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Full text of "Culinary Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Technical Terms"

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FOR GOOD COOK ERY. 




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109 Famngdon Road, LONDON, E.G. 

AND 

ARGYU WORKS, GUSQOW. 



SENN'S 



CULINARY ENGYCLOP JIDIA 



% ^xdx0na:ry 



OF TEC?HNICAL TERMS, THE NAMES OP AIL FOODS, FOOD AND 
COOKERY AUXIUABIES, CONDIMENTS AND BEVERAGES. 



SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR USE BY 

CHEFS, HOTEL AND RESTAURANT MANAGERS, 

COOKERY TEACHERS, HOUSEKEEPERS, etc. 



BSINO A 



REVISED, GREATLY IMPROVED, AND UP-TO-DATE VERSION OF THE 
ORIGINAL WORK, ENTITLED ** CULINARY DICTIONARY," 

BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



FY 

CHARLES HEBMAN SENN. 



LONDON : 
SPOTTISWOODE & CO., 54 GRACECHURCH STREET, E.C. 

1898. 



s 



LONDON : 

PRTNTKn BY SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., 

54 GllACECHURCH STREET, RC. 



- . . !. _ V rf 



INTEODUCTION. 



r llHE object of this little book is intended to sBow 
the reader at a glance the meaning of certain words 
and expressions used in cookery and gastronomy. It 
gives in a coficise form such information which would 
otherwise cost much time and labour to obtain. It is a 
dictionary of culinary technical terms, the names of most 
food stuffs, food and cookery auxiliaries, condiments and 
beverages. The names of many new delicacies and foods 
will be found duly registered, whilst all the foreign terms, 
used in menus and recipes are translated or explained. 
In short, every subject referring to the table or cuisine 
has been judiciously treated, and the so-called technicalities 
have been rendered intelligible. 

The work is by no means complete, and I do not wish 
it to be regarded as such ; though I trust by means of it 
many a difficult question will be answered, and that it will 
be found a helpful and convenient manual of reference by 
professional* cooks, cookery teachers, managers of hotels, 
clubs, restaurants, and of households. 

■ Ch. Herman Senn. 



PREFACE. 



fX^HE technical terms nsed in cookery have originated 
in the language of the different countries in which 
the art was practised. The words now in use are chiefly 
French. In science most of the technical words are of 
Greek origin. Italian words formerly more common in 
cookery have been entirely superseded by French, and if 
French words were Anglicised there would still be a 
difficulty in finding words equally expressive. It would 
bo an advantage when possible in menus to use English 
words as well as French, but in recipes this is scarcely 
possible because no other words have the same meaning 
and value ; and as cookery for two centuries has been more 
carefully cultivated by the French we have a large number 
of French words which are often a stumbling-block to 
cooks, but when these words are explained they are no 
longer a difficulty but a valuable assistance, and it is the 
object of the following pages to provide persons with a 
dictionary of words used in cookery. The French language 
is now the language of diplomacy and cookery. 

J. G. BUCKMASTEB. 



CULINAEY ENCYCLOPEDIA. 

Dated 

rhich * 

lieflv ' 

e of 

1 ID 

i if A. 



' a 
iiJd 



Aal, //. Anguille,/. Eel, e. A genus of soft finned fish. 

Abaisse, /. A paste thinly rolled out, used for lining tarts 
jg|j and soufii6s, croustades, etc. 

Abatis, /. The head, neck, liver, comb, kernels, and 
■^J wings of a bird. Giblets. 

]a Abavo. Name of an Indian pumpkin, from which a 

delicious soup is prepared. 

Abendmahl, .7. Souper, /. Supper, e. Last meal of the 
day. 

Able, /. A fish of the salmon kind, but somewhat smaller, 
found on the Swedish coast. 

Ablette, /. A very small sweet water fish, of pink colour. 

Abricot, /. Apricot, e. Small fruit of the peach order. 

Abricot6, /. Candied apricot, e. Masked with apricot 
marmalade. 

Absinthe, /. Name of an aromatic plant, also that of a 
liqueur prepared from this plant, consumed as an 
appetite-giving beverage in France and Switzerland ; 
sometimes used for flavouring purposes. 

Siviss Absinthe is made from plants related to 
wormwood and southernwood. 

Accola, it. Name of a marinated fish, similar to tunny- 
fish. 

B 



2 senn's culinary encyclof^du 

Acetarlous, e. Denoting plants used in salads. 

Acetary, e. An acid pulp found in certain fruits. 

Acetic Acid. This is an acid used in confectionery, boiled 
sugar foods, etc. Acids are used to preserve white- 
ness, to give body or consistency, and to prevent de- 
terioration of delicately coloured sugar work, etc. It 
is obtained in two forms — by the oxidisation of alcohol, 
and the distillation of organic matter in hermetically 
sealed vessels. Acetic acid being inflammable, great 
precaution is needed when added to boiling sugar ; it 
is used in small quantities. 

AcetO dolCCy it, (sour and sweet). A kind of Italian 
pickles, prepared with different kinds of fruit, preserved 
in vinegar and honey, served with meats. 

Achaja* Name of a Greek wine. 

Ache, /. Smallage, e. Water parsley, culinary herbs. 

Aqua d'Oro, *. A high-class liqueur invented by the 
Italians in the thirteenth century. It was first intro- 
duced into France in 1533 by Catherine de Medici, who 
became the wife of Henry II. The predominant 
flavour of this liqueur is rosemary and rossolis. 

Admiral. Name of a hot drink, consisting of claret 
sweetened with sugar, flavoured with vanilla and 
cinnamon, and thickened with egg-yolks. 

Adrag*an (gomme), /. Gum Tragacanth, e, Prineipal 
ingredient used for gum paste. 

AdschempilavL Name of a Turkish dish — ^pickled meat 
stewed with rice. 

Aegflefin, or Algflefin, /. A kind of fish resembling 
the codfish ; is caught on the French coast, and cooked 
in the same manner as a codfish. 

Aerated Bread. The name given to bread prepared by a 
special process, known as " Dr. Dauglish's Process." 
According to this process bread is made without leaven 
or yeast, carbonic acid gas being mixed or charged in 
water which is mixed with flour in an iron vessel and 
placed under pressure to form the dough. Aerated 
bread differs somewhat in taste from ordinary fer- 
mented bread; it is preferred by many because the 
aroma of the pure wheaten flour is much more remark- 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 8 

able than in ordinary bread, and because it is free from 
the taste of acetic acid. The kneading and moulding 
of aerated bread are performed by machinery, and it is 
thus untouched by hand. 

Aerated Waters. These are used as the basis of a large 
number of effervescing drinks, cups, etc. They are 
consumed alone or with wines or spirits. The process 
of manufacture is not difficult; they are made by 
forcing a certain quantity of carbonic acid into water, 
which, under pressure, dissolves a quantity of this gas, 
but gives off the greater part again as soon as the 
pressure is removed, or, in other words, as soon as 
the stopper is taken out of the bottle. Soda and 
potash waters usually contain ten to fifteen grains of 
bicarbonate of soda or potash, in addition to the car> 
bonic acid. Seltzer water should contain chlorides of 
sodium, calcium, and magnesium, with phosphate and 
sulphate of sodium. Lemonade and other fruit beve- 
rages are made by the addition of a certain quantity of 
fruit essence or syrup to aerated water. There are 
also a number of natural mineral or aerated waters 
which are obtained from springs containing certain 
salts in addition to carbonic acid gases. Among these 
may be mentioned ApoUinaris, Johannis, Salutaris, 
Seltzers, Rossbach, and Vichy waters. 

Aftricaine (a T). African style. 

AMcains, /. Name of a kind of French dessert biscuits. 

Agfaric, /. A species of mushroom, of which there are six 

varieties used as edibles. 
Agneau, /. Lamb, e. A young sheep. 

Agro-dolce Sauce. A sweet, sharp sauce, made with 
vinegar, sugar, pine kernels, almonds, chocolate, and 
small currants ; served hot. 

Aide de Cuisine, /. Undercook, e, 

Aigrre, /. Aigrette. Sour, piquant. 

Aigrefln, /. Small haddock. 

Aigrelety Aigre, Aigret. Sourish, somewhat sour, 
sharp, sour. 

AigfUillettes, /. Small strips of cooked meat. 

AigfUille-a-Brider, /'. Larding needle. 

B 2 



SENN's CULINABY ENCYCLOPJEDIA 



Ail (un gOUSSe d'ail), /. Garlic ; a clove of garlic, e. 
Aile, /. The wing of a bird. Fluegel, y, 

AileronSy Airelle, /. Small wings of birds ; fins of some 
fish. Sometimes used for garnishing dishes, or served 
as ragout. 

Airelle Rougre, /. Red bilberry; dark red berries used 
for compote, jellies, and marmalade. 

Airelle, or Myrtille, /. Whortleberry. There are two 
sorts. One originates from America, and is very 
savoury, and is eaten freshly picked with savoury milk 
or a cream sauce. The other kind of whortleberry is 
a small fruit, of dark blue colour ; seasoning certain 
dishes. Wine merchants use it to colour white wine. 

Aiselle, /. A species of beetroot, used as vegetable or in 
salads. 

Aitchbone of Beef, e, Culotte, /. An economical joint 
used as boiled meat or stews. The joint lies im- 
mediately under the rump. It is a bone of the rump, 
which in dressed beef presents itself in view edgewise ; 
hence it is sometimes called **edgebone," the ancient 
name for aitchbone. 

AJ0Ut6es, /. To add or mix; also applied to small 
garnish or side dishes serv^ed with vegetable course. 

A la, /. A la mode de, after the style or fashion of ; ^ la 
fran9aise, French style ; k la Reine, Queen style ; t\ 
rimp^ratrice. Empress style ; k la Russe, Russian 
style, etc. 

A la Broche, /. Roasted in front of the fire on spit or 
skewer. 

Albrand, or Albrent, /. Name applied in France to , 
young wild ducks ; after the month of October they are 
called canard eaux, and the month following canards. 

Albumine, /. Albumen (white of Qgg). 

Albuf§ra, /. A lake near Valencia, in Spain. Title given 
to Duke of Wellington, 1812. Dishes called after his 
name, ^1*, served with a sharp brown sauce flavoured 
with port wine. Roast pork, game, etc. 

Alderman's Walk, e. The name given to the centre cut 
(long incision) of a haunch of mutton or venison, 
where the most delicate slices are to be found. It also 
denotes the best part of the under-cut (fillet) of a 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPAEDIA 5 

sirloin of beef. The name is supposed to be derived 
from a City Company's dinner, at which a City 
Alderman showed a special liking for this cut. 

AltooiSy cresson d', /. Small garden cress. 

Ale Berry. A hot drink, made with ^ pint ale, 1 oz. 
oatmeal groats, ground ginger and sugar to taste, and 
a little Vater. Boiled, strained and served with toasted 
bread. 

Ale Posset. A hot drink, prepared with ^ pint milk, a 

yolk of egg, ^ oz. butter, ^ pint ale. The milk is 

• poured hot over a slice of toast, the egg and butter are 

then added and allowed to bind. The ale is added 

boiling, and sugar according to taste. 

.Aliment,/. Food; nourishment; meat. 

Allsander, e. Sometimes called Alexander. "Persie de 
mac^doine," /. Name of a plant belonging to the 
parsley and celery order. As a culinary plant it is 
almost forgotten, but may be found in its wild state 
near the sea coast of Great Britain. Before celery was 
known this plant was used as a salad ingredient. 

AUemande {k 1'). German style. 

A rAUemande. As a surname to dishes is applied in 
many cases where the origin of the preparations are in 
a manner peculiar to Germany. Thus a dish garnished 
with sauerkraut and pork (pickled and boiled), its style 
is termed k I'AUemande. Again, a dish garnished 
with potato quenelles or smoked sausages may be 
defined in the same manner. 

Allemande, /. A white reduced veloute sauce, made 
from veal stock, thickened with flour, cream, yolk of 
eggy and seasoned with nutmeg and lemon juice. 

Allerei, ^. Name of a German dish, consisting of stewed 
early spring vegetables. A kind of macedoine of 
vegetables, principally served at Leipzig. 

Alliance (k la Ste.), /. Name of a garnish for entrees, 
consisting of braised carrots, artichoke bottoms, and 
small, onions. 

Allspice, ^. Piment, 6pice, /. Also called Jamaica 
pepper or pimento. The ground ripe and dried berries 
of a pretty evergreen tree of the myrtle species, which 
grows plentifully in Jamaica. It is called allspice 
because its flavour and smell resemble very closely 



6 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

that of a combination of three chief spices — cloves, 
cinnamon, and nutmeg. The berries when ripe and 
dry are somewhat similar to black pepper, only rather 
larger and less pungent in taste. 

Almavica, it. An Italian sweet dish, similar to semo- 
lina pudding. 

Almond, e, Amande, /. A greatly appreciated fruit, used 
for a variety of culinary preparations, more especially 
sweet dishes and for dessert. The fruit of a tree 
resembling the peach-tree. It is largely cultivated in 
Spain, the south of France, and Italy. There are two 
kinds, the sweet and the bitter. Malaga and Valentia 
cultivate the best sweet almonds (called Jordan 
almonds). Those imported from Malaga are the best 
of the two; whilst Mogadore provides the English 
market with bitter almonds. The latter are used for 
confectionery, mixed with a certain proportion of sweet 
almonds. The usefulness of this fruit is equally 
valuable for medicinal purposes as well as in the 
kitchen. There is hardly another fruit which touches 
the fancy of one's palate so pleasantly as the almond. 

Almond Icing*, e. Pate d'Amandes, /. A mixture of 
powdered almonds, sugar, and whites of egg or water, 
made into a paste. Used for cake-covering, etc. 

Alose, /. Shad, e, A river-fish, highly prized in France. 

Alouette, /. (See Lark, e,) A small singing bird. 

AlOUette farcies, /. Stuffed larks (boned). 

Aloyau, /. French word for sirloin of beef. 

Alsacienne, /. (A 1') Alsatian style, e. A meat garnish 
consisting of mashed peas, slices of ham, and smoked 
sausages. 

Alum. A salt of astringent and acid flavour. It is double 
sulphate of potash (called ammonia) and alumina. 
This is often used in the process of sugar-boiling, 
especially for pulled sugar used for ornamental pur- 
poses. A tiny pinch usually suffices for a pound of 
sugar. 

Alum Whey. An invalid drink made from milk, i pint, 
1 tablespoonful wine, a teaspoonful alum, and sugar to 
taste. 

Amalgramer,/. Amalgamate,^. To mix several substances. 



SENn's CUIilNAI^Y ENCYCLOPEDIA 7 

AmbigfU, /. A meal where the meat and sweets are 

served at the same time. 
AmeauXy f. A kind of pastry made of pu£f paste and 

eggs. 

AmidOIly /. Starch, e. A white farinaceous substance, 
obtained by a peculiar process from flour or potatcfes. 
It is insoluble in cold water, but soluble in boiling 
water, and through cooling it becomes a mass similar 
to jelly, and is then called Empois in French (or 
stiffened starch). 

Amirale (it T), /. Name of a garnish, principally for 
fish, consisting of fried oysters, sliced lobster fillets, and 
brown sauce. Name also adopted for meat dishes and 
sweet entremets. 

Amourettes, Armourettes. Marrow cut in strips and 
crumbed. 

Ananas, /. Pineapple, e. A dessert fruit of noble appear- 
ance possessing a most delicate and delicious flavour. 

AnchoiSy /. Anchovy, e. Literally, galltincturer. A 
small fish, native to the Mediterranean. 

Ancienne (a T), /. Ancient style. Name of a garnish, 
consisting of kidney beans, hard-boiled eggs, and 
braised cabbage lettuces. 

AndalOUSe (it 1'), /. Andalusian style. Name of a 
garnish for removes or entries, consisting of groups of 
spring cabbage, lettuces, and short pieces of fried 
sausages, served with demi-glace sauce. 

Andouille, /- Literally a hog*s pudding; a kind of 
French sausage. 

Andouillettes, /. Forcemeat balls, e, A kind of small 
sausages. A salpicon of poultry or game wrapped in 
pig's caul and fried. 

AngfeUca, «. Angelique, /. Is the name of a green fruit 
rind used in the kitchen, the tender tubular stems of 
which, after being preserved with sugar, are used for 
the purpose of decorating and flavouring sweet dishes. 

Angfeloty /. A small rich cream cheese made in Germany. 

Angflaise (k T), /. English style. Affixed to a dish 
usually implies that it consists of something plain 
roast or plain boiled, or that the dish is prepared in 



8 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

a style typical of this country, which does not neces- 
sarily follow that it must be plain. 

AngrelS on Horseback, e. Huitres en cheval, /. A 
savoury. Oysters rolled in bacon slices, grilled, and 
served on toasted or fried bread croutes. 

Ang'OUSte (a 1'), A An American garnish for meat 
entrees, consisting of baked eggs. 

Angnille, /. Eel, e, A genus of soft-finned fishes. 

Animelles, f- Lamb's fry, e. 

Anis, /. Anise or Aniseed, e. Aromatic plant, used for 
flavouring sweet puddings, creams and pastries. In 
Germany it is used as one of the ingredients in a 
fancy bread called Anisbrod. The anise plant is a 
native of Egypt and China. 

Aniser, /. To strew over with aniseed, or to mix with 

aniseed. 
Anisette, /. Aniseed cordial, e. A liqueur. 
Api, /. Name of a small French dessert apple. 

Appereils, /. Culinary term for prepared mixtures ; a 
formal preparation. 

Appetissant, /. Appetising ; something to whet the 
appetite ; relishing. 

AppetissantS. A hors d'oeuvre, consisting of stuffed 
Spanish olives, dressed on little croutes of fried bread. 

Appetit,/. Appetite, e. 

Appetite. Brillat-Savarin give the following most 
elaborate and graphic definition concerning appe- 
tite : ** Motion and life create in the living body a 
constant loss of substance, and the human body, which 
is a most complicated machinery, would soon be unfit 
for use if Providence did not provide it with a com- 
pensating balance, which marks the very moment 
when its powers are no longer in equivalence with its 
requirements." The great Careme, who was for a 
time chef to the Prince Regent in England, used to dis- 
cuss matters of gastronomy daily with his royal master. 
One day the Prince said, ** Careme, you will make me 
die of indigestion, for I long to eat of everything you 
send to table; everything is so tempting." ** Sire," 
answered Careme, " my business is to provoke your 
appetite, it is not for me to regulate it." 



SENN*S CULINARY ENC5YCL0PiEDIA 9 

Appetite denotes a desire to eat, and is announced in the 
stomach by a little weakness, combined at times with 
a little pain, and a slight sensation of lassitude. 
Meanwhile the mind is occupied with objects bearing 
upon its wants, whilst memory recalls such things as 
please the taste, or, in other words, imagination 
fancies it sees those things for which one longs ; the 
stomach becomes sensitive, the mouth becomes 
moistened, and all the digestive powers become ready 
for action. This is the feeling of one that is hungry, 
and to have an appetite one must be hungry. 

Apple^ e. Pomme, /. Apfel, g. The original apple of 
this country is the crab, which is astringent and bitter. 
There are about three hundred kinds of apple now 
cultivated. 

Apple Fool. A pur^e of apples (apple pulp), flavoured 
with cinnamon, clove, and sugar, mixed with new milk 
or cream, served as cream liquid or half frozen in glass 
dishes or goblets. 

Apple Hedgrehog'. Name of a dish of stewed apples 
(whole), the centres of which are filled with jam, 
arranged in the form of a hedgehog, decorated with 
shreds of almonds, covered with icing sugar, and 
browned in the oven. 

Apple Mering'ue, This is similar to apple snow, but is 
baked in a slow oven after being dressed on the dish. 

Apple Pupton. A kind of apple pudding made with 
apple pulp, breadcrumbs, butter, eggs, and sugar, baked 
in a plain mould, and served with a fruit syrup (hot). 

Apple Snow. Name of a sweet dish composed of apple 
pulp or pur^e, mixed with sugar, etc. This is mingled 
into some stiffly-whipped and sweetened white of egg. 
The mixture is piled high in a glass dish, and de- 
corated with fruit jelly. 

Apple Tansy. This is a kind of apple fritter. The 
batter is made of cream and eggs, and poured over 
partially- stewed apples ; they are fried in butter, and 
served very hot. 

Apricot, e. Abricot, /. Aprikose, //. First introduced 

in England about 1562. A delicious fruit, most 

, favoured as dessert fruit ; also largely used for tarts, 

jam, marmalade, and jelly. 



» «' « V ^ ■" 
* » 



10 SENn's culinary ENCYCJLOPiEDIA 

ArbOUSSe, /. A kind of water-melon, a native of 
Astracan. 

Arrack. A spirituous liqueur, very common in India and 
Russia and other countries. Sometimes used in the 
preparation of punch and syrups. 

Argfenteuille, /. Name of a county in France, Dep. 
Seine-Oise, celebrated for asparagus. Asperge 
d'Argenteuille. 

Ariston (a Greek word). Breakfast bit. A kind of bread 
dipped in wine. 

Aries, /. A town in France (Bouche du Rh6ne), cele- 
brated for its sausages. Saucissons d'Arles. 

Aromates, /. Vegetable herbs as used for flavouring. 
Atomatic herbs, such as thyme, bayleaves, tarragon, 
chervil, etc. 

Aromatiser, /. To flavour with spice or savoury herbs. 
Aromatic seasoning. 

Arome, /. Aroma ; aromatic quality. 

Arrowroot, e, Fegule de Marante, /. A tropical plant 
used for thickening sauces and other culi^iary prepara- 
tions. It is said the Indians extracted a poison for 
their arrows from this root, hence the name. 

ArtichautS, /. Artichoke, e, Fonds d*, artichoke bottoms. 
Topinambours, /., Jerusalem artichokes. 

Artois, /. Old county of France (Pas de Calais). Several 
dishes are called after this name. D'Artoise-feuilletage, 
pastry with jam ; also savouries. 

Asperg'es, /. Asparagus, e. An esculent plant, originally 
a wild sea-coast plant of Great Britain. In season 
from April till end of July. 

Aspic, /. Savoury jelly. A I'aspic, set in aspic, or 
garnished with aspic. 

Aspiquer, /. A modern Parisian culinarism, meaning to 
put lemon -juice, or " reduced vinegar," into a jelly, a 
sauce or a gravy (Goufife) ; the expression is therefore 
misleading ; the proper verb to use would be acidu- 
lating, to acidulate. 

Assaisonnement,/. Seasoning, condiment, sauce. 

Assaisonner,/. To season, to mix. 

Assiette, /. A plate. Une assiette propre, a clean plate. 

Assiett^e, 



), /. A plateful, €, 

r« A* •• • ^ • • 

mm* »•• • • 

;V- •:• . • • 



SENNAS CULINARY ENCYOLOPiEDIA 11 

Assiettes, /. Name given to small entries, not containing 
more than a plate will hold. 

Astrachan, /. Astracan, e, Russian province. Name 
of a caviare, the best of its kind, exported from that 
place. (See also Caviare.) 

AteletS,/. (Also Hatelettes.) Small silver or wooden 
skewers used for decorative pui^poses. 

Athtoienne (k T), /*. Athenian style. Larded, braised, 
and garnished with fried egg-plants, served with 
Madere sauce. 

Atherine, /. Sand-smelt, e, A species of fish similar to 
smelts, distinguishable from the real smelt by the 
absence of the cucumber smell so peculiar to the 
latter. Sand- smelts are often passed for real smelts, 
and though not so fine in flavour and taste they are 
found to be both delicate and wholesome. They are 
generally dressed and served in the same manner as 
smelts. 

Attereaux, /. Small rounds of minced meat (raw), 
wrapped in pig*s caul and cooked on skewers. 

Aubergfine, /. A garden plant. Egg-plant a melongena, 
vegetable-marrow. Also the name of a kind of small 
Parisian sweetmeat. 

Auberg'iste) /. An innkeeper; hotel-keeper. A T, inn- 
keeper's style. 

Au bleU) /. A culinary term applied to fish boiled in 
salted water, seasoned with vegetables, herbs, and 
white wine or vinegar. 

Aufour, /. Baked in the oven. 

AugfUStine (k T), /. Augustine's style. 

Au gras, /. A French term for meat dressed with rich 
gravy or sauce. 

Au gratiQ, /. A term applied to certain dishes prepared 
with sauce, garnish, and breadcrumbs, and baked 
brown in the oven; served in the dish on which 
baked. 

Au jus, /. A term for dishes of meat dressed with their 
juice or gravy. 

Au mai^rei /. A French expression used for dishes pre- 
pared without meat. Lenten dishes. 

Aumelette* Synonym of omelette. 

Au naturely /. Food cooked plainly and simply. 



12 senn's culinary ENCYCLOP-EDIA 

Aurore, A A yellow colour, e. A culinary expression 
for dished up high. A garnish consisting of stuffed 
eggs, quartered, bread croutons, and Aurore sauce. 

Aurore Sauce consists of AUemande or Bechamel and 
tomato sauce, flavoured with chili vinegar and dice of 
mushrooms. 

Aveline, /. Filbert, e. A fine nut of the hazel kind. 

Avoine, /• Oats, e, Creme d*avoine, cream of oats. 

Used for soups and puddings. 
Avola. Name of Sicilian town renowned for its sweet 

almonds. 



B. 

Baba (from the Polish word babka). A very light yeast 

cake. Substitute for tipsy-cake. 
Babeurre, /. Butter-milk, e. 
Babka. Name of a Polish-Eussian cake. Prepared as a 

custard, containing fruit, almonds, etc. 
Bacalao. Name of a Spanish fish speciality, consisting 

usually of salt cod, with a savoury dressing. 
Backing's. Name of a kind of fritters, best known in 

America, where they form a highly-esteemed dish for 

breakfast. 
Bael, or Bengal Quince. A fruit of the orange tribd. 

Highly esteemed in India as a preserve, either as jam 

or as a syrup. 
Bacon, e, Le lard, /. The sides of a pig salted or pickled 

and smoked. Bacon smoked^ e:\ /., du lard fume. 

Larding bacon, e, ; lard h piquer, /. 
Bagration, /. A word used for high-class dishes (soups). 

Bagration was a Kussian count, whose chief cook was 

the. celebrated A. Carem'e. 
Baie de Ronce, /. Blackberry, e. The fruit of the 

bramble. 
Bain-*Mane, /. The culinary water-bath. It is a largfe 

open vessel, half -filled with hot water, where sauces, 

etc., are kept so that they are nearly at the boiling- 
point without burning or reducing. 
Baking*. A mode of cooking ; food cooked by a dry heat. 

The word ** baking" is usually applied when articles 



SENn's culinary laiCYCLOPJEDIA 13 

are cooked in an oven or some other close structure, 
in which the action of the dry heat is more or less 
modified by the presence of steam which arises ' from 
the food whilst cooking. 

Ballotine} /. Small balls or rolls of meat or fowl. 

Banane, /. Banana, e. Fruit of the plantain tree. Used 
as dessert fruit; also for creams, ices, fritters, etc.- 
This fruit forms one of the principal sources of food 
in the tropics. It is eaten raw when ripe, but when 
unripe it is boiled and eaten as a vegetable, or baked 
and served with orange juice. 

Bannocks. A kind of thin, round, flat cake, made with 
oatmeal, butter, baking powder and water. They are 
baked like griddle cakes, or in a hot iron frying-pan. 
Finally,^ they are toasted till quite crisp. 

Banquet, /. A sumptuous ieast ; an entertainment of 

eating and drinking. 
Banqueter, /. To banquet, to feast, to treat oneself with 

a good feast. 
Bantam Fowl. A very small fowl, so called because it 

was originally brought from Bantam, Java. It is 

now largely bred in this country. 
Baraquille, /. A large pie made of rice, chicken, and 

truffles. . . 

Barbeau, Barbue, /. Barbel, e. A coarse fish, similar 

in shape to turbot. 
Barbecue^/. The mode of cooking (roasting) an animal 

whole ; a social entertainment in the open air ; to dress 

and roast whole. 

Barbe de BOUC. Plant resembling the salsify. Boiled 
in water or stock, or baked. 

Barbel, A fish of the carp family. This fish is but 
seldom eaten in England ; but in some parts of the 
Continent it is often found and appreciated. 

Barberry. A small fruit resembling the black currant, 
both in sisje and colour. Largely used for preserves, 
jellies, and pickles ; the flavour being rather acid it is 
not eaten raw. 

Barbottes en Casserole, /. Stewed eel-pout, e,, en 

casserole also denotes a special process of cooking in 
fire-proof earthenware pan. 



14 SENN's culinary ENCYCLOPJEDIA 

Barder, /. To cover breasts of game or poultry with thin 
slices of bacon fat. 

Barleyi e. Orge, /. Pearl barley, orge mond6, /. Barley 
bread, pain d'orge, /. Barley soup, creme d'orge, /. 
Barley water, eau d'oi;ge, /. Barley sugar, sucre 
d'orge, /. 

Barm. Yeast, e. Levain, /. The scum of malt liquor. 

Baron of Beef. A very large joint of the ancient kitchen. 
It consists of both sides of the back, or a double sir- 
loin, and weighs from 40 to 100 lb. It is always 
roasted, but is now rarely prepared, except at some 
festive occasions of the English Court, or at some 
great public entertainment. It is generally accom- 
panied by a boar's head. 

Basil, e. Basilic, /. An aromatic culinary herb, allied to 
thyme. It is included in the ** sweet " as well as 
" savoury '* herbs, on account of its pleasant aromatic 
smell and taste. 

BaslerLeckerlis, g. A kind of dessert biscuits — Bale 
delicacy — richly flavoured with honey and spice, called 
after the town of Bdle, where they are mostly made. 
These delicacies are to be found at almost every railway 
buffet on the Continent. 

Bass, e. Bar, /. A fish in season from May till September, 
belonging to perch family. This fish is most highly 
esteemed as an article of food owing to its delicate 
flavour. 

Baste — ^tO baste. To drip fat op roasting meat. Bast- 
ing is done in order to prevent the outside of joints, etc,, 
that are being roasted or baked from becoming dry. 

Bath Chaps. The cheek and jaw-bone of the pig, salted 
and smoked. Thus called because those coming from 
Bath were first known, and the first to obtain a 
reputation as being the very finest. Bath still enjoys 
this honour. 

Batons royaux, /. Small patties of minced chicken and 
game ; the favourite dish of Charles XII. 

Batter, e, A mixture of several ingredients beaten 
together. Frying batter — ^pate a frire, /. 

Batterie de cuisine, /. A complete set of cooking 

utensils and apparatus. 



senn's culinaky encyclopedia 15 

Bavaroise, /. Bavariau cream, e, A kind of cold 
custard pudding. 

Bavaroise k I'eau, / Tea flavoured with syrup of 
capillaire and orange-flower water. 

Bayleaff e. Laurier, /. The leaf of a species of the 
laurel tree, known. as the cherry laurel. Largely used 
as flavouring. It is generally included in the bouquet 
garni. Bayleaf flavour should always be used in 
moderation. 

Bearnaise, /. A word much used in cookery for a rich 
white herb sauce. Comes from the word B^arn, birth- 
place of King Henry IV, who was a great gourmand. 

B^casse, /. Woodcock, e, B^cassine, /. Snipe, e. 
Dolt ; a small marsh bird. 

Bechamel, /. French white sauce. Recognised as one 
of the four foundation sauces. The name of this 
sauce is supposed to come from the Marquis de 
P^chamel, an excellent chef, who acted as steward in 
the service of King Louis XIV. 

Beef, e, Boeuf, /. Boiled beef — boeuf bouilli. Roast 
beef — boeuf r6ti. Braised beef — boeuf brais6. Beef 
has from time immemorial been esteemed as the most 
substantial food. Its mode of cooking is usually^ of 
the simplest kind, though an infinite variety of dishes 
are made from it. 

Beefsteak Society, Was founded in London by a John 
Rich in 1735, and lasted till 1867. 

Beetroot, e, Betterave, /. (See Betterave.) 
Beer — biere, /. — bier, g. A beverage made of malt and 
hops. First known by the ancient Egyptians, from 
whence it was brought to the Greeks, Romans, and 
Gauls. A Roman historian mentions this beverage as 
being in daily use under Juhus Caesar (about the 
beginning of the Christian era). 

BeignetS, /. Fritters, e. Also a kind of pancake, fried 
in deep fat. 

Bergramotte (or Bergamot, e,) A species of pears, with 
a very agreeable flavour. 

Bergfamder. A species of duck. 

Berle. Ache. Old English name for celery, celeriac, or 
celery -root. 



16 SENN's CITLISARV ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

BerlinoiSy /. A kind of light yeast cakes in the shape of 
balls ; similar to dough nuts. 

Bernard, Emile. Name of a famous chef de cuisine 
who died in 1897. Was chef for many years to the 
Emperor William I. 

Betterave, /. Beetroot, e. A saccharine root used, 
when boiled and pickled, for salads and garnish ; an 
excellent appetiser. It is of great value in France 
and Germany, where it is extensively cultivated, and 
used for the manufacture of sugar. 

Beurre noir (au), /. Anything done in butter which is 
cooked to a brown colour. 

Beurre noisette, /. Nut-brown butter, e. Butter melted 
over the fire until it begins to brown. 

Biftek, /. The name given on the Continent to fillet 
steak or beefsteak. 

Big^arade, f* Bitter or sour orange — Seville orange. 
Big'arreau. The white-heart cherry. 
Big*arure, /. Is the name given to a rich stew made from 
pheasants, capons, etc. 

Bill of Fare, e. Menu, /. Literary, minute details, in a 
culinary sense ; a list of dishes intended for a meal. 
Menu cards were first used at table in 1541. 

Bind, e. To make a mixture and moisten it with egg, 
milk, or cream, so that it will hold together and not 
curdle. 

Bird's Nest (edible Bird's Nest). Constructed by a small 
Indian swallow species, found on the coast of China. 
There are two kinds, the black and white nests, the 
latter being much more rare, and consequently more 
thought of ijjian the former. The Chinese look upon 
these edible birds' nests as a great delicacy, and often 
make them into soup. 

BisCOttes. Thin slices of brioche paste, gently baked, 
' buttered and sugared, generally served with tea. 

Biscuit. Dry cakes. Fancy biscuits are used as dessert, 
whilst ship, captain and others are used on long voyages, 
instead of bread. The name is derived from the French 
** bis-cuite," i.e., twice baked. Also applied to a certain 
dessert, delicately prepared small French cakes, etc. 



senn's culinary encyclopaedia 17 

Bishop. Drink made of wine, oranges, and sugar. It 

was very popular in Germany during the Middle Ages. 
Bisque* /. Is the name given to certain soups usually 

. made with shellfish. 
Bisquotins, /. A kind of obsolete sweetmeats known 

since a.d. 241, when they were made by Huns. 
Bitter, [/. An essence or liqueur made from different 

kinds of aromatic plants, herbs, or fruits. 
Blackberry, e. Mure de ronce, /. An edible fruit, found 

growing wild in England. Very much esteemed by 

country people, and used for puddings, etc., and jam 

and syrup, which are considered to be very healthy. 
Black Currant, e. Groseille noire,/. A small kind of 

grape fruit. 
Blanc, ./'. A white broth or veal stock gravy. 
Blanchir, /. To blanch, e. To put anything on the fire 

in cold water until it boils ; then it is drained and 

plunged into cold water. 
Blanc Mangle,/. A white sweet food. A sweet cream 

set in a mould. Originally a maigre soup, made of 

milk of almonds. It is wrong to add colouring matter to 

a blanc mange ; hence chocolate blanc mmnje is incorrect. 
Blanquette, /. A stew usually made of veal or fowl, 

with a white sauce enriched with cream or egg-yolks. 
Bleak, <*. Breme, /. A small species of river fish. 
Bloaters. Are slightly salted and half-dried herrings, 

which constitute a common breakfast dish in England. 

Those from Yarmouth are the best known ; they are 

dried in smoke, whereas the bloaters cured in Norway 

are salted and dried, but not smoked. 
Blonde de Veau, /. A very rich veal broth, used for 

flavouring and enriching white soups and sauces. 
Boar's Head, e, Hure de sanglier, /. An historical 

Christmas dish in England. 
BCBUf,/. Beef, e. (See Beef.) 
Bohea. A species of black tea. 
Boiling*, e> Bouillir, /. A mode of cooking, needing 

little pkill and much care. The process is usually 

effected in water or stock. 
Bologna Sausag'e. A large smoked sausage, made of 

bacon, veal, and pork suet; an Italian speciality 

principally manufactured at Bologna. 





18 senn's culinaky encyclopedia 

Bombay Duck. A fish found in the Indian waters. It 
is very nutritive, and possesses a peculiar yet delicate 
flavour. For exportation it is salted and cured. In 
America and some parts of Europe it is considered a 
delicacy. 

Bombe, /. An iced pudding filled with a rich custard of 
fruit cream, shape of a bomb. 

Bon-Bon, /. Sugar confectionery ; generally dainties for 
children. 

Bon Gout* /. A much-used expression for highly- 
flavoured dishes and sauces. 

Bonite. A fish belonging to the class of the mackerel, but 
larger than the latter. 

Bonnet de Turquie. A kind of ancient pastry made in 
moulds of the form of a Turkish bonnet. 

Bordelaise a la, /. Name of a French sauce (brown), 
in which Bordeaux or Burgundy forms one of the in- 
gredients. Also a garnish. 

Borag*e, e, Bourrache, /. An aromatic plant, excellent 
for flavouring lettuce salads and iced drinks, claret 
cups, etc. The plant has spiny leaves and blue 
flowers. (See also Bourrache.) 

Borecole. A species of cabbage, sometimes called Scotch 
kale, as it is a well-known vegetable in Scptland. 

Bouch^es, /. Small pufif paste patties (petits pat^s), so as 
to be a traditional mouthful only. 

Bouch^es k la Relne, /. Puff paste patties filled with 
chicken ragout, invented by Marie Leczinska, wife of 
Louis XV. 

Boucon, /. A kind of veal ragout. 

Boudin, /. A kind of small French sausage similar to 
black pudding. 

Bouille a-BaiSSe, /. Is a kind of fish stew. A national 

French dish. Thackeray liked it so much that he 

wrote a ballad in its praise, beginning : 

"This Bouille 4-baisse, a noble dish is, 
A sort of soup, a broth, or stew; 
A hotch-potch of all sorts of fishes, 

That Greenwich never could out-do," etc. 

Bouilli, /. Fresh boiled beef. A national French dish. 
Bouillon, /. A plain clear soup. Unclarified beef broth. 
Bouquet g'arni, /. A small bunch of savoury herbs, 
parsley, thyme, and bayleaves; a faggot. It is tied 



SENN*S CULINABY ENOYCLOP-EDIA 19 

up, in order to facilitate its removal after use. Used 
in stews, stocks, broths, braises, sauces, etc., to impart 
a rich flavour. 
Bouquet of Herbs. Green onions, parsley, thyme, tar- 
ragon, chervil, etc., tied in a bunch. 

Bour^eoise {k la), /. A surname given to dishes which 
signifies a dish prepared in a simple, homely, but 
nevertheless tasty and wholesome manner. It means 
a modest kind of home cookery. 

BourgnigHOte, /. A ragout of . truffles, usually served 
with game. 

Bourg-Uigrnotte (k la), /. Burgundy style, e. 

BourgfUinotte {k la), /. This surname is applied, as 
a general rule, to dishes, in the preparation of 
which Burgundy or Bordeaux wine and small braised 
button onions are introduced. 

Bourg*oyne, /. (Vin de Bourgoyne). Burgundy wine. 

Also the name of a sauce (brown). 
Bourg'Oyne (a la). Burgundy style, name and character 

given to dishes. 
Bouride* /. A dish strongly flavoured with garlic. 

Bourrache,. /. Borage, e. Aromatic kitchen herb; also 
called cucumber herb, because it has the peculiar 
flavour of cucumbers. 

Boutarquei /. Name of a special kind of caviare, very 
little known and not appreciated in this country. 

Braise, or Braising", e/ Meat cooked in a closely-covered 
stewpan (braising pan or braisi^re) to prevent evapora- 
tion, so that the meat thus cooked retains not only its 
own juices, but also those of the articles added for 
flavouring, such as bacon, ham, soup vegetables, 
seasoning, etc., which are put with it. 

Brais^e, or Braiser, /. A mode of cooking known as 
braising, which is a combination of roasting and 
stewing. 

Braisi^re, /. A large stewpan with ledges to the lid, used 
for braising meats, etc. 

Brandade, /. A dish of stewed haddocks. 

Brandy, e. The name is derived from the German word 
"Brantwein" (literally translated "burnt wine"). 
French brandy, or, as it is called, Cognac, is most 

C3 



20 SENn's CULINABY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 

highly esteemed ; Cognac (Department of Charente, 

France) is celebrated for the excellence of its brandy. 
J3read> e, Le Pain, /. First made with yeast in England 

in 1684. (See also Pain.) 
Breadcrumbs, e, Chapelure,./. To crumb, from " paner 

a la panure,'* to coat with breadcrumbs. 
Bread Fruit. The fruit of the bread-fruit tree (arbre a 

pain,/.), which is excellent as food. 
Breakfast, e. Dejeuner, /. The first meal in the day. 
Break Flour (to), e. To stir gradually into the flour cold 

liquid until it becomes a smooth paste. 

Bream« (See Breme, /.) 

Breast, ^. Poitrine, /. Part of an animal next below the 

neck. 
Brdme, /. Bleak, e, A small species of river fi^h. 

Seasonable September to November. 
Bretonne {k la), /. Brittany style, e. 

Brider, /. To truss poultry and game with a needle and 

thread. 
Brier, /. To beat paste with a rolling-pin. 
Brignolles, /. A species of dark-red cooking plums. 
Brine, e. Marinade, /. Used for the preservation of 

meat, etc., and to impart certain aromatic flavours. 
Briinaul, West Indian egg-plant, known in Bengal as 

Bangou, which name is supposed to come from the 

Portuguese ** Bringella." 
Brioche, /. A light French yeast cake, similar to Bath 

buns. The favourite French breakfast bun, e£|.ten hot 

with coffee or tea. 
Brisquet. The breast of an animal — i.e., the part next 

to the ribs. 
Broche. French spit for roasting before an open fire. 

Brochet, /. Pike, e. Seasonable October to January. 

A fish to be found in almost all waters ; much liked 

on account of its delicate flavour. 
Broth, e. Bouillon, /. Beef stock or broth. An un- 

clarified gravy soup, with or without garnish. 
Brown Meat (to), e,, is to place it in a frying-pan with 

a small quantity of fat, not turning it till brown. 
Browiied Butter, e, Beurre noir (au), /. 
BrUHOisei f* Several soups are named a la Brunoise. 



sbnn's oulinaby bnoyclopjbdu « 21 

Brunois is a county in France, Seine-et-Oise Depart- 
ment, celebrated for the growth of fine spring 
vegetables. 

Brussels Sprouts, <^ Choux de Bruxelles,/. A kind of 
small cabbage seasonable from November to March. 

Bubble^and-Squeak. A well-known old English dish, 
made of slices of cold meat, fried together with boiled 
and minced cabbage and potatoes. 

Buffet,/. A place for refreshments, a sideboard. 

BuiSSOn, /. A cluster or a bunch of shrimps, crayfish, 
or lobster. Also applied to a method of twisting up 
pastry to a point. 

Bullace. The buUace tree is a native of warm countries, 
but is now cultivated also in 'more northern regions ; 
its fruit is a kind of plum, and very much like the 
damson. 

Buns. A well-known kind of light and spongy table- 
bread. The special b ms for Good Friday — ** hot- 
cross buns'* — ^flavoured with cinnamon and marked 
with a X are particularly familiar to English people. 

Burgnndy, e, Vin de Bourgoyne, /. A French red 
wine. 

Burnt-Sugar Colouring*, e. Caramel,/. 

Burst Rice, e. Is to put it to boil in cold water ; when 

boiling, the grains of rice will burst. 
Bustard. A large game-bird. 
Butter, e. Beurre, /. To butter moulds — k beurrer les 

monies. Saut6 au beurre — done in butter (tossed). 

Butter was first used as a food by the Hebrews ; the 

early Greeks and Romans used it as a medicine or 

ointment. 



0. 

Cabbag'e, e, Choux, /. A well-known vegetable ; 

■ plants of several species forming a head in growing. 
Cabillaud, /. Codfish, e. A sea fish, in season from 

September till end of April ; obtainable all the year. 

The oil from the liver of the cod is highly beneficial 

for lung and chest complaints. 

Cabillaud Farei, /. Stuffed codfish, e. 



22 SENN's GULINABY ENCYCLOPiEDlA 

Cafi6, /. Coffee, e, (the berry of a tr6e). A coffee-house 

or restaurant. A beverage prepared from the coffee 

berries after they have been roasted and ground. 
Cafeine, e, A bitter substance obtained from coffee. 
Caf6 Viergfe, /. An infusion of the whole coffee beans. 
Caille^ /. Quail, e. A bird of the grouse kind. Cailles 

farcies — stuffed quails. Cailles r6ties, /. — roast quails. 

In prime condition from September to January. 
Cake, e, G^lteau, /. Generally a mixture of flour, dried 

fruits, etc., with butter, eggs, or B.P., used to make it 

light, baked in tins or small patty-pans. 
Calfs Brains, e, Cervelles de veau, /. 
Calfs Ears, e, Oreilles de veau, /. 
Calfs Feet, e, Pieds de veau, /. Good jelly e&a be 

obtained from these by boiling. 
Calfs Head, e. Tete de veau, /. 
Calfs Kidney, e. Rognons de veau, /. 
Calfs Liver, e. Foie de veau, /. 

Calfs Sweetbreads, e, Ris de veau, /. 

Calfs Tohgrue, e. Langue de veau, /. 

Callipash. A portion of glutinous meat to be found in 
the upper shell of the turtle. 

Callipee. The glutinous meat found in the under part of 
a turtle's under shell. 

Camerain. Name of a costly soup invented by an actor 
of the eighteenth century of that name, the price of 
the soup being £6. The gastronomic work, 
" Almanach des Gourmands," by Grimod de la 
Reyni^re, was dedicated to Camerain. 

Canap^* Much used for hors-d'oeuvres and savoury 
dishes. The word means sofa ; it consists, as a rule, 
of slices of bread cut into various sizes, used plain, or 
fried in oil or butter, or else grilled. 

Canard R6ti, /. Roast duck, e. 

Canard Sauvage, /. Wild duck, e. 

Candied PeeL Consists of the outer rind of lemon, 
orange, citron, or lime, encrusted with sugar, and is 
used as an ingredient of minced meat for mince pies 
and various sorts of cake. 

Caneton R6ti, /. Roast duckling, e. 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 23 

Ganeton de Rouen, /. Rouen duckling. Rouen is 
celebrated for the superiority of its ducklings; they 
do not bleed them as here, but thrust a skewer through 
the brain, thus keeping the blood in the flesh. 

CannelonS, /• , or Canelons. Small rolls of pastry stuffed 
with minced meat, etq. 

Caper Sauce, e. Sauce aux c^res, /. (White or brown). 

Capillaire. A plant. A syri^) flavoured with orange- 
flowers, etc. — sirop de capillaire. 

Capllotade, /. A culinary expression for a mixed hash. 

Caplan. A fish of the salmon family, resembling smelt, 
of very delicate flavour. 

CapOli, ^. Chapon, /. A young capon, e, Un chapon- 
neau, /. 

Cd.pre, /. Caper, e. Flower of an Asian shrub. They 
are pickled with water and salt. The capers contain 
much salt and a little oil. There is a sauce called aux 
capres, in which capers furnish the desired piquancy. 

Caramel, /. A substance made by boiling sugar to a 
dark brown, used for coating moulds, and for liquid 
colouring. 

Carcasse, /. Carcass, e. The • body of an animal ; the 
bones of poultry or game. 

Cardamomes, /. Cardamoms, e. A spice used for fla- 
vouring meat and sweet dishes. 

Carde ^ la Hoelle, /. Pieces of marrow braised with 
bacon. Served with cardes puree. 

Cardes, /. A vegetable much esteemed in France. Mostly 
served as a puree. 

Cardon, /. Cardoon, e, A garden plant resembling 
artichokes in flavour. 

Carelet o^ Carrelet, /. Flounder, e, A small flat fish, 
in season all the year except in May, June and July. 

CarSme (A,). The name of a celebrated chef, born in 
Paris in 1784, died 1833 ; author of several culinary 
works, chef to the Prince Regent, George IV of 
England, and the Emperor Alexander I of Russia. 

Carmine. Crimson colouring used in confectionery, etc. 

Carottes, /. Carrots, e. A garden plant in its root (red 
or yellow-coloured). Carrots were first introduced into 
England by Flemish gardeners in the time of Eliza- 
beth ; and in the reign of James I they were still so 



24 8ENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPiBDIA 

uncommon that ladies wore bimches of them on their 

hats and on their sleeves instead of feathers. 
CarPf f' Carpe, /. An excellent ppnd or river fish, 

obtainable all the year round. 
Carpentras (i la), /. A surname to dishes flavoured with 

or consisting of truffles as a garnish. Carpentras, like 

Perigord, is a district 'yhere truffles of excellent flavour 

and size grow largely. 
Carrey /. Neck, e. The rib part of veal, mutton, lamb, 

or pork. 
Carte du Jour (la), /. The bill of fare for the day, 

showing the price against each dish. 
Cartridgpe. A culinary term meaning a circular piece of 

greased paper, used for covering meat, etc., during 

the process of cooking. ; 
Carve, ^. D6couper, or D6couper k table, f. To cut 

poultry or game into joints ; to cut up meat into 

slices, etc. 
Carviol. A vegetable very much the same as cauliflower, 

best known and cultivated in Austria. 
Cascalope, /. Same as escalope or scollop. 
Caseine, e. The coagulated substance (flesh-forming) of 

milk and certain leguminous plants. The curd of milk 

from which cheese is produced. Cheese is therefore 

an important flesh -forming food in a concentrated 
I form. 

I Casha. An Indian dish, made with maize and cream. 

Casserole, /. A copper stewpan. When used in menus 
; it indicates the form of rice, baked paste crust, or 

macaroni, filled with minced meat, game pur^e, etc. 

(See also Poulet en Casserole). 
Cassis, /. The part which is attached to the tail end of a 

loin of veal ; also black-currant syrup or liqueur. 
Cassonade, /. Moist sugar, «., i.e., sugar which has not 

been refined. 
Castelanc, /• A kind of green plum. 
Catfish. A fish of the shark kind. 
Catsup. (See Ketchup. ) 
i Caudle, e* A drink made of gruel, milk, and raw beaten 

\ eggs, flavoured with sugar, lemon, nutmeg, and other 

spices. A favourite drink for invalids. 



senn's culinaky encyclopaedia 25 

Caul, e.j or CawL Cr^pine, /. A membrane in the 
shape of a net covering the lower portion of a pig's 
bowels, used for wrapping up minced meat, sausages, 
salpicon, etc. 

Cauliflower, e, Chou-fleur, /. A delicate and highly- 
prized vegetable of the cabbage family. In season 
June to November. 

Caviar, /. Caviare, e. The salted roe of sturgeon or 
sterlet (fish eggs). 

Cavona. Name of new flavouring essence of exquisite 
aroma. 

Cayenne Pepper, ^. Poivre de Guin6e, or piment de 
Guinee, /. An extremely pungent, aromatic condi- 
ment ; it consists of the ground seeds of a species of 
capsicum of a red colour. It is also imported in pods 
known as chillies. A similar kind of condiment is 
known as Guinea pepper, which grows in East India, 
and is even more pungent than the former. Both are 
grown in England, and are used for pickles, etc. 

C^drat, /. A kind of citron-tree ; its fruit is used for 
cakes, puddings, and ice-creams, and a special kind of 
oil is also prepared from this fruit. 

Celeriac, e. A species of the celery plant. A turnip- 
rooted celery, of which the bulb only is used ; usually 
served as a vegetable, stewed in broth. 

Celery, e. Celeri,/. A salad plant, eaten raw or dressed 
as salad. Cooked, it is served in various ways, as a 
vegetable or in soups. 

C^lestin, A monk so named after Pope Celestin. A la 
C^lestine, /., from the Latin cwlestis (heavenly). 
Several dishes are called after this name. 

Cendre (la),/. Ashes or embers, e. Cuit sous le cendre, 
cooked under the ashes. 

Cepe, /. Cepe, e. Esculent boletus, an edible mushroom, 
of yellowish colour, having an agreeable and nutty 
flavour, largely cultivated at Bordeaux. 

Cercelle, or Sarcelle, f- Teal, e. A small waterfowl allied 
to the duck, 

Cerf, /. Deer, stag, hart. Quadruped kept for venison. 

Cerfeuil, /. Chervil, e. An aromatic garden herb plant 
the leaves of which form an excellent adjunct to 
salads, soups, sauces, etc. Its flavour resembles a 



26 SENN's culinary BNCYCLOP-ffiDIA 

mixture of fennel and parsley. The root of this herb 
is poisonous. 

Cerise (la), /. Cherry, e. A small stone fruit of many 
varieties. Cherries were known in Asia as far back as 
the 17th century. Pliny states that LucuUus first 
brought this fruit to Italy about 70 years before the 
Christian era, and records that the Romans aifterwards 
introduced the cherry tree into Great Britain. The 
name is derived from Kerasos (Cerasus), a town in 
Asia Minor. 

Cerneau, /. The kernel of a green walnut, e. Usually 
prepared in salt-water. A red wine is also made from 
these kernels, called vin de cerneaux, which is to be 
drunk in the walnut season. 

Cerneaux Confits, /. Preserved green walnuts. 

Cervelas, /. A kind of a thick and short smoked sausage 
made of pork, and seasoned with salt, pepper, and 
spices. 

Cervelle, /. Brain, e. A substance within the skull of 
an animal. Veal, lamb, pork and beef brains are 
used in cookery. 

Chablls (Vin de Chablis). A famous French white wine, 
grown in and near Chablis, Burgundy. 

Chair, /. Flesh, e. 

Champignons, /. Mushrooms, e. A plant of the Fungi. 
Chapelure, /. Dried breadcrumbs passed through a 

sieve. 
Chapon, /. Capon ; also a piece of bread boiled in 

soups ; a crust of bread rubbed with garlic. 

Charcuterle, /. The word means roughly slashed ; but 
in a culinary sense it denotes ** pretty tiny kickshaws " 
of pork, which are prepared in many different fashions. 
Black pudding, .pig's feet truffled, smoked pig's ear 
with truffles, Nancy chitterlings, saveloy, pig's liver, 
are all items of charcuterie. 

Charcutler, /. (from chair-cuite). A purveyor of cooked 
and dressed meats. 

Charlotte, /. A corruption of the old English word 
Charlyt, which means a dish of custard. Charlotte 
Russe and Apple Charlotte consist usually of thin 
slices of bread or biscuits, steeped in clarified 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYOLOPiEDIA 27 

butter and sugar, and laid out in plain moulds in a 
symmetrical order, after which they are garnished with 
cream, fruit or preserve. 

Chartreuse. Original meaning, various kinds of vege- 
tables or fruit, dished up in the shape of goblets set in 
aspic or jelly. In its degenerate form, cooked gam6, 
small poultry, etc., are cooked and dressed in chartreuse 
style, either hot or cold. 

Chataigrney /. Chestnut, €. Used for. stuffing and sweet 
dishes. (See Chestnut.) 

Chateaubriand. Name of Viscount Fran9ois Auguste, a 
great French gourmand, bom in 1769, died 1848. A 
favourite dish of fillet steak is called after him. 

Chaudeau, /. A sweet sauce served with puddings, &c. 

Chaudfrold, /. A name for dishes which are prepared 
hot, dressed and served cold, usually garnished with 
savoury jelly and truffles. 

ChauSSOns, /. A kind of French round flat pies filled 
with jam. ^ 

Cheese, e. Fromage, /. The curd of milk coagulated 
and pressed. As a food it possesses very distinct 
nutritive properties, and forms the principal nitro- 
genous food of many labouring people. Its principal 
element is caseine, which is the chemical equivalent 
of the white of Qgg, gluten of wheat, and the fibrin of 
meat. New cheese, although nutritious, is not easy of 
digestion. Old cheese is said to promote digestion. 

Cheesecake, e, Talmouse, /. A pastry ; tartlets of a 
very light and flaky crust, with a mixture of cheese, 
curd, or almond, etc., in the centre. 

Chef de Cuisine, /. Chief of the kitchen ; head cook. 

Cherry, e. Cerise, /. The fruit of the cherry tree. 
Some 800 different varieties of this fruit are now 
known, of which the black or Morella {guiyne) is the 
best for cooking purposes. The white-heart cherry 
(Bvjarreau) is the best of dessert cherries. (See also 
Cerise.) 

Chestnut, e, Marron or Ch^taigne, /. Named after the 
town of Castanea in Thessaly. A nutritious and 
easily-digestible fruit; used as stuffing for turkeys, 
poulards, and capons, also as an ingredient in soups. 



28 , SENN*S' CT7LINABY ENOTOLOPiEDIA 

sauces, and purees. As a sweet or dessert it is also 
used in various ways. Chestnuts were a favourite food ' 
among the ancient Greeks. 

Chevaiine, /. Chub, e, A^sweet- water fish. (See Chub.) 

Chevreuil, /. Roe-buck, roe-deer, e. 

Chevreuse, f- Small goose liver tartlets. 

Chicor^e, /. Succory, endive, e. Used for salads, and as 

a vegetable. 
Chiffonnade, /. Soup herb leaves, finely shredded. 
Chine of Pork, Echine de pore, /. Consists of the two 

hind loins left undivided, and cooked whole. 

Chinois, /. A pointed strainer with very fine holes, used 
for straining , soups, sauces, and gravies. A Chinese 
fruit. 

ChipolatE. Small Italian sausages. Origin from an 
Italian ragoiit. This name* is also given to dishes 
which contain an addition of Italian sausages or a 
kind of mixed minced meat with which ^they are 
served. " 

ChitterlingfS. Signifies mainly the boiled intestine or 
gut of ox, also of calf and pig ; and small tripe. T)ae 
German for tripe is Kutten, Kaldamien. Chitterlings 
also stands for sausages. 

Chocolate, e. Chocolat, /. The beans of the Theobroma 
cocoa tree infused by process of manufacture and 
made into paste, cake, or powder. The cocoa tree is 
a native of the West Indies and South America. The 
cocoa or cocao bean was held as a symbol of hospi- 
tality by the Siamese. In olden times it served as a 
current coin in Yucatan, Chocolate has been known 
as a favourite beverage as long as 400 years ago. 
Introduced into England in 1520 from Mexico, and 
sold in London coffee-houses in 1650. 

Chou, /. Cabbage, e. Chou blanc, /. ; white cabbage, e. 
Chou vert, /. ; green cabbage, e, Chou rouge,/. ; red 
cabbage, e, Chou farci, /. ; stuffed cabbage, e. Chou 
de Bruxelles,/. ; Brussels sprouts, e. 
Choux-fleur, /. Cauliflower, e, (See Cauliflower,) 
Choux-Raves, /. Kohl-Rabis, e, A turnip- rooted cab- 
bage. Most excellent as a vegetable, but as yet very 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 29 

little known in this country. It is a favourite vege- 
table in the United States, Germany and Switzerland. 

Chow-chow. Name of a kind of pickle consisting of a 
combination of various vegetables, such as cauliflower 
buds, button onions, gherkins, French beans, and tiny 
carrots. These are preserved in a kind of mustard 
sauce, seasoned with strongly-flavoured aromatic 
spices. 

Chowder, e» A dish of American origin. It consists of 
boiled pickled pork cut in slices, fried onions, slices of 
turbot or other fish, and mashed potatoes, all placed 
alternately in a stewpan, seasoned with spices and 
herbs, claret and ketchup, and simmered. 

Chrysanthemum. This is one of the latest plants added 

t to the dietary list. Its taste is somewhat similar to 

that of cauliflower, only much more delicate. If 

shredded finely and mixed with a cream sauce it makes 

a most delicious salad. 

Chub, e. Chevanne, /. A sweet-water fish, resembling 
the carp. Very little used for cooking purposes, it 
being exceedingly bony: 

Ciboulette, /. Small green onions, chives. 
Cider, e, Cidre, /. Th^ juice of apples fermented and 
used as a drink, principally in the country. 

Cinnamon, e, Cannelle, /. The inner bark of a species 
of laurel. This shrub grows wild at Java and Ceylon, 
but is cultivated in the East and West Indies. 

Citric Acid. This acid is used in small quantities for 
boiled sugar goods ; it imparts body and prevents the 
sugar from getting moist. It is obtained from the 
lemon (citrus limonum), but is also obtained from 
other acid fruits, such as sour cherries, Seville oranges, 
raspberries, currants, etc. To be obtained in a white 
powder from chemists, etc. 

Citron, /. Lemon, e. The fruit of the lemon tree (cit- 
ronier,/.), or citrus limonum ; a native of the North- 
West Indian Provinces. This fruit has been introduced 
by the Arabs into Spain, whence it was spread over 
Europe, and is now cultivated in almost all the tropical 
and subtropical countries. An important culinary 
condiment. 



80 SENn's culinary ENCYCIiOPiEDU 

Cltronnat,/. Candied lemon-peel. The preserved peel 

of lemon. 
Citronn^y /. Anything which has the taste or flavour of 

lemon. 
Citrouille, /. Vegetable-marrow or pumpkin. 

Civet, or Civette, /. A brown stew of hare, venison, or 
other game. 

Civettes,/., or Ciboulettes. Chives, . Flavouring herb 
for soups and salads. 

Clams, e, A bivalvular shellfish highly prized in the 
United States. 

Claret. English name for Bordeaux wines. 

Clarification, /. An operation which is so termed when 
any liquid is clarified. For the clarification of stock 
for consommes and savoury jellies, finely minced raw 
meat, eggs and water are used ; whilst for sweet 
jellies, whites of ^g^ and lemon juice are used for a 
similar purpose. 

Clarifler. To clarify. 

Clear Soup, e. Consomm^, ■ /. Clarified double stock, 
being a strong broth obtained by boiling meat and 
vegetables. 

Clouter, /. To insert nail- shaped pieces of truffle, bacon, 
^ or tongue into fowl, poulards, cushions of veal, and 
sweetbreads. The holes to receive them are made by 
means of a skewer. 

Clove, «. Girofle, /. An aromatic spice. The plant (a tree) 
is indigenous to the Molucca Islands ; generally used 
for flavouring meats and ragouts. The Dutch make a 
delicious marmalade from green cloves. 

Coca. Koka. A stimulating narcotic; a tonic and 
restorative; taken alofig with or after food. Coca 
wine has of late years come prominently into public 
us^. 

Cochineal. A liquid colouring substance used for colour- 
ing creams, sauces, icing, etc. It is obtained from 
insects known as coccus, indigenous to Mexico and 
Guatemala. The insects are dried in an oven heated 
to 150 degrees of Fahrenheit. It requires 70,000 
insects to produce a pound of dye. 

Cochon de lait, /. Sucking pig, e. 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 81 

Cock Ale. An ancient dish, made of ale, minced meat of 
a boiled cock, and other ingredients. 

Cock-a-Leekie, e. A soup made of leeks and fowls ; a 
favourite Scotch dish. 

Cockle, <?. P^toucle,/. A nutritious shellfish, generally 
found on the seashore. The largest cockles come 
from the Scilly Islands, the North Devonshire coast, 
and the Hebrides. 

Cock's Combs, e, Cretes de coq, f. Used for garnishing 
rich ragoiits. 

Cocoa. (See Chocolate.) 

Codfish, e* Cabillaud, /. A sea fish. (See Cabillaud.) 

Codling*. Name of an excellent kind of cooking apple. 

Coffee, e, Caf^, /. The bferry of a shrub ; a beverage 

made from the berries when roasted and ground. 
• Originally grown in Arabia; now cultivated in all 

tropical countries. 
Cognac. Brandy, e. (See Brandy.) 
Coing*, /. Quince, e. A fruit used for compote and 

marmalade. 
Colbert, /. A French clear soup and other dishes named 

after John Baptiste Colbert, a clever statesman in the 

reign of Louis XIV of France, 1619-1683. 

Colcannon. A vegetable pie — i.e., mashed potatoes and 
boiled cabbage, previously fried in butter or dripping 
and baked. Originally a Scotch dish, corrupted from 
Kailcannon. 

Compi^gne, /. A light yeast cake with crystallised fruit. 
Also name of the French castle built by Louis XIV 
of France. 

Compote, /. Stew of small birds ; fruits stewed in syrup. 

Concasser, /. Coarsely pounded. 

Concombre, /. Cucumber, e. This vegetable is largely 
used for salads and pickles; known in Europe for 
about 600 years, having been imported from the East. 

Cond^. Name of an old French family. Prince Louis 
de Cond6 (1621-1686) was a famous field-marshal 
Several soups and entrees are styled ** i la Conde." 

Condiments. Highly-flavoured seasoning, spices, etc. 

Conflty /. Preserved in sugar. 



\ 



32 SENN*S CUIilNARY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 

Conflture, /. Fruit jams. Also sweetmeats of sugar 
and fruits. Fruit pastes. 

Cougev Eel, or Sea Eel, is much larger than the ordinary 
eel and found in all the European seas. 

Consomm^, /. Clear gravy soup. The clarified liquor in 
which meat or poultry has been boiled, or the liquor 
from the stock-pot clarified. 

Coq de Bruyere, /. Woodcock. A bird allied to the 
snipe. 

Coquilles, /. Light fish or meat entries, served in shells. 

Cordon Bleu. An ancient culinary distinction to very 
skilful female cooks in France. It consists of a 
rosette made of dark blue ribbon. The history of its 
adoption is traced to the time of Charles 11 and 
Louis XV, of France. 

Cordon R0Ug*e. Name of. culinary distinction, granted 
by an English society of the same title to skilful cocks 
of both sexes, and to others who are celebrated for the 
invention of valuable articles of food or drink. The 
badge of the Order consists of a modelled white -heart 
cherry, suspended by a cherry-red ribbon. 

Core, ^. To core an apple or pear is to remove the heart, 
which can be done when whole with a corer, and when 
in quarters with a knife. 

Corlieu or Courlis, /. Curlew, e. An aquatic fowl, 
prepared and cooked in the same manner as pheasants. 

Corned, e. Applied to salt boiled beef and pork. Derived 
from acorned (acorn-fed). 

Corner le Diner, /. To blow the horn or sound the bell 
for dinner. 

Cornet, /. Kind of thin wafers, usually made of flour, 
eggf cream, sugar and honey. 

Cornichon, /. Very small cucumbers pickled with salt 
and vinegar ; they are served as hors d'oeuvre and 
used for salads, sauces, as well as for decorative pur- 
poses. 

C6te, /. A rib slice of beef or veal. The word cotelette 
is derived from cote, meaning a piece of meat with the 
portion of the rib attached. 

Cdtelettes, /. Cutlets. Small slices of meat cut from 
the neck of veal, mutton, lamb, or pork. Also thin 
slices of meat from other parts. 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 33 

C0U-(le-;gin de Uodene, /. Name of* special kind •of 
Italian sausage. 

Cougloff, /. Kugelhopf , g. A German cake ; a kind of 
rich dough cake. 

Coulibiac. Name of a Russian dish — a kind of fish-cake 
mixture wrapped up in Brioche paste and baked. 

CouliSy /. A rich savoury stock saucfe ; German grundsauce, 
i.e., bottom sauce below the fat, lean sauce of a braise 
or blanc.^ 

CouUiS, /. A smooth sauce, highly but delicately flavoured, 
used for soups and entries. Also the name of a sweet 
cream. 

Couronne, /. Crown, e. En couronne, to dish up any 
prepared articles in the form of a crown. 

Court-Bouillon, /. Name given to a broth in which fish 
has been boiled ; a highly-seasoned fish stock and 
stew. 

Coutiser, /. To insert small strips or pieces of truffle, 
ham, bacon, &c., into fillets of fish, poultry or game, 
the holes to receive them being previously made with 
the point of a skewer. When small scallops of truffles, 
smoked tongue, ham, &c., are inlaid as garnish or orna- 
ment by incision, in fillets of any kind, they are said to 
be coutis^s. 

CowheeL A great many invalid dishes are prepared from 
the feet of the ox or cow, as they are extremely 
nutritious. 

Crackers are very hard biscuits ; when soaked used for 
pies, or when crumbled for making into pudding. 

Crapaudine, /. A grating gridiron ; hence "mettre k la 
crapaudine," to grill, e.g. pigeons. 

Crapaudine, /. Gridiron, e. Meaning browned or 
grilled over or in front of a fire. 

Craquelins, /. Cracknels, e. A kind of milk iscuits. 

Crawfish, or Crayfish. (See Ecrevisse.) 

Cream, e. Cr^me, /. The fatty or oily part of milk. 
Used in butter and cheese making, as well as in the 
preparation of numerous sauces, soups, custards, 
puddings, pastry, and other food delicacies. Certain 
dishes are styled "^ la creme," meaning that a quantity 
of cream has been incorporated into ihe mixture. 






84 SENN's culinary ENCYCLOPiEDIA 

* before or after it is cooked. Memngues k la crdme 
are meringue shells filled with whipped cream. The 
distinction between single and double cream is that 
when milk is allowed to stand 12 hours the cream thus 
obtained is single cream, and if allowed to stand twice 
as long— viz., 24 hours — it is called double cream. 

Cr6cy, Potagre k la*, /. Cr6cy or carrot soup, e. A 
vegetable pur6e, said to have been invented by Baron 
Brisse. Dishes named '*k la Crecy" are generally con- 
nected with carrots in the form of a pur^e. 

Cr6pes,/. French pancakes, e. 

Cr^pine, /. Caul, crawl or kill. (See Caul.) 

Cress, e, Cresson, /. A salad plant. There are several 
culinary plants belonging to this family. (See 
Nasturtium and Watercress.) 

Crdtes, /. Giblets of poultry or game. 

Crdtes de COq, /. (See Cocks' Combs, e.) 

Crevette, /. Prawn, shrimp, e. A sea shellfish. 

Croissant, /. Half-moon- shaped fancy bread. 

Croquantes, /. A transparent mixture of various kinds 
of fruit and boiled sugar. 

Croque-en-Bouche, /., is the name given to large set 
pieces for suppers or dinners, such as nougat, iced 
c^ikes, fruits, which are covered with boiled sugar so 
as to give them a brilliant appearance. The real 
meaning of the word is " crackle in this mouth.*' 

Croquettes, /. Savoury mince of fowl, meat, or fish, 
prepared with sauce to bind, shaped to fancy ; gene- 
rally egged, crumbed, and fried crisp. 

CroquigfllOlles, /. A kind of fondant (petits four) of the 
same composition as croque-en-bouche. 

Croustades, /. Shapes of bread fried, or baked paste 
crusts, used for serving game, minces, or meats upon. 

Cr6utes-au-pot, /. Beef broth, e, A favourite dish of 
France which has been famed for several centuries. 

Croutons, /. Thin slices of bread cut into shapes and 
fried, used for garnishing dishes. 

Cru-e,/. Eaw, e. 

Crumpet. Name of a well-known tea-cake. 

Cubet, Pierre. Name of a celebrated chef to the 
Emperor Alexander II of Russia. His cooking was 



< ..• 



v^ ♦ w ^ » 
*" * I, . 



V SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 85 

such a triumph that he received so much a head to 

prepare the Emperor's meals, no matter how large the 

number, 
Cuilleres de Cuisine, /., are wooden spoons. The use 

of wooden spoons is strongly recommended instead of 

metal spoons, especially for stirring sauces. The 

latter often contain certain acids which produce a 

black colour. 
Cui3ine, /. Kitchen. Cookery. Faire la cuisine, to cook 

or to dress victuals. 
Cuisinier, /. A cook who prepares and dresses food. 
CuiSSe, /. Leg, e, Cuisse de volaille, leg of chicken or 

fowl. 
Cuisson, /. A method of slowly cooking meat. It is 

finished off by cooking in its own juice whilst in an 

oven. 
Cuissot, The haunch. Cuissot de veau, cuissot de cochon, 

cuissot de boeuf, etc. 
Culinaire, /. This is applied to anything in connection 

with the kitchen or the art of cooking. A good cook 

is called " un artiste culinaire." 
Curasao, /. A liqueur made of the zest of an aromatic 

fruit resembling the orange, and cultivated in the 

island of Cura9ao, S. America. Used for flavouring 

creams, jellies, ices, etc. 
Cure, e, Saler, /. Saurer, /. Curing in culinary language 

means the drying or smoking of previously salted meat 

or fish. 
Curry, from the Hindu word khura (palatable, eatable). 

Kari, /. An Indian condiment ; a stew of meat, fish, 

or fowl ; a sharp spiced sauce. 
Custard. A composition of milk and eggs mainly, 

sweetened and flavoured, parboiled. 
Cutlets, e, (See Cotelettes, /.) 

D. 

Dabchick, e, A small water- fowl. 

Dace. A small river fish of a silvery colour. 

Dainty, e. Friand or D^licieux, /. Pleasing to the 

palate ; artistically arranged, daintily dressed articles 

of food. 

D2 



36 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

Dampfhudein, g- (literally sieam-nudels). A very much 
thought of sweet dish in Germany. 

Damson. (Sometimes called damascene, after the name 
of the town of Damascus.) A small black plum, con- 
sidered the best for cooking. 

Dariole, /. A kind of small entree pat6s, composed of 
a compound of forcemeat or mince, baked or steamed 
in small moulds. Certain small tarts are also so 
called. The name usually applies to the shape ol the 
moulds. Also some kinds of cheese cakes are called 
darioles. Kettner asserts that a dariole means some- 
thing made of milk. Origin of the word unknown. 

Darne, /. The middle cut of large fish, salmon or cod. 

D'Artois, f' A kind of French pastry (puff-paste and 
jam). 

Datte, /. Date, e. The fruit of the date tree (date-palm). 
The best dates come from Tunis. In Africa they form 
the basis of food. The so-called date wine, prepared 
in Africa, is made of dates and water, and has a 
certain analogy with Mad^re. 

Daube, /. Meats or poultry stewed. 

Daubiere, /. An oval-shaped stewpan in which meats or 

birds are to be daubed or stewed. 
Dauphine, /. A style of garnish ; also name of a kind 

of dough-nuts, beignets, etc. Known in Germany as 

Berliner Pfannkuchen. 
D^brider, /. To untruss; to remove the strings or 

skewers from a piece of meat or bird. 
Decanter, /. To decant ; to pour a liquor which has a 

sediment gently into another receptacle. 
Deer, e, Cerf , /. 

D^gfraisser, /. To take off the grease from soups, etc. 
Dejeuner, ./. Breakfast, e. The first meal of the day. 

Dejeuner k la Fourchette, /. A meat breakfast or 

luncheon. 
Demi-deuil (en), /. A culinary expression. When white 

meats such as veal, sweetbreads, or fowl are larded 

with truffles, they are called " en demi-deuil." The 

meaning is ** half -mourning." 
Demidoff, /. Name of a Russian nobleman. Several 

dishes are introduced by this name. 



SENn's CULINABY ENCYCLOPJIDIA 87 

Demi-grlace, /. Name of a brown sauce ; also of a cream 

ice much served in Paris. 
Dent-de-lion, /. Dandelion, e, A spring plant which 

grows in the fields ; the young leaves are used raw for 

salads. They are also cooked and prepared like 

spinach. 
D^pecer, /. To carve ; to cut in pieces. 
D6s, A Discs, e. 

D^SOSSer, /. To bone ; to remove the bones from meat, 
poultry or game. 

Dessecher, /. To stir a pur^e, pulp, or paste with a 
wooden spoon whilst it is on the fire, until it becomes 
loosened from the pan. 

Dessert, /. The remains of a -meal. Now indicating 
fruits and sweetmeats served after dinner. The 
ancient Greeks and Romans already knew this 
course, as being the custom of prolonging banquets. 

Devilled, e. A la diable,/. 

Dewberry, «-'. The creeping blackberry. A species of 
the French mure des haies. 

DhoU, or Dhall. A kind of pulse much used in India 
for kedgeree, or as a kind of porridge. In England 
it is best represented by split peas or lentils. 

Diable, /. Stands for "devil." Is applied to dishes 
with sharp and hot seasoning. 

Diet, e, Diete, /. Any specially prescribed food or meals 
for invalids or other persons. 

Dill, e. A hardy biennial plant, possessing powerful 
flavouring properties, used in salads and soups. 

Dinde, Dindon, /. Turkey, e. 

Dtner, /. Dinner, e, **L*heure du diner," dinner hour, 
in Henry VIII's time was at 11 a.m. 

Dinner. The principal meal of the day, which usually 
comprises a judicious selection of food in season. The 
word " dinner " is supposed to be a corruption of *^ dix- 
heures,'* indicating the time at which the old Normans 
partook of their principal meal, which was 10 a.m. 
Since then the hour has got gradually later. The 
working classes dine about midday, the middle classes 
somewhat later, and the aristocracy between the hours 
of 6 and 9 p.m. 



38 senn's cuunaby encyclopedia 

Dorade, or Daurade, A ^ sea-fish, resembling the bleak 

(breme, /.). It is often called sea-bleak (breme or 

brame de mer,/.). Its flesh is white and of good taste. 

Mostly eaten baked or cooked in white caper or 

tomato sauce. It is also nice fried. 
Dormant or SurtOUt de table, /. Decorative objects 

which are left on the table to the end of a meal. 
Dorure (Dorer), /. Yolks of eggs beaten, used for 

brushing over pastry, etc. 
Doucette, /. Name given to corn salad. 
Dragr^es, /. Sugar plum, e. A kind of sweetmeat made 

of fruits, small pieces of rinds or aromatic roots, 

covered with a coating of icing. 
Drawn Butter, e. Beurre fondu, /. Melted butter, 

sometimes served in place of sauce. 
DresSi to. To pare, clean, trim, etc. ; to dish up into 

good shape. Dressed vegetables indicate vegetables 

cooked in rich style and dished neatly. 
Dubois. Name of a clever chef de cuisine of the present 

time, Urbain Dubois, author of ** La Cuisine Classique,'* 

etc. ; late chef to the German Emperor William I. 
Ducky c\ Canard, /. Duckling, caneton ; wild duck, 

canard sauvage. , 

Dumas. Name of a famous French author, editor of the 

" Dictionnaire de Cuisine." Alexandre Dimias, b. 

1808 ; d. 1870. 
Dunelm« A dish of braised mutton or veal, originating 

from Durham. 
Durcelles, /., or Duxelles, /., is the name given to a 

mixture of chopped mushrooms, shallots, parsley, etc. ; 

used for flavouring sauces, purees, etc. 
DuxelleSy or D'Uxelles, /. Name of a French marquis, a 

great gourmand and gastronomer who lived at the end 

of the 17th century. Author of an excellent book on 

French cookery. A savoury puree (mince) and a sauce 

are known under this name. 

E. 

Eau de fleur d'oranger, /. Orange-flower water. 
Ebarber, /. To remove the exterior parts of a piece of 
meat or fish. 



SENn's culinary ENCYCLOPiEDIA 39 

Ebullition, /. A liquid which is on the boiling point. 
" Chauffer k T^bullition '* means heated until boiling. 

Echalote, /. Shallot, e. Is a kind of mild onion used 
for seasoning soups and made dishes ; also for flavour- 
ing sauces and salads. 

Echauder, /. To steep in boiling water. This is often 
done with fowls or game, as it will facilitate the 
removing of the feathers or hair. 

Eclair, /. A French pastry filled with cream. 

Eclanche, /. Shoulder of mutton. 

Ecossaise (k F), /• Scotch style. 

Ecrevisse, /. Crawfish or crayfish, e. Lobster, e. An 
esteemed crustaceous fish. The one which lives in 
fresh water is called crayfish ; the one which inhabits 
the sea crawfish. 

Eel, e. Anguille, /. (See Anguille.) 

Egfgf, e, (Euf , /. An important article of food. 

Eg'g'-nog'g*, e. An American drink. 

Egfgf-plant, e. Aubergine,/. A vegetable. 

Egryptienne {k T), /• Egyptian style, e, 

Ekneck kataif, t. A Turkish meal porridge. 

Elderberry. A small black berry found all over Europe, 
Northern Africa, and Asia; used for making wine. 
When drunk hot at night it is considered as a pre- 
ventative and cure for colds. 

Elmassia, t. A Turkish dish, made from calves' feet. 

Eminc^, /. Finely sliced or shred. 

Emonder, /. When almonds are steeped in boiling water 
in order to peel them the French say " on les emonde.** 

Endive, /. A species of the genus succory ; used as salads 
and sometimes as vegetable. A native of China and 
Japan, but grown in Europe since the beginning of the 
16th century. 

Entrecdte, /. French name for a steak cut from the 
middle part of the loin or rib of beef. 

Entr6e,/. A course of dishes, or corner dish for the first 
course; the conventional term for hot or cold side 
dishes. Also defined as dishes generally served with 
a sauce. 



f 

40 senn's culinary encyclop^dla. 

Entremets,/. Dainty dishes of vegetables or hot and 
cold sweets and after-dinner savouries served as second 
course. 

Enveloppe, /. Enclosed, enveloped. 

Epanada. Spanish and Portuguese term for panada. 

Eperlan, /. Smelt, e, A highly-esteemed sea-fish. 

Epice, /. Spice, e. Aromatic plants or their seeds. 

Epicure, /. One addicted to the luxury of eating and 

^ drinking. 

Epigrammes, /. Verbally, a short pointed poem. Used 

as a culinary term for small fillets of poultry and 

game, and breast of lamb or mutton, prepared as 

entrees. Also defined as a dish of alternate cutlets of 
, - the neck and breast. 
Epinard, /. Spinach, e. Originally a Persian plant. A 

green, wholesome vegetable, very popular in modern 

times. 
Escalope, A Thin round steaks of veal called **collops." 

Obsolete cascalope, meaning thin slices of any kind of 

meat, usually egged, crumbed and fried. 
EscargfOt, ./'. Edible vineyard snail. 
Escarole, /. Name given to broad-leaved endive. 
Eschalot, e- Echalote, /. Shalot or shallot. (See 

ECHALOTE.) 

EspagHOle, /. A rich brown sauce ; the foundation of 
nearly all brown sauces, classified as the main brown 
grand sauce, or sauce mere. 

Essence. The virtue extracted from any food substance. 

Estouffade, /., or Etuv6e. Expression for a way of 
cooking meats slowly in a covered stewpan. • 

Estourgfeon, /. Sturgeon, e. A very large fish, usually 
salted and smoked. 

Estrag'On, /. Tarragon (flavouring herb). 

Etouffi§, /. (Stoved.) Stewed in the oven. 

Exprimer, /. To squeeze the juice out of fruit. 

F. 

Fag'Ot. A small bunch of parsley and savoury herbs. A 

combination of culinary herbs. 
Faire ReveniP, /. A term often used in French cookery- 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPEDIA 41 

books ; its meaning is to partly fry, meat or vegetables 
being slightly browned without actually cooking them. 

Faisan, /. Pheasant, e, 

Fanchonnettes, /. Small custard tartlets covered with 
meringue froth. 

Farce, /. Forcemeat or stuffing, from the Latin word 
farHuvi, to fill, to stuff. From this is derived the word 
farcinmi, the sausage. A farce need not necessarily 
contain meat, though the English translation makes 
the presence of meat essential. 

Farine, /. .(See Flour, e,) 

Fat, if' Graisse,y. The oily part of animal bodies. 

Faubonne, /. A vegetable puree soup seasoned with 

savoury herbs. 
Faux (false). Used in "potage k la fausse tortue " (mock 

turtle soup). 
Feast, ^. Repas, /. A sumptuous repast. 
F^CUle, /. A fine flour used for binding soups and sauces. 
FeiUiel, ^. Fenouil, /. An aromatic plant, generally 

used in fish sauces, blanched ajid chopped. 

Fermiere (a la), /. Farmhouse style. 

Feuillagre, ./'. Leaves, e. 

Feuilletage, /. Puff* paste, e. 

Fidelini, it. A kind of straight vermicelli paste. * 

Fieldfare, e., Thrush. Grive, /. 

FigfUe, /. Fig, e. They grow in the South of Europe 

and Asia, The Smyrna figs are considered the finest. 

Used fresh for compotes, and dried as dessert or in 

puddings. 
Filbert. A fine nut of the hazel kind. A dessert nut 

largely cultivated in Kent. 
Filet, /. Fillet, e. The under cut of a loin of beef, 

mutton, veal, pork and game. Also boned breasts of 

poultry, birds, and the boned sides of fish are called 

fillets. 
Financiere, /. Name of a very rich ragout used in 

entries. 
Fine-herbs, e, Fines-herbes, /. A combination of 

finely-chopped fresh herbs, mostly used in omelets and 

sauces. 



42 senn's culinaky encyclopaedia 

Fishy e. Poisson,/. 

Flamande (i la), /. Flemish style. 

Flamber, /. To singe poultry or game. 

Flan, /. A French custard tart. 

Flancs. Name of side dishes at large dinners. 

Flavouring^, Seasoning. Certain ingredients consisting 

principally of spices, herbs and essences, used in 

cookery to impart taste or flavour to food in order to 

render it more palatable. 
Fleurons, /. Little half-moon shapes of puff paste used 

for garnishing. 
Flip, A drink consisting of eggs beaten up with sugar, 

beer or wine, and some spirit. A favourite drink 

in cold weather. 
Flitch, e, Un quartier de lard, /. A side of pork, salted 

and cured. 
Flounder, /. Carrelet, e, A small flat sea-fish of delicate 

flavour, found in the North Sea. 
Flour, e. Farine, f. Crushed or ground grain (wheat^ 

corn, rice, maize, etc.) reduced to fine powder. 
Flummery, e. Cold sweet dish, mainly of cereals, 

originally of oatmeal set in a mould and turned out. 

To be eaten with wine, cider, milk or a compoimd sauce. 
^ Dutch flummery is made with isinglass, yolks and 

flavourings ; Spanish flummery of cream, rice-flour, 

cinnamon and sugar, to be eaten with swe6t preserves. 
Foie de Veau, /. Calf's liver. 
Foie Gras. Fat goose liver. 
Fond, /. Strong gravy, meat stock, bottom, as in " fond 

d'artichaut." 
Fondant, /. Melting, e, A kind of icing ; French 

dessert bon-bons. 
Fondue, /. A preparation of melted cheese, originally 

made in Switzerland, A savoury. 
Forcemeat, ^., from the French. Farce,/., i.e. meat for 

stuffing. 
Fouett6e, /. Whipped with the whisk. 
Fourchette, /. Fork, e. First manufactured in Eng- 
land in 1608 ; its use was ridiculed by men at the 

time. 
Fourr^, /. Coated with sugar, cream, etc. 



senn's culinary encyclopaedia 43 

FraiseSy /. Strawberries, e, 

Framboises, /. Raspberries, e. 

Fran^aise (a la), /. French style. 

Frangaise {k la). This is, generally speaking, appUed 
to a number of dishes of prench origin. The term is 
used for dishes cooked in a simple manner as to those 
of the most elaborate finish. With the exception of 
a few grills and soups, the term cannot be taken as 
signifying, anything in particular, because the prepara- 
tion as well as the garnish varies in almost every 

case. French Surnames to Dishes,— TAe^ French 

Cuisine has a considerable niynber of thoroughly 
descriptive and well-understood ' surnames given to 
dishes, all of which come under the title of " ^ la 
Fran9aise"; many of these are named aiter some 
peculiarities favoured in the provinces of France. 
Surnames derived from French towns, from certain 
countries, and from past and present patrons of the 
culinary art under whose influence many dishes have 
been invented and in some cases actually prepared, are 
also very numerous, and, with few exceptions, most 
significant and expressive. There are many dishes 
which derive their names merely from sauces with 
which they are served or dressed, and have no 
reference to the mode of preparation. Thus dishes 
styled k la Bechamel, k la Bordelaise, a la Tomato, a 
TEspagnole, etc., are, as a rule, names merely derived 
from these sauces. The old school strictly adheres to 
these names ; they are universally adopted by all good 
cooks and recognised by connoisseurs and gourmets 
alike. It must however be stated that many of these 
names are either abused or misused by some cooks, 
many of them having their own formula of preparation, 
which are presented under names that differ considerably 
as regards the external, and sometimes internal, features 
from the original methods for which these names were 
intended as symbols of typical preparations. Dishes 
thus altered are therefore hard to recognise if served 
under a well-known name, but in a different style ; they 
lose aU the culinary charm or its significance ; they 
puzzle and fog the diner who is acquainted with the gas- 



44 senn's culinary encyclopaedia 

J 

tronomic law in resi)ect to the names and characteristics 
of dishes ; and, to say the least, they confuse cooks of a 
different type who may be called upon to prepare 
dishes produced and served under wrong titles, by 
cooks who have more chances to suit their own con- 
venience. 

FrancatellL Name of an eminent chef (1805-1876), 
author of the ** Cook's Guide " and the ** Modern 
Cook," pupil of A. Careme, chef at the Reform Club 
and to Queen Victoria. 

Frangipan6. A substitute for custards made of eggs, 
milk, some flour, with an addition of lemon-peel, rum, 
brandy, and van;lla, etc., to flavour. 

FrappeP, ./'. Iced (used when cooling champagne). 

French Beans, e. Haricot verts, /. A half-hardy annual 
plant, brought originally from India. 

Friand, /. An epicure ; a dainty person. 

Friandines, /• Small round patties containing mince. 

Friar's Omelet. A baked omelet prepared with apples 

stewed to a pulp, eggs, and sugar. 
Fricandeau, /. Braised fillet of veal, larded. This dish 

is supposed to have been invented by Jean de Careme, 

who was the direct ancestor of the famous Careme. 

He was cook to Pope Leo X. This Pontiff possessed 

magnificent tastes ; he fostered the genius of Eaphael 

the painter, and encouraged also the genius which 

could discover a fricandeau. 
Fricandelles, /. Small thin braised steaks of veal or 

game. 
Fricassee, /. Fricasseed, e. The word comes from the 

English freak, brisk, dainty. A white stew of chicken 

or veal. 
Frit, /". Fried in butter or dripping. 
Frittata. An Italian dish; a kind of rolled pancake 

crumbed and fried in fat. 

Fritter, e. Beignets, /. Anything dipped in batter, 
crumbed or egged, and fried. 

FritUPe, /. This word has two significations ; it applies 
to the fat, which may be oil, lard, or dripping in 
which articles are fried. Further, it is applied to any- 
thing that has been fried, such as egged and crumbed 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 45 

fried fish, fried potatoes, croquettes, or rissoles, being 

pre-eminently popular under this term. 
FPOg*. Edible frogs are found in England and Southern 

Europe. The hind legs are supposed to be a great 

delicacy, principally in France and South Germany, 

where it is a favourite Lent dish. 
Fromagfe 61aG<B, /. A dish of ice-cream in a cheese-like 

shape. 
Frosting^* A culinary term ; to make certain dishes 

appear like frost. It consists of whipped whites of 

egg spread roughly over the dish, dredged with castor 

sugar, and baked in a cool oven. 
Frothing* of roast joints, or roasts in general. Dredging 

the surface with flour, and briskly heating it to a 

brown colour before the fire, or with a red-hot disc of 

iron — a so-called salamander. 
Frumenty. Once a Lord Mayor's dish, and a staple food 

of our robust ancestors ; it is wheat or barley boiled. 

Eaten with honey, sugar, milk, or treacle. 
Frying*, e. Frire,/. To cook in fat, butter, or oil. No 

salt should be in the fat, nor in the food fried in it. 
Fumet, /. The flavour or essence of game, fish, or any 

highly-flavoured concentrated substance used to impart 

a rich flavour to certain dishes. 
FuPCifer is the name under which the fork was introduced 

into England at' the beginning of the 17th century. 

Tom Coryat first brought table-forks to England. 

G. 

Galantine, /. A dish of white meat, rolled, served cold. 

A fowl or breast of veal, boned and stuffed with 

farce, tongue, truffle, etc. 
Galette, /. A kind of French pastry. A species of light 

breakfast rolls. 
GalimafP^, /. A kind of ragout made of cold meatr 

Origin of word unknown. 
Game. e. Gibier,/. 
Garbure, /. A kind of maigre broth made with bread and 

vegetables. Originally a soup of cabbage and bacon. 
Gardon, /. A sweet- water fish. 
Garg'Otag'e, /*• Badly dressed victuals. 



46 SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

Garg*Otier« Keeper of a common cookshop ; a bad cook. 

Garlic, e. Ail, /. A root-plant with a pungent taste. 
Jjike onions, chives and shaUots, it possesses medicinal 
virtues, being cooling to the system, increasing saliva 
and gastric juices, stimulating, and digestive. First 
imported from Sicily. 

Garnishing'. As a culinary term, it means to decorate 
a dish with edibles of ornamental appearance. 

Garum. A Latin word, used for a sauce made of pickled 
fish, which was celebrated amongst the Romans. 

Gasteroa* Goddess of Gastronomy, presiding over every- 
thing appertaining to the preservation of life. 

Gastronome. A caterer ; hotel or restaurant keeper. 

Gastronomy, e. Gastronomic, /. The art of good living. 
Strictly speaking, meaning the science of life, through 
which we . discover what food, under various circum- 
stances, is best suited, and it teaches us the effect it' 
bears upon man individually or a nation. — " The 
Autocrat of the Dinner Table." 

G&teau, /. A round flat cake, generally decorated. 
Essentially a cake made of well-beaten butter dough. 

Gaufre, /. A light biscuit; wafer; baked or fried in 
specially -constructed Gaufre moulds. These consist of 
two opposed plates, and are worked by handles. 

Gelatine. A manufactured article, used for giving solidity 
to liquids. (See also Isinglass.) 

Gel^e, /. Jelly, e. Inspissated juice of fruit or meat. 

Gelinotte,/. Hazel-hen; heath-cock. 

G^neyoise (k la). Geneva style. 

Genievre,/. Juniper-berry. A blue-black berry, possessing 
a peculiar aromatic flavour, used as a flavouring 
condiment in mirepoix, marinades, etc. ; also used in 
syrups and liqueurs. 

G^noise, /. Genoese style. Also the name of a kind of 
sponge cake ; a brown fish sauce. 

German style, e. A TAllemande, /. 

Ghee. An Indian word for clarified butter. 

Gherkin, e, Comichon, or Petit concombre, /. Term 

mostly used for pickled cucumbers. 
Gibier, /. Game, e. Animals taken in the chase. 
Giblets, e. Abatis, /. The trimmings of poultry (neck, 

pinions, liver, heart, etc.). Those from geese, 



SENNAS CULINARY ENOYCLOPJEDIA 47 

turkeys, fowls, and ducks' are principally used for pies, 
stews and soups. 

Gibolette, /. Meaning a stew of rabbit. 

Gigfot k Sept Heures, or Gigot k la Cuillere, is a leg 

of mutton which has been cooked for seven hours, 
when it may be carved with a spoon. 

Gimblettes, /. A kind of French pastry, resembling and 

prepared similarly to Croque-en-bouche. 
Gin, e. (See GENifevRE,/.). 

Gingfer, e. Gingembre, /. A root-plant ; native of the 
East and West Indies. It is ground or preserved 
whole for various culinary purposes. 

Gingerbread, or Pain d'^pice, has been in use ever 
since the fourteenth century. It was then made and 
sold only in Paris, according to Monteil (** Histoiredes 
Fran9ais"). Gingerbread was introduced into England 
by the Court of Henry IV. 

Girofle, /. Clove, e. A very pungent aromatic spice, 
vulgarly called " cloude girofle," because it has the form 
of a nail ; native of the island of Ternate. 

Gitana (k la). Gipsy fashion. 
Glac^, /. Frozen, iced. 

Glace,/. Ice. Also applied to concentrated stock — i.e., 
meat glaze. 

Glace de sucre (Glace royale). Icing sugar ; very fine 

dust sugar. 
Glaced. Anything that is iced or frozen, or anything 
having a smooth and glossy surface, applied by means 
of meat glaze, sauce, jelly, or of sugar. 

Glaze, e. Glace de viande, /. Stock or gravy reduced to 
the thickness of jelly; used for glazing meats, etc., 
to improve their appearance. Well-made glaze adheres 
firmly to the meat. Also used for strengthening soups 
and sauces. 

Globe Artichoke, e. Artichaut, /. A plant extensively 
cultivated for culinary purposes, like a thistle, with 
large scaly heads similar to the cone of a pine. 

Glutton, e. Glouton or gourmand, /. 

Gnocchi. A light savoury dough, boiled, and served with 
grated Parmesan cheese (Italian dish). 



48 SENn's culinary ENCYCLOPiEDIA 

Godiveau, /. Bich veal forcemeat. Qnenelles. Used as 

a garnisii almost exclusively. 
Goose, e, Oie, /. Goose liver — foie gras ; foie d'oie, /. 

Gooseberry, e- Groseille, /. The fruit of a prickly shrub 
indigenous to Great Britain. The word is taken from 
the Scotch ** Grosart." 

Gooseberry Fool. A half-frozen fruit pulp, served as 
sweet. The name is a corruption of " gooseberry foul ' ' 
(foul6), meaning milled or pressed gooseberries. 

Goulash, or Gulash. A Hungarian dish. Finely-sliced 
beef or veal stew, highly seasoned with paprika (a kind 
of mild capsicum pepper). 

Gourmand, /. An epicure ; a ravenous eater ; a glutton. 

Gourmet, /. A. judge of good living ; one who values 

and enjoys good eating ; connoisseur in wine. 
Gout,/. Taste or savour, e. Relish, to perceive by the 

tongue ; the sense of tasting ; an intellectual relish. 
Gouter, /. An afternoon meal ; a meat tea. To taste, to 

relish. 
Gramolata. A kind of half- frozen lemon water-ice served 

in glasses. 
Grape, ^- Raisin,/. The fruit of the vine. Native of Greece, 

Asiatic- Turkey and Persia, from whence it was spread 

over all countries where the climate allows it. 
Gras (au), / This signi^es that the article specified is 

dressed with rich meat gravy. 

Gratill) /. (See Au Gratin.) 

Gratiner, / To brown the surface of contents of a dish. 

Gravy, ^. Jus, /. The juice obtained from meat in 

cooking. 
Greengfagfe. (See Reine- Claude.) / 

Grenade, / Pomegranate, e. The fruit of the pome- 
granate tree (grenadier,/.), largely used for preserves, 

jellies and syrup. 
Grenadine,/. Small fillets of veal or fowl larded and 

braised. 
Grimod de la Regniere, Name of a celebrated culinary 

author and an able chef, editor, in 1803, of the journal 

called ** Almanach des Gourmands." 
Griotte, /. A dark-red cherry, called Armenian cherry, 

suitable for compote and jam. 



senn's cuunaby encyclopaedia 49 

Gpive, /. Fieldfare ; thrush, e. 

Grog*. A beverage. A mixture of spirits (mostly rum), hot 
water and sugar. 

Groseilles, /. Gooseberries or currants, e, 

Gros-sel, /. Coarse salt, e. 

Grouse, *"» Coq du bois, /\ Black grouse, or American 
grouse ; neat cock ; cock of the woods. 

GruaUy /. Gruel ; oatmeal ; water-gruel. 

Guava. A tropical fruit ; native of the East and West 
Indies. The preserves of this fruit are highly esteemed 
in this country. 

Guin^e pepper, e. Poivre de Guinee, /*. This is a kind of 
cayenne, prepared from the seeds of the ripe chili 
or capsicum annuum. It is also called chili pepper. 
Large quantities of this aromatic plant are grown in 
Cayenne, in South America. The name of Guinee 
pepper is also given to tlje ground seeds of dried 
fruit of certain plants of the same kind as capsicums, 
all of which have a pungent character and are the 
products of Western Africa. 

Guisado. A Spanish dish, mostly prepared with meat 
and potatoes stewed together. 

Gumbo. The American term for okra soup or other 
preparations from okra, gumbo being the name by 
which okra is mostly known in South America. 
Chicken gumbo is a puree or soup made from okra 
and chicken. 

H. 

Hache, /. Minced meat, finely sliced meat. (See Hash.) 

Hacher-menu, /'. To mince meat finely. 

Haddock, e. Aigrefin,/., or merluche. 

HagfgfiS. A kind of liver sausage (Scotch dish), from 
** Hag," to chop, or " Hachis," to mince. The 
modern haggis consists of the liver, lights, and heart 
of a sheep finely chopped, mixed with oatmeal and 
suet, and seasoning. This is inserted in a sheep's 
paunch, and boiled for several hours. Eobert Burns 
greatly esteemed this dish, which was, it is said, a 
favourite dish of the Romans. 

E 



50 SBNN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPJEDIA 

Hake, e, A kind of sea-fish allied to the cod. 

Halaszle. A Hungarian fish stew. 

Ham. Jambon,/. Name given to the hind leg of pork, 
when it is salted and cured, or smoked. 

Hare, e, Lievre, /. A timid quadruped. 

Hareng*, /. Herring, e. A small sea-fish. 

Haricot, J* Bean. Also applied to a thick meat stew, so 
called from the French word for beans, from which the 
dish was originally made. 

Haricots panaches, /. French beans or string beans 
mixed with flageolets (green kidney beans). 

Harslet* Pigs. The inside organs of a pig; also their 
best parts, liver, sweetbread, etc., prepared and spiced, 
enclosed in caul, roasted and served with a sauce. 

Hash* To slice or dress in small bits. Its meaning is to 
redress a dish, so as to mystify its origin, by the 
reappearance in a different form. 

Hfttelet, /. A small silver skewer garnished with cut 
roots, truffles, mushrooms, aspic, cocks' combs, etc., 
used for ornamenting fish and remove dishes. 

H&tereau, /'. A dish of sliced liver. 

H&teur. Formerly an officer in the Royal kitchens, 

whose duty it was to see that all meat was properly 

done and correctly dressed. 

Hautboy^ e- A species of strawberry. 

HautgfOUt, /. High flavour or strong seasoning. 

Hock. The English name for German wines from the 
Rhine and Moselle districts. 

Hodgfe-podgfe (Hochepot). Hotch-potch. A meat 
ragout with chestnuts ; a Scotch meat stew. A 
favourite dish of Scotland. It is a kind of stew made 
with loin chops, or best end of leg of mutton or neck 
of muttpn, with vegetables, such as turnips, carrots, 
lettuces, cauliflower buds, green peas, and onions. 
These are boiled or stewed in stock or water with the 
appropriate quantity of seasoning. 

Hollandaise, /. Dutch style ; also name of a white fish 

sauce. 
Homard, /. Lobster, e, A crustaceous fish. 



senn's culinaby encyclopedia 51 

Hominy, e, A farinaceous food prepared from maize. 

Hominy* A farinaceous food made of maize (Indian 
corn^. It is very nourishing. Derivation from the 
auhuminea, which is the North American Indian 
term for parched corn. 

Honey, e. Miel, /. Sweet jui6e collected from various 
Bowers by bees. French Narbonne and Swiss honey 
are both celebrated. The English and Welsh honey 
also supply an excellent table delicacy. 

Hors-d'(EuvPes, /. Small side dishes, served cold, 
generally before the soup, in order to create appetite. 
They consist of anchovies, caviare, sardines, and other 
dainty relishes. 

Horseradish. Raifort, /. A species of scuryey-root of 
peculiarly hot flavour. It forms an excellent relish, 
stimulating the appetite and promoting digestion. 

Huckleberry, e. Whortleberry, e, (See Airelle, /.) 

Hulle, /. Oil, e. The oil used for culinary purposes is ob- 
tained from the olive tree. It is used for salad dressing, 
sauces, for frying, etc. Provence oil and lucca oil have 
the highest reputation ; the former is, however, 
considered the best. Cotton-seed oil is now much 
used for cheap cooking purposes, though for really 
good cookery it cannot be recommended. 

Huttre, /. Oyster, e, A bivalvular testaceous shellfish. 
(See Oyster.) 

Hure, / Boar or pig's head ; also head and shoulders of 
some large fish. 

Hure de SangUer, /. Wild boar's head. 



L 

Ice. (See Glace.) 

Iceland Moss, freshly gathered, is boiled and eaten with 
meat as a vegetable. The jelly made of it is a 
nourishing food for invalids. 

Ices. Supposed to have been introduced by Catherine de 
Medicis in the 16th century. Some assert that ice- 
cream was first invented by a negro named Jackson, 
who kept a small confectioner's shop in Soho in the 
early part of the present century. 

E 2 



52 senn's culinary encyclop.bdu. 

Icingf, t'. Glasure,/., or glace. A covering for cakes or 
pastry made with fine sugar and white of egg, or sugar 
and water, flavoured and coloured according to taste. 

Indian, e, k rindienne. 

Indienne (a T). Indian style. 

IngfWeP. German name for ginger. 

Irish, ('' A rirlandaise, /, 

Irish Moss. Carragheen. A seaweed which grows in 
abundance on the coast of Ireland. When cleaned 
and dried it is used for making jellies ; it then forms an 
excellent dish for invalid dietary. 

Irish Stew. A stew of mutton, potatoes and onions ; 
national dish of Ireland. 

Irlandaise {k T). Irish style. This term is applied to 
dishes containing potatoes in some form ; the^e are 
either introduced during the process of cooking or 
else served around a dish to form its garnish. 

ISChe Bone. (See Aitch-bone.) 

Is}ng*laSS. Gelatine. The former is prepared from the 
sound, or swimming bladder, of the sturgeon and other 
similar fishes. Both isinglass and gelatine are used 
for giving firmness to liquids, but cannot be regarded 
as an article of nourishment. 

Italienne (i F). Italian style. With a few exceptions 
the term implies that the dish is made of entirely or 
part of macaroni or similar paste, and in which 
Parmesan cheese or tomato, or both, have been intro- 
duced. Garnishing known as a la Milanaise, a la 
Napolitaine, k la Parma, and a la Florentine usually con- 
tain one or the other of the above-named ingredients. 

ludabah. Name of an Arab dish. Rice stewed in 
chicken fat, and sweetened. 

J. 

Jacobins. Nickname of quenelles of custard which 
became fashionable during the Revolution ; after the 
restoration their name was changed to Royals. 

Jagrgrer, or Jagrgringf-iron. An implement used for 
cutting pastry into fancy shapes. It consists of a 
brass wheel, which is fastened to a handle. 



sbnn's culinary ENCYCLOP-EDIA 68 

Jam, ^. Confiture,/. A confeetion or conserve of fruit, 
made by boiling fruit with sugar to a certain con- 
sistency. 

Jambon, /. (See Ham, e.) 

Jambonneau, /. A very small ham. 

Jardiniere, /. A mixture of spring vegetables ; vegetables 
stewed down in th^ir own sauce. 

Jaune-Mangre, /. A kind of egg jelly made from gelatine, 
white wine, lemons, sugar and eggs. It is so called 
on account of its yellow colour. 

Jean de Cardme (John of Lent). A famous cook under 
Pope Leo X, who received the nickname " John of 
Lent " in consequence of a celebrated aoupe maiffre 
which he used to prepare for his master the Pope. He 
is supposed to be the direct ancestor of the celebrated 
Antoine Careme. 

« 

Jelly, e, Gel^e,/. Inspissated juice of fruits or meats. 
Concentrated essence of any kind of food, having 
gelatinous substance. It is obtained by boiling to a 
glutinous consistence. 

Jerked Beef (or "Charqui *'). Beef cut into thin slices 
and dried in the sun. 

Jernik-kalwasi. A Russian dish, consisting of semohna, 
milk, and honey. 

Jerusalem Artichoke, e. Tobinambour, /. Imported 
from Brazil. A tuberous root-plant resembling 
potatoes, but not so nourishing. The root contains 
4 per cent, more water than potatoes. If put with 
milk it acts like rennet (it curdles the milk). Also 
called Girasol artichoke, a corruption of the Italian 
sunflower. Best adapted for- the favourite soup called 
** Palestine " ; also served as a vegetable. 

John Dory, c St. Pierre, /'. A fish found in British 
seas. Name derived from the French ** Jaune doree " 
(golden yellow), the body of the fish being thus 
marked. 

Joint, e* Relev^s, /*. The grosse-pi^ce or pi^ce de 
resistance of a dinner. On the Continent the joint is 
usually served after the fish, whilst in this country it 
is served after the entries. 

Jolerie, /. A small sweet- water fish similar to perch*. 



54 SENK.*S CULINABY ENCYCLOPEDIA 

Jugged, e. Civet de •..,/. Stewed. 

Jug'fifing*. Name of a form of cooking, by placing meat 
m a jar with just sufficient water to cover ; it is then 
allowed to stew at even temperature in the bain-marie, 
or in the oven. 

Julep. Ancient Arabian name for a cooling drink 
containing mucilage and opium, etc. 

Julienne, Name of a vegetable clear soup, first made in 
1786 by a cook named Jean Julien ; vegetable roots 
finely shred. 

Jumbles. Under this name pass 'confections of varying 
degrees of complication, as the name, signifying con- 
fused mixture, seems to indicate, etc. 

Junket. Juncate, from the Latin word jnncus. Name of 
a favourite Devonshire dish, which consists of milk 
turned with rennet, double cream, sugar, and ground 
cinnamon or • other flavouring. Usually served with 
fruit, fresh or preserved. 

Jus, /. Juice ; broth ; gravy. The juice of cooked meats 
seasoned, but without any liaison (thickening). 



K. 

Kabob. An Indian dish of stewed meat curried. 

Kagne, /". A sort of vermicelli. 

Kaily e. Broccoli, chou fris4, /. A species of cauliflower. 

Kallcannon. Original Scotch name for Colcannon. 

Kaimak. A Russian sweet, similar to cream custard. 

Kale. An esculent plant. 

Kari. The translation in French or German of the 

English word " curry." 
KebobS (Khubab). Name of a dish served in India and 

Turkey, consisting of small slices of mutton run on 

skewers, and grilled or braised. 

Kedgreree (Kadg'iori, Kitchri, or Kegeree). An Indian 

dish of fish and rice curried. The name is taken from 
Khichri, an Indian dish, consisting of boiled fish or 
salt fish, eggs, and rice, garnished with hard-boiled 
eggs, strips of chili, etc. 
Kelkel. A slice of sole dried and salted. 



senn's culinary ENCYCLOP-EDIA 65 

Ketchup (Catchup, or Catsup). Name of a much- 

' ' esteemed sauce. The best known ketchups are made 
of fresh mushrooms mixed with salt, and flavoured 
with spices. Tomato ketchup is prepared in a similar 
way, or walnut ketchup, for which unripe walnuts are 

/ used. 

Kettle of Fish. Is a sort of fish stew well known 
in Scotland, locally known as ** fish and sauce.'* It is 
generally made from haddocks. 

Kickshaw, e. Espece de ragout or charcuterie, /. This 
is a name used in cookery which may be given to an'y 
dish prepared with extraordinary nicety ; but it is 
usually applied to such things as are regarded luxuries 
by the rich. 

Kid, (?. , Chevreau, /. A young wild goat. In the time of 
our forefathers the flesh was esteemed as much as 
lamb. The meat is sweet and very tender. It is 
usually cooked whole, hke sucking-pig (larded or 
barded, and sometimes marinaded). 

Kidney, e, Rogn.ons, /. Sheep's, lamb's, veal, and pork 
kidneys are alone ponsidered of any account in 
• cookery. They possess a peculiar slightly-bitter 
flavour, which characteristic makes them a favourite 
dish for breakfast or luncheon. They are best grilled 
or saut^ed. (Somewhat indigestible.) 

Kipper. A term applied to herrings, salmon, or mackerel, 
split open, salted (cured), smoked, and dried. (The 
word is taken from the Dutch kipper y which means to 
hatch or to spawn.) 

Kishri, Kitchery, Kitchris, and Kitcharee. An 

Indian dish, generally known under the name of 
Kedgeree or Quitheri. It is a mixture of rice or 
lentils, cooked with butter and fish, dhoU, etc., and 
flavoured with fennel, shredded or minced onions, a 
little spice, etc. It is a common dish all over India, 
mostly served at breakfast. Dholl or dhall is a kind of 
Indian pulse. 

Kitchener. The ancient name for cook, but now only 
applied to a kitchen apparatus. 

Klosse. German dish, composed of small light balls 
boiled in water, milk, or gravy. They are made of 



66 senn's culinabt encyclopedia 

bread, potatoes, rice, and eggs, and are varied with 
meat, fish, or liver. 
Knodel. Bavarian name for a kihd of small dumpling. 

Knuckle of Veal, e. Jarret de Veau, /. Part below the 
knee-joint ; mostly used for stews and stock. 

Kohl Rabi, Knol Kohl, or ChOUX JRaves. Is a turnip- 
shaped vegetable, which is cooked without being 
pared ; but before going to table the outside must be 
carefully removed. They are generally served with 
butter or a white sauce. 

Konomoe. Name of a Japanese vegetable. 

Koofthas. Name of an Indian dish ; a mince of meat or 
fowl curried, shaped into balls and fried. 

Koumiss, e, A nutritious and easily assimilated beverage, 
originally made from camel's milk. It is now pre- 
pared with new cow's milk and an addition of yeast, 
and is bottled when partially fermented. 

Kromeskis(Kromeskys, Cromeskis, or Kromouskys). 

A Polish word, having the same meaning as croquette 
in French. Balls or rolls of forcemeat or of minced 
chicken and ham, wrapped in caul, braised or crumbed, 
or else dipped in batter and fried. 
Krupnick. A Russian soup. 



L. 

Lacteal. Pertaining to milk. 
Lactean. Milky, <'., laiteux,/. 

Lactometer. A glass tube for ascertaining the richness 

of milk or cream. 
Ladog*, /. Name of kind of herring found in the lake of 

Ladoga, in Russia, from which it got its name ; 

largely consumed in Russia during Lent. 
Lait, /. Milk, e, Au lait, prepared with milk, or in 

milk. 
Laitance, /. The soft roe of a fish. Those of herrings, 

carp, or mackerel, are considered as a delicacy. 
Laitue,/. Lettuce, e. A genus of favourite salad 

plants ; very wholesome and easily digested. 
Lamb, e. Agneau, /. A young sheep. 



senn's cuunaky encyclopedia 67 

Lamb's Fry, e, Animelles, /. 

Lamproie, ./• Lamprey, e. A kind of eel. 

Land o' Cakes. A name sometimes given to Scotland 
because oatmeal cakes are a common national dish, 
particularly among the poorer classes. 

LangfOUSte, /. Very large lobster ; sea cra3rfish (spring 
lobster). 

Langfue,/. Tongue, e. The tongue of most animals is 
regarded as a delicacy. The meat is generally juicy 
and tender ; usually cured, boiled, or braised. 

Lapereau, /. Young rabbit. 

Lapin,/. Rabbit. A small, long-eared quadruped ; its 
flesh is generally considered as inferior to that of the 
hare. 

Lapins en accolade. A brace of rabbits alongside of 
each other on a dish. 

Lard, /. Bacon, e. Also the fat of swine. 

Larder, /. To lard, e, A culinary term which means to 
pass with a larding-pin (lardoire, /.) a small slice of 
bacon (lardon, /.) through a piece of meat. 

Larding* Bacon, e. Lard k piquer,/. Bacon specially 
cured for laming and barding purposes. 

Lardon, /. A piece of fat bacon used for larding. 

Lardoons are strips of bacon which, with the use of a 
larding needle, are inserted into the meat for the 
purpose of larding. 

Lark, <^. Alouette, /. A bird belonging to the finch 
family. They are caught by means of nets, and are 
considered a great delicacy. 

Lasangres, /. Lasagna, it. Strips of paste made of eggs 
and fiour, and boiled. 

Laurel, /. (See Bayleaf.) 

Laver. A marine alga, growing on rocks on the sea coasts. 
It is cooked like spinach, and is served as an accom- 
paniment with roast meat. 

Leek, ^. Poireau,/. Is said to be a native of Switzer- 
land. The leek was, and still is, the favourite 
ingredient for stocks, and especially in the soup known 
as " cock-a-leekie," of which King James I was so 
fond that he retained his preference for it, notwith- 
standing all the dainties of French cookery. Leeks 



58 SENNAS CinJNABY ENCYCLOPEDIA 

are now served as a vegetable course. National 

emblem of Wales. 
Leg*, ^. Crigot, cuisse,/. 

L^grumes, /. Vegetables, e^ Plants used as food. 
Lemon, e. (See Citron,/.) 

Lemonade, e, Limonade, /. A refreshing drink is made 
of the juice of lemons, the essence of the peel, sugar, 
and water ; sometimes the white of egg and sherry is 
added, especially if intended as an invalid drink. 

Lentil, e, Lentille,/. The seed of a plant of the same 
name, resembling the bean. Though of great nutritious 
quality they are not so much eaten in Europe as in the 
Orient. 

Lentille, /. Lentil, <?. An edible plant resembling a bean. 

Lettuce,^. (SeeLAiTUE,/.) 

Levain,/. Yeast, e. Ferment, e, Du pain sans levain,/. 
. Unleavened bread. 

Levain, /. (See Yeast.) 

Levraut, /. Leveret, e, A young hare. 

Levupe, /. Yeast. A preparation which ferments dough. 

LevUPe, /. The froth of beer when it begins to ferment. 
When pressed and reduced to a dough it preserves a 
very long time, and is often used in confectionery and 
as yeast for small bread. 

Liaison, /. The mixtuife of yolk of eggs, cream, etc., used 
for thickening or binding white soups and sauces. 

Liebig* Company's Extract of Beef. A perfectly 

prepared essence of meat. Forty pounds of lean beef 
are used to make every pound of this extract. 
Inventor, J. V. Liebig. 

LieVPe, /. Hare, e. 

Limande, /. Dab, e. Small sea-fish, with white and 
soft flesh ; mostly prepared like fried sole. 

Lime FPUlt is a species of small lemon ; the tree is a 
native of Asia. The juice of this fruit is imported into 
England for the manufacture of citric acid (see Citric 
Acm). Lime-juice has more agreeable flavour than 
lemon -juice. 

Limon,/. The fruit of a species of lemon trees, which are 
more round than the ordinary lemon (citron,/.). 



senn's culinaky encyclopedia 59 

Lingf , e . Lingue, /. A sort of cod fish. 

Liquor,^. Liqueur,/. A liquid. 

Lit, /. Thin slices of meat spread in layers for culinary 
purposes. 

LivouPnaise (i la). Leghorn style. 

Lobster, e. Homard,/., or langouste,/. 

Loin, e. Longe,/. The back portion nearest the leg of 
an animal. 

Lotte, /. Eelpout, e. Very often taken for the ordinary 
eel ; prepared like eels or lampries. 

LucullUS« Name of the famous Roman epicure and field- 
marshal, Lucius Licinius LucuUus, 114-57 b.c. 

Lunch, e. Dejeuner fi la fourchette, /. A repast between 
breakfast and dinner. The word is derived from the 
Welsh Llwne, lunching or hurrying. Robert Burns 
in his " Holy Friar ** says : "An cheese, an bread, frae 
women's laps, was dealt about in lunches.** 

Luting*. A paste used for fastening lids on pie-dishes in 
which game is preserved. 

Lyonnaise (k la), /. Lyonese style. As a garnish it 
generally signifies that shredded onion (fried) has 
been introduced as the principal ingredient. 

M. 

Macaroni. This is a peculiar paste prepared from flour 
and manufactured into tubes. It is an Italian inven- 
tion. The name is said to be taken from a Greek 
derivation, meaning the blessed bread, in allusion to 
the ancient custom of eating it at feasts for the 
dead. 

Macaroons. A kind of sweet biscuits made of almonds, 
sugar and the white of eggs. 

Mace. A spice which grows as a sort of leafy net-work, 
enveloping the nutmeg — has a more delicate flavour 
than the nutmeg. The tree is a native of the 
Molucca Islands (Indian Ocean), but is also success- 
fully cultivated at Sumatra, Mauritius and Trinidad 
(West Indies). 

Mac4doine, /*. A mixture of various kinds of vegetables 
or fruits, cut in even-shaped discs. The name is also 



60 SENN*S CULINABY ENCYCLOPEDIA 

applied to a collection of ripe fruit imbedded in jelly 
and set in a mould, or a fruit salad flavoured ^ith 
liqueurs and syrup, 

Mache, /. Corn-salad, e. A.plant which furnishes a very 
good salad. 

Mackerel, e, Maquereau, /. A fish. Name from Latin 
macularelli (little spots). 

Ma^on. A French wine, grown in the neighbourhood of 
the town Ma9on. 

Macoquer, /., or Calebasse. Fruit of the calabash tree 
(calebassier, /.), grown in America. The fruit re- 
sembles the melon and has an agreeable taste. 

Madere. Madeira Wine. A Spanish wine, very often used 
in cooking. 

Madeleine, /. A particular kind of small caJres, well 
known throughout France. 

Magira, Latin, The art of cookery. 
Maig*re (au), /. A disli without meat. Applied to 
Lenten dishes. 

Maintenon. Name of the Marchioness Frangoise 
d'Aubign^ ; born 1686, died 1719; a great patroness 
of cooks, a born admirer of fine cooking. Several 
dishes are called " ^ la Maintenon." The dish " C6te- 
lettes de veau k la Maintenon " is said to have been 
invented by this lady, who was Louis XIV's favourite, 
and did all in her power to tempt the failing appetite 
of the King when he was advanced in age. 

Mait, /. Maize, Indian or Turkey com. 

Maitrank, //. (May drink). A delicious beverage, 
originally consumed in Germany — made of hock or 
other white wine which is flavoured with woodruff, 
lemon, bayleaves and sugar. 

Mattre d'Hdtel (a la), /. Hotel steward's fashion. Also 
the name of a flavouring butter, mixed with chopped 
parsley and seasoned with lemon-juice, pepper and 
salt. Served on grilled meats. Maitre d*H6tel sauce 
is a white sauce containing chopped parsley. Dishes 
surnamed a la Maitre d'Hotel generally signify 
quickly and plainly prepared food in which parsley is 
used as the principal flavouring. 

Mang'Oe. There are many kinds of this fruit, but the 



SENN's culinary ENCYCLOPJBDIA 61 

best are grown in the Bombay districts. A number of 
preparations are produced from this fruit, mango 
chutney and mango pickle being the best known in 
this country. Mango jelly is a very favourite table 
condiment in India, also a kind of a sweetmeat called 
amont ; the dried shreds of green mangoes are known 
as am-chool ; the latter is a pleasantly flavoured con- 
diment used extensively in the preparation of Indian 
dishes. 
Manioc. A tropical plant, from which tapioca is taken. 

Manna Croup (manna kroup or manna groats). A 
Russian semolina, much esteemed for making 
puddings, very little known in England. 

Maquereau, e. Mackerel. A spotted fish. 
Marabout, /. A very large coflFee-pot. 
Maraschino, e, Marasquin, /. A delicately flavoured 
white liqueur, used ior flavouring jellies and ices. 

Marcassin, /. Grice, e. Young wild boar, generally 
cooked whole. 

Mar^e, /. A fresh seafish — i.e., those seafishes which are 
sold quite fresh. 

Marengpo. An Italian village, which gives its name to 
the dish ** Poulet saut6 a la Marengo." The dish is 
said to have first been served to Napoleon I by his 
chef, who hurriedly prepared a fowl in this fashion 
after a battle. 

Marie Louise. Second wife of Napoleon I, born 1791, 
died 1847. The lady was a great gourmand of her 
time. 

Marigpold. A flavouring herb, also known as Pot Mari- 
gold. It is a native of Spain, and was introduced into 
England in 1573. 

Marinade, /. The brine in which fish or meat is soused 
or pickled. 

Marjolain,/. Marjoram, e. An excellent kitchen herb 
of strong flavour, used fresh or dried for game season- 
ing ; also for flavouring sauces, forcemeat, etc. 

Marmalade. Originally the Spanish name of jam of the 
flesh of the quinces, then transferred to other jams ; 
e.g., what ought to be called orange jam is aflectedly 
called orange marmalade, etc. 



62 senn's culinary encyclopjedia 

Marmite, /. Tbe stock-pot. A copper, iron or earthen- 
ware vessel used for making stock. 

Mapquer,/. To prepare, and arrange in a stewpan, a 
piece of meat ready for cooking. 

Marron, /. A kind of large chestnuts. 

Marsala. A wine similar to Madeira, but made from a 
mixture of different grapes ; named after a town of 
Sicily. 

Marzipan. Delicate German dessert dainties made from 
almond paste. 

Mask. To cover any kind of cooked meat with thick rich 
gravy or savoury jelly. 

Masquer, /. To sauce a dish which is ready for serving ; 
also to mask the inside of a mould with savoury jelly 
or chaudfroid sauce when required for entrees. 

Massepan, /. A French dessert pastry. 

Mate. A Paraguayan tea, commonly called Mat6, the 
real name being Yerba de MM ; it consists of the 
powdered leaves and green shoots of plants. This 
beverage has been known to the native Indians of 
South America. 

Matelote, /. A marine dish ; a rich fish stew with wine 
and herb flavouring. Usually prepared from fresh- 
water fish — carp, tench, pike, eel, etc. 

Mayonnaise, /. A kind of salad of fish or poultry, with a 
thick cold sauce made of yolks of eggs, oil and vinegar ; 
a salad sauce or dressing. The sauce is said to have 
been invented by the chef to the Due de Richelieu, 
after the victory of Mahon (Mahonnaise). 

Mazag*ran. A French term for a glass of black coffee, 
sugar and water. 

Mazarines. Turbans, /. Forcerneat ornaments of fish, 
poultry, or game. 

Mead. Liquor composed of honey and water, a sweet 
drink. 

Melon. A plant and fruit of the same genus as the cu- 
cumber. First imported into England from Jamaica. 
Melons are very extensively cultivated in Egypt and 

* India, and in all the tropical regions. A greatly 
e& teemed dessert fruit. 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPEDIA 63 

Melted Butter, e, Beurre fondu, /. The former name 
stands also for a plain white sauce, described by the 
French as the one English sauce. 

Menu, /. The bill of fare. Literally the word means 
minute detail of courses. A list of the dishes which 
are to be served at a meal. Menus were first used in 
1541. Pronounce ** menu " as *' mennoo " so that the 
second syllable is sounded as something between 
"new" and **noo.*' 

Menu-Gibier, /. Small game, such as partridges, grouse, 
pheasants, etc. 

Menu Rot, /. Small roast birds. 

Menus Droits. Pig's ears served up as an entree. 

Meringrue, /. Light pastry, made of white of eggs and 
sugar, filled with cream or ice. 

Merise, Merisier, /. A wild cherry, wild cherry-tree. 
The Kirschwasser is made of this fruit. 

Merlan, /. Whiting. A delicate fish allied to the cod. 

Merluche, /. Stockfish, haddock, e. Dried or smoked. 

Mess. A dish of food. A number of persons who eat 
together. 

Mets, /. The meal, or dish. " Mets de farine," farin- 
aceous; ** entremets de douceur," sweet; *'de 
legumes," vegetable, etc. 

Middling'S, the coarser part of flour. A common kind of 

flour. 
Miel, /. (See Honey.) 

Mignonette Pepper. Coarsely-ground white pepper- 
corns. A form of comminuted pepper, which re- 
sembles mignonette seed when sifted. 

Mijoter, /. To cook slowly ; to simmer gently over a 
small fire. 

Milk, e, Du lait, /. 

Millecantons, /. Name of a small fish of the whitebait 
kind, found in the lake of Geneva ; cooked in the same 
manner as whitebait. In season in July and August. 

Millet. A plant and its grain ; indigenous to tropical 
countries ; there are several varieties, of which India 
provides the best. The flower is white and is much 
used for cakes, puddings, etc. 



' 64 SENn's CXJliINARY ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

Mince-meat. Meat chopped very fine. This name is 
also given to a mixture consisting of finely-minced 
suet and raisins, sugar, currants, spices, sometimes 
meat, and brandy. Used for a favourite kind of pastry 
known as mince-pies. 

Hince-pie. Small patties filled with mince-meat. This 
is a traditional English Christmas pie. 

Minnow. A very small fresh- water fish. 

Mint Julep. Name of an American drink. 

Minthe, or Menthe, J\ Mint, e. Aromatic plant, from 
which a liqueur is made. It also forms the chief 
ingredient of mint-sauce and is used for various other 
culinary preparations. 

Minute a la, /. A surname given to dishes which are 
hurriedly prepared ; or anything cooked in the quickest 
possible style. Omelets and grills come under this 
heading. 

Mirabelles, /. A kind of small yeUow plum, very sweet 
and juicy, used for compotes, fresh or dried. 

Mirepoix, J\ The foundation preparation of vegetables, 
herbs, and lard, for brown soups and sauces ; also for 
braised meats, etc. Name derived from the Duke de 
Mirepoix. 

Mirlitons, /. A kind of French pastry. Tartlets with 
a basis of puff-paste and filled with a custard mixture. 

Miroton, /. Thin slices of meat, the size of a five- 
shilling piece, braised, stewed, and dished up in a 
circular form. 

Mitonner, /. To steep and allow to boil during a certain 
time. 

Moelle de BCBUf, /. Beef marrow, e. The fatty sub- 
stance in the hollow part of bones. 

Moisten. To add liquid to a mixture. 

Moka. Name of the most valued kind of coffee — creme de 

moka. 
Mont-FPigfOUl (Semoule Italienne), the name of a French 

soup. 
Morel, C' Morille, /. A plant of the fungi found in 

woods and orchards ; said to possess great stimulating 

properties ; used as garniture for fricassees, and for 

soups and sauces. 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 65 

Mortadelle, /. A kind of sausage largely manufac- 
tured in Bologna (Italy). 

Mortift^y /. Term applied to meat well hung. 

Mote, or Moti. Name of an Indian fish curry. 

Mouiller, /. To add broth, water or any other suitable 
juice during the cooking of meats. 

Mousse, /. A light ice-cream. Among the definitions 
given for the word are: mossy, froth and foam. 
Mousse frapp6e is a dish prepared with whipped cream 
and flavouring, frozen without working. Hot pud- 
dings are also prepared as mousses. 

Mousseron, /. A kind of white mushroom, principally 
used for ragouts. 

Mouton, /• Mutton, e. Meat from the sheep. 

Mullet (red), e. Mulct (rouget), /. A highly-esteemed 
fish called the woodcock of the sea. 

Mull (to), practically means to heat and spice, particularly 
wine, sherry or claret, etc., etc. 

MuUigratawny. An Indian curry soup ; a paste made of 
curry ; derives its name from two words : Tamil and 
Molegoo, pepper and tunnee. Derived from an East 
Indian word meaning pepper water. 

Mumbled Hare. A dish of finely-minced cooked hare's 
'^ meat, mixed with egg (scrambled). 

' Mumbled Hare, e. Minced cooked hare's meat, flavoured, 

spiced and acidulated, put into a stewpan with beaten 

eggs and butter and cooked to consistency by constant 

stirring. 
Mure, /. Mulberry, e. Black and white fruit of a 

delicate flavour, used for making jellies, syrups and 

vinegar. 
Muscade, /. (See Nutmeg, e.y see Mace.) 

Muscat, /. Muscadine, e, A white grape (muscadine 

grape). 
Muscovado. Name given to unrefined sugar. 

Mushrooms, ^. Champignons, /. A plant of the edible 
fungi, principally used as flavouring for made dishes, 
and grilled when fresh. 

Mussels. A kind of shellfish, very common on all the 
English coasts. 

Mustard, e, Moutarde, /'. The seeds of a plant, Sinapia 

F 



66 SENN's culinary ENCYCXOi'^DIA 

nigre (black) and Sinapis alba (irhite or yellow), A 
pungent ground seed, chiefly used as a relish or condi- 
ment. English mustard was first manufactured at 
Durham in 1729. The recipe was kept a secret for 
many years. Some traditions _ assert that a lady 
named Clements, of Durham, first introduced mustard 
as a condiment in 1720. 
Myptille, /. bilberry. A fruit used for compotes, syrups, 
and sweet sauces. 



N. 

Napolitaine (k la), f- Naples or Neapolitan style. 

Napper, /. To cover a dish with a layer of thick sauce, 
jelly, or jam. 

Nasturtium. Indian cress. A nativfe plant of Peru, 
lately acclimatised in Great Britain, the seeds of 
which have a pungent taste, not unlike capers. The 
leaves and flowers of this plant have valuable dietic 
properties, and make a pleasant addition to salads. 

Naturely /. Plain, simple. Plainly and quickly prepared. 

Navarin,/. A stew of mutton or lamb. A kind of 
haricot mutton. The name is of ancient origin, being 
mentioned in one of the plays of Sodelle in the early, 
part of the seventeenth century. Turnips form the 
principal garniture of a navarin. 

Navet, /. Turnip, e, A bulbous root used, for soups, as a 
vegetable, and for flavouring. 

Neck, e. Carr6, /. The rib part of veal, mutton, lamb, 
or pork. 

Nectarine. A fruit of the peach kind. 

Nefles, /. Medlars, e. Small, pear-shaped, delicately- 
flavoured fruit. 

NegfUS. Name of a hot drink composed of port-wine, 
sugar, nutmeg, and lemon-juice ; so called after 
Colonel Negus (in the reign of Queen Anne). 

Neigre, /. White of eggs beaten to snow or a froth. 

Nepaul Pepper. A red pepper of the same character as 
cayenne and Guin^e pepper, being a species of capsi- 
cum of a sweet pungent flavour. It is largely grown in 
Hindostan. 



SENN's culinary ENCYCLOPiEDIA 67 

Nesselrode. Name of a puddingy iced, flavoured with 
chestnuts, invented by Mony, chef to the famous 
Count Nesselrode. 

Niokes, or Niokies. A farinaceous dish, prepared with 
semolina or Indian maize, flavoured with grated 
cheese, cream, etc. Of Russian invention. 

Nivernaise (a la), /. Nivernese style. 

Noisette, /. Hazel nut ; fruit of the hazel. 

Noix de Muscat, /. Nutmeg, e. The fruit of the nut- 
meg tree ; an aromatic spice. 
Noix de Veau,/. Cushion of veal (knuckle of veal). 

Noques, /. Small dumplings made from flour, milk, or 
cream, boiled in soup or salt water, and served as 
garnish. 

Norfolk Dumpling's. Often called drop dumplings or 
spoon dumplings, because the batter of milk, flour, 
eggs, etc., is dropped into boiling water from a spoon. 

Normande (a la). Normandy style, witii the exception of 
a dish known as fllets de soles a la Normande, and 
other fish entries. The application of this name 
implies ihat the flavour of apple has in some form or . 
other been introduced into the composition of the 
dish. 

Nougfat, /. Almond rock candy. A sweetmeat made 
with sugar, honey, almonds, pistachios, etc. 

Nouilles,/. Nudels. A German preparation, " Nudeln." 
It consists of a stiff dough made with flour and eggs, 
rolled out very thinly, cut up in thin strips and boiled, 
and served as garnish ; or fried and served as sweet. 

Noyau, /. The stone of a fruit ; a liqueur flavoured with 
peach or nectarine kernels. 

Nutmeg*, e, Noix de Muscat, /. An aromatic fruit, 
"extensively used as flavouring ; its husks are known as 
mace. 

o. 

Oatmeal, e. Avoine,/. The grain of the oat dried in a 
kiln and ground. There are three kinds — coarse, 
medium, and fine. Oatmeal when cooked is con- 
sidered the most perfect example of a complete food. 
Generally eaten in the form of porridge or gruel. 

F2 



68 senna's culinary ENCYCLOP-EDIA 

(Euf,/. Egg, e. An important article of diet, and the 

most convenient culinary dish. 
Oie, /. Goose, e. An aquatic domestic bird ; a favourite 

dish in the autumn and winter. 
Oi8^^on,/. Onion, e, A vegetable plant of the allium 

family ; a valuable culinary adjunct for flavouring and 

garnishing purposes. 
Oil, e. (See Huile, /.) 

Olive, /. Olive, e. Fruit of the oil tree, used as hors- 
d'oeuvres, and as garnish for sauces, stews, salads, etc. 

Okra. Name of a vegetable extensively used in South 
America. 

011a. Name of a Spanish meat and vegetable ragotit. 

Omble. Name of an excellent sweet-water fish, from the 
Lake of Geneva, weighing up to 15 lb. apiece; in 
season during the months of January and February. 

Ombre Chevalier, /. Grayling, e. A sweet-water fish, 
similar to the trout. 

Omelette,/. Omelet, e, A pancake or fritter of eggs, 
etc. Its name is supposed to be derived from the 
word '* ovum,*' an ^g%^ meaning " oeufs meles." A 
mixture of eggs. 

Onion, e, A plant of the onion tribe, the leek, shallot, 
and garlic being of the same species. After salt, the 
onion is the most valuable seasoning in cookery ; it 
possesses stimulating and digestive properties. 

Orangfe. This well-known fruit is principally imported 
from Sicily, Spain, Portugal, and Malta. The Seville 
orange is used for making marmalade. 

Orang'eade* A drink made of orange- juice. 

Orangfeat, /. Candied orange peel, e. 

Orgfeate,/. Barley water or almond milk; a favourite 

summer drink. 
Orloff. A number of dishes or the garniture thereof are 

thus styled. Orloff is the name of a magnificent 

diamond, owned by the Eussian Count Alexis Orloff, 

who was known to be a great gourmand and epicure 

of the first water. 
Orly, also Horly. Name given to dishes prepared in a 

certain style. Usually slices of fish or meat dipped in 

a rich batter and fried in fat. 



SENN's culinary ENCYCLOPiEDU 69 

Ortolan, /. Ortolan, e, A bird of the size of a lark. 

Oseille, /- Sorrel, e. A sour plant of green colour, used 
for soups or as a vegetable. 

Ox-taily e. Queue de boDuf, /. Ox-tail soup is said to 
have been discovered as follows. During the Eeign of 
Terror in Paris, in 1793, many of the nobility were 
reduced to starvation and beggary. The abbatoirs 
sent their hides fresh to the tanneries without re- 
moving the tails, and in cleaning them the tails 
were thrown away. One of these noble beggars 
asked for a tail, which was willingly given him ; he 
took it to his lodgings and made — ^what is now 
famous — the first dish of ox-tail soup. He told others 
of his good luck, and they annoyed the tanners so 
much that a price was put on ox- tails. 

Oyster, ^. Huitre, /. A bivalvular testaceous shellfish, 
highly esteemed on account of its delicious flavour 
and nutritive qualities. In season from September to 
April. 

Oyster Plant, Salsify (Salsifits), a well-known vegetable 
plant belonging to the same class as the chicory ; the 
flavour of the root is said to resemble that of 
a^aragus. 

p. 

Pabrica. The fleshy fruit of the green and red mild 

capsicum, grown in the South of Europe, and used as 

spice for ragouts or salads. 
Paillasse, /. A grill over hot cinders. 
Pain, /. Bread ; forcemeat ; fruit pur6e, etc. 
Pain d'£pice, /. A kind of gingerbread. 
Palais de BCBUf, /. Ox-palate, e, 
Panach6, /. Mixed with two or more kinds of vegetables, 

fruits, etc. ; also creams. 
Panada. A culinary paste of flour and water or soaked 

bread, used in the preparation of forcemeat and 

stuffing. 
Panais, /. Parsnip, e, A plant of the carrot family. 
Pancake, e- Panequets or crep6s, /. Thin flat cakes, 

made of batter and fried in a pan; well-known in 

connection with Shrove- Tuesday. 



70 senn's culinary enctclopjedia 

Pancalier. A kind of spring cabbage; its name is 
derived from the town of Pan^agliere in Italy, from 
whence it was brought to the royal gardens at 
Versailles by La Quintine, first gardener to Louis XIV. 

Paner, /. To egg and breadcrumb. 

PannequetS, or Crfipes,/. Pancakes.. 

Panurette. A preparation of grated rusks, used for 
crumbing, for coating the inside of moulds, and for 
decoration in place of lobster coral. 

Paon, /. Peacock, e, A fowl of the pheasant kind. In 
olden times this bird formed a dish of equal im- 
portance as the boar's head in English Christmas 
fare. 

Papaw. Name of an edible fruit well known in South 
America ; very similar in appearance to a small melon, 
and somewhat of that flavour. It is a kind of 
vegetable pepsin, and is said to possess wonderful 
digestive properties. 

Papillotes (en), /. Paper capsules, greased, and fastened 
round cutlets, etc. Buttered paper answers the same 
purpose when twisted along the edges. 

Paprika. Hungarian red pepper. A kind of sweet 
capsicum of a brilliant scarlet colour; it is less 
pungent than the Spanish pepper. 

Parboil. To half or partly cook in boiling water, 

Parisienne {k la), /. Parisian style. A surname applied 
to various kinds of dishes, principally meat dishes, 
which are dressed in a more or less elaborate style. No 
particular specification as to garnish or mode of 
cooking can be given, as these vary in almost every 
dish thus styled. 

Parmentier (Antoine Augustin). Bom 1737, died 1818; 
introducer of the potato into France, in 1786, during 
the reign of Louis XVI. He also invented twenty 
different ways of cooking potatoes. Sir W. Raleigh 
brought the potato from America to England in 
1586. 

Parmesan. Name of an Italian cheese, largely used for 
culinary purposes. 

Parr. The name given to a very young salmon. 

Parsley. Persil, /. Is a native plant of Sardinia, and 



SENN*8. CULINARY ENCYCLOPJEDIA 71 

was first introduced into England in 1548. Parsley is 
used for sauces, salads, and as a pot-herb, and makes 
the prettiest garnish for dishes. 

Parson's Nose. This name is given to the extreme end 
portion of .the tail of a fowl. 

Pass, t'. Passer,/. A word much used in cookery. To pass 
a sauce, soup, vegetable or meat, means to run it 
through a tammy cloth, sieve, or strainer. In the 
culinary language the word ** passer " has also the same 
meaning as " faire revenir,'* i.e., to slightly fry in 
butter over a quick fire so as to form a crusty surface 
on meats or vegetables which are intended to be 
finished by some other process of cooking (usually 
stewing or braising). 

Pasteque, /. A water-melon, a very refreshing fruit. 

Pastry, e. Patisserie, /. Usually a mixture of flour, salt, 
fat, and water, used to cover pies, etc. Also means all 
kinds of fancy tartlets. 

Pd.t6, /. A pie ; pasty ; a savoury meat pasty, or a raised pie. 

Pftte, /. Paste ; dough. 

Pftte croquante, /. Crisp almond and sugar paste. 

Pftt6 de Foie Gras, /. A well-known delicacy prepared 
from the livers of fat geese. Alsace is the most cele- 
brated country where the so-called terrines de foie gras 
are made. This delicacy was first introduced by a 
cook named Close. 

P&t6 de P6pig*ord. Name of a French pie, which derives 
its name from Perigueux, a place celebrated for its 
truffles. 

Pftte feuillet6e, /. Pufif paste. 

Pftte ft*ise6, /. Short paste. 

pate pastillag'e, /. Gum paste. 

PfttiSSer, /. To make pastry, t\ 

P&tisserie, /. Pastry, e. A pastrycook*s business. 

P&tissier, /. Pastrycook, e, 

Paupiettes, /. Slices of meat rolled with forcemeat. 

Pavot, ./'• Poppy, c. The seeds of this plant are used in 

stuffing mixtures and cakes. 
Paysanne (a la), /. Peasant's fashion. -Prepared in a 

homely way. 



72 SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 

Peacock, e. (See Paon, /.) 

PdchCy /• Peach, e» A delicious juicy fruit, used, for 
desserts and compote. This fruit was originally intro- 
duced to Europe from Persia by the Romans. 

Penguin. A genus of sea-fowls. 

Pepper, e, Poivre, /. The berry of an Oriental shrub. A 
pungent aromatic condiment consumed with all kinds 
of meat and vegetables. Mignonette pepper is ob- 
tained from the seeds within the berries; it is not 
nearly so pungent as the black pepper. The difference 
between the black and white pepper i6 that in the 
latter the outer husk of the seed is removed, whilst the 
former is ground whole. 

Pepper Pot. A West Indian dish, consisting of stewed 
pickled pork or bacon, shellfish, rice, vegetables, and 
aromatic herbs, highly seasoned with cayenne and 
other peppers. 

Perch, e, Perche, /. An excellent small river fish. 
Seasonable July to October. 

Perdrix,/. A full-grown partridge (ptarmigan). Season- 
able September to February. 

Perlgord, or P6rigTieux {k la),/. Perigord style. This , 
name is applied to dishes wherein a truffle sauce or a 
garniture consisting of truffles has been used. 

Perry. Name of a beverage made of pears, corresponding 
to the cider made of apples. It contains but little 
alcohol, and when preserved in casks or bottles it 
keeps good for some years. 

Persil,/. Parsley, e. A plant used for flavouring and 
garnishing. (See Paksley.) 

Persillade, /. A thick white sauce, in which a large 
quantity of parsley is used. 

Petit Lait, /. Whey, e. The thin part of milk. 

PetitS Pains, Pur6e, /. Very small rolls scooped out 

and stuffed with various kinds of savoury purees; 

served as savoury or side dishes. 

PetitS PoiS Verts, /. Small green peas. 
Pheasant. Faisan, /. A bird much esteemed for its 
delicate flavour. In season October to February. 

Pichaithly Bannock. Name of a kind of Scotch short 
bread, consisting of flat round cakes, the paste being 



senn's culinaby encyglop^du 73 

made up with flour, butter, sugar, almonds, peel, and 

carraway seed. 
Pickle (to). To preserve fruit, vegetables, fish, or meat, in 

vinegar, brine, or in dissolved salt. 
Picnic. An outing into the country, or a party outdoors 

to which each member contributes some article of diet. 

An al 'fresco meal. 
Pie. A quantity of meat or fruit baked in a dish covered 

with pastry. 
Piece de Resistance. The principal joint or other im- 
portant dish of a dinner. 
Pike, <'. Brochet, /. A fish known for its voracity, found 

in all the European lakes and rivers. Seasonable 

October to January. 
Pilau. Turkish national dish, made of rice and onions, 

etc. 
Pilaw. An Indian dish made of fish or meat and rice. 

Pilchard. A fish which resembles the herring, but is 
much smaller. 

Pimento. Allspice. A condiment possessing the com- 
bined flavours of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves. 

Pineapple, e. Ananas, /. A much esteemed dessert 
fruit, native of South America, from whence it was 
first imported to Europe about the middle of the XVIIth 
century. Pineapples are now largely cultivated 
in England. 

Pinole. A kind of wheat-corn roasted. Used as a sub- 
stitute for coffee in the East. 

Pintado, /. Guinea-fowl, e. A bird of the turkey species 
of bluish-grey plumage, sprinkled with round white 
spots. 

Pintail, e. Pilet, /. Sea pheasant, a common migratory 
bird found in the North of England, Germany and 
Holland. 

Piping*. A kind of decoration made of royal icing, used 
for ornamenting cakes, pastry, etc. 

Piquante, /. Sharp of flavour, stimulating, pungent or 
sour. 

Piquer (Piqil6e),/. Larded, e. To insert narrow strips 
of fat bacon, truffles, tongue, etc., into lean meat, 
poultry, game or fish. 

Pistaches,/. Pistachios, f. Kernels of the nut of the 



74 sbnn's cuunaky bncyclopjedia 

turpentine tree, used for flavouring and garnishing 
galantines, sweets, etc. 

Plaice, e. Plie, /. A flat sea-fish, seasonable May to 
November. 

Pluche, /. A garniture for soups. The leaves of parsley, 
chervil, tarragon, lettuce, sorrel, cut into fina ^hreds. 

PluvieP, /. Plover, e. A bird whose eggs are eBteemed a 
great delicacy. In season October to February. 

Poach (to), <'. Poeher,/. To parboil or to boil slightly. 
Mode of cooking usually applied to eggs and quenelles 
of fish, meat or game. 

Podle, /. A cooking pot or pan. 

Po61eF,/. A mode of braising meat, etc., ill a fireproof 
earthenware pan. 

PoiPeau, /. Leek, e. Soup vegetable, belonging to the 
allium family, supposed to be of Swiss origin. 

Poires, /. Pears, e, A well-known fruit of many 
varieties, used as dessert and for stewing. 

Poisson, /. Fish, e. An animal living in water. There 
are two varieties, i.e., sweet-water and salt-water fish. 

Poivre,/. Pepper, e. A pungent aromatic seasoning , 
condiment. 

Polenta* A standard Italian dish made of Indian corn 
flour. In appearance and taste it is not unlike 
semolina. 

Pollock, e. Morue, /. A sea fish of the cod family. 

Polio con Formagrgfio. Name of an Italian dish, com- 
posed of stewed chicken, highly flavoured with Par- 
mesan cheese. 

Pollocowarroz, Name of an Italian dish consisting 
chiefly of rice stewed in broth (stock). 

Polonaise (a la), /. Polish style. There are two kinds of ' 
dishes known under this name. The first is a kind of 
gratin style (baked), diffiering somewhat from the 
ordinary way of baking " au gratin." The other is the 
more generally known, but little appreciated in this 
country, its characteristic being to introduce the red 
juices of pickled beetroot and red cabbage and sour 
cream into various dishes. Borsch a la Polonaise 
and ragouts a la Polonaise are types of dishes to which 
this peculiar flavour is applicable. 

Polony. A dry sausage made of meat partly cooked. 



SENN*S CULINABY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 75 

Pomegranate, e. (See Geenade, /.) 

Pommes, /. (See Apples.) 

Pommes d'Api. Small rosy apples named after the 
Roman Appius. 

Pommes de Terre, / (See Potatoes, £?.) 

Pompadour (Jeanne Antoinette, Marquise de) ; born 
1721, died 1764 ; well known for her extravagance and 
indulgence in the luxury of pleasure and eating. 

Poncire, /. A large, thick-rinded lemon. 

Pore, /. Pork, e, Du pore frais, /. Fresh pork, e. 

Porridge. A Scotch dish. Oatmeal porridge is an every- 
day article of diet of the Scottish peasantry. It is 
both an agreeable as well as a nutritions article of 
food, served with milk, butter, salt and cream ; also 
with 9ugar or treacle. 

Porringer. Name of a small dish used for cooking 
porridge. 

Porterhouse SteiaJc. A thick steak cut from the middle 
of the ribs of beef. 

Posset. Hot milk curdled with wine or acid ; from the 
Welsh fosel^ curdled milk. 

Potage, /. Soup, e, A nourishing broth or liquor, 
forming the first course of a dinner. 

Potato. Potatoes were first introduced into Europe in 
1584 by Thomas Heriot, and were for a long time 
after considered as a great delicacy, and could only 
be procured in small quantities at the price of 2s. per 
pound. After the middle of the seventeenth century 
they became gradually known and more extensively 
cultivated. As diet it closely resembles rice. 

Pot-au-feu, /., is an economical and wholesome beef 
broth. It is the standard dish of all classes in France, 
and the origin of beef stock. 

Potiron, /. Pumpkin or pompion. The fruit of an 
annual plant belonging to the gourd family. 

Potpourri. A stew of various kinds of meats and spices ; 
a favourite dish in Spain. 

Potrock. Name of a Russian thick soup. 

Potted. Fish or meat pur6e preserved in a pot. 

Pottinger. Ancient popular name of apothecary or spice 
merchant. 



76 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

Poulai^e, /. A very fat fowl or fine pullet. 

Poule, /. A hen, e, A fowl. 

Poule-au-pot, /. Boiled fowl cooked in the stock-pot. 

Poule de Neige, /. White grouse, e. 

Poulet, /. A young chicken, e, 

Poulet de Grain, /. A young cock (boy chicken). 

Poulet en casserole. Chicken fried and basted with 
butter in an eartheiiware stewpan. When the chicken 
is browned in the butter the lid is put on the stewpan 
and it is allowed to cook slowly until done, being 
basted occasionally. 

Poulets k la Reine, /• Name given to fine spedmens of 

young chickens. 
Poulette, /. A young hen, e. A sauce made of flour, 

stock, butter, and chopped herbs, used for the dishes 

prepared " J, la poulette." 
Poulpeton, or Polpetti, Slices of veal with minced 

meat. 
Poupelin, /. A kind of pastry. 
Poupeton, /. A kind of pie made of hashed meat or 

fish. 
Pourpier, /. (See Purslane, €») 
Poussin, /. A very young chicken (baby chicken). 
Pouter,/. A large- breasted pigeon. 
Pralin6, /. Flavoured with burnt almonds. 
Pr6-sal6,/. Meat of prime mutton (Southdown mutton). 
Pretty Toes. The feet of sucking pigs. 

Printanier-(ere), /. Wherever this name is applied it 
always implies that a collection of early spring vege- 
tables, left whole or cut small, is given, either as a 
garnish or in the form of macedoine. It is mostly 
used in connection with clear soups, removes and some 
ragouts. 

Proflteroles, /. A kind of light cake, baked in hot ashes, 
filled with cream. 

Proven^ale (a la),/. A surname given to certain French 
dishes, which generally implies that garlic or onion 
and olive oil have been used in its preparation. 

Prune, /. Plum, e. Name given to fresh and preserved 
fruit of the plum tree. 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 77 

Ptarmigfan, White Grouse, e. Perdrix blanche, /. In 

season September to April. 
Pudding, e. Ponding, /. A sweet or a savoury, soft, 

and of convenient shape. 

Puff-paste Patties, e. Bouch6es,/. 

Pulled Bread. Term applied, to small pieces of bread ; 
the crumb part of a loaf is pulled into pieces while 
hot, and baked in a moderate oven until they become 
crisp. 

Pullet, e, Poulet, /. A young hen or female fowl. 

Pumpernickel) O- Westphalian brown bread. 
Punch, A species of hot drink. 

Punch k la Romaine is a kind of soft white ice, 

made from lemon-juice, white of egg, sugar, and rum. 
It is served in goblets, usually after the remove ; and 
it has the property of assisting considerably the 
functions of digestion. It forms a sort of interlude 
between two acts of that grand play — the dinner. 

Pur6e, /. A smooth pulp; mashed vegetables; thick 
soups. The name is also given to meat or fish which 
is cooked, pounded in a mortar, and passed through a 
sieve. 

Purslane is an American plant, used in salads, pot 
herbs, and pickles; first introduced into England 
in 1652. 



Q. 

Quab, ^. A Eussian river fish. 

Quail, e. Caille, /. A bird of the grouse kind. Its flesh 

is very delicate and much esteemed by epicures. 
Quark, g- Name of a German cheese, similar to curd 

cheese, known in France as " fromage mou." 
Quart, e. The fourth of a gallon, two pints. 
Quartier, /. Quarter, e. A fourth part. 
Quartier d'Agneau. A quarter of lamb. 
Quas, /. A Russian liquor, mostly used in the Russian 

army and navy. Is made of rye. Also called rye-beer. 
Quasi de Veau, /. Name given to a piece of veal cut 

from the end of the loin. 



78 senn's culinaky encyclopedia 

Queneft*eS, /. An Italian paste, somewhat similar to 

macaroni — used for soups, etc. 
Quenelles, /. Forcemeat of different kinds, composed of 

fish, poultry or meat, eggs, etc., shaped in various 

forms — balls, ovals, etc. They are used as garnishing 

for soups or entries, or are served separately as 

entrees. 
Queue, /". Tail. " Queues de boeuf ,*' ** queues d'^crevisses." 

Ox-tail, crayfish tails, etc. 
Quince, e. Going, /. A sour astringent fruit, used for 

compotes and marmalade. 
Quoorma. Name of a very mild Indian curry preparation. 



R. 

Rabbit, ^. Lapin, /. Its flesh, though inferior to that 
of the hare, has a more delicate flavour. 

Radi, /. Radish, e. A salad plant with pungent root. 

Raft*atehir, /. To refresh ; to cool. 

Ragrout, /. A rich stew of meat, highly seasoned. 

Raie, /. Skate, e. A flat sea fish. In season October to 

April. 
Ralfort, /. Horseradish, e, A root possessing a very 

pungent taste. 
Raisin, /. Grape, e. The fruit of the vine, used as 

, dessert, for jellies, ices, etc. 
Raisins. Dried |rapes, largely used for puddings, mince 

pies, also for dessert. The best raisins are imported 

from Turkey and Spain. 
Ramequin, f. Ramakin, e. Cheese fritter; a kind of 

cheese tartlet or ramakin. 
Ramereau, /. Young wood pigeon. 
R&per, /. To scrape or shred. 
Raspberry, e. Framboise, /. A fruit allied to the 

bramble ; there are two kinds, the red and the white ; 

both are used for compotes, tarts and dessert. 
Ratafle, or Ratafia. A culinary essence, being the essence 

of bitter almonds. A special kind of almond biscuits, 

in the shape of drops, are called ratafias. The name 

is also given to a liqueur flavoured with almonds. 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 79 

Raton, /. A kind of cheesecake. 

RavlgfOte, /. A very richly- flavoured green herb sauce ; 
served cold. First heard of in 1720. A French writer, 
Ducereau, mentions it in one of his poems. 

Ravioles, /. Small round paste dumplings, filled with 

forcemeat. Used as garniture for soups. 
Rechauffe, /. Warmed-up meat recooked or redressed ^ 

Red Cabbagre, ^. Chou rouge, /. A species of the 
common cabbage with dark red leaves, chiefly used for 
pickling. In Germany, France, and Switzerland it is 
prepared as a vegetable, when it is shredded finely and 
stewed in rich broth. 

Red Grouse, or Moor Fowl, e, Perdrix rouge, /. A 
bird of exquisite flavour, sometimes called ptarmigan. 

Red HeFFingf. A fish principally eaten by the poorer 
classes. 

Red Mullet, c* Eouget, /. A highly esteemed fish, called 
the woodcock of the sea. This fish should not be 
gutted ; the trail is supposed to be eaten when cooked. 

R^duire, /. To boil down ; to reduce ; to boil liquid 
gradually to a desired consistency. 

Reindeer is a native of the Arctic regions, highly esteemed 
for its fine flavour. Reindeer tongues are a great 
delicacy, and now much appreciated in this country. 

Reine Claude, /■ Greengage, e, A fruit superior in 
richness and flavoift to all other kinds of plums ; name 
derived from Queen Claude, wife of Francis I. 

Relev6, /. The remove, c. A course of a dinner, consisting 
of large joints of meat, four-footed game, and some- 
times joints of fish. 

ReleveF,/. To remove ; to turn up. 

Relish, 6'. Gout piquante. A pleasing taste ; to give an 
excellent flavour. 

Remouillage, /. Second stock, t'. 

R^moulade, /• A cold sauce, flavoured with savoury 
herbs and mustard, used as salad-dressing, etc. 

Renaissance, /. A word used for dishes of modern in- 
vention. 

Rennet, <?., is the name given to the prepared inner 
membrane of a calf's, pig's, hare's, or fowl's stomach, 
which is usod for curdling milk. 



80 senn's cuunaey encyclopedia 

Restaurant, /. A high-class eating-house. Originally 
the name of a soup invented by a Frenchman named 
Palissy in 1667. The soup consisted of finely-minced 
fowl, and broth highly spiced with cinnamon, coriander, 
etc. In 1766 a tavern was opened in Paris, under the 
title ** Restaurant," for the purpose of supplying this 
wonderful soup. 

R^veillon, /. Name given to a gastronomic festivity 
which takes place in France at Christmas Eve. It 
consists of a sumptuous supper, which is provided by 
the most wealthy and the most generous inhabitants 
of a town or village. This meal is served at mid: 
night, and the pi^ce de resistance is usually boudin noir 
— black pudding. 

Rhubarb. A garden plant possessing a peculiar acid 
flavour, used for puddings, tarts, etc. 

Rice, ^. Riz,y. An esculent grain of warm climates, 
largely used throughout Europe for puddings and 
soups. Although highly nutritious, it is not a perfect 
food, being deficient in albuminoids and mineral 
matters. 

Richelieu (Armand Jean). A celebrated gourmet. French 
general and cardinal during the reigns of Louis XIII 
and XIV ; born 1586, died 1642. 

Rillettes, /. A French savoury meat preparation, used 
for hors-d'oeuvre and savouriei^. 

Ris de Veau, /• (See Sweetbread, e.) 

Risotto. An Italian dish of rice and cheese. 

Rissol^ (6e), /. Well browned, fried, or baked ; covered 
with crumbs. 

Rissoles, /. A mixture of minced fish or meat, enclosed 
in paste, half-moon shapes, and fried in fat or butter. 

Rissolettes. Similar to rissoles ; thin pancakes are used 
in place of paste. 

Rizzered Haddie is the name of a Scotch dish, made 
from haddocks or codfish. 

Roast (to), ^* ; Rotir,/. Roasted, r.; R6ti(e),/. Roasting 
is one of the oldest and most favourite methods of 
cooking meat. It consists in hanging it in front ^f a 
bright fire, being suspended by means of a jack or 
spit. This process of cooking is very often performed 



senn's culinary ENCYCLOP-EDIA 81 

in ovens, for which gas stoves are found most useful. 

Roasting means cooking by radiated heat. 
Rob. From Arab, inspissated fruit juice of the consistency 

of honey. 
Robert, /. Name of a brown spicy sauce, invented by a 

restaurant keeper of that name in Paris, 1789. 
Robes de' Chambre (en), /. (in dressing gown). Paper 

cases filled with light iced cream ; potatoes cooked and 

served in their jackets. 
Rocket, e, A salad plant. 

Roebuck, e, Chevreuil, /. A small species of deer. 
Rognons, /. Kidney, e. 

Romaine, /*. Cos lettuce, e, A la Eomaine, Roman 

style. 
Romankeintjes. A Dutch pastry made of eggs, sugar, 

and almonds. 
Roquefort, /. Roquefort, a highly-esteemed French 

cheese. 
Rossini. Name of a famous musician. '^ Filets k la 

Rossini " was his own invention. 
Rdti, /. The roast, e., indicating the course of a mes^l 

which is served before the entremets. Roast meat, 

poultry, and game. 
Roulade, /• Rolled meat smoked and cooked. 
ROUX,/. A preparation of butter and flour, used for 

thickening soups and sauces. There are three kinds 

of roux, white, fawn and brown. 
Royaus. A delicately-flavoured small fish, similar to 

sardines, preserved in oil. 
Royal. Name of an Qgg custard used for garnishing clear 

soups. Also the name applied to an icing (glace 

royale) made with whites of e^gg and icing sugar, and 

used for coating and decorative purposes. 
Rump fof beef). The buttock ; the end of the backbone 

of oeef. 

8. 

Sabayon, /. Pudding sauce, composed of cream or milk, 

sugar, white wine, and eggs. ^ 

Sack. The name of a wine used during the Middle Ages. 

a 



82 SBNN*9 CULINARY ENCYCLOP-KDIA 

SackpoSSet. A drink made of sack (wine), milk, etc. 

Saft^ah, /. Saffron, e. A plant belonging to the species 
of crocus, native of Asia Minor, but largely cultivated 
in the South of Europe. It is used for colouring and 
flavouring in a number of culinary preparations. 

SagfO. The farina from the sago palm, a native of 
tropical countries. Sago is obtained from the trunk of 
this tree when slit open. It forms the chief food of 
the inhabitants of the Eastern Archipelago and other 
warm regions. 

Saigliant, /. Underdone, e, 

SaindOUX, /. H(^*s lard. Used for frying and for modelling 
purposes. Socles, flowers, etc. 

Salade,/. Salad, e, Eaw herbs, edible plants, raw and 
cooked vegetables, etc., dressed with oil and vinegar. 

Salamandre, /• This is an utensil which, after being 
made red-hot, is used for browning any dishes that 
want colour. 

Salami. An Italian sausage. 

Saler,/. To salt; to season with salt. " Saler de la 
viande " — to cure meat. 

SaleratUS is a kind of baking-powder consisting of 
potash, which is incorporated with an acid. 

Salicoque. A small sea lobster of excellent taste. 

Sally Luns, or Lunil. Name of a kind of tea-cake, 
slightly sweetened and raised with brewers* yeast. 
Sally Lunn was a pastrycook, who at the close of the 
eighteenth century used to make and sell a kind of 
tea-biscuits known as Sally Lunns. She used to sell 
these in the streets of Bath. 

SalmagTindi. Name of a very old English supper dish. 
It IS a kind of meat- salad, mixed and decorated with 
hard-boiled eggs, anchovy, pickles and beetroot. 

Salmi, or Salmis, A hash of game set to finish cooking 
when half roasted. 

Salmoily «. Saumon, /. This delicious and most 
nutritive fish belongs to the finny tribe. It is found 
in the North of Europe and Asia ; it never has been 
caught in the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonable March 
to August. 

Salpicon. A mince of poultry or game, with ham, 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 83 

tongue^ and mushrooms ; used for croquettes, bouch^es, 

rissoles, etc. 
Salsify, or SalsifitS. Sometimes called oyster plant. 

Tne flavour of the root resembles somewhat that of 

the oyster. . 
Salt, e. Du sel, /. The most needful and precious 

adjunct to our food. 
Salzgfurken is a German pickle, served with boiled or 

roast meats ; made of cucumbers soused in salt water. 
Samp. A food composed of coarsely ground maize, 

boiled and eaten with milk (American dish). 
Sanbag'lione is a delicious sweet chocolate cream; 

served in glasses either hot or cold. 
Sandwich. A hors-d'oeuvre. Two thin pieces of bread, 

buttered, with a thin slice of meat or edible pajSte 

between them. The name is supposed to be derived 

from the Earl of Sandwich. 
Sang'aree. The name of an Indian punch drink. It is 

made with sherry, water, lemon- juice, and sugar. 
Sang'ler, /. To prd'pare the ice mixture ready for freezing. 

One part of salt to five parts of broken ice is the 

proper proportion used for freezing. 
Sanglier, /. Wild boar, e, 

Sapaceau« An Q^g punch. 

Sapote, /. Sapota, e. A West Indian fruit. 
Sarbotiere, /. A pewter freezing pot or freezing pan. 

Sarcelle, /. Teal, e. Water-fowl similar to wild duck. 

Seasonable October to February. 
Sardine. A little fish, generally preserved in oil and packed 

in hermetically-closed tins or glass pots ; served as a 

hors-d'oeuvre, etc. Those caught on the French coast 

are considered to be the best. 
Sarriette, /. Savoy cabbage, e. 
Sassafras. The name of an agreeable beverage much 

drunk in North America. 
Sasser, /. To stir rapidly with a spoon in a stewpan. 
Sauce, /. Sauce, e. A liquid seasoning served and eaten 

with food, to improve its relish and to give flavour. 

The four great sauces in the culinary art are : 

Espagnole, Bechamel, Veloute, and AUemande. 
iSaucer, /. To sauce a dish ; to cover with sauce. 



84 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

Sauci^re, /. A sauceboat. A deep narrow-shaped dish 

in which sauce is served. 
Saucisse, /• Fresh pork sausages. 
Saucisson, /. Smoked sausages. 

Sauerkraut, g* Choucroute, /. Sourkrout, e, A kind of 
pickled cabbage; cabbage preserved in brine. A 
national dish of Germany. Served hot with bacon or 
sausages. 

Saugren^e, /. A French process of cooking, implying 
stewed with a little water, butter, salt, and herbs. 
Des pois h, la saugren^e are stewed peas, cboked as 
above described. 

Saumon, /. Salmon, e. 

Saumoneau, /. Salmlet, e, A very small young salmon. 

Saur, /. Smoke-dried, e, Saurer, f. To dry or cure in 
smoke. 

Saurin, /. A freshly-cured herring. 

Saut^-pan. Sautoire, /. A shallow thin-bottomed 
copper cooking pan. 

Sauter (6e), /. To toss over the fire, in a saut6 or frying- 
pan with little butter or fat, anything that requires a 
sharp fire and quick cooking. 

Sauteme. A French white wine, much used in cookery. 

Savarin (Brillat). Bom 1766. Famous gastronomic 
writer ; author of the excellent work entitled ** Physio- 
logie du Gout, ou MMitations de Gastronomie tran- 
scendante," published after his death. A light spongy 
yeast cake is named after him. 

Saveloy. A kind of smoked pork sausage ; it is highly 
seasoned, and has an addition of saltpetre to give the 
meat a red colour. 

Scald. To scald milk is to bring it nearly to the boil. 

Scallops, or Escalop, e, P6toncles, /. A shellfish. 
This mollusc (mollusk) is similar in appearance to 
oysters, only much larger. Seasonable from 
September to March, and at its best during January 
and February. Only the muscular part or heart of 
a scallop is eaten. It is white, and when at its best 
the ova — or tongue, as it is commonly called — ^is full, 
and of bright orange colour. Scallops are prepared 
in numerous ways for the table : as stews in white 



SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPEDIA 85 

sauce, scalloped, au gratin, saut^, as fritters, and 
sometimes in salads. 

Schmorbraten, g» A German dish, consisting of rump 
of beef braised (&.-la-mode fashion), garnished with 
mushrooms, gherkins, and braised vegetables. 

Score (to). To make incisions crossways on the surface of 
fish, vegetables, or meat. This is done to facilitate 
the process of cooking, and thus improving the 
flavour. 

Scorzonera. A kind of vegetable fbot ;' treated and 
served like parsnips or salsify. 

Scotch Style. .- TEcossaise,/. 

Scots Kail. Name of a thick broth ; a kind of pot-au-feu, 
served as a standing dish among the middle classes of 
Scotland. 

Seakale. As an article of diet, seakale is vei'y little 
known on the Continent ; it grows wild in all parts of 
Europe. It was first grown in England in the middle 
of the eighteenth century by a gardener in Stoke 
Fleming, who cultivated the plants, which he found 
growing wild. They were so much appreciated that 
the gardener's master presented some of the roots to 
his friends at Bath, after which they became popular 
in all parts of England, 

Seasoning*, e. Assaisonnement,/, That which is used to 
render foqd palatable and more relishing. The word is 
also employed to include forcemeat and stuffing. 

Seigfle, /. Rye, e. Pain de seigle. Rye bread. This 
plant is indigenous to Southern Russia, but is now 
extensively grown in Germany, Scandinavia, and 
North America. Rye beer (see Quas). Rye bread is 
very nutritious, and keeps fresh for a longer period 
than wheaten bread ; it is in use throughout the North 
of Europe. 

Sel,/. Salt, e, (cloride of sodium). Used for seasoning 
food, for preserving and freezing purposes. 

SeltZ (Eau de Seltz), /. Seltzerwasser, g. A well known 
mineral water. 

Semoule (Soiree),/. Semolina, e. The interior of hard 
and close-grained wheat. 

Serviette,/. Table napkin, e. En serviette, served in a 
napkin, or dished up in a napkin. 



86 SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPEDIA 

S^vififn^, /. A French soup named after the Marcliioness 
o6vign6 of Rabutin-Chantal, a French authoress, born 
1626, died 1696. 

Shank Jelly. A kind of savoury jelly, lightly seasoned, 
recommended to weak people. 

Sherbet. A cooling drink consisting of water, lemon- 
juice and sugar. The word Sorbet is derived from 
Sherbet. 

Sherry Cobbler. An American drink, made with soda- 
water, sherry, and sugar, a dash of liqueur, and a little 
ice. 

Shin of Beef, e. Chinne de boeuf,/. The fore portion 
of ^ leg of beef. Used for stock, for making soups, 
etc. 

Shot Pepper, e. This is mignonette pepper, which is 
made from white peppercorns. It is broken into 
grains or granulated about the size of mignonette 
seed. 

Shred. Is to slice anything so finely with a sharp knife 
that the shreds curl. 

Shrimp, ^. Crevette, /. A small sea crustacean. 

SAirub, e. Orange-juice, zest, and rum punch. 

Sillsillat. A Swedish dish ; a kind of herring salad. 

Simnel Cake. A Lenten or Easter cake, with raised 
crust, coloured with saffron, the inferior being filled 
with the materials of a very rich plum pudding. 
They are made up very stiff, boiled in a cloth for 
several hours, then brushed over with egg, and baked. 

Singe (Singeing), e. To pass a plucked bird over a 
flame so as to burn off the down which may have 
been left on. A spirit lamp is best for this purpose. 

Singer. To dust with flour from the dredging-box. 

Sippets. Small slices of bread cut into different forms, 
fried or toasted, served as garnishing with meat 
entries, or for borders of savoury dishes. 

Sirloin, e. Aloyau,/. The sirloin of beef is said to owe 
its name to King Charles II, who, dining off a loin of 
beef, and being well pleased with it, asked the name 
of the joint. On being told, he said, " For its merit, 
then, I will knight it, and henceforth it shall be 



SENN's culinary ENCYCLOPiEDIA 87 

called Sir Loin." In an old ballad this circumstance 
is thus mentioned : 

" Our Second Charles, of fame faoete, 

On loin of beef did dine ; 
He held his sword, pleased, o'er the meat, — 

' Arise, thou famed Sir Loin.' " • 

Skewers for Joints, etc. Brochettes, ./. Atelets, etc. 

Skilly. The gruel or porridge given as nutriment to able- 
bodied paupers in workhouses. 

Slapjack. Name of a special kind of pancakes. 

Sling*. A drink made of rum and water, sweetened. 

Smelt, e. Eperlans, /. A most delicious little fish, its 
principal characteristic being the cucumber smell, 
which is most pronounced. The only legitimate way 
of cooking this fish is frying in deep fat. Usually 
served with lemon and thinly cut slices of brown 
bread and butter. 

Snail (Edible). Escargot,/. Not much eaten in England, 
but in France it is considered a delicacy. The 
Eomans esteemed it highly also. 

Snipe, C' Becasse, /. A small marsh bird. 

Soja. An Indian flavouring sauce, very sharp. 

Sole. A marine flatfish of most excellent flavour. Its 
flesh is white, delicate and nutritive. 

Sorbet, /. An iced Turkish drink ; also the name of a 
water ice with fruit or liqueur flavour, usually served in 
goblets. 

Sorrel, e. Oseille,/. A sour plant whose leaves are used 
for soups, and as a vegetable pur^e for garnish, etc. 

Soubise, /. A smooth onion pulp served with various 
kinds of meat entries. The name is supposed to come 
from Prince Charles Soubise (born 1715, died 1787), 
who was a celebrated epicure. He served as field 
marshal during the reign of Louis XIV of France. 
As a surname to dishes a la soubise is generally 
applied when onions enter largely into the composition 
of a dish ; the term implies that strong onion flavour, 
or a garnish of onion pur^e. 

Souffle, /. A very light baked or steamed pudding, an 
omelet. Also applied to light savoury creams. 

Souffle 61ac6, /. A very light sweet cream mixture, 
iced and served in cases. 



88 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

Sound. The air bladder of a fish. 

Soup, e, Potage, /. Name applied to thick or clear 

soups. 
Soy. The name of a dark brown sauce originally ma^e in 

Japan ; there are many English relishes in which soy 

is employed as one of the ingredients. 
Spag*hetti, A kind of very small macaroni. 

Spanish Style* IrEspagnole,/. 

SparrowgrraSS. Old name for asparagus. 

Spice, e, Epice,/. Condiment used for highly- seasoned 

food. 
Spitchcock (to). To grill. (See Spread Eagle.) 

Sprat, <*. Melettes, /. A small, cheap fish, allied to the 

herring. 
Spread Easrle, e, Poulet a la Crapotine, /. A young 

fat chicken split down the back, flattened, breast-bone 

removed, seasoned, oiled or buttered, and grilled or 

baked. 
Squab, e, A young pigeon ; name used particularly in 

North America. Squab chicken — a young chicken ; 

applicable to animals while young, fat, and clumsy. 

Squab pie is therefore primarily a (young) pigeon pie. 

Such a pie becomes Devonshire squab pie by the 

addition of apples. Squab-pigeons — innocents of French 

cooks. 
Stake. Signifies small meal, breakfast, luncheon, lunch 

and tiffin. The word is supposed to be derived from 

** Steak," but is now very seldom used. 
Steak means the slice of meat which is to be grilled, 

roasted or fried. Its Danish equivalent is Steeg, its 

German Stiick (piece). 
Stechi. A Russian oatmeal soup. 
Stirabout. Name of an Irish dish similar to Scotch 

porridge. 
Stock, e. Fond, /. The broth in which meat and bones 

have been boiled, of which soups and sauces are made. 
Stove (to). To heat or bake in a stove or oven. 
Succotash. An American dish made of gre^n maize and 

baked beans. The dish is said to be borrowed from the 

Narraganset Indians, known to them as msickquatash. 
Sucking* Pig, c Cochon de lait, /. 



senn's CULINABY ENCYCLOP-EDIA 89 

Sucre, /. Sugar, €. Sugar is obtained from various 
plants, but more especially from the sugar cane and 
the beetroot ; but that obtained fronl other plants is 
absolutely identical, and differs in no respect from cane 
or beet sugars after being refined to the same degree 
of purity as those made from the latter plants. 
Science describes sugar to be a substance sweet to the 
taste, crystallisable and resolvable by fermentation 
into carbonic acid and alcohol. Dissolved in water 
and concentrated by heat we obtain syrups of various 
degrees according to requirements for culinary purposes. 
Pounded and sifted it is used for confectionery, pastry, 
cakes, puddings, etc. The use of sugar in its various 
forms covers a very extensive field, and its application 
it is said is still capable of further extension. 

Su^doise {k la), /. Swedish style. 

Supper, e, Souper, /. The last meal of the day. 

Suprdme, /. A rich, delicately flavoured cream sauce, 

made from chicken stock, etc. 
Surlong'e, /. Ancient name for sirloin. 

Suzanne (Alfred). Name of a French chef, an authority 
on the culinary treatment of eggs. Author of ** Egg 
Cookery: Over 150 Ways of Cooking and Serving 
Eggs," and ** One Hundred Ways of Cooking Potatoes." 

Sweetbread, e, Ris de Veau, /. Name given to the 
pancreas of a calf or lamb; considered the choicest 
part of the calf, and is regarded as a very great 
delicacy. 

Sweet Dishes, ^. Entremets (de douceur),/. 

Syllabub. A kind of milk punch flavoured with liqueurs 
and spices. Usually served in glasses. 

Syrup, e. Sirop, /. A saturated solution of sugar, 
generally flavoured with some fruit essence ; used for 
various culinary purposes. 

T. 

Table d'H6te. The table at which the principal meals at 
an hotel or restaurant are served to guests ; a common 
table for guests ; an ordinary. 

Table Napkin, e. Serviette, /. 

Tagrliarini. A kind of macaroni paste cut in fine shreds. 



90 senn's culinary encyclopedia 

4 

Tailler la Soupe, /. A culinary expression. Thin slices 
or crusts of bread placed in a soup tureen are called 
tailler. " Trenaper la soupe '* is the French term 
applied when the broth is poured over the slices. 

Taillevent. Name of a clever artist in cookery who 
superintended the kitchens of Charles VII of France 
from 1430 to 1461. Inventor of a sweet soup, called 
"potage dor6," the recipe of which is anything but 
recommendable for the present time. 

Talleyrand. Several high-class dishes are styled thus. 
The name comes from an old French ducal family. 

Talmouses,/. A kind of French pastry, sweet or savoury, 
made in the shape of parsons' caps. 

Tamarind. The name of a tropical tree and its fruit, 
which is used for condiments, sauces, etc. 

Tamis, /. Tammy, e. Woollen canvas cloth Which is 
used for straining soups and sauces. 

Tansy, e. A herb with strong aromatic flavour, sometimes 
used for flavourings in puddings. 

Tapioca. The substance obtained from the roots of the 
cassava (manioc plant), a native of the tropical parts of 
Asia, America and Africa. Brazil exports the most to 
this country. Tapioca is considered to be one of the 
most easy digestive farinaceous foods, and is therefore 
recommended for invalids and children. 

Tarragron, e. Estragon, /, Aromatic plant used for 
flavouring ; also for flavouring vinegar. 

Tart. From the Latin torta, a baked ring of twisted 
dough, which was laid round and eaten with cooked 
fruit. The name now includes a great number of 
cakes of a complicated kind. 

Tartare,/. A cold sauce, made of yolks of eggs, oil, 
mustard, capers, gherkins, etc., served with fried fish 
or cold meats ; also a salad dressing. 

Tartaric Acid. This is an acid which exists in a great 
many kinds of fruit, though it is chiefly obtained and 
extracted from the grape root. It is used for similar 
purposes as citric acid, and has the same effect on 
sugar. 

Teal, e* Sarcelle or Sercelle, /. Water-fowl. 

Tench, Tanche, /. A fresh-water fish, allied to the 
carp. Seasonable December to February. 



senn's culinary encyclopedia 91 

Tendrons, /. Name applied to gristles of veal, etc. 

Terrapin. Small American tm'tle, very little known and 
used in this country. 

Terrine,/. China pan or pot, used for pat^s and for 
potted meats. 

T6te de Veau, /. Calf's head, e. 

Therid. An Arab word for a soup. Principal ingredients 
used are : broth, olive oil, eggs, vinegar and bread- 
crumbs. 

ThOIly /. Tunny, e, A sea-fish preserved in oil or 
marinade, mostly used as hors-d'oeuvre. 

Thyme. An aromatic plant used as seasoning. 
Tiffin. The name given in India to the repast taken 
between ten and eleven o'clock in the morning. 

Timbale,/. Literally ** kettle-drum " ; a kind of crusted 

hash baked in a mould. 
Toast. Dried, grilled or scorched slices of bread. 

Tobasco. Name of a savoury Indian sauce. 

Toddy. An American punch. 

Tokai,/. Tokay, e. A Hungarian wine. 

Tom and Jerry. An American drink ; an egg punch. 

Tomatoes, ^. Tomates, /. Also called love-apples 
(pommes d'amour), from the Italian pomi di mori 
(apples of the moors). 

Tomber k Glace, /. To reduce a liquid until it has the 
appearance of a thick syrup. 

Tonalchile. Guinea pepper. 

Topinambours, /. Jerusalem artichokes, e, 

Tortue, /. Turtle, e. Also called Sea Tortoise. 

Toulouse {k la), /. A rich white stew of white meats, 
mushrooms, truffles, etc., used for filling crusts or for 
garnishing. 

Toumedos, /. Small thin fillets of beef served as entrees. 
First served in Paris in 1855. 

Toumer, /. To stir a sauce ; also to pare and cut roots. 

Tourte, /. An open tart baked in a round shallow tin. 

Tourtelettes, /. Small tartlets, e, 

Tranclie, /. Slice, e. Mostly applied to salmon, cod, etc. 

Trancher, /. To cut ; to carve. 



92 SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPiEDIA 

/ 

Trautmannsdorff. Name of an Austrian Count, born 
1749, died 1827. Several sweets are styled after his 
name. 

Trifles. A dish of sweetmeats and cake. A second course 
dish of cakes, biscuits, jams, etc. 

Trim, e. To pare ; to cut off portions of meat or vegetables 
in order to improve their appearance. 

Tripe. The prepared and boiled stomach and alimentary 
canal of oxen and other animals. 

Trousser,/. To truss a bird. 

Trouty e, Truite,/. Fresh- water fish, seasonable May to 
August. 

Truflfer, /. To garnish a sauce with truffles, or to season 
the interior of poultry or game with truffle stuffing, 
such as capons, turkeys, and pheasants. 

Truffles, e. Truffes, ./. A fungus of the same order as 
the mushroom. They grow in clusters of an irregular 
globular form under roots of young trees (oak, nut, and 
a few other trees). There are three kinds — the black, 
the grey, and the red. The latter is musk- scented, and 
very rare. The former two are mostly used for garnish 
and other culinary purposes. The South and West of 
France produce the best kinds. Trained pigs and dogs 
are employed to find truffles. P^rigueux and Carpentras 
are the most famous districts in France. 

Truite Saumon^e, /. Salmon trout, e. 

Turban, /. Ornamental entries of chicken and forcemeat, 
dressed in the form of a turban, which verbally means 
a hair-dress worn in the East. 

Turbot, a flat fish ; its flesh possesses a delicate flavour and 
is wholesome. In season March to August. 

Turkey, e. Dinde, /. A large species of domestic fowl. 

Turn, i'" To trim or pare vegetables into neat round or 

oval shapes. 
Turn-broche, or Turnspit. Formerly joints while being 

roasted were turned by young persons or trained dogs ; 

now they are turned by clockwork previously wound . 

up. 
Turnips, <?. Navets,/. A white bulbous root. 
Turtle. The turtle was first brought to England in the 

middle of the seventeenth century. Its first appear- 



senn's culinaby encyclopaedia 93 

ance as an edible dish is repulsive. We learn from 
Sir Hans Sloane that at the beginning of the last 
century turtle was only eaten in Jamaica by the 
poor. 

Tutti-fPUtti, An Italian expression fbr various kinds of 
fruits, or a mixture of cooked vegetables. 

Twelfth Cake. A large cake, into which a bean, ring or 

other article was introduced, made for Twelfth 

Night festivals. The cake being cut up, whosoever got 

the piece containing the ring or bean was accepted as 

, king for the occasion. 

Tyrolienne {k la), /. Tyrolean style. 

u. 

Ude (Louise Eustache). A famous chef, at one time cook 
to Louis XVI and the Earl of Sefton. Author of the 
** French Cook." 

Usquebagfh- The name of an Irish beverage, consisting 
of a compound spirit made with spices and sugar. 



V. 

Vandreuil, /. An excellent fish, found principally at the 

sea- side of the French dept. Provence. 
Vanille,/. Vanilla, e. The fruit of a fragrant plant; 

the most delicate flavouring for all kinds of sweet 

dishes. 
Vanille (a la), /. Vanilla-flavoured. 
Vanneau,/. Plover ; lapwing; pewit. 
VanneP, /. To stir a sauce quickly, so as to work it up 

lightly, in order to make it smooth. 
Vatel. Name of a clever and ingenious chef, who acted 

in that capacity to Louis XIV of France. He took 

his life because, the fish for a special banquet did not 

arrive in time. Dishes " k la Vatel *' are much 

appreciated. 
Veau, /. Veal, e. The flesh of the calf. 

Vegetables, e. Legumes, /. 

VelOUt^, /. A rich white sauce. Foundation sauce. 



94 SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPEDIA 

often used to improve the flavour of soups or made 
dishes. 
Venaison,/. Venison, e. The flesh of the deer. 

V^nitienne {k la),/. Venetian style, e. 

Vermicelle, /. Vermicelli, it. Very fine rolls of paste, 
made from the dough of wheat flour, and forced 
through cylinders or pipes till it takes a slender worm- 
like form, when it is dried ; used in soups, puddings, 
and for crumbing. 

VePt-pp6, /. Name of a green herb sauce. 

V^Sicaire, /. Winter cherry, e. 

Viande, /. Meat, viands, e. Meat, dressed victuals. 

Viennoise {k la). Vienna or Viennese style. 

Villeroux. The name of a chef, a friend of the great 
Careme, who was famous as Count Mirabeau*s chef. 
It is said that Villeroux went to live among a wild 
tribe in India, where he practised his art with such 
success that within a very short time he was pro- 
claimed king. When he died, he left his people 
as a legacy the recipe for making ** Omelette 
au Jambon.^* If the statement be, true, it is the 
only instance in history of a cook being made a king. 
Villeroux's biographer describes him as a worthy 
prince, who was celebrated, not only as a cook, but 
also for his wit and love of adventure. This accounts, 
probably, for his falling into the midst of a wild 
Indian tribe. 

Vin blanc (au), /. Done in white wine. 

Vinaigre, /. Vinegar, e. Vinaigrer, to season with 

vinegar. 
Vinaigrette, /. A sauce of vinegar, oil, pepper, and 

herbs. 
Volaille, /. Poultry, e. 
Vol-au-vent, /. A light round puff paste crust, filled with 

delicately flavoured ragoiits of chicken, sweetbread, 

etc. (a lafinandere). 

Voliere. Birdcage style of dressing poultry or game. 

Vopalliere. A dish of small chicken fillets, larded and 
braised, served with truffle sauce. 

Vraie toptue, /". Real turtle, e. 



senn's cuunaby encyclopaedia 95 

w. 

Wafers, e. Waffeln, //. Gauffres, /. A kind of light and 
thin paste crust, either baked, fried or grilled. The 
meaning of the word, which is of Teutonic origin, is 
honey-comb. 

Walnut. Originally imported from Persia, is generally 
served with fruits as dessert. 

Was tie Cake» Scotch. Wastle bread was baked on a 
girdle, which is analogous to the English girdle or 
griddle cake. 

Water, <?. Eau, /. A transparent fluid composed of 
oxygen and hydrogen. -Wkter cannot be classified as 
food, for it produces neither heat nor force, though 
without it all vital action would come to a standstill. 

Watercress. An aquatic plant, used for salads, etc. 

Weever. A fish of the perch family. 

Welsh Rarebit. Commonly called Welsh rabbit. A 
slice of toasted bread covered with melted cheese and 
butter, seasoned with pepper and mustard. 

Whelk, e, A shellfish, called the poor man's delicacy, 
known to be most indigestible as a food. 

Whey, e, Petits lait, /. The coagulated portion of milk, 
used as a cooling beverage. 

Whitebait, e, Blanchailles, /. The smallest known 
species of the herring genus. When fried they form one 
of the most appreciated dishes of the ** haute cuisine." 
Owing to their great delicacy they ought to be cooked as 
fresh as possible. Slices of lemon and thinly cut 
brown bread and butter are always handed round with 
this fish. Seasonable February to May. 

Whitepot, <?. An ancient preparation of cream, eggs, 
pulp of apples, etc., etc., baked in a dish or in a crust. 
This is a kind of custard fruit pur^e pie, verging 
towards a charlotte. 

White Stew, e. Blanquette, /. 

Whiting*, e, Merlans, /. Fish seasonable March to 
August. 

Widg'eon, e, Sarcelle,/. Seasonable October to February. 

Woodcock, e, Coq du bruy^re, /. Seasonable October 
to December. 



96 SENN*S CULINARY ENCYCLOPEDIA 



X, 

Xanthurus. An East-Indian fish, resembling the carp ; 

known in the Dutch colonies as "geelstard.** 
Xavier. Name of a clear soup. Supposed to have been 

introduced by King Louis XVIII in honour of Count 

Xavier of Saxony, who died in 1806, 
Xeres. Spanish strong wine of deep amber colour and 

aromatic flavour ; so called from Xeres, a place near 

Cadiz. 



Y. 

Yeast, e, Levain ; levure, /. Also called barm. It is 
added in small quantities to flour for making dough 
intended to ferment, in order to quicken the process. 

Yorkshire Rarebit. A Welsh rarebit (toasted bread and 
cheese), with a slice of broiled bacon and a poached 
egg on top. 

Youngr Wild Boar, e. Marcassin,/. 



z. 

Zabyajonei it, A frothing mixture of wine, yolks of 

eggs, and sugar, thickened over the fire, and served 

hot in glasses. 
Zambagflione. A kind of chocolate creams; served in 

glasses, either hot or cold. 
Z^phire, /. Name of small oval-shaped forcemeat 

dumplings, a kind of quenelles, which are poached 

and served with a rich sauce. 
Zuppa al BrodO. A fish broth with toasted bread and 

cheese. 
Zythog'ala. Graecified name applied by Sydenham, the 

English physician, and later by the French doctor 

Secquet, to the then popular posset (etc., etc.). 
Zythum, or ZythOS. A liquid made from malt and 

wheat ; a kind of malt beverage. 



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