market. France was able to send to Cuba during 1919-20, $13,024,000 worth 
of merchandise, and England $13,607,000 worth; while German imports amounted 
during the fiscal year under consideration to $942,000 in value. 

The following table shows the approximate value of imports into Cuba during the 
fiscal year 1919-20 by classes of commodities, from the chief countries of origin: 





United 


Ger- 






United 


All Other 




Commodities 


States 


many 


Spain 


France 


Kingdom 


Countries 


Total 


Stones, earthsand ceramic 
products: 

Stones and earths. . . 


• 














$2,588,733 


$678 


$19,605 


$14,236 


$14,228 


$256,868 


$2,894,348 


Mineral oils, bitu- 


















8,012,802 








5,294 


1,091,998 


9,110,094 


Glass and crystal ware 


4,704,816 


22,150 


386,744 


135,218 


79,533 


270,506 


5,-598,967 


- Earthenware and por- 
















celain 


1,164,507 


29,138 


213,691 


69,042 


628,015 


191,067 


2,295,460 


Metals and their manu- 
















factures: 
















Gold, silver and plati- 
















num 


661,738 


133,686 


114,538 


50,998 


35,963 


90,449 


1,087,372 


Iron and steel 


20,431,658 


75,726 


35,514 


82,335 


646,549 


86,976 


21,358,758 


Copper and alloys. . 


1,978,287 


3,823 


74,450 


26,421 


97,643 


11,296 


2,191,920 


All other metals. . . . 


693,789 


1,921 


21,300 


27,359 


49,443 


8,179 


801,991 


Substances employed in 
















pharmacy, chemical in- 
















dustry and perfumery: 
















Primary products. . . 


1,222,904 


4,741 


339,112 


3,722 


14,614 


165,304 


1,750,397 


Paints, etc., var- 
















nishes and inks. . . 


2,290,746 


3,518 


8,240 


9,133 


202,272 


18,270 


2,532,179 


Chemical products. . 


9,206,127 


72,186 


323,559 


1,852,562 


254,422 


325,062 


12,033,918 


Oils, soap, etc 


6,013,718 


7,870 


383,953 


1,081,278 


180,429 


88,767 


7,756,015 


Textiles and their manu- 
















factures: 
















Cotton 


34,445,741 


35,043 


2,500,216 


1,015,654 


6,002,279 


1,937,979 


45,936,912 


Other vegetable fi- 
















bers 


4,123,885 


2,426 


443,101 


46,341 


1,525,496 


8,624,746 


14,765,995 


Wool, hair, etc 


3,636,330 


2,469 


202,446 


72,965 


920,780 


88,744 


4,923,734 


Silk 


1,088,828 


4,911 


74,826 


83,364 


46,949 


434,493 


1,733,371 



;k) 



THE cm A RKlIEfV 



Ciiminoditios 


I'nited 
States 


Ger- 1 

many | 


Spain 


France 


United 
Kingdom 


All Other 
Countries 


Total 


Paper and ciirdhoaril: 
I'lipcr and cardboard 
Honks aixl prints . . 
Wood !i lui (It her vcRPtablc 
suljstiinci-."; 

Wood and nianufac- 

factnr<"* of 

All otli.i 

Aninialii antl uninial prod- 
uct!*: 


5,6(i7,439 
501, .306 

6,378,207 
719,9.52 

2,060,335 
3,093,5.58 

11,165,816 

694,204 
36.742,847 
19,823,023 

29,7(i3,.342 
2.929,897 

38,808,218 
2,567,296 

12.410.375 
2.-509,570 
8,073,087 
6,757,445 
7,289,799 

1,0.59,097 
20,348.027 


13,534 
1,935 

5,158 
765 

142 

4,629 

42,059 

326,058 

■ '21,643 


360,794 
171,157 

315,161 
140,873 

2,474 
25,324 

776,756 

25,963 

50,453 

1,940 

309,222 
766,755 
749,295 
778,.593 
2,304,432 
6,269,083 
278.887 
470,421 
534,649 


30,114 
36,208 

73,747 
15,763 


11,275 
5,013 

52.985 
338,074 

542 
11,344 

28,308 

1,495 

522,174 

30,746 

8,590 

48,605 

330,540 

23 

131,712 

738,296 

9,121 

26,159 

286,871 


48,918 
26,323 

117,019 
119,187 

2,118,348 
9,.541 

61,967 

18,400 

269,145 

85,771 

8,429, .536 

2,763,302 

21,223,780 

58,394 

5,436,571 

344,055 

1,123,0.50 

8,080,679 

840,064 

10,000 
1,356,500 


6,132,074 
741,942 

0,942,277 
1,. 334,614 

4,181,699 


Hides and skins 

Manufactures of 


5,854 
15,253 

38,000 

113.287 

79,472 

18,804 

16,551 

2,542 

1,627 

16,536 

1,076,379 

2,364 

20,084 

6,781,745 


3,145,621 
12,048,242 


Instruments, machinery 
and apparatus: 

Musical instruments, 

watches.andclocks 

Machinery 


782,691 
37,739,965 
20,347,010 


Alimentary products: 

Meats 


38,529,494 


Fish 

BreadstufTs 

Fruits 

VeRetables 

Beverages and oils. . 
Dairy products 


6, .525. 110 
01,114,375 

3,405,938 
20,299,626 
10,958,426 

9,486,509 
15,3.54,788 




126,102 


15,859,230 


Articles free of duty: 


1,069,097 


.■Ml other 


666 


350,985 


109,889 


321, .506 


22,487,573 


Total 


$321,627,449 


$942,377 819,824,512 

1 


813,024,847 


$13,607,288 


$60,231,2.54 


$435,257,727 



Exportation of Cuban Products 

Exports of Cuban jiroducts during 1919-20 were valued at .$8.55,1. 38,. 341 against 
$470,2.59. 1()2 in 1918-19, an increase of 82 per cent. The price of Cuban sugar was 
the chief cause of this gain, this article having been marketed at an average of S0.08 
per })ound, the maximum cost during the year being $0,235 and the minimum $0,035, 
but the liropoi-tion of the sugar crop sold at the highest i)rice was rekitively small. 

The increa.se of 82 per cent in the exports represents .$376,000,000 worth of sugar 
and honey, 813,500,000 worth of tobacco, and the remainder in lesser proportions dis- 
tributed over other exports of enhanced value, with the exception of mineral products, 
which diminished by .$3,r300,000. 

The balance of trade during the fiscal year was in Cuba's favor, the exports having 
been greater in value than the imports by .$419,000,000, or 323/2 P^r cent of the total 
foreign commerce. 

The following table shows the total exports from Cuba and the exports to the 
United States and the United Kingdom by clas.ses of commodities for 1918-19 and 
1919-20: 





United 


States 


United Kingdom 


All other countries 


Total 


Commodities 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 1919-20 


1918-19 


1919-20 


Animals and an- 
imal products: 
Animals 


$2,886 
2,904,405 

62,152 


$2,566 






$600 
418,627 

324 


$1,250 
47,571 

285 


.■?3,486 
3,323,032 

62,476 


!«3,816 
2,095,738 

69,199 


Hides and skins 


2,048,167 

68,914 






Other animal 
products 













THE CUBA REVIEW 



31 





United States 


United Kingdom 


All other countries 


Total 


Commodities 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 1919-20 


Sugar and prod- 
ucts: 


298,494,743 

5,255,702 

100,208 

1,756,817 

283,709 

26,235 


593,487,801 

4,511,454 

117,045 

1,946,443 

361,595 


89,114,463 

184,957 

242 


117,447,067 

279,062 

1,537 


14,654,415 
21,119 
44,040 

426 

108,993 

5,100 


68,115,085 

6,181 

86,573 

446 

18,835 

48,201 


402,263,621 

5,462,778 
144,490 

1,757,243 

392,702 

60,719 


779,049,953 


Honey 

Confectionery. . 
Fruits and grains: 


4,796,697 
205,155 

1,946,889 


Grains and 
vegetables.. . . 
Marine products: 






380,430 


29,384 


47,350 


95,551 








Sponges 

Mineral products: 

Asphalt 

Iron, copper and 
manganese 


152,779 
11,795 

10,619,505 
15,990 

212,895 
259,800 


266,730 
1,169 

7,001,846 


2,571 


7,644 


48,164 


58,081 
25 

50 


203,514 
11,795 

10,619,505 
15,990 

287,529 
460,349 


332,455 
1,194 








7,001,896 


Old metals 

Forest products: 
Vegetable fibers 
Woods 










220,274 
312,007 




38 
173,051 


74,634 
171,199 


100,732 
501,413 


321,044 


29,350 


986,471 


Dyes and tan- 




Tobacco: 

Unmanufactured 

Manufactured.. 
Miscellaneous: 

Bee products... . 

Distilled prod- 


18,732,745 
3,459,465 

768,607 

254,554 
317,066 


24,422,349 
6,359,574 

759,930 

114,165 
146,005 


162,184 
6,122,834 

600,631 

567,040 
300 


216,310 

7,874,272 

59,100 

345,327 
753 


7,575,843 
4,783,760 

733,642 

936,311 
174,951 


7,735,307 
7,718,337 

391,834 

1.465,371 
243,219 


26,470,772 
14,366,059 

2,102,880 

1,757,905 
492,317 


32,373,966 
21,952,183 

1,210,864 

1,924,863 


Other 


389,977 






Total 


343,693,058 


642,148,034 


96,813,956 


126,451,511 


29,752,148 


86,538,796 


470,259,162 


855,138,341 



Imports and Exports by Countries 

The Cuban imports and exports by countries of origin and destination for the fiscal 
years 1918-19 and 1919-20 are shown in the following table: 





Imports 


Exports 




1918-19 


1919-20 


1918-19 


1919-20 




$235,727,045 


$321,627,449 


$343,693,0.58 

1 ,180 

47,631 

282,735 

4,236,007 

36,657 

51,805 

2,431,980 

185,826 

21,463 

540,702 

1,621 

16,331 

4,859 

18,990 

243,828 

416 

83,658 

28,205 

85,181 

300 

116,840 

793,276 

10,697 

669,099 

125,511 


$642,148,034 




1,050 




49,066 

187,283 

1,073,811 

82,154 


49,952 

177,676 

1,938,985 

808,390 


83,625 




1,590,722 




2,852,336 




79,768 




42,013 




6,755,335 

144,242 

71,032 

1,879,609 

283,169 

31,111 

201,740 


6,107,509 
703,211 
272,556 
265,146 
255,034 


15,296,890 




957,657 




12,185 


Chile 


1,021,109 




13,460 




24,988 


Haiti 


1,117,866 

116,992 

5,555,769 


9,792 




76,691 




4,245,233 


406,500 




2,833 




15,878 

4,387 

3,211,232 

15,053 

177,194 

3,968,298 

128,15^ 

2,034 

67,962 


13,795 

6,123 

6,109,763 

5,251 

88,619 

7,811,545 

1,329,342 

159,054 

603,005 


91,526 




158,384 




117,566 




1,222 




242,745 




734,439 




9,977 




6,787,920 


Denmark 


104,235 



THE CUBA liEl'IEJV 



Countries 



Spain 

France 

Gibraltar 

Greece 

Holland 

Italy 

United Kingdom. 

Norway 

PortUKal 

Rumania 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

China 

British India 

Japan 

Spanish Africa. . . 
French Africa. . . . 
British Africa. . . . 
Canary Islands. . . 

Egypt.. 

Australia 

Turkey 

Bermudas 

CJermany 

Finland 

Russia 

Philippines 

Bahamas 

Persia 

French China. . . . 

Siam 

Africa 

Arabia 



Total. 



Imports 



1918-19 



1919-20 



13.331,728] 
8,264,8531 



19,824.512 
13.024,847 



99,842 

563.891 

10.285,183 

213.004 

7.230 



1.128.991 

704.495 

15.000.680 

827.331 

13.357 



25,678 

175,929 

2,632.»>7.') 

12,1.50.(i.-).S 

8,804,526 



214,281 
284,243 

5,.592,.")07 
11,321,064 

9.991,291 



212,420 



320,651 



4.434 
94,700 



2.697 
942,377 



68,035 

429,4.34| 

536 



138 

48.698 

731,313 

524 

608 



Exports 



1918-19 



1919-20 



5,784,449 

11,322,652, 

19,023 

23,099 

68,120 

11.720 

96.813.956 

258.797 

325.289 



804.746 

40.885 

9.636 

23,216 

6.010 

7,030 

92.778 

286.554 

416.997 

10.252 

203,959 



2,138 



$315,685,867 $435,257,727 $470,259,162 $8.55,138.341 



10,860.776 

26,584,432 

1.56,652 

27,550 

5,941,771 

70,669 

127.020,261 

73,774 

323.402 

1.127.342 

2,930.638 

72.307 

16,625 

20,247 

52,956 

47,529 

731,221 

63,375 

709,836 

1,72S,.5.55 

2,771,917 

902.047 

7.065 

19,700 

2,620 

231 

4,200 

2,600 

376 



[NoTK. — Figures for United Kingdom do not agree in every case in this report, but they are copied as 
given in the original Cuban statistics.] 



Exports of Naval Stores from United States to Cuba 

The following table shows the exports of rosin and spirits of turpentine from the 
United States to Cuba last j-ear: 



Rosin 



Barrels 
25,105 



Value 
§445,884 



Spirits of Turpentine 
Gallons \'alue 



67,259 



886,555 



Piece-Goods Exports from United Kingdom 

Like details for the January-March exports from the United Kingdom to Cuba 
of cotton piece goods of all kinds are given below: 





Quantity 




\'aluf 


Jan-Mar.. 1913 


Jan.-Mar.. 1920 


Jan -Mar., 1921 


Jan.-Mar., 1913 


Jan.-Mar., 1920 


Jan.-Mar., 1921 


Yards 
1.').4.S9.900 


Square Yards 
6.814,700 


Square Yards 
3,.542,500 


£174.409 


£370,689 


£322,682 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



33 



The Sugar Industry 

U. S. Sugar Trade Year April Four months 

Slight increases in both imports of 1921 420,584 1,264,624 

sugar into the United States and exports }^20 f^I'Tf^ i'o??'^on 

of refined sugar from the country were jgjg 340 435 1018 673 

recorded in April, as compared with 1917 330^562 ljl48i616 

March, according to the figures of the 1916 338,800 1,159,662 

Customs division of the Treasury. . . . 

Imports for the month totalled 420,- , J^j^ respective quantities of Cuban 

584 ordinary tons, against 418,981 tons ^^^ ,^^*J ^^d duty free sugars imported 

in March, while refined exports totalled ^^ *^^ ^^^t four months of this and the 

14,585 tons, against 12,799 tons the *^° PJTT ''^'''? ''''' ^' ^°^^°'^'' '"^ 

month previous. Imports thus main- ^^^ °^ ^,000 pounds: 

tained the larger volume which charac- iq21 1920 1919 

terized the March movement, as com- Cuban 1,136,844 1,349,972 1,154,136 

pared with that of the several months Full duty... 118,085 146,905 63,246 

preceding, and exports showed a partial Dutyfree.. 9,695 5,756 29,107 

recovery from the low March level. Total. . . . 1,264,624 1,502,633 1,246,489 

The slight increase m import figures 

for the month was due entirely to hea\'ier The 18,504 tons of full duty sugars 

arrivals of full duty sugars, particularly imported in April from other countries 

Santo Domingos, as imports of Cuban and than San Domingo came in small quan- 

Philippine sugars feU off as compared titles from Central and South America 

with the preceding month. Cubas de- for the most part, wdth Peru supphdng 

creased from 383,981 tons in March to the largest amount. Imports from Java 

374,540 tons, while there were no arrivals reached the neghgible total of nineteen 

from the Philippines in April, against tons. 

8,029 tons in March. Full duty arrivals. The foUo^ndng are the figures of full 
on the other hand, increased from 26,971 duty imports by countries in greater de- 
tons in March, to 46,044 tons in April, tail, for April and for the first four months 
Santo Domingo sugars contributing 9,403 of the year, in tons of 2,000 pounds : 
tons of the increase and other full duty prom April Four months 

'Tr\^'f ° ^''•t . , San Domingo 27,540 59,151 

With the April returns, import figures Haiti 1 777 3 307 

are available for the first four months Mexico 1,780 8,953 

of 1921. They show receipts from aU Central America 6,235 9,718 

foreign sources of 1,264,624 ordinary gfher South America: I'M Ifoo 

tons, which is approximately comparable British West Indies . . 1,028 1,058 

to the imports during the corresponding Dutch West Indies. . . 1,601 3,083 

period of 1919, but is less by some 238,000 g^^ch East Indies. . . 19 17,027 

tons than imports in the first four months Canfda^^ 235 301 

of last year. Imports of Cuban sugars Other countries. . . . . . 

for the first third of the present year, — 

1,136,894 tons, are a httle smaUer than in Total 46,044 118,085 

1919 and about 213,000 tons less than in t^^ distribution of the 1921 imports 

1920. Ful duty imports this year are a ^^ customs district of receipt has been 

somewhat larger proportion of total im- -^ ordinarv tons- 

ports than in either 1919 or 1920, for the 

same period. Received at April Four months 

The foUowing table gives the import New York 161,014 559,192 

totals for April and for the first four Philadelphia 119,365 306,499 

XT. r -,7^>-.1 1 • ■ Boston 35,683 10o,485 

months of 1921 and previous years, in Savannah 13,730 30,571 

tons of 2,000 pounds: New Orleans 61,426 187,257 



:u 



THE C lli A REllEiy 



livrvivvil at Aiiril Fnur itionlhs 

( ;:ilv('ston Hl,()4:{ 42,7")9 

S:in Francisco :i,S31 12,681 

( )t luT continental .... S,884 20, 139 

Hawaii 5 38 

Porto Rico 3 3 

Total 42(),oSt 1,264,024 

April exports of refined sugar, amount- 
ing to 29,169,455 pounds, or 14,585 ordi- 
nary tons, bring the total for the first 
four months of 1921 up to 75,640 tons, 
which is roundly 29,000 tons more than 
the exports during the last four months 
of 1920. but is more than 200,000 tons 
under the export business of the first 
four months of last year, and the smallest 
April total recorded since 1915, with the 
one exception of April, 191S. 

The figures for April and for the first 
four months of this and preceding years 
arc as follows, in tons of 2,000 pounds: 

Year Ai)ril Four months 

1921... 14, .585 75,040 

1920 102.257 277,701 

1919 87,815 199,590 

lllis 3,837 14,142 

1917 40,142 147,843 

1910 04,-534 261,083 

As compared with March, the April 
exports show an increase of 1,786 tons, 
but they are smaller than the totals for 
any of the three preceding months. 
Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Ar- 
gentina and Germany were the countries 
figuring as principal buyers of American 
refined during the month, all of these 
except Italy taking larger quantities than 
in March. Europe in general was a larger 
purchaser in April. 

The following are the figures of exports 
by countries of destination in greater 

April Four monlhs 

To lbs. lbs. 

Great Britain 10,554,-500 22,708,372 

Greece 5,979,520 .32,920,020 

Italy 3,808, 157 12,990, 108 

Germany 1,311,225 1,811,022 

Turkev in Europe. . . 816,800 3,802,304 

Malta .574,000 041,201 

France 222,339 4.53,329 

Spain & Canary Is. . . 182,429 33,602,034 

Denmark 2,241,321 

Other Europe 8,378 1,493,648 

Mexico 1,040,0.53 7,102,784 

Newfoundland 437,.500 2,.547,808 

Canada 202,-508 1,019,7-50 

Panama 96,248 843,614 

Bermuda 107,514 -582,377 



A pril Fmir inoulhs 

To lbs. lbs. 

Central America. . . . 2,45 1 212,6r)5 

Cuba 242,428 3. .538,202 

Santo Domingo 08,379 1.292,4.50 

Haiti 72,011 ():51,118 

British West Indies... 100,322 799,004 

Virgin Is 1.58,.579 5.53,084 

Other West Indies.. . 27,912 105.664 

.\rgentina 1,460,000 5,102,4-35 

Uruguay 520,000 9,943,485 

Chile..'. .5.5,000 80.-562 

Other So. America... 10,998 635,377 

Turkey in Asia 184,800 1 ,075, 1 96 

Philippine Is 1,206,-500 

Other Asia 109,850 287,687 

French Oceania 2,681 3,811 

Morocco 122,120 122,120 

British West Africa.. 23,933 305,415 

Eg\-pt 100 224,100 

Other Africa 654 87,691 

Total 29,109,455 1 51,281,-343 

The export totals include <»xports of 
refined sugar from Porto Rico of 75 tons 
in April and 189 tons during the four 
months' period. Exports from the con- 
tinental United States were thus 14,510 
tons in April and 75,451 tons during the 
four months. 

Maple Sugar Production 1921 

Weather conditions during the pa.st 
winter and spring were unfayorable to 
the making of maple sugar and maple 
syrup throughout the producing regions 
of the I'nited States, reports the Bureau 
of Crop Estimate. There was very little 
of the alternate thawing by daj'' and 
freezing l)y night which is necessary for 
the best flow of sap. There were fewer 
trees tapped this season than usual, and 
the average yield per tree was generally 
lower than in 1920. 

The thirteen States which furnish 
most of the maple sugar produced in 
the United States made 5.093,100 pounds 
compared to 7,555,040 pounds last j'ear 
and 13,270,865 pounds in the record year 
of 1918. The syrup produced amounted to 
2,-583,-500 gallons against 3.657,255 gallons 
and the total production in terms of sugar 
was 25,761,100 pounds again.st 36,813,080 
pounds. Vermont led the States in the 
amount of its production with more 
than 2,800,000 pounds of sugar. New 
York was second with 1.124.000 pounds. 
The average yield per tree was 1.58 
pounds of total sugar against 1 .94 pounds 
last year. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 35 

Sugar Review 

Specially irntten for THE CUBA REVIEW by Willett & Gray, New York, N. Y. 

The upward trend of the raw sugar market which was mentioned in our last re^dew 
was not maintained, and a number of dechnes have since been registered until the 
quotation is now on the basis of 4c. duty paid at New York, which figures nominally 
2.40c. c. & f. for Cubas and 2c. c.i.f. for full duty sugars. The quotation for Cubas is 
entirel}^ nominal as no sales have been reported for a long period, these holders being 
absolutely withdrawn from the market. The principal sales during the period under 
review have consisted of Porto Ricos, Philippines, and various full duty sugars. In 
view of the fair demand being experienced for export refined sugar, the full duty raws 
have also sold at a premium over the nominal parity, as is shown by sales reported 
this week at 23/^c. c.i.f., equal to 4.50c. dutj^ paid, same being a premium of 50c. over 
the parity of Porto Rico sugars. 

As mentioned above, there has been a good demand for refined sugars for export, 
but the demand for local consumption has continued only moderate although mth the 
sudden spell of hot weather now upon us, this demand is slowly increasing to more 
normal proportions. The refined market has continued unsettled following the course 
of raws and prices are on the basis of 5. 40c. f.o.b. refinery. With, howei'er, a better 
demand for refined and a fu'mer tone now obtaining in the raw mai'ket, it would seem 
to us that prices are very close to the bottom. If the demand for refined continues to 
increase and sugars uncontrolled are rapidly absorbed, it will become necessary for the 
refiners to again enter the Cuban market, and as the ideas of Cuban holders are much 
above the present parity, a recovery may be looked for in the near future. 

Conditions in Cuba remain about the same having shown practically no improve- 
ment. The 172 Centrals on which we have the final outturn figures have produced 
3,273,690 tons of sugar against 3,110,794 tons in 1919-20. The number grincUng has 
now been reduced to 19. 

Since our last review, the President has signed the Emergency Tariff Bill, and same 
has now become a law. Under this new bill the schedule of tests is as follows: 



Basis 


On 


Full Duty 


Test 


Cent 


5 per Degree 


100° 




2.16 


99 




2.12 


98 




2.08 


97 




2.04 


*96 




2.00 


95 




1.96 


94 




1.92 


93 




1.88 


92 




1.84 


91 




1.80 


90 




1.76 


89 




1.72 


88 




1.68 


*Standard Basis. 



Differential Duty. 
20% off on 
Cuban Sugar 

Cents per Degree 


Basis 
Test 


On Full Duty 
Cents per Degree 


Differential Dutv. 
20% off on 
Cuban Sugar 

Cents per Degree 


1.728 


87 


1.64 


1.312 


1.696 


86 


1.60 


1.280 


1.664 


85 


1.56 


1.248 


1.632 


84 


1.52 


1.216 


1.600 


83 


1.48 


1.184 


1.568 


82 


1.44 


1.152 


1.536 


81 


1.40 


1.120 


1.504 


80 


1.36 


1.088 


1.472 


79 


1.32 


1.056 


1.440 


78 


1.28 


1.024 


1.408 


77 


1.24 


.992 


1.376 


76 


1.20 


.960 


1.344 


75 


1.16 


.928 



Little of interest is reported from abroad, the markets, in the United Kingdom 
particularly, appearing to be as much depressed as our own market. Raw sugars are 
quoted at 15s 9^d, and Enghsh granulated at 57s 6d. The Java market is again lower, 
sales of 20,000 tons Java white sugars being reported at 12 florins, equal to about 3c., 
f.o.b. Java. ]SIr. Licht has issued an estimate of European beet sowings for 1921-22 
which shows an increase of about 130 hectares for 1920-21 sowings, totals being as under. 



3(; T II K CUBA REVIEW 



EuROPK\N Beet Sowings — F. O. Light gives the following: 

1921-22 1920-21 

Hectares Hectares 

Germany 335,394 278,652 

Czecho-^lovakia 205,000 196,000 

France 91.000 SI, 840 

Holland 69.000 63,468 

Belgium oS.fjOO 53,052 

Sweden 47,600 45,387 

Denmark 34,000 38,600 

Hungarv 34,500 22,523 

Italy 70,000 46,000 

German-Austria 6,800 4,796 

Other countries excluding Russia 179,000 167,014 



Total 1,130,794 997,332 



New York, X. Y. 
June 24, 1921. 



Re vista Azucarera 

Escrita especialmente para la CUBA REVIEW por WiUett & Gray, de Nueva York 

La tendencia a la alza del mercado de azucar cnido mencionada en nuestra ultima 
revista no se sostuvo, y desde entonces han tenido lugar varias bajas, hasta que ahora 
la cotizacion es bajo la base de 4c. derechos pagados en Nueva York, que equivale 
nominalmente a 2.40c. costo y flete por azucares de Cuba y 2c. costo, seguro y flete por 
aziicares con todos los derechos. La cotizacion por los azucares de Cuba es enteramente 
nominal, pues no se ha tenido noticia de ventas por mucho tiempo, estos tenedores 
habiendose retirado absolutamente del mercado. Las ventas principales durante el 
periodo bajo resena han consistido de azucares de Puerto Rico, de las Fihpinas y de 
varios azucares con todos los derechos. En \-ista de la buena demanda que estd teniendo 
lugar por el azucar refinado para la exportacion, los azucares cnidos con todos los derechos 
se han vendido tambi^n con premio sobre la paridad nominal, como se muestra por las 
ventas efectuadas esta semana a 23/^c. costo, seguro y flete, equivalente a 4.50c. derechos 
pagados, siendo esto un premio de .oOc. sobre la paridad de los azucares de Puerto Rico. 

Como ya hemos mencionado anteriormente, ha habido una buena demanda por 
azucares refinados para la export.aci6n, pero la demanda para el consumo local ha con- 
tinuado solamente moderada, amique con el tiempo tan caluroso que hay ahora esta 
demanda estd aumentando poco a poco a propor clones mas normales. El mercado de 
azucar refinado ha continuado inseguro siguiendo el curso de los azucares crudos, 
y los precios son bajo la base de 5.40c. hbre a bordo la refinen'a. Lo cual, sin 
embargo, con mejor demanda por el azucar refinado y un tono mas firme que estd 
teniendo lugar ahora en el mercado del azucar crudo, somos de parecer que los precios 
han llegado muy cerca del limite. Si la demanda por el azucar refinado continua aumen- 
tando y los azucares Ubres se consumen rdpidamente, serd necesario que los refinadores 
A'uelvan a entrar al mercado de azucares de Cuba, y como las ideas de los tenedores 
cubanos son muy por encima de la actual paridad, es de esperarse una reacci6n en el 
cercano futuro. 

El estado del azucar en Cuba continua lo mismo, sin que haya mostrado mejorfa 
practicamente. Los 172 Centrales de los cuales hemos conseguido las cifras finales han 
producido 3,273,690 toneladas de azucar contra 3,110,794 toneladas en 1919-20. Los 
Centrales ocupados ahora en la mohenda se han reducido a 19. 

Desde nuestra ultima re^•ista el Presidente ha firmado la Tarifa de Emergencia, la 
cual es ahora una ley. Bajo esta nueva ley la tarifa de polarizacion es la siguiente: 







THE CUBA 


REVIEW 


37 


Base de 
Polarizacio: 


Con todos los 
derechos Centavos 
a por Grado 


Derecho Diferencial 

20% de rebaja 
en aziicar de Cuba 
Centavos por Grado 


Base de 
Polarizacion 


Con todos los 

derechos Centavos 

por Grade 


Derecho Diferencial 

20% de rebaja 
en aziicar de Cuba 
Centavos por Grado 


100° 


2.16 


1.728 


87 


1.64 


1.312 


99 


2.12 


1.696 


86 


1.60 


1.280 


98 


2.08 


1.664 


85 


1.56 


1.248 


97 


2.04 


1.632 


84 


1.52 


1.216 


*96 


2.00 


1.600 


83 


1.48 


1.184 


95 


1.96 


1.568 


82 


1.44 


1.152 


94 


1.92 


1.536 


81 


1.40 


1.120 


93 


1.88 


1.504 


80 


1.36 


1.088 


92 


1.84 


1.472 


79 


1.32 


1.056 


91 


1.80 


1.440 


78 


1.28 


1.024 


90 


1.76 


1.408 


77 


1.24 


.992 


89 


1.72 


1.376 


76 


1.20 


.960 


88 


1.68 


1.344 


75 


1.16 


.928 



*Base Establecida. 

Del extranjero poco hay que comunicar, y al parecer esos mercados estan en tan 
mal estado como nuestro mercado, particularmente el de la Gran Bretana. Los aziicares 
crudos se cotizan a 15s 9^d, y el aziicar granulado de Inglaterra a 57s 6d. El mercado 
de Java esta otra vez mas bajo, habiendose efectuado ventas de 20,000 toneladas de 
azucares blanqueados a 12 florines, equivalente a unos 3c. libre a bordo Java. El 
estadistico Mr. Licht ha expedido un calculo de las siembras de remolacha en Europa 
para 1921-22, que muestra un aumento de imas 130 hectareas para las siembras de 
1920-21, cuyos totales damos a continuacion. 

Siembras de Remolacha en Europa. — F. 0. Licht da lo siguiente: 



Alemania 

Czecho-Slovakia 

Francia 

Holanda 

Belgica , 

Suecia 

Dinamaeca 

Hungria 

Italia 

Austria alemana 

Otros paises excluyendo Rusia 

Total 1,130,794 

Nueva York, 
Junio 24, 1921. 



1921-22 


1920-21 


Hectares 


Hectares 


335,394 


278,652 


205,000 


196,000 


91,000 


81,840 


69,000 


63,468 


58,500 


53,052 


47,600 


45,387 


34,000 


38,600 


34,500 


22,523 


70,000 


46,000 


6,800 


4,796 


179,000 


167,014 



997,332 



Sugar Crop of Hawaii 

Hawaii's sugar crop for the year end- 
ing September 30, 1920, was the smallest 
in five years, according to the revised 
figures issued by the Bureau of Crop 
Estimates of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. The production for 
the year is reported as 555,727 ordinary 
tons of sugar, which is 8% below the 
average of the preceding four years. 

There was a decrease of 5% in the har- 
vested cane area and one of 5% in the 



yield of cane per acre. These decreases 
are attributed to the fact that conditions 
during the year were less favorable for 
cane production than the average. An- 
other factor was that grinding of the 
1919-20 crop was later than usual, so that 
all of the mills had not finished at the 
end of September. 

In one respect, however, the crop made 
a better showing than in preceding sea- 
sons, the yield of sugar per ton of cane 
being two pounds above the average. 



38 Tin: CUBA REVIEW 



Cable "Turnure" FOUNDED IN 1832 NE^V YORK— 64 Wall Street 

LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection 
and Remittance of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Pubhc and Industrial 
Securities. Purchase and Sale of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, 
etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana 
and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo 
Domingo, and Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS : 
HAVANA: N. Gelats & Co. PARIS: Heine & Co. 

PUERTO RICO: Banco Commercial de Puerto Rico 
LONDON: The London Joint City & Midland Bank, Ltd. 
^Banco Urquijo, Madrid 
SPAIN: .Banco de Barcelona, Barcelona 

'Banco Hispano Americano and Agencies 



Map of Cuba 

Showing the location of all the active sugar plantations in Cuba 
and giving other data concerning the sugar industry of Cuba. 

Size, 29% X 24. Copyrighted 19 18. 

Price 50 cents postpaid. 

THE CUBA REVIEW 

67 Wall Street, New York 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

ENGINES, BOILERS AND MACHINERY 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass Castings. 

Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

A. KLING. Prop. TVyinRIf 17 AI A STEAMSHIP WORK 

JAS. S. BOGUE, Supt. IVH^Dll-C, /\L./\. a SPECIALTY 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton. Night Call, 411 Hamilton. Cable Address: "Abiworks" New York. 

ATLANTIC BASIN IRON WORKS 

Engineers, Boiler Makers and Manufacturers. Steamship Repairs in All Branches. 

Heavy Forgings, Iron and Brass Castings, Copper Specialties, Diesel Motor Repairs, Cold Storage 
Installition, Oil Fuel Installation, Carpenter and Joiner Work. 

18-20 Summit Street— 11-27 Imlay Street Near Hamilton Ferry BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Agents for "Kinghorn" Multiplex Valve 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



The RoyaiBank°> Canada 

Fundado en 1869 

Capital Pagado - - - $20,350,000.00 

Fondo de Reserva - - 20,240,000.00 

Active Total - - - - 530,000,000.00 

SETECIENTAS TREINTA SUCURSALES 

CINCUENTA Y TRES EN CUBA 

OFICINA PRINCIPAL: MONTREAL 

LONDRES: 2 Bank Building, Princes Street 
NEW YORK: 68 William Street 
BARCELONA: Plaza de Cataluna G 
THE ROYAL BANK OF CANADA, (France) 
PARIS: 28 Rue du Quatre Septembre 

Corresponsales en todas las plazas bancables 
del Mundo. 

Se expiden CARTAS DE CREDITO para 
viajeros en DOLLARS, LIBRAS ESTERLINAS 
Y PESETAS, valederas sin descuento alguno. 

En el DEPARTAMENTO DE AHORROS se 
admiten depositos a interns desde UN PESO en 
adelante. 

SUCURSAL PRINCIPAL EN LA HABANA 

Aguiar 75 esquina a Obrapia 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 



Bankers 



Transact a General Banking Business. 
Correspondents at all the prin- 
cipal places of the world. 

SAFE DEPOSIT VAULTS 

Office: Aguiar 108 
HAVANA 




United States Production in 1920 

Final figures of the 1920 sugar pro- 
duction in the United States, issued by the 
Crop Estimates Bureau, and covering both 
cane and beet sugar production, con- 
firmed previous indications of a record 
crop, exceeding the best previous crop 
in 1916 by 12%. 

The total was placed at 1,266,148 tons, 
86% of it being beet sugar. About 28% 
of the cane acreage was in seed cane. 



Our established relations with manufac- 
turers and large volume of business 
allow us to quote advantageously on 
all classes of 

RAW MATERIALS 

Chemical Products 

Caustic Soda — Bicarbonate — Soda Ash 

Muriatic Acid — Nitric — Sulphuric Acid 

Oils — Greases — Waxes 

Gums — Glues — Dextrines 

Fertilizers 

We also offer a full line of 

Sugar Bleach and Filtering Materials 

Tanners' Extracts and Oils 

Paints and Preservatives 

Insecticides and Disinfectants 

Essences — Herbs — Condiments 

Drugs and Chemical Specialties 

and all other requirements 

FOR ALL INDUSTRIES 

We feel it will be to your advantage to permit 
us to figure on your requirements when you 
are next in the market. 

THOMAS F. TURULL & CO. 

140 Liberty St., New York 

2 and 4 Muralla, Havana 

Santiago Cienfuegos Camaguey Matanzas 

Porto Rican Representatives: 

UNION COMMERCIAL CORPORATION 

Oficianas Tanca No. 2 San Juan, P. R. 



Sugar Beet Seed 

Imports of sugar beet seed into the 
United States in the nine months' period 
from June 30, 1920, to March .31, 1921, 
amounted to 18,007,087 pounds, valued 
at $3,728,378, according to reports of the 
Department of Commerce. This is an 
increase of 3,000,000 pounds over imports 
during the corresponding period of 1919- 
20, which amounted to 15,067,078 pounds, 
valued at $3,389,877. For the nine months 
ending March 31, 1919, seed imports 
were only 724,206 pounds, valued at 
$147,355. 



American Soap Exported to Cuba 

The amount of American soap exported 
to Cuba during 1920 was as follows: 

Toilet and All otJier 

fancy Pounds Value 

value 

Sd24,635 11,254,493 $1,251,469 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



M) 



THE C in A REJIKIV 



THE 



Crust Company of €uba 



HAVANA 



CAPITAL 
SURPLUS 



$500,000 
$900,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 

BANKING BUSINESS 

Examines Titles, Collects Rents 
Negotiates Loans on Mortgages 



OFFICERS 

Oswald A. Hornsby ...President 

Claudio G. Mendoza Vice-President 

James M. Hopgood Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Vice-President 

Alberto Marquez Treasurer 

Silvio Salicrup Assistant Treasurer 

Luis Perez Bravo Assistant Treasurer 

Oscar Carbajal Secretary 

William M. Whitner Manager Real Estate 

and Insurance Depts. 



%^ 



§9 



WATERPROOF 

BELTING 
ISWATERP] 

GARANTIZAMOS QUE ESTA 11.,,,. 
CORREA ES PERFECTA i\Jv^ 
POR SU CALIDAD Y »^ 

PRECIO.-EL QUE PRUEBA 
VUELVE- 



l^"^ 




GERENTE P.N.PIEDRA.- i • -^— 

BELTING MANUFACTURERS 

16 - IS RE AiJE ST. >— s NEW YORK ,M.Y. 



Aparato Nuevo 

para trasbordar y 

Pesar Caiia Neto 

SIstema nueva patentada por 

Horace F. Ruggles, 108 Wall St., N. Y., 

constructor de trasbordadores 

superlores 

Funciona por motor, levantando, pespndo, tras- 
bordando y disparando la cana por un hombre y 
imprime billetes duplicadas del peso neto. 

Pidanse informes del modelo "La Victoria." 



A Weekly Publication of 
International Interest 



It covers every field and phase of the industry 
WRITE FOR SAMPLE COPY 



Subscription - $3.00 Per Year 



Facts About Sugar 

82 Wall Street, New York 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

ESTABLISHED 1836, AT 105 WALL STREET 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



1920-21 Season in France 

A recent report from the office of the 
commercial attache at Paris states that 
the total quantity of sugar delivered by 
the 72 factories in France from September 
1, 1920, to the end of April, 1921, reached 
294,260,142 kilos, as compared w-ith 
156,377,837 kilos during the corresponding 
season of the previous year. The stocks 
remaining at the factories at the end of 
April amounted to 25,338,609 kilos, as 
compared with 6,977,050 kilos for the 
previous year. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



United Railways of Havana 

CONDENSED TIME TABLE OF DAILY THROUGH TRAINS 



No. 11 

P M 


No. 1 

P M 


No. 7 

PM 


No. 5 

PM 


No. 3 

AM 


No. 9 

AM 


§ 

58 
109 

179 

230 

180 

195 

241 

276 

340 

520 
538 


HAVANA 


No. 2 

AM 


No. 8 

AM 


No. 6 

PM 


No. 10 

PM 


No. 4 

PM 


No. 12 

AM 


10.31 


10.01 
AM 

12.17 
4.05 

6.00 

9.45 

6.00 


4.01 

6.40 
8.40 
PM 


1.01 

3.23 
5.50 

9.22 


10.01 

11,54 
2.00 

4.47 

8.35 


7.01 

9.25 
12.37 
PM 


Lv Central Station Ar 

Ar . . . Matanzas . . . Lv 
Cardenas 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

.... Santa Clara .... 


6.50 

4.15 
12.05 

PM 
10.45 

7.25 

11.00 


9.40 

6.52 
5.00 
AM 


3.31 

1.10 
10.00 

6.45 


6.30 

3.50 
1.20 
PM 


7.25 
5.06 


6.30 


* 


12.10 
PM 
8.15 
AM 


* 






9.00 




7.40 






7 10 


7.10 
PM 






PM 
11.15 
AM 


10.15 


AM 


9.55 

11.35 
PM 
3.10 
AM 






. . . Sancti Spiritus . . . 
. . . Ciego de Avila . . . 

Camaguey 

Antilla 


4.45 

3.45 

12.16 
AM 








P M 






PM 

2.55 

6.10 

2.10 
6.45 
P M 








12.40 
AM 
9.00 
PM 

10.40 
9.00 
AM 


































3.45 
AM 








Santiago 


12.01 
AM 























Sleeping cars on trains 1, 2, 5, 6, 11 and 12. 
* Via Carreno. 



SLEEPING CAR RATES— UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 



From Havana to 

Cienfuegos 

Sagua 

Caibarien 

Santa Clara 

Ciego de Avila 

Camaguey 

Bayamo 

Altro Cedro 

Santiago 



Lower 
Berth 



85.00 



5.50 
6.00 



7.00 
8.00 



Upper 
Berth 

S4.00 



4.50 
5.00 



6.00 
7.00 



Compart- 
ment 

S12.00 



15.00 
20.00 



Dra wing- 
Room 

$15.00 



18.00 
25.00 



ONE-WAY FIRST-CLASS FARES FROM HAVANA TO 
PRINCIPAL POINTS REACHED VIA 

THE UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 

U. S. Cy. 

Antilla 829.21 

Batabano 2.95 

Bayamo 26.24 

Caibarien 14.81 

Camaguey 20.57 

Cardenas 7.96 

Ciego de Avila 17.47 

Cienfuegos 12.33 

Colon 8.12 

Guantanamo 31 . 70 

Holguin 26.87 

Passengers holding full tickets are entitled to free transportation of baggage when the same weighs 110 pounds 
or less in first-class and 66 pounds or less in second-class. 

ROUND TRIP TICKETS— First and Second Class 

are on sale from Havana to Matanzas, Jovellanos, Cardenas, Colon, Union, Sagua, 
Caibarien and Cienfuegos, valid for three days after date of sale. 

UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 





U. S. Cy. 
sio.oo 




4.25 




27.74 




4.60 


Placetas 13.54 




14.50 




11.98 




1.80 




15.51 




12.08 


Santiago de Cuba 


30.08 



W. T. MEDLEY, Commercial Agent 



ARCHIBALD JACK, General Manager 



HAVANA, CUBA 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



42 



THE CUBA REIIEU- 



S. F. HADDAD 

DRUGGIST 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

"PASSOL" SPECIALTIES 
88 BROAD STREET, Cor. Stone, NEW YORK 



Sobrinos de Bea y Ca S. en C. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

Importacion dirccta dc todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, New York 
and Mobile; James E. Ward & Co., New York; 
Serra Steamship Company, Liverpool; Vapores 
Transatlanticos de A. Folrh & Co., de IBarcelona, 
Espaiia. 

INDEPENDENCIA STREET 17/21 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



Established .50 Years Shipping Trade a Specialty 



JOHN w. McDonald & son 

CORD WOOD FOR DUNNAGE 

LUMBER AND TIMBER 

Wholesale and Retail 

Office, 15-25 Whitehall St., New York 

Telephones: I cQeq \ Bowling Green 
Lumber and Timber Yards, Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Telephone 0316 Henry Night Call, 2278 Henry 



THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 
Contracting Engineers 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish Plans and Estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 

New York Office, 8 West 40th Street 
Havana Office: Zulueta 36 D 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address: Kunomale, New York 
Telephone 3300 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 18f> 
Maritime Exchange 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

CAULKERS, SPAR MAKERS, 

BOAT BUILDERS, ETC. 

No. 9 Summit Street 

Near Atlantic Dock, BROOKLYN 



CARLOS M. VARONA 



ICauiQpr 

MERCADERES No. 5 

HAVANA, CUBA 



M. J. CABANA 

COMMISSION MERCHANT 

P. 0. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handles all kinds of merchandise either on a 
commiss'on basis or under agency arrangements. 
Also furnishes all desired information about lands 
in eastern Cuba. 



P. RUIZ & BROS. 

Eitgrauera - - Wmt ^taliotipry 

RUIZ BUILDING 

O'Reilly & Habana Sts. P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



F. W. Hvoslcf E. C. Day R. M. Michelson 

BENNETT, HVOSLEF & CO. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

Cable "Benvosco" 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



43 



Munson Steamship Lines 



NEW YORK— Cuba Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 



Leave 
New York 



S/S "MUNAMAR" Aug. 13 

Ans. 27 



Arrive 
Antilla 

Aug. 17 
Aug. 31 



Leave 
Antilla 



Havana. . . .Every Week 
Matanzas. Every 2 Weeks 
Cardenas. Every 2 Weeks 



Aug. 20 
Sep. 3 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings for Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, 
Puerto Padre, Gibara, Manati, Banes and Nuevitas. 

MOBILE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Regular sailings as follows : 
Isabela de Sagua. .Every 3 Weeks 



Arrive 
New York 

Aug. 24 
Sep. 7 



Caibarien. 
Nuevitas. 
Manati. . 



Guantanamo . Every 3 Weeks 

Antilla " " " 

Santiago... " " " 
Cienfuegos. " " " 

MOBILE — South America Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER — Montevideo-Buenos Aires Semi-monthly 

A STEAMER— Brazil Monthly 

NEW YORK— South America Service 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT 

United States Shipping Board's Passenger Service 

S/S "HURON" (a) Aug. 3 

S/S "AEOLUS" (a) Aug. 17 

S/S "SOUTHERN CROSS" (c) Aug. 31 

(a) 1st, 2d and 3d class, (c) 1st and 3d class. 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Semi-monthly sailings for Brazilian Ports and River Plate. 

BALTIMORE— Cuba Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

A STEAMER — Baltimore-Havana Every Other Thursday 

A STEAMER — Baltimore-Cienfuegos-Santiago Every Other Thursday 

NEW YORK— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly sailings from New York for Progreso, Tampico and Vera Cruz. 

NEW ORLEANS— Mexico Service 

FREIGHT ONLY 

Bi-weekly saihngs from New Orleans for Tampico and Vera Cruz. 



The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 



GENERAL OFFICES: 



67 Wall Street, New York 



BRANCH OFFICES: 



Drexel Building, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
418 Olive Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Keyser Building, BALTIMORE, MD. 



Pier 8, M. & O. Docks, MOBILE, ALA. 

Ill West Washington Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 

708 Common Street, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 



44 



THE Cl'BA REllEW 



I- 1 NK - BefcT 

Machinery Handles All Products 

in sugar factories, from dumping the cane to storing the bagged sugar. 
Our leadership as engineers and builders of efficient conveying systems for 
sugar estates and refineries is the result of years of experience. 

Send for our new 136 page catalog No. 355 

LINK-BELT COMPANY 

299 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY 






Hi r 


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■^■M 




ft»^^ik^»-^ 


|llr,:-t^ 


tT^^HB 






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p^^ 


Jfcs 






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36^ 



American Car and Foundry Export Co, 



Direccl6n Telegrafica: 
"CAKEX" NEW YORK 



165 Broadway, New York, U. S. A. 




LISTA PARA ENTREGA INMEDIATAMENTE 

Aqui se ve el grabado de uno de nuestros carros mas modernos para mercancias. Fabricamos carros 
de todos tipos y de varias capacidades para uso en Cuba Puerto Rico, Sud America, America Central y 
M6jico, con bastidcres y jaulas de madera o de acero. Producci6n annual de mas de 100,000 carros. 

OSCAR B. CINTAS, Oficios 29-31, HAVANA, Representante para Cuba 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



IHE. 




:f492M^10 Cents Ap 



T II E C U B A R E V I E W 



Ranos o Corazones, 



Chuchos o Cambiavias, 

CRUZAMIENTOS, CAUALLKTES DE MAMOHKA PARA 
FEKROCAKKILES, RIELES. &c. 





DURANTE mas de C)5 anos nuestros Talleres — 
siempre iiiontados a la moderna — se ban dedicado 
a la fabricacion de Rieles, Chucbos. Cruzamien- 
tos y otros Accesorios para los Ferrocarriles 
Americanos, y siempre bemos procurado corresponder a 
las necesidades de nuestros clientes suministrandolcs 
materiales de primera al precio mas reducido. 

Xuestra Seccion Tecnica esta a disposicion de nuestros 
clientes, y para ayudarnos interpretar debidamcnte sus 
necesidades y evitar demoras inconvenientes, al pedir 
precios 6 remitir encargos, es sumamente importante nos 
den los detalles correspondientes. 

Sirvase dirigir la correspoiidencia a 

WEIR FROG COMPANY 



JAS. M. MOTLEY, Gerenle 



43 Cedar St., New York, E.E. U.U. 

(Direccion cablegraflca: JAMOTLEY, NEWYORK) 




JAMES M. MOTLEY 



43 CEDAR STREET 
NEW YORK 



Gerente del Departamento de Ventas en el Extranjero de 

THE WEIR FROG COMPANY PENNSYLVANIA BOILER WORKS 

GLOVER MACHINE WORKS DUNCAN STEWART & CO., LTD. 

THE RAHN-LARMON CO. NEW YORK CAR WHEEL CO. 

STANDARD SAW MILL MACHINERY CO. 

Los productos dc estas Fabricas abarcan: Locomotoras 

_ Carros para cana 

Ruedas para carros 

Rieles y accessories 

Chuchos y ranas 

Aserraderos 

Calderas 

Maquinas, de vapor y 

de gasolina 
Tanques 
Tornos 
Trapiches y toda clase 

de maquinaria para 

Ingenios de Azucar 
Calentadores de agua 

de alimentacion 
Alambiques para agua 
Madera, pine amarillo 




A solicitud se remiten catalogos y presupuestos. 



Direccion cablegraflca: JAMOTLEY, New York (Se usan todas las claves). 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



HOLBROOK TOWING LINE, Inc. 

W. S. HOLBROOK, Pres. 

Sea, Harbor and General Towing. Steamship Towing a Specialty 

Boilers Tested for any Required Pressure Night Ehone 

^\T,l^r,f 15 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK, U. S. A. is'eili^h^o^^dlm 



WILLETT & GRAY. Brokers and Agents 
DOMESr'ic^'''' SUGARS 

DOMESTIC _______^^^_ REFINED 

82 Wall Street, New York 

Publishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED 



POPULAR TROLLEY TRIPS 

Via the HAVANA CENTRAL RAILROAD to 

g^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

VXUftTlft 1<\V from 5 A. M. to 8 p. M. Last train 11.20 P. M. 

*^ ^ FARE - - $1.00 

g^ • Trains every hour daily from CENTRAL STATION 

i ^llin^^ from 5.50 A. M. to 7.50 p. M. Last train 11. 10 P. M. 

^^^^^^;;^^—^ FARE - - $1.25 

SUBURBAN SERVICE TO REGLA, GUANABACOA AND 

CASA BLANCA (CABANA FORTRESS) FROM 

LUZ FERRY, HAVANA, TO 

Regla (Ferry) $0,06 

Guanabacoa (Ferry and Electric Railway) 11 

Casa Blanca and Cabanas Fortress (Ferry) 06 

Ferry Service to Regla and Car Service to Guanabacoa every 15 minutes, from 
5 A. M. to 10.30 P. M., every 30 minutes thereafter up to 12 midnight, and hourly 
thence to 5 A. M. To Casa Blanca, every 30 minutes from 5.30 A. M. to 11 P. M. 



The Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 

As quoted by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba Interior Loan 5% Bonds 63 65 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1944 78 79 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 5% Bonds of 1949 77 79 

Republic of Cuba Exterior Loan 4%% Bonds of 1949 67 69 

Havana City 1st Mtge Q% Bonds 85 

Havana CitV •2d Mtge. 6% Bonds 85 

Cliba Railroad Preferred Stock 40 50 

Cuba Railroad 1st Mtge. 5% Bonds of 1952 66 

Cuba Company 6% Debenture Bonds 50 60 

Cuba Company 6% Cumulative Preferred Stock 55 70 

Havana Electric Ry. Co. Cons. Mtge. 5% Bonds 73 75 

Havana Electric Ry. Light & Power Co. Pfd. Stock 85 

Havana Electric Ry. Light & Power Co. Com. Stock 80 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Preferred Stock 74 80 

Cuban American Sugar Co. Common Stock 16% 

Guantanamo Sugar Co. Stock 9 9^2 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to Advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Insist upon Walker's "LION" Packing 

Avoid imitations, insist upon getting WALKER'S 
METALLIC "LION" PACKING. Look for "The 
Tliiii RcJ Line" which runs through all the 
Genuine and the "Lion" Brass Trade Mark 
Laliels and Seals attached. 

WRITE FOR 
OUR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

JAMES WALKER & COMPANY, Ltd. 
46 West Street New York City 




United Railways of Havana 
WESTERN DIVISION 



TRAIN SERVICE DAILY 



PM 
6.15 
8.24 


PM 
2.55 
4.24 
5.51 
6.05 
6.56 
8.40 
PM 


PM 
1.45 
3.55 


AM 
10.15 
12.24 


AM 
6.55 
8.24 
9.51 
10.05 
10.56 
12.40 
PM 


AM 
5.45 
7.55 


Fare 
1st cl. 
S2.65 
5.10 
5.62 
6.71 
8.83 


Lv....Cen.Sta....Ar 

\i .4rtemisa Lv 

.\r . . . Paso Real . . . Lv 
-•Vr . . Herradura . . . Lv 
.\r..Pinar del Rio. Lv 
.^r Guane Lv 


Fare 
3dcl. 
$1.40 
2.54 
2.74 
3.25 
4.22 


AM 
7.20 
5.15 

AM 


AM 
11.09 
9.40 
8.05 
7.48 
6.55 
5.20 
AM 


PM 
12.01 
9.45 


PM 
3.20 
1.15 


PM 
7.09 
5.40 
4.05 
3.48 
2.55 
1.20 
PM 


PM 
8.00 
5.45 








iiso 

11.45 
AM 


















6 00 












2.00 


PM 


PM 


PM 


AM 


PM 


PM 



IDEAL 

TROLLEY 

TRIPS 



Round Trip Fares from Havana to 



Pinos 15 cts. 

Arroyo Naranjo 25 cts. 

Calabazar 30 cts. 



Rancho Boyeros 40 cts. 

Santiago de las Vegas. ... 55 cts. 
Rincon 65 cts. 



Leaving Central Station every half hour from 5.15 A. m. to 7.15 p. M., 
and every hour thereafter to 11.15 P. M. 



Trade with Canada 

The f()ll()\vin<i tabic indicates the value of Canada's imports from and exports to 
Cuba during 1913, 1919 and 1920: 

1913 1919 1920 

Imports from Cuba §4,306,817 S12,.56.5,712 33,198,207 

Exports to Cuba 1,850,468 5,642,675 87,560,011 



Brazilian Imports from Cuba 

The following table shows the value of Brazilian imports from Cuba for the past 
five vears: 



1915 
.S172 



191(5 
S20.761 



1917 
Slo.843 



1918 
S27,1.37 



1919 
S56,283 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine^ 67 Wall Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 

$1.00 Per Year - - - - 10 Cents Single Copy 
ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 



Vol. XIX AUGUST, 1921 No. 9 



Contents of This Number 

Cover Page — Narrow Street in Havana. 

Frontispiece — Residence of the Foreman of the Lykes Bros. Cattle Ranch, 
Oriente Province. Page 

The Cattle Industrv of Cuba, illustrated, bv H. 0. Neville. .13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 

Coastwise Steamship Lines in Cuba 28, 29 

Cuban Commercial Matters : 

Cuban Commerce with Germany 29 

Cuban Exports to the United States 27 

Cuba's Trade with the United States 12 

National Congxess of Chambers of Commerce 27 

Passengers Entering the Port of Havana 27 

Cuban Financial Matters : 

Banco Nacional de Cuba 39 

Cuban Telephone Company 29 

Prevailing Prices for Cuban Securities 3 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 30 

Cuban Government Matters : 

Application of the Torriente Laws 8 

Cuban Delegate to Medical Congress of the World 8 

Extraordinary Session of Congress T 

Removal of Prohibition of the Importation of Rice 8 

Sugar Legislation ' j ■"' 

Cuba's Mineral Production - ' 

Havana Correspondence 9, 10, 11. 12 

The Sugar Industry: 

The Permanent Tariff Bill 37 

Sugar Exports to the United States from Nuevitas 37 

Sugar Review, English 31, 32, 33 

Sugar Eeview, Spanish 34, 35. 36, 37 



THE CUBA REJIEJf 




CUBA REVIEW 



"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, i921, by Ike Munson Steamship Line 






fiOTANf 



AL 



Volume XIX 



AUGUST, 1921 



Number 9 



Cuban Government Matters 



Extraordinary Session of Congress 

The urgent necessity of enacting legisla- 
tion to normalize the nation's affairs resulted 
in a call by President Zayas for an extraor- 
dinary session of the Cuban Congress. An 
agreement to issue enough bonds to cover 
the deficit confronting the government, 
estimated at more than $45,000,000, was 
reached at a meeting of the mixed Legis- 
lative Commission with President Zayas. 

Another measure which will be brought 
before Congress is restriction of immi- 
gration. 

Sr. Jose M. Cortina, Secretary of the 
Presidency, stated that the bonds to meet 
unpaid floating indebtedness would be 
issued in the form of an interior loan of 
$50,000,000 at 6%. 

It is thought that the loan will help 
retrieve the present economic crisis, but 
that the means which the government 
plans to adopt to aid the sugar industry 
wiU be entirely distinct from its measures 
to wipe out the deficit. 

Salient features of a report submitted 
by Sr. Sebastian Gelabert, Secretary of the 
Treasury, show that the government's in- 
come for the fiscal year 1921-1922 will not 
exceed $66,990,000 and that reduction in 
the budgets of every department will be 
necessary. 

The Secretary is quoted as having said 
that his investigations already had shown 
a deficit, compared with the former admin- 
istration, of $36,000,000, with the proba- 
bihty that it would be increased by $10,- 
000,000. That it is President Zayas' in- 



tention to bend his efforts toward the 
lowering of the government's expenses is 
shown by the issuance of a decree com- 
bining a number of tax collecting offices 
with more important ones in nearby cities, 
thus saving the expenses incurred in the 
maintenance of the offices annulled. It is 
estimated that the saving thus effected will 
amount to nearly $500,000 per year. En- 
listments in the navy have also been 
stopped, and a considerable reduction in the 
cost of this branch of the national service 
and in that of the army is anticipated. 



Sugar Legislation 

Purchase by the Cuban Government of 
1,000,000 tons of sugar and its withdrawal 
from the market was agreed to at a con- 
ference between Cuban sugar magnates. 
President Zayas and Secretary of the 
Presidency, Jose A. Cortina. 

The amount of sugar on hand in Cuba is 
estimated at 2,000,000 tons. 

The purchase will be effected through a 
loan, which will be guaranteed by the sugar 
itself, and a special tax on the manufacture 
of sugar. From information received by 
leading sugar interests, the Cuban Govern- 
ment will not withhold the sugars which 
may be purchased indefinitely from the 
market, but will defer sale of them long 
enough to permit the rest of the crop to be 
disposed of. It is planned to spread the 
marketing of 1,000,000 tons over a con- 
siderable period. 



THE CiJi A RKllEJV 



riulcr Ilu> Plati amcndincnt tli(> consent 
of tlu> I'nitod States is necessary to the 
proposed loan, and the most important 
matter remaining to ho determined is that 
of the terms on wliich the U. S. Dejiartnient 
of State will agree to it. It is possil)le that 
some measinr of fiscal supervisif)n by repre- 
sentatives of the United States will be 
asked for. 



Application of the Torriente Laws 

In the oj)inion of Consul (ioneral Carlton 
Bailey Hurst, at Hahana, Cuba, there has 
been consideral)le misaj^prehension among 
American business houses relative to th(> 
jirovisions of the so-called Torriente laws. 
These laws, according to the consul general, 
tlid not provide for an absolute extension of 
commercial credits, but, on the contrary, 
made it possible for Cuban business houses 
to file a petition wdth the proper court, as 
set forth in the act, giving certain data 
relative to their business affairs, and upon 
favoraljle action by the court, entitling the 
l)etili()ner to u maximum extension of credit 
of ]()5 days from February 1, 1921, during 
which period outstanding obligations were 
to be liquidated in instalments. 

It is generally recognized that but a very 
small percentage of Cul)an business houses, 
even among those finding themselves em- 
barrassed b}' outstanding accounts, sought 
the benefits conferred by the Torriente 
laws. Cuban business houses as a whole 
felt that under the present economic con- 
ditions existing the extension called for by 
the law would, in the majority of cases, be 
inadequate to liciuidate outstanding obli- 
gations, and that their petition for its 
benefits would be regarded unfavorably 
by creditors with whom they wished to 
arrange for an extension different from 
that provided for in the law. Prominent 
bankers and others believe that 10 per cent 
or less of Cuban business houses took the 
necessarj' steps to obtain the extension 
provided for in the Torriente laws, but 
that by far the greater part of Cuban houses 
have endeavored, and in most cases have 
.succeeded, in making individual extension 
arrangements with their creditors. The 
la.st payment j^rovided for in the case of 
commercial houses under the Torriente laws 



sliould hav(> been made on .May 1."), 1!)21, 
and tiie provisions of the law referring to 
commercial credits have therefore expired. 
The question of whether many failures 
would have resulted from an enforced com- 
pliance witli the Torriente laws is ilifficult 
to answer in view of the fact that so small a 
percentage of business houses sought its 
protection. It is believed, however, that a 
large percentage of failures would have re- 
sulted in certain lines, particularly in the 
cases of dealers in textiles and footwear. 
.\lthough a considerable number of failures 
have been reported, including some of con- 
siderable magnitude, and the present busi- 
ness situation is far from satisfactory, it is 
felt that the majority of American creditors 
have shown a disposition to grant reason- 
able extensions, and that because of this a 
relatively small i)ercentage of failures will 
result. 



Cuban Delegate to Medical Congress 
of the World 

Dr. Jose A. Presno, Vice Director of 

the Centro Asturiano de la Habana, left 
for Strassliurg on June 8th to represent 
Cuba ofhcially at the Medical Congress 
of the World.' 

Dr. Presno is a Professor of Surgery in 
the National University of Havana, and 
Mce Director of the Quinta de Covadonga. 

Besides going as an official representa- 
tive of the Cuban government. Dr. 
Presno has also been commissioned to 
visit all of the museums, clinics and larger 
colleges for the purpose of making arrange- 
ments for the establishment in Cuba of a 
medical museum for increasing the 
efficiency' of the Faculty of Medicine and 
Pharmacy. 



Removal of Prohibition on the Importa- 
tion of Rice 

The Cuban prohibition against the im- 
portation of rice has been removed by a 
l)residential decree. Xo increase was made 
in the retail price at which rice may be sold. 
The prohibition against the importation of 
rice has been in effect since Sept. 7, 1920. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Havana Correspondence 

July 20th, 1921. 

Sugar: With the advent of the rainy season, all but a very small proportion of 
the sugar centrals throughout the Island have ceased grinding cane; the mills still con- 
tinuing to grind number less than a dozen, and with the exception of possibly four or 
five of the larger centrals which will continue to grind until August, this will complete 
the 1921 grinding season. From the standpoint of productivity, this season has been one 
of the most successful ever experienced, the total tonnage exceeding that of last year, 
which had heretofore been regarded as a banner season, by some 200,000 tons, and had 
the price of raw sugar not taken the remarkable slump which it did, it would have meant 
that Cuba would be experiencing untold prosperity rather than a demoralization of in- 
dustry. 

Any attempt to prophesy what the situation will be next season would be little more 
than guesswork and it is difficult indeed to find anyone who is willing to venture a hazard, 
in view of the utter chaos existing in financial, political and industrial circles at the pres- 
ent time. That next season's crop will be greatly diminished is generally admitted, for 
the reason that thousands of acres of cane land are being allowed to grow up with weeds, 
because of the inability of the owners to secure funds for the cultivation of these immense 
tracts. It is also true that unless conditions improve considerably by the time the next 
grinding season begins, many centrals wiU lack funds with which to operate. When 
consideration is given to the fact that practically three-fifths of this season's crop is still 
being held in warehouses awaiting a market, and that the price which is being paid for* 
this sugar is much below the actual cost of production, it is difficult to predict in what 
position these centrals will be at the beginning of the next season. 

That something must be done by the government or private financial interests to 
afford relief to the planters is generally conceded. However, just what form this relief 
will take is causing a great deal of discussion and many plans have been advanced by 
political and financial interests, none of which have as yet been given more than brief 
consideration. One of the measures of relief most prominently mentioned has been the 
suggestion that the government purchase a million tons of sugar, paying for same in 
interest-bearing bonds or certificates of purchase, and withdrawing this amount of sugar 
from the market for an indefinite period, or until such time as a better market prevails. 
Just whether or not this plan would afford the right measure of relief is questionable and 
at the same time would place an additional burden on the government at a time when it 
is in none too strong a position to bear any additional financial responsibilities. 

As stated before, some action looking to the interest of the relief of the planters must 
be taken if they are to be expected to continue in the sugar raising industry. As matters 
stand at present, the planter is in a very unenviable position as he is unable to find a 
ready market for his product and when he does secure a market, as stated before, the price 
he obtains is much below the cost of production; consequently, he is without adequate 
funds to hquidate his accounts, to purchase machinery for future cultivation, or to hire 
help necessary to carry on the work. Little or no assistance is rendered by the banks, and 
unless governmental or private aid is forthcoming the outlook for the future is at present 
far from pronaising. 

There has been a great deal of agitation of late seeking the temporary removal of 
the Sugar Finance Commission by the President. The argument advanced for such 
action is that inasmuch as the price of sugar has already reached such a low level, it 
would be practically impossible for it to go much lower, and if all the restrictions exist- 
ing at present were removed, the bulk of the crop would be moved in a shorter time than 
under present restrictions and a clear field would be secured for the handling of next 
season's crop; also, quicker financial aid could be given to the growers than under the 
present scheme of handling by realizing ready cash upon the thousands of tons now 
being held in the warehouses, which are constantly accruing insurance and other expenses. 



10 THE (' V li A REJIEW 

It is frcnorally concodcd that tho small measure of relief afforded by the Cuba Finance 
ami llxjiort Company, which some time ago loaned some §20,000,000 to the planters, 
was of little value, the amount in cjuestion beinj;; entirely inadeciuate to meet the ex- 
igencies of the occasion. It is hold that it will be necessary to secure a loan of approx- 
imately a hundred million dollars to stabilize conditions sufficiently to tide the sugar 
interests over the present aggravated situation. All of the various measures of relief 
are being given serious and careful consideration by the administration and by foreign 
and local financial interests, and it is earnestly hojiod that some concrete measure of pro- 
tection and relief may be secured which will again place the sugar industiy of Cuba on 
a more solid foundation. 

Rumors have been current for some time with regard to propaganda existing in 
some jiarts of the United States advising against the i)urchase of Cuban sugar, and while 
this imtpaganda. if it exists, could do but little harm, it nevertheless has i^een the subject 
of some rather caustic comments by the Culian press. It has been impossible to trace 
the sources of these attacks upon the Cuban sugar industry. 

FixANX-iAL Situation: While the outlook at present is far from encouraging, 
prevailing sentiment in financial circles is assuming a more optimistic trend than it has 
for some time, due to a feeling that the worst has already been realized and that any fu- 
ture change must necessarily be in the direction of a betterment of financial conditions. 
The chaos which has prevailed for several months has been relieved somewhat by the 
lifting of the moratorium, as well as by the work of the liquidation committee which has 
been at work on the books of the several insolvent banking institutions. A report of the 
findings of this committee is expected at an early date. One of these institutions, the 
Banco Xacional de Cuba, which was among the first to succumb after the moratorium 
went into effect, has already announced its intention of effecting a reorganization and 
again opening its doors. As to whether or not its examjile will be followed by the other 
institutions which are now under process of liciuidation wall not be known until the 
exact state of their condition is ascertained. 

Almost daily conferences are being held between the administration and the con- 
gressional leaders with the object of dcA-ising some plan for the securing of funds with 
which to provide revenue for government operation and for the relief of the sugar and 
other imlustries. It has not as yet been determined just what plan will eventually be 
followed, but it is believed that arrangements will be made for the securing of a loan of 
sufficient magnitude from New York banking interests, which will afford relief until con- 
ditions again become normal. The amount of money rcciuired for this purpose has been 
variously estimated at anj'where from $50,000,000 to §100,000,000. 

Cleneral Crowder's report to his government at Washington has been the subject of 
mucli speculation as to what recommendations and suggestions were contained therein, 
and while this report has to date not been made public, belief is expressed that some 
concrete suggestions were contained therein for the relief of the present situation. Gen- 
eral Crowder is continuing in his advisory capacity to the present administration and is 
being freciuently called upon for consultation when conferences on financial problems 
between the administration and members of the legislature are held. 

That there must be some changes made in the present banking laws is generally 
admitted. The crisis through which the Island is now passing has brought the matter 
forcibly to the attention of political and commercial interests, and the necessity for legis- 
lation tending to strengthen the banking laws and enabling the government to exercise 
more control over the banks is recognized, for it is now being realized that one of the 
fundamental principles of a successful banking institution is the confidence which it 
enjoys. Under the present laws entirely too much opportunity is afforded for over-spec- 
ulation, wild-cat financing and dishonest banking methods, wdth an utter disregard for 
the trust which is vested in a bank handling the people's money. 

As a result of the findings of the Superior Banking Commission which is now^ in- 
vestigating the affairs of the insolvent banks, it is hinted that criminal prosecutions will 
be instituted in some cases where it has been found that "irregularities" have occurred. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 11 

That a thorough investigation of the circumstances under which the banks were forced 
to Uquidate would reveal some questionable banking practices has always been generally 
believed, and if prompt action is taken to avoid a recurrence of such practices in the fu- 
ture it will go a long way toward restoring the shaken confidence of the pubhc in banking 
institutions. One of the problems in connection with the financial situation in Cuba 
today is the devising of some means of getting the millions of dollars which are being 
hoarded in private homes or in safe deposits into circulation again. 

Political Matters: The energy and earnestness being displayed by the new 
Administration in attacking the various problems with which it is confronted is the sub- 
ject of much favorable comment. At the outset, President Zayas inaugurated the cus- 
tom of curtailing the enormous cost of government operation, and this practice is being 
continued with gratifying results. The outstanding feature of this pohcy is the remark- 
able economy effected in the annual budget, this appropriation having been reduced 
from $104,000,000 to approximately half that sum. 

In view of the decreased revenue being received by the Treasury, owing to the 
slump in imports during the past few months, new forms of taxation are under con- 
sideration to offset this loss of income. Several tentative measures are being considered. 
One of the most desired reforms which the President hopes to bring about at an early 
date is some solution tending to bring about a reduction in the cost of living, which has 
not as yet taken any appreciable dechne. 

There is a marked spirit of cooperation existing between the administrative and the 
legislative branches of the government in the working out of much needed reforms, as 
well as in the solving of the financial and other problems. The confidence which the new 
President has inspired is an important factor in securing the pohtical strength to carry 
these plans to a successful conclusion. 

Labor: Reflection of the industrial stagnation through which the Island is passing 
may be observed in labor conditions, thousands of men being without employment and 
in a destitute condition in various parts of the Republic. Due to the inability of many 
of the smaller planters and colonia owners to meet their obligations, the workers in the 
cane fields have gone unpaid for months. Those who are able to do so are leaving the 
country to return to their native lands, the others are contenting themselves with roam- 
ing about the country, living on what meagre assistance they can obtain. It is stated 
that 20,000 Spaniards have already returned to their native country and thousands 
more are awaiting transportation. Many of them are without sufficient funds to pay 
their way and have to be sent back by the Spanish Consulate. Some time in the near 
future, some scheme for rendering assistance to the thousands of starving and destitute 
people will have to be found by the government. 

The much advertised strike on the Cuba Railroad which was to take place on July 
1st failed to materialize, the employees having decided that under present conditions 
it would be wiser to stick to their jobs. Nothing is heard of further strike negotiations 
among these employees and it is thought peaceful conditions will prevail for quite a 
period, now that they have finally decided that the opportune days for promiscuous 
striking have passed. 

Statue of Former President Estrada Palivli Unveiled: An impressive cere- 
mony was witnessed by a large crowd of people who gathered in Vedado to see the un- 
veiling, by President Zayas, of the magnificent statue erected at the foot of the Avenida 
de los Presidentes (formerly called G Street), to the memory of the first President of 
the Republic, Tomas Estrada Palma. Many distinguished and prominent citizens were 
present, together with the entire presidential staff. 

Life Saving Corps at Marianao Beach: Responding to a popular demand for 
protection at the bathing beach known as the Playa de Marianao, Havana's most pop- 
ular bathing resort, a voluntary hfe saving corps of expert swimmers, recruited from 
the Red Cross and the Young Men's Christian Association, have estabhshed a beach 
patrol and first aid station at the beach. As a few drownings and several narrow escapes 
had already been experienced before this organization was perfected, there is no ques- 



1 2 T II E CUB A R K /' / K Jf 



lion hut that it will l)o the means of savinp; many hvcs dnv'uvr tho hot months of July 
and August, especially in view of the neglect of the management to i)n)vi(le any safe- 
guards for the iirotection of the public. 

Pineapple Season Xears End: The present pineapple shipping season, which 
is now drawing to a dose, has been an extremely successful one. It is stated that the ferry 
alone carried some 7()(),(K)() crates of this delicious fruit, and the value of the total amount 
shipjied to Northern i)orts is estimatetl at S6,0()(),()()0. 

Praise koh Havana Police Force: Declaring his belief that Havana's police 
force was one of the most courteous and efficient in the world, Manager H. B. .Judkins 
of the Hotel Sevilla, who is spending his vacation in New York, said es])ecial jiraise was 
due them for their courtesy and willingness to assist strangers. 

Dr. Milton D. Greene Passes Away: Havana was profoundly shocked on 
July 12th wiien news was received of the death of Dr. Milton D. Greene, who up to a 
few years ago was the head of the Presbyterian Church in Cuba. Dr. Greene died at 
his liome in Wisconsin. He spent many years in Cuba and was beloved by thousands, 
and his death has been universally mourned. 

Ci-RAN Mission Goes to Peru: A special mission has been named by President 
Zayas, which is now on its way to Peru, to participate in the centenary c(>l(0)ration of 
Peruvian Independence. A credit of .?1 2,000 has been granted by the government to 
meet the expenses of the Mission, which is headed by Sr. Nicolas de Cardenas and Sr. 
Rafael ]\I. Angulo. 

American Colony Observes the "Glorious Fourth": Starting wnth a break- 
fast which the American Club staged at the Jockey Club quarters at the Race Track, 
owing to lack of space at the former's quarters due to rebuilding which is now under 
way, and ending with a reception in the late afternoon at the American Legation in Cerro, 
the national holiday was fittingly and properly ol)served by the Americans in Havana. 
The reception was honored by the presonc-e of President and Mrs. Zaj^as, as well as many 
persons prominent in the political and social life of Cuba. 

Panama Swimming Troupe Entertains at Yacht Club: The famous Red, 
White and Blue troupe of juvenile swimmers from the Canal Zone stopped in Havana 
on their way home after entertaining at Madison Square Garden, long enough to give 
one of the most remarkable exhibitions of skill in aquatic sports ever seen in this city. 
These children are marvelous swimmers and divers, and their entertainment at the club 
was thoroughly enjoyed by a large crowd that turned out to welcome tho "kirldies, " 
whose reinitation for daring water feats had preceded them. 



Cuba s Trade with the United States The price dropped from over 16 cents a 

Cuba's trade balance against the United Pound, in June, 1920, to less than 5 cents 

States fell from .S24S,976,779 in the June, in May, 1921. Fall futures are quoted at 

1920, fiscal year, to 815,360,820 for eleven less than 3. Tonnage also fell away 

months of the 1921 year. Her imports rapidly. That of May is larger than a year 

from this countiy in the 1921 year slightly ago, however. 

exceeded the total in 1920. Following are imports from and exports 

Cuba got So96,27o,.578 for 6,905,709,612 ^o Cuba for May and 1 1 months ended with 

pounds of sugar in the 1920 year, an aver- ^^^y, 1921, and for the fiscal years indi- 

age of nearlv 9 cents a pound. Distributed fated: r ui 

"„.•,,, ' , Imports Exports Imp. bal. 

equally, It would have been a wage, bonus, 1921, May.. $26,7.54,.383 $ii,886,.34i si4,868,042 

or gift, of 8213, for every man, woman and i92i. 11 mo. . 

, .7, ^, . ' , ' ' ended May. 406,344,120 .390,983,306 1.->,.U>U,H.H) 

child on the island. Year ended 

For the 4,590.371 ,056 pounds shipped to 1920'' 61.5,.571,828 396,.59.5,049 248,976,779 

the United States in eleven months of 1 Q->1 1^19 337,6.54,142 229,54.5,704 108,108,4.38 

tlie LUllLU OLaitS in tlt\tn monins 01 l.J_i ^g-jg 264,024,006 235,469,608 28,.554,.398 

there was received 8366,772,723 — not i9i3 126,088,173 70,.58i,i.54 5o,.507,oi9 

-. o .1 1 1912 120,1.54,326 62.203.051 57,951,275 

quite & cents a pound. lOu 110,309,468 60,709,002 40,600,406 



THE CUBA REVIEW 13 

The Cattle Industry of Cuba 

By H. 0. Neville 

"Well, Frank, what part of you is dry now?" The question was asked about ten 
o'clock of a morning in July, 1900, as the writer and his companion stopped for a brief 
rest beside a small stream in Oriente Province. We had been walking since early dawn 
along narrow trails bordered on each side by Guinea grass, towering in places three or 
four feet above our heads and wet with the night dew, so that wherever it touched us we 
had become wet to the skin. Frank's answer was: "That part which is pointing the 
way we came from." 

This gives some idea of the conditions prevailing in the pasturage areas of Camagiiey 
and Oriente Provinces at that time. The writer and his friend, not having anything 
better to do and considering that the trip would be somewhat of a lark and a giver of 
good experience besides furnishing an excellent opportunity for seeing Cuba at first hand, 
decided during the latter part of June to make a trip on foot from the north coast of 
Camagiiey Province to Santiago de Cuba and return, varjdng the route by way of Holguin 
and Jibara. Our readers will remember that at this time the first faint evidences of re- 
covery from the destruction of the War of Independence, in which through the aid of 
the United States Cuba's shackles had been cast off, were observed, and it was yet too 
early for that confidence to have returned and the resources to have been obtained with 
which to replace the herds of cattle that had entirely disappeared during the preceding 
years of strife. In a country of a wonderfully fertile soil immediately follomng the heavy 
rains of the month of May and June, it was no wonder, therefore, that after passing the 
Cubitas Mountains and especially after leaving Camagiiey to the west, we should find 
vast areas covered with the high rank growth of Guinea grass which had been undis- 
turbed by stock for a number of years, and, therefore, was in its native original condition. 
In other places along the route, especially on the low Ijang moist lands, great areas of 
tangled vine-like Para grass were seen, likewise untouched by the hoof of a grazing 
animal. After reaching Bayamo, instead of keeping to the flat countrj^ of the interior 
plain, we chose rather to ascend the foothills of the Sierra Maestra, passing through 
Guisa, Baire Arriba and other small towns on the outlying spurs of this range, and from 
many points a view could be had extending for many miles both directly across and toward 
the east and west over the vast interior plain of Oriente, this view showing league after 
league of tall waving grasses of the finest quality for the fattening of cattle, interspersed 
here and there with tree-marked water courses and fine groves of royal palms. The 
writer at that time knew comparatively nothing of Cuba, but could not help but remark 
what a wonderful opportunity for going into the cattle industry. 

We thus observe that Cuba has at least one of the requisites for success in cattle 
growing. As we have already mentioned, two grasses, Guinea and Para, neither native 
to Cuba, but introduced from other lands, grow luxuriantly and furnish the very best 
of pasturages, especially for fattening purposes. The Guinea grass is a lover of the higher, 
well drained but fertile soils of the Island, in which it stools out in great bunches, throw- 
ing out long, slender, succulent blades, to be followed, where undisturbed, by a seed stem 
which under suitable conditions often attains a height of seven to eight feet though 
under ordinary conditions an average of about five feet. In the lower, moister lands, 
even when subject to overflow and where water stands during the rainy season, the Para 
grass is at home. This is more of a creeper than is the Guinea grass, the long \ane-hke 
stems taking root at each joint and throwing out therefrom other stems of the same 
character, until after the grass has been in possession of the land for a year or two, a 
dense tangled growth results. This grass is of such a succulent, juicy nature, that it is a 
great favorite with cattle, which in dry times, when the grasses on the liigher lands have 
practically given out, will eat the Para grass down to its roots, not refusing what appear 
to be hard, dry stems containing no nourishment whatever. These are the two grasses 
found in our pastures on which our cattle are fattened. Excessively close grazing of these 



11 



THE CUBA REJIKJl 




Pasture Scene, Oriente Province 




Typical Foothill Cattle Country 




Cattle Being Gathered fur Market 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



15 




Fording- the Bayamo River, Oriente Province 




Showing Transformation of Forest Land into Pasture. Part of the Forest Trees are Left Standing. 
Lykes Bros. Ranch, Oriente Province 



k; 



I II i: ( IHA RKJIKJV 





Cattle in Corrals at Loading Point 



THE CUBA REVIEW 17 



grasses, however, will destroy them, and when this is done their place is taken by the 
native grasses of Cuba, the principal one of which, Espartillo, is found covering vast 
areas of the poorer soils in the central portions of nearly all our provinces, furnishing 
grazing ground upon which cattle are grown, to be removed later to the pastures in which 
the more fattening Guinea and Para grasses abound. This Espartillo is also the grass 
most highly prized in Cuba for milk production, as the animals feeding on it tend to run 
more to milk than to fat, as is the case when grazing off the other grasses mentioned. 

Among the other requisites for a profitable and successful cattle industry in any 
country is that of a suitable climate. In few places in the world are conditions in this 
respect so favorable as those in Cuba. As is fairly well known to everyone, our temper- 
atures vary only slightly from an average of about 70 degrees during the year, the ex- 
tremes reaching a low of about 45 and a high of about 94 in the shade. Therefore, no 
trouble from cold can ever occur, and as in nearly all our pastures sufficient shade is 
left under which the cattle can rest during the hottest part of the day, no trouble is ever 
experienced from excessive heat. Thus cattle can be left in open pasture the j^ear round. 
Care must be taken during the summer rainy reason to remove the cattle from the low, 
too wet lands where foot trouble may result from the cattle being continually in water, 
to the higher lands adjoining, and in the dry season of the winter when the grasses begin 
to get short and scarce and water hard to obtain on the higher, better drained areas of 
the interior, it is necessary to change the cattle to the low lying more moist pastures of 
the more level areas; but aside from this, as far as climatic conditions are concerned, no 
further precautions are necessary. Good water is obtainable practically everywhere 
throughout the Island, though at certain seasons of the year, especially in the central 
portions of Camagiiey and Oriente Provinces, there is a scarcity, the streams going dry 
and the wells becoming low and even giving out in times of excessively prolonged drought. 

The topography of Cuba is such as to cause the lands of the Island to lend themselves 
excellently to a combination of agriculture and cattle raising. In Pinar del Rio Province, 
in the southern portion of Santa Clara Province, in the northern portion of Camagiiey 
Province and throughout a very large area of Oriente Province, bounding the larger and 
slightly undulating areas of agricultural land, are found very large areas of rough, broken 
country, in many places still covered with virgin forest. In others, however, this broken 
country has been invaded by the axe, so that in many places steeply rising slopes are 
seen covered to the very peak with waves of tail rank grass. Often after the forest is first 
felled, these steep slopes are planted for a number of years to bananas, perhaps to coffee, 
maybe to cacao, and at times the ground is utilized for a year or two upon which to grow 
casava, boniatos, com and others of the native food crops, but the forests in such regions 
are always felled with the ultimate idea of the lands becoming covered with either Guinea 
or Para grass for use as pasturage. The areas of this character already found on which 
the finest of grasses are growing luxuriantly, give an indication of what could be done 
were the hundreds of thousands of acres of land of this character systematically utiHzed 
for the purpose of cattle growing, for in these locations not only is found a rich, virgin 
soil usually excellently drained, but also in the defiles of the hills and in the narrow flat 
valleys occurring from time to time among them, are found small but constant water 
courses providing the very finest of water for the cattle. 

The writer does not know by whom cattle were introduced into Cuba. We have 
already indicated that at the end of the War of Independence the cattle industry had 
practically disappeared, stock being found only on the well protected plantations of that 
portion of the Island most densely populated, and even in these districts only a very small 
percentage of what had existed before the War still remained. It was, therefore, one 
might say, a virgin land improved in its possibilities by the pre\dous existence of vast 
areas in which fine grasses had taken root, which presented itself to the investigating eyes 
of the Texas and Florida cattle men, who at the end of the war were attracted by the 
possibihties of Cuba. The favorable results of cattle raising durmg the former j^ears of 
peace soon became known to them, and, of course, were famifiar to aU the natives of the 
Island who had lived in close connection therewith. It, therefore, is not surprising that 



]8 



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The Finest Zebu Bull in Oriente Province, Lykes Bros. Ranch 




A Fine Specimen of Zebu Bull 



THE CUBA REVIEW 19 



very soon after the period first mentioned in this article cattle began to be imported in 
large numbers, these coming from Florida, Texas, Mexico, Central America, Panama and 
Venezuela. The demand was great, every native Cuban or other owner of pasture lands, 
fully confident of the peaceful future of Cuba under the guiding hand and care of the 
United States, was anxious to again stock his pastures. Prices, therefore, were high, 
money, under the conditions prevaihng at the time, was not easy to obtain, and high 
interest rates were being charged; but notwithstanding this, vast numbers of cattle were 
brought in and sold at high prices, paid for with money borrowed at excessive rates of 
interest. All was well for a number of years, until the number of cattle in the Island had 
reached approximately the figures prevailing before the war and until home production 
began to be sufficient, and, in fact, was slightly in excess of home consumption. When this 
condition was reached a natural drop in prices took place, and many of our cattle raisers 
found themselves in financial difficulties. One or two severe droughts during that period 
also added to the troubles of our cattle raisers, so that a survival of the fittest took place, 
again establishing the industrj^ on a firm foundation. Conditions continued in this way with 
production slightly in excess of consumption for quite a number of years, until the be- 
ginning of the war period in 1914 and the better showing being made by the sugar industry 
beginning with 1915 began to draw the attention of many from cattle raising to cane 
planting. This change, gradual at first, soon gained in momentum, reaching a cUmax in 
the spring and early summer of 1920, when thousands upon thousands of acres of the 
finest pasture land of our two eastern provinces were turned up by the plow and planted to 
cane. This process could have, of course, only one result — that the home production of 
cattle should decrease and importation increase. It is thus that we find that while from 
1907 to about 1919 no importations except those of breeding stock took place, in each of 
the years 1919 and 1920 about 20,000 head of cattle were imported, these coming largely 
from Venezuela, Colombia and Costa Rica, though some have recently come in from the 
United States, this importation suddenly practically ceasing with the period of financial 
pressure and difficulties experienced since last October, so that during this year the only 
importations have been of cattle taken on contracts entered into during 1920. Future 
importations will, we believe, be extremely limited and perhaps entirely absent, as under 
normal conditions Cuba's yearly production takes care of consumption and would furnish 
a small surplus for export, if the quality of stock produced were better. 

We have mentioned that immediately following the War of Independence cattle were 
brought in from practically the entire southern portion of the United States and all the 
districts lying between the Mexican boundary and the eastern boundary of Venezuela. 
Naturally, under such conditions a nondescript, heterogeneous lot of stock would be 
brought in, of no definite or special type. These and their offspring formed, therefore, 
during those early years after 1900, what might be called the native type of cattle. They 
still exist in countless herds, but among the progressive members of this industry constant 
improvement is taking place through the introduction of high class, pedigreed stock from 
abroad. These have consisted of sires of the Polled Angus, Hereford, Durham and Zebu 
breeds. The first are highly prized by some cattle raisers, as they have proved in Cuba to 
adapt themselves excellently to our climatic conditions, and while resistant to disease and 
to cattle ticks, develop into stocky, heavy-set animals, excellently adapted for slaughter. 
The Hereford is favored by some, but by others is considered an animal that is not a good 
rustler, being lazily inclined and with a tendency to seek the shade early in the day with all 
that this means. But perhaps the most favored of aU is the Zebu. This is a large animal, 
rather inchned to be wild, but a first-class rustler, a good breeder, almost tick immune, 
short haired and of good form and excellent as a beef animal. The cross between this 
breed and the Polled Angus also is excellent. As the result of the introduction of sires of 
these breeds, the general character of a vast number of our cattle has been improved, 
producing both heavier animals and a better quality of meat. 

The vast tonnage of sugar cane produced in Cuba is hauled from the field to the 
railway loading stations in carts drawn by oxen, of which from three to five yokes are 
required for each cart. Assuming an annual sugar production of 4,000,000 long tons and 



Tin: ( in A in: view 




Mixed Blood Zebu Bull 




Mixed Blood Zebu Cow 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



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Hereford Cattle in Pasture 




Polled AiiiTUs Cattle 

an average yield of sugar from the cane of 11 per cent of the weight of the latter, it is seen 
that about 36,360,000 long tons of cane are required for the making of this quantity of 
sugar. This is equivalent to about 79,992,000,000 pounds. The average cart load of 
cane in Cuba can be assumed to be about 400 arrobas or 10,000 pounds, so that to harvest 
the crop it can be calculated that roughly 7,999,200 cart loads of cane have to be hauled 
from the field. It thus becomes evident that the number of cattle required for this 
hauling is quite large, and that there is opportunity for the raising of special breeds or 
strains of cattle for this purpose. Among the favorites adopted by the Cubans almost 
from their first introduction has been a strain from Porto Rico, consisting of hea\T, 
chunky animals of excellent disposition, easily trained and yielding themselves readily to 
the work. Certain types also of Colombian and Venezuelan cattle have been found to be 
well adapted for use with carts. Cattle with a certain amount of Zebu blood have also 



THE CUBA RKVIEU- 




Cross Breed Zebu Cattle, Oriente I'rovince 




The Evening Meal, Lykes Bros. Ranch, Oriente Province 



THE CUBA REVIEW 23 



been found for certain purposes to be excellent, as they are much more rapid than the 
other strains used, but their wildness and consequent difficulty in handhng them is an 
objection that is hard to overcome. 

Following the example set by many of the southern states of the United States, our 
most progressive cattle raisers have adopted means of tick eradication. In nearly all the 
better ranches of considerable areas, dipping vats are found, these having been installed 
voluntarily, as no governmental requirements have yet been adopted. This, however, is 
not the case with imported cattle, as those coming by steamer from South America, 
Central America, Mexico and Texas are all dipped upon arrival at the port of introduction, 
though we understand that cattle coming in from Florida by rail for immediate slaughter 
are exempted from this requirement, this, however, being an evasion of the law. The 
subdivision of pastures and the systematic transfer of cattle from one subdivision of a 
pasture to another with the idea of complete eradication of all ticks in the infested 
area, has not yet been adopted here as it has in so many portions of the southern states, 
and the result is, of course, that Cuba's hides are classed in the northern consuming 
markets along with those of other tick infested areas. The time will doubtless come, 
however, when stronger competition and the necessity for securing the highest return 
possible from every feature of cattle raising will bring about an Island-wide propaganda 
and movement in favor of the complete eradication of cattle ticks. 

A phase of the cattle industry which has not been given the importance that we 
believe it merits in Cuba is that of the raising of stock in connection with our sugar mills. 
In at least one mill of the Island, "Soledad," near Cienfuegos, the Soledad Sugar Com- 
pany carries on quite an extensive cattle production. The prime object was originally 
to produce draft animals for the estate, but certain portions of the property and lands 
which could be obtained under moderate rental were much better adapted to cattle 
raising than to the raising of cane, so that from the original small beginning there has 
arisen an industry of quite considerable importance to this mill. At the present time 
not only is an abundance of fine stock for draft purposes being produced, but also a 
large number of cattle for killing purposes and improved breeds for dairy purposes, the 
products of which are used by the employees of the sugar mill. We have understood 
that at times as many as 4,000 cattle are found in the pastures of this sugar company. 

The estimated consumption of cattle in Cuba is about 1,000 head per day. Based 
upon this calculation, the yearly consumption of the entire Island would be about 365,000 
head, a quantity which in normal times is easily produced. Only in a limited number 
of localities in the Island are modern up-to-date slaughter houses found, one of these 
being in Camagiiey and the others in Havana. In the thousands of small localities of 
the Island, what are termed Municipal Slaughter Houses are found, these consisting 
usually, however, of only a cement or other hard floor sheltered by a simple roof and 
commonly situated in a place where good drainage enables the refuse products of slaugh- 
tering to be carried away. In Camagiiey the slaughter house is relatively small in 
capacity, but is fixed up with a small rendering plant and other modern conveniences 
of this nature. In Havana the two slaughter houses are known as the Industrial Slaugh- 
ter House and that of Lykes Bros. In these the total number of head of cattle killed 
daily averages about 300, in addition to which, of course, a smaller number of pigs, 
sheep, etc., are killed. The Industrial Slaughter House is provided with its rendering 
plant and also with apparatus for the taking care of the general run of waste products, 
these being used as fertiUzer. The plant of Lykes Bros, is more complete, here being 
found refrigerating rooms, an excellent rendering plant, a large compounding depart- 
ment, and a sausage making department. These two plants are run on practically the 
same principles found in the best plants in the United States, with the difference naturally 
brought about by the different treatment of the meat after killing. 

A peculiarity of the Cuban meat eater is his prejudice against refrigerated meats. 
As a result of this, the meat killed in the morning is distributed in the afternoon of the 
same day to the various butcher shops of the locality, and the same afternoon, early 
the next morning and during the next day is consumed. Whatever is left over goes 



THE CVUA HEJ'IKJl 




On the Road to Loading: Station 




Leading Cattle on Cars 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



25 




Cattle Train 



into the refrigerators and ice boxes of the shops and is disposed of thereafter as second 
grade meat. How this prejudice has arisen in this semi-tropical country, where it would 
seem that refrigeration is absolutely essential to the proper preparation and preservation 
of meats, is difficult to imagine, but the prejudice is so deeply rooted as to have caused 
an absolute failure of a complete plant established a number of years ago in Camagiiey, 
in which was installed the very finest of machinery and in connection with which were 
built the most up-to-date refrigerating plants. It was thought by those promoting this 
enterprise that the heavy loss of weight which occurred in shipping cattle from Camagiiey 
to Cuba's principal market, Havana, could be avoided by the killing of the animals in 
Camagiiey and their shipment in refrigerator cars to Havana, to be there stored and 
delivered as required from the refrigerators of the Company established here in this 
City. As a part of the equipment of the Company, fine refrigerated auto trucks were 
employed for making city deliveries here, but the promotors had not taken into con- 
sideration the popular prejudice referred to. Moreover, they soon realized that the loss 
of weight in shipment of cattle from Camagiiey to Havana is caused, not through loss 
of the weight of meat obtainable after killing, but through loss of weight of stomach 
contents. The result was a complete failure and the definite closing down some time 
ago of this plant. Another result, of course, of the prejucide we have mentioned is that 
except for consumption by the foreign element in Cuba, very little refrigerated meat is 
imported, competition with the native meats being impossible. 

To one familiar with the various cuts offered by the butcher of the United States, 
the appearance of a meat shop in Cuba causes surprise. There is no such thing here as 
a definite system of cutting up the animal. Meats are classed as first, second and third, 
the first being practically all boneless meat, except that of the neck which is considered 
second class, while the third class consists of bones on which is found a small percentage 
of meat. This gives the keynote to the method of cutting up the animal after butchering, 
as the idea is simply to remove the bone and the fat from the meat, the latter then being 
cut up in any manner whatever so as to furnish to each customer the number of pounds 
of meat he requires. We know of only one part of the animal that is always kept sepa- 
rate, this being the tenderloin. 



THE CUBA li ]■: Ji ]■: ir 



In viow of the critical .situation of Cul)a':< susar industry at the im'sent time, the 
l)rol)al)lo future that, tlic cattle industry has in store is of interest. We believe that the 
ex])ansion of the sugar indu.stry has ended, and that a limitation of production both 
enforced and natural will result. It is quite possible that the ne.xt two years will witness 
a reduction in Cuba's total sugar crop to not more than 2,. ")()(), ()()() long tons. This, of 
course, can be jiroduced on a much smaller area of land than is now planted in cane, and the 
only outcome possible is that those lands abandoned for the growing of cane will become 
available as jiasture. In the great majority of cases here, cessation of cultivation is 
followed immediately by the occupation of the land by grasses of various kinds, in many 
sections these Ix'ing excellently adapted for cattle raising and fattening, so that present 
indications would point to an increa.se in the number of acres devoted to cattle raising, 
with a consefjuent increase in the number of cattle produced. This should, and very 
likely will, result in a repetition of the conditions existing beginning with about 1905, 
in which the j^rice of cattle gradually lowered and the jirofits from the industry became 
smaller. From the extremely high ])rices at which cattle were held last year, there has 
been a tremendous drop, the wTiter being informed that yearlings which last year were 
obtainable only at prices from S45.00 up per head, are now being offered in fair abun- 
dance at S15.00 per head. Thus prospects indicate an increase in production and a 
lowering in value, but we believe that the history of the past will repeat itself and that 
reliable i)rofits will continue to be made upon all ranches where business methods rule. 
The connnon sense limitation of the number of cattle pastured in a given area so that 
the owner is always in i:)osition to protect his herds in case of drought, and to give sys- 
tematic care which involves only a relatively small outlay, together with progressive 
methods in the improvement of the grade of animal produced, and systematic marketing, 
should bring to our stock raisers in future years reliable profits that will represent an 
excellent return upon the financial investment involved. We have been informed by 
some of the most conservative cattle raisers here that a return of about 18 per cent, net 
upon the capital invested in stock, lands, etc., can be secured, and this, it seems to the 
writer, should be regarded favorably. 



Trade with Boston 



Imports from Cuba 
Exports to Cuba . . . 

Imports from Cuba 
Exports to Cuba . . . 



Mar. 1921 



$3,448,500 
438,005 



Apr., 1921 



S3,596,206 
5.55.933 



Year Endmg 
Mar. 31, 1921 



§65,081,666 
11,252,495 



Year Ending 
Apr. 30, 1921 



§63,247,464 
10,163,745 



Mar. 1920 



§5,848,690 
1,019,160 



Apr., 1920 



$5,430,408 
1,644,683 



Year Ending 
Mar. 31, 1920 



$37,164,666 
10,704,682 



Year Ending 
Apr. .30, 1920 



$39,690,538 
11,720.645 



Gunny Bags fronx Calcutta 

The following table shows the exports from Calcutta to Cuba of gunny bags during 
the fiscal years 1918-19 and 1919-20 as compared ^-ith the average 5 years ended March 
31, 1917. 



Average for the 5 Years 
Ended Mar. 31, 1917 
Quantity, Value 

Tons 

14,668,620 $2,181,814 



1918-19 
Quantity, Value 

Tons 

17,079,600 §3,863,027 



1919-20 
Quantity, Value 

Tons 

21,114,400 .$.5,758,042 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



27 



Cuba's Mineral Production 

Mr. Hugh A. Chisholm, Canadian Trade 
Commissioner at Havana, reports that the 
Inspecting Engineer of Mines for the 
Cuban Government has now compiled a 
survey of the mineral resources and pro- 
duction of the Island, which shows that 
Cuba has been producing valuable min- 
erals over a period of many years, and, 
moreover, that comparatively few of her 
deposits have been in any way exploited. 

Iron Ore. — Although there are important 
deposits of iron ore in nearly every prov- 
ince, those in the province of Oriente, in 
the eastern end of the Island, are the only 
ones that have as yet been exploited. Of 
these, the Juragua mines have been pro- 
ducing over a period of thirty-six years an 
average output of 200,000 tons annually; 
the Daiquiri mines an average of 350,000 
tons annually over a period of twenty-five 
years; the Cuero mines an average of 
83,000 tons annually over a period of ten 
years; and the Mayari mines an annual 
average of 450 tons over a period of eleven 
years. 

Manganese Ore. — Of several deposits, 
only those in the province of Oriente have 
been worked. These have produced an 
annual average of 13,000 tons. The great- 
est production was in 1918, when 97,600 
tons were extracted. 

Chromium. — The working of chromium 
deposits was commenced in 1918 in the 
eastern end of the Island, the output in 
that year totaling 7,000 tons. 

Copper Ore. — Copper ore crops out in 
numerous localities all over the Island. 
Three deposits have been worked for sev- 
eral years, one of which — in the province 
of Oriente — has been producing since the 
year 1830. This mine reached its greatest 
production in 1911, with 94,000 tons. The 
two other mines in the province of Pina 
del Rio have been producing an average 
total of 130,000 tons annually. 

Asphalt. — Operations have been recently 
commenced on the asphalt deposits in the 
province of Santa Clara, and it is expected 
that this year's production will reach 
10,000 tons. 

Petroleum. — Many sporadic attempts 
have been made to work the petroleum 
deposits, but without any marked success. 
One well produced 8,000 barrels in 1919, 



and two others are now producing 100 to 
180 barrels daily of naphtha. 

With regard to the metal contents of 
Cuban ores, the iron ore in the east of the 
Island shows 54% of iron, manganese ore 
40%, and chromium ore 35 to 45% of oxide 
of chromium. Copper ores show 10 to 
17% copper extraction. Scarcity of labor 
has reduced the mineral output of 1919, 
the mines finding it difficult to compete 
with the high wages offered on the cane 
plantations. The value of Cuba's mineral 
production in 1918 was $12,000,000.00, but 
1919 will probably not show more than 
60% of this figure. 



National Congress of Chambers of 
Commerce 

The First National Congress of Cham- 
bers of Commerce and business interests of 
Cuba will be held on November 28, 29, 30, 
and December 1, 1921, in Havana, to 
consider measures for developing internal 
and international business. 



Passengers Entering the Port of Havana 

From July, 1920, to February, 1921, 
116,723 passengers from foreign ports 
entered at Havana, an increase of 38,358 
over the same period of the previous year; 
71,672 were classified as residents against 
39,077 the previous year. 



Cuban Exports to the United States 

The declared exports from Cuba to the 
United States during the first half of 1921 
amounted to $55,430,120, as compared 
with $151,899,820 for the corresponding 
period of 1920. The explanation for this 
reduction in exports is that during the 
present year prices in some cases were 
below the cost of production and exports 
were less, whereas in 1920 prices were high 
and exports were heavj^ and regular. The 
chief commodity exported in each case was 
sugar, $127,691,599 worth being shipped in 
1920 and $38,124,296 worth in 1921. 
Pineapples and tobacco were other leading 
articles of export. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Coastwise Steamship Lines in Cuba 

A report on Cuhaii steamship ser^Hccs prepared fr<5m data furnished the consulate 
general l)y the various consuls and submitted by \kc Consul James Y. Whitfield gives 
the following schedule of services: 



Ports and Companies 



Habnna: 

Empress Xaviera de Cuba (Cuban) 



Compafiia de Navegacion del Comerrio 

(Cuban). 
Viajera Antillena (Cuban) 



Sucesorcs de F. Romaguera Co.: 
Alonzo y Sobrinos; and Oscar As- 
tudillo (all of Habana). 
Antilla: 

Compafiia Naviera de Cuba 

Xavier Rumeau Steamship Line, San- 
tiago de Cuba. 

S.S. Rambler (American) 

Cicnfuegos: 

Empresa Naviera de Cuba 



Compafiia de Navegacion del Comercio 
The Emelio Navarro, S. en C 

The Empresa de Vapores al Castillo 

de Jagua. 
Empresa Boullon y Compafiia, S. en 

C, Cicnfuegos. 

Senor Juan Roy, Cicnfuegos 

Sagua la Grande: 

Mess. Fernandez & Co 

Sagua Ship-Chandlery Co 



Compafiia de Navegacion de la Costa 
Norte de Cuba. 
Matanzas: 

Compafiia Maritima Comercial, Ma- 
tanzas. 
Cardenas: 

Compafiia Licorera Cubana 

Arechabala Donihan 

Balcells 

Nuevitas: 

Empresa Naviera de Cuba 

Santiago: 

Empresa Naviera de Cuba 



J. _S. Webster Steamship Service, 
Kingston, Jamaica. 



G. Scott, 39 Broadway, New York. . . 
Albert Gretzmer, Kingston, Jamaica. 



Details of Service 



Owns 10 ships, 8 of which carry passengers, and all of which 
carry freight. Service to all important Cuban ports, to Porto 
Rico and Santo Domingo. Schedule irregular. 

Owns 3 steamers and maintains a bimonthly freight and pas- 
senger service to most Cuban ports. 

Recently organized in Habana, for freight only. Company has 
purchased 3 vessels in England and will begin operations im- 
mediately upon their delivery. 

Small sailing vessels to various ports of Cuba when trade and 
freight conditions warrant. 

Maintains an agency in Antilla, and its traffic includes the ports 

of Puerto Padre, Gibara, Nipe, and Baracoa. 
Has 1 .steamer advertising sailings between .\ntilla, Cayo Mambi, 

and Baracoa. It is anticipated that five or six voyages will be 

made monthly. Passengers and freight. 
Mr. Pascual Yannini, of Santiago, Cuba, advertises sailings of 

this steamship between Antilla and a Jamaican port. 

Passenger and freight service between Cicnfuegos and other 
south Cuban ports. Voyage begins at Habana and extends 
around the western end of Cuba, with Cicnfuegos as first stop. 
Continues to Santiago with eight intermediate stops. Same 
stops on return trip. 

One steamer with service from Cicnfuegos to same ports and over 
same route as the Empresa Naviera de Cuba. 

One steamer with triweekly service, freight and passenger, 
between Cicnfuegos and Casilda (Trinidad). 

Freight and passenger service on Cicnfuegos Bay. 

Freight and passenger service between Cicnfuegos and ports on 

the Damijui River. 
Freight and passenger service between Cicnfuegos and Calesito. 

Four small schooners in service. Intermittent schedule to 
Habana, Matanzas, and other north-coast ports. 

Owns two schooners and operates a freight service between 
Habana and Sagua la Grande, and between Habana and 
Nuevitas. Schedule to Habana, one sailing every 10 days; to 
Nuevitas, every 4.5 days. 

Operates small sailing vessels to various north-coast ports when 
trade and freight conditions warrant. 

Weekly freight service between Matanzas and Habana. 



Three small schooners carrying liquor from Cardenas to Habana 

and returning with general cargo. 
Three schooners from Cardenas to Habana with general cargo. 
Two schooners in the same ser\nce. 



Ships make approxi- 



Company maintains agency at Nuevitas. 
mately weekly calls at this port. 

Operates 14 ships in its Habana and Santiago freight and pas- 
senger service. Schedule irregular, depending upon amount 
of cargo offered. From Santiago to Habana via north-coast 
route the ports of call are: Guantanamo, Baracoa, Mayari, 
Antilla, Preston, Felton, Nipe, Banes, Vita, Gibara, Puerto 
Padre, Chaparra, Manati, Nuevitas, and Caibarien. From 
Santiago to Habana via the south-coast route: Ensenada de 
Mora, Nifjuero, Manzanillo, Guayabal, Santa Cruz del Sur, 
Jucaro, Tunas de Zaza, Casilda, and Cicnfuegos. Company 
also maintains a monthly freight and passenger service from 
Habana to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and to San 
Juan and Ponce, Porto Rico, calling at Santiago each w'ay. 

Operates two steamers and one schooner between Santiago and 
Kingston. Steamers carry passengers only; schooner carries 
both passengers and freight. Four trips weekly in each 
direction. 

Operates two steamers between Santiago and Kingston, Jamaica; 
and Santiago and Aux Cayes, Haiti; with occasional call at 
Port au Prince or some other Haitian port. Service is weekly 
and for passengers only. 

Weekly passenger service, -with 1 steamer and 2 schooners, 
between Santiago and Kingston, and Santiago and Aux Cayes, 
Haiti. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 



Ports and Companies 



Details of Service 



Lindsay, Swan, Hunter (Ltd.), Kings- 
ton, Jamaica. 

Cuba-Jamaica Steamship Co., San- 
tiago, Cuba. 

Compafiia de Navigacion del Comercio 

Compania Ron Bacardi, Santiago 

T. P. Thompson, Bodden, Vandy 
Sandy, and Chapman (all of Kings- 
ton, Jamaica). 
Isle of Pines: 

Isle of Pines Steamship Co 



Empresa Naviera de Cuba. 



Two-steamer passenger service between Santiago and Kingston, 

and Santiago and Aux Cayes, Haiti. Schedule to Kingston, 

biweekly; to Haiti, irregular. 
One-steamer passenger service between Santiago and Kingston, 

Jamaica, and any Haitian port. Schedule depends upon time 

required for booking full load of passengers. 
Coastwise freight and passenger service of 3 steamers to the 

different ports of the island. 
Operates 2 schooners for carrying its own product (Bacardi rum). 

Schedule irregular. 
One motor schooner. Freight and passenger service between 

Santiago and Kingston and other ports of the West Indies 

and the Bahamas. Schedule irregular. 

Operates a freight and passenger service between Jucaro and 
Nueva Gerona (Isle of Pines) and Batabano, Cuba. Only 
1 ship in operation. Sailings, triweekly each way. 

Operates an occasional ship to Los Indios, Isle of Pines. 



Cuban Commerce with Germany 

Consul General Carlton Bailey Hurst, 
Habana, reports that during the fiscal 
year 1919-20, Cuba imported $942,377 
wort.h of merchandise from Germany, 
while during the pre\dous fiscal year no 
shipments were report^ed from that country. 
The leading articles imported were as 
follows : 



Articles 



Glass and crystal ware 

Earthenware and porcelain 

Gold, silver and platinum 

Iron and steel 

Copper and alloys 

All other metals 

Paints, varnishes and inks 

Chemical products 

Oils, soap, etc 

Cotton and cotton manufactures 

Other vegetable fibers 

Wool, hair, etc 

Silk and silk manufactures 

Paper and cardboard 

Books and prints 

Wood and manufactures of 

Instruments 

Machinery 

Apparatus 

Beverages and oils 

All other 

Total 



Value 



$22,150 

29,138 
133,686 

75,726 
3,823 
1,921 
3,518 

72,186 
7,870 

35,043 
2,426 
2,469 
4,911 

13,534 
1,935 
5,158 
4,629 

42,059 
326,058 

21,043 
133,094 



942,377 



Cuba, during the fiscal year 1919-20, 
exported $19,700 worth of merchandise to 
Germany, nothing having been reported 
as sent during the previous fiscal year. 
Imports from Germany began to reach 
Cuba in October, 1919. The following 
table shows the imports from and exports 



to Germany from Cuba during 1919-20, 
bv months : 



Months 



1919 

October 

November. . . . 
December . . . . 

1920 

January 

February 

March . ' 

April 

May. 

June 

Total.. .. 



Imports 



1,431 
195,712 



1,573 
31,320 
377,438 

98,529 
154,953 

81,065 



942,377 



Exports 



■1175 

2.50 

10,000 



9,025 
155 



25 



19,700 



Cuban Telephone Company 

The annual report of the Cuban Tele- 
phone Company showed a gross income for 
1920 of $2,714,258, compared with $2,281,- 
720 the preceding year. After all expenses, 
including depreciation, interest on bonds, 
etc., there was a net operating income of 
$971,826, from which dividends and other 
deductions were made, leaving a final sur- 
plus for the year of $139,275. There was 
an increase in net earnings appUcable to 
dividends of $89,249. 

Property accounts and inventories were 
increased by $1,719,175, of which the prin- 
cipal item was $1,090,126 devoted to en- 
largement of the plant . The report showed 
that on December 31 last there were 
33,337 telephones in the island, which have 
since been connected mth the United 
States by three submarme telephone cables. 



80 T II K cm. I REV I Ely 

Traffic Receipts of Cuban Railroads 

Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. 

Utonlh of April: 1921 li»20 l'.tl<» 1918 1917 

Grotw earniiiKS $1,062,636 $9()o,734 $74'.), 743 $603,34.i $534, 613 

OprratiiiK expenses'. 586.324 453,240 367,833 301,377 230,195 

Net enrninKS $476,312 $512,494 $381,910 $361,968 $304,418 

Miscellaneous income 19.105 6^7^ ifl^^li ___l£:lli 1 1-875 

Total net income $495,417 $519,366 $394,551 380.112 $316,293 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 267.415 282.660 235.703 218.867 150,571 

4 .\fonths to April SOth: 

GroHS earnines $4,241,613 $3,641,076 $2,836,512 $2,567,536 $2,131,823 

OpeVatinB expenses 2,404.156 1.804.154 1.423.501 1.169.201 908,397 

Net earninits $1,837,457 $1,836,922 $1.413,01 1 $1,.398,335 $1,223,426 

Miscellaneous income 37,454 26,660 32.940 53,701 47,626 

Total net income $1,874,911 $1,863,582 $1,445,951 $1,452,036 $1,271,052 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 957,331 889,386 830,147 807,054 617,818 

Month of May: 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 

Gross caminKS $1,100,117 $946,301 $740,304 $685,731 $.564,237 

Oneratini; expenses 603,541 462,308 352,676 312,501 252,894 

Net ."-irnimts 496.576 483,993 387,628 373,230 311.343 

MisccllaiKous income 10,235 11,470 19,434 9,656 6,361 

Total net income $506,811 $495,463 $407,062 $382,886 $317,704 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 282,592 252,827 215,568 221,641 153,818 

6 Months to May 3tM: 

Gross parnings 5,341,730 4,587,377 3,576,815 3,253.267 2,696,060 

ODcratinir expenses 3,007,697 2.266,462 1,776.177 1,481.702 1.161.292 

Not .■■irninK* 2,334.033 2,320,915 1,800,6.38 1.771,.565 1,534,768 

MiscelluiK-ous income 47,689 38.130 52.375 63,357 53,987 

Total net income $2,381,722 $2,359,045 $1.8.53.013 $1,834,922 $1,588,755 

Surplus after deducting fixed charges 1,239,923 1,142,213 761,869 1,028,695 771,686 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 

Weekly Receipts: 1921 1920 

Week ending Jirne 18th £SS,393 £116,825 

Week ending June 2oth 76,957 125,37-4 

June 26th-Jime SOth 51,742 75,747 

July Ist-July 2d 17,030 47,352 

Week ending July 9th 61,787 98,165 

Week ending July 16th 58,038 110,600 

Week ending July 23d 57,015 102,607 



Earnings of the Havana Central Railroad Co. 

Weekly Receipts: 1921 1920 

Week ending June 18th £12,255 £15,759 

Week ending