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':2.cL \u t. \.\^. Is 



Harbarl) Collese librarn 




GIFT OF 

JAMES STURGIS PRAY 

CHARLES EUOT PSOIBSSOR OV LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTUSZ 
JULY II, I916 



To be kept in the main collection of the 
College Library 



iHH 





1^ at. 



THE 




CULTIVATOR, 



A KO^rniLT 



JOTJBNAL FOB THE FARM AND THE GARDEN, 



OBVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL IMPROVEMENT, 



Am 



DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE SOIL AND THE MIND. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH EKGRAVINGS OF COTTNTRT HOUSES AND FARM BUILDINGS, 
DOMESTIC ANIMALS, FARM IMPLEMENTS, kc. 



You VI— Third Series 1858- 




ALBANY, N. Y. 
PUBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER AND SON, 896 BROADWAY. 

OFFICB OF THB COUKTBY GBHTLBMAN. 

1858. 




k^..L\ b a.\.\^.U 




Harvard Ck>U0ga Librasr 

Jul. 11 916 
Qif t of 

S> Pray. 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATION 



PEABa 

Benrra Nantaia, 12 

Beam Clairgeau, 61 

Ck>mpted6 Flandre, 83 

BoyaoD^ Sianlla, Bl 

DojAone Bobin, 184 

Laure de Gljrm«i| 12 

Ott. 372 

PuWfer, 372 

Theodore Van Mom, HO 

Zephirin Qregore, 12 

PLUMS. 

Fulton, 268 

McLangblin, 62 

Martio'g Seedling, 268 

Prince Bnglebert, 312 

Quaokenboes, 269 

BoyalHative, 52 

Beaglea' Ancient City, 270 

Beagles* Gage, 270 

BeagW Union Purple, 269 

Boyal Tours, • 334 

Schenectady Catharine, • 269 

BLACKBEBBIES. 

LawtoD, 325 

Newman's Thomlees, 312 

SHEEP. 

Shropshire Down, 56 

Cotewold Bam Cedrlc, 345 

South Down Bam Master Fordham, 249 

Spanish Merino Bams, ••• 373 

CATTLE. 

Deron Cow Faith, 281 

Devon Cow Nonpariel, 280 

Jersey Cow Charity, 120 

Jersey Cow Faith, 217 

Jersey Bull Commodore, • 88 

Short-Horn Cow Chatelaine, 185 

Short- Horn Cow Masurka 3rd, •• ••• 162 

POULTBY. 

Dominque Fowls, 24 

Golden Spangled Chittagongs, 236 

Golden Spangled Hambnrgs, 121 

Bemoying Gapes from Chickens, 283, 305 

Wood Duck, 311 

TBBBS AND PLANTS. 

Panlownia Imperialis, 75 

TorreniaAsiatica, 22 





GBAPES. 

Chippewa, 50 

BUILDINGa 

Bam, Chester County, 16 

Bam Door, Plan of, 313 

Houses, Mr. Thomas' OcUgoB, 219 

Mr. Curtis' OcUgon, 181 

Mr. Mann's Octagon, 67 

BoseHUl, .' 153 

Small Octagon, 155 

Small Farm, 20 

Small, 184 

Tenant, 267 

School Houses, Designs for, 26^ 313 

Vegetable House, 28 

IMPLEMENTS. 

Allen's Potatoe Digger, 313 

Buck Eye Harrow, 216 

Clover Hnller and Cleaner, 175 

Cheap Horse Powers, 207 

Herendeen's Sugar MUl,.. . - 79 

Hildreth's Gang Plow, 182 

Uardenburg's Potatoe Digger, 248 

New Harrow, 17 

Perkin's Cora Hunker, 344 

Shues' Patent Coulter Harrow, 366 

Sugar Cane Mill, Emery's, 263 

Van Loan's Plow, 213 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Apple Seed Washer, Mattison's, 92 

Apple Seed Washer, J. T's, 146 

CandleMaking, 112 

Cutting Potatoes, 146 

Cobble Stone Wall, 279 

Clstam, Farm, 317 

Draining with Flat Stone, 92 

Fences, Cheap Temporary, 189 

Fence, Movable Board, 18 

Watson's Self Sustaining, 76 

Hungarian Grass, 174 

Millet, 174 

Propagating Box, • 141 

Pruning Old Orchards, 149 

Peach Buds, 174 

Pig Troughs, 345 

Back and Feeding Trough for Sheep, 67 

Sofaooley's Preservatory, • 89 

Squash Bug, 142 

Vegetable Washer, •• 56 





UDEX TO VOL. YI ...1858. 




Acnmge of Crops In Sootlmnd, — m 
Acre, Dumber of PlanU to the... 8:20 
AddreM of Hon. J. R. WilliuuB, S56 

of D. O. Mitchell, 141 

AgrieuHur*! Addrewee, 32 

Fairs for 18M, 286 

H igh Sehool of PeutiBylvanla, 96 

Machinery, 186 

Beading 84 

AgriouHuro, General Principlea 

of, 86 

Albany County Ag. Society,. 68, 2*26 
American PomologleaJ Society,.. 809 
American and fingllah Ideaaof 

Independence,.... .•• 854 

Ameabury Ag. Society 379 

ANIMALS- Improved by Oood 

Feeding, 262 

Linlraont far awellings on,.. 140 

Smoke for woundd lu 120 

Salt for, 290 

Ticks and Lice on, 138 

Variation In,. 173 

AnU. Black, To I)e«troy , 224 

Applea, Bitter Rot In 126 

Sampleaof Weetern, 18 

Apple Borer, To Destroy. 304 

Apple Seeds, cause of Bad 318 

Preservation of fur Plant- 
ing, Ill 

Apple Seed Washer, J. T.'s,.... 146 

Mattison's, 92 

Apple Trees, Lime Water for,.. 290 

Soft Soap for, 238 

Worm* on. To Destroy. 218, 839 
Architect for Farm Buildings 

needed, 88 

Artesian Weils, 62, 94 

Ashen and Hen MauOre, 219 

Coal, 378 

from Burnt Soda, 873 

Autumn Hints, 881, 840 

Baiabridm Town Ag. Society,.. 99 

Fair of, 320 

Barberry. To Raise from Seed,.. 96 

Barley, Culture of, 860 

For Winter Pasture, 216 

NeiMial or Beardless, 47 

Value and Compositloo of,.. 800 
Barn-Door, Improvement in,.-.. 818 

Bard- Yarda, Covered, 26 

Bean», Beat Varieties of,.... 47, 210 

Best Soil for, 291 

Culture of, 171, 210 

Bngllsh White Kidney 226 

Bngtiah, In the United States, 864 

Bees, Bxperlonoe with, 126 

How to Winter, 881 

In California, 212 

Profltsof, 868 

Blaok1)erry, Kewman*s Thorn- 
less, 812 

Blackberries, Culture of, 282 

Prooftgaliou of, 862 

Bonos, Burning, 127 

andSulphurle Acid. 864 

Bone Dust, To luoreaso Value of, 290 

Bone Mills 94, 126 

BOOKS-Annual Register,. 207, 292 
Cochran's Farm Book Keep- 
ing, 292,864 

For a Farmer's Library. 49 

Oaenon*s Treatise on Milch 

Cows, 67 

Garden Manual of Horticul- 
ture, 186 

Milch Cows and Dairy Farm- 
ing. 848, 864 

Pocket Manual of the Farm, 292 
Report Maaa. Board of Agrl- 

eulture, 141 

of Prof. Johnson to Conn. 
State Ag. Soolety, 141 




<THIRD SBRIEa >; 



Boeikf— TranaaetloDS American 

Institute, 141 

Michigan State Ag. Society, 194 

N. Y. S. Ag. Society, 141 

TheBaru-Yard 848 

Box, PropsffatingDwarf, 141 

Boy, Good Days Work for,.. 66, 110 
Brick. Lime, Value of,. 190, 191, 320 

Broom Corn, Culture of 299 

Tabling, 487 

Bucks Co. (Pa.) Ag Sooldty,. 99, 268 

Fair of, 366 

Buckwheat not an exhanating 

crop, 298 

Bt-an Polsonoua to Swine,... 48 
BUILDINGS— Biirn,Chester Co. 16 

Barn. Improved, 78 

Mr. Clixbee's, 119 

Good Cattle, 182 

Mr. Lobdell's, 266 

Farm House. Design for, 20 

House, Mr. Mann' a Octagon, 67 

Small Octagon, 166 

Mr. Curtis' Octagon 181 

Mr. Thomas' Octagon, 219 

For Growing Vegetables In 

Winter, 28 

Ice House, cheap, 868 

Plan of, 880 

BoeeHIll, 163 

Small, Design for, 184 

Tenant, *. 267 

Houses, Coal Furnaces for 

heating, 91 

Cobble Stone Walls for,... 279 
Poultry Houses, Construc- 
tion oC 68 

School Houses, Designs for », 
813 

Burning Sods for Ashes, 878 

Butter-Making, Proflteof,.... 94, 90 

In Winter, 60. 167 

Large ProducU of,. 116, 119, 167 
Temperature of Cream for 

churning. 66 

Churning Milk,.... 176, 819, 866 

Cabbage for Cattle, 161 

Large Crops oi; 74, 848, 320 

Salt for, ..V. 118 

Sheltering for Winter Use,.. 19 

Varieties of, 47 

California Agriculture, 194 

Devon Cattle in, 66 

Fruit in, 66 

State Ag. Soolety 66 

Cape Gooseberry, culture o^ 48 

Carpet Sweeper, 847 

Carrots, A Substitute for Hay.. 118 

HowtoBow, 160 

Hinu on Culture of,. 167 

CATTLB— Ayrshlres, Breeders 

oi; 127 

Ayrshire, Large Sale of, 866 

Aldeneys, Mr. Calvert's,.... 202 

Mr. MoHenry*s, 288 

At New-York State Fair,... 846 

Bullocks. Heavy, 227, 291 

Bloody Murrain in, 810 

Calves, Bearing, 60 

Wintering, 46 

Disease In, 61, 96 

Linseed Tea for, 878 

Remedy for Lice on, 88 

Feeding Oil Cake to, 118 

Cows, Pumpklna for, 61 

Failing off of Milk In, 61 

Falling of Womb In, 881 

Products of 66, 67 

Garget In. Remedy for, 80, 222 
Average Yearly Milk of,.. 82 

Dairy, In Bngland, 82 

ToSiJargostreamofMUk, 96, 
127 



CoMfe— Experiments In Feeding, 117 

Singular Death of. 126 

Remedy for Milk Running 

from Teate of, 167 

Comparative value of roots 

for, 194 

Treatment of with weak 

liQcl^a ^_ J42 

Milking Young^IlI III 246 

Value of Blood In 807 

Treatment of a Sick, 818 

Importance of Good, 323 

Remedy for Kicking, 346 

Feed for, 866 

Changing Pastures for, 228 

Diaeasein, 36 

Dovons, Sales of, 96 

Mr. Mc Henry's. 283 

Mr. Patterson's, 241 

Cow NonparleU 280 

Myrtle, 281 

Fatal Disease Among, 18 

Feeding Oil Cake to, 72 

Fat vs. Milk and Stamina In, 229 

Foot Distemper In, 266 

Fertile South, 866 

Grinding Feed for, 173, 188 

Galloways, Breeders of, 224 

Hoof Ail in, Causes of^ 69 

Ueil'ors, Training 183 

Hereford*. Value of, 97 

Holstein, Mr. Rey hold's,.... S46 
How Good Points may be ob- 

Uined, 229 

Horn Ail. Remedy for, 267 

Improvea Breeds of, 178 

Jersey Bull Commodore, 88 

Cow Charity, 120 

Caw Faith 217 

Mr. McHenry's, 288 

Mr. Giles', 292 

Keeping Cowa vs. Fattening, 328 

licking themselves, 66 

Lice on, to Destroy, 281, 373 

Management of, 69 

Mistakes in Feeding, 378 

Mr Merryman's, 221 

Number of. In Ohio, 66 

Oxen, Large exhibition of,.. 128 

Drawing by the Head, 290 

Cure for Sore Necks of,... 840 

pleuro-pueumonia in, 108 

ProfiU of Feeding, 182 

Stanchlona for Fastening.... 160 
hort-Horns, Alexander's 

aaleof, 204 

Cow Mazurka 8rd, 162 

Cow Chatelaine 186 

Death of Lord Dude, 879 

Messrs. Haines* sale of;.. . 229 
Mr. Chapman's sale of,... 849 

Mr. Lobdeirs, 266 

Mr. Corwln'a, 280 

Mr. Cornell's, 880 

Sales oi; 226,289, 878 

Sales of. In Bngland, 227 

Large Purchase of, 866 

Neptune and Flnella, 289 

Steen, Tndnlog to Work,.. 206 

Soiling, 208, 906 

Shipped to the United States, 292 

To Prevent JumplntL... 96, 127 

Cauliflowers, Heading In Winter, 64 

Ceilara, CemenL 286, 287 

Improving LoakVi 23 

Cement or Mortar, Durable, 126 

Cheese Vat, Roe's. 847 

Chautauque Ca Ag. Society, 293 

FaTrof.. 868 

Cherry. Grafting the, 2/6 

Chess does not grow Donx.Wheat, 81, 
806 




INDEX. 




ChertnuU, How to Flant, 119 

Spanish, 158 

Cbett«r Oo. (Pa.) Ag. Society, 19ff 
249 

Fair of, 866 

Chicory, Culture of. 802 

Chimney, to Stop Fire in, 21 

CblneaeSagar Cane, for Swine,. 83 

Syrap Arom, 19,30 

Sugar ftom, 81 

in Indiana. 85,36 

in Penney I vania, 35 

In Virginia. 86 



.la 
inth, 



at the South, 49 

Cost of Syrup from, 64, 80, 116 

Goodyieldof, 66 

Mill for Grinding,.... 79, 126 

Churning Milk 176, 319, 366 

Temperature of Cream for,. 65 
Cisterns for Farm Purposes, 316, 840 

Timbers for 876 

Clod Crusher, A Cheap One,... 293 

Close of The Year, 829 

Clover. Importance of, 118 

Its MaiiAgemont and Value,. 365 

Mammoth Red, 177 

Seed, Cleanlu*: 66, 371 

Shellor and Hwllcr.-.- 175 

Cobblestone walls, IIow to Build, 270 

Colm. Culture of. 144 

Columbia CuUivator^s Club. 323, 324 
Connecticut State Ag. Society,.. 68 

Fair of, 866 

Corn nusker, Perlcins\ 844 

Corn Stalk Cutters, 78, 94 

Corrections, 98 

Country Gentleman, clreulatlon 

of, 162 

For Ag. Premiums 378 

Notices of. 85, 49, 98, 123, 193 
253, 259. 291, 323, 879 
Couve Tronchuda, or Portugal 

Cabbage 127 

Crops, Culture of Growing, 217 

Things Essential to Good,... 208 

Cucumbers, The Best, 48 

To Grow Early, 87 

CnltU-ator, 26th Volume o^ 9 

Premiums, Award of, 64 

To Friends of, 829, 861 

Cureiillo, Remedies for.. 80 

Lime Whitewash for, 27 

Dalrving, Experiment in, 282 

Dairies of Vermont, 97 

English and Scotch, 82 

Daisies, While, to Destroy,. 76, 127 

Death of E. P. Roberta, 161 

of Judge Beatty, 228 

Deepen The Soil, 288 

Delaware County Ag. Boclety... 196 
Dew, CultWating Plants while on, 91 

Diploma, a Novel One 879 

Diichirg. Machines 190 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY : 

Boer, Home Brewed, 76 

Blackberry Wine, Recelpo 

for, 284 

Bites and Stings, Remedy for, 248 
Brown Bread, Kecelpe for, 87, 

Brine for Beef, 830 

Cabbage Salad, 143 

Candles, To Harden Lard for, 26 
Cement for Stopping Leaks, 255 

Cement, Hard .-.. 840 

Chimneys, To Stop Fire in,. 21 
Com Soup and Corn Oysters, 284 

Corns, Cure for, 224 

Court Plaster. Receipt for,.. 54 
Cream. To Keep Dust from, 840 
Cures for Canker sore mouth, 11, 
186 
Drying Poaches without peel- 
ing, 240 

Dry Ing Rh ubarb, 248, 256 

Dr>'iog Sweet Corn, 284, 306 

Fleas, Remedy for, 23 

Frosted Feet, How to Treat, 370 

Ginger Beer, 223 

Green Tomstoes for Pies,... 817 

G-uyandotte Muffins, 148 

Hams, How To Cure, 880 

Hints About Candles 112 

Ink Spots, to Remove,.... 46, 88 




Liniment, Valuable, 62 

Milk Pans, Covering ft>r_.. 124 
Months in Carpets, To Des- 
troy :. 840 

Peach Wine. 257 

Pickling Pork 870 

Preserving Fruits In Cans,.. 219 
Pot.itoes, How to Improve 

Soggy, 194 

Rheumatism, Cures for,.. 27, 86 

Rhubarb Wine, 821 

Receipefor Writing Ink,... 148 

Rice, How to Cook, 114 

Scarlet Fever, Management 

of, 812 

Spider-Apple Pie 19 

Spruce Beer, iU^clpefor, 223 

S(»ap, Waslili^g, Recipe for,- 46 
Wounds, to Stop Bleeding,.. 15 

Yeast, How to Make, 120 

Door- Yard, A Tidy One 172 

Draining, Advantages of, 207 

Answem to IrK)iiiries About, 852 

How to Do it, 17 

III Steuben County. 369 

8wiuiTi« 26, 91, 122, 228 

Tile, increased Demand for, 32 
What Hinders more Fre- 
quent Trials of, 11 

Bnccei'sful with Stone, 42 

InipervimiB Clay, . 49 

With Flat Stone, 92 

Ol)joctio!:8 to, 226 

Stiff Clays, 242 

Experiments In 811, 367 

Deepens the Soil, 179 

Iinproves the <^uallty of 

Crops, 837 

Increases the EtlVct of Ma- 
nure, 196, 209 

Lengthens tlie Season.. 213 

Prevents Heaving Out 806 

Prevents Injury from dro'ght, 372 

Without Tiles 363 

Tools for,.- 876 

Drills vs. mils, 196 

Ducks and Cranberries, 82 

Editorial Correspondence 192. 201, 204 
214, 220, 2a3, 241, 244, 265. 276, 
861 
Emery Brothers' Illuminated Ca- 
talogue 196 

England, Winter In 97 

What It Bats From Abroad, 206 

Entomology 142, 238, 341 

Evergreens in Michigan, 97 

ExiMTiments, Reports of Vari- 
ous, 27 

Fallows. Object of, 270 

Fall Web-worm, 341 

Fanning Machine, Nutting's, 161, 857 

Farm, Large Prairie, 66 

Resources of the, 46 

Buildings, Improvements In, 76 

Accounts and Statistics, 99 

Producu of The 179 

Rotation for a Clayey, 167 

Productive Small, 228 

A Profltai)le Forty Acre, 272 

Bryan Jackson's, 244 

C.R Calvert's, 202 

Donald Mitchell's 148 

F. P. Blair's 192 

G. G Lolidell's, 266 

G.Z.Tyboul's 265 

Henry Carroll's, 214 

James C. Douglas' 265 

J. Howard McIIenry's. 233 

John Merry man's, 220 

Leonard Gerriah's, 882 

Mr. Swan's Premium, 97 

Mr. Fay's. 833 

Stephen Gerrlsh's, 832 

Thomas Love's, 220 

WMlllara Rey hold's, 245 

William Jes8up»s, 214 

Farmer, A Good One 110 

Farmers, A Good Rule for 855 

Should Keep Accounts, 878 

Information they Want, 878 

Farmer's Club*. 85, 370 

A Good One, 214 

Farming In Illinois, 143 



Farming, How to make Profitable 112 
Mr. Geddee',.. 227, 228, 315, 822 

On the Prairies* 115 

On the Onondaga Sha}es, 316 

Profits of, 32; 116 

That Pays 188 

Unprofitable, 48, 77 

Wlihoat Live Stock, 226 

Farms, Terms for Leasing 116 

Fence, Cheap Temporary, 189 

Cheap Western 300 

Improvement in the Rod,... 159 

Movable Board, 18 

Watson's PorUble, 76 

Wire, 62, 268 

Fencing, Expensive, 97 

Flax. California, 47 

As a Fallow Crop 371 

Fleas, Remedy for, 23 

Fodder, Cutting and Feeding out, 77 

Franklin County, Vt., 97 

Frost, Early, 2S9 

Fruit, Early 323 

American In England, 06 

Fine Samples of, 324 

To Preserve Fre««h In Cans,,- 219 
Ftult- Grower's Society of Wes- 
tern New-York 67 

Fruits, Colored Prints iA, 30, 379 

Forthe South 11 

Good Coltl>-ation of, 240 

Mildew on !n Oregon, 126 

Wild, Coltureof, 1«1 

Fruit Trees, Mulching, 853 

Pruning. 158 

Raising from Seed, 82 

To Prevent Rabbits Gird- 
ling, 93 

Suckers and Sprouts from, 127 

SmaU 871 

Transplanting BmaH, 801 

Garden, Productive, 172 

Gardening, Acres Occupied In,.. ISO 

Gas Lime 61 

Gate, Wlnegar's Capstan, 323 

Giiea, John, Visit to, 292 

Gooseberry, Motmtnin Seedling, 291 

Gooseberries, Raising,.... 1-16 

Grain Drills 191 

Grain Stubble, management of,.. 321 
Grafts, Cutting and Preserving,. 28 

Grape, Muscat Catawba, WA 

Delaware, 576 

The Mustang, 223 

The Aden, 285 

Childs' Superb, 30 

Grapc-Growerl Association of 

Conn,, 67 

Grapes, Hardy, 286, 288 

Culture of in the West, 223 

For Southern Ohio, 852 

Good Bam pTcs. 878 

Heavy Bunolies of,— 34 

Items in Culture of, 307 

Propagating Wild 61 

Pruning and Grafting, 807 

Seedling, 324 

To Grow From Seed, 30 

Wild, of Canada. 60 

Grape-vine, Sterile 353 

Grape Vines on Trees, 116 

Grass, Kentucky Blue, 18 

Grass Lands, Guano for, 190 

Improvement of, 171 

Seeding, 186 

Seeding to IHmothy 286 

Spring and Summer Seed- 
ing. 297, 311 

Top Dressing for, 176 

Grass Seeds, Proper Depth of co- 
vering n* 

Greene Co. Ag. Society, 90 

Grub, Salt Will not Destroy,- . . . 27 
Guano, Importation and prices of, 65 

Harrow, BuckEje Rotating 216 

Shares' Patent Coulter,.... 365 

New and Convenient, 17 

Hay, Best Substitutes for,.... 29, 117 
best Mode of Curing,.. 209, 226 

Cuttlntf Early 149, 182, 2:i5 

Crop of New- York, 

Curing Clover, 

Esttmatiiig by Measure, 





HM-Making, SaggesUona About, 126 
liulea for MuMarement of«.. 84 

Time to KJuij 218, 230 

Hay-Oftpn, Value of, 107 

Do not need Painting, 3o3 

Frtcee aud 6iao« of, 143 

Hay Fork, Hone, 90, 304 

Uedixeaaud Screens, 820 

Aururan Attootlon to, 831 

Barberry for, M, 97 

Buckthorn for, 257 

Oaatf^ Orange, 222, 247, 868 

Maiiageiuentof, 105 

Plaiitd tor Ornamoutal, 19 

Planting OMige Orange,. 144, 191 
Trimming Otage Orange, .... 62 

Hemlock for Screen*, 852 

niiit from tlie Dictionary, Go 

Honorary Degree* on Farmora,.- 83 

Honey, Larirf Product of, 8T9 

HoiM, G.tthering, 806 

Hornet, HlntH on Kural, 154 

Hoo-Sung, or Cliine«e Aepanir 

gUB, 48 

How Cooked 224 

HOUSES— B^le in, Ouree for, 801, 375 

Big Head In, 15 

Cut Feed and Tar for, 61 

Cure for Spring Halt In 140 

Core for Sweuey In,.... 221.377 
Colic in. Cures for, 225, 287, 339 

Care for Sooare In Colts, 236 

DlacaiM) In Skin of, .- 352 

ForOregon 162 

Fast Troiters, 372 

Flat Feet of, 2b9 

Heaves, Cures for, 158. 159, 222 
KaMon's Oil for Wounds on, 88 
Hr. Alexander's Lezinf^ton,. 123 

Mr. Mc Henry's. 234 

Poll Kvll, Treatment uf,. 29, 289 

Ringbone on, 869,876,870 

Roarlnglo, 240 

Stubborn, 120, 127 

Spavin, Cure for, 877 

Bales of. ..--— ^ 

Show of, at Surlngtteld,.... 808 
To Prevent throwing their 
Tails over the Reins, 81, 02, 127 

Tender Mouthed, 225 

To Remove Warts from, 286, 289 

Horse Powers, Cheap, 207 

Horse Hoe, WeiherelPs 810 

Horse IMlchfork 90, 804 

Hungarian Grass,... 42, 60, 169, 174 

Value of, 107, 189 

Ice House Above Qrouud, 286 

Illinois, Farming in, 143 

Index for Readers, 227 

INDIAN CORN— For Fodder,. 117 

An Iowa Crop of, 07 

Cost of Raising,. 13, 60, 124, 188, 
876 

Culture of, 137, 861 

Curing for Fodder, 840 

Experiments with Manures 

oST- 1« 

Early Planting, 190 

Harris' ExperlmenU with,.. 161 

Husking, -. 331 

In Hills and Drills, 849 

Growing in Vermont, 848 

KlngPnlllp, 21,84,288 

lArge Yield of, 06 

Measuring In the Crib, 18, 81 

Manures for, 124 

Poultry Manure for, 87 

Planting King Philip, 157 

Preparation of Seed, 196 

Preparation for Crop of,...- 814 

Report on Varieties of, 47 

Sockering, 842 

Sowing Seed of, 814, 837 

Transplanting, 246 

Thick and Thin Planting. .... 886 
Time for Cutting for Fodder, 818 
Whether to Bell or Feed it,. 84 
Weight of per Bushel,. 830, 867 

Insects. How To Preserve, 266 

OnPoiatoe Vines, 250 

On Vines, 219, 250 

The Squash Bug, 142 

Apple Tree Borer, 388 



INDEX. 



Insects, Fall Web- worm, 841 

Wheat Midge 246, 886 

John Johnston, Letters fh)m, 182, 835 

Kentucky SUte Ag. Society 99 

Stock Shows in 268 

Kohl liabl. Culture of, 27, 115 

Varieties of, 47 

Land Bill, Mr. Morrill's 176 

Lands Exhausted by over Crop- 

pliyf 80 

Leaves, Functions of, 169 

Letter from a Canada Subscriber, 288 

Of Inquiry 90 

Lettuce, Best Rinds of, 4S 

Ufe Everlasting, 852 

Lime as a Manure, 837, 842 

LimeBricli, 190, 191, 820 

Lime, How to Use, 250 




Lightning Rods,. 
Llamas, In 




muortatlon of, 06, 97 

Locust. Seeos of, 168 

To Riti«e from Seed, 80, 96 

Long Island I^nds, 150 

I/Oiigworth, Nicholas. Visit to,.. 276 

Maine Stale Fair 354 

Machines at State Fair, 347 

MANURES— Ashes and Poul- 
try 219 

Brains for, 88 

Com po»t«, Soil for, 90 

aiuck, Aec, for, 121 

Creek Mud for, 156 

LimeandMuck, 190, 288 

Muckfor, 206 

Making 206 

Muck and Ashes 287, 878 

Muck and Barn-yard, 243 

Sawdust for, 95, 121, 818 

Muck and Dissolved Bones, 834 

Charcoal Dust, 292 

Commercial Fertilizers, 8i5 

Chip MO 

Fresh vs Fermented, 870 

Guano. Poultry, toe 177 

Horn Piths, Oyster Shells and 

Bones 43, 222 

How to Increase, 298.874 

How to Apply «74 

I^ithor Chips for 30 

Hquld, How to Save,.... 82, 819 

Loss of,, 121 

Lime, 337, 842 

Management of. 10 

in Switzerland, 78 

Muck for Upland, 62 

Plaster and Ashes, 157 

Poultry, Use of, 160, 158 

Spreading In Fall and Winter, 82 

Snocmaker's Scraps for, 81 

Sawdust Steeped lu Chamber 

Lye 118 

Spring Management of, 180 

Surface Application of, 202 

Salt, 74, 113, 228, 220, 274 

Value of Di fferent, 298 

What England Pays for It,.. 866 

Marl, Fresh Water Shell, 42 

Maryland Ag. College, 201 

State Fair 268, 291 

Masson's Oil for Wounds In Anl- 

ronis, 88 

Meadows, Guano for, 109 

Earth Mulch for, 234 

Manuring, 268 

Muckfor 94 

Melons, Good Varieties of, 48 

To Grow Early 87 

Meteorological Table for Ten 

Years 189 

Michigan Ag. College, 123 

Stale Ag. Society, 856 

Milk BuslncM, 202 

Annual Product of per Cow, 82 

Millet 42, 47, 00, 107, 117, 174 

Culture of, 168, 187, 228 

Egyptian, 258 

Mills for Farm Purposes, 124, 120. 

127, iSi 

Missouri State Fair,... 161, 259, 810 

Mowers, Allen's, 98 

Biir«, 12» 

Premium at Syracuse Trial,. 44 
Report on, 160 



Mowers, Uncertainty About, 168 

vs. the Scvthe, U3. 160, 218, *>M 
New-Hampshire, Farming In,.. 332 
New-Haven, An Hour Aliout,.. 148 
New Jersey State Ag. Society,.. 97 

Fair of, -. 816 

Now- York Hort. society 15 

New-York Slate Ag. College, 31, 33, 
9H. 186, 824 
New-York State Ag. Society : 

Annual Meeting of, 84 

Executive Committee meet- 
ing, 85 

Trcasurerof, 157 

Fair of; 346 

New- York State. Notes from 

Census of, 150 

Nursery Business, 82 

JohnSaul's, 193 

Nurseries, Winter Protection of, 97 

Out Crop in Europe, 379 

Oats fur Sheep 262 

On Tuniep Ground, 78 

White Poland, 47 

Ohio Slate BtMrd of Agriculture, 65 

Ohio State Fair 316 

OH Cake, Directions far Feeding, 73, 
118 

Cnelda Co. Ag. Society, 60 

Onions Running to Tops, 143 

Onondaga County, Survey of,.— 227 

Ontario Co. Ag Soctely 190, 831 

Orchards, Feeding Hogs in, 79 

Cultivation of, 366 

Farmers Should Plsnt, 339 

How to Renovate Old, 149 

Improvement of, 184 

Pruning Old, 141 

Preparing Grounds for, 21 

Soils for, 158 

To Destroy Worms in, 256 

Oregon against the World, 228 

Osier or Basket Willow 22 

Parsnepsand other Roots, 10 

Pastures. Changing, 228, 277 

Feeding otr, 331 

Improvement of, 239 

Small Fields for 821 

Patent Office, Ag. Division of,.. 823 

PaulowniH Imperialis, 75 

Peach Buds. Destruction of,.... 154 

Stones. How to Plant, 31 

Peaches, Best for Market 352 

Culturcof. 865 

In Delaware, 246 

Earlv and Ijile 283 

Graaing on Willows, too.,... 267 

Peach Tree Diseases, 872 

Pears, Best Market 812 

Conipte de Flandre, 83 

Doyenne Rol)in, 184 

Doyenne d'Ete 279 

Dwarf, 247, 279, 291, 322 

Easier Buerre and Clairgeau, 30 

EKg 25*9 

Fine 8-22, 864 

Mammoth, 228 

New, Described, 12, 61 

Olt, 872 

Pulsifer 372 

Raising New, 370 

Theotiore Van Mons, 110 

Thoughts on the Culture of,. 254 
Will not Grow on Hornbeam, 224 

Pear Trees, Blight in, 146, 259 

Peas, Chinese. 196 

Eiperimenls with, 47 

Japan, *? 

To Destroy Bugs In,...- 866, 2S6 

Plaster and Ashes, 1S7 

Pine Seeds, Sowing, 852 

Plans for the Year, Jl 

Planting Too Much, 123 

PUints Sent by Mail, -147 

Functions of Leaves and 

RooUof, 169 

Cultivated While Dow is on, 91 
PERIODICALS- 

American Farmer, 220 

American Veterinary Jour- 
nal « 

Emery's Journal of Agricul- 
ture 224 




Periodieals, Friend'* Review, 69 

Genesee Pftrmcr, 04 

Indiana Farmer, 213 

Illinois Cultivator, 224 

Kentucky Farmer 341 

New-Yoric Teacher 367 

Ohio Culllvatoir. 822 

Prairie Farmer, 224 

Rurai American, 174, 105 

The Horticnlturist IM 

Flow, Allen's Putatoe Dlsging,. 313 

Fawke's Steam, 380 

Mann's 8team, 278 

Hildreth's Gang, 1V2 

Michiican Double 62, 126 

Premium for Steam 160 

Side Hill, on Level Ground, 239 

Van Loan's Improved 213 

Flowing among Slum pa, 819 

I>Ofp, 375 

Fail 344 

Sliallow 369 

Tiioughts on the Objects of,. 284 

Iluws. Manufacture of, 879 

Plum, Prhice Koglebert, 312 

Royal Tours, 334 

Plums, Four Described 62 

Seven Denlrable, 268 

Plum Trees, I^rvnon, 240 

Posts, Inverted, 840 

Polato<* Planter 355 

POTATOES— Allen's Flow for 

Digging, 813, 831 

Cause of Rot In,.... 14, 290, 3H0 

Care of, 831. 340 

Culture of, 54, 93, 196 

by O. Ho watt,.-. 63, 189. 161, 
178, 288 

Dover, 61 

Digger, Harden burgh's, 248 

Disease In, 338 

Directions for Pitting, 364 

Experiments with,. 166, 186, 258 
34c>, 371 

With Manures on, 178 

For Fattening Hogs, 353 

How to Out for Ilanting, ... 146 

Insects on. 250 

Large and Small for Seed, 119, 

127 

Prince Albert,.. 63, 66, 117, 849 

Peach Blow 349 

St. Helena, 878 

Small for Seed 81 

To Save From the Rot, 336 

FOULTUV-Domlnique, 21 

Dung Hill, Seveuteen Years 

Old, 268 

Fattening Spring Chickoni*,. 236 
Golden Spangled Ham burgiis 272 

Gapes in Chickens, 283, 305 

Geese and Goslings, Manage- 
ment of, 272 

Golden Spangled Chitlagongs 236 

Houses, Construction of. 63 

Leghorn 161 

Mr. Giles' 292 

Pumpkin Seeds Injurious to,. 80 

Pn>aisof, 247 

Turkeys, Wild, 212 

How to Raise 178 

How to Prevent Straying 

Abroad 221 

To Destroy Lice on 286, 287 

"Winter Care of, 109 

Wood Duck, Ill 

Prairie Farming. 268 

Premiums, Award of Our 160 

Preservatorj-, Schooley's Patent, 89 

Pumpkins for Milch Cows, 61 

Seed Injurious to Ducks and 

Geese, 80 

Varieties of, 48 

Quince from Cuttings, 158 

Stocks, Angers, 94 

Ralls. Timber for, &c 94 

Bain Gunge, How to Make, 242 

Rape. Culture of. 144 

Raspberr\', The Allen, 51 

Raspberries, Protecting in Win- 
ter, 279 

Reapers and Mowers, Report on, 160 
Premlnms at Syracuse Trial, 44 




INDEX. 



Reapers, Value of, 166 

RenssolearCo Ag. Sooietv, 99 

Report on Cultivation of varioos 

Plants, 47 

Rhode Island State Fair, 816 

Rhubarb, Myall's Victoria, 48 

Rloe. Indian, 303, 858 

Weevil in 246 

Rock Island (111.) Ag. Society,... 258 

Roller, A Good One, 804 

Importance of 202, 273 

Root Cutter. Willard's 97 

RootK, Functions of, 169 

Directions for Pitting, 864 

Roiie Acacia, Propagation of, 62 

Rotation for a Clayey Farm 187 

Royal Hawaiian Ag. SiKsiety, 66 

Ag. Society of England, 225 

Rural and Domestic Economy,.. 840 

Ruin Bagas, Culture of, 81 

Preniium Crop of, 81 

Rye, Good Crops of, 97, 98 

Roman, 47 

White 819, 876 

Sage. Culture of, 189 

Salt for Wheat 228, 229 

Application of, to Land 74 

As a Manure for Cabbage, 

&o 74, 118 

Function of, in Agriculture.. 274 

Sawdust for Compost 95, 121 

Scarlet Fever, Management of,.. 812 

School House, Design for, 25 

Scotland, Acreage of Crops In,.. 93 

Seeding Down Lands 118 

Seed Sower, Bartholemcw's. 304 

8eeds,Tftrrlng to cover with Lime, 221 

Sewing Machine, Atwater's 34 

SHEEP— Buckwheat straw for,. 60 
and Cows, Pasturing togeth- 
er, 277 

Jotswold,. 215 

Mr. Rev hold's, 245 

Buck Cedrlo, 345 

Ewe0, Best Food for, 222 

For South America, 82 

In New-York 150 

Lanibff, Good,. 24, 879 

To Prevent Foxes Killing, 183 

Rearing, 252 

Management of. 309 

Oats for 252 

ProtlU of Fattening, 98. 151. 182 
Rack and feedl ng Trough for, 67 

Sales of, for Texas, 867 

ShroTMihl re Downs, 56 

Spanish Merino Rams, 378 

Stretches in. Cure for.... 88, 139 
South Downs for California,. 249 

For the West 878 

Ram Master Fordham, 249 

Ram World's Prize, 337 

Ticks on. Remedies for,. 60, 125 

Tartar or Chinese 88 

Value of, to the Farmer, 211 

Shingling, How to Save Labor In, 833 

Soils, Exhaustion of, S55 

Absorbent Powers of, 251 

Soiling and Root Culture 203 

Green Rye for, 205 

vs. Panturing, 211 

Sorrel, To Destroy 126 

Sorgho or Imphee in France, 854 

Sowing liachine. Broadcast, 259 

Splrea lieoveslana. 65 

Springfield Horse Show 808 

Squash Bug, Figures and Descrip- 

tlonof. 142 

Squashes, I^rge, 356 

Notes About, 48 

St. Louis Ag. Fair 161, 259, 816 

St. Lawrence Co. Ag. Society,... 228 
Stanchions for Fastening Cattle,. 150 

Steam Engine for Plowing, 278 

Wood's Portable, 123, 347 

Steuben Co. Ag. Society, 98 

Notes About. 869 

Strawberries, Downer's Prolific,. 823 

Notes About, 247 

Peabodv's, 80 

Plants ^nt by Mail,. 84, 94, 878 

Wilson's Albany, 240, 258 

Straw Cuttera, 94 




Sugar fhrni Beets in France, 19ft 

Sulphur. Will not Cure Blight,.. 27 

BWINS— Buckwheat for, 88 

Bedford 37« 

Cholerain, 86 

Cures for, 90, 245, 83» 

Symptoms of, 271 

Preventive of, 807 

Fattening. Profits of, 116 

Feeding Spring Pigs, 156 

Fattening and their Manure, 803 

Good Spring Pigs. 66 

How to Fatten Profitably,.. 368 

Large 83, 123 

Number in Ohio. 66 

New Way of Marketing,.... 366 

Old vs. New Corn for, 365 

I'roper Age for Fattening,.. 377 

Ringing, 61 

Roots for, 127 

Rapid Increase of, 222 

Sugar Cane for. 83 

Thumps in. Cures for,.. 90, 228 
To Prevent Sows killing their 

Pigs,.: 226 

Troughs for, 846 

Weeds for. S56 

Threshers, Maski for, 224, 256, 257, 
286. 362 

Timothy Grass, Large 291 

•llmothy. Time to Sow, 823 

Spring and Summer Seeding, 270, 

311 

Tobacco Growing and Turkeys,.. 203 

Tomatoes, To Start Early, 343 

Tools, Care of. 881, 340 

Torrenla Aslatica, 22 

Transplanting Trees, 26, 30 

Importance of Good, 27 

Tree Seeds, Exchange of. 223 

Trees for the Prairies, 24d 

Mr. Fay's PlanUlion of. 269 

Planting on Streets, 194 

Tulip Trees, Transplanting, 30 

Turnip Fly, Protection from,,-.. 290 

Turnips, Rock or Stone, 125 

TimetoSow, 195 

VulueoC 97 

Uniformity of the Seasons 189 

Union Ag. Society of Palmyra,.. 98 
United States Ag. Society : 

Annual Meetingof. 44 

Fair of, at Richmond, 862 

Award of Premiums on Im- 
plements tried at Syra- 
cuse 44 

Medal oi; 323 

Officers of, 44 

Testimonial of, to Col. Wil- 
der 96 

Vegetable Egg, Culture of, 48 

Washer, 56 

V•getable^ Growing in Winter.. 28 

Vermont State Fair 249, 316 

Vines, Powdered Charcoal for,.. 238 

To Protect from Bugs,.. 219, 256 

Vineyards, Mr. Lougworth'a,...- 276 

Dr. Farley's, 838 

Virginia, Western 66 

Waahington City, Letter from... 192 

Water, How to Obtain 216 

Weeds, Cleaning Lands of, 74 

WHEAT- Cleaning Seed, 810 

Early Winter, 317 

Early May 286, 318, 319, 357 

Fine and Good Yield of..... 357 
Growing in Western N.York, 287 

in Delaware,. 250 

How to Collect Seed, 55 

Harrowing in Spring, 151 

Manuring, 235 

Midge 246,885,877 

NewKindof, 249,823 

Report on Varieties of, 47 

Saitfor. 228 

TopDreeeing for 323 

Will Not Turn to Chess, 81, 806 

Whlfllelrees. Length of, 158 

Willow, Basket, ExperimenU in 

Cultureof, 22 

Wine Making at Cincinnati, 275 

Wines, Domestic, 96, 161 

YatetCo. Ag. Society, 219 






INDEX TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Adair. D. L., Il«, IM, 127, 157 

AdRir. WUllttm VI 

A Virginian, 881 

A.D.Q, 207, 807 

A P. P, 343 

A1ken,J. R., Ii7 

Alberger, J. L, 89 

Aidersoii, George 17 

Aldrich, Verrj-, 819 

Allen, K. 8, 123 

Allen, Lewi* F 89 

AlHn, B., 1S9 

A Plain Jamaioa Farmer, 266 

A. R. A, 262 

A Reader 36 

Arnold. M. A 820 

A Small Fanner, 160 

A. S. M 202 

A SutMicriber,....28, 2« 4«. Ill, 167 

Ayrault, Allen, 97 

A Young Farmer, 844 

R 126, 186 

B Z., 877 

Babcock. A.. 168 

Eicon, W. 93 

Bamf, J. N 76 

Bidley, Lewis 206. 266 

Ba'Blev, ». H. Br 86 

Barleyeorn, John 76 

Bartlelt, Levi, 43, 113, 121, 177. 246, 

311, 817, 832, 836, 338 

Baaaett, William F., 343 

Bayne. J. K 216 

B. B. N., 146 

Bi-auobamp, W. M 119 

Bement, C. N., 24, 111, 121, 236 

Benton, A. K., 249 

Bfti.ton, (i. G 190 

Blauvelt, D T 61 

Bloea, CharleA, 26 

Boslwlck, D., 820 

Brewer, H. & J 224 

Bronton, Alft^iL, *. 61 

Brown, AD 86 

Brown, A. 1£, 873 

Brown, Maria, 178 

Bry, H. M., 818 

Bulfum, Obed, 260 

Buffum, Thomas B., 126 

Ball, Charlea, 148 

Ballltt 801 

Batterfield, L., 124 

C 17, 21, 160, 196 

Carver. M., 62 

CD G., 210 

C. K K., 371, 377 

C. F. W., 26 

C. G. T., 66 

Chartee, N. E 91 

Chalmera.J., 113 

Charlton, Jeeee, 287 

Chnvannee, Albert, 78 

Chllda, Jaroea, 206 

Clark. J. W 19, 147 

Clark, 8., 66 

Clarkeon. Mrs. C 286 

Clark. Woodeock, 28 

Clay, C. M. 18 

Cleveland, J. C, 96, 836, 848 

Ctieymant Farmer, 186 

Cole, A. A, 86 

Colharne, J. W., 218,374 

Conkiln, R. M., 46 

Cope, J 376 

Crowder, P. B., 266 

Cram, Alfred, 224 

Coming, 11 A., 69 




Curtle, D. L., 181 

Curti*. J. T., 24 

C. W. T 49 

Davenport, B. F., 820 

DavlK, 8 O, 224 

D. D G., 116 

D. E. L., 167 

Denning, W.H., 166,863 

DennU, Wllaon, 196, 377 

Dlckln«on, A. B., 186 

DlUou, Iwac, 862 

Dixon, T. fej. M., 163 

Doleon, J. J., 117 

Doollllie, F., 19 

Doy, John, 191, 800 

Dunham *, Wood, 77 

Duranl, Q. W., 119, 376 

K. B. a, ; 116 

E. F., 840 

EL U, 20, 80 

E.M. McC. 83 

EO.Jr, 196 

Ertlll, John H., 216 

L. T.M 46 

Evans, Gordon, 180 

Evans, G. W., 166 

Fltoh.Asa, 238, 341 

Flint, John, 226 

F. r^ W^ 362 

Foote, J. A, 36 

Foster, 8., ,. 222 

Foster, 8ttcl 271 

G^e, John 287 

Gardener, J. R 191 

Gebhart, George, 126, 868 

Geddea, George, 166,816 

G. E H 287,293 

Gifford, H. F., 141 

Gleason, E. W., 267 

Graves, E. Jr., 239 

Green, Alonso, 242 

Griswold, Lucius, 42 

Gllham, Prof. Wm 864 

G. T., 289 

G. W. C 219 

G. W. E., 11 

G. H 376 

G.H.M 476 

H., 68, 109, 866 

Hale, J. D 271 

Hall, EmiuellneC, 146 

Hammond, George, 239 

Hartwell, C. L, 226 

Harvey, Amos, 120 

Halton, R., 79, 96 

H. A.T 124 

Hawley, B., 267 

H. H., 66. 184 

H. H. A., 146 

H L. B, 212 

H. 8. C 124 

Holcomb, Lnelas, 31 

Hop Grower, 806 

Howatt, Gerald, 68, 81, 96, 189. 161, 

178, 219, 864 

Ingram, C. H., 222 

I. H., 370 

J., 11, 862 

James, W.L. 219 

J. A. V. 243 

J. R, 88 

J. C M., 176 

J. C. a 222 

J. E. 8., 87 

J. H., 184 

J. H. a, 60 

J.H.C 19, 64 



J. H. H., 87, 162 

J. I. C, 228, 227, 288, 287 

J.J 820 

J K. W., 876 

Johnson, Prof 8. W., 14 

Johnson, 8. W., 88 

Johnston, John, 60, 73, 112. 118, 188, 
143, 182. 2(i9, 236, 237, 242, C40, 869 

Jones. J. B., 124, 819 

Jones, John, 261 

J.P 110 

J.W.C, 93 

J. R., 196 

Kellar.H., 212, 807 

Kennedy. Prof. A. L, 803 

Kenny, William, 818 

Kezlali, 149 

Kibbee, Norman 90 

Klllgore, A., 818 

Klrkbrlde. 8. P 107 

Lady Reader 87 

Laer. William 97, 144 

Lawton, L A, 127 

Lawrence, Thomaa, 96 

TA)e. ProC D 86 

Lequear. J. W., 82 

Levesqae,J., 74 

L.H. J., 114 

Lincoln, J. M., 189 

Llnsley, R., 837 

11 299 

Manly, Uri, 18,30 

MacGowan. 8. W., 13 

Markie, Matthew, 381 

Mann, 8. H., 67 

May, J. A., 289 

Meiriman, John, 291 

MeCammon, J. 4b T., 286 

M. A. K., 284 

M.D.B. 283 

Mellen, Wm. P., 818, 819, 368. 

Melnlkhelm, T. L, 186 

Minor, 8. B., 174 

M. F. 166, 167 

M. D 120 

McMahon, G 64, s49 

MoKinlcy, William, SO 

M. C. L 66 

Morton, Charles F., 80, 806 

Moss, A. 8., 126, 863 

M. H. K., 143 

Moore, A. O., 142 

Morris, L. G 249 

McCulloch, D., 283, 291 

Nauts, F. A., 144, 268, 302 

Norris, L, 47, 380 

N., 50, 63 

Nichols, D. A. A.,. 218, 234. 242, 809. 
367 

Ollphant, D. R 287 

Ollphant, K, 819 

Osborne, J. H, 862 

Observer, 172. 288 

Osborne, L.n.. 168 

O.D. P., 22 

Pickett. Mahlon, 27 

Pettlbone, J. 8 29 

Phelpa,RR, 60 

Plank, M 61 

Pettee,W. J 80, 802 

Phelps, Joseph E 80 

Peokham, P. P. 98, 127 

Perry, Francis, 126 

Pryee, Thomas, 876 

Practical Hoasekceper, 143 

Peck, E. F. 156 

Pennington, Evans, 180 





Points, W. J., -—.... 377 

Patent Office, 223 

P. W. T 235 

Preitynmn. P 2i8 

Proudmaa, Wm., 257 

P. 830, 3«0 

Prenton, Paul S.,.!! 356 

lleafcle*, C, 268 

Ri.»»d.Wm. H 60 

nviWr, 8 378 

Reed, N., 115 

RWey. R 256 

JUvnold, Tx H., 166 

Richards, UB 13, 116 

Reynolds. A. B., 29 

Ringer, Ezra. 24 

RnwelKE W., 49 

Banders, Edgar, 28, 75, 143, 817 

Senex, 66, 157, 222 

BchmJdt, E. K., 55 

Sldebottom, Peter, 27, 61, 243 

Spring, Sidney, 16, 36 

a R,... W 

Smith. Jonas. 128 

8l John, K. P., 188 

Swallow, G. C, 2-28 

SuJobn, J.R., 246 



INDEX. 



Shlpman, J. I., 246 

Shade, Henry, 282 

SHi.ford. J 290 

Siewart. P., 291 

Smith, Wm. F., 320 

Serlist, J., 371 

T. R 61, 66 

Taylor, Henry W., 67 

Taylor, J. C 78 

Turner, J. B 105 

Tncker, W. C, 127 

Tudd, 8. Edwards, 19 

Thomas, T., 219 

Tpwi.e, D. W. C, 127 

Teas, E. Y 248, 257, 285 

Tupper, Wm. H., 287 

T. L. H 313 

Vail, John H., 95 

V. W., 274 

Ward, J. M 254 

Walling, George W., 223 

Walthall, M. Jr., 212 

Wad«worth,Jadson, 126, 310 

Warren, Horace, 878 

Watklns,H., 119 

Way. P. A., 81 




W R, 10 

W. F 42 

W- P., 379 

W. A. G. 60 

W. B. L., 56 

W. H. W., 81, 95 

W.C.8., 108, 833, 378, 867 

W.T.l!..... 120 

WT»Ue, William N 91, 182 

Wing, 8. B. 127 

Webirter, A. G., 139 

Wood, Otis E 149, 339 

Wlllard. A. Jr 40 

WooUey, Joel M., 157 

WlUiaras, D. G 183 

Wilcox, Johns M., 190 

W.H. S 218 

Warner, S. U, 286 

Welmore, W, Hj 256 

Wesilnghouee, G., 267 

Webster. C. F. Sen., 289 

Ward, B. 8 304 

Warder. J. T. 830 

X. Y. Z., 804 

Young, J. M.,: 266 

Z.A-L., 127 






THIRD 



tfn SmptDM tjji ^nil aul lb Mnt 



8ERTES 



Vol. VI. 



ALBANY, JANUARY, 1858. 



No. I. 



Published BY Litthbr Tucker 4; Son, 

KDITOB8 IRD PROPRIBTORS. 

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Over half-a-million of the yearly volumes of this jour- 
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of the country since its establishment in 1833, — ^not a 
few of which are still preserved for oonsnltation and 
referee. Enjoying thus a Popularity and Permanence 
uneqnalled in the annals of similar publications, it can 
also boast an unparalleled number of Correspondents, 
including in their range every section of the Union, 
and the British Provinces; and, as a consequence, it 
will be foand to contain more of the real practice of 
Agriculture — more it\formalum of an available fcind, 
than many periodicals of twice or four times its sub- 
scription price. The editors and publishers have pe- 
culiar facilities for placing it above competition — its 
connection with a Weekly Journal enabhng them to 
expend a far greater outlay upon its contents, than its 
own large circulation aloQe would warrant. The vol- 
ume for 1857 is referred to ae an 'Vkample of the va- 
riety and value of its pages from month to month, 
while we hope the future will be an improvement even ' 
npon the past. Fifty Cents a year. 

For the character and scope of the Reqistrr of 
Rural Appairs, reference is made to the advertise- 
ment of that work on page 40. It has been uniform- 
ly pronounoed an indispensable manual for every cul- 
tivator of the soil, *and as no part of its contents is 
identical with those of the Cultivator, it forms a 
beautiful present to the subscribers of the latter work 
— compressing a vast amount into small compass, and 
illustrated most profusely and elegantly. T^wenty-Jive 
€tnU acopy» 



Clubs op Subscribers for toe Cultivator are 
supplied gratis with the Register, as follows : 

Price of 10 copies of both works, $6.00 

Poetage on the Register, (2 cts. a copy,) 20 

$5.20 
Canada lubsoribers we are obliged also to chtfrge with 
American postage on the Cultivator at the rate of 6 
cts. a copy, (60 cts. on a club of ten.) 
Premiums to Agents. 
In order to remunerate our friends in some measure 
for the assistance we receive from them — and as the 
prices of all our works are placed so low as to render 
any further reduction in the shape of commissions, o^- 
aolutely imposnbU, we have for some years past offer- 
ed a number of prises for competition to those engaged 
during the winter months in extending the circulation 
of our works. We have offered this year a list of pre- 
miums to be decided January first, but the awards of 
which this number goes to press too early for us to pub- 
lish. We now present another list to be decided April 
10, and open to the same competitors and subscriptions 
among which the January premiums havfe already been 
awarded. 

1. For the largest amount of cash subscriptions to our 

Journals, at the lowest Club Rateii, received at this 
office April Tbxth. or previously, we will pay. 

TWENTY-FIVE DOLLARa 

2. For the TWO next largest amounta, each, 

TWENTY DOLLARS, 
a. For the THREE next largest amounts, each, 

FIFTEEN DOLLARS. 
4. For the FOUR next largest amounts, each, 

TEN DOLLARS. 
6. For the FIVE next largest amounts, each, 

FIVE DOLLARa 

^^ And that those who did not begin canvassing 
early enough for the January prices, or who took one 
of the two lowest offered, (eiher $10 or $5) may have 
some inducement to compete more vigorously for the 
April list — should the first of the above premiums be 
taken by any one who in January received neither a 
first, second or third prize, we will make it Thirty-pi vb 
instead of Twenty-live Dollars ; and should either sec- 
ond or third prise be taken under similar circumstan- 
ces, we will increase them each $5, (making them res- 
pectively $25 and $20) 

1^* TwENTT Copies Cultivator ahd Register 
sent by one individual, entitles him to s^free copy qf 
both. 

Show-bills akd Prospectuses —We shall be glad 
to supply these for general dissemination. Agents or 
others who have failed to receive them up to this time, 
or who wish further supplies, will please '*make a note 
of this." 

Post-Oppices. — These and the State should always 
be specified with great care, and it is an additional pre- 
caution against mistakes to add the County. Clubs of 
subscribers may be sent to as many different offices as 
may be desired. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Kua^ement of Manvre. 

Hessm. Editobh — The letter of the fanner's friend 
and onrf, Jobh Johhbton, pnblbhed on page 362 of 
the current yolame of the Co. Gent , (we name the page 
eo that sabaoribers can readily find the article, and 
those who have not can read it, and those who hare 
read may read again,) will be worth a life subscription 
to that paper to eyery farmer who will practice on the 
recommendations there given. In allusion to this mat- 
ter, " we speak that we do know and testify that we 
have seen," so far as rotting and saving manures are 
concerned. We have seen, and can see at any time, 
piles of manure drawn into the field for next year's 
planting, and covered over so much surface that every 
drenching will penetrate them to the earth on which 
they rest We have seen, the year after, where such 
heaps have been laid, the effects of the winter wash 
from them for several rods from the outline of the 
heaps. This wash did not hurt the land, of a certainty, 
over which it passed. A luxuriant vegetation told too 
plainly the reverse of this. But it did injure the com 
crop the next year, for it took away much of the very 
ailment which had been taken to the field to effect its 
growth. 

What would be thought of a farmer who stacked his 
hay by drawing it to a convenient place, and tipping 
it from his cart in as compact a manner as tipping out 
would admit, yet neeessarily covering a great surface 7 
The natural inference would be that the man was erasy, 
— that his hay would soak through never to dry again, 
— go into a rapid fermentation — mould and rot Rea- 
son teaches eveiy farmer that this would be so, and they 
accordingly stack their hay in the manner best cnleu- 
lated to resist storms. Often after the stack is com- 
menced, if the weather is fine, it Is allowed to stand 
and settle before it is finished, to give it a more storm- 
resisting compactness and form. Thus we often see that 
well cured nnd well stacked hay comes out in winter 
(except the outside, exposed to storms,) as bright as 
bam-oured hay. 

The same practice recommends itself in forming 
manure heaps ; the less surface they present to atmos- 
phere and storms, the less loss— the more conical their 
form the better they will turn off" heavy rains to which 
they are exposed at all seasons, and the less the rains 
penetrate them, the more they will retain their ferti- 
lising qualities for future use. 

We are aware that it requires more labor and care 
to form a manure heap in a way to have it rain resist- 
ing, than it does to drop the loads pell-mell over three 
or four times the surface they ought to occupy. But it 
is the labor in which there is profit, and profit is the 
stimulant of all labor. 

We have learned to prevent our manure from fire* 
fanging long ago. It is done by simply mixing the 
manure from the horse stable with that from the cattle 
stalls. If this is not sufficient, add an occasional coat- 
ing of gypsum, muck, or turf from the roadside. The 
two latter we know are not readily obtained in our fro- 
len winters, but plaster ean be applied at any time. 
Thus manure is not only saved, but its quality impro- 
;Ted beyond what it wouldtOtherwise be. Where muck 
it added, additional points are obtained. A substance 
which in its natoral state is charging the air with ma- 
laria, siokness axtd death, is converted into a healthy 
and powerful fertiliser, producing bread to the sover 



and the consumer ; and as to the beauty of the thUig, 
we suppose any one would prefer seeing a oavity In the 
swamp filled with clean water, with green fields around 
it, to looking upon an unsightly morass, to catch the 
straggling seed of every weed, and grow up to all man- 
ner of bushes and weeds w. b. 




Faranips and Other Boota. 

One of our subscribers in Michigan gives us the fol- 
lowing Items of his experienoe in the culUvation and 
use of parsnips and other roots for stock, with the hope 
that what he has learned this year may benefit others 
in succeeding years ; 

*( For a few years after eommeneing to read ** Tbb 
Cultivator," I noticed ooeasionally articles recom- 
mending the cultivation of roots ; but aa none of my 
neighbors were in the habit of raising any crops of tUs 
kind, save potatoes and a few turnips or rata bagas, I 
had not the courage, being about the youngest farmer 
in my school district, to venture upon any innovation 
upon time-honored customs. At length, however, I 
become persuaded by the statements I found in your 
columns to venture upon a trial, though only upon a 
small scale, so aa to have enough for medicine at least, 
as I felt sure that an oooasional change of feed would 
be as agreeable and as beneficial to digestive powers 
of domestic animals, as I have experienced a similar 
variety to be in my own *' internal machinery." Ac- 
cordingly I have for three years raised small patches 
of mangold wurtsels, sugar beets, and carrots, and am 
so well satisfied with them as being more economical, 
more relishing, and more nourishing than hay and dry 
food constantly, that I intend to enlarge my root cul- 
ture considerably next year. Last year I was Induced 
by an article on parsnips in Thb Cultivator, Jan., 
1856, to add this to the list of my " root medicines," 
as I call them. Finding the few I raised last year ap- 
parently as highly relished by my stock as they were 
on the family table, 1 have raised a larger patch this 
last season. From what I had heard and read, I an- 
ticipated that there would be more difficulty in getting 
them started ftom the seed, and in the first weeding, 
than even with carrots. Mr. Watson, in hia Prise 
Essay on Practical Husbandry, says that the early 
stages of parsnip culture are more difficult than in the 
case of the carrot ; — that the vitality of the seed is 
quite uncertain ; — and that they germinate so slowly 
that weeds will generally get the ascendancy, and oc- 
casion great labor and difficulty at the first weeding. 
Now I wish to say to those who may be deterred by 
such representations, that I have not found it any more 
difficult to get parsnips either started or weeded than 
earrots. On the contrary, I think there is less difficul- 
ty in weeding them the first Ume, as they oome up with 
a broader leaf, and are more easily distinguished from 
the surrounding weeds. 

** I have been induced to auke this statement by the 
desire of making my little experience in root culture <^ 
some use to others, and of thus paying a debt I owe to 
you and others in the way which Franklin has reoom- 
mended. I feel under obligation, eertalnly, to those 
whose statements have persdaded me to oommenoethe 
cultivation and use of roots, and I know of no better 
way to discharge this obligation than by trying to per^ 
saade others. With a rich and mellow soil, pretty 
£rom«Cpedi, esopa^ beeto, carrots, pannlp^ Ac, 




THE CULTIYATOR. 




b« numd, which will go farther and do mora good than 
all the haj unally got tnm live times the same area." 



Braining of Land r—What Hindfln more .Freqnont 
Trials of iti 

There are two facts in regard to drainage which 
seem deserring of. some consideration, as a proper un- 
derstanding of their causes and significance may sug- 
gest or indicate methods of extending more widely the 
benefits reealting from a judicious employment of this 
yery certain agent in increasing the fertility and pro- 
ductitreness of three-fourths of our lands. The facts 
to which we refer are these :— Firstly, those who have 
made trials of draining their land, are generally, so 
far as we are informed, well satisfied with the results, 
so much so, indeed, that many of them haye continued 
their operations as fast as capital and labor could be 
commanded for the purpose. Secondly, few oompara- 
tiyely have made any trial of this great improvement 
in agriculture, notwithstanding the oft-repeated and 
conrincing demonstrations that it is a paying and most 
beneficial operation. Between these two facts there is 
a seeming incongruity. On the one hand we see or 
hear of farmers who eagerly avail themselves of every 
opportunity of extending th» drainage of their farms, 
until every acre of land suitable for such kind of 
amendment has been very tiioroughly underdrained. 
On the other hand, we behold the spectacle of hun- 
dreds and thousands— the great majority, indeed- 
shaking their heads and turning away, seemingly un- 
convinced or determined not even to try, when the 
most satisfactory and irrefhtable proofSs and demon- 
strations are placed before them, now and again, that 
draining is always a paying and highly advantageous 
operation. The former act as if they knewt as they 
certainly do, that the draining of land is a great im- 
provement ; and the latter act as if they also Am«v, 
which they do not, that all which has been said and 
written of jts beneficial results were untrue, unreliable, 
or i>f no pecuniary or other importance, at least to 
them. 

But this slowness to be eonvined, or to act in accord- 
ance with convictions, may proceed from yet another 
cause, which we presume is the real one in a large pro- 
portion of the oases under consideration. This cause 
consists in a supposition that the process of draining 
land is one which requires some considerable skill, labor 
and capital, or that there are many things to render it 
very diffieult and nearly impracticable. There are 
some, doubtless, who have heard, seen, or read enongh 
to convince them of the advantages of draining this or 
that field of heavy day or wet land, but are hindered 
by the supposition that they cannot secure the laborer 
capital required, and, even if these were to be had, 
that they have not sufficient skill to superintend and 
direct the several operations. There are difficulties and 
hindrances of the kind just named, we are fully aware 
and ready to admit, bat they are greatly exaggerated 
by the timid and unwilling. The cost, for example, of 
a thorough drainage does not usually exceed 925 per 
acre ; and the crops are usually so much increased that 
ev«B this Mitlay is sometimes vetumed, both principal 
and interest, in two or three years { while scarcely ever 
does a pmdent manager fall to obtain from the extra 
ewpt prodneod by draining, » fitll return Ibr all «z- 

oiftkti4|yte 




found, therefore, a better, safer, or mon remuneratiTS Y 
investment for capital. 

Then, again, as to skill or ability to direct operationa, 
there are books and agricultural periodicals which fur- 
nish information sufficient to enable any one of reso- 
lute mind to understand and direct as to every thing 
requisite to success. 

But from questions put by some readers of our, 
monthly, we incline to the opinion that the greatest 
hindrance of all in making trials of draining, is the 
want of a thorough and undoubting conviction of its 
advantages. When one gets at the real thought of 
some, we find that though not disposed openly and di- 
rectly to question or doubt such statements of its ad- 
vantages as have frequently been made, yet they 
secretly and in their heart have some doubt. They 
are not now fully convinced. I7ow the best way to remove 
this hindrance, is to have some proofs submitted to their 
senses. Then they would have to yield an undoubting 
belief. For this purpose a visit to a drained fiaurm, or 
making a trial on a small scale for oneself, might suf- 
fice. Where neither of these can conveniently be done, 
we would recommend as likely to give some small proof 
of the good of draining, that a part of some hard clay 
or wet land should be ridged up in lands of one rod in 
width, with a deep dead furrow. The centre strip of 
each land will show some of the benefits of draining 
in a dight degree. 

9 • • 

Fruits for the South. 

As I am planting an orchard for the production of 
the diflTerent fruits, please give your views in the Cul- 
tivator, on the success of fruits raised north and south. 
I have purchased trees of different kinds from the 
northern nurseries, and have found them to fail here 
in this latitude, although soil and attention was the 
same, as they (the trees) received at their northern 
home. G. W. £. JIfacon, Miea. 

A part of the northern fruits do well at the South, 

and others fail. Peaches generally succeed there in 

favorable localities, and early apples; our northern 

winter apples are mostly a failure. The Duke and 

Morello cherries succeed best, more particularly the 

Early Richmond and Maydnke — the Hearts are often 

suocessful, but more uncertain. Some pears succeed 

finely, but more experience is needed with the different 

varieties. * 

• • • 

Canlcer Sore Moiatli. 

Msgsits. Editors— I herewith send you a receipt for 
that distressing or hateful disease, canker sore or baby 
sore mouth. I never knew it to fall if made right. 

Take the bark off of the root of black Haw, leaves 
and stems of Privet, and leaves and blossoms of 
Thoroughwort, (Boneset,)— make a tea of each sepa- 
rately, and take of each as follows ; — One oupfhll of 
black Haw, the same of Privet, and one-third of a cup- 
full of Thoroughwort^ and one-third of a oupftiU of 
honey—shake well, and it is ready Ibr use. Alum, the 
sixe of a pea, pulverised, is considered a help. Wash 
the month firom six to twelve times a day, and swallow 
a little each time. Babies* mouths can be swabbed with 
a soft linen swab, or pnt half or one tea-spoonful Into 
its month, and tnm its head so that the wash will pass 
all thvongh the mouth. It most be firequently nsed, 
ud it will oertainly ova. Keep la » oool plana or il 
wlllfoar. #. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




The New Pean. 

Among the newer pean, or those which hare been 
tested more particularly within a few years, there are a 
few out of many hundreds which gire promise of ex- 
cellence or yalue, and some of these have already 
proved themselres worthy of extensive cultivation. To 
point out and describe these or a portion of them, ac- 
companied with good illustrations, we have no doubt 
will be acceptable to many of our readers, and assist 
them in making selections and in adopting some of 
them in their fruit gardens. We commence this task 
in our present number, and intend to continue the de- 
scriptions. In making the drawings, we have been 
largely assisted by specimens furnished by our friends 
Ellwavgkb a Barrt of Rochester, selected with care 
from their vast pomologioal garden. 




LAUlta Dl QLTMIS (OF B1V0BT.) 

Lauek db G LYMES (of Bivort ) This is a new 
European variety, which has not yet been much tested 
in this country, but so far appears to be worthy of at- 
tention. It is a good grower on quince, and produc- 
tive. It if medium in size, conical-obovate, regular, 
the whole surface nearly covered with a russet, which 
becomes a rich light orange at maturity — scarcely red- 
dened towards the sun ; stem three- fourths of an inch 
in length, inserted without depression ip a fleshy base ; 
calyx moderately sunk in a smooth basin ; flesh yel- 
lowish white, slightly granular, buttery, not melting, 
with a high and somewhat perfumed flavor — quality 
" very good." It is propable that the quality of this 
pear may vary considerably, or be found to range, un- 
der the various circumstances of cultivation, soil and 
season, from '* good " to '* best." It ripens about the 
middle of autumn, sometimes continuing quite late. 

Bburrk Naittais (or Beurre de Nantes.) This pear 
promises to be of much value. The tree is an erect 
and vigorous grower, both on pear and quince, comes 
early into bearing, makes a fine pyramid, and is very 
productive. It has been cultivated many years in 
France, its place of origin, but not until recently have 
its merits become appreciated in this country, li is 




BIUSEI HAVTAI8. 

rather large in sise, (the drawing being made from a 
quite moderate specimen,) pyriform or pyramidal, neck 
narrow ; skin greenish-yellow, with minute dots ; stem 




ZIPBIVI9 QKBGOIRa. 

nearly an inch long, not sunk ; calyx in 
rather narrow basin { flesh buttery and m< 




a moderate 
leltlag, with 




THE CULTIVATOR. 



a ricb, afreeaUe, perfaowd " rtrj good " flaTor. BI- 
peofl about tb« middle of antumn. 

Zbphirik Qrbqoiiue. Inferior to the la<t as a fine 
grower, bat exceeds it in the high ezcelleoce of ita 
quality. It is very productive— the growth of the tree 
rather slender. Its lateness, — ripening through the 
latter part of aatum%— increases its ralue. It is me- 
dium in sice, roundish-oboTate, light green, reddened 
when fully exposed to the sun, stem an inch and a 
fourth long, fleshy at insertion ; calyx open, in a nar- 
row basin ; flesh buttery, very melting, fine grained, 
with an vcellent perfumed flavor—" best." 

• • • 

Western Apples. 

Messrs. Luther Tucker akd Soir— *I send you 
by express a small box of the best apples I ever tasted. 
It is distinguished for Its very high aromatic flavor- 
keeps till July — scarcely one rots or decays. We have 
the fruit plenty in this vicinity, but have no name for 
it with which I am satisfied. Some call it the Cumber- 
land fipioe, but it cannot be that. The tree is vigorous 
— bears in clusters, and rather inclined to bear only 
every other year. The specimens sent are much small- 
er than the usual siae of the apple. It is hardly fit to 
est till January and February. Uri Manly. Mar- 
shall, JUinoU, 

The specimens came in good condition and soon ma- 
tured. It i%a rather large, light green, roundish- 
conical fruit, about lu large or a little larger than 
Peck's Pleasant as it usually grows hero, but mora co- 
nical. It has a mild, sub-aoid, pleasant flavor— not 
equal to some of our best sorts, but worthy of placing 
in the scale of the American Pomological Society, as 
"good" or "very good." We do not recognise it as 
any well known eastern sort, but western soil and cli- 
mate often exert such a change, as sometimes to ron- 
der it difficult to identify sorts. We should think from 
our correspondent's statement, that it must be a valu- 
ble fruit for the west— it might be of no value here. 
m - 9 9 ■■ - 

Measuring Corn in the Crib. 

In the Saturday Evening Post of the 2l8t Nov., a 
rule is given for measuring corn in the crib. It is mul- 
tiplying the cubic contents by 4^, which is to give the 
bushels by cutting ofif the right hand figuro That 
rule is certainly not corroct 

A Winchester or U. S. bushel (2,150.42 inches,) is 
nearly a cubic foot (1,728 inches,) and a fourth, (432 
inches.) They make 2,160 inches, or 9.58 inches more 
than a bushel, making a difierence of about a bushel 
in 224| bushels, or as com is measured, two bushels in 
the ear for one of shelled corn, one bushel of shelled 
corn for about 449 bushels, which is near enough for 
all practical purposes. Therefore, a good, simple rule 
is to divide the enbio feet contents of the crib by 5 ; 
deduct that fifth from the contents, and it will leave 
the number of bushels the crib contains. 

£«afli|>/e.— Suppose a crib 20 ft. long, 10 ft. highj 
and 8 ft. wide. 20W 10=200>^ 8= 1,600— deduct one- 
fifth <320) from 1,600, leaves 1,280 as the number of 
bushels in the crib, or 640 bushels of shelled com; by 
cutting off the right hand figure, gives 128 as the num- 
ber of barrols. The true amount in the crib would be 
1,285.7 bushels, or €42 85 shelled com, or 128.57 bar- 
rels, provided thero are ao projeoting timbers inside to 
altow for; bat tke posts, rails aad brasM of the fram- 




ing aro generally inside of the lathing or weather- 
boarding. The rule above gives an allowance of a foot 
in about 224^ for timber, Ae. Com ivthe crib will 
pack some, but it will shatter also, which, with loss by 
rats and mice, will make up for the packing. W. C.H. 
Pomona^ Md. 

•■• • 

Expense of Raising' Cora. 

Messrs. Eds.— As farming is generally carried on 
more scientifically in the northern states than in the 
middle and southem, I shall be pleased if you will in- 
form me in The Cultivator, how many acres of the 
"staflF of life," or Indian corn, are generally cultiva- 
ted to the person, by the best fkrmers in the former. 
S. W. Macgowan. Rutherford Co.^ Tenn, 

The labor of raising com at the north by good far- 
mers, varies from 12 to 15 days per acre. The amount 
of labor depends greatly on the condition of the land 
and quantity of manure applied. If the land is 
clear of the seeds of weeds, so that no hoeing by hand 
is required, and the cultivation is wholly performed by 
a horse often repeated, the expense will be greatly les- 
sened, and the crop increased. A good coating of ma- 
nure and its application, which should always precede 
every crop intended to be a heavy and paying one, 
will cost from twelve to twenty dollars, and sometimes 
more ; but this application will be of more value to 
succeeding than to the present crop, if the soil is reten- 
tive, and not gravelly and porous. 

The following may be regarded as about the average, 
for good farming : — 

Manuring 1 acre of land,. $U.OO 4 days iaoor. with team 
Harrowing the manure be- 
fore plowing, 1.00 I do. do. 

Plowing, 2.00 1 da da ' 

Planting with drill «7 \ da do. 

Culii vatlng with horse five 

^tlmes, 2.50 1| da da 

Cutting up and stooking.. aoo 3 da 

Husking, 4.00 4 da 

$26.87 14i days. 
If no manure is applied, the expense would be les- 
sened 815 and four days, and one day husking. As an 
average, it would require 12 days labor to cultivate an 
acre, besides horse-work; or one hand would take 
charge of about 11 acres in the 130 working days 
(omitting rains, storms, Ac ,) from the commencement 
to the close of the corn season, if he could have help 
in cutting up and husking, in exchange for labor he 
might perform in the hay and harvent field, when the 
corn needed no attention. 



atal Disease among Cattle. 

Messrs. Tucker k Sok— We have a disease among 
our cattle, that we have never known anything about 
before. I saw one opened. The ''smelt" was enlar- 
ged. I should say it was as large as twenty natural 
ones, and almost like clotted blood. Some of the small 
intestines were mortified for six or eiglit inches in 
length in a place I am told all are about the same. 
My nearest neighbor lost ten oattle, one year old past, 
in a week ; some of them lived two and three days 
after they appeared sick ; butlsioee he has lost a pair 
of oxen; one was found dead in the rooming; the other 
one came up with the cows at night well \ next room- 
ing at nine oVIook dead. Another neighbor has lost 
cows, well at one milking time and dead at the next. 
He lost an ox yesterday, that was well in the morning, 
chewing his cud, but dead before night, p. B. Rice- 
Fukiam Co., N, 7., Dee. 2, 1857. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Tb6 Potato BiteaM. 

In the Deo« No. of Thb Cultivatob, we published 
an article from J. G Cleveland, on the Use of Salt 
in Potato Culture. From a replj to this article, by 
Prof. S. W. JoHMSoN of Yale Analytical Laboratory, 
published in the Gouhtrt GENTLBHAir of Dec. 10, we 
make the following extract, which will be read with 
interest: — 

Without going into a discussion of the potato dis- 
ease, it may be stated that it has been satisfactorily 
proved that not an insect, nor a fungus, not the want of 
any fertiliser or soil- ingredient, is the cause of the rot, 
but that the weather, i. e., atmospheric changes, lie at 
the bottom of the diflSculty. So much is proved, or at 
any rate, is supported by such an amount of well- 
weighed evidence, that we must accept it as proved for 
the present. 

Besides the weather as the exciting cause, it is often 
astumed that a predisposing cause exists in the plant 
itself, vis., a constitutional wealcness induced by bad 
culture ; but this is still an assumption at least in the 
form in which it is almost invariably set forth. 

1. It is a fact, as far as I can learn, that there is no 
variety of potato that has been subjected. to field cul- 
ture for several years, which has not been more or less 
affected by the disease, and there is no variety that has 
not been grown without being attaeked by it. It is also 
a fact, 2, that the same variety is unequally affected in 
localities but a few miles distant from each other. It 
is true, 3, that in some localities and seasons early po- 
tatoes, or those early planted, are more affected than 
late ones ; and again, elsewhere or in other years the 
early potatoes escape while the l|ite ones suffer. Gen- 
erally, as far as the facts in my knowledge warrant a 
conclusion, very early or very late potatoes are unaf- 
rected while those whose period of ripening falls about 
the middle of August or the first of September are 
most liable to attack. 

Now the first fact shows that there is no potato pos- 
sessed of such strength of constitution as to be able 
always to resist the disease, but that the rut falls indis- 
criminately upon all kinds, although it rarely destroys 
or affects all the tubers of any kind. 

The second fact admits of explanation if we remem- 
ber how locality affects the weather, particularly sum- 
mer weather. 

I know a region where beautiful farms lie on natu- 
ral terraces that form the great steps up the side of a 
long hill-range, at the base of which runs a wide river. 
At a certain point, the first torraos is a wide alluvial 
flat of soil, vicing with the richest western bottom-land 
in beauty and productiveness, and so nearly on a level 
with the river that it is often overflowed. Here, years 
ago, I have helped gather the snperbest crops of huge 
healthy potatoes. Now they are never planted there, for 
the crop can' t be depended upon. A mile back fVom the 
river oomos the second terrace, 30—50 feet higher. The 
soil is poorer though still good, and of the same general 
character. On this terrace last summer, the potato 
disease began its ravages about the 20th of August, 
while two miles back on the next terrace, they were 
still nnaffeeted. Here the potatoes were of the same 
kinds, were planted about the same tima in a soil of 
nearly uniform eharaeter. Nono of them had any salt, 
and yet why thes* differenoes — could the weather va- 
xy at points so naar to aaeh otherl I sai of qpiolon 




that the whole trouble was in the weather, i. e., in the 
state of the atmosphere. The blight appears to attack 
the potato tops, when the sun rises into a clear sky and 
shines down with its fullest force upon fields covered 
with fog, or which are in an atmosphere saturated with 
moisture. Of those terraces that bare been mentioned, 
the lower ones are often covered with heavy hanging 
fogs, while the higher ones are surrounded by a clear 
breezy air. In the lower terraces, the circulation of 
the Juices of the plants, which depends greatly upon 
evaporation, is checked, and the juices putrify instead 
of being elaborated ; while on the hillsides the pro- 
cesses of vegetation pursue more nearly their normal 
coune. 

The 3d fact would almost warrant the assumption, 
which is sustained by many analogies in vegetable 
physiology, that there is a period in the development 
of the potato^ when more than at any other it is sub- 
ject to the blight. This period is most naturally sought 
for at the time when the plant is undergoing the most 
rapid vegetative changes, vis., at or about the time of 
flowering. 

If this be true, we can understand that those pota- 
toes, of whatever variety, which arrive at the critical 
period of growth, at such times and in such localities 
as are visited by the atmospheric conditions that have 
been mentioned, would be struck With blight, while 
other potatoes which have passed or n<% reached the 
critical period of growth, would escape. We can fur- 
ther understand that salt when applied in contact with 
the seed potato, may, by virtue of its hindering the 
development of the germs, have the effect to keep the 
plants backward until the bad weather has passed, and 
thus save them. It may also retard tbo growth of 
very early varieties, so as to bring them into unfavora- 
ble weather at the time when they > re most susceptible 
to atmospheric disturbances, and thus destroy a crop 
that otherwise would have been good. 

The fact that salt ascends from the sea in the spr.iy, 
and is thus distributed in enormous quantities on the 
Und contiguous to lee-shores, and this without at all 
hindering there the ravages of the potato disease, is a 
strong fact aguinst Mr. G.'s conclusion, that salt will 
prevent if not cure the disease entirely at no distant 
day. 

Mr. 0. says that " from all quarters reports come to 
us, too numerous to detail, in favor of the use of salt 
this season, for growing potatoes upon a dry or sandy 
soil." Will Mr. C. have the goodness to inform us the 
source of those reports, or where they can be found 1 
So important facts ought to be* detailed until they are 
well established. 

In "axiom" 12 occurs the ■ following sentence: — 
" Plant the genuine old fashioned Blues from which to 
obtain balls to renew and improve the i^eed." In axiom 
28 it is said — " The while varieties rot the worst, bo- 
cause they are the class that have been subject for the 
longest period to bad cultivation." 

Here we have the view which seems to have origina- 
ted with Parmertibb, who introduced the potato into 
France, and has been so loudly advocated by writers 
on this subject<, vis., that the potato has deteriorated by 
long or bad eultivation, Le., reproduction from the 
tuber, and eaa only be rodtained by raising new plants 
firom the seed. 

Why, let me ask, does a plant deteriorate 
not raised fiMitkafMd 7 ImotrepfpdwtfMhjW^ 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




w]i«tber detaohad, as in the tig«r lUj, or oooUioed in 
tal>er8, ma in very nameroos plants, just m natural and 
anocessfttl a way as any other 1 la there not a fault 
in the Divine plan and mana^ment of TOgetation, if 
a system of reprodaetion is established which contains 
in itself the elements of subTerting whole races of 
plants ? 

Besides, if we admit that the potato is deteriorated^ 
ean we hope to renew it by raising plants from the 
seed 1 Does like cease to produce like under these 
circnmstanoes 1 Can the seeds of a potato, the con- 
stitution of which has been broken down, yield us 
healthy plants ? Of course not ! is the answer of oom- 
moa sense, and the complete failure of all the numer- 
ous attempts that have been made, both at home and 
abroad, to regenerate the poteto by seedlings, are suf- 
ficient support for this verdict 

If the* poUto has degenerated by bad culture, it 
must be regenerated by good culture. But what is 
bad — ^what is good culture ? 

While I am unconverted by Mr. G.'s article to a be- 
lief in the supreme efficacy of salt, either as KfertUi- 
ztr or vUaliztr^ and do not recognise in the rule to 
bury strong manures bekiw the seed, a law of agricul- 
ture, and find no suppor^for the idea that seedlings are 
to regenerate the potato plant — not meeting with facts 
sufficient to prove these positions, or that cannot be oth- 
erwise explained — I agree with him most fully in ad- 
vocating the advantages of thorough-draining, and 
hope he and all practical thinking farmers will give 
freely to the public, their fivcts and views, their criti- 
cisms too, so that the trdth may be attained. Fo^ 
Analytical Laboratory^ Nov.f 1857. 



Ho-w to Staunch Bleeding In IVeunde, Ae. 

Farmers and rural residents of all kinds would find 
it of advantage to be provided with some book con- 
taining directions as to the best modes of management 
in cases of accidents, (as wounds, poison- swallowing, 
Ate.,) and other emergencies. Before medical aid oonld 
be procured from the distant city or village, the best 
season for remedial applications would usually have 
transpired. Losses and suiferings of various kinds 
might, in such eases, be prevented, by having at hand 
a good book of reference of the above-named descrip- 
tion. 

A very common defect in many of the directions 
which have been prepared for the use of persons re- 
mote from medical and surgical aid, in cases of acci- 
dents and similar emergencies, consists in prescribing 
the use of articles which are not kept in every family, 
and which are not easily obtainable. The articles to 
be used should be such as- are usually to be found In 
every house, or such as may be obtained without send- 
ing to a village, or even to a neighbor who may be 
provident enough to keep a supply of materials useful 
in domestic medicine and surgery. 

As an instance illustrative and eonfirmatoiy of this 
common defect, let any one examine such directions as 
he may have access to, for the the staunching of .bleed- 
ing in cats, wounds, and other injuries He will be 
likely to ind mention made of a great many articles 
which are not to be found in one house in a hundred, 
sack m blue vitriol, alum ilcdhol, tannin, kino, catechu, 
and tinctures and balsams of various kinds. Perhaps not 
^ these could be found short of sending to a store, 
I «nt of ten, «( b' niotty'Bitte out of a hun- 




dred. Even sgaric or puff-ball, which we found named 
along with the above, is not always at hand, and might 
be searched for in the woods quite a while without be- 
ing found. It seems surprising that any one writing 
directions for the staunching of bleeding should not 
think of the indispensableness, in most cases, of hav- 
ing the article prescribed such a one as might be found 
in almost every house. A very little knowledge of 
chemistry would suffice to have suggested to any wri- 
ter of directions on this subject, the employment of 
two articles which may be found in every house, green 
tea powdered, and leather scraped or rasped. Next 
after applying a ligature or compression, where such 
means are applicable, there are few articles which 
would be more effectual than one or other of these, re- 
duced to as fine a powder as possible, and bound down 
upon the mouths of the bleeding vessels, or applied close- 
ly in any other way. The virtue of t>oth consists in their 
containing tannin. But their principal recommenda- 
tion is that they are always at hand, as old shoes and 
green tea may be found in every house. When leath- 
er is used, the scrapinics should bo from the inner sur- 
face. 

• • • 

Big Head in Horses. 

E. M. Grnffin, Iowa, is informed that from his de- 
scription, bis colt has undoubtedly got the Big Head, — a 
disease, I believe, peculiar to the west— caused, we all 
think, by feeding on dry hard corn, and in sonie eases 
over-heating in addition. It was very prevalent in this 
neighborhood some thirty years ago, and young horses 
that received extra feeding with corn, and we had then 
little else to feed with, were most subject to it. It 
consists, as Mr. Ot, describes, of a hard callous swellbg 
on the upper and lower jaw bones outside the grinders 
— in a short time causes stiffness in the Hmbs, inability 
to rise without help, and, if not checked, is always 
fatoL 

Some years ago I examined the jaw bones of ahorse 
that had died of the disease, and found the excrescen- 
ces quite as solid and hard as the bones. Mason, in 
his excellent work, is the only writer on farriery (and 
I have consulted some half dosen,) who mentions the 
disease. The eure is arsenic, inserted in fine paper on 
the swelling. This I have seen tried ; it is efficient 
and safe, but severe, and causes ugly scars. One of 
my sons has in this place a horse under treatment for 
it now — is using a decoction of roots of rattle-weed or 
carpenter's square, found growing in old fence rows — 
one peck of the roots boiled down with three or four 
pounds of old bacon, for 8 or 10 hours, strained and 
rubbed well into the affected parts, and driven in with 
A hot iron every day for a week ; then every other day 
for a fortnight which, though troublesome, is, I be- 
lieve, an effectual eure. Some use puncturing with an 
awl in several places, and rubbing corrosive sublimate. 
It is an ugly disease, and a horse scarred with it loses 
more than half his value, and is seldom aetive after it. 
Stdnby 8prim«. WhUe Co., Hi. 

P. 8. Severe blistering for the Big Head is no use. 
I have tried it 

■ ■ . . m « # » 

Thb N. T. Horticultosal Socibtt is down for a 
bequest of 910,000, in the will of the late Ssn Gbos- 
TKXOR, Esq. ■ 

Look on the bright side of everything. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




HAY HOUSE 



Chester County Barn. 

Messrs. Editors — Will you inform me througb the 
Conntry Gentleman of the most convenient and econo- 
mical plan for building a barn, sufficient toitable forty 
cows, with manure room below and fodder above, suffi- 
cient for one winter. Would it be advisable to have 
the stable in the basement or on the floor above 1 
Would a side-hill location l>e preferable to a level one 7 
L. S. Fredonia, Nn Y. 

The plan coming nearest to the wishes of our cor- 
respondent, that we can now furnish him, is that of the 
"Chester County Bam," described in the Rural Reg- 
ister for 1858, and which we copy below. It contains 
the stables in the basement, which on the whole we pre- 
fer. If any of our readers have successfully practic- 
ed the mode of placing the cattle over the manure cel- 
lar, we should esteem it a favor if they would furnish 
OS the details of the plan— or of any other design cal- 
culated to meet the wishes of our correspondent. 
Chester County Earn. 

A correspondent in Chester County, Pa^ gives the 
following minute description of a large and commodious 
grain, hay, and stock bam, which combines many im- 
portant advantages : 

Such a bam will require a lo- 
cality inclining towards the south. 
Let the main bam, facing south- 
erly, be 60 feet long and 40 wide, 
with a lean-to overshot extending 
in front 20 feet. I estimate this 
to contain near 100 tons of hay, 
Ac. ; then let hay-houses extend 
20 feet in width and height, in 
the form of a letter L, from the 
west end of the bam, of snob 
length as to afford the additional 
storage necesiary — say forty feet 
each. 

The ground floor of the main 
bam to be divided into stabling 
is represented in Fig. I. A, horse 
sUbles, 12 feet in depth, with 
mangers 2i feet wide for hay, and small troughs at the 
side of each stall for grain. B, catUe stalls, hung with 
swinging gates, opening sideways. C, the same, but 
each having a separate gate entering direct from the 
yard. E, main entry 8 feet wide, to hold feed chests, 
Ac. ; e, entry 5 feet wide, with steps up to door, D, at 
the north end, and having an entrance into the horse 
stables at each end, the entries to be laid with small 
stones and mortar j the remaining space under the bam 
and overshot to be open to the yard, and fur- 
nished with box cribs, so that the out-door 
stock can have their fodder placed under the 
shelter in stormy weather ; in cleaning out 
stables, the manure may also be placed under 
here for protection from the weather. 

If additional stall room is desired, the 20 
foot hay houses might be divided by a five 
foot entry on the out side, and stalls opening 
to the yard, as C ; or the under story might 
be open to the yard, as additional shelter to stock and 
manure. 

Fig. 2 gives the elevation of the west end of the main 
barn, 40 feet, overshot 20— the former having in front 
tbo large doors, 16 feet, and bridge wall ; height to 
the square 30 feet— to the second floor 8 feet ; this cov- 



ers a granary extending through the center, 14 feet 
wide, boarded at the sides, and the hay bins each side 
of it, 20 by 60 feet. It is lighted by two windows in 
front, and has a door and window at the north end. It 
is partitioned on one side into bins tor grain ^ the front 
end included in the overshot ^ill make a good work- 
shop. The third or threshing floor, eight feet higher, 
extends 14 feet in width, (same as granary, which it 
covers,) from the bridge- wall to the front of overshot, 
and is lighted by a small dormer in front of overshot — 
(this may be scafiblded over head after the side mows 
are filled for grain,) the large doors at the north end 
opening into a dormer covering the spaoe between the 
bridge-wall and bam. Each iA the main hay mows 
should have a funnel four feet square, to pass bay to 
the entriee below, and each of the overshot mows one 
to the yard. Grain from the threshing floor b passed 
into bins in the granary through three- inch square 
holes, stopped with wedge-shaped pings. 

And now, as to the advantages of this plan, which I 
believe are greater than that embraced by any other 
that has come under my observation. Roofing is one 
of the most expensive parts of building — ^here is the 
greatest amount of storage, stabling and oth«r aocom- 
NORTH 

MAIN BARN 

I ' ■ '°' 




Fig. 1— Plan or Stablxs in Basimrnt. 

modation under the same snrfttce ; the hay not descend- 
ing to the ground floor, is less liable to be affected by 
damp, and affords a much less harbor for rats and oth- 
er vermin. In the hurried season of harvest, produce 
can be disposed of in the deep bays, in one-fourth of 
the time required to pitch it upwards, and in winter 
can be dropped immediately where wanted below — 
while the stables can all be shut tight in cold weather, 
to keep them warm. The hay funnels act as ventila- 





Fig. 2.— Ekd View vrom Wxst, bkfori Hat-bi5S wxbx addbd. 
tors to carry off the impure air ; grain, when threshed, 
is put away in the granary without any labor of bag- 
ging and carrying ; the horse stables are entered with- 
out passing through the cattle-yard, and the cattle 
stalls are as conveniently arranged as in other 
The space under the bridgeway may readily 




1858. 



THE CULTIVATOR. 




Terted into a cMrisg* or wagon-kooM ; hay-hoiuet, m 
propoMd, or fth«d8 in their place, would afford oomfor- 
table protection from north and wett winds. I suppoee 
the main bam to be built of stone at leaat as high a< 
the third floor, except in front ; the overshot maj be of 
frame, on pillars level with the granary floor, or its ends 
majr be a oontinuation of the barn walls. The above 
general plan, varied in sise and details, receives the 
general sanction of the practical farmers of Chester 
count/. 




Kew and Convenient Harrow, 

Editors of Go. Obrt.— Good plows are coneeled to 
be indispensable in farming operations — ^a bad one no 
good fanner oan afford to use. Next in importance to 
a good plow, in patting the soil in a fine tilth, is a good 
Harrow. We have one, in rather general nse here, 
which is considered much better than the common tri- 
angular harrow, less CTpensive than the "Qeddes," 
suid another kind, if I lecoUect right, described in some 
of the back volumes of " Tas Cultivator,'* and more- 
over allowing the use of a Uw, without which such im- 
plementfl are rather awkward to walk after. I will give 
yon a rough draft* and description, from which 70a 
can perhaps form an idea. The frame should be made 
of good white oak — 3 by 3 will be heavy enough, as it 
ie easy to add a little weight when the ground requires 
it. The cross piece, (a b) 3 by 1| inches, need not be 
let into the frame, but should be secured in its place 
by four screw bolts ; morticed tennons are at the points 
candd. About 24 ieetk are sufficient, and the two 
apper ones, as shown in the figure, should be inserted 
low enough down to have a space of about one foot be- 
tween them, that there may be no dogging with large 
com stabs— (you don*t have them large in the Norths 
I believe.) At the point of the harrow, a strong iron 
should be well secured and carved, so as to elevate the 
point some 9 or 10 inches above, and a ring inserted. 
This will give a level draught, and will not require the 
traces to be much longer than for plowing. An iron 
bow is preferred by some as more durable. Wood is 
preferable on some accounts, and if nsed, sockets should 
be inserted a few inches from the ends of the harrow, 
and secored there with small bolts, allowing them a 
little play. There should also be holes drilled through 
the upper end of the sockets, so as to admit of small 
rivets to pass through them and the ends of the bow, 
which will hold it firmly to its place. As there are no 
teeth inserted in the ero9S-piece, this harrow is not lia- 
ble to clog, and the teeth can be so arranged that they 
will not run after each other. 

There are many farmers who use thia kind of har- 
row, and no other, for harrowing com, and where the 
rows are wide enough to admit it, no better need be 
used. In that case, a few of the central teeth are 
drawn, and the horses walk astride of the row. Length 
of harrow, 8 feet ; width, 6 feet. C. 8aUm Co.^ N. J. 

* We have made tho annexed drawing from this rough 
sketch, M nearly m we could understand it Ena. 




Braining by a Praottoal Blan. 

M1S8R8. Editors— Let me give yoa my method of 
draining for the last three years, and in that time I 
have laid, and caused to be laid, 12,000 rods of drain, 
aft a cost from 16f to SO cents per rod, and to my know- 
ledge never had a failure. It costs a little more to dig 
a drain on my plan than with the aid of a ditch-digger 
or plow, but when it is done it is well done. Deny it 
who can 1 It is a drain, and will remain a drain aa 
long as its outlet is kept open. 

I commence in this way : If I have a large job, and 
have to have it done by a certain time, I employ men 
enough men enough to do it I furnish each man with 
two spades, one shovel, a crumbevj (which is a peculiar 
shaped hoe about one foot long, two and a half inches 
wide, and turned up an inch on each side,) and a(fra^, 
(which is simply a strong potato grub,) to fill in the 
drain with. I lay out each man a certain lot of drains 
to dig, with directions not to lay the tile in until I see 
it, if there is not much descent Then each man com- 
mences on his own drain, with a spade about six inches 
wide and fourteen inches long, taking out a spit ten 
or eleven inches wide and fourteen inches deep, or ac- 
cording to the evenness of the surface ; then with the 
shovel clean out the crumbs or loose earth ; then go 
over the same again with the Ame spade, about one 
foot deep and six or seven inches wide at the bottom, 
and with the same spade clean out the bottom, (or a 
garden spade is better to clean out the bottom.) Kow 
I am two feet deep in the shallowest place, six or seVen 
inches wide, but that is too wide to lay in the tile, es- 
pecially two-inch sole tile or even three- inch, and not 
deep enough ; but this is a short branch drain and two 
inch tile is large enough. I want them put in so that 
they cannot ^ misplaced in any way ; and I want 
them three feet deep, too; so into the muddy, wet 
drain I go — (one or two inches of mud and water in it 
— the descent is so small and the drain so wide it will 
not clear itsf'lf)— ^ith my curious lonf narrow spade, 
flat on the back and rounding on the front, with a 
step on the socket to shove it down with, twelve or 
thirteen inches long, four inches wide at the top, and 
two and a half at tbe bottom ; with this tool I take out 
the other foot two and a half inches wide at the bot- 
tom and as even as a plank, and with the crumber be- 
fore named, I clean out the crumbs and mud every six 
feet I dig, so that I have never to go in the bottom of 
the drain. Well, my drain is dug ten rods long, three 
feet deep in strong clay land, eleven inches wide at the 
top, two and a half at the bottom, and as straight as 
a line, and only five inches fall, quite plenty ; and it 
is only four o'cloclcj so [ have plenty ot time to finish 
it before six, and I did not commence until seven in 
the morning ; then I lay my tile along the side of the 
drain, and if possible commence at the upper end ; lay 
in the tile downwards, wallcing straight along upon 
them to get them to the bottom, as they fit so tight ; 
by the time I get them all laid in, it is fiAeen minutes 
to five, and it would take the roader of this article the 
next hour and a quarter to raise out every other tile, 
but I can fill the drain up with ease in that time, so I 
complete my drain in ten hours — that is a rod in an 
hour— at thirty cents per rod, 83 a day. Pretty large 
pay, but remember the broiling sun on my head, the 
mud and water in my boots and up my legs; it is 
protty tough ; but if you won't give thirty cents per 
rod for such a piece, don't be afraid ; don't let that 
stop you from draining ; probably somebody will do it 
for less. With my seven men end myself, we can cure 
the wettest swamp out of doors, if there is a quarter 
of an inch descent to a rod and a good outlet, and we 
don't mire nor stick frst. Geo. Aldsrsok. Albany, 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Moveable Board Fence. 

Within two or three years, some twenty or thirty 
patents hare been granted for modifioations of the 
moreable board fence, made in separate pannels and 
fastened or locked at both the ends. Being placed so 
as to form a sig-sflg line like the common **worm 
fence," their weight keeps them in their position. The 
various patents granted, are for different modes of at- 
taching or locking them together at the corners. Yet 
nearly all have one prominent defect, namely, liability 
to be overthrown by strong winds. In sheltered val- 
leys, the danger is small or nsthing ; but on more ex- 
posed lands, these fences are sometimes overt omed 
throughout their whole length, when their zig-tag struc- 
ture, lying on their sides, makes them oppear very 
much like a row of hen-coops. To prevent this disas- 
ter, stakes are sometimes driven obliquely across the 
bottom board, and in a sloping direction into the 
ground, but these stakes are inconvenient and destroy 
the neat appearance of the structare. 




ing.i. 



The old hurdle fence was a y^jtoable contrivance, bnt 
was mnnufactured at considerable cost, as the ends of 
each panel had to be furnished with a stout stake, 
which must be inserted into as many holes in the earth 
made with a crowbar, and the ends be bound firmly to- 
gether. The moveable fences, recently patented, rest- 
ing with their own weight by their sig-zag position, 
obviate this labor, but are less secure against wind 
and occupy a wider strip of laud. 




Fig. 2. 
The writer has endeavored to combine some of the 
advantages of these two kinds of fence, so far as is 
practicable, in one made not wholly straight, but oc- 
cupying less land than the others, and with a single 
short stake at each corner, locked in and held to its 
place by the mere contact of the ends. 



Fig. S. 
The above figures are a representation of this con- 
trivance — fig. 1 being a view of the whole, and fig. 2 
a plan or view from above. (The pannels are repre- 
sented shorter in tho cut than they are actually made.) 
In both figures, a a is the stake driven into the ground, 
and our readers will probably find no difficulty in under- 
standing from the figures how these stakes are held 
firmly in their place as the pannels are successively 
looked together, by means of the cross battens at the 
ends. An advantage which fhis fence possesses, is that 
the angles at the comers may be made more or less 
by altering the distance between these battens 
the pannels are made. If for instance, it is de- 




sired to have the fence nearly straight, the battens are 
placed further apart ; if the fence is to be more xig- 
sag,they must be nearer together. The stakes are en- 
tirely separate, and need not be more than (our or fire 
feet long. The depth to which Uiey are driven into 
the ground, depends on the degree of exposure to 
winds. The holes are quickly made with a crowbar 
successively for each corner, as the fence is put ap ; 
and as the stakes are separate from the rest of the 
fence, they may at any time be driven in with great 
facility by striking the top. In strong winds, the ten- 
dency is to lift the stakes out on the windward side, 
and thoy^ay work loose by the action of winds during 
the lapse of years ; a few minutes are however suffi- 
cient to drive them in again, even for a long line of 
fence. 

This fence (an inrention of one of the editors of this 
paper,) is not patented. Where lumber is of medium 
price, it may be made for about seventy-five cents per 
rod, and its manufacture would form good winter em- 
ployment for farmers who hnve workships. Both the 
boards and battens may bo made of inch ptne or hem- 
lock fencing, and good cut-nails, well annealed by heat- 
ing to redness, will answer the purpose of cliocbiDg. In 
order to place the boards for jailing, expeditiously to- 
gether, and in exact position, a frame is made lying 
flat upon the ground, with a space cut out for the re- 
ception of each board, a portion of which is shown in 
Fig. 3. 

• • • 

Eentuoky Blue Grass. 

Editors Co. Qewt.— In hn article in the Ohio Cul- 
tivator, copied from the poper of Sanford Howard, 
on Grasses and Herbage, I find, under the caption Poa 
pratensis, enumerated as one, the epear-grass, June 
gra«s, and Kentucky Blue-grass. This Is certainly an 
error. Last winter I looked in vain in New-York and 
Michigan for th^ Kentucky Blue-grass ; what is com- 
monly called June-grass there is very much like it. 
But the June-grass hns Jointf in the "culm" or main 
seed-bearing straw. In the enim of the Kentucky 
blue grofs there are no joints. The straw is sheathed 
in tho blades or leaves, but when they are stript off no 
joint* are found ; the culm ascends In a single shaft 
from the crown. I sent specimens of the June-grass 
and Kentucky Blue-grass to the Ohio Farmer in a let- 
ter, for scientific analysis, but they were too much in- 
jured for use. I now enclose you a specimen of Blue- 
grass. For fhrther particulars I refer yon to an arti- 
cle of mine in the Ohio Farmer, 1856. It may be that 
the northern June-grass is the "Poa sylvestris," or 
some near variety of the Poa pratensis. For the oulm 
of the sylvestris is described as " nearly erect and 
compressed," which I think is applicablo to the June- 
grass. The straw of the Blue-grass is " erect** and 
cylindrical. Will some of your scientific botanists 
look into it 1 An error here is a n'^at loss to the agri- 
culturist, as I regard the Kentucky Blue-grass much 
the most valuable wherever it will flourish. Cassios 
M. Clay. Nov. 15, 1857. 

The specimens had become much cra.«hed and broken 
by the time they had reached Union Springs ; but 
enough remained to show when examined under a mi- 
cro?cope, along with other dried specimens, that they 
had all the specific character of the Poa pratensis. 
There were no indications of the peculiar "joint" in 
the seed-bearing straw or upper portion of the < 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




mentioiMd by oor oorre^oodent May not th« Ken- 
tacky Blae-gran be a dirtiaet, permanent, and more 
luxnrtant variety of theapeoief known aa Foa praten- 
m— or ifl it the same variety only temporarily modified 
by more &yorabIe woiX and climate 1 If our esteemed 
correspoodeot will send full length specimens (from 
root upwards,) to our associate at Union Springs, it will 
enable him to look more thoroughly into the matter. 

Poa aylceatrii is a variety of the Foa compressor 
(which species is also called " Blue-grass, at the east,) 
with a looser panicle and more erect eulm, and with the 
spikelete fewer flowereda than the common Poa com- 
pressa. 

• • • • 

' Flanti for Ornamental Hedges. 

Bditom or CouHTRT QaxTLBMAir— Can yon adrise, 
through the columns of your paper, as to the best kind 
of hedge for this part of the ooontry — the best man- 
ner of planting or setting — whether seeds or slips, and 
cultivating it 1 and an opinion as to its durability. 
Any information regarding the cultivation of hedges, 
would have a general tendency to beautify lawns and 
fields in different parts of the country, and be grate- 
fully reoeived. J. H. 0. VaUey Fails, R. L 

The best plant for hedges, on the whole, so far a« 
our experience and ohservatloa extends, is the Osage 
Orange. We have no donbt it would prove suflleiently 
hardy at Valley Falls, if on a dry hoUom soil. If the 
soil is not naturally quite dry, it should be placed near 
or over the line of a tile drahi. This will render it 
much safer from severe oold, than if snfajeeted to wet- 
It is eonmeneed by setting out one or two year old 
plants, six inches apart These may be had of any 
principal nurseryman in western New- York for $4 or 
$6 per 1,000. They ars always raised from seed. The 
young hedge must be wel^cultivated for several years, 
and cut back once or twice a year, according to the 
directions usually given for hedges, until 4 feet high. 

This cutting may be done with a stiff scythe. Not 
one Osage Orange hedge in tteenly succeeds, simply 
because it is expected to take care qf itself ^Jt^r set- 
ting out Constant culture and cutting are as essen- 
tial as air and food to animals. 

The Suckthom is extremely hardy, but is of slower 
growth, and rarely becomes stout enough, unless on a 
very rich soil, and with high cultivation— and it always 
falls in the Aade of larger trees. It is never thorny 
— the Osago is always filled with sharp thorns. 

Evergreens make the handsomest hedges; and 
although less stout, yet by shutting out sight are usu- 
ally quite safe. The Norway fir Is the Ikstest grower 
— the Hemlock most beaatifni, and the best of any for 
the shade of trees ; the growth is however rather slow. 
It shears finely, and its interior is dense. The Norway 
flr also does woU on these points. 
# • • 

Chimksb SueAR Cahb^— I have some molasses from 
the Chinese sugar sane, which 1 think equal to any 
that we buy, and think so favorably of it, that I in- 
tend to raise enough for my own supply next year. 
It is admired by all who have tasted it^ and there will 
be a large quantity of it raised in this vicinity next 
year, and mills erected for its manufactory. From two 
hundred stalks, I had three quarts of thick heavy mo- 
lasses, which is not as large a yield as some ef my 
neighbors had, as mine was not as ripe as it should 
have been. F. Doouttle. 



Spider- Apple-Pie« 

** O, thev made an apple pie, 
And tne craei was made of rye; 
YoQ must oat it quick, or die 
On the barren strand.*' 

— NoTuiMO TO Eat. 
Pot-apple-pies, platter-apple-pies, pan-apple-pies, 
apple-puddings, apple-dumplings, and so on, ai« all 
very exoellent dishes, when well made ; but a good 
spider-apple-pie is superior to them all. A good one 
is far better than a roasted turkey, a baked goose, a 
stewed Shanghai, and a score of other dishes, which 
are called good. It is a most capital dinner for a far- 
mer. Being very hearty, a hard-working farmer will 
labor on it, with a strong hand, and a cheerful heart, 
until the next meal time, without growing faint It is 
like the beat of medicine for a morose dy«peptic ; for, 
after dining on such a dish, if despondency has been 
depicted on their visage for a month, a smile may be 
seen playing on their brow. \Vhat a pertinent, and 
spicy, and instructive leader an editor will write after 
such a dinner ! Old bachelors, and old maids too, (no re- 
flections on their happy hours of single blessedness,) af- 
ter breakfasting on such a dish, if they ore not really a 
*' dead set," will, most assuredly, forget for the time 
their thirty-five and upwards ; and be heard to shout, 
with as much animation as an old revolutioner ever 
sung Yankee Doodle, 
** Theresa the tinker, the tailor, the boy that follows the 

plow, 
I most and will get married 1 The fit comes on me now." 

How the children all like it ; and it is Infinitely more 
healthy for them, than pork and beef and such like. 
Let my wife dictate 

How TO Make it. — It may be made plain and cheap, 
or very rich and costly, and always be good, if it be 
cooked just right 

Make a good dofi|^h of rye flour, or wheat floor, 
(Graham flour is the best,) and prepare it as for biscuit. 
Prepare the apples as for common pies, and after 
greasing the spider, place the apples in a heap in the 
spider. See that no apples touch the side of the spider. 
Roll out the crust as thick as your hand, and place it 
on the apples, pressing it down between the apples and 
the side of the spider. No under crust Cut a hole 
in the top of the crust, and pour into the apples about 
half a tea-cupfull of water for a spider that will hold 
about three quarts, and a half tea-cup of molasses, 
and a piece of butter as large as a hen^s egg. Cover 
it with a close lid, and cook wi(h a moderate fire. 
Serve, when warm, with cream and sugar, with butter 
and sugar, with rich gravy, or with the extract of 
Sorghum, Ac. And, when satisfied that 
"»Tis not for roan's supremest good, 
To cram himself with loatbsomafood^'' 
take one platefuU less. S. Edwards Todd. Lake 
RidgSt Tompkins Co., K Y. 



Sbelteiingf Cabbag^ea tor IVtnter Use. 

I would suggest a simple alteration in the plan re- 
commended of shslterlng and shading cabbage from 
freezing, for winter use. Namely, instead of making 
a flat surface with old rails or ortherwiie, and covering 
with litter — make a roof shaped surfkce by longer 
crotches opposite the middle of each end of the bed, 
and poles to fit, the middle pole being one and a half 
to two feet higher than the side poles. Then lay on any 
kind of wood of suitable sfxe and length, and cover 
with bean haulm, or other ooarse material — ^thon with 
hay, and rake off smooth. By this means a roof that 
will throw off water is secured and the cabbage kept 
dry, and rain which would soak through a flat covering 
and be frosen into a ooating of ice on the cabbage, ef- 
fectually carried over the sides of the bed In some 
seasons at least, this would be true. I have adopted 
this plan in sheltering our cabbage for winter use. j. w.c. 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




Plan of a Small Farm-Houte. 

MESSits. Editobs — Haring obsarred that ▼arioos 
eorrotpondents bare lately furniahed to the Country 
Gentleman, plans of farm-hooaes, many of them rery 
good, but involving a greater expenditure of capital 
than some young farmers, just setting out in life, would 
lilce to incur, I send the following plan and drawings 
of a small and cheap tenement, designed to comprise 
most of the chief essentials required in a building of 
that olaas, to be buiU of wood, and to ooet a sum leas 
than one thousand dollars. 

The plan and drawings are made by a scale of 12 
parts in an inch,* and have been copied by your cor- 
respondent, on this reduced scale, from the drawings 
made and furnished by him (or a house now under con- 
tract, to be built on a farm of three hundred acres, 
near the town of Easton, in Talbot Co , on the enstern 
shore of Maryland. The farm referred to has no dwell- 
ing upon it suitable for a comfortable residence, and 
the want of such a structure has always, hitherto, pre- 
vented the owner from securing a good and permanent 
tenant. As a friend and frequent visitor at the home- 
farm of the owner, your correspondent was requested 
to select a site, prepare plans and specifications, con- 
tract for bnilding, and purchase materials for the house, 
the plan of which is herewith sent. All this has been 
done ; and, hence, sufficient assurance may be received 
that this is not a mere fancy sketch, but the plan of a 
building now in process of construction. 

The site for the house has been chosen with due re- 
gard to accessibility from the public road — to the cen- 
tral point of the estate — to the drainage — ^to the main 
farm road — to the bam— to wat«r for family use— to the 
points of the compass and the prevailing winds— to the 
proper relative position of the necessary out-buildings 
and the garden, and lastly, though of comparatively 
minor importance, to secure a cheerful prospect from 
the windows of the Living Room. 



22-6 




|9ft. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 1 represents the first floor. 

The living room and the chamber upon this floor are 
accessible from the front and rear of the dwelling ; 
and each room in the bouse can be used separately and 
Independently, without the pecessity of passing through 

♦The eni^iivlngs are reduced about one-third flrom the 
drawings of our correspoodeiit. 




any other. The living room is fnniisfaed with windows 
on three rides, and on the fourth is a very nsef ul con- 
venience, the china closet, which, as this is the dining 
and sitting room of the family, Is almost indispensable. 
The store room adjoins the kitchen, and in the passage, 
whence the stairs give access to the second floor, is a 
window for light and for ventilation. The window, as 
well as the outer door near it, will be of great advan- 
tage when opened in summer, for the purpose of secur- 
ing a cool draneht through the kitchen. The little 
porch at the rear is so arranged as to act as a shield to 
the door at the end of the house, and prevent the rain 
from drivypg in, and to afford a shelter for varioas pur- 
poses. The porch at the front of the house is provided 
With a bench on each side, and the comfort of such an 
addition to every house in the country is too well known 
to need comment. 

The kitchen chimney, it will be observed, is so placed 
as not to detract in summer from Che coolness of the 
main dwelling. In the part of the country where this 
house is to be built, wood is still plentiful, and the fire- 
places on the first floor have been constructed for the 
use of that fuel. The kitchen fire-place is therefore 
much larger than would be necessary if the ordinary 
cooking stove were used ; in which case, a simple flue 
will be abundantly sufficient. In this bouse, hawever, 
it is left optional with the tenant in what mode be will 
consume his fuel ; for those who have never used cook- 
ing stoves, are not always willing to incur the expense 
of baying one. The hearth is made large to avoid risk 
from fire. The recesses in each side of the kitchen 
chimney are to contain shelves. The store-room will 
have four rows of shelves, each shelf 18 inches wido. 
The closet in the living room is also to be provided with 
shelves. 




Fig. t 

Fig. No. 2, representing the second floor, hardly re- 
quires any explanation. The two chambers on this 
floor are without fire*places, and are designed to be 
warmed by stoves, for which purpose the requisite 
openings will be left In the flues. 

Fig. No. 3 shows a section of the whole building, 
from front to rear, including the cellar, which last it 
was at first intended, should be constmoted underneath 
the living room. This intention, however, has mnce 
been abandoned from motives of economy, as no stooe 
is to be had in that part of Maryland, and bricks are 
too expensive. This cellar should be added wherever 
stone can be procured at any reasonable rate. An arch 
is turned over the kitchen chimney to prevent smoking. 
Access to the cellar, it should be mentioned, wos to be 
had by a cellar door, opening in two folds, nndemeath 
the window in the rear of the living-room. 

Fig. No. 4 represents the front elevation. The front 
door opens in two folds. This front will face the public 
road, from which the dwriling will stand at the distance 
of several hundred yards. 

The chimneys, hearths and underpinning, will be of 
brick. The exterior and interior finish will be quite 





CULTIVATOB. 




Fig. & 
plain, and there will be no braokete. The oornieei of 
the gablee of the main building will be simple projeo- 
tiona of the roof, two feet and six inches wide, with a 
plain barge board about foar inches wide. The cornice 
of the kitchen will have a projection of eighteen inches. 




Fig. 4. 
All the floors of the house will be of yellow pine. It 
is unnecessary to go into further details, as the draw- 
ings themselves afford sufficient information if exa> 
mined with the scale, and the cost of work and mate- 
rials vary so much in different parts of the Union, that 
no safe guide could be found in the prices paid here. 
£. L. B. Baltimorey Md. 

• • • — "*" 

King Philip Corn. 

A good fallow crop, — to precede wheat, — has long 
been a desideratum with farmers. To occupy the 
ground which otherwise would be a naked fallow, with 
something that will not injore the succeeding growth 
of wheat, and at the same time yield a valuable pro- 
duct, would be a positive profit. Hoed or cultivated 
crops, by destroying weeds and mellowing the surface, 
are better for this purpose than such as are sown broad- 
cast; and henee, if other things are equal, com and 
beans are better than oats, peas, and barley. A serious 
difficulty in the way of adopting com as a fallow crop, 
is its laUneM, preventing the early sowing of the wheat, 
while the weight of the stalks renders the task of clear- 
ing the land of them, one of no small magnitude. 

There is one variety of eom, however, — the King 
Philip, — which to a considerable extent, obviates these 
objections. The past late spring, and subsequent short 
', has enabled us to g^ve this variety a severe 
this purpose. Several acres were planted on 




heavy inverted sod, without any manure, with Billing- s 
planter, in rows about three and a half feet apart, and 
in <* hills " twenty-two inches in the row. The soil be- 
ing quite wet when plowed, a part became baked and 
hardened ; but Billings' planter is an efficient one for 
pulverizing hard earth, and the whole field came up 
with scarcely the failure of a hill. We think this suo- 
cessful result was in part owing to the variety of com 
planted,— which ripening so early, scarcely ever fur- 
nishes a poor or immature seed. The field was not 
hoed, but the stalks were mostly thinned to three in the 
hill. It was cultivated Aree times with a horse ; but 
six times would have been much better. 

In one hundred days, most of the ears were har- 
dened, notwithstanding the extremely unfavorable sea- 
son, and before the middle of 9 mo. (Sept.) the ripened 
ears projected from the dry and open husks. The crop 
from a portion of the field was cut up and drawn off, 
admitting the early sowing of wheat, the crop of which 
is now as green and promising as any from fallowed 
land. In favorable seasons, wheat might be sown af- 
ter this cora by the first of autumn. 

A portion of the field was measured, neither the 
heaviest nor the lightest part, but a fair medium, and 
the product was found to exceed sixty bushels per acre 
— which is well fur an entirely unman ured field, with 
only ordinary cultivation, the whole being fuUy ripened. 

The King Philip cora is rejected by some who have 
tried It, because they have not given It proper treat- 
ment. To obtain a full product, it requires to be planted 
much thicker than the larger varieties. It should be 
either in drills, or in dose hills in one way, — not over 
two feet by three and a half. The smallness of its 
stalk admits closer planting ; and this smallness also 
gives an unfavorable opinion of the real amount of the 
crop to those who have never measured the product 

• ♦ • 

Preparing Oroundi for Orchards. 

Mbssrs. Editobs — ^Which is the best time to set out 
an apple orchard of young trees — spring or fall 1 If 
in the spring, would it not'be advisable to prepare the 
ground by plowing and harrowing, and to dig the holes 
before winter, in order that the frost might pulverise 
the ground 1 For grapevines, bones and oyster shells 
thrown about the roots are thought to be good — how 
would they answer for frait trees 1 G. Salttn Co.^ N. J. 

For apple trees, it is a matter of little importance 
whether transplanting be done in autumn or early 
spring, provided the work is well done. Oood c^fter 
culture is far Du>re essential. Autumn Is much the 
best time to prepare the ground for the reason assign- 
ed, with the additional one that any enricher applied 
in autumn becomes well reduced and diffused through 
the soil by the time of spring operations. 

Bones, oyster shells, and other special manures, are 
not so uni/brmly beneficial as yard manure, but some- 
times they succeed admirably, being just the thing 
needed under some peculiar condition of the soil. 
Where they prove decidedly beneficial to grapes, they 
would no doubt be useful to apple trees. 
• e • 

Fire ih the CniMicEY. — In cases of fire in the chim- 
ney, it is an excellent plan to put salt on the fire in 
the grate below, as it acts chemically on the flaming 
soot above. This has been found to extinguish the fire 
in a short time, and deserves to be more generally 
i known. 





CULTIVATOR. 



Tl&e Torenla Avlatlea. 

A new and rare green- house plant, the Toreniaasi- 
atica, 18 shown in the above cut. It is a native of 
the East Indies, and needs the shade, moisture, and 
protecUon of a house, and will not succeed well out of 
doors. It is remarkable for the softness and richness 
of the color of its beautiful blue and purple flowers. 
A single plant, trained in a suspended pot or siere, in 
a Camellia house belonging to J. Dundes of Philadel- 
phia, grew in one summer, with the side branohes hang- 
ing down around it, >o as to measure ten feet in diame- 
ter, presenting in all parts a perfect mass of flowers and 

foUage. 

• • • 

The Ofier or Basket Willow. 

It is now six years since the attention of the public 
was directed to the culture of the Osier or Basket Wil- 
low in this oountry, by an article on that subject in the 
Report of the Patent Office. The communication was 
copied fh>m Hunt's Merchnnts' Magazine, and repre- 
sented the cultivation of this willow as being adapted 
to the soil and climate of the United States— its man- 
agement being as easily acquired, the demand as great- 
er than the supply, and highly profitable to the culti- 
vator. Although this article was notoriously inoorrect, 
having exaggerated greatly the quantity imported and 
consumed in this country, nevertheless its appearance 
in a mercantile publication of respectability, and its 
endorsement by an official report of the government, 
gave to it the weight and authority that attaches to 
genuineness and reliability. To the veritable Ame- 
rican, conviction is tantamount to action, and Crocket 
like, *' when he is sure he is right he will go ahead." 
The only mystery in this ease is the oblivious slumber 
into which the subject appears for so long a time to 
have fallen. What cause can be assigned for this pro- 
found silence, this persistent sleep? Where is the 
spirit of Yankeedom 1 Certainly we are not to enter- 
tain the unnatural supposition, that a people so famous 
as ours for ** reckless speculation," so celebrated for a 
mad pursuit of the " Almighty dollar," would be like- 
ly to overlook the advantages of an enterprise that af- 





forded at the same time the treble atiractioiB of noTel- 
ty, facility and profit In what, then, are we to seek 
a cause for this apparent indifierenee 7 Is it that the 
more recent, the more novel JHoscorea Batatas and 
Sorgho Sucre, have displaced the *< previous ques- 
tion." It would seem that the dimensions of the Chi- 
nese Yam have been puffed up by culture or other pro- 
cess, from the questionable '^ small black lumps," four 
of which could be disposed of in the thimble of an old 
lady in the Heldorbergs, as described we trust rather 
indignantly, by your Rensseleerville correspondent a 
year or two since, until it has now acquired the pletho- 
ric proportions of an esculent three feet io length, as 
exhibited at the New- York SUte Fair at BuflTalo. As 
to the Chinese Sugar Cane, we have reason to know 
that its last winter's popularity caused Uncle Sam's 
mail bags to be distended with its seeds, and per ant' 
sequence, the venders' pockets to be equally distended 
with the proceeds. Even while we write, its saccharine 
qualities are tested by the glutinous digits of half our 
acquaintance, not to speak of its dulcet virtues, visible 
on the lips of the other half. 

Perhaps another reason for not engaging in a culture 
that requires a few years for perfect development, and 
full returns to be made, may be sought in the preva- 
lence of a spirit that can form no application of a pros- 
pective l>enefit — the same spirit that induces some to 
negle. t the propogation of IVuit tree?, and ornamental 
plantations, from the selfish apprehension that they 
may never pluck the fruit, or enjoy the shade. The 
posterity of such persons suffer a virtual duinhoritonce 
from the short-sighted egotism of their parents. 

Possibly some are wishing to prevent an agita- 
tion of the subject, fearing an excitement in that direc- 
tion would operate to effect an over-production, thereby 
surcharging the markA, and cause a depression in 
ruling prices. What motives soever may influence 
others in withholding their experience from the unini- 
tiated, the writer of this will detail his amateur experi- 
ments, and hopes he may be the means of calling out 
others, if there be any, to do the same. Of the Patent 
Office Report for 1853, containing the article on willow 
alluded to, there were ordered to be printed for distri- 
bution, by Congress, 100,000 extra copies. Supposing 
nine-tenths of these to fall into the hands of political 
partisans who had no interest in reading them, it would 
leave 10,000 copies to be read, and of the readers, per- 
haps one in every ten might conclude to try at least 
one acre, which would make one thousand acres plant- 
ed of the osier. The above is the only bssis on which 
we could make an approximate estimate, however far 
from the truth it may prove. 

Early in the spring of 1854, I addressed different 
gentlemen, strangers to me, soliciting information oon- 
cerning the wilfow or osier. These persons politely res- 
ponded, and one of them had cuttings of the Salix 
Viminalis, which he would ftimish me at 915 per 
thousand, if ordered immediately. Another statement 
represented the Salix Vimlnalis as nearly worthless in 
this climate, though chiefly depended on in England 
for osiers. 

I was eventually fortunate enough to communicate 
with Dr. C. W. Grant of Newburgh, N. Y., a gentle- 
man whose courtesy and integrity I am happy on this 
occasion to commend. From him I learned, that after 
being disappointed in the S. Viminalis, as many 
Europeans had been before, and not willing to iuocnmb 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




u tbaj had ko the flnt attempt^ he had imported all , 
the fpeeiee he ooold hear of from Europe, amoaDiing 
to nearly a hondred kinds, and teited them, of which 
he had foimd the Saiix purpursa, S, triandriOf and 
S. Forfnana^ especially adapted to the hot son and dry 
summers of our climate, and more recently had dis- 
covered another aort thai promised to excel them all in 



I obtained of him oattings of the Purpurea and 
Triandria, and of the last mentioned species, which, 
as it came to me without a name, I propose, Ulo va- 
lerUc, to call Salix Grantianoy as Dr. Grant appears 
to have the credit of introducing it. In consequence 
of a flood, they were transferred from the express to 
the canals, and arrived the last of May, nearly four 
weeks later than was anticipated. My ground was 
upland, clayey loam, that had been cleared forty years, 
bat never plowed till the year before, and now trenched 
the depth of the spade blade. The cuttings were in- 
serted in the recentljr trenched soil, perpendicularly, 
leaving about two inches above ground, and in conside- 
ration of the late planting, and the unprecedented 
drought that followed, I considered myself fortunate 
that one-third even, barely survived the first season. 

The next year, 1855, a frost in June frose the tops of 
the shoots, then 6 inches loqg, of alt but the purpurea^ 
proving this variety more hardy than the other two. I 
had not cut the small growth of the year prevbus, 
Vhieh caused a bushy and scraggy appearance to this 
year's increase. They answered however, for sets, and 
in 1856 I extended my original plantation very con- 
siderably, and although that was another exceedingly 
dry summer, not one in a hundred of those I planted 
Hailed. The present year has been very propitious, and 
my "willow holt'' has assumed an exceedingly attrac- 
tive aspect, exhibiting a dense growth from eight to 
ten feet in height The Purpurea makes beautiful, 
lithe, slender rods, purplish, and of nearly a uniform 
thickness their whole length ; as many as forty in a 
stool, eight to ten feet in height, without a single side 
branch. For every purpose this is undoubtedly the 
most desirable variety. The main shoots of the Trian- 
dria are eight or nine feet high, and throw out many 
side branches, and taper more than the former one. It 
has a great number of smaller shoots of great tough- 
ness. Its rods are yellow, and extremely flexible, an- 
swering well for baskets and small work. It would 
yield a lajge amount of Osier where the soil is suffi- 
ciently wet, as it is more thirsty for moisture than the 
other two. Its abundance of side branches seem to 
be an objection on account of peeling and splitting. 

The third variety, which I choose to designate as 
Orantiana, is diiferent in its foliage, resembling that 
of the apple, from all the willows I have seen. This 
is unquestionably a very desirable willow. Its growth 
is extremely rufid, afibrding in a short JLime a mass 
of straight, upright, smooth, deep-green rods, from 
seven to ten feet high, so dense as to hide a grenadier, 
withdrawn but two yards within them. A field of it but 
one year and a half planted, exhibits a highly beauti- 
ftd and attractive view, with its uniform and even sur- 
face, and luxurious growth. As an oaier it will answer 
well for split work, and would probably yield more and 
succeed on a greater diversity of soils, than any other. 
It is being tested as a hedge plant for the prairies, and 
not may snocood. Cultivated as a tree, it is a 
aoquiiition. . To the lover of this most beautiful 




of all natural oljects — » tree — iu rapidity of growth, 
its upright and polished stem, its rounded and leafy 
head, its large, early and long remaining catkins, glit- 
tering in the sun in the spring, with all the colors of 
the rainbow, its erect and cleanly habit, render it an 
ornament not to be dispensed with, in group, or avenue, 
or lawn. 

From what experience I have attained, I am con- 
vinced that with either of the above sorts of willow, 
can easily be produced two tons to the acre, and there 
would no longer seem to be any excuse for importing 
this article, unless it were to enrich the Importer. 

There is little extant published on the culture of the 
willow. What I have been able to find was in a print- 
ed letter of Charles Downing, Esq., a circular by Mr. 
Colby, Vt., an article by Dr. Grant in a Michigan 
periodical, and one in each the Country Gentleman and 
Horticulturist 0. D. P. ZelienopUy Pa. 

■ • • m 

Improving Leaky OeUan. 

Messrs. Luthkr Tucker A Soh—As many persom 
have doubtless cellars into which water finds its w«y, 
in inconvenient quantities, frequently causing mucb 
damage, trouble, and loss with vegetables intended for 
family use in the spring, I will here present a plan 
which, though it will not cure entirely, will, if carried 
out, so much modify such difficulties that no further 
trouble will attend them than oarrying the water out 
of the cellar as It soaks into the place prepared for it 
I have adopted this plan in my own cellar, and the re- 
sult is a oontinualiv dry bottom therein. The plan con- 
sists of simply putting a drain around the sides of the 
cellar, nine inches or a foot below the surface, with 
leading drains with a sligfit fall to some point where it 
will be most convenient tp carry the water out from^ 
at which latter, sink a hole the sise and depth of a bar- 
rel, and stone it— or put in an old flour barrel with a 
few small holes bored in through the bottom and sides 
—but stoning is best The drains are made by putting 
two rows of small sUves, of two to four inches thick 
and wide, along the sides of each, (sUves of varying 
thickness should be correspondingly let down so as to 
leave a level top to each row,) leaving a water oourae 
the width of your hand between the rows— and cover- 
ing with old inch or half inch boards— oak if you have 
them, about nine or ten inches wide. Then put a lit- 
tle hay slightly twisted along each side, put on the mold 
and tread, and the drain is con*plete. A large cellar 
may be drained in this way in half a day— and the 
water coming in, in spring, all brought into the small 
or barrel well, through the dndns, and carried out as 
often as thero is a pailful accumulated, thus securing 
a dry bottom all over the eellar, by preventing the 
water raising withing nine inches or a foot of the sur- 
face thereof. Four or five barrowsf^ll of small stone 
properly put in, will drain a large cellar cheaply and 
effectively. Woodcock Clark. 

• • » 

Remedy tor Fleaa. 

Mbbsrs. Editors- J. B. W., in your paper of 17th 
September, asks for a remedy for fleas Nothing, I 
believe, but the Fronchman's powder will kill them ; 
but the following will keep them firom his bed : Take 
five or six pieces of camphor of the sise of a walnut ; 
tie them up separately m pieces of doth; take them 
to bed, placing them in different parts top and bottom, 
and I think he will sleep with less annoyance f^m the 
pests. 

I learned the above romedy many years ago when 
in Paris, where fleas abound. A Subscribxr. ^ 
maiea Plaiiu, Mom. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




The Domtntque Fomrl. 

This common and well-known va- 
riety of our domestic fowl, there is 
good reason to belieTe, is old and 
distinct, though it is generally 
looked upon as a mere farm-yard 
fowl ; that it is the accidental result 
of promiscuous crossing ; hut there 
are several forms among the farm 
yard fowls, so called, that are seen 
to be repeated generation alter 
generation, the counterparts of 
which are to be met with, scattered 
here and there, over the whole 
country. Thoy are a beautiful fowl, 
when well selected and carefully 
bred. They are distinguished as 
Dominique by their markings and 
their color, which is generally con- 
sidered an indication of hardihood 
tfnd fecundity. They are by some 
called " Hawk-colored fowls," from 
thoir strong resemblance in color to 
the birds of that name. In Eng- 
land they are usually called " Cuc- 
koo fowls," from the fancied re- 
semblance of their plumage to the 
feathers on the Cuckoo's breast. 

We seldom see bad hens of this 
variety, and take them "all-in-all," 
we do not hesitate in pronouncbg 
them one of the best and most pro- 
fitable fowls ; being hardy, good layers, careful nur- 
ses, and affording exeellent eggs, and the quality of 
their flesh highly esteemed. The hens are not large, 
bat plump and full breasted. The eggs average 
about two ounoes Bach are white, and of porcelain 
whiteness. * 

The prevailing and true color of the Dominique fowl 
is a lightish ground, barred croMwise, and softly shaded 
with a slaty-blue, as indicated in the portrait of the 
oock figured at the head of this article. The comb is 
rariable, some being single, while others are double — 
most however are single. The iris, bright orange; 
feet, legs, and bill, bright yellow ; and some light flesh- 
color. We prefer the yellow legs and bill, and con- 
sider them well worthy of promotion in the poultry- 
yard. A flock of forty or fifty of these fowls, make a 
beautiful show, either in a yard or running at large. 
In a late visit to a gentleman's seat on Staten Island, 
we had the pleasure of seeing a yard of Dominique 
fowls, and we were delighted with their appearance, so 
healthy looking and so uniform in color and form. He 
assured us they had furnished him with abundance of 
the best of eggs during the year. C. N. Bexent. 

Springsidef Nov.f 1857. 

1 Mfc I 
^ Proflta of Bntter JUaktngf. 

Eds. Co. Qknt. — As your paper is open for results 
and profits, I send yon the results of four cows, milked 
by me this summer. Calved from April 10th to 20th — 
were fed two quarts oat meal from first of April till 
turned out to grass, which was about the firet of June. 
Their pasture through the summer was rather short- 
were fed a few pumpkins through the fall, and stabled 





?> _^ ^ 

THE DOMIKIQUE TOWL. 

all stormy nights, which must be done if 70a want 
milk from them in the winter. 

Na 1, about one-fourth Devon, remainder natlra 

No. 2, native. 

No. 3, half Durham, and half native. 

No. 4, do. da da do. 

Butter sold, 600 Iba, at 19J c $117.00 

Used In famUy 200 »«., at 19jc, 3».aO 

Pork fntted on milk, 424 »«., at 6^ Sasa 

Four Calves, at $6, 30,00 

Keeping cows, at f25, tUOOO 

190,32 

I calculated the cost of keeping the cows last year 
at tlOO, which I think will pay the trouble pretty weEJ, 
and give a good price for keeping. 

I hope that persons giving their results, from oo^r^ or 
any other stock, will be more particular about giving 
the expenses, which will give readers a little better 
chance to judge for themselvee of the profits. J- X. 
Curtis. Chenango Co.^ N. Y. 
• •• 

Good Lai^bs. — I send you the weight of three ewa 
lambs. I weighed on the third day of Nov. inst, three 
of my ewe lambs. They weighed as follows : 163 Ibi , 
142 lbs., 140 lbs.— the throe weighing 445 lbs. These 
lambs were nearly seven months old when weigh eJ i 
they were dropped in the. month of April last They 
are of the Leicester breed, got by my imported buck, 
and are pronounced by good judges that have seen 
them, to be the best Iambs that they have ever seen of 
their age. I think one of them as good a lamb as there 
is in America. I will give $60 for as good a one. Eira 
RiMOER Lyons, N.Y. [What was the 50 cents^ con- 
tained in the letter with the above, for?] 





THE CULTIVATOR. 





r^^^ ^^ssa^. sssm 



l^^^^fSUffS^l^^^^^giai 



9o^mm^MJM^nLM»^*^ 



,^sf*^^ 



i^^ 



Improvements in School ArohiUotnre. 

There U no pofnt on which a greater mistake <• made, by thoee haTing in eharge the school affairs of dittricta 
the whole country OTor, than in neglecting to render •cfaool-buildings comfortable and attractiye. Wo ha?e seen 
district school-housee in the country,— where one would think there was no need of economy in land, and that 
the shade of the green trees was abundant 
enough to be had for the seeking— eet down 
at the Junction of two sandy road«, without 
eren a bush in sight, and scarce a blade of 
ftrasfl, — a rickotty shanty like structure, pla- 
ced so high on blocks that you could see the 
day-light under as well as above and on 
every side of it — in fact put up, one would 
infer, just where the winds would be surest 
to penetrate its crevices in winter, and the 
summer sun beat the fiercest on Its unpro- 
tected ddes, as well as made aa ugly as pos- 
sible throughout exterior and interior. 

The Teacher* has been publishing some 
good suggestions on the subject of School LI 
Arohitecture, accompanied by plans and de- 
signs. By the courtesy of Mr. Cruikshakk 
we are enabled to present above one of these 
designs from the November number. This 
house will seat 144 pupils. Scale, one-six- 
teenth of an inch to the fisot. The dotted 
line in the oenter represents a sliding door, 
hung with weights and pulleys, and sliding 
upward to the top of the room. A partition 
in the attic separates the rooms, and receives 




New-York Tsichkr : A Monthly Periodical, de- 
the cause of Qerieral £dacatlon and to the Eleva- 

the Teacher** Profession. Albany : Jamvs Crdik* 

66 State street. 




this door as it slides up towards the point of the roof 
The sliding door may be constructed so as to serve 
a blackboard on each side. It may here be remarked, 
that for smaller plans, with a single room, the 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




•eating here g^ren may be adopted, and if desirable 
the elevation may be plain. It should, however, al- 
ways be substantial, and of the best material and 
workmanship. 

IVe also oopy the following remarks, in which the 
importance of the subject is by no means exaggerated : 

" Whatever may seem to argue to the contrary, in 
individual instances, it is doubtless true as a general 
thing, that a careless indifference on the part of any 
community, on the subject of popular education, finds 
its truest type in the character and condition of the 
school house. An intelligent and commendable seal in 
the interests of popular culture, will show itself in 
practical efforts to improve and beautify the temples 
of instruction, and rear up fitting monuments to public 
intelligence and public taste. Nor this alone. It need 
not be argued, that, in educating the children, the si- 
lent influences of taste, beauty, loveliness, enstamp 
themselves npon the charaoter>~that like the sunlight 
and the dew, and the balmy air, they beautify and 
fertilise all that comes within the circle of their infla- 
ence. Too much care cannot be exercised in making 
^nr school rooms pleasant, healthful, and beautiful. 
The open fields in the gladsome summer time, with 
their wealth of hill and dale, green shady groves and 
singmg birds, waving grain and fragrant air, are too 
fair a paradise to be exchanged -for the pandemonium 
of a wretched filthy hovel, on the barren hill side, by 
the dusty street, unprotected from the scorching sun or 
the winter blast, or on the margin of a fetid marsh, 
enhaling its deadly miasma. No wonder that free, 
joyous childhood, will not be despoiled of its birthright, 
to pine away in the dreary monotony of such a prison. 
If children are expected to make improvement in their 
studies, the school room where they spend their hap- 
piest years must be made attractive. A moment's 
consideration of this subject, in all its bearings of ex- 
pense, utility, health, will suffice to show that if, does 
not pay to neglect these important interests. 
• • • 
. Covered Barn -Yards. 

Mebsbs. Editobs— I have within a few days visited 
the farm of S. B. Atwood in Watertown, where his 
barn-yard is completely shedded over. Is this the best 
way 1 It hit mj taste exactly, and as I intend to build 
a new underground bam, I would like your opinion, or 
that of some of your correspondents, on the subject. 

I have also a clover mill, shingle mill, and thresher, 
all driven by water-power, and I would inquire which 
is the best and most profitable way to dispose of the 
chaff— to let It rot in the heap, or to cart it to the barn- 
yard, and whether sawdust would be a help to it or 
notl Charles Blobs. Bethiem, Ct. 

It is generally best to have manure yards covered — 
depending, however, on circumstances. If there is too 
much water falling on the yard, it must of course prove 
detrimental, hj carrying off liquid manure, to say 
nothing of the moonvenience of surplus water. On the 
oontr4rv. if there is a large amount of straw and other 
vegetable matter to be worked down, a cover may keep 
it too dry. Again, a cover may be of little use, if the 
drippings of the eaves, and other surplus water, are 
permitted to flow the yard. Observation will readily 
show any farmer whether excessive water is wasting 
his liquid manure, or whether his vegetable materials 
are too dry to rot and ferment properly, and to act ac- 
cordingly. There is no doubt that the best manure is 
made where thereis jus€%noughof solid material add- 
ed to absorb all the liquid portions from animals, with- 
out any addition of water from rains— and this liqnid 
portton is larger than is generally supposed ; hence the 
more common error is in not adding enough straw, chaff, 
dried muck, Ao., and in all such cases, a shed is bene- 
ficial. 

The best way by far to use the ohaff, is to use it as 
an absorbent for liquid manure, by carting it to the 
barn-yard, in a dry state. 




Draining Swamps. 

Mks&rs. Editors— Will it probably pay to drain a 
swamp with a surface of muck from 12 to 18 inches 
deep— sandy subsoil, and pretty well filled with stumps 
and roots, and quite wet. The adjoining land «b worth 
from 975 to 8100 per acre. 

My soil is a sandy loam about eight inches deep — 
subsoil yellow sand, not leachy. In what mode can I 
most speedily, (having due regard to economy,) by 
bringing up tho subsoil and manuring, make a soil two 
feet deep. Can it be well done in a year or two, and 
with how much manure to the acre. Subscuibbe. 
Saratoga Springs, Nov. 7, 1857. 

We should think the soil described by our correspon- 
dent is of just the right character to yield a large pro- 
fit by draining — the subsoil forming a good solid bottom^ 
for the tue. 

We cannot judge the amount of labor and manure 
to make a good soil, not being acquainted with the cha- 
racter of the materials ; but it is probable that ^after 
thorough draining, by the use of the subsoil plow and 
then of the double Michigan, a good depth could be 
attained, and a proper proportion of hard soil be mixed 
with the muck, to produce fine crops. A few loads of 
leached ashes per acre, and a moderate dressing of yard 
manure, say 25 to 40 loads, would probably give very 

fine crops. 

• • • 

Transplanting Trees. 

Mbsbbs. Editors— In a few weeks I intend putting 
out a lot of trees. I am at a loss to know whether it 
is best to deprive the young trees, before setting them 
out, of all the small rootlets or fibres which adhere to 
the main roots, which I have seen recommended in the 
" Ohio Valley Farmer," or whether to plant the trees 
as they have been taken from the nursery, with all the 
fibrescand roots on, with the exception of those that are 
bruised. You or any of your subecriber's advice in 
the matter, will much oblige a new beginner of fruit 
culture. C. F. Cincinnati^ Not. 6, 1657. 

It may be laid down as a universal rule, that the 
grater the amount of uninjured roots that can be 
transferred from one place to another, in transplanting, 
the better. If aU the roots and fibres can be placed in 
the new position, precisely as they stood before, and 
without drying in the air, the tree would not only be 
uninjured, but unchecked in growth. Where, however, 
the young fibres have been much exposed, dried, and 
killed, they are of no value, and would be better cut 
off, the larger roots sending out new fibres to replace 
them. It is, however, safer to let them remain unless 
badly injured, but care should be taken to spread 
them out well, and fill earth well in among them. It 
is only where they cause interaticea in careless setting 
out, that they prove prejudicial 

• • • 

To Harden Lard for Candlea. 

For 12 lbs. lard, Uke 1 lb. alum and 1 do. of salt- 
petre—dissolve the alum and saltpetre in a little water 
— mix the lard and water, or put them together over 
a fire, and boil till the water is all boiled ent It must 
be stirred while boiling to get the alum and saltpetre 
well mixed with the lard. There will be some sedi- 
ment at the bottom. 

For tallow I should think one-third the above would 
be a plenty to harden the softest tallow ; but any 
can tell by trying a UUle at first If that 
enough, add more. C. F. W. Vnion MUia, la. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Importaaoo of Good TnasplanUng. 

A oorr«8pondent of the Genesee Farmer states that 
he prooared twenty drj and shrivelled peach trees last 
sprinf^, of a nurseryman who had dug them up early 
in spring and heeled them in, and being " onlls " had 
remained unsold. They were set out about the time 
that peaeh trees in the narsery row were coming out 
in fall leaf. They were treated in the following man- 
ner : The bruised roots were pruned off, the tope close- 
ly shortened in, so that they might correspond with the 
reduced roots. They were carefully set in holes made 
about two feet across and eight inches deep. The earth 
was well filled in among the interstices, settling it with 
water poured in. They were then freely mulched with 
strawy manure. Every one lived and made " an ex- 
traordinary growth," while one in the snme rows treat- 
ed in the common manner (which we suppose means 
unshortened and nnmulched,) did not live through half 
the summer. 

The peach tree, more than any other, needs vtry free 
shortening back in setting out We have succ«ede<l 
better with trees three or four years from the bud, or 
twice the ordinary site, than with one year trees with- 
out this treatment, "^hero is no other tree, that is more 
sensibly affected with good q/?er culture— for example, 
after being set well, give it mellow cultivation the same 
sesuon throughout, (or mulch it heavily with coarse 
manure,) and it will send out shoots about three feet 
loDg. Give it no cultivation or mulching, nor shorten- 
ing back, and lot the earth become hard and grown up 
with weeds, and the shoots will not be more than three 
inches long. This experiment is worth trying by any 
one who doubts it, on alternate trees in a row, or on 
alternate rows. We are willing to let any one who 
prefers or practices the old system of neglect, select 
from any nursery the finest peaeh trees that ever grew, 
and give them his favorite treatment for two years ; 
and we will take the poorest " culls ** that were ever 
discorded as worthless, if they only have life in them ; 
and we will agree to beat him two -fold by means of 
the best management already mentioned. We speak 
from actual experiment. 

• ♦ • 

N'otions In Hortioultttre. 

Sulphur ron Blight. — It has been lately asserted 
that sulphur inserted into an auger hole in a pear tree 
and plugged in, will arrest blight. We have no doubt 
the blight ceased after the plugging, and no less doubt 
that it would have ceased just as soon if the operation 
had been omited. 

Salt and Grubs. — The statement is occasionally re- 
published that a few bushels of salt per acre will drive 
out all larvae and especially grubs — and it was once 
asserted that a ring of salt placed around a cabbage 
plant would protect it completely. We tried this ; but 
the grubs crossed the line and eat the plants, and then 
reposed themselves on the salt or elsewhere with evi- 
dent indifference. 

Live roR THE Curculio. — We perceive that this 
remedy is still recommended by some. Its very tho- 
rough application was made a few years since on four 
nectarine trees — which were carefully syringed with 
thin whitewash after every light rain, heavy dew, or 
ehaflng of the leaves, which took off the lime, at a cost 
greater than any continued jarring on sheets ! The 



suooess was co great that one tree bore no less than six 
nectarines — only, however on a tree that had a calf 
tied to it, and which kept up a constant stirring and 
jarring. 

» • • - 

Report of VariouB Experiments. 

I soaked some carrot seed in a solution of salt-petre 
water six hours before planting, but a>uld see no dif- 
ference in the crops frum seed planted in the usual way. 

Dug six trenches for carrots sixteen inches deep — put 
some salt at the bottom of the trench, covered up the 
trench again from the next digging — sowed the seed 
after rolling it in plaster, half an inch deep, and six 
inches from plant to plant, the trenches being twelve 
inches apart No manure' applied with the carrots. 
Well satisfied with the produce, some of the cftnots 
being twelve inches long and at the top seven inches 
round. 

Trenched some more land for mangold wurxel, re- 
ceived from Mr. Sillbtt, Eelsale, Engl.ind. These re- 
ceived the same treatment as the carrots, with this dif- 
ference that the plants were eighteen inches apart, and 
planted one inch deep—produoe excellent, some of the 
plants weighing over six pounds. 

Sowed p^rae Kohl Rabi seed In June, sent me 
by James Levksqub, Island of Jersey. Manured 
with horse and hen manure — turned under the 
manure with my.digging fbrk eight inches deep— put 
the seeds in a hill one inch deep, the hills two and a 
half feet apart each way. My neighbors' chickens de- 
voured most of the plants as they came up. The few 
that are left, are this day as large as my hat, and still 
growing. Boiled two of them to-day for my pig, who 
seems to relish them better than either potatoes, cab- 
bage or mangold wurxel. 

My wife has been my gardener this year, and I am 
happy to say I want no better help. 

The Indian com around here is but a poor crop, ow- 
ing to the wetness of the season. I should like to hear 
from some of your Com Kings, how to grow a good 
crop of corn in ordinary seasons, 

I think, Messrs. Editors, it would confer a favor on 
many of the readers of your valuable paper, if all those 
who have been experimenting this year, would take to 
the plan of Levi Bartlbtt of N. H., G. Howatt of 
N. J., and Mr. Lbvbsque— that is, state what kind of 
manure was used when their land was plowed, what 
depth the seed was planted, and what distance apart 
from plant to plant P. Sidebotham. Valley Palls* 

• • • 

Cure for Rtienmaiisiu. 

Rbspbctei) Editors — I send you a recipe which I 
have taken from a Southern paper, as follows : 
1 ox. oil Rosemary, 
'1 ox. oil Gloves, 
1 ox. oil Origanum, 
1 ox. Spirits Turpentine, 
1 ox. Spirits Ammonia, 
I ox. Tincture Cantharides 
1 ox. AloohoL 

Mix in a light glass-stopper bottle, and shake up 
when used. Heat a saucer on embers, pour a little in 
the saucer, and rub it on the part affected, with the 
hand, previously warmed by the fire, so as to encourage 
absorption. 

The above is said to be very good for siek headache. 
Mablon Pickett. N. C. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 





Houses for Growrlng Vegetables in IVinter. 

Very likely the above title looka something like a 
"»«tt" to many of our readers, a part of Trhom per- 
haps have hardly ever been in a green-house or vinery, 
let alone a hotue for the growth of vegetables in win- 
ter. Yet, if we mbtake not, the time will come when 
all places of any considerable pretensions to a well 
kept garden, with one or more permanent hands besides 
the gardener to attend to the details, will have a house 
exclusively for the growth of vegetables in winter. In 
Enropean countries the thing is quite common, and 
has been many years, and we see no reason why it 
should not be so here, among those whose means allow 
them to expend a portion in supplying real delicacies 
for the table. In many parts of -Europe, Brocoli, Brus- 
sels sprouts, good cabbage, greens, and always kale, 
are constantly cut through the entire winter. 

Very likely this may strike those unacquainted with 
this branch of gardening unfavorably, from apparent 
want of breadth enough to ftimish any considerable 
quantity. But such crops as are best suited for pro- 
duction in this way, can be had in greater abundance 
than the arrangement would seem to warrant ; more 
depending on the skill of the gardener in the proper 
sowing and distribution of his crops, than actual 
breadth of land. 

In most CBMS, houses for this purpose would be bet- 
ter away from the ornamental department entirely, 
and placed contiguous to the culinary department where 
they properly belong, simply because they require to 
be extremely low, and as much under ground as cir- 
cumstances will admit of, and if all exposed parts of 
the structure but the roof are well banked up in win- 
ter with manure, so much the better, because so much 
the less artificial heat is needed — ^a point of the utmost 
importance to complete success. 

If, then, we decide upon building it slightly away 
from the omamental'part, we can well afford to be less ' 
particular in building, and something in the way of 
the engraving above will answer us, which, it will be 
remembered, is that of a cheap little pit or green -house 
erected by Mr. Dingwall, and which appeared last year 
in the pages of the Co. Qent, mainly to show that^y 
ftti wcs hwU for about mit hundred and tweniy-Jive 
doUarSf a not very large sum as first outlay for a place 
that will, as we intend to show before closing this arti- 
cle, famish a large quantity of valuable young vegeta- 
bles for winter consumption. 

However, we would not urge by any means simply a 
cheap bouse to those whose means afford them to do 
everything well, as it is notorious that the extraordi- 
nary trial wood is put to in the damp atmosphere and 
Snoessant condensation going on in structures of this 
description, very soon causes it to decay, and henoe 




stone or brick is better for the back, firoat, and end, 
than double boards with saw-dust between them, as 
shown in the engraving. 

A house, built after this plan, might be made at 
least 75 feet long, and all heated by one flue, if the 
end opposite the furnace was built some two feet high- 
er, by which means a distribution of heat takes place, 
as pointed out some time since in this paper. 

On the back g, could be forced in splendid condition, 
rhubarb, sea-kale, and asparagus, these vegetables 
growing finely where the light is not quite so powerflil. 
A few late cauliflowers or brocoli, if laid in here would 
aliM) turn in famously during winter. 

The front, of course, would be occupied with radish- 
es in succession, the same of lettuce, the various kinds 
of cress, and as the days begin to lengthen, quantities 
of early tomatoes, sown and potted into separate pots, 
to obtain large plants, a light or two of early lettuce, 
cabbage, cauliflowers, and even peas and beans, could 
be forwarded, ready to plant out as soon as the winter 
passed away. 

Nor would the expert gardener stop here, but even 
got in a crop of bush beans, and the dwarf varieties 
of peas fit for the table, before thv blasts of winter had 
fairly taken its leave. 

AU we can say in conclusion to those who have the 
means to do so, is, try it ; our word for it, after a trial 
of rhubarb, sea- kale, and asparagus, at or soon after 
New- Yean, with plenty of the best of lettuce, radish- 
es, and other salads the entire winter, you will be long 
before you are willing to give up the same again for 
a return to the best of winter-stored vegetables only. 
BtacriptUm fff Wood CtU. 

The front a, is 3 feet 6 inches high, the back 6, 4 
feet, boarded on each side, the center filled with saw- 
dust. The highest point in the roof is 6 feet 6 inches, 
along which runs a meeting rail, c, supported by up- 
rights at the distance of 6 or 10 feet apart. On this 
rail rests the rafters d, made of 2 by 3 stuff*; the sash 
in one length made with glass 6 by 8. The back roof 
e, is nothing more than inch boards, battened over the 
joints to be water-tight The back g, has the soil left 
in. i^is the flue, which would be better yet replaced 
with hot water pipes up the walks, as then the front 
might have the soil left in abo, an admirable sorange- 
ment for growing vegetables. Edoak Sardxbs. 

- • • m 

Cutting and Freaerving Grafts. 

• When is the best time to cut grafts, and which is the 
best way to preserve them 1 W. H. 0. MiddUburyt 
ItuL 

They may be cut at any time during winter, or 
even before, if growth has ceased. We have preserved 
late summer-cut buds, which had matured wall, till the 
following spring, and used them sucoeesfnUy as grafts. 
Such kinds as are liable to be injured by the cold of 
winter, should be cut late in autnnm, or before the 
usual advent of the severest days. 

For preserving them we prefer to place them in suc- 
cessive layers of damp moss — the grails being previ- 
ously tied in smaU bundles, and each sort carefully and 
distinctly labelled. Damp sand (not wet) answers a 
good purpose. In either case, they may be laid in 
boxes in a cellar. 

Another, and a good way, is to fasten them 
open at top, without any paeking, and then buy 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




box, gntiM uid sll, iiiT«rtod, on ft dry spot. The earth 
preaenrea their moistare, but doee not touch them. 

Substitutes for Hay. 

Having cloeed up the work of one season, m^ thonghtsi 
oocaeionally stretch forward to surrey and plan the 
work of the ensuing one. Among other things which 
I already see must be attended to, one is the prodding 
of more fodder than I am likely to get from my mea- 
dows, com and grainflelds. In talking with neighbors 
aa to what would be the best way of providing a suf- 
ficient supply of fodder for my stock, as my hay must 
come short by one half, I find quito a variety of opin- 
ion ; and being without experience in providing for 
any such emeigency, I am somewhat at a loss to de- 
termine which o^lhe ways pmposed would be but on 
tht whole* Perhaps some of your readers may have 
been in similar need of a substitute for hay, and may 
have learned from experience some lesson which, if 
communicated, might save me and many others from 
going to that proverbially *' dear school." One neigh- 
bor thinks he would sow oom for fodder ; another would 
prefer millet; another thinks sorghum stalks, cut when 
small, would yield two crops in one season fit fur hay ; 
another would advise raising roots of different kinds, 
and so on. One is very positive that I cannot do bet- 
tor than to cut some acres of oats while yet considera* 
bly greon, and make fodder of thw wUhout threshing 
He says that horses will eat the straw of oats, cut while 
in a milky or soft doughy state, iu preference to hay, 
and that while Uie grain will be worth but little less 
than if allowed to stand until fully ripe, the »trav will 
be worth a great deal more. As the oats will not shell 
out, they may be fed aa one would feed hay. But this 
would scarcely answer but for horses ; and besides the 
yield of foddeaper acre would not probably exceed one 
ton, (see Cuitivator for 1866, p. 64,) while I might get 
two or three times that weight of fodder from millet or 
com sown for that purpose. Moreover, if 400 lbs. of 
carrots, parsnips or beets are equal in nutritive power 
to 100 Ibe. of hay or 100 lbs. of oats cut green, then I 
oould raise, »t the rato of 600 bushels per acre, a more 
economical substituto for hay in such roots, than in oats 
as above proposed. How much more it would cost to 
cnltivato a substituto in the form of roots, and how 
much more it would cost to out, slice, and prepare them 
for the use of stock, I cannot determbe for want of 
experience. 

In regard to the substituto for hay which may be 
found in rye or other good straw, cut up fine and mix- 
ed with meal, I would like to be furnished with data 
for estimating the expense of this mode of feeding, 
supposing that the work of cutting, mixing, and put- 
ting the mixture into the feeding boxes were to be paid 
for at the rato of ten cents an hour. 

As such information as I ask for, with a statement of 
the expense of raising and preparing each substitute 
proposed, will take up a few hours of the time of any 
one who performs the work of presenting various sub- 
stitutes, and their respective merits and cost, in a tho- 
rough manner, and as I and many others may be ma- 
teri.nlly benefited by such information, I herewith place 
in the hands of the Editors of this paper one dollar, as 
my contribution towards compensating the individual 
who shall send in the best e6say on the subject. Let 
a committee decide which is the best ; and let others 
interested contribute to raise the premium to ton or 
twenty doilara. A. B. Reymolds. 




AnswsT to J. £. W.— Foil Eva 

jilxssRS. EniTons— J. £. W. (p. 353) wishes to know 
what ails his friend's valuable mare. I have no doubt 
he will find the spine is diseased, and no remedy for 
her case. The difficulty will increase, and the motion 
in tL« hind part of the body will be like a sled drawn 
by a rope on level ground. YThen she (or the spine) 
becomes so diseased that ^he cannot get up alone, she 
may be forced, when up, into a fast trot^ and move off 
well. When she is slacked into a walk again, the hind 
feet will reel about till she falls, or rather sits down. 
I hod a very valuable horse once similarly affected, 
and when he had been for several months unable to 
get up alone, a regiment of troop was passing near 
where he lay. The band began to play, the horse 
sprang' up and pranced around several minutes, to ap- 
))earance as well as ever. As soon as the excitement 
subsided, he sat down. His beo^th appeared good ; 
would eat as well aa ever, and kept in good flesh. Af- 
ter using every means I could hear of for his recovery, 
for eighteen months, I had him killed. The more I 
tried to cure him, the worse he grew. The cause of 
his disease I attributed to his being rode with a crup- 
per to keep the saSdle from hurting the withers ; the 
weight of the man came too much upon the loins ; the 
horse was turned to pasture after a hard day's ride, 
and the night was rather cold, and I suppoeed he took 
cold. 

As I have began about horses, and having read some 
remarks in the past numbers of the Co. Gent., respect- 
ing poll-evil, I will give yon a statement of an opera- 
tion I had performed upon a four year-old mare to cure 
the poll-evil in her ears. 

When this mare was not over ten weeks old, I dia- 
covered a small quantity of matter running ttom the 
edge of each ear, about half-way from the bottom to 
the lip of the ear. I examined the ear and found a 
very small hole through the skin, al>ottt the size of a 
common knitting-needle. This continued with little 
alteration till she was four years old. When driving 
the mare a man came to me and said I musteure those 
running ears or I should lose my mare. I remarked 
I could discover no injury from those ears, except that 
the matter discharged would stick to the hair, and that 
would seldom be noticed. He said it would terminate 
in a poot'cvil. I laughed at the idea of a horse dying 
with the pool-evil on the ear. He satisfied me he was 
right, and he recommended the application of Itmar 
eaustiCf to eat out the tube. I adopted a more speedy, 
and I think cheaper and less painful course. I had to 
oast the mare to examine the ear. I found a knitting- 
needle could be run down toward the head more than 
an inch in length, just under the skin. The operator 
ran a wire into the hole, and then ripped the skin on 
the edge of the ear. I took out a sack near or quito 1^ 
inch in length and nearly a fourth of an inch in diame* 
ter. This sack oontoined matter. After tokingout 
this sack from each ear, the skin was cloeed with two 
or three stitohes, and in a few days the ears were heal- 
ed, and no signs of poll-evil in the ears have appeared 
yet, now over three years. I have known two cases of 
the same disease since mine. The same course was 
adopted with the same success. No doubt lunar caus- 
tic would answer* but the application must be made 
more than once, and few horses will permit their ears 
to be thus handled, and casting is necessary. J. S. 
Pbttiboks. Bennington Co., Vt, 





THE CULTIVATOIl. 




InqviriM and Answen. 

COLORBD PRIKTS OF FrUITS. — Wh«ra COO I get 

twenty or thirty color«d plates of leadiog yarietiei of 
the applo and pear 1 u. m. [Proonre *' The Frnits of 
America, by 0. M. Hovey, containing colored plates of 
the choicest varieties ooltivated in the United Stakes." 
Two vols, of this work, have been completed, contain- 
ing 46 plates each, delineating 96 varieties of fniits— 
price, extra binding, $30. If you do not wish the fall 
work, yon can probably get a portion of it in nnmbers 
— four plates to a number, at fl each. Address Hovey 
A Go^ Merchant's Row, Boston. 

Obapes from Sebd— Cbildb' Sopxu Gbapb.— 
Will yon inform me through the columns of the Conn- 
try Gentleman, the mode of propagating grapes from 
seed, and also of the merits of " Childs' Superb Qrape 1" 
R. V. B. Bufalo, [Wash the pulp and plant the seeds 
the same as apple seeds, in a good rich mould. We 
have never had an opportunity of examining Childs' 
Superb grape but once ; it is a very large, fine, and 
light colored yariety, raised at Utiea, doubtless from 
seeds of some exotic variety, as it possesses the foreign 
characteristics. We are informed that it has been 
grown without glass, but we should think its foreign 
peculiarities would require glass for its permanent suo- 
oess.] 

YxLLow Locust. — I have just sown a piece of land 
with Yellow Loeust. I planted the seeds in rows, oov- 
ering them but very lightly ; the seeds were planted 
Oct 24, and were not scalded. I could not find any 
one who knew what time of year they should be sown, 
and having a few aere* more which I wish to put to 
the same use, if you will'fell me when to sow the seeds, 
as well as give me any other advice, you will oblige 
S. L. S. Guilford Center^ Vt. [The seeds already 
planted will not probably grow. They must not only 
be scalded, but awoUtn. In pouring hot water on a 
quart of the seeds, and allowing those to cool and stand 
several hours, only a part will swell— these must be 
picked out and planted an Inch deep— deeper in light soil, 
shallower in heavy soil The rest are snoeessively snb> 
jected to the same process, till all are swolled. They 
must be prepared and planted in spring, and would 
probably decay if done in autumn. Those not swollen 
remain in the soil without change for many years ] 

In QViBT. — A friend having a yaluable mare, which, 
from some cause, is entirely useless, wishes to know 
what ails her, and how to remedy the ailment. She 
has lost the proper use of her hind legs. The difficul- 
ty seems to be principally situated about the loins. 
Will you or some of your correspondents answer this 1 
J. E. W. New Rom, IruL, Nov. 14, 1867. 

Sugar from Chutrsb Sugar Gavr. — I planted about 
fifteen rods of ground with Chinese sugar cane, about 
the middle of May. It has proved better than I an- 
ticipated. I have made almost a barrel of most ex- 
cellent syrup. Will you, or some one, inform me how 
it can be made Into sugar? A. Raymond. Conn. 
[Sugar, it is said, has been made from it, but we have 
seen no reliable directions for aooomplisbing the object. 
It was stated last spring, by an Illinois correspondent 
of this paper, that Mr. Wm. H. Bslchbr, the principal 
of a large sugar-refining establishment at St Louis, 
was making preparations to test the question as to 




whether marketable sugar eonld be*mada fhnn the 
Chinese sugarcane; and it would appear from a letter 
from Mr. Belcher, recently pnblisfaed in the western pa- 
persjthat he ** has not succeeded in granulating it^" and 
" very much fears that it will prove a failare so &r as 
sugar making is ooncemed." Mr. Belcher adds — " A 
Louisiana sugar planter made this season, some seven- 
ty. five barrels of the Chinese csne sy mp. I hare seen 
his report ; he could not granulate ; and some barrels 
of this syrup from Louuiana came to the market The 
color was good, but the taste slightly acid— not so 
sweet as the syrup or molasses of the sugar cane — and 
I am under the impression that it would ferment rapid- 
ly in warm weather.*' 

Easter Brurrr and Clairgeau. Pkars. — Is the 
Easter Beurre pear worth culUvating to any extant 
on the pear stock 1 Is Beurre Clairgeau hardy and 
productive on the pear root! Wm. McKihlbt. [The 
Easter Beurre is best on quince stock — we would not 
recommend it grown on the pear. We think experi- 
ence is not yet sufficient to determine the ralue of the 
Clairgeau on pear, but would like the experience of 
our correspondents.] ■ 

Leather Chips as a Manure— Pxabodt's Straw- 
berry, Ac— Will you please inform me tbroogh the 
columns of the Country Gentleman, whether clippings 
of leather, the refuse of shoemakers' and harness ma- 
ker's shops, are of any value as a manure, and if so, 
how they should be usedl Also where plants of Pea- 
body's new strawberry may be had, and whether Britk- 
le's Orange Raspberry will stand the winter in New- 
Jersey without protection 1 A. R. Red Bank, New- 
Jersey. [We know of no experiment that has been 
made with the clippings of leather as a manure. 
Skins, before tanning, would form one of the most pow- 
erful fertilisers, but their change from an easily decay- 
ing and soluble animal substance to an insoluble com- 
pound with tannic acid, giving them their ralne by 
rendering them impermeable to water, most necessari- 
ly greatly reduce their ralue as a manure. Still, if 
plowed into the soil, fhe slow decomposition of the 
clippings may be of some value to growing plants dur- 
ing a term of years. 

Peabody's Strawberry is offered for sale by J. M. 
Thorburk a Co., of New- York. Brinckle*e Orange 
Raspberry will prove perfectly hardy in New-Jersey.] 

Transplanting Tulip Treks.— Can I safely trans- 
plant, with a ball of frosen earth, a tulip tree, 20 feet 
high and 6 inches in diameter 1 and how large must the 
ball of earth be 1 T. M. N. Spuyten BuyvU, N 7*. 
[The tulip tree has long roots, with few fibres, and 
Is therefore unusually difficult to transplant If the 
above is a tree from the woods, the removal would 
probably result in failure — at bestut would chock the 
growth much for several years. If a cultivated tree, 
the risk would be less— but in either case, it would be 
better in every respect to take younger trees.] 

Mowing Machines.— I would like to be bformed 
through the columns of the Co. Gent, or otherwise, 
whose mowing machines, at the trial at Syracuse, drew 
the several prises. Also, how or where I may get in- 
formation of all the particulars of all the different ma- 
chines, as to draft, side-draft, difiTerence of construc- 
tion, prices, Ac. I had supposed that perhaps the 
Judges or others might publish, or cause to be publish- 



=«^9s§SJ 




THE CULTIVATOJl. 




•d, a pamphlet^Ting fall pArticnlarif though I hay« 
seen no statement to thai effect. £. L. R. Ada, Mich. 
[When the prises for Beapen, tried at Syracuse, were 
daclared at Louiaville, it wa« understood that the 
judges bad not been able to come to a decision in regard 
to the mowing machine. Whether they hare since 
come to an agreement, we have not learned. When 
their report is published, it will, we presume, furnish 
the information desired by our correspondent ] 

A Sample op Sosoho Sugar. — Eds. Country Oert" 
Ueman^l see many inquiries al>out the making of 
sugar from Chinese Sugar Cane, and if it can be made, 
&o. I send yon a specimen of some manufactured by 
my neighbor, Geo. '.Pelton, Esq. Mr. P.'s process of 
husking can be given some future time if desirable, and 
- if you have a better sample please inform na through 
your valuable paper. Lucius Holcomb. TrumhhdlCo, 
Ohio. [The sample sent is a moist, ratber pleasantly- 
flavored sugar, lighter in color than moeh of the maple 
sugar sold, and we should think less objectionable for 
peculiarity of taste than the ordinary unrefined cane 
sugar. We shall be glad to receive at an early day the 
proposed details of its manufacture, including cost, Ac., 

Ac] 

Plabting Peach Stokbs.— In the Country Gentle- 
man of October I notice that T. B. M. wishes to know 
how to plant peach stones. My way is to plant them 
in a bed of light soil, with coal ashes or sand mixed 
with it, so that they will freeze and thaw through the 
winter. In the spring when they come up, plant them 
out like cabbage in rows, and bad the same year. They 
always do well here when treated in this manner, and 
some eren get on so well that they get too large for 
budding when the proper season arrives. £. B. Ca- 

rondeltt^ Mo. 

Bbm SDY FOR Horses Throwing their Tails Over 
THB Rbihs.— Having read several communications in 
your paper, on the subject of the lines, in driving, get- 
ting under the horse's tail, and endangering his kick- 
ing or running away, I will state how I have removed 
the difficulty very satisfactorilji — ^not in removing the 
lines when caught by the tail, as any one of observa- 
tion will do it gently and cautionsly, but to prevent the 
difficulty. I use a couple of open martingale hooks, 
attached each to a strip of leather 9 to 12 inches long, 
and the ends tacked to the roof or bows of ef the car- 
riage in front. The lines passing through the hooks, 
keep them above the sweep of the tail, and do not in 
the least interfere with the driving. Until I adopted 
this plan, I often found it troublesome, and with some 
of my hoTses, dangerous to drive them. £. S. Hare' 
wood, Md. • 

In your paper, No. 18, Vol. X, I notioe aa ^* Inquiiy ** 
of B. £. H., for a remedy to prevent his mare from 
throwing her tail over the reins. Please inform B. E. 
H. to hitch his mare to a buggy, and as soon as hitch- 
ed, fasten a chestnut bnrr under her tail ; it will keep 
her tail down, although she may run for a while. If 
that does not answer, cut off her tail. Experiate. 
Leavenworth, K. T. — 

Chess. — In what Iwoks or papers can the arguments 
and proofs, that scientific men have given, be found, 
showing that wheat will not turn into chess. Please 
inform us through the Country Gentleman, because a 
farmer informs me that before this time next year, he 
will prove that wheat will turn into chess, j.l. f. [We 



Ac. Chbmistrt— J. jL. F., Dumfries, C. W. There 
is no agricultural journal, that we are aware of, that 
devotes a portion of its pages regularly to the elucida- 
tion of agricultural chemistry. An to books, we would 
recommend Norton's Elements of Scientific Agricul- 
ture, (price 60 cents,) and Prof. Johnston's Elements 
of Ag. Chemistry and Geology— price $1.00. 

Ao. Schools. — I understand that there is a seminary 
near your place, which has for its object the advance- 
ment of its students in agricultural art and science. 
If you will state the facts about it, or send me a eirou- 
lar containing them, you will much oblige H. D. M- 
tona, Pa. [We have no such institution at present, in 
this State ; but the foundation for an Agricultural Col- 
lege for the State of New- York, has been laid. The 
oitiaens of Seneca county having subscribed the sum of 
•40,000, for this purpose the State appropriated a like 
sum, making $80,000. With a porUen of this fund, a 
farm of over 600 acres was purchased about a year 
since, located in Ovid, Seneoa Co. This farm has been 
carried en the past year by the trustees, under the 
Buperfaatendence of Hon. Samuel Chbeter, President 
of the institution, and preparations made for the erec- 
tion of a large college building the coming season. 
We may therefore reasonably hope that the time is 
rapidly approaching when New- York will have an 
Agricultural College in successful operation.] 

have published these " arguments and proofs," about 
oBoe a year for more than a quarter of a century. 
During this period, at different times, prises have been 
offered, of $50 and $100, to any person who would 
prove that wheat does ever taca to chess. If your 
friend produces the proof, he will do what hundreds 
have failed to accomplish.] 

Makiico Honbt. — I received a circular of Professor 
James. T. Home of New- York, in relation to making 
a substitute for honey. Thinking you might know 
something of his preparation and its value, I request 
you to inform me what you know. I want nothing to 
do with any hnmbng. G. W. Y. Rocky River, Tenn. 
[We know nothing about " Prof. Home," or his prepa- 
ration.] 

Corn Hubker. — A. Moss, Boone Co^ JIL Yon 
can ascertain in relation to the Com Hnsker mentioned, 
by addressing the patentee, Mr. Perkiks, West Eil- 
liogly, Ct. or Nourse, Mason A. Co., Boston, Mass. We 
do not know what arrangements, if any. have been 
made for its manufacture. 

Ia'QUIRY. — It is said tbnt sows will not fatten as well 
as boars. What is the effect of a quart of lump char- 
coal thrown into their food at the commencement of 
heat, with reference to the si|bject of fattening 1 Will 
some of your intelligent correspondents enlighten us 
upon this subject. Creole. New'Jersey. 
■ ♦- 

Small Potatoes for Sexd.>-A correspondent of the 
Ohio Fanner says that he raised, last summer, from 
"less than three bushels of very small seed," over one 
hundred bushels of poUtoes, it being the best crop he 
ever raised. Mr. R. Rhodes, in the N. E. Farmer, 
sUtes that he planted last spring nine pounds of pota- 
toes, ao smtfU that it took 800 to make the nine pounds, 
placing four in a hill, and that the product was 375 
lbs., of which 311 lbs. were of full siie, handsome and 
well grown. 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




ILotes for t\t SlontJ. 



Ircrbasbd Dbmahd fob TiitB.— Mr. Jobnstoh al- 
luded, in oar last no., to the greatly inoreaaod demand 
for tile in Western New- York the past season, and we 
are informed that Messrs. C. A W. M'Cammon, tile 
manofacturers of this eitj, have sold this season 750,- 
000 tile, being an increase of about one-half over the 
sales of the proTions year. We took a walk last week 
to the works of these gentlemen, whose energy in call- 
ing pablie attention to the subject of Draining, and 
their close personal attention to the manufacture and 
sale of Tiles, have at length rendered unusually ezten- 
sive accommodations necessary to enable them prompt- 
ly to meet their orders. They employ five machines, 
and have two kilns, which are burnt about once a week 
during the warmer months. The past season they 
have used coal instead of wood for fuel, their previous 
experience enabling them to control the heat from this 
source, equally well, while at the same time it is a 
measure of considerable economy. They use steam 
power to grind the clay. They have now three capa- 
cious sheds in which the tile are dried before burning, — 
containing in the neighborhood of 22,000 feet of shelv- 
ing, or nearly four miles. They propose putting up 
another this winter which will add 6,600 feet to the 
above amount. They have- a large stock of tile on hand 
to meet the spring demand, and expect to refit their 
establishment before the weather becomes warm enough 
to begin the manufacture again. 

Messrs. M*C. have been engaged some time in per- 
fecting a steam engine for the manufacture of tile, — 
combining boiler and all hi one machine, and calcula- 
ted to turn out some 26,-090 pieces of tile per diern^ 
with only four hands, one to supply the clay, a second 
to feed it, and the third and fourth to remove the tile 
as fast as turned out Should they succeed, as we trust 
they may, in making It realize their present expecta- 
tions, it can scarcely fail to repay the expense and 
trouble they have devoted to it. 

Pbofits of Farvikq — I would send you a few re- 
marks on the profits of farming, accompanied by some 
facts, but I thought probably you would not think them 
worth publishing, as you seem to regard it as a fixed 
fact that farming is or can be i2)ule a profitable busi- 
ness, by bringing to its aid a proper share of intelli- 
gence. I believe with Mr. Bagg, that farming does 
not generally pay. What I mean, and I suppose he 
means, is they do not in general make their living and 
clear the legal interest on the capital invested, j. w. L. 

We do not need facts to prove that many farmers do 
not make money by farming. The evidence of this 
truth is too manifest in all sections of our country. 
What we maintain is, that it is, in general, the fault 
of the men engaged in it, and not in the business itself. 
There is no profession or business, whether of trade or 
labor, that may not be shown to be unprofitable if the 
proof of it is to be found in the failure of many of 
those engaged in it to make money. A portion of all 
professional men, and of all those engaged in trade, 
manufactures, and the mechanic arts, make money by 
their business, while a much larger portion " do not 
make a living, and clear the legal interest on the cap- 
ital invested.'* So it is with farmers— a portion of them 
find farming profitable, while others do not. But we be- 




lieve that if the facts oould be aseertaitied, It would be 
found that at least as large a portion of farmers find 
their business profitable as of those engaged in other 
occupations. 

Ag. Addresses.— a correspondent of the N. E. Far- 
mer, asks the following pertinent questions : *' Why 
do our agricultural societies employ lawyers to write 
and deliver the addresses at their annual fairs 7 Are 
there no farmers who are qualified to write, and who 
know and can tell us as much about agricultural inte- 
rests as lawyers 1" We have no objection to lawyers 
or any other professional men, provided they have a 
taste for agriculture, and know enough about it to en- 
lighten their hearers upon the subject ; but for oar 
own part, we should greatly prefer to listen to the re- 
marks of a sensible practical farmer, who could detail, 
in a style however homely, the results of his own obser- 
vation and experience, rather than to an essay on the 
history of agriculture, or the laudation of rural life, 
however eloquent it might be, and we hope the time is 
not distant, when our County Ag. Societies will make it 
a rule tos elect for their speakers men who know "where- 
of they speak." There are few counties which cannot 
furnish men, from among their own ranks, competent 
to address an assemblage of farmers intelligently and 
profitably. 

Liquid Manure. — In his letter in iiiia paper, Mr. 
John Johnston having alluded to the " immense loss 
from liquids running from his barn-yards,'* and which 
he has been unable to save, we give the plan pursued 
by Dr. Cbispell, one of the best farmers on the Hud- 
son. In the fall, his barn-yard, which is mostly pro- 
tected by good sheds, is entirely cleared of manure, 
after which it is covered to the depth of six or eight in- 
ches with straw. Upon this straw the stock is wintered 
when out of the stalls, and upon it the bedding and 
manure from the stables is spread daily during the 
winter, and such straw and refuse stuff is added as is 
found necessary to keep the animals clean. In this 
way the manure and straw is tread sufficiently com- 
pact to induce, with tlie urine from the stock yarded 
upon it, a gentle fermentation, which prevents it fiom 
freezing. Thus every particle of the manure, both 
liquid and solid, from the sheep and such stock as is 
not put in the stalls at night, is saved, and well incor- 
porated with the straw and refuse matter thrown into 
the yard. 

Sprbadinq Manure in Fau. and Wintkr. — In ad- 
dition to what is said by Mr. Clark, in his paper on 
this subject, on another page, we may add that we 
learned from Wm. H. Ladd, Esq., late President of the 
Ohio State Board of Agriculture, in a conversation with 
him a year or two since, that it had been his practice 
for some years, to draw out and spread his manure 
during the latter part of winter. He adopted this 
course, after having convinced himself that the ma- 
nure Uius applied was more effectual than when spread 
in the spring and immediately plowed under. The 
question is an important one — one upon which more 
carefully conducted experiments are needed. 



BuCKg AND CR.4NBKRRIE8 — D. L. HaLSBT, Esq-, of 

Victory, Cayuga Co., will please accept editorial thanks 
for a pair of plump black Cayuga Ducks, in the form 
best adapted to practically test their quality— flanked 
by a case of beautiful large Cranberries, which speak 
as well for his mode of raising them, as their com- 




punions do for kU skiU in feediDg. Our appreciation 
of the Govemor'Blaat meesage haa been much increas- 
ed thereby, and, whatever may hare been the oaoe 
before, now we shall not lack either a eanse, or a din- 
ner for Thanksgiving. 

A WA2IT.— We give the foUowhig extract from a 
private letter, because we know that there are others 
who would be glad to avail themselves of the services 
of an architect who thoroughly understands the re- 
quirements of the true country resident,— that is one 
who not only lives in the country, but on the proceeds 
of his farm or plantation. We have several excellent 
works on Rural Arohitecture, but they are all, with one 
exception, deficient in adaf>tedne88 to the architecture 
of the farm, where all the buildings,, from the residence 
to the smallest out-house, require to be designed and 
arrenged with a view to the particular purposes fbr 
which they are to be devoted, as well as to the general 
appearanse of tho whole : 

" I have been long wishing to find out a good prac- 
tical farm building designer and architect. City ar- 
ehitects, generally, know nothing of the usee of such 
oonntry buUdlngs, and consequently, even if they would 
undertake a job of the kind, would probably succeed 
badly, and cause great expenditure. Nor even would 
my want be supplied by Landscape Gardeners, whose 
province is with country dwellings and grounds, gar- 
deners' houses, graperies, Ac. I look for a man who is 
at least a master Carpenter or Builder, and who has a 
head for and experience in planning buildinga, and 
who knows what are the requirements of a farm and 
oan arrange in the most convenient form not only the 
parts of one building, but the disposition of several 
buildings, yards, pens, stacks, woods, with reUtion to 
each «>ther as well as to the oommon center." 

HoMORART. — ^We mentioned a few weeks since, that 
Col. J. M. Sherwood of Auburn, had been elected an 
Honorary Member of the "Imperial Economical So- 
ciety of St. Petersburgh, Russia." We have since 
learned that at the same time diplomas of Honorary 
Membership of the same Society, were received by Col. 
B. P. JoHHSOir, SecreUry of our State Ag. Society, 
Hon. Gjbo. Qeddks of Onondaga county, and Dr. A. L. 
Blwtit of PhUadelphia. 

Labor Hogs.— A farmer in Worcester county, Mass., 
reports in the Ploughman that he has Just had two 
hogs killed, which weighed thirteen hundred and twelve 
pounds (1312 lbs.!) One weighed 671 lbs., and the 
othe 641. They were eighteen months old. Nothing 
farther is stated, either about the breed, mode of feed- 
ing, or anything else. 

Now we would like to know why those who tell tho 
public such stories about large hogs, or large crops, or 
large anything else, so often stop in the middle of their 
story. They must be quite well aware that if they 
were telling such a story as the above to a neighbor or 
two, or to the members of a farmers* club, they would 
not be allowed to stop short where the above story stops. 
They would have to answer quite a number of qnes- 
tioes before the curiosity of the hearers became satis- 
fled, or before the information could be accounted of 
any value for practical purposes. To make the above 
story complete, or of value for practical purposes, the 
reader should have been informed as to the breed of 
these animals, as to the manner and material employ- 



ed In/eedingt as to the «»< of prodaction, and as to 
any other point which the narrator wonld have been 
asked for information if be had been address'mg him- 
self to a gronp of listeners instead of to a circle of 
readen. There are facts, every now and then, com- 
municated to the agricultural papers, which are quite 
nnsatisfaotory and nninstruetive, because the writers 
neglect to inform their readers as to Aov, and at nchat 
eo9t tho results they report were obtained. Tbey tell 
only a part of their story. We should like to hear the 
Twt of the abere story. 

A Splehdid Marurb.— In illustration of what is 
really the most important of all applications, and equal- 
ly applicable to all soils, we copy the following anec- 
dote which appears under the above head in an Eng- 
lish newspaper. This kind of "manuring" includes 
many other prooesses, besides the one here particularly 
specified i~At the Woodbury plowing match, a few 
days ago, Mr. John Daw told the fdiowing anecdote : 
Onoe having drained a field where nothing ever had 
grown before, I was standing near it looking at a crop 
I had there, when a neighboring farmer came up. We 
have one or two loose farmers in our neighborhood ; 
one of them, in fact, came from Woodbury— <langh- 
ter)— but this is not the man I am speaking of— who 
came np and said to me, * That is a bootiful crop ; how 
did ee get it, Sur V I replied, ' Brains.' (Laughter.) 
• Wat manure the field wi brains V (More laughter.) 
The fact was, I had drained the field, so I said * Yes.' 
(Renewed laughter.) He replied, • Lord, yer honor, 
where did ee get um 7' (Roars of laughter.) 

New-Yorb State Aoricuwcral Colleoe— At 
a meeting of the Trustees, held in this city last 
week, we learn thai the plan and specifications for 
the College Buildings, prepared by S. E. Hewes, archi- 
tect, of Albany, were chosen, and 8250 awarded him 
for the same. Awards of $100 each were also made 
to H. M. Wilcox, architect, Buffalo, and Rev. H. B. 
Taylor of tho Fort Edward Institute, for plans, Ac, 
submitted by them. The Executive Committee were 
instructed to contract for the materials and erection of 
the buildings. The President rendered a report of the 
farm managsment and operations for the past season, 
which was throughout very satisfactory to the Trustees. 
The course of studies to be pursued, was reported on 
by a committee having the subject in charge, but final 
action deferred until the next meeting, Feb. 9, 1868. 

The President and Secretary were directed to pre- 
pare a memorial to be presented to Congress, asking 
for an appropriation to each State of the Union, of so 
much of the public land ns will be sufficient to endow 
and put in operation an Agricultural College in pach 
State in the Union. ■ 

Sugar Cane foe Swine.— A correspondent of the 
Southern Cultivator, G. D. Harbor, of Mississippi, 
gays—** In September I weighed two shoats and put 
them in separate pens. No. 1 weighed when put up, 
76 pounds. It was fed on what com it would eat and 
slops from the kitchen. No. 2 weighed 72 pounds, and 
was fed exclusively on Chinese Sugar Cane, !«eed and 
all. They were fed something over three weeks, and 
again weighed. No. ! , or the sboat fed on corn, weigh- 
ed 1 15 pounds, having gained 39 pounds. No. 2, or the 
shoat fed on the Sugar Cane, weighed 110 pounds, hav- 
ing gained 37 pounds. This result shows that Chinese 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




Sogar ean« u verj noar equal to com, aa food for bogs. 
And take the a«re for acre, and Sugar Cane is yery far 
saperior to corn, from the fact that it will prodaee at 
Iea«t five times as maeh. In other words, five acres of 
Sugar Cane is equal as food for hogs, to 25 aeres of 
com." 

Mbascrkkbitt of Hat —a writer in the N. E. Far- 
mtri who seems to have had some considerable expe- 
rienoe in the buying or selling of hay, says that hay is 
boaght and sold in his region (Reading, Ct.,) moeUy 
by measure, and that 512 feet are usually talcen as 
equal to a ton, more being required near the top of a 
mow, and less near the bottom. He states that he once 
sold a bamfal of hay, and the bottom weighed a ton 
to 400 feet, and that the average weight of the whole — 
top, middle and bottom — ^was a little less than 500 feet 
for a ton. He says that he should be satisfied to talce 
a common bamful of hay,— scaffold and bay, — at the 
rate of 500 foot for a ton. 

This agrees with the report of one of our subscrlljers 
at the west, who had occasion to buy hay last spring 
when it was uncommonly scarce and dear. The hay 
was a mixture of clover and timothy, and was the 
lower layer of three feet in thidcness of a considera- 
ble bullc on a scaffold over a stable, equal in density, 
perhaps, to the middle of a mow 12 to 16 feet in depth. 
A ton was found to mecsure 510 feet In buying or sell- 
ing hay by measure, it should be remembered that 
that which is eoarse and rank will be more bulky than 
that made from fine grass or clover, or from any gran 
with a thick bottom. 

Whetbxr to Skll or to Feed.— There is no ques- 
tion that has not more than one side, and to judge 
without proper examinatton of all, is a prevailing 
error, especially with Agricultural readers and writers, 
and let us add, perhaps stilt more with farmers who 
are neither readers or writers. Much has been said in 
our columns of late in regard to the advantages of 
feeding stock as a source of both money and manurial 
profit. As illustrating, however, that even this sub- 
ject may assume a different aspect on being looked at in 
a different light, we copy the following from a corres- 
pondent in the Rural New-Torker : 

** Suppose com in the State of New- York, owing to 
a light crop and a foreign demand, should be worth one 
dollar a bushel, while it was worth to put into beef or 
pork only fifty cents a bushel, — would the manure from 
a bushel of com pay the other fifty cents 1 I think 
not Not thai.I undervalue manure, — it is everything 
to the farmer, but I would get it as cheap as I could. 
[ would Iry clover, mix swamp muck with bara-vard 
manure; use ashes, plaster, lime, guano — anytbing 
that would, on trial, prove the cheapest But I am 
dearly of opinioa that, although as a general rule, 
coarse grain, hay and straw should be fed on the land 
where they grew, there are many exceptions to the rule. 
I have known men let straw rot down, with very little 
benefit from feeding it, rather than sell It for f2 a load ; 
while at the same time they could buy as much ma- 
nure as a load of straw would make for two shillings. 
It is unfortunate that we have not more reliable data 
to base our ealonlatkms upon." 

Although the state of things here represented may 
be of race oeeurrenoe, abundant room is afforded for 
the inveetlgations of that experimental farm (when we 
get it,) to shed light upo* the course that may be moet 
eeonomically pursued — upon the most advantageous 
method of converting materials into manure, — upon its 
actual worth to the farmer, aa oompared with the 




I money-value of these materials — upon tbe ehametar 
of different manures, and what " would on trial, prove 
the cheapest" 

But as a general principle, we are strongi j«dispoeed 
to the belief that there is nothing cheaper ^ nothing 
better adapted to the wants of the land,nothing that wiU 
in such a majority of cases more surely prove of lasting 
benefit to the farm and to the farmer, than a system of 
feeding Judiciously selected, combined however with 
the manufacture and saving all home-made manures, 
and the purchase if necessary, of such as piaster, lime, 
Ac, in addition. ■ 

Strawberry PLAirrs by Mail to Txxas. — Mr. 
Dingwall informs us that he has Just heard of the ar- 
rival at Bonham, Texas, of a package of Wilaon's Al- 
bany Strawl>erry plants, sent there by mail some two 
months ago. They wore carefully done np in oiled 
silk, and mailed at the Albany post office Oct. IBth. 
They arrived at their destination. Nov. 10th — the pas- 
sage thus taking over three vetks. Mr. D. was, how- 
ever, much pleased to learn that they were found "in 
excellent condition, making new roots, and putting out 
new leaves." The success which has attended experi- 
ments of this kind, opens a new means ai access to our 
best nurseries and florists, to those living In the most 
remote parts of the country, and will doubtless be both 
a convenience to them and an addition to the revenues 
of '* Uncle Sam." Ought he to charge letter yosiage 
on. such packages 1 

AoRictiLTUBAL Readino.- You Say that agricultu- 
ral reading is not a luxury, but a necessity. Upon this 
point allow me to remarlc, that with me it is both a 
luxury ami a necteeUy ; hence you will perceive that 
I attach a two-fold importance to your periodicals. I 
like the Cultivator — like it for its timely suggestions, 
its faithful warnings, and its sage counsels. The "Be- 
gister" is an excellent thing, just what every far- 
mer needs, and no one who can afford the ** weed" for 
his boys should.thiok of doing without it ir. n. 

KiKO Philip Cork. — In the statement which lately 
appeared in the Country Qentleman in relation \o a 
crop of this variety of com, an omission has led to a 
mistake on the part of some readers. It was stated 
that eixty buehda were obtained per acre, from an ave- 
rage portion of the field, without the application of any 
manure. Some have supposed there were but sixty 
bushels of eare ; but ehdied com, not ears, was in- 
tended. The actual product wss one hundred and 
twenty bushels of ears per acre. 

Heavy Buiicns of Gbapb«. — Mr. Howatt, who 
furnishes a valuable article on the '* Culture of the 
Orape in Cold Vineries," for this number, says, in a 
private note — "I have grown BIsck Hambnrghs in 
eold vineries, weighing six pounds to a bunch. I see I 
was beaten three years ago in Philadelphia^ a man 
having raised some weighing six pounds two ounces. 
These two weights have not yet been beaten." 

Atwater*8 Sewivo Machixb.— In answer to fa»- 
quiries, wo can state thai this machine is lemarkabls 
for its ingenuity and extreme simplicity, and Judginf 
fh>m an examination of its parts, we should think it 
rery durable. The price is only 815, and we are io- j 
formed by some of the manufacturers that the actual 
cost of mftking the machine is less than Ac dollais. 





1858. 



THE CULTIVATOR. 




W« only regret that the iBrentor hai placed it fai rery 
inefficieot hand* for general introdnetioD, and that the 
general agent or owner of the patent, reqniree snch 
•zorbita^t prioes for ooantj and Stato rights as roally 
to prohibit ita introduction into meet piaoei. 

Cah't Aftord to Stop it. — In any erent, I cannot 
afford to do without the Country Gentleman, which I 
have found constantly a treat of good things, caationi 
in the advocacy of new and doubtful discoveries and 
inventions, conservative in matters of contested agri- 
cultural doctrine, never allowing the brilliancy of a 
novel idea to dassle and blind the eyes of sound judg- 
ment, and in the right track as regarding labor as 
something more than the mere handmaid of science, 
but rather as the noble comer none pf all success in 
agricultural enterprise. *• Long may U wave i *' W. 
B. M. Cedar Ijoke, Wi». 

t^^ We are indebted to Hon. Savuxl Dixoh, our 
M. C, for the Ag. Report of the Com. of Patent Office 
for 1866— to Levi Babtlktt, Esq, for Transactions N. 
H. Ag. Society for 1856 — to Wm. II. Stasr, Esq , for 
"The Illustrated Pear Cultorist,'* a notice of which 
will appear hereafter. We have also received an 
'•Bzpoeition of the Katural Position of Mackinaw 
City," with maps, Ae. 

Fakkkr's Clubs—Wc find the following seasonable 
hints in the Ohio Farmer : " Don't fail to get up a 
* Farmers' Club* in your circle. Or revive the old one 
if you have had one. You must do this or something 
like it, to keep up with the times. Hold a weekly 
meeting for mutual improvement in agriculture for the 
next sixteen weeks, and mark down the result, and we 
think you will be convinced that such ao arrangement 
will be useful." Such Clubs ought to be formed in 
every town in the country, where farmers could get to- 
gether and spend at least one evening in a week in the 
discussion of matters pertaining to their own particu- 
lar pursuits. Much valuable information could thus be 
obtained, and a spirit of inquiry and emulation would 
be awakened, which would exhibit its effect in the labors 
and profits of the coming season. 

Hoo Cholbka.— The hog cholera is, and has been 
very prevalent in this county, some five or six miles 
south of this place, many farmers having lost their 
miire stock. No cause for it can be found— no cure 
either, though several nostrums have been tried. I 
mention it to correct tho prevailing impression that it 
is caused by poisonous whisky slops, as there are no 
distilleries in the county, and hogs are seised with' it 
in the range and in enclosures. Stdrbt SpsiHa. 
WhUe Co.y HI 

BiSBASE IV Cattle — ^A neighbor of mine has lost 
two calves and one cow within a few months, by a dis 
ease which we suppose may be Murrain in the head. 
The symptoms are trembling, a yellowish discharge 
from the nose, and a ** blood-shot eye." If you or any 
of your readers have had experience in the disease 
described, and can give the symptoms more fally, the 
cause, preventive, and cure, yon will much oblige A 
Rbadbr. 

Good temper is like a sonshfaiy day ; it sheds glad- 
ness and brightness on ererything. 

A food wood pile is one sign of a good hone. 




ChintM ItngfiX Cane in Indiana. 

Bditobs Courtbt Oertlbvar— Yob have, I per- 
ceive, many communications in regard to experiments 
with the Chinese Sugar Cane— mostly on a small scale. 
Experiments conducted in this way cannot be entirely 
satisfactory, for the cost of manufacture, (which is the 
principal item to be considered in determining its value. 
as a staple crop,) cannot be truly estimated. Besides 
this, a wooden mill, or some more rude contrivance, is 
used for expressing the juioe, and thus Justice is not 
done to the capacity of this erop. 

Without burthening you with deUils, I will briefly 
state to yon some facts gained by a pretty lengthy ex- 
perienoe. I used one of Hedges, Free A Ca's vertical 
iron roller mills, which performed its work admirably. 
I used for boiling down, cast-iron pans — ^procured of 
the same— Urge and shalk)W, and set in a brick range. 
I raised three acres of the cane, which did well — at- 
taining a bight of from 11 to 12 feet.. Some was plant- 
ed in hills and some in drills. I worked up my own 
besides a great many small patches of my neighbors. 
I have learned as follows :— 

1st. That it will make an excellent syrup, but that 
much depends on its manufaotuie. I have seen some 
of very inferior quality. 

2d. The best quality of syrup is obtained when the 
cane is fully ripe, and I Oiink also, without having 
made accurate experiments, that the qmrntity to be 
obtained is greatest at that stage. 

3d. That our lands that have produced this year (one 
of our best seasons,) 60 bushels com to the acre, have 
yielded 200 to 260 gallons molasses. With proper plant- 
ing and culture, I believe 300 gallons may be easily 
obtained. 

4th. That a greater yield of Juioe nmy be obtained 
by planting in drills 6 or 8 inches apart, keeping all 
suckers down. 

6th. That severe lhMtsii\|ure the quality of molasses, 
whether the cane be fully ripe or not, and that there- 
fore, 

6th. In our latitude it should be planted from 1st to 
16tb May, that it may ripen by the middle or last of 
September. 

For the benefit of some who talk about its yield not 
exceeding 100 gallons to the acre, let me give you the 
product of a patch belonging to one of my neighbors, 
and worked up by me. He had five rows, 90 feet long 
and 4 feet apart, and the product was 19 gallons. This 
is at the rate of 460 gallons to the acre. It was grown 
on a piece of ground that had formerly been a barn- 
yard, and all the suckers were left to grow, and work- 
ed up. Had it been allowed to mature, I think it 
would have gone up to the rate of 600 to the acre 
The high value of this new plant is a fixed fact with 
us. J. A. Footb. Terrt Haute^ Ind^ Dec. 1, 1857. 

Messrs. Tucker k Son— Last spring I procured a 
package of seed at Pittsburgh, of R. Peter's raising, 
—half a pint, for which I paid one dollar. I planted 
it May 18. It was long coming np, and when up it 
did not grow two inches in two weeks. At the end of 
two weeks it began to go up, and by first of Septem- 
ber It had reached the heigh* o« 12 feet I should have 
stated that my seed planted 61 square rods, six seeds 
to a hiU, 3 1-2 feet apart each way. I took aU the 
fveken is^ aobkailaf It «Mt vmj ^m!k for thiM 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



^ >«yx/^/N^%/\^k^./v <« 




weeks in snooeaslon, taking ttom Ave to fifteen off of 
each hilL 

I made a three-roller mOl to grind my eane, after 
the plan of a cider mill, but having bat one row of 
cogs at the top of the rollers. It worked well with one 
horse, pressing the Jnioe out tolerably clean by patting 
the cane through twice. Anzioos to know whether my 
> cane wonld make molasses or not, and whether my mill 
would answer the purpose, about the middle of Sep- 
tember, when the heads were out, I cut 250 canes, 
which made 26 gallons juice — 10 canes made one gal- 
lon juice — 2B gallons juice made 14 quarts molasses, a 
good article. By this time I began to think my cane 
was no humbug. On the 14th October the seed began 
to get black. I cut 260 canes ; out the tops off and 
stripped their blades ; then run them through the mill 
— got 20 gallons juice, which made four gallons thici| 
syrup, fkr superior to the first boiling. I then conclu- 
ded to let the balance of my cane stand until the seed 
ripened ; but a few nights after my last making, Jack 
Frost came and spoiled all my seed that was not yet 
ripe, and fodder too ; so I hod to go to work and work 
up my cane. Although the seed and fodder were spoil- 
ed, I fiound it had not spoiled the cane for making 
molasses, but rather increased the quantity and quality. 
I finished making up my cane 29th October, and from 
61 rods we had 72 gallons of syrup — a better article 
than I paid $1.12 a gallon for. I sold several gallons, 
for which I got 81 per gallon, and the balance we have, 
which will save me buying molasses for one year, which 
is no small item in my family. I think every fanner 
ought to ruse his own sugar cane, and make their own 
molasses, for it certainly pays a larger profit than any 
thing that can be grown on the same quantity of 
ground. 

I tried to make sugar from some syrup, but it would 
not grain. G. H. Balslkt, 6b. ConntlUvilU, Fay' 
ette Co., Pa. 

Messrs. EdxtobS— Aboat the middle of May I re- 
ceive a package of Sugar Cane seed from the Patent 
Office, which I planted in ordinary com land, two ftet 
one way and four the other. It came up feebly, and 
grew delicately for several weeks, after which it grew 
most luxuriantly, some attaining the height of ten or 
twelve feet when it formed its head, which perfectly 
matured against the first frost I cut one hundred 
canes of that which had ripened first, from which, when 
pressed, I obtained 26 pints of juice. This, sfter going 
through the process of clarification and boiling, made 
six pints of fine light colored syrup, superior in quality 
to the best New Orleans molasses ; which was a yield 
of one pint of syrup to four and a half of juice, and 
also a pint of juice to every four canes. Thus allowing 
a pint of juice to every four canes, or one hill, and at 
the above menticmed distances, an acre will contain five 
thousand four hundred and forty- five hills, which being 
divided by five, leaves one thousand and eighty pints, 
or about one hundred and thirty- five gallons per acre ; 
making a remunerative yield to the farmer even at 
twenty- five cents per gallon. Several of my enterpris- 
ing neighbors have also tested it, and and are well 
satisfied with the result of their experiments. 

One of the principal officers of the Agricultural 
Bureau at Washington, has given information that out 
of several thousand reports, not one shows a ff^ilufe. 
This will be gratifying to all, and proves conclusively 



that it is no "Moras nulttcanlifl," Rolian potato, or 
humbug. SxicBBKBT Wright. MiddietcwTtf Va 



I planted about 200 hills on light sandy land, and 
when it came up it was such miserable looking little 
stuff, that I thought surely it mast be a failure with 
me, and then the cut i^rms got at it and eat up about 
a fourth of it. I hoed the remainder once and plowed 
it once, which was all the work done to it, and now for 
the result. 

I made about nine gallons of good molaoses from it, 
which I prefer to the best Orleans molasses, and I am 
well satisfied that I lost full one-third of the juice for 
want of a better mill. I am very confident that it 
will succeed to a charm as far as nnolaeses is concerned. 
I intend to plant about two acres next spring. A. A. 
OoLB. FlotDtrviUt, Ind. 

# . »..♦ ^.. - 

Care for laflammaiory Rl&eiiini«tiam* 

Messrs. Editors— I have been a sufferer from that 
most painful of all diseases, the inflammatory rheuma- 
tism, and at times wholly unable to move, dress or feed 
myself. After applying all kinds of liniment outward- 
ly, and all kinds of medicines inwardly, without re- 
ceiving any benefit, I put myself under hydropathic 
treatment and diet, and hare had no rheumatism since, 
and have the perfect use of all my limbs. F. x. i. 



EMERY'S 

tJoTimal of Agricixltizre, 

PT7BLI8BBD WBKKLT BT 

TSo, 904: Lake Street, CKicago, Illinois. 

TERMS. 

One Copy, per annum, inadvanca $2.00 

Three Copies, 6.00 

Six A laoo 

Ten " and one to the getter up of the club,. 15.00 

POSTAGK— 6i cents per quarter, payable In advance 
IT TUB Officb wubn bbgsivxo, taaoy part of the United 
Statea 

VALUABLE PRIZES. 

We will give the following named valuable Prizes for 
obtaining subucrlbert to our Journal : 

For the largest list trailed or sent to us on or before the 
flret day of Fobrunrv, 18.18, we will give— 

1. BliWING MACHINE, worth $100.00 

2. All AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY, 40.00 

8. " " 20.00 

4. A8ILVER CUP, 10.00 

Aluo— For the largert Hat mailed or sent to us on or be- 
fore the flrat day of April, 1858, we will give— 

1. BKWING MACHINE, worth il26.00 

2. An AGRICULTORAL LIBRARY, 60.00 

3. " " 40.00 

4. " " 30.00 

5. •• •* 20.00 

6. A SILVER CUP, 10.00 

The Pewlng Machines offered are the WnEKLBRfc WiL- 

80N*8 pattern. If others of like value are preferred they 
can be had Instead. 

The books to be selected by the sncceasftil competitor 
from C. M. Saxton fit Co.'s cataloene. No person receiving 
any of the prizes will bo allowed the extra copy for clubs 
of ten and over. 

Copies will be mailed to different offices in making up 
clubs if required. 

ProfpectuBCB and aample numbers sent to any one wish- 
ing to compete for the prizes. 

Bhonid tne successful competitor for the largest prise 
choose farm Iraplements or farm machinery, they shall 
have the privilege of so deciding. 

-- Should a competitor not succeed in obtaining a prise he 
will be sure of obtaining a copy for himself by icndlngos 
the names of ten subscribers and fifteen dollars, 

Monev properly mailed and registered and a registry re- 
ceipt taken for it, may be sent at our risk. 

Where the amount is considerable, it would be better to 
purchase a' draft. Address EMERY d& CO., . 

Jan. 1— vrltmlt 204 Lake street, Chlcai^ 




THE CULTIVATOR. 



Albany Gounty Agiioattnral Society. 

KF" The Annual Meeting of the Society for the elec- 
tion of otficere for the ensuing year, will be held at the 
City Hall in the City of Albany, at 11 o'clock A. M. on 
Wednesday the 16lh day of January, 1858. All interested 
In the future welfare of the Society, are respectfully invi- 
ted to attend. A. F. Chatfibld, Secretary. 

Jan, 1— Vr'&mlt 




FB0PRIBT0R8 OF 

ALBANY AORZCUL'RAL WORKS, 

ALBANY, N. Y., 

AGAIN eall the attention of the Farming Public to 
their extended assortment of Ag. Ma^.hinery of their 
own construction, and designed for almost every purpose 
to which Horse Power can be applied. 

THEIR HORSB POWERS 
Have not been equalled by any others in nae, In this or 
any country. 

THEIR THRESHER AIVD CLBAXER GOMBUVED 
is unouestionably the most desirable oiie now in use for a 
Two-llorse Power, and will operate aseffloienliy with the 
CLEANER ATTACHMENT, as with the ordinary Se- 
paratoi now in general use, a desideratum long desired but 
never before attained. 

THEIR GRATBR CLOYBR MILL, 
Wlthita combinations, is a recent invention, and a most 
important acquisition to tho already large assortment of 
Ag. Machinery. This can bo used as a Clover Mill, with 
or without the Clover Cleaner Attachment, can have the 
Grain Thresher and Separator, or Thresher and Cleaner 
Attachment with it ; thus making an assortment of ma- 
chines, and each the same in all points as when made in- 
dependent of each other— and at a cost of but one-half tlie 
aniounl of money, and requiring less room for storage. 

THEIR DRAG CROSS-CTT HAU -MILL, 
For lumbering, cutting wood, or shingle and stave bolts, is 
so improved as to cut both ways at a high velocity ; runs 
light, and works very rapidly. The improvements consist 
in the peculiar rolling motion given the saw, and in the 
formation of the teeth of the saw. 

The log-ways, and its feeding arrangement, are such 
that one man^s force is iufUcient to manage it when the 
log is once on the ways, whatever may be its size and 
length. 

THEIR SHINGLE MACHI^TE, 
in it« way, Is an improvement over anything ever ottered to 
the public, and may be bad independent of the common 
Wood Circular Saw Mill, or as an attachment to it. 

Any farmer having a power of a force equal to Emk- 
RT*8 TWO HoRSB PowBR, cau if he has the timber, 
make better shingles than he can purchase in any market, 
and do a good business making sningics for sale. Their 
Wood Saw Mills, Do(c Powers, U<fer Mills dt Presses, 
&o., fcc., need no special notice, as they are already well 
known. 

Full Descriptive Priced Catalogues and Circulars fur- 
nished gratis on applicaticm, by enclosing a Three Cent 
Stamp to prepay the nostage on same. Agents solicited 
for Introducing and selling the above machines, to whom 
liberal discounts will be allowed. 

EMERY BROTHERS, 
Jan. 1, 1858— wltmlt 62 Sute St., Albany, N. Y. 

SHEEP BOOK. 

THE Breeds. Management, Structure and Diseases of the 
Sheep, with Illustrative Engravings and an Appendix., 
By Henry J. Cauaeld of Ohio— Tor sale at (be office of this 
paper— price 91.0U. 





ALBANY AG. WORKS, 

EMERY BROTHERS, Propriety 

63 STATE STREET, ALBANY, N. Y. " 

NOTWITHSTANDING the pronrictorBnre nllPracti- 
cal Plow Manufacturers, as well as their father be- 
fore them, from tho invention and adoption of Cast Xros 
for their construction, they have since the introdction of 

*' E.MERY*8 PATEXT HORSE POWER," 
And other Agricrltural Machinery made by lliem ui.til this 
time, found their facilities Insufllcenl for maiiufactnring a 
supply for the demand for them, and have in the mean- 
time supplied their trade with Plows Manufactured In 
Massachusetts, of the meet approved patterns in use. 

The demand for both Machinery and Plows increasing, 
and the transportation alone on plows amounting to a very 
large sum, being from five to ten ptr leni on their value, 
they have been Induced to extend ihelr business faciliileB, 
and to that end the\' have recently made arrangements 
which trebles their Steam Power, by putting In o tnrgelote 
prttsure SUam Engine with the best of modern Improve- 
ments, and otherwise extended their works, which has en- 
abled them to add to their other business the 
MAIVl FACrtRE OF PLOWS 
On a large scale, and have all the facilities of the best Plow 
establishments In the country. 

They have made a selection of all the desirable patterns 
and kinds now In use In this country, and have in all ca^es 
been carefiil to preserve all the Httings and parts, to InKure 
uniformity in repairs for plows of the same Icind now In 
use. thereby avoiding all Inconvenience to dealers or far- 
mers who may purchase these plows or repairs. As all are 
made by machinery, a perfect uniformity is produced In 
the wood-work of ail plows of the same size. 

Tho castings, also made In sjime establlsliment, are of 
the same strong Iron, and are all ground and pollsned rea- 
dy for work. The edges of the points, as also the bottom 
of landsldes, are chilled hard as steel (;an be, which pre- 
serves sharp points and edges, and the proper pitch or sett 
to the landside, and unifonu action to the whole plow un- 
til worn out. 

Tho timber of which they are made is all the *' Mass. 
White Oak," and which is made for them by same parlies 
who supply all the timber fur the New-I£ngland manufao* 
turers, the quality of which gives to them their great ce- 
lebrity. 

Dealers who have not sold these plows, as also those 
who have, like the proi)rietorf purcliaacd their plows In 
the Eastern States, are particularly rec^uested to examine 
their work and prices oefore purchasing, and Instead of 
buying at the east, to save from five to ten pei cent, now 

f)ard for transportation alone, to say nothing of the saving 
n time required to fill orders, and the marring and da- 
maging to same by the long Railroad transi>ortation to this 
point. Terms as liberal a« the best will be given, a better 
finished article supplied without Injury from transportar 
tlon, and a saving In time of from four to ton and twelve 
days. 

They solicit the attention and patronage of the Trade 
and the Farming Community bt;fore purchasing their 
Plows for the coming season. Descriptive Circulars with 
prices furnished gratis on application, by enclosing a three 
cent postage stamp to prepay its postage. 

EMERY BROTHERS, 



Jan. 1— w&mlt 



62 Slate Street, Albany, N. Y. 



Seymoiir'H Brond Cast Sower fur Sale. 

TniS excellent machine gives uniform satisfaction, and 
saves more than Its cost In actual use. Price $60, de- 
livered at the railroad where manufactured. One may 
now be had, by applying soon to 

LlfTHER TUCKER & BON, 
July 80— wtf. Albany, N. Y. 

One Large 12 ma Vol— Price $1.60. 
Downingr'8 Fruit and Fruit Trees, 

JUST PUBLISHED, and for sale at this office-sent by 
mail postpaid, at $1.76. 

NE.W BOOKS 
For Sale at the Office of the Country GentlenubL 





88 



THE CULTIVATOR. 




Three Hundred and thf rty-slx i>agee, and Four Hnndred 
and forty BngraTlnga. 

A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIA IN MINIATURE 
for every man with a Farm, a Garden, or a Pomcelie 
Animal— for every Place which will grow a Flower or a 
Frttlt-trce— for every Purchaser or Builder in the Coan* 
try, and for every Household In the City, delighting In 
representntione or looking forward with hopea of Rural 
Life. Embracing 



Rural Architbctckb, 
Landscapr Gardshixo, 

FitDIT CULTURB, 

Oknamrntal Plantiko, 
Bbst Fruits and Flowbrs, 



Implbmbkts tL Maohihbbt. 
Farm Ecobomt 

DOMBBTIO AviMALBf 
FAipi BuiLniKOB, 

H1VT8 roR Cultivators. 



Beautifully Illustrated with 440 Engravings. 

By JoHH J. Thomas, Author of the " American Fruit 
Cultarist, &^, 4ce. Sent poet-paid on receipt of $1 in Gold, 
Postage Stamps, or Bank-note, by the publishers. 

Among the Illustrations of this volume, are 



11 hgs. of Apples, 
2 " Apricots, 

6 Plans of iJarns, 

2 fles. of Blackberries, 

7 Plans of Barns, 

2 ** Carriage Houses, 

8 Portraits of Cattle, 

5 figs, of Cheese Presses, 
4 " Chams. 

14 " Cherries, 
2 " Cider Mills, 
8 Corn Planters, 
2 Corn Shellers, 

8 Drills, 

6 Maps of Farms, 
4 Flower Gardens, 

16 Flowering Plants, 

9 flgs. of Strawberries, 
2 Stump Machines, 



16 figs, in Fruit Culture, 
4 Grape Houses, 

7 figs. Grape Culture, 

4 Harrows, 

4 Portraits of Horses, 

17 Plans of Houses, 
6 fi^. for Lawns, 

10 Mowers and Reapers, 
12 flffa. of Pears, 

10 Plows, 

11 Plums, 

2 Poultry Houses, 
6 Raspberries, 

12 figs, of Rustic Work, 

3 desi'ns for scbool-hous's, 
6 figs, of Sheep, 

6 ** Swine. 
12 Trees, with 
170 other IllustraUons, 



Embracing a great variety of Implements, Machines, Or- 
naments, Gates, &c., &c., formfng a collection such as can 
be found in no other single volume yet published. 

The PuRiTAB Rbcobdbr. Boston, thus notices this work : 

" We cannot conceive of a plan of a book better adapted 
for utility to all the purposes of the Farmer than thi& It 
is to him what a book of architectural plans is to the 
Builder. It paints to tlieeve everything with which the 
Fanner has to do ; and tnere is hardly any subject of 
practical interest to the Farmer which la not here treated 
and practically illustrated.^' 

This we think is t) e best book yet published, for School 
District and Town Libraries, as well as for l^emiums to 
be awarded by Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. 
LUTHER TUCKER & SON, 

Albany, N. Y. 

\* The same publi^ers have Just issued Tob Illus- 
TRATBD Annual Reqistbr of Rural ArrAiRB for 1868— a 
beautiful annual of all Agricultural and Horticultural 
matters— with 130 Engravings. Price 26 cents. For the 
sake of introducing it more widely In ever>' locality, they 
will send One Dozen Copies, post-paid, for TWO DOL- 
LARS! 



Seed of King Philip Cora. 

SEED of this early and productive variet)'. -the best for 
a crop to precede wheat, ripening in 100 days from 
planting,— and having produced over 60 bushels of shelled 
corn per acre without manure the past unfavorable season 
—is offered for sale by the subscriber. Selected ears, to 
tiW a barrel, will be sent by railway on the receipt of |3, 
current msney. J. J. THOMAS, 

Dec 4— w4tm2t Unk>n Springs. Cayuga Co., N. Y". 



For Sale. 

THE thorough bred imported DEVON BULL ''Exe- 
ter,'' (lt8) calved March, 1863— bred W James Quart- 
ly. Esq., Molland, England. Also several YOUNG BULLS 
with first rate pedigrees. These animals are in fine condi- 
tion, and well worthy the attention of Devon Breeders. 
For terma. 4u., addrosa ALFRED M. TRBDWELL, 
I>M. 94— w4tmlt JTft SBl PaMMrwt, Ntw-York. 




Cliaffas or Kartli Almonds. 

AN ANNUAL plant f^om Spain, producing an abun- 
dance of small tubers of a sweet chestnut-like flavor, 
and an excellent substitute for cofl'ee. The subscriber has 
cultivated them for the last three seasons, and finds them 
excellent food for swine, poultry, and other farm stock. 
For sale for planting at the following prices : 26 tubers 10 
cents ; 100 tubers 25 cents ; sent by mail post-paid, or 1000 
by express for |1. Directions for culture, harvesting, d»c., 
sent with each package. H. B. LUM, 

Deo. 24— w4tm2t Sandusky, O. 

Just Published— Price |1.26. 
A Practical Treatiic on Qnmm and Vcniga Planti, 

OOMPRIBtBO 

THEIR Natural History, Comparative Nutritive Value, 
Methods of Cultivation, Cutting and Curing, and the 
Management of Grass Lands.. By Cbarlbs L. Flibt, 
Sec'y of the Mass. Board of Agriculture. For sale at this 
office. If sent by mall, price fl.50. 



Three Vols. 8 vo.— Price $16. 

The Amerioan Short-Horn Herd Book, 

Bt lewis F. ALLEN, 

FOR SALE at the office of the Country Gkntleman and 
Cultivator. The vols, will be sold separate— the first 
voL at $3, and vols. 2 and 3 at $6 each. Every Bhort-Horn 
Breeder should have this work. 



TO TAHKEEB A T HO ME OB ABBOAD 

The Best Newspaper in New-England. 
THE 

Spriiifflcld Weekly Republican. 

BY SAMUEL BOWLES k, COMPANY. 
Pnbllaliecl e^erjr Saturday tor $1.50 a Year* 

THIS Journal has won a national repatatlon for Its ex- 
cellence as a general Fsmlly Newspaper and Its high 
Political and Literary character. Published In the heart 
of New-England ; on a larger sheet and with a greater 
amonnt of matter than the Boston weeklies ; with a day's 
later news than the New-York and Boston weeklies of the 
same date ; representing more faithfully than those jour- 
nals can, or profess to do, the distinguishing principles of 
New-England, In morals, politics and religion ; and made 
up with especial reference to the tastes and wants of l^ew- 
Eiigland families, whether settled In their original homes, 
or transplanted to distant portions of the Union— Tub Rk- 
PDBLICAM presents more attractive features for a general 
circulation than any other New-England paper. 

It Is the only newspaper In New-England published on 
a large quarto sheet— e'ght pages of six columns- like the 
New- York Tribune and Times. It contains, each ^eeek, 
tall Bommaries of the local news of New-England — A 
Review of the Markets and Monetary Afftilrs— A Summa- 
ry of Religious Intelligence — A Letter ft*om Boston, by 
one of the most brilliant writers connected with the Press 
— An Agricultural Column — Editorials on the Various 
Topics of the Week— Original and Selectod Tales. Poetry, 
Miscellany, &c. : in all over forty solid columns of Bead- 
ing In each number. 

' The Republican is under the editorial charge of Samvcl 
BowLBS, with whom are associated Dr. J. G. Holla kd. 
author of the History of 'Western Massachusetts and 
•'The Bay Path," and several other experienced writers. 

TERMS.- One copy, eight mouths. |l ; one year, $1.50 ; 
sixteen months ,$2. Two copies, one year, |S ; eight copies 
|10 ; and twenty copies $20 ; with one cony extra to the 
gctter-up of the club In either of the two last cases. For 
forty copies one year, $40, and the IHlly Republican extra 
for the gettor-up of the club. Bank bills current in the 
capital of any State received at par. 

The Dailt Rkpublio ah, conducted by the same parties, 
Is published for $5 a year, and contains all the news of tl.e 
day— Foreign and Domestic — simultaneously with the 
New-York Journals, and presented In a much more conve- 
nient and readable style. Five copies of the Daily are 
sent to one address one year for $22.60 ; ten copies, $40. 

B7* No subscription received without the cash in ad- 
vance, and the paper is discontinued when the period of 
payment expires. Address 

SAMUEL BOWLES 4t CO., 

Deo. 17—wltmli Springfield, Masa. 

JLgiioiiltiiral Books, 
Fiv siU at iIm «Am ef iIm CMSitry ~ 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




THE NEW-YORKOBSERVER, 



AReligioaa and Scculur Family Newspaper, will •om- 
roeiice oo the tiret of Janaary next, iU Thirty-sixth 
Vuiume. 

It is the Largest Newspaper In the World, 
Published Weekly, and devoted to Religious, Literary 
and Secular Intelligence of every variety. Its Mammoth 
Sheet is so arranged as to constitute 

TWO COMPLETE NEWSPAPERS ; 
The one Religious and the other Secular, each of which la 
as large as the Country Gentleman. 
It is not Sectarian in Seligion,nor partisan in Politioi 
But deoigned for a pleasing and instructive companion in 
every Evangelical Christian Family. 

A large number of the best writers of the age as special 
Contributors, and Correspondents in all the principal 
Countrlea of the World, are united with a full Editorial 
Corps of long experience, to give interest and value to the 
paper. 

THE RELIGIOUS DEPARTMENT, 
Besides Its Editorial Articles and Correspondence, con- 
tains a Summary of the most important movements of all 
Christian DcDominations. 

THE SECULAR SHEET, 
In addition to the Foreign and Domestic News, has de- 
partments of Agriculture, of Science, and of Commerce 
—the latter embracing full and accurate Reports of the 
Money, Produce, Cattle and other Markets up to the time 



of going to presa. 

The condu ' 



nductorrt of the Observer will spare no expense 

or effort to maintain for their Journal the high reputation 
It has always possessed. No Journal ever retained for 
the same time so large and so permanent a list of subscri- 
bem as the New- York Oljserver. It has several times 
passed the ordeal of party and sectional strife, Religious 
and Secular, with little or no variation in the list of its 
subscribers. Of those who have left it In the excitement 
of the moment many have returned again, unsatisfied with 
controversial and party organs as a substitute. 

It has attained ito large circulation maiklt bt volunta- 
»T suDSCaiPTiOMS and the kind agency of its subscribers. 

Specimen numbers of the paper will be »ent tree to all 
applicanU. A copy of our Biblo Atlaa, with colored Maps 
on paper of large size and best quality, will bo sent gratis 
to every person who paj's for a year in advance. 

The price of the oWrver is $2 60 a year im advastcb. 
One Dollar and Fifty cenU will be deducted as commis- 
siox from the price of thrbb yaw subbcribkrs sent us at 
oi>e time ;— or axt old subscbibkr, sending us the name 
of TWO NKW 8UB8CRIBBR8 and Six Dollars, shall have re- 
ceipts for the three subscriptions, for one year, provided 
his own is paid in advance. 

A MOHS LiBRBAL commissloti wiU be paid to any oue Will 
Bend us twenty or more new subscribers. 

Address SIDNET B. MORSE & CO., 

Editors and Proprietors. 

Dec 17— wStmlt 138 Nassau St., New- York. 



A BETIRBD PHYSICIAN, 

76 YEARS OF AGE, 



/ Whose Bands of life have nearly mn out, discovered 
I while in the East Indies a certain cure for Consump- 
I tion. Asthma, Bronchitis, Coughs, Colds, and General 
Debility. The remedy was dlscovened by him when his 
only child, a daughter, was given up to die. He had hoard 
much of the wonderful restorative and healing qualities 
of preparations made from East India Hemp, and the 
thought occurred to him that be might make a remedy for 
his child. He studied tiard and succeeded in realizing hia 
wishes. His child was cured, and Is now alive and welL 
Re has since administered the wonderful remedy to thou- 
Bands of suflbrers in all parta of the world, and he has 
never failed in making them completely healthy and hap- 
py. Wishing to do as much good as possible, he will send 
to such of his afllioted fellow-beings as request it, this re- 
cipe, with full and explicit directions for making it up, 
and BueceMfuUy using it. He requires each a| " 
to enclose him one shllllng^three cents to be 
aa postage on this reoipe. and the remaimlcr 
plied to Uie payment of this advertisement. 
AddreflB Dr, H. JAMBS, No. 19 Grandst, 
Dec 17— w4tmlt Jersey City, 

Berkshire Pigs for Sale! 

WARRANTED of pure breed, and at a low flguret 
' WILLIAM J. -PETTEE, 
June U— w4biBtf — - Lakevill,«CoMk 




Excelsior Ag. IVori&s, Albany, IX.Y. 

SICH'D H. PEASE, Proprietor. 

TTTE OFFER the farmers and other responnib.e persons 
f y of this country, a rare chance to make money as 
fast as they can in most nnv other way, by selling our Cel- 
ebrated Excelsior Patent llailway Endless Horse Powers, 
Threshers, Cider Mills. Saw Mills. &c., &c., for which we 
will allow them a lil>eral conmiisnion. Last sennon many 
farmers sold these machines for us, and they all made mo 
nay, and are anxious to sell them again this season. All 
communications addressed to the eubMcribcr will be 
promptly answered. RICU'D H. I'EAaE. 

OBBTiriCATBS. 

BinroRD Co. Tenn. Oct 15, 1868. 
We the undersigned hereby certify that we have pur- 
chased of the Agent of the Manufacturer, Richara U. 
Pease of Albany, New- York, his *' Excelsior Horse Power 
and Thresher," and having used them a sufficient length 
of time to convince us of their utility and durability, ieel 
no hesitancv in saying that in our opinion they are the 
very best or which we have anv knowledge, they having 
performed to our entire satisfaction. Given under our 
nand, day and date above. 
Garkbt Phillips, Bbnj. Garrktt, 

M. L. DiSMUKBS, ALBX. 6ANDBR3 

TnoB. Lipscomb, Wm. M. Gogoin, 

Wm. a. AlLBV, AlBX. EiKIN, 

J. T. Arnold, Rbddiko Oborgb, 

W. W. HaSTIKOS, J. J. KOONCB. 

Jambs Mul lists. W. C. J. Browv, 

H. D. Davidbosi. 
Bast Gbbbkwicb. N. T., Feb, 26, lf.67 

Mr. R H. Pbasb— I received the Two Horse Power, 
Thresher and Separator I purchased of you. and put it to 
work to test it. I have threshed 2.500 bushels of wheat, 
oats and r}-e with them, without a break of any kind. It 
works to my entire satisfaction, and I think there is no 
better machine made. Wm. McNbil. 

May 14— wjtmtf. 





Wood's Portable Steam Kiifrine Works, 

Camtr of Rome and Cor nt tin Streets^ Utiea^ N, K., ifmm^rly 
Eaton, N. i.) 

A.- N". TTT-OOID *fc CO. 

Practical Kaohinii ti.and Builden of their Celebrated 
PORTABLE 8TEAM ENGINES 

For Fferm and Meclmule«l Purpoaea. 

WE HAVE made great Improvements in our Engines 
the past winter, pailicularly In the manner of set- 
ting the luoes in the boilers, (by Prosser's Patent) adding 
a large wrought-iron dome in place of small cast ones, in* 
creaaed the size of fire-box, with ash-pan that can be closed 
up tight or opened at pleasure,— also in the manner of con- 
necting the governor to throttle, making it direct action. 

Parties wishing Circulars with cuts of Engine, should 
enclose P. O. Stamp to pay return postage on same. The 

following is our 

VBICB LIST FOB 1887. 
Horse e6t1mat« space oe- eash price fly-wheel di- face of 
power weight ' * ... 

2i 2000 1b. 
8 2200 " 
4 2600 ** 
B 3600 " 
8 4800 ** 
10 6000 " 

12 7500 « , . _ _ 

The above price indudca boxing and delivered on board 
cars. A. N. WOOD 4t CO. 

• April 28— wtfr-Jone l^mft. 



cuplod 
4 by 6 ft 




ameter 


wheel 


1240 


89 in. 


64 in. 


6 by 6 " 


290 


89 " 


6l» 


7 by 6 " 


866 


40 »* 


6 « 


7by6 " 


660 


44 " 


7 " 


Oby6i'.* 


700 


48 " 


8 " 


Oby6l» 


876 


60 *♦ 


8 - 


I4by6l** 


1060 


72 " 


12 " 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Oontents of this Number. 



The Farm. 

The Twenty-Wflh Volume, J> 

Management of Manure, liy W. B., JO 

ParenTtw and other RooU, 10 

What Hinderii more frequent Draining, - U 

Measuring Corn In the Crib, by W. C. HL, IS 

Exponeo of Raising Corn 13 

The PoUto ^leeaae, by Prof. JuHHSOK, 1* 

Cheater County Bam, 1« 

New and Convenient Harrow, by C 17 

Practical Draining, by Qbo. Aldbrsov, 17 

Morable Board Fence, 18 

Kentuclcy Blue Graes, by C. M, Clat 18 

ChineM Sugar Cane Syrup j9 

Plan at a Small Farm House, by E, L. R. » 

King Philip or Brown Corn,.. 21 

Oaier or Basket Willow, by O. D. P g 

Improving Leaking Cellara, by W. Clake, 23 

Proflu of Butter Making, by J. T. CoariB, 24 

Design for School House, 26 

Covered Barn-Yards, by Chab. Blobs, 25 

Draining Swamps, 25 

Report of Various ExporimenU, by P. Sidbbotbam,.. 27 

Substitutes for Hay, by A. H Rbtxoldb, 29 

Inquiries and Answers, 30 

Notes for the Month, 82 

Chinese Sugar Cane, by J. A, Footb, and others, 86 

The Orasler. 

Fatal Disease among Cattle, by D. B. Riobabdb, 18 

Big Head in Horses, by Sidnbt Spbiho, 16 

The Dominique Fowl, ..--.-....... 24 

Spine Disease and Poll Evil In the Horse, by J. & Pbt- 

TIBOKB, 2© 

Large Leicester Lambs, 84 

The Hortlenlturlst. 

Frnltaforthe South, 11 

Three New Pears, 12 

Western Apples, 13 

Plants for Ornamental Hedges, 1» 

Sheltering Cabbage for Winter Use, W 

Preparing Grounds for Orchards, 21 

TheTorrenla Aslatica, 22 

Transplanting Trees, » 

ImporUnce of Good Transplanting, 27 

Notions in Horticulture, -. 27 

Houses for Growing VfigWables in Winter, 28 

Cutting ^d Preservifl^ Grafts, 28 

Answers to Inqulrifl^; 80 

The Honsewire. 

Cure for Canker Sore Mouth, 11 

How to Staunch Bleedl ng Wounds, fcc, 16 

Bplder-Apple Pie, by a E. Todd, W 

Tb Stop Fire In Chimney, 21 

Remedy for Fleas, by Svbscribbr, 23 

To Harden I^rd for Candles, by C. F. W., 26 

Cure for Rheumatism, by M. Piokbtt, 27 

IlluatratloiiB. 

Three New Pears, 12] Torenla Aslatica, 22 

Chester County Barn,.— 16 Dominique Fowl, .- 24 

New Harrow 17 

Movable Board Fence, .. 18 
Small Farm Honse.4 figs^ 20 



Design ror Schod House, 26 
Vegetable House, 28 



The lUiurtratad Annual 
REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIR8 
FOR 1858, 
Is now ready for delivery— ILLUSTRATED WITH 
ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY ENGRAVINGS, 
and comprising a great variety of valuable Hints and 
Suggestions for every Country Resident The following 
is a brief and imperfect 

XPITOMB or ITS ooimHTS : 
L A COMPLETE COUNTRY RESIDENCE. Thb 

DwBLLiKQ— Plan of First Floor ; Chamber Floor ; 

Construction of Roof and Cellar Walls. Thb 

Groukdb— Laving out and Ornamental Structures ; 

the Flower Garden : the Dwarf Pear and Fruit 

Garden ; the Kitchen Garden ; the Orchard ; 

Hedges. Oct BoiLniKos—Smoke House and Ash- 

ery ; Range of Farm Buildings \ Piggery ; Poultry 

House. 
IL RULES FOR EXTERIOR DESIGNS FOR 

HOUSES. 
HL THE APIARY — Queens, Workers and Dronen; 

Hives— their Construction ; Size ibr different lati- 




tudes: Glass Boxes for Honey; Swarm coming 
out ; winter Mana^ment, ttc. 

IV. COUNTRY noUSES. Labobbu'b Cottaobs — 

Design by Mr. DowMixo; Second Design, with 
"node of constructing Eaves. Swiss Sdbcrbak 
DomoB— Design and ^ans. Stomb Cottaob— 
Design and Plans. SjIIli. Farm Hocsb — De- 
sign and Plana 'Pi.Aiir Housb ik Cottagb 
OoTHio Sttlb— Design and Plans. Cheap Farm 
Hocsb— Design and Plans. Brack bttbd Farm 
House— Desini and Plans. Italiar Farm House 
— Design andTlans. BATTBiikD CotfUTRT House— 
Design, Plan and Audy for an appropriate orna- 
mental Gate. GoTuic MAHStoR— Deatgn aifd.Tlan. 

V. NOTES ON FRUITS. Culture or Fruits - 

— Fsmlliar Hints ; Treatment at Trees : Sprouts 
about Fruit Trees ; lUMrrafUng Old Trees. The 
Grape- the Rebecca ; Keeping Grapes ; Grapes 
around Boston. The CurraeT— Varieties of the 
Currant ; Effect of Cultivation ; the Currant as a 
"Bush" and "Tree." Thb Apple— Apples for 
Cooking; Molasses tmm Apples: Productive 
Young Orchard. The Pb ar— Fire Bught in Pears ; 
Two Hundred Dollar Trees; Ripening Winter 
Pears. The Plum— Catching Corculios. Prueivo 
AMD Qraptikq Shears. Fauff Ladders. 
VL LIS!' OF THE BEST FRUITa Sorts adopted by 
the Am. Pomological Society- Apples— for Gene- 
ral Cultivation ; for Northern Localities ; Varieties 
which Promise Well. Pears- for General Culti- 
vation : for Quince Stocks ; for Particular Locali- 
ties. Plums— for General Cultivation ; which Pro- 
mise Well ; for Particular Localities. Cbkriubb- 
dlttOL Apricots and Nbctariebs— for General 
Cultivation. Pbaches; Qjiapbs. Goobbbbrribs. 
Ra»pbbrribs. Btrawbbrribs. Currakts. Black- 
berries. 

Vn. ANNUAL FLOWER& DBBCRiPxrvM Lists and 
Methods of Culture; Mode of Sowing ; Hardy 
and Tender. Choick Aheuals. 

VHL garden STRUCTURES. A Cheap Vikrrt- 
Design and Cost Gbbap Grebe House— Com- 
mon Green House ; Kew Cotservatory. 

IX THE KITCHEN GARDEN. Hints ie Mamaob. 

MEET— Size ; Rotation of Crops ; Root Crops ; the 
Cabbage Tribe ; Beans, Peas, 4cc ; Other Crops. 
The Hot Bbd. Select List op Vbobtables: 

X FARM BUILDINGS. Ornambxtal Carriaoe- 

Houses- to accompany Dwelling in Italian style ; 
to accompany Dwelling in Gothic style. Sheep 
Bani, Chester Co. Bam, Granary Sl Wagon-House. 
XL VARIOUS FACTS IN TILLAGE-Depth o/ 
Bowing Wheat— Good Rotation— Wheat Crop Im- 
proving— Grass I^ands— Dividends fW>m Tile- 
Heavy Potatoes — Plowing Wet Land — Cheap 
Farm Laborer— Long and Short Manure— Value of 
Straw in Manure— Manure enriched by Grain- 
Harrowing Inverted Sod. 

XIL IMPROVED DOMESTIC ANIMAM - Jersey 
and Suffolk Cattle — Cheviot, and Sileeian and 
French Merino Sheep— Portuguese and Chinese 
Swine. FEEDING-Exneriments with Hogs- 
Food of Cows— Rules for Fattening. 

Xin. RURAL ECONOMY -Constructing Stables— 
Questions and Answers— Corn Shocks — Animals 
in Winter— Storing Ice— Planting Timber— Shelter 
— Double-Minded Farmers— To make Hens iJiy In 
Winter— Feeding Boea— Preparation of Hams. 

XIV. DOMESTIC ECONOMY-Broken China-Stick- 

Ing Salve— Frozen Pun;^— Flies— Knitting Stock- 
ing Heels— Rat Traps^O wis— Stings and Bites- 
Door Latches— Chimneys— Matches— P. O. Stamps 
-To Mend a Chain Pump without taking it up, 
and many other valuable Itcixu^ 

XV. MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES — Steamer for 

Cooking Feed — Potatoes in Winter — Disease.of 
Domestic Animals— Weight of Grain—Root Crops 
—Cheap Fences— Ventilation-Good and Bad Man- 
agement. 
All the above famished In the neatest and olaarost typo- 
graphy for TwENTY-FivB Crrtb I 

Agents desired to sell the Rroistkb In all parts of the 
country, and at every Fair and Show to be held this Fall, 
The most favorable terms will be made. An active man 
may easily dispose of hundreds or thousands during the 
next few montns. 

Address letters of inquiry, or orders with aocom] 
ing cash, to LUTHER TUCKER U SOI 

Publisbers of the Co. G«nt. and The Cultivator, 
"895 Broadway, Albany, 





THIRD 



€o Smpcfn tjit ^oil niit tbe Mint 



SERIES 



Vol. VI. 



ALKANY, FEBRUARY, 1858. 



No. II. 



Flapi for tke T«»r. 

There Is nothing like tjstematio mirengemeBt, In4^- 
eilltating the eperation of eoofplex hufiDeat. What 
endleM oonftuion would reioll from n hap>haxard man- 
agement of raeh raet establiahments ae the New- York 
Central »d Brfe RattteMl*! The atockboldera and 
bond-o«rBeTB would get mlhvr small dividends, if the 
trains were all ran with the same trregulnritj th«t some 
farmers p etl bra i their labor8-<«>in8tead of the precisian 
wUch marks the time for the passage of every train 
fer bwdIIis in adranoe. It is easy to vnderstaad bow 
a railway emnpany would fail from the blanders of 
eenM0io»i but the smaller loss, but equally great as 
oompared with the capital, resulting from bungling 
pjlan* in fhrming, or no plans at all, is often overlooked. 
There is nothing where so small an eutlay would result 
in so great proit, as well digested plans for the year to 
be promptly and skiUfuUy exeented. A watchmaker 
might abent as well think of pltefog the parts of his 
maebl^t together with his eyesaknt, as for eoltivators 
of thn soU to hobble along with a jm^'s work» with no 
system le fiM* them. 

A«riMitftnal papers leach many valaable Improve- 
ments. TlMse is probably net ene snreftil render in a 
tho— nd, thai wonld not be bwMitted many doUars 
•vnry year fay the vafions hints he receives, proMed 
fu arU^ jmi Mtbmt^th*m into prmeiie^ He often 
ftnds suggestions wUeh his good sense tells him would 
be very useful. Bat w^y wens they not tried 7 '*Ah! 
he intended to have done so, but in the multitude of 
thoughts and labors, they were overlook^ till just a 
few dv' too l*t« ^'* Vowj how would ii banker suc- 
ceed, if he should trust his memory alone to remind 
him of the day when discounted notes are due 1 Why 
cannot the farmer adopt the same systematic method 
of laying before his eye the work of the season, that 
the banker's tidcler perforsM in placing before him the 
required money transaction of each successive day 1 
We have before made the suggestion (but it will bear 
many repedtions,) of a very simple and easy mode to 
obviate se many dlwstrons delays from ftirgetfhlness, 
as occur on nSarly ev^ry farm. Devote a page In a 
small pocket blank-book to each week's work dnring 
the season, and marlrit distinctly with Its proper date. 
Enter under the proper head every snggestion which 
may occur dnring the present winter's reading. Addi- 
tional suggestions will ocenr nt all periods threnghont 
, and should be entered at the time. In a 
year or two, sncfa a memorandum book If properly nsed, 
will be worth hundreds ef dollars annually to evety 



extensive farmer, and to the smaller one at least an 
equal proportion. So much for securing seasonable at- 
tention to the operations of the year. 

But there are other Important'departments of sjste- 
mtttic farming. The skillful railway-manager adopts 
a practicable time table, and ten that all the trains 
are worked to the specified time. The good farmer 
should adopt a similar mode of management He 
should bring befora his eye a list of all the important 
operations of the season — and he must so arrange 
them, — fit tbem togeth^, — and add to or curtail the 
extent of each, that all may be Veil performed in sea- 
son. A crop of five acres planted early, well put in, 
and properly cultivated, may yield more nett profit 
than ten acres a fortnight too late, and badly managed 
because there is other clashing work at the time. Too 
much plowing for his teams in spring ; too much hoe- 
ing for his men afterwards ; too much haying or har- 
vesting for them to perform at midsummer ; or a larger 
extent of autumn crops than he can secure in proper 
order,— will all operate to the disadvantage of the far- 
mer. If he hirea men by the month and foe the season, 
he wishes to avoid a more costly resort to day hands, 
and therefore all these different crops and operations, 
must be so arranged that the labors of the establish- 
ment will move on uniformly, quietly, efficiently, with- 
out delay or confusion, and with the doek-work preci- 
sion which marks the superintendence of the success- 
ful railway manager. 

There ore several other important points, which at 
present need be onl^ briefiy mentioned. Rotation qf 
cropa is an indispensable requisite to systematic farm- 
ing fle who bos never properly divided his fisrm into 
fields, nor brought their yearly oooupation nnder a 
regular, nnalterable succession of crops, must spend 
time and thought every year to determine how to plant 
his fields, and often become so confused as to change 
his mind half a dosen timee before he Is done with the 
task, and probably end in laying ont conflicting labors 
for the year. Systems of rotation are given elsewhere ; 
but we can state briefly some of the best for this coun- 
try, which mny be modiAed according to circumstances. 
For four iekh, ef nearly eqnal siae,— 1st year, com on 
sod, with fonts and maanre i 2d, wheat ; 3d and 4th, 
clover, —meadow and pasture. For six or seven fields, 
—1st, com, kn.\ 2d, barley, oats, beans or peas; 3d, 
wheati 4th, 6th, 6th and 7th, ck>ver and timothy, the 
flrrt twe years for pasture, the last two for meadow. 

Good ImpUmmtt constitute another requiilte. A 
poor tool or machine which Is liable to break or get out 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




of order, may, hj UMmg at a eritioal period, derango 
the whole maohinery of the faim, at great Um, and 
reqairing a long time to restore. A badly made horee- 
rake once broke, by which delay the rain came on fire 
aeree of dried hay, before it could be drawn in, lenen- 
ing its ralae two dollars on the ton, adding several 
more days' labor to spreading and diying it a second 
time, and delaying the .workmen ao that an adjolntng 
wheatfield was not harvested and housed till a long rain 
produced spronting in the grain, and the whole delay, 
first and last, prevented the owner from preparing his 
wheat ground in time for early autumn sowing, by 
which he lost fifty dollars by estimate the following 
summer, through the attacks of the wheat-midge. 
This was almost as disastrous m Dr. Franklin's illus- 
tration of neglect — " For want of a nail the shoe was 
lost, for want of a shoe the horse was lost, for want of 
a horse the rider was lost." 

In planning the work of the year, it is advisable that 
provision be made for trying ejfperimenU. Not oostly 
. ones, but those which are simple irtid easily tried, and 
which determine important questions. We have known 
farmers to work from gutBsing^ on a single subject for 
twenty years, where results would vary profits hun- 
dreds of dollars on the long run, and where the ques- 
tion of profit might have been determined with less than 
one day's labor. There are now many questions on 
which cultivators continue to dispute, without resorting 
to practical tests, but which a proper entry in the 
memorandum-book already described, would enable 
any cultivator easily to settle — as for example, thick 
and thin seeding of grass and grain ; deep and shallow 
planting; late and early mowing; comparative pro- 
ducts of com in hills and drills, and the same of pota- 
toes ; the value of ft«quent (weekly or daily) cultiva- 
tion of com by horse power ; d«pth of burying manure ; 
comparative profit of selling grain or the animal fat- 
tened on it, Ac. In all investigations of the kind, a 
convenient platform-soale, by aasisling in the settle- 
ment of the various questions constantly occurring in 
the feeding and management of animals, would soon 
repay its cost 

• • • — ■ ■■ 

Millet — ^HnngariuL QraM. 

Millet, under the name of Hungarian Oraas, as ex- 
plained in our laat paper, seems to have been pretty 
extensively tried in Iowa the past season. A eorres- 
pondent of the Prairie Farmer, Mr. Philips of Butler 
CO., states that the premium acre at the last fair of that 
county, yielded ei^t tons and two hundred poonds of 
well cured hay. This grew on fresh haiei-brush land. 
Other oompetitors cam* within a few bundrad pounds 
of this weight ** The average produce," says Mr. P., 
" on our prairie lands, is about five tons per acre. This 
grass is an annual, cultivated pretty much aa oats, 
though somewhat later. Any time in May it does well 
here. One-third of a bushel per aore Is about the 
proper quantity, covered very shallow, and harvested 
when the blades and head begin to turn yellow." 

Among the recommendations whioh have been al- 
leged in favor of cultivating this variety of millet, we 
have noted the following t 1. The season for sowing 
tha seed is a oomparatively leianra one, being later 
than that for i>arley, oats, spring wheat, Ao. 2. The 
ioaasn for harvesting itoomes after the hurrying time, 
or that for seouring wheat, barley, oats, rye and clover. 
3. It is said to be very nutritious. 4. Cattie, horses, 



and stook i^nerally, eat it with avidity, paiilonlariy 
when the seed is allowed to remain on H. Mr. P. 
statet that he ha« been informed that horses will keep 
fkt on it without any other grain, even when doing mo- 
derate ffork. It has a very heavy head of seed, yield- 
ing firom fifteen to twenty bushels per acre. 



Suooeesful Braining with Stone. 

MxssBS. EniTOiis-— A year ago last fall I stated to 
the readen of the Gonntry Gentlemen my plan of 
nnderdraining with stone, which I was then doing. I 
can now say that it has worked welL By this means a 
piece of eold, wet, uneven land has been dried saffi- 
cientiy to plow and level down, whioh eonld not have 
been done before ; and it produced a good orop of com 
last summer. It ripened very early too for the season. 
I consider the stalks worth as much for fodder, as the 
sour grass that grew there would have been. This last 
fall I have dnuned the remaining fonr acres of my 
eight acre meadow, in the same way, via., we lay out 
the short drains forty feet apart^thoagh we vaiy from 
this rule some ; when it oomes near a wet hoUow we go 
through that— we cut them three and a half feet deep, 
two feet wide at the top, add slant down to six inches 
on the botiom. We scrape the mud from the bottom 
perfectiy clean, so that it is hard, like rook. This 
thoroughly done, we begin to fill with small round stoae, 
taking care that no one stone is large enough to reach 
aoross, for the first layer, and so on five or six inches; 
then the cobble and broken stones may be thrown in 
with less care, extending up to a bight of eighteen in- 
ches ; the little sliven from the broken stone and such 
like, we scatter alone on the top to fill up the cavities; 
then place inverted turf on snugly, and press it down 
with our feet The dirt dug fh>m the diteh ia then filled 
in, and it is finished. 

The whole cost is about sixty cents per rod, Including 
drawing the stone, which pays by getting them out of 
the way. I am well convinced that these drains will 
continue to act well, and I cannot see why atone is not 
quite as good, if not better than tile, and it costs some- 
thing less here. Lpciira GB»w<»»n. LUehfidd Co-, CU 



Freeh Water SheU Marl. 

MsssBt. Editors— My experience in the use of 
"fresh water shell marl," has been similar to that of 
your correspondent " A. B., Woodstock, Vt," who a*ks 
for information in your last number. 1 unite with him 
in requesting information from others, who may have 
succeeded in its use. 

Bepeated experiments with it for many yean paft, 
have convinced me that it is more imperfectly under- 
stood than almost any other speoies of manure. 

I have used it however with decided advantage in 
raising potatoes, by applying it in the hill when in a 
perfectly powdered state, . (and after it had been ex- 
posed for some mouths,) and 'also as a top dressing upon 
lotD meadows. To all other kinds of crops, and more 
especially com, I have found it a decided disadvantage. 

" Composting it with stable manure," or " mixing it 
in the barn-yard," is, in my opinion, labor lost— in- 
deed in my case I thought it a detriment As a top 
dressing it will bring in white clover, and if used 
potatoes when perfectly powdered, it will give a 
good result W. P. New-York, J)ec 29, 1867. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



Unprofitable Furmin^r- f 

** VTkj is it that there is so mach unprq/Uable Jar^ 
ming, wIma it hss bMn shown, agftia and again, that 
money oan be made in the ooltore of the soil 1 Wh«f« 
lies the faaorar* 

** In Hu ntgUct ^ ^biowa ryXf and precamiwnM in 
nine oases oat of ten," we answer. For the one failare 
from the want of knotting Aow, we can point yon to 
scores whera the farmer did not *' live up to his light,*' 
bat ooneladed to "take the ohanoes," when his reason 
told him thay were largely against him. A list of the 
practices oosamon among fitfmera, thoagh generally 
aeknowledged to be nnprofltable, woald surprise the 
msjority of onr readen. Let us instaooe a few, and 
it can be but a few, of them. 

D^ytk qf soil is aeknowledged to be necessary to 
large prodnetiTeness. A laige hill of oom, a thrifty 
growth of wheats barley, or grass, most have roots and 
xooUets eqnaUy large and thrifty^and such only grow 
in a deep mellow soiL With plenty of room and food 
for the roots, the whole plant will correspond ; with a 
shallow four or Hx in<i aoU, the roots are only ade- 
quate to a small growth above ground— they can nei- 
ther find nor carry up the nourishment required to a 
large pit>duct A shallpw soil also soon becomes sterile 
under the influence of drought, especially if the sub- 
soil is of a retentive character. 

Clean CvJiurt is an acknowledged necesnty In pro- 
fitable farming. All allow it to be a matter of much 
importance to a growing plant, whether it has a whole 
field to itself, or whether weeds surround it, stealing 
away the greater share of the nourishment supplied by 
the soil. It is 'acknowledged poor policy to manure and 
plant a field and then have useless weeds to use up 
that manure, and starve out the planted crop And 
yet how often is it done. It would not be too much to 
■ay that treeeb, of one kind and another, exhaust one- 
third qf the productive energies of nine-tenths of the 
cultivated acres of the country. This alone accounts 
for ao much un-proflUble farming. 

Unseasonable seeding is known to generally result 
in loss to the farmer ; and jet nothing is more common 
than to plant and sow, when only a very remarkable 
season can produce a favorable result. Com is plant- 
ed, when we know that frost must come before it u 
nearly matured ; spring grams are sown when in the 
usual course of nature the summer drought will injure 
them to a large extent ; wheat is gotten in too late to 
withstand th^ winter, and just in time for the midge— 
the farmer " taking a risk " no insurance company 
would venture upon without the highest premium. 

Adaptation qf the crop to the soil ia important to 
profitable production. It b well known that some crops 
seldom succeed on a day soil, while others fail on those 
of a sandy character. Wheat, for instance, delights in 
a well-drained clay, while rye likes best the sandy 
loam. These " likes and di^ikes " should be studied — 
the aflinity of soil and product oarofully attended to- 
then we should escape another frequent cause of loss to 
the farmer. 

Other sourees of kiss to the farmer— of losses known 
and acknowledged by ail— we shall perhaps rofer to in 
a ftitun number of this journal. 

»♦« 

At the late Agricultural Fair at Stockton, Cali- 
, a $50 dress was awarded to the unmarrisd lady 
made the best bread. 





Horn Pith«. 

Mbssbs. Ens.- In the Co. Gbht. of 7tli inst, J. 
Swinburne inquires the rolative ralue of horn piths, 
oompcured with other bones, as a manuro. Crushed hi 
a bone mill, pound for pound, they would be of about 
the same value — beside, from their moro porous naturo, 
they would in the soil moro roadily decompose. Within 
the past twenty yean, I have used many cart-loads of 
horn piths, procurod at the tanneries. Some two years 
ago I paid $5 for three cart-loads, which wero sawed 
and broken as finely as oould conventently be done, 
and applied to an acre of land sown with wheat last 
spring. I would not give a man a fig to warrant me 
twenty tons of hay (torn that aero the coming ten years ; 
and the eatUe that eat the hay will not be troobled 
with the bone disease during the time. For the two 
past seasons, when planting potatoes, I have dropped 
a horn pith into each hill of a portion of my crop ; 
when the potatoes aro dug, the piths aro completely 
enveloped with a coating of fibrous roots. After dig- 
ging the potatoes, I collect the piths, storing them 
away for next year's use, they being better tlian new 
for the purpose, and probably they will last a dosen 
years'or ao. 

In May, 1856, plowed half an aoro ot green-sward 
land and plantod with potatoes, using dilTeront manures 
in the hills. Two rows had about half a spoonfhll of 
Peruvian guano to each hill ; then a row without ma- 
nuro} then two rows superphosphate of lime ; next row, 
no manure ; two next, Mexican guano ; then two rows 
with one horn pith in each hill ; two rows with a hand- 
ful of damaged salted tongues and sounds— others with 
plaster, ashes, &«. 

The rows having the horn piths had much the largest 
and most luxuriant tops; thediiferonce could be plain- 
ly seen at the distance of half a mile, in the month of 
August. But the rust took the tops when the tubers 
had obtained sBoot half their usual growth, conse- 
quently had a ftght crop. At digging time, I ascer- 
tained by ** weight and measuro," (no guessing about 
the matter,) the rolative product of the rows reeeiving 
the different manures. 

Whero horn piths wero used, it took forty hills for a 
bushel— whero the guano and superphosphate wero 
used, thero wss a trifling yarlation— varying from six- 
ty to seventy hills per bushel— whero no manure was^ 
used it took over ninety hills per bushel. The sshes* 
and plaster had but little effect— a result very differont 
flrom what I hare had on other kinds of soils, in their 
use for the potato crop. About the time the potatoes 
wero making their appearance at the surfhce of the 
ground, the dogs from a large eirenit oongrogated in 
my potato patch, under cover of night, and dug every 
hill, so that I am completely hi the dark as to the ma- 
nurial value of salted "tongues and sounds" for the 
potato crop. 

In conclusion, I will Just say to Mr. Swinburne, col- 
lect all the horn piths and other bones within your reach. 
But if you undertake to broak them up with hammers, 
it will be well for you to get an insurance on your eyes 

L. B. TTamsr, N. K. 

ie> 
Thh AxxRiclw Vbtbrihary JoUBFAL.— The third 
Tol. of this yaluable work commences with the Janu- 
ary number. G. H. Dadd, Y. S., Boston, editor and 
publisher— monthly at $1 a year. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




The United States ▲grionltiinl Society. 

The Sixth AnDoal Meeting was held in panaance of 
appointment at Washington, 13th January, Mr. Wild- 
er, the President, taking the ohair, and about 70 
members being in attendance, representing 19 States. 
The opening address by President W. was appropriate 
--oongratnlatory to the Society, and referring in terms 
of commendation to the increased disposition on the 
part of the general goyemment to pay attention to the 
claims and interests of Farmers— mentioning the satis- 
£ftctory results of the Syracuse Trial and the 'Louis- 
ville Show — alluding to the loss sustained by the death 
of two of the Society's Vice Presidents, Messrs. Q. W. P. 
Custis of Ya., and T. J. Rusk of Texas—decliniDg, for 
himself, a third time, re-election as President, having 
six years discharged the duties of the office at much 
personal sacrifice— and, in conclusion, briefly reviewing 
the good influences exerted by the association, and the 
benefits to be derived by the country from perfected 
systems of husbandry, 

'^Tlll plenty, rising from the eneourag:e,d plow. 
Shall fill, enrich, adorn our happy land." 

Mr. B. 0. Tavloe, of the Dist. of Columbia, re- 
sponded,— expressing his regret at the proposed with- 
drawal of Mr. Wilder from the presidency, and com- 
plimenting the energy, fidelity, and dignity with which 
be had adorned the position, and, after some further 
remarks, 

Committees on Nominations and the Treasurer's ac- 
counts, were appointed as usual. The subject of Mr. 
Morrill's Bill, donating lands to Ag. Institutions, was 
referred to a committee of five, and it was voted that 
the committee on obtaining from CSongresa an act of 
organisation for the Society, should rsnew their appli- 
cation for this purpose. In answer to a call from the 
chair, 

Mr. H. F. FsBNch of New-namliBhire, made some 
remarks on the recent visit made by liim to Europe, in 
which he acted as a delegate of the Society to several 
Agricultural Exhibitions. He discussed especially the 
subject of plowing by steam, replying to various inter- 
rogatories from different members. 

The Chaik announced the committee on the snl^ect 
of Mr. Morrill's bill to be Messrs. Johnson of New- 
York, Tilghman of Maryland, Loringof Massachusetts, 
Tayloe of the Dist. of Columbia, and Arney of Kansas. 

Dr. Antisel was then introduced, and proceeded to 
address the Society on " the necessity of having a more 
' perfect knowledge of the mineral necessities of our 
crops developed," and concluding with the recommen- 
dation of an appropriation for suitable experiments. 
Mr. Calvert of Maryland, spoke warmly in ap- 
proval of Dr. Antisel's paper, and offered a resolution 
which was passed, appointing a committee to memorial- 
ise Congress for a specific appropriation to carry out 
the investigations proposed. 

The Craie announced the awards to the reapers and 
mowers at Syracuse, as follows : 

MOWBRS. 

First premium— Gold Medal and Diploma— To ^11, 
AuUman fc Co., of Canton, Ohlo^Millcr & Aultman^s 
patent. 

Second premium— Silver Medal— To Walter A. Wood, 
of Hoosick Fails, N. Y.— Manny's patent with Wood's Im- 
provement. 

Third premlnra— Bronze Medal— To Martin Hallonbeck, 
of Albany, N. Y. 

Diplomas awarded as follows :~ 




To T. D. Burrall, of Geneva, N. Y., for simplicity of 
eonetruction and solidity of workmanship. 

To R L. Allen, of New- York, for concave knffe-blade, 
and general excellence of material and superior work- 
mantfiip. 

To BufTalo Agricultural Machine Works. BaflSeilo, N. Y., 
for cheapness and ingonioua adaptation of cutter to unevoi 
surfaces. 

aSAPSBS. 

First premium— Gold Medal and Diploma— To C. H. 
McCormick, of Chicago, 111. 

Second premium— Silver Medal— To Walter A. Wood, 
of Hoosick Fallo, N. Y— Manny's patent with Wood*B Im- 
provement. 

Third premium— Bronse Medal— To Warder, Brokaw 
* ChUd. of Springfield, Ohio. 

Diploma to Jonathan Haines, of Fekln, III., for IlllnoU 
Harvester. 

OOMBIintD MAOBtHBS 

First premlnm— Gold Medal and Diploma— To Walter 
A. Wood, of Hooftick Falls, N. Y.-Manny's patent with 
Wood's improvement. 

Second premium— Sliver Medal— To Bufiklo Agricul- 
tural Works, Buflfalo, N. Y.— Kirby's improvement. 

Third premium- Bronze Medal— To Warder, Brokaw 
St Child, of Springfield, Ohio. 

TBANSFBRIBIB AUTOMATOE BAKSa. 

First premium— Bronze Medal— To Seymour fc Morgan, 
of BrocKport, N. Y. 

STATIOKIRT RAT OR COTTOB FRR83. 

Firwt premium— Sliver ^edal and Diploma— To Wil- 
liam Deering Sc Co., of Albany, N. Y. 

PORTABLB RAT OR eOTTOJf PSBSS. 

FIrat premium— Silver Medal and Diploma— To Wil- 
liam Deering 4t Co. 

GRAtX CRADLXS. 

First premium— Bronzo Medal— To H. Bobinson. 

SOTTHR SNATHS. 

First premium— Bronze Medal— To Frost. Burke & Co^ 

The second day a communication waa received from 
Joshua Vansant, President of the Maryland Institute, 
inviting the Society to hold its next show at Baltimore. 
A favorable report was presented by D. Jat Browite, 
from a committee appointed last year to investigate the 
merits of the Chinese Sugar Cane, and a long debate on 
the subject took place. A medal was awarded to Jo- 
6KPH S. LovsBiNO of Philadelphia, for experiments 
and samples of sugar made by him. Besolutioni in 
favor of Mr. Morrill's land bill were imported and 
adopted. The following list of officers, was then brought 
in l^y the Nominating Committee and unanimoosly 
elected : 

President- Gon. Tbkoh Tilobm aw, of Maryland. 

Vice PreeldenU— J. D. Laiiff, Maine ; H. F. French', 
New-Hampshire: Frederick HoTbrook, Vt ; John Brooks, 
Massachusetts ; B. K Thurston. Rhode Island ■, & B. 
Huntington, Connecticut ; R ^.Johnson, Ncw-yoric ; W. 
P. Robeson, New- Jersey ; David Landreth. Pennsylvania; 
John Jones, Delaware ; Odin Bowie. Maryland ; Philip 
St. George Cocke, Virginia; H. K. Burgwryn, North Ca- 
rtdlna; F. W. Alston, Soirth Carolina; Klchard IVters, 
Georgia ; O. C. Claj', jr.. Alabama ; M. W. Philip*, Mi»- 
«l88ii>pi- J. B. Dc Bow, Louisiana; Lucien Butllea, Ohio; 
W. L, Underwood, Kentucky; T. Fhnnlnjf, Tennewee; 
D. P. Holla way, Indiana : ll. C. Johna. Illinois ; T. K 
Barnett. Missouri ; A. B. Greenwood, Arkansas ; Michael 
Shoemaker, Michigan ; D. L. 'Yulee, Florida ; Guy M. 
Brj'an. Texas ; I^ Grand Byington, Iowa ; B. F. Kdjrer- 
ton, Wlsconeon ; A. C. Bradford, California : H M. Riee, 
Minnesota ; J. H. Lane. Oregon : W. W. Corcoran. Dis- 
trict of Columbia ; M. A. Otero, New-Mexico : D. Ander- 
son, Washington Territory ; J. M. Bernhlsel, tllfth ; B B. 
Chapman, Nebraska ; W. F. M. Amy, ICansas. 

Kxecutive Commlilee— Henry Wnger, New-York;J. 
McGowan, Pennsylvania; Joslah Ware, Virsinla; Fred- 
erick Smylh, New-Hampsbire ; Henry Wilson, Ohio; 
John Merryman. Maryland ; James W. Brown, Illinois. 

Treasurer- B. B. French. Washington, D. C. 

Secretary— Ben. Perley Poore, Nowburyport, Mass. 

Since the foregoing was m type, we have received 
the following letter from a correspondent, which, al- 
though in some respects a repetition of the above, will 
still be read with much interest It is dated Washing- 
ton, Jan. 15 : 




THE 



Soif«B8 CoBW Rr GtKTLEiiAK— Tko U»lted St*te8 
Ag. Society assembled at the gmithsooian Institution 
OB the I3th, and the Preeideot, Col. Wilder, opened 
the meeting with aa address, briefly aUudiog to the 
operations of the Society, and nfUr paying a deserved 
tribute t» G. W. P. CusTMand Senator Rusk, who had 
deoesMd dnriog the year, annonnoed hit intentioa to 
Mtire from the Presidency of the Society. The report 
from the Tresnorer exhibited a balance of $1,600 after 
reserving enongh to pay premitma due. Mr. Frbxch of 
N. Hm g*ve a very iMereeting and satisfactory account 
of steam plowing, as obierved by him abroad, and an 
iateree«ing discussion aroM in which eeveral gentlemen 
participated— among them Col. B. P. JoBMaow, N. Y., 
Mr. BriFOTOH, Iowa, Mr. Wabbbdwi, III., Mr. Jomkb, 
Del., Lt. Gov. Browm, Boston. Mr. Johnson informed 
the members of the determination of Got. Kiiin, N. Y, 
to reUre from the Sceetttive Boaid, and President Wil- 
der very appropriately alluded to the truly TaluaWe 
aerriees of Gov. King tn tlie Soeiety from it» oom- 
mencement. «,, «^ r : 

Mr. Johnson, N. Y, Gen. Tllghman, Md., Dr. Loring, 
Mass., Judge Amy of Kansas, and Mr. Tayloe, Wash- 
ington, wero appoinUd a committee on Mr. MorriU's 
Land BiU for Ag. Schools, who reported resolutions in 
favor of the sam^ which wero adopted. 

Dr. AK^18E^ who aided the lamented Delafield in 
the survey of Seneca county, read a paper on the ne- 
cessity of haviAg a more perfect knowledge of the min- 
eral necessities of crops developed. The Doctor said, 
after a thorough chemical examination for years, of soils, 
he had come to the conclusion that analyses of soils 
give no valuable results, either practical or scientific. 
So we aro all afloat, and the Doctor must be caUed up- 
on to set ns agoing again. 

A discussion in relation to the sugar cane arose, and 
much difference of opinion was exhibited. It struck 
me that wo bad arrived at the same position we occu- 
pied aome years since on the poUto disease, when every 
man had a Mpecifie for the disease, while all raised 
noth'uig but dUtaatd potatoes. Those who have seed 
to sell, sugar mills to dispose of, books to explain the 
theories and practices of culture of the plaat and Ihe 
preparation of the syrup and sugar, doubtless actually 
believe it is the greatest boon ever given to America— 
wen more imporUnt than the Diosoorea, while the men 
present who had tried the culture seemed to me to 
txptct something hereafter, few being prepared to say 
thai as a general crop this could as yet be recommend- 
ed a»* a substitute for any of our reliable crops. 

A committee appointed by the President reported a 
list of officers. Gen. Tehlh Tilghmaic of Maryland, 
as President Gen. T. is well known in our State as 
well as at the South, and his position as a real practi- 
oal farmer, his intelligence, his standing, all pointed to 
him as a suitable man to preside over the deliberations 
of the Society— and very many of the real tried friends 
of the Society rejoiced at the announcement of his 
name. Mr. Poors, as Secretary, whose industry and 
strict business habits during the last year had com- 
mended him to the Society, was renominated. Mr. 
Wager of N. Y., wss placed in the position occupied 
by Gov. King, Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
and will worthily All that vaoanoy. The residue of the 
Bxecottve Committee %ro Ui^rking men, and will, I 
doubt not, make evwy eifort to place the Soeiety in a 
poeition to extend its asefolness. The list of office™ as 
leported, was aoeepled and tlie pewons named elected. 



Immediately after the election, the Executive Com- 
mittee met, and resolved to optm, rooms at Washington 
where the Secretory is to be in attendance from Nov. 
to July^ the season when Congress is in session, and 
gentlemen present from ail parts of the country, and 
during the interval to have an sesistant at Washington 
to attend to any matters necessary. 

Tbe commencement of a library was decided upon, 
and meetings of the Executive Committee quarterly, 
appointed, and a monthly bulletin to be published, ad- 
vising the officers, life members, and correspondents of 
the Society, of what is being done. 

I consider these measures of the utmost importance. 
They give the Soeiety a place of business at the Capi- 
tal of the nation, where an opportunity exists of se- 
curing the co-operation of the leading agriculturists in 
every portion of our country and the world, and I shall 
be much disappointed if the action of the Committee 
does not advance the interests of the Society. 

The subject of holding a Fair was referred to the 
Executive Committee, who will, if suitable places should 
be offered, Uke action in relation to tbe matter. 

A testimonial was voted te President Wilder, in ac- 
knowledgment of his valued services to the Society 
since the time of its organisation. 

The subject of Imphce and Sorg^A,«m elicited a warm 
discussion between Mr.WRAY» in favor of the former, 
and Mr. Bbownb of the Patent Office. The debate 
seemed to indicate some heart-burnings somewhere, 
bui valuable suggestions were elicited, as well as some 
/acts which were very snuch uanled. Prof. Jacksoh 
of Boston, gave some valuable information in relation 
to his investigations on this subject, which will ap- 
pear at la/ge in the Patent Office Report I under- 
stood that after he had made these valuable statements 
before the Society, it was suggested by some one that 
they could not be published, as they belonged else- 
where. My impression is that the Society did not re- 
cognise the right of anybody to say, after a discussion 
and elucidation of valuable facts before the Society, 
they are to be tabooed until some one can make some- 
thing out of the matter. I presume, therefore, you 
will see the material and very valuable facts obtained 
by Prof. Jackson, as to sorghum for syrup, sugar, Ac. 
A paper on the »' Hog Cholera," by Prof. HiOGiwa 
of Maryland, was read, and said to be valuable. 

The new President, who entered upon the duties of 
his office at the close of the meeting on Thursday, per- 
formed them to the acceptance of the Society, and 
at the close on Friday P. M., in a brief but eloquent 
address, after announcing that the Executive Com- 
mittee had made preparations for the esUblUhment of 
permanent rooms for the Society at Washington, urged 
upon the members of the Society present, to exert 
their personal influence to Increase its members, ex- 
tend its influence, and make it worthy the position it 
occupies among the agricultural institutions of our 
country. 

My impression, from all I have seen here, is, that the 
Society is now upon a vorking plaiform, and with eco- 
nomy, energy and perseverance, will moke itself known 
at Washington and abroad, as on« of the Institutions 
of our country. 



The bark Grayhead, from Constentinople, at Boston 
has on board ten goats and three sheep, of the *™»« 
breed, consigned to the U. S. Government. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Wintering CbIvm. 

" Fines eaWei, thoM ! How do 70a muiago to keep 
them in such good order." 

*' Euil J enoogh ; I gWe them shelter. Mtd feed uid 
water them regnlarly." 

" Yoa take cart of them, I see ; mnnj fkrmeis let 
calves take their ehanoe with the other stock throagh 
the winter." 

" That's a very poor chaiioe, to mj notlMi $ for ene 
who would winter oalres so, woald not take mvoh pains 
for the comfort of any of his cattle." 

Last winter, (let us tell the story,) fanner B. winter- 
ed his four oaWes in a stable partitioned off in one cor- 
ner of his cow shed, or rather one of the oow sheds, for 
he has several on different sides of his bam-yaid. It 
was about 15 feet square, and had a manger or box for 
hay, J(o., on one side, eighteen inches wide and a foot 
deep, with stakes about about every two feet, long 
enough to keep the calves' headi separate. The floor 
was of earth, or rather of litter and manure, for in the 
course of the winter it accumulated a foot or more in 
depth over the surface. It was leveled and kept clean 
and dry, by daily supplies ol refuse straw— a small 
quantity of this sufficed each day, except in thawing 
weather. 

Their food was cut straw and chaff, and good clover 
hay— the latter night and morning— the former at 
noon— or perhaps twice in the middle of the day — and 
they were not allowed to waste much of either. Calves 
and other stock will waste more than they eat, unless 
some judgment is used in supplying their food at pro- 
per timet and in a proper manner. We should put 
before them all they will consume, and plaol it where 
they cannot get It under their feet, removing the re- 
fused portions from their mangers before giving a 
fresh supply. 

Water was furnished once a day in very oold days ; 
twice on warmer ones. Farmer B.'s water pond is near, 
but outeide his barn-yard, and be says cattle will not 
drink more than once In the bleakest days of winter, 
even if they must go but a few rods from the yard. It 
would be better to have water in the yard and at all 
times ready for the stock ; but this convenience is be- 
yond the reach of many farmers. 

It is remarkable how little thought is often given to 
thelter for animals. These calves, in the fall, had 
smooth, glossy coats, and were fall of life and anima- 
tion, but as winter weather came on they began to show 
its effects in a roughness of coat, and drooping of spir- 
its. The change was very noticeable in the few weeks 
before their shelter was fitted up for them. They had 
as much and as good food, and ate more of it, but the 
cold and wet made a very material difference in their 
thrift and appei ranee. Depend upon it, attention to 
the comfort of animalSf is the best economy. After a 
week's stay in the stable, their coats were as glossy as 
ever, and they were ready to run and play when driven 
to water, and were often allowed an hour or two in an 
open yard for exercise. 

Calves like grain and roots, apples, pumpkins and the 
like, yet they can be wintered without them. No doubt 
it is the best policy to so feed as to keep them growings 
and it may be cheaper to feed some grain than to de- 
pend entirely on hay for tbu purpose In mild weather 
roots are valuable, and no farmer should fail to provide 
them- -especially for partial feeding in spring, prepa- 
ratory to turning out to pasture. 




The Heaonreea of the Fun. 

Having this winter an unusual demand for litter 
suitable for bedding in my stables, yards unci peus, I 
was at thvt somewhat at a kws how to proride u aub- 
stitute for straw, of which the quantity in store waa 
limited. I took a stroll through some of the wooded 
parts of my farm, and found that then eonld be quite 
a large quantity of leaves gathered in the valleys 
among the hills. I had often resorted to the aame ex- 
pedient before in a small way. 80 my teame were set 
to work caHing them home dry, and storing tbem for 
nse. We hare now eolleeled from sixty to eerenty 
loads, as large and solid as eoold be ^ot into a farm 
wagon with double sidee, and think there enn be col- 
lected two hmidred loads flpom the woodlands of the 
farm, which oeeupy about twenty-ive acres of the hilly 
part. That these leaves are quite ralnable in the 
compost heap, I have proved by former experioiente, 
and the present exigency has shown me that the re- 
sources of the farm are often overlooked or not duly 
appreciated. Meet forms are provided with n propor- 
tion of woodland that womid ferabb a large quantity 
of leaves, and yet rery fow of the famers in this ri- 
cinity cart them. What the relative valae of these 
leaves is, I have nerer been able aocnrately to detor- 
mioe. Perhaps the Editors of the Country Gentleman 
or some of its numerous correspondents, can shed some 
light on the subject, and confer a favor on those who 
are not informed in this matter. Kich'd M. Costklix. 
Cold Spring Harbor, N. T. 
• • m 
tkM m, Vmi'rereal Remedy 

MsBsns. Editors— I had just finished reading Prof 
Johnson's remarks on Mr. Cleveland's theory of salt as 
a " uniteracd expounder " and a " universal remedy" 
when over went my inkstand upon a beautiful light 
drab table cover, to my great oonstemotion, ns my 
wife had often cautioned me against this very thing. 
I rushed for the oalt cellar, and emptied its contents 
over the black mass of ink, and in five minutes the 
stain had wholly disappeared ! I doubted Mr. Cleve- 
land's theory before, but ought I to doubt it any long- 
er? 

There is one point, however, in whiob my experience 
differs from Mr. Cleveland's theory*-*! emptied the 
salt over and upon the ink, and it deveended into the 
cloth and effected the desired object 

One thing is certain, whether salt be a universal re- 
medy or not, viz : it will surely, if applied immediate' 
ly, prevent ink stains. A Subscribsb. 
■ a» 
Recipe tor Squash Cake. 

1 quart boiled mashed squash. 1 coffee-cup sweet, 
sour, or buttermilk. 1 coffee-cup flour. 3 eggs — salt 
and saleratus, if sour or buttermilk is used. Fry in 
butter or lard. If the mixture is poured over sliced 
apples in the spider, it is an addition. 

This is something my mother " invented," and we 
think it is better than the squash alone, x. t. m. 

Thx Orapx anowERB of the West are about to re- 
ceive large accessions to their numbers from Europe. 
A vessel arrived at Philadelphia a few days since from 
Genoa, bringing one bundreil and twenty-five passen- 
gers, who all come to this country with the intention 
of proceeding West and engaging in the culture of the 
grape, with a view to the production of wine. 




THE CULTIVATOR 




S«^zi (A the Cultivmtioii of Variouf Plants. 



HexsBS. SDiTOits— By interchMige and otfaerwiM, 
I have prooared from varknu toarces many rare do- 
mestic aad foreign seeds, and hare cultivated the past 
•eaeon some 199 different varietief of vegetabiee and 
plaate. I kay« taken muoii pleaear^ in tlieir ealtiva- 
tien^ and deeming it a daty I owo Co thoee iotereited 
in tlie enlture of choioe TegeUblei and plants, I pro- 
pose to give a brief report of my experiments, and 
oaltivatton of the same, hoping thereby to impart some 
information for their benefit, and kolioit their favor to 
give reports of their experiments, also, through the 
C^KTSTRY Gsn-LBMAN and the The Cultitator. As 
it woald extend my report to too gMat a leogtli, I will 
briedy notice a few of the many varieties I have grown, 
only those I deem most worthy of cnlttvation 

<?ya IVAeo^— from the south' of Spain. This proves 
a winter whea*, and from its hftcdy and prodnotive na- 
ture, and eariy maturity, may prove a valuable vari- 
ety—not injured by the midge in this, our first experi- 
ment 

Grand Epaulre klofKh barbue, or large white awned 
Spelt i a whiter grain, gfown in t'ue east of Frsnee and 
Germany. The beury resembles wheat, is inotosed in 
a hull or basic so firmly, it proves a barrier against the 
weevil or midge, and proves valuable on that account; 
••xcelleot for pastry floor. 

Of Spring Wheat.'— k variety from Gaspe, a re- 
mote part of Canada; this proves an excellent sort. 
£lut Beard — This is of western origin; chaff and 
beards delicately tinged with a bluish color ; worthy of 
cultivation. 

SeigU de Rome^ or Roman Rye.—Th\8 is a choice 
and extra variety. 

Of Oa/«, from the ten varieties I have grown, I 
have solecled the true white Poland as the best vari- 
ety. 

NtpatU Barley, (beardless,) has a very peculiar 
head ; as soon as it makes its appearance it is thickly 
set with a beautiful white blossom, and retains this ap- 
parent bloom until the^rain matures — very produc- 
tive. 

German MUlety (Panicnm germanicnra,) very pro- 
lific, quick in growth, and worthy of cultivation. 

California Flax-^ln length of fibre and a profuse 
feeder, is preferable to any variety I have yet grown 
— ^blossoms white—seed a light green color. 

Of com for the field I have selected the ShoA Peg^ 
Andrtw'o Premiam^ Adam's U-tnc^ and King Phil- 
ip ; each variety is very early and productive. For 
the garden, for early use, the party J}ayi^ Maixc, a 
dwarf variety from the south of Spain. I think it a 
valuable sort on aooount of its quick growth and early 
mntnnty, and sweet flavor in the green state; ears 
delioately small— j ost the sort for table use. Lalhrop^s 
Extra Early Pairp/e— this is also a valuable sort, very 
sweet and nutritious, and but a few days later than the 
Forty Days. For late use, the Ohio Sugar! this is a 
choice variety, large, twelve-rowed ; the stalk is of a 
deep red color. StowclCa Evergreen b the UUeH sort, 
and in oar estimation a valuable variety. 

Of peas, from 24 variettee which I have grown, I 
have selected for early use the Early EmperoTt M«y, 
Early Wa^inglon and Proline Jhearf; for late use. 
Champion qf Englandy Far-famod Sir Moot, <extra,) 
Aw)ergney—tTom England, a very hardy, productive 



sort and of excellent quality, — and Austrian Stock 
Pea (very prolific); I slso have three new varieties of 
the Jajxm p^a; seed received last spring from Hon. J. 
B. Gabbeb of Columbia, Pa. ; of which Kr. G. says : 
"These peas, I am satisfied, have not yet been cultiva- 
ted in the Atlantic States, except by myself— received 
last spring (1856,) from California Just from China." 
In color the vsrieties are red, green and yellow. The 
green and yellow giow In the same form as the old va- 
riety, except they are more dwarf and earlier, ours be- 
ing ripe by the 27th of September. The red sort grows 
some different ; more slender and longer pods, each pod 
containing fVom eight to ten peas of a beautiful red 
cohir — are of a smaller siie than the former, all upright 
and very prolific. The Australian psa^ the seed of 
which I received from a friend in Texas, is a very pe- 
culinr pea. The vines grow some four feet high,* and 
from the main stock or vine extend nomerous lateral 
branches. I pleated a single row threogh my garden, 
and whea fuHy grown it had the appearance of a well 
formed hedga, with its long pods protruding on each 
side. Length of stem and pod, 20 te 23 inches ; length 
of pod, 6 to 7 inches ; each stem ooatalns from one to 
four pods, each containing frosa tea to fifteen peas of 
medium sise, white, with a oirele of black around the 
eyei Good In quality green or dry. One peculiarity 
of this pea is, you will have green and ripe peas in 
succession from July until the frost kills the vinos in the 
fall ; as you will find mature and green peas and blos- 
soms on the same vines through the season. The Afa- 
ritime pea from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (a perennial.) 

Of beans— my selections from 20 varieties are, for 
dwarfs, the Mexican Fr^les or Turtle Soup — two 
sorts, black and reddish ; very prolific Early Ctuia- 
da Kidney, German Prolific— im^ sorts, black and 
yellow ; of pole or running beans, Hungarian Tick 
or Golden Pad ; Harioot de Sois&ons, from France ; 
Asparagus or Yard Pod (pods attain the length of two 
to three feet— good for pickling); Early Lima; Win- 
ter 6e(tA— this is a prolific ; from seven l>eans planted 
hist sprinjr, I have shelled some over a quart, and re- 
served a quantity in tbe pod for future use. The mo- 
dus operandi of preserving and cooking these beans is 
as follows : Leave them oo the vines until mature and 
dry, then put away; and when wanted for use, scald 
in the evening, string the following morning, and boil 
somewhat longer than usual for dinner ; they are said 
to be most delicious; we have not tested them yet 

Of cabbage, Early York,— Late Drumhead Savoy, 
— and Red Duiek, an esteemed sort for pickling, for 
cold sclaugk and for sour kromt. 

Of Kohl Rati I have four sorts— two of which the 
bulb grows below ground and two abooe ground The 
Char naeei de Lapone a<olletvogue, from Vilmorin's 
garden, Paris, is the most esteemed sort, below ground 
— a purple variety ; the other is green-stemmed, from 
Canada. The Kohl Rabi above ground, rises in a thick 
stem aboat four inches out of the ground, terminating 
at tbe top into a globular form, crowned with leaves 
slightly seollopped oa their edges, undulated and of a 
milk green color. There are several varieties of it ; 
ours is the ^green-stemmed," and the ^'purple-stem* 
med.^ This rare vegetable is sweeter, more nutrittous, 
aad more solid than the turnip; prodaces a greater 
weight per acre ; It also is hardier, and keeps better 
than any other bulb. I have grown specimens 
, weighing 14H^ Sow the seed ait the 





THE CULTIVATOR 




period, and eultiTaio the same as for cabbage, odIj 
leave the chief part of the stems nncorered by the 
earth. 

Of cacambers — Neglq^s Seedling is the best sort 
for the table ; light green, tender and good-flavored ; 
the frait tarns white at matnrit/, and retains its fresh 
appearance much longer than any of the yello.v varieties. 
California Long Green — a very excellent scrt, grow- 
ing to a foot or more in length, dark green, rery pro- 
dactive. Barly Frame— the standard sort for pickling 
and early use. Gherkin Cucumber from France ; pro- 
daces small green fmit, much prised for pickling. 

Of pumpkins — ^the Honolulu, the seed of which was 
recently obtained from Honolala, one of the Sandwich 
Islands, by a missionary. This pnmpkin is of excellent 
qnality, mediam sise, rich orange-colored flesh, mottled 
grey, and beautifally netted rind. CUronille dt Tow 
raine, from France ; excellent qnality, large sise, mot- 
tled dark green rind—a long keeper. Mammoth 
Cheese— Iwge and fine. CMden Cheete — ^medium sixe, 
good. 

Of winter sqnasb— Han/br<f « Cream, Sweet Pota- 
to, Boston Marrow, Golden Imperial, AdanCs Favo- 
rite, (will be a favorite to all who chance to cnltivate 
i^) and the Custard and Golden Mammoth, Of 
summer squash — Golden Scollop^ from Alabama, and 
Crook Neck. 

Of watermeloDs — the Orange, Honeydew, White 
Spanish, Ice Cream or WhUe Sugar melon oi AlahA- 
ma, Syrian (extra fine,) South Sea, NeiWs Extra, 
and Apple Seeded. 

Of Canielopes or j)fucihn«/ona— the Ariea, from 
Japan, Extra Green Nutmeg, Cantaloup Prescott 
from France *, (its color Tariee from a green to a silvery 
tint, having ribs more or less rough,) extra fine ; Suvrin 
de Tours, (French,) white rind and white fle»h, (de- 
liciouflly sweet) ; Christiana; Suvrin a, Cfiair blanche, 
(French,) a superior melon, large and very delicious. 
Snake Melon — (erroneously called Five Foot Cucum- 
ber,) a species of the Muskmelon ; it frequently attains 
the length of three to five feet ; as good as a second rate 
Muskmelon— also a curiosity. 

The Vegetable Egg — I reeelved last spring fh>m Dr. 
Sanbourh of Andover, Mass., seeds of this rare vege- 
table. The fruit grows on a vine, and will cover trees 
and trellises, from ten to twenty or more feet high. . 
The fruit, in color, is pure white, resembling an egg to 
an iota, and is the sise of a hen's egg to that of a gooee 
egg. 1 1 has been ascertained that when boiled, these 
eggs are most delicious to the taste ; but on account of 
their great beauty, and wishing to reserve them all for 
seed, we did not test their eatable qualities ; but as an 
ornament, they are worthy of cultivation. It is an 
annual vine ; plant in light, rich soil, by * tree or 
trellis. 

Chufas, or Earth Almonds— 'JSiYAs produces tubers 
about the sise of a chestnut, and somewhat resemble 
them in taste, though more delicions and sweet. Plant 
fW>m 15th April to 1st of June, in drills two feet apart, 
and one foot asunder, half inch deep, one tuber in the 
hill ; ripens in October. 

Rhubarb, for pies and tarts — MyatCs Vtetoria is 
the most esteemed variety I cultivate, of which I have 
reserved a chuce lot of seed. 

Of Lettuce— Grand Admiral, Victoria Cabbage, 

' California Curled, are my selection. 

Gooseberry, an annual plant, cultivate the 




same as the Tomato ; fruit abcmt the sise of the Cher- 
ry ; exoellent eaten raw, or they make a delicious pie j 
they should be found in. every garden. 

German Monthly Radish, an excellent sort ; those 
fond of the Radish can have a succession through the 
season. 

German Sweet Turnip, a long keeper, and exoel- 
lent in quality 

Chinese Asparagus, or Hoo-sung, an annual, per- 
fectly hardy, easily cultivated; plant on good soil, 12 
inches apart, in rows two feet apart; cut before it 
blossoms, prepare and serve same as Asparagus. Also 
cut the stalk in pieces half an inch in length, and cook 
with green peas ; it gives them a delicious flavor. 

Having extended my report to a greater length than 
I intended, I will now close, with the suggestion, that 
if persons are so disposed, they can reoeive and dis- 
tribute seeds by mail, to great advantage, in small 
quantities, and at long distances, and by earful culture 
soon obtain a supply of the choicest varieties. I, for 
one, believe in reciprocity; and as seeds can be so 
easily exchanged by mail, I would solicit the favor of 
the patrons of the Co. Gbnt. apd the Cultivator, for 
an interchange of seeds. Any rare seeds that are 
worthy of cultivation, and of different varieties from 
ours, will be thankfully received and duly reciprocated. 
Any person wishing to obtain a package of one variety 
of the above seeds (without an exchange,) can do so, 
by remitting three letter stamps, or for a number of 
different varieties, remit letter stamps aocordingly, just 
sufficient to pay postage, and the expense of putting 
up the seeds, Ac I have, with much ea.re, selected 
seeds from the above varieties, and have ^ surplus on 
hand for distribution— not for speculation — only for 
reciprocation and accommodation. L. Notatsu Wind- 
sor, Ashiobula Co., Ohio. 



Ii Buckwheat Bran Poiwrnoiui to fiwiiia 7 

A writer in the Prairie Farmer, Mr. G. Retholm 
of Peotone, Will Co., 111., mentions a few facts which 
have come under his observation, that seem to make it 
probable that buckwheat bran is ii^nrious to swine,— 
to such, at least, as are nursing pigs. Mr. R. stotas 
his father charged his family very particuUrly, never 
to feed buckwheat bran to sows that had pigs, as it was 
injurious to them, and would after a while dry up their 
milk. In confirmation of this opinion, Mr. R states 
that a neighbor of his had a veiy fine litter of pigs, 
and that after they were a few days old he commenced 
feeding the sow on bran. In about a week afterwards 
be noticed that the pigs began to grow poor and feeble. 
After three of them had died, Mr. R. told his neighbor 
that be thought the bran was the cause. The bran 
having been discontinued, there was observed in a few 
days, a good and healthy change in the pigs. No more 
of them died, and the remainder beeame thrifty and 
did well. 

Another case of a like kind b mentioned as having 
come under Mr. Reynold's personal observation. About 
a week after feeding bran to a sow with pigs, his neigh- 
bor W. noticed that the pigs began to show signs of 
weakness. Three of these also died. 

Two other cases of the same kind are referred to, in 
which the same course of feeding was followed by simi 
lar results. Have any of our readers met with 
case of a similar nature 7 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




T%k9 Coantnr Gentleniaa. 

1^" It iM pleMaat to have evideoMS that on«'i ef- 
fort* are appreciated, and to recehre adcBowledgmenta 
of at least eome meaeure of bqccom id their aocom- 
pHshment. To keep euoh maaifeotations as constantly 
in public, however, as thej come before us in private, 
might be lees agreeable, in a practical point of view, 
to our readers. It is seldom therefore that we pablirh 
such extracts as the following: 

JSaUimortj Md. — " I csnoot refrain at this time, 
from, expressing not only the great satisfaction and 
pleasure, hut profit derived from the perusal of the 
Oo. Gest. the past year, and to congratulate yon upon 
the success which has attended your labors— a soccess 
which, if not of pecuniary advantage, has been at 
least that of improving the mental condition of a por- 
tion of the agricultural community." j. a. t. 

Cwton, St. Law. Co.^ N, Y.—l receive 15 papers 
per week, and take most satisfaction in reading the 
Country Oentlemata of them all, although I am not a 
farmer, l. e. b. w. 

Poughkteptie, N. Y.—l feel much pleased with the 
Country Gkntleman, and it would be only reiterating 
what has so frequently been said by othen for me to 
say, that in my ofiniote it stands at the head of the 
Agrionltsirai pubUeations in this country, and while I 
have a farm to cultiVate, I shsil feel unwilling to do 
without It 8. u. 

Greenfidd^ Matt. — lllow me to say that of all the 
Agricultural literature of this country, I regard this 
paper [the Co. Obmt ] as the most valuable, and I am 
somewhat of a judge, j. B. o. 

Oak Woodty Grant Co^t I^^- — ^ ^ not think there 
can be said too much in praise of your valuable publi- 
cation the "Country Gentleman;^' it is certainly a 
paper that should be in the hands of every farmer who 
coltivates the soil ; but when we look around, it is in- 
deed surprising to find hoytftw tbere are who take say 
interest in Agricultural journals, j. ■. 

Ntw-Jtrseiif. — In conversation with Mr. H., at the 
annual meeting of our State Ag. Society, he paid the 
'* Country Qentleman" the high compliment of saying 
that it was the best paper in the United States, and 
added that Mr. Howatt'* article on Potato Culture in 
the first number of -this yeai^ was worth at least five 

years* subscription. 

■ — • • • 

Tbe Ghlneae Suffar Cane at tbe Soafb* 

We make the following eztraot from a letter received 
a short time ago from B. Wx. Bdssbll, Esq., of Walk- 
er Co., Georgia. It will be seen that South, as well as 
North, the prospeoU of the Sorgho appear good : " I 
purchased at the North one dollar's worth of the seed, 
planted in trenches or rows four feet apart, two or three 
seeds every two feet in the row. It was cut in Septem- 
ber when the seed was fully ripe, and ground on a 
wooden mill with thiee rollers, such as are used in 
grinding the common sugar oane in the lower counties 
of this State. The juice was strained and boiled in a 
large iron kettle. Six gallons yielded one of thick 
syrup, qnilo equal to that made from our common cane, 
and has kept np to this time quite as well. In using 
the syrup one of my family remarked there was sugar 
in the eap^ and on examiaiag the vessel that held about 
ten gallons of the syrap, I found several pounds of su- 
gar ; I put it in a doth to drain. It is dark in color, 
bat tht grains equal to good brown sugar. I used about 
^ one-half pint of lime to thirty gallons of juice." 




Booka tor a Farmer'a Ifibrary-. 

Messrs. Editors— Our Library Association wish to 
purchase 930 to $40 worth of agricultural works. Will 
yon please fumbh us a list of such books as you would 
recommend for this purpose, with the prices, and where 
they can be had. We wish it to include the new series 
of The Cultivator, bound, and your Rural Affairs, and 
vols, on cattle, sheep, bees, Jsc. h. b. 

In answer to the above, we give the following list, 
which will Aimish an answer to several other inquiries : 

The Cultivator, new series, S voIsl,^ #3.75 

Rural Affairs, 1.00 

Farm Implements, by J. J. Thomae, 1.00 

Stephen's Farmer's Guide, 2 vole., 6.00 

Dadd'a Modern Horae Doctor, 1.00 

Dadd's American Cattle Doctor, 1.00 

Btoekhardt's Chemical Field Lectures, 1.00 

Norton's Bcientiflo and Practical Agriculture,... 60 
Johnston's Elements of Agricultural Chemistry 

and Geology, LOO 

Johofltou'a Lectures on Agricultural Chemiatry 

and Geology, 1.25 

Nash's Progressive Farmer, 00 

Breck's Book of Flowers^ 1.00 

Allen'e American Farm Book,^ 1.00 

Allen's Rural Architecture, 1.26 

Bement'e Poulterer's Companion, 126 

Goenon's Treatise oo liiloh Cows, 60 

Youatt on the Breed and Maiu^emeni <)i Sheep, 75 

Youattonthe Horse, 1.25 

Youatt, Martin, and Stevens, on Cattle, 1.26 

Youatt and Martin on the Hog, 76 

Barry's Fruit Garden, L25 

Mounts Practical Land Drainer, 60 

Qulnbys Mysteries of Bee>keeplng, 1.00 

Baxton*B Rural Hand Books, 4 vola 6.00 

Browne's Field Book of Manures, 1.25 

Bonsslngaullfs Rural Economy, L26 

Thompson's Food of Animals, 76 

Wa can furnish the above, or any other works which 

may be desired. 

y • e • 

17iiAet«lvaisiin§f Isnperviaus Clay* 

As an editor is presumed to know everything, I 
would be mueh obliged if you would solve a question 
that has occurred to me. I am draining a piece of wet 
land. At the 'depth of a foot or less below the surface, 
I find a solid bed of very pure clay, almost white, with 
a slight bluish tinge, and so far as I can see, absolutely 
impermeable to water. I cut through this say two 
feet, mske my drain and fill it up in the nsual way. 
Now I want to know bow the surface water is to enter 
that drain 1 In a well made drain, to be effectual, the 
great body of water must enter at the bottom. Here 
I cannot see that it can enter at all. Will such a drain 
prove of service 1 C. W. T. BueJu Co^ Pa, 

Draining will be useftil on this land, in different 
ways. The drains having descent the shortest way 
down the slope of the land, the water will fiow beneath 
the common soil, over the surface of this impervious 
subsoil, (generally only a few yards,) till it finds the 
drain, when it will be carried off. Without draining, 
the water would have to flow over this subsoil-surface; 
the whole breadth of the field before it made its escape, 
and the soil would thus be loaded with water. By cut- 
ting the drains about three feet deep, and afterwards 
subsoiling eighteen inches, this water-tight crust would 
be rendered porous, the air would probaby improve its 
texture and quality, and the soil could be deepened 
and rendered dry enough. There are probably hori- 
lontal as well as other seams In this subsoil ; and fre- 
quent drains would let off the water from these seams, 
and prevent its entering them by cutting off any broad 
flow tnm above. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




Wild QrapM of Canada, 

MxssBS. EsiTOR*^ Annexed is » dmwmg </ a wild 
grape, fbitwl by the writer on tbe banks of the Chip, vwa 
Creek, in the jear 1866, when ezpreuly in search of na- 
tive hardy grapes. The rarielj struck me at onee, verr 
forcibly, as ono of great 
importance. Its eaptrrat- 
ing and nnosnally symmet- 
rica] dasterSt at trst sight 
carried me qnile away. I 
threw off hat and coat, and 
qoickly ascended the rine 
to tho boigkt of 80 feet or 
more, when I could pick 
at Isast half a bushel of the 
most perfect grown dusters I ever bo- 
held. I tasted, snd in my loneliness 
cried out "superb!" Superb! respon- 
ded echo. I ate heartily, and thanked 
Dame Nature for to great a prise— pn>cnred 
a bundle of cuttings and then started for 
hone. The Tine runs threugh and twwB the 
entire top of two medium sised elm trees, 
and is, I jndge^ a Ml century old— a wildtog 
of great beauty. How H easM there no 
one knows— probably carried by bwls tmm some 
Frenchman's garden, and d1rt>pped in the wood 
upward of a century since. 

Bunches Tery bandMine, symmetrieal^ gooil 
"ise, compact, benvily shouldered ; berries medium 
siie ; skin thin, blsok, oorered wHh a bloom; flesh 
tender, melting, withovt pulpiness, feziasss or musky 
flaror, sweet and excellent The wood isstrong, short 
jointed, of a redish iron color ; foliage very large and 
thin, green on both sides, haying no hnir or cotton, 
and unmistakably shows no kin to the Fox. Important 
as a parent to cross with foreign grapes, on account ol 
its extreme hnrdiness and esrly maturity, as I found 
it ripe on the 10th of Sept., on the original rine in 1657. 

I will send you a drawing and characteristic of two 
other wildings, found the present year, of which I took 
a sketch at the time. A plsnt of the Chippewa in my 
garden will probably bear fruit next year j if so^ you 
may see some of the dusters. Wv. H. Read. 




Coat of Kaiaing Indian Corn. 

Eds. Cult. Aim Co. Goirr. — Do farmers usually 
know the comparative cost and proBtoT particular 
crops 1 I am trying to find out, and should be pleased 
to learn throagh your paper bow the experience of 
others compares with my own. I subjoin my account 
with a cornfield of 18 acres worked this summer, to be 
used as yon think best. The ground and the com haye 
been measured — there is no guess-work about it. 

Timber originaHy walnut, ash, sngnr and beech- 
has been under cnltiTation twenty years— last year 
was in wheat, and the year before in com. The soil 
dark— 10 inches deep, with a day bottom— was broke 
up eight inches deep with a span of horses : 

Team and hand, 12| davs break! nsr. $2.00, t2S.50 

Cost of seed, laytncr off and planting, 13.06 

80f days work, harrowing, plowing, hoeing, Sto., 

871 cents, 28.90 

Uso of team, equal to 26} days single, 52 cents, 13.91 

Repairing Tools. 1.00 

Kntiro cost, board, labor and all, $80.36 

The yield is 1,350 bushels-costing before gathering I 
not quite six cents per bushel. W. A. G. .Rtp/sy, 0. 




Rearing Calvea. 

Ei>8. Cult, and Co. ClKifT. — T- hare oflen read in 
Agricultural papers of the different modes of rearing 
calves, and the best manner to adopt sons to tun them 
out fine and as cheaply as possible in the spring. 

I will give you the method I pursued with the two 
first c^TCS which I raided. I let them suck from three 
to four weeks ; then put them in a good pasture» and 
gare as much milk as they could drink, for a couple of 
weeks, adding a handful of meni when 1 diminished the 
quantity of milk. In the beginning of winter I fed 
bay, with a little meal now and then, and finished win- 
tering (being short of hay,) on good straw; and I 
tum^ out two as fine calres of our small breed of cat- 
tle, as you could have se n. This winter I have six 
calves ; the two youngest — one of four and the other 
three months old — are fine looking. Morning and eve- 
ning they get dover, (the second crop,) which is ten- 
der ; and at noon cut turnips and straw. Thfree times 
a week the quantities of turnips are dimiaishedy and 
replaced with two handfuls of oil eske and com, oi 
meal, and in the spring I will inform you how 
calves look. N. St. M., C S. 





THE CULTIVATOa. 



The New Fean. — (Coxtixued.) 

Bbcrki Olaibgbau. — The large eise, 
great beaaty, fine qaalitj, prodactiveaeae and 
laU ripening of this oew peftr, aod Cbe 
handflome pyramid it forms od the quince, 
have given it groat celebrity. A want of 
sufficient hardiness, indicated by the effects 
of winter, In some localities, hae somewhat 
lessened its high repnUtion. This defect 
may, however, on farther trial, prove of 
comparatively small importance. 

It is large, obovate, pyriform, the larger 
specimens generally distinct pyriform ; skin 
yellow when ftiUy ripe, sometimes nearly 
clear and smooth, and at other times, and 
particnlarly with larger specimens, ooaraely 
dotced, and nearly covered with russet, often 
with a handsome erimson cheek towards the 
sun ; stalk an inch long, not sank at inser- 
tion ; calyx in a moderate basin; flesh bat- 
tery and melting^ someames granular, with 
A " f«ry good'* p^fomed flaiwr. The qaall- 
ty is somewhat variable—from "good" to 
neariy '** best.** On <|ulmse, the fmit is of lar- 
ger sise and of better quality than on near 
stock. 8 

DoraMVB 8iBULLB.~This pear, althoegh \l- 
well known here for some ten or twelve yaaie Y :' 
to several AoMriean pomofogists, may proper- 
ly be ranked among the newer sorts. The 
tree is an upright and vigorous grower, and 
very productive; while its good quality, and 
period of maturity through the latter part at 
autumn, and often nearljr to mid-winter, ten- 
der it quite valuable. It is rather large, 
roundish, slightiy obevate; eoler a rieh yel- 
k»w when ripe, often reddened towards the .. 
dots on the surfaoe rather smaU and not oonspic _ 
ous I stem an ineh and a half long, rather deeply 
set in a frequenUy wide and somewhat ribbed 
eavity; basin quite small, wrinkled; flesh nearly 
white, fine grained, buttery, with a mild, rather 
aromatio flavor— "good" or "very good." 

The AUea Raepbernr* 

L. F. Allbx made a statement to ui at the 
Rochester meeting of the Fruit Grower*8 Society 
of Western New- York, in relation to his raspber- 
ry, which he wishes us to notice. 

It is not well known where it originated. He 
foond it in a neighboring garden of choice fruits, 
which had been changed te other uses, and the 
proprietor was about throwing them out. They 
are not like any other raspberry known in culti- 
vation. They art perfectly hardy without winter 
protection or covering of any kind i stands up. 
right without any support, growing in good soil, 
with fair cultivation, six to seven feet high— re- 
quiring no artificial support when cut down to 
three or four feet high for bearing. Cok»r of fruit, 
a full bright red, howl eheped, of good siae and 
high flavor, llany thon«ind plants have been 
sold, and among alttbe inquiries made, it haj net 
been firand identical with any other variety. 

Honesty fs a strong staff to lean upon. 






THE CULTIVATOR. 




Artesian Wells. 



Messrs. Eds. Co Gewt.— A neigbbor of mine wwb- 
es to get some information tbroagbyouryalimble^ur- 
nal in regard to Ariesi^D Wells. He desires more par- 
licularly to know if by going deep enoogb, a good sup- 
ply of water can be obtained in any situation— also 
what would be the probable cost per foot. He is in the 
milk business, and haa no good spring to cool hw milk, 
and is willing to go to any reasonable expense if he 
could be sure of getting a good coW stream of constant 
running water in his barn-yjird. Any information 
which you can give on the subject, will be thankfully 
received. D. C. M. Cheater^ N. Y. 

We regret thai we are unable to give our correspon- 
dent accurate informalion on the subject. Artesian 
wells are »ot common in this country— the great cost 
preventing many attempts of the kind. They are usu- 
ally 8om» hundreds of feet deep— the cost per fi>ot rap- 
idly increasing with the depth. In most place's on the 
earth's surface, by going down twenty to fifty feet, 
small streams of wnter are found, forming ordinary 
wells, but rarely or ever having a head suficient to rise 
above the siwface. Descending a greater depth, we 
often reach rock— and if this rock lies in sloping layers, 
with ebances for large reservoirs between or in the lay- 
ers, and if in addition to this, these rocks extend up- 
wards elsewhere to a higher region of country, there 
will be a strong probability of finally reaching water 
that win issue in a spring from the surface of the 
groundy by the higher head in another place. A tho- 
rough geok>gical knowledge of the roek and its charac- 
ter, may assist in predicting the probability of altimate 
success — the depth being uncertain in all eases. 

But where the rock is not stratified, orlMis no chasms 
{or large subterranean reservoirs, the chances are 
of course, very small. At Chester we should not look 
for much success- and the expense, even should the 
result prove successful, weuW probably be far great- 
er than any advantages would warrant. We hope 
some of onr correspondents will be able to give more 
aeeurate and reliable information. 



but slightly sunk at its insertioo— the skin is thin, yel- 
low, sprinkled with thin red with somo russet on the 
sunny side— the flesh is dull yellow, rather firm, juicy, 
sweet, and generally of " best" quality, according to 
the scale of the American 
Pomological Society. It 
adheres to the stone. It 
ripens at the end of autumn. 
The shoots of the tree arc 
smooth. 

SCHENECFADT GATMA- 

-RiNE. — The late severe win- 
ters have so greatly injured 
many of our finer varieties 
of fruit, more particularly 
at the west, that those 
sorts which have proved the 
hardiest are now placed 
much higher on the list for j.'' 

value, than formerly, even " -- ^ -"^ 

where in other respects, BcHBuacTAnT CATSiaisa. 
they may be of a less attractive or popular character. 
Among the plums^ the Schenectady Catharine is likely 
to prove especially valuable for its power of withstand- 
ing the severest weather — at the some time that its 
fine quality, vigorous growth, and productiveness more 
than compensate for its small stse. 

It is below medium in sise, nearly ronnd, sfigbtly 
narrowed towards the apex > the suture is rather shal- 
ow; skin deep pur- 



Notioei of Plums. 






McLauohliw.— This variety is certainly one of the 
most valuable acquisitions of late years. It is scarce- 
ly inferier to the Wreco Gage in quality, larger in sise 
and greatly supe- 
rior in vigor of 
growth. It was 
raised by James 
McLaughlin of 
Bangor, Maine, 
and has now been 
pretty well tested 
in different parts 
of the northern 
states, and so far 
has proved a ge- 
neral favorite. 

It is rather 
large in sise, 
nearly round and 
inclining to ob- 
late, flattened at 
ids, with an 
obscure suture — McLacoblik. 

stem is about three- fourths of an inch long, and 



pie ; the stem is 
about tluree-fourths 
of an ineb long, set 
in a rather deep and 
narrow cavity; the 
floah is greenish yel- 
low, melting, sweet, 
rich, and excellent — 
•' very good," nearly 
" best" — separating 
freely from the stone. 
It ripens the begin- 
ning uf autumn. It 
originated at Sche- 
nectady; and when 
grown from the stone 
varies but slightly Rotal Havitb or Eabi.t Koyau 
from the parent — showing it to be a distinct variety. 

Rotal Hati ve or Early Royal. — This is a 
French Plum — valuable for its early period ot ripen- 
ing. The tree is vigoroas, with steut, short, very downy 
shoots. The fruit is medrura in size, roundish, slightly 
wider at the base ; skin light purple ; stem half an incli 
long, stout, scarcely sunk : flesh with a rich high flavor, 
nearly free from the flattened, ovate stone. It begins to 
ripen soon after mid-summer, A continues for some time. 

■ ■-••♦ 

VftlvstMe I«inlment. 

Messrs. Editors— As for liniments, the best I know 
of for horses or human beings, for sprains, swellings, 
(slight, consequent on blows, Ac,) in horses, and sore 
throats and rhevntatism in horse-masters, is as folfows : 

Equal parts of hartshorn, (aqua ammonia,) oil ori- 
ganum, olive oil, gnsi eanphofl laudannm and spirits 
turpentine — all of best quality — to which add three 
parts good soft-soap. I hare used this for several 
years. H. L. T. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Buooeaatul Culture of the Potato. 

Mbhsiu. Ei>itob8 — ^Hanng this yeiur sent to our 
State Agriooltural Sooi«t/ a spaoimen of our potatoM, 
in oompetition for their prise for the best acre of pota- 
toes, I send yon a copy of the statement which I send 
to them. It will be leen that I have grown them this 
year on quite a different system to what I did last year, 
(although on the one eye system.) My ol^ect in grow- 
ing them in this way, was to prove that potatoes plant- 
ed with one eye, do not require eareful eulture, nor 
careful handling, as some may suppose. AU that I 
have grown in the kitchen garden and on the farm, 
have been treated alike. That my system or treatment 
will prevent disease, is a thing I never pretended ; 
what I advoeate for this system is, that it takes leas 
potatoes to plant an acre, and the potatoes are of a bet- 
ter sise. Also, that it will not cost half the expense to 
cultivate them. It may be said that our ground is 
superior, which Is not the case. 

I will state the highest that ha^ been raised to the 
acre of potatoes here, by any farmer, (and on this farm 
only 60 bushels,) is 75 bushels to the acre, and the far- 
mers say if they got tliat they would consider them- 
selves well paid. Our farmers around here have lost 
all their potatoes this year by disease, and those far- 
mers have told me I had a secret to grow and keep 
disease off, and telliug them to the contrary is no use. 
1.11 1 can say is, I wish that I had a remedy for it^ and 
I should consider myself an independent man. We 
have no cure for it as yet ; preventives there may be, 
and all who think they have one, are justified in fol- 
lowing it out; but all that has been said, only reminds 
me of the story of the chameleon's color and the three 
travellers, where all were right, and all were wrong. 
I am not at all pr^nieed in any of my opinions. If 
any one can show me that I ean raise a large orop with 
less expense than I raise mine, I shaa certainly try it, 
and if it sncceods I shall be the first to follow it. 

My cnlture and expense is given on affidavits of 
myself and Che men who worked them, measured, Ac. 

I noticed the past season, a statement that lime 
sown on the leaves of the potato, would prevent and 
cure disease. This is not the case, and I think I can 
explain how this theory may have originated. Potato 
growers will sometimes see their vine^ covered with a 
black fly, which eats the leayes through, and sometimes 
will destroy the whole plant by stripping it of its leaves, 
and when withered it has the appearance of a diseased 
stem, and in fact is eonsidered snch ; they infest the 
plant sometimes so badly that in two or three days 
your stems are gone. By applying slacked lime to 
them when you notice it| you immediately kill them, 
and your vines resume their former color and will 
thrive, which may lead some to suppose that they have 
stopped the disease. 

Another dissase (from animal Ufe,) proceeds from 
heavy sod ground, when broken and planted with po- 
tatoes. It is a grub with a long white body (one to 
two inches) and black head. Those grubs will get on 
the surface and eat the stems through, or eat them 
round, the result of which Is that the stems die and 
look like diseased stems. By applying slacked lime in 
the same manner as applied for the fly, you kill them, 
as the moment the lime touches them they are killed. 
I bad a field of potatoes this season, planted on sod 




ground turned in the spring. In the summer they 
were infested with the fly on the leaves and the grub 
at the stems. They made such havoc before I noticed 
them, that I was told they were all diseased and that 
the crop was gone. I applied the lime on the leaves 
and ground, and killed the whole of them. My plants 
then flourished and looked as green v ever, and I have 
had no disease in them and a good crop. 

Another correspondent says potato disease is oonta- 
gious. I most certainly differ with him in that which 
my experience this season will prove. I got some Gib- 
sons Seedling potato, which were said to be very fine 
both in size and quality, but with me it has proved 
perfectly worthless in everything as a potato, it being 
the only potato I had that was diseased, and three parts 
of them were so when I du|M|bem. When I planted 
them I had not suflScient or them to plant out the 
ground; the balance of the ground I planted with 
Prince Alberts, 30 inches from Gibson's Seedling. In 
(digging this lot of Prince Alberts I had not a diseased 
one, which to me is conclusive evidence that the disease 
is not contagious. Further, if contagious, how did 
mine escape, when all around me had it badly ? 

If we were to have more lime applied to our potato 
ground, we should hear less of bad potatoes. Lime is 
an essential manure for the potato, to those who wish a 
good mealy one, and for any land that is infested with 
grubs and worms, salt is also essential, as it will kill 
them, and of course prevent their destroying the tu- 
bers. I have experimented with salt as a oure and 
preventive, but I oould not see its effect^ and growing 
potatoes on a large scale it would be an expensive ma- 
nure. 

Another correspondent states that leaving them ex- 
posed to sun and air will disease them. Such is not 
my experieneej which will be seen in my practiee. 
Further, I expose ail my potatoes intended for early 
growing to the sun until they are perfeotly green. 
This season I have done the same and no disease. 

•TATSKBHT. 

The Prince Albert potatoes shown, afe a sample of 
one acie, which I enter for competition for the best acre. 
They were grown by me the pest season on a yellow 
sandy ,or rather gravelly loam soil, without any manure. 
The land was manured in the spring of 1856, with 
barn-yard manure and black mnok, for parsnips, ear- 
rots, cabbages, Jke. This season I have given those 
potatoes no manure. My yield this year was not as 
large as 1856, which I attribute to our short season, as 
last year they had a month's longer growth. 

My system of growing them has been altogether dif- 
ferent to what it was last year. I plant my potatoes 
with one eye to eaoh set, which system it has been said 
was only applicable to garden eoltnre. I grew them 
this year (one eye) with quite different treatment, so 
as to oonvinoe aU it was as i^yplieaole to the farm as 
the garden. I also grew them on sod ground plowed 
this spring, in the same manner and treatment My 
yield this year was 238 bushels to the acre, and no dis- 
ease. I have kept an accurate account of the expense 
in my daily Journal, which I give, also the time of 
working and harvesting them : 

April 20— Prince Albert potatoes out — one eye left 
to eaoh set. 

April 21— Mixed with slacked lime and well turned 
over— five and a half bushels to the acre. 




1 




THE OULTIVATOR. 




May 16— Groaod plowed for potatoes. 
May 18— Gronad barrowed both ways. 
May 19— Opened drills, thirty inobea apart and from 
liz to eight inchei deep. 

May 22— Prince Albert potatoes, set in drills twelre 
inches apart As we dropped the sets the plow follow- 
ed and covered te the same depth as we opened tbem. 
In this way we left them until the 6th of Jane, when 
I ran the Scotch harrow both ways, until the ground 
was leTel. 

June 12— Potato stems showing above ground, and 
ground very weedy— harrowed both ways to kill weeds. 
June 16— Prince Alberts three inches above ground, 
plowed them same as we opened the drills, (with two 
mules,) completely covering the stems ; running light 
at one side of stems,. a||^ on the opposite side to the 
full depth of the plowVoovering tbem the same depth 
as they were planted. Then harrowed both ways, 
leaving alt again level. This takes out all weeds, and 
gives the plants a good start. 

June 30 — Earthed up potatoes with same plow as wo 
opened drills wffh, and with but one mule ; run along 
one side close to the stem, so that the mould lays tbem 
(stems) nearly fiat ; next plowing run same way, on 
opposite side of stem. 

July 9— Earthed up on the above mentioned side. 
July 27— Plowed both sides of drills with light corn 
plow, to kill all weeds. This wns their last working. 
It will be seen there is no hand work done on them, 
except dropping the sets. 

Sept. 2.— Stems commenced to wither ; examined and 
found no disease. Selected out the greenest and ri- 
pest stems (12 of each ;) dug them and let them lie 
on the surface to see if that would disease them. 

Sept 18— Bzamtned all the potatoes carefully that 
were left on the surface on the 2d, and found all per- 
fectly sound. 

Sept. 22— Commenced to dig Prince Albert pota- 
toes by running a one horse plow elose to the stems, 
throwing the mould to the center, then following with 
the garden spade and digging them. 

Dug Gibeon's Seedling potato, wUeh were three 
parts diseased. Some Prince Alberts were planted 
with those, (next rows,) and none of the Prinoe Al- 
berts have diseased, which proves in this ease that po- 
tato diseasa is not contagious. 

We were offered fbr these potatoes oa the ground Ibr 
the New-Tork market, one dollar a bnsfael. We have 
been selling them for four dollars and fifty cents per 
barrel for planting. 

The whole ooet of enlttvating the above acre on this 
system, is eighteen dollars and foriy-one cents. 

Five and a half bushels of potatoes for sets, at the 
price we sold them at last spring, $1.60 per bushel, 
would be •8.26. 

Total cost of labor and sets, #26.66. Gbsalb How- 
ATT. JVstfffon, NiW'Jerty^ Dtc^ 1867. 



Hoifr to Blalce Court Plaiter. 

Strain a piece of black silk on a frame, and brush it 
over with a solution of one ounce of isinglass in 12 oxs. 
of proof spirit, end mix two ounces of tincture bensoin 
(Turlington's Bslsam) with it. When dry, repeat the 
process four or five times, finishing off with a coat of 
tincture black balsam of Peru. For a cheaper kind 
nse common glut instead of isinglass. 



Barberry for Hedges. 

MvssM. EniTOKS- Will yon, or any of yovr tnbseri- 
bers, advise as to the utility and prmetleability of the 
cultivation of the Barberry bush for hedge. It is indir 
genotts with us,and may be seen scattered over this part 
of the country,tbriving by the side of old walls and fences 
— ^hardy — and susceptible of being trimmed symmetri- 
cally, and would seem to be admirably adapted to culti- 
vation for hedge. Under proper cultivation it would 
be strong, and I should judge durable, and when in 
flower highly ornamental, with its denM and deep greee 
foliage — while the berries are noi only gorceous in color, 
but a valuable luxurj for the table ; for the latter pur- 
pose alone it would almost seem warrantable to culti- 
vate it It is quite probable it may be cultivated from 
slips, though more likely the better way would be from 
seeds. Any information upon the subjeot would be a 
great public benefit, as well as satisfaction to J. H. C 
Valley Falls, R. 1. 

We should be glad to see a trial made with the bar^ 
berry for hedges. It would probably require several 
years for it to become stout enough— probably at least 
twice OS long as thtf Osage Orange. It grows naturally 
very thick, with numerous stems, and the only shear- 
ing needed would perhaps be narrowing the top, so ss 
to prevent the bottom from becoming open. For this 
purpose, it would have to be propagated exclusively by 
seed, as it scarcely grows from cuttings, and slowly by 
division. Its numerous prickles are too small to afford 
much protection against cattle, but would be efficiset 
against smaller intruders. The only question of its 
success appears to be in relation to its height and stbut- 
ness, and its forming one even uniform hedge 
• • • ■ 

Caltnre of the Potato. 

Msstna. Editobs — I saw several remarkf in yonr 
last number, as regards the cultivation of potatoes, by 
J. C. Clxvklahd, which I have no doubt will be of 
great interest to many of ow farmers, aJthoogh I 
have never tried salt as a fertiliser. My plan has 
been for the last eight yeara, to obange my seed as 
often as once in everv two years, even if I plant the 
same sort I have for the last six years taken the 
trouble to send from 76 to 160 miles for my seed, and 
think that I have been paid for it In a tenfold propor- 
tion. The sorts that I have been most suoceseful with 
are the Prince Albert or while Napoleon, the Irish 
lumpers and the Peach Blows. These three kinds never 
have showed any symptoms of the blight in this sec- 
tion of the country, while many of my neighbors have 
kept their old sorts, and have lost all or nearly all, the 
two past seasons. I planted in May last, 240 rods of 
ground with white Napoleans, and gathered over three 
hundred and seventy-five bushels in October last, as 
nice potatoes as ever any man need look at They are 
admired by all ; they are very white and smooth ; 
many of them measured from eight to ten and a half 
inches in length ; the tops all remained in a perfect 
state of health until they were tat off by the Aroet 
The tops on the Peach-blow do the same. 

My plan of cultivation is to take stalk ground, or else 
plow it in the fall. I generally select the smallest ones 
that I raise for my own use to plant— cut each potato, 
be it ever so small. I seldom ever use over four and 
a half or five bushels of seed lo the acre. 

Method qf Cultivation,^! generally use about 20 
loads of coarse straw manure to the acre — spread and 
plow in— then plant my seed three by three and a half 
feet apart; when the plants begin to show themselves 
use a top dressing of hen manure, plaster of Paris and 
leached ashes, mixed together, a full bend to the bill, 
which I have found to be a great benefit to me. CI* 
McMabon. New Mil/ord^ Ct. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Tempemtvire of Cream tor Ctknmixtg, Ae. 

MssflRS. Editobs— In the I>ecemb«r iiamber of Um 
Caltivator, p. 379, "A Morgu Farmer" makef seve- 
ral inqviriet, whidi yoa reqaeil aay of your renden 
to answer. 

1st. " What b the proper temperature for erean to be 
in at the time of churning 1" I fiiia Ihe temperatare 
of the cream, when put into the cbam, to make the 
beet batter, should be S5<» Fahr., and gradnally in- 
ereased in the proeees of ehaming to 62^ or 64^, at 
which degree the butter should come ; the whole quan- 
tity and the best qaality is thus obtained without in- 
creasing the labor. To aseertain this without the 
" Thermometer Chum," remove a eommon thermome- 
ter from the eaee, aad eareftrily Insert lato the Neam, 
allowing it snfficient time to marti the degree. 

2d. " Is the flavor of batter ipjared by washing in 
dear spring water 1" I have never found pure water 
to injure the flavor of butter; sometimes it will great- 
ly assist in the separation of buttermilk ; but impuie 
water should never oome in contact with butter 

3d. " What is the proper depth to set milk in pans, 
to obtain the greatest amount of cream 1" A series 
of experiments, published by L. N. Sherbum in 1852, 
detailing the particulars of both trial and result, prove 
that to obtain the greatest amount of butter from a 
given quantity of milk, the best way is to have large 
pans and fill them. My observation coincides. 

4 th. "Will it not mi^e more butter, and of as good 
quality, to let the milk stand until it thickens Y* The 
greater amount of butter obtained from allowing the 
milk to stand until it thickens, or till all the cream is 
risen, and the less time it oooupies in churning than to 
ehnm sweet cream, (as that has to become sour before 
batter can be prodooed,) in my mind, more than com-' 
pensatee for the slight diifeienee there may be in its 
qaality. 

6th. " Would it not be more profiUble to chum the 
milk than to set it for cream, in a dairy of tea cows V* 
I think not, if proper care Is taken in separating the 
eream from the milk, nnleas your eorrespondent lives 
where he can And a ready sale ibr the buttermilk. It 
requires a k»nger time for churning, and I think wo 
cannot obtain as much butter, from the difficulty of 
separating the small paiiaoles of batter from so large 
a body of fluid. 

6th. Is not the cow spoken of sometimes not milked 
clean? which, with some oows, will produce that result ; 
or it may be garget— if so you will find in the June Na 
of Ths CuLTiVAfOR foT 1856, page 174, a remedy. IC 
0. L. BaUMtott Center, N. Y,' 



Mode or CoUeetlng Seed IVheat. 

Sometime last September, or thereabout, I read a 
paragraph in one of your valuable papers on thrashing 
seed wheat. The writer complained and very Justly, 
of the practice of tkrathing wheat for seed. His rea- 
son was that it injured more or less the germ, and ten- 
ded to deteriorate both the seed and the orop. I wish 
to say to all wbeat growers, that when a boy in Eng- 
land, my father, who was a farmer, used to whip out 
his seed. He did it as follows : He placed in his bam 
a large stone, nearly of the sise of a boshel basket (a 
hard wood log would do,) and taking half of a sheaf 
at a time, with a strap roand It, which he held in his 
hand, would then whip or strike the head a few times 




on this stone. All the best kernels would shell out— 
the remainder he left to be finished with the flail. After 
this brief whipping, he would renew and whip away 
handfhl after handful, until he obtained a supply. By 
following this plan yearly your grain will improve, as 
you will sow none but the M\ ripe and best grain, free 
from the marderous bruising of the flail and machine. 
Old ancle Fogy may fancy this method beneath his re- 
gard. Let him think so ; but let farmer Experiment fol- 
low it a few years, and see what will be the result. My 
employment was to take the sheaves, open them and col- 
lect out all the ohesa and trash, (a work every farmer 
in the land ought to do ) In this way he klways raised 
clean and heavy crops of wheat W. B. L. Jifon/ours- 
vitfe, Pa. 

" ■'• •'■• 

A Fimirie Vmrm In lovra* 

Extract of a letter from a correspondent in Butler 
Co., Iowa : — ** I learo from time to time, of many en- 
terprising farmers who are making first class improve- 
ments in the several neighborhoods hereabouts. One 
that has lately come to my knowledge, and especially 
worthy of mention, is that of Mr. Cl^kkson, located 
16 miles south of our Grove. Mr. C, for a period of 
some 20 years, published a paper in south-eastern Ind. 
He Is located two and a half miles from timber, on a 
prairie farm of some 3,000 acres, upon which, during 
the past senson, he has built a modem cottage, at a 
cost of #7,000. He grew this year 10,000 bushels of 
com, and he informs me that he made several barrels 
of Sorghum syrup, at a cost of 25 cents per gallon. 
Mr. Clarkson commenced operations upon his land 
three years since, under cover of a small muslin tent." 

• • • ' 

Cleo»tng Olover Seed. 

Permit me to inquire tiirongh the columns of your 
valuable paper, which is the best mowing machfaie for 
seed clover 1 Tbe machine most cut about 120 to 150 
acres every season. 

How many acres will the machine out in lO.hours 1(1) 

Which kind ef clover huller will be besf} There 
are three different kinds. (2.) 

Is it neoessary to thresh the seed dover first with a 
oommon threshing maohkie 7(3.) 

Which kind of horse power wiU be the best for the 
clover holler, and how many horses are necessary 1 
How many bushels seed wiU the huller clean on the 
average in 10 hours ?(4.) Epr. Schmidt. Henry 
Co., TIL ♦ 

1. Any good combined mowing and reaping machine 
will answer, as Wood's Manny, Ball A Altman's, Kir- 
fay's, Ae. Attach to the machine the platform com- 
monly used in reaping grain, with a board behind to 
assist in retaining a larger load of the eat dover, and 
when each pile sufficiently accumulates on the platform, 
rake it off In heaps. A good mowing machine, with 
two horses, osually cuts about an acre an hour. 

2. There are five or six different clover hullers, and 
we are unable to say whioh is best — a very good one, 
however, b manufactured by Hildreth and Charles, of 
Lockport, N. T. The price of their huller and cleaner 
is seventy -five dollars. 

3. A common threshing machine is required first to 
separate the seed from the straw. 

4. Any good horse power will answer. If our cor- 
respondent sbonld procure a dover maohbe of Hil- 
dreth A Charles of Lockport, the same firm will furnish 
a neat, durable and compact horse power, made wholly 
of iron, for one hundred and ten dollars. Four to six 
horses are usuidl^ employed, and the machine will hull 
from fifteen to thirty bushels of seed per day, vazying 
with the quality and condition of the 




THE CULTIVATOR 




Shjoiwhire Downs. 

The aboye engraying repreMnts one of three priie 
weihen, brod by and the property of Henry Smith, 
Jr., of SuttoD Maddoek, Shiffnal, Enfland. They re- 
ceived the first priie, with a breeder's silver medal, at 
the Birmingham and Midland Counties Show of Christ- 
mas, 1856. We have had the cat drawn and engraved 
from a fine plate in a recent number of the Farmer's 
Magaiine — which speaks of the sheep themselves as ad 
mirable for " splendid quality of meat, broad chines, 
and full plaits, and wonderfully good loins and rumps." 

This breed— the " Shropshire Downs "—Is now ra- 
pidly coming into notice and repute in England. They 
are originally descended from a hardy mountain breed, 
through which they inherit aa eAseUent oonstitution. 
This enables tliem to thrive on some of tha most exposed 
districts; while on more fertile- paetures they evince a 
rapidity of growth, and natural tendency to a heavy 
weight at an early age, certainly not surpassed by 
any other breed. The exertions of the Salopians, how- 
ever, have not been directed to site and weight onJy. 
Thjt Shropshire sheep mite with these two recommend- 
ations—excellent form and symmetry, first-class wool 
of thick pile and great length of etapte, well-formed, 
good dark brown headr, deep cheets, famous legs of 
mutton, with a good dock set high on a straight long 
^pine. 

Tbe olaas of " Shori-wooled sheep not being South- 
downs," now affords the Shropshire breeders an oppor- 
tunity of exhibiting their stock on fair terms at the 
meetings of the Royal Agricultural Society. At Salis- 
bury in this section the Shropshire Downs took three 
of the prises for rams, out of the four offered. At 
Birmingham, as we have often had to record, the show of 
this kind of sheep is one of the chief features. 



'Waahln§^ Soap. 

2 lbs. bar-soap— 1 o«. borax. Shaye the soap fine. 
Put that and the borax in one quart of water, and sim- 
mer till well mixed. One-fourth of a pound of this 
compound is suflScient for a washing for six persons. 
Soak the clothes a few hours, and then put in the soap 
and boil thirty minutes, snd tben rinse in two or three 
waters, and hang out. If the clothes should not be 
clean enough after boiling, a little rubbing will gene- 
rally suffice. Sbnbx. 

' •%• 

MiLKiiro Three Times a Day, when cows give a 
great quantity of milk, is a great advantage. Try it. 





A Ne^r Ves^'^M* 'Washer* 

Mr. KurriRG has, I see by your Ia«t no., invented 
a root washer or cleaner. So haye I ; and as it b not 
my intention to send it to the Patent Office, I will send 
it to the Country Gentleman for public use. When 
I eaa spare the money, I want to get one or two of Mr. 
Nutting's inventions, which, from his description, are, 
I think, good. I send herewith a draft and description 
of my vegetable washer. 

Description. — An oblong water-tight box, 2 by 4 
feet, as the case may be, and % feet deep, with a lid on 
hinges. Inside of this is a cjdindricol open work or 
barred frame, revolving in gudgeons fitting in each end 
of the box. This cylinder revolves at a distance of six 
inches from the bottom of the box, and is opened by 
means of one of the bars arrmoged for that purpose. 
The box being half filled or nearly so with clean wa- 
ter ; the potatoes, beets or other roots to be washed, 
are then put into the cylinder, the bar replaced, tSie 
lid shut down, and the cylinder turned by means of 
the crank outside the box. Vegetables can Im washed 
easily, quickly and tborougbty in this machine, al- 
though a home-made concern. The gudgeons on each 
end of the cylinder fit down in a gain or place cut in 
each end. The cylinder is thus easily removed and the 
box washed out after being used. H. H. Near Ta" 
cusoy IV. 

•■♦ • ■ 
Good 8pri»s Plffa. 

Elihu ELDnsDnn of Union Springs, N. T^ hasshow^ 
the preeent season the advanUget of good manage- 
ment in rasing spring pigs for .autumn fhttening. They 
came on the 29th day of 3d mo. (March) last, and 
were slaughtered on the 23d of last month, being less 
than nine months old. Their early feed — a most im- 
portant item in eaosing their ultimate large siie— wa« 
skim-milk, undiluted, mixed with meal — ^and regular- 
ity and deanllnesi were properly attended to. They 
were half Suffolk, and no doubt tiiis admixture of blood 
greatly favored their growth and fattening. They 
were kept in a Jtoor pen,— wbieb was thought to be 
important on several accounts, and more especially so 
as preventing rooting. They were six in number, and 
the following were their reepectiye weights when 
slaughtered and dressed— 357 Ibi., 361, 322, 316, 310, 
299— aggregate 1955 lbs., and average 326 lbs. Our 
readers will find on p. 13, of vol. 7, of the Country 
Qentleman, a statement of the mode, very similar to 
this, adopted by Joseph Gecerb of Macedon, N. Y, 
and attended with equally snccessfhl results ; and for 
which he thinks he is mainly indebted to feeding un- 
diluted milk at first, (not allowing aoT slop or dish-wa- 
ter to be thrown into it,) and b^ takmg especial care 
that there are as few pigs as will eat the food furnish- 
ed them. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



Ootagon Ro«MB. 

MufiBS. Editom Co. Gbmt.—I mei not a meehuiie, 
but cUim to be a progronive, and as sueh feel a deep 
interett in whatever ic designed to promote the bappi- 
neat of man. The snk^t of dwelUa^bonsee I regard 
as of thia character. Our hoiues oo»t in the aggregate, 
an immenae amount of money, and it appears to me 
that we do not always build in good tMte ; nor in such 
manner as to SMsuro the greatest amount of comfort 
and convenienoe for a given expenditure ; nor, I may 
add, so as to promote the health ef our families by 
proper ventilation, bathing eoBvenienees, large airy 
rooms, Ac. I have been * housekeeper more than 
twenty-five years, and during all that time have ocea- 
sionaUy spent evenings in drawing plans of houses, 
hoping thereby to moke some valuable improvements 
over ordinary plans, for the b^efit of whomsoever 
should chooM adopt them. What we linow of geometry 
satisfies us that neither yon nor I can expect to live long 
enough to exhaust the subject, even though we should 
do nothing else but draw plans while life lasts. Man^C 
plana I have heretofore drawn, have been regarded aa 

toy* 





BASajiiirr— so wmmr to am imok 
possessing rare merits, and although they have suited 
me as well or better than any others I have seen, yet 
none of them ever fully satisfiwl me. I have always 
proceeded upon Uie aasumption that every intelligent 
family requires a kitchen, pantry, store-room, dining- 
room, parlor, library, nursery, bath-r<x>m and clothes 
press, all large and conveniently arranged, on tfujlrai 
Jloor. I do not remember to have seen a plan publish- 
ed containing all these oonvenienees, except upon a 
•cale 80 eztonf ive as to be too expensive for persons of 
limited means. 

six or eight years ago^ knowing the capacity 
bollt in the form of an Octagon, to faidose 




space, I tried what skill I possessed in that direcUon ; 
but crooked, odd shaped rooms had such a tendency to 
make me cross-eyed, and thus caused me so much pain, 
that I finally abandoned it as impracticable to admit 
of square or rectangular rooms, such as J think the 
principal rooms of a good bouse ought to be. 

A few days ago, happening to be looking over the 
books at our principal book-store, my attention was 
drawn to a book entiUed "A Home for All," by 0. S. 
Fowler, Esq., on Octagon houses. I have read this 
book with much intcresfj but the plan he calls «• the 
best plan yet," on page 161, does not at all suit me. 
The rooms are about as broad as they are long, and as 
usual with these plans, the inner corners are cut oflf; 
and another futal objection exists, in the dose proximity 
of the kitchen to the dining-room, provided the latter 
is ever te be used for any other purpose. The heat 
and flies in summer, and smell of cooking at all times, 
renders this *'besl plan" very undesirable, in my esti- 
mation. 

Figure 13, on page 64 of Mr. Fowler's book, and the 
suggestion of a fritnd, caused me to dra^ the first floor 
of the Octagon plan which I send you. The oarryiug 




VERANDA 



VrRANDA 



First Floor— 49 rx. 2 iir., if Baicx— 48 ft., if Wood. 
out of the plan in detail is my own, and removes aU 
my objections to the outside form adopted ; nay, more, 
it settles the question In my mind that this is the best 
plan I have ever seen, for the following reasons i 

Ist. Economy of building ; the walls inclosing more 
room lor their length than any other desirable shape ; 
and only one chimney required. 2d. Symmetrical 
proportions of the plnn throughout. 3d. Although 
simple in form, its perfect convenience can scarcely be 
excelled, if equaled. 4th. The close proximity of one 
room to another, and yet the kitchen is shut off tnm 
the Aront part of the house by two doors and an 
as it ought to be in every house of much size. 
The fact that only one side, or one end, of any 





CULTIVATOR. 




CoAMBBB Floor. 
is exposed to the external atmosphere, aod therefore, 
with proper Tentilation, inor0 easily kept warm in win- 
ter and oool in summer than if otherwise situated. 
6th. The great eoosomyof fuel in warming the house, 
of which more hereafter ; the principal halls being in 
the centre, cold sir is excluded and warm air easily dif- 
fused to every pari. 7th. The beautiA&l suit of rooms, 
three in number, so contiguous, so airy, and so easily 
made as one, with sliding doorsg in ease of a great 
gathering of friends for any purpose. 8t». The ad- 
mirable arrangement of the nine large and airy cham- 
bers and bed-rooms, with closets, each of which can be 
reached without passing through other sleeping apart- 
ments. 

If the library of mj {Aan be objeeted to on aoooaot 
of iU shape, 1 reply, I like it, because while it oo- 
oupies only the area of a room nine feet square, yet it 
contains wall spao* for books equal to one' of eleven 
feet square, or 44 feet ! The same principle applies to 
the similar shaped clothes presses, as we shall see. 

To illustrate tho great advantages of the Octagon 
form, please compare the one I have drawn with the 
rectangular plan onr page 51 of the " Illustrated An- 
nual Register of Rural Affairs" for 1858. That plan 
has about 20 feet more out-side lealU than the main 
part of the one I send you ; and even the little plan in 
the Country Qentloman of December 3d, page 369, 
has nearly as much in length of outside walls as my 
plan, yet what a difference in favor of the Octagon 1 
The truth is, the Octagon form contains from fifty to 
one hundred per cent, more room, in proportion to 
length of outside wall, than the plans most in use in 
this country. 

As the plan I send you nearly explains itself, I need 
only speak of a few features. The dining-room closet 
is half of five feet square, and of course will contain 
ten feet of wall space for shelves. The entiy, leading 




from the kitchen and dining^roooi to the side door, is a 
convenient passag«-way for the ordinary use of the 
family. This entry can be used in part for a closet. If 
any prefer, by shutting off the kitchen from the aide 
door. The pantry is half of about nine feet square, 
and contains thirtf-tvo feet qfwall wpace^ equal to 
one of eight feet square, which, it will be observed, is 
large. I have studiously shut off the kitchen from any 
direct communication by one door, with the front part 
of the house, as, after 26 yean experience, we so pre- 
fer it The bath-room, back of the nursery, is so lo- 
cated AS to admit hot water through a pipe from the 
kitchen fire without the least difficulty, and at smalt 
expense. Cold water should also beintroduoed through 
a pipe to a reservoir between the ceiling of this room 
and the chamber floor ; the bnlh, clothes, aod store 
rooms to be only eight feet high, whilst the remainder 
of the first story is designed to be 12 feet Back of 
bath-room is a clothes-press sufliciently oonvenient of 
aceets, and also a short passage-way from nursery to 
kitchen. The pantry and store-room in such close con- 
nection with the kitchen, will be appreciated by house- 
keepers. The back entry, 8 by 8, the outside door and 
stairs, cannot be bettered I think, nor the passage to 
water-closet more wmvenient . Tht ice house is de- 
signed to be constructed upon the general principle 
adopted bj Mr. Fowler, (see his book, p. 1 16,) and to 
be entered for iee net^ Its ceiling, from the back stairs, 
and to be filled through the outside door. The ice cold 
cellar, kept bjr the ice and its drippings just above the 
freesing point, is an admirable arrangejnent^ suggest- 
ed by Mr Fowler for preserving fruits, butter, or any 
thing liable to be bjured by th^ heat of summer. A 
large wood and coal room will be observed in the cel- 
lar, admirably situated for the laundry and furnace, 
but slightly inconvenient for the kitchen, which oan be 
remedied by a flight of stairs under the back staircase, 
a three feet passage taken from the store-room, and a 
large wood- box in the back entry near the kitchen door, 
to be kept filled by the <* ow»of all woit." The three 
verandas, A, B, and C, are unique, ioexpensiTe, and 
will have a tendenoj te giv*. tte tosver story a squara 
appearance. 

Ascending the principal stairs to the cbambars, we 
enter a fine, large, central hall, nearly 14 by 18 feet, 
well lighted through an octagon opening in the ceiling, 
by an octagon observatory or cupola on the roof, whidi 
arrangement will also light the lower hall through the 
well-hole of the afbresaid staircase. I>om this central 
hall we enter six ehambers ; the seventh one on the 
same floor, designed for servant's room, to be entered 
via the back stairs. From this last chamber a door 
into the^ adjoining one admits access to all the others 
through the central ball. It will be observed that in 
this story there are eight clothes-presses, one for eaoh 
room, and an extra one for the general use of the house. 
These closets are each half of seven feet square, and 
contam 24 feet of wall space— equal to a closet six feet 
square ! They are unusually large, and might well be 
reduced so as to allow the four side chambers to be en- 
larged to 13|. feet square each. Another servant's 
bed- room is entered from a broad step about two- thirds 
the way up the back stairs, andeootainaa doset An- 
other oloset, and a good clothes-diying room £br win- 
ter completes the upper story. 

My sixth reason fbi liking this plan was economy of 
fuel. Let us see. The ftimace should be placed in the 





THBCULHrATOfi. 




mUw under the center of the hooae ; three registers, 
one eaeh in dining room, parlor snd nnrserj, wonld 
supply the first story. The smoke pipe for the fnmace 
should be made 12 inehes in diameter, and pass through 
the wall into the cellar hall, thence np through the 
first and seoond fioors of the hall into a large sheet- iron 
dumb stove ; tkence to the chimney near the chamber 
ceiling. From my knowledge of the immense amount 
of heat usually lost through the smoke- pipe of a fur- 
nace, I do not hesitate to etpress the opinion that this 
arrangement of pipe would (korcughly warm the halls 
and chambers, inasmuch as att Vie heat thos generated 
must ascend to the upper hall, and then pass through 
the rooms around said hafl, before escaping. 

In regard to the external construction of this house, 
any one who adopts it will be likely to' exercise his 
own taste. I think it would look welt to be built with 
wans 28 feet high or over, roof nearly flnt, and to 
project say four feet, with broad friese and large taste- 
Ittl brackets. Those who like the Oothic style conM 
build with walls of less height, and with four or eight 
gables I 

In regard to cost I cannot speak adrisedly, but am 
of the opinion that it can be built at any cost from two 
to four thousand dollars, aeoording to the style adopted, 
^ ^e kind of materials used, and the place where built 
. I believe this plan to be alike superior for the large 
mansion or the modest cottage, and if any of the sub- 
scribers to your valuable and useful paper siiall be 
benefitted by it, I shall not have labored in vain. 
Bespectfully yours, S. H. Mamn. BdoU^ WU, 
• ♦ • 

Hoof-Ail—Management of Stock. 

MsBSiifl. EniTons Co. Oemt.— I was much pleased 
with the sensible remarks of your correspondent^ Mr. 
DicKiNSOir, on " Hoof-ail in Cattle," in your paper of 
26th Nov., and sincere^ hope that (bey will promote 
the cause of humanity they are so well adapted to serve, 
by leading farmers to devote more attention than is 
usually given to the comfort and warmth of their stock 
during the severe odd of the North American winter. 
By referring to your paper for May 17lh, 1866, yon 
will see that I then advanced a similar explanation of 
the pathology of Hoof-ail as it occurs in America, to 
Mr. Dickiwson'b, predicated . upon an account of the 
symptoms given by another of your correspondents in 
a previous papor. At that time I was not aware of 
the inflaence attributed to "ergot" in producing this 
disease in this country, but from what I have since 
heard and read, especially from your remarks in the 
Country Gentleman of lOlh September last, I must 
allow that there is a prima /acu case made out in its 
favor, and certainly enough to warrant bay in which 
H is abundant, being looked npon with great suspicion 
and distrust by stock owners. 

It does not seem to me, however, that the two ex* 
ptanatlons offered, of the caate of this disease, vis., 
eold, and the ergot in the hay, are at mil aatogonislie 
of each other, but rather that when it is particularly 
prevalent, both may be acting in conoisrt, although 
eaeii, token by itself, may be adeqasto to the produc- 
tion of the effeets witnessed! We are all too apt fai 
pathological investigations, espeoially those not con- 
versant with the phenomena of animal physiology, to 
a eauUy and to restsatisfied when we think we 
discovered that, inslead of keeping eonstantiy 




before us all the causes by which the eondltloii we are 
investigating can be produced. And hence we often, 
while removing one source of evil, leave others of 
nearly equal magnitude in operation, and the benefits 
we anticipated, being for this reason not forthcoming, 
we at once discredit instead of praise, because we have 
discovered only a part instead of the whole. The 
soundest hygeinic wisdom is, when disease is appre- 
hended, to remove all the causes that tend to the pro- 
duction of the disease we would obviate. 

In the communication I allude to, sent you two years 
ago, I mentioned the fact well known to cattle practi- 
tioners of any experience, that such leas of the ex- 
tremities as those spoken of, were frequently the conse- 
quence of long-continued debilitating disease, but when 
this happens it Is through the induction of the same 
condition as that produced by extreme cold, or by the 
efl^octs of ergot on the system, namely, the inabllitj of 
the circulation to maintain the vitelity of parts so far 
from its centre. There can be no doubt but all the 
three causes spoken et/imiw this effect, and that their 
results will be in ^fttportion to their inteofity, and to 
whether two or md^ of them be in operation at the 
same time, which combination, when it happens, must 
of course produce more aggravated mischief than when 
only one exists. 

The practical lessons which I wonld urge npon Ame- 
rican cattle owners, who would avoid this and many 
other sources of loss, are to adopt Mr. Dickinsor's 
advice, and feed more liberally, to shelter and litter 
their stock more comfortably, and as far as possible to 
avoid any diseased or damaged form of nutriment what- 
ever. It has always seemed to me that one of the 
greatest and most ruinous errors of American fanning 
is the little attention given to providfog for the feed- 
ing and warmth of the cattle. In Scotland, where 
the success of agriculture, considering the dlflieultlee 
it has had to contend against, is perhaps as g^at asia 
any other part of the world, as witnessed by the com- 
fortoble condition tff the fermera generally, and the 
high rents they are able to pay for a bleak and sterile 
soil, the whole and sole basis of their prosperity rests 
on the care they take of their cattle. From the first 
day of Jaauaiy to the last day of December, the far- 
mer's principal outlook is to provide for his live stock 
— ^firom the bonr * oalf is dropped tiU the day it goes 
fat to the butcher, it is an especial object of care and 
attention — and whatever other crops are raised, thos 
necessary for the proper feeding of the cattle are never 
neglected. Would American farmers direct their at- 
tention more than they do into the same channel, I 
have no donbt it wonld be mneh for their own profit, as 
well as for the comibrt and health of those inferior 
members of the animal kingdom whose lives and wel- 
fare providence has committed into their hands. The 
bare idea of a poor dumb animal lying in an exposed 
shed, or with its head stuck in between two stanchions, 
and living on a starvation allowance of unwholesome 
hay, till Us feet become frosen for want of vital stam- 
ina to keep up the circulation in them, is alike repug- 
nant to sound economy and christian humanity. And 
no farmer has the right to allow himself the enjoyments 
of a warm fireside and comforteble bed, till he has first 
measurably provided for the wants In these respects of 
his domestic animals. Now is the time when winter Is 
setting in, for farmers to show that they belong to that 
merciful class that regardeth the life of their beasts, 
and if they do so they may rest with full assurance on 
the immuteble laws of nature, that as they sow they 
will reap, and that even in this lift they will have 
their reward. M. A. Cuiniia, Y. S. 8t.JohntN.£. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




HnnipaiiAn OraMi— O^naan lllllet* 

Mach has been taid in the low* pepen the pest year, 
about a new (ae it was supposed) kind of grass, called 
" Hungarian grass," from its haTing been introduced 
there by an emigrant from Hungary. From its de- 
scription, we had liUle doubt that it was a rariety of 
Millet. We are indebud to Mr. Bdsl of Keokuk, for 
a quantity of the seed and stalks of this Hungarian 
grass, which prores to be the well-known German mil- 
let, {Setaria germanieat) which has long been snoeess- 
fnlly though by no means eztensirely grown in variotts 
parts of this country. There are three Tariettes of this 
millet, differing we belicTe in nothing but the color of 
the seed,~the yellow, white, and purple, and the seed 
sent us from Iowa includes all three colors. It is an 
annual pLant^ and requires a rich, warm and well pul- 
Torised soil; and we aro not at all surprised to hear of 
its extraordinary productiveness on the prairie soils of 
the west, where we doubt not it will be found a much 
better crop for hay than Timothy, which does not sue- 
seed well on the prairies. 

In our lael rol. (Co. Oent toL X, p. 234— Cult for 
1867, p. 338,) a Coonectienteorrespondent gives an ae- 
eonnt of an experimesi he made iu iU culture the past 
summer. He sowed one aore— the soil was stiff clay, 
and the seed badly got in, being corered too doep, and 
yet he hanrested orer three and a half tons to the aore. 
In our Tols. for 1855, wiU be found the statemenU of 
Hon. A. Y. MooBB, President of the Michigan State 
Ag. Society, and Mr. 8. M. Babtlbtt of the same 
State. Mr. M. says—" Millet has been a favorite erop 
with me for the last five or six yean. Then is no kind 
of hay that my stoek of all kinds, prefer to millet." 
Mr. B. says— "lam graaUy pleased with it." We 
might make similar quotations in relation to it, from 
nearly every one of our vols, for years past. It has 
been thoroughly tested, and we have no hesitation in 
raoomroending it as * forage erop. 



BaAter-Maklngf In IW'Inter. 

" Winter butter " has no very enviable ropotatlon 
anywhere, and compared with that made in June, 
seems an entirely differeni artieli; Of course thero 
are reasons for this— let as enumerate some of them. 

1. The character of the food is changed from green 
and suocalent herbage, to dry hay, or mora generally 
eomstalks and straw. There is really very litUe but- 
ter in the laUer. 

2. The season is changed from mild and warm, to 
oold, bleak, and uneomfortable. There is a constant 
demand for fuel to keep up the animal heat ; this is 
partly at the expense of the batter product. 

3. The management of the milk becomes difficult. 
If kept in a cellar, and a little above froesing, the 
milk becomes bitter before the cream rises ; if allowed 
to freese, the eroam rises al once, bnt is injured in 
quality, and will produce very white butter ; if kept 
in the kitchen pantry, when very warm during the day 
and cold at night, it does not rise well, and is apt to be 
bitter and acid. 

Other reasons might be mentioned, but they will 
readily suggest themselves to the reader. Let us see 
what can be proposed to remedy the difficulties. 

1. Feed well — not dry food alone — but grain and 
roots, as a substitute for grass. Carrots, turnips, beets, 
cabbages, etc., are all useful in keeping up the quality 
» milk. Let their fodder be cut, and some nutri- 



tions slops be provided, if roots are not to be had, and 
it is well to cut the fodder in any ease. 

2. The comfort of oows shoold be carefolly attend- 
ed te. While they suffer from cold and filth, or foul 
ear, they cannot yield as good milk as when in warm, 
clean stables, or in well littered and sheltered yards. 
Water should also be provided — ^it is the more needed 
when dry forage is consumed— and it should be so ar- 
ranged that every animal could drink at will. A sup- 
ply of salt is also necessary. 

3. It is difficult to get a proper temperaturo for rais- 
ing cream perfeetly in winter. Some butter-makers 
scald their milk when first drawn from the cow — others 
let it stand twelve houn, and then place the pan oon- 
taining the milk in a larger one filled with boiling 
water — and allowing it to stand twelve hours longer, 
find the cream raised perfectly. It is said that more 
and better butter can be madq in this way than in any 
other. 

Churning In winter, as usually managed, is often a 
serious operation. The cream stands too long gene- 
rally — ^becoming rery sour and bitter. Or, It is too oold 
and froths up, filling the chum but producing no but- 
ter though churned for hours. I^et the croam-pot sit 
near the fire for a few hours before churning— stirring 
it occasionally, that all may g^t warm alike, and when 
it is at a proper temperature, 55^ — ^feeling a little 
wsrm to the finger — ^the churning will be an easy half- 
hour's job, and the butter as yellow and hard as the 
season will admit of. 

We have found that cows generally gave better milk, 
when fed on well cured com fodder, than on second-rate 
hay, and with " a mess " of roots, apples, or pumpkins, 
would yield milk of very fair quality. Attention to 
securing a supply of proper food for cows, and bet- 
ter care of them, would go far to redeem the name of 
winter butter from its present character. J. H. B. 

♦-♦■^ 

Tteks oa Slieep* 

Mbssbs. Tuckxr — If sheep are fed gmin or oti 
cake meal, as they ought to be, I will warrant them 
free from ticks. It will be far more profitable than 
sulphur, (see Co. Gent. Dec. 17, p. 395.*) I hare some 
hundreds feeding ; let any man come here at the end 
of March, and see If be can find two ticks to a hundred 
sheep. I guess he won't unless I have one that may 
have been sick — possibly It might have some. But 
some will say, we cannot keep stock sheep like men 
who fat sheep for market— b«t let me tell those (mr» 
mors that they should keep their stock sheep in such 
condition that they won't breed tidks. Sheep pay badly 
that raise tieka Sheep farmers, will yon take notice 
of that 7 John Jorrstor. Near Geneva. 



BsMkirlkeat Straw t&r fiUheep. 

One word of the benefit of a|p4oaltaral papers. A 
few weeks since I was looking over some of the baek 
volumes of the Oultivater, which I have boond, to find 
something I then wanted to see, when I acoideBtally 
came across a statement thai sheep loved backwheai 
straw. HaTing several loads of that strew in my bam, 
which was cut early and got in in good order, and 
which I was intending to let my cattle pick from, and 
use the remainder for litter, I immediately weni to 
my bam and tried my sheep, and fi>und they ate the 
strew greedily. I think I shall realise enough 
this discoTery to pay for the paper a number of 
B. B. PsKLPB. MaruJuaUr, CL 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Inqniriiw and Anmren. 

Propaoatino Orapbs.— I hare some wild gri^p«i 
that we fiod ▼aluable for ▼inegar. Wishing to bring 
them under cultivation, I would like to be infornted 
through The Cultivatob of the mode of removing or 
propagating the vine— also the right season of the year 
to do it in. S. W. H. Hoesie, St. Lawrence Co^ N. 
Y. [Prune the vine severely this winter or very early 
in spring, to induce a young, stout, and vigorous growth 
of shoots— layer these shoots by midsummer or sooner, 
by bending them to the ground, and covering them 
with five or six inches of earth at Che middle. A small 
excavation should be made to lay these in, as a matter 
of great convenience In covering them with the earth. 
In autumn these layers wilt be rooted, and they may 
be then cut ofl; removed and planted out. This is the 
easiest and most certain way of propagating them. 

Ruramo Pios. — ^Will you or some one of the numer- 
ous correspondents of Turn Cultivator, inform me of 
the best way to prevent hogs from rooting In clover sod, 
or any other sod. My hogs are so bad to root, I have 
to lieep them out of the fields, and that when they 
have as much com as they con eat. M. Plaak. [The 
old remedy of ringing their noses, is efficient A per- 
foratioc is made i>etween tfa^e snout bone and the pro- 
per nasaly and a short annealed iron wire thrust through, 
and the eads twisted together with pincers so as to form 
a small ring. It is a painful operation to the animal, 
of whieh he informs the whole neighborhood. The 
ring often breaks off after a time, and requires renew- 
^S- A pig will not root with such a ring. It is said 
to be a much better way, when the pig is young, " to 
cut through the oartilaginons and ligamentous prolonga- 
tions, by which the supplementary bone is united to 
the proper nasals." The divided edges of the cartilage 
will never unite again, and the snout will always re- 
main powerless for rooting.] 

PuMPKiKS FOR Much Cows.— Farmers do not seem 
to be agreed here, as to whether pumpkins fed to cows 
increase <Ae rtcAnese but diminish the quantity of milk, 
or whether the quantity is lessened without any im- 
provement in quality. Have no experiments been 
made by eastern farmers with sufficient accuracy to 
determine the matter ? During the drought of our fall 
months, when the pastures are short, pumpkins are a 
cheap and convenient food for miik cows, but are they 
an improper one 7 T. B. St. Mhtthews, Ky. [Expe- 
rience has shown that pumpkins are good feed for milch 
eows, adding both to the quality and quantity of the 
milk. The seeds, which are sometimes injurious, from 
their diuretic qualities, should be taken out before the 
pumpkins are given to the oows.] 

DoYSR Potatoes. — In answer to several snbieriben 
of your valuable paper, I beg leave to say that I have 
no Dover potatoes to part with. The color of the Do- 
ver is' red ; it is of a roundish form, but a Httle flat on 
one side ; quality fbr the table, white and mealy ; In 
fact as long as there is a Dover potato to be got rid of, 
yon can not sell any other around here. Petrb Sidb- 
loTHAM. Valley Falla^ R. I. 

Falunq opp op Milk.— I have a cow which has 
given a regular quantity of milk all this summer and 
fall. On Monday morning she gave but about a pint 
of milk, and has given about that quantity at her snb- 
milkings. She. is in a yard, and eaa get at 
to injure her ; so I am-snre she has eaten no- 




thing which has caused the diminution. She still eats 
well and and seems healthy. Can yon give me an ex- 
planation of it, or suggest a remedy 1 A. s. r. 

Gas Lire. — Will you inform me through your val- 
uable journal, whether gas lime is as good as lime in 
its original state, to be used on the same ground— if not, 
what qualities are lacking? We can buy gas lime for 
five cents per bushel, and other lime for six and a 
quarter and ux and a half cents per bushel out the 
boats, and then we have to draw it about four miles. 
Now which will be the most profit to us in the end 1 D. 
D. Bi.AuyELT. [Our correspondent's question can only 
be answered by careful experiment. The farmers in 
this vicinity will not buy gas lime at any price, while 
in Philadelphia there is a great demand for it at five 
and six cents per bushel, and at New- Haven it sells for 
a cent a bushel more Ifaan fresh lime. See several ar- 
tioles on this subject in our last year's volumes] 

Cot Frro, amd Tar, por Honsxa.— Is cut feed good 
for a mare with foal 1 or would dry hay and onts be 
better 1 [We know of no objection to cut feed.] Is 
tar good for horses l My mare had the horse distem- 
per last spring, she coughed badly, and was swollen 
some on her belly ; (me of my neighbors advised me to 
give her tar, saymg that it was the best thing for horse 
distemper and a oough he knew of. I gave her tar two 
or three times, and then wound the bit with tar, and 
as it was during spring work, and having no team but 
my horses, I kept her at work, and in oro week her 
cough was nearly cured, and she got along and did well. 
But she was with foal, and foaled the second of July, 
and her colt was very poor and his legs very crooked. 
The mare was worked through tlie winter and spring 
until the first of June — ^not very hard, but was kept 
busy during good sledding and spring work. She was 
fed in part on cut feed. Now what made the colt so 
poor and crooked legged 7 An answer to the above will 
much oblige your humble friend. D. S. Sprtngjield, 
Vt, [The colt was probably injured by the disease of 
the mare, and not by any eut food, nor by the remedy 
which assisted the cure of the disease.] 

Farm Mills.— Pleaae let me know if there is a grist 
mill, to run by horse power, manufactured in Albany, 
and the price. J. F. S. Koemith^ Pa. [Such a mill, 
called the *' Exceisiw Farm Mill," is manufisotured by 
R. H. Peasr in this eity->prioe 950. 

DisKASKD Calves. — About the middle of August 
we had a fine steer calf taken with all the symptoms 
of being choked. He had his tongue stretched out, 
broathed very short, eoughing at mtervals, with a 
wheeling kind of a ooqgh. As he was in an orohard, 
we supposed that he was choked with an apple, and 
treated him accordingly. In coarse of a half of an 
hour, he ceased his hard breathing and coughing, and 
to all appearances was as well as ever. We then turn- 
ed him and two heifers of the same age, into a field 
where they could get nothing to choke them ; but he 
continued to have such spells of coughing until the lat- 
ter part of September, when we found him dead in the 
field. We opened him, and found his lungs very much 
enlarged, weighing eight pounds twenty-four hours 
afterwards. We have inquired of a great many of our 
neighbors, but none can tell us anything about it. One 
of the heifers was taken in the same way a short time 
before the steer died, and the other a short timi 
They eat nearly a bushel of ears of soft com per 





THE CULTIVATOIL 




and still are very poor. Now, Meiisn. Editors, if jou 
or any of your many subscribera, can tell ns through 
your paper, what this disease is, and what can be done 
for it, you will confer a great favor on Altred H. 
Broh&on. R0ti8selaerviUc, N. Y. 

The Llamas.— In our iast we inserted an inqatry, 
as to whether the Llamas recently imported, aire " the 
Alpaca or Vicuna." We have since received several 
other inquiries to the same purport One gentleman 
Biky8_(t If they are the genuine Alpaca, I should like 
to experiment with them, and I presume others would." 
Will the importers please enlighten our readers on the 
subject 1 

g^ R. N. C. will find a full report of the awards 
of premiums on the machines tried at Syracuse last 
summer, in this paper, which will aiford an answer to 
his inquiry. 

Pot AMD Pearl A8hb8.^£I. A, McM. We do not 
know where to refer you for information in relation to 
the manufacture of these articles. 

Muck for Upland. — What effect would the muck 
from a cranberry marsh have on upland, there being 
one upon my land of 3^ acres, which I have had just 
grubbed— would it grow com, root crops, Ac. 1 J. A. D. 
[The application of swamp muck generally benefits 
upland, if heavily applied. We have known it to 
double the crops, but more commonly the result is not 
striking, and not nnfreqnently it is imperceptible The 
beneficial effect no doubt depends much on the previ- 
ous condition or composition of the upland soil, and 
the amount of vegetable matter it may contain, and 
also on the nature of the muck. We prefer to use it 
first, after being well dried, as an absorbent of liquid 
in the barn-yard. 

The swamp itself, after being thoroughly drained, 
will produce flat turnips, broom com, and often oats 
and Indian com, if the latter is the earliest kind, so as 
to escape the frosts to which muck land is eminently 
liable. 

Wise Fehce. — Will yon or some ot your corres- 
pondents, inform me through The Cultivator, of the 
best plan for a cheap wire fence. S. W. J. [We have 
never yet been able to find the two qualities of cheap- 
hess and efficiency combined in a wire fence. We have 
heard of their being made of small wire for twenty- 
five or fifty cents a rod— but all we have seen of this 
kind were worthless. Ko. 9 wire, which is but little 
more than one-eighth of an inch in diameter, is often 
recommended, but it is quite too smalt. No. 4 wire, 
(one-fourth of an inch,) is small enough. Fence made 
of this will cost a dollar and a half or two doUan a 
rod. If well constructed.] 

Rose Acacia.— Please inform me through the Col- 
tivator, how the Acacia Rose, (Robinia hispida, or 
Moss Locust,) can be propagated, and if propagated 
from seed how to manage it with success. M. 0. L. 
[The Robinia hispida commonly increases rapidly by 
suckers — it doubtless might be easily raised from cut- 
tings of the root, in the way so commonly adopted at 
the present time among nurserymen for the increase of 
raspberries and blackberriea Well ripened seed would 
readily grow, if sown in good soil, one-half or three- 
fourths of an inch deep, after scaldmg.] 

TRiMiriifQ Hedges.— What is the proper implement 
for pruning an Osage Orange hedge about five years 
old, which has been suffered to grow wild for the last 




three years 1 What would be the effect of cutting 
back such a hedge to within a foot from the ground? 
M. H. Lcesbupgf Va. [A bush- hook; or if this is not 
sufficient, a saw set on a long handle, so as to avoid 
the thorns. Cutting down such a hedge early or by the 
first of spring, .would probably cause it to sprout np 
thickly, and, if rightly managed afterwards, to make 
a good and efficient hedge in a very short time. Strong 
hedges have been thus made in two years, in connection 
with proper after pruning, culture, &e.] 

The Michioae Plow. — Is the smallest sixe Michi- 
gan plow of too great draught for a pair of stout, able 
horses, at a depth of 7 inehes, in a soil where a pair 
of small horses (14^ hands high) walk along easily 
with a Prouty^ to that depth, and will it work advan- 
tageously in a soil already loose and mellow by culti- 
vation for root crops 1 Ploughman. Burlington^ N. 
J. [" Stout and able " being comparative terms, we 
an not answer with great precision, but we have no 
doubt a Michij^an plow would run seven inches deep 
with ease, when a weaker team draws a common plow 
as deep. We have not, however, found the smallest 
siie Michigan to do its work handsomely at a less 
depth than nine or ten inehes, requiring from three to 
four horses. The best wwk we ever performed with 
this plow, was the largest %ize drawn by three yoke of 
oxen (two yoke were not stout enough) to a mtasurtd 
depth of twelve or thirteen inches. The loosened bed 
of earth, thrown up by the mould-boards, was about 
twenty inches deep. It will work advantageously in a 
loose mellow soil.] 

Address.— Please give me the address of **B. J. 
T. of Grundy, Tenn.,** who inquires through the Co. 
Qent of Oct 20, about the " durability of threshers 
with cleaners attached,*' and " where and by whom 
are the best lever power threshers made ;" and also 
the address of •« J. W. P., Cass Co., Oa.,» in Co. Gent, 
of Dec. 24. Millbsor Carver. Brownsville^ Pa. 
[We cannot do it. Perhaps the gentlemen will answer 
for themselves.] 

Leghorn Fowls. — Can you inform me through the 
" Cultivator," where, and at what price, I con get the 
" Leghorn " fowl, or their eggs ? G. K. 0. [We think 
the birds can be procured of R. P. Pbarsall, Harlem, 
N. Y., though they are not mentioned in his advertise- 
ment.] 

Reims and Loho TAtts.— Having seen in the Co. 
Gent some inquiry for a preventive of horses throw- 
ing their tails over the reins, and not having seen any 
given, except to nick and dock, and as some of your 
readers, (and your humble servant among them,) have 
a p&rticular aversion to that remedy, I thought I would 
give yAU an idea of mine, which I have tried with very 
good success during fly time, on a five year old mare. 
It is simply this : Pass one rein around the other, so 
that they will be united directly over the tail ; or what 
is better, fasten a small ring to one rein, over the tail, 
and pass the other through it ; in that way the horse 
cannot get his tail over one rein without both, and they 
could be held with sufficient force to prevent his cling- 
;Dg tliem under. D. S. Springfield, Vt. 

WoRVS IN Hogs.— Can you inform me through the 
Cultivator how to expel wornis from hogs. I had some 
last fall that were full from one end to the other, of the 
long red worm, and in consequence of which they would 
not fatten ; they wonld'Oat just enough to keep them 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




aliTe. Afiy inforDAibn in regard to the above will be 
gladly received. J. b. 

Ikquirt. — I have an inquiry to make of you or of 
Bome of your correepondonts, through the Cultivator. 
It ie thia : I have a fine young inil<ih oow, which emits 
the mlllc from her teats in very smail streams, and I 
wish to know what can be done to remedy it. p. m'c. 

A JuHPino Ox.— I have an ox that jumps, but does 
not throw fence. What is the best preventive 7 A 
LiFB Subscriber. Ohio. 

Stubborn Horbb. — I purchased a fine five year old 
mare, which foaled this spring, and she is the most 
stubborn beast I oversaw. I tried coaxing, but it was 
of no use, and I will wait for your answer before try- 
ing anything else. She harrows well, and in winter 
goes well enough, but when at the plow or on the 
cart, it is a wear and tear of conscience to use her< 
Please let me know if there is a way of breaking her 
in. N. St. JIf., C. E. 

• e ■ 

Coaetm«tion of Poultry Honeea. 

In the oonstruction of poultry houses but very few 
objects are to be aimed at,,bak these are of the ntmosi 
importance. They are, however, consistent with entire 
simplicity and economy ; and most of the fixtures put 
up in poultry houses at a considerable expense, are not 
only useless, but are positively iu the way of securing 
the advantages to which we refer ; these ere cleanliness, 
ventilation, and protection. from the weather. In de- 
scriptions of this kind, these little particulars, which 
are just the things that the inexperienced want to know, 
are almost always omitted by the writers, because be- 
ing so familiar with them themselves, they consider 
them too trifiing to be mentioned, forgetting how great 
an adyantage this trifling knowledge has been to them. 
We shall therefore be more particular than may be 
thought necessary, aa our articles are intended solely 
for beginners. 

We would insist, in the first place, upon a poultry 
house covering as much ground as possible, to afford 
room for the fowls to walk about under cover in bad 
weather. But it is not necessary that it should be very 
high, either for the nests or roosts. Nests even on the 
ground, are preferable to the high shelves oAen seen- 
which the fowls are very apt to convert into looeting 
places. And as to the roosts, fowls are very easily sat^ 
isfied with roosts of a moderate height, say 4 or 6 feet, 
if thare is nothing higher to attract them. Roosts of 
this height are much more convenient for the exami- 
nation of the poultry at night, to detect sickness, or 
select fowls for the table. We prefer a house, the 
length of which is at least double its width. Ours is 
24 feet long and 8 feet wide, in the form of a shed, 8 
feet high in the front and about 5 in the rear, so that 
all the water is carried off at the. rear into a gutter. 
It is situated on a slope fronting the south, and dug 
somewhat into the hill behind, for the purpose of bank- 
ing it well, to keep out the firoet The whole of the front 
is composed of glass windows, sliding by each other in 
a horisontal frame ; with the exception of lour or fire 
feet partitioi)ed off at one end for nests. The axpense 
of the glass is trifling in comparison with the benefit 
derived to the poultry, fh>m having sunshine and light 
without exposure to the weather. 

Let the roof, with the northern and eastern sides, be 
perfectly tight, to exelode cold winds and driving rains, 



but do not be too particular about having the windows 
fit perfectly tight in front, as ventilation is absolutely 
necessary, and leaving the windows open in front 
all night when the weather is not severe, is much bet- 
ter than having a little hole open at each end of the 
house, to cause a draft completely through, often di- 
rectly upon the heads of the fowls, which is far more 
injurious than entire expoeure. The roost may run 
along the back of the large room about two feet from 
the wall, and if not more than three feet f^m the 
ground, will require no ladder. 

It will be seen that I have made no provision for a 
roosting place separate from this room intended for a 
walk for the fowls in stormy weather. Nor is it neces- 
sary if it be cleaned daily, the trouble of which is re- 
ally less than cleaning once a month. And it is cer- 
tainly better for the fbwls to roost in a spacious room, 
kefft clean, than to be crowded into a small house, al- 
most air-tight, to inhale constantly the effluvia from 
the droppings of two or three, or perhaps six months, 
which are not removed fbt this length of time, because 
forsooth It is only the roostbg place. 

If you have, as yovi should have, a high yard around 
your poultry house for the purpose of restraining the 
range of the fowls when desired, then in pleasant wea- 
ther the whole front of the house can be left open at 
night without danger from thieves, either two or four- 
legged. 

Now as to fixtures, let there be absolutely none, ex- 
cept movable ones, which can be taken out in a few min- 
utes, so as to allow every crevice and comer to be visited 
occasionally with boiling hot white-wash, to drive away 
vermin. Let the rooet be, if possible, one plain, long 
pole, set in brackets at each end, so that it can be re- 
moved and cleaned or burned up and another substi- 
tuted. The floor must by all means be the bare ground 
well covered with a mixture of mortar and ashes, trod- 
den perfectly hard, except a hole in the comer filled 
with ground plaster and ashes for the fowls to dust 
themselves in. Sift occasionally a little ground plaster 
or ashes over the whole flbor, and also over the shelves 
on which the nest boxes are placed, as this will allow 
of the droppings being more easily removed. In the 
spring you can remove the whole floor, to the depth of 
two or three inches, to your garden, and replace it with 
another. By this plan you can easily deteot rat holes, 
and avoid the collection of filth and vermin beneath 
a board or brick floor. 

The end partitioned off for nests may have two sto- 
ries, so contrived that when hens commence setting on 
the ground floor, the laying hens oan be diverted to the 
second story, say four feet above the other. The boxes 
for nests should be from fifteen inches to two feet 
square, and about nine inches deep, with the middle 
half of one side sawed out half way down, to allow 
the hen to pass out and in without injury to the eggs. 
They must have no fastenings whatever, but be msSe 
of sufficiently thick boards to stand firmly by their own 
weight. Make them as tight as possible, and pour a 
little turpenUne in the crevices ; then cover the bot- 
tom with wood ashes, and make the nest of clean straw, 
which is not so favorable to the production of vermin as 
hay. But we will leave the further consideration of 
this part of the business to some other time. Such a 
house as has been described, will, when vrhitewashed 
thoroughly, within and without, probably eombine the 
essentials of room, cleanliness and protection for twen- 
ty-five or thirty fowls at as little expense as any other, 
and far less than some we have seen with all sorts of 
fixtures, of no use but to secrete vermin. U. EUicotVB 
MUU, Md. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Awaras ot our Janvuury^ Prises. 

The following amouoU aw awarded in pursuance ^ 
our offer of New- Year's Premiums : 
Hbvrt Willis, Connecticut, TwenTT-riT* Dollars. 

1. W. Briogs, Wayne Co., Twbkty Dollars. 

J. It Howard, Mwa^shusetU Twrhtt Dollars. 

Westchester Co. cPa) Ag. Society, FirxESK Dollars. 

A. 8. Moss. Chauunque Co., Fiftbbji Dollars* 

K. Bbwbdict. Clinton Co., Fiftbbx Dollars. 

Wm. CARrBHTBR. Ncw-Jcrsey, . — Tkii Dollars. 

J. A. HoRTOM, New^emey, Tbm Dollars. 

K. liBRBiTT, Dutchess Co., Tbk Dollars. 

LSellbcb, Orange Ca, Tbii Dollars. 

J. C. Carlislb, Jefferson Co., Fivb Dollars. 

Jambs Lvos, Steuben Ca, Fivb Dollars. 

C. B. Bhbldon. Delaware Co. Fivb Dollars. 

O. P. K!i4rr. Niagara Co., Fivb Dollars. 

Books Co. (Pa.) Ag. Socieiy, Fivb Dollnra * 

ScTeral iista, whose senders' names would have been 
entitled to rank with the above, were not mailed to ns 
in time ; bat they, together, with those who are now 
suoeessful, and others from whom we haye yet to hear, 
will all oompete for the April Prises. We trust that 
efforts will be renewed and that we shall have the plea- 
sure of being able to announce with the next awards, 
the gratifying faei that our subscription lists for 1858 
are larger than ever before. 

The sums above mentioned are respectively placed 
to the credit of the gentlemen or aoeieties named, and 
await their orders. 

With many thanks for the kind exertions of our 
friends in all parts of the country in support of both the 
CouNTBr QEVTLBifAK and Thb CuLTiviTOB, we can 
but also intimate our hope that they will keep up their 
public spirited labors during tiie winter and spring ; 
and that, undiscouragfd by "hard times" and an 
apathy more general than usual, on the subject of agri- 
cultural progress, each will persevere until he succeeds 
in eliciting such additions to the ranks of our subscri- 
bers as we are happy that we can already acknowledge 
from numerous localities. The first prise above, is 
awarded on a list of subscribers to the Country Gen- 
LLBMAK, with but fow cxoeptions, wholly new, and 
many of the others manliest a striking increase over 
previous years. Try and keep all old subscribers, ae 
the first point, and as the second, don't bo discouraged 
if your list has but one or two to start with. We will 
supply specimen numbers with pleasure for those ob- 
acquainted with the paper. • • > • W^e republish the list of 

Pbizks to bb Awabdbd April 10. 
L For the lai^^t amount of cash subscriptions to our 
Journals, at the lowest Club Ratea, received at this 
office April Tbxth, or previously, we will pay, 

TWKNTY-FIVa DOLLA&a 

2. For the TWO next largest amounta, each, 

TWENTY D0LLAB8. 
8. For the THEEB nest largest amounU. each, 

FIFTEEN DOLLABa 
4. For the FOUR next largest amounts, each, 

TEN DOLLARS. 
6. For the FIVB next largest amounts, each, 

FIVE DOLLARS. 

\^^ And that those who did not begin canvassing 
early enough for the January prizes, or who took one 
of the two lowest offered, (eiher $10 or $5) may have 
some Indttoement to compete more vigorously for the 
April list — should the first of the abore premiums be 
taken by any one who in January received neither a 
first, second or third prize, we will make itTBiRrr-pivB 
instead of Twenty -^five Dollars ; and shoald either sec- 




ond or third prite be taken under sinular clroamstaii- 
ces, we will increase them each $6, (making them ree- 
pecUvely $25 and $20.) 

CiULiPLOWBBS Hbadbd IK WiRTBB —We have juat 
had a fine present of a cauliflower, set in a cellar for 
heading, just at the commencement of winter, when 
it was aot as large as a common sized fist Now, it is 
beautifully leaded md measures tea inches in diame- 
ter, — and we learn that It is only one of many. They 
were merely Uken up wit^ the roots, and deposited 
vertically on the cellar bottom. 

Albart Strawberbt Plarts xr Missoobi.— We 
received some time since, * letter under date of Dea 
21st, from a correspondent in Clark Co., Missouri, who 
last fall ordered from Mr. Jobr DiRGWALLof this city, 
a thousand plants of the Albany Strawberry. We 
were somewhat in doubt of their transportation so far 
with safety, but are pleaned to learn that they all ar- 
rived living, though, from negligence in setting them 
out, about half the planU were subsequently lost 

We could procure for our correspondent the plants 
he wishes in the spring. We do not know how the cli- 
mate where he resides eompares with oun, but pre- 
sume Brinckle*s Orange Raspberry would require win 
ter protection, as it does here, and even, we believe, 
farther south. 

Cost op Cbirbbe Carb Molassbb— There are hun- 
dreds of reporU in the agriculturHl papers, of entire 
success in the manufacture of molasses from the Chi- 
nese Sugar Cane. There is no longer a shadow of doubt 
on this point Some have succeeded in making good 
sugar, of which the editor of the Philadelphia FrUndt? 
RtvietD lately gives several i&stances. But we are 
left entirely in the dark on the great leading point, the 
actual cott^ including cultivation, manufaotare, labor, 
and fuel. Several 9kj the cost is modtratt^ but this is 
not at all definite. We lately met an intelligent gen- 
tleman from Orange county, who had given special at- 
tention to this point, and had found the molsaes to 
cost, all things counted, a doUar a gaUon. Can any 
correspondent give partievlara^ showing that it can be 
made for less, and how mw^ less, accurately 1 

1^* We had occasion eome time since to correct an 
article in the Genutt Farmer^ in relation to the his- 
tory of the different papers that have borne that title, 
— a correction which we much regretted that Mr. Hab- 
lus did not do ns the Justice to transfer to his eolnmnt. 
In the January number of the same periodical, we no- 
tice a claim that it has "eemmenoed its Twenty- Eighth 
year" — a claim of exactly theeame merits as if a son, 
because he bore his father's name, should add his 
father's age to his own, and speak of celebrating his 
" isRndredth birth-day" when he was himself actually 
50 or 60 years old. The original G€ne§et Farmer^ 
established and published by the Senior Editor of thia 
paper, was consolidated with the CtUtieator as our 
readers are aware, on the death of Judge Bitbl in 
1839. Afterwards a Journal was started at Rochester, 
bearing for some time the title of the " New Genesee 
Farmer^** which, during frequent changes of owner- 
ship, has for a number of years past dropped the New, 
and at last begins to assume the age se well as the 
name of its predecessor. The N. E. Farmer with ^m- 
llar reason and justice, might considerably increase its 
age by adding the number of years in which Fbssbr- 
dbb'b old N. E. Farmer was issued. We look back 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




irith eome pride upon the yolumea of our old Qenesee 
Farmer, and confess that we do not like to have the 
honor attached to them, whatever it may be, so coolj 
appropriated bj another. Age is a good thing, bnt it 
is not one of the strongest points in the merits of oar 
Rochester cotemporary. 

Ak Example to thr YotJiio. — ^Wo received a dab 
of thirteen subscriben last week from a friend in Greene 
Co., over eighty-three yearn of age. If younger far- 
men would take something of his interest in the pro- 
gress of the Agriealtaral community, It would be ireU 
both for themselves and the country. 

DioftcoBBA Batatas.— We have rac«tv«d fnm Mr. 
Wm. Adaib, nurseryman, Detroit, a Diosoorea batatas, 
or Chinese yam, measuring 20| inches in length and lOi 
inches round, and weighing 2 lbs. ff ounces. It is, 
taken altogether, the handsomest specimen of this root 
that we have seen. We have not followed the direction 
to " cook and try it," but wUI do sv after Heepbig H a 
while on ezhibitloB. 

17" We would Invite attention, onsoIYcited, tor the 
advertisement of J. M."Thorburii & Co, seedsmen. 
New- York. They have been (Vom the days of Qrant 
Tborbuni, the most eitensive importers of garden, 
field, and flower seedt, in Ihis country, and to this 
house all who seek for things new and rare, have resort- 
ed for the last quarter of a century, and so fltf as wo 
know, without disappointment. 

Fruit in Califoritia. — One of our subscribers at 
Auburn, Placer Co., under date of Nov. &th, writes as 
follows: ** I planted out in 1854, apples, peaches, 
pears, strawberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, 
&o. This year they bore a large quantity of the finest 
froiL My apples I am selling for 25 cents each, and 
my peaches for 25 cents per pound, as fast as they get 
ripe — strawberries and raspberries one dollar per quart, 
and other fruit in proportion." 

Tbb Llamas bate Abbivbd. — The vessel having 
on board the Llamas, heretofore noticed as on their 
passage, arrived at Kew-Tork on the 15th, with forty- 
two on board, in good condition. These animals were 
brought from Guayaquil in Ecuador, and are c<»signed 
to J. I. Fisher k Sons, Baltimore. 

Potato Coltubb.— We publish in this number a 
valuable artice from Mr. Howatt, giving a deUiled 
account of his mode of cultivating the potato, which, 
it will be seen, is both economical and successful. We 
have similar statements from Mr. U. in relation to 
several other crops, which we shall give soon. The 
Prince Albert potato, grown by Mr. II., is not known 
in this vicinity. The first specimens we saw of it. Were 
from Mr. Howatt ; and we think its superior quality 
for the table, its large and nearly uniform sise, togeth- 
er with its productiveness and freedom from disease, as 
cultivated by Mr. II., and also by Mr. McMabon, as 
described in our last no., (p. 410,) render it worthy of 
more extensive cultivation. 

Thb Rotal Hawaiian Aa. Socibtt — Held its an- 
nual meeting in October—an account of which is at 
hand by our latest mails from the Pacific coast. The 
President, J. F. B. Marshall, Esq., read the Report 
of the Managers for the preceding year. Many new 
plants and seeds had been introduced and distributed 
The subject of a public nursery was agitated. The 
resources of the Society were reported at about $3,800 
the subscriptions of members were decreasing. 




Mr. M., In oonelaskm, delivered a yery interesting ad- 
dress OS the preeent oondltlon and prospects of the 
Islands. His EzoeUeney, R. C. Wtlub, was chosen 
President for the new year, and among the Vice Pres- 
idents we notice the Bame of His Royal Highness 
Prince Kamehameha. The aew Managers were in- 
structed to petition the government for an aot of in- 
corporation ; also that some efBeient measures be taken 
for the destruotion of the wild dogs, which are bow so 
deeCructlve to sheep and goats on some of the islands. 
13^ We came away from a brief call the other day 
at the Ureen-hoose of Mr. Dirowall, of this city, with 
specimens of the Spiraa RevenanOj a very pretty 
and graceful variety of this excellent plant, Introduced 
within a few years into this country, and a decided ao- 
qttisitioB. Also of a new uLro/eo, the Viltata, iU peUls 
white, fhintly striped or varigated with pink. And a 
little sample of the Poiruetta ptUcherimcif the scarlet 
of which, as many of our readers are aware, is vivid 
and rich enough alnaost to d»Bsle the eye. Several 
other evMeaces of Mr. D.'s ftnieoRnral AtU — among 
them some beautiful Camellias, are also before bs, — 
and, with the netttness and thriftiness of bis plants, 
and the eeonomie Ingennitj of his hooNi, which are 
mainly of his own ooBstrBfOtioii, are worthy of mnoh 



A HfifT FBOM mm BicnoFABT.— The origin of a 
word often conveys a lesson of its own, and we are re- 
minded by a chanoe glimpse at V^ah. Webster, that 
he derives the rerb ** to manore *' from roots which 
signify simply "toenlUvato by maaoal labor," *'to 
till." Milton and other early writers use it in this 
sense. •* Manurable,** meant " that may be tUled or 
cultivated," and "maouraace" was Spenser's word 
for cuUivalion, I>oes not this show that the fertilisa- 
tion of the soil which ezperieaee proved to be the re- 
sult of its thorough pulverisation and tillage, preceded 
the applioation of other substanoes to secure the same 
object? and that, if we would fhrm well, we must re- 
member not only the manure of the farm-yard, but 
the manure of the SmplemeDt which tporka up the 
ground and oommiagles Its particles for the absorption 
of the plant 1 Jethro Tnll had more common sense in 
his theory, thaa nsany of his soooessofs have been will- 
ing to allow. 

Dbyohs in Califobbia. — A subseribet at Mayfield, 
Cal., writes bs that the Devon bull Karragaaset, pur- 
chased of 0. S. Wairwbigbt, Esq., of Rbinebeck, and 
shipped at New-Tork Nov. 6th, by B. F. Rbybolds, 
reached his destination at that place in fine order, and 
was much admired by all who saw him. 

GcAHa— It appears from a table of imports into 
Baltimore the past year, that 22,082 tons of Peruvian, 
and 6,150 tons of Columbian and other phosphatic gu- 
anos, were imported in that city in 1857. The price 
of Peruvian Guano from the commencement of the 
year until the 10th of August, was $60 per ton, less 
one per cent, discount for cash for quantities of 1,100 
tons and upwards. On the lOth of August the Agent 
of the Peruvian Government advanced the price to 
^5, which is the price at the present time. 

Ohio Statb Board or Aoricultube.— The regu- 
lar Annual Meeting of Delegates from the County Ag- 
ricultural Societies of Ohio, was held in Columbus on 
the 9th and 10th days of Dec, Inst. The question 
which has so long and often ooupied the Annual Meet- 




THE CULTIVATOK. 




ingi of <mr State Society, tU^ the permanent location 
of the Shows, waa wamly disevased and finally voted 
down. The members of the State Board for the ensu- 
ing year, were chosen the second day. Messrs. Mus- 
graTo, Stedman and Barker declined a re-election. The 
result after the organisation of the new. Boanl, is as 
follows: 

Frendent — J. M. Milukih of Butler. 

Treaturer — Lucien Buttles of Franklin. 

Recording Stcrttary—'S. S. Townshend of Lorain. 

Members — Luther Smith of Logon, Abel Krum of 
Ashtabula^ Alex. Waddle of Clark, T. S. Webb, of 
Stark, John Reber of Fairfield, John M. Trimble of 
Highland and L. Q. Rawson of Sandusky. 

Mr. J. H. Klippart is continued as Corresponding 
Secretery. 

The Board will hold a meeting in January, when the 
question of location for the next State Fair will be 
considered, the premium list prepared, and commit- 
tees appointed. 

Hogs avd Cattle ih OHia-^B^turns in the office of 
the Auditor of State, are quoted in the Ohio Cultiva- 
tor, showing, that the number and value of hogs and 
oatUe in that State, stand thus :— 

1857. 18M. 

Hogs, 2,331,778 .... 1,861,124 

Cattle 1,666.416 .... 1,687,760 

The value of these compare as follows : — 

1867. 1866L 

Hoge, 18,772,470 ... $6,268,000 

Cattle, 21,662,223 .... 21,176,070 

Showing in both instances a higher rate of valuation 
when the returns wen l&st made, than that of the pre- 
vious year. It is suggeitted that if the valuation should 
be ttiken now, there would doubtless be a marking down 
from these figures. , 

Largb Yield of Corn.— One of our subscribers at 
St Matthews, Ky., writes us as follows:— "Our crops 
generally are good, as you doubtless know. The corn 
and potetoes were perhaps never so uniformli/ heavy 
— and in many individual cases have rarely been equal- 
led. A part of one of my fields was measured accu- 
rately, and made at the rate of 124 bushels of shelled 
yellow corn to the acre, three heaped half bushels of 
ears being reckoned a bushel." t. b. 

Annual Mbbting of thb Oneida Codntt Aori- 
CULTDRAL SociBTT. — The Winter meeting of this So- 
ciety was largely attended at the village of Verona the 
7th Inst. The following board of officers was elected 
for 1838: 

President— J. Wtman Jonrs, Whitostown. 

Vloo PreatdcDts — Qeorgo Benedict, Verona; A. Van 
Patteiv, Rome. 

Kxecutlvo Committee— W. O. T-alrd. B. C. Qreenman, 

John Potter. O. C. PaJmer, DavJd H. Curry. John Bryden, 

Nathaniel 8. Wright, Wm. Ferguson, Stephen A. Covell. 

Chaa. W. E«U«. e . *- , 

Treasurer— II. R. Hart, Whiteatown. 

Secretary— Sidney A. Bnnce, Vernon. 

Premiums were awarded on Roots, Grain and Fruits ; 
Kesolutions were passed in favor of Mr. Morrill's Bill 
donating public lands to Agricultural Colleges ; also in 
favor of permanently locating the annual shows alter- 
nately at two points within the county. The Treas- 
urer's account showed a balance on hand of 8258.29. 

WF.8TERN Virginia. — You saw fit to insert a notice, 
descriptive of the Kanawha region, from me some 
months since, that has brought many letters of inquiry ; 
X would beg leave to say, I am not a land-seller or 
land agent, and those that have failed to receive re- 




I piles from me, will impnte it to failura of mails or for- 
getting a postege stamp. I would say, that our moun- 
teins, in the proper sense of the word, are not really 
mountoins, but good thumping hills with no definite 
direction, ranging every way. I am willing to give 
every information in my power in ralation to lands of 
Western Virginia ; but none but a very foolish man 
could expect to buy fertile land, ^even if rough,) in a 
fine climate, near market, Ac , with every convenience 
of a long settled New-England or New- York neigh- 
borhood, for $2 or $3 per acra. S. Clarkb. Kanawha 
C H.y Va. 

Cattlb LiCKiNO TiiBMSELyBS.— A correspondent 
stetes that the meat of fat eattle, which have been in 
the habit of licking themselves, is unfit for eating — 
that the flesh under the skia is bloodshot and diseaeed, 
and he racommends giving aoch animals ashes in their 
feed and salt Bat is it a fact that the meat of such 
cattle is diseased 1 

PRODUCTIVB Cow.— Hollis Chaflin of Providence, B. 
I., stetes in the N. B. Farmer, that in Oct., 1852, be 
purchased a fine five year o4d native cow, and in Feb- 
ruary following she prodneed twin calves. The two 
next years she produced one at each birth ; the fourth 
year she produced twiaa, awl on the 27th of November 
last, whidi is the fifth year, she prodooed tripleU, 
which is an increase of nine calves in five years, at five 
births. 

A Good Yibu>. — Since a number of your sub- 
scribers have given their experience in the "Chi- 
nese sugar cane," 1 will give yon mine. Last spring 
I planted about one-fidh of an acre, which I worked 
up about 20th of Oct., and from the one-fifth of an 
acra I obtoined 30 gallons of good molasses, which I 
consider better than any of your sonthem molaasea. 

California Statb Ag. Society. — At the late annu- 
al meeting of this Society, it was resolved to hold its 
next Fair at Marysviile, and the following officers were 
elected for this year : 

PRKSIDKKT— John C. Fflll of Marj'svIIIe. 

VicB-pRBSiDKKTS— J. N. Bweezy. O. C. Yount, Mat Jno. 
Bldwill <.f Yuba County ; O. M. Hitchcock, San Franela- 
CO -, H. W. Carpentler of Aimeda : Qen. Jom Oovarmbl> 
as of San Diego ; I. D. Morley of StanlBlaus. 

Coa. Sbc— O. C. Wheeler, Sacramento. 

Rac. Skc —George H. Boach, Marysvillo. 

TasASURSa— John A. Paxton, Marytville. 

•-•-♦ 

A Good Day's Work Tor a Boy. 

A correspondent at Pleasant Ridge, Rock Island Co., 
111., whose farm we had the pleasure of visiting last 
summer, writes us as follows : 

My son, the plow-boy, whom you will remember to 
have seen breaking up the prairie sod with one pair of 
horses at the rate of nine acres per week, wishes me 
to tell you, that the summer before he was 14 yeara 
old, he broke 18 acres of prairie in eleven days, with 
the same plow and team he had when you saw him. 
Also one month before he was 14 years old, he milked 
six cows before breakfast. Then with our hired man 
and his team, drove two miles into a neighlwr's wheat- 
field ; there he met two men and team, and one man 
to stack. The wheat was heavy, yielding thirty bush 
els per acre, and bound In large double-banded sheave* 
He pitohed on ton loads of 240 sheaves each, and went 
three-quarters of a mile for water ; then one and a 
half miles to dinner. In the afternoon pitohed on nine 
more loads, and one load on to a high stack, and reach 





THE UULTIVATOK. 



ed home before tundown and milked his six 
mnking eight ftnd ahalf miles travel oat of the field, and 
pitcbiog on 4,800 Bheavett weighing ten pounds each, 
equal to twenty-foar tons, and milking twelve eows be- 
tween sun. c. €». T. 



A CkN>d Co-vr— Gneaon'a Treatlae* 

L. TuCKSB A Son— In your April nnmber of the 
Coltivator, is a statement bj *'E M/* of the yield of 
a*' good oow/* kept on grass only. She milked 62 
pounds in a day in Jnne last, and for three days in 
snooession ; and made 18 pounds and 14 ounces of but- 
ter in a week. 

That was doing well, and great praiie is due to the 
oow. But I can tell a better story. 

While oo a visit, last fall, at Manhall, Michigan, 
my friend, Ch. T. Qraham, Bsq., showed me his oow, 
which, kept on grass only, yielded milk as follows i — 

1867. June 1. 00 pcmods aodPonneet. 

June 2, 09 •• 8 " 

June 8, 71 •* 2 *« 

June 4, 72 •• •• 

June 6, 72 ** 8 ** 

June 0, 78 " * •» 

June 7,.— W •* 

In all the month of June, she yielded over a ton of 
milk! 

In OD0 week, she made niMteen pounds and ire 
ounces of butter, besides the loss, by carelessness, of 
cream, supposed to be enough to make up three pounds 
per day. 

It is worthy of remark, that this oow showed all the 
signs of Guenon's genuine High-oow of the first order ; 
which signs were equally conspicuous in the calf as in 
the cow. 

Would it not be well for our breeders to study that 
system, and guide their elTorts for improvement by its 
instructions 7 HsiniT W. Tatlob. Canandaigua^ 

January 8, 1858. 

• • • 

Froit Orow«rt' Society of Western Neir-York.* 

The winter meeting of this Society was held at Ro- 
chester, OD the 6th and 7th days of the present month. 
As usual there was a full attendance from a large por- 
tion of the counties embraced by the Society, from 
Syracuse to Buffalo. 

There were several fine and select collections of fruit, 
among them 40 varieties of pe%r from Ellwakobr A 
Barry of Rochester, and there were other collections 
of apples and pears from R. B. Warren of Genesee 
Co., John B. Eaton of Buffalo, H. £. Hooker A Co. of 
Rochester, and W. P. Townsekd of Look(H>rt S. G. 
Crane presented a dish of Joseplf ne de Malines pear, 
in perfect condition and of exquisite flavor. H. Spen- 
cer of Yates county, exhibited fine specimens of the 
Tompkins county King apple ; and J. M. Wbitnbt of 
Rdbhester, a basket of very large and splendid Jona- 
than apples. 

The following ofiicen were elected for the year : — 

Pre«ldent— H. P. Norto!», Brockport. 

Vice Presidents— J. J. Thomna, Union Springs ; W. B. 
Smith, Syracuse ; Lewis F. Allen, Black Rock. 

Secretaries— C.J*. Blsseli, Rochester, and John B. Eaton, 
BuflUo. 

Treasurer— W. P. Townsend. Lookport. 

Executive Committee— P. Barry, J. J. Thomas^ O. L. 
Hong, W. B. Smith, J. Frost. 

The Society adjourned to meet at Rochester, for their 
■nmrner exhibition, in early summer. 




Back and Feeding Trongh for Sheep. 

** My sheep waste a great deal of hay, and yet are 
getting poorer," remarked one neighbor to another last 
winter, as he asked him to look at his new sheep raoks. 

" 17o doubt of that," B. replied, " but with these 
racks we have waved a great deal of hay, and yet our 
sheep keep in good eonditien. We feed hay onee a 
day, bean straw and oat chaff onoe each, and yet there 
is nothing wasted of either." 

'* I must build some for myself — ^give me the dimen« 
sions— they are so simple, I and my boys can get up 
some at home." 

" Yes, these are some of our work, and we never 
served an apprenticeship to a joiner ; we have chly got 
part of a set of their tools to work with." 

We took " the dimensions" and a sketch of neigh- 
bor B.'s raeks, and now offer them to en sheep keep- 
ing readers. 

Seventy- five feet of lumber will make an eight feet 
rack, which is perhaps the most convenient length on 
account of ease in moving. The posts, forty hiiches 
high, are of three inch scantling — inch boards form 
the remainder of the rack, and where a large flock is 
to be supplied, it would be well to get boards of pro- 
per length and width to work up without much sawing 
or waste. The width of the rack is twenty>six inches; 
the lower outside boards are six inches wide and 
twelve inches from the foot of the ^ost. The upper 
boards are eight inches wide, and there is a wedge-shsp- 
ed piece nailed on the outside of the post, to make the 
top of the rack flaring, the better to receive the fod- 
der. 

The bottom boards, eight inches wide, are fitted in 
against each bottom side board, and niuled there and 
at the ends ; and two boards about ten inches wide, the 
edges nailed together at right angles, are placed in the 
center of the rack to form the remainder of the bot- 
tom. To this one end of each slat is nailed— the other 
end against the inside of the flaring top-l>oard. The 
slats are two inches wide and about two feet long, and 
are placed three inches apart— the upper end bevelled 
to flt against the board to which it is nailed. One 
may be put in each end, to prevent the sheep from 
getting their heads into the rack. 

With the aid of the cut any farmer can understand 
their construction. They should he set under well Ut- 
tered sheds, for there is no economy in feeding any ani- 
mal in the nin^ 

m m 

Aa lo-vra Cona Crop* 

A correspondent (F. S. P.) at Oskaloosa, Iowa, says 
->t* On the 20th and 21st of May last, I planted in 
Jasper County ISi acres with the common yellow com 
of this section. The land had been rented for a num- 
ber of years, and though rich, was in bad condition. I 
planted 3| feet apart each way, and was fortunate in 
obtaining good seed and a good time for planting. It 
came up even and strong, and grew steadily through 
the season. The first of Oct., 15 acr£s were cut and 




THE CULTIVATOR. 



Fk.. f 



OoNKBCTicuT State Ao Socibtt. — TIm annaal 
meeting, at Meriden, Jan. 13, appean to have been 
well attended and interesting. The Treaenrer'B Report 
showed : 

ReceipU for the year, fl4,705 29 

DiflboreemeDU for the year, f 1-1,672.73 

Id treasury, — tt.60— 14,706.23 

The report of the Sxeoatire Comnittee, read by H. 
A. Dykb, wa« full and valuable. An animated diecos- 
Bion enraed on the expendUnrce of the Soeiety. Prof. 
JoHMSoM't Report as Chemist to the Soeiety, was next 
listened to. A present of flowers was received by the 
Society from Herbt Williu, who had oontribnted a 
oonsiderable number of fine irreen-house plants to de- 
corate the stage. The balloting for oflloen, with which 
the meeting closed, resulted as follows : 

President— Hon. S. R Smith, Woodbury. 

Vice Presidents— Charles H. Pond of Mllford and Nor> 
man Porter of Berlin. 

Direotors— Hartford Ca— Thomas Cowles of Farming- 
ton. 

New Haven Co.— T>erl Tale of Merfden. 

New-LoodoQ Co.— Dr. F Gulliver of Norwich. 

FAlrileld Co.— EHakim Hough of Bridgeport. 

Litchfield Co.— T. L. Harl of West ComwalL 

Windham Co— Pcleg O. Child of WoodsUick. 

MidUicftex Co,— Geo. 8. Hubbard of Middletown. 

ToUaiid Co.— Rufus B. Chamberlain of Coventry. 

Corresponding Secretary— Henry A. Dyer of Brooklyn. 

Recording Secretary— T. 8. Gold of West Cornwall 

Treasurer— F. A. Brown of Hartford. 

jy An "Association of the Grape Growers of Con- 
necticut," was organised daring the recent meeting of 
the State Ag. Sbeiety at Meriden, and the following 
officers elected : — 

President— David Clark of Hartford. 

Vice Presidents— L. B. Yale of Meriden, O. S. Middle 
brook of Bridgeport. 

Secretary and Treasurer— R H. Phelps of Windsor. 

A number of gentlemen contributed samples of 
wines made by them, and detailed their modes of man- 
ufacture. 

Hyracnse lVitr«<$rieti. 

OUR Stock for the Spring Trade, will consist of all the 
LARGER AND MINOR FRUITS : 

ORNAMENTAL TREKS, in great variety, including 
mnny of the native Forest Trees. 

The Hardy EVERGREENS, Norway and American 
Spruce, Scotch Pine, Hemlock, Balsam Fir, aiid Arbor 
Vitas, ranjfiue fVom S to 6 fi»t hljrh. 

ROSES. SHRUBS. DAHLIAS, PEONIES, PHLOX- 
ES. SPIRAEAS, HON£Y-SUCKLl£S,of rare beauty and 
In sreHt aliutidaiice. 

HEDGE PLANTS of Buckthorn, Privet, Osage Or- 
ange, and Honey I..ocust. at very low ])ricea 

ASPARAGUS and RHUBARB, best kinds and strong 
rjom. 

Of RASPBERRIES, GOOSEBERRIES and CUR- 
RANTS, our assortment is especially large and attractive, 
and embraces all the old and new sorts of worth and re- 
pute. 

GRAPES; Strong Plants of the Rebecca for $3. and 
Delaware for f2 each ; Concord and Diana for |1 each, or 
$9 per dozen ; Catawba. Isabella and Clinton. 1 and 2 vr«. 
old, low by the dozen or hundred ; atid Foreign Grapes, in 
pois. In great variety. 

Lawton (or Ncw-Rochelle) BLACKBERRY: strong 
plants. 92 i>er dozen. 

CHERRY STOCKS. (Mazzard.) $3.50 per 1.000. 

PLUM STOCKS, (Wild, or Canada.) ^ perl,0O0. 

tSr Nurserymen will find these very superior. 

For descriptions and prices of our articles, generally, we 
beg leave to refer to the new edition of our Catalogues, 
viz: 

No. 1. A Descriptive Catalogue of sll our prodnctiona 

Na 2. A Descriptive <3atoIogu« of Fruits. 

No. 3. A Descriptive Catalogue of Ornamental Trees 
Shrubs. Roses, fcc. 

No. 4. A Descriptive Catalogue of Dahlias, Green 
Hon»e and Ik^idlng Plant^ dec n 

No. 5. A Wholesale Catalogue for Nurserymen aM 
Dealers. ' 

Forwarded on receipt of a st.imp for each, 

THORi', SMITH L HANCHETT. 

Feb. 4— weow6tm2t Syracuse, N, T; 



PEACH STONES! 

FIFTY BUSHELS of good Peach Stone^ ft-ora a re- 
gion where the yellows h«ve r 



been always unknown, 




and suitable for spring plantingf for sale at fifty ceuts per 
bushel (cost of iMXing or barreling extra,) on sll onfen 
accomiwuled by cash. THOM AS St HKRENDKKN. 
Imo.21— wStmlt Macedon, Wayne Cc N. Y. 

FORWARDINO d- COmmiSSlON, 

Horticultural, jVur»(ery and Seed 

AQENC Y, 

160 Front Street, Kew-York. 

THE subscriber would respectfully ii»form the Horti- 
culturists, Nursery and Seedsmen of the Uiiltfd 
Slates, Canada and Europe, that the business heretof^fs 
conducted by his futlier, thb latb Gso. G. Shspparo. de- 
ceased, will be continued as usual, and the best atteotioa 
paid to all their foreign and domestic Interests. 
FOR SALE, 
Chioeee Sugar Cane Seed,— new crop —prime and ebespb 
Mahaleb Cherry Seed— prime. 
Quince and Pear Stocks, See 

Soliciting a continuance of the liberal patronise m) loof 
besluwedf very rosi>ectfully, 

WM. P. 8HEPPARD. 
Jan. 28— wfcm2 t 169 Front 8»reeU New-Yorfc. 

Seeds !— Sl^eds !— Seeds I 

THORBTIRN'S NEW DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 
Of Teg«Ubl0, Field and Fruit Seeds for 1868, 

WITH SIBBCTIOXS fOB CULTIV^TIIIO VBCCTABLB8, 

la now risady, aud will be sent to applicants eucluelof a 
Three Cent Stamps 

THE subscribers offer of the growth of 1867, and of the 
ven' finest qualities, their usual extensive asiiortment 
of SEEDd, comprising many xovkltibs. and every (e«t«d 
denirable variety known in the uevoral departnu'ht* of 

VegeUble, Field, Flower, Tree and Fruit Seedi. 

They would particularly call t>ie aittentioQ of cnltlvslon 
and amateurs to the following 

CHOICE PCAS. 

Extra Early Daniel O'Rourke— tlM eiu-Hest known. 
** " 8angi«ttT'fi No. 1— a (^rcat favorite. 

** ** Tom TiiUmb— very fine, growing but eight 

inches high. 

Early iSebastonol— new and good. 

Cnampion of Enffland— one of the very best 

Dwar^ and Tall Sugar— «dible poda 

Hair's Dwarf Mammoth — superb. 

Harrison's Glory and Perfection— new and very prodoo- 
tive. 

Napoleon and Euifcnle— both new and early, wrinkle* 

Epps' Monarch— Epiia' Lord Raglan-^ both new and M* 
perb. 

Carter's Victoria— fine wrinkled. 

British Queen—one of the l>est lale. 
With thirty other standard sorts, for which see Cstalflgej. 

Also-Enrly Paris. Nonpareil ajid Lenorniftudi Cauli- 
flower. Earli- Wakefield Oxheart fti u WlnoingBWd* 
Cabbage. 

Early and Giant >^n){te and Red Solid Celery. 

I*ri7.e Cucumbers — for frames. 

Early Tumatots. 

Sweet Spanish and RuII-oose Peppar 

Early < nrled T^-ttuce. 

Early Curli»d Parsley. 

Extra Early Tnrnlp Beet 

Early White Vienna Kohlrabi. 

Winter Cherry or Strawberry Tomato. 

Apple and Pear Seeda 

Havana Tolmcco Seed. . 

Dioscorea Batatas or Chinese Potato ; with thooisn* 
of other Seeds of the same sui)erior qualities as nave 
heretofore afforded such universal iwilsfactlon, «nd wb'cn 
can bo recommended with the fullest confidence as uo»ttf- 
passed for genuineness. , 

AFRICAN IMPHEE-getiulne,as raised by Mr. I* 
Wray— fl per pound. ^ ,. 

SORGHUM or CniirBSK Suoab Canb-25 oenU per In. 

FLOWER 8EED8. 

The collection this season Is unusually large and eboloe, 
embracing many novelties. 
Orders by mall will have immediate attention. 

J. M. THORBURN A CO, 
Jan. 21— wd&mSm 15 John-street, New-Yo* 




r* - 

^""'fi- BONO. Hjf, 



EMERY'S PATENT 



OSCILLATING POWER CROSS CUT SAW 

JTov Cuttinis I^OS'S ^o^ "Wood, Sliingles, Staven and. Lumber. 



THE proo««8 of cutting ap lotra for luroberinf? purpo* 
•OB and for firewood. s« generftlly performed, is labo- 
rious and expensive. Two men, laboring faithfully all 
day long, with the two-bandied croeacut wiw, will acoom- 
pHnh compftratlvely but a small amount of work, while 
the aiill slower and more tedious axe makes the 

" Dim aisles of tb« old woods ring," 
to the necuroalatlng blowe, as chip after chip Is removed, 
while scarcely any effect is iwrcelved. 

Many attempts, more or less snccesflful, have been made 
to economize in the expense and to increase the rapidity 
of this most important operation. 

It is believed the machine represented In the above cut, 
embraces all the improvements hitherto discovered In such 
machinery, which are manv and Important. In construct- 
ing this machine, the manufacturers nave kept In mind the 
fact that many a man who might be benefitted by using ma- 
chinery in his various occupations, hesitates to do so on ac- 
count of what seems to him of the large amount of means 
required to be advanced to secure such machines, and In 
view of the Indifferent success which has been met with by 
others, perhaps of his acquaintances, preferring to pay a 
much larger aggregate sum in daily instalments as wages, 
and be sure of at least a tangible result, rather than to pay 
even a lesser amount, and run the risk of disappointment 
and trouble. The Mannfaclnrers believe that If machin- 
ery Is used. It MbST BB OF TUB BEST DESCRIPTION, and must 
perform the orbatpist possible amount of work for tub 

POWER AKD HELP BMrLOTBD. 

This machine Is complete In Itself, except the power for 
operating It It is designed to bo used with Emery's Ta- 
lent Endless Chain Horse-Power, bnt any other adequate 
Sower may be used, If adapted to the proper speed and 
irection of revolution. 

The teeth of the saw are made so as to cut equally both 
ways, and the connections are so made that along or »«hort 
sweep of the saw may be made at i>Jca«ure. The wiw has a 
peculiar motion, which Is one of the greatest of itft improve- 
ments. In running forwards the heel of tub saw is 



lifteh, while In dragging backward the urrl is depres- 
SBD. Tills motion caascs the saw continnal'y to cut out- 
wards throuob tub bark, carrying out (Instead of in.) 
an}' dirt or arrit contained in the bark. T^iis obviates the 
necessity of chipping off the bark to prevent the dulling 
of the saw. It uIho causes a sure and regular dinchnrge of 
the Miwdui»t as fast ns it is made, no matter If the diame- 
ter of the log Is equal to twice the length of strok<^f the 
saw. 

The logs are rolled upon ways, having at one end near 
the saw a spiked roller, and are traversed by a strong four 
wheeled truck. One end of the log rides on this trnck, 
whllothe other end rests upon the spiked roller ; this roller 
having a morticed head, may be easily turned by one man, 
and thereby the log advanced for each successive cut. 

The sawing is done with great rapidity, often cutting off 
a log of 24 Inches diameter In one minute. From 20 to 86 
cord cuts may be made per day. dej^ndlng upon tlje skill 
and dexterity of the operators. For further particulars 
address the manufacturers. 

EMERY BROTHERS, 

Jan. 28— w&mlt. Albany. N". Y. 

Pear tieedliugs* 

Ii^INE healthy Pear Seedlings, one year, $8 per 1,000— 
^ $76 per 10.000. 

Ditto, two years, $16 per 1.000— $140 per $10,000. 
Norway Spruce, Scotch Larch and Fir. Apple, Msxxard, 
Plum, Anjfers Quince, Mahaleb, Paradise and Doucatn 
stocks of the best quality. Catalogues to any address. 
Carriage paid to Boston or New York. 
New- England Pear Seed. $5 per quart. 

B. M WATSON. 
Old Colony Nurseries, Plymouth, Mass. 
Jan. 28— w&m3m 

One Large 12 mo. Vol.— Price $1.50. 
Downing'8 Pmit and Frnit Trees, 

JUST PUBLISHED, and for sale at this office— sent 
mail postpaid, at |1.76. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




CRANBEKRY PLANTS, 

THE BELL vyritely is best adapted for general cuItlTa- 
tlon. Clrculam will be fonfturded to appHcanU. 

NKWROCHELLE BLACKBERRY-^ienulne planto 
at |2 per Dozen— $10 per loa 

HOP I'KKE— For ornameut and nae ; it is aoperior to 
the oommoii Hop. ^ 

RABPBERIilBS-Brlnckle's Orange, $126 per Dosen ; 
Bairley^s Everbearing, $1 per Doeen ; New Red Antwerp 
and other choice varietteB, 60 ceftts per Dozen— $4 per 100. 

OR A PES— Isabella aitd Catawba, one year rooted, $10— 
lwo\-ear«, $18 per 100. 

With a full AMortment of Fruit, Omamontal and Ever- 
green Tree*, Shrubs, Vines, Roses, Jta 

For full paKioulars see Catalogne, which will be for- 
warded to applicants. F. TROWBRIDOS, 

Jan. 14— w4tin2t Kew-Haven, Conn. 

Cliufas or ICartli Alniouds. 

AN ANNUAL plant from Spain, producing an aban- 
dance of small tnbers of a sweet chestnut-like flavor, 
and an excellent sabstitute for coifee. The sobscriber has 
cultivated them for the last three aeasons, and finds them 
excellent food for swine, ponUry, and other farm stock. 
For sale for planting at the fol lowing prices : 36 tubers 10 
cents ; 100 tubers 26 centu ; sent by mall post-paid, or 1000 
by express for $1. Directions for culture, harvesting, IbC., 
sent with each package. H. B. LlJfM, 

Deo. M— w4tm2t Sandusky, O. 

ESSAY ON THE OKIG IN, HISTORY AND CHARAC 
TKRISTIC8 OP MORGAN HORSES. 
With Numeruus Portrait'* and Hmis on the General Train- 
ing and Nauagemeni of the Horse. 

By D. C. LiMSLKY— Price 91. 

Sombrero Oiia^o« 

(CIRCtTI.AR.) 

THE value of this Ouaiio has l>een well settled by the 
Fanners of Maryland and the adjoining states, and is 
cfiteeraM far preferable to Peruvian Ouano, In a succeasion 
of crops. 

Guanos are of two kinds : those In which the ammonia 
yielding products predominate, «» in the Peruvian ; and 
those in which the phosphates of lime and magnesia pre- 
dominate, as in the rhoephntic. The former is produced 
In regions where there is little or nb fains, and the latter 
where the rains wash awa^* alargv part of the organic or 
Bjluble portions, and leave the Insoluble phosphatie parts. 

If we heat to redness an ammonia yielding guano, we 
volatize 66 to 70 per cent, of organic matter, capabb of 
yielding ammonia and other volatile products which con- 
ttituto the body of this class of Guanos. What remains 
after extracting the ammoniacal and pho^phatto com- 
pounds is of less value, it being chiefly alkaline salts. 

What efl'ect has such an article CAmmonia yielding Gu- 
anos) upon the soil I It stimulates to an unwonted de- 
S;rce, and causes the soil to put forth all its strength, and 
brcea the growth of plants into the stalk or blade, not 
into me grain, just as alcohol stimulates the animal to un- 
usual exertion for the lime, but which Anally exhausts the 
system. Bo the ammoniacal or stimulating Guanos force 
the present crop at the expense of the future strength of 
the soil, even if the land Is fertilized by other manures 
than Phosphates. Every farmer who has experience, 
knows that when he has once used such stimulating Gu- 
ano for his crofM, its strength is exhausted the first year j 
' and if he would continue to grow crops, he must apply it 
repeatedly, and in increosing quantities. 

The several analyses of this article, (Sombrero Guano,) 
made by the nn»t eminent chemists of this country and 
England, show that more than SO per cent, consists of the 
Phosphates of lime and magnesia, in an Insoluble state, or 
in Just such a condition that the roots of plants will take 
up and appropriate so much of the compound as Is requl- 
alte to perfect the same. 

If we examine the analysis of "Wheat, one of the great 
staples of our Middle and Western States, we findthat 
every 100 lbs. of Its ashes contains from 60 to 60 ll>s. of 
these Phosphates, which must have been taken up from 
the soil. A large part of these salts are reqiiired to form 
the hull or envelope of the kernel, and are indispensable 
to the perfection of the seed. (The ashes of Indian corn 
yield 68 per cent, of Phosphates : cotton 28 per cent., and 
tobacco 26 per cent) Hence the special value of Phos- 
phatlc Guanos ; and as they are only soluble by reason of 
the vital power of the plant, they remain In the soli as a 
reservoir, ready to be drawn upon only when the roots of 
the plant require their appropriation to perfect the growth 
thereof. 

These reasons are aufficlent to enable a practical man 



to judge why Phosphatlo Gnanoa should be need in pre- 
ference to the ammonia yielding varieties for Wheat.Com, 
and other cereals and leguminous crops, as well as Tobac- 
co and Cotton. The effbcu of the rhosphatlo lasts for 
years, and the soil acquires f^om its use an accumulative 
power, while the latter requires an annual or biennial ap- 
plication, and is exhausted with the first or second crop, 
ond the strength of the soil is expended from the yearly 
forced produce. 

"I consider these observations specially applicable to 
these Guanos, as I have carefnily studied their effects on 
such crops, and analyzed the several varieties." 

(Bigne<t) ISAIAH DECK, ML D., 

Agricultural and Consulting Chemist, New- York. 

Assuming the above to be correct, the relative value of 
the two Guanos, for permanent efl'ect, is In the ratio of S4 
to 86 : as the Pemvlan contains but 20 to 24 per cent, of 
the Pnosphatea, while the Sombrero Guano contains from 
80 to 86 per cent., whieh fact aettlee the matter beyond 
all dispute. 

Besides, allowing their fertilizing qualities to be eoual, 
the diflbrence In oo«t of the latter is lees than one-third 
that of the former. 

We are now oftbrlng the third cargo of the ** K. 0. How- 
ard," on the followii^ terms :— ■ 

10 to 100 tons— in packages (barrels or bogs,) |82 nett caah. 
Under 10 tons, do d<r 86 do 

60 tone or more, in balk, groond 80 do 

Orders promptly executed on reeript of Ainds. 

Imported and for sale by WOOD it GRANT, 

New- York, Nov., 1867. $0 Front^t, New-York. 

CERTIFICATES OF CHEMISTS. 

Nxw-Yoax, Aug. 22d, 1867. 
I have analyzed a sample of Guano marked " Cargo of 

S. C. Howara," from the Island of Sombrero, for Measro. 

Wood Bt Grant, and find it to yield the following :— 

Phosphate of Llmei, 84.03 

Oarbouateof Lime, 8.88 

Sulphate of Lime, 1.84 

Chloride of Sodium, &c., 1.31 

Organic Matter, 2.77 

Water, 6.14 

Silica, Alumina, 4(C., 88 

(Signed,) 100.00 

JAMES a CHILTON, M. D., Chemist. 

Baltimohb, 10th Sept^ 1867. 
The aample of Sombrero Ouauo (cargo of the Founy O. 
Field) contains of 

Lime, 30.00 

Phosphoric Acid 36.47 

Equivalent to Bone Phosphate of Lime 76.86 

A. SNOWDEN FIGGOT. 

Professor Haves, State Assay cr of Massachusetts, ana- 
Ij-zed two samples of Sombrero Guano, and found 100 parts 
to consist of:— 

Moisture and Organic Salts of Lime 6.44 

Bone and Phosphate of Lime, 89.60 

Sulphate of Lime, ^ 1.00 

Sand and Silica, 86 

09.00 
AKomn •Aun.M, 
One hundred parts consist of: — 

Moisture and Organic Salts of Lime, 8.77 

Bone I'hosphate of Lime, 89.20 

Sulphate of Lime, 1.00 

Band and Silica, 47 

99,80 
LivxaroOL, England, 17th June, 1867. 
Analysis of sample of Mineral Phosphate of Lime ft:om 
100 parts :— 

Phosphate of Lime, 80.20 

Carbonateof Lime, 6.80 

t¥ater, Z. 

Siliceous and other earthy matter, 10. 

100. 
GEORGE C. HUSON. 
Nbw-Yobx, 2l8t Nov.. 1857. 
I have anal3*zed a sample of Sombrero Guano for Messrs. 
Wood Sl Grant, and find it to contain when dry :.. Bone 
Phosphate of Lime, 88 per cent Equivalent to- 
Phosphoric acid, 40.6 

Lime, 47.4 

Also a trace of Ammonia. 

ISAIAH DECK. M. D., 
Jan. 21— wAtrnlt Analytical Chemist, dco. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




Now^t your Tine. 

THE "Rural Empire Club" has an ample supply of the 
genuine Cli1ne«e Sugar Cane Seed, both Imported and 
perfectly ripened l>omeetIc— now ready for distribution 
among its members and the rest of mankind, on these 
plain terms : ... 

IsU By Mall, post-pald, samples for three cents— 4-oe. 
packngee for 25 cents— 8-ou nee iMckages for CO ccuU, and 
pound packages for fl— any distance under 3,000 miles in 
the U. a, and FOR thi Postaob anywhere else. 

2d. By Express, in strong sacks, and delivered to Ez- 

ass Co., 4 lbs. aud sack for |1 -, 10 lbs. and sack for $2 ; 40 

J. and the sack for $8. 

Publishers of newspapers are at liberty to Insert the 
above notice for the b«netlt of their patrons and readers. 
Address 1. W. BRIGUD, 

Jan. il-w&.mlf West Macedon, N. Y. 



sr; 



ANEW novelty, and uever before presented to market 
—the 

NEW MEXICAN CUSHOW, 
A TMiety that excels all others in eating, growth and rari- 
ty. (I have but few paokages.) The English 

MAMMOTH PUMPKIN, 
that is maramalh indeed, as they ft^ueutJy belt over five 
feet arooad. Also the true genuine 

CHUFAS OR EARTH ALMONDa 
The seed sent post>pa|d, on reception of 26 cento for sin- 
gle packages— Ave packagea for |I. Address, with Post- 
Office and State plainly written, to 

JOa L ASUBY, 

Care Dr. A R. MoKib, 
Jan 7— wlOtmSt Liberty, Missouri. 



THE HORTICULTURIST, 

AND JOURNAL OF RURAL ART AND RURAL TASTE. 
(Commenced by the late celebrated A. J. Dowmiko.) 

COMDUCTBD BT 

J. JAY SMITH, Editor of the North American Sylva. 

THE increasing love of Rural Life has brought this po- 
pular publication Into extended notice. Ito success 
has been amply proved by a large addition of readers, and 
it Is now offered to public patronage with confidence. It 
embraces In lu scope of aubjects every thing pertaining to 
the country and country pursuiu, and aims to Instruct 
while It amuses : It is, Ui short, as now conducted, a popu- 
BURAL MAGAZINE, designed to Interest all lovers of 
the Garden, the Countr}--honse, the Cottage, no less than 
the Botanist, the admirer of the Green-house, Conserva- 
tory. Grape-house, Fruit Cultivator and Planter. lu cor- 
respondents are those who have long devoted their ener- 
^es to these pursuits, and It Is believed the number of 
these, and the loformation thev Impart, Is greater than any 
other periodical can boast of either In Europe or America. 
Indeed, the work has became Indispensable to the well in- 
formed country-dweller, who by a perusal of Its varied 
poges may maintain an acquaintance with all that is pass- 
ing in the ft'uit-garden and orchard, the nursery, the villaj 
and with the beautiful in nature, whether it is Improved 
by art or adorned by taste. In Its Rural Magazine charac- 
ter it is addressed to all who love information, and it has 
thus become a welcome guest both in town and country. 
lu circulation now embraces the entire Union and Canada, 
and endeavors are constantly used to Increase its attrno- 
tloDs by a liberal outlay In embeUlshlng it with costly en-. 
gravinga of froiL dwellings, trees, and those numerous 
rustic adornments which make the Individual home at- 
tractive. 

A Nbw Voldmb (ttth year) commences with the Jan- 
uary number for 1858 : and it will be the constant aim to 
render it still more worthy, by every practicable Improve- 
ment, of the liberal patronage It Is receiving. 

The work is issned on the first of each month. In the best 
style, each num1)er containing 48 pages, embellisbed with 
a frontispieco and several other original and well executed 
enffravinga. The volumes, taken for a number of years, 
will make a valuable Encyclopedia of Hortlcnltuml Lite- 
rature As an advertising medium It has few superiors. 

TERMS— Two Doilara • year ; Four Coplea for Six 
Dalian, payable la advanca. 

An edition Is published with platea colored in the best 
style of art. Price |6. 

asr All subscriptions muRt be addressed to the Agents, 
or to ROBERT PEARS ALL SMITH, 

Nos. 17, 10 and 21 Minor St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jan. T—wdbmlt. 




A, O. MOORE, 
Ag. B4M»k Publisher, 140 Fal|»u-elreet, New- York. 

NEW WORKS JUST PUBLISHED. 
WARDER'S HEDGE MANUAL : 

A complete treatise on Hedgea, Evergreens, and all 
plants suitable for American Hedging, esiiecially the Ma- 
dura or Osnge Orange—the only successful sybtem of pru- 
ning—manipulation and management— fully Illustrated 
with outs of implements aud processes, to which is added 
a treatise on 

EVERQREENS->«helr different varieties, their propa- 

Sation, transplanting and cnltureiu the United States. By 
na A. Warder, M. D.. Editor of Wi'sl«rn Uort. Review, 
and President of the Cincinnati Uort. Society. One Vol. 
12 ma— Price One Dollar. 
FIELD'S PEAR ClTLTURE : 

A Treatise on ihe Propagation and Cnltlvntion of the 
Pear in Amcriea— a fbU catalogue and deecriution of the 
different varieties— their adaptation to Dwnrls and Stan- 
dards — the best modes of pruning, with directions for ri- 
pening and preserving the fruit, numerous engravings, 
carefully prepared, exhibit both the erroneous aud correct 
methods of treatment. By Thoa. W. Field. One Vol. 12 
mo.— Price 76 Cents. 
FISH CULTURE. 

A Treatise on the Artificial Propagation of Fish, with 
the description and habits af the kinds most suitable for 
pisciculture, also the roost successful modes of Angling 
for the fishes therein described. By Theodatus Gaillck, 
M. D., Vice Pres. of Cleveland Academy of Kat. Science. 
1 Vol. 8 Vo., Price one Dollar. 
FLINT ON GRASMia: 

A Practical Treatise on Grasses and Forage plants, with 
more than One Hundred Illustrations of grasses aud Im< 
plements. Ilie editor of the American Agriculturist 
says : "This is the best treatise of the kind we have seen 
on this important sulijeet. We advise our readers to get 
this book and study It thoroughly, as we are now doing." 
By Charles L Flint. A. M., Bee. of the Mass. State Board 
of Agriculture. 1 Vol. 8 VO., Price $1.25. 

All the above worka will be sent postpaid on receipt of 
price. Address, 

A. O. MOORE, 
Agricultural Book Publisher, 
Jan. 21— weow4tm2t. 140 Kulton St., New- York. 

Exceltlor Ag* Works, Albany, N.Y. 

BICHl^H. PBABE, Ptoprietor. 

WS OFFER the fttrmers and other rusponslb.e persons 
of this country, a rare chance to make ntoney us 
fhst as they can in most any other way, by selling our Cel- 
ebrated Excelsior Patent Railway Endless Horse Powers, 
Threshers, Cider Mills, Saw Mills, tec, 4tc., tor which we 
will allow them a !»beml commission. Last season many 
fiurmers sold these maehinea for us, and they all made mo- 
ney, and are anxious te.«eU them again this season. All 
communications addressed to the subscriber will be 
promptly answered. RICU*D IL PEAuE. 

OBRTiriOATia 

BBoroan Co. Tenn. Oct 16, 185flL 
We tfie tmdersfgned hereby certify* that we have par- 
chased of the Agent of the Manufacturer, Richard H. 
Pease of Albany, New-York, his " Excelsior Horse Power 
and Thresher," and having used them a sufficient length 
of time to oonvinM of of their utility and durability, feel 
no hesitancy in s^^ing that In our opinion they are the 
very best of whi<^ we have anv knowledge, they having 
performed to our entire satlslaotion. Given under our 
band, day and date above. 

OaRKBT FHILLIPt BMTJ. GARaiTT, 



M. L DlSMUKBS, 
ThOS. LiPSOOifB, 

Wm. a. Allbh, 
J. T. Arkold, 
W. W. HABTijrot 

JaMBB MULLIMBb 



Albx. Saxdbrb. 
Wm. M. Goooim, 
Albx. Bakim, 
Rbddibo GBoaaa, 

J. J. KOOBGB, 

W. C. J. Browh, 



H. D. Davidsom. 
Eabt GaBBKWiOB. N. Y., Feb. 26, lb67 
Ma. R H. Pba8b~I received the Two Horse Power, 
Thresher and Separator I purchased of you, and put It to 
work to test lu I have threshed 2,600 bushels of wheat, 
oats and rye with them, without a break of any kind. It 
works to my entire satisfaction, and I tliink there Is no 
better machine nutde. W m. MoNbiu 

May 14— wdtmtf. 

FRUIT BOOKS, 

Y THOMAS. BARRY, DOWNING, and others, for 
sole at the office of the Country Gent, and Cultivator 



B 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Coxitents or tikis 3Srum1:>er. 

Vhe Farm* 

Pinna for the Tear, 41 

Millet and Hangnrlan Grmiw, «, 80 



BuccoMful J^rnlning with Stone, by L. Oriswold, 4'2 

Froth Water Shell Unrt.hyW.F.y 42 

Why Fanning (•UnproAiablp, 43 



Value of Horn PItha, bv L. Babtlbtt, 43 

Annual Meeting of U. 8. Ag. Society 44 

Leave* for Bedding Cattln. by R. M. Cosklib. 46 

Report on Culture of Varioua Plants, by L. Norbis,.. 47 

l0 Buckwheat B^an Polaonotia to Swtne, 48 

The Country Geutlenrra, 49 

The Chinese Sugar Cane at tlMSoath, 49 

Books for a Farmer's LI bran% 49 

Underdraining Impervious Clay, 49 

Cost of Raising Indian Corn, tar W. A. Q., 60 

Artesian Wells 62 

Successful Culiare of the Potato, by O. Howatt, 63 

Culture of the PoUto, by O. M'Maboh 64 

How to Collect Seed WbsiA, by W. R L 66 

A Prairie Farm in Iowa, 66 

Cleaning Clover Seed 66 

A New Vegetable Washer, 66 

Octagon Houses, by S. H. Mahii, 67 

Buckwheat Straw for Sheep, by R. R Phblps, 60 

Inquiries and Answera, 61 

Notes for the Month ,»- 64 

Conn. State Ag! Society, , 64 

A Good Dav's Work lor a Boa^, 66 

Rack and Feeding Trough for Sheep, 67 

An Iowa Corn Crop, 67 

TbeGnwlMS 

Wintering Calves, 46 

Rearing Calves, by N. 60 

Shropshire Down Sheep, 66 

Good Spring Pigs, 66 

Hoof Ail— Management of Stock, by M. A. Cdmiko, .. 69 

Remedy for Ticks on Sbejm, by J. Jobrstoii 60 

Construction of Poultrv Housca. by IL, 68 

A Good Cow— Gaenou*s Treatise, 117 H. W. Tatlob,. 67 
Ttkm Hortl«ttltwifl«« 

Wild Grapes of Canada, by Wm. H. Rba», 60 

Two New Pears. M 

The Allen Raspberry, 61 

Three Plums Described, 62 

Barberry for Hedges, 64 

Fruit Grower's Society of Western New-York, 67 

TKc Hostaetrift* 

Rmsipe for Squash Cake, bv E. T.M^ 46 

Salt a Univerial Remedy, by A SpaacRiBBB, 46 

Valuable Uulaneot, by R L. T., 63 

How to Make Court Plaster, 64 

Temperalttve of Cream far Cborainf, &c^ by M. C. L., 65 

Recipe for Washing Soap, by SciiBii 66 

Butt4»r-Making in Winter, by J. & B., 00 

IllvatratiMM, 

Chippewa Grape, *. 60 

Beurre Clairgeau and Doyenne 0le«le Pears,.. 61 

Three Plums < 62 

Shropshire Down Sheep 66 

Vegetable Washer, 66 

Octagon House, 67, 68 

Feeding Trough for Sheep, 67 



Cherry Hill Narsery. 

THE proprietor of the above NuNary respectfully In- 
vites the attention of Floribts ft> his extensive col- 
lection of ROSES the comtug spring: 

Having the past Xeason imix>rted many new and beau- 
tiful varieties, he is now prepared to furnish handsome 
assortments to all who may favor hlM with their orders, 
at moderate prices. 

Also a complete assortment of the different varieties of 
GUEEN-HOUSE PLANTS for bedding-out through the 
summer months. JOSIAH HOOPES, 

Westchester, Pa. 
N. R Osage Orange Plants at $6 per 1,000. Silver Mbp 
pies, 10 feet high, at |18 per 100, Itc, *o. J. H. 
Feb. 4— wl6t* 

Thrac Vols. 8 to.— Price $16. 

Tlie Amarioan, 8lM>rt-Hpni Herd Book, 

Bt lewis F. ALLEN. 

iR SALE at the office of the Country Gentleman and 
Cultivator. The vols, will be soki separate— the first 
$3. and vols. 2 and 8 at $6 each. Every Short-Horn 
should have this work. 




Three Hundred and thirty-slB pages, and Four Hundred 
and forty Bngrarlnga. 

A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIA IN MINIATURE 
for every man with a Farm, a Garden, or a Domestic 
Animal— for every Place which will grow a Flower or a 
Fruit-tree— for every Purchaser or Builder in the Coun- 
try, and for every Household In the City, delighting in 
representations or looking forward with hopes of Rural 
Life. Embracing 
Rural Arcbitbotubb, 

LAimaCAPB GABDBaiHO, 
FaVIT CULTDRB, 

Orkambbtal Plabtiiio, 
Bbst Frvitb AMD Flowbbb, 

Beautifully niostratcd with 440 Bngravinga. 

By JoHX J. Tbomab, Author of the '* American Fnilt 
Culinrlst, fro, itc Sent post-paid on receipt ot $1 In Gold, 
Postage Stamps, or Bank-note, by the publisben. 

Among the DlustrationB of this TOlnaftc, are 



IllPLBMVBTS U MAOHimT. 

Fabm Ecohokt 

DOMBSTIC AHIVAU, 

Fabm BriLDiHoa, 

HlVTS rOB CCLTITATOBl. 



11 hgs. of Apples, 
X " Apricots, 

6 Plans of Barns, 

2 figs, of Blackberrlesi 

7 Plans of Barns, 

2 ** Carriage fiooscB, 

8 PortraiU of Cattle, 

8 figs, of Cheese Presses, 
4 »* Churns, 
14 " Cherries. 
2 ** Cider MUIBi 
8 Com Planters, 
2 Corn Shellera, 

8 Drills, 

6 Maps of Farms, 
4 Flower Gardens, 
16 Flowering Plants, 

9 figs, of Strawberries, 
2 Stump Machines, 



utnra, 



16 Ogs. In Ftvft Onlfcrt^ 
4 Grape Houses. 
TfigB-OrapeCulti 

4BcrtraiUofHoa 

17 Plane of Houses, 
6 flgs. for Lawns, 

10 Mowers and ReaptfiL 
Ufigfcof Pcani) 

16 flows, 

11 Plums, 

2 Pcvltry Houses, 
6 Raspberries, 

12 igs. of Rustic Work, 

8 acarns for sohoothooifB, 
6 figs, of Sheep, 
6 ** Swine. 



12 Trees, 1 

79 other Dl 



179 



with 
ilustraiioM, 



Embracing a great variety of Implements, Maoblnea^ Or- 
naments, Gates, fta, 1^, forming a collection such as can 
be found in no other single vdoine j'et published. 

The PuRiTAB Rboordbr, Boston, thus notices this work : 

^* We cannot conceive of a plan of a book better adapted 
for utility to all the purposes of the Farmer than this. It 
Is to him what a book of arohiteetural plans is to the 
Builder. It paints to the eve evcrjihing with whieh the 
Fanner has to do ; and tnere Is hardly any subject of 
practical Interest to the Fwromr which Is not here treated 
and practically illustrated." 

This we think is the best book yet published, for School 
District and Town Libraries, m well as for Premiums to 
be awarded by Agricultural and Horticultural Sooletiea. 
LUTHER TUCKER k. SON, 

Albanv, N, T. 

%* The same publishers have just issued Thb Illus- 
tratbd Akbual Rboistbb or Rdrac A/faiw for 1868— a 
beautiful annual of all Agrioult«ml and Horticultural 
mailers— with 130 Engravings. Price 26 cents. For the 
sake of Introducing It more widely in every locaB ty. they 
will send One Doxen Copies, post-paid, for TWO DOL- 
LARS] 

« 

Published bt Luthbr Tuvker & Son, 

BniTORS AMD PBQntlKJ^Ib. 

AsBOOtATB Ed., J. J. THOM^ #bioh Spribob, N. T. 
PRICK PEPrfcJNJS A TEAR. 

Thb Cultivatob has been published twenty-four years. 
A Nbw Sbribs wss commenced in 1863, and the five vo- 
lumes ibr 186), 4. 6, 6, 7, can be l^nished, bound and post- 
paid, at $1.00 each. 

The Bame publishers issue "Tub Couhtbt Gbktlkman,* 
a wec*kly Agricultural Journal of IV quarto xx^ges. making 
two vols, yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 a year. Tt^ also 
publish 

Tub Illubtratbd Anhual Rbmbtbr or Rural Affairs 
—144 pp. 12 mo. — price 26 cents — $2.00 per dosen. This 
work was commenced in 1866, mtd the nos. for 1866, '69 
and '67. have been Issued In a bewBtiful vplume, under the 
title of " Rcrai. Affairs,''— containing ^0 engravings of 
Houses, Barns. Out- Houses, Animnls, Implements, Frnits 
<ta— price fl.OO—sent by mail post-paid. 




THIRD 



€n Smiftnm tjrt hil ml tb 38iiiil. 



SERIES 



Vol. VI. 



ALBANY, MARCH, 1858. 



No. III. 



Published by Luther Tucker & Son, 

BDfTOU Alll> PROrSISTORS. 

AssooiATB Bo^ J. J. THOMAS, Union Sprihos, N. T. 
PRICE FIFTrcJNlS A YEAR. 

Tbb CoLTiTATOii haft been pnblhilied tweniy-fbor yean. 
A Nbf Sbkibs wm commenced in 1853, and the Ave vo- 
lumes for 186), 4, 5, 0, 7, can be furnithed, bound and poet- 
paid, at $1.00 each. 

The ftame publUhen ieeae^'TeB Coubtbt Qbbtlbmav,' 
a weekly Agriealtural Journal of 16 quarto pagee, making 
two volt, yearly of 418 pagea, at $2.00 a year. They also 
pablieh 

Tab Illdstbatbd Ariical Rbotstbr op Rcral Appairs 
—144 pp. 12 mo. — price 25 cents — $2.00 per dozen. This 
work was commenced In 1855, and the nos. for 1855, *56 
and *67, have been issued in a beautiful volume, under the 
title of " Rural Affairb,"— containing 440 engrav'.ngs of 
Houses, Barns, Out-Hous«a, Animals, Implements, FrulU 
ftc— price 11.007-sent by mall post-paid. 

Feeding irith Oil-Cake. 

A subscriber <C. R.) hapiog lately inquired for par- 
ticular direotioDS io feedokg with oil-c«ke, its cost and 
advantages, our oorrespondenl, Johm Jobnstoh, who, 
as all our readers know, is a close observer, and has 
had extensive experienee, has kindly Aumished us the 
following answer ; — 

I prefer oil -cake meal to com meal for fattening 
either cattle or sheep, although if I have com of my 
own raising, which I always hare, I feed it. But I 
always feed oil meal once a day, and generally the last 
month of feeding, I feed oil meal only, and generally 
leave over oom for next fall feeding, as new com meal 
wont keep for many days, and when it soars it pttrg||P 
the cattle, and then they wont eat for some days ; but 
they neyer get sick with eating oil meaJ, and for all I 
have fed, or rather fatted, a great many oatUe, I have 
never had one die, as all I have fatted have had at 
least half oil meal. 

I began feeding oil meal at $7 per ton, and followed 
it up until I paid $28 33 last year, and this season $27. 
These prices are too high, unless we can gat nearly or 
quite $6 per 100 lbs., live weight, for sheep and cattle. 
When I kept a regular flock of store sheep, I always 
fed each sheep during winter and spring, U bushel of 
oil meal. Then I was paying only $10 per ton. So 
late sa 1846, I had never paid over that amount, and 
for five years afterwards from $12 to $14 per ton. It 
paid admirably, fed to store sheep, as U bushels at $10 
a ton, cost only 38 cenU. That, with straw, will win- 
ter aeheep much better than anjhay (first- rate clover 
excepted.) • 

extravagant prices they pay in England, hurt 




us American fkrmers; else every ton of oil-cake in 
this country ought to be fed in it I consider there is 
nothing I feed makes as rich manure, and all I want is 
manure. If I have plenty of that, I can have every- 
thing I want, money and all ; but it requires the ma- 
nure to make money now-a-days, and cattle and sheep 
manure is the only kind that will pay here. I have 
done with the manures of commerce. 

I raise my calves on oil meal, and do it very cheaply. 
Oil meal and skimmed milk, sour milk or butter-milk, 
make fine calves and always healthy. The filet winter 
I feed them oil meal enough to keep them growing ; 
the second winter give them two quarts per day. and 
by April or May have sold my two-year-olds for beef 
at from $50 to $60 each. I have fed them generally 
about $11 worth of oil meal each in that way. 

It also pays well to fat lambs in winter. I have 
made Merino lambs bring me $6 each before they were 
a year old, by feeding them 70 cents worth of oil meal 
during winter. It don't toke the half to fat lambs it 
does old sheep. I have fed oil meal many years, and 
as long as I do feed, I will continue to do so. I thinjK 
we will get it mnc^ lower another year, as I notliP^ 
flax seed has fallen very much. If beef and mutton 
get low, it wont do to pay a high price for oil meal. 
Last rpring New- York oil-cake brought jClS sterling 
per ton in England. Now it Is from £10 to £10, 158., 
and falling; I notice it is much lower in New- York. 

There is 40 bushels of 50 lbs. each in a nett ton of 
oil meal, but 50 lbs. of oil meal is much better to me 
than 60 lbs. corn meal ; yet they do well mixed. When 
I feed com to kheep, I give that one part of the day 
and oil meal the other. When I have fed all com to 
sheep, I have often lost some by a rush of blood to the 
head; their necks and heads would be gorged with 
blood, when all behind the neck would be very white, 
more so than any slaughtered sheep — but I never lose 
any in that way when I feed oil meal. 

I sold cattle last year 22 months old, weighing 1,125 
lbs. gross, and I have some this year that I think will 
go about the same when they are the same age. There 
is only a little Durham blood in them. 

It should be urged on the farmers to buy and feed 
oil-cake in preference to buying the manures of com- 
merce. It will be a great deal more to their profit. If 
I was as able to go around the country as I was ten 
years ago, I would fat Car more stock in winter than 
ever I did. Ther^can be no profitable farming with- 
out good rich manure, but my farming days ar<' nearly 
over ; but if young men would only do as I have 
they would reap the benefit of it by and by. 





THE CUITIVATOK. 




March. 



OleMing Land of Weeds. 

To THB Epitobs or THs Covnvr Obhtlbvav— 
Haying had fomo experience in the destrnotion of weedi 
on neglected land, I offer a few remarks for thoee who 
may feel intfereited on Uiat important subject. 

Generally speaking, when land is let or bought ai a 
low piioe, It aots as an inducement to the intending far- 
mer to take more land than Us means will admit of 
to manage and onltiTate well-— the land gets poor, and 
produces weeds that are, in their nature, peouliariy 
suitable to that description of soils } and consequently 
in many instanoee, not to got rid of by the ordinary 
system of cultivation. When such is the case, the far- 
mer finds the land unpfoductlTe— in fact impoverished, 
and either sells or lets. Were he to carefully estimate 
the loss to himself and the public generally by neglect- 
ing this, one of the first and best principles of modem 
filming, possibly it might induce him to pay to that 
department the attention which it deserves. If the 
iojnry were confined to those who did not bestow or 
care to employ the labor for the extermination of weeds, 
it would be of little importance i but unfortunately it 
is not s the weed seeds of a neglected field are carried 
far and wide by the wind, over many others, causing, 
by their much more rapid growth, a great deteriora- 
tion to t^e crops and land on which they may alight 
There is an error into which many cultivators fall, 
that aggravates the evil ; it is the colleotbg and sav- 
ing all weeds, after digging potatoes or other root crops, 
and carting them to a heap in a comer of the field to 
perish. Such practice would hold good, if they were 
annual weeds, previous to blooming ; but when such 
collectioDS are composed of perennial rooted weeds and 
others full of seeds, It is doubtless better economy to 
bum them, than run the risk of a fresh crop for the 
next season. It is a fact that perennial rooted weeds 
will retain their vitality for years in a heap. How 
often have I seen large mounds of them, after raising 
some starved root crop, containing among others, Couch 
grass, (Triticum repens,) Bindweed, (CoutoIvuIus se- 
pium and arvensis,) Thistle, (Serratula arveusis,) 
Coltsfoot, (Tussilago farfara,) Horsetail, (Equisetum 
sylvaticum and arvense,)*plants useful in their wa^ 
but which ought not to be seen on any farm. Large 
quantities of them are used fresh as bedding for cattle, 
and then turned out and mixed with the dung-heaps. 
It is next to impossible to obtain a rent-paying crop, 
and in addition a profit to the farmer, while he suffers 
these weeds to grow year after year, with only an oc- 
casional check by the sparing use of the hoe. Such 
means will never clean the land, but will, to a certain- 
ty, rain the farmer; indeed it may be accepted aa a 
rale, that foul land is an infallible sign of a lack of 
skill and energy on the part of the owner. 

Now the plan of destroying weeds is very simple, if 
done as I direct, and which I have carried out with 
complete success on land that had been offered to seve- 
ral, rent firee, for a termof three years— the land around 
of that nature, letting at £6 ($30) the acre— on oon- 
ditbn of clearing it of the Tussilago farfara, which 
grew so rapid and in such abundance as to defy the 
labor of many years to eradicate. The labor in fact 
produced an unfavorable result; the weed produced 
and reproduced to that extent as to smother by its 
broad leaves any crop that might be sown. No person 
would accept the offer, so I took it; and well was I 




laughed at, for at best it was ooDsideredafof^'s bargain. 
I began operations eady m AprO, ie56-that is I 
plowed shallow, and then sowed Hdo Urns qf tail ptr 
acre — a heavy dose some will say j but I had tried it 
frequently befove | consequently it was no venture. I 
then harrowed i( hi and left it. In a week or two I 
plowed again, and agai« whenever the foliage covered 
the ground, which it di^ in a few days. Altogether I 
gave the land four plowing!, and then manured It for 
cabbages. These I planted in July ; they were fidly 
grown, and all carted to market and sold In ten weeks 
after planting. Of course I used the horse-hoe as fre- 
quentiy as possible, to assist the crop and to destxoy 
any weed that might come, but none speared. Now 
my neighbors, who were so meny, wtmdeced at its non- 
appearance; their faces beoame elongated with sur- 
prise. Yet many predicted a fine thow of bloom in 
March or April, 1867, for, said they, wait tiU then, and 
you will see that he has only killed the surface roota. 
Be it remembered this field has had a notorious cha- 
racter for more than fifty yean, and was brought mto 
its fbul state only by saving the weeds of a field some 
distance off— mijdng them with the stable dung, and 
then carting the precious compost to the land I now 
speak of. 

The last week of Febraaiy, 1857, I planted the 
whole field with early potatoes, and they soon showed 
the drills to my satisfaetitm. I then applied 20 bush- 
els of lime per acre, td neutralise the salt, and then 
put hi the hone-hoe, fiot so much to destroy the re- 
mams of the edtafoot^ ffor there was none, but merely 
to open the soil, as I found it- became enernsted after 
every shower of rain. Then could be' seen the briny 
efflorescence on the suzfhce, looking very like a white 
fhwt The potatoes I raised in July. ,The eiop was 
good in quantity, but as must be expected poor in qua- 
lity. The field is now down in cabbages again. 

For my fint crop of cabbages I realised £20 ($100) 
per acre. The potatoes will, If sold at the present 
market price, foteh £30 per acre, but aa they are for 
seed they will bring m#ru. My present crop of cabba- 
ges are f^ly equal to last year, and may fetch more, 
bemg later and the prices highei^-say £2S per acre. 
Now my labor, manure, seed and plants, stand me in 
for the three crops per acre, £30, leaving a comforta- 
ble profit of £45, the land being of course rent free. 

As soon as my cabbages are out I intend to sow it 
%ith early peas in three f^t drills, so that I may use 
the horse-hoe to advantage. Be it undentood, no weed 
of any ducripiUm has riiown itself since Ju|y, 1866. 
I have dug down in various places to the depth of two 
eet^ and cannot find a particle. 

In fact a good dressing of salt to begin with, plenty 
of stable dung, a judicious cropping, and a frequent 
use of the horse-hoe, will clean the land of the foulest 
weeds ; care must be taken to use only root or green 
crops for a few yean—never, under any circumstances 
sow it down to grass until the land is perfectiy dean. 

After a heavy application of salt, it is neoessaiy to 
wait three months at least, to allow it to be dissolved, 
and in some measure to be carried off by the spring 
rain. It is also requisite to plant the land with any of 
the following crops, which would be serviceable to the 
farmer, and can be transplanted with the certainty that 
they will increase more considerably in bulk than if 
left in the seed bed : cabbages of lorts, Swedish tur- 
nips, kohl rabi and mangold wurvcl, all these being in 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




their natiye wild state, marine plants, oonseqaently i 
common salt is a necessary and beneficial addition to 
the soil, in the cultivation of all plants as naturally 
grow near the sea shore. It is necessary to add that 
it would be a waste of money md labor to 9010 seeds 
of any crop the first year on salted land, but no fear 
need be entertained of failure ai regards root crops. 

No perennial rooted plant of eny description can pre- 
serve its vitality for two or three years, if sul^eoted to 
a continual dee^tation, never mind how favorable the 
Ml The root exists and sends out young rootlets, 
which in time become strong like the parent, only by 
means of its foliage imbibing the various gases of the 
atmosphere. This supply oontinually cut off, the root 
dies. 

One of the great obstacles to elean farming is, the 
the short period a rotation is made to extend over 
Lengthen that period by enltivaitfaig root crops, and 
cultivate them well, and the consequence will be that 
when sown in clover and grass, you will have dean pas- 
tures. Do not let it remain down more than three 
years. Break it up agahi a0 soca as the clover dies off. 
After that grass is unprofitable. J. LxTBsqvs, Mar- 
ket gardener^ Idand of Jersey. 




The Panlownia Imperialij. 

This really splendid flowering tree was first cultivat- 
ed in the hot-house. Mr. Neumann received one seed 
fkvm a from a foreign country : he sowed it, and with 
ease raised it to a tree. Having but one, he was fear- 
ful of losing it, so kept it in a hot-house. Finding this 
situation was not congenial to its habits, he planted it 
ovt In the open air. Here it soon gave evidence of its 
being in its proper plaee. The leaves grew ten times 
the sise they did while co<fped up. It was not long be- 
fore it showed buds and flowered; the horticultural 
world was in raptures, and botanists gave it the name 
at the head of this article. It was soon sought after by 
all lovers of ornamental trees, and found its way to 
this oontfaienty wheM south of New-Tork it succeeds 




admirably, but' unfortunately, north of this, our win- 
ters are too severe. It will gruw for a few years, pro- 
ducing enormous leaves, especially if the winters hap- 
pen to be moderate, but only to be hopelessly cut down 
with such winters as '56 and '57. It has flowered how- 
ever, in Albany. 

The tree has a resemblance to the well known Ca- 
talpa. It is a native of China and Japan, forming 
there a tree forty feet high. b. b. 

• • • 

Hew to Make Home-Bre'wed Beer. 

EniTOBs OF THx Co. GsxTLKius—I uow comply 
with the request of the New-Brunswick Farmer and 
others, to let them into the secret (if secret it is,) of 
brewing good table beer ; but it would have been more 
congenial if the Farqaer and others, had given infor- 
mation where good malt could be obtained at a reasona- 
ble price, without having to apply to the brewers. And 
here I beg to ask one question, and then proceed to 
brewing— Is there any maltsters in the United States, 
who make malting their exclusive bBsinesB 1* 

We will now commence to brew ten bushels of malt. 
We want a kettle or boiler, that will hold a hogshead, 
63 gallons— dean it thoroughly—fill up with clean 
water, (soft water is preferable,) the night before you 
intend to brew. Next morning start your fire under 
the kettle, say at 3 o'dock— have a good tight molasses 
hogshead standing near the kettle, on trestles ; bore a 
hole in one of the staves, dose to the bottom, to ad- 
mit of a good sixed tap ; drive the tap fast. Over the 
tap, inside the hogshead, put a large handfull of clean 
wheat straw ; confine it down over the tap with two of 
three stones, but not so as to prevent the wort running 
out. Then put in your malt, (of course one end of the 
hogshead is taken out ;) as soon as your water l>oils, 
throw in a pailful' or two of cold water— just as you 
would were you about scalding a pig. Then fill up 
your hogshead with scalding water, and well stir up 
the malt. 

Be sure not to remove the straw from over the tap ; 
if you do you will find your cake to be all dough. When 
well stirred up, cover over the top to keep the steam in. 
Let it remain one and a half hour. Stir up well again ; 
let remain one and a half hour longer, and then draw 
off into a tub. 

When the wort is all drawn off, fill up the hogshead 
again full with boiling water ; stil* up wdl ; let it re- 
main one hour ; draw off and fill up again with boiling 
water. Then return your first and second drawing into 
the kettle ; put in one pound of good hops for every 
bushd of malt, say ten pou&ds ; if the hops are not 
good, add two and a half pounds more. Then let the 
whole boil for three honra, but look out when it first 
begins to boil, or all the fat win be in the fire. As it 
begins to rise, stir well. As soon as the hops break and 
roll over, the danger is over. 

At the end of throe hours, put a strainer over a tub, 
turn over your wort out of the kettle, and return the 
hops back. Then fill up with the wort last drawn off, 
and what may be left of the two first drawings, boil 
one hour, strain off, and set all to cod. 

When the wort is about milk warm, take all into the 
cellar, and turn into two tubs or more. Then add 
about three pints of brewer's barm (yeast) and cover 
the tubs over with a cloth, and let it remain until 
morning. You will see a beautiful head on 
Stir all up and turn it into your barrels, letting 





THE CULTIVATOK. 




Mabch 



bang hole b« nppermoit In a little whfle it will 
begin to work (or ferment.) Onoe a day fill np jovtr 
barrels with wort, and for this always have a few pails 
of wort more than will flU yonr barrels the first time 
In three or fonr days it will have done fermenting. 
Then pat into each barrel a handful or two of the spent 
hops, pat in the bang tight, so that the least air eannot 
escape. In two weeks it will be fit to tap. 

Ten boshels of good malt will make foar barrels of 
good beer, and one barrel of small beer to tap first. 

Some cellars will keep beer better than others. If 
yon find the beer not to keep well, add a little more 
hops. If you want a strong barrel of ale, take the first 
drawing of wort ; boil u before stated, and let It fer- 
ment off well in the barrel, and do not tap for six 
months. Ton will have a glass of ale as fine as wine, 
and as strong as is desirable. I need not say that 
all the vessels most be scrapuloosly clean. Johh Bar- 
BABLxrcoKir. 

....■ - 9 9 : - — ■ ■- 

Farm Buildinga. 

The comparatire merits of bams, as regards econo> 
my and space, is an important sabject for farmers. The 
old-fashioned baildings are rapidly giring place to the 
new, and comfort and cleanliness are saperceding mis- 
ery and filth. Once it was thonght that a bam with 
large cracks was better for storing green fodder. Now 
men think that a tight bam is best for the same par- 
pose. 

Once, bam cellars for hoosing manures were scoot- 
ed. Now sooh a cavity is considered of the utmost 
importance. Once, liquid manure was considered lest* 
valuable than solid. Now, the reverse is the case. I 
have recently visited some of the best bams in this 
vicinity, and find them as different from the big tim- 
bered, high beamed, cold baru of 30 years ago, as 
chalk is from cheese. One bam in particular I recall. 
It has yellow paint, and a slate roof. The ground on 
which it stands is nearly level, but its whole basement 
is for stabling and manure, and is built of brick. The 
cattle are tied by stanchions ; they stand upon a five 
foot platform. Behind them is a gutter two feet wide 
and three inches deep. Back of that is a walk of the 
same width as the gutter. Still farther back, doors 
open in a brick wall, where is a room the same length 
of the stables, but wider and deeper, for the throwing 
of manure. Large quantities of loam or earth are 
kept dry and (torn Areeiing in the comers of this room, 
and are wheeled daily into the stables tor litter. 

Where straw is worth $9 per ton, earth is much 
cheaper as an absorbent. By this process the cattle 
are kept clean, and the stables are always sweet and 
comfortable. The mercury did not descend to freesing 
point in this stable last winter. The hay and grain , 
are stored above the cattle, and descend through scut- 
tles into a passage-way in fh>nt of the stock. Roots of 
all kinds are abundantly stored in the root cellar. 
These are cut and fe4 twice a day to the stock, to the 
amount of half a bushel at a time to each animal It 
does not require a large bam to store such fodder for 
20 head of cattle for a winter ; besides the cattle come 
out in excellent condition in the spring. The water 
that the cattle drink is nearly of the same tempera- 
ture as the stables. Indeed veiy cold water is an in- 
any man or beast. Milkmen understand this 
and govern themselves accordingly. Economy 





of space, neatness and warmth are characteristics of 
the building described. J. N. Bago. 

• • • 
Wataon'a No-Fateat Setf-Saatalnln^ Porta- 
ble Farm Fence* 
Oar friend, Josxph Watson, Esq., of Clyde, htj 
planned a very simple and inexpensive Fence to be 
constracted as follows ; Each length requires six rails 
12 or 13 ft. long, sawed 1 or 1^ inches, u the strength 
of the tlmbet may require, which with spaces between 
them respectively of 4, 6, 6, 7 and 6 inches, and the 
necessary blocking underneath, will make a fence four 
and a half feet high. Two battens and two braces are 
provided for each length, of the same stuff and siie as 
the rails, 4 ft. 3 in. long— a 13 foot rail will make three 
with n; loss of stuff*. These are nailed as shown in the 
annexed diagram — me 
good clinch nail at 
each crossing being 
sufficient. The battens 
are placed as will be i¥»ted, one on the ootsido andune 
on the inside of the fence, and when the batten at the 
right end of one length is on the outnde, that on the 
right end of the next lengOi should be on the inside, 
this alternation being neoessacy to bind the fence more 
securely. The battens project, one above and the other 
below the last rail three inches. 

When the fence is pteced in position, the ends of the 
panels are secured to each other by a fastening of No. 
9 annealed wire connecting the two battens that come 
together, and by its length determining the angle of 
the two panels of fence with each other, and its conse- 
quent worm. A hook in each end of the wire nnites 
them, and when the fence is to be removed, can be 
easily unhooked by giving the panels a more acute 
angle. The small surface presented to the wind by 
this fence, being only 18 perpendicular inches, and five 
wide spaces, renders it little liable to be blown away, 
and as only about 30 feet of inch boards, and 48 nails 
are required to the rodi the cost of the whole, including 
the labor of patting together by any mechanical far- 
mer at reasonable prices, eannot exceed JPifly Ctent 
a Rod! 

• ♦ ♦ • 

Tbe l^liite Daley. 

MissBB. EniTOBS—Can you inform me as to the 
most effectual way to kill out the White Daisy 1 If 
you can, you will do me a great favor. Five years ago 
I bought a farm, and part of it is over-run with daisy. 
I have plowed the sod both fall and spring, and plant- 
ed to com ; the next spring sowed to oats ; in Septem- 
ber plowed and sown to rye. The next snmmer when 
it came in grass the daisy was as thick as ever. It ap- 
pears that every little root makes a new plant O. W. 

Will some of our readers who have had successfnl 
experience with extirpating this weed, please give us 
their model 

No plant can grow without leaves exposed to the air 
— hence plowing under often enough (and not too often, 
so as to tum up too soon,) wiU smother any plant if the 
work is well done. The eartli may, however, be full of 
seed, and need a long time to start and destroy every 
one. We have never known any farmer to be much 
troubled with the daisy, who pursued a regular, long 
contioned rotation of crops, accompanied with thorough 
and cleanly cultivation. There may, however, be ex- 
ceptions. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Vnprofitabla Fanning* 

In a noent pap«r we'tpoke of come of tho caoses of 
naprofttablo farming,— oaproiUUo, not from lack of 
kaowtodgt of the rigfat way, bat firott aogloet of weil- 
knowa axioaa in agricaltura,^and promimd to giye a 
few more iastanoee iUoatratiog the ral()eot 

Manure ia a neoeasaty application, in order to bring 
an impOTerisbed aoU into a prodaotire aiate. Nothing 
is more oertain, all agree. And yet, how lauoh of the 
naprofttable farmiag «f the coantry reeulte from the 
attempt te grow crop* on wom-oat 8oil« vWumt 9?i»- 
nttr«. Plant oora on flucb land — the crop is a meagre 
one, both from want of streagth in the aoii to grow it, 
and length of the aeaMa to mature it. A rich er weH- 
manured aoil will ripen thie crop weeks earlier than a 
poor one. An acre of land, rich, deeply tilled, planted 
in good aeaeon, and thoreoghly and cleanly cultivated, 
will prodooe mora com than five aorea poor, ahallow- 
plowed, lata planted and half cultivated, and at per- 
haps one- half the expense of the latter. 

Stagnant vnUtr^ either in or upon the soil, is another 
cause of unprofitabMAurming. A soii which has no es- 
cape or outlet for tha water which falls npon it save 
eraporatloD, cannot ba made to produce a paying crop. 
In a dry season it is baked and hard— in a wet one it 
is often flooded with stagnant water, and is never ia a 
condition very fbvarable to the growth of cultivated, 
crops, however well suited it may be to the production 
of wild grass, flag and rushes. And paitially drained 
land of this character is litUebeUer. Flooded in spring, 
the water passes off but stowlyi nothing can be done 
npon it until tHb *<sabBiding of the waters," which, as 
they must in great part go cioudward, is a tedbns pro- 
cess. 

Poor manurt — made so by exposure and leaching 
while yet in the yaM— is another souroe of loss to the 
farmer. The contents of the barn-yard are generally 
dignified with the name of manure, even if they con- 
sist of little more than a leached mass of straw and 
excrement, the real strength of which has long ago 
passed off into some stream, or floated idown the roiid- 
side ditch, and into staie provident neighbor's field — it 
is still '' manure," and la carted to the field and offered 
to tbe crop with the expectation that it will find therein 
nutriment, and the material for large productiveness. 
One thought will ibow how futile this expectation. 
How does manure benefit a plant 7 By its soluble con- 
stituents — they receive only liq^tid food. This leached 
manura has lost the greater share of the solable ele- 
ments of feriilityj and acts in great part only meehani- 
oaliy upon the soil. 

Attempting too mudi !s another great cause of loss 
to the farmer. '< Much labor on little land," is the se- 
cret of success— enough labor, at least, to do everything 
in the best manner. Look at it,— is it good policy to 
expend the labor of potting in a crop over six acres, 
when, at the same oocf, a like result may Be realised 
from three or four? Will you be content with tiiirty 
bushels of corn per acre, at an expense of, say 912, 
when by adding S3 in manure and better culture, yon 
may realise sixty or one hundred bushels 7 Will you 
grow inferior stock with the same amount of food, when 
by a larger outlay at first, you may have the best — 
those always saleable at good prices — while the unim- 
scarceiy find purchasers at any price 7 Is it 
best, either to concentrate your labor on less land, 



or increase your azpaaditure M as to embrace the whole 
farm in a thorough system of cultivation 7 

Tbe acknowledged oanses of unprofiUble farming 
are not exhausted, and it is a proper subject for the 
examination of the farmer. I<«t him look into the 
matter, and see inhere and wAy he has failed. 
m • • 

Cvttlag and Feeding Out Foddar. 

OouNTBT GaxTLBMAir— In ToL U, no. 2, Norvan 
BoTTUM makes inquiiy as to a profitable machine for 
cutting cornstalks, and perhapa our experience may 
not be uninteresting to a class of your readers. That 
there is not only propriety in cutting up cornstalks, 
coarse clover hay, ooarse einftW, and the like, for fod- 
der, but also economy in it, aa.d necessity for it, no one 
who has ever fed stalks in the bundle, and whole coarse 
straw, and witnessed the extravagant waste of cattle, 
and their unwillingness to coonme these articles in 
that state, and their oonseqnefft want of thrift upon 
them, will qnesUoa. To say nothing of the waste in 
littering a barn-yard with wb^lo cornstalks, tbe per- 
plexity of having them in the manure to handle in 
their undeeayed state is enough to make ono look anx- 
iously fbr some maehiae to relieve himself from the 




The avidity with which cattle entirely consume these 
kinds of fodder when properly cut, even without grain, 
is enough te satisfy us as to its utility. Much care, 
however, are required in feeding ivh«n cut stalks and 
straw are fed. He who has not b«en accustomed to 
feeding cut fodder will almost invariably feed a double 
dose, until he learns from experience that he is over- 
feeding. '* Little and oAen " we find to be the better 
plan, and feed only what each animal will consume 
entirely. Should aoy of the hard ooarse joints of the 
stalks remain in the manger, they should be well mix- 
ed with tha fresh stalks at the next feeding, and with 
some animals this eouee will alwnys have to be pur- 
sued. 

Our praoUee is to arrange cattle, either in stalls or 
stanchions, with separate bunks, and to give each ani- 
mal a rounded half bushel of stalks, without grain, 
four times per day, vis. : 1st, at a very early hour in 
the morning — ^2d, three or four hours after, or ju«t be- 
fore turning ootr— 3d, on putting up for the night — 
4th, three or four hours after, or just before bed-time. 
In the middle of the day we feed in bonks, in tbe 
yard, fine bariey or oat strew whole, which is eaten 
with avidity. 

Our stock is made up of grade Bhort-Homs, grade 
Devons, and pure Short-Horns, we having, about a 
year since, discarded the very last of a large stock of 
native cattle, as costing too much for anything but a 
very wealthy farmer, who has money to throw away, 
to keep. He who has native cattle to feed, will allow 
50 per cent, in quantity mora than we have given 
above, as a proper mess for Short-Horns or Devons. 

Variety of food, for instance, cut stalks, cut straw, 
good hay, whole fine straw, roots, and occasionally 
grain, will be found far bettor and cheaper fodder for 
animals than all coarse stuff, as they relish the chango 
of food as much as the human being appreciates it. 

That there is economy in cutting good fine hay, ex- 
cept for a change of food, or upon which to feed grain, 
remains a question with us, which we design to deter- 
mine by experiment at some convenient opportunity. 




THE CULTIVATOR 




Our ezp^rienee in eoUing ibdd«r hsB been varied. 
We have oaed, seen, and heaid of many bone and 
band power maobinee for eaiUng fodder, but mof t of 
them, we regret to tay, incline one, after having test- 
ed them for cutting fodder, to ** resort to the old prao- 
tice of feeding stalks whol*/' Last mmmer we visit- 
ed the well-managed far«i of Hon. Louis P. JjTQq^ 
President of the Tioga County. Ag- Society, and there 
saw a machine which fally meets the wants of every 
farmer worliing from one aeie to Ave hundred acres. 
It is a combined hand and hor«e power machine, man- 
nfaotnred by J. E. Dvttqh A Co., Fnlton, Oswego Co., 
N. Y., Cuming's Patent, price 125, and wiU rat corn- 
stalks, bound straw or loose straw, eqnaOy well, from 
half an inch to two inches long, as may be desired. 
There are four knives set on a cylindrical wheel, cut- 
ting spirally, and when all on, ent half an Inch long, 
making corn stalks or straw, to be fed with grain, a 
very good length, while Cor cutting stmw to f^bd with 
stalks without grain, W9 usually remove two knives op- 
posite each other, which cuts one inch long, and, if de- 
sired, the third knife m«y be removed, leaving it to 
cut two inches long. The machine is a self-feeder, and 
hence will draw one straw as well as a mouth full. 

We have a two-horse (Bmery) power, and with the 
lowest possible elevation of the band wheel from the 
floor, one of our 1200 lbs. horses will cut two bushels 
of straw, threshed by machine, per minuto. A little 
more elevation, or another horse is required to ent 
stalks or bound stran well, end of course it will cut 
them much faator than loose straw. 

We regard it as an almost perf«c< piece of machine- 
ry. DuHHAM A Wood. Etna, TompktM Co., N. T 

■ w > » 

Oats on Turnip Ground. 

Mbssrb. EniTons— You published in your paper for 
March 26th, my ezperiments with raising turnips by 
the application of guano. It may interest some of 
your readers to see an account of the oat crop on the 
ground where the flat turnips grew. In pulling the 
turnips, three rows on each side were thrown together 
in winrows and then topped. Part of these tops were 
carried off' and fed to sheep, but the greater portion 
remained on the ground through the winter. In April 
sowed to oats —plowed in with one horse plow. Very 
soon dark green strips were observed through the whole 
piece. For some time I could not account for the dif- 
ference, but by examining the strips closely, I found 
they were just on the rows on which the tops were left; 
and they have continued to grow ahead until the pre- 
sent time. I should judge double the quantity of oats 
are on the strips manured with tops. The whole tur- 
nip ground is far superbr to corn ground joining it, of 
the same quality, treated alike, except the very small 
quantity of manure in the potato hills, and the 200 lbs. 
guano for turnips. 

From the result I consider turnips an excellent crop 
to prepare the ground for oats. J. C. Tatlob. Holm- 
del, N. X, July 23, 1857. 

P. S. To show the size o the oats on the strips, I 
would mention that one week ago I measured some 
pulled up by the roots— their length was six feet and 
one half inch. 

2d P. S. I find the above put away safely, but on 
looking it over, thought it might be worth publishing, 

I send it thus lato. j. c. t. 




How Manure is a&ado in SwitMrland. 

In the first number of voL x of the Couktrt Osir- 
TLKif AH, appeared an article on the nnnagement of 
manure in Switserland, by 8. W. Jousoir. A prolon- 
ged stay last year in the French part of Switserlajid, 
and the aequaintanoe of some of the beet fkrmers, gave 
me an opportunity to know and stndy tboroagUy their 
method of making and saving mannre, and befinv 
and after I went there, I had tried it enough to 
know that it ean be emptoyed here with great benefit 
and little tronble. To-day, being at leisure, I will try 
to give you a short de seri ptkm of it, with the hope that 
it may benefit some of your nnmeroos correspon d e n ts. 

On the turn d Mr. C, of Monlhey, near the Lake 
of Neufchatol, I had the opportunity of seeing that 
method earried into effisot in as easy and simple a man- 
ner as possible. Mr. C. is considered one of the best far- 
men of the Canton de Vaud, and I was fortunate enough 
to get Introduced to him, and spend a day on his farm; 
and with a kindness and politeness seldom equalled, 
seeing my interest In agricultural matten, he showed 
me all over his property, pointin^nt the many Im- 
l»rGvements, and thus by his a g reea bl e and interesting 
conversatioa, giving me the best I ssso n in agriculture 
I ever received. If it was not out of my eabjeet, I 
should like to give yon a description of his beauUfhl 
farm, but I shall speak only of that important part, the 
manure heap. 

Mr. C.'s farm buildings are eitnated on the top of a 
hill gently inclined towards the Mke. His stock con- 
sists of forty cows, five yoke cf oaen, and six or seven 
horses. % 

The manure is carried to the heap every day, the lit- 
ter thoroughly mixed with the dung, and saturated 
with the urine. The heap stands about twenty yards 
from the buildings, a little lower down the hill, and is 
built in the manner described by Prof. Johhsoh, with 
the exception of plaeter of Paris, which i« not used. 
The cistern is built a little on one side of it, so as to 
receive all itsdrainings, and also the surplus liquid from 
the stables. About one hundred yards lower down, on 
a level spot, Mr. C. collects all the numerous materials 
for compost so essily found on a farm, adding to it 
scrapings from the road and ditohes, heaping the whole 
carefully in a large square pile, and keeping the top of 
it always level and loose. 

Taking advantage of the inclination of the ground, 
he had a pipe laid from the cistern there, and every 
two or thrqe weeks, by its means, he drenches tho- 
roughly the compost heap, thus making it every way 
equal to the best steble manure. An artificial pond 
by the side of it, receives its drainings, and the water 
of the fountein at the house ; when full its contents 
are let looae, and irrigate many an aero of fine mead- 
ows that lie 1)eneath. 

By such admirable management, every particle of 
manure made on that farm is saved, and the natural 
result is that although wheat and colsa are the stople 
crops raised by Mr. C, he has, without the help of any 
foreign manure, improved the quality of his land in a 
very remarkable manner, and that in a country, where 
to keep up the land in a fair condition, it most be 
heavily manured every third or fourth year. 

On another farm, in summer, the liquid manure of a 
few cows was pumped from the cistern into a barrel on 
a cart, and spread on a fiekl of sainfoin, used for soil- 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



ing, with suck good effeot that fire and six good eropi 
. were oat fiom it in the oonne of the eammer. 

No greater contrast ooold he found, than in the dif- 
ferent way In which every article it for manuring \b 
treated in that ooontxy and in tfaia. There, every thing 
ia scraped, gathered, saved— here, on the contrary, 
watte can be eeen on almost every farm. It is true, 
all the Swiss oulUvators oannot use such perfect method 
aa that foUewed by Mr. C. Ihey have not the money, 
nor the spaoe to fix their bam-yards; but they all 
have a well bnilt manure heap, with a cistern or a 
tank, wlxMO oonteatp serve te keep the pile moist. 

I never taw gypeam used, and do not believe that it 
is employed except by a few farmers. 

A method often followed there, and which can be 
employed here with advantage, as I know by trial, is 
this : They dig their stables so that being lower behind 
than at the trough, it will hold a certain amount of 
manure without disadvantage to the animals. Every 
night a heavy litter of straw $s put in ; and the ma- 
nure is drawn out only once a week, or onoe every 
two weeks. In this way t^ urine is soaked in the 
straw, and after being carried to the pile, the slight 
fermentation oonverts it into very good manure. It is 
not as desirable a method a* the other; it takes more 
straw or Utter of any sort, and more work, but it i< 
more simple and eaaier to cany into effect. I followed 
it long enough to know that in that way mote than 
double the amount of manure oan be made, compared 
with the ordinary manner generally employed here. A 
great deal of litter must be used, and for that purpose 
wheat straw is the best and cheapest, and the farmer 
who lets his rot on the field where it was thrashed, and 
his cattle be out ki the open air, is blind to his own in- 
terest. 

The object of this letter is to support the opinion of 
ProflJoBnsoji. He said: <<That method deserves to 
be known and tried in this country." I have seen it 
carried into effect in Europe; I tried it here, and it is 
my firm belief that it is worth more than a passing 
thought from all the famem who wish the advance- 
ment of Agriculture. Alurt Cbavaitnbs. Knox- 
frille, Tenn. 

■ — • 9 . m 

Feeding Hogv in Oroharde. 

Will feeding hogs in an apple orchard, the trees be- 
ing 8 or 12 inches in diameter, be likely to ii^nre them 1 
Wishing to improve the soil in mine, I have fattened 
24 head, weighing perhaps 250 lbs. each, on about 
three-fourths of an acre, feeding to them some 400 
bushels of com, — the soil clay (not tenacious however,) 
and resting on limestone at 6 or 8 feet below, and ori- 
ginally covered with sugar maple. I shall plow it in 
the spring as soon as may be, and probably plant ooni 
for fodder, or pumpkins on the dearer part of it and 
between the rows. R. Hatioit. Wayneeville, Ohio. 

We have been long familiv with the proctioe of al- 
lowing hogs to feed on the faUen fruit of orchards, run- 
ning for months among them, and never knew them to 
iiUure large or bearing trses. If they shade the 
ground much the crop of com fodder will be small, but 
the cultivation will be of great benefit to the fruit If 
many of the roots are quite near the surface, we would 
prefer plowing with a gang-pk>w, (being cheaper and 
shaUower) unless in sod. It is better to mutilate the 
roots some, than to neglect enltivatilng. 




Rermdeen'f Sugar- Cane Mill. 

In answer to the frequent inquiries for the best mode 
of expressing the Juice of the Chinese sugar cane, 
adapted to the wants and means of common farmers, 
we now Airaish a figure and description of the oontri- 
▼aoce adopted the past autumn by Gideoh Hbrbk- 
DBBH of Faruington, Ontario Co., N. T., whose expe- 
riments in making molasses from the cane, have been 
more saccessfttl than any others we have met with — 
mere especially as regards the proeess of expressing the 
Juice. The molasses was found superior in quality to 
common eaae molasses, but not equal to that of the 
sugar maple, nor to some other samples obtained from 
the Chinese cane. It was, however, evaporated in a 
common potash kettle— it is intend«Kl another year to 
use suitable evaporating pans, when the result will no 
doubt be a better article, and be furnished at less cost. 
The actual expense in this case, including cost of seed, 
use of land, fuel, and all other expenditures, was about 
sixteen, cents per gaIlon-~and he assures us ho could 
sell it at a good profit for twenty-five cents per gallon, 
should he manufkcture it for market. The molasses is 
found excellent for buckwheat cakes and mince pies. 
The mill is not patented— it is attached to a common 
horse-power, used for driving a threshing machine ; is 
worked by one horse— and did not cost far from ten 
dollars. 

The cane was planted late in spring, (one pound of 
seed to half an acre,) in drills 4 feet apart, and a part 
of it in thin drills with plants one foot apart, and the 
rest in thicker drills 4 or 5 inches apart. The thick 
drills yielded the most, and are preferred. For some 
time the young plants had so small and puny an ap- 
pearance, that one -half was plowed up for buckwheat, 
leaving only a fourth of an acre for experiment. From 
this 55 gallons of molasses were obtained. 

Before cutting up the cane in autumn, a man passed 
along the rows and stripped off all the leaves, which 
was done with great expedition, by merely stroking his 
hand downwards around each stalk, as fast as another 
could cut the stalks. The leaves were suffered to lie 
on the ground till sufficiently dry, when they were ra- 
ked and drawn in for fodder. Two good two-horse 
loads of leaves were thus obtained from the quarter- 
acre. 

The mill consisted substantially of two east-iron 
rollers, six inches in diameter, and turning together, 
not faster than one revolution in three seconds. These 
rollers were turned smooth and perfectly true,* and 
their fuces fitted together with great accuracy, and on 
this accuracy and the slowness of motion, the success 

* They had been made for some other purpose, and were 
purchased cheaply at a foundry, hence a reason of the mlU 
costing so little. They were hollow, with solid heads. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



March 



in preMing depended. They were Mt in a wood fnunei 
so u to be at first about one-third of an inch apart, so 
that in passing the cane between them the joinU only 
would be crushed, and but little juice pressed out. If 
set more closely at first, the stalks would be broken off 
at the joints, and they would thus be prevented from 
passing through. When the cane had been thus bro- 
ken and prepared, the rollers were wedged olosely to- 
gether, so as to be in such close eontaot that water 
could not run between them. The elattieity of the 
wood in which their axles were set, would, however, 
allow them to separate the thickness of a knife blade 
when the stalks were passing through — and after the 
passage the stalks woald be as diy and flat as the dia- 
yings from a carpenter's plane ; while on the other side 
the juice would break and spout out so as to form a 
stream from the trough below larger than one's finger. 
In the figure, a represents the trough in which the 
cane is laid for feeding the mill, being quite similar to 
the trough of a common straw cutter; bh are the two 
cast rollers, made to work together by cog-wheels on 
their ends. At first the cog-wheels were omitted, with 
the iMlief that one roller and the stalks would draw on 
the other roller ; but this failed in practice, and hence' 
the cog-wheels were added. The trough c, for receiv* 
ing the juice has a width equal to the length of the 
rollers, and contracts a little towards its lower part, a 
tub the sise of a wash-tub being placed beneath to re- 
ceive the cascade of juice. The lower roller is turned 
by the horse-power of a common threshing-machine, 
by the long rod, and the uniTersal or '* knuckle " joint, 
d. In order to obtain slow motion, a bar of wood ten 
feet long, was Isshed or spliced on the oommoif bar to 
which the horses are attached,— ^thus giving the horse 
a wide circle to travel in^— at the same time that all the 
cog-wheels were removed or taken out, except the first 
or main horisontal one, and the pinion working into it, 
on the long rod oonnectM with the lower roller. In 
this way the horse in travelling three feet moved the 
rollers only five or six inches, and thus gave them great 
power. 

Crushing the stalks and expressing the juice were but 
a very small part of the labor of manufacture— a half 
day was suflicient to pass through two tons of stalks. 
Lime was used te clarify and sweeten. 
The following is a statement of the expense :— 

Plowing a quarter of an acre, $ 75 

Seed 60 

Planting, 60 

CuUlvalIng 8.00 

Cutting up stalks, «bo, 2.00 

Labor of grinding and evaporatlog, 6.00 

Interckt on land, 2.00 

Fuel, 1.60 

114.00 
Deduct value of 2 loads of leaves, 6.00 

Cost of 66 gallons of molasses, $0.26 



Remedy for Oarget in Cows. 

I had, a few days since, a new milch cow whose bag 
was very badly caked — so much so, that the usual re- 
medies of cold water, sosp-snds, spts. camphor, Ac, 
had no effect upon it. I asked our family physician 
for a prescription, who gave me this : 

1 part aqua ammonia, 

2 parts sweet oil, 

well rubbed in twice daily. In two days a cure wf a 
effected. W. J. Pettem. SalUbury, CL 




Samedy for the Ouronlio. 

£d8. Cult, akd Co. Gent.— I read in the Cultivator 
that if the ground under plum trees was paved, it 
would stop the work of the curculio, and that suggest- 
ed the plan of covering the ground under the trees 
with boards. I took some 'old boards when the tree 
was in blossom, and after spading up the ground, laid 
down the boards, covering the ground as far as the 
limbs extended, and laid some narrow strips on the 
cracks, so as to completely cover the ground. The re- 
sult was a full crop of fine Opiums. The tree was so 
full that I picked off some of them when jery smalL 
Variety Imperial Gage. 

A neighbor of mine took some sediment of a grind- 
stone trough, and spread it on the ground, and spread 
some gravel on the top of that, and the iron that was 
fai the sediment cemented the whole together, and 
formed a hard crust, and he had a fine crop of plums. 
I think there are objections to the cement, for the tree 
cannot be manured or cultivated ; but the boards can 
be moved when the plums are out of the way of the 
curculio. 

Will some of your readers try the boards, and com- 
municate the rest:lt 1 Josbph B. Phsu'b. Woree*- 
tcTf Mom. 

A. Bbamait, of Ithaca, V. T., informs us thai bis 
remedy against the curculio is the well known method 
of allowing poultry to run among the trees, to which 
he adds the praetice of dusting the trees frequently 
with air-slacked lime until the fruit is out of the way 
of the insect. His plum orchard is 66 by 200 feet, and 
contains some aprioots and nectarines — he has 40 va- 
rieties of the plum, and he is compelled to thin out 
one-third or one-half the fruit when partly grown to 
prevent the trees ftt>m breaking down. The remedy 
has also answered well for apricots, but the neoUrines 
are destroyed, and he intends to cut the trees down. 

• » • 
Pnmplclik Seeds Ii^nrtous to Dueka * Geeee. 
L. Tuck KB A Soh— I notice in your Country Gen- 
tleman of the 14th inst., an inquiry, ** whether pump- 
kin seeds will kill ducks and geese." As to their kill- 
ing dnclu, I have no doubt ; with respect to their kill- 
ing geese, I cannot speak from experience, but have 
very little doubt they would produce the same effect 
when eaten raw or unground. 

In the ftill of 1856, I sent from Tacht Cove, N. J., 
a doien ducks of unusual large sise, which had been 
raised along the shore of " Tork Bay." On my re- 
turn home a short time after, I found eight of them 
had died, and the four others had their legs so para- 
liied that they could not walk, although they managed 
to swim ; and upon inquiry I found the eight had been 
similariy affected previous to their death. I opened 
some of the dead ones, and found nothing in their in- 
testines, Ac, but a qusntity of raw pumpkin seeds, 
the other food having been digested and passed off. I 
then took the four live ones, and stuffed and fed them 
for three or four days with boiled corn meal, boiled po- 
Utoes, bread, Ac., keeping their stomachs filled with 
digestible food, and they all four recovered, and are 
now alive and well. I presume they either digested 
the pumpkin seeds in the course of the three or four 
days, or passed them away with the other food. I now 
never allow my ducks or geese to eat pumpkin setnls 
unless they are ground or boiled, and would adviM 
othen to go and do likewise. Cbas. P. Mortox. MiU 
Farm, MorianviUe, N. r, Jan. 16. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




PxwniuBi Crop of Knta Baguk 

Tho sample of rata baga taraipe, which I enter in 
oompetitioo for the best acre, are a sample of our crop, 
which I grew the past season, on a slaty light loam, 
on whloh we grew in 185f , potatoes and oabbage, to 
which crops we gave bara-jard manure. 

This spring we gave it no manure, except a little 
superphosphate of lime in the drills to start the seed. 
The following is my treatment and the expense of cul- 
ture. The yield was 1,117 bushels, of 62 pounds to the 
bushel. Weight of the aboye, thirty-foar tons, twelve 
hundred and fifty-four pounds. For what I have sold, 
we got thr8e shillings a busheL 

June 12— Plowed for turnips — 13. Harrowed and 
rolled— 15. Drills opened by hoe (the ground level,) 
at 30 inches apart, as follows : Make one straight line ; 
fh>m this let your men commence at 30 inches, laying 
the comer of the hoe on the ground ; they then walk 
on as fast as they can, leaving a light mark (angular) ; 
then returning as going down. Let another man 
follow with the superphosuhate of lime, and sow on 
these drills u thick as you sow plaster on clover. I 
applied to this acre 200 lbs. ef superphosphate, 200 lbs. 
of plsster, 12 wheelbarrowfals of muck, saved in a shed 
during winter and broken fine as ashes, mixing these 
three well together before applying. This is to get the 
seeds as quick as possible ov«r ground. 

I then sow as follows: Take five or six seeds (or as 
near as you ean without counting,) between your finger 
and thumb. Drop three of these in one place at a foot 
apart ; keep your finger and thumb in quick motion, 
and move along as quick as you can. This requires no 
Boienoe, as the men who sowed ours this spring were 
laboring men, who had never seen a tMmm seed to know 
ii. 

When your seed is dropped, place yourself at the 
head of your drill (like a soldier standing at ease;) 
move your heels into the hollow of each foot, placing 
your hands behind your back to move steadily along, 
and move on quickly; this draws a sufficiency of earth 
to cover your seed, as when covered too heavily they 
do not come up quickly, and a number will not germi- 
nate. I used on this acre Arec ounces of teed. When 
all Is sown and covered, pass the roller over it. This 
must be done in dxy weather. 

My plants eame up from one to fear in each place, 
at a difltanee of a foot apart all through. The economy 
in this system is that it does not take one-twentieth the 
time to thin that it does when they are sown by drill, 
and your plants are a great deal stronger when they 
come up thin than when they are thick, and in hoeing, 
(using no hand work to thin them,) by passing your 
hoe between the plants, you take out the extra ones, 
(leaving but one plant,) and cut out all weeds between 
them. I never hand-hoe th^ rows, passing a horse- hoe 
between them before I oommenoe to thin ti&em ; imme- 
diately after thinning, passing the horse-hoe again 
through them, and repeating the horse- hoeing as the 
weeds appear. If you once let the weeds get ahead of 
yon, yon will be obUged to hand-hoe them, which wUI 
cost you as much as your crop will be worth, for then 
yea wiU net have more than a half crop. When your 
leaves nearly meet in the center, yoa oan discontinue 
woTking them. 
Every farmer should grow his own turnip seed. He 
sore of having a good start I have never lost 




a crop of turnips by fly but one, and that I attributed 
(o bought seed, (of seed dealers,) which will be old and 
new mixed. 

The best thing to prevent fly is to use new seed, sow 
as near to the sarfaoe as possible, sowing first on drills 
wood ashes, guano or superphosphate of lime. To grow 
fine turnips and keep your ground in good heart, you 
should apply from 30 to 50 bushels of bone dust per 
acre. This is the best manure fpr a turnip crop. 

June 30th— Horse-hoeing turnips— July 2. Hand- 
hoeing— 4. Horse-hoeing— 17. Horse-hoeing— Aug. 3. 
Horse-hoeing. 

Nov. 14 and 16— Pulling turnips. 

Nov. 17 — Plowed turnip tops in as a manure. 

Total expense of cultivating, special manure and 
seed, fi)rthe above acre of turnips, 921 50. 

Value of the above at three shillings per bushel, 
$413,374. QEnALD HowATT. iV^ic/ow, N. J. 



Shoemaker's Sorapo for Manure. 

Messrs. Editors— A. R., Red Bank, N. J., inquires 
whether leather cuttings of shoemakers are of any va- 
lue as a manure. Some fifleen years ago I found in 
our village a pile of shoemaker's cuttings, which had 
been accumulating for some twenty years from a con- 
siderable manufactory. Having seen in the Genesee 
Farmer, that a small portion had been used and pro- 
duced an extraordinary effect upon a poor piece of (and, 
I got permission to remove about fifteen cords, as they 
were considerd a nuisance. ^ I found all that the Gen- 
esee Farmer's correspondent said to be true. I put it 
on as we usually put on barn-yard manure ; but found 
that I should have extended it over at least double that 
quantity of ground, for the first crops of wheat and 
oats grew much too strong —much of it lodged. The 
third year corn was planted. A dry season coming, I 
had oe corn of any consequence only where the leather 
outtiags were put It had the effect of keeping the 
ground so wet, that it was plowed too wet Much of 
the leather is seen yet in plowing. 

The shavings from the tannery, of leather before 
oiling, I have tried since, but they do not produce the 
effect that the shoemaker's euttings do. 1 would ad- 
vise A. R. to collect all he can, and I think it will nav. 
W. H. W. NewvUle, Fa. 

• • m 

Meajmring Com in the Orib, &c. 

Bd8. Co. Gbitt. — A correspondent in your paper of 
Dec. 17, 1857, gives an excellent and perfectly correct 
rule for determining the number of bushels in a crib 
or bin, but the operation may be materially simplified, 
vis., by multiplying the cubic contents in feet by the 
decimal eight-tenths — ^thus, 1600 eubic feet by .8, gives 
1280.0 bushels; and for the heaped or ooal bushel of 
2688 inches, multiply by sixty-four hundredths, or, 
for greater accuracy, by six hundred and forty-two 
thousandths, thus : I000x.642=642.0 bushels. I would 
buy or sell com or coal by the above measure in large 
quantities in preference to measuring by a sealed bush- 
el, as I am convinced that the result will vary less frdm 
the truth, which may be proved by weighing. 

An easy mle to calculate the number of barrels in a 
cistem,is to divide the cubic contents in feet by four and 
twenty-one hundredths. ]^xample : a cistern, oontaln- 
ing by measurement 500 cubic feet, divided by 4.21, 



gives 1188 barrels, or a barrel to every inch 
depth for 604 equi 
Wat. Sewtekfyi 



qnare feet of horisontal section. 
Stmekty^ Pa. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Mabch. 



FlantinflT Tnni Trees, Nnrseriee, fco. 

We have receired a numerous Ibt of hiqairies from 
M. J>. M. of Athens Co., Ohio, (the postoffice illegible,) 
in relation to the nursery basinese, with which he is at 
present entirely unacquainted, except bj reading. As 
wo receive numerous inquiries of this kind, and cannot 
write a long letter in answer to each separately, we 
are compelled to reply m a general way through oar 
oolnmns. 

Currants are raised from seed, by washing the 
pulp and preserving the seed moderately moist till 
planted. The soil should be a rery fine, rich mould ; 
the seed should be sown and covered not more than 
half an inch deep, and the soil kept moist and shaded 
till the young plants get a good foot-hold. The treat- 
ment is quite similar to that of raising mountain- ash 
plants — or like apple and pear seedlings, except on a 
smaller scale, and with a finer and more shallow cov- 
ering of mould, according to the smallness of the seed. 

Quince seed are to be treated precisely as apple seed. 
A more moist soil is however preferred generally ; but 
if rich enough, this is net essential. 

Cherry stones should be planted or buried before 
even the exterior becomes dry — or else packed imme- 
diately in moist sand, and kept moist Those that have 
been dry, in bags or boxes, till the present time, will 
probably be entirely worthless. Oar oorrespondent may 
however try the experiment of pouring hot water on 
them, and then exposing them to free sing — this, if re- 
peated several tinMs^ may cause some to grow. Small 
quantities should be taken at a time, in order that the 
hot water may cool immediately. The great cause of 
such common failure in the vegetation of cherry stones, 
is the dryness of the shell — but the treatmeot we have 
just mentioned is most likely to overcome the difficulty 
after they have become dry. Planting b the common 
way is entirely useless. 

JPeaeh pitSj after cracking, will dry and spoil in a 
few hours. If they cannot be planted at once, they 
should be packed in moist sand, peat, or pulverised 
moBS. Peach stones always grow best if previously 
mixed vith earthy and in this condition allowed to win- 
ter in an exposed pliuce. We never found them to grow 
with any certainty, unless each separate stone had been 
in ooBtaot with earth through the winter bef&re crack- 
ing. 

Apple seeds, which have been allowed to remain in 
the pomaoe for many days, are usually spoiled by the 
heating and fermenting of the heap. The specimens 
forwarded by oar oonespondent have been nearly all 
ruined in this way. Good seed are packed full of the 
plump white kemel^njured ones have a more homy 
or waxy appearance, and partly shrivel after drying a 
few days, and the horny covering separates from the 
inner portion. 

In regard to the Nursery Business in genera], we 
would diseourage every one trata engaging in it to any 
extent^ until it is thoroughly anderstood. Every per- 
son who wishes to understand it, should hire to some 
good establishment, and labor with his own hands for 
two or three years, before undertaking for himself. He 
may learn, it is trae, by constant experiments, but his 
knowledge will be slow and costly, and on many points, 
imperfect. There is no business more overrun with 
quacks, than that of the nurseryman ; and nothing has 
disgraced it more. It would be much better for a car- 



penter or a blaeksmith to begin wcrkiag at hie trade 
without any praetiee or experience. Like every thing 
else, it must be well understood, to be attended with 
success or proit, no matter bow Ikvorable the opening 
may be. 

We are unable to answer the other queries of oar 
correspondent, with satisfaction. 
• • • 
EnifllelL and Scotdk ttwdry Kanacesnent* 
Mbssm. EDiTOns--Aboat thirty pages of the lately 
issned Ag. Report fh>m the Patent Office are oceupied 
with details on various departments of dairy manage- 
ment in England and Scotland, such as |be selection 
and feeding of cows ; the making of butter and cheese ; 
the feeding of calves for veal or stock ; and, generally, 
the economic management of this important depart- 
ment of industry. 

Gloucestershire is extensively known a» a cheese- 
producing county. About nine-tenths of the land, on 
all the dairy farms in this dbtrict, is under pasture. 
The usual practice is to keep about 25 cows for every 
100 acres, or one eow for every four acres, on the whole 
farm, besides the young stock needed to maintain the 
full complement of cows. Where less land is in grass 
and more in tillage, fower cows are kept, of course, in 
proportion to the whole land. 

One aere and a half of pasture grass is the usual al- 
lowance to each cow, during the summer and fall. Dar- 
ing the winter and spring months, hay is almost the 
only food given ; and as eeoh cow. will consume two and 
a half tons, it requires the same extent of land — one 
and a half acres— for the winter as for the sammer 
keep. The expense of feeding a milch cow for twelve 
months is calculated at $20 for grass — one and a half 
acres — in sammer ; and for the grass of a like quan- 
tity of land, with expense of making it into hay, $26 
is the usual allowance, which amounts to 145 per an- 
num. In Cheshire, another county famous for cheese, 
the cost of keep for a cow is calculated at $17.50 dur- 
ing the season of pasturing, and at 927.50 during the 
winter. 

From 500 to 550 gallons of milk is eonsidered to be 
about the average yearly produce per eow in Glouces- 
tershire. As a gallon of full milk will make a pound 
of cheese, the whde quantity of cheese that eoold be 
made from the milk of one such cow, would be up- 
wards of 600 lbs. As only from 300 to 350 pounds of 
cheese are actually made, on an average, frem each 
cow, it appears that about a iillh of the milk is con- 
sumed in rearing calves,, supplying the farmer's fami- 
ly and servants, Ac In Leioestersbire, where the cows 
are usually fed higher than in CHouoestershire, being 
allowed roots, bran, meal^ linseed boiled, Ac, the an- 
nual prodoot of a cow in cheese amounts to 500 lbs. 
This extra quantity ef cheese, with the additional rich- 
ness of the manure made, Is eonsidered a full compen- 
sation for the additional expense of the higher keep- 
How do the foregoing figures compare with those 
which some of our own cheose dairies could furnish 7 A- 

•-•-• 

Shbkp for South America.— We lean that Gbo. 
Gaitpbbll, of Westminster, Yt, has lost sold to 
Messrs. Corriif A Hatbs, ten Spanish Merino rams 
from his flock in Vermont, and two SUesian and two 
French rams from the flock of Messrs. Chambbklain 
A Campbbll of Bed Hook, to be sent to Boenos Ayres, 
to improve the sheep of that coontiy. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 









The New Peaw— (CoKTiNUBD.) 

tviiTB DH FzJUn>EB.~B*ther Urge, pTtiform, ob- 
lique ; skin greesieh yeUow, becoming yellow mX m&ta- 
ritj, with nam^rons small dote, and marked with thin 
roMei ; item an ineh long, set under a lip^ with little 
or no depression ; cilyz in a shallow basin ; flesh very 
juicy and melting, with 4a agreeable, refreshing flavor ; 
quality " very good." Tree vigorous and productive. 
Season, late in antomn. Although this pear is hardly 
M high flavored as soiiie of our finest varieties, yet 
when well ripened, its juiciness and agreeable aroma, 

render it ooe of the most delioions sorts. 

♦ • • 

The Tartar or OhinaM Sheep. 

Having received an inquiry in regard to these sheep, 
we addressed a note to a gentleman in Saratoga coun- 
ty, who we knew had some of them. His reply is as 
follows: 

Gkhtleveit— Tour note of Jan. 20th, has been re- 
ceived, and in answer to your inquiries, I briefly give 
you the resuU of my experience with the Tartar sheep, 
In the spring of 1856, 1 received three ewes and one 
budi: lamb. Since that time they have produced twen- 
ty-three lambs— a number died at the birth. I think 
one cause of their dying was breeding too fast. The 
ewes did not recover strength enough for the second 
crop of lambs. I shall let them have lambs but once 
this year, in order to see whether they will do better 
by breeding once or twioe in the year. 

From my eacperience thus far, it is my omnion they 
will be a very profitable mutton sheep. They come 
very early to maturity, and I have tested as far as I was 
able, the quality of the muUbn. It is very fine flavor- 
ed, juicy, and entirely firee firom the strong taste of 
many other varieties. 




They are different in some respects firom all other 
Aeepthat I am acquainted with, in their quiet, peace- 
able habits. When put into a field they don*t wish to 
leave it, and I doubt whether they could be driven over 
a three rail fenee. 

They are very hardy, and appear to stand this oU- 
mate as well as any other sheep in the country. 

The wool will not be very valuable. I think it only 
fitted for the coarser fabrics, such as carpets, horse 
blankets, Ac. 

It is my opinion, when we Uke into consideration 
their rapid breeding and mutton qualities, that they 
will prove a valuable acquisition to the country. 
• • • 
BiMdEwheat for Swine, 

The Country Gentleman, Vol. xi, Ko. 3; mentions 
two cases of buckwheat bran proving ipjurious to young 
pigs, by being fed to sows suckling them— and inquires 
whether any cases of the kind have fallen under the 
notice of the readers ef that sheet. We would say that 
a cs^ precisely similar to those mentioned, occurred in 
a litter of fine pigs, belonging to one of our neighbors. 
His sow dropped seven thrifty pigs, of much promise. 
A few days after birth, without any apparent cause, 
one after another of the pigs became weak, lame, and 
puny in all respects, and nearly half of them died. 
Only three remained unaffected. 

The sow was attacked with piles, soon after, and at 
this juncture their owner applied to us for information. 
We recommended to discontinue feeding buckwheat. 
He accordingly did so; the pigs grew thriftily, and the 
sow recovered from her piles almost immediately. A 
thrifty sow, belonging to another neighbor, fed upon 
buckwheat, mixed with other grain and slops, was a 
few weeks since attacked with, fules. An impression 
exists in this vicinity, handed down by our good Dutch 
ancestors, that swine fed upon buckwheat are liable to 
attacks of piles ; also, that swine bedded with buck- 
wheat straw are subject to scurvey. What is the ex- 
perience of your correspondents 1 Duhhax A Wood. 
Etna, Tompkins Co^ N. Y. 

In November last I lost a very fine litter of six Suf- 
folk pigs, and I know of no other cause than feeding 
the sow buckwheat bran. They died at intervals of 
about a week ; but they were affected very differently 
from these spoken of by Mr. Reynolds in the Prairie 
Farmer. Mine were very fat; one of them that died 
when four weeks old, weighed 25 pounds. They ap- 
peared to ohoke or smother on account of being so fat 
E. M. MoC. Walnut Hill, near NeweastU, Pa. 



ALBAirr Ck>uNTT Aa. Socikty.— At the annual 
meeting of this Society, held in this city on the 13th 
inst., the following officers were elected : 

PfMldent— Wm. IIurst of Albany. 

Vice I*reflldenta— J. WItine of Bethlehem ; D. V. B. 
Rayneford, New Scotlaad ; Wm. Bollock, Bethlehem ; 
Henry L Devoe, Bern : Dr. P. B. Noxon, Watervllet ; 
Gordon Gkillup. Knox ; Joehua Aley, Ronseelaerville ; D. 
ffredenburgh, Coeymans ; Dr. R. S. Lay, Weeterlo ; Peter 
Vedder, Guilderlaitd. 

Directors— Wm. Little, Coeymane ; John Waggoner, 
Guilderland. 

Beoretary^A. L. Chatfleld, Albany 

Treasurer— H. L. Emery, Albany. 



FaEDiHa. — If all farmers should feed all their cattle 
food so as to save all the nutriment, it would nearly 
double the value of their products.— Pro/! N(uk. 





THE CULTIVATOR- 




The New-Tork SUte Agrioultural Society. 

The Annual Meeting wm opened^ pmrsuaBt tonotloe, 
in Iho Assembly Chamber, in this city, Feb. 10, the 
President, Hon. A. S. Upbam, taking the ohatr, and 
his Bscellency Gov. Ki2ro, an ex-President, ocoupying 
a seal at the right of Mr. U. Hon. M. P. Wildbb, ex- 
President of the Uf S. Ag. Society, being present, also 
accepted an invitation to take bis place with the gen- 
tlemen named, — after thanking the Society for the 
honor thus conferred, and expressiBg bis deep interest 
as an honorary member in all its transactions^ as well 
as in its future prosperity and success. 

The Report of the TreMurer, B. B. Eirtlamd, Esq., 
was then read by Secretary JoHirBoif, Mr. K. being de- 
tained a) home by ill health. A summary of this is 
given below : 

RECBIPTS. 

Note discounted, February, avails, $4,126.60 

Received from State, 4,696.77 

Annual Meeting 28a00 

" Slate Approprhitlon, 700.00 

»* KntomoKifiricHl Appropriation, 1,000.00 

" Note aiseouii led 981.96 

" Buffalo— TickcU and Members, 15,073.89 

" " —BuflTiilo Committee, 800.00 

« »* —Rent of Grounds^ 200.00 

" ** --Sale of Lumber, 46.45 

* |27,7S9L69 

FAYMBIITS. 

Balance due Treasurer laal year, $955.07 

Balance note 1867 paid. 2,502.40 

Note due May paid, 4,200.00 

Note duo September paid, 1,000.00 

Expenses Wititer Meeting, 74.66 

Premiums " £72.60 

Premium* Watertown Fair, ^^1* 

Museum Expenves, — *?1*I2 

Library Expenses .22't5 

Printing, Advertising and Stationary, 728.43 

Postage * 203.63 

Incidental Expenses, 287.69 

Salaries Secretary and Asslttant Treasurer, and 

travelling expenses 8,002.95 

Fair Superintendent*, 661.70 

Clerks, Business and Treasurer's offices, and 

Avlth Committees * 888.00 

Oste Keepers, 830.00 

MIsoeliHneouB Expense* at Buflalo, 1,188.01 

Erections on Oruund and Lumber, 874.45 

Police, 498.50 

Eutomologioal 8ttr\-ey, 1.000.00 

Premiums paid. 5.767.16 

lu ve8ti*d Bond and Mortgage Security, 2,00000 

Cash on band, $1,201.91 

$27,789.60 
Medals and Premium Books on hand» $140.00 

This report having been accepted, that of the Execu- 
tive Committee followed— reviewing the history of the 
past year in the Society's annals— oommenting on the 
progress of the cause to wMch the Society is devoted — 
referring to the AgricuHnrat College, its present con- 
dition and prospects,— and embracing throughout much 
that could but be very gratifying to the Society's re- 
tiring officers as well as to its other fHenda, aad those 
of the Agriculture of th6 State. 

On motion of E. P. Prbhtics, Esq , the committee 
of three from each judicial district on the nomination 
of officers, Ac, was selected — and the following gentle- 
men being named by their respective constituents re- 
tired for consultation : — 1st district, Messrs. C. M. Sax- 
ton, Benedict, S. Jones, Jr. ; 2d, Wm. Kelly, L. a. 
Morris, John Harold ; 3d, Wendell, Tibbitts^ Newoomb ; 
4th, White, Cheever, Piatt; 6th, Randall, Faxton, 
Turrill ; 6lb, Barber, Law, Clark ; 7th, Dwight, Wm. 
Johnson, Van Slyclc ; and 8th, Buell, Labar, Allen. 



The Society met again at 4 P. M., to receive the re- 
port of this committee, which was In favor of Stba- 
CDSS as the place for holdiag the next Fair, aecom- 
panied by the following BominatkuM ier ikd ensuing 
year: 

Fresident^lJcn. W. T. McCouic, of Queens. 

Vice Pr«»ufcn/»— Bdward O. Faile, New- York ; C. 
S. Wainwngbt, Dutchess ; Herman Wendell, Albany ; 
Hugh White, Saratoga Joel Tiirrill, Oswego ; F. M. 
Rotch, Otsego ; Wm. Johnson, Ontario ; E. 0. Dibble, 
Oenesee. 

Correspondinjg Secretary — Benj. P. Johnson. 

Recording Secretary—'K Coming, Jr. 

Treasurer— Luther H. Tacker. 

Executive Committee—Q. J. J. Bar1)er, Jas.M Ellis, 
Alario Hnbbell, Walter Aikenhead, Jas. O. Sheldon. 

On the reception of this report, a disonssion ensued 
upon a proposition made by Mr. Sohoelfleld, to strike 
out Syraeu»e fkom the report and insert Utiea, in 
which Messrs. Lewis, Kelly, Toby, Geddes, Randall, 
Jones, Clarke, Dickinson, Allen, Tunill, Bobinaon, 
Newcomb, Miller, Dorsheimer, Cheever, and others 
were active participants. In the oonrse of it a motion 
was snbstituted to call over the roll, and insert in the 
report the name of the place then having- the majority 
of voices. This was finally t^ted down, 57 to 102, and 
as this furnished a test vote, the Committee's Report 
was immediately, on motion of Mr. Kbix.t, nnani- 
Doously adopted. 

Mr. Dibble introduced the subject of Mr. Mobbill's 
Bill now before Congress, granting laada for the en- 
dowment of Agricultural Schools in the different States, 
and resolutions advocating its passage were adopted. 
Mr. Kblly expressed the sincere regret of the So- 
ciety that its late Treasurer, B. B. Kirtlasd, E»i, 
had been compelled by ill health to resign his post, 
and resolutions embodying this sentiment, with the 
thanks of the Society for Us vahiable services, wore 
passed. 

In the evening, a session was held at whi«fa a letter 
WM read from the American Legation at Paris, stating 
that Persia had requested copies of the Transactions of 
this Society, and wished to take part in the system of 
scientific exchange, also containing a list of some of 
the most important of the foreign agricultural and 
scientific societies with which the society is now in 
communication. 

A lecture was then delivered by Prof Pobteb of this 
city, upon the Atmosphere, its general services toman, ' 
and ite component ingredionts — ^iUuitrating hie remarks 
with some hiteresting experiments. On its oonclosion 
a vote of thanks was passed. 

Thursday was devoted by the committees of Judgef 
on Qrains, Dairy prodnots, Fruits, Ac, to an examina- 
tion of the rather slender (for the Sta.te of New- York) 
exhibition of these, in the Society's rooms, and the list 
of prises, awarded by them, was read at the opening 
of the evening session, as follows : 

PREMIUMS AWARDED 

FARMS. 

Qraln Fkrm— R. J. Swan. Rose HIH, Fayette, Sl»neea Oa, 
-Plate, valued a& $60 
Dairy Farm— Z^ook Pratt, PratUvtlle, Qreeue Ca, 

—Honorary Diploma of the Society. 

PIII.D OKOPS. 

Best Onm Spring Wheat-E. G. Bliss, Weetfleld, Cbatau- 

Best Crop ^'e— John Potter, Maroy.Onolda Ca W 

Best Crop Buckwheat— P. W. Peek, East Bloomfleld,. 
Ontario Ca, — » 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




2d best da-B. & Carpenter, mining 6 

8d beat do.— O. W. BeIft.WeetmoreIand, Oneida Co., Trane. 
Beat yield of Byrap from CtilDeae Sagar Cane— S. C 

BliM, WeatfleM, ChaCanqae Oo^ 5 

Best Crop Peas— Misa Amanda Newton, K Bloomfield, 8 

2d da— Tl L. French, Richfield, Herkimer Co., 5 

3d da-L. L. French, ** ** Trans. 

Beet Crop Beans-K. C. Bliae. Westfield, Chan. Ca... $8 
Beat Crop Sugar Beeto-K M. Bradley, E. Bloomfleld, 8 
Beat Crop Carrvta— B. iL Bradiev. East Bloomfleld, 8 

8d da— £. a Hay ward, Brighton, Monroe Co, 6 

Beat Crop Timothy Seed— C. W. Eels, Westmoreland,. 6 
2d da— E. 8. Hay ward, Brighton, Monroe Co., S 

OEAIira, STC. 

Beat Bushel Wlnt«r Wheat— Amoa eovlding, Le Ray, 

Jefferson Ca 8 

Best Bushel Spring Wheat— A. £. Van Allen, DeA^est- 

viUe, BensL Co, 8 

2d da— a. K. Eels, Clinton. Oueida Ca 2 

3d do.— Amos Goalding, Le Ray, Jefferson Ca, 1 

Best Bashel Rye— David Conradt, Brunswick, Bens. 

Co., 3 

2d do.— Amos Goulding, Le Ray, Jefferson Ca, 2 

8d da— Wm. Richardson, Albany Co 1 

Beat Bushel Two-Kowed Barley— Norman Gowdy, 

LowvUle, 8 

Best Bashel Gate— C. W. Eels, Westmoreland, 3 

2d da— David Conradt, Brunswick, Rens. Co., 2 

3d da— W. P. Ottley. Phelps, Ontario Co 1 

Beat Bashel Yellow Corn-C. W. Eels. Westmoreland, 3 

2d da— W. Newcomb, Johnsonville, Rens. Ca, 3 

8d do.— David Conradt, Bninswiek, Rens. €>>., 1 

B«at Bushel White Corn— David Conradt, Branawiok, 8 
Sample Dried Sweet Corn— L. L. French, Richfield, Her- 
kimer Co., Silver Medal. 

Beat Bushel Peaa— Amos Qoaldlag, Le Ray, Jeff. Co., $3 

2d da— L Ll French, Richfield, Herkimer Co, 2 

Best Bushel Beans— fid win Miller, Constabl^yille.Lewis 

Co 8 

2d do.--David Conradt, BmMwlok, Rena Ca 2 

3d da— Wm. Newcomb, Johnsonville. Rens. Ca, 1 

Best Bushel Timothy Seed— Edwin Miller, Constable- 

vlllo. LewlsOo., i. 8 

2d da— £. S. H«^'ward, Brighlon, Monroe Ca 2 

8d do— C. W. Eels, Westmoreland, Oneida Ca 1 

Best BasherBuckwheat— Henry Schoonmaker, Bethle- 
hem, Albany Ca -- 8 

2d da— Wm. Richardson, Bethlehem, Albany Ca, 2 

3d do.— L. L. French. Richfield, Herkimer Co., 1 

Best Bushel Flax Seed— Henry Wier, Johnsonville, 3 

2d do.— W. Newcomb, JohuaoDvlile, Rena. Ca, 2 

Best Collection Orasaea and Herbage— Mrs. J. T. Van 

Naraee, Plttstown, Rens. Co., 16 

Sample PotatoeB--Wm. Riehardson, Bethlehem,.. Trans. 

Dioaoorea Batatas— J. Q. Sloklea, Stuyveaant, Columbia 

Ca, Trans. 

VAIKT VaODUOTS. 

Beat Three Tubs Butter— 8. H. Case, Oawego, Oswego 

(jo^ Cap vfuuedat $15 

2d da— A. M. Haight, Now-X«ebanon, Columbia Co., 

Cup valued at $10 

8d da— J. a Holbert, Ohemvng. Oliamonff Ca, 6 

Best Sample Winter Battei^S. Merrlam, Leyden,Lew- 

is Co.. 5 

2d da— Mrs. Wm. Newcomb, Johnsonville, Rens. Co., 8 
8d do.— L. L. French, Rlehfleld, Herkimer Ca,... Trans. 
Best Three Cheeses— E. F. Carter, Evans Mills, Jefferson 

Ca, Cup valued at $16 

2d da-^ohn Qillett, Scott, Cort. Ca,.. Cop valued at 10 

8d da— Norman Gowdy, Lowviile, Lewis Ca, 6 

4th da— A. M. Haight, New-Lebanon, CoL Ca,... Trans. 

WIKTBR FRUITS. 

Best Twenty Varieties of Applee— R. H. Brown, Greece, 

Monroe Ca, Dip. and $4 

2d do.— £. & Hayward, Brigfhton, Monroe County, 

Downing and $2 
Best Ten Varleaes of Applet— G. K. Eels, Clinton, Oneida 

Co., Dip. and $3 

2d do.— D. Conradt, Brunswick, Rens. Ca, -Barry and $1 

3d do.— Henry Wler, JohnsoDvllIe, Rena. Co., Trans. 

Best Collection Winter Pean— Eliaha Dorr, Albany, 

Small Silver Medal 
Currant Wine— BHsha Dorr, Albany. Small Stiver Medal 
Specimen Bucks Co. Fowls— Wm. Rlohardaon, — Trans. 
Hon. A. 6. Upham, the retiriag prendonti then deliver- 
ed aa addnas, mainly upon ih» position and edueation of 
the farmoTi and was followed by the newly oboaen in- 
eumbent) in a few appropriate and interesting remarks, 
thanks of the Society having been expressed, and 
requested for their T r ansactions, Hon. IL P. 




WiLDSB briefly and happily responded to a eaU upon 
him— allnding to his connection with several of the gen- 
tlemen, and especially with Gov. Kmo in the IT. 8. Ag. 
Society, and referring to his own efforts in past times, 
for the establishment of such an institation in Maasa- 
ebosetts, as he now oongratvlated oar State upon pos- 
sessing in the Agricultural College. Gov. Kino, after 
several calls then took the floor, and made some elo- 
quent remarks, bearing up<m the position oooapied by 
the State, both Agrtonltarally and Commeroially, and 
calling upon its farmers to maintain their own and its 
standing, by keeping it as it now is, foremost among 
its sister states, and by banding down to their children, 
an inheritance even better than that received from 
their fathers. 

Judge Cbbbtbr then followed— giving more in de- 
tail than had been before presented, the present condi- 
tion of the College, of which, as our readers are aware, 
he is the presiding officer. The building is to be con- 
structed of stone from an excellent quarry on their own 
premises, and every effort Urill be exerted on the part 
of the trustees to do what they do, thoroughly and 
prudently, to attempt no more than they can accom- 
plish, to act within their means, and to go on just as 
fast and no faster than these permit 

Hon. A. B. DiCKiNSOH Ibliowed— adverting with 
much effect to the services rendered to dor Agrionltore 
by our Meohanios, Ulostrating this by a comparison be- 
tween our tools and those of the English,- denying a 
statement that had been made to the effect that our 
farmen did " not onderstaad their business," claiming 
for them far more praise than saperfloial observers gen- 
erally award, and illustrating this point by alluding to 
the large number of men in his own immediate locality 
who went there as boys with nothing bat strength of 
arm and heart, and are now worth their tens and 
twenties and fifUes of thoo s ands, nuuU whoUyandtx- 
ehuwely in their calling asfumun. 

The comparison instituted by M^or D. between Eng- 
lish and American implements, next elicited from Seo- 
retaiy Johnsov a full and very interesting aeoount of 
the-pr^udioes against the latter existing in England 
at the time of the celebrated World's Fair, at which 
he was a delegate, and of the final triumph over them 
accomplished by our pitchforks, our plows, and above 
all, our reaping machines. Col. J. held the undivided 
attention of his audienoe for neariy three-quarters of 
an hour, and was frequently interrupted by laughter 
and applause. 

BleetUi^ of tl&e Ncvr Kxeeutl-re Committee. 
Friday morning the newly chosen Board of officers 
held their firat Executive meeting at the rooms of the 
Society, Mr. Kbllt taking the chair in the necessary 
absence of Jndge McGoun. The Fair was decided to 
be held at Syracuse the 5Ui, 6th, 7Ui, and 8tii days of 
October, and the usual contracts between the Society 
and the looal oommlttee were perfected. The reports 
of experiments handed in tar Premiums, wen referred 
to the SeoreUiy and Treasurer for examination. Oth- 
er oustomaij business of a first meeting in the year 
having been aooomplished, tiie Board acUourned until 
the 18th of March, when the premium list will come 
up for oonsideration, and it is hoped there will be a full 
attendanoe for its revision and final preparation '— 
the 





THE CULTIVATOR 




MaB€H, 



Q^a&nX FriBiQliflM of Jlfrioultnre. 

Mb8SB8. Editobs — In locking over the Country 
Gentlemen for the pait year, I find among ita many 
able and infltrnctive oorrespondente few who write from 
the eztensive cotton growing dietricta of the South. 
Am your journal ia in no respect sectional in iti char- 
acter, and the principles of agriculture much the same 
in all climates and places, the cultivators of the soil 
may learn something from the experience and obser- 
yaUons of each other, no matter where they till the 
earth or practice farm economy. With us, land is 
cheap and abundant, and labor both scarce and exceed- 
ingly high. These two facts operate almost irresisti- 
bly to prevent the adoption of any general system of 
husbandry which will save our cheap rirgin soils 
firom speedy impoverishment If they cost firom 150 
to 976 per acre, the owners could not afford to render 
them nearly valueless by a few years' cropping $ and 
the production and saving of manures in a large way 
would be indispensable to successful planting. 

But since the general government has given away 
to soldiers and their heirs, railroad companies, new 
states and territories, so many million acres of its pub- 
lic domain, and reduced the price of rich planting and 
farming land in the market to a mere nominal sum, it 
is far cheaper to purchase the raw materials of cotton, 
com and wheat by the section^ or mile square, than to 
buy them or obtain them in any other way. If Con- 
gress designed to overwhelm the older states, by cre- 
ating a doable drain on their population, wealth, arated 
and depastured fields, it is not easily conceived how 
they could have attained that nnpatriotio object more 
fully, or more injuriously, than has been done. 

To demonstrate the soundness of my views on this 
important sul^oot, I trust that neither you nor my old 
and highly esteemed friend John Johmbtor, will ob- 
ject to my showing that even his good farming haa not 
a basis broad enough to meet all the exigencies of 
American agriculture. He fertilisea his underdrained 
farm by the liberal purchase of oil cake, com, hay and 
other food for his bought sheep and cattle to eat and 
yield rich manure. The sale of these fattened animals 
pays for all they consume, beside their first cost, and 
something over, giving him a clear profit of the precise 
things required by nature to produce, maximum crops 
of wheat on every field that he cultivates. His system 
is plain and simple; but suppose every farmer in the 
State of New- York were to follow his practice 1 Pray, 
tell me where they could all find the tons of oil cake 
or any equivalent, for the equal production of beef, 
mutton and manure 7 Could all the farmers of any 
State, or all in the United States, buy flax seed, cot- 
ton seed, grain, hay or manure, taken most obviously 
£rom the soil, without going abroad for the same 1 
Apply Mr. Johnston's system to an agricultural State 
filled with tobacco or ootton planters, who export their 
staple. Who is to supply their millions of acres of old 
fields with an adequate quantity of eitiier domestic or 
imported manure 1 Clearly, it will utterly fail to 
meet their wants and cironmstances. How to meet 
them and the condition of those large grain farms from 
which so much of breadstuffs is annually taken, is the 
question of all agricultural questions, that Congress 
ought to solve, if its seventy millions dollars import 
duties derived indirectly, but exclusively, from the el- 
ements of fortuity exported f^om American soil, are to 



be regarded as a perpetual fBoome. In pbee ef ta- 
king measares to foster the critical study of the Prin- 
ciples of tillage and husbandry in all parts of the 
Union, the Federal government pursues a policy with 
its .vast public lands that will compel the impoverish- 
ment, ultimately, of the whole oontinent. 

After 35 years' observation in the most fertile part 
of Western New- York, Mr. Johnson informs thepubUo 
in your paper of April 2d, 1857, that 

" 17ic truth, iSf the land is exhauated by over-crap- 
•ping, and it must either have rest or high manuring." 

A more pregnant truth was never uttered. Having 
I trust satisfied the intelligent reader that his system 
is impracticable for the million, and more especially, 
by southern planters, it is easy to understand why the 
latter turn out so much of their badly worn tobacco 
and oottoo lands to rest, and slowly recuperaU by the 
benevolent efforts of nature in that behalf. 

In New-Yoric and New Bngland, where the popula- 
tion is much denser than it is in the planting States, 
you can not well afford to rest three- fourths of your 
arable lands for twenty or thirty years in succession. 
Henoo, the food of agricultural plants has become with 
you a matter of the highest moment. In the Patent 
Office Report for 1849, page 26, 1 remarked : " Fully to 
renovate the eight mijlion acres of partially exhauatad 
lands in the State of New-Yoik, will cost at least an 
average of. twelve dollar s and fifty cents per acre, or 
an aggregate of one hnodfad million dollars. It is not 
an easy task to replace all the bone-earth, potash, sul- 
phur, magnesia, and organised nitrogen in monld, con- 
sumed in a field which has been unwisely cultivated 
fifty or seventy-five years." 

I am well aware that the owners and cultivators of 
American soil are not yet prepared to study the phi- 
losophy of agriculture, nor to instruct iheir representa- 
tives at Washington to pass Mr. Morriirs exoellent bill, 
giving public land to each of the States and Territories 
to endow agricultural and meohanieal schools. Time, 
however, will make them feel as weU as see the folly of 
refusing to cultivate useful knowledge in a nation of 
farmers. Sound principles are indispensable to lasting 
prosperity ; and these are rarely learned, and under- 
stood, without the aid of long and patient study of the 
natural sciences most intimately connected with the 
mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms. Every pro- 
duct of the farm, garden and orchard, is an organised 
substance governed by fixed and unerring laws ; and it 
requires highly cultivated common sense to grasp the 
true meaning of those natural laws which silently work 
the increase and decrease of fruitfnluess in all soils. 
All experience goes to prove that fertility is neithenr 
equally distributed in farming lands, nor a constant 
quantity. In the Transactions of the New-York State 
Agricultural Society fbr 1848, there Ss paper on ** The 
Philosophy of Tills^," in which I endeavored to de- 
velop the laws mainly ooncemed iA regulating the na- 
tural productiveness of the earth. Since that time, I 
have devoted ten yean to the careful investigation of 
agricultural phenomena, and had occasion to know that 
most men have very confused notions in reference to 
the several sources of fertility and causes of infertility 
in the land which they seek to improve. In every 
thing there is a fondness for the marveloos, as in the 
supposed transmutaUott of wheat into obesa, and an 
unwillingness to apply the inductive system of reason- 
ing to facts in agrieultve and stock-husbsadry, that 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




greatly ratard sulietoiitiAl prognaa in oar planting and 
fiurming indnatry. A learoliing review of our onrrent 
agrionltiiral liieratnra would reveal a man of oonira- 
diotiona, erroia, and foiliea, aaything but ereditable to 
oar every day praoiioe, and our profeaaional attain- 
menta. Nothing ia moio needed than aoond oritioiain 
applied equally to oar farm eoonomy, agriooltural 
jonmaliam, and mal acieitoe. So long aa mere pre- 
tenders impoae upon the paUie by preaamiag to teaoh 
n profeaaien which they have never ieanied, the pro- 
feiaioaal atady of agrioultare will have the appearance 
of qaaekoiy to the maasea. The Albany Coltivator 
and Ooontry Qentleman, I am happy to aay, have ever 
taken an elevated atand againat the errora of popular 
ignovanee on the one hand, and the aeUafa, if not 
fVandttlent deaigna of aharpen, on the other. Reaiding 
over 100 milea ficom the office of the Soathem Coltiva- 
tor, I do not aee a« much of yoar paper aa I deaire ; 
and if yon will aend me yoar weekly, yon may regard 
me aa a vegnlar oorreapondent heroaAer. D. Lnn. 
Aiheiu, Gn., Jan. 23, 185a 

m' m 

Poultry Manvre fbr Ooxn. 

Bds. Ckwunnr Sskt. — In yoar paper of April i6th, 
18^7, ia recorded the reaalt of an ezperiment with 
hen manore— how compoated, and in what manner 
applied. The past year I have alao teated the value 
of hen mannio aa applied to the oom emp^ and with 
reaulta the moat aatoniahing ; aubatantaating in my view 
the remark made in a former article, that the value of 
oonoentrated manorea, appfied to the young and fee- 
ble plant, of whatever kind, waanot aufficiently under- 
atood by our farmera. And if thia article ahould in- 
duce any of yoor readera who have been in the habit 
of applying all apeeial f ertilisen in a later stage of the 
plant*8 growth— whether aahea, plaster or hen manure 
— to try at least a few rows of com, the manure for 
which shall be so applied that the young plant in its 
earlitet stages of growth shall receive benefit there- 
from, and notice the reaalt of sudi trial — then I am 
confident that wbat I shall write will not prove a mere 
« waste of printer's ink." 

The past season my cimfield of eleven acres was 
meadow sward, turned over a few days before plant- 
ing, and all manured alike, with common barn-yard 
manure. Soil a rich gravelly loam, that for two yean 
previous had averaged at least two tons of hay to the 
acre. 

I am thus particular for the reason that I would show 
sufficient strength of soil to grow " some com," without 
the aid of any foreign fertUiaen ; and ftiUy equal to the 
average com-fields of the State. Four rows, running 
north and south, through the center of the field, were 
planted at the same time, and under the same oiroum- 
stanoes as the remainder of the field, minus the appli- 
cation to each hill before plantfaig, of a compost of hen 
manure, plaster and ashes. From these four rows I 
harvested Just 6| bushels of sound com ; or a trifle over 
li bushels to the row. Fiom four rows immediately 
a4joinlng, I husked just 12| bushels of sound com, or 
a trifle over 3 bushels to the row--the '*hog com "in 
both instances being nearly equal. I am aware that 
this proves a difference hardly credible ; and yet the 
fads warrant me in saying that I nearty doubled my 
of com by applying merely a table-spoonftil of 
above compost to each hill; for so trifling expense 




and labor, reaping laige reward indeed I Brother fhr- 
meis I ye who are in the habit of applying your spe- 
cial manures either at the firat or second hoeing, try a 
few rows at planting time— a hurrying time it is true 
— and my word for it, yoar com by hoeing time will be 
able to take care of itself; for then hundreds of tiny 
roots will have pierced the decaying mould, supplying 
itself with whatever la requisite for the growth of the 
parent atolk. J. E. S. MapU Grove^ Del. Co., N. Y. 



» Orour Barly Cneninbera wnd Meloaui* 

Mbssks. Editors— You have publiahed in your ez- 
odlent journal aeveral methods for forcing cucumbera 
and melona for early use. I have one which I have 
proved by experience to be a good one, and with 
your permission I will give it for the benefit of 
your readers. My first preparation for planting, 
is the making of a good hot-l)ed, one that will give 
considerable heat and retain it. I usually plant 
about the first of March or a litUe later. I then pro- 
cure empty oyster kegs, saw them in two, bore a 
hole in the center of each head for drainage, which I 
cover with jAeoes of broken pots or other porous mate- 
rial, and then fill with a fine and rich compost, and 
plant my seeds in them. I bury my kegs to their 
rims in the dirt of my hot-bed, when it has become 
suffloienUy warm, and the |Hants make their appear- 
ance in a few days. I am then careful to water as of- 
ten as is neoessrry, and keep my frame at such a tem- 
perature that my plants will grow stocky and look 
healthy, not spindling. When my ground is right for 
transplanting, I make hills two feet in diameter and 
the same in dopth, rich and mellow, and then lift my 
boxes fh>m the bed, cut their hoops, when the staves 
will readily fall apart, leaving a dear ball of earth 
and roots, and the latter whole and undisturbed, which 
I bury in my hills; the plants will grow without check 
if the work is done with care, and early fruit is the 
Toward. I use the gallon and larger sixes of kegs, as 
they allow more room for the roots to grow In, and be- 
fore transplanting I " harden my plants off," and af- 
te.*wards use boxes around them with a pane of glass 
in the top. I claim for this method, over that of plant- 
ing upon inverted tuif, one great advantage, which is 
this : The roots of my plants are never broken or dis- 
turbed, but grow without check ; whereas, upon turf 
the contrary is the case, even with the utmost care. 
The cost is a trifle, as any one can aee, for the kega 
can often be had for the asking, as they are usually 
broken to pieces and burnt at the hotels, Ac. I have 
grown cucumbera and melons by this method with per- 
fect success, and as the plants get the start of tbe bugs, 
I am never troubled by them. For maiket gardeners, 
of course Mr. Howatt's way Is the best, but for ama- 
teur gardeners, this will be found aa good as any where 
plants are to be grown for family use. J. E. H 
Clarli^a MiUs, Oneida Co., N. T 
«ei 
A Reeipe for Making Bnywn Brwnd. 

I will give you my redpe for making brown bread, 
which I have adopted of late and find it very good. 
Take two quarts of com meal, two do. of shorts, one 
tablespoonful of salt, one teacup of molasaea. Stew a 
aquash or a good pumpkin, in water aufficient to wet 
this mass ; pour it on boiling hot. When cool enough, 
add a pint of yeaat and two quarta of wheat 
this wul make four loaves, when light, bake 
hows. Ladt BBiJ>SB. FkataniEU^e^llL 





THE CULTIVATOR. 





'^^ - .a ■■■■■ ■iii i i wiH iiiiiiaE^i ^wi^i^ ;;;^^ ^ 

Jersey Boll Commodore. 

Calved 1852— imnortod August, 1854, firom the Isl&Dd of Jersey, bj J. A. Taintor, for J. Howard HcHhut, 

Esq., Pikesville, Baltimore Co., Md. 

Second Premlam Boll, under two years, Island of Jersey, 1»4 

First Premlam Imported Ball, under three years, Maryland Btate Show, 18M 

'* over ** " " 1866 

U M .4 u U tt Jg^ 

" *• •• U. a Ag. Soc. Show, Philadelphia, 185« 

In the Premlam Jersey Herd, »* " •* »* 1850 



KaMon's Oil for Woundi, &o. 

Messrs. Tdckbr A Son— I have long been in pos- 
session of a recipe for an oil for the cure of corked 
hoofs and wounds on horses. 
Take 2 ounces of rock salt, 

2 ounces of copperas, 

2 ounees of white vitriol, 

8 ounees of sale molasses. 

I pint of linseed oil, 

1 pint of chamber lye. 
Pulverise and boil the above together fifteen minutes ; 
then add 4 ounces spirits of turpentine and 1 ounce of 
oil of vitriol, and bottle it up, and when cold it is fit 
for use. Shake the bottle before using it. Bathe the 
wound onoe or twice a day, and dry it in with a hot 
shovel. 

I have kept and used this liniment, which is here 
known as " Masson's Oil," for the past ten years to a 

good account A. D. Brown. Lauren* 

>•• 

Lioe on Calves. 

The best resort that I have ever found to rid my 
calves of lice, is very simple, essy nnd only this : take 
a few dry ashes from the stove ; rub them well into 
the hair of the animals, and all those troublesome lit- 
tle creatures will soon beoome harmless snd disappear. 
Calves, or any other animals to which sshes are appli- 
ed, should be kept dry for a few days, j b. 



Cure for the Streiohee in Slieep. 

Cut their throats, and take off their pelts. This Ti 
the only remedy I know of, although there are unv-j 
prescriptions. I do not believe the real stretches can 
be cured. I have one sick now, and I must go aud 
butcher it I have tried tar, tobacco, and oil, (but nol 
all at once,) but no cure. The belly-ache probj^bty 
can be cured. S. Conb. Berkshire Co.^ Mats. 

For the benefit of your subscribers, I would say tbat 
Ebeneser Johnson of this place, cured a valuable Navf 
Ojcfordshire ewe of the "stretches," by administerTng 
the remedy published in the Cultivator of 1656, page ^ 
143. He had lost several sheep with this disease, but 
never knew of one being cured before. Certainly " The 
Cultivator " paid a good interest on its oost in the 
above case, and I am of the opinion that it would pay 
he most of our farmers well to subscribe for it S- W* 
Johnson. Thurmanf N. Y. 



To Renao^e Fresh Imlc Spots. 

A fjumer's " gude wife '' assures me — in addition to 
which I have seen it successfully tried — that fVesh ink 
spots may be removed by the following method, name- 
ly : Covering the part stained with, or submerging It 
under, a little varm mUk — the newer the better — for 
from five to ten minutes ; then rinse and wash with soft 
water. It is a very cheap and simple process, and 
i eaeions withal, c. 




\ 




THE CULTIVATOR, 



89 



Sohoolay's Ffttent FraMrvatory. 

In oar reoent notice of the prooeedings of the Fruit 
Grower's Society of Western New-York, ft hrief notice 
WM given of this ingenioiis and edmirable eontiiTanoe, 
and of its power of preserving soft fraite, milk, fresh 
meats, to.^ for a long time. Belieriag that a more de- 
tailed aoooont wonld be interesting to onr readers, J. 
L. AuiBOBB of Baffalo, who has made a full trial, 
has at oar reqaeet famished oa the following partiou- 
lars in relation to it : — 

The main liMtares of the prettfrratoty are the pro- 
dootion of oobttoual earrents of oold dry air, without 
mechanical aid,* by the ase of ice. It is well known 
that to preserve meat or fhiit, a eertain degree of cold 
is desired. Nor is this aUme reqaisite ; the air mast be 
dry and pure, or the moistare woald destroy all. We 
constract adjoining each other two rooms, separated by 
a partition open a ftw inches at top and bottom. These 
rooms are insalated against the ranging temperature 
of the outside air by packings several inches thick on 
all sides of noncondacUng mateilal, such ss charcoal, 
saw-dust, tan-bark, or any dry vegetable matter, 
changing the sixe and peculiar position, shape, Ac, to 
any locality or purpose desired. As an instance of the 
range ef sixe, we have here one house 50 by 100 feet, 
and eight others, down to the small chest on the same 
plan, 3 by 6 feet. The operatloa is thus : The ice- 
room containing ice, — the air in contact with it becomes 
suddenly cooled ; its moisture is condensed ; it becomes 
heavier; and flows under the partition, — pure dry air 
at a temperature a little above that of the ice itself, 
into the preserving room among the articles, forcing 
the lighter and warmer air to the top of the room, 
whence it flows to the ice-room, and is drawn down 
anK>ng the ice, where it in turn deposits its moisture, 
and flows out again, thus producing a self-contained 
and actuated current of cold dry air. When, after a 
time, this air becomes impregnated with the odor of 
the articles in store, ventilators are provided for ex- 
pelling it immediately, and resUring fresh air. 

As instances of preservation, I will state that in 
June last our firm slaughtered 1,600 heavy fat hogs, 
and every month after that the lame number until fall, 
making a toUl of 2,000,000 ISs , and cured it with 
perfeet soooess — as good as in ^id-winter. Peaches, 
BarUet pears, grapes, grsen com, Ac, exhibited at a 
house on the State Fair grounds in this eity last fall, 
which I built nine days before the fair, kept perfectly 
fresh 21 days ; after removing the house, I kept them 
in a chest on this plan, 24 days longer, In eatable oon- 
dltion. 

I have kept milk 20 days in weather that would soar 
it outside in 24 hours, and have raised one- third to one- 
half more oream than can de done by any other natu- 
ral method. The cream separates in from three to five 
hours, or as soon as the milk eods to the proper tem- 
perature. I think that a dairyman would make one- 
third more butter every day in the year with this pre- 
servatory. During winter the milk will not freest in 
it, [on account of the non-conducting walls,] which I 
understand is a decided advantage, as when milk 
freeses, the watery parts oome to the top as welt as 
the cream. From my own experience, I have no hes- 
itation in sayhig that meats, fruits ef any and all kinds, 
vegetables, milk, and all the farm products, will keep 



almost indefinite lengths of time. Grapes, I think, 
would keep nine months in great perfection. Many 
other articles, and facts I might name, but do not de- 
sire to intrude too much on your columns. Concerning 
the cost of the structure, it can be, as any other house, 
expensive or cheap, and varies with the locality. The 
consumption of ice is quite small. A small house will 
hold ice enough paoked in winter to last the whole year. 
J. L. Albergbr. 

In addition to the above statement, Lewis F. Allen, 
Esq., of Black Rock, N. T., writes us as follows :— " I 
have seen the preservatory several tioses during the 
past season, and examined the articles stored in it, 
and confirm all that Mr. Alberg er states in relation to 
them. I believe the adoption of such a preservatory 
by the dairymen, fruit-growers, hotel -keepers, — in fact 
by all who have perishable material, which they wish 
long preserved, will add greatly to their. interests and 
profit by doing so. 

" I saw milk two weeks old in one of these struc- 
tures, which was as sweet as. on the day it was deposit- 
ed there, and covered by a thick crust of the richest 
cream. For butter dairies, the preservatory would be 
of incalculable service. 

" I have not the sligbest pecuniary interest in this 
invention^ and look upon it only as I do upon alKhose 
discoveries which tend to relieve labor of its burthens, 
and work for the great good of the human family. 

"I intend to erect one on my own farm (he coming 
season, believing it to be much more effectual in its 
objects than the oommon, yet very well constructed 
ice-house which I have had in use for many years." 

In addition to this testimony, we may add that after 
an examination by a committee, a gold medal was 
awarded by the Executive Committee of the New-Tork 
State Agricultural Society, a few weeks since, to this 
invention. 

In order to assist our readen in comprehending the 
principle of its operatioo, we annex the fbllowing sec- 
tion of the structure, drawn fVom recollection of the 
model exhibited at the Fruit-Giowers* meeting at Bo- 
chester. 




f'-r± 






The arrows show the currents of air. The partition 
a, separates the ice vault from the fhiit-room. The air 
in contact with the ice, of course descends in conse- 
quence of its density fVom coldness. It must, there- 
fore, flow into the fruit-room through the opening or 
slit under the partition a. The warmer air in the fruit 
room must inevitably flow back through the upper 
opening over the partition a. Thus a constant stream 
of cold air pours into the fruit- room ; and by the use 
of registers to open or dose the openings, the precise 




THE CULTIVATOK 




Mabgh. 



degree of temperatnn may be oontroQed with the 
greatest aocaraey. The circulatioiL of air is kept up 
precisely in the same way that hot water oarrents are 
maintained, in warming green-houses and other apart- 
ments. 

When the air'in the fmit-room becomes impure, the 
rentilator 6, is opened a few minutes for its escape, and 
firesh air oomes down ftom the garret immediately 
abore, through the orifices c c, which are also opened 
only at the same time. Fresh air is constantly admit- 
ted into the garret at the ends. 

The walls of the structure are made double and filled 
with saw-dust, as in a common ice-house above ground. 
' •■• ■• 

Fronts of Butter Haldng. 

Messrs. L. Titcker A Son— In the Jan. number of 
the Cultivator, I notice the article of J. T. Curtis of 
Chenango Co., on the profits of butter making, ^o. 
Please give mine from Chautauque County. From 4 
cows, 5, 6, 7, and 6 years old, one native, the other 
three half native and half Hereford, one of my daugh- 
ter has made, from 14th April to first January inst , 

825 ns. batler-470 OM. sold in N. T., at24o. |112.80 

866 IKs. consumed In fltmilv, at 24c, 86.30 

8 pin fittted on milk, wy OOO Iba., at 60., 3a.00 

2 n^fer calves, worth $10 each, 20.00 

1 calf 4 weeks old, vealed, worth 8.00 

1 oalf sold butcher, at fonr weeks, &00 

1260.00 
Cost of keeping cows one month at nay In the 
spring, and 2 months up to 1st January, 12 

weeks each, at 760., fS6.00 

22 weeks at grass, each, 38., 83.00 

Bstlmated charges on batter sent toN. Y. 

whole amount at 2o. Ifi 0) 17.60 

88.60 

Baying nothing about labor, proceeds are,... $173.60 
Now about the oowa It is well that diversity of 
opinions and tastes exist in regard to the different 
breeds of stock. Mine is decidedly favorable to Here- 
fords, espeolally as milkers ; and for fattening, consid- 
ering their compact build, aptness to take on fat, quiet 
dispositions, they are superior. One of the number in 
my list above, 6 years old, calved about the middle of 
April, and grass being abundant during summer, she 
became rather fleshy, and failing to be in calf, dried 
her off 1st Nov., and fed with pumpkins and soft com 
—would now not disgrace the finest beef market, and 
is considered by cattle buyers, dull as times are, worth 
960. My cows are fed no meal ; occasionally they get 
an ear or two of com apiece — ^no pumpkins in fall, as 
they make flesh and diminish milk. Normah Eibbb. 
Wegtfield, Jan, 16, 1868. 

• e • 

Onro for Thnmpi in Swine. 

A correspondent of "The Cotton Planter," says— 
"I have frequently had oases of thumps among my 
hogs. My remedy is to tar the oom which they eat^ 
which I have never known to fail to effect a enre if 
taken in time. My manner of preparing the food is 
simply to have a bucket of tar at my fseding ground, 
tarring each ear of com as I throw it to them. If this 
plan is commenced soon after Christmas, and oontbaed 
one or two months, my ezperienoe is, that few if any 
hogs would have thumps." 

Barlet.— The barley crop In the county of Had- 
dington, Scotland, the last year averaged 38 bushels 
and U pecks per acre. 



Msbsrs. EniTOBa— Can any of your subscribers In- 
form me what will cure a disease among hogs ealled 
cholera 1 It is a disease whidi, so far as I oaa learn, 
cannot be enred, as it attacks in different forms. Some 
are taken with adianhea, and die in a fow days ; soma 
vomit» and others seem to be taken with a cough, final- 
ly to a wheese ; their ears and head torn ared purple, 
swell some, and die If any of you can tell a erne or 
preventive, yon will greatly oblige asabseriberloyoar 
Cultivator. W. E. N. Ntar MaynilU, Ky. 

This disease oontinues to rage with great severity in 
various parts of the country. A snbsoriber in Cum- 
berland county. Pa., writes as that it has swept off 
thousands of hogs in that county, many fanners losing 
40 to 60, and distillers from 100 to 300. No remedy 
tried did any good. 

The U. S. Ag. Society, at its meeting in 1857, ap- 
pomted a oommlttee to report on this disease, of which 
Dr. HiGOUiB of Maryland was chairman, who made hia 
report at the late meeting in Washington. It staiea 
that the disease is evidently a species of pneumonia) 
and the enre, m discovered by Br. Higginsi after ex- 
perimenting on hundreds of cases, is to take equal por- 
tions of carbonate of soda and carbonate of barillai 
mix together, rab them in a mortar, and give a dose of 
10 grains, about a table-spoonful, three timet a day. 
This is said to have been entirely successftiL 

■ ♦ • • 

Manvre Compoata* 

Messrs. Editors— I have a great quantity of soil, 
containing from ten to fifteen per cent of vegetable 
matter, mostly nndecomposed, and black in color. 
Please state in Thb Cultivator, what proportion of 
this soil I shall mix with lime, leached ashes, bone 
dust, Ac, to make an efficient manure for com ; how 
long the mixture should stand, before use, and how 
much should be applied to the acre, and in what man- 
ner 7 L. B. Y. Q11UJI8 Co., N. r. 

We can only give a very general answer, in the ab- 
sence of information on the quantity of day in the soil. 
A compost for com may be made of about one to three 
parts lime, one part leached a*hes, and forty or fifty 
parts of soil and manure, in about equal proportions, 
or else with the soil twice or thrice the quantity of the 
manure. Twenty tons might be applied per acre. A 
few hundred pounds of bone dust would be a good ad-' 
dition to the above quantity of compost The mixture 
should stand, if practicable, several months ; although 
a few weeks at mid-snmmer will do, and be equal to 
more than three times that period in winter. 
■ e * 
A CKeap and €kM>d Pnddiins* 

Mbbsbs. L. Tuckbr k SoM—Permit me once mora 
to give you a recipe for making a good pudding. It is 
at once economical, healthful, nutritions, and delioions ; 
it may be eaten warm or cold. When cold, it is a cap- 
ital snbstitate for Blanc mange. 

Into a na|>py that will oontain about two quarts, 
place apples, paced and cut coarsely, until the dish is 
nearly full ; sprinkle on this six tablespoonfnls of sa- 
go ; &en pour into the dish as much hot water as will 
cover the apples and sago. Let it bake about two 
honrs. If the upper pieces of apples become too brown, 
posh them down, and others will take their ptacea 

This pudding should be eaten in deep plates or sau- 
cers, with cream or milk and sugar. S. B. Spring* 
fitUL, Maes. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




ComM. 

Will yoa inform mo wUdi uo the most approved 
eoel fomeoei for warming apartments, and tiie amoant 
of coal they eoMome 1 w. d. 

Tliere are gereral approTed ftmiaeet, but we ean 
enlj fpeak ftom experienee in fkTor of Riohardton ft 
BoyaUm'i, of New-York. The part which the ire 
readiea being of eaet-iion, thej are quite durable. 
The one we have experimented npon^e present win- 
ter, haa a fiie-ehamber abont one fodHftdlameter, and 
ten incAiea high ; the whole fVanaoe ia enclosed in a 
oaae of gatraaiaed iron, Ibrminga eylmdef two feet in 
diameter, and ive Ibet higiL Dufng the present mild 
winter it has ooosomed only 21 hmdred ponnds of 
Seraaton eoal per month, or searoely over a ton, and 
it has wanned three tfpartmenis day and night By 
elosing the draft, it easily keeps fire twelve hoan, and 
might, probably, by very slow eombnstion, retain fire 
for twenty-four hoinf. In severe winters, it wonld 
probably eonsnme a ton and a half of eoal per 
month, or even more. The amomt would be modified 
by the eharacter of the boose, and the windinesm of 
the locality. Oar experiment was performed in a well 
bnUt wooden house, with the walls fiUed in with brick, 
and the sitoation quite exposed. The cost of the for- 
naoe was 935 ; register $12 ; and setting np and pipe 
added enough to make it altofSther about 856. It is 
not separated from the rest of the cellar hi which it is 
placed, but as this was formerly too cold, the warmth 
imparted is just sufficient to give the desired tempera- 
ture. In most instances, however, it would be best to 
place it in a separate apartment. 

Wa know of no distinct experiments performed with 
this furnace of other sites, to determine the amount of 
coal required. 

Ab feeding the fire of such a furnace occurs many 
times a day, it should be done in the easiest manner. 
We find the best way is to take a common iron scoop or 
grain shovel, and have the sides or edges bent upwards 
a few inches, by a common blacksmith, so that it may 
just enter the door to the fli« chamber, and also the 
door below, to tlean out the ash-pit. A similar shovel 
thickly perforated with holes, forms a very convenient 
ash-sifter, admitting of use in the ash-pit itselt 

■ • • • ■ 

DimlnlniP SwaAip I«and. 
Mbbsbs. Editors— I have an 8 acre lot of low land, 
which I have bogged and cut an open ditch around the 
outside, and also once in 6 rods through it lengthwise. 
The upper surface is black muck without any grit or 
sand in it, and very light when djj, 8 inches thick ; 
then clear peat 6 or 8 inches thick, consisting of fibrous 
roots, Ac, holding water like a sponge ; then 8 inches 
of peat and a Ught slate colored sand mixed together, 
underlaid by what seems to be a hard-pan, bat when 
loosened vp becomes a quicluand if mixed with water. 
Kow what I want to know is, what to do with the land 
in its present state. It has bean plowed twice about 
6 inches deep, and I have taken off a light crop of 
buckwheat, oats and com, with no manure. Shall I 
plow up the peat below the black muck, and mix with 
the muck ; or is it best to plow it shallow, and lay 
down to grass 1 What is the best manure to buy for 
such land, and can I cultivate it so as to make it pay 1 
Chaffsk. Ellington^ CL 
first thing to do is to nnderdrain it deeply and 




tboioughly— "we quesCioii if drains 6 rods apart will 
aocomplish the desired result ; our correspondent may 
determine this point by observaUon. We can perceive 
no advantage in plowing up the ** peat " into tne muck, 
both being the same thing essentially. If the sand or 
hard-pan could be thrown up to the snrfooe, it would 
no doubt prove beneficial — could not this be done while 
performing a more thorough underdrainage 1 The ex- 
periment may be essily performed on a small scale. 
No manure will be of use while the ground remidns 
soaked with water— when rendered dry enough, we 
would recommend a moderate dressing of lime and 
ashes, if easy to Im obtabed, (say 20 to 50 boshels.per 
aen at a time,) and yard manure. By this time, such 
land would probably produce fine crops of timothy or 
red-top gram, broom com, or Indian com, if the latter 
is an early sort, so as to eseape the frosts to which muck 
lands are so liable. 

^ • • • 
Cnltl-ratlttif Plants ivMle the Deiv ia on. 

Mbssbs. Editors — At least fifteen years ago, I no- 
Uced a plot of cabbages, of whioh the large fiAm heads 
I could not account for from anything apparont in the 
soil. On asking the owner how he made from such a 
soil so fine and uniform a crop) I found his only seorot 
was that "he hoed them while the dew was on." He 
thought that in this way he watered them, but of coarse 
the good resulted moro from the ammonia than^the 
moisturo of the dew. 

I adopted the practice the year following, and with 
the result was so well satisfied, that I have since con- 
tinued and recommended it to others. In my '* Garden- 
ing for the South," published two years since, you will 
find (page 163) "they (the cabbage tribe,) especially 
like to have feh^soil about them, thoroughly worked 
tehiie the dewWtm them. Then will be a veiy groat 
differonoe in the growth of two plots of cabbages, 
troated in other respects alike, one of which shall be 
hoed at sunrise and the other at midday ; the growth of 
the former wilt surprisingly exceed that of the latter." 

A story in point some time since went the rounds of 
the agricultural pressi of which the substance follows : 
A small plot of ground was divided equally between 
the hired lad of a farmer and his son, the proceeds of 
its culturo to be their own. They planted it with 
com, and a bet was made by them as to which should 
make the best crop. At harvest the son came out some 
quarts behind. He could not understand the reason, 
as he had hoed his twice a week until laid by, while he 
had not seen the hired lad cultivate his plot at all, and 
yet the latter had gained the wager. It turned out 
the whiner's crop had been hoed quite as fireqnently, 
but beforo his rival was up in the momhig. Prori- 
(Unee, U MtniByfoUowB the hoe qf the early rieer vUh 
a epeeial and ineretued reward. 

But thero an exceptions. Cultivating while the dew 
is on, manifostly benefits such gross feeders as cabbage 
and com, but then an plants very impatient of being 
disturbed while wet The common garden snap and 
running l>eans am examples ; and if worked while wet^ 
even with dew, the pores of the leaves seem to become 
stopped, and the whole plant is apt to rast and become 
greatly iiOured. Whether the Lima beans and other 
legumes an as impatient of being hoed in the dew, I 
have not ascertained. Experiments should, however, 
be tried the combig season on all hoed ttops. 
WmTB. Athene, Cfa. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Blattison's Apple-Seed Washer. 

.We haye oft«n received inquiriea for the best mode 
of washing apple seed from pomaoe, to sow for nursery 
trees. One of the best modes we have met with, is that 
adopted by Jambs M. Mattison of Jacksonville, Tomp- 
kins county, N. Y., which he has recently described to 
OS. He assures us that by this method, tzeo men will 
wash from half a htuhd to a bushel of seed in cm 
hour, without iuconvenience, or without becoming wet 
in the operation. 




Make a box 5 feet wide, 8 or 9 feet long, and 10 in- 
ches deep ; leave the lower end f one inch lower than 
the sides, for the water to flow over. Place this box in 
the bed of a brook or stream, on crossbars or scantling, 
with a dam above to collect the water into a trough, 
carrying the water into the box, and projecting six in- 
ches over it. This trough should be made of boards 12 
inches wide, nailed together, and the stream should be 
large enough to nearly fill it when flowing gently. To 
prevent the water from dashing into the box too furious- 
ly, two boards are fint nailed together as shown in Fig. 
2, one board being 18 inches by 2 feet, and the other 
18 inches by 1 fbot. The longer board is placed on the 
' top of the spout, and the shorter at right angles across 
the lower end of the spout. This serf||to throw the 
water perpendiculaiiy downwards into fne box, and at 
the same time serves to spread it out into a thin sheet. 
By moving this board up or down the spout, the quan- 
tity of water pouring into the box may be easily con- 
trolled. 

One man stands on the board e which extends across 
the box ; and the other carries and deposits the pomaoe 
(well pounded to pieoes,) into the box at d, one or two 
bushels at a time. The man on the box then stirs the 
pomace rapidly with a four-tined fork, and throws out 
the straws. The pomaoe floats over the lower end 
(which is an inch lower than the sides,) and the seeds 
fall to the bottom. A few back strokes from the lower 
end of the box assist in the separation of the remaining 
pomaoe. In washing a <* cheese " that contains a bushel 
of seed, it is usual to wash it two or three times, b^ 
using a scoop-shovel. Afterwards, the last cleaning 
process is given to it by placing the whole in a box, 
and then scratching a four-tined fork through it a few 
times. A Kttle experienoe will enable anyone to judge 
accurately of the proper quantity of water to turn on, 
so as to make rapid work, and not carry the seed over 
the box. 

The pomace, fresh flrom the cheese, should be drawn 
and placed on a board-platform beside the box, and 
then plenty of water thrown upon it, until it is thorough- 
ly soaked. This will render it easily beaten to pieoes 
with a hoe. The pomaoe should never remain in the 
cheese over twenty-four hours, as it soon ferments and 
the seed is spoiled. 
Plants of thtfDielytra speotabUis raised from seeds, 
-) much more prolific of flowers than from cuttings. 



Flat Stone fbr Dninfl. 

Mebsbs. Editobs— Is it possible to successfully nn- 
derdrain exclusively with flat stone, of all shapes and 
thickness, varying froin the sixe of a hand to one foot 
square, one-half to three inches thick ; and what is 
the best and cheapest manner of using in the construc- 
tion? A SuBSCBiBBB. SinclearsvUlfy Chauiauque 
Co., N. Y, 

The kind of ^^e mentbned may be used to great 
advantage in underdraining, by a proper selection ef 
sizes. The slaty rock belonging to the Chemung group, 
which we suppose to be the kind alinded to, answers an 
excellent purpose. 



4^ - 




Fig. 1. Fig. i Fig. a. 

The most common way, and nsually the best, for fill- 
ing stone drains where the stone are nearly round, as 
shown in fig. 1, made by just laying a row of small 
stones on each side of the bottom, leaving an open 
channel between them about three inches wide, and 
then covering this channel with flat stones, and filling 
the ditch with small ones promiscuously thrown in, to 
within about 15 or 18 inches of the surface, so as to be 
below the reach of the plow — and the remainder with 
earth. It is hardly necessary to remark that the up- 
per surface of the stone must be either covered with 
coarse gravel or small flat stone, and then with straw 
or inverted sods, to exclude the earth from the stcnes ; 
and if the soil is nearly free from clay, more care in 
this respect will be needAil,— and perhaps a covering 
of hard-wood slabs will be necessary to keep the earth 
to its place. If the bottom of the drain inclines to 
quick-sand, a layer of flat stones must be first laid on 
the bottom. We mention this oommcn mode of con- 
structing stone drains, in order to show the superiority 
of the flat stones spoken of by our correspondent. 

For the chief objection to the mode just described, is 
the necessity of cutting a ditch nearly a foot wide at 
the bottom, to allow laying the channel. The flat stones, 
on the contrary, obviate the labor of cutting a wide 
ditch ; the channel being constructed by placing three 
flat stones together, as shown in fig. 2. The bottom of 
the ditch is cut with a pointed spade, so as to have an 
angular trough ; flat stones are then selected, all of the 
same width, and fitted into and meeting each other at 
the bottom, and then covered by a third flat stone 
reaching across them. The ditch above this is partly 
filled with irregular fragments of stone, and covered 
as fdready described. 

A still better way, where the earth is hard and the 
quantity of water not large, is shown in fig. 3. The 
ditch is cut with the narrowest kind of spade — a mode 
familiar to English ditchers, and which they execute 
with great expedition. Flat stones, without regard to 
their exact width, are placed against the sides, open at 
the top. Into this opening, one or more thicker flat 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




BtonM are thrnst, m npr«Mnied in the cut, and the 
drain then filled as before mentioned. The adyantage 
of thij mode is in obviating the necessity of eeieoiing 
the stone, as almost any width will answer. 

The two last modes, if well made, will last as long 
as tile-drains ; as the earth cannot ftdl into them from 
the sides, nor rise from the bottom, even if of a quick- 
sand nature ; and in the last described, the stones be- 
ing mostly vertical, admit the free desoenfc of the wa- 
ter from above. 

■ ■■■■.»•• 

Proportional Average of Cropi in Scotland. 

It may gratify a reasonable onriesity in some of oar 
readers, to be informed in regard to the proportion 
which the various field crops raised in Sootland bear to 
one another, or, in other words, what proportion of every 
100 acres in tilkige is occupied by each of the crops 
flommonly cultivated. This information may not, in- 
deed, be of any direct jitUUy, but cannot fail, we think, 
to be highly interesting, espedally to those who have 
the means of comparing the fkcCs with similar statistics 
in their own county or State. The information of this 
description which follows, is derived from the tables of 
Scottish Agriooltoral Statistics, which have been re- 
cently published. The proportion varies in different 
counties, but taking the whole country together, the 
proportion of the (Ufiisrent crops in every 100 acres is 
as follows :~- 



"Wbeat, 

Barley, 

Oats, 

Rye and Bere, 

Flax 

Veichea, Tamtp Seed, fcc.,... 

B«an« and Peas, 

Turnips, 

Potatoes, 

Mangold, 

Car rote, Cabbage and Rape,.. 

Bummer Fallow, 

QrHsa and Hay ouder rotaUon, 



It will be seen at a glanee at the above table, that 
oats are cultivated to a much greater extent than any 
other grain ; and that the largo.proportion of the soil 
devoted to grass and turnips, besides the permanent 
pastures which are not included in the above, indicates 
very manifestly that the feeding of stock for dairy and 
other purposes, must be one of the principal branches 
of agricnltural industry in that country. 

The following additional items in regard to the crops 
of Scotland during the past year, may be interesting 
to several readers. 

Of wheat, the whole amount raised was 6,154,986 
bushels ; and the average prodnee about 28 bushels per 
acre. 

Of barley, the whole amount raised was 6,494,534 
bushels ; and the average produce about 32 bushels per 
acre. 

Of oats, the whole amount raised was 32,760,763 
bushels ; and the average produce about 33 bushels per 
acre. 

Of beans and peas, the whole amount raised was 
1,037,760 bushels ; and the average produce about 22 
bushels per aore. 

Of turnips, the whole amount raised was 6,690,109 
and the nverage produce was aboui 14 tons per 



1M7. 


1866. 


1855. 


1864. 


6.274 


7.428 


5.419 


4.765 


5.578 


4.675 


6.271 


6.870 


26.SB1 


26.912 


26.449 


26.430 


.776 


.564 


.594 


.621 


.043 


.077 


.098 


.189 


.607 


.586 


..517 


.421 


1.206 


1.277 


1.212 


1.243 


13.409 


12 979 


12.781 


12.292 


8.931 


4.218 


4.163 


4.052 


.071 


.100 


.064 


.055 


.144 


.125 


.068 


.074 


.523 


.486 


.637 


.740 


, 11 Oifl 


41.628 


42,777 


42.239 


100. 


100. 


100. 


loa 




Of potatoes, the whole amount raised was 430,468 
tons i and the average produce about 2} tons,— ranging, 
however, in different counties, from 1 ton 8 cwt. to 5 
tons Hi cwt per acre. 

These averages, it will be observed, are considerably 
higher than any averages which have as yet been 
reached, according to Census reports, in this country. 
The larger crops of wheat, Ac, of which Scotlnnd may 
boast over this country, are unqnes'ionably owing prin- 
cipally to a higher and more careful cultivation. An 
advance in oar mode of cultivation, would give us also 
an advance or merease hi our crops. Probably neither 
eountiy has yet come rwy near to On end of all per- 
fection. 

Beed Fotatoee. 

We have hivariably ignored the practice of cutting 
potatoes to plant, supposing that nature put them in 
her favorite form for reproduction, and to nourish the 
young plant ; and that by cutting them we opened the 
vessels for the evaporation ol nutritive qualities, and 
leraened the means of nourishment which young plants 
draw from the seed. 

The experience of the last season has brought us re- 
sults in this matter, which, if continued snooess attends 
it, will prove of some importance. 

Early in May last we turned over a piece of sod, and 
towards the close of the month planted it with whole 
potatoes. When this was planted, having a few bushels 
left, we plowed another piece adjoining the one already 
planted ; this was done in June. The seed potatoes fiuk 
this piece were cut in such small pieces that less than 
one-half the quantity was used than ha the former case. 
The same variely of potatoes were planted on each 
piece, and the same tillage given. Xo manure was 
used except a table-spoonful of plaster in each hill. 

When the potatoes were dug, late in October, full 
one-third of those on the ground where the seed was 
planted whole, were made worthless by the rot Where 
they were cut for planting, the potatoes were of good 
size with scarcely any appearance of rot 

Such are the ways of management and the results ; 
and there we leave the matter, for if we would we can- 
not tell whether the same course will lead to the same 
end in a second trial. Atmospheric and other causes 
which we cannot control, might change the whole re- 
sult One thing, however, if cut potatoes are as good 
for seed, vast quantities that would otherwise be plant- 
ed, may be saved for other purposes each year. A 
careful following out of the experiment is the only true 
way to reach facta available in praotiee. W. Bacon. 
Ridanondf Maaa. 

• • m 

Waah to Frevent Rabbits Girdling Fruit Trees. 

I have used the following with complete success in a 
situation where rabbits are numerous, as a wash that 
they do not appear to relish, and by which the trees are 
not at all injured ; Make a solution of, say half a pound 
of tobacco to three gallons of water. Mix with day, 
a little lime, a Httle f^h oow dung, and an ounce or 
two of glue or paste. Thicken to the consistency of 
thick white-wash, and put on with a brush. I had 
about twenty trees much injured } but they have re- 
covend, and never been touched by rabbits since this 
mixture has been annually applied in IheiUl and 
in the winter. J. w. c. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



XhqiariM and Aaswen. 

Mdck fob Hsadows.— I write for infomutUon in re- 
gard to applying pond muclE to old meadows. If yon, 
or any of your «abeoriben, will be kind enongh to give 
me some adriee in regard to it ihroagh Uie Ooontxy 
OenUeman I wosld be obliged. T. F. Y. Andooer, 
N. J, [Apply the pond mad or muck late in automn, 
or in winter, aa a top-dressing, and it wili probably in- 
crease tke growth of the grass, more or less, according 
to the wants of the land and the natoro of the mack. 
An inch wiU be a proper depth— lets wUl answer, and 
more may be applied, if it is of a light or porons na- 
tore.] 

STBAw-cnmM.~Are there any straw-catten which 
wUl oat one-fourth to three-eighths of an inch long? 
Those in this ricinity, with roUen, cut about three- 
fourths long. Do you recommend cutting stalks before 
feeding? N. D. R. WUeonnn. [AU the straw-cut- 
ten which are made with knires set on a cylinder or 
roller, and eutting on another roUer of dried hide, 
work very easily, but cut too long. There are many 
eutters with knives set so as to cut as short as is de- 
sired, but we have never seen any that suited us ex- 
actly, although several of them are quite good. It 
wm not pay to run these by hand— they must be driv- 
en by horses. A friend cuts aH his stalks for a lai^ 
herd of cattle, by attaching the cutter to his four-horse 
power, used for his thrashing machine; it cuts with 
great rapidity, le fine as chaif, and in a short time a 
week's supply may be thus pnpejred. The eatUe ect 
#// the stalks, and it is a great saving.] 

Grabs Sked.— In reading the notes on Major Dick- 
iif flow's farming in Steuben County, In your last year's 
volume, I notice that his meadows were seeded with 
Timothy, Bed-top, Kentucky Blue grass, and White 
clover. I wish to seed a few acres in the spring in 
such manner, and I don't know where to get seed ex- 
cept the timothy, nor bow much of each per acre should 
be used, nor the cost thereof If you can give me the 
desired hiformation, you wiU very much oblige J T 
R. LmoxvilU, Su»q, Co., Pa, [The seed can be 
procured at the seed stores in the principal ciUes. WiU 
Major Di<^inson inform our correspondent as to the 
amount of each kind required per acre 7] 
CuTTWe RAiLg.-^What timber would you reject in 

?^S"1"^"* ''^** ^ **»• ^^ ^^^ to cut them 7 
«. D. B, WUcoruin. [We would reject such as has 
been found to split badly or decay soon-or which is 
more valuable for other purposes. Not being very fa- 
miliar with Wiscomrfn woods, we cannot advise p«rtlc. 
ulariy. If cut and split from mid-summer to mid-au- 
tumn, raU timber wUl last much longer, somettmes 
twice as long, as when cut in winter or towards spring. 
Twelve feet is a convenient length for the rails of a 
common worm fence] 

Machikx for CoTTiKa Cork Stalks.— I am request- 
ed in tiie Country GenUeman of 14th, to givesome in- 
formation respecting my cutting machine. It was 
made by Sinclair of BalUmore, Md.-was purchased 
in New-Yoric some ten years ago, but from whom I 
cannot now recollect-^oost, I think, thirty dollan-ig 
dnven by horse power— wttl cut, with a light hone, on 

head of cattle mono hour. There are but two knives, 
thiiteen inches long, three inches wide, festened at the 
««■- ♦- iron rims or heads, about seven inches in di- 




ameter, and bent in such a manner, tliat in rerolving. 
one or the other is constanUy in contact with the stallu. 
cutting them diagonally in inch pieces, j. t, h 

Artisiak WRLLS—In answer to an inquiry on this 
subject I will say. had D. C. M. deserib^ his neigh- 
bors situation, a tnore satisfactory answer could be 
given. All I can say is, dig a common well in any 
place where the surface of the water wiU be higher 
than the parti where he wishes to carry it IftheweU 
w not more than 34 feet deep, dig a trench two or three 
feet deep, from the last named place to the weU ; lay 
a pipe in it ; putting one end to the bottom of the welL 
Start the water by means of a common suction pump 
at the other, which must be the lower end. Regulate 
the discharge according to the supply by means of a 
faucet, for if the supply Is exhausted the pipe wiU ffll 
with air, and the pump be again required. 

If more than the above named depth, then lay Uie 
pipe so that no part wiU be more than that distance 
above the water. (Here I might remarii that lasting 
water can generally be found by carefully selecting a 
place, by digging lets than 25 feet) 

If he concludes to make trial, ke will do weU to con- 
suit the principles of the riphon, which wiU make the 
whole appear plain. B. T. C, Camul, Putnam Co. 
Draining.- Please inform me ae to the best work on 
Draining, and the price, j. p. [Mann's Preotical 
Land Drainer-price 60 cento— by maU, post-paid. 60 
cents.] ^ 

Bone Mills.— Are there any bone mUls in operation 
that grind bones as fine as meal or flour, and where 
can they be seen 7 h. ■. o. [One of the best, (if not 
the very best) bone mills in this country, can be seen at 
Mr. CoDLsoN's establishment in this city. AfUr the 
bones are ground, they are sifted and assorted intodif- 
lerent siies, some being as fine as meal] 

Ancxrs Quihcr Stocks, Strawberry Plants, Ac 
—I wish to inquire where, and at what price I can ob- 
tain a small quantity^of Angers quhice stocks. I with 
to get stocks which, if set out next spring, ^11 be of 
suitable sise for budding next August. Will stocks 
taken from the stools last fall, answer to bud next sea- 
son? 

I also wish to inquire if strawberry plants may be 
safely sent by maU, and what would the postaM be 
upon fifty plants 9 How ought they to be done up In 
order to go safely 7 

Can you mform me where I can obUin sdons of the 
Madison and Sdiuyler's Oage plums? An Old Sub- 
scriber. Worcester. [Angers quince stocks are now 
mostly raised from cuUings in this country. Good 
stocks from stools last autumn, may be budded next 
summer or autumn. The stocks are famished by 
Hwker A Co., of Bochester, and other nurserymen, at 
•15 per 1,000. The plum scions may be obtained of 
0. Beagles ft Son of Schenectady. 

Strawberry plants may be sent by maU with safety, 
if not over a week on the road, by wrapping the roots 
with a very little damp moss, (the expanded leaves be- 
ing taken off^,) in thin oilcloth or "oil-silk," drawing 
it oaraAdly around by means of a thread, from one end 
to the other, and leaving a smaU orifice at the crown 
end. Half a dosen small plants might be thus wtsd- 
ed together.] ^^ 

Draining.— I thank your oorrespoodent, Geo. Al- 
DERSON of Albany, for the much usefU instrnotioD 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




contained in hii letter about nnderdralniog. I wifh 
he had stated whether he lued all tole tile, or part 
hoiBe shoe Ule. Also whether he leayes an air hole at 
the upper end of each drain, hj iUIing up with small 
stones to the top of the ground. I should like to know 
whether that is absolutely necessary or not. i. x. 

BujmxBSfl.— Is there any remedy for blindness in 
a young horse, occasioned by cataract 1 j. p. 

Norton's Mxlqn Apple.— Aabok Norton of Clif- 
ton Mills, Ky., is informed that scions of this apple 
may be procured of any of the Rochester nurserymen, 
(as for instance, H. E. Hooker Jt^ Co.,) by enclosing a 
few postage stamps. 

DiBRABR IR Calybs. — ^I haTO 9 neighbor who has a 
disorder among his calves which I do not understand. 
Their legs swell up to their ankles, and they lose the 
noe of their legs. Their appetite remains good. Their 
legs are eold. After remaining so for a while, they die. 
I out one of their tails ; the blood started freely and 
looked good. If any of your subscribers could tell the 
name of the disease and the cnre| they will do me a 
fkTor. D. P. JeweU, N. Y. 

Babbbrrt Srkd. — Ton express a wish to have the 
Barberry plant tested for hedges. Last year I plant- 
ed seeds enough for about twenty rods of hedge, and 
to my disappointment, not more than one out of twenty 
eame up. I planted them about the first of May, an 
inch deep, and then silted some rotten chip manure, and 
sprinkled it about half an inch thick orer them. If 
you can tell me through your paper of any method 
that will insure the seed to yegetato, you will confer a 
favor, (as I have about a quart of the berries,) on your 
subscriber. Thomas Lawrence. Olena, Ohio. [The 
difficulty was undoubtedly th^r diynes^—trom keep- 
ing so long before planting. If the seeds are well ri- 
pened ; washed from their pulp late in autumn or early 
winter; and then mixed with sand and planted or 
treated as apple seeds, cherry stones, Ac., we have 
never found them difficult to start. If the above is not 
the reason of the failure, It must be from some cause 
of which we are not informed. It may be that the 
seed now on hand are already too dry i but they may 
be immediately mixed with moist sand, exposed till 
spring, and then tried.] 

Eggs.— (r. W. W. Eggs ean be sent by express 
without injury. For those who hare them for sale, see 
advorUsements. 

B^* J. T. P., Bristol, Tenn., is inf«yrmed that the 
subscriber is the writer of the article on the Culture of 
the Onion in your last volume. John H. Vail. C}u9- 
ter. Orange Co^ N. T. 

Pine Sawdust.— I have been in the practice of haul- 
ing into my barn-yard, whenever it gets too mirey, 
sawdust, principally pine and cedar, to make walks 
about through it; and I expected the sawdust would 
be good manure in the spring; but I was somewhat 
startled a few days ago in reading one of your papers, 
which says— "It is true the public have been caution- 
ed against using Piru sawdust." Now is ther^ any- 
thing hurtftil in the article, and if so^ what shall I do 
with ail my manure that has it in 'l I have also kept 
uy hog-pen diy with sawdasi, and was thinUng of 
making arrangements to save all the sawdust that we 
with our up and down and oironlar saws. A New 
Subsceisbr. [Will some of our readers who live In 
regions, please give ns the result of their expe- 




rience 1 In the meantime we may add that Mr. Pern- 
TiCE of Mount Hope, has used hundreds of loads of pine 
sawdust and shavings for bedding his cattle and ab- 
sorbing the liquid manure, without ever having disco- 
vered any injury from their use.] 

How TO Improvr the Stream or Milk.— I notice 
on page 56, present vol. Co. Qent., P. McC. inquires 
how he can make his heifor give a larger stream of 
milk. I have had cows that milked hard and gave a 
small stream of milk, and have remedied it as follows : 
Grasp the teat tightly around before she has been 
milked, leaving the lower end as full of milk as it will 
hold without running out ; take a small sharp penknife 
and run it into the orifice of the teat, say a quarter of 
an inch ; then try and see if she milks any easier ; if 
not, run the blade in say three-eighths or half an inch 
— your own judgment will tell you how much you 
should cut. As a general thing, the blood will not run. 
Should you have oooasion to cut more than one side 
of the teat, you should turn the knife just half around 
and that will give you a flat stream. This may answer 
for your oow ; at any rate, you can try it on one teat 
W, JUJtghany Co., N. T. 

Bi-sviiPHATE OF Limb. — ^Tou will oblige me by in- 
forming me how I ean procure some bi^sulphate of lime, 
mentioned on the 405th page of the Patent Office Re- 
port of 1849, which I think would be of great benefit 
in making sugar from Sorf^um. ■. c. m. 

Reapers. — ^Will some of your subserlben give me 
their experience with the various reapers now in use — 
the cheapest and best used, and whose patent is best 
adapted to an uneven or hilly surfaoe — where to be 
procured, and at what price 1 J. H. O. Bagdad, 
Tenn. 

Stump Machine. — Can yon give me any information 
of a good stump machine, where it can be had, and at 
what price 1 S. M. Foulks. HtnryniUe^ Ky. 

JvHPiNG Ox.— I see an article in the Cultivator, 
Feb., 1856, p. 63, as regards jumping oxen, and what 
is the best preventive. I tliink I can answer the ques- 
tion in a few woids satisfactorily. I have tried the 
plan this faU, and it worked weU— that is, take the ox, 
pot him in a good stable, and make him fast with a 
good rope. Feed him all the com meal he can eat for 
three months, and oany him what water he wants three 
times a day. The first time you let him out of the sta- 
ble, take him to the slaughter-house, and let the butoh- 
er have him for what he will fetoh. By so doing you 
will get rid of the ox, and well paid for your trouble. 
C. 6. G. Brooklyn^ 0. 

Just say to R. N., Randolph, Yi, (hi the Co. Gent., 
Vol. XI, No. 1,) to bleed m the leg. r. j. e. 

Oulturo of the Xiooqft. 

Messes. Editors.— Tou can tell S. L. S., Guilford 
Center, Vt, to scald his locust seed in April, and plant 
in drills thick. Take up the following spring, and cut 
off the tap roots, and plant out in rows 4 or 5 feet 
apart and 1 foot in the row, and cultivate until large 
enough to set out He will find on taking up his trees, 
three or five years afterwards, that they will have roots 
much like the apple tree taken firom the nursery-^all 
small and very numerous ; just the reverse oi what 
they would have been had they stood where the seed 
was planted. Cut all the limbs and part of the 
when set for permanent growth. W. H. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




March. 



Ak Ao. High School in Penhstlvania. — A oor^ 
respondent at Pittsburgh calls oar attention to the fact 
that an establishment of this kind is now in process of 
organization. The Trustees have purchased 200 acres 
adjoining a tract of similar extent donated for the par- 
pose by Qen. Jambs Irvimb, in Center County,— the 
oitisens of which have contributed $40,000» the State 
Agricultural Society $10,000, and the Legislature 
•45,000, for the erection of suitable buildings, laying 
out the grounds, and planting as extensively as practi- 
cable, preparatory to the commencement of a course 
of instruction. " A convenient farm house, a large 
bam, corn-cribs, wagon sheds,' and other necessary 
out-buildings have been completed; an edifice two 
hundred and thirty-three feet in front, and five stories 
high, with wingft at either end, built of limestone, is 
in a state of forwardness, and will be completed during 
the ensuing summer, at a cost of fifty- five thousand 
dollars. The building is adapted to the accommoda> 
tion of at least two professors with their families, and 
three hundred students." 

LETTBns OP Ikquiry.— No better evidence need be 
required of the interest awakened by the communica- 
tions of plain observing practical men, detailing their 
practice, than is fbnnd in the number of letters 
addressed to them asking for farther and more minute 
information on the matters treated of. Our correspond- 
ent, Mr. John Johnston, in a late letter says—" I have 
no doubt but I have answered more than seven hundred 
letters in the last foorteen years, in relation to drain- 
ing, feeding cattle, sheep, Ao." And in sending as the 
following note, Mr. Howatt states that he has received, 
within the past few weeks, about fifty letters of inquiry 
about matters on which he had written in the Country 
Gentleman, all of which, so far as he coald, have been 
answered: 

Those gentleman who have written to me, and have 
not received answem to tiieir letters, on potatoes, oooam- 
bers, Ac., will please write again, and write their names 
and address distinctly, as some of them have neither 
State nor post- town. All inqniries will bo immediately 
answered, when the proper address is given and a 
stamp enclosed to pre-pay answer. Gxbald Howatt. 
Newton^ N. J. 

WiNB MAKfNO NXAR HoMX.— We lean that Mr 
Obo. L. Rundlb of Greeneville, Greene Co., who has 
been for some years engaged in the eider business — 
clarifying it, and converting it into what is called 
" champagne cider," for the New- York market^-^he 
last season added to his establishment a new branch, 
that of wine-making, sad that he pressed over twenty 
tons of elderberries and about five tons of grapes and 
currants, the juice of which was converted into elder- 
berry, grape and currant wine. We presume this Is 
the largest lot of elderberry wine ever made in this 
country. 

Plan of a Small Houbb.— A correspondent at Lit- 
tle Eagle, Ky., sends ns a plan of a small house that 
has some good points, bat also some serious defects — 
among which am, the wardrobe and bed-room are at 
the opposite ends of the building, and nearly the same 
remark applies to the pantry and kitchen. «The chim- 
neys being placed at the farthest extremities of the 
house, would not look well in agotiilc elevation, which 
correspondent desires ns to furnish him. 

Chinbsb Pigs.— J. M. For, Esq., SooU's HUl, N.C. 




wishes to procure a pair of Chinese pigs. We do not 
know who has them for sale. 

Chinbsb Sugar Canb Sbed. — It will be seen by I. 
W. Briogs' Advertisement in this paper, that he pro- 
poses to distribute any quantity of this seed, from half 
an ounce to a pound, on receipt of P. 0. stamps enough 
to prepay the postsge ; and he Is the man to do what 
he promises. 

Tub " Friends' Review," Philadelphia, a periodi- 
cal of high literary ability, gives latoly a handsome 
notice of the Country Gentleman, and says, ** As a 
weekly Agricultural Joamal for the Farm, the Gar- 
den, and the Fireside, uncontaminatod by tales, the 
Country Gentleman, so far as we know, has no compe- 
titor." 

Horse Pitch-Fork.— Robert Hatton of Waynes- 
ville, Ohio, says, " I made a pitoh-fork from the de- 
scription in the Register, p. 338, but found the tines too 
weak, as they broke immediately. Unless the smith 
was very well acquainted with working steel, I would 
say that three-fourths of an inch wss none too large for 
them ; and in common use they might be shorter than 
20 inches— I would prefer 18." 

1^ The United States Ag. Society at the late 
Washington meetiog, resolved to bestow on Col. Wil- 
der a service of plate to the value of $250, as a testi- 
monial of appreciation of his services as President for 
the period of six years. Our columns during this time 
bear constant witness lo the untiring energy, the un- 
failing attention, and the almost uniform success with 
which he has conducted its movements ; and we may 
add, that to few gentlemen at the head of similar as- 
sociations, are memt>ers of the Agricultural press, as a 
body, so much indebted for appreciative and appropri- 
ate courtesies. His kind and hearty greeting to the 
guests of the Society, and his thoughtfulness in meet- 
ing their wante, amidst all the confusion and bustle of 
a Show, have only seemed to grow surer and prompter, 
and for this reason if for no other, his presidency will 
live long and pleasantly in the memories of many 
friends of Agriculture In every state, whose delegates 
he has welcomed. 

Sales op Devonb. — John R. Chapman of Oneida 
Lake, the last week purehased of Capt Joseph Hil- 
ton of New-Scotland, a yearling Devon bull, " Master 
Quartly," out of Ruth by Frank Quartly, both im- 
ported by L. G. Morris, Esq.— a heifer calf, " Flora," 
also out of Ruth, by Empire, who took the first prise at 
the late State Fair at Buffalo, and the yoke of Devon 
oxen apon which Capt. H. received the first prize at 
the Albany Co. Fair in 1856, and the first prise at the 
State Fair in Buffalo. They are all very superior an- 



Ambrican Fruit in England.— We are pleased to 
notice that Messn. Hovey k Co., of Boston, have re- 
ceived a very satisfactory and pleasant acknowledg- 
ment of a contribution made by them to the last Fall 
Show of the London Horticultural Society— in the shape 
of a large silver medal taken for a collection of up- 
wards of 60 varieties of Pears, and prises for specimens 
of Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening Apples. After 
the display was concluded, 70 or 80 of the finest fruits 
remaining in good order were presented by the Hort 
Society to Her Majesty. The medal is described 
" a beautiful specimen of the work ex^uted at the 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




Royal mint It oontaiiu on one side a tgan of Flora, 
BQrroonded with her attendant nymphs, and on the rs- 
rerse the following inscription: "The Horticaltnial 
Society of London, to Messrs. Hovey A Co., for a col- 
lection of pears, Oct. 4, 1857," surronnded with a 
wreath of roses and grapes." 

1^^ At the annual meeting of the New- Jersey State 
Ag. Society, held at Trenton on the 20th Jan., a special 
Diprloma waii awarded to oar correspondent, Gerald 
How ATT, for the best acre of Prince Albert Potatoes, 
an account of which was published in the first no. of 
our present yol. Mr. H. also recelred the first prise 
for the best acre of RuU Bagas, and the second on his 
crop of Potato Oats. 

The Llamas. — Mr. Lohmah writes ns that the re- 
cently imported Llamas are the kind that produce the 
Alpaca wool — that they are shorn twice a year, pro- 
ducing 16 to 20 lbs. at each shearing — that they breed 
eyery nine months, and attain the age of 18 years. 

Root Cutter.— Mr. Campbell informs us that while 
at Red Hook, he saw Willard's no/k outter, figured and 
described in our last vol., p. 333, in operation, and that 
it sliced two bushels in one and a quarter minutes, with 
one hand to feed the roots and another to turn the 
erank. 

Dbting Wood. — It has been found that the most 
thoroughly seasoned wood, at common temperatures, 
•till contains about one-tenth water. 

Frankliit Covrtt, Yt.— This is one of the best 
Dairy Bounties in the United States. Its territory in- 
eludes only 420 square miles, and yet it exported from 
the railroad steUon at St. Albans in the year 1867, 
2,413,328 lbs. butter, and 878,050 lbs. cheese— amount- 
ing, estimatwg the butter at 20 cents, and the cheese 
at 10 cents per lb., to 9570,45060. The St. Albans 
Messenger, from which we learn the amount of ship- 
ments, says : " But for the low price paid for butter 
and cheese in the latter part of the season, a much 
larger amount of produce would have been sent off. 
Very many of our farmers hav» not sold the cheese 
made during the summer, nor the butter made in the 
fall. Some of them have tons of it stowed away, hop- 
ing to realise better prices." 

BxpEHSiVE Fehcino.— Thtt.Mendota Press stated 
that the Illinois Central Railroad have been setting a 
snow fence from Galena to La Salle. The portion of 
the road from Dunleith to the former point does not 
require that protection, owing to the nature of the sur- 
face. The fence has been set for seventy eight miles, 
on an average about ten boards high, and will cost 
when completed in the coming summer, about one 
hundred and thirty thousand dollars. The posts are of 
oak, very heavy, set three feet >n the ground, and the 
boards are put on with regard to permanency. It is 
believed that the fence will stand for forty years. 

Ooon Rye Crop.— Mr. A. Stbvees, Pittsfield, Mass., 
informs us that he raised the past season, 62 bushels 
rye on two acres. 

Horse Ezribitiohs.— The County Ag. Societies of 
Cayuga and Onondaga, have resolved to separate their 
Horse Exhibitions from the regular County Fain, and 
to have shows in June, when the honemen can have it 
their own way." 

John L. White of Pittsylvania C. H., Va., lately 




purehased in England, the celebrated raoe-^orse " Fly- 
by-Night," (by Flying Dutchman,) which arrived at 
New-York Jan. 17th. 

The Winter ir Erolard. — A correspondent of the 
Cottage Gardener speaks of having dined *' on Christ- 
maa day with a friend whose house is situated close on 
the confines of Dartmoor, (Devonshire,) a bouquet con- 
sisting of the following flowers, all of which were gath- 
ered from the open^arc^,standingon the table : Fuch- 
sias, fine ; Tom Thumbs, Ageratum, Nasturtium, fine, 
Mignonette, Salvias, Periwinkle, Polyanthus, Verbe- 
nas, ^." 

1^ The next Ohio State Fair is to U held at San- 
dusky. 

Barbrrrt por HBnoss.— We mentioned this shrub 
a few weeks sfaice with the hope that a trial might be 
made with it for hedges. In a recent letter from B. 
Ordwat, of Freeport, Illinois, he says : " We sowed 
the Barlverry and Buckthorn seed for a hedge in the 
spring of 1847, and both will now turn stock. We think 
the Barberry superior to the Buckthorn for a hedge." 

Thr Yalxtr of Turnips — A subscriber in New- 
Hampshire writes us as follows : — ** You may tell your 
corrsspondent, J. W. Clarke, in Co. Gent, Dec. 17, 
that we do not think much of his article on the ' Eco- 
nomy of Feeding Roots.' I have raised firom five to 
eight hundred bushels of turnips in a year with my 
com, for years i>ast, and I find that my stock looks as 
well in the spring as my neighbors*, who raise no roots ; 
I find them good also fi>r hogs, and I think they do as 
well on turnips boiled as they do en potatoes." 

Herrpord Cattle. — Extract of a letter from Al- 
len Atrault, Esq., of Geneeeo, dated Feb. 2 — *' I 
like the Herefbrds as well as ever. They mature ear- 
lier, cheaper and better than any other kind I have 
raised. Those I sent to market last fall, were a mix- 
ture. The Herefords were the best in quality, although 
in one or two instances perhaps net quite as valuable." 

A PREMIVM Farm. — Those who have had the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing the skill and neatness which mark 
all the operations, the buildings and fields of Mr R. J. 
Swan, near Geneva, will be pleased to notice by the list 
published in another column, that the N. Y. State Ag. 
Society has just awarded him a Silver Cap for the best 
farm in the state. Mr. S. is the son of B. L. Swar, 
Esq., a wealthy merehant of New-Tork, and his name 
might be added to the already oonsiderebie list of 
young men, whom the position now occupied by Agri- 
culture as a pursuit, has attracted from city life to the 
labors and enjoyments of tilling the soil, and who have 
in this pursuit achieved a success rarely if ever sur- 
pased by those brought up to it from boyhood. 

Protection op Wbstrrn Nursery Trees.— 0. M. 
CoLMAN of Bloomiogton, 111., says, — " The two past 
winters have been hard on western nurseries—still in 
both we did not lose 600 trees. We regard hUling up 
quite important for trees like ours." Wn. Lakr, nur- 
seryman, of Iowa, remarks, — ** In the winter of 1856 
-7, I had not banked up my one year old trees, so by 
heaving of the ground, over 12,000 fine grafted trees 
were root killed, the tops remaining soudl and green." 

New Evbroreens in Micbioan. — Wn. Adair of 
Detroit, writes—" I have abandoned the cultivation of 
many evergreens that were reputed hardy, but 
with me have proved disastrous failures, and 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



tii«m D«odar eedar, Letwnon do., CfTptomeria, Chill 
pine, English nnd Iriih Yew, Eoropean Silver fir (A. 
peotinata tazffoUa,) and Abies pinsappo. 

17 Those wanting pore-bred Short-Horn cattle, 
are referred to the advertisement of Br. Wbhdbll. It 
will be seen that the pedigrees include stndns of the 
best families of Short-Horns in England. 

Valuk of mot PUBLXCATIOHS. — A subscriber at 
New-Castle, Pa^ says— •< Your pablioations have been 
of great servioe to me. About three years ago I pur- 
chased a small form near the village in which I am en- 
gaged in business, for the purpose of making a more com- 
fortable home lor my family, awaj from the soot and 
coal smoke of our iron manufactories. By the aid of 
the Rural Register and Co. Gent., I have been enabled 
to erect my buildings, lay out and ornament my grounds, 
select my fndt trees, shrubbery, A<^, entirely to my 
satisfaction. I built my pig-bouse on the plan given 
in the Register, and find it to answer admirably." 

C0T8WOLD Skibp.— R. G. CoFnir of Dutchess Co., 
gives his preference to the Cotswold over any other 
breed, when looked upon as a wool-producing and mut- 
ton sheep. He sold in December last, five wethers of 
this breed, 21 months old, at $14 each. The expense 
of rearing them to that age, including pasturage, hay, 
turnips and grain, was 942.13. They produced 40 lbs. 
wool, at 31| ots., amounting to 812.60, making the 
whole income from them 862.60, and leaving a clear 
profit of a fraction over 9Q each. 

Correction,— In the December No. of " The Culti- 
vator," 1857, p. 367, in my *'IUport qf ExperimenU 
wUk Poiaioea," in Axiom 12th, " to renew and itii' 
prove," shouU read, U> get tuu> and improved vari- 
eties qf " the seed," Ac. j as it seems that Prof. S. W. 
Johnson took me to mean regeneratey and very natu- 
rally but erroneously ; which idea I had not the most 
distant thought of conveying. J. C. Clbvelahd. 

Mowx!ra MACHWBg.— Doubtless there are many who, 
like L. R., are anziqus to know what mower took the 
premium at Syracuse. But why do not OEtrmers judge 
these machines for themselves, as they do of plows, Ao. 
When we are about to buy a plow, we pay but little 
attention to prises, but buy the one that does our work 
best. There are several machines that have t«ken first 
prises, that are hard for every day work. It is my 
opinion that R. L. A.llen's machine works the easiest^ 
and will do good work under a greater variety of cir- 
cumstances than any other. P. P. Pxckhaic. Cok-m- 
bia Cross Roads. ^ 

Good Rye Crop.— I noticed in the Co. Gent, a good 
rye crop, raised by Mr. A. Stevens of Massachusetts, 
which induces me to tell what I have done. I raised 
the past season 103} bushels on three acres. This be- 
ing my first experience, I thhik it pretty good. A. J. 
Hull. 

The TTkioh Ao. Societt, at Palmyra, held their 
annual meeting Feb. 3, 1858. Luther Sanford of Pal- 
myra, was elected President ; Omon Archer, Cor. Sec- 
retary, Palmyra; C.J. Ferrin, Rec. Sec»y, Palmyra. 

Steubeh Co. Ag. Society.— The officers elected at 
the annual nTeetfag, held at Bath, January 13th, 1858, 
are as follows ; 




March 




ProBldcnt—LT^Air Balooic 

Vioo Pre^deDtn— Dwilel Gray, T. M. YounglovB, Chaa 

Secretary— Robt M. Lyon. 



Vew-T^rtc gtiite Ac. C*I]e^. 

Meetings of the Trustees of this institution were 
held in this city the 9th, 10th, and 11th insts., at which 
the foUowing members of the Boarxi were present .— 
Gov. Kiwo chairman^ Messrs. Wm. Kelly, Abraham H. 
Post, Henry Wager, Arad Joy, Samuel Cheever, M. 
R. Patrick, B. P. Prentioo, Alex. Thompson, andB. P. 
Johnson. James 0. Sheldon of Geneva, was elected 
Trustee in the place of Rev. Amos Brown resigned, 
and took his seat with the Board. Arad Joy of Ovid, 
was elected Treasurer instead of Joel W. Bacon resign- 
ed. B. P. Johnson was elected Secretary in place of 
Rev. Amos Brown. Hon. Geo. W. PaUerson resigned 
as Trustee, in consequence of ill health preventing his 
attendance, and Hon. Beiuamin N. Huntington of 
Rome, Oneida Co., was elected to fill this vacanjsy, and 
we understand has since signified his acceptance. 

Gov. King informed the Board that since the last 
meeting he had received from the Comptroller #8,000 
of the loan made by the State, and the same had been 
deposited in bank to the credit of the President of the 
College. Samuel Chtever, Alexander Thompson, and 
Henry Wager were appointed a buildhig committee. 

Alex. Thompson was appointed a member on course 
of studies in place of Amos Brown. 

The committee on course of instruction made a par- 
tial report, and the whole subject was then recommit- 
ted to the committee. 

The building committee was instructed to employ 
competent persons to examine the stone quarried on the 
premises of the College. 

The plan for the buildings, as heretofore mentioned 
in our columns, is that submitted by Mr. Hbwes, ar- 
chitect, of this city, and consists of a main building 51 
feet front by 132 deep, having on each side a wing 86 
feet deep, by 60 in length, and at the extremity of 
these wings, transverse wings, each having a front of 
60 feet, and a depth of 128— the whole calculated to 
accommodate 400 or 500 students. In view, however, of 
the present financial condition of the country, and aim- 
ing to keep within the limit of their present means, 
the Board directed the Building Committee to proceed 
to contract for the materials for the center building and 
south snb-building* only, and in pursuance of this de- 
cision the building committee proceeded to close a con- 
tract for all the lumber necessary for the buildings to 
be erected. 

We are pleased to notice that the proceedings of 
the Trustees evince great care not to proceed with the 
erections for the Ag. College, fiirther than their funds 
will warrant. They expect to have the erections above 
designated enclosed and roofed during the coming sea- 
son ; and early in the ensuing year it is hoped to be in 
readiness for 100 pupils. 

There can be no doubt, we think, that they will 
accomplish this, and thus be enabled to present to the 
farmers and mechanics of the stote an opportunity to 
test the value of. the instruction, theoretical and prac- 
tical, whieh will there be given. The gentlemen who 
have its management in charge, are excellently qua- 
lified for their responsible position, and the recent ad- 



♦k! ^?^A^ informed by Mr. Hbwes that thii portion of 
the buildings, eomprlslog the center apd one lateral wing, 
will contain janltor^s rooms, laundry, laboratory, kitchen! 
store rooniB, dining room, President's room.TrofcBBore an^ 
Teachers' rooms, class and recitation rooms, halls 
cases, lecture room, and seventy study rooms, wf 
rooms attached, each for two students. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



ditiooi to tiM board, no Imb than Mb fonnor oMiiiben, 
deMiredly po Mew Uw entire gonMomo of tbe eomma- 
mtj. The detorminaUon wiUi whieh they have engaged 
hi the work wae well iUastrated by the remark of their 
President, at the meeting Thonday ni^it— that they 
woald " pat a roof wherever they laid % foundation ;" 
in other words, that they would not be tempted into 
expenditures of any kind beyond thehr meaas, and that 
they wonld make no beginning where they ooold not 
«leariy see the aooompUahment of the end before 
them. 

AgxioQltaTal Sociatieg. 

Kbittuckt Statb Ag. SocinTT.—This sooiety held 
its annual meeting Jan. 9, the President, Cd. Brutus 
J. Clay of Bourbon, oallisg the oonTontion to order. 
Aftor the transaetioo of some unimportant business, an 
election lor officers fbr tlie ensuing year was gone into, 
which resulted as follows : 

FresIdent—BRVTua J. Olat of Boarboo. 

Vice Preaidents— A. J. Alexander, tL A. TcNnUnsoo, R 
Rawler. 

Directors— Gibson Mellory, J. 8. Jackson, O. M. Priest, 
J. M. bbarp, Lucius I>eeha, B.Thompson, 9* 8. Bradfbrd, 
C. R Cook, and £. L. Dr»De. 

The following is an abstract of the Treasurer's report : 
Total receipts during the year 1867 fhHn all 

sources, $8,475 76 

Expenses same period, 8,891 96 

lieavlng a balance of, |2,083 80 

SUyer premiums on band, 406 00 

Balance on hand at close of second year,.. $2,488 80 
• Mr. R. W. Scott was elected Corresponding Secretary, 
and Mr. James W. Tato Treasurer. Mr. Scott declined 
the office of Secretary. The Society then postponed 
the election of Secretary until their next meeting, 
whieh is to take place at Frankfort on the 12th of Feb- 
ruary, when the place for holding the next Stato Fair 
will be selected. 

Bucks Courtt Aq. Socibtt ahd Mbchahicb' In- 
snruTB. — An adjourned meeting of this Society was 
held at the Newtown Hall, on Thursday, the 2l8t Jan., 
the President, Wm. Static lt, Esq., in the chair. The 
minutes of a former meeting were read and approred. 
The Committee on Rules and By-I<aws made a report, 
whieh being read, considered and somewhat amended, 
were adopted. This completes the organisation of the 
Sooiety under the lato Charter. 

An election for officers was then held, which resulted 
in the unanimous choice of the following gentlemen : — 

President— William Statblt. 

Vice President— Robert Longshore. 

Recording Secretary— John 8. Brown, 

Corresponding Secretary— Rdmund G. Harrison. 

Treasurer— Jacob Sastbnrn. 

Managers— T^ wis I'.uckman, Adrian Con^ell, Jno. Blnck- 
■on, Hecter C. Jarvis, Edward H. Worst ill, Charles W. 
Biles, Captain Joseph Eyre, J. Panl Knlgbt, John Robblns, 
John Bamsley, SUas Carey, J. Watson Case, Moses Bast- 
barn, Jonathan Kul^t, Alfted Blaker. 

The last Wednesday of Septomber of eaeh year, at 
the Soeiety's grounds at Newtown, were ilzed upon as 
the time and place of holding exhibitions of the Society, 
until otherwise ordered. 

We have received the new By-Laws of this Society, 
snd deem them the best adapted for the purpose of any 
which have fallen under our notice. 

Tbb Bainbribqb Aq. Socibtt held its annual meet- 
ing for the election of offiee rs for the ensuing year, on 




the 17th day of Januaiy, ISSa The IbUowiag ofleen 
were eieeted j— 

President— D. A. Carfbhtbb. 

Vice Presidents— Charles Blxby and Ira Bennett 

Sec'y and Treasurer-MulJn Jackson. 

Directors-Noble Buck, Plilllp Northrup, L. C. Pollard 
Ira Hyde, Pliny Klrby and John Banks. 

Rbhssbl^bb Co. Ao. Socistt.— The next Annual Fair 
will be held on the 14th, 16th and leth of Septdwr. The 
following are officers for the ensuing year : ^^^ 

P!re«»J«t-JoB!i H. Will Ann, Troy. 



w J^'« PresWenU-Henry Warren, Ohio. Vail, Hurii 
i 'h^ Starbuck, Troy ; H. W. Kniekerlieke^ 



singhnrgb. 
Treasn 



Ran- 
Lan- 



reasnrer-A. Van Tuyl. Secretary— William Hagen. 
Grbeiix Co. Ae. Socibtt.— Officers for 1868: 
President— Lewis Bbbbxili.. 
Vloe-President— Cyrus Field. 
Treasurer— Addison P. Jones. 
Secretary— Horatio I* Day. 
Directors— Edward Johnson and Luke Boe, IbrS yean. 

♦ • •- 

Ftam Aoooiints and StatiBtiM. 

We can only geMralizt from particulars, and upon 
the truth of the Itonos, statistieal and descriptive, de- 
pends the value of aU deductions and inferences. This 
is particularly applieable to agricultural generalisa- 
tions. They are loo often made up firom guesses— from 
random estimates— and mislead those who rely upon 
them fbr practical fatformation. 

What a mass of valuable partieulart might be rea- 
dily obtained, did faroMfs generally keep an account 
with their crops — of cost and product — of soil, culture 
and circumstance. Few, very few, know how much 
(with any ezaotaess) a erop cf wheat or eom has cost 
them, or the expense attached to rearing animals for 
use and sale. A large daas cannot even toll what 
their cash reoeipts and expenses are for a year, save as 
they remember the diffsreat items ; yet they carry on 
a large business. 

In that business, how ean they proceed understand- 
ingiy 7 How can they toll what branch of farming is 
most profitable 1 How do they know but they are 
losing monoy by that to which they give the greatest 
prominence, and making good profits upon that which 
they consider of very little importance 1 A correct 
account of capital, expenses, and reoeipts with each 
branch of fkrm produets, would settle all these ques- 



Any fhrmer who wishes to determine his stand-pobit 
for the future, should now commence with an inventory 
of lands, stock, grain, implements, Ac. With the open- 
ing of the spring work, a journal of its labors should 
be kept, and these, posted weekly to the dilTerent class- 
es of crops, Ac. to which they beloDg, will show him at 
the end of the year what each crop has cost A little 
care in measuring, weighing, Ac, will show its approx- 
imate value, and then he has in black and white the 
result of his season's work. There he would find the 
material for nuny hours of thoughtful cogitotion while 
maturing plans for the future, and thence he could 
draw stores of facte and particiriani, usef\od to his bro- 
ther farmers, to be disseminated by the public press. 

Another thought. Who would think of carrying on 
any sort of a manufactory without a book-keeper and 
carefully kept accounts? No one, surely. But the 
farm is as much a manufactory as any which can be 
named, and ite operations cannot be conducted •skill 
fully and intelligently unless the same system 
sued. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




PLATTSBUROH NURSERIES. 

ALAROB fidd excellent stock of HARDY NORTH- 
KRN FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL TREES, Vines, 
Bbrube, Hedge PIadU, ttc, fcc 

APPLE TREES— Standard and Dwart 

PEAR TREES-Standard and Dwarf. 

PLUMS, Oberiiee, Carrants, Raapberrlea, Qooeeberrlee 
—all of the beet varieties. 

Aleo the following new choice GRAPES, saperior to all 
ether* f(|MDpeQ cmture, ripening early, viz : Delaware, 
Diana, ^Hpca, Marlon, and Concord— all thrifty vinee 
and at tb^oweat ratee ; aleo the old SUndard lorte. 

A new priced Catalogue will be ieeued in a few daye, 
and will be eent to all pereone applying. 

Also YELLOW LOCUST SEED of the laat eeason'a 
growth, will be forwarded on orders, by Express, without 
charge for packing, at seventy-five cents per pound. 
JOHN W. bailey; Proprietor. 

Feb. 26— w2tnolt» Plattsburgh, N. Y. 

TO FRUIT-GROWBil8>-8PRI\G OP 1858. 

IN ADDITION to our general stock of Fruit Trees, we 
solicit the attention of Planters to the following arti- 
cles In particular, the stock of which is extensive, and of 
the finest descriptions : 

Pkars oh Qui mcb— Dwarfs and Pyramids, 2 to 3 years' 
growth , Trees of bearing size can be supplied of a few 
sorts. 

CuBaaiKS OH Mabalbb— Dwarfs and Pyramids, very 
strong and well formed, all the best sorts in caltivatioc. 

FoKsroR GnAPRS for Vineries— strong, 2 year old plants, 
In pots from eyes— all the popular varieties. 

STRAWBBRiti as— upwards of 40 varieties, including Mc- 
Avoy's Superior, Longworth's Prolific, Hooker^s Seedling, 
Genesee, Jenny Lind, Scott's SeedUnv. Itc ; also, the finest 
French and English varieties, Including TroUope's Victo- 
ria, and Trlomphe de Gand, two superb, hard>', and proli- 
fic varieties. 

Raspbbbribs- Brinkl6's Orange, the hardiest and best 
light colored variety known ; also, Merveille de 4 Salsons, 
and Belle de Fontenay, the two beet autumnal sorts, su- 
perb large fruits and prolific 

All these fruits have been propagated and grown, with 
the most scrupulous regard lor accuracy, and may be re- 
lied upon. Early orders are solicited. 

ELLWANGER Jfe BARRY, 
Mount Hope Nurseries, 

Feb. 18— w2tmlt Tlochester, N. Y. 

Devon Prize Ball lor Sale* 

THE subscribers offer for sale their Prize Bull " New 
Britain 2d." He received the first prize as ayearllng, 
at the lata fair of the Conn. State Agricultural Sixsiety. 
He will be two yeyrs old next March ; is of good size, and 
is a very perfect animal. 

We aleo would sell '* Charter Oak ;*» he is own brother 
to New Britain 2d, and will be one year old next March. 
WELLS BROTHERS, 
March 1— m3t New-Britain, Conn. 

3POTJIDIiBTrB- 

OUR prices for the above valuable fertilizer, viz :— For 
one barrel, $2 -two Iwrrels, $3.60— three barrei«i, $5— 
four barrels, $fi.W— five barrels. $8— six harrelii, $9.60— for 
seven l>arrclB and over, at the rate of $1.60 per barrel, de- 
livered free of oartaee. Send your orders early to 
GRIFFING BROTHER &. CO., 
Feb. 25— w8tni3t 60 Cortlaudt-st, New- York. 

Agricultural Inipleineiits. 

A CONSIGNMENT of Agricultural Implements from 
an extensive manufactory, is now offered f«)r sale at 
prices 20 per cent below the prlN-ate rates of the Agricul- 
tural Warehouses, consisting of Plows, Corn Shcllers, 
Fanning Mills, Straw and Hay Cutters, Vegetable Cutters, 
Corn MillA, Churns, Coltlvntore, llorso Hoes, Road Scoops, 
Garden Barrows, dec, &o. A Pamphlet giving descrip- 
tlon and prices, wUl be sent free, on applying to the Agent, 
A. LONGPrrT, 
March 1— m2t 34 CliflT Street, New-York. 

A MIDDLE- AQ ED MAN and his Wife, to take the 
charge of a B^arm in the vicinity of New-York, de- 
voted to the usual variety of farm products. They must 
be Americans, of good moral character, indnstrious, and 
well acquaintou with their business. None othera need 

ress "Pabmbr," Box 2137, New- York Post Ofllce. 
11— w2tmlt 




Ornamental Trees and Plants 

ITar Sprins of 1858. 
ZrVERGKEEN, DECIDUOUS, WEEPING, flto. 

ELLWANGER dfe BARRY, Rochester, N. Y, beg to 
Inform Nurserymen, LAudscape Gardners, and PIad* 
ters generally, that their Slock of the following article* is 
large, and will be sold at prices to »uit the times. 

IsT-EVERGREENa 
NokWAT Sprucb, of various sixes from one to six feet high, 

well formed specimens, in quantities from one dozen to 

100,000. 
PiKBS, Austrian, Scoteb, and White or Weymouth, from 

8 to 12 inches— frequently transplanted. 
Arbor Vita, Siberian, 2 to 3 feet ; this Is a beautiful har- 
dy tree. 
Arbor Vitjb, American, 1^ to 4 fl., for hedges, screens, Jbe. 
PixsAPO Sprccb, 12 to 18 Inches high, quite broad and 

stout'-a fine rare traa 
Afrioax or Silvrb Cbdab. 2 to three feet high. This Is 

a noble tree, resembling the Cedar of Lebanon, but har- 
dier and of more rapid growth. 
Japan Cbdar, (Cryptomeria Japonica.) 3 to 4 foot high. In 

pots, not quite hardy at Rochester. 
Chili Pimb, (Auracaria Irabricala,) 12 to 18 Inches, stoat 

and bushy, (in pots.) not quite hardy at Rochester. 

Besides these we can furnish a great number of oibert, 
for which we refer to De.«criptive Catal<^ue No. 2. 

Bar See also adveriisement of California Evergreena. 
2d -DECIDUOUS TREES. 

Sootoh Elm, 8 to 10 feet ^ Huntingdon Elm, 8 to 10 feet ; 
Tulip tree, 8 foet ; Mai^nolia acuminata. 4 to 6 feet ; Pnr> 
ple-lenved Maple. 4 to 5 feel ; Gold striped leaved do., 4 to 
6 feet ; Snowy Mespilus ; Profuse flowering do., grafted, 
4 to 6 feet high— a fine small lawn tree *, Rosemary-leavea 
Willow, 6 feet, grafted— a beautiful feathery tree. 
8d- WEEPING OR DROOPING TRBEa 

We have the pleasure of ofl'erlng a fine stock of iho fol- 
lowing graceful trees so desirable fur lawiis.cemHerii'S.Jbc: 

Weeping European Ash,Wceping Ijentiscus-iesved Ash, 
Weeping Mountain Ash, Weeping Poplar, Weeping IJn« 
den. Weeping European Birch, Weeping American Wil- 
low, Weeping Kilmarnock Willow, Weeping Cherrj', C«v- 
er blooming,) Weeping Heart Cherry. 

The above will be supplied in quantities to suit purcha- 
sers. Priced Catalogues sent gratis to those who enclose 
one stamp. ELLWANGER fc BARRY, 

Mount Hope Nursorles, 

Feb. 18— w2tm lt Rochester, N. Y. 

i>Biixr^iuAJsr o-TJuAJsro, 

DIRECT from the Peruvian Agency Store Houses, 
Government brand and weiglit, in quantities to salt 
purchasera. Send for a Circular giving prices of feriiUzera, 
and it will be sent free. A. XONGETT, 

March 1— mlt 34 Clifl' Street, New- York. 

FL\U HARDY BORDER PLAKT8. 

PIILOXES-160 of the most beautiful varieties. 
Chrysahtbkmoms— 70 of the finest pompone vtai- 
eties and 26 of the large. We give special attention to 
these— importing annually the best new varieties from 
atA-oad. 

HoLLTHocKS— superb double varieties, of all colors, per- 
fect as Duhllns. 

DiBLYTHA Sprctabi LIS. —This plant proves to be as har- 
dv a« a common Pseony, and is one of the most remarka- 
ble and beautiful of all border plants. Over 10,000 strong 
plants for sale. 

Besides the above, we can supply over 200 other cholee 
perennial border plants, s«>lected with grtat care and dU- 
crimiuation. ELLWANGER & BARRY, 

Mount Hope Nurseries, 

Feb.l8— w2tmlt Rochester. N. Y. 

To Amateurs and Gardeners. 

RARE SEED&— I can ftarnish early applicants a limit- 
ed quantity of the following : Sajcrg's Royal Exhibi- 
tion ^enyon's Free Bearer. Inriproved Xron Horse. Walk- 
er's Prize Fighter, Wood's E. Frame, and Cuthil's Black 
Spine Cucnmbera at 25 cents per packet— DanM O'Rourke 
Peas (true) 37i cents per quart— Hair's Df. Black Mam- 
moth, 44 ctB. per quart— Eugenie and Napoleon, each 12| 
cents per pkt.— Wyatt's Red Beet. Atkln's Matchless Cab- 
bage. Wail's Alma Cauliflower, Wait's King of the Cot- 
tage, and Large London Savoy, each at 124 cents per pkt. 

■ar Descriptive Catalc^prues of the choicest collection of 
American, English, French and German FLOWER 
SEEDS, ever oflTered in this country, to applicants enclo- 
sings three-cent stamp. 20 papera of Flower Seeds for fL 
Address, G. F. NEEDHAM, 

Fob. 11— w2tmlt Florist dt Seedsman, Butlalo, N. Y. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Draiu Tile Machines for Sale. 

THE long-needed article Is nt last offered fomale cheap. 
I am prepared to forniah Drain Tile Machines, com- 
plete and ready for use. for $160. Two men can make 
3,000 two-inch tile in ten hours. All Machines warranted. 
Address Q£0. ALD&R60N, 

Feb. 25— w4tmll* Albany, N. Y. 

8UP£RPH06PHATE OF LIME, 
BONK DUST, 

COLUMBIAN auArro, 

OR SALE by A. LONOKTT, 

March 1— m3t 84 CUff Street, New- York. 



F 



lto»e8 aiid Dahllaf. 

HYBRID PERPETUAL ROSES. 
Moss RosBS, 

Htbsio Oriiia Robsb. 
And other classes, a large stock of strong planta. 
Dahlias— a superb collection, embracing the finest new 
English and French varietieii. The stock of the above is 
large, ind will be sold at very low rates. 

Descriptive Priced Catalogues forwarded gratis to all 
vrho enclose one stamp. 

EiTlWATS^GFBR ic BARRY, 
Mount Hope Nurseries, 
Feb. 18-w2tmlt Rochester. N. Y. 

KARB EVERGREEN TREES 
or Calirornla, dec 

WE HAVE the pleasure of offering a moderate stock 
of the following rare and desirable trees of Call for* 
nia. Oregon, &c. All are Seedlings, grown in pots, and in 
perfect health and vigor. Can bo forwarded any distance 
with the balls unbroken. 
Washinglonla, (Seouoia, Welllngtonia, &c) The famous 

'^'big tree** of California— strong bushy plants from 8 to 

12 Inches—this proves hardy here. 
CuproHsus LawBoniana, 8 to 10 Inches, one of the most ele- 

cant of this genus yet discovered. 
Libocedrus Decurrens, of Torrey, (Thuya gigantea,) six 

inches. 
Thuya Macrocarpa, 8 to 15 Inches. 

'* Artlculat*,10tol2 
Abios Qrandis, 1 year Seedlings, well ripened, and will 

bear carriage. 
Pin us Benthamiana, 2 year Seedlings. 

** ' Lambertiana, 2 " '* 

" Tuberculata, 2 " *« 

" Jeffrcj-l, 2 »* " 

" Monticola, 2 " " 

»* Sablnlana, 2 »• »• « to 8 inches. 

For complete priced lists, we rcfrr to our Catalogue No. 
2, which will l>e sent graUs to all who apply and enclose 
BLLWAKGER & fiiftRY, 



one stamp. 
Feb. 18— w2tmlt 



Mount Ho] 



pe Nurseries, 
Rochester, N. Y. 




ALBANY TILE WORKS, 

Comer of Clinton Avenue ^ Knox St, Albany, N. Y. 

THE BubflcribersL being the mo«t extensive manufac- 
turers of Draining Tile in fke United States, have on 
hand, in large or small quantities for Land Draining, the 
following descriptions, warranted superior to any made In 
this country, hard burned, and over one foot in length. On 
orders for 5,000 or more, a discount will be made. 

R0R8B-8D0B TILB— PIKCKS. 80LB TILB— PIECES. 

2Mnchesri«e,.. |I2 per 1000. 2 inches rise,.. $12 per 1000. 

3 " " .. 15 " 8 " 

4 •* " - 18 " 4 " 

5 " " .. 40 *• 6 " 
« " «' .. 60 " 6 " 
7} " " .. 75 " 8 " 

Orders respectfhlly solicited. Cartage free. 

C. ic W. M'CAMMON. 

Albany, N. Y. 
RICHD H. PEASE. Ajrent, 
Excelsior Ag. Works, Warehouw and Seed Store, 
Mar. 1— w3cm8m. 84 State-st., Albi«»y, N. Y. 



18 
40 
60 
80 
125 




North Devons for Sale. 

WATER LILY.c-ilved spring 186»-8ire Albert (2 >- 
Heifer calf by her side— Sire Trojan by Cornel (162.) 

VENUS, (1104>-calved fall 184&-Slre Cliampion-in 
calf by Hiawatha by ComeU (162.) 

EUGENIA-Calved December, 1867-Dam Waterlllly 
—Sire ComeL 

VICTORINE-Calved spring 1857~Dam Venus (1104) 
—Sire Toledo. 

Bull TROJAN— Calved spring. 1866— Dam Rosa Lee— 
Sire Comet. 

Bull CAYUGA-Calved fall 1856— Dam " Queechy," O. 
Dam Venus (1104)— Sire Rover i363.> 

The above seven head will be sold toobtbkb very low 
for cash, or half cflfth, half approved endorsed paper. 

The pedigrees have been entered for forthcoming vol. of 
Devon Herd Book. Address 



Feb. 25— w2tmlt. 



A. M. TRKDWELU 
251 Pearl St.. New- York. 



To Farmers and Gardenern. 

THE SUBSCRIBERS offer for sale 00,000 barrels of 
their 

New and Improved Foudrette, 
Manufkctnred from the nlKht-soil of New- York citv. in 
lots to suit purchasers. This article (ifreally Improved 
within the last three years) has been in the mnrkf t for 10 
years, and still defies competition, as a manure for Corn 
and Garden Vegetables, being chrapbk, more powerful 
than any other, and at the same time fVee from disagreea- 
ble odor. Two barrels ($3 worth.) will manure an aero of 
corn In the hill, will nave two thirds in labor, will canw; it 
to come up quicker, to grow faster, rii>en earlier, and will 
bring a larger crop on poor ground thiin any other fertili- 
xer, and Is also a preventive of the cut-worm ; also it does 
not injure the seed to be put in contact with It. 

The L. M. Co. point to their long-standing reputation, 
and the large capital (|100,000) invested in their business, 
as a guarantee that the article they make shall always bo 
of such quality as to command a ready sale. 

Price, delivered In the city free of charge and other ex- 
pense- 
One barrel. $2 00 

Two barrels, 3.6O 

Five barrels, 8.00 

Six Imrrels, 9.50 

And at the rate of $1.50 per Iwrrol for any quantity over 
six barrels. 

Ki" A Pamphlet containing every information, will be 
sent (rsBB) to any one applying for the same. Our ad- 
dress is THE LODl MANUFACTURING C6., 
Feb. 25-weow6tm3t OtAcc, 60 Cortlandt-st., New-York. 



OLCOTTS BOOK "SORGHO & IMPHEE." or the 
Chinese and African Sugar Canes : Containing full 
instructions for making sugar, molasses, alcohol, etc., 
etc.. Sent by mall, post-paid. Price $1. 

I IMPHEE SEED. One variety enough to 

Ir«»,™ J^*'*"* ^ sqnaro rods sent l»y mail pre-paid with 
MPHEE the book, for 6 cents more in postage stamps. 
Each additional variety of Impheo six cents. 
Only sent to those who order thf l)ook. 
SEED. Gov. J. H. Hammcyid, of South Carolina, 
who raised the above seed, tcstiflcs under date 
of Nov. 26, 18.^7, that he does not recollect any 
variety of the Imphee which is Inferior to the 
TEN Sorgho, while many varieties have a larger 
stalk, yielded more juice, and market* a hlgh- 
Varibtibs. er degree on the sachnrometer, and in a letter 
to the undersigned, of JaiL 13, 1858, Gov. Ham- 
mond says : " I think these seed well worth 
distributing. They produce a sugar cane at 
BETTER least eoual to the Sorgho in all reVpects, and 
some or them are twice the size. I am Inclln- 
THAN ed to think we shall ultimately find several of 
the varieties, (ripening at different periods) su- 
perceding the Sorgho altogether. 1 plant this 
SORGHO, year 60 acres of the cane— of these four will be 
planted in Sorgho and the remainder in Im- 
phee." 
A supplement to '*The Sorgho and Imphee," containing 
the American experiments of 1867, with J. S. I.ovcrlng's 
statement of his successfnl manufacture of brown and 
white sugar firom the Sorgho, will accompanv the hook. 
Address A. O. MOORE, 

Ag. Book Publlshor, 
Jan. 21— weow4tm2t 140 Fulton-street, New- York. 

FKIJIT BOOKS, 

BY THOMAS. BARRY. DOWNING, and others, for 
sale at the office of tbe Country Gent, and Cultivator 





THE CULTI7AT0B 




March. 



F 



P«ar Seedlings. 

INE healthy Pew Seedling*, one year, $8 per 1,000— 
$76 per 10,000. 
Ditto, two yean, $16 per 1,000— $140 per $10.00a 
Norway Spruce, Scotch Larch and Fir, Apple, Manard, 
Plana, Anders Qoince, Mahaleb, Paradise and Donealn 
etocka of the best quality. Catalogues to any addreaa. 
Carriage paid to Boston or New-York. 
New-England Pear Seed, $6 per quart. 

Old Colony Nurseries, Plymouth, Kms. 
Jan. 28— wJfcmSm 

CRANBERRY PLANTS, 

npHE BSLL rviety is best adapted for general ooltivA- 
X tlon. Circnlari will be forwarded to anplleants. 

NEW-ROCHELLE BLACKBERRY— ^^uiue planto 
at $2 per Dozen— $10 per loa 

HOP TREE— For ornament and use ; it is superior to 
the common Hop. 

RASPBERRIES— BrinoUe's Omnffe, $1.25 per Doeen ; 
Bsffley't Everbearinc, $1 per Dozen ; I7ew Red Antwerp 
and other choice varieties, 00 cents per Dosen— $4 per lOa 

GRAPES— Isabella and Catawba, one year rooted, $10— 
twoyears, $18 per 100. 

With a full assortment of Fruit, Ornamental and Erer- 
green Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Roses, fto. 

For Aill particulars see Catalogue, which will be for- 
warded to appIioaaCs. F. TROWBRIDGE. 

Jan. 14— w4tm2t New-Haven, Conn. 

Short^Sorns for Sale. 

THE aubacrlber has for sale at hla farm, about four mllea 
Boulh of Albany, the following valuable animals :— 

BULLS. 

LORD DUCIE a3181)-Roan— bred in England by Mr. 
R. Bell, nephew of the late Thoa. Bates— Imported hy me 
In 1658-calved May 6th, 1852-got by Mr. Bates* Duke 
bull, 6th Dulre of York (10168), who la full brother to 4th 
Duke of York, aire of Mr. Thome's 2d Grand Duke. Dam, 
Briar, by the famous 2d Duke of Oxford (0046), who la 
alao gr. aire on the dam^a aide, of the Duke of Gloster— gr> 
Beauty by 2d Cleveland loA (3408X who waa the aire 



dam 



of the celebrated Grand Duke (10284)— g. ff- d. by 2d Earl 
of Darlington (1046)— g. g. g. d. by the Duke of Cleveland. 
(1067), fcc. 4t& See E H. B., (131811 vol. x. 

Lord Ducle ia in flue order, and bavinff In hia aervlce 
been confined exclusively to my limited herd, la as valuable 
and will continue to be as serviceable as If he were a three- 
year.old. I am only Induced to part with him because I 
nave breeding fumales of hla get, and a recently Imported 
bull, Duke of Portland' to succeed him. I reserve to my- 
self the use of him to three of my cows the coming season. 
Price $600. 

DUKE OF LANCASHIRB-Roan, calved July 27th, 
1867— got by Imported Batea bull. Lord Ducle 08181). out 
of Imported Lady Liverpool by Mr. Bates* 3d Duke of 

York (10160) •Lilly by the fkmous 2d Duke of Oxford 

(9066)-: — Harmless by Cleveland Lad (3407) Hawkeye 

by Red Rose Bull (2408)-^Hart.t)y Rex (1876) ;-^wned 
by Mr. Bates, and selected by him from the celebrated milk- 
ing tribe of Short-Horns owned by Mr. Richardson of 
Hart Durham. Price $800. 

NORFOLK-Rod and white, calved May 17th. 1867- 

S>t by Imported Lord Ducle 03181)— out of Duchess of 
xeter by imported Princes bull, Duke of Exeter (10162) 

Isabella by Monterey, 720 A H. B. Lady by May 

Duke, 102 A. H. B,— Ac, Sco. See Am. Herd Book, vol 2. 
Price $20a 

HEIFERS. 

DUCHESS OF CLEVELAND-Red and white-got 
In England by Gen. Cnnrobert (12026), (who la aoon of 4th 
Duke of York out of a cow got by (irand Duke (10284),) 
imported In her dam In 1866. and calved Jan. 24th, 1867 
—dam Agnes by Mr. Bat«a' Earl Derby (10177)— who la 
half-brother to Grand Duke (10284>-gr. dam Ariel by 2d 
Cleveland Lad (3649), the aire of Grand Duke (10284)— gr. 
gr. dam Arabella by 4th Duke of Northumberland (8646) 

AnnabcUa by the Duke of Cleveland (1987) Aoomb 

by the celebrated Belvedere (1706)— 4fec., 4bC. See E 

~ RTLAl 



BEH.R, 
DUCtlfiSS OF PORTLAND— Roan, calved July Slat, 



1867— got by Imported Bates bull Lord Ducle (18in) out 
of Imported Alice Maud by the celebrated Grand Duke 

(10284) Cloely by Mr. Bates* famous Duke of North- 

nmberiand (1940) Cragsa by aaon of 2d Hubback (2682) 

Cra^ira bred by Mr. Batea and deacended from the 

celebrated herd of Mr. Maynard,— 4ec., dec. Price i860. 
Address Da. HERMAIT WENDELL. 

Hazelwood, Febi 11— wfcmtf Albany, N. V. 



Syracnte If wnerles. 

OUR Stock for the Spring Trade, will oonslat of all tha 
LARGER AND MTNOR FRUITS : 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, in great variety, Indlnding 
manv of the native Forest Trees. 

TJae Hardy EVERGREENS, Norway and American 
Spruce, Scotch Pine, HemloclL Balsam Fir, and Arbor 
"NMta^ ranging fi-om 8 to foot high. 

ROSEC SHRUBS. DAHLIAS, PiEONIEB, PHLOX- 
ES, SPIRiBAS, HONBT-flOCKLKS, of rare beauty and 
In great abundance. 

HEDGE PLANTS of Bndkthom, Privet, Osage Or- 
ange, and Honey Loeust, at very low prices. 

ASPARAGUS and RHUBARB, best kinds and strong 

"of RASPBERRIES. GOOSEBERRIES and CUR- 
RANTS, our assortment is especially large and attractive, 
and embraces all the old and n«ir aorta of worth and re- 
pute. 

GRAPES : BtroDff PlanU of the Rebecca for $8, and 
Delaware for |2 eaeh ; Oonoord and Diana for $1 each, or 
$9 per dozen ; Catawba, Isabella and Clinton, 1 and 2 yra. 
old, low by the dosen or hundred ; and Foreign Grapea, in 
pots, in great variety. 

Lawton (or New-Roohelle) BLAOKBERl^Y'i strong 
plants, $2 per dozen. 

CHERRY STOCKS, dfanard,) $8^ per 1,000. 

PLUM STOCKS, (WUd, or Canada,) |8per l,00a 

■Sf" Nurserymen will find these very superior. 

For deacrlptlons and prices of our articles, generally, wo 
beg leave to refer to toe new edition of our Catalogues, 
viz: 

Na 1. A Descriptive Catalogue of all oar productions. 

Na 2. A Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits. 

Na & A Descriptive Catalogue of Ornamental Trees, 
Shrubs, Roses. «tc. 

No. 4. A Descriptive Oatalogna of Dahlias, Green 
House and Bedding Plants, 4te. 

No. 6. A Wholesale Oatidogue far Nurseiymen and 
Dealeni. i 

Forwarded on reoelpt of » stamp for each. 

THORP, SMITH fc HANCHETT. 

Feb. 4— weow6tm2t Syracuse, N. T. 

A, O, MOORE, 
A*. Book Publisher, 140 Falton-alrvel, Bfew*Yorlu 

NEW WORK8 JU8T PUBLISHED.! 

WARDERS HEDGE MANUAL : 

A complete treatise on Hedges, Evergreona, and all 
plants suitable for American Hedging, especially the Ma* 
dura or Oaage Orange— the only auccesaful ayatem of pro- 
nlng^manlpulatlon and management— -fnlly illuatrated 
with cuu or implemenU and processes, to which is added 
*% treatise on 

EVERGREENS^thelr dlflbrent varieties, their prowls 
gatlon, transplanting and culture Id the United States. By 
Jna A. Warder, M. D.. Editor of Western Hort Review, 
and President of the Cincinnati Hort Society. One Vol. 
12 mo.— Price One Dollar. 
FIELD'S PEAR CULTURE : 

A Treatlae on the Propaoatlon and Cultivation of the 
Pear In America— a fViU eatalogne and deacriptlon of the 
different varieties— their adaptation to Dwarn and Stan- 
dards— tba best modes of pruning, with directions for ri- 
penlne and preserving the ftrult, numerous engravings, 
oarefolly prepared, exhibit both the erroneous and correct 
methods of treatment. By Thoa. W. Field. One VoL 12 
ma— Price 76 Cents. 
FISH CULTURE 

A Treatise on the Artiflelal Propagation of FliOi, with 
the deacriptlon and habits of the kinds most auifable for 
pisclculti.ro, alao the moat ajooeaslhl modes of A.ngllng 
for the fi»hea therein deacribed. By Theodatua Garllok, 
M. D., Vice Pres. of Cleveland Academy of Nat Science. 
1 VoL 8 Va, Price one Dollar. 
FLINT ON GRASBSa 

A Practical Treatise on Grasses and Forage plants, with 
more than One Hundred Ulustrations of grasses and Im. 
plements. The editor of the American Agriculturist 
says : "Thla la the beat treatlae of the kind we have seen 
on this Important subject We advise our readers to get 
this book and study it thoroughly, as we are now doing." 
Bv Charies L. Flint A. M., Sec. of the Mass. Sute Board 
of Agriculture. 1 Vol. 8 VO., Price $1.26. 

All the above works will be sent postpaid on receipt of 
price. Address, 

A. O. MOORE, 
, _ Agricultural Book l*ublisher, 

Jan. 28— weow4tm2t 140 Fulton St, New- York. 





THE CULTIVATOR- 




Thorbani*9 IlescriptiTe Catalovae 

OF GARDEN, Field and Flower Seeds for 1868, noiw 
ready. Copiea will be mailed, free of charge, to ap- 
plicaota. WM. TH0R6URN; Seedsman, 4bo., 

Feb. Il^w4tmlt 492 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. 

S XX £ P P Jk.3Ei r>'s 

FORT^ABl^lWa d* COMMISSIOtT, 

HorUcaltnraly nwunery and Seed 

AQENOY, 
159 Front 8trMt» ITov^Tork. 
riTHB •nbeoriber would retpeetfttlly inform the Horti* 
X ealturista, Nursery and Seedsmen of the United 
Stat«», Canada and Europe, that the business heretofore 
conducted by his fkther, tus lati Oio. O. Bhippard. de- 
ceased, will be continued as usual, and the best attention 
paid to all their foreign and domestic interests. 
FOB SALS, 
Chinese Sugar Cane Seed,— new crop— prime and cheap. 
Mahaleb Cherry Seed— prime. 
Quince and Pear Stocks, Jfcc 

oolloiting a continuance of the liberal patronage so long 
bestowed, very rospectfblly, 

WM. P. SHEPPARD, 
Jan. 28— w*m2t 159 Front Street, New- York. 

Seed* !— Seeds !— Seeds ! 

THORBTIRN'S NEW DESCRIPnyB CATAIiWUB 
Of VegeUble, Field and Tnit Seeds Ibr 1868, 

WITH DIRSCTIOHS FOX OULTITATIXO TSOKTABLBS, 

Is now ready, and will be sent to applicants enclosing a 
Three Cent Msmp. 

THS subscribers offer of tKs growth of 1867, and of the 
very finest qualities, theif nsml extensive assortment 
of SEBdB, comprising many notbltibs, and every tested 
desirable variety known in the several departments of 

Vegetable, Field, Flower, TMe and Frvit Beedi. 

They would particularly call the attention of oultlvaton 
and amateurs to the following 

CHOICE PEASp 

Extra Early Daniel ORourke— the earliest known. 
*• ** Sangster's No. 1— a great favorite. 

** ** Tom Thumb— very line, growing but eight 

inches high. 

Early SebastoppI— new and good. 

Champion of England— one of the very best. 

Dwarf and Tall Sugar— edible pods. 

Hail's Dwarf Mammoth— superb. 

Harrlson^B Olory and Perfection — ^newand very prodno- 
Uve. 

Napoleon and Bngenle— both new and early, wrinkled. 

Eppe* Monarch— Epps' Lord Raglan^ both new and su- 
perb. 

Carter's Ylctoria— fine wrinkled. 

British Queen— one of the best latei 
With thirty other standard sorts, for which see Catalogue. 

Alao— Early Paris, Nonparefl and Lenormands Cauli- 
flower. Early WakefleldOiduart and Wlnningstadt 
Cabbaoo. 

Early and Giant White and Red Solid Celery, 

Prlae Cucumbers— for flramesi 

Early Tomatoes. 

Sweet Spanish and BuU-nose Pepper. 

Early Curled Lettuce. 

Early Curled Parsley. 

Extra Early Turnip Beet 

Barlv White Vienna KohlfllbL 

Winter Cherry or Strawlwny Tomato. 

Apple and Pear Seeds. 

Havana Tobacco Seed. 

Dioscorea Batatas or Chinew Potato ; with (housaiids 
of other Seeds of the soma tnperlor qualities as have 
heretofore afforded such universaTsatisfaction, and which 
can be recommended with the fUlest confidence as unsur* 
passed for genuineness. 

AFRICAN IMPHEE-genntna, as raised by Mr. L. 
Wray— $1 per pound. 

BOBQHUM or Cbibbsb Sugar Cahb— 2» cenU per lb. 

FLOWER 8EED8. 

The collection this season is unusually large and choice, 
embracing many novelties. 
Orders by mall will have immedlRtp sttentlon. 

J. M. TUORBURN 4fc CO, 
Jan, 21— w&mSm 16 John-street, New-Yor'k. 



lfoir*s yonr Tlaiet 

A Ohaaoe Ibr Uie People and tlie Fren. 

THE " Rural Empire Club " has a supply of the Ciiibbsb 
SooAR Cakb Sbbd, both Imported and perfectly ina> 
tured Domestic, for distribution among its members '*and 
the rest of mankind," on the following terms :— By Ex. 
press, securely sacked and delivered to Express Co., 4 lbs, 
for $1 ; 10 lbs. for $2 ; 40 lbs. for $6. By mail, post-paid; 
samples 3 cents ; ^ lb packages, 26 cents. ; j Jb do., 50 cents , 
pound da, $1, to any P. O. in the U. S. under a,00O rallcs- 
and the same will be sent anywhere on receipt of the rel 
quisite {KMtage. The supply In the hands of the Rnra- 
Empire Clob, and at their command, is ample. The re- 
mittance for packages by mail Is designed for the prepay- 
ment of postage— tne seed a gratuity. 

Postage Stamps taken for the fractions of a Dollar, or 
stamps returned In change. Address 

I. W. BRIGGS, 
West Mocedon, N. Y. 

■^ Publishers of newspapers are at liberty to InMTt 
the above notice for the benefit of their {>atrous and read- 
ers. In addition to the thanks they will receive from their 
nitrons, I will send to each Publisher who desires It, one 
lb of the seed by mall, prepaid, or 5 lbs. by Express or R. 
R, deUvered to N. Y. Central R. R Co. 1 W. R 

Feb. 18— wfcmtf 

NOVEL AND EXTRAORDINARY! 

FremiimiB in Gold ! Preminmi in Booki! ! 

Premium Sngrnvingi ! ! ! 

The United States Journal, 

A PloCoilal Monthly, oomUnlng the fealnrca of a 
NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE. 

THIS popular monthly is now in its ninth year, and is 
one of the largest papers in the world, each number 
containing sixty-four spacious columns, nearly eight hun- 
dred during the year, and embracing as much Interesting 
matter ss the ordinary three-dollar magazines. 

It Is ably edited, profusely Illustrated, and is printed on 
beautiftilly calendered paper, each number forming of it- 
self a splendid mammoth Pictorial. Its price is but FirxT 
Cbmts a year, and Postage Six Cents a year. 

THE GREAT PREMirM OFFER I 

First, To any person sending us one sulMcriptlon (60 
cents) we will present a superb GOLD RING or a Gent's 
elegant GOLD-PLATED BREASTPIN, set with etone 
or imlUtlon pearl— either of which retails at seversl limes 
the amount of subscription, or a choice of the 60-cent 
books In our catalogue of five hundred volumes. 

Sbcomo, To any person sending us two subscriptions 
($1) we will present either a splendid Dollar Book of his 
own selection tram a catalogue of several hundred of the 
most popular works of the day, or his choice of twelve 
magnincent Steel Plate Enffn(\'lugB, among which are 
" The Signing of the Death Warrant of Lady Jane Grey," 
"The Capture of Msjor Andre," &c, or. If he prefers, an 
elegant set of gold studs, oi gold sleeve-buttons, or a su- 
perb gold bresst-pin for lady or gentleman, set with gold, 
stone, or some other golden gift of equal value of his own 
selection firom our schedules. 

Larger Clubs secure premiums equally liberal In pro- 

g>rtion. Do you want a Splbndid Libbary, a set of karb 
KGRA VINOS, a Gold Watch, Gold Chain, Gold Lockbt, 
Gold Pbbcil. or any other rich jBWBLRV.you can easily 
secure it by forming a club for this Journal. lis estab- 
lished reputation and marvelous cheapness will enable you 
to form a large club with little efibrt 

Reader, send one or two subscriptions at once, and thus 
secure some specimens of the paper *and premiums, and 
be the first in the field to form a club. Should you select 
a golden premium, send 3 cents extra td prepay postage, 
and you will receive it by return of mail. 

A specimen copy of the Journal, containing fiill particu- 
lars of our progrsmme of premiums, will oe furnished 
gratuitously if desired, and those who would like to satisfy 
themselves that the above offers will bo faithfully carried 
out, can do so by sending for a specimen. 

GETTIN^jl RICH. 

We Invite every lady or gentleman desiring a pleasant 
money-making occupation, to apply for an agency of the 
above Journal, and the American Portrait Gallery, the 
most superb subscription-book ever Issued In this country. 
We will refer them to some of our agents now in the field, 
whose profits in the business during the year 1857, have 
amounted to over Fivb Thocsand Dollars. An agent 
wanted in every county not already taken. 

J. M. EMERSON ^ CO. 

Feb. 11— wltmlt 871 Broad^^y, New- 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Contents of tliis N'lun'ber. 

The Farm* 

Feeding with Oil-Cake, by Johh Jobnstoit, 78 

Clearini? Land of Weeds, by J. Lktksqos, 74 

Farm Balldings. by J. N. Bago, 7fl 

Watson's PortaV>]e P'arra Fence, 76 

Destroying the While Daisy 76 

Caases of Unprofitable Farming. 77 

Cutting and Feeding Cut Foddenby Dokhaji 6l Wood, 77 

Oats on Turnip Ground, by J. 0. Taylor, 78 



How Manure fs made in Switzerland, by A. Chat ah- 

„ ■»», 78 

Herendeen's Sugar Cane Mill, 79 

« ^ . g^ 

81 



Premium Crop of RuU Bagaa, by (kl Uowatt, ... 

Sboemakei's Scrape for Manure, ty W. H. W., ei 

Measuring Com in.lhe Orib^ by P. A. Wat, 81 

Buckwheat for Swioe. 88 

Annual Meeting N. Y. State Ag. Society, 84 

Ch»ncral Prlnoiplas of Agriculture, by Prof. Lbb, 8S 

Poultry Manure for Corn, by J. E. S., 87 

Schooley's Patent Preeervatory, 89 

Manure Composts,. 90 

Coal Furnaces for Warming Houses, 91 

Draining Swamp Lands. 91 

Cultivating Plaoto whUe the Dew is on, by W. K. 

Whit 7.... 91 

Flat Stones for Drains 92 

Proportional Av'eraire of Crops in Sootland 98 

Seed Potatoes, by W. Baooh, 93 

Inquiries and Answers, 94 

New-York State Ag. College, 98 

Farm Aoeounto and Statistics 99 

Agricultural Societies, 99 

Notes for the Month, ^ 96 

Tike €hrazl«r. 

Remedy for Oarget In Cows, by W. J. Phttii, 80 

Pumi>kin Seeds Injurious to Ducks and Geese, by C. 

F. Morton, 80 

Tartar or Chinese Sheep, I*. I 83 

Jersey Bull Commodore, Mr 

Masson's Oi 1 for Wounda, by A. D. Bao wh « 

Lice on Calves, by J. B 88 

Cure for Slretelies In Sheep, 88 

Cure for Thumps in Swine, 90 

Cure for Hog Cholera, 90 

Tlft« H^rtlcalturUt. 

The Paulownia Imperfailia, by S. S., 76 

Fecdlhff Elogn In Orohards, 79 

Remedies for the Cureulio, 80 

Plantinsr Fruit Trees. Karserios, 4fco., 82 

Comte de Flandre Pear, 88 

How to Grow JSaaly Cucumbers and Melons, by J. 

H H 87 

XaUlson's Apple Seed Washer, 92 

Wash to Prevent Rabbits Girdling Fruit Trees, 98 

Culture of the Locust, by W. H W. 96 

Tbe Hoaeetwi/e. 
How to Make Home Brewed Beer, by Johk Barlkt- 

CORK 76 

Bnglish and Scotch Dai ry Management, 82 

Recipe for Brown Bread, by A Lady Rradbr, 87 

To Remove fresh Ink Sa»ts, by C, 88 

Profits of Butter Makinj; 90 

Cheap and Good Pudding, by S. R., 90 

IIlaiftjratlonHa 
Paufownialmperlalla,... 75 'Jersey Bull Commodore, 88 

Watson*s Fence 7G,6cnooley'sPreeervatory,. 89 

Sugar Cane Mill 79 Apple Seed Washer 92 

Comte de Flandre Pear,. 83| Stone Drains, 92 



Fruit Tre^ii for Sprluff Plautiuff. 

THOMAS dt HEKSNDEEN, of Macedon, Wayne Co., 
N. Y.. offer for sale a lai^e stock of Fruit Trees, of 
fine growth, of sorts carefully selected from thrir bbar- 
IMO Orchards or brvkral hdmdrid kiitds. and embracing 
the most valuable and desirable varieties, propagated with 
great care so as to insure complete accuracy. Catalogues 
sent on the enclosure of a stamp ; and careful selections 
suitable for orchanle and gardens, made by the proprietors 
when desired by puronasers. The safest and most secure 
packing given to all trees sent by railway. M.4-w4tmlt 

Three Vola 8 vo.— Price $16. 
Tlie AmerioaLii 81iort-Honi Herd Book, 

FBt lewis F. ALLEN. 
OR SALE at the office of the Country Gentleman and 
Oultlvatpr. The vols, will be sold separate-the first 
vol. at $3, and vol«, 2 and 3 at $6 each. Every Short-Horn 
Breeder should have this work. 



Prizes to Agents, Tenns,&c. 

In order to remunento oar friends in some measure 
for the aesisteaoe we receive from them— end as the 
prices of all oar works afe placed so low as to reader 
any Idrther redaction in tbo shape of oommissioos, ab- 
solutely imposMible, we bare for some years past offer- 
ed a namber of prises for competition to those engaged 
daring the winter moatlis in extending the circulation 
of our workSb The awards of the premiums decided 
January first hare already been published, and we now 
present the foOowiDg list to be decided AprU 10 : 
L For the largest amomit of cash subscriptions to our 
Jonmals, at the lowest Clab Rates, received at this 
office Apkl Tbhtb. or previously, we will pay, 

TWENTY-FIVE DOLLARS. 
2. Tot the TWO next largest amounts, each, 

^^^ TWENTY DOLLARS.. 

8. For the THREE next largest amounts, each, 

FIFTEEN DOLLARS. 
4. For the FOUR next m^sst amounts, each, 

TEN DOLLARa 
6. For the FIVE next largest amounts, each, 
^^ FIVE DOLLARa 

IT" And thai those who did not begin canvassing 
early enough for the Januaiy prises, or who took one 
of the two lowest offered, (either $10 or 95) may hare 
some inducement to eompete more vigorously for the 
April list — should the tbet of the above preminms be 
taken by any one who ^ January received neither a 
first, second or third prise, we will midce itTniRTr-FirB 
instead of Ttoenly-^/fM Dollars ; and should either see- 
ond or third prise be tAen under similar cireumstan- 
ess, we will ioerease them eaeh $5, (making them re- 
spectively $26 and $20.) 

Terms to CLUBg ahd Siitolt.— The following ars 
our lowest terms— on whSeh the Agent should charge 
a sufficient advance to remunerate him for his.trouble: 

The CocwTRT Gbhtlbmav, one year. To Clubs,.... $!.«) 

Sioffle Copy,. 2.00 

da with the AaxuALRsoiSTRB, To Clubs,. 1.6S 

Single Copy,. Z25 

Ths Cvltivatob, one year, To Clubs. 38 

Single Copy, 60 

da with the An. Rxoistik, To Clubs, . . . . 53 

Single Copy,. 76 

The III. Ajtxcal RaeiSTaa, post-paid, per Dozen, .. 100 

Single Copy, 26 

The commissions thus nibrded, are exceeded by no 
contemporary, and in view of the value and typogra- 
phical execution of the works, rank them among the 
cheapest ever offered to the public. 

1^* Canada subsoribete we are obliged also to 
charge with American postage on the CvLTirATOR at 
the rate of 6 cents a copy, (60 cents on a club of ten ) 

RoRAL Affairs.— this volume is perhaps the most 
oomplete and beautiful woikever issued of its kind. It 
contains 336 pages and 440 Eogravirgs, and retails for 
f 1 post-paid. In order to place it in the hands of as 
large a number as posiUila, acents are desired in all 
parts of the country, w hu f Itfi p d it meet with a ready 



One LargeU ma Vol— Price $1.60. 
Downing'* Fruit and Fmit Trees, 

JUST PUBLISHED, and for sale at this office-eent by 
mail postpaid, at fl.76. 



Berkshire Figs for Sale! 

'ymLRRANTBD of piMbreed. and at a low Bgnre 



Jane 11— w^kmtf 



J. PKTTEB. 
Lakevill, eConn. 





THIRD 

Vol. VI. 



«B 9mftm tjit ^nil ani tin 3Kini- 

ALBANY, APRIL, 1868. 



SERIES 



No. IV. 



Published bt Luthbb Titokbb k Son, 

BDITOES All» PKOPKIKTOBt. 

Amooiats Bd^ J. J. THOMAS; Ubio« BruxM, N. T. 
PRICB FIPrfcENTO A TEAR. 

ToB CoLTiTATOR hM beflD pttbUshttdl tweuiy-foar yean. 
A Nkw Sbrirs was commeDcecl In 1853, and the five vo- 
lamea for 1861, 4^ 6, 6, 7, ean be ftimlehed, bound and post- 
piftiU, at $1.00 eaoh. 

The same publishers Issae '*Thb Coumtrt Oirtlkmah,* 
a weekly Agricultuml Jonrnal of 16 quarto pages, making 
two vola. yearly of 416 pegea, at $2.00 a year. Tbey alio 



pobliah 

Thk Illvbtbatid Ahw UAL Rboibtbr of Rubal ArrAixs 
—144 pp. 12 mo. — price 25 cents — $2.00 per dozen. This 
work was oommenoed In 1866, and' the noa. for 1866, ^60 
and '57, have been isauod iu a beautifal volume, under the 
title of " Rural Aifaibs,"— containing 440 engravings of 
Houees, Barns. Out-Houava, Animals, fmplemeuto, FruiU 
4ce.— price $1.00— eeut by anail post-paid. 



0«ge Oranre Hed^«. 

{Prof. J. B. Turhbm, of lUinoif, to whom the whole 
eottntry if bo larfoly indebted for tbo iatreducUoB of 
the Oeofe Otaoge as a hedge pUnt, hfif kindly Aimiah- 
ed (1m Ibllewing intereating and TaluaUe raaarkB, in 
reply to the aereral inqairiei which oar readers so ol^ 
make, in rehrtiua Mo this hedge, and they ftilly aocord 
with the limited oheerraiioBa and ezparimentB whkh 
we have made in the more eaatem portiens of (he 
Union.] 

J. J. Tbov Ai, Baq.— la reply to yonr hiqwirlei, I 
would say thai I haTO watehed irith maoh intereat, the 
proepeeU and progrem of hedges in the West for boom 
years past. For more than (wentj years I have been 
folly eonvineed (hat with os on tho prairies, tliere was 
BO possible altemative, and thai we miut hedge with 
tpmeihing, for we have no atone, and in many plaoes 
not half timber enough to keep np our buildingt and 
railroads, to say nothing of iencing ; and as to herding 
stock where hundreds ol thoosaods of head of cattle 
and swine most pass through ibe eoontry in all direo- 
Uons, every year, and almost every month in the year, 
on their way to the great markets, or to the eaitla- 
dealers, it wonid seem to be absurd. What would pfo- 
tect our crops sgainst the lean, and gaunt, and starv- 
ing diovea of those Mexican rangers, who sometimes 
pass through these regions with one or two thousand of 
these lean kine in a single drove 1 A man may well 
bless his stars in such conditions, if he is able to keep 
his corn, hay and fruit, when looked up in his barn or 
to say nothing of leaving it all out on the public 
common. And though our own citisens are, with scarce 




a single eKoeptkm, hooesl and upright men, still if a 
man can bow keep these hoeti and troops of foreigB emi- 
grants, movers, and df ovesi , ftom (earing down a ten 
rail fenoe and driving therough his flelda, at any rate, 
he will do well. For these and similar reasons, I have 
deemed hedging with us indlspeBsable, aad have atade 
many efforts to intvoduee it \ and aOer some ten yean 
experiment and trial in our early history, I heeame sat- 
isfied fully, thai the (hag* Oramge was the best and 
only plant that in this plaee we could prottably use. I 
aoc(Nrdingly wrote and published on the subject in the 
Prairie Farmer, Patent Office Reports, and other pa- 
pers, procured seed, raised plants both for myself and 
others, hedged all my own lands and grounds, and fur- 
nished plants and seed to my brothers and personal 
friends, while the ** big public " still ridiculed the en- 
terprise as a " mems multioaulis " speculation, and 
would buy neither plants or seed. The result is, that 
ou the place where I now live, I have no other fence 
.whatever but the hedge, except around my barn-yards, 
and have not had for years. 6ij brother, Mr. Aveiy 
Turner, of Quinoy, also has the hedge on his fitrm 
mostly or wholly, and good hedges are now quite eas^ 
to be found, and poor ones too. A small farm of 120 
acres, lying ten miles from this, I hedged before I sold 
it, all into 20 acre lots ; another farm, southeast, of 800 
acres, I began to hedge into 80 acre lots, but sold it 
before it was completed. I have also made a mile or 
two of hedge on Governor Duncan's grounds, and the 
Illinois College Grounds, immediately joining or near 
to my own homestead. This I did for the sake of im- 
proving my own place, In part. I have also sold lat- 
terly, from one to two million of the plants to my cus- 
tomers annually for some years past, mostly in (his 
vicinity, but some in almost every State in the Union ; 
and shall sell about the some quantity this spring, 
mostly to old customers, or in their neighl)orbood, and 
at the same old prices in spite of the hard times. 

Such then Is my general view — ngr field of observa- 
tion and experienoe. Now as to your specific questions : 

1. It ought to take four yean, on good rieh prairie 
land, and no more, to make a good stock hedge ; on 
barren or poorer land, of course it would take propor- 
tionably longer, unless manure was used. 

2. In my opinion, a common farm he<|ge should never 
bo clipped at all, at least nothing more than to cut 
back overgrown shoots, to even the growth, till it is 
three^ or at least /wo years old— as the way is to begin 
at the bottom— and the first thing to be formed is a 
vigorous root, and for this end, of eourse the less olip- 




ping tbe better. Then eai dtini to tito groond, «nt 
often, and form the hedjse In » liagto ytftr, begixming 
in early wptiag. 

3. flhoota win genemlly grow from four to nx feet 
long If notent-— fometkmei min, when soil and eultare 
uregdod. 

4. An to the pvoportloB timt proret raeoewftilj I 
■honld think it about in proportion to the orchards that 
have proved Bnccessfnl in the West— and jonr own arti- 
cle or remarks in the Annaal Register for 1667, page 
355, moet clearly sets that forth The sad fa«t still U, 
that there is not more than about one man in ten that 
will raise an j crop whatever ; the majority will not 
have more than two-thirds or one-half a eiop of any- 
thing, if it is possible to blander oat of it Hence, if 
land that would easily produce 100 bushels of com to the 
acre, is made to produce 40, it do«i very well. Just 
so some get half a hedge or half an orchard, or no 
hedge or no orchard at all— for tt so happens that half 
a hedge or half an orchard, especially if H is the lower 
half that is missing, is neithor oo useful nor so saleable 
in the market, as half a com crop. But our good far- 
mers have hedges that I am noi ashamed to show 
againstany fence, or ton against any stoek in the world, 
not excepting thievish towa-boys, and this helps an 
orchard, or rather Us owner, wondorftilly. 

6. I suppose the actual cost of a good stock hedge, 
on good land, at the rate we now sell plants, ought not 
to exceed 50 cents per rod at most, if made by the fibr- 
mer himself. But a man off the ground cannot make 
it so cheaply by nearly one-half. At least I would 
much rather make two rods of hedge on my own grounds, 
than one rod on another man's even if not more than 
a sbgle mile, or even half a mile distance. For the 
trouble of keeping watch of it, and getting up a team 
and getting to it, is more than aU the other work to be 
done trhen you are there, if but a short piece— a mile 
or less. 

6. The late severe winters have jioi injured our 
hedges here at all. Last winter thousands and millions 
of young seedling plants were destroyed in the nurse- 
ry, as in such seasons they are always liable to be. 
Hence we always take ours up in tbe fall, so far as we 
can, and secure them in the plant-houses ; end it is 
impossible to be certain of good plants, though thoy 
may appear well in the spring, without this cnre, for the 
seedling plants are quite apt .to be injured in severe 
winters, more or less, and the injury is not always per- 
ceptible, even by the best judges, till after they are set 
in the hedge-row; and purchasing such plants has, 
perhaps, more than any one cause, covered the country 
in places with broken, worthless hedges. Twice in the 
last 15 years, I have delivered some such injured out- 
standing plants myself, without knowing it till too late, 
and had them all to supply again the noxt spring. The 
great drought also made sad work in blotching many 
pieces of new-set hedge where the plants were good, in 
1854. 

From the above and similar causes, in ridfaig through 
the country, one will see a great many specimens of 
worthless, unsightly hedges, and is more apt to see 
them, unfortunately, on the great railroads and tho- 
roughfares, than anywhere else. For precisely here 
thoee damaged plants are most easily hawked about, 
sold cheap ; and great droves of stock are most 
to range and try tbe work of careless hands and 




neglected fsttoes. Besides tkoie prqftMUmal hedg9- 
makerB, who did not always kaow a plow fhmi a hoe 
when they begu their peregrfasatlotts ott of the cities 
aad towns, to set ** n^er6 hed/^e*** for (ho famert for 
two prices, caih down the flrst year,— these found it 
more oonvenient to conduct thoir operations Boar the 
railroads, which they usually completed as soob as the 
first or seooBd payment was made, and d^eamped for 
parts unknown, leaving the hedges and their ownen to 
take care of themselves; and the latter goBorally 
found that ikw frqfenionai hedge was worth no Air- 
ther care firom themselves, than to try to plow or grub 
It up, which is not so easily done ; for this Osage Or- 
ange when oiioo set out, insists that It has a righi to 
make a hedge anyhow, even tf not nearer together than 
once in ten rods, and you may out it as much em you 
please, and HstUlpenlst in its nght to Uve and Biako 
a fence. 

But aside firom these easuaHles, I have BOvor in 
all my experience or knowledge, known a plant more 
than two years old, or after its second winter's growth, 
to be killed with cold here, or any offur cause, though 
the thermometer has been sometimes 25^ below sero— 
often 20*>— quite often 10^; and peach trees 6 inches 
through, and grapevines, and many common apple 
trees of good sise, have been killed ia my grounds, 
side by side with the hedge, quite to the ground. In 
severe winters, the tops of tbe hedges are always kill- 
ed down more or less, but the root never so far ; and 
all the killing of the top has -only amounted ia prao- 
tico here to the saving of one good spring pruaing. 
The first plant ever brought into this country, sdme 20 
years ago, is still alive in my front yard ; aod my old- 
est hedges are decidedly the best on my place ; and the 
same is true of my brother's in Qaincy, and many oth- 
ers. But fiarther north I have learned that the plants 
last winter killed out so badly in soma fdaoes in the 
yonng two year old hodgts, that it has diooouraged 
their ownera-^I think anwisely^for in other places 
still farther north, I learn they have stood well ; and 
I must think the error, where they wore killed out, 
consisted in too late culture in the Hall ; beside It is 
hardly probablo that we shall have another winter 
combining so many peculiar causes of destruction as 
the last^ perhaps in a whole century ; and he that 
abandons a young hedge, or a wheat crop, or any thing 
else, if needful on his plaee, from one unfortanate win- 
ter, is unwise, especially if there is good reason to 
think that some error in culture oaused the eatastro- 
pho. But I cannot, of course, and will not speak with 
any positiveness about either soils or climates, or any 
thing else not immediately within the range of my 
own personal experience. 

But if I were to purchase a farm myself, 200 miles 
north of this, my first effort would be, as It ever has 
been here, to hedge it ; and if the ground was dry and 
warm, I believe I should sucoeed ; if not, I know I 
should fail, till made so by drainage. But I am of the 
opinion that there may be many places on the poor 
sandy and gravelly soils of the north, and also on tbe 
low and wet soils further south, where it will not pay 
to attempt this hedge. On our swampy lands and wet 
swails here, it will not do without thorough draining or 
dykeing, so as to make a good dry com soU. 

7. The only hedge I have ever had killed down 
burnt down under a burning building, which burnt 





THE CULTIVATOR 




■oft fram oM totwofiMf»d0«p,i4iiMifcfaitollrielidail. 
But, mftor ali, the roota of the hed^e oMne up tluwifh, 
sod thftt same piece ii now a good hedge Burning off 
flUibble end kUUng the top in thai way, or praifie 
graas, only makaa H grow the thioker and better; and 
some trim their hedgee only by sveh boning down, I 
am told, in the tontb, aa the eld stoeka wUi atand tOl 
the new aboota come iq> again to their relief. 

I believe I have now, my dear air, anawered all of 
yonr qoeatieaa in order aa propoaed, aeoording to the 
beat of my knowledge ; and I am not aware of being 
under any partienlar biaa in the matter, for inatead of 
desiring to extend my operattooa in the hedging buai- 
neaa, I would prefer, aa thinga now ara^ to eaotraot it, 
and aold ovt aJl my fiuma with the iotention of ao do* 
ing, ao ftur and ao foai aa I find it expedient and prao- 



If anything ftirtber ia deaired, I would moat ofaeer- 
foUy giTo you all the infonnatioai in ray power, ao aoon 
aa time and other dutiea will permit. 

Allow me also to aay that I have aeen and felt in 
oonneetion with thia hedge bnaineaa of the weal, aa well 
aa with aU our other fkvming interaata, anch great and 
urgent need of a aystem of State inatitutiona, aimilar 
to thoae propoaed in Hon. Mr. Morrill'a bill now pend- 
ing In Congraaa, that I haye doToted moat of my apara 
tame for aome years paat, to that great national objeet, 
aa the Report herewith aent will abowi and I hope 
your time and talenta are not ao folly employed, but 
that yoo will find time to giro thia great interaat an 
effective helping hand. J. B. Tunxxn. JacluonviU^ 

IlL, Ftb. 1, 1858. 

■ • • • 

Culture of Hungirian Qnm ox Klitlet. 

MK8SK8. Editobs-^ BOO iu your January OoltlTa- 
tor, ao inqoiry of A. 6. Bryxolds, for the beat " Sob- 
Btltnte for Hay" — whether green oata, green com, 
millet, Ac, or carrots, or other root crops, are the beat 
sobalitate. It is my opinion that the Hongarian Oram 
Seed ia far preferable to either of the above. That 
any kind of land that will raise good com or oata, will 
raise good Hniigarian graaa, and on land that will 
raise from 60 to 75 bushels per acre, will raise from 
3 to 5 tons per acre It has been grown here in the 
West at the rate of 7 tons per acre. When it grows ftt>m 
3 to. 6 tons per acre, it will torn out from thirty to 
forty boshels seed per acre. One bushel seed will 
be saffioient to sow three aorea. At thia place it 
is now selling for $3 per bushel fVom oor seed stores. 
I however bought five bushels from a country wagon 
last week for $12, weighing full 50 pounds to the 
bushel. The ground should be prepared the same as 
for sowing oati, and be aown from the first to (he last 
of May, aod it will then be ready to eut right after 
oat harvest. 

If cut for hay it must ba cut when in bloom, and 
about the time the lower bladea or leaves begin to 
turn yellow. If out for seed, it should be out when 
the seed ia in a thick dooghey atate, and then bound 
^in aheaves the same aa wheat, whleh makes it much 
more convenient for threshing in a machine. The seed 
is of an oily nature, and horses or cattle will eat the 
seed before com or oata, and the hay before timothy 
and clover. Horsea having been fed on grain and good 
timothy hay being changed to one-half the grain and 
thia hay, began to improve immediately in fleab, and 



th^eoats Mart deak and ahiay. OatOe wiU do veiy 
weU on thM hay after the aeed ia threahed out The 
graaa haa good rooti, growa deep in the ground, and 
will itaad dry aeaeana mudi better than any other 
kind of graaa. Ae diyeal aeaaonain the Weat wiU 
not make the graaa wilt tn the middle of the day. 
After the graaa ia mown, it will aproot or aooker up 
Tory thiok, and will probably make much more paa- 
tore than timothy and olover, alter being mown, du- 
ring the aummer and fall. It win not stand the winter, 
aaid of eonrae moat be aown annually. I ahall aow 
about 16 acre the ooming aeaaon, and ahall then be 
better able to teat the quality of the graaa. In some 
parts of Iowa, where timothy hay sella for $10 per 
ton, the hay of the Hungarian graaa brings from $12 
to $15 per ton. 8. P. Kirkbridx. Quincy^ HL 

Although our eonraapondent pronouncea the Hunga- 
rian gram superior to Millet, we auapeet he haa never 
aeen the latter plant^ultlvated under ita proper name, 
for we can aaaore him that the Hongarian gram ia 
identioal with the German millet It U a valuable 
forage plants and eapeoially adapted to the light rich 
aoUa of the prairiea, where enermona oropa of it were 
grown the paat year. 

• e e 

The Tnliw of Boy Onpi. 

Hay eapa, made of atoot cotton elotfa, have been ex- 
tenaively Introdueed into oae in many aeetiooa of the 
country, within a few yeara paat, and Judging from the 
beat aonroea of infiormation within our reach, we know 
they are generally approved of, on th» aoore of econo- 
my, by thoae who have given them a fair trial. 

In the autumn of 1856, Me. Fuht, Seeretary of the 
Maaa. Board of Agrioolture, directed to one or mora 
farmera in every town in the state, a oiieolar contain- 
ing a series of queaUons perUinlng to the fhrm. The 
tenth queetSen waa, " Have yoo need hay capa 7 and if 
ao^ with what raault in point of economy 7 How were 
they made, and at what eoat 7" 

To the iUiove queationa heieeehred numeiovarepliea, 
and tn almoat every caae the oae of the hay oape waa 
highly approved. 

A practical farmer of Hampahlre oonnty aaya ; 

" In reply to your queatlon as to the utility of hay 
caps, it gives me pleaaore to aay, that after uamg them 
constantly for the last seven yeara, I eonaider them of 
tbe first importance in tlie moat critical branch of farm- 
ing. 

" I can aafely affirm that my hay haa been Intrinsi- 
cally worth on an avera^e,one or two dollars ft ton more 
than my neighbors, which has been proved by the re- 
markable health of my aplmats. * * * Having these 
covers always at hand, it haa been my practice to mow 
my graaa when it waa ready, wWumt conntUing tfu 
almanae or waiting for a change qfthe moon, and the 
result haa been, I have had more than my ahare of 
good luck in thia important branch of buainosa. 

** They are alao very useful as a protection against 
heary dews, and as a cover for coarse olover and timo- 
thy, I consider them indispenaabU'* 

A Worcester county fkrmer aaya : 

" I have one hundred, made of cotton aheeting, two 

rkrds square ; the hundred cost me Just forty dollara. 
think they have saved me twenty dollara thia year. 
I had at one time thia aeaaon, one hundred and thirty 
oocka ataoding oot in a aix daya atorm. One hondred 
were covered — not having capa enough, thirtj were 
uncovered. The uncovered waa worth but little, 
the oovered waa paaaable hay. I atooked aome 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




which I oMMd— ihey ftood a tw d»f i^ irithimi 

i^jorj." 

ReoenUy a Kew-HuDpthira &rmW| Mr. W^ Infom- 
ed HI that he pvoonred on* hundnd, two yard iqutn 
eapf, at the ooat of forty eeati each, and he thioks that 
he 1^0'* ^^(^ saved the ooet of them in the protection 
they afforded his hay the last nnosiially wet season. 
He oat about 80 tons, a large portion of it olorer and 
herdsgroai. 

Believing that there is freqnently a great saving to 
farmers, that have a supply of hay caps on hand du- 
ring the bi^y season of haying and harvesting, we 
thus early refer to the rabjeot for the purpose of call- 
ing the attention of fanners, who are not provided 
with hay caps, to the consideration of the question at 
this comparatively leisure season of the year. If any 
shall determine to provide against '* a rainy day," in 
hay time, by procuring a supply of caps, we will just 
suggest to them that in this matter it is better to pro- 
cure them a few weeks before needed for use, than to 
be a single day too late. 

. Farmers differ somewhat as to the proper sixe of 
hay caps. We have seen them in sizes ranging all 
the way from one yard to two yards square. We 
think 4^ feet square is as small as any should be made, 
but should prefer thoee two yards square. Several 
methods have been practiced to secure them upon the 
cocks of hay ; some recommend sewing in each eomer 
a stone weighing one or two poands each i others have 
eyelet holes in the comers, through which they thrust 
small pins of 18 or 20 inohes in length into the cocks 
of hay i othen attach to each comer a loop o£ jitfong 
twine 12 or 18 inches long, and iiake ose of ash or 
other hard wood pins, eighteen inches long. The pins 
are 'abont one inch square at the top end, near which 
they have cut into them a " hooked notch" for con- 
necting them to the twine loop. The lower end of the 
pin is tapered to a point, so as to easily penetrate the 
ground. With two yard square caps, the eomerg of 
tbem can be spread out beyond the base of the oocks, 
so OS to carry the rain b^ond the hay, which would 
not be the case with the small sised caps. A small 
canvass bag is very convenient for depositing the pins 
when the caps are removed from the cocka Some, 
however, make use of a nail keg for this purpose. 

In a somewhat extensive drive over a farming sec- 
tion of country, last September, we saw hundreds of 
hay caps on shocks of com and cornstalks, as also upon 
stocks of beans. We have also frequently seen them 
used as a temporary covering for stocks of wheat, oats, 
and other grain. 



Flenro-immuiuMiia. 



Me88B8. Editors— Knowing that yon keep the run 
of anything new respecting the diseases of cattle, I 
address you for information as to the distemper known 
. as plenro-pneumonia, or disease of the lungs. I must 
have imported it to my New- Jersey farm in the last 
lot of Short- Homs I imported in September. Two of 
them died in the Fall, and it has broken out to such an 
extent that I am compelled to soil off my dairy stock 
' and young Short- Horns, half and three-quarter bred 
stock, some 76 head. I have had seven die, and some 
ten more sick, with all my herd coughing. Two of my 
best price animals are among the dead. I hope 
clear of it on my West Farms farm, but it is all 




aiovftd ma. Is there aay preTtBtivel If yon can 
help me you will eonfor a iaver. Thos. Richabdsom. 
New- York, Feb. 11. 

Knowing that a friend in Dutehess eonBty,had are- 
cent French work, in which this disease was said to be 
more satisfactorily treated than in any English work, 
we appUed to him for information. His reply, for which 
he haa our thanks, is annexed ; 

Mbssbs. EniTORS— In corapliaaoe with yovr request 
I send yon a couple of extracts from the article on 
pleoro-pneumenia in Gelld's "Pathologie Bovine." 
Therein are described the symptoms apparent in the 
two first stages of this disease, and the treatment pur- 
sued by Profs. Chabert and Delafood. I select the ac- 
counts given by these two gentlemen from among some 
twenty others cited by M. Gell^ as they seem to have 
had the greatest experience, and as these embrace al- 
most every thing stated by the others. .In its third 
stage, the disease being considered nearly hopeless, I 
omit all reference to it} as also all speculations as to 
th^ producing causes of the malady, and the iiccounts 
given of post-mortem examination?, lest my article 
should be too long for an agrienltnral paper, or by its 
length should frighten somo from trying the very sim- 
ple remedies recommended. 

M. Delafond thns describes the symptoms of plenro- 
pnenmonia : — 

** In its first stage, although the animal may appear 
in good health otherwise, the eyes are red and blood- 
shot, the breathing and the pulse quickened, (25 to 30 
respirations,— 50 to 60 pulsations per minute ;) a slight, 
hacking and frequent cough may be observed morning 
and evening, especially during the prevalence of cold 
storms, a|id the cow shows frequent desires for the bulL 
This continnes from three to ten days, when the dis- 
ease parses into its second stage, and becomes more ap- 
parent. The beast now loses ils#ppetite and ceases to 
chew the cud ; its eyes are red, and sometimes hare a 
yellowish hue ; the cough is more frequent at night 
than in the morning, when in the field than when in 
the stable ; its breathine is plaintive and greatly quick- 
ened, (35 to 45 respirations,) and the breath very hot; 
pulse ranging from 70 to 100, though in some cases it 
does not exceed 50 to 60 ; a white, gluey liquid flows 
from the nostrils; the yield of milk from the cow is 
greatly decreased, and there is a strong tendency to 
cast her calf, the delivery of which is attended with 
great difficulty and serves to Increase the virulence of 
the disease : during all this time the nnimfll remaini 
almost constantly on foot^ and when in the fields seeks 
to shelter itself from the wind as much as possible : if 
now we pinch or press on the spinal bone, just behind 
the withers, the animal will show signs of pain by 
shrinking from the touch, and hv a slight groan : the 
abdomen is generally dietended." 

The treatment recommended in the first stage of the 
dieease, by M. Delafond, consists 

" In the entire separation of the animals attacked, 
a short allowance of food, bleeding, rabbing with a dry 
woollen cloth, and the administretion of one drachm of 
tartar emetic in a pint of warm water; the bleeding 
to be repeated two or three times if there is no im- 
provement in the pulse and respiration. He also ad- 
vises the use of a diet drink of a decoction of barley, 
to which is added 2 lbs. (avoirdupois) of sulphate of 
soda dissolved in eight quarts of the liquid, given in 
doses of one quart every three hours ; the injection of 
four clysters each day, formed of a decoction of marsh 
mallow and linseed, and the application of emollient fu- 
migations beneath the nostriU. This treatment to be 
continued through the first period of the disease 
or four days.)- 

" In the seoond stage, when the appetite 





TllK OL'LTlVATOll. 




the aMomtii twoll«B, Ae pafM qviek and nMlI, the 
obest paloAil to the tovoh, and the breathing plaintive, 
the bMeding slioald be repeated every two or three 
dayS| net t^ing more than 4 or 6 poands of blood 
each time ; glaaber eolte should be sabstituted for the 
emetic, end the food should be more liberal and of the 
kind most easily digested ; the other applications to be 
oontloned as before.'^ 

The ijymptoms as deeeribed by M. Chabert, are as 
follows: 

<* 1st stage — ^Sead depressed, musile somewhat dry, 
eyes heavy, pnlse hard, qnidk and irregular, flanks 
slightly heaving, moath and breath hot, ears and 
horns rather hot, hair dry and staring, dung black and 
hard, urine thick, high scented and bat rarely voided; 
the animal loses its appetite and strength, but feels 
great thirst, and has a short dry cough, at tiroes strong 
and frequent 

** 2ad Stage : — Increase of all the above symptoms ; 
extreme senvibil-ity of the spine when compressed, 
gnashing of the teeth, and diminution of the milk. 
The animal cKTriea its head raised; the eyes are glis- 
toring and watery ; the pulse very quick, thirst ex- 
treme, mouth dry and very hot, breath burning, muc- 
ile dry, the nostrils spasmodically contracted and their 
inner surface inflamed, while a reddish matter mixed 
with small clots of blood is forced from them and from 
the mouth. The surface of the body at tiroes is very 
hot, and thea again equally cold ; this heat is often 
oonfined to portions of the body. The flanks are agi- 
tated ; the cough is strong, oftentimes continuous, ob- 
stinate and convulsive { the animal seldom or never 
Ilea down, and in some oases aa exterior and movable 
tumor appears nn the neck or elbow. The disappear- 
aaoe of this tumor intemally, or the absence of the 
cough in the presence of the other fiymp^ms, is a sign 
of approaching death. 

" Treatment duifng the Ist period, recommended by 
U. Chabert:— Bleed .at the jugular, if the pulse is 
strong, hard and full $ not otherwise. When the pulse 
hue moderated, apply a blister on each side of the 
chest, and aAerwards rub the tumors thus raised with 
bnsiiioon ointment animated with cantharides. Give 
tmoe a day olexiteric drinks composed of an infusion 
of juniper berries, ammonia and Peruvian bark ; gar- 
gles of a sweetened deeoctioo of barley, warm clysters, 
fumigations of vinegar directed up the nostrils, plenty 
of rubbing, aod the use of oerering. 

"2d period .'—Bleed as sbove, apply very fitrong 
blisters on the chest, administer drenches of an infu- 
sion of juniper berries, emollient clysters, nitrated 
drink.% and ^rgles. If the animal ie feeble, give the 
alexiteric dnnks m above.^' 

Whether plearo-piie«oionia is oontogVws or not is a 
disputed point ; judging from the aooount eited in his 
book, If. Oell^ considers that in Its worst form, it Is. 
At any rate, the veterinaries all advise the Immediate 
and entire Mparatlon of the diseased from the healthy 
animals, that the stables should bo Aoronghly cleansed, 
aired and disinfected, and that all the animals should 
be well hniefaed and kept en a low diet. The taking 
of a Ihir quantity of blood, and the inserthm of a se- 
ton in the brisket, the tape having been previously 
dipped hi turpentine and then rolled In powdered can- 
tharides, is also recommended as a preserratoiy mea- 
sure. W. C. 8. February I6th, 1858. 
■•-» m ■ ■ ■ 

Prof. Wat has resigned the position he hat so long 
held— with grM* eredit to himself and beneflt to the 
eaase of agricultural seienee— as ohemiet to the Royal 
Ag. Society of England. 

GuAKO, Ac, voB Mbadowb.— The same paper re- 
commendJB as an application for meadows, 2 cwt of 
guano and 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda— to be well mixed| 
and applied in two dressings in March and April. 



Wimt«r 0«ra •€ Pvaltvr* 

We do not with the reader of this article to infer fran^ 
the heading, that the suggestions eontahMd in it do not 
also apply to summer as well as wtetor, but only that 
in almost all latHndes, poultry require, in many impor- 
tont reepeots, mueb more attention in winter than at 
other eeasens of the year. And perhaps the naost im- 
portont of all these, next to providing them with a suit- 
able house, as mentioned in our last article, (page 46) 
is a regular supply of animal matter. That it is indis- 
pensable to their health, and to their eonstant produc- 
tion of eggs, no one of much experience in this matter 
will deny. Every one will tell you that your fowls 
must have access to substances containing lime, from 
which to elaborate shells for their eggs, but hardly any 
one seems to think whence the elements of which the 
eggs themselves are composed, are to come. These 
must be furnished in the food, and therefore we must 
inquire what kind of food is suited to this purpose. 
The chief constituent of both the white and the yolk 
of the ogg, is an organised aubslanee called albumen ; 
and nit4X>gen is one of the chief constituents of albu- 
men. Therefore, it Is plain, that if you want your hens 
to lay, you must feed them on sabetaocee conteining 
nitrogen. The flesh and btood of animals are almost 
identloal vAih albumen, and contain a considerable 
amowai-oi nitrogen. But com, and euch other grains 
as can be eeonomioally fed to poultry, do not oontoin 
much nitrogen, though they contain the elements ne- 
cessary for the production of fU. Oato have a much 
larger proportion of nitrogen than com, and at the or- 
dinary relative pnportlon of prices, are the more eoo- 
nomioal of the t«re. Poultry may be fattened on sub- 
stances whioh do not contain a particle «f nitrogen, as 
starch, sugar, and the fat Itself of other animals, but 
they will net oontlnue to lay. It is not, therefore the 
fkt, but the mtise/e and the bloody H»try the scraps 
which remain after trying lard, and tallow, 4c., which 
are t>est adapted lor food for hens{ and «f whioh a lit- 
tle given every day or two, when they cannot pick up 
ineeeto and worms tor themselves, will abundantly re- 
pay you in thoir inoreaaed prod notion of eggs. Those 
scrape from the Ubie which are often given to pro- 
long the existenoe of some ugly raw-boned, snarling, 
sheep-stoaling car, would euffiee for as many hens as 
ought to toke the plaee of the afisresaid dog. 

As to providing shells for your hen's eggs; old mor^ 
tar, burned bones and oyster shells will furnish it— of 
course untlaoked lime must not be given them. They 
are particularly partial to oyster-shell lime, probably 
because it may have a little flavor of the salt water ; 
and we would here observe that while salt itself is in- 
joriotts to poultry, scrape of salt meat and flsh are much 
relished by them, and after some observation and in- 
quiry, we \-enture to say, productive of no bad results. 
Bones partly converted into charcoal and pounded fine, 
furnish both iime and nutriment. Such bones as can be 
easily mashed with a hammer ae they oome from the 
teble, famish a larger amount of oily matter than one 
who has never tried tho experiment would suppose, 
while tho fragments themselves, which the fowls will 
eagerly devour, contain phosphate of lime, tho very 
thing that they need. Red peppers, onions, cabbage 
and celery leaves, chopped up, are all excellent artl 
des of vegetable diet which fowls greatly need in win< 
ter aa a change fh)m their dry food. We do not 
cate much feeding of warm and soft food, exc( 





THE CULTIVATOR 




offfiiiomi cbasM cf ImQmI potAloM> (tJt fooMthisff 
«id«r » dolUr a bwhel,) bacftOM tiie digestiTe orgmnt 
of fowls are not ad^ptad to wft food. Com wamj bt 
pwebad, sad iU aatriliTO qnmUtiM Ihw m«eh iaeiMMd, 
ftad if eoni'BMl b fod iieHi1>eiiiizodvpwit]iwator,or 
witii BMhad poUtoM, aad then bakod in itwgli trnkm^ 
Not do we mpproro tiie plan of girlBg the fowls soess s 
to M moeli gnJn as tiiey want at aU tines; tkey wiU 
be sore to saffer mere or less, like sosm other bipeds, 
from a glatteoy umstraiaed by moral principle. 

Aod we hare another ol^leeUoii to these labor-eaTing 
maebines for feeding and watering fowls, which is that 
thej wiU be neglected in other retpeeU. Instead of 
risitiag joor fowls regularly to see what they need, 
and what is their condition, yon will fall into the reiy 
bad habit of learing them to themieWes, taking it for 
granted, that beeaose they have water and grain, they 
are doing well enongh. Wfun pt&pU take ii for 
granUd thinga are going right, that is generally the 
time they are going wrong. Feed your fowls regular- 
ly, and take time to do it, not throwing the com down 
in a heap for them to snatoh vp in two minntes, but 
scatter it as mnch as possible a little at a time. Oar 
own ezperienoe agrees with that of most poultry breed- 
ers whom we haTS known, that an average of one gill 
of com a day, half in the morning and half at nighty 
with such seraps aa may be thrown to them at noon, is 
suAeient to keep fowls in a good laying condition. Aad 
though we hare spoken of oate as containing more nitro- 
gen than com, we prefer com, (if meat is occasionally 
given,) as the rule, aad oate as the ezoeptlon, chiefly 
because the fowls themeeires seem te prefer it One 
writer in the same brea th , eondemns-'ioora as heating 
and prodneiag only foi| aad meat as unsuited tofowb, 
evidently overlooking the distinction between fat which 
contains no nitrogen, and fibre and blood which do. 

Without a constant supply of fresh water, which 
some persons never think of providing, poultry will not 
thrive. Shallow earthen pans or those scooped oat of 
stone, are better than wood ; cast Iron ones we prefer 
as niore«dmrable, and the rust taken up by tiie water 
is rather an advantage to the fowls. A few drops of 
assafootida, kept in wlntion in a vial, poured occasien- 
ally into their water, is of great benefit^ both as a stim- 
ulant and a prophylaotic. In the abbve suggestions, 
intended solely for the inexperienced, we have endea- 
vored to adhere to such principles of simplicity and 
economy as will make them easily availabte by aU. H. 
EUieotee MiUe, Md. 

-♦ e • 

Anoiber Good Day's IVork tor a Boy. 

McssBs. LuTBBB TucKKR A SoH— Seeing an account 
of a good day's work for a boy, from Pleasant Ridge, 
111., I will Just state to you what my son, who if not 13 
yosrf old yet, performed in the month of July last 
lie milked eight cows before breakfast, and then walk- 
ed three miles to a field of wheat, and raked and bound 
with double bands 80 shocks, making 1,200 sheaves— 
walked home to dinner, and walked back, and walked 
home at night, making 12 miles walk, aad got his eight 
cows milked before the sun was down. The next day 
the boy got his team, aod went into the same field and 
loaded and pitched off on to the stack for a man to 
stock, 6,500 sheaves. The wheat when thrashed, mea- 
sured 425 bushels, weigbtDg62 lbs. per bushel, aadtho 
boy got home and took care of his team before dark. 
I do not wish to boast at all, but just think him able 
to do as much of any kind of f«rm.work, as any boy 
of his age in lUinois. J. P. Mount PleaeanU 




N«w Pean— (CosTtxvKD.) 

Texonora Yah Mons. — Medium to large, obovate- 
pyriform, regular, greenish yellew, moire or less cover- 
ed with distinct patohes of russef^ stem an inch long, 
scarcely sunk ; calyx large, open ; bo^n, none — some- 
times closed in a small basin ; flesh gmnular, jnicv, 
and molting— sometimes slightly astringent. Yarjing 
from "good" to « very good." This pear is likely to 
prove valuable on account of ito vigorous growth and 
great productiveness, when worked on pear or quince. 

A Good FavBier— I«ar(ge Crwpa* 

A subscriber at Townsend, Canada West, writes us 
as follows : — " I have been teking your paper for the 
last twelve years — in fact ever sinoe I commeaoed 
farming, and I hope to be a life sabseriber. I shonld 
like to give you some of my expenenoe in farmtog, but 
I am not aecostomed to writing for the papers. I have 
five hundred aeres of land nnder oultivation, all in a 
block. I have grown whole fields of wheat that ave- 
raged 40 bushels per acre. I had one field of 14 acres 
that went 42 bushels per acre. I have grown 70 bash- 
els of shelled com per acre. I raise finom 10 to 14 
aeres of Swedish turnips every year. Never had a 
failure. Last season I had 12 acres, 34 of which pro- 
duced 4,000 bwhels. This astonished tike natives. I 
have a dairy of 25 cows, and a stock bam capable of 
accommodating 40 head of cattie. I cut all the feed 
for my stock. I give them a mixture of cut stmw, hay 
and turnips, three times a day, measured to them with 
a basket My cattle are all flat. I think it a very 
great saving to keep stock under ^eltor. Tureipe I 
consider Just the thing to keep animals healthy." [We 
shall be glad to receive the resnlto of the experience 
aad observations of a farmer who raises such crops, and 
we hope to be favored with contributions fh>m 
unaccustomed though it may l>e, to write for the 





CULTIVATOR. 




The Wood Btiok — Anat Sponsa, 

DRAWV llTD BirORlTIB fOR THE OOVIITBT OKVTLBVAK.' 

Among all the wMe tribe of dacks known, t^era 
ifl none that will eonpare with the beautiful little 
Wood Duck, for riohneae and variety of eolors — ^the 
only one approaching it being the Mandarin Duck of 
China, which indeed it strongly resembles. To describe 
it would require a colored plate, or the duck itself, as 
words are inadequate to do it justice. It is called 
Wood Duck from the eircumstance of its making its 
neat in the hollow trees. It is familiarly known in 
every part of the United States, ftom Florida to Lake 
Ontario. During the summer only it is seen in this 
state, migrating southward on the approach of oold 
weather. Its favorite haunts are in the solitary deep 
and muddy creeks, ponds and mill-dams of the interior, 
making its nest frequently in old hollow trees that 
overhang the wator. In its wild state its food consists 
of acorns, seeds of aquatic plants, and insects. It has 
been found from 19® south to 54® north latitude ; and 
breeds from Mexico to the Columbia river, and east- 
wardly to Nova Sootia. It is peculiar to America. 

The Wood Duck seldom Hies in flocks of more than 
three or fonr individuals together, and most commonly 
in ^alrs ; they are not Mormons, but live in pairs like 
pigeons. The common note of the drake is '*pe«/," 
** ptet ;" but when standing sentinel, if he sees danger 
he makes a noise not unlike a young sucking pig, *' or 
ttkV *^or eekP* Their flesh is not equal to that of 
the blue-winged teal. Formerly they were not unAre- 
qnent in the markets of New-Tork and Albany. A 
few years ago large numbers were taken in a seine on 
Lake Pleasant, and sold alive in the Albany market. 

This most beautiful duck has often been tamed, and 
is chiefly valuable as an ornament to pleasure grounds, 
on account of its brilliant plnnkage. They soon become 
nearly as t«me and familiar as other fowls. It is ge- 
nerally conceded, we believe, and there can be no 



doubt but that all domestic fowls we now possess; have 
been reclaimed from a state of nature. We are certain 
the turkey and the Braailian duck have been recently 
reclaimed ; and we see no reason why many more may 
not be domesticated as well, if any pains were taken to 
do it Some forty years ago, as we are informed, a 
Mr. Nicol, who lived on the west side of Gunpowder 
Creek, had a whole yard swarming with the Wood 
Duclu, which he had tamed and completely domesti- 
cated, so that they bred, and were as familiar as any 
other tame fowls. 

Some three or fonr years since, Mr. Vissar procur- 
ed of Messrs. Haines of New Jersey, a pair of these 
elegant little ducks. He was unfortunate in losing the 
drake after the first season, but succeeded in rearing 
until nearly full grown, a brood of seven, when a ras- 
cally weasel, mink, or some other '* varmint," stole 
into the yard in the stillness of night, and killed all 
but two of the young ones, leaving ona male and one 
female ; these, with the old duck, now oonstitute our 
breeding stock but as the drake is no polygamist, we 
must be content with the produce of one duck. Last 
season one of the ducks laid her dutch of eggs and sat 
on them, but was so oAen disturbed by visitors that 
none were hatched. We hope to be more fortunate the 
coming season. They are kept in the poultry-yard 
wiih other fowls, having a, tank of pure water to play 
in, with suitable accommodations for laying and roost- 
ing. 

To show how far they are reclaimed in the second 
generation, we will mention that a few evenings since 
the drake got fk-ightened at something, and flew out of 
the yard, and nothing was seen of him until the next 
morning, when he was found near by, and when the 
gate was opened he marched in with apparent gratifi- 
cation. C. N. Beueht. Springaidt, 

— • • • 

Apple Seeds— Hot-Bed«-~Orai»e8« 

Will you give the best way to plant apple seeds in 
the spring, and also the best plan of a hot-bed 7 And 
if you know anything of a German plan of using a 
white cloth painted with oil and eggs in the room of 
glass will you inform me whether it is an improvement , 
over tha old way 7 Also, what is the best work on 
grape culture, and where can the book be obuinod, 
and at what price ? A Subscriber. 

Apple seed, which have been kept in proper condi- 
tion through the winter, that is, mixed with sand or 
peat, are planted early in spring an inch deep, as soon 
as the frost is out of the ground, and vegetate freely. 
Planting in the autumn half an inch deep, and cover- 
ing with an inch of clear manure, gives them an earlier 
and more vigorous start 

The last Rural Register contains a good description 
of the mode for making hot-beds. 

We have never tried the described mode of making 
hot-bed covers, and cannot spoak of its comparative 
merits— but think glass will be found best on the long 
run. The proportions we have seen recommended are, 
one quart whitewash, one pint linseed oil, and whites of 
three eggs. 

The Treatise of J. F. Allen on the Grape, is full and 
complete of iU kind; Chorlton's Ameriean Grape 
Grower's Guide Is an excellent practioal work ; and 
Reemelin's Vine Dresser's Manual gives full directions 
for vineyard culture and the manufacture of wine. The 
first is furnished for one dollar, the second for sixty 
cents, and the last for twenty-flve cents, all sent pos- 
tage free by A. 0. Moore, Agricultural book publisher, 
New-York. 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




Hints about C«imII«s. 

A little inqairy into the nature of flame, teacbei 
some important Ikota in the manofactore of candles, 
not alwayf woll understood. 

1. Flame is perfectly transparent. It is true we do 
not see common objects through it, because the bright 
light of the flame eclipses all the fainter light of the 
objects beyond. The transparency is proved by the 
fact that the flame of a candle nerer oasts a shadow, 
when placed between another candle and the wall ; 
and also by the fact that an oblong or flat flame gives 
precisely as much light seen edgewise or with its broad 
side. 




Fig. 1. Fig. L Fig. a. Fig. 4. 

2. The brightness and combustion are all at the ouX- 
»ide. The interior consists merely of the gaa^ which 
is constantly manufacturing ft-om the tallow, the heat 
and light being at the outer surface of this portion of 
the gas, when it is in contact with the oxygen of the 
air, as shown in Fig. 1. This may be proved by hold- 
ing a piece of paper for a moment, ncroes the flame, 
when the outer or hot portion wiU bum a ring in the 
paper, leaving the interior uninjured, Fig. 2. Or it may 
be 8hown by quickly and dexterously thruRting the 
point of a phosphorous match into the interior of the 
flame, a Fig. 1, where it will not be lighted, the wood 
merely being burned off by the outer beat. 

3. These facts explain why an unsnoffed candle gives 
so little light The large black snuff hides the light of 
a large part of the transparent flame — the consumption 
of tallow being always the same in either case, accord- 
ing to experiment. 

4. For the same reason, a large, loose wick, by giv« 
ing a broad black snufi" to the candle, produces a great 
loss of light for the amount of tallow consumed. A 
smaller, compactly twisted wick, is more agreeable to 
the eye and more economical. The large wick produces 
a tail flickering blase, often throwing off smoke, Fig. 
3. The smaller, compact wick, on the other hand, gives 
a more compact flame, which never flickers nor throws 
off smoke. Fig. 4. Hence the latter is less ix^jnrions to 
the eyes. The large hot wick often causes the tallow 
to run down the candle, although all candles are liable 
to this difficulty if carried about. 

A small wick feeds the melted tallow to the flame 
more slowly than a large one, and eonseqnently the 
small wick eandles bum the longest. In consequence 
of the black snuff, imperfect combustion, and waste by 
smoke, in the one shown in Fig. 3, it gives but little more 
light than Fig. 4, yet experiments show that the tallow 

consumed nearly twice as fast The candle in Fig. 
bum an inch in about 35 minutes— that in Fig. 4 




an inch in 65 or 70 minutes, wliile the amount of use- 
ful light from the latter is nearly equal to that of the 
former, saving nearly 100 per cent. Therefore, a fami- 
ly which eonsumes yearly tweWe dollars wortii of the 
flrst described sort, need not require more than about 
seven dollars of the latter. 

The best candles we have tried, had a wick made of 
fonr cords of common cotton pack-thread, twisted to- 
gether, for a candle three- fourths of inch in diameter. 
This will give an idea of the proper siie of the wick, 
yet it may without inconvenltoce be smaller. It is 
much better, both kft convenience and economy, and 
for the eyes, to bnra two candles at once with small 
wicks and a clear steady light, than one only with a 
large one, giving off a large, discing, smoking flame. 

All these remarks are intmided to apply to the use 
of good, pure tallow—* bad material wiU fail in any 



Bow to BKake Faradnf FroAtable. 

MisSBt. Editobs— I Dotlee Dm. Lm's renuMrks in 
Co. Gent of Feb. 18, p. 107. I don't think he ftaHy 
oomprehends my meaning. What I mean, is, that 
every fanner in Western Kew-York ought to feed 
something better than hay and straw to his sheep and 
oattle during winter, and to their stock oattla as well 
as to those fattening for an eariy OMrket I say that 
eveiy flock of sheep would pay, and well, too» to be 
fed at least €0 lbs. of grain erSOlba. oU-eake meal 
during winter, even when fed hay. 

I know I can keep either sheep or cattle more pro- 
fitably by feeding part grain or oil meal than in feed- 
ing hay alone, even if I am going to keep them two 
years before fattening for the butcher. For instance, 
I bought a lot of lean lambs 28Ui of Nov., 1856, at $2 
each— fed them 12 ounces oil-cake mesl each daily 
the first winter, with straw only— gave them good pas- 
ture from April until the I4th of last Bee, when I 
commenced feeding them I lb. each of oil-cake meal 
daily, with oooasionally I lb. each of oats in place of 
the meal ; they had also good hay. On the 8th of the 
present month, I sold them at $9 22 each. Now that 
is the way I would have farmers keep their young 
stock. I always feed my breeding ewes com meal or 
oil meal. The lambs at 14 days old, will oommence 
eating >meal. In this way they will weigh more than 
two kept in the common way, when they are five 
months old. Just tlM same way with calves. Now I 
know every farmer in the State of New- York can have 
stuff to feed his sheep and eattle equally as well as I 
do, if he tries to do it All cannot get oil -cake con- 
venient, I know, but every one of them can have oats, 
com, barley, peas, or buckwheat Let thom feed from 
I to I of a pound to each sheep per day, beginning 
whenever the pasture fails, and I will varrani it to 
pay. No matter whether the sheep are for market in 
one or tliree years ; let-them keep up the feed every 
winter, and by increase of wool, increase of Iambs, 
and by inerease of the sise and weight of the sheep, 
they will be abundantly paid for the extra feed, not 
even taking into account the extra manure, which is 
no small item with me. 

As to resting land— if seeded with clover and timo- 
thy, thoroughly plastered, and not eat off too close by 
sheep or cattle, four years such rest in Western New- 
York will make it bring good crops of grain. I notice 




THE CULTIVATOil. 




Db. Lib talki of 30 y«an rest It may require thftt 
in Georgia, but not eo in New-Yoik State. If fannen 
would only keep abont one-fonrth of their deared land 
in tillage, and be indofitrioua in mnking and Baring 
manure, the farms would pay as well aa ever, as grate 
generally pays me aa well as any thing. But one 
great trouble with a great many farmers is, they think 
the land can do far more than it can. They over stock 
it with cattle and sheep, and then they pay litttle or 
nothing. It is not the number kept, but good keeping 
that pays. 

Having to hire all my labor, except what I did my- 
self, for the last 36 years, and to make the land pay 
for its JirH eoef , a» well aa for labor and improve- 
ments^ if I had not fed highly, I might now have been 
a town or county charge. It has been high feeding* 
high manuring, and draining, that has left me some- 
thing to support me in old age. Farmers, will you 
not take counsel 1 J. Jobmstoh. Near Geneva. 



Gftnota a Substituta for Hay. 

Mbssbs. EDiroM^-Maving noticed ao article in the 
Jan. Cultivator, entitled <' Subsatntee for Hay," by 
A. B. Retkolds, who wishes to know the cost of rais- 
ing and feeding the different kinds of substitutes. I 
have raised a subetitute in carrots for five years past, 
which I think is a very good substitiite. I raised last 
seaeon two hundred and twenty bushels from flfty-sev- 
en square rods of grovad, which would be nearly six 
bundled and twenty bBshels to the aore. The ground 
on which the above crop was raised, was mamired a 
year ago last spring, and planted with broomoorn — 
waa plowed in the fall Miter the broomoom oame off-- 
harrowed and plowed Itti spring— ridged or drilled in 
rows of two feet apart— then passed a two horse roller 
over the rows to settle them down and make them of a 
uniform height The seed may be sown by a planter 
or by hand. I sowed the last season by hand, as I had 
no planter, and thought that I could sow it by hand 
qnirker than to get one, and just as well. I made a 
mark with a hoe or a sharp stick on top of the row- 
then put the seed in the mark, and covered it with 
a light covering of earth. As soon as weeds make their 
appearance, a horse and caltivator should be paeeed 
through the rows to destroy them, and continue to do 
so until the tops are six or eight inches long — then I 
passed a plow through them, and shoved the dirt to- 
wards the tops. I cannot exactly tell the cost of rais- 
ing the above crop, as the work was mingled with oth- 
er farm' work, but will not vary much from the follow- 
ing: 

Preparing gronad and sowing seed, $2.00 

Half pouud carrot seed, 50 

Cultivating, weeding and tblnnlng, S.60 

Digging, trimming and putting in cellar, b.QO 

^^^-^ 

220 buiihelfl of carrots at 20c 144.00 

8 cart-loads of tope worth 26o. per load,.. &00 

146.00 
10.00 

Profits from 67 square rods, |3600 

or about one hundred and one dollars per acre. 

As regards the cost of feeding carrots, I consider it 
lees than most of the root crops, as cows will eat them 
without slicing, except the largest ones, which I slice 
for the oalvea. J. Cbalmbbs. GlenvilU. 



Salt as a Maaure for Cabbage* Turnips, &o. 

Messrs. Editobs — I was much interested in the 
perusal of Mr. Lbvesque's account of his clearing a 
field of that troublesome plant, " coltsfoot," as given 
in the Co. Gent, of 1 1th insi, and of the growth of #100 
worth of cabbage per acre, on land that three months 
previous had received a dressing of two tons per acre 
of salt — as also In his statement, that " cabbages of 
sorts, Swedish turnips, kohl rabi, and mangold wursel, 
all being in their native state, marine plants, conse- 
quently common salt is a necessary and beneficent ad- 
dition to the soil, in the cultivation of all |dants as 
naturally srow near the sea-shore." I believe Mr. L. 
is correct in his views as above expressed. 

Early in October, 1866, in company with Dr. Tyler, 
the then physician of the New- Hampshire Insane Hos- 
pital, I took a stroll over a portion of the farm con- 
nected with the institution ; none of the crops interest- 
ed me more than their field cabbages, there being not 
far from 3,000 heads of the largest and best cabbages 
I had ever seen. I remarked to him, that for a few 
years the cabbage crop had, in my vicinity, been al- 
most wortbleas, in conseqaence of being *' clump-foot- 
ecL" He remarked, that a liberal application of salt 
to the land, or maoare intended for cabbages, was a 
certain euro and preventive for fingers and toes, and 
all other " ills that the cabbage is heir to." The ma- 
nure intended for cabbages, received all the beef and 
pork brine and salt of the institntion, amounting to 
many barrels each year, and since they had made use 
of the salUd manure, they had not failed to raise ex- 
tra large crops. For the three past years, cabbages 
from the grounds of the hueane asylum have always 
Uken the lead over aU others at the N. H State Fair. 
L. Bi-BTLBTT. Warner, Feb^ 1858. 

• • • 

A New Manure. 

In a report of experiments with different manures, 
contained in a recent issue of the North British Agri- 
culturist, we observe that one of the manures used 
was saw-dust steeped in chamberlye for six weeks. 
This, like the other manures reported, was employed 
as an application to a crop of turnips. Nothing is said 
about the manner in which it was dried and made fit 
for sowing, whether by exposure to air and sun, which, 
we think, would rob it of some of its most valuable 
properties, or by mixing it with some dry and pulveru- 
lent substance. Should any of our readers try this 
new manure, it would be well to employ some absorbent 
of ammonia, as charcoal dust or seasoned muck, in the 
reduction of it to a dry state. Neither is the quantity 
which was used mentioned, all that is said under this 
head being that it was " sown with a good handful 
along the drill." The effect of this manure upon the 
turnip crop is about equal to that of four and a half 
cwts. of Peruvian guano, costing about $16 ; the pro- 
duce of the plot manured with the soaked saw-dust, 
being at the rate of 17 tons, 8 cwts. of turnips per acre, 
(white globe,) and that of the plot manured with Peru- 
vian guano being at the rate of 17 tons and 18 cwts. 
per acre. „, , ^ . , , 

We presume that this new manure will be tried by 
many both in Great Britain and this country during 
the coming season. The individual who reports upon 
it, says that the saw-dust steeping was an idea of his 
own, and that it will be tried next year on a more ^'■- 
tensiva scale by several fiwmers. 



2 

n 

4 



The Proper Depth of Covering Oraw Seeds. 

C. L. FuNT, Esq., Secretary of the JUaBsacbusetts 
Board of Agrfcolttire, in hu ralnable Report on Grass- 
es, gives a table showing the depth of soil in inches 
and fractions of an inch, at which the greatest number 
of seeds germinate ; also the depth of soil in inches 
and fractions of an iaeb, at which onlj half the seeds 
germinate ; and forther, the least depth of soil in 
inches and fractions of an inch, at which none of the 
seeds germinated. 

We here only give a list of a few kinds, they being 
the kinds mostly grown in this country. 

Orchard Grass to f I to 1 

Timothy, e to to 1 

Red Clover, to 1 to Ij 

White Clover to to i 

Tall Oat Onus,.... | to f li to li 

The foregoing results were obtained by careful ex- 
periments. The ftrst colume shows that the ive kinds 
of seeds germinated as well cff the surface of the 
ground, as' those that were covered from one-foorth to 
three- Ibwihs of an lach. But it is proper to say that 
the soil used in the experiments to ascertain the pro- 
per depth of covering, was kept moist during the pro- 
cess of gerntiwitioB, though fi^ly exposed to the light, 
which accounts for the large number of seeds germi- 
nated without any covering whatever. 

Only one half of the several kinds of see(b germi- 
nated when covered at the depths specified in column 
second ; and none of the seeds germinated wh^n cov- 
ered at the depths specified in the thhxl colamB. The 
above statements w^ldoubtfoss surprise many farmers. 
We have time and again known fcrraers te sow their 
grass seeds at the same time thay sowed their grain, 
and then with » heavy harrow, go over the ground 
from two to four times. Such a process must bury 
much of the seed too deep to vegetate, if there is any 
truth in the figures we have given. 

Mr. F. also give» the number of seede in a bushel of 
red top seed r »l80 in a peck of timothy, and in four 
pounds of clover seed. The above named quantities of 
seeds are need by many farmers in stocking down an 
acre of land to grass. Other fhrmers frequently use, 
in addition to the bushel of red top, a large quantity 
of timothy and clover. 

Now it has been ascertained by carefully oounting 
the seeds in an ounce of the three kinds of Feeds, how 
many ther& are in a pound or a bushel. From this 
data it has been ascertained, that the fttrmer that sows 
upon an acre ef kind one bushel of red top, one peck 
of timothy, and four pounds of clover, puts upon his 
acre w> less than §5,868,000 seeds. This gives over 15 
seedb to the square inch, or about 2,200 seeds to the 
square foot What farmer over gets such a number of 
grass plants upon a square inch or foot of his newly 
stocked down field ?' 

From many years observation, and some recent ex- 
periments,, we are led to believe that not much less 
than half the grass seed sown by many farmers fails 
to germinato in consequence of being ** covered too 
deep." 

We have freqaentl^ seen formers sowing their grain 
and grass seeds upon the ftirrow, and then cross har- 
row, for the express purpose of burying the seeds deep, 
from tho mbtaken idea that there was no danger of 
ooverkig the ** minute seed " too deep fbr vegetating. 

We have known othera to only once pass the hftirow 



over the furrows, then sow their grain and grass seeds, 
and then *' finish oiT" by going over t^e ground twice 
with the cultivator. But according to the table of 
depths of covering grass seeds, it seems that the seeds 
of timothy, clover and whito clever fail to germinate 
when covered at the depth of two inches^where the 
cultivator is used ibr covering the seeds, it is very pro- 
bable that a large portion of them get buried two in- 
ches or more ; if so, then they fail to vegetate. 

Some defer sowing the grass seeds till they have done 
using the harrow ; then sow the seeds, and go over the 
land with a " brush harrow "~bnt the brush harrow 
sometimes draws the snrfMo sm) and seeds too much 
into ridgee. 

Some may ask, if there is so much danger of cover- 
ing grass seeds too deep, what Is the remedy ? Will it 
do to sow them upon the surface of the ground, and 
leave the seeds to their fato 7 Without answering the 
above questions direct, we will give the results of sev- 
oral experiments we have recently made in sowing 
grass seeds. 

In November, 1866, we sowed a small pieee of land 
with winter rye ; after harrowing in the rye, 'jowed at 
the rate of one peck of timothy seed per acre ; intend- 
ed to have rolled the ground the next day, but that 
proved rainy; nothing farther was done with the field 
till last April, when we sowed about six pounds of clover 
seed per acre. The result was, a fair crop of rye, and 
about the " thickest catch " of grass we ever had. 
Last sprfaig sowed two acres, \ part with wheat, the 
balance with oats ^ after having done using the harrow, 
sowed clover and timothy seed, and finished off with a 
heavy roller. We have seldom seen a better catoh of 
graas^ It being a» good amoflg the oats as with the 
wheat. Barly in September last, sowed two fields with 
winter wheat ; after the grain was sown and the ground 
thoroughly harrowed, sowed timothy seed. One piece 
of the ground was rolled after the grass seeds were 
sown ; the other was not roIlo(i ; in a few days after, 
the grain and grass came up, and a thicker stand of 
grass pi ante we never saw ; have no doubt there was 
twice the number of seeds vegetated that would had 
we harrowed the ground two or threo times over, after 
the grass seeds were sown. 

The past season was unusually wet, and there was 
generally a good catch of grass. But wet or dry, for 
the ftiture, we shall not harrow in our graas seeds; 
shall sow and then use the roller. If any of our read- 
ers have doubte In reference to this matter, wiB they 
give the thing ah experimental trial the coming spring? 
Sow a portion of the seeds with the grain on a part of 
a field, and then drag or harrow the ground over two 
or three times. On the other part of the field, defer 
sowing the grass seeds till after all harrowing is done; 
then sow the grass seeds and roll the whole field alike, 
and careftilly note the results ; and after harvest, re- 
port your success or failure. In either or both cases, Ibr 
pnblibatSon in the columns of the Country Gentleman. 
— ■- » » ♦ 

To Cook &le«. 

I prepare a dish which is prefSerred to the richest lioe 
puddmg, and which is certainly for more wholesome, 
nooording to the following simple recipe t — 

Slowly simmer the rice in milk three or four honn, 
or till the grains burst and absorb the milk^ add a '" 
tie sugar, put the whole into a wide dish, and bake 
sUghtly brown. Eat it with milk or better. L. ~ 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




The KoU MMbL 

In % Iftto nmnlMr of the Irlah Farmer's Oftieltee, 
w find some remarks on the Ko\A Rabi in which it is 
stroDgty reeommended, *< ae a Talaable additbn to the 
field root erops now in cultivation." From some cause, 
not well understood, the turnip in man j sections has 
degenerated and beoome much disposed to "fingers 
and toes," and the other diseases whioh have rendered 
it of late so very uncertain a crop in Bngiand. 

The kohl rabl is proposed as a substitute for the tur- 
nip, as it presents us ail tlie qualities required for this 
purpose. It is perfectlj hardj, and will stand severe 
frosts better and keep in store for a longer period than 
the Swedish turnip. It also resists the attacks of the 
fly and grub. Its feeding qualities have been ftilly 
tested, and all kinds of stock are exceedingly fond of 
it When fed to milch cows it does not impart that 
turnip taste to the milk and butter, as is frequently 
the caee when cows are freely fed with turnips. 

The averaf^ weight per statute acre, has been from 
27 to 31 tons, of tops and bulbs. 

The seeds of the green and purple topped varieties 
have been extensively distributed through the agency 
of the Patent-Office, during the past two or three years. 
As far as we have learned, they have fallen short of the 
Swedes In prodnotaveness or weight per acre. But in 
all cases that have come to our knowledge, the seed of 
the kohl were sown at the time of sowing the turnips. 
This is too late for sowing raU seed. The GaseUe 
says : <* The seed is sown in a weli-prepared seed-bed, 
about the end of February, in drills about a foot apart ; 
and in May ihey are transplanted in the field (when 
the plants are nx or tight inches high,) in rows about 
two feet asunder, and eighteen inches apart In the 
rows." 

We have grown the Kohl the three past seaions, and 
have been somewhat disappointed as to the product, It 
being much less than that of Swedes. But our seed 
has not been sown till about the middle of June— six 
or eight weeks too late. 

We advert to this subject now, for the purpose of 
imparting seasonable notioe as to the time of sowing 
the seed. 

• • • ■ — 

Fanning on th» PraiiiMi. 

Enmrns Couimr QtvnMUAn — I propi^ to point 
out some erroneous opinions that exist among ourselves. 
In the first place in regard to manures. When appli- 
ed to our soil before sowing small grain, they are a pos- 
itive injury, increasing the length of straw, causing 
the grain to lodge and rust before filling, and prevent- 
ing its coming to maturity. When applied to com, it 
haa as good an effect here as anywhere. Potatoes 
should never be planted in this prairie soil until the 
second 3^ar after manuring, as it causes the rot as a 
general thing when the rains are seasonable. 

I see by your *' Notes on the West," that you xe- 
eeived the idea from information obtained here, that 
mannre was of no benefit to meadowa ; but I think dif- 
feraatly. From my limited experienee in grass lands, 
I should in all cases recommend a good heavy top diess- 
ing in the fall, and I engage to show as good results 
from such treatment, as any other section of the eoun- 
(ry whatever. Our meadows here are very much neg- 
They are pastured in spring and fall, in wet 
and then when grassstands lighten the ground, 




it is attributed to the soil. One other reason for light 
crops of grass for three years past^ has been the drouth. 
The ground has not been wet down three feet in three 
years. All the rain usually falls while the ground is 
froien, and all the water runs off, and when the spring 
comes dry weather sets in, and continues so. I think 
a little more care will supply us with as good timothy 
and clover meadows as the Empire State can boast 

The crop of Millet I showed yon when here, proved 
an entire failure from three eauses^first, it was sown 
too early— second, weather too cold ; ground fkoae hard 
after sowing— and 3d, it was too dry till after harvest; 
but I have every confidence Ui the ** weed." I shall 
try it again, and hope to sneoed better next time, as 
nearly all who tried it suceeeded well, and some on the, 

poorest and Ughtest soil in this section. I>. D. a. ILL 

»■« » , ■ 

Termfl for LeaalDg Farufl. 

Some one has inquired in Tkk Cultivator, for the 
just terms for working land on shares. 

There are three rates of division of the products of 
the farm, between the owner and the lessee. 

First— Where the proprietor furnishes aU the stock, 
team, tools, seed and plaster, and pays the wear and 
tear and the taxes, and takes two-thirds of the products, 
and the tenant one-third. 

Second — ^Where the tenant does the work, and for- 
nishes the stoek, Ao., and pays the wear and tear and 
taxe% and takes two-thirds, and the owner one -third. 

Third—Where the stock is owned equally by both 
parties, and the ether expenses equally divided, and 
the profits equally divided. 

These rules of division seem to be indicated by, or 
rather seem to indieate the fact that one-third of the 
produce of the farm should pay the interest on the va- 
lue of it, that one-third should pay for the labor, and 
one-third shoidd pay the other expenses and the inte- 
rest on the value of the stock. This is nearly true In 
regard to good land, for it is plain that the difference 
in working good land and poor is^very great It takes 
all the products of some farms to pay the expenses of 
carrying them on. 

It is a very fair division between the proprietor and 
the farmer, in the proper cnltivation of good land, to 
follow the rule last indicated. The parties have an 
equal interest, and mutually co-operate uk the business. 
This is rather better for the fiarmer than the rate first 
mentioned. 

I have before me a record of the income and ex- 
penses of a farm managed on this plan, whioh shows 
the general correctness of the above rates. Where the 
former does the labor only for one- third of the proceeds, 
his income will be rather less, but it is expected in this 
case that the proprietor will have greater respon.nbility 
in the business. And in the case where the farmer 
owns the stock and pays all the expenses, for two-thirds 
of the proceeds, a degree of skill and responsibility is 
demanded, which justifies a greater reward. 

We glory in the social position of the American far- 
mer, who generally is the proprietor of the soil he cul- 
tivates I but it is favorable to young men that there are 
some superannuated or retired gentlemen — ^Iheir fa- 
thers, perhaps — who are glad to commit the laborious 
part of the business to those who are capable and 
tlve, but without much eapital. I do not know 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




better way for a young former witbout capital to begin 
bia profession, tban by taking a farm on sbares, espe- 
cially if be have tbe judicious counsels of an expe- 
rienced proprietor. If be is enterprising and frugal, 
be will not be long witbont a farm of bis own. N. Rbbd* 

» . ♦ • 

Profits of Pork Maldxig. 

Mbssks. Editobs— It baa been for some time a moot- 
ed question, wbether we ean make pork profitably. My 
experience has exUnded over nearly 20 years as a far- 
mer, and from my farm there has always been sold 
more or less of pork each year, and the more pork sold 
tbe heavier baa tbe retars been in cash ; but no expe- 
riment had been made to ascertain whether we got as 
much for the grain fed to tbe pigs, as we eould hare 
got for it unfed, until recently. On tbe 20th of Nov. 
last, finding myself the unoomfbrtable owner of a pair 
of rather mean pigs, which I purchased at $2.50 per 
bead, and one good half-blood Suffolk, the progeny of 
a large sow of a coarser blood, and not being quite of 
the opinion that the Suffolka are large enough for the 
best profits of a dairyman, 1 resolved to satisfy myself, 
and so proceeded to place them in a warm, dry pen, 
and to feed them with all the com meal they could eat, 
mixed with hot water, (or cold as it happened, though 
the carelessness may be ascribed to tbe unnsal warm 
weather of the season, their feed not often freexing in 
the trough,) until the 20th January, when they were 
killed. They were all nearly of the same age, not 
more than a week's differenoe. The Suffolk was dropt 
on the 12th oC September, and waa allowed to suck 
until taken to the fatting pen, and had only one rival 
for the fawrs of a weU fed mother. The other two 
were from a aumeroui fSsmily not over fed, and noted 
only for their squealing propensities ; these were about 
a week earlier. When placed in thto pen,the Suffolk waa 
the largest and fattest, and oootinued maater of the 
trough. They were never weighed alive, but the diffe- 
rence was apparent; and now for the result: 

The hBlfbred Suffolk weighed %--«■■:• ^W lb». 

The others, (Btr« not known, dam a grade Berk- 
shire,) 108 and 114 lbs, i221b8. 

32G Ibfl. 

Sold at 8 cents per pound, $86.08 

Tbe actual cost was as follows : 

Value when penned, $9.00 

Thirteen and a half buahela of corn at bOc. 10.80 

One bufthel buckwheat canelle, 60 

One bushel culled potatoes, « 60 #20.80 

Balance, $5.28 

Occasionally a pail of skimmed milk was given them, 
tbe value of which I could not estimate, as we are not 
contiguous to a city, and do not have any market for 
it except tbe swill pail. It will be proper to remark, 
that the Suffolk when dressed, was still the fattest, 
although not as heavy as his mates. From this ex- 
periment I am satisfied that the Suffolk is too small fbr 
a profitable porker, and that pork ean be mode at a 
profit on any well regulated farm, and wiU be eaten in 
any well M family. E. B. H. Berlin Center. 

■ • • • ■ 

Butter Makino. — Mrs. Julia Parkihjiwt of Pert 
Jackson, Clinton eonnty, (on the old Jonas Piatt farm) 
made Jive hundred and sixty pounds of butter (rotn 
three cows, in one year, commencing Jnn. 1, 1857. 
Milk was used in the family, consisting most of the 
time of twelve persons, during the year. Who can 
beat ihial'-Plattsburgh RepMioau. 



Proflta ot FariKilis§> 

At the lato meeting of the Ontario Co. Ag. Society, 
they awarded the first premium on farms to Mr. Paul 
P. Bill, of Seneea. The Conmitkea who awarded 
the prise, say—" When they take into consideration 
that Mr. Bill purchased bis fhrm of 70 acres for f 3,- 
000, went into debt fbi nearly the full amount, and 
that he has paid off that debt from the actual pro- 
ceeds of the farm, and that the oenditien of the farm 
has been all the time improving ; they look upon these 
circumstancea aa a very fair teit of goad maaagement, 
and therefor* feel fully j»stified in awarding to Mr. 
Bill the first premium.' ' He has not only paid for 
the farm, but greatly impxeved it by underdraining, 
tbe removal »f st<»e, &e., and erected a substantial 
barn, and all from the proceeds of the farm itself 
What be baa done, any other man of equal energy 
and intelligence may do^ The -farm ha9 bsen all Ike 
time improving. " That's tbe doctrine." Unprofit- 
able farming detarioratea tbe valne of the farm, while 
profitable farming improves it. 

•-••'■■ 
Coat ot Making <7KiBeae BofE*'' Caiia Syrup. 

Mbssrb. Editors— Yon iaqvfre for information as 
to the cost of making Chinese sugar cane molasses. I 
raised one-third of an acre, llere is the cost : 

Breaking up } acre at $1.50 per acre, $0.50 

Laying off and planting, 26 

Seed 1.C0 

Plowing 3 times at 50c per acre,^ 60 

Hoeing k day, one hand, ni 76c 37i 

Pulling blades and cutting seed, 3 daya, al 75e.,. .. 1.50 

Catting cane, 4 day, — 87^ 

3 hands and 1 horeo. 8 days, crushing cane and 

boiling Juice, at $1.76 perday. -. 6.26 

Wood an4 hauling, ^.. .» 1.00 

Lime. greoAO for mill, &e., 25 

Kent of land, 1.00 

Total expeneea, $12.00 

Contra Cr. 

By 400 0)8. blades, equal to the best bay, at 

$10per ton, $2.00 

By 16 busheis seed, at aOo., ..* 4.60 

*' begasse fed hogs, say equal to 6 busliels 

corn, ot30c 1.50 

By 1 barrel (40 gallons) vinegar made from 

scum. atlOo., ^^ 4.09- 

By 7S gallons niolaafies sold, 6S<30.- 

By 17 gallons molasai^ used, at 76o.« l2:7o 

$M.05 

Clear profit — $78.05 

From this statement yon will aee that the fodder, 
seed, begaase and vinegar, exactly paid tbe whole of 
the expenses, and consequently the eost per gallon of 
making the molasses was exactly nothiagk P. L. 
Adaib. Sawesnille, Ky, 

m m m 

Grapevinea on Trees* 

Mkbsrs. Editobs— I will tell yon my ezperienee 
about grapevines, that is, that we farmers had better 
hare tbem run on trees, or some place where they ean 
extend themselves, and not be winter or spring pruned, 
for wo do not sommer prune, and they are not aa good 
if winter trimmed and not cummer \ they grow too 
thick and smother the f^uit. I hare tried it both aad 
all the ways. When a >fne gets so exteaded and eld 
that it does not bear well, begin to out off seme, part 
one year and part tbe next, and let some of the yoan^ 
shoots grow, and your vine will bear ogain. I have 
trimmed vines fi»r my neigbbois in tbe spring, but do 
after trimming, and no good g^Bpes, when vines on 
elose by prodaoed good grapes. D. 1^. Bichabb. 





THE CULTIVATOR, 




gnJbstitatM for Baj, 9lo. 

Indian Com—MiiUit^CkineBe Siu^ar Cane—Espe' 
riments in Feeding Coita. 

Hbbsrs. L. Tuckse a Sou — A. B. Rbtnolds, (page 
29,) wishes to know the best sabstitute for hay. Mj 
experience in that line is at his service, and if it is of 
txkj benefit to him or others, I shall consider myself 
well repaid for the time spent in writing these lines. 

Indian com of the large soathem variety, will pro- 
duce the largest amount of fodder per acre, of any ar- 
ticle which I have tried. On the 5th of Jane I plant- 
ed one acre of com. The soil, a warm sandy loam, 
which would have prodaced fifty boshels of shelled com 
per acre — plowed and harrowed — then farrowed oat 
eighteen inches between the rows— the com strewn 
thickly in the farrows, (three bushels per acre)— har- 
rowed across the rows, and rolled — cleaned oat when 
small withiike hoe. It soon covered the ground so 
so thickly as to prevent the weeds from sprining up 
to rob the com of its food- 
Cat it up (Sept. 6th,) with com cutters, laying it in 
rows spread evenly, so that the sun may wilt it. Let 
it lay one er two day* ; then put it up in stocks ; bind 
them well at the top, s|ireading the bottoms well apart, 
fo as to permit the air to pass through them. Let them 
stand until winter sets in. Don't stack or draw them 
into the bam before cold weather ; if you do they will 
be damaged by mould or rottenness. They may ap- 
pear perfectly dry, but my evperienee has taught me 
their looks win deceive you. When cold weather has 
fkirly set in, you may stack or put them in a bam, and 
you will have an aitlole of fodder upon which your 
stock will thrive, if properly protected from the cold 
and wet. 

From the produce of said acre I fed thirty cows for 
twenty days, giving them all they needed of fodder, 
and a small allowsace of roots. As I found from ex- 
perience that my cows require about 26 pounds of fod- 
der each per day, this will show that about seven and 
a half tons of dry fodder must have been consumed in 
the 20 days. From the above your correspondent can 
estimate how to make up his defficienoy of hay. I have 
sown com broadcast, but it is less productive, not so 
oonvenient curing it, and requires more seed. 

Oats cut when in the milk is a good fodder, but ex- 
Itensive. Bye, wheat and oat straw answer the par- 
pose of filling up, but a liberal supply of roots or 
ground feed must be sappUed or the stock will become 
poor vesy fastk 

Millet is next best to com on good wiL Sow any 
time in June, I bushel per acre — ^harvest when the seed 
is in the milk, and it makes good fodder. Produce two 
to four tons per acre. 

Chinese sugar cane may answer for soiling ; but is 
too fall of juice to cure for winter fodder. Boots are 
valuable to feed in coi^unetion with fodder, but must 
not be relied on as a substitute. 

I have now mentioned all of the substitutes, but 
where land and labor are high, I might suggest anoth- 
er—that is, exhaust all the resooross of the farm to 
Buike manure, and if a luficieney cannot be thus ob- 
tained, then sow plaster, ashes, or Peravian guano, on 
his mowing grounds, and thus cause two blades of 
grass to grow where but one grew before, and in many 
\ the latter will be found the cheapest and most 
satisfactory plan. Beataber, niso, that good wann 



stables, and feeding so that the stock cannot waste 
any, are also helps to a short hay crop. 

By reference to my experiments, I find that rata 
baga and sugar beet were worth ten cents per bushel 
for cows when hay was worth ten dollars per ton, and 
carrots and parsnips 15 cents. 

I give you the result of experiment, hay and feed 
vs. cut straw and feed. I fed in the winter to milch 
cows, 28 lbs. good hay and 5 lbs. feed to each cow, 
weighing the milk of ten covrs for ten days. I then 
changed, giving 26 lbs. cut rye and oat straw, and 10 
lbs. of feed, wet and mixed well together, weighing 
the milk for ten days. Then changed to hay, contin- 
uing for three trials of each. The result was no dif- 
ference of any amount in each experiment, and the 
account balnnces as follows : 
28 poands hay at $10.00 per ton, ...'. Ue. 

25 pouiida corn, oats aud buckwheat, 

groujid, 740. 

21|o. per day. 

26 pounds cut straw, |2 per ton, 6^ 

10 pOQiids same feed as above, lie.... 15e. 
CuUiug straw, 4»c, extra, la 

224c. per day. 

On a less amount of feed, I found a decrease in the 

quantity of milk when straw was fed. I have the 
above, the average of a number of experiments. I 
have tried cutting and steaming hay, Ac, for cows, 
but could not make it pay for the extra labor and fuel. 

I have experimented some with various kinds of ma- 
nure, ditching, Ac, Ac. Should the nbove prove ac- 
ceptable, I will write out some more for you. J. J. 
D0L8BN. New Hampton, Orange Co., N. T. 

Mr. D. has our thanks for the above, and we shall be 

flad to receive the details of any other experiaens he 
as made. 

• • m • — 

Prinea Albert PotatoM. 

Ike New- York Tribune, in an article on potatoes, 
hat the following notice of the Prinoe Albert potato : 

"The Prtncs Mberl is a seedling imported from 
England, and introduced into Massachusetts a few yean 
•go by an Englishman, whose name we are unable to 
learo. They were introduced to this market for seed 
by Messrs. Steers A Edwards, some four years since, at 
very high prices. The demand for them for seed nas 
kept pace with the supply, and we loam that S. A B. 
have just sold fifty barrels to one of onr seedsmen at tS 
per barrel. They are an oblong shape, a little flatten- 
ed, entirely white, very few eyes, which lie upon the 
surface, scarcely indenting the thin, smooth skin, being 
one of the most beautiful potatoes ever grown. They 
are an early variety, ripening with the Mercer, and 
grow to a handsome site, sometimes very large, and 
yield largely, and have never rotted. They have not 
yet come in maiket for general oonsamptlon, but are 
highly praised by many that have tried them as a ta- 
ble potato." 

This is the variety grown by our correspondent, Mr. 
Ho WATT of New- Jersey, who, for his crop of 238 bush- 
els per acre, received the first premium of the New- 
Jersey State Ag. Society, at its late winter meeting. 
They are a large and productive variety, of first-rate 
quality, as we had occasion to state last fall, in ac- 
knowledging the receipt of a barrel of them £n>m Mr. 
HowAn. 

About a fortnight since, we received a bushel of the 
Prince Alberts, (frosen solid) from (we presume, as no 
letter accompanied them,) Mr. G. McMahon of New 
Milford, Conn., an accountof whose crop was published 
in oar last vd^ p. 410. Mr. MoM. faifonns u that he 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




reoetred two prliM on Uiem at th» lait 8Uto fair— the 
fint, for the best aore, and the seeond lor their beastj 

and qnalitj. 

• • • 

Ol0¥«r— Seeding Down, Eto. 

In eyery oonne of rotation designed to keep up th 
fertility of the toil, eloTer takes an important plaoe — 
both for consnniption as a pasture and forage crop, and 
for plowing under as a green manure. For the first 
named purpose, its thrifty and long continued growth 
well adapt it, though it will hardly bear pasturage as 
closely as some of the proper graswn, nor as early or 
as late in the season, yet in the yield of wholesome and 
succulent food for all domestio animals, It is not to be 
surpassed. For hay, if properly cured, it is of high 
Talne, while as a crop for plowing under as a fertiliser, 
its numerous roots, rank stalks, and abundant foliage 
supply a large quantity of Tegetahle matter to the soil. 
It is also of that class of planta which derive a large 
portion of their food (Wun atmoapherie sonroes, so that 
its deoay gives more to the soil than it has taken from 
it by its growth — much more comparatively than many 
other cultivated crops. 

Glover is generally sot^n. in connection with some 
grain crop— as in the spring upon winter wheat or rye, 
or at the time of sowing spring wheat, barley, Ac. It 
is thought to take best on winter grain, perhaps from 
the fact that it is usually sown earlier in the season, 
and gets better rooted l>efore the usual summer drouth, 
which is so unfavorable for seeding down with late 
sown spring orops. Fall seeding is not often practiced 
with clover, though we have known of instances where 
it was attended with good lueoess. 

The varittiea of otover generally ealtivated In the 
Northern States, are known aa the large or pea-vine, 
and medium kinds ; the latter is generally preferred 
as being the best lor hay, and of equally tbrifly growth 
with the larger variety. The small kind, oommoo at 
ioatb, is qoite dwarilah, and not often grown in this 
ieotion. 

In regard to the qualUy of the seed, parity is an 
essential requisite — some of the worst pests of the 
farm have been introduced into districts to which they 
were strangers before, by being sown with clover seed 
brought firom distant kwalities. The vitality of olover 
seed, more than one year old, has been questioned, but 
we think it is not injured if stored in a dry plaoe, but 
it will not grow as readily, no doubt, from the hard 
ooat becoming stilj harder and almost impervious to 
moisture. Such olover seed sometimes vegetates the 
second year. 

As to the Hnu of seeding, we think it important that 
it be early in the season, for reasons above stated. 
Clover seed may be sown in March upon wheat and rye, 
if the ground is bare, or only covered by a light snow, 
— the subsequent fVeexing and thawing of the surface 
will give it the covering of earth necessary to germi- 
nation. With spring grains, we think it will catch 
with better success if sown before the last harrowing, 
thoQgh when a roller is used, it might as well be sown 
after, aa the roller would cover seeds so minute in site 
as these sufficiently. The use of the last named imple- 
ment is important where the field is intended for mea- 
dow, as well as of benefit to any spring grain. 

The amount of seed required for an acre varies with 
1, those which are of a clayey eharaeter needing 
The growth of the erop with which clover is 




BOWS, also has in inlluenoe— the more dotely it coven 
the ground, the larger the amount of seed xequfaed 
About a peck to the acre, oftener less than more, is 
usually sown— too many practicing a mistaken econo- 
my here, which tells largely against the yield of grass 
hereafter. If too little seed is used to cover the ground 
with clover, injorions or useless herbagb fills the place, 
and loss is sustained by the fanner. 

The toil best liked by the clover plant, is one of a 
clayey character resting upon a loamy subsoil,— one 
well drained, either naturally or artificially, will pro- 
duce most luxuriant crops. Any soil suited to wheat 
will produce largely in clover^ but light soils need ma- 
nuring to bring good crops. Heavy ill-drained soils 
soon destroy the clover plant by fireesing and thawing, so 
as to pull it out by the roots, especially in open weather, 
thawing days and freesiag nights, as often happens in 
early spring time. ^ 

The use of pUuttr as a dressing for clover, in almost 
all sections, adds largely to the product It may often 
be observed that the portion of a field seeded and 
plastered, takes or catches well, whUe that undressed 
is almost a failure. The saOM may be seen upon a clo- 
ver meadow treated in the same manner In regard to 
the hay crop. We would sow plaster, a bushel per 
aore, by all means, in every ease of seeding to clover, 
as soon as the young plants began to appear above 
ground. It is often deferred toe late for the good of 
the olover or accompanying grain crop. 

• • • 

Feeding OU Meal to Calvee. 

Arumer to /, Philadelphia^ Co^ Gtnt^ p. 113.— He 
may begin by feeding oil men) to hii calves, the first 
feed, if he chooses, by patting a very little in the milk 
at first. I found dipping the fingers in the milk, and 
then patting them in dry oil meal, considerable of 
which would stick to the fingers, and by putting them 
in the ealfs mouth it sucks off the oil meal, and thus 
gives it a taste for it I always feed them all the oil 
meal they will take. Oil meal is unlike all other strong 
feed I have ever fed ; they are never sick by taking 
all they will eat. The sour milk, butter milk skimmed 
milk, or oil meal, I don't know which, purges the 
calves, but they are not any the worse for that ; their 
hair is fine and silky as a fine far cap. If they sooar 
from bran shorts and oil meal, they are sick, and .a 
fetid odor in their stables. Not so when fed oil meal 
— no bad odor thtmu For fonr the feeder don't give 
them enough oil meal, I have small boxes nailed up in 
their stalls, and always keep oU meal in them, so that 
they can take a little when they choose. I have never 
fbd it to pigs, but it is easy for any one to make a trial 
of it 

Ih all my feeding, I have never found oil meal hurt 
young stock. I had in three different seasons, cattle, 
(three I believe,) that got sick when fiilly fatted, and 
when slaughtered the gaul was much enlarged, the 
liver somewhat diseased, and I suspeoted that oil meal 
was the cause. In answer to gentlemen, about feed- 
ing oil meal, I called them young cattle, but that was 
my bluTuUr; they all three had got their growth. 
I hope the gentleman will notice this. 

This is the 26th inquiry I have answered by letter 
since the 20th nit , all on farming, and from many dif- 
ferent states — but the greatest number fh>rotbi8 state. 
A gentleman fh>m Columbia county oskn 17 questions. 
John JoaicivoM. Near (xsnsdo, 19^ Feb, 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




Bztraordliuurjr Prodaot of Batter. 

MB88B8. Editors— The great difference in oaitle of 
the same breed, haying quite contrary resnlta as to 
profit to dairy and grasing farmers, was spoken of at 
onr Club on Saturday, the 27th nli This drew out 
some to spoak of the value of Durhams as milkers, Ae. 
Mr. Jacob H. AUen said he knew a person who had a 
cow, that in one year gave the enormous weight of 623 
lbs. 13 OBS. of butter. The cow was owned and kept by 
John Wing, EUrt's Village, Dutchess Co., and the re- 
cord commences March Utb, 1856, and ends March 
13th, 1857. 
From March Uth to April IWh, made .— W lbs. 16 ozs. 

" April mh to May ISih, 62** 1 * 

" May 18th to June Uth, tl " H *' 

** June 18th to July Uth, ,. 61 " 1 " 

«• July 18th to Aug. 13th 47 " 8 •• 

" A ag. 18th to Oct 16th, 112 ** J " 

«' Oct. 19th to Nov. 16lh, 68 " 7 *' 

»» Nov. 19th to Deo. 19th 60 " 6 « 

•* Dec 24Ui to January 19th 44 •*■ « " 

" January S4th to F<fbruary 10th, .... 88 " 16 " 
^ February 2Ut to March iSth, 28 '* 12 " 

Total, 'ia « 18 « 

Butter weighed by the town sealer of weights and 
measures when flt for market. The cow nine yeafs old, 
and seven-eighths Duiham. Her feed was three quarto 
of provender, made cf oom and oats, mixed with her 
milk for the day. [So U reads.] In the winter, she 
had cut carrots once a- day and provender onee. She 
was taken good care of, and stabled during the winter. 
Her summer pasture was smalt and poor. For the 
truthfulness of this statement, Mr. A. produced the 
proofii. W. M. Bbavchamf. Skoaneaidea, 

• • • 

A First-rate Bam* 
I mentioned to you that being in the neighborhood, 
I had visited the grounds and new bam of Mr. Ellib 
Clizbbk, of Amsterdam, K. Y. I had not time to give 
the premises that eritbsl examination which its great 
merit demands, and in which the enterprise and skill 
of its proprietor is so visibly illustrated. The structure 
b erected on the bank of a durable stream, giving an 
opportunity to form an underground cellar or lower 
story, free from frost, without much trouble of excava- 
ting. The building rises three stories high including 
basement, and comprehends the most room for the 
space covered of any building of the kind I have ever 
visited. A dam having been thrown across the stream 
a few rods above the building, gives an opportunity for 
conducting the water by canal, to the macfaineiy situ- 
ated at one extremity of the building, so as not to In- 
terfere with the stables and receptacles for manure in 
that department, and by a shaft driving the machinery 
for various purposes situated in different parts of the 
building. The contrivaneeis admirably simple, and 
eaoh in its place performs its alloted work in a thorough 
manner. I noticed first a inachine for cutting straw, 
stalks, hay, Ac, depositing its results in a laige bin 
oonvenient for cattle feeding— next a thrasher, dis- 
charging the straw in a lower room of large dimensions, 
ready to be operated upon by the cutting knives, and 
the grain carried by elevators and stored In bins in an- 
other part of the building ; from there shoots are pre- 
pared to conduct the grain to one run of stone for grind- 
ing; (Mr. G. intends to put in another run of stone for 
which a space is left.) I saw as ine flour as comes 
any of onr western mills. Also a machine for 
wood-tawhig. The out-bnUdings ara not as yet oom- 




pleted, a plan of wlUah was however described to me, 
and when done I can truly say that no establishment 
of the kind that I have ever seen combines so much 
useful machinery in so small a space covered, as this of 
Mr. C.'s. The hospitality of the opulent proprietor and 
his enterprising son, together with a view of this recent 
structure, would well pay you a day spent in Amster- 
dam, saying nothing about the extensive carpet fac- 
tories, and also the extensive broom fisotory of Mr. G* 
W. BouToir, situated In the village. The cost of Mr. 
C.'s bam was f 2,600. tt. W. Duba.nv. 
■■•••■ ■— ■ 
Plaiatlifts Clieatnuta. 
I wish to plant a grove of chestnut trees on our 
prairie soil — (where it is not indigenous) — ^in order to 
raise it for timber and other purposes. It has been 
cultivated by some of our nurserymen, and thrives 
finely. But it is said there is a secret in planting the 
nut, In order to have it come up welL Will you be 
good enough to inform me through the columns of the 
Country Gentleman, the modus operandi of preparing 
the seed for plaotin(b und the right season for so doing. 
S.R. AUoTijItt. 

We are glad to impart the "secret" of success In 
planting the chestnut It consists simply In never al- 
lowing the outer shell to become dry. As soon as the 
well-ripened nuts drop from the tree and are loosened 
from the bur, pack them tke aanu fiour in moist sand, 
peat, or leaf mould, and keep them thus moist (not 
wet) till planted — which may be late in autumn or the 
next spring. The chestnut is dUficnlt to transplant^ 
and hence it Is better to plant the seed on the spot 
where the trees are Intended to stand. They may be 
planted like com in ** hills,'* and aU but the thriftiest 
pulled up afterwards. As they need not be so thick as 
com, they might altemata with it, If the ground could 
be prepared vory aaiiy, aa as to plsat both at the right 
time. Bariy cultivntlDa, lika cn«, cmmos them to grow 
rapidly ; aad iMlngin rows, the wagon could pass easily 
through, in thinning out and drawing oif the timber* 
• • • 
Potatoea—Iiarse Seed and Small. 
Eds. Odlt. axd Ck>. Gbxt.— About tha first week \n 
May last, I planted a small patch of ground to pota- 
toes ; the seed for about half of which was taken from 
the refuse of a bin where potatoes had been kept 
through the winter. They were the smallest kind of 
t' smaU pototoes," very few exceeding the quail's egg 
in sise, and extensively sprouted at thai The other 
portion of the plot was planted with large seed of the 
same variety (White Mercer) uncut Neither had any 
advsntage over the other as to location— soil uniform 
—and both sections were treated alike throughout. 

The poUtoes when dug were all very large and fine. 
No difference was observable, except that the hill ftom 
which the very largest were taken happened to be from 
the smaU seed. Now, I have for years been the ad- 
vocate of large seed, but the above experience sug- 
gests the query as to whether soil, season and culture 
has not qmte as much to do In giving us a large crop 
as the sise of the seed. Will some of your readais try 
it a few timeo, and let us have the result 7 

Again— I planted same time as above, four hilb, 
using one large potato cut into four pieces for esch 
planted, and four other hills along side the first, with 
one whole potato in each, and weighed the product in 
October— the cut seed gave three pounds most in 
weight I shall experiment farther. H. Watovb. 




Jeney Cow, Charity. 

Calred 1850— imported August, 18S4 from tiio Island of Jeney, by J. A. Taiktob, for J. Howird Mo 
HsVRT, Pikesvnte, Baltimore Go., Md. 



Smoke for Wounds oa Animals. 

Mbssbs. Editors— I have two ▼ela«bIo remedies, 
and not being able to find etihar of tbem in any agri- 
oaltaral work with which I am ooaTersant, I plaoe them 
at your disposal. They are smoke and noUu—9. My 
father once had a vioioas horse eight or ten years old, 
which he altered, hoping to make him more managea- 
ble. The operation being not well performed, the cord 
dropped off, the poor animal bled till he oonid soarcely 
walk without reeling, and the psrts swelled to an 
alnrming degree, and father having in vain tried every 
expedient at his command, to remove the inflnm- 
mation, gave him np for lost, and told me to drive him 
into the woods, and there let him die. Fortunately, at 
this stage of the case, an old Pennsylvania teamster 
came to oar relief, and recommended smoking with old 
shoes. A smoke was made of old shoes, soles and all, 
cat in pieces, in a hog trongh, and placed nnder the 
swolen parts. In a few honrs the swelling wholly sub- 
sided and the sore oommenced dischargtng matter — the 
horse was saved. 

Some years after this T heard two pemns talking 
about a horse which had been gored in the abdomen. 
In this oase too, every thing hsd been tried fn vain. 
The poor creature must die. At ray suggestion he was 
smoked, and when I next heard from him the old horse 
was well. So much for old wounds. 

In the same year I out my foot with aa ase. The lady 
of the house, seising the foot while it was yet bleeding 
freely, held it over a pan containing smoking tag-locks, 
few minutes the bleeding stopped, and the smoke 
removed, and a bandage applied to protect it fVom 




accidental blows. The wound nettr maturated^ and 
consequently never pained mt. I have seen this rem- 
ody tried in many similar cases, and always with the 
same results. Let the reader bear in mind that no 
liniment or salve, drawing or healing, should be ap- 
plied. You have merely to smoke the wound well, and 
nature will do the rest 

I suppose the smoke of bamlag wood would produce 
the same results, but it would not be so manageable. 
There is a principle in the smoke of wood, which, whea 
applied to flesh coagulates the albumen, thus rendering 
it unsusceptible of putrefaction. The same principle 
stops bleeding by coagulating the blood. It promotes 
healing, and may be applied with decided benefit to 
almost all ulcers, wounds and cutaneous diseases. See 
Turner's Chemistry, by Liebig and Gregory, p. 1242. 

For chapped hands and lips molasses is the best rem- 
edy I ever used. If my oows have sore teats, or an ox 
chafes off the outer skin so ss to eooasion the blood to 
start, I iHPPly molasses. N. D. Neto London^ Ci. 



ITcaat fbr Bread or Cakes* 

In a quart of boiling water, stir sufficient wheat floor 
to make a smooth thick batter; while hot, stir in it 4 
ounces white sogar and a tea-spoonful of salt When 
cold, put in sufficient yeast (say near a tea-cnpfol,) to 
cause the mass to ferment Lay it by in a covered jar 
for use. Half a tea-cupful is enough to make two large 
loaves. To renew the yeast when used up, reserve a 
tea-cnpfnl. 

This recipe my wife considers her own invention, ss 
she has never seen it It is simple and efficient for 
raising buckwheat cakes and bread — very light and 
very white if the flour is good. w. t. l. 




TIIECULTiyATOB. 




Golden Spaaslcd Hamburg Fowl* 

ThU beftuUfal varietj of fowl we believe U not very 
eommea i& tbu coontrj. Tbey are probably more nu- 
merous in tbe vicinitj of Pougbkeepsie tban in anj 
other section. Thuy were first introduced here some 
four or five years since, by an KnglishoiAn who emi- 
grated to this country and settled in this neighborhood. 
They have generally been bred by the more humble 
elites, generally mechanics, and attracted little or no 
attention until quite recently. They are worthy of 
notice, both on account of their beauty and prodoc- 
Uveness. 

The Glolden Hamburg fowl is known in some sections 
of England as the Qolden Pheasant, from the supposed 
resemblance of its spanieled feathers, especially in the 
case of some of the hens, to those of the English cock 
pheasant; and *'Red-Capa," in allusion to their fiery- 
eolored combe. They are tbe most perfect patterns of 
neatness of make, but a little under sise ; excellent 
and continuous layers, without sitting, for they do not 
seem to hare time for that slow process. The flesh is 
excellent, skin tender, and but little offal. Eggs abun- 
dant, rather small, very white, and slightly tapering 
at one end. Their constitution appears to us less ro- 
bust than in some other varieties. They are great fa- 
vorites, especially with amateurs and those who require 
a constant supply of eggs rather than frequent broods 
of chickens. They are better suited for this class than 
for the farmer. 

They are rather impatient of restraint, are great 
foragert, and add greatly to embellish the pleasure 
grounds or lawn. 

Color of the oocks : breast and nnder parts black ; 
the breast faintly mottled with reddish brown ; dark 
bay or reddish brown backs ; hackle and saddle feath- 
ers are composed of a mixture of brown, black, yellow 
and green ; qnilli of tbe wing chestnut ; wing>coverts 
metallic black ; tail erect, large, full and flowing, black 
glossed with green. 

The hen has a small rose comb well piked, shaped 
like the cock's, only smnller; ear-lobes white; with 
her body, the lower part alone excepted, spangled. Her 
tail is fkill, whioli she carries rather low, and nhoukl be 
tipped with black, like that of the Seabright Bantams. 

Such, in particular, are the colors of the Golden 
Spangled Hamburgh fowls, as figured above ; but we 
must not now pass tb^em by without some further enoo- 
ninm on the extreme brilliancy of their feather, from 
oombination of gleesy hnet. Their plumage is 
compact and close, and in good spedmena of the 




female bird attntna a depth of tone seldom surpassed 
thronghont the ponltry-yard. The only comparison 
that does it Justice may be found in the bloom of a 
thorough-bred horse in racing condition. 

Hamburg pallets hatched in March or April, begin 
to Uy in October, and continue laying until the moult- 
ing season. The older birds when well kept will com- 
mence laying very soon after moulting, and oontinue 
until moulting again ; and one would be surprised at 
the number of eggs which we get even in severe 
weather. C N. BEME^Ft:- Springaide^ Po'keepsU. 

• • • 

Letter from Levi Bartlett. 

Pint Saw DuH-^Lo$s qf Liquid Manure — Muck 
and Draining Sieampa. 

Messrs. Editors— In the Co. Gent, of the 18th 
alt , a " New Subscriber," makes inquiries about pine 
saw-dust, having carted much of it into hisbarn-yMrd, 
hog-pen, Ac.f and asks if there is anything hurtful in 
the article, when mixed with animal manures. 

Fresh or undecomposed saw-dust is nearly valueless 
as a manure. It contains vegetable acids that are in- 
jurious to growing plants, and is of a cold nature. But 
when used as bedding for cattle, horses and swine, it 
becomes saturated with their urine, and when thrown 
into heaps it has a great tendency to ferment or heat, 
and if not carefully attended to, there will ber much 
loss occasioned by the formation of, and escape of am- 
monia and other gases, fire-fanging, Ag. These losses 
can be prevented by having the mass spread about and 
trampled down solid, by keeping the swine npon it, or 
by applying water, or what would be better a salt brine 
upon the manure, in quantities sufficient to prevent over 
heating 

The decomposition of vegetable matters always pro- 
duces acids, and that of animal matter an alkali. 
When the fresh manure and urine of animals are mix- 
ed with saw-dust, heat and decomposition ensues, am- 
monia is generated, which readily combines with the 
acids of the saw-dust, thereby neutralising its acid 
qualities. Then as the saw-dust decomposes or rots 
in the soil, as it surely will, it is prepared to minister 
both directly and indirectly, as food for growing plants. 
By its decay the woody matter yields carbonic acid and 
water, which affords carbon to the plant, and also lib- 
erates potash, lime, Ac, fW>m the mineral matter of the 
soil. It also flimishes vegetable mold or humus, for 
the retention of the ammonia brought to the land in 
the rains, dews and atmosphere. It also aids mnch in 
retaining moisture in naturally dry lands. 

Similar results follow in the use of swamp muck, 
leaves and mold from the wood-lot, and from old and 
well rotted tan-bark. Much of the fertility of newly 
cleared land, unquestionably, is due to the great amount 
of decomposing vegetable matter in and on such soils. 

At the legislative agricultural meeting at Boston, on 
Tuesday evening, 16th ult., subject of discussion* ma- 
nures, C. L. Fiint, Secretary of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, furnished a statement, concerning the waste of 
liquid manures, that equalled $16 per cow, and would 
equal a loss over the state of $3,900,000, on the num- 
ber of cattle of the Commonwealth. 

Gov. Boutwell remarked that the valne of the liquid 
would be enough to defHiy the expense of summering 
and wintering the stock of Massachusetts. 
* As reported In the Boston Dally Courier of 18th 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Ap&il 



I praflUflM Um abore«aliaEtos nm priadpiily bwed 
apoD (be amouniof amnMuiia the arme of a cow would 
yield In a giren time, and the preeent oonnneroial reliie 
of Ammonia, aaj at 12A oeste per lb. The eommeroial 
and agrieultaral Tel«e of a manure ere two Tory diffe- 
nnt things. The agrioultunl ▼aloe of a mannre would 
be Tory diCfereot, where wheat was worth two dollars a 
bushel, and where it wts worth only tbirty-fiTe cents, 
the price at which wheat was soiling at Oeneeeo, 111., 
February 4th. 

But whether the estimates ate correct or not, there 
ean be no doubt the agrioultural Talne of the urine of 
a cow, is but little understood by a great minority of 
farmers. 

There are farming sections in New- Hampshire where 
a cow can be wintered for twelve dollars, and pastured 
for three dollars ; just the ralne of the urine, eooordlng 
to Mr. F. and Qow. B. Consequently, if the urine of 
the cow could all be sayed, the annual calf, the milk, 
and the solid manure, would all be dear profit, less the 
taxes and interest on the value of the oow. 

Most of the speakers at the meeting, strongly adTo- 
cated the use of muck or some other absorbent, for say- 
ing the urine of farm stock. As an absorbent, I prefer 
leaves and mold from the wood-lot ; next, swamp muck. 
In the absence of these, saw-dust ; even pine saw-dust, 
if no other was to be had, is better than nothing, as I 
will show by one who has used it for many years. 

A few weeks since, I received a letter from Sihuon 
Abbot, Esq., a good farmer of West Concord, N. H. 
His letter is dated Jan. 13. He writes : 

" It is sixteen years since I eommeneed using saw- 
dust snd shavings as an absorbent, by Uttering the cat- 
tle, and wherever there is liquid manure, or wash from 
the bam, sink, or house, to prevent waste or loss. I 
do not think it is the best thing that can be used for 
this purpose, although it is good, and where it can be 
had for a trifling cost, and the distance not far to cart 
it, T am well persuaded it will pay the farmer for all 
toil and cost he may be at to procure it. I have used 
some yean, as many as fifty cart-loads of pine shav- 
ings and saw-dust, (never having used hard wood,) 
without perceiving or detecting the least injury to the 
growing crops at the first application, or to suoooeding 
crops years afterward. 

" The first time I tried it, I put ten cart-loads under 
mj cattle stalls in the fall, to absorb the liquid manure. 
My bam then stood three feet above the ground; since 
then, I have raised it up seven feet, and have a cellar 
under the whole — a convenience every farmer, who can, 
should have. The next spring I found the saw-dust 
well saturated with the urine, and used it on land for 
Swedish turnips— the land the previous year was plant- 
ed with potatoes, without manure. On one part of the 
field I used hog manure, the same number of loads. I 
had a good crop of turnips, and did not see any differ- 
ence where I put hog manure or saw-dust. I have 
used it for potatoes at the rato of thirty loads to the 
acre, and also for com, and can testify, that as far as 
I ean judge, I have never perceived any bjury to my 
crops IVom it" * 

Last year Mr. Abbot raised 180 bushels of sound 
com on three acres of land, at a cost of thirteen cents 
per bushel. He need 25 loads of manure to the acre — 
bushels to the load. There was a good proportion 
shavings and saw-dust mixed with the manure, 




well saturated with urine. He says : <* The manure is 
not considered so valuable as if some other material 
had been used as an absorbent t say peat, or muck, 
artioles which I cannot obtain without too much cost." 

I have freely used sawdust Ibr bedding for my cat- 
tle, a number of years, keeping a portion of my stock 
in the hovel at night the year through. Pine, hem- 
lock and spruce sawdust I obtain at a shbgle mill near 
my place, without pay. White oak sawdust I obtain 
at a gallon bottle faotoiy^for this 1 pay 25 cents per 
cartload, drawing it about one mile. Of this I obtain 
12 or 15 cartloads eadi year) I should be glad to get 
60 loads at the same price. There are n^any fiumars 
in this vicinity that use sawdust and tuning siunriiiga 
for littering their stables, hovels and hogpens 

The value of swamp muck for composting with ma- 
nure, is now pretty generally admitted on all hands. 
It is, when not too much impregnated with mineral 
acids and sulphates, rioh in plant food. There is usually 
much labor required in digging, carting, and shovel- 
Ifaig over the muck, Ae, But it is generally thought to 
pay weil for the labor. 

It would probaUy pay better to drain the swamps 
and cultivate theee rich deposits cf half decayed vege- 
table matter. Scores of experiments testify to the 
fertility and productiveness of these reclaimed lands — 
both on small and large scales. Of the last, Bx-Oov. 
Hammond of South Carolina is a striking example. 

Some ten years ago he forwscded to me a copy of a 
letter addressed to the Jefferson Co. (Qa) Ag. Society. 
In this printed letter he gave the results of his experi- 
ments in the use of " shell mart" He usually applied 
from 100 to 200 bushels of mirl per acre, containing 
60 per cent, of lime. But he did not depend upon 
marl alone to increase his crops and the fertility of his 
fields. He made use of immense quantities of swamp 
muck in composting with animal manures, using two 
of muck to one of manure. In the free use of marl 
and compost he greatly improved his fields and in- 
creased his crops. 

A few weeks since I addressed a letter to Gov. H., 
inquiring if he had for the past few years continued 
the use of marl and the composting of muck and ma- 
nure, as practiced at the date of his letter on marl. 

He very kindly and promptly replied. His letter Is 
dated Washington, Jan. 24, and says:— "My experi- 
ments in muck manure were cut short in a singular 
manner. Opening the upland swamps near my fields 
to procure muck, I found the land in them so good that 
I changed my plan, and drained the twampa. To this 
I have devoted myself for several years past, and I 
have now some fifteen hunred acres drained, which is 
good for 60 bushels of com per acre, and I have made 
a marvelous amount of cotton on it. I actually housed 
last year, over 62,000 bushels of oora, of which 37,000 
were made on fifty acnis of upland and six hundred 
and fifty acres of the swamp, only two hundred and 
fifty acres of which were dry enough to bear plowing. 

** I used while at ft, perhaps, 500,000 bushels of muck. 
There is no doubt about it^ it makes a first-rate ma- 
nnre ; but it is very bulky. It will not puT tor much 
manipulation, at least it will not with us heie, where 
everything must be done on a large scale, and all pro- 
duce sold at wholesale prices." 

What Gov. Hammond has done on a large scale, 
thousands of others can do on a more limited one, and 
thereby make their now useless swamns the most pro- 
ductive and profitable portions of their ~ 
Babtubtt. Wamtr, if. if. 





THE CULTiyATOK. 




Turn AwsBTi0«iBiiTB.-«-W« shouM lUite by waj of 
apnlogj to our iMdon forgiving apao nmcb ipaM to 
AdvertiMOMBli, Unat we •hoald not hftVo sdniUod 
them to raeh nn extent thia month, were it not for the 
Ikot that Nnmrhftt lem than the venel ipaoe hM been 
Monpied in thie wej in the proTioui namberi of the 
year, end emoog thoee now inaerted there are nont^ the 
ifipearanoe of which eould be defemd to ear next ie- 
ane, withont dimmiahing their vnlne to the adrertiaer 
and their intareat to the reader. Nnraeriea, Maanrea, 
Imptoaent% Seeds of aU kinde for Field, and Flower 
and Kitchen Gardena, Maehinery lor Horae Power and 
aU fciada oi Farm work, are toUfaUy well repraaented ; 
and we may add tliat if leadem were to eonanlt the 
Advertiaementa » little aaore generally than they do^ 
they would be aaTod the treoble of addreaaingao many 
of the inqiairleo we reoeire. 

We may at the aame time hint to adTeiiiaetv, that 
by oonaaiting the eolamna we pabliah of "Inqairiea 
and Aaawera," aa well a* the oorreapondenee of the 
paper, they would often get aaeAU hinta aate what and 
when to advevtiae. 

Own Avm. PBmnvva.— Many of oar old fHenda 
and agenta are atiU behhid their aaual liats at thia 
aeaaon, and ftom aome othera we hare not heard at alt. 
To anch, aa well aa to thoae who are now oompeting for 
the firat time, a reminder ia not improper, of the Cetct 
that for ten daya atUI to eome much may be done 
to aecnre aabaoriptiooa and decide the award of prises 
oilbred for AprU 10th. We hope they will arail them- 
aeWea of the pleasant weather, and see aa many of 
their neighbom aa poaaible on the snbjeot 

HowiNG Machiites. — Gboagb 0. DoLPH, of Weat 
Andover, Oblo, in allasion to the deaoription of mowers 
reoently given in the Country Gentleman, ioforma ua 
that Ball'a machine haa ne lever for raising thecatter- 
bar, and that Miller and Aultman's only possess this 
arrangement He likewise furnishes several strong 
testimonials in favor of a new invention he haa himself 
reoently made and patented, for raising or depressing 
the cutter, with great ease, while the machine is in 
operation; and aeveral gentlemen, and among them 
the inventor of Ball'a machine, regard it as the beat 
eontrivanoe of the kind they have aeon. We are pro- 
miaed an engraring of thia improvement soon. 

Thi CourrBT asHTLSM Juv.— *' Hard" aa the "timea" 
are, I cannot yet afford to give up the Country Gen- 
tleman, whoae weekly viaita I regard aa a Handnrd 
ntctuity. As an A'grlcoltaral Journal, it haa, I think, 
no equal ; while aa a Family newspaper for thoae en- 
gaged in Rural purauita, it haa scarcely a rivaL Its 
mored tone la excellent, j. b. 

Plabtino too Much.— a correapondent hi Michigan, 
after alluding to the recommendation given to farmers 
laat year, to put in " another acre of produce, in order 
that the the country and the poor of the citiea might 
have enough to eat," aaya— ** We did so, and what is 
the result 1 The western states, on account of the 
cheapness of produce, can scarcely pay their taxes. 
Now I would say to the farmers of the country, put in 
tenth less this year, aad see if we cannot pay our 
next winter. The pricee this winter are ruinous 
farmer. We have to ask in oar aeighben le 




help eat ap ear prodaess It it so eheetp. The present 
prices wiU scarce pay for eanying to market after they 
are raised. The fhrmevs are in debt, aad will be at 
theee prioes. Three-fourths of prsseat crop would have 
put the farmers oat of debt i therefore raise less, and 
we shall come out right*' We give ear readers the 
benefit of our oerrespaadent's adfioe. Our view of the 
matter, however, is, that the farmer would do better to 
produce all he can from his larm in the meet economi- 
cal manner, in fiprain, beef, pork, mutton, Ac 

Pobtablb Stbam BflaiBBB. — We have received the 
annual Circular of Messrs. A. N. A B. D. Wood, steam 
engine builders, Utica, N. T. Several of our subsori- 
l>era who have procured portable aieam en^^nea of the 
Meaan. Wood, have expreaaed to ua their high aatla- 
fhction with them. It will be aaen from their adver- 
tiaement, that they make them at pricea varying from 
f 1,76 to •1,700. Farmera and others, who contemplate 
procuring an engine, should obtain one of their Circu- 
lars, which they can do,-^e preaame, by mdosiog a 
stamp to the Messrs. Wood, 

LARdB AvBRAOB WxxflHT OP Hoos.— We are b- 
debted to Gxo. Haikbs, Bsq., for a copy of the New- 
Jersey Mirror, which gives an account of the weight of 
several lots of hogs raised in Burlington county in that 
state, the past season. Isaac Harrison, of New-Han- 
over, slaughtered 36 — total weight 19,416 — average per 
head 664 pounds. Joseph K. Hnlme of Fountain 
Green, killed 21— average weight 466| pounds. Jo- 
sesh Newbould, of WrighUtown, 26— average 461 lbs. 
Alex. Shreeve of the same place, 21 — average 632i lbs. 
Thomas Hood of SheUtown, " who is well known for 
raising mammoth porkers, killed 44, whioh averaged 
6331 per head." Nothing U said as to the breed or age 
of these hogs. 

Lab«b Exbibitiob op Oxkb.— In the December 
number of your Cultivator, you notice, on the credit of 
" the Vermont papers," that the Town Fair in Peach- 
am, y t, exhibited " two hundred and fifty pairs of 
oxen, and other stock in proportion, whioh is believed 
to be the largest naoher of cattle ever exhibited at 
aay one fair in the sUte." At the exhibition of the 
Whitiagham Ag. Society, held Oct. 1st, 1867, there 
were exhiUtad three hundred and twenty-seven pairs 
of cattle, <* and other stock Ui proportion," and thia ia 
" believed to be the largeat number ever exlkibited at 
aay oike fair in the sUte." E. S. Allbn, Stereiary. 

SBLLim Hat bt MaAsaBB.— Dec., 1863, 1 sold the 
hay from one-half the bay in my bam ; the part sold 
being 16 by 18i by 6, or 1,776 cubic feet. The weight 
was 11,076 lbs., or one ton to about 324 cubic feet. 
This was rather fine tiaaothy hay, and had beenpreas- 
Mj by an average depth of about 12 feet of wheat in 
the sheat a. h. 

What a Bubd Hobmb mat bb Goob Fob.— The 
famous rvnning horse Lexington, which was purchased 
by R. A. Albxahdbb, Bsq., of Woodford County, Ky., 
as our readers may remember, for the snug little sum 
of $16,000, is said to have earned for its enterprising 
owner during the past year, no less than $6,100 ! At 
this rate for annual return, the property may be es- 
teemed a pretty good one, even if its first cost was 
rather large. 

Michigan Aq Collbgb.— We are glad to know that 
this inslitation is in suoceanftil operation. Its Cata- 
logue for 1868, Jnst received, gives the number of pu- 
pib in aMendaace at 106. 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




SUllJi tar Fana PorpotMs. 

It shoald be remembered by those who desire to do 
their own grindiDg, that varioiu considerations mnst 
be borne in mind in addition to the 0nt cost of the 
mill, and its apparent capability of performing good 
work. The economy of the operation depends greatly, 
for instance, upon the amount of the work to be done. 
When but little is required, and there Is a correspond- 
ingly small amount of power at hand to do it, we ques- 
tion whether it should be undertaken ; fbr considerable 
power is requisite to oyercomb the necessary friction 
and create sufficient speed in any mill, so that little or 
none will be left to do the work, and it is consequently 
slowly and vety unsatisfactorily accomplished. Again 
the com wo produce at the north is a very different 
thing to grind from the softer kernels of the Southern 
Tarieties. Lai>or of men and animals is another im- 
portant item. Wi*h this pre&ce we introduce the fol- 
lowing queries t — 

1. What is the best com and cob or grain mill for 
farm use— for one-horse power? and how much will it 
do per honri 2. "Coleman's" and "Felton's" are 
the best iron mills I know of for two-horse power— will 
either of them work satisfactorily with one-horse power 1 
or are there better ones? 3. Do not the amall burr- 
atone mills grind so slowly as to be practically of no 
use? 4. The Lever mills, such as "Little Giant," 
" Magic," " Young America," Ac , must necessarily 
do neariy double the work of the others, for the same 
power applied, but do not they grind only coarse pro- 
vender 1 and 6. Is coarse provender as nutritious and 
economical feed as com meal — or the same, finer 
ground, would be ? H. S. C. Comuetiad. 

Answert. 1 — Without speaking from personal experi- 
ence, we should say the smallest sise of the " Little 
Qiant," manufactured in Philadelphia ; it will grind six 
bushels an hour of Southern corn, and perhaps three or 
four of that grown in your state. 2 — We think not — 
would prefer the latter of the two, if we were to make 
the trial 3— So far as we know, these have given no 
satisfaction. 4— As fine, we presume, as any other 
metal mills, while, 5, the finer ground one's provender 
is, the farther it will probably go-— economy, however, 
requiring a due regard to the relative cost of the gruin 
and the grinding. The smallest sise of the " Little 
Giant" weighs about 200 lbs. 

The subject, in all its relations, is one of great in- 
terest, and we hope some correspondents who are able 
to speak from personal experience, will give their views 
in detail upon it. 

' • •' • ■ '■ - 

Maniurea smd Corn Culture. 

Are we progressing backwards 1 I notice lately that 
some of your correspondents are advocating the decom- 
position of manures before they are used. The sub- 
Jeet, too, has been discussed in our legisiatire agricul- 
tural meetings. The use of long and unfermented 
manures was advocated if not initiated by the late 
Judge BnsL, and adopted by many in this section, 
myself among the rest ; but I have ever found it an 
excellent method of preserving the seeds of weeds, and 
have been partially going back to the old methods by 
half fermenting it, and working it into the soil with tho 
oulttvator. Fifty years ago, when we used to keep 
and sow from ten to thirty acres of rye aunual- 
their stock yards received an immense quantity of 




straw, which was allowed to rot down over summer, 
with the cows lying upon it— carted out in the fkll, 
sometimes dumped into Iw^ heaps, to be re-carted in 
spring, but often laid in small heaps ready tobespraad 
in spring. The heap manure as it was ealied, via, thai 
thrown from behind the cattle durtog the winter, being 
used fresh or unfermented. I think theie were but few 
in those days who used more than fifteen loads of ma- 
nure to the acre ; our loads meaning an oz-«art hwp- 
ing foil, I suppose about forty boahels. The average 
orop of corn thirty bushels te the acie. Mode of eal- 
tivation-rplowed from five to six inebes deep—ptani in 
hills firom Ihree and a half to fiwr feet apart eaeh way, 
and hoe three times, making large hills— the last hoe- 
ing taking place just as the com was tasMliug out 
This was the old method of nmtkg mtm, and I soma- 
times think that with all our improved implements of 
agriculture, the turning fresh manure twelve indies 
deep under sod, the fiat surface eultnre, (he wider. 
draining, and the improving of swamp land, which 
very soon needs manure as mueh aa uplaiid, has added 
more to our vanity, and to the purse of the ingenious 
inventors of agricultural tool^ than to our cnpa. Those 
great crops of which we sonetimas bear, were never 
raised with 15 loads of manure to the acre ; but may 
heaven bless experimenters and experiments, and yon 
for spreading them before thepubUe. L. BtmrnsFUUi. 
Tyngaboroughj Mom. 

• • ■• 

ICxpenae of Raising Com per Acre. 

Believing that a knowledge of the cost of raiaing 
crops in the difierent SUtes, would tend to the intro- 
duction of new and more economical modes of cultare, 
I submit a statement of plaM.and cost: — 

Plowing one acre, - $100 

DrngKing i day, 26 cenlB, and 6 qti. seed. 10 cents'"! *86 
Planting— one-eighth of day for men, horse and drllL 18 
Working four iimefl with cnlUvator. i day each, ._.. i so 
Husking ou the hill and potting In granary, ioo 

$6.08 
or 4i days* work besides team labor. 

Produce, from 50 to 60 bnshels shelled com, at 25 cents 

per bush., say ' giaoo 

Cost of Caltttre,,.. ..II ftiw 

Profit, 18.00 

I don't wish to be undenfeood that all raise that 
amount, or sell fbr $8 profit, as msny do not half plow 
and not half cultivate, and then either let tho cattle 
eat half the remainder, or let it stand through several 
snows, and the prairie chicks eat it; but such culture 
as I sUte, will always raise that amount. Then gather 
in season, and keep till June, and it will always meet 
the above figures. J. B. Joma. £den DaU^ lotca. 

— • • m 

Coverliiflf for Mllk-Pana. 
I have a new plan for covering milk-pans in sum- 
mer, to keep out dust, flies, Ac . I tske a piece. of com- 
mon brown sheeting, and out it about three inohes 
larger than the top of the pan, and make a wide hem, 
say an inch, around it. I then take large wire and 
bend it in a cirole same sise as the cloth, and run it 
into the hem, and fasten it there. When laid over the 
pan, the wire falls over the edge of the pan, to the ef- 
fectual ex cluflion of dust or any other substance, h. ▲. t. 



Steam Engiitkb fok Plowiho and ojlhxr Work. 
—The Illinois State Agricultural Society offer a pre- 
mium of five thousand dollars for the best practical 
working engine. 




/ 




THE CIILTIVATOK. 




MnsBs. EDIT0B8 — I have been working with beei 
for the last forlj yean. I hare booght both Englith 
and German woiIes on Beee, and the onlj one that I 
consider worth Itaring, is M. Qvihbt> wfaseh, in my 
opinion, is far the best. My income from six stands 
last season, eomiting honey at 30 ets. per lb. and new 
swarms at $500 each, was a few eenfs orer tldSb I 
nse no patent hiTO, not because I am down on patents, 
bat beeaose I hare never seen one that salted me, but 
a kind of eommon hive of my own getting vp, with a 
namber of eaps- I baild my bee-hooses by nailing 
lath lengthwise, sneh as are used to nail shingles on 
vsoik I nail against posts, learing spaces between 
them so aa to give plenty of air in snmmer, with a 
good roof to keep off rain and snow. In winter I shnt 
them np with straw or light boards, so as to keep it 
dark fbr the beesi Worms don't tronble my bees mnch. 
I watoh them elesely, and kill all the moths as they ap- 
pear, twa or three timea a week, either in the morning 
or eraniag, and keep ants and spiders off by killing 
them. Ants steal mors honey than most people are 
aware of If yon kill them as they leave the hive, yon 
will find them aa full of honey as they ean hold. To 
destroy the ants, take two pieces of bark and lay them 
one in the other, trst rubbing a little honey, molasses 
or sngar betwesQ them, near the hive, and they will 
soon enter this home, when they should be quickly de- 
stroyed in boiling water or the Are. Gbo. Gebbabt. 

Union CUy^ Ind. 

» ♦ ♦ ' 

Slngrnlav ]>eatJh of a Ccvr. 

Mksbbs. Editors — A neighbor of mine lost a cow a 
few days since, in a manner so singular that I will ask 
yon to place it on record On Sunday morning last 
she was found standing in her stall exhibiting signs of 
being choked. Several antidotes were given without 
relief. On Monday morning I saw her still on her feet, 
(which she kept till slje died,) exhibiting signs of great 
distress in breathing. Froth and saliva in large 
quantities came from her mouth — her tongue was out 
a part of the time, and a Jerking tremulous motion of 
the head was made at each breath. I thought she 
must die, and no further medicine was given. At 3 
o'clock P. M. she died. On opening, her lungs were 
filled in all the principal air pipes with masticated food, 
and the conclusion was that she had swallowed her cud 
the wrong way. A. S. Moss. 
• • • 

RcMk or Stone Tarnlp. 

Mbsbrs. Editors— I wish to tell your numerous 
readers of a turnip worth raising, to wit, the Rock or 
Stone Turnip. 

I raised from ten rods of ground, (one sixteenth of 
an acre,) ninety bushels, weighing sixty pounds per 
bushel, which I think worth as much to feed cattle, as 
potatoes. I have no doubt I can raise 1,500 bushels on 
an acre of light, warm land, suitably enriched as for 
eom. I sow the seed in a bed, as fbr cabbage, and 
after my ground is well plowed and harrowed, trans- 
plant in rows eighteen inohes apart, and tbo plants 
twelve inches ; but I think eight inches would be bet- 
ter. You will find but little trouble in keeping the 
weeds out till they eover the ground. Whole cost not 
over six cents per bushel— worth from 37| to 50, for 
the table, and wU keep the year round. Sow the seed 
as the ground is lit In the spring, and transplant 
large enough. The turnip when cut, is white and 
sweet JuDBOK Waobwobth. Wut WmaUd^ Ct 




SngfMtloiiff about Baynuiking. 

Some things I know, and othera I should like to 
know. I know that this life is too short to leam every- 
thing that a farmer should know, by actual experi- 
ment; therefore it is necessary to profit by the experi- 
ence of others by reading. I would therefore recom- 
mend that every farmer who ean, should lakt^ and r^ad 
the Couhtby QuBTLEMAHor CuLTivAToB, and as many 
other agriouliural papers as he pleases. I think it 
pays welL Knowledge and Industry are what elevate 
the farmer, or one man al)ove another. I know that 
4ioraes and cattle like early out hay better than that 
which is cut late. They ean be fatted on it by giving 
them what they will eat, while they will barely subsist 
on that wfaieh gets daad ripe before it is cut Cows 
who go to pasture early in the spring will make yellow 
butter, and so they will in winter if fed on early cut 
hay, if it be welt eured. It is more work to make hay 
of early cut grass, than that which stands and dries up 
before being out. It is an old adage, to " make hay 
while the sun shines." I think hay dried in the shade, 
is more fragrant and htlUr than if dried in the sun. 
But in haying time we are in haste to dry it as soon 
as possible, and get it into the bam out of the way of 
the rain. I have noticed that women who have occa- 
sion to gather herbs tor winter use, usually gather 
them when in blossom, and dry them in the shada. I 
believe it is correct. If it be so with herbs, is it not 
equally so with grass 1 I don't know which will jKxy 
best— to cut meadows once or twioe the same season. 
I think the hay will be better to cut twice ; and I 
think the quantity will be as much or more on the 
right kind of land, if cut twice the same seasoa I 
don't know but grass would be more likely to kill 
or die out, if out twice a year ; think it would ; but 
would it not pay to reeeed it every two or three years 1 

I wish you would persuade John Doe or Richard Roe, 
or some of those big farmers who own a hay-scale, to 
take, say two acres of meadow ground, cut one acre 
early so as to cut it twice the same season, and the 
other acre to cut but once, and weigh it in and weigh 
it out again on feeding, and feed it to two steers or 
cattle of neariy equal siae, and weigh them every few 
days so as to determine which is the moot economical 
plan, or which will pay the bt»t. I should like to see 
the result of such an experiment in the Country Gen- 
tleman. B. Clinton Co., N. Y. 

» » • 

Ticks on 8h«ep. 

Does friend JoHirSToir mean to be understood that ticks 
do not like the taste of a fat, healthy sheep, or that 
feeding the sheep well, eradicates the ticks 7 I think 
I keep mine well, but find ticks on them sometimes, 
more especially on the lambs, unless I take care to 
have them dipped (soon after the sheep are sheared,) 
in some preparation poisonous to the ticks. For this pur- 
pose I have used a recipe found in Blaeklock's Trestlse, 
which is as follows : 

Areonfo. one pound, finely powdered. 

Potanh. 12 ounces. 

Common yellow soap, 6 ounces. 

Rain or river water, SO frnllons. Boll the ingredi- 
ents together for 15 minutes. 
I find this cheaper than tobacco, much less offensive 
to the operator, and I think quite as efiicient, and it 
seems rather to Improve the sppearance of the Inrabs, 
Instead of disfiguring them as the stain of tobacco 
watar does. Thob. B. Burruv. Near Nnepori, R. L 




THE CULTIVATOR 



fV'%/V%A* ^-N^l 




XmqiiiriM and Aamrei*. 

Turn Co. Qbht. amd Cult.—D. S., ^bxlem, O. Tks 
CuUivator onlj oontains matter thai haa alraady ap- 
peand in the Go. Gbmt., bat we ean find room in the 
former for bat a email part of all that appears in the 
Utter. Ton woald not therefore require both, althoogh 
many readers of the weekly who find itdtflicalt to pre- 
serve it in snfficiently good order for binding at the end 
of the year, are in the habit of proonriog for library 
■ae, a boond Tolame of the Cultivator. We have all 
the volumes of the 3d series of Colt , beginniog in 
1853, five in nnmber, neatly boand, and sent by mail, 
postpaid, for •! each, and as eaoh contains a full in- 
dex, then oao be no more oonvenient or oomplete Far- 
mer's Library anywhere obtained in so small oompass 
and at so little eost 

DnSTBOTiira Sobrbl.— What is the best mode for 
killing sorrell Some say that lime will kill it If so, 
how mnch to the acre 1 F|tAirci8 Pbbbt. 8t. HeUnt, 
Columbia Co.^ 0. T. [There are some peealiarities of 
soil where lime will destroy sorrel \ but in most locali- 
ties, manuring, dean eultivation, and a rotation in whioh 
hoed erops have a laige share, are the most efficient 
means.] 

Dorablb Cbmbbt ob Mobtab.— I would nse oon- 
Crete in building my house, if the sand I have (whioh 
is very fine) woald make a durable wall— do you think 
It would answor bailt on a stone foundation 1 C. Ball. 
Guysboro, C. W. [Pare sand is best^ and it is bettor 
if eoarse. We would not reoommend the use of a flue 
impure sand, unless a sufiieient previous trial had been 
made to establish Its saooess. ' We do not observe any 
alterations to suggest in the plan of the additions to 
the house oar correspondent has furnished— for althoogh 
there are some nunor Imperfections, they seem to re- 
salt from the necessity of the case in patting a new 
addition to an old house.] 

Bomb Mills— In the Co. Gent, of Feb. II, you say 
that the best bone mill in use is to be seen at Mr. 
Coalson*s, ko. Will you do me the favor to let me 
know the cost of the bone mill, and where it la to be 
obUined. B. R. CharUaton, S. C. [Mr. Coulson's 
mill was made in Baltimore, by Mr. Benmead, whose 
address we are anaUe to giv<e. Throe separate 
seta of mills or rollers are used, the bones passing from 
one to the others over riddles, by whidi means the fine 
bone is separated as it passes from each set of lollera. 
The cost of the mills, riddles, and other necessary ap- 
paratus, is, we are told, aboat $1600, and the best 
mills to be procured will oot last for over ninety days' 
steady work.] 

SuoAB Camb Mill — Age of Fowls.— Will you be so 
good as to inform a subscriber, of the best process for 
extracting the juice of the Chinese sugar cane, and the 
best machine for doing it? Where can it be had, and 
at what price 1 Is it well calcalatod for steam power 1 
What number of horse power is required 7 Can the 
same power be well applied to wood sawing, grinding 
coarse feed, and making eider, and thrashing 1 Is 
there any means of detorminmg the age of fowls? 
F. B. BMtnnMt 0. {The beat machaine for aeparat- 
In g the Juice from the Clhineae soger eane, is the one 
described In ear papers ander the name of HtrendurC» 
Sugar Cane mllL It Is not made for sale, he bebg a 
private gentleman who had it construotod only for his 
own oae. One horse wofka it^ bat It might be made 




broader— for • steam engine, fbe anriie **lior8e-power " 
that Is used for thraahing, aawing wood, Ao., may be 
employed to drive thia mill We know of no mode of 
determining aeeorately the age of fowls— except Ike 
general roles adopted by those who pnrohase pooltry 
already dreaaed— but we infer that oar oorreapondeBt 
vefera to the living birda.] ^ 

Colbmab'b Mill.— J. B. J., Bden Dele, Iowa, who 
inqnirea for a farm mill whiah wUl grind everything, ia 
adviaed that CoUman'§ PlantaHon or Farm ^ili, en 
exhibition at the State Ag. Moaeum in thie dty, wlU 
grind com in the ear, abelled com, wheats rj; oats, 
Ac, into fine or coarse meal, and floor of the beat qual- 
ity If required— operated by hone, water or atnaa 
power— price §75, with bolt for floaring— «60 wUhout. 
It can be kad at lU^ra' Imptoment warehonae, 111 
Mariiet atieet, Philadelphia. J. 

Stobbobh Hobsbs.— Tell N. of St M., C. B., thai 
whenever hia mare refaaee to go in the pknr or eari, to 
have at hand a aUmt team, either oxen or a pair of 
horseS) and hitoh tkem to the hind part of the plow or 
oart, and pull her baekwarda antU she la willing to go 
forwarda, and it won't be long before ahe will be glad 
to " go ahead." D. L. Abmb. HawasMUa, Ky. 

MiCBiQAB DouBLB Plow. — I wlah to make an In- 
quiry, if any of your eorreapoodente or aabaenbera 
have ever uaed the Michigan DeaUe er Sod and SofaooU 
Pk>w aa Rugglea, Noarse k Maaon eaU iff How hard 
doee it draw compared to other plows, whioh eat the 
same sized furrows 1 I woald like one thai will eoi a 
farrow eight inches deep, provided a common aixed 
span of horses can work it. E. D. PorestvilU^ N. Y. 
[We have often used the Michigan Double Plow— the 
second siie will cut a furrow 8or 9 inches deep, and will 
require nearly if not quito aa atrong a team aa a com- 
mon plow rnnnlng at the aame depth. A '* common 
aited span of horses " would not be equal to the task— 
at least three good horses would be needed] 

MiLDBW OB Fbuits IB Ombgow.— In Oregon, which 
Is perhaps the best fruit country In the world, a few 
varieties are subject to a mildew or blight, afieotiog 
the leaves' and tender shooto, injuring the healtb and 
growth of tbe tree, and blasting most of the young 
fruit. Are trees thus affected in other parte of the 
Union, and is there a remedy 1 Is the pear on the 
quince stock profitoble for orchard culture, where land 
is plenty and cheap 7 AmobHabvbt. Plum Galley, 
Oregon. [The mildew on the gooseberry, and the leaf 
blight or cracking on the pear, are nearly the only In- 
stenoes of the kind known in the eastern part of the 
Union. There Is no certain remedy for these, except 
to aeleet such varietise aa experience shows to be freest 
from the malady. Some exptrwuniing will probably 
be needed in Oregon before the best sorte are deter- 
mined. In the meantime, we should be glad to learn 
the resulU of the observations and trials already mskde 
In that region.] 

BiTTBB Rot im Applbs.— Please inform me if yon 
oan, of a euro for the blight or black letter rot in ap- 
plea, aa my orchard ia very badly affected with it and 
still getting worse. Joras Smith. X«tf»t Co^ Vbl 
(We are unable to give the desired remedy, none that 
isgenerably reliable having been found. We have 
been informed that the use of Urns on the soil in some 
regions, haa been aaefui. The rapid growth of large 
specimens favors the rot— moderate, healthy growth, 
and tlie seleotioa of sach varteUes aa experience provea 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




moti tie9 tnm k, an perhApi Um bMt modM of •§- 

oapaag from it] 

Fakh In PLBMKifTS.— Win jou inform me throagh 
the Co. Gent, of the price of ** Thomas' Farm Imple- 
ments," prepaid, by mall, and ean I obtain it of yon. 
W. F. B. [We wiU send it for $1.00, prepaid.] 

Farm Mill.^! have one of Bmery's two> horse pow- 
ers, and I want some kind of a mill which will grind 
OTerytbing. Will the Bxoelsior Farm Mill answer my 
parpoeel Will it grind all kinds of grain llnel JT. 
B. J. Eden Dale, Iowa. fThe Excelsior mill is in- 
tended for grinding feed Ibr animals, and noir for flonr- 
ing pnrpoees. We know of no sneh portable mill as 
you want ] 

JuMPina Ox. — A Life Sabserlber has a Jumping ox. 
Tell him to gel a pieoe of inch plank, about fifteen 
inches long and eight inches wide— bore two half inch 
angur holes in one side of it, as wide apart as the root 
of the beest's horns, eqni-distant from the ends— ran a 
rope throagh the two holes, and aroond the root of his 
horns, and Ue it fast The plank will hang down over 
his eyes, and prevent him seeing the top of any lawful 
fence, and he will be sure not to *'Jamp in the dark." 
It will not present his sewing the ground and grating. 
B. L Adaxb. HawtepiUe^ Ky. 

RsMnoT voB HoMins Catching vnn Runs. — ^An 
inquirer is informed that an enlargement of the crup- 
per, in the extreme back pari of the bow, has to my 
certain knowledge worked a complete cure of the com- 
mon evils consequent upon the catching of the line un- 
der a hone's tail when in harness. A crupper one and 
a quarter to one and a half inches in diameter, buck- 
led suitably taught, will most commonly neutralise an 
attempt of the horse to bind or confine the line. P. B. 
Bethany, Pa. 

Stubbobv HensB.— iliisissr fo N. Put a noose 
aroand his under jaw, under the tongue, and hold the 
other end of the rope in the hand with the reins. When 
oceasioB requires, jerk sharply upon the rope. After a 
little, his mouth will become so sensitive that he will 
forget Ua old trick, v. n. 

SucxBBS. — ^Will you be good enough to inform me 
as to the best time to cut away the suckers and sproula 
from young apple trees 1 W. C. Tvckbb. New Ver- 
non, JV. J, [From mid-summer tUI winter. If cut 
off, unless cut very dosely, the stubs will ^rout again 
—hence it is better to draw them off by force, if they 
are aa low down or below the surface of the earth. This 
may be easily dcoa by prewing the foot, shod with a 
oowhide boot, between the shoot and trunk, and draw- 
ing the shoot at the same tima with both haads. If 
our correspondent wishes to clear his trees of suckers 
now, it may be done at onoe, although the time above 
named is better, and the operation may need repeat- 
ing at that time.] 

BuBmivo BoKts.— WiU you please to inform me 
what effect burning bones will have on their manurial 
qualities 1 We have no way of grinding them unless 
they are burnt. J. R. Aikbh. Charleston, Tenn 
[Burning dispels the gelatine sad nitrogenous portions, 
and of course lessens their value. The phosphate of 
lime IS left undiminished, and of course possesses much 
value, so far as earthy manures are concerned.] 

OsAOK Orabgi Plarts.— Can you inform me where 
Osage Orange plants can be obtained, fit for setting in 
the hedge, and how many it will take to set 40 rods of 



hedge? L A. I«AWloii. PftttsCetm. [About 1300 
plants will set 40 rods—the plants can be had of any 
of the principal Rochester narserymen — or of A. Saul 
A Co. of Newburgfa, or Parsons A Co. of Long Island. 
The price Is about 95 per 1,000, but more for extra 
large plants. 

CoovB Tbomchdda.- I have received a package of 
Couve Tronchuda seed from the Patent Ofllee. Will 
you inform me what it is, and the-mode of culture. H. 
[A description of this plant, another name for which is 
** Portugal Cabbage," was given in the 7th vol. Co. Gent j 
p. 333, by Lb VI Babtlbtt, who says : * We preferred 
this Portugal cabbage to any thing of the kind we 
have ever eaten— not excepting the broooU and cauli- 
flower." Its cultivation is the same as that of the cab- 
bage — transplant into a good rich soil from four to five 
feet apart, as they grow very large. The large leaves 
may be cooked and served up in the same way as as- 
paragus.] 

Atbsbirbs.- In your fi^xt issue will you be kind 
enough to give me the names of some of the breeders 
of choice Ayrshire cattle 7 Ar Old Svbscribxb. 
Montreal. [This breed, although quite an active de- 
mand exists for it, lose frequently appears In our Ad- 
vertising columns we think, than would be to the ad- 
vantage of sellers. The names of Messrs. Hurobr- 
FOBD A Bbobib, Adams, Jefferson Co., E. P. Pbbr- 
TiCB, Esq., ox this city, and A. M. Tbxdwxll, Madi- 
son, N. J , occur to us at this moment as possessors of 
first class Ayrshlres. 

Roots for Swinb.— In regard to mangold wurtsel, 
is it a good food for swine 1 Should it be fed to them 
alone or mixed with grain, and when should it be plant- 
ed 1 S. B. WiHO. Jamaica Plains. [If cooked and 
mixed with a portion of meal, it is good for feeding 
swyie — uncooked it is not. It is excellent for milch 
cows (fed moderately on the start, and gradually in- 
creasing,) snd will increase thefr milk enough to help 
the pigs, if they can get the sour surplus. Parsnips 
appear to be the best roots for hogs, and may be fed 
to them raw. Mangold Wurtsel should be planted aa 
early as the earliest com planting.] 

Cows' Tbats.— In answer to P. M. C.'s Inquiry, I 
will give my practice in such cases. Take a small 
sharp pointed penknifb in one hand, grasp the teat 
Jirmly in the other, and by a quick, steady motion in- 
sert the blade an inch or more in the orifice through 
which the milk passes. This operation will prove a 
certain cure, and will seldom need repeating. D. W. 
C. TowNB. Morgan, Iowa. 

To Dbstrot tbb Wbitb Baict. — I have read the 
inquiriss of your correspondent as to the best mode of 
subduing the white daisy, in answer to which I will say 
I have found pasturing with sheep effectual ; they will 
devour, the blossoms, which, in a few years, will put an 
end to the weed. By the way, it is an economical way 
of pasturing sheep^ by altemating with other stock 
this way, one week to cows, horses, young cattle, Ac, 
the next week the same lot to sheep, and the third 
week the lot be vacant to recruit -, so by the use of three 
lots more can be pastured than each continued in the 
same lot, and the oows, Ac., be on fresh foed all the 
time. I. A. L. 

PvTATOBS FOB Sbbd. — As muoh has been said of 
•mall potatoes for seed, I would add that my 
rienoe goes to show that large ones are mneh more 
tain. p. p. p. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




]f enr and Select Flonrer Seedf» 

Sont by Mail— postage paid— to any addreM in the Unton. 

Seedsmf-.n. Sc "WV&t, Sprixifi:field, Ikfass^ 

HAS just received a lar^c and well itelected utock of 
ENGLISH, FRENCH aud GERMAN FLOWER 
SEEDS ; also many very Belcct \-arieties of home growth, 
comprltiin^ in all upwards of SbvbnHdxdrbd Varibtibs, 
amunv which arc all the novelties of the eea«ou, many rare 
and choice acedfi— also a large collection of old estabfiBhed 
favorites, greatly improved by hybridization. Particalar 
attention is invited to his choice collection of 
French and German Af»tcr8, Double Hollyhocks, Carna- 
tion and Picotee Pinks, Double BalKamB, Cal- 
ceolarias, Cinerarias, English Pansies, 
G«rman Slocks, Cockscombs, 
Chinese Primrose, Ac, 
received direct troxti the parties who grow the plants for 
the English and ContincuUl Exhibitions, by which he is 
enabled to insure to purchasers pure and genuine seeds of 
the best sorts In cultivation, raised from firizg flowen only. 
The attention of amateurs, florists, gardeners, and all en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, is particularly invited to the 

SIXTH EDITION OP HIS CATAIX)GIE 
of Flowbr, Vrgktablb and Agriccltcral SKKD8,jast 
issued, which will bo forwarded, postpaid, to all applicants 
enclosing a three-cent stamp. 

FLOWER 8EED8 BY MAIL. 

For the accommodation of those who love the cultiva- 
tion of Flowers, but who reside at a distance from where 
they can be procured, he has selected from his large as- 
sortment of Flower Seed, the most showy varieties, aud 
tho»e of easy culture, and put them up in assortments, 
which will be sent, postpaid, to any address in the Union, 
at the following prices : — 
Assortmbmt No. 1— consists of twenty choice varieties of 

Annuals. |L00 

No. 2— consists of twenty choice varieties of 

Biennials aud Perennials, fLOO 

No. d-'oonsists of ten extra flue varieties of 
Annuals and Perennials, embracing 
many of the new and choicest in 

cultivation, |l.oo 

No. 4— consists of Ave very choice varieties, 
selected from Prise Flowers of En- 
glish Pansies, German Canmtlon 
and Picotee Pinks, Verbenas, Truf- 
fauVs French Asters and Double 
Hollyhocks, each of which are sold 

at 25 cents singly. $1.00 

Persons In ordering will please give tlie number of the 
Assortment. Any person remittingToRKB Dollars, will 
ERCBiVB THB POOR Abbortmbnth, postaob frbb. Kemft- 
tances can be made in bank bills or postage stamps. 

It is now four years since he commenced putting up the 
above assortments, during which time they have ijoen sent 
to every State and Territorj' In the Union— and notwiih- 
stauding the unfavorable weather to which they have been 
exposed in many localities, have given universal satisfac- 
tion. Those who have given them a trial, recommend 
them freely to their friends, and the most flattering testi- 
monials are dally received of their good quality. 

The following additional aasortmcnts will be sent, tne 
of postage, at tJie prices ancxed :— 
Absortubxt No. 6— contains fifteen very select varieties 

of Greenhouse Seeds, $3.00 

No. 6— contains one hundred varieties of An- 
nuals, Biennials aud Perennials, in- 
cluding many new and choice varie- 
ties, $6.00 

No. 7— contains fifty varieties of Annuals, 

Biennials and Perennials, $2.60 

No. 8— contains twenty varieties of hardy 
Annuals, Biennials and Peren- 
,^ , nlals. for sowing in autumn,.- $1.00 

The seeds conUined iu all of the assortments are of his 
selection. Purchasers who prefer to make their own se- 
lections from the Catalogue, will be entitled to a discount 
proportionate to the Quantity ordered. 

In addition to the aoov« he offers a lar^ge and well selec- 
ted assortment of 

DAHLIAS, VERBElfAS, ROSKS, 
BNGLTSH CARNATION AND PICOTEE PINKB, 
DOUBLE HOLLYHCOKS, PETUNIAS, 
HERBACEOUS AND BEDDING PLANTS 
of every description, a Catalogue of which will he pub- 
linhcd in April and scut to all applicants enclosing a post- 
age stamp. 

All applications mast be aocompanfed with the caafa or 
a satisfactory raferenoe, and addressed to 
„ ^ ^ B. K. BLISS, Springfield, 

Maroh 26—eow6tmlt. Massachasette. 




Garden, Field and Flower Seeds. 

1'^HE suhflcriber offers a full aasortinent of GARDBK, 
FIELD and FLOWER 6EED6 of the growth of 
1867, and of the very best qualities, and in addition to all 
the standard varieties, wiU bo found many noreltiee, for 
sale Wholesale aud Retail Orders by nail atteuded to 
immediately. 

Peas— choice and now varieties, Extra Early Daniel C 
Rourke, Champion of England. OaHer's Victoria, Hair'a 
Defiance. Dwarf Sugar. Tall Sugar, Hair's Dwarf Blue 
Mammoth, Harrison's Glory, Harrison's Perfection, EppsP 
Moiuircb, Eppe' Lord Raglan, British Queen, with allotli- 
er v.trletics. 
Cauliflower— Early Paris, Nonpareil and Alma. 
CABBAO«-Bttrly M'nkefield. Early Ox Heart, Enfield 

Market and WinningfUdt 
CoRx— King Philip, Early Darling's, Constantinople and 

Stoweirs Evergreen. 
Tubripb— Ashcrofl's Swede, Rivera' Swedish Stubble 

and Waiters Eclipse. 
Prize Cucumbers for frnmes. 
Winter Cherry or Strawberry Toteata 
New.Zealand Spinach. 
Potato Seed-Girman and English. 
Oat8— Poland, Potato and other choice varieties. 
PoTATOB»~Prinoe Albert's, which we highly recom- 
mend, (Ash Leaf Kidney, imported.) Early Dike- 
man, Early June, Dover, Mercer, and all other vari- 
eties. 
Spwkq Wheat— Golden Dropor Fife, Sea, Canada Club, 

Sprimo Barlby, Spring Rtb. 

Tobacco Sbbd— Havana aad Conneollcnt Seed Leaf. 

Spring and Wiktbh Vktchb^ or Tabbs— Broom Corn, 
Buckwheat, Cotton Seed, &c. 

Fhdit Sbeds— Apple. Pear, Quince, Currant, Gooseber- 
ry, Raspberry and Strawberry Seed, Peach, Plum, 
and Apricot Pits. 

OsAOB Obahob, Buckthoro, Tellow and Honey I^ocust, 
Chinese Arbor Vita^ ' 

Grafs Sbbdb— Hungarian and American Millet, Green, 
Kentucky Blue or June, Orchard, Ray, Italian and 
Perennial, Foul Meadow, Sweet Scented Vernal, 
Fine Mixed Lawn. Red Top, Timotliy or Herds, &o. 

Clovers— Large and Medium Red, WliUe Dutch, Lu- 
»»rne or French Sanfgln, Allske, Crimson, Yellow 
Trefoil, &0. 

Omiok Sbtts— Red and Tellow, Top or Button, aud Po- 
tato Oiitona 

Rbubarb Rooto— Myatt'a Victoria and LIniueas, Im- 
ported. 

AspARAor.<( Roots. Cabbage, Cauliflower, Egg and To- 
mato PlanU furnished in eeason. 

Everything in my line fumWied and at renaoDaUe rates. 

A Catalogue containing a ftill list of seeds and prices 
ftarntshed on application. 

Aftican liiiphce-genulne m raised by LMWurd M. 
Wray, One Dollar per pound. 

Chtneiie Siijgar CVuic— American and Imported, 26 and 
iOoeotsper pound. R L. ALLEN, 

March 18— weow3tm2t 180 & 191 Water-st., New-York. 

No. 1 Pure Permrinn Goado. 

HAVING purchased a large quantity of the above val- 
uable Fertilizer, we are prepared to furnish Farmers 
aud Dealers in lota to suit, from 1 to 500 tone, at less than 
Peruvian Agents' prices. 

GRIPPING BROTHER k. CX)., 
March a6-w8tm2t 60 Cortlandt^t. New-York City 



SUPEKPHOSPHATE OF LIME, 

ZAND PLASTER, 

FIBH AND OTHBR GUANOS, 

FerUllzen of all kinds. 

R. L. ALLEN, 
Maroh 18— weow8tm2i 180 & 1»1 Water-stw, New-York. 



Welgela Rosea by Mall. 

I WILL send cuttings of this beautiful hardy shrub, en- 
cased in tin, for 50 oents per dojsen, post-paid. The 
cuttings grow as readily as currants. Single well-rooted 
plants sent as above at the same price. Osier Willow out^ 
tings by mall, 25 cents per dozen— $LO0 per 100. Small 
wen rooted plai.t8 of the two climbing roses. Queen of the 
Prairies and Baltimore Belle, by mail, 50 cents each, 
.c ^ . H. B. LITM, 

Maroh 25— w&mlt Sandusky, Ohio. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Ncwbnrgk, N. Y. 
Formerly A.. J. IDo^wxiinc & Co^ 

THE subcoribers. In eolicltlng the attention of I>e«lera 
and Planters of Trees to their stock now ready for Uie 
eusuinv Spring trade, beg leare to say tliat It embraces 
overytiiing in their line of business, all of the moat vigo- 
rons growth and best quality. 

The Department of Fruit Trees 

Contains a large collection of Apples and Pears, both 
Standards and Dwarfs, Cherries, Standard and on Maho- 
leb Stocks, Plums, Peaches, Nectarinesi Apricots, Quinces, 
Almonds, and Orape Vines, (both hardy Native and For- 
eign for vineries ;) also Raspberries, Blackberries, (New- 
Rochelle or Lawton, High Hush or Dorchester, Newman's 
Thornlesa, &o., Ito.,) Strawberries. Gooseberriea, (beet 
Lancashire varieties,) Currants, Walnuts, Filberts. &c 

The long experience of A. Saul In these matters, which 
occupies his whole attention, enables us to guarantee the 
correctness of all articles sold by us. 

The Ornamental Department 

Embraces a complete stock of all kinds of Deciduous and 
Svergreen Trees, and Flowering Shrubs, &c.. Including a 
large stock of Norway Spruce, Balsam Fir, Austrian and 
Scotch Pines, American Arbor Vlt«, Junipers, Yews, Ate; 
also Elms, Maples and Oaks in six varieties each, Ameri- 
can and European Lindens, do. Ash, Mountain Ash, Horse- 
chestnuts, I^rch, Svcamorcs, Tulip trees, Cypress, Mag- 
nolias, Poplars, Willows, Locust. &c., Slc. ; Flowering 
Shrubs— Spireas In six varieties, Altheas, Free Honeysuc- 
kles, Baonymous Europens, Tamarix,WuigellaRosea,For- 
sythia. Flowering Hawthorns, dec 

Also a large collection of Climbing Plants and Climbing 
Roses, and Koses of all classes In great variety. Dahlia 
roots, PsBonies, Phloxes, and a full collection of Herba- 
ceous Plants and Bedding out Plants tor summer, such as 
Petunias, Verbenas, Heliotropos, Lanuna, Geraniums, 
Fuchsias, ate. 

Hedge Plants of Buckthorn, Hawthorn, Osage Orange, 
and American Arbor yit« for screens, itc. Also Khulmrb 
and Asparagus Roots. Ton Thousand Plants and Cut- 
tings of Salix triandra and Salix purpurea, the two best 
Osier Willows in cultivation. 

A Descriptive Priced Catalogue will be sent to all ap- 
plicants on enclosing a P. O. Stamp to prepay the same. 

March 4— weowOt— mlt A. SAUL ft, (SO., Proprietors. 

Prince Albert fotatoes and Potato Oats 
FOR SALE. 

PRINCE Albert Potatoes $2 12 per single bushel 
" •* " ^ 4.18 for two bushels. 

" ** "6.00 i>er bbl. of three bush. 

Tlie above prices Include all packing, to be delivered 1st 
of April, weather permitting. 

POTATO OATS, wo can deliver Immediately at the 
following price -One Dollar per Bushel of 88 pounds to 
the bushel. The above we will warrant genuine, being 
grown apart from other oets, and the seed of it imported 
the past season. All will be delivered at the Morris and 
Essex R. R. Depot at Nowton. Orders addressed, 
GERALD HOWATT, 
March 4— wtfhilt Newton, Sussex Co., N. J. 

PURE IIONE9 (by the Barrel,) 

SUPERPHOSPHATE OP LIME, 

POUDRETTEy PLASTER, 4ke. 

FARM AND GARDEN IMPLEMENTS, 

Among which may be found Map*^ new and improved 
Subsoil Ploio and Knox's Horse He*. 
FIELD AKD OARDE.\ SEEDS, 

PURE PRI.\CE ALBERT POTATOES, Ac, 

At the North River Agricultural Warehouse. 

GRIFFINO BROTHER & CO., 
Mar. IS-wjcmSm 80 Cortlandt-st., New- York City. 

Pear Secdlingti. 

Ij^INE healthy Pear Seedlings, one year, $8 per 1,000— 
' $76 per 10.000. J . •" *- , 

Ditto, two years, $15 per 1,000— $140 per $10,000. 
Norway Spruce, Scotch Larch and Pir, Apple, Mazssard, 
Plum, Angers Quince. Mahaleb, Paradise and Doucain 
stocks of the best quality. Catalogues to any address. 
Oarrlflge paid to Boston or New-York. 
New-England Pear Seed, $0 per quart. 

B. M WATSON, 
Old Colony Nurseries, Plymouth, Mass. 




KOTHWELL'8 
BLOOD AND WOOL MANURE. 

ANEW article for the active fertilization of j)1anU, (s 
offered to the cultivator in the form of BLOOD AND 
WOOL MANURE, being a manufactured preparation of 
thcBC two fertilizing elements. In suitable proportions. 

This article is a peculiar nitrogenous manure, that has 
been used In England for the past three years, where it 
has attracted cousideral^Ie Interest and attention on the 
part of scientific agriculturists, from its really wonderful 
results when compared with the use of several valuable 
kinds of (jhiano. The results in the soil would be scarcely 
looked for in the ordinary use of these somewhat neglect- 
ed materials, and Is due In a great measure to the hnppv 
combination which produece two curions effects In the soil, 
which are chemical and mechanical, and the great fertili- 
zing properties of these two materials. 

The result upon the various crops are similar to those 
obtained by the use of Peruviatr Guano, though fn me- 
chanical and chemical elTccts somewhat different. It is a 
highly stimulating and very active manure, well adapted 
to ut^ng forward in the spring of succulent plants and 
garden esculents generally, and may be used to gro.nt ad- 
vantage wherever Peruvian Guano can be used to success 
and profit. 

Dried Blood has heen for a long time used with success 
In skilled agriculture -, but the combination of it with 
Wool, In a peculiar manuractnred state, is a new idea ; the 
application of It to plants in the soil, has proved that It Is 
remarkably well adapted to eflbot the derthpment and ra- 
pid growth of plants, and the ready production of leaves 
and woody fibre. Both of these articles yield largely of 
Ammoxia and Nitrogbn, which Is well known as the dis- 
tinguishing feature of Peruvian Guano ; while the Wool 
yields PoosPHoaio Acid upon analysis, which Is known 
to be so advantageous In the production of the flower and 
seed of the plant, and In tne general developments of 
grain crops, potatoes, turnips, dtc., particularly in the 
growth or field crops. 

The great advantage of this manure consists In the fact 
that it undergoes a peculiar chemical decomposition in the 
soil, by which It gives off continuously Nitkoorh GiS, 
which Is very neccsisary in the early formation and contin- 
uous healthy growth of plants. Another advantage is de- 
rived from the mechaiucal properties of the wool graving 
lightness or elasticity to the soil, so that the young roots 
and spongeoles of the plants can readily distend them- 
selves In jiearch of food. Tlits Is a very important requi- 
site during the early stages of the germination and growth 
of the plant ; and also helps greatly the chemical and elec- 
trical processes which take place in the development of 
the plant at this period, by allowing the free access of the 
heat, air, and rain water of the surface of the ground. 

This new manure will soon become a favorite among 
gardeners and scientific agriculturists, on account of the 
above mentioned mechanical and chemical effects. Its re- 
sult upon application to the soil and the plant have been 
demonstrated In England and the following comparative 
results obtained, which are copied frutn the Mark Lamb 
ExpRRSS, of London. It is appended for the benefit of 
American agriculturists. It will be seen that its compari- 
son with Super Phosphate of Lime, a well known and 
valuable fertilizer, is very decided in its favor ; and also 
.its comparative results with several kinds of Guano enu- 
meratca, and also with other preparations— the weight, 
cost and result being given. 



TRIAL IN 1867. 



Quant. 

of 
Man're 



Patent Wool Manure, 

Patagouian Guano, 

Hottentot do. 

Peruvian do 

Falkland Island do., 

Sup. Phos. of Lime, (Berwick,) 

Sup. Phos. of Lime, (Mr. O.,) 

Ammonlacal Sup. Pkos. of Lime,.. 

Mixture of above. 

Sawdust steeped in Chamber lye— 

six weeks, a good handful along. 

the hill, 

Pot up In barrels and bags, branded Rolliweirs No. 1 
Ammonlated, IVIIrogenizcd Wool and Blood Maaare. 

PttiCB~|30 per ton of 2,000 lbs. 

For sale by A. LONGETT, 

Apr. 1— mlt 84 Cliff-st., New-York. 



Cost 
per 



Cwt. 

6 

8 

7 

4i 

6f 



iWel't of 
Turnips 
%2acre. 



s. d. 



Txtct.qr. 



IS 2 
14 10 
17 11 
617 18 
019 10 
13 14 

013 10 

014 8 
017 18 



17 18 1 



HortiGultaral Bookfl* 

Of all kinds, for sale at the Office of the Ca G«nt]eman. 





THE OULTIVATOR. 




Sagmr frooi the Sorghmii. 

THE andorslgned hM bten Attthorlxed lny Mr. Joa. 8. 
Loverlug> to re-publUh his ** Detailed account of £z- 
perlmenta, and observatious on the Sorghum Saccharatom 
or Chinese Sugar Gane^ made with the view of deter- 
mining Its value as a sugar producing plant," newjedltloo, 
with a Postscript by the author. 

Single copies 10 cents, or twelve copies for one dollar ; 
a one-cent stamp additional for each copy ordered by mail, 
to prepay postage. All orders must be addressed to 
HENRY A. DREBR, 

Seedsman Jt Florist 
March U-wltmlt* 827 Chestnut-et, Philadelphia. 

Seeds— Seeds— Seed*— Seeds— - 1 SM. 

ALBANY SEED STORE. 

THE subscriber agalQ ofibrs his annual assortment of 
genuine Garden, Field, and Flower Seeds, growth of 
1857, conslstlnff in part of the following desirable articles : 
Extra Early, Early and Late Garden Peas, the best new 
and standard sorts, viz : 

Extra Early— Daniel 0*Rourke (true,) Sanester's No. 
1, and Codo Nulli, each 37^ cents per quart : Prince Al- 
bert and Emperor, each 25 oehts per quart ; Tom Thumb, 
75 cents per quart. 

Early — Scbastopol, (new,) 60 cents per quart; Blue 
Surprlso, 37i cents per quart : Washington, Kent, June. 
Double blossom Frame, Bishop^s Dwarf Prolific, ana 
Strawberry, each £6 cents per quart 

Gknbral Crop — Harrison's Glory and Perfection, (both 
new.) Hair's Dwarf Mammoth Marrow, (extra fine) each 
50 cents per quart ; Napoleon and EugciUe, (both new 
and fine) 75 cents per quart • Fairbeard's Early Champion 
of England, (the finest wrinkled variety known,) 371^ cents 
per quart. 

Latb Sorts — Bop's Monarch, 75 cents per quart ; Brit- 
ish Queen and Knight's Marrow, each 50 cents. The above 
comprising but a part of my assortment, for which see 
my catalf^ue. 

Also, Extra Early and Earlv Beets, Early and Late 
Cabbages, Oulillowers, Brocolff. Celerj' Tomatoes. Cu- 
cumbers, Egg Plant, Lettuces, Turnips, Peppers Radish- 
es, Herb Seeds, &c., &c. In laive or small quantities: 
Garden Beans of all sorts. Early. Late, Bush, and Pole. 

Fine large Lima Beans, (a few) at 50 cents per quart. 

Sweet or Susar Corn of the best sorts for the garden. 
Tlio (gigantic Constantinople is particularly fine— 25 cents 
per quart. 

Inalan Com of the best sorts ftir the Field. 

Millet Seed, Long Brush Broom Com, Luicme or French 
Clover, White Dutch Clover, Red Clover and Timothy, 
Ue<l Top or Herds Grass, Orchard Gram and Mixed Grass 
for Lawns. English Rye Grass, Spring Vetches and bun- 
Flower, White and Yellow Onion Sets and Top Onions. 

Best Improved Ruta Baga and other Turnips, 76 cents 
per pound ; Long Orange, Larae White and other Carrots, 
$1 per pound ; Onion Seed (a nmiled supply)— Large Red 
at $1.25— Large Yellow, $160. and White rortugal at $2 
per pound. Long Red and Yellow Globe Mangold Wor- 
tel. White and Yellow Sugar Beet, Honey Locust. Buclc- 
thorn and Osage Orange Seeds for live fences, Yellow Lo- 
cust for tiralwr uud Ix>oU8t posts, with a large areortment 
of Choice Flower Seeds, or which a choice and liberal 
assortment will be sent by mail for $1 or upwards, and 
poAtago paid. 

Spring planting Bulbs, vis: Amaryllis, Gladiolus, Tiger 
Flower, Tulieroses and Madeira vines. 

Choice Double Dahlias— named varieties |8 per dozen. 

The best standard books on Poultry, Kitchen (:hurdeii- 
ing, cultivation of Fruit Trees and Flowers. 

Imphce or New Afriean fiugar Cane, (genuine at $1 
per pound) 

Horghum or Chinese Sooir Cane, LO cents per pound. 

Chufas or Earth Almonds, 2S cents per ounce. 

Clean Strawberry seed, (mixed sorta.) $2 per ounce. 

The trae Christina Musk Melon, at 50 oenU per ounce ; 
also the new Orange Water Melon, with many other arti- 
cles too numerous to be detailed In t^M confined limits of 
an advertisement. 

Full reference is made to my new descriptive priced 
Catalogue fo/ 1858, which will be mailed to all applicants. 

The subscriber, thankftil for the patronage he has re- 
ceived for the past 27 years, hopes to merit a oontlnuanoe 
of the same from former, as well as now customers. 

Orders received for Wilson's celebrated ALBANY 
SEEDLING STRAWBERRY. Can be planted to great- 
est advantage In the spring. Price $2 per 100— 115 per 
j,000 plants. WILLIAM THORBURN, 

Peedsman Sc Florist, 492 Brondwav, Albanv, N. T. 
r Small packages of Seeds carefiiily enveloped, and 
forwarded by mail. Maroh 11— w8tm2t 




Ckoiee Te^etable and Flower Deeds. 

* PtorlaC, S97 CJheMiut-6c., PMIaMphU, 

OFFERS a large and well selected stock of GARDEN 
and FLOWER SEEDa In addition to those of bis 
own growth, he Is constantly receiving all the novelties 
fhwn Europe. Being a practical Nurseryman and Seed- 

E rower, and superintendinff all the various details of bis 
usiness, purchasers can always depend upon obtaining 
GBXcim AID KBLiABLK SRKna— a vcry fmporunt conside- 
ration to the Florist and Gardener. Among the VEGE- 
TABLE SEEDS, the following can be recommended :— 
PEAS-Extra Early Daniel (TRourke; Early Tom 
Thumb, 10 hiches high and productive ; Flack's victory ; 
Champion of England ; Hair's Mammoth Dwarf Marrow. 
BEEl'S— Extra Karly Turnip. Long Smooth Blood. 
CABBAGE— Early London, Winningstadt, French Ox- 
heart, Karly Dutch, Late Flat Dutch, and PhiladelphU 
Drumhead. 

LETTUCE- Early Stelnkopf, a very superior earlv head 
salad ; Royal Cabbage or Drumhead. Also, Extra Curled 
Parsley, xRcm— Early Paris Cauliflower, Fejeo Ulai>d To- 
mato, solid and fine flavored, for whloh a premium was 
awarded — Newington Wonder Beans, a prolific and early 
snapshort- German Wax Pole Beans, the finest snapshort 
ix>ds, entirely stringless, tender and delictoue— New inter- 
mediate Carrot. Jenny LInd Moskroelon, Bradford and 
Pomaria Watermelon, together with many other new and 
desirable varieties, with all the old approved and standard 
sorts, for which see Catalogue. 

CHOICE FLOWER 6EED8. 

The collection embraces all the varieties desirable for 
the amateur, as well as the professlonil florist, for which 
see Catalogue. 

FLOWER SEEDS BY M AIL-Twenty choice, distinct 
varieties (my selection) will be mailed to distant applicauts 
by remitting One Dollar. 

A large collection of Bverbkxmiing Roses, Dahlias, 
Verbenas, Shrubs, Evergreens, Hardy Vines and Creepers, 
Native and Foreign Grape Vines, dec, 4tc 

Catalogues mailed to all applicants enclosing a postage 
sUmp. March ll-~w4tmlt» 

WM. R. PRINOE & Co., 

FLt;suiKO^ N. T. 

PRICED CATALOGUES, which are sent to purcha- 
sers who enclose stamps: No. 1— Descriptive Cata- 
logue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shruba, and Plants. 
No. 2— Roses, Carnations, Chrysanthemums, Phlox, Iris, 
Double Sweet Williams, and all other Herbaceous Flow- 
ering Plants, &c Na 8— Extra large Fruit Treea, Ever* 
greens, and other Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, suitable 
for immediate fTuit-bearing and embellishment. .No. 4 — 
Wholesale Catalogue for Nurseries and Deolera, oompri- 
sing Trees. Shrulis, Plants. Bulbous Flower Roots, Stocks 
for Engrafling, and Tree and Shrub Seeds, k.c. Na 5— 
Wliolesnle (Catalogue of Vegetable, AgrieuUnral, and 
Flower Seeds. No. 8- -Descriptive Catalogue of our Un- 
rivalled Collection of 100 select varieties of Strawberries, 
with a liejeclcd List. No. 9— CaUlogue of Bulbous Flow- 
ers of every class, including Tree and Herbaceous I^ieo- 
nies, Dahlins, and other rare Flowering Plants. No. 11— 
Treatise on Culture of the Chinese I'otato or Dioscorea 
Batatas, on Licorice. Tanner's Sumach. Fig, Almond, 
Olive, Osier, Chinese Sugar Cane, Earth Almond and Mad- 
der. No. 12— Wm. R. Prlncc*8 Address to llit American 
Institute, on the character and merits of the Chinese Po- 
tato, with the triumphant Reports of the American and 
French Institutes on the same subject. No. 13— Catalogue 
of Green-House Plants. March 1— mlt 

SOMBRERO GUANO, " 
Imported and for sale by WOOD dt GRANT, HO 

Front Street, IVew-York. 

THE several analyses of this Guano, made by the most 
eminent Chemists of this country, viz : Profs. Haj-es 
of Boston, J. R. Chilton and Isaiah Deck of New- York, 
Booth of Philadelphia, PIggot of Baltimore, Maapln and 
Tuttle of University of Virginia, M P. Scott of Richmond, 
Va., and Gilliam of the MillUry Institute of Lexington, 
Va, all show It to contain over 80 per cent of the Bone 
Phosphate of Lime. 

To Farmers desirous of testing its qualities, we will for- 
ward our Pamphlet when requested, containing a full 
statement of its merits, value and manner of application. 
The Planters and Farmers of Maiyland, Virginia, North 
and South Carolina, Alabama and Georgia, high iy appre- 
ciate such fertilisers, having wed them with profit for the 
last five years. 

The attention of Dealers and Country Storekeepers I 
ealled to this article. March 4-w9tm2t 




THE CULTIYATOR. 




If oUce to Farners. 

HAVING Bold half of mv Interest in the AgrlcuUnral 
Warehouse and Seed DeMirtment of the boeineBa. to 
Mr. Wm. W. EootssToa, wblcb he will carry m, both for 
the wboleairie and reUil trade, at No. 84 State street, Al- 
bany, N. Y., (two doors below Pearl,) under the firm name 
of Feaae Sl Eggleston. We would respectAiUy hivlte the 
Atrmers and merchanta to examine our extensive assort- 
ment of Seeds and Implements of the most approved 
kinda— such as Ptoirs, CuliivatorSj Harrotcs^ Snd Ptanteray 
Cotn SluUtrg^ Hay and Straio Cutur$, Fanning Mills, Feed 
Mm, Suftar Ml/Is Saw MiUs, Cidtt and Wine Mill*. Hnr$e 
Powers and Threahers, Riaping and Mmring Machines, fc, 
4'e., before purchasing elsewhere, and we thiuk the time 
they expend Id this way wlU be saiiafactorily employed. 
Bemetmer N: 84 Stale Street. 

FEASE Si, EGOLEBTON. 

Saooessors to Rioh^d H. Pbais. 

P. 8. I shall continue to give my attention to the manu- 
fectute of my Justly celebrated Excelsior Horse Powers 
and Threshers, as usual, and am prepared to supply all 
orders, which I respectfully solicit. 

March ll-w2tmlt RICH'D H. PEASE. 

Devon Prize Bnlt ,tor Sale. 

THE subscribers offer for sale their Prize Bull " New 
Britain 2d." He received the flnt prize as a yearling, 
at the late Fair of the Oonu. State Agricultural Society. 
Ho will be two years old next March ; la of good eixe, and 
lit a very perfect animal. 

We also would sell " Charter Oak ;" ho is own brother 
to New Britain 2d, and will be one year old next March. 
WEUJ3 BROTHERS, 
March 1— mSt Now-Britain. Conn. 

OtIR prices for the above valuable fertiliser, t1i :— For 
one barrel, $2 -two barrels, $3.50— three barrels, $5— 
four barrels, $ft.60— five barrels, $8— six barrels, $9,60— for 
seven barrel* <^d over, at the rate of $1.60 per barrel, do- 
Uvered free of cartage. Send your orders early to 
ORIFFINa BROTHER 4t CO., 
Feb. 2g~w8tro3t 00 Cortlandt st., New-York. 

XiJ^JRS B£IE2X>S. 
A NEW novelty, and nevef before preM&t«d to marker 

~ ** NEW MEXICAN CUSHOW, 
A variety that excels all others in eating, growth and rari- 
ty. (I have but few paokases.) The Eiurlish 

MAMMOTH PUMPKIN 
that is mammoth indeed, as they ft-eqaently bolt over five 
feet around. Also the true Muutne 

CHUFAS OR SAltlrH ALMONDa 
The seed sent post-paid, on reception of 25 cents for tin- 
gle packnaes— five packages for $1. Address, with Post- 
Office ana State plainly written, to 

JOa L. ISUBY, Care Dr. A. a MoKia, 
Jan 7— wlOtmSt Liberty. Missouri. 

To Farmers and Gardeners* 

THE SUBSCRIBERS offer for sale 60,000 barrels of 
their 

New and Improved Poudrette, 
Manufactured ftrom the niflrht-soll of New- York city, in 
lots to suit purchasers. This article (greatly improved 
within the last three years) has been In ihe market for 10 
years, and still defies comi)etition, as a manure for Com 
and G-arden Vegetables, buing cur aps a, more powerful 
than any other, and at the same time free fi-om disagreea- 
ble odor.> Two barrels ($3 worth,) will manure an acre of 
corn in the hill, will save two thirds In labor, will cause it 
to come up quicker, to grow faster, ripen earlier, and will 
bring a larger crop on poor ground than any other fertili- 
zer, and la also a preventive of the out- worm ; also it does 
not injure the sood to be pnt in contact with it. 

The L^ M. Co. point to their long-standing reputation, 
and the large capital ($100,000) invested in their bnsinesa, 
as a guarantee that the article they make shall always be 
of such quality as to command a ready sale. 

Priee, delivered in the city f^ee of charge and other ez> 
pense— 

One barrel. $200 

Two barrels, 8.60 

Five barrels, 8.00 

Six barrels, 0.60 

And at the rate of $1.50 per barrel for any quantity over 
six barrels. 

A Pamphlet containing every Information, -will be 
sent (raiR) to any one applying for the same. Our ad- 
dress is THE LODI MANTJFACTURIN(J CO., 
Feb. 26-weow«tro3t Office, 00 Cortlandt-st., New- York. 




Rebecoat Delawave^ Golden Hamburgh » 

BOWOOD MUSCAT and other new Orape Vines, at 
greatly reduced rates. A Priced List will be sent to 
applicants. Address W. C. 8TRON(|, 

Feb. I6~w8tm2t Nonantttm Hill, Brighton, 



Syracnse IVuvserlea. 

OUR Stock for the Spring Trade, will consist of a!! the 
LARGER AND MINOR FRUITS : 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, In great variety, including 
many of the native Forest Trees. 

The Hardy EVERGREENS, Norway and American 
Spruce, Scotch Pine, Hemlock, Balsam Fir, and Arbor 
Vit». ranging from 8 to 6 feet high. 

ROSK8. SHRUBa BAHJJAS, P^fiONIES, PHLOX- 
ES, SPIRiEAS, HONEY-SUCKLES, of rare beauty and 
In sreat abundance. 

HEDGE PLANTS of Buckthorn, Privet, Osage Or- 
ange, and Honey Locnstat very low prices. 

ASPARAGUS and RHUBARB, best kinda and strong 
roots. 

Of RASPBERRIES, GOOSEBERRIES and CUR- 
RANTS, our assortment is especially lai^^e and attractive, 
and embraces all the old and new sorts of worth and re- 
pute. 

GRAPES : Stronff Plants of the Rebecca for $3^ and 
Delaware for $2 each ; Concord and Diana for $1 each, or 
$0 per dozen ; Catawba, Isabella and Clinton, 1 and 2 yrs. 
old, low by the dozen or huadred ; and Foreign Grapee, In 
pots. In great variety. 

lAwton (or New-Rooh^e) BLACSJBSR2?:T; strong 
planlfl, $2_per dosen. 

CHERRY STOCKS, (Maaard,) $8.60 per 1,000. 

PLUM STOCKS, (Wild, or Canada,) $rper l,00a 

WrW Nurserymen will find these veiy superior. 

For descriptions and prices of our articles, generally, wo 
beg leave to refer to the new edition of our Catalogues, 
viz : 

No. 1. A Descriptive Catalogue of all our productions. 

Na 2. A Descriptive Catalogue of FmlU. 

No. S. A Descriptire Catalcigue of Ornamental Troei, 
Shrubs, RosoR, fcc 

No. 4. A Descriptive Catalogue of Dahlias, Green 
House and Bedding Plants, too. 

Na 6. A Wholesale Catalogue for Nurserymen and 
Dealers. 

Forwarded on receipt of a stamp for each. 

THORP, SMITH Jb HANCHETT. 

Feb. 4— weow6tm2t Syracuse, N. Y. 

SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME, 

BONK DUST, 

aOLUMBIJUir aUAMO, 

OR SALE by A. LONGErr, 

March 1— mSt S4 Cliff Street, New- York. 



F 



GI-003D X^£2X>IOXXQ'SS. 

r? IS estimated the Atbr's CflBanr PaoToaiL and Ca- 
TUAaTio Pills have done more to promote the public 
health than any other one cause. There can be no ques- 
tion that the Cherrr Pectoral has by its thousands on 
thousands euros of (3olds, Coughs, Asthma, Croup, Influ- 
enm, Bronchitis, tc, very much reduced the proportion 
of deaths from consumptive diseases in this country. The 
Pills are as good as the Pectoral and will cure more com- 
plaints. 

Everybody needs more or less purging. Purge the blooi 
ft-om its impurities. Purge the bowels, liver and the whole 
visceral syntem from obstructions. Purge out the diseases 
which fasten on the body, to work its decay. But for dis- 
ease we should die only of old age. Take antidotes early 
and thrust It fh>m the system, before It is yet too strong to 
yield. 

AVer's Pills do thrust out ^Mie, not oolv while It is 
weak but when It has taken a strong hold. Read the as- 
tounding statements of those who have been cured by 
them fl-om dreadfbl Scrofbla, Dropsy, Ulcers, Skin Dis- 



, Rheumatism. Neuralgia, Dyspepsia, Internal pains. 

Bullous Complaints, Heari-bnrn, Headache, Gout, and 
many less dangerous but still threatening aliments, such 
as Pimples on thefhee, Worms, Nervous Irriubility, Loss 
of Appetite, Irregularities, Dizziness in the Head, Colds, 
Fevers. Dysentery, and indeed every variety of complaints 
for whloh a Purgative remedy is reoulred. 

These are no random statements, but are authenticated 
by your own neighbors and your own Physicians. 

Try them once, and you never will be without them. 

Price 25 cents_per Box— 6 boxes for $1.00. 

Prepared by Dr. J. C. AYER, Chemist, Lowell, Mas*., 
and sold by an resx>eotable Druggists everywhere. 

March 11— wtf 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

WHEELER, MELICK & Co., Proprietors. 




Doable Power, and Improved Combined Thresher and "Winnower, in operation. 

MANUFACTURERS of Endles« Chain Railway Horse Powers, and Farmors' and Planters' Machinery for Horse 
Power nse, and owners of the Patenta on, and principal makers of the following valaable Machines :— 

WHEELER'S PATENT SINGLE HORSE POWER, 

AND 

OVERSHOT THRESHER WITH VIBRATING ^SEPARATOR. 

T%is i* a OmHorse Machint, adapted to the wanfp of medium and small praln prrowers. It Fu]Yarates grain and chaff 
from the straw, and threshes about 100 bushels of wheat or twice as many oats per day, tvithout char.ging horses— by 
a change nearly double the ouanttty may be threshed. Price |128. 

WHEELER'S PATENT DOUBLE HORSE POWER, 
OVERSHOT THRESHER WITH VIBRATING SEPARATOR. 

ThU Machine is like the preceding, but larger, and for two horses. It does double the work of the Single Machine, 
and Is adapted to the wants of large and medium grain growers, and persons who make a business of threshUig. 
Price $160. 

WHEELER'S PATENT DOUBLE HORSE POWER, 

AXD 

IMPROVED COMBINED THRESHER AND WINNOWER. 

[SH0W5 IX THB OCT.] 

This Is also a Two-Horse Machine, and has been much Improved durinflr the pafet seapon ; it threshes, separates the 
grain from the straw, and winnows It at one operation, at the average nite of 160 bushels of wheat and 300 bushels of 
oats per day. In out-door work, and for persons who make a business of threshing, it is an unequalled Machine 
Price 1246. 

ALSO CLOVER HULLERS, FEED CUTTERS AND SAWING MACHINES. 

Our Horse rowers are adapted in all respects to driving every kind of Agricultural and other machines, that admit 
of being driven by Horse Power, and our Threshers may be driven by any of the ordinary kinds of Horse Powers in 
use— either are sold separately. 

l^F" To persons wishing more information and applying by mall, we will forward a Circular containing such details 
as purchasers mostly want— and can refer to gentlemen having our Machines In every State and Territory. 

Our firm have been engaged In manufacturing this class of Agricultural Machinery 23 years, and have had longer 
larger and more extended and successful experience than any other house. 

All our Machines are warranted to give entire satisfaction, or may be relumed at the expiration of a reasonable time 

for trial. 

W Orders fh>m any part of the United States and Territories, or Canada, accompanied with satisfactorv referen- 
will be filled with promptness and fidelity ; and Machines, securely packed, will be Torw arded according 
ctlons, or by cheapest and best routes. TV^HEELER, MiELICK &; Co, 

March 25— witmlt . -A^lljany, N". 






THE CULTIVATOR. 




EXCELSIOR AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

WARBBOXJSE ANI> SEEl} STORE, 84 STATE STREET, ALBAXTF, JV. Y. 




■^jimif.* «f* 



The Excelsior Changeable Railway Horse Power, 

With Threshers. Separators, Clover Hnllers, and 

CIRCULAU AND CKOSS-CUT SAW MILLS FOR VARMUS PURPOSES, 

CIDER MILLS, AND ALL OTHER IMPLEMENTS ADAPTED TO THE POWER. 



E33CCCEZLaXOXi HOI^SE I>OT^BIi- 



WE HAVE no he«itatIou In reconamendlngr onr Hone 
Power M ttfe very best machine of the deccription 
ever offered to llie public Its slrnplicity of construction, 
And accessibility to all part« of its mncliiiicry. all the gour^ 
beinff on the outside of the frnmo, \* in itself an item whicli 
sliould claim the attention of every farmer. The various 
improvements which wo hn,\p made ov«r other maohiuca 
of the same class, though they may appear small in detail, 
yet as a whole they have given our Vower a superiority 
over them which has been abundantly attoted in the va- 
rious trials with competmg machines. Below is the report 
of the T/5aisvllIe Journal in reference to the trial of Horse 
Powers and Thresher*, on the Grounds of the U. b. Ag. 
Society, held at Ix)ui8ville, In September, 1867 :— 

"At the trial before the Committee, of Endless Chain 
Horse Powers and Threshing Machines, the ExceUlor Ma- 
chine, manufactured by Rlch'd 11. Poase of Albany. N. Y., 
came off successful— they having threshed the fifty sheaves 
allotted them In five minutes and eight seconds, while the 
Emery competing Machine occupied six minutes in thresh- 
ing the B.iroe amount, or nearly twenty per cent, longer 
than the Excelsior. The threshing was done by the mere 
•weigbt of the horses, no harness being usetL The work- 
mauHhlp on the Excelsior Thresher Is of a very superior 
description. Every farmer should have one of these Ma- 
chines, as it Is adapted to threshing and grinding grain, 
catting fodder, sawing wood, pumping, churning, &c. It 
is truly a useful and cheap Machine." 

At this Fair we were awarded the First Premium, the 
Eloclety's Large Sliver Medal, for the best Horse Power 
and Thresher, and a Diploma of Special commendation 
for the best Motive Powbr for Obxiral Farm Usb. 
Under this head wo came Into competition not only with 
all Horse Powers, but Steam Engines, Wind Mills, &.c. 
TbU is the'%lghest commendation that has ever been 
awarded to similar machine.*, and li-.dced it was a great 
triumph, as the most celebrated Machlpes In the country 
came In direct competition with our own In a fair and Im- 

Sartlal trial. We have also taken premiums at nearly every 
tate and County Fair where we have exhibited, and where 
the Machines have been put In operation before competent 
committees. 

Our Horse Powers are especially adapted to driving 
Threshing Machines, Circular and Cross-Cut Saws, Ma- 
chine Shops, Elevators, Pile Drivers, Ferry Boats, Hay 
Gutters, Cider Mills, Feed Mills, Corn Shellers, and may 




be U!»ed for Loading and Discharging' Venaels, and indeed 
for any purpose where only One or Two Horse Power is 
requirea. The angle of elevation necessary to operat p this 
Power, depends on the weigltt of the hornea and amount 
of work required to be done. The operator of the Ma- 
chine should always be his own judge hi this matter. How- 
ever, we will state that our Machines are so gortre'i that 
the elevation necessary is lees than other Muchines, when 
the same amount of power Is applied. 

PRICES rv ALe.\!VY. 

Excelsior Changeable Railway Horse Power, 

Thresher and Separator (2 Horse,) $180.00 

Excelsior Changeable Railway Horse Power. 

Thresher and .Separator (I Horse.) 128.00 

Excelsior Two Horse Power, with Thresher and 

Cleaner combined, 266.00 

Excelsior Two Horse Power, including E^nd 

Wheel 116.00 

Excelnior Horse Power, for One Horse, Including 

Band Wheel 86.00 

Threshing Machine, with Separator and Fixtures, 

26 inch Cylinder 

Threshing Machine, with Separator and Fixtures, 

24 Inch Cylinder, 

Set of Bands for Machine, with Extras, &c„ 

Ice Plows, for Cutting Ice $50 to 

Fanning Mills, fitted for Power, $26. $28. $30. and 
Portable Cirealar Saw Mills, 24 inch Saw, for Wood 

Cutting, tc- 

Extra Table and Saw, for Slitting Boards, Fence 

Stuff, and General Shop Use, 

Cross-Cut Saw Arrangements, for Power, for Cut- 
ting Logs, greatly improved 26.00 

Feed Mills, with Chilled Iron Cylinder, 46 00 

Power Corn Shellers, |40 to 66.00 

Clover Hullers, 82.00 

Reaping and Mowing Machines, |116 to 176.00 

Power Feed Cutters, 26 to 60.00 

Corn and Seed Planters, 8 to 14.00 

Dog Power for Churning, 1800 

Terms.— Cash, or approved notes for four months, pay- 
able at Bank. Rbspoksiblb Agents Waktkd. 

Address RICHARD IL PEASE, 
March 11— It Albany, N. Y. 



40.00 

87.00 
6.00 
76.00 
82.00 

87.00 

7.00 




THE CULTIVATOR 



T"sr - — s'.'T^l^^^i. 








EMERY BROTHERS, 



PROPaiBTORS OP THl 



ALBANY AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

NOs 63 STATE STREET, CORNER OF OREEN. 

^» » 

TO THE PUBLIC. 



THE loiiff exiwrienoa of the manu&otarera, and une- 
qualled succeM of the 
Emery*! Patanted BailroadChangeable Horse Power, 
as made and introdaced by tli«m Into everv part of the 
World, and having gained an Immeose and Increaaing de- 
mand for Ihora, {tutpimg »M more than Eight Hun^rtdutts 
for the Uut harvest ) and requiring the IVorka tobe kept infuU 
andeomtant openttion, with nearly one hundred woikmenj 
during the whole fall and winter months to this date, tofiUthe 
steady demand for them, withont aceumvlating stock on hand^ 
and which has "been the onlf eieef^ion to the general stepping 
of every similar es'akHshment in the cmtntry since October 
kut ba« hiduced the proprietors to incroano their manufac- 
turing facilities by putting new and large Ix>w Pressure 
Engines of three times the capacity of those removed, and 
otherwise materially extend their worka 

Tliey have also added a Plow Drpartmivt, with all tho 
known facilities and Improved patterus required for the 
wholesale and retail trade. 

Tliey solicit a continuance of the same patronage hereto- 
fore so liberally enjoyed, assuring their patrons that their 
Machinery, which comprises a greater variety of labor sav- 
Ing machines than are offered by any like establishment in 
this or any oilier country, are unequalled in points of Uti- 
lity and Value, and aJl are constructed with esneclal re- 
gard to operating together to tho best possible advantage. 

The unexampled success of the manufactures from the 
Albany Agricultural Works, and the great demand for 
them has Induced several other parties to adopt the same 
style and patterns, In violation of the Letters Patent, and 
even copy the advertisements, price lists and Illustrations, 
and by various other ways have endeavored, and are still 
endeavoring to manufacture and sell mnoh inferior and 
cheaper made machines, misrepresenting them as equal 
and oftentimes as superior to those from which they have 
patterned them. 

One such manufacturer. In his advertisements publish- 
es a newspaper puff pun»ortlng to he a report of a com- 
mittee of the United States Agricultural Society, at their 
Fair at Louisville, Ky.. 1867Mn which he claims to have 
been awarded the Society's First Premium Largo Silver 
Medal, also a Diploma or Oommendation, In competition 
with all the Horse Powers, Steam Engines, Wind Mills, 

IVblle the FWcIs «re mm followt: 
said Society offered a 




Crrand Gtold. BdTedal, 

rained at $75, for the 
BMt Motive Power for General Pnrpoeei. 

Several entries were made of Horse Powers and Steam 
Engines of various kinds, fx>th stationary and portable. 

Upon the Committees meeting, they dedtHed to award 
the Orand Modal at all, for reasons best known to them- 
selves, but reported upon the several entries separately, 
awarding precisely the same " Diploma of Commenda- 
tion '* to each of the only two Rail Koad Horse Powers en- 
tered, with the following report :— 

*< AJier a most careful examinatum^ \he committee teere with 
dijleulty able to discovir that either tf thtm possessed any ad- 
vantage over the other. ^ 

The same award was also made to several Steam En- 
gines by the same committee. 

So much for the First Premium and Large Silver Medal, 
not one such award having been made. 

The committee awarded Four Silver Medals to as many 
Threshing Machines made by as many different partlea 

All the medals to be of tho same kind and value, and 
without any remarks whatever as to the relative merits of 
the several entrlea and Including the said sett of Threshing 
Machines, made precisely in Imitation of Emer>-*s pat- 
terns and especially for the said fair, and In this Instance 
an extraordinarily well finished sett of machlnea. 

They also had been In constant operation several days 
prior to tho trial before tho committee, while Emery's sett 
of machines were of the ordinary make for their custom' 
ers, and the Thresher had never been put to work till in 
the presence of the comraitiee, and then with but two lots 
of wheat of Afty sheaves each. 

One lot of fifty sheaves was threshed as much quicker 
by It than with the competing machines, as it was slower 
with the next lot of fifty sheaves. 

The differenoes being aoeounted for by the difference In 
the condition of the grain and size of the sheaves. 

So much for tho trial of threshing forySre or six minutes, 
while any trial to give any practical result of ease (/team^ 
quantity and quality tfwotk, and the machines themselves, 
should require at least a whole day for each machine, ana 
more tests applied than that with race-hordes, (first home 
wins,) to say nothing of the privilege allowed in racing, of 
best two in three heats, which the committee refused to 
grant for want of time to devote to so unimportant a mat- 
tor as a Horse Power and Threshing Machine. 

If reports of oomiplttees were required, we would waj 





THECULTIVATOK. 




that at the last Fair of th« Naw-Tork Stata Am. BocMtj 
at Buffalo, Eincr>'s Two-Horse Power with Ook, 186^ 
Thresher and Cleaner combined, was awarded the 

First and only Premtooi, 
and In competition with the Justly oelebrated Pitt'a ina> 
chines, whlcn were exhibited and operated each day of the 
Fair by the Patentee and If anufkctnrcr himself, nesidea 
several Endless Chain Ilorse Powers of different kinds. 

The Ix>uisvllle ooropotitor (who claims the larf^e Bilver 
Medal,) did not venture to compete again, bat laid off on 

Sretended laurels gained at a fiTemlnutea* trial against 
me. 
More than Fifty Silyer Madals and twice as many Di- 

51omas, besides a large number of Gold Medals, and all 
'trsi iy«M«ifm«, have been awarded tha 

EMERY'S PATENT HORSE POWER, 
during the past §\ght fsors, bgr the State A^rloiUtaral So- 
cieties in 

Sixteen Different States, 
besides those by numberless County Societies, in all th6 
Statte where they have been organlxed and machines ex- 
hibited. 

N. B. Catalogues, with Blostratlons, Prices, Ita, sup- 
plied gratuitously on applloallon by mail ancloslnga three- 
cent stamp. EMERY BROTHERS, 

Proprietors Albany Ag. Works, Albany, W. Y. 
March 26— wltmlt 

Seeds !— Seeds !— Seeds ! 

THORBURN'S NEW DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE ' 
Of YegeUble, Field and Fruit Seeds for 1868, 

WITH DiaiOTIOXS FOn CCLTIVATIXO VBQBTABLIS, 

Is DOW ready, and wRl be sent to applicanto endoaiog a 
Three Cent Stamp. 

THE subscribers offer of the growth of 1857, and of the 
very finest qualities, Iheir usual extensive assortment 
of SESDS, comprising many moviltibs, and every tested 
desirable variety known in the several departments of 

Vegetable, Field, Flower, Tree ud Fruit Seedt. 
They would particularly call the attention of cultivators 
and amateurs to the follewtkig 

CHOICE PEAS. 
Extra Early DanM ORourke-the earliest known. 
•* •* Sangster's ^o. 1— a great favorite. 

• *« Tom Thumb— very line, growing but eight 

inobet high. 
Early Scbastopol— new and good. 
Champion of England— one of the vary best. 
Dwarf and Tall Sugar— edible pods. 
IIair*s Dwarf Mammoth— snucrb. 
Harrison's Glory and Perfection— new and very prodae* 

tiVQ. 

Napoleon and Eugenie— both new and early, wrinkled. 

Epps' Monarch— Epps' Lord Raglan^ both new and su- 
perbt 

Carter's Victoria— fine wrinkled. 

British Queen— one of the best late. 
With thirtv other standard sorts, for which see Catalogua 

Also— Early Parte, Nonpareil and Lenormands Cauli- 
flower. Early WakedddOzbeurt acd Winulngstadi 
Cabbage. 

Early and Giant White and Red Solid Celery, 

Priee Cucumbers— for frames. 

Early Tomatoes. 

Swoet Spanish and Bull-nose Pepper. 

Early Curled Lettuce. 

Early Curled Parsley. 

Extra Early Turnip Beet 

Enrly White Vienna Kohlrabi. 

Winter Cherry or Strawberry Tomato. 

Apple and Pear Seeds. 

Havana Toimcco Seed. 

Dioeoorea Batatas or Chinese Potato; with thoasanda 
of other Seeds of the same superior qualities as have 
heretofore aftbrded such universal satisfaction, and which 
ean be recommended with the fullest confidence as unsur- 
passed for genuineness. 

AFRICAN IMPHEB— genuine, as raised by Mr. L. 
W^ray— $1 per pound. 

SORGHUM or Cbixbsb Suoab Canb— 26 cenU per lb. 

FLOWER SEEDS. 

The collection this season is unusually large and choice, 
embracing many noveltlss. 
Orders uy mail will have immediate Attention. 

J. M. THORBURN it CO, 
Jan. 21— wItmSm 16 John-street, New-Tork. 




Short-Homs for Sale. 

THE subscriber has for sale at bto flirm, about four miles 
south of Albany, the following valuable animals :— 

BULLS 

LORD DUCIB (13181)- Roan— bred in Enghind by Mr 
R. Bell, nephew of the late Thos. Bates— imported by me 
in 1868-onlved May 6th, 1862-got M' Mr.^tes* Duke 
bull, 6th Duke of York (10168), who Is tnW brt>ther to 4tli 
Duke of York, sire of Mr. Thome's ad Grand Duke. Dam, 
Briar, by the famous ad Duke of Oxford (6046), who is 
also gr. sire on the <lam's side, of the Duke of Gloeter— gr. 
dam Beauty by 2d Clevfland Lad (3408), who was the sire 
of the celebrated Grand D«ke O0284)— g. g. d. by 2d Enrl 
of Darlington (1046)--g. g. g. d. by tiie Duke of Cleveland 
(1©67), to., &o. See ET H. B, (18181 ), vol. x. 

Lord Dncle is In fine order, and Imvir.g in his service 
been confined exclusively to my limited herd, Is as valuable 
and will continue to be as serviceable as If he were a three- 
vear-ohL I am only Induced to part with him because I 
have breeding females of his get, and a recently Imported 
bull, Duke of Portland, to succeed hini. 1 rei'erve to my- 
self the use of him to three of my eows the coming season. 
Price $600. 

DUKE OP LANOASIIIRK-Boan, calved July 27th, 
1857— got by imported Bates Jinll. Lord Ducie (13181). out 
of Imported Ladv Liverpool by Mr. B:ite«' 8(1 Duke of 

York (10166) LJlU- by the famous 2d Dnke of Oxford 

(9066) Harmless by Cleveland JM (8407) Ilawkeye 

by Red Rose Bnll (24W> Hart. by Rex (1876) ; owned 

by Mr. Bates, and selected by him ttom the celebrated milk- 
ing tribe of Shortllorns ownsd by Mr. Richardson of 
Hart Durham. Price fSOa 

NORFOLK— Red and white, calved May 17th. 1867— 

£>t by imported Lord Duciu (18181)— out of Duchess of 
xeter by imported Princes bull, Duke of Exeter (10152) 

Isabella by Monterey, 720 A. H. B. Lady by May 

Duke, 102 A. U. B,— &C., dca Bee Am. Herd Book, voL i 
Price f20a 

HEIFERS. 

DUCHESS OF CLEVELAND— Red and wnite-got 
in England bv Gen. Can robert (12926), (who Is a son of 4th 
Duke of York out of a cow got by Grand Duke (10284),) 
imported In her dam In IRM. and calved Jan. 24th, 1857 
—dam Agnes by Mr. Bates' Earl Derby (10177)- who is 
half-brother to Grand Duke (10284;— gr. dam Ariel by 2d 
Cleveland Lad (S640X the sire of Or.ind Duke ( 10284)— gr. 
gr. dam Arabella by 4th Dnke of Northumberland (8640) 

Anna1)el]a by tlie Duke of Cleveland (1987>— Acomb 

by the celebrated Belved0re<17O6)— ft c, &.c See E. H. B., 
vol. xi, pace 820. Price flOO. 

DUCHESS OF PU&TLAND-Boan, calved July 81st, 
1867— got bv Imported B.ites bull Lord Ducie (13181) out 
of imported Alice Mand by the celebrated Grand Duke 
00284) Cicely by Mr. Bates' famous Duke of North- 
umberland (1940) Craggs by a son of 2d Hubback (2682) 

Cnurus bred bv Mr Bates and descended ftrom the 

celebratetl herd of Mr. Ilaynard.— 4ro., it^ Price tt60. 
Address Da. HERMAN WENDELL. 

Haaolwood. Feb. 11-wftmtf Albany, N. Y. 




ALBANY TILE WORKS, 

Comer qf Clinton Avenue 4* iCnox 5/, Albany^ N. Y. 

TIIE sulwcrlbers. being the most extensive manufac- 
turers of Draining Tile In the United 8t^*te8, have on 
hand, in large or small quantities for Land Draining, the 
following descriptions, warranted superior to any made In 
this country, hard burned, and over one foot In length. On 
orders for 6,000 or more, a discount will be made. 
noRsi-snoB tils— nscta. sols tilb— riicis. 

2i inches rise,.. |12perl0Q0. 2 inches rise,.. $12 per 1000. 
8 ** " .. 16 « 8 •♦ »• .. 18 - 

4 •* »» .- 18 " 4 •• •* -. 40 " 

6r « " .. 40 »» 6 " " -. 60 " 

(J " " .- 60 - • " " -. 80 - 

7| " " .. 76 •• 8 " '* - 126 •* 

Orders respectfhlly solicited. CarUge ftce. 

a It W. M'CAMMON. 

Albany, N. T. 
PEASE 4t EGGLE8T0N. Agents, 
Excelsior Ag. Works, Wsrehouse and Seed Btore, 
Mar. l-w8tm8m. 84 8late-st., Albany, N. T. 




THE CULTIYATOR. 




Cozitezite of* tliii9 ^unx'ber. 

nte FMrm. 

Osage Orange Hedgea, by Prot. J B. Torkbr. M06 

Culture of llangarian Grass or MUlot, by 8. B. Rirk- 

BBIDK, 107 

Value of Hay Capa^and how M«de lOT 

Another Good Dav'e Work for a Boy, by J. P., IW 

A Good Canada Farmer 110 

How to make Farming Profitable, by J. Johsstob, .. 112 

Carrots ns a Bubatitute for Hay, by J. Gbalmbbb, 113 

Salt as a Manure for Cabbage, tu^ by I* Bartlbtt, . 118 

A New Manure, 118 

Proper Depth of Covering QraM Soeda, 114 

Culture of Kohl Rabl, 116 

Farming on the PralrieR,by D. D. G., 116 

Terms Kir Leasing Farms, by K. Bbbd, 116 

Profits of Pork Making, by B. 0. H^ 116 

ProfiU of Farming, 116 

Cost of Chinese Sugar Cane Syrvp, by Ok K Adaib,. 110 

Bubatitutes for Hay, Ike., by J. J. Iiolsbb, 117 

Prince Albert Potatoes Deaeribed 117 

Clover, Seeding Down, *^ 118 

Mr. Cllzbe's Bam, by G. W. Dobabt, IW 

Potatoes, Large and Small Seed, bv H. Watkibb, 119 

Pine Sawdust, Loss of Liquid Ifanure, Muck and 

Draining Swampa, by L. Bartlbtt, 121 

Notes for the Month, ^ 188 

Mills for Farm Purposes IM 

Manures and Com Colture. by L. BuTTBRriBLO, IM 

Cost of RaisingCora per Aere. by J. B. Jobbb 124 

Bock or Stone Taraip, by J. Wadbworth, 126 

SuKgeetione al>out Bay-making, by R, 126 

Expertmento with Bees, 126 

luqulries atid Answers, 126 

Tlae Gramtor. 

Cure for Pleuro Pnoumonfa, by W. C. S, 108 

Winter Oitre of Poulirj', by H. 109 

The Wood Duck, by C. N.Bbmbbt, Ill 

Feeding Oil-Moal to CRK'es;by. J. Jobhstob, 118 

Mr. McHcnry's Jersey Cow Charity 120 

Smoke for Wounds on Anlmala, by N. D 120 

Gulden Si>angled Hamburgti Fowl, bv UN. Bbmbbt, 120 

Singular Death of a Cow, I^X. 8,JK>ss, 126 

Ticks on Sheep, by T. B. BorMiF^ 126 

ThB* Hortt^ltariBt* 

Theodore Van Mons Pear, -^ 110 

Apple Seeds, Hot-B*Mls and wanes, Ill 

Gmpe Vines on Trees, by DC El »icharo8, 118 

Planting Chestnuts, «J% 119 

Tls« HoiMWDirWiB* 

Hints about Making Oandlea, : 112 

How to Cook Rice, by L. H. J lU 

Yeast for Bread or Cakes, by W. T. L., 120 

Dalrjr Hw%«ai#rr» 

Butter MaWng, 116 

Extraordinary Product of Btatter, by W. M. Bbau- 

CHAJdP, , 119 

Covering for Milk Pans, by B«A. T., 124 

IlliiBtmthnM* 

Theodore Van Mona Pear, • 110 

The Wood Duck, Ill 

Caudles Burning 112 

Jersey Cow Charity 120 

Golden Spangled Fowls,. ..«. 121 

Frnit Trees for Spring Plautiug. 

THOMAS dt n£IlSND££N,of Maoedon, Wayne Co.. 
N. T.. offer for sale n large stock of Fruit Trees, of 
fine growth, of sorts carefully selected raoM tbbir bbar* 
ISO Orcuari>s or SBveaAL hukobbd kibds, and embracing 
the moat valuiible and dcBirable varieties, propagated with 
great care so as to insure ooi9pfete accuracy. Catalogaes 
sent on the euclosuro of a Stamp ; and carefUI selections 
suitable for orchards and gardens, made by the proprietors 
when desired by purchasers. The safest and most secure 
packing given to all trees sent Vy railway. M.4— w4tmlt 

AgrienltHral finplemeuU. 

A CONSIGNMENT of Agrioaltuml Implements fhnn 
an extensive manufactory, Is now oflbred for sale at 
f trices 20 per cent below the private rates of the iL^^ouI- 
ural Warehouses, coTisisling of Plows, Corn Shellers, 
Fanning Mills, Straw and Hay Cutters, Vegetable Outters, 
Cora Mills, Churns, Cultlvaton, Horse Hoes, Road Scoops, 
Garden Barrows, «to., &c. A Pamphlet giving descrlp. 
tlon and prices, will be sent free, on apphingto the Agent 
A. lONGKTT, 
March l~m2t 84 Clifl' Street, New- York. 



Agrftouttvral and Hoztiooltuml Implema&ti. 

IN ADDITION to the great -variety of Plows. Harrowii 
Rollers, Seed 9bwprfi, Cultivators, Drying Tools. Aui.i 
ate., usually fountf at my warehouse ; the subscriber has 
recently IhtroduM Bonae 

IVew BM^ Imwoirri klnAi 
of Implemjjnts, both fdr the Field and Garden, which he 
-^11 be b^py to show to his friends and customera. Also 

Garden and Ftower-Bed Tools, 
a large aasortment of the best.Bud most approved kinds, 
an enumeration of which Is unnecessary, o<niaidering my 
large and well known establlBkmeot. 

& L. ALLEN, 
Mar. 26— weow3tm2t 189 * 191 WaUr-st.. New-Totk. 



Just PnbBriied. 
A B»»K FOR BTBRY PARMBR. 

THB FABMXR*8 PRACTICAL HORSE FAR. 
RIERT— 12 mo. 199 mnm price only 60 eenti. 
Besides oontidnlng ample directions for doctoring Hor- 
ses, and a large Btflnber of valuable reeeipta, It contains 
the OBBAT BBCRBT of Bvcaklog, Taming ana Training, and 
a f^nd of Information on almoBt everything relating to the 
management of Horses, writtoa in a dear and simple style 



—worth many times its coat loanv man who keeps a bone. 
«__. ..^ ' postage on receipt of price. 

Address KHABH, Publisher, 



March 18— weowftmSma 



Auburn. N. T. 



DIRECT from the PennriBB Agency Store Houses, 
Government brand and weight, in quantities to suit 
purchasers. Bend for a Cirovlar giving prioesof Fertili- 
zers, and It will be sent free. A. LONOETT, 
April 1-nit U Cliff Street. New York. 



FOK JSALlf^, 

A BAT STALLION, tbfee years old next June-got 
by Youug Kentucky Hunter, out of a Iffoj^rnn mare. 
He is a very superior colt. Address O. S. CURTIS, care 
BABmBB, Wbitakbb h. Co., ^ruvideuoe, R I. 
March 25— w2tro2t T ^ 

SCHENECTADY AG. WORKS- 

FARMERS or others, who have an Itterest In Introdu- 
cing the best machinery for FI fc i la f m pum atee, are re- 
quested to notice our Improved findlcra Ohain Horse Pow- 
era, for one, two or three herses. In oonn action with Over- 
shot Threahers and Separators, or Combined Threshers 
and Winnowers. We nave been engaged In the maonfao* 
tare of this kind of machlnea,for a number of years, and 
have made Improvements which make them equal to the 
l>est In use. A Circular, with ftill description of maohines 
made by us, and list of prioe* ibr tb(nn; may be had by ap- 
plication to us. G. WE8TXNGHOUSE fc CO., 
March 26— weowOtmSt Schenectady, N. T. 




NOTICE 
TO HORTICULTURXITB, SEEDSMEN, hJi. 

HortlcHlfHraly Ifvnery, and Seed 

No. 150 IfVont Street, KTew-York, 

IS THB ONLY ESTABLISHMENT In the United 
States, giving gpeeial attention to all the Foreign and 
Domestic intcrestaof Horticulturists, Nurserymen, Seeds- 
men, &C.. established for this particular purpose ; there- 
fore would respectfully solicit the patronage and support 
of all engaged in the imporHor, producing, buying or sell- 
ing of anything pertaining to these branches. 

Custom House business promptly attended to, and the 
utmost diligenee ezerciaed in the receiving and forwarding 
of this class of goods, with the least possible expense. 

Orders forwarded to Europe with full Instructions, «tc., 
Ac.— and when left to our oifoloB, parties may rely on our 
sending only to first class eatalillshments, long tried, and 
found worthy. From aprafltioal experience of upwards 
of eight years In the Horticulture. Jtc, ot our countrv, 
with leading establtahmeutB, ttie subscriber Isperllcularly 
fitted for this position, and wottld earnestly solicit the pat- 
ronage of all concerned. 

Fob Salb- Chinese Sugar Cane Seed, prime and fresh, 
in quantities to suit Mahaleb Cherry Seed, prime and in 
fine order. WM. P. SHEPPARD, 

(Saocessor to Geo. G. Sheppard ) 1S9 Front St. 

March 26-w8t-mlt. 





€i 3ni]miot t^ ^oil ml \\{t 3%ltiiL 



Vol. VI. 



ALBANY, MAT. 1858. 



No. V. 



• Published by Luther Tucker & Son, 

■DITOU AMD PBOPBIBTOB8. 

AuociATi Bd^ J. J. THOMAS, Umov Spbixos, N. Y. 
PRICE PIFTYCJNTS A TEAR. 

Thk Cultivator has been publlibed twentyfonr year*. 
A Nbw SiRria wat commenced In 1S53, and the five vo- 
lamoa for ISfrJs 4, 6, 0, 7, oan be Aimiahed, bound and post- 
paid, at $1.00 each. 

The same publishers issne^'THi Cocmtrt Obntlbmah,' 
a weekly Agricaltural Journal of 16 quarto pages, making 
two voiaw yearly of 416 pagea, at $2.00 a year. They also 
publish 

TbR iLLtTSTBATBD AkKUAL RbOISTBR Or RCRAL APPAIRS 

—144 pp. 12 ma — prioe 25 cents — 12.00 per doxen. This 
work was commenced In 1855, and the nos. for 1855, '56 
and *57, have been issued in a beautifal volume, under the 
title of '* Rural ArrAiRS,"— containing 440 engravings of 
Houses, Barna,Out-Hoiiaea,Ajiimals,ImplomenU, Fruits 
Ace— price 11.00 — sent by mall post-paid. 

Th% CnttuM «f IndUn Com. 

Nothing is better kaown in agricaltond mattera, than 
that farmers differ widely in the oaltare of Indian com. 
Thej differ in the depth of plowing the land ; and in 
the season of the year in which they plow greensward 
for a saeeeeding crop of com. Some farmers invariably 
"break up" their grass lands in antumn— others al- 
ways in ihe spring. Thej differ greatly, too, in the 
manner of applying the mannres ; in the distance and 
way of planting the seed, and also in the oultore of the 
growing plants. 

Borne farmers only make vse of the hoe in eradicat- 
ing the weeds, and in pulverizing and stirring the sur- 
face soil. Others use the horse-hoe, plow, cultivator 
or light harrow, Ac., stirring the soil " wide and deep," 
and make very Utile, or no use of the hand- hoe In their 
' cornfields. Doubtless, each farmer or planter believes 
his own way of culture the best 

Tlie circumstances of farmers vary so greatly, their 
soils are so different, and the seasons are frequently 
so unlike that it would be folly to prescribe any one 
method to be practiced by all com-growen. But all 
are aware that there is frequently a material difference 
in the yield of corn per aere, among farmers in the same 
neighborhood, whose lands and means are apparently 
alike. The variation in the products under such cir- 
cumstances, is frequently the result of a difference in 
the preparation of the land, and the culture given the 
growing crop. 

We have been led to pen the foregoing remarks, from 
having recently read the published sUtements of two 
practical farmers, whose methods of cultivating com 
wfciely differ. I 



In the Homeeteadf of 12th of Kot., Mr. R. R. 
Pbxlps of Manchester, Conn., gives an account of his 
method of cultivating com. He plants his com in hills 
three feet distant each way, never using the hand-hoe 
in his cornfield bat once daring the season. He says : 
" When the rows can be fairly seen, I go through with 
the horse- hoe, (Rugglee'.) When the com is of a suit- 
able site, larger than we ordinarily weed, I cross the 
field with the horse-hoe, and give a thoroagh ksnd-hoe- 
ing, carefully cleaning the weeds horn the hills, and 
thin to three stalks in the hiU. AfUr this, I nse the 
horse- hoe as the state of the ground requires, generally 
twice, crossing each time. In cultivating in this man- 
ner, it is absolutely necessary to success, to begin be- 
fore the weeds get strongly rooted, end go at near the 
rowt OS poenble.** 

On alluvial and other soils ftee from rocks and other 
obstractions, we have no doubt but that a com-field 
can be kept pretty clear of weeds, by the frequent nse 
of either the hone hoe, cultivator, harrow, or skim- 
plow, with only once usUigthe hand hoe { and perhaps 
it may be done at a aneh less cost of labor Uian by 
cultivating wholly with the hand hoe. But whether 
the crop of com would be as large when cultivated by 
Mr. P.'s method, as it would be if the hand hoe alone 
was osed, is a question that perhaps is worth discussing. 
It is possible that a field of com where the hand hoe 
alone was used, might yield a snfioiently larger num- 
ber of bushels to more than pay the extra expense of 
cultivating wholly with the common hoe. However we 
are not wholly sure upon this point, but think it a mat- 
ter of sufiScient importance to warrant farmers in try- 
ing, side by sMe, the two methods, on a small scale at 
least ; keeping an accurate account of the time or labor 
expended in each method, and also the difference of 
yield in the two experiments. 

Every new rootlet put forth by a growing plant, is 
an additional mouth to supply the plant with additional 
food. The more the roots of a com plant are cut off 
or mutilated by the horse hoe, or any other implement, 
the less power it possesses of appropriating its food 
from the soil, and consequently the growth of the plant 
m all ite parts wUl be leswned. 

A few years since we planted a well prepared field 
with com ; the rows were struck out by a marker, three 
feet apart. Fearing loss of the plants by worms, there 
were from six to nine kemels dropped in each hill. At 
the first hoeing we plucked up the surplus plants, and 
found each had sent out one main root, with numerous 
short side-rootlets. The main roots were from 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




May 



inobeg in length ; mmny of them having grown from 
opposite hills, to u to meet in the center of the rows. 
Kow if we had nm the horse hoe, or plow, " as near 
the hills as possible," it is onr impression that we shonld 
have cat off or mntiiated a large portion of the roots, 
(especiaUjT if the implement had been drawn both ways 
of the rows,) and thereby have done mnch injary to 
the growing plants. In the onlture of this field, it be- 
ing a well prepared, light soil, the hand hoe alone was 
nsed. The yield was folly sixty bushels of oom per 
acre. We regret that Mr. Phelps had not given the 
number of boshela per acre he nsoally grows. 

In the Transactions of the K. H. Ag. Society for 
e866, we iSnd a letter from Mr. Brown on the caltare of 
com. Mr. B. is the farmer who has long grown and 
given a wide-spread celebrity to that variety known 
as the " Brown or King Philip oom." Mr. B.'s farm 
is on an Island in Lake Winnepiseogee, in latitude 43o 
40' N. Being so far north, it must be an early variety 
of com to maturo there. 

We make some extracts from his letter, by which it 
will be seen that he and Mr. Phelps cultivate their oom 
in a very different manner. 

Mr. B. says : *< It is a fact that cannot bo denied, 
that a large majority of onr farmers oontent themselves 
by raising what they call a decent crop of com, say 
twenty- five to thirty bushels per acre, and am hard 
to believe that any more can be raised. They go on 
in the old way, planting the rows four feet apart, or 
nearly that, and the hills three feet apart, putting from 
four to six kernels in the hill, and after the blades of 
the com get a fine start, and the roots spread in all 
directions, inalead of going to work aa they ahould do 
uith a hott and giving it a light brashiog to stir the 
ground and keep the w««ds down, they take a horse 
and cultivator, or plow, and cut of half the roottj and 
by making a Urge mound or hill, give the oom such a 
check that it never roooven from it. So managed as 
above stated, no farmer can expect a large crop of com 
even if the ground is well manured." 

"When I first went to farming for myself in 1817, 
I was hoeing my com about the first of July, and 
making a hill as all fanbers then did ; the ground was 
not weedy, but I found that I was cutting off a great 
many little roots, which;' I ascertained to be the com 
roots, and it strack me that I was hurting the com by 
making the bill, and from that instant I left off making 
a hill around the com,' and have since that time left 
the ground among the com as smooth as possible, and 
the remainder of my corn that year which I did not 
hill, was mnch the best, and the ears the largest." 

Mr. B has made many exporiments as to the proper 
dbtance of planting bis com, the result of which is, 
that he plants the rows three feet distant, the hills two 
feet apart in the rows, leaving throe stalks to each 
hill. Mr. B. has raised a promium crop of 136 bushels 
per aore, weighing 69 pounds per bushel of shelled 
com. He gives an account of his crop raised in 1853, 
which amounted to 104 bushels of shelled com to the 
acra, while the average yield in the vicinity of the lake 
was estimated at thirty to forty bushels. 

Of this crop of 104 bushels per aero, he says—'' On 
the 30th of May I planted my corn in hills, four ker- 
nels in each, throe feet apart one way and two the other. 
When the com was up about throe inches high, it was 
neatly hoed, vilhout th$ aid of euUivator or plow— 




thinning out the plants three to each hilL In July the 
oom was again drossed with the hoe, without m^ing 
any hill. I prefer working with the hand-hoe to clear 
the weeds from the plants, instead of the cultivator or 
plow, for when the latter aro used they stir the ground 
too deep, cutting many of the tender rootlets of the 
oom, which greatly injures the crop. It has long been 
my practice to plow under a liberal coating of green 
mannro a few days pnvious to planting, which in my 
judgment shonld lie undisturl)ed by any implement 
during the growth, in order that it may impart iti 
whole benefit to the onp *' 

*' We have a home market for all onr snrplua pro- 
duce, in the manufocturing villages of this rojirion. 
The proeent price of oom, (I^. 1856) is f 1 per bush- 
el. Estimating the profit of growing an aero, based on 
my last crop, the following would be near the trath : 

104 bushels of oom at $1, |10400 

4 tous of husks and sUdka at $8, 82.00 

$136.00 
<' The value of labor in the eultiration at 75 cts per 
day, was $37, leaving a nett income of about f 100 per 
aero, for the use of the land and the manuro." 

In conclusion, we would again suggest to fiurmen 
that they should experiment in the cultivation of com. 
Try Mr. Phelps' and Mr. Brown's manner of culture in 
the same field, carofully noting the dlfferonce of cost of 
labor and yield of com, and give us the rosnlt for pub- 
lication in our Co. Qent. and Cultivator next autumn 

or wintef 

- . .... » ». » ■ 

Ticks and Lioe on Animalg. 

Answer to Tfma. J5.' Buffum—tte Co. Gent. Alh 
March.— I mean to be understood to say, if sheep aro 
kept in a thriving condition from the time they aro 
yarded in the fall, until they have good pasturo, that 
they will have no ticks on them, or at least they will 
have so few that they will not be worth noticing, and 
require no application of any thing to destroy them. 
But thero are causes of propagating ticks that requiro 
an observing eye to detect. In the first place, if yards 
are not regularly littered, and the sheep aro forced to 
lay on their own dung, even if dry, they will not thrive; 
and then they will have ticks plenty, even if this lit- 
tering should only be omitted for a few weeks ; or if 
their yard is wet, so that their feet become soft, they 
lose condition, and ticks immediately follow ; or shonld 
they have to feed on damaged hay for three weeks, 
ticks will follow. In fact any thing that impairs their 
health or growth, brings ticks ; and very often the best 
wintered sheep are made to propagate ticks, by being 
tamed to the pasture-fields in spring beforo the pasturo 
bos grown, and then they will have great quantities of 
ticks at shearing time. They go from the old sheep to 
the lambs. Keep your sheep thriving all the Ume, 
Mr. B., and the ticks will not trouble them. Thit I 
know. 

Did Mr. B. ever see a well-fed, clean kept boy or 
girl, over-run with licel I think not; but I hare 
seen many ill- fed, ill-clothed, dirty kept ones so. Some 
such roasoning, how the human family shonld be kept, 
has led me to miny improrements in keeping domestio 
animals, especially in good feeding, and plenty of air 
whero cattle aro stabled. What makes people propa- 
gate lice when crowded in the steerage of vessels for a 
month or moro 1 Nothing but want of air and bad 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




fMd| and noihiog bat bad feadiog^ waot of air or 
el«aBHB«flB» makoa fkoep, oattio, or horBoa, Umay, If 
m«n would alwayt do by tboir atook as thoy would with 
to bo done by if they were io their piaoe, we would 
hear no more inqairiea ae to what will '* kill ticks on 
sheep, or Hoe on ealtle or hones. Johx Johkstom. 

•-•-• 

Cure for 8tr«tohe« in 8he«p. 

Mbssbs. TncKBft k Son-^I notioed in yonr last Cul- 
tivator, a eommunieation fromS. Oomb, headed **Cnre 
forSiretches in Sheep." He sys *< eat their throats, and 
take off their pelta," Ac. Some years ago my sheep took 
a oomplahit, that I ealled the stmtches, having never 
seen or heard of the Hke before. Whether it was the 
proper stretohee or the belly-ache, I know not ; but 
one thing Is certain, I lost quite a number with it be- 
fore I could obtain a remedy. One day in conrsrsa- 
Uon with a brother-in-law, knowing that he kept quite 
a number of sh«ep, I asked him if his sheep ever had 
the stretches, to whieh he replied In the affirmative, 
and said that they had always died. A litUe daughter 
of his, standing by, spoke up and said, ** why no^ fa- 
ther, that winter when you and mother were gone to 
Ohio, there were a number that had it. Rice (hU litUe 
brother) and I gave them red pepper tea, and cured 
every one that took It" I had tried quito a number 
of remedies to no effect, but I thought I would try 
the pepper on the next one taken with it, whieh I did, 
and £ have not lost one since. My method is to take 
two or three pods, put them in a pint tin cop, pour on 
boiling water, and let it stand on the stove until well 
steeped, and then set away to cool. Take a common 
tunnel, put the small end In the speep's mouth, and 
hold up its head so that It will run down. If the sheep 
should commence to cough, stop until it quits and re- 
covers its breath. If taken at the commencement, one 
dose generally suffices. If In the space of half a day 
or so, the symptoms did not abato, I should repeat the 
dose. A. Q. Wbbstbb. Union MiUs^ Ind, 



Oulture of the Potato. 



THE OHB-KTE SrSTKM. 

Messrs. EDiroRS—My article on potato culture, in 
the present volume, (page 11) has caused a great many 
inquiries to me by letter, all of whieh I have cheerful- 
ly answered ; but to all inquiries I could not go into 
detnil, as it would occupy my whole time to do so. I 
shall now explain all that may have been omitted In 
that article. My reason for not going more into par- 
Uoolars, was that I had last year (vol. 9, p. 394 and 
411,) written an article on the one-eye system, which 
I published to contradict a statement made In a pre- 
vious number that " cut potatoes " would not do, and 
that All who wanted good potatoes should plant a potato 
weighing so many ounces. This rather touched me, 
and I gave my practice. Had it not been for that ar- 
ticle, I should not have thought mine worth publish- 
ing, thinking that my system was too well known to be 
written about As it Is, I an glad that I have been 
the means of introducing a good system into practice, 
which will yet be the rule and not the exception. It 
is an economical as well as a better system, which will 
be more generally admitted when tried. Of course to 
men who raise potatoes to sell for planting as a busi- 
nen, it is an object to get buyers to take the largest 
quantity for that purpose, but instead of a man having 

*^ ■ = 



to buy eighteen bushels of potatoes to plant an aere, 
by the one-eye system six bushels will suffieiently an- 
swer his purpose, and give him a better yield ; and 
when a man raises a really good fruit or vegetable, he 
ean sell it faster than his supply, even by giving to the 
buyers the most economical way of raising it 

I have been asked ** why " I adopted the one 'eye 
system. I had at one time a field of early potatoes, 
when at the latter end of May we had a very severe 
frost, at which time my potato stems were four and 
five inches high. The sete were out three eyes to each ; 
the frost cut them oompletely off ; I then concluded 
to sow with turnips. In ten days afterwards one stem 
appeared to each set, and quite regularly in the drills ; 
I then determined to let them remain and see the re- 
sult, and I found them when digging, to be the best 
crop I had ever raised. This wae conclusive evidence 
to me that one eye was better than three ; and the po- 
tatoes were of a much evener sise than any I had ever 
grown. Since then I have grown altogether on the 
ooe-eye syetem on all soils. It will be seen that I 
have taken premiums on my potatoes at other Societies 
than ours, by referenee to last year's article. It has 
been said that our land is suited to the potato, and so 
my fine cfops. Such is not the ease. Ours is not a 
potato soil, and as to a fine crop, I do not consider it 
such. I have seen land in this and other States, on 
which I could doubteit I shall not be surprised to 
hear of some of your readers turning out next fall four 
hundred bushels of "Prince AlbeH potatoes" to the 
acre, on the one-eye system ; but then if they wish 
this, they must make up their minds whether they in- 
tend growing weeds or potatoes. To grow potatoes 
well, you must not let a weed be seen. Keep your 
ground stirred ; harrow, plow and cultivate until they 
come into bloom ; then use no tools among them. If 
you keep them properly cultivated up to that time, 
they will not require hand weeding when in this stage ; 
if you do not do this, you need not expect a paying 
crop. This is also an important point, as at this stage 
the tubers set, and by working them you deteriorate 
their growth materially. 

My object in cutting th€ potato (explained in last 
year's article,) a month before planting, and mixing 
with hot lime. Is to dry up the onto, which it will do, 
and shrivel them oompletely up, (a good sign.) T?hen 
planted, they immediately start to grow, and you will 
see yonr eye bursting a nice blue top. The set being 
completely dry, there is no danger of their rotting in 
the ground ; wb)9Feas if put in the ground as soon as 
cut, they lay dormant -until this out heals, and if wet 
weather, they are liable to rot Another reason : Be- 
fore planting you see your eyes bursting, and you need 
plant only such as are good. Tou will then have no 
vacancies in your drills. By cutting so far ahead, you 
set them earlier, as the moment you cut them is like 
planting them ; they oommence growing the moment 
you mix them with lime i wheroas if planted at that 
time, the ground being oold and wet, they would be 
likely to rot When you have them cut, you need not 
care being a week behind or before In planting. One 
thing must be observed when they are cnt^ that is, 
they must not be put Into a dark hot collar. Place 
them when they will have plenty of light, and if there 
is any danger of f^t at night, cover them over, (i 
moving in day time.) If placed In a cellar, they 
mence to burst their eyes, and not having light 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Mat 



will be wUta and ipindly, eompletolj drawn and good 
ftnr BOthiog. By being in a garret or some rach place, 
they buret Btroog. Let it net be Buppoaed that if the 
eye shoald be broken oiT that the eet ie lott. If kept 
dry it will immediately throw eat another aproat Let 
any that may be skeptical on thie point ent and pre- 
pare as abore, aqd cut and plant the same day, ae is 
the common practlee, and note the result I eoold 
prote in wriUng that the former wonld be the best, but 
it wonld be wasting time and paper. Practice is better 
than theory. 

To eat a potato to adrantage, requires a little prac- 
tlee. I here give directions how to do it, which by 
following yon will soon be an adept. Hold yonr pota^- 
to in yonr left hand ; cut the root end completely off, 
as the eye by the root should never be planted i it only 
produces small and watery potatoes. Tour next eye 
cut something like a half moon, observing not to out 
through another ^ye ; then turn you potato, and yon 
next eye will be angular, your next half moon, your 
next angular, and so on. Then the top of your potato 
(where there are a duster of eyes,) will in general be 
flat, when properly cut ; those you cut In single eyes, 
and you shocdd be careful and keep all of those sepa^ 
rate from your other cuts, as those should be planted 
by themselves, as they wiU ripen their tubers from a 
week to a fortnight earlier than the rest I always 
have two sets of hands to cut them — one to cut off the 
tops and throw them by themselves, and the other to 
cut from that to the root end, reserving the top to be 
cut carefhlly for early use. This, to any one who re- 
quires early potatoes, will be an advantage. 

I send two " Prince Albert potatoes"— one whole 
and the other cut, so that if the editors wish to give a 
drawing of them,* it will be seen at glance what I 
mean. The whole one will show what the Prince Al- 
bert is, which I think would be acceptable, as so many 
want to know what the potato is in site, color, Aa, It 
is no humbug, as all can assert who have grown it, 
and will, I think, yet be our principal potato, east, 
west, north and south. 

I have grown most of the potatoes at present in cul- 
tivation, and I said in my article last year that the 
Prince Albert potato waa our best. It is suited to all 
our soils, and all say it does not rot In a brief notice, 
from the " N. Y. Tribune," in a recent number of the ' 
*' Country Gentleman," (p. 154,) it is called an early 
potato. To all Inquiries to me on this point, I could 
not answer, not having tried them as such, but I can 
say it is a good late one. The article in the Tribune 
gives a just description of our best potatoes, which cor- 
responds with descriptions I had sent to private wri- 
ters. 

Some may object to the present price of the Prinoe 
Albert potatoes, (although I have heard of none doing 
10,) but I can assure them that they are cheaper at 
twelve dollars a barrel than any other I know of wonld 
be at two dollars a barrel, for seed ; at the same time 
I wish it to be distinctly understood, that I do not say 
this with the view of selling them. I could at present 
sell all that we have got to one individual at our adver- 
tised prices, but I shall give the readers of the " Coun- 
try Oeutlemaa " the pveferenoe, for the leason that all 
the potatoes I send out are genume. When I fint got 
I had six other varieties mixed with them. In 
;, 1 sorted out as near at I could, and in digging 




in the foil of 1856, 1 again sorted, and got Hiem clean. 
Those who may purchase from unknown parties, should 
be carefol In cutting and dig^^ng, to do as I did. 

As to flat culture and high earthing, both are he^L 
ItwUl be seen by my last year's <* article," thatlgrew 
them on a level surface without any earthing. This 
year I grew them in drills, well earthed up. If the 
advocates of both systems were to state how their land 
lay, flat or side-UU, heavy or light loam, then we oonld 
judge for ourselves, as to which system would be best 
suited to our individual soil} for instance, if I intend- 
ed growing potatoes on a low flat piece of land, not 
snderdrained, and where the rains would lay, I should 
l^w them in drills according to my last year's prae- 
tioe, (high drills i) it 1 grew on side-hill, or on ground 
that I was sure the water wonld not lay on, I shoald 
grow them on the flat system, which, when applicable, 
I prefer. The quality of the soil you intend to grow 
on, must also be a guide to yon ss to the system you 
should adopt If a very heavy loan^ I should adopt 
the high drill ^stem, as by >^ yon pulverise the soil 
and make it meltow. A good crop can be got off soil 
qf this description by the high drill system, whereae if 
the flat qrttem were adopted on this heavy soil, yon 
would not succeed in getting a fourth of a crop. If 
your soil is light, adopt the flat ^stem ; if you under- 
take the high drill system on light soil, our heavy rains 
will wash it down, and our tropical sun will bum yonr 
root% and you have no crop, where, if you had grown 
on the flat ^stem, you would have had a full crop. 
Use the roller freely on a light soil to compress it tight- 
ly, and on a heavy soil use yonr heavy and light har- 
row freely. Men, adopting a system firom a written 
artiole, should fully understand that the same practice 
Is applicable to their soil, and that a system which 
would be best for one field, should be reversed on 
another, thus adapting the system to the condition of 
the field. Out of this one thing proceeds most of the dif- 
ference of opinion as to which is beet of the different 
systems. As to potato euRure, the one-eye system is 
applicable to light and heavy soils. If there Is any 
thing in this article that Is not clearly understood, I 
shall willingly answer. Gxrald Howatt. Newton, 

New-Jersey. 

•• • m 

Liniment for 8w«lling« on Animals. 

Eds Cult, ard Co. Qeht. — I noticed in the Dee. 
Cultivator, an inquiry from Mr. £. M. Quffiv, Iowa, 
respecting a hard, oallous swelling, which he says came 
on midway between the eye and nostril. I purchas- 
ed a three year old colt two years ago, which had a 
swelling on the same place as described above, which 
was an objection among the horse buyers, who prised 
her t25 less, and feared to buy at all. I ventured to 
purchase, and apply what I thought might scatter it 
The owner said it came on about a month before I 
bought her, but did not know the cause of it I appli- . 
ed the following liniment, and in lea than three months 
the swelling disappeared wholly. I consider it the 
best liniment extant for swellings on man or beast 
Apply once a day, and rub it briskly : 

Half an ounce spirits of hartshorn. 

One gill spirits turpentine. 

Half-pint sweet oil. 

One pint alcohol. 

Two ounces gum camphor. (Dissolve the cam- 
phor in the alcohol ) A. Wili<abi>, Jn. Har(/brd. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




PropagAtinf Dwarf Box. 

Win Ton or fome one knowiiig in fach mmtten, In- 
form a rabseri^r how to maaofactare ** box edging," 
material aid being on hand in the shape of a oouple 
of cait- loads of iine, thrifty bnshea two feet or more in 
height 1 

Whether the evttings need ahadel Whetker they 
moat be taken ftvm the top or bottom of the plant 7 
Whether they sliooldbe planted hn rows to work among, 
or in "beds*' for matoal protection, and anything else 
expedient for a noHce to know, who wishes to exereise 
himself thereon both to pleaswe and profit. C. P. 
Paoli, Zd mo 15 

Cuttingi are often grown withont shade, but they are 
more certain to Uto and do better if protected from 
Che snn's rays. The best shading for nursery oultare 
is a high tight board fence or bnilding on the sonth 
side ; beoaose, even after the plants become well es« 
tablished, they preserve a fine green appearance at all 
times, if protected fh)m the san*s rays. If unshaded, 
the shining of the sun upon them after intense cold, is 
mre to turn them brown and injure their appearance. 
But if this Idnd of shading cannot be had, the next 
best is to employ boards about a foot wide, which are 
placed on their edges, and inclined over the row of cut- 
tings, or rather the double row, for one board will shade 
iwo rows set three inches apart A space of a foot 
may be left between each of these double rows — and 
will be kept clean by the hoe. F!g. 1. 



P»g 1- Fig. 1 

F!g. 1. End view of rows of box cuttings newly set out, 
and shaded with boarda • «, surface of the ground : * 6, 
double rows of cuttioga; t c^ boards nailed to lucllned 
stakes. Fig. 1 A prepared box cutting. 

The cuttings may be Uken wherever they can bs 
found, provided they are somo Ave or six inches long. 
The leaves are to be stripped from three-foaithsof the 
lower part, as shown in ig. 2, and they aie 'ttien set 
upright in the earth, which b to be eloeely packed 
about them. They may be about ar inch apart in the 
rows, to be afterwards transplanted to three inches 
afart when eei oat for edging. 

• • • 

Pnmiiig Old Apple Trees. 

MiBSRg. Bditors— What shall I do to old apple 
trees that, having had large limbs out off, are now rot- 
ted into the trunk nearly a foot! What month Is 
the best to cut large limbs, so that they will heal over 
withont rotting 1 An answer in the Cultivator will 
oblige HF. QiPPORD. Falmouth^ Mass. 

Decayed wood cannot be cured ; but if the trees are 
not very old, the decayed parts may be cut away, and 
the cut surface covered with the well known sheUac so- 
lution—or by a mixture of tar and brick-dust 

Cut large limbs, if necessary, in summer, towards 
the close of the growing season, and after a few weeks 
when the cut surface has become dry, apply the solu- 
A2 mixture above named. 

shellac solution is made by dissolving sheUac in 




alcohol, till as thick m thick paint It may be kept, 
conveniently, corked tight, In a wide-mouthed bottle, 
with a brush set fai the cork, and thus always reacly 
for use.) 

see 
Tra n—e tt o i M, Ac*, oC Aff. 8wieaee« 

Transactions of the New- York State Agricnltiiral 
Society, with an AbetrMt of the ProeeediogB of the 
County Ag. Sodetlea. Vol XVI-18M, 
This is just iwued, and forms an interesting volume of 
nearty 800 pp^— indudiag the reports and addresses 
of the year 1866, the proceedings in inauguration of 
the Society's present afaiimente in the Oeologioal Hall, 
and numerooa other pi^ii. The third of Dr. FiTca'e 
Entomologieal Beports oooapies 176 pages, and is ao- 
oompanied by a niunber of yaluable plates. Prof. S> 
W. JoHHSOH contributes aa artiole on Soils, their Phy- 
sical properties, Ao.; Prof. KaaH one upon American 
AgricuUare, and Mr. Qoodbich one on the Diseases of 
the Orape and Sugar Cane. The presssit volume wac 
submitted by Secretary JoaasoN uader date of March 
26, 1857, and we much regret that it has been so long 
in getting into print 

Transactions of the American Iiutitate of the City 

of New- York, for ISfid. 
About one half this of velume is devoted to the Pro- 
ceedings of the N^w-York Farmer's Clab, and the re- 
mainder to mechanical sui^eets. The Institute Is repre- 
sented as in a prosperauf coaditiea. 
Fifth Annual Report of the Secretary of the 

Massaohusetu Board of A|^uluire. together with the 

Repoita of Committees appointed to visit the Countv 

Societies. 

Mr. Secretary Flirt has shown great care aad indus- 
try in the preparation of the three hundred and twen- 
ty or thirty pages which constitute his Fifth Beport 
A well prepared digest of the praeeediogs, reports, Ac, 
at the First Fair, held last fkll, ecoupies a considerable 
space, and furnishes a large number of engravings 
which manifest a gratifying improvement on most at- 
tempts at the illustration of similar works. The volume 
is a creditable one both to the State and to its author- 

First An. Report of Prof. S. W. Johnson, Chemist 
to the Connecticut StaM Ag. Society, and Professor of 
Analytical and Ag. Ohemistry iu Yale College. 
This valuable paper eoatains the results of analyses 
of 62 samples of 5 different Guanos, and numerous 
Superphosphates, Poudrettei, Peats, Ae., Ac. A num- 
ber of introductory pages are devoted to general con- 
siderations on Manures, their action, comparative va- 
lue, the uses of special manures, their commercial va- 
lue, and the means of compuUng it, with much infor- 
mation on other points in connection. The whole bears 
tU€ marks of the thorough research and prudent reason- 
ing we should expect from the writer, and shows his 
services to be of great value to the farmers of his own 
and other States. 

Ag. Address delivered before the Conn. State Ag. 

Society at Brldgport By Donald G. Mitchell, Esq. 
A right good sermon (agriculturally speaking) is this 
for both reading and non-reading tillers of the soil. 
How to make Farming a paying, an instructive, a com- 
fortable business — in what respects it now falls below 
this high standard— is the theme treated, both grace- 
fully and practically, by the accomplished speaker. We 
are happy to welcome his active pen->which readers 
of the Cultivator ten or a dosen years ago will not fail 
to remember as then of frequent servioe in its column 
— once more at work in the cause of Agriculture, and 
we trust this may be but a beginning of its labors. 




THE CULTIVATOR 




The Spotted Squaali BvLg—(^Cocc{neUa oorealis,) 

There is a Imrge fsmlly of inaecta of the order of 
Beellee, {CoUopterOy) eaUed Coceinellidtt, 
which hM » Terj wide geogntphieal rmage, 
being fiuniliar to the fArmer u well u to the 
entomologiat, in this oonntry and in Earope. 
Their common names are Lady-bag, Ladjr- 
oow, Lady-bird. There are many different 
species in this family, rarylng in their site 
and color. Some are of a dark or black color, 
with yellow or red spots ; others have a yel- 
low or red groand with black spots. Some 
have only two spots while others have twenty 
or more. This family with few exceptions is 
insectiyorons, that is, feeds npon insects ; in- 
deed until recently, entomologists have giren 
the entire family of CoecineUida the credit 
of being oar fKends and aids in diminish- 
ing the number of destractire insects, such 
as Aphids, or Planl-lioe. The cultiTator 
may therefore be perplexed, by finding thai 
Harris and other writers, arge us to spare 
the Lady-birds, while the OTidences of the 
injury prodaced by a disreputable member 
of this worthy family are unmistakeable. 

The accompanying cots. Figs. 1 and 2, give a Terti- 
eal and side view of the CoeeineUa borealu^ which to 
some of our readers will be entirely familiar, while 
others may nerer hare seen it. In some localities in 
New- Jersey, New- York and Connecticut, it has been a 



gives a greatly magnified view of the head and the 
thorax, the latter eoverbg the former like a hood, a 
is the thorax, on which are several spots ; 6 6 are the 




^ 



t'J^miZ 



Fig 



Fig. 1. Fig. 1 » Fig. «. 

Fjss. 1 and 3— The Coeeimttta bor$alU, or Lady-bird, 
f— The same insect In the larva or worm sUte. 
very troublesome vistor, entirely destroying the foliage 
of the squash vine even afUr the plant has reached a 
large sixe, and is in full beating. 

In no work have I been able to find any mention of 
this insect, except in Dr. Smei^n's excellent *' Ameri- 
can Farmer's Encyclopedia," aad even there in the de- 
scription accompanying the fgure, it is said to be in- 
sectivorous, but under the head of "Squash-bug" the 
true habit of the insect Is given, with the name of 
" Coceinella borealU." 

As in several respects its habits are Interesting and 
peculiar, I will give the results of a few observations 
made during the summer of 1866. 

The form of the perfect insect is nearly that of a 
hemisphere. Like all beetles, it possesses horny wing 
eases, which when closed, cover a pair of folded mem- 
branous wings. Its legs are yellow, quite short, being 
scarcely seen when looking at it from above. The head 
is very small, as compared to the body, and is so oov- 





4— A magnified view of the head of the Coceinella. 
by the thorax as to be almost invisible. Fig. 4 



inff within tne circle. * An insect which 
prejra upon the larva, e Size of the lai va when first hatched. 

eyea, which are compound or formed of a number of 
amaller eyes arranged in rows ; c e are the antenns ; 
d the mandibles or forceps with which it cuts its food ; 
a a are moveable Jointed organs of the mouth, which 
serve as fingers or feelers, and are called Palpi. 

The eolor Is a dull yellow of uniform shade, but hav- 
ing on the thorax and wing eeses nineteen black spots, 
(counting as two each those which are divided by the 
suture of the wing ) It is first seen early in June as 
a perfect insect, feeding in the day time upon the 
upper surface of the leaf. It has a lingular habit 
which I have noticed in no other insect In feeding 
its first act is to mark out with its forceps a circle 
or semi-circle, sometimes of great regularity, endoaing 
the portbn of the leaf upon which it Is about to feed. 
The leaf is then eaten within this mark, and no where 
else. The larva or worm observes the same habit of 
marking out its pasture ground, as seen in Fig. 6, a, 
The insect is net quick m its aaorements, and does not 
readily take wing, but when disturbed, draws its legs 
and antennsB under its body and falls to the ground. 
Shortly after its first appearance it is found in Pftir^ 
and soon after commences to deposit its eggn. These 
eggs are placed in irregular groups on the under aide 
of the leaf. When first hatched, the young larva, Fig. 
6, c, is very small, of a chrome yellow, and armed even at 
this early period, with thomlike spines. One of these 
spines magnified in Fig 6, abowa the formidable charac- 
ter of this natural defence. These larvsB eat voraciously 
and grow rapidly, casting their skins several times. A 
magnified view of the larva is given in Fig. 7. They 
have six true legs, and use the tall or 
posterior extremity in walking, as a 
seventh leg. After attaining the die 
represented in Fig. 3, they crawl to 
some sheltered spot on the under side 
of the leaf, or upon the stem, and fas- 
ten themselves securely for the 
change to a pupa or chrysalis, the 
pupa case being the thorny skin of 
the larva. Remaining in this dor- 
mant state something over a week, 




it then emerges as a perfect insect, ^f^^Zn^nl 
and if not too late in the season, re- ofthej'oung larva. 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




oomuwiMet the pTopAgation of iU •p«eief. It may bo 
found upon the squMh vine of all nges at once, from the 
first of July to the middle of October, showing that 
many socceesive broods are hatched irregularly through 
the summer. In Fig. 5, 6, \b represented an insect 
which in federal instances I hare found preying upon 
the larra of the Coeeinella, by iDsertiag its proboscis in 
the body of the latter and euoking out its contents. On 
being disturbed, it carried off the larva elevated on the 
end of its sucker. Thia inteot destroyer most not be 
mietaken for another squa«h-bug of similar shape, but 
larger, which is exceedingly destructive to this plant 




Fig. 7— Magnified view of the Larva. 
The only remedy Khioh I have found effective to pre- 
vent the injury from the Coeeinella is hand picking. 
Lime, dusted upon the leaf while wet with rain or dew, 
is some assistance, but will not be in itself sufficient 
A small baein or cup filled with strong brine to brush 
the insects into, can bo used advantageously ; and re- 
member that one hour spent in this work when the in- 
sect first appears, and before its eggs are laid, will be 
of more service than manj hours after that time. A. 
0. MooKX. New-York, 



9Ian vs. Horse Po^ver for Mom^tnijf* 

Messrs. Editors — In my opinion your correspond- 
ent Darius Cmzbe, (see Co. Gent, p. 173,) takes a 
wrong view of man mowers and horse mowers. In the 
first place, in this section of country, for several years 
past, no good mower* could be hired for less than $1 50 
per day and board, and I never saw five mowers to- 
gether that would average over one acre each, daily, 
and seldom that where the acre would yield two tons 
of dry hay, and if cut as close and even as the ma- 
chines, not near that For years before we had mow- 
ing machines, I often let my mowing by the acre, and 
paid from 1 1.25 to $1 50, besides board. Now I could 
get any quantity I ever had, or ever will have, to cut, 
done for 62^ cents per acre by horses, and they will cut 
ten acres per day. The difference of board of ten men 
in place of one man and one pair of horses, is no small 
item. But wo can cut our grass at much less expense 
with our own machines and horses, than to hire it done 
at 62J cents per acre, as any smart boy, or laty far- 
mer, or old man, can drive the horses, and that is all 
fae has got to do ; and farmer's horses would be gene- 
rally idle when he Is toiling at cutting down his grass. 
Ko, no, Mr. 0., you are altogether in the fog on men 
ver9U9 horses. John Johrstoii. Near Geneva. 



Gnjrandottc Mnilliis. 

Two eggs, three enps, of com meal, three cups of 
flowery stir in sour milk enough to make a stiff batter, 
add three tea-spoonfuhi of melted lard, a little salt and 
one tea^poonful of soda dissolved in warm water. 
Pour your rings half full, and bake quick. Pbacti- 
CAL HouBXKEEPnfa. Kanaioha ValUy. 



VwknaiMkg Im Illinola. 

A subscriber in Fulton county. 111., writes us as fol- 
lows:— Taking a dislike to mercantile business, I sold 
out, and have gone to farming. I had one hundred 
acres under the plow last year, and did the whole with 
one pair of horses, which were in good condition all the 
season. I raised 2,250 busheld of com, (75 bushels to 
the acre,) and 850 bushels of small grain— 18 acres 
spring wheat averaged 23 bushels per acre, besides 
about 60 bushels spoilt by getting wet One field of 
three acres averaged 30 bushels per acre. I don' t work 
much myself, and paid last year about $200 for labor, 
and yet cleared from 80 acres in cultivation 1 1,000. 
Farming here, even at present low prices, is a paying 
business, and by industry and economy a man can get 
ahead fast It takes no manure and no plaster to 
make eom grow, and as to wheat and barley, the only 
trouble is the land is too rich. We need men to work 
out here. There are plenty of places, and good ones 
too, for hired help— wages ruling at $150 for ten 
months, or $175 per year." 



Onions Rnnnln^f to Tops. 

A Kansas correspondent some time sinoe, mentioned 
the case of his onions growing all tops, although, he 
says, in rich ground. The probability is that the seed 
was sown late ; if so, it most likely was the true cause. 
That, and the virgin soil of. the prairie, undoubtedly 
was. It is useless to try to get a fine crop of ripe on- 
ions, if the seed is not got in early { it can scarcely be 
too early, providing the frost is sufiSciently out of the 
ground. It Is well aim, if the ground is loose from re- 
cent spading or plowing, to make it closer either by 
rolling or treading with the feet This is a very eld 
custom of onion growers, a. s. 



Priees and Sine« of Ha^ Caps* 

The Boston Cultivator fkmisbes the following infor- 
mation on this subject : 

We have called on Meisn. Chase k Fay, 14 City 
Wharf, Boston, and obtained some information in re- 
gard to hay cape. They i^ake four sixes of the foUow- 
mg dimen.sions and prices Ko. 1, 54 by 48 inches, 
sheeting, 25 cents each. ^o. 2, 72 by 72 in., sheeting, 
37o. No. 3, 53 by 48 in, drilling, 37c. No. 4, 72 by 
72 in., drilling, 62c. The material used has passed 
through the process called Kyaniting, by which it is 
said to be proof against mildew. The caps are pre- 
pared with a loop bole at each comer, into which a 
metal thimble is fastened. Strings are tied to the caps 
through the holes, and pinb to bold the caps to the hay 
are attached to the strings. The pins may be either 
of wood or, iron. Those made of No. 8 wire, fifteen 
inches long, are fumUihed with the caps, if desired, at 
one cent each. Caps of the largest sise here mention- 
ed, will protect 100 lbs. of the coarsest clover or other 
hay, and the others will cover a proportionate quanti- 
ty.' It ia easy to see from this how many would be re- 
quired to the acre, the yield being stated. There is no 
question as to the utility of the article — especially for 
clover and in " catching weather '* like that of last 
season. The testimony of all who have used them, so 
fiar as we know, is strongly in tbeir favor. 

*^< 

Cabbage Salad. 

Chop enough cabbage fine to fill a vegetable dish. 
Heat a coffee cup of strong vinegar, with a piece of but- 
ter in it the size of a Bmail egg. Pepper and salt 
When hot, beat an egg very light and stir in ; then 
pour it all on to the chopped cabbage, k. h. k. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Flaating Onge Hedges. 

[We eomraand the foUowiog T*Iaable pnetioal re- 
marks on planting hedgei of the Osage Orange, to the 
attention of all onr readers who intend to adopt this 
kind of fencing, and who wish to avoid all openings 
and gaps oecaaioned by the dying out of single plants ] 

In the Co. Oairr. of Feb. 25th, I find an article on 
Osage Orange hedges, which fnlly agrees with the re- 
sults of my own ezperienoe. To the exoellent sagges- 
tions made by Prof J. B. Tubkbb, I beg leate to add 
a fbw practical hinta. 

The two main dUfteoltles are to obtain an even stand 
at the first planting, and to pteserre the yonng hedge 
throngh the first wtdter. 

It is rery importaat to hare all the plants start even 
at the first setting, since replanting is extremely diffl- 
oult. The second year the plants of the first setting 
grow so strong and throw so mach shade, that newly 
set young plants are often saffocated. There ought, 
therefore, no plants to be set out but such as are perfect- 
ly sound and rigorous. Now it is almost impossible to tell 
weak plants apart ; I therefore prepare a little garden- 
bed early in the spring, dig it up deep, pulverise it 
finely, dig a little trench across at an angle of 46<>, and 
lay into this trench a course of plants. Then I sift on 
some fine dirt and lay another course, arranging it so 
that my plants are covered two or three inches deeper 
than they stood in the nusery. If the weather is dry, 
I sprinkle occasionally. In two or three weeks the bed 
begins to change its color. As soon as the buds are 
one-fourth inch sprouted, I take my plants up and 
transplant them to the hedge-row, dipping them into 
a puddle of thick mud as fast as I take them up. Now 
if there is any plants among them, that either have 
not sprouted at all or show but feeble signs of life, then 
I throw them aside. In thl^way I have set out half 
a mile without missing one shigle plant I have some- 
times, under the pressure of spring work, been obliged 
to leave plants in the sprouting-bed until the sprouts 
were two inches long ; and have set them out in such 
a condition during the hottest part of the day, without 
having a single sprout wilt In setting out, I set two 
inches deeper than the pliyit stood in the nursery. The 
cut-worm frequently is very troublesome, not only 
biting off the stem of the young sprout, but eating out 
the whole bud. In this case, new shoots will appear 
from the buds below the ground. And if ever the tope 
should winter-kill, a new growth will be obtained with 
greater certainty. 

This secures an even growth at the beginning. Now 
as to winter-killing of the young hedge, it is not the 
tops, but the roots, that are exposed to such danger. 
Our prairie soU i^ very apt to heave. Porous Itself, it 
absorbs water readily, while the substratum of clay 
prevents its descent into the subsoil. I have seen ap- 
ple trees, that had grown vigorously daring a whole 
season, raised in this way, tUl at the setUing back of 
the ground they were left lying Hat on top. Young 
hedge plants, if not protected, will in like manner in 
the spring show the yellow root above ground. This 
root absolutely bears no freesiug when unprotected by 
dirt. And to this canse can I trace every case of win- 
ter killing that has come under my observation. Now 
this danger is easily avoided. Take in the fall a strong 
and a good plow. For the first furrow let your 
straddle the row } at the second, run your plow 




In to the beam. Throw up three furrows On each sMe. 
If yon cover up some plants entirely, it will be all the 
better. This operation drains the water off, so that 
the ground will heave but little, and protects the pleats. 
In the spring the dirt i^ easily rolled back. Some talk 
of covering with lifter, but this is much more expen- 
sive and not half as good. 

I set my plants seven inches apart, but am inclined 
to think that ten inches would be better, since the 
plants would grow faster and stronger. Will Prof. 
Turner give us his experience on this point 7 W. Laxb. 
Garden Grotty Iowa. 

• • • 
Colza or Hape— jBrostMa campesiriMm 

This is a plant piuduoing Mtd ef the greatest im- 
portanoe in agriculture and manufaotures, as will be 
explained hereafter. It requlree a good loamy soU, 
preferably a day loam, although it will do equal^ well 
CD sandy or gravelly loams. 

In the north and middle of Bursfe it is extensively 
raised, and is one of tho beet preparationB for wheat 
The best way to prepare the land for It, le by plowing 
it in the fUl, and then again a short time before sow- 
ing, manuring the land with from 10 to 20 loads of 
manure per acre. The seed should be sown in July or 
Aogost) either broadcast or in drills 3 feet apart } an- 
other good mode is to sow the seed thick on ariehseed 
bed, to plant out afterwards In drills <» land where Uie 
grain stubble has been manured and plowed in deep; 
the plants having 3 or 4 leaves are taken up carefully 
and set out as cabbages are in the rows about one foot 
apart This can be done s* late as September or be- 
ginning of Ootobor, either by hand, or, what saves 
much time and labor, they can be put in furiows after 
the pk>w, taking care to pot them upright in the far- 
row, and cover them by the return of the plow, leaving 
the leaves above the ground, and in such a manner 
that no earth falls in the heart of the plants ; Uking 
care to go over the piece to dress all plants that may 
be covered too deep, which ii easily done by a manor 
boy walking along the farrows and pressing the plants 
with his foot or the hoe. The rows should be hoed 
either with the cultivator, as soon as weeds make their 
appearance, or with a small plow or the hoe, giving the 
plants a slight hiliiog once or twice, the last time as 
late as the weather will permit in November or De- 
cember. They will remain and pass the winter unin- 
jured by frost 

The next year they should again be cultivated or 
hoed, and another slight hilliag will greatly strengthen 
the plants. 

The quantity of seed to be used may be from two 
to four pounds, taking eare to use seed enough. 

The Rape is ready to be out or pulled up when the 
upper branches and pods turn brown, which will be in 
June or July of the second summer, before the pods 
are all evenly ripe, for if all are perfectly ripe when 
gathered, the loss by shedding might be very serious. 

Or it can be reaped the same as wheat, by the sickle 
or scythe, but no cradle ; the handftills should be laid 
singly and lightly upon the stubble, behind the reap- 
ers, and thus it riionld lie without sUrriog, onUl all is 
ready to thrash out, which will be in a short time, about 
four to six days generally ; at that time the weather is 
warm and dry. 

When it is ready, prepare a floor in the middle 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




fi«ld, on eran ground, on whioh tpread ft ooun DKulIn 
or oanTUB doth, twenty to forty fMt aqoftro, the lar- 
ger (ho hotter { spread the rows roand and thrash 
round ; a good thiog is to have a boy to spread before 
the thrasher and turn over ; or it can be thrashed by a 
thrashing maohioo, whioh will do the work quicker. If 
yon intend, ae many prefer, to thrash on the bam floor, 
then remore the plants carefully on a large sheet spread 
on a frame in the wagon, to preyent the loss of seed by 
the Joltiiag or shaking of the wagon. 

When all is thrashed out, the seed can bo stored in 
a dry and airy granary, according to its dry state, two 
foot thick, until it is bagged out to be sold, or sent to 
bo crashed in the mill. Colia, in good ground well 
worked, does not fail to make strong stems and Urge 
succulent leaves the Arst season, so that by the middle 
or latter end of NoTomboiv or beginning or middle of 
Dooomber, it will boar postsiing by small stock, calves 
or ■hoop— -but they must not bo suffered to onp the 
stalks, as it would iigare the rape for the next season 

This fodder will make one of the best pastures tor 
sheep, and will make them fat and in good oondiUon. 
No hogs should bo turned among those plants, as they 
would, hog-like, destroy the pUnto more than they 
would oottsumo the leaves. 

Tho produce of an aero of Colaa or rape, will ho ao- 
oording to the condition of the land, management, eare 
and nioety with which all is oouduotod, from twenty 
buaheU upwards to fifty five or even sixty, whioh will 
command from two to three dollars and a half per bush- 
el. The last I raised I sold at $3.60 per bushel in Phi- 
ladelphia. Upwards of 75 bushels have bof n raised to 
the English acre in Flanders. 

The following method ia* very good one to put in 
eiglit or ton aerea, and will aavo muolL manoio. 

Take about 0B»-quarter to ooe-half acre of well ma- 
manured land, and sow en it thirty pounds of seed 
broadcast or in drills, six inches apart ; let the plants 
grow until the middle of September ( take eight or ten 
aeres of stubble ground soon after harvest| plow in the 
stubble and lot it lie a month or six weeks ; then plow 
it again ; if the land was manured for the previous 
crop it will bo In a good and fit oondition ; after har- 
rowing with the furrows, begin by plowing a furrow, 
and set the plants out of your bed, at the distance of a 
foot, against the turned ^e of the furrow ; set the 
plow and run another furrow at the distance of three 
fiMi from the flnt, and in returning oover the first fur- 
row planted, and so on until the field is set 

Bhould the land not have been manured, and yon 
have but little to spare, lay what you have in heaps, 
and throw a good handful at the root of each plant, or 
a good handful of guano mixed with three or four times 
ita bulk of earth or mold, or heo dung mixed with 
asbos} the produce will bo laige and the seed of good 
quality. 

The above is the management of winter Colza or 
Rape; but there Is another variety, the tpring or 
Mardi Colza or Rapt ; it is cultivated and handled in 
every respect like the former, except that it is sown in 
the spring, March or April, and harvested the latter 
end of August or September the same year. It does 
not, however, yield so large a produce as the fiurmer by 
tea to fifteen per oent It requires the same amount of 

Bd. 

Colza or Rapt Is one of the most valuable plants for 
the seed produces by expression, and thus holds 




a distinguished plaee among the crops raised fi>r profit- 
Rape oil Is one of the most valuable oils produced and 
used in the arts and manufactures, for burning, eating, 
cloth fulling, for tanners, soap making and machinery; 
for this latter purpose it is superior to the fish oils, as 
it does not gum qr harden. It makes the best oil for 
burning in the light houses, producing a brilliant stea- 
dy light. The United States government is at the 
present time much interested in trying to introduce its 
general cultivation in the country for that purpose. 

Fish oil is constantly rising in price, and independ- 
ently of whales getting scarcer every year, the price 
of fish oils may in future get materially affected by 
political uncertain events and changes ; consequently 
it would be desirable, and it raises the solicitude of 
govemmenl to try to establish the cultivation of Colza 
or Rape^ and the manufacturing of its seeds into oil, 
permanently in this country. 

We may then, and at not only a fair, but at a very 
liberal profit, establish among us the cultivation of 
this most valuable plant, for which the soil and climate 
of nearly all the States of this very extensive Repub- 
lic are eminently favorable. 

Besides the oil, the residue or cake left after ex- 
pressing the seed, makes one of the most powerful ma- 
nures ; it is as immediate in its effects and superior to 
guano, as it lasts longer in the ground to benefit after 
crops for two or three moro years. The same cake for 
feeding all kinds of cattle cannot be surpassed for its 
fattening qualities; its effects aro astonishing; the 
quantities imported into England for this purpose and 
for manure, being annually very large. The produce 
of cake per acre may be set down atone-half to three- 
quarters of a ton or a ton, worth at present from $36 
to $40 per ton. 

Lastly, sheep are^very fond of the husks and the 
ends of the branches ; the straw is made into manuro 
or burnt on the ground. 

Any one desiring to engage in the cultivation of Ool- 
ca, can procure the seed of Mr. H. A. Droer, seeds- 
man, 327 Chestnut St., near Fourth, Philadelphia. 

Any other information wanted as to the produce in 
oil, crushing, putting up oil mills, Ac, I will impart on 
application to me. The seed will produoe about 3| 
gallons of oil per bushel, besides the oake, which will 
be from one-half to three quarters, or a ton per acre. 

F. A. N. New-Jersey. 

. » » » ■■»<» 

GooMbeiry Chdiare. 

I have aeon inquiriea in the OxvTLiifAX in regard 
to mildew on gooaeberries. I have raiaed them for six 
years without mildew— that is, as long as I have had 
any in bearing. I would recommend eutting away the 
old wood, so as to have young thrifty bushes, or else 
ooeaaionally transplaal. I have done both to some ex- 
tent, but certainly keep the bushes thinned so as to 
give a free circulation of air and sunshine, and train 
them free of the ground by trimming or otherwise. I 
have yearly put a dreasmg of leached ashes or obip 
manuro, or both, around my buahea, and think it is 
beneficial to put the aahea, aa it provents weeds grow- 
ing around, and thus admits of the eirBnlatk>n of pun 
air moro freely. I profhr thoao whoaa habit of growth 
is most upright. B. B. N. Franklin Co., VL 
• » • 

Gold is universally worshipped, without a sing] 
temple, and by all dasaes, without a 'single hypocrite 





THE 



Cutting Potatoes for Planting. 

We copy the following article from the April No. of 
the Genesee Farmer^ m confirmatory of the practice 
recommended by our correspondent Mr. Howatt. 

After all that haa been written on the subject, it is still 
a disputed point whether it Is better to plant large or small 
potatoes, whole potatoes or sets. 

The fleshy inatt.er of the potato unquestionably furnish- 
es food for the youug plant ; and, on theoretical grounds, 
it might be supposed that th« larger the potatoes— the more 
fleshy matter there is to each eye— the more vigorous 
would be the early growth of the plant. This is probably 
true so far as the growth of leaves and stems is concerned, 
and it may be of Med (balls) also -,. but it must be borne in 
mind, in applying general prlndplos to the cultivation of 
the potato that the object Ir not to develop the natural 
growth of the plant, but to increase the formation of tu- 
bers—of the mlderground "goutp btanchet.'^ The present 
habit of the plant is the result somewhat of artificial 
treatment ; and in order to retain this habit, we must re- 
sort to those practices which have l>een found from expe- 
rience to induce the formation of tubers, rather than to 
those which are deduced from the general principles ap- 
plicable to the natural growth of puints. Dr. Likdlbt— 
a high authority— says : " I have proved, by a series of 
numerous expcrimouts, that the weight of potatoes per 
acre is ereater, under equal circumstances, from sets than 
from whole tubers, by upwards of from seven cwt. to three 
tons per acre." An excessive amount of alimentari' mat- 
ter in the sets, therefore, is injurious rather than benefi- 
cial. 

It does not follow from this fact, however, that small 
potatoes are better for seed than large ones. Bmall pota- 
toes are apt to throw up too many small, soft stems, ^iiioh 
produce smaller tubers than where there is one, or at most 
two, stout woody stems. It seems, also, to be proved that 
a set from a good-sized potato is belter than a set from a 
small one : and It is probably true, as the experiments of 
the Rev. Jambs Farquharson indicate, that large potatoes 
planted whole will produce a greater crop of good-sized 
potatoes than small ones planted whole. Yet it does not 
follow from this that there is not too much fleshy matter 
in the large potato when planted whole, and that It would 
not be 1>etter, as Dr. Lindley states, to plant only sets from 
the large poUto. 
It is a onriout fact, but one which seems to be well 
itablished, that the eyes from ^e extremity of the 
potato^ produce crops which come to 
maturity from two to- three weeks 
- earlier than those from the root end. In 
some parts of England, fiirmera who 
« raise early potatoes for market have 
availed themselves of this fact for ma- 
ny years. Th«y cut the potatoes In- 
to sets, as shawn in the annexed sketch. 
The sets nearest the extremity of the 
" potato (a)x)ro€hice the earflcst crop, and 
are planted by themselves, in warm pla- 
ces, fbr thlt purpose. The sets at the 
root end (<!) are planted for a late crop, 
and thoae fn the middle of the potato (6, e,) are planted for 
an intermediate crop. The root end is usually thrown 
aside for the pifps. 

It has been supposed that the reason why the eyes from 
the point of the potato are more easily excited into growth, 
is owing to their being more perfectly matured ; but this 
is impossible, as they are the yoongest eyes. It seems to 
us more like^ that the cause lies in the fact that the ex- 
tremity of the potato is not so ripe as the root end— that, 
in other wordh, they are not so perfectly ergMif ssii, and 
are cdMeqneDtly less able U> resist the decomposing influ- 
ences of light, air, and moisture. " That which thou sow- 
cst Is not quickened unless ft die.*' The organized matter 
of a plant must ha decomposed (or die) before it can re- 
produce itself. The youngest eyes, being less perfectly 
organized, would decay soonest and grow earlier and with 
greater rigor. It will bo urged as an objection to this 
view, that the ripest buds of trees start earliest. But the 
oases are not parallel. They derive nourishment from the 
sap of the tree, and not from the decay of organic matter 
surrounding them. Btill, whether our reasoning is correct 
or not, the fact that the buds at the extremity of the po- 
tato win produce the earliest croj). seems to bo beyond 
dispute ; and those who wish early potatoes may avail 
themselves of it, eveu though the cause may not be dearly 
understood. 

• • a 

tme generoeity of the heart is mor» displayed 
deeds of misor kindneii, than bj acts which may 
^'■-e of ostentation. 






Apple Seed Washer. 

Shaoe we poblished, a few weeks since, the tceonnt 
of Mattison's apple-seed washer, we have been furnish- 
ed with another by J. T. of Ohio, which he thinks is a 
better one, and he states that it wfl) clean as fast as 
the pomace can be drawn, with a ftill sopply of water. 

The ffgnre nearly explains Itself- the first fall Is two. 
feet, the second and third eighteen inches ; the Tit is 
two feet by three, and eight feet long. Thew are 
gates In the lower boxes to wash down the seed inte a 
basket when completed. 

The pomace is soaked and loosened in the wpper hex 
or Tat, and then by drawing the gate, its faH on the 
slats at the npper end of each nweeeding box, sepa- 
rates the seed without any addiklooat labor, after damp- 
ing the cart in the wpper vat 

This is a more complex contrivance than Mattlson's, 
and therefore shouM be decidedly better to reeemmend 
it WHl J. T. bibrm as how much seed kat been wash- 
ed In an hoar, with the an^ant of labor required. 

• ' % m 

Caloael a KeaiMy for Pmt Blight. 

Pa«e 110, Co. Qent— " J>isea«ee of Fruit Trees." 
A grafter in my employ sajs that down in Egypt, (Il- 
linois,) where there is a plenty of Marsh-metre, (mi- 
asma,) they cure the fire blight the same as they do 
the fever and ague, and bilious patients, by dosing 
them with calomel— a doabl%doae for a man to be giren 
a good sised pear treo under the bark, by carefuUy 
raising It. He has nerer known it to fail when applied 
before more than half of the tree has been affected, t 
» e • 
Cure for String Ealt. 

In order to core the string halt, splil the skin on the 
inner side of the affected leg, (bar inchei aboTO the 
hoof, over the main middte vehi of the leg, and ander- 
neath the rein you will find a small cord abont the siae 
of a rye straw. This mast be taken ap with an awl 
and cat hi two, which win certainly core. Lot the 
operator be earefnl not to cut the vein or any of the 
sinews of the leg. Wash the woaad with soap svdi, 
twice every day UU it is well. H. H. A. RoekvilU. 
• • • 
Redpe for Broivm Bread. 

MsBsas. Ens.— I will give you a receipt for making 
brown^bread, which I think is very good. Take three 
quarts of Indian meal — one qaart shorts— one tea cap 
full molasses — ^two yeast cakes— one tablespoon gin- 
ger— ono do. salt— two tea spoonfuls soda. Baiae the 
same as yoa do wheat bread. Bake four hoars in a 
slow oven. Emsukk C. Hall. Easton, N. Y. 

1^ The Glenville Stock As80ciation(Kentacky,) are 
to hold their third exhibition on the 10th of Juno. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Eipdriait&ti with BnndxTTMllMn on Indian Corn. 

We find in the BurliDstOD Co. (N. J.) AdverUaer » 
report of loino ezperimeota of the kind above named, 
made by T. B. Courset, and oooimunieated to the Ag. 
Society of Kent Co., Delaware. A« it has not yet boon 
doterinined wliat fertiliser, or what c1«m of fertiliters, 
had the greatest amoant of ioAuenoe in |»roducing a 
maximum orop of Indian com, nor whieh of the Ta- 
rioua ooinmercial manares is the most economieal or 
otherwise preferable for this crop, when home-made 
manures are not safficient^ we should gladly and 
grateftilly aeeept of these experiments by Mr. Coun- 
isr, as a eontribntlon towards the determination of 
these questions. As likely to be of interest and use 
to several of our readers, wo present a synopsis of Mr 
O.'s report In es condensed a form es we liare been able 
to put it It Is unfortunate that this report does not 
give the mte of produee per nare, ner the eeet of pro- 
dnoing eaeh extra bushel of eom over the yield of the 
land wUoh was not mannred. The latter ef theee 
points may be aeeertaiaed, however, by • little enleu- 
lation based on the data given in the report; and the 
former may be approximated by mppoting the hills to 
have been one pace apart, whieh would give 4,000 hills 
per aere. As eaoh row ef eon reported, eontained 126 
hills, it would be exactly l-32nd part ef an aere, if 
planted at one pace apart, as it would require 32 such 
lows to make one aere of 4,000 hills.* As the hUis in 
the expertmenti reported, were, however, placed at a 
distance of four feet apast, the above mode of ealoula- 
tion would, as we have said, give only an approxima- 
tion to the actual rate ef produee per aere. 

The lend selected for these experiments is described 
ns high land, having arsd elay bottom, with suflicient 
sand in tt to make It easy to cultivate. It had been 
two years in clover, and was '* well broken with a large 
plow," the ground mariced out in rows four feet apart, 
and the diffennt manures eoatterod in and near the 
points of crossing, and falty Incorporated with the soil 
by running a small furrow harrow up and down the 
rows. 

The folkywing is the eider ef the experiments :^ 
Na 1. ffiz rowe, 12» hilto eaeh, without manun. 
Ka 8L If toe rows, 12t hUJs each, with Colombian gnano, 

156 lbs at 2^ cents per lb., $8.49 

Na «w Ten rows, m fatlU each, with Paeiflc Ocean 

guano, 160 lbs. at H «ts. per lb., 4.00 

TSo. 4. Eight rows, 126 lUBa each, Joardan's Super- 

phosphate, 160 lbs. at 2i ets. per lb &87i 

Ka 6. Ten rows, 126 liills each, Peruvian guano, 180 

IbaatSeis. 6.40 

No. 0. Twelve rowa 126 bnis, Pomeroy*s Saper- 

phosphate, 232 Ibe. at i^ eta. per lb 6.22 

Ko. 7. Twelve rows, 126 nllls eaeh, Allen 9t. Nee- 
dles* Snperphospbate. 230 lUk at 2\ ets. ip lb., 6.S7 
No. 8. Six rows, 126 hills eaoh, without manoro. 
As the results aro given In a form whieh makes it 

* As it may often be important aiid eonvenlent to re- 
member the above, it may be readily fixed in the memory 
by considering the following facta and calculntlons. An 
acre consists of 160 squara rods, and a rod is of the length 
of Ave ordinary paces. Suppose then that yon take an 
acre of 160 rods in length and 1 rod in width, there will be 
•00 pacdb In its length and 6 in iU width, which mnltipUed 
together make 4.000 square paces, or 4.000 hills one pace 
apart in an acre. Agatn, suppose an acre is 82 roas in 
length, it will be 6 rods in width, and by multiplying eaeh 
of these numbers by 6 and the quotients together, yon 
aicaln obtain the sum of 4,000. Or, talte an acre In the 
form of 16 rods in length and 10 In width, the sides will be 
80 and 60 paces respeoUvely, whieh multiplied together 
Ktve 4,000 ss formerly. So sfso if an acre should be » rods 

length and 8 rods In width, the sides will be 100 and 40 

ces respectively, which multiplied together give 4,000, 

in the former instanocs. 




very difficult to put tliem in a table, we give them as 
presented in the original roport, though abbroviated as 
much as they will admit of. 

Nos. 1 and 8 —Without manure.— The six rows con- 
stituting No. 1, were Uken from one side of the field, 
and the other six, No 8, wero taken from the other 
side. No 1 yielded 16t baskcU, and No. 8 gave 161, or 
32 basketa in all. As each basket averaged 36 lbs. of 
shelled com, this gives to each nnmanured row 96 lbs 
shelled corn, or 1,152 for the twelve rows. 

No. 2. Columbian (ruano.— Nine rows gave 31 bas- 
kets, equal to 1,116 lbs. Deducting 96 lbs. from each 
row, (what the produce would-have been without mn- 
nuro,) it leaves a balance to credit guano of 262 lbs. 
This at 66 cents per Irashel would be one cent per lb., 
or 02 52, which is 97 cents less than cost of manuro. 
No. 3. Pacific Ocean 6Hiano.— Ten rows made 38t 
baskets, equal to 1,386 lbs. Deducting 96 lbs. for eaeh 
row leaves 426 lbs, or 0426, which is 26 cents above 
cost of guano. 

No. 4. Jourdan*9 Super-photpkate. — Eight rows 
made 22i baskets, equsl to 810 lbs. Deducting 96 lbs. 
for each row, leaves 42 lbs. as extra yield, givhsg a 
km of S2.95t. 

No. 6. Peruvian Guano. — Ten rows made 361 bas- 
keU, equal to 1,278 lbs. Deducting 960 lbs. leaves 318 
lbs. to credit of guano, er t3 18— which is $2 22 less 
than cost 

No. 6. Pom<roy*s Super-photphate. — ^Twelve rows; 
32 basketo— equal to 1,162 lbs., or Just what the land 
would have produeed without manuro. 

No. 7. Alien 4* NeedU^e Super'pho9phaie.—TwtU9 
rows made 33 baskets, equal to 1,188 lbs. Deducting 
96 lbs. for each row, leaves a gain ef only one basket, 
or 96 lbs.— making a loss of 05 01. 

As the rolater of these experiments stales that he 
superintended thciippllcatbn of the manures and the 
gathering of the crops, iMok in hand, it is highly proba- 
ble thst they are eorrobtly and nliaUy roported. 

It seems an obvious conclusion from these 'experi- 
ments, that neither the superphosphates nor Peruvian 
guano can be cmph^ed with any profit when com is 
at or under 56 ots. per bushel Indeed Pscifio Ocean 
guano is the only article which paid first cost, without 
taking into account the |lme and labor of distributing 
and getting it duly incorporated with the soil. Mr. 0. 
says that he undertook these experiments, hoping to 
find in the superphosphates or something else, a sub- 
stitute for Peravian guaoo^ the exorbitant price of 
which had made its purchase and use unprofitable. He 
is now much htclined to the opinkm that supsrphos- 
phates will not pay en any of the osrsols, while a 
^snutTis sttpsrphosphate, he thinks, may be safely n- 
commended for grass crops, tnmlps, psrhnps root crops 
generally, and especially for Chinese sugar cane, as the 
stalk is the chief object for whieh it is oultivated, the 
seed- being only a secondary consideration. 

The experiments of Mr. ConnsnT may be compared 
with those of Mr. Backus, which will be found tabu- 
lated and commented upon in Co. Gent, of Dec 20th, 
1856, and in The CuUtoator of Feb. 1866. 
• • • 

SlHDIXG GUAFTS AMD SmAWKURlBfl BT MaIL.— I 

received a small package of strawberry roots from Mr. 
Dixgwall of your city, last fall. They arrived hero 
in good order, and grow well. Oil silk is the material 
for packmg to go by mail. J. W. G. Wieconein. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 



An Hoar in U&e Suburbs of New-Haven. 

A fhort disUnoe from New-Havra, off to the left of 
the yillage thai nestlei under thftt precipitous geologi- 
cal fiTAgment known m " Wert Rock," lie some two 
hundred aerei of land— u regards fertility, a liUle more 
promiaing than much of the tandj and stony soil that 
tries the patienee and ingenuity of the farmers of that 
Tioinity, and, as regards situation, embracing something 
of the picturesque in itself, and commanding a oonsi- 
derable and boautiful prospect of the outer world. 
From the poroh of a modest old house standing near the 
road that passes direolly through the place, the oity 
spires in the distance are not quite shut out by the 
woody spires of the scattered trees between, and the 
guardian clifiiB of the region range themselves on one 
side of the picture, the abruptness of their bold faces 
slightly softened in the perspective — thus, it may be, 
rendered more natural and appropriate to the quiet 
stretch of cultivated lands and the lastly winding 
streams of the plain in front 

A passer-by on the last day of March, upon the 
road alluded to, however mild tho air and bright the 
sky, will be very likely to regret that it is not the first 
of June— when the foliage on the trees, and the green- 
ness of the sod, and the flowers in the border, and the 
elimbers on the wall, and the water-jet in its little basin 
at the right, and the thatch above the well, and the 
brown or mossy bark on the rustic fence and gate, and 
the old bottlde^ on the hill-side, and the growing crops 
in the fields, will be so many blending, contrasting or 
beautifying elements, ns the case may be— in the scene 
which a little imagination will perhaps enable him to 
fhnoy already a reality. As it is, however, he must be 
content with the promise which the beginning of spring 
affords, of what the end of it may bring ; and, if he 
hare a sufficiently cultivated agrlcoltttral taste, the 
very manurial supplies that are furnished so generous- 
ly, to enrioh SMd protaet the flower-beds and shrub- 
rooti, shall be to him an additional progncatio of the 
beauty that is to come. 

It is possible, however^ that Farming does not con- 
sist merely in admiring a fine landscape on Nature's 
own canvass, or in the tastaful disposition of a country 
homestead and its surroundiafs ! It may be well there- 
fore to inquire further befpre a notice of such matters 
is admitted on an Agricultural page, inasmuch as it is 
very diflioult in the eyes of many a tiller of the soil, 
to conceive of a combination of "fhncy farming," (a| 
anything beyond a square door*yard with prim white 
palings in firont, is apt to be termed)— with practical, 
out-door, every-day suceeas. So let us enter the gate 
and see for oursalves. 

— A week or two since we briefly referred to an Ag- 
ricultural address delivered by Dohald O. Mitchell, 
Esq., at Bridgport last fall, and we are sure that all 
who heard or have read It, will agree with us in com- 
mending the advice it conUins, as eminently sensible 
and practical. Toward iU conclusion, the author sug- 
gests tho importance of makfaig the farmer's home a 
place to be lovad, and to be beautified by the simple 
means within the reach of all. In the preceding para- 
graphs we have seen Mr. Mitchell's rendering of his 
own suggestions. The body of the address, however, 
was devoted to "a plain talk about our business of 
farming " in Connectiout, and we also find that Mr. M.'s 
afforts are, and have been for the three years he has 




occupied his present esUte, mainly devoted to its per- 
manent improvement fai fertiUty and consequent pecn- 
niaiy returns. We shall find him draining where the 
ground is too wet, and gathering ^e stones where they 
are too thick— above all, when we go with him lo the 
bams, we shall find com^^te and conveaietti eontri- 
ranoea for the saving of all manurial suUUnees, aad 
a large stock of them on hand for immediate appliea- 
tion. '^'^ 

Mr. Mitchell's main business is the produotioB of 
milk for New- Haven. During the past year his sales 
of this article alone were over sixteen hundred dollars, 
or, as he milks from 13 to 15 eows, a return of slirbtlv 



^.^. ' "torn of slightly 

over 1100 to each. It is scarcely necessary to add 
that they are well eared hi by an experienced herds- 
man,— that their feed is of the beat, and regularly ad- 
miaisteBed, and that the stablaa are warn and neat. 
The only ones of them that shew any signs ef "blood" 
are grades of parUy Aldemey and 8bort-Uom extrac- 
tio»-Hhe laUer of the two, wa were toM, somewhat 
the largest miiker of a]l» but, U was added, requiring 
anough extra eare and food to make up the diffeieaoe 
Thare is much in Mr. iL't manageaMBt that might be 
profitably repeated, had we had the time to laam its 
details. He raises rooU in oonsiderable quantities for 
winter use, and has detennined that his best mode of 
summer keepmg is to house the eattie mere or less 
entirely throughout, instead of pasturing them. We 
do not doubt the accuracy of the oonolasion, and won- 
der that the system of soillpg practiced suocessfuUy so 
often, has not already become more general in the old- 
er portions of the country. There is no more impor- 
tant auxiUary in bringing up the ferUlity of the land. 
This rambling notice should not end without an al- 
lusion to a very neat balding of cobble stones, cornered 
with brick, erecUd by Mr. M. to aprrn as a dwelling 
for his men, and indadiag a. milk oaUar admirably ar- 
ranged for keeping the HJght's milking eo^ and sweet 
for morning use, even in tho hottest weather. My the 
addition of a porch, by brackeU under a projectiag 
roof, and by carrying out the gable ends of the walls, 
which are of wood, a few inehes beyond the stone wall 
beneath, he has given it a moat appropriate and quite 
a striking air, to which the chimney stacks add very 
much, constructed in oraamentel Shiob of brick aad 
stone tastily alternated. All ibe wood used in the ex- 
terior construction was unplaned, and painted of a drab 
color, and the whole serves well as an instance of the 
pleasing effect a very little additional expense, rightly 
applied, may be made te yield. A spring upon the 
hill-side above the homestead, supplies both it and the 
farmery with all the water wanted. As illiistratmg the 
earUness of the season, we may add that potato plants 
lag was going on, aad some had been put inte tha 
ground the previous week. 

•■• • 

For Malcliiif Ink. 
Soft maple bark, and willow bsrk, equa) parts— a 
handftal of each boiled in about four quarts of water, 
reduced te one quart Take oot the bark and add a 
lump of copperas about the siae of a man*s thumb te 
the first joint If on writing with it, the ink appears 
very black, with a gtoss on it, add a litUe water. I 
write this with ink made as above— [which appean 
well. Eds.] Chas. Boll. Canada TTesi. 

»ei 

The next Fair of the Illinois Stete Agrieidtural 
oiety is to be held at CentriOia 





THE CULTIVATOB. 




Ateo^ating Old Orobaidi. 



A lMg« apple orchard, of about tkirty yoan growth, 
hM recently fallen vnder my management Dnrfaig 
the ftnt twenty yean of ita growth mooh attentioB wm 
bestowed npon it, by eoraping off the rongh bark, wadi- 
iDg, pruning thoroughly, and manuring the ground. 
During the paat ten yean^ howoTer, It has been oon- 
aiderably neglected^ the scrapings, washings, and mi- 
nnrings having been omitted, while the prunings hare 
been only UghUy performed, annually. The conse- 
quence is, that the soU wUl bring but Uttle grass, and 
the trees, though nearly aU of them have a thrifty ap- 
pearance, bear irregularly, some of them still bringing 
choice fruit to a plentiful extent, while many bear 
plenlifWly cracked and knotty fruity and the balance 
rarely bear. 

I am anxious to do a large amount of grafMng this 
spring in this orchard, and to bring it into excellent 
oondlUon In the least possible time, but am rather un- 
certain as to the proper course to pursue to most quick- 
ly and eCtectually renovate It Please advise me. Otis 
B. Wood. Etna^ Tompkins Co., JVl T. 

Trees which have been "lighUy" and properly prun- 
ed, and the soil kept fertile or previously manured, so 
that they have *' a thrifty appearance," we should re- 
gard as in good condition. If the trees aro not suffi- 
ciently vigorous however, moderate manuring and cul- 
tivation to keep the soU constantly clean and mellow, 
will tend to improve them more tnan any serapug, 
washing, or pruning, although these are good in their 
place. We should not desire the soil to bring any grass, 
in an orchard to be renovated, but would keep it clear, 

by harrowing or 
shallow plowing. — 
The trees which do 
not bear, under 
good treatment, 
should be re-graft- 
ed to productive 
varieti^f such as 
the Baldwin, Lo- 
well, Seek-no-fur- 
ther, &c. The graft- 
ing should com- 
mence at the top of 
l?'^ J each tree, and be 

continued for two or three years, working downwards, 
till the whole is replaced. This course prevents the 
evil of lopping off too much at a time, at the same time 



that tlie grtfts have nolhingabove to shade them. The 
re-grafted tree, when oompleted, will then have the 
appearance of Fig. 1. 

In relation to pruning, nothing is more errcmeous and 
hurtful than the common practice. Large trees are 
commonly trimmed up, as shown in Fig. 2, leaving long 
naked branches over the whole tree, with thick tufis of 
branches and leaves at the extreme ends. The proper 
course Is to thin out the exterior, allowing the sun to . 
enter the body of the 
tree, as in Fig. 3, and 
keeping the head within 
J reasonable reach. We 
have just seen a fine or- 
\/ yohard lately trimmed 






7 y very heavily, and most 
lAj^ of the trees now appear 



much worse than Fig. 2, 
the bearing portions be- 
ing thrown up a consid- 
erable distance towards 
the clouds. The owner 
did not say that he in- 
Pig 8. tended to gather the 

fruit by means ot balloons, but that was the inference. 
Before trimming, the trees appeared like Fig. 3, all the 
central portions of which were oareftally out out, ex- 
cept the larger limbs, and these were completely clear- 
ed of all smaller shoots. The parts that should have 
remained were out away, and the parts which should 
have been thinned or removed, alone remained. 

We much prefer a light annual pruning to any other ; 
removing, while small, any shooU likely to form too 
thick a head, or to interfere with the suoeessful growth 
of good, evenly distributed branches. Such a eourse 
obviates the neoessity of making large wounds or cheek- 
ing the tree by lopping heavy limbs. 

• » » 

A Snbstltwte f«r Hone-nulleM. 
Sam Slick, the dock-maker, in his book, " Nature 
and Human Nature," says : *' Take a turnip, scrape 
or grate it the same as the radish ; mix it with fresh 
musUrd and a littte pepper and vinegar, and you can't 
tell It from tother.'* We ftave tried it, and Sam is 
right The turnip we use% the Sweet German ; per- 
haps the TeUow Swede is just as good. Try it, Messrs. 
Editors, and give us your opinion through the columns 
of the Co. Gent Ksiiah. [As we have the genuine 
article in abundance, we leave it for some of our read- 
ers to test, and report upon Sam SUck's invention.] 

CuTTiKa Hat Earlt.— I am much pleased with the 
account of the experiment of "J. H. H." of Seneca 
Co., showing the superiority of late out timothy hay. 
Is it not probable that all culmiferous plants are gov- 
erned by similar laws, so far as the development of 
nutriment is concerned 1 Take, for example, the Chi- 
nese Sugar Cane. The Country Gentleman contained 
some months ago a very dear, full, ^d accurate ac- 
count of a series of experiments, showing that thesao- 
charine matter was doubled when the seed was nearly 
ripe, as compared with stalks cut when first headed 
out Is it probable that timothy and other grasses are 
governed by an opposite law 1 Such a suppositiott 
would be contrary to aU facts in other oases. No plant 
when gieen, succulent, and watery, has as much sub- 
sUnce as afterwards. The thing may of course be 
carried to an extreme, when the plant is dried up and 
woody. V. w. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




SUn ohto Mi for Tsring Cattle in StoblM. 

At pAg« 156, preient toI. of the Co. Gont, J. Copb, 
of Westchester, Pa., wishes to learn the '* exact dimen- 
sions and descriptions of slip stanchions." For his 
benefit we will attempt a description of a good and 
cheaply constrncted set we have recentlj seen. 

The sills of the stanchions are of oak Joist, six hj 
two inches ; the top timbers are of hemlock, of the 
same dimensions ; the stanchions of ash, one and a half 
by four inches; one of each set of stanchions is pinned 
between the sills and the oorreepondbg top pieces. 
From the bottom of the sills to the top of the stanchions 
is fire and a half feet The slip stanchions are of the 
same sise and material as the first named, bat only 
pinned at the botton, which allows of their sliding back 
at the top about sixteen inches, to admit the animal's 
head ; it is then pushed to an upright position and fas- 
tened at the top by a drop-button or clapper, which is 
much more secure than when fastened by pins. 

For oxen and large cows, there is allowed a space for 
each of three and a half feet ; for younger cattle about 
three feet to each. We have frequently seen the sill 
and top piece for stanchions made of solid timber, and 
mortices made for the stawhionfl. But there is much 
labor required in morticing, especially the top timber, 
BO as to allow of the sliding back and forward of the 
slip stanchlotts. The kind we haye attempted to de- 
scribe, ean be readily and cheaply made by almost any 
farmer. 

Chains, wooden bows, and leather straps, are used by 
different farmers for tying up their cattle in the hovels. 
It is thought by some that such fastenings are easier 
and more comfortable for the animals than slip stan- 
chions. Perhaps it may be so. Others object to the 
use of chains, bows, Ac., as they give too much lee- 
way to the cattle while in the hovel, as they are very 
apt to lie back in their dvng, and the milk of cows thus 
tied up is too apt to <* taste of the bam "—a flavor not 
usually relished by the loven of good milk. 

In our own experience, we have given bows, chains, 
leather straps, and slip stanchions, a fair trial. Ap- 
parently our cattle are as comfortable in the slip stan- 
chions as when tied in any other way, never getting 
loose and goring each oUier, as was too frequently the 
eaae when bows or chains were used. In a rightly con- 
structed hovel, oows cannot (when in stanchions) He 
back in the filth of the hovel. Our cows have not laid 
out of the bam a single night for over two years, and 
all the while they have been as clean—bags, teats and 
flanks, as if thej had laitf in the pasture. In warm 
weather, the hovels are well ventilated by leaving the 
doors and windows open. They stand upon a raised 
platform, which is well littered with some dry material, 
such as dry muck, sawdust, leaves, or straw, Ac 

As already said, the cattle stand on a raised plat- 
form, with a water-tight gutter in the rear, which is 
about 14 inches wide and 4 inches deep. The manure 
and urine falls into the gutter, the ends of which are 
closed so as to retain the urine, which is daily mixed 
with the litter, and all placed under cover. A gutter 
would be unnecessary where there was a manure cellar 
under the hovels j but the raised platform Is neces- 
sary in all oases, if it is wished to keep the stock 
dean. The length of the platform in one of our ho- 
just five feet in length from the bottom sill to 
gutter. This is long enough for 7 feet oxen. In 




another hovel for eows, th« length of the platfora is 
4| feet. This is quite long enough for large sised cows. 
From the edge of the platform to the bottom of the 
gutter is six tncftes. In this hovel our oows could 
scarcely be cleaner If they always stood upon their 
feet They are always milked in the hovel, conse- 
quently there is no raeing abovt the yard, hooking 
each other, and uptUing tlie milk-maid, as was occa- 
sionally the caae when our eows were milked in the 
yard. [We have a reply to Ifr. Cora's inquiry, from 
W. M. Wbitb, Bsq., of Allegany County, with a de- 
scription of his bam, for which he wiU accept our 
thanks. It will be inserted soon.] 
■ • • • ■ 
Vm of Poultry Maavo. 

MnssRS. Editobs— I send you my way of preparing 
and using hen manore on oora. 

I have been in the habit for several years of getUng 
together all the dear manure from the hen roost that I 
oould, and a few days before piaotlng (say three to 
six,) mix an equal quantity of wood ashes and about 
half as much plaster thoroughly together, welting it 
enough to moisten the whole. When my ground is 
ready and marked both ways, drop a small handful to 
each hill, or one large handful for two, planting the 
oorn as soon as may be, after dividiog the compost 
with a slight motion of the hoe, before dropping the 
com, and covering up with good mdlow dirt 

Wetting the oompost helps much to pulverise the 
hen manure, and insures the com coming up immedi- 
ately, which it would not be likely to do until after a 
rain if planted in its dry state. 

I have never tested by aetual experiment the in- 
crease of crop, but am will satisfied that I get enough 
more com to keep my hens during the winter and 
spring, (giving them all they will eat,) bMides lots of 
pumpkins in the bargain. 

Perhaps something else would do better in the room 
of ashes. I think I shall try some with muck this 
year, and note the dift'erenoe, if any, in the yield. A 
Small Fabbbb. BaUaton. 



Notes flrom tike Genssis of He-vr-Torlc* 

Marxbt Gabdbiiibo.— In 1864, 12,591 acres in the 
different counties of this State, wnre ooeuplsd as mar- 
ket gardens, the value of^the products amounting to 
•1,138,682— being an average of 99043 per acrs. 
Queens county devoted to the this object, 3,187 acres, 
producing 1337,503, or an average of nearly 1106 per 
acre— the next highest is Kings, 1,4 14| acres, produc- 
ing #273,552, or about 919350 per aore— next comes 
Albany, with 1,113 acres, with a product of 997,461, 
or an average of a little over $86.50 per acre— while 
the 187 acres in New- York produced an arerage of a 
tittle orer 1420 per acre. 

Hat.— The hay crop averaged something less than 
one ton to the acre, the 3,384,440 acres producing but 
3,256,949 tons. 

Tobacco— 786} acres— produce, 946,602| lbs. 

Sugar and Hokbt.— The product of maple sugar 
was 4,935,816 lbs., and of maple molasses, 85,092 gal- 
lons. The honey saved was 2,557,876 lbs. 

PoDLTBT.— The value of poultry sold was 11,076,598, 
and of eggs, 11,360,673. 

Wool.— The number of fleeces shorn was 2,630, 
the weight of which was 9,231,960 lbs. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Arrowing Wheat in tlM Spriiif , Ito. 

(In answer to **An Inexperienced Farmer,** p. 20&} 
Mesbbs. Bditobs — The treatment of fall sown wheat 
al the present time, should be well attended to, as 
mach of the saoeess of thai crop depends upon it. I 
harrow with a double Scotch harrow, lengthwise of the 
drills, and then roll it. I again harrow crosswise of 
drill, and again roll it Rjo I treat in the same way. 
(I have Just finished my crops of both as above.) This 
treatment assists the tillering of the plapts. When the 
plants are too thick, it should be repeated three or four 
times, and where they are thin, by the loosening of the 
soil, it makes stronger plants. Why is it that those two 
oropo do not require the soil stirred as well as any other) 
After laying all the fait and winter, the ground becomes 
a perfect omst, and it is admitted by all that to suc- 
ceed Uk raising a good crop you must keep the groand 
constantly stirred. No crop will succeed where the 
groand is allowed to become crusty and hard on top, 
neither will wheat or rye. Whether it will pay to pur- 
chase a harrow and roller for the express purpose of 
eultirating wheat, must depend upon the number of 
acres that there is to work^bnt I am prepered to say 
that no. well managed farm, fh>m twenty-five acres 
upwards, should l>e without a roUer, (wooden or iron,) 
and at least one heavy and one light harrow. They 
cost a little at first, but they will soon pay for them* 
seWes, and they can always be used to advantage when 
on hand ; a roller, for instance, applied on a field of 
young clover that has been pretty well froie out, will 
setUo the earth to the roots. This saving of crop would 
pay for the roller. 

An " Inezperieneed Faasei^' may have got his 
ground into too mellow a eonditkm before seeding, 
which will account for his slender growth. Wheat land 
should get but one plowing and one harrowing before 
seeding, except wtiere the land is a very heavy strong 
elay ; in this case it may require cross plowing^ har- 
rowing and rolling. If lumpy, the winter frosts and 
thawing will reduce them, and by harrowing and roll- 
ing in the spring you make a level surfkce, so that you 
can cut with a reaping machine, which, by the bye, you 
will find cheaper than the cradle or scythe, and deci- 
dedly better. 

Lime is an easenUal Bamire for wheats and ilioald 
be applied before sowings as follows: when plowed, 
spread your lime from the carts, and hanow in lightly. 
Just covering it as thin as you would grass seeds. The 
lime should be kept well on the surface— it will itself 
work down to the subsoil. By plowing light the fol- 
lowing year, you again bring it to the surface, and the 
following, plow to the subsoil, thus bringing the lime 
again to the surfaoe. 

Sowing piaster on wheat I consider a bad practice, 
except where the land is In very fine eondidon. It 
will draw sorrel out of the ground, if it is the least 
sulijeot to sorrel, and it should be a wet season. Land 
that is sorrelly should be weU dosed with lime. 

As to the application of wood ashes, it Is good. It 
should be applied after first harrowing and rolllngi and 
then harrowed and rolled in. Unless this Is done, it is 
useless ; the ground being hard, it cannot get to the 
roots. I have applied in this way guano and muck, 
(well dried to powder,) which was a decided benefit, 
and paid welL 
As to ashes or plaster applied u above, prodndng a 




large growth of straw, it is inoosrect Those that 
have found their crop all straw and no grain, must at- 
tribute it to some other cause. The following is more 
likely the cause : The generality of farmers think that 
they cannot get too much stable manure on the land 
they intend sowing with wheat ; in fact all their ma- 
nure goes to the field intended for wheat This over- 
dosing of manure will run any grain to straw. Even 
this dose of manure is applied to sward, and it may do 
for Indian com, but not for wheat Fresh manure in 
no case should be applied to wheat Land that has 
been manured the previous year is suitable for wheat, 
or sward or clover plowed in in July and August, and 
getting a sufiiciency'of lime. This is the best prepa- 
ration for wheat When a light harrow is not at hand, 
use the seed drill. You can adjust the drills to pene- 
trate between the rows an inch deep, which will an- 
swer all purposes Gxrald Ho watt. Newton, N. X 

• ♦ • . 

€U>od Sheep FeedUi||r* 
Mr. JuBiAN WiMNB of Bcthlehcm in this county, to 
whose experience in Sheep Feeding we have more than 
once alluded during the past fow yean, has recently 
sold 220 head, fatted by hte shice the middle of last 
December. They were purchased for the purpose in 
Oanada, mostly Leicester grades in breed, and were 
sold to the butcher, at an average on the whole lot, for 
a little over 112 per head. The cost of feeding was 
careftilly estimated by Mr. W., who thinks it cannot 
have exceeded 1360 each as an outside calculation. 
The feeding included com and oats, with hay, hi the 
morning j straw and carrots at noon, and com, oU-meal 
and hay at night The estimated live weight of the 
220 head was 185 pounds. Mr. W.'s yearling stock 
ram weighs 230 pounds, and we give below the weights 
of several head out of the lot sold, taken by the scales at 
different periods in the course of feeding, as they may 
be interss^g to some one with such figures of his own 
to compare with them. Kh. 1 in the following list was 
a yearling ram of Mr. W.'s own raising, and shows that 
his flock promises wefl. The aheep were weighed as 
follows: 

Jan. 6. JvLtL Feb. 18. Feb. S7. Mar. 90. 
lU 197 . l«ft SM 817 

218 SaS ,. S29 240 9M 

218 filfi S18 t» 281 

198 212 tti 228 280 

208 210 210 281 288 

189 20O 201 210 222 

208 212 221 222 

• • • 



1,.... 

t::: 
t.:::: 



201 



BzperlmeAte to %e Tried Im Mmr* 
Mxisna. Bditobs— Will the farmers try the follow- 
ing experiments, and report the result 1 Select a piece 
of sod which lies waste, and place potato sets on the 
grass, covering them up with six or eight inches of 
straw, being careful t^ wet the straw. AU that is to 
be done in the fall, is to rake off the straw, and the 
potatoes are uncovered. I am aware that this mulch- 
ing pototoes is not new, but were it proved by a num- 
ber of jexperiments tried the same year, it would es- 
tablish beyond a doubt whether potatoes can thus be 
grown sound; and, what is of no UtUe importance, at 
a great reduction of labor and means. I intend trying 
it, and will report the result next Ihll. N. 8t» Jf— , 

Canada SaH, 

• • m 

Hon. L. CHAMOLnn Ball of Hooeick, has been ap- 
pointed President of the Bensselaer Go. Ag. Society, 
m place of J. B. Willabd, resigned. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 





3fAT. 



tSWtSSL'iiiSSL 



** Mazurka 3d " — ^the Property of R. A. Alexander, Esq. 

Among the stock at Woodburn Farm, (Woodford Co., Ky.,) no one family has perhapt attraetMl mora general 
admiration than the Mazurkas^ and the heifer represented above is one not oftea surpassed, and dees great 
eredit to her enterprising and careful breeder. We regret that we have not her fall pedigree at hand, but will 
endeavor to give it oo a future occasion, with some farther illaatrations from the same extensive herd, and in 
the meantime we desire to call attention to Mr Alexander's advertisement in another column, from which it 
will be seen that his Fourth Annual Sale is to be held as usual on the 2d of the coming June. 



Early (hitting of Hay. 

Messbs. Editors— I have observed in several agrl- 
evUural papem, articles enjoining farmers to eat tbetr 
hay as early as at the time that it comes oat in blos- 
som, (or even earlier,) because, it is said, »• if proper- 
hf euredf the hay retains its beautiful green color, and 
tlie nutritive juices of the plant to a much greater de- 
gree than if suffered to stand until the seeds are fally 
fcrmed." 

Perhaps this may be true in regard to clover, bat I 
am satisfied that it is not la regard to timothy or the 
other " grasses." At all events, my experience is that 
green timothy hay is not as palatable to cattle, nor to 
stock of any kind, as that which is cut after the eetcU 
are fuUy formed^ and indeed so far ripened as to 
"sheU" a littU, when the hay is "housed.** 

Some years ago I out some very good timothy gran 
before harvest^ and before the blossoms had entirely 
fallen off. It was enred in the very best manner, and 
plaoed in i^ mow to which I ooald at any time haveao- 
eesi. After harvest, and when the seed had become so 
ripe as to shell oat eonsiderably, I cut the same kind 
of grass in the same field, and plaoed it a separate 
mow. At a fkvorable time (in the following winter,) 
for making a fair experiment, I carried out to my oat- 
tie, hay from the mow in which I had stored that which 
had been out while green, (before harvest,) and fod to 
each a separate parcel. After they had fairly oom- 
menoed feeding upon it, I carried to each a parcel of 
that which had been cut after harvest, and from which 
the seed shelled when it was handled. In every in- 
the cattle immediately quit the '* beautiful green 
and ate up, eUan^ that which was out qfter Kar- 




vcatf before again touching the former. Indeed, in 
many instances, they threw fkom their moaths the 
green hay, the sooner to gpit at the other. I repeated- 
ly tried the same experimeati and the reaalt was the 
same in every instance. The reason of the preferenoe 
shown by the cattle for the hay oat qfter harvest, I 
suppose to be this : it was mask mere easily mastieat- 
ed, and sweeter in flavor than the other ; that it re- 
tained, in the stems, leaves and mmU, aU the nntiitive 
matter which it posses s ed when green, and probably 
with some additions, derived from the earth and ataue- 
phere, over and above ths^ of the grem hay. 

The green, early cat hay, although it retained its 
green and beautiful appearance, was tough and diffi- 
cult to mastioate; and very piobably the orade and 
unelaborated ssp acquired an acid uid MtterisA taste 
which was disagreeable to the palate, and deieterions 
to the health of the oaUle. Be this as it may, the ex- 
periments fully satisfied me that the cattle were most 
fond of the later cut hay ; that they would eat more of 
it, and keep in better condition upon it than upon the 
earlier cut green hay. I have not so perfectly experi- 
mented in regard to horses and sheep. But I have 
observed that they always made the same choice with 
the cattle, when opportunity offered ; no doubt for the 
same reasons. J. H. U. Seneca Co. 
•%• 

Next Meetiho or the American Povological So- 
ciety.— We are authorised by the President, Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder, to announce that the Seventh 
SeFSion of the American Pomological Society will be 
held in the city of New-Tork, to commence on the 14th 
day of September next. Circulars will be issued in 
due time 




THE CULTIVATOR. 





Bom Hill— tb« ReiidMioe of W. WilBon Byrne, Esq. 

We are pleased to have the opportanity of preseDting oar readers the acoompanjiog engravlog and plaos, 
and of promUing them further illustrations from the same source. The following description ftt>m the aooom- 
plished arohitecte, will ezplaip itself, while we have reason to know that the gentleman for whom the design 
was made has been highly fAeased with the result.* 

Mbbsbs. Editors — The aoeompanying design 
for a rilla residenee wa« prepared for W. Wilson 
Byrne, Esq., a few years ago, and carried out by 
him at ** Rose Hill," his beautiful plaoe on the 
Choptauk river, near Cambridge, Md The po- 
sition selected for the house is on a slight emi- 
nence, & few hundred yards ftt>m the river bank, 
commanding a good Tiew up aad down the river. 
The extent of the water proepect fh>m the upper 
itory of th« tower is very great. The geutle slope 
of the grounds as they fall off ftom the house — 
a graceful curve of the noble old river in tvLli view, 
and the expanding sheet of water it forms as it 
flows on to the Chesapeake bay, a few miles dis 
tant— the large maases of woodland, and the easy 
undulations of the surrounding country, give to 
this site mom of the beautifttl than the pictu- 
resque. 

The view here given is of the river ftt)nt. The 
ai^noaoh to the house is from the opposite direc- 
tion. The accompanying plans illustrate so clear- 
ly the general arrangement, and the accommoda- 
tion afforded, as to require but very little description 
or explanation. The parlor, library and dining-room, 

* Since this was written we have received the following 
note : " 

Rosi Hill, March 8, 1868. 

Messrs. Taos. k. Jmo. Dizom— Genilemen : It affords 
me pleasure to say to you that In the construction of my 
house you have done yourselves credit, and me Justice. It 
is imposing, comfortable, and convenient, In winter and 
In summer. With greet respect^ I am most respectfully 
yonre, fco. W. Wilsoh Btbki. 




PLAN 




IVFLOOR. 

The library communlcatei 

The principal stair- 

The kitch- 



are entered f\rom the hall 
with the parlor and dining-room, 
case is in the tower, entered from the hall, 
en, pantry, and private staircase are connected with the 
dining-room and library by a passage. The kitchen is 
separated from the other rooms by the pantry and pas- 
sage, thus excluding the fumes and heat of the kitch- 
en from the other parts of the house. 

The plan of the second story contains five chambers, 
a bath-room, water-closet, and large linen closet. The 





CULTIVATOR. 




PLAN OF 



21«> FLOOR. 



attic hM three bed-rooms, a room to store oarpet, and 
a tank loft 

As will be seen by the aooompanyiDg view, a flight 
of steps with heavy balostrade, give promineDoe to the 
eotraDce. The broad verandah is an essential feature 
in an American country residence, particularly in the 
middle or southern states. The eaves have a broad 
projection, to shed the rain and snow off from the house. 
The window from the chamber over the hall, opens to 
the balcony over the entrance door, from which a good 
view of the river is obtained ; this balcony is sheltered 
by the projecting hood over the window. The oreal 
window of the chamber over the library, and the bal> 
cony over the porch in the recess, are happy features 
in the composition. The high pitch and graceful 
curves of the roof add beauty to the design, and by 
the arrangement and grouping of the different parts, 
we think a pleasing outline is obtained and a good ef- 
fect produced, without a saosifloe of convenience ox 
plan. 

Persons ,about to build will find it greatly to their 
advantage to procuve pr«^r plans, specifications, and 
working drawings. We send drawings by express and 
also by mail, to different parts of the country at a very 
small cost. 

Hints on Rural Homea* 
As every man's house is the proper theatre of his 
hospitality, the seat of self fruition, the home of those 
most dearly cherished by him and the place where its 
possessor enjoys the most of his true comfort and hap- 
piness, it may well deserve his most earnest considera- 
tion how he can best apply the means he proposes to 
appropriate to building a house, so as to make it not 
only a shelter from cold and heat — from storm and 
sunshine— a habitation where himself and family may 
be lodged and fed, but, that it may be so arranged, 
constructed and adorned, as to make it as comfortable, 
convenient, expressive and beautiful as the circum- 
stances of the case will admit 

To aid in cultivating a taste for rural architecture, 
we propose to prepare and publish, from time to time, 
as our professional engagements will permit, illustra- 
tions of some of the designs we have prepared during 
the last few years, for country residences that have 
been built under our directions. These designs have 
been prepared to meet the varied requirementa of the 



different persons for whom the houses were to be built 
We do not offer them as model designs, suitable for 
any location or site, or exactly adapted to the wants 
of any one, except the person for whom they were or- 
iginally prepared, and for the site they were to occupy ; 
but that they may give to persons who are about to 
build, some useful hints, and serve as stepping stones in 
their search for a design that will meet their particular 
wants and requirements. Ibos. ft J. M. Dixoir, Archi- 
tects. 117 Baltimore £»., Baltimore, Md. 
• ♦ • 

DestmotLoA of Peaoh Buds. 

We have had occasion frequently to point out to our 
readers the influence of the warm days of winter in 
swelling the fruit buds of the peach, and their conse- 
quent increased danger of destruction when intense 
cold follows. An eminent eastern horticulturist ridi- 
culed this position a year or two since in bis magazine, 
maintaining that the trees must enjoy acertain period of 
rest; and that, until the regular period for growth return- 
ed, the slight degree of warmth sometimes experienced 
in winter, could have no influence whatever. The pre- 
sent mild winter has sufficiently shown his mistake. A 
month ago, or about mid- winter, we found many fhiit 
buds a fourth of an inch long, and of corresponding 
diameter — or cubically measured, eight times their site 
at the termination of last summer's growth. The ac- 
companying figures, (which represent the branches 
and buds as magnified to twice their diameter,) show 
their relative sizes at the two periods; Fig. 1, being 
the site at the present time, or after the mild weather 
of winter ; and Fig. 2, their sise in autumn. 




Fig. 1. Fig. a Fig. 5. 

Fig. 1, maRnlfied view (twice the diameter,) of peach 
buds, as swelled by the warm winter— (two fruit buds, with 
leaf bud between.) Fir. 2, the same last autumn, (before 
Bwolllne.) Fig, 8, Bwollen fruit bud cut through, showing 
the dark and dead interior. 

After being thus swollen and rendered more suoou- 
lent, they become more tender and liable to destruo- 
tion— of which the two past winters furnish decided 
proof. In 1856, the summer and autumn were dry, 
and the buds matured well— the following winter waa 
uniformly cold, and the buds did not swell. At Union 
Springs, N. T., the thermometer 6unk to 22o below 
lero, yet many trees were loaded last summer, the buds 
being uninjured. In portions of Wayne and Monroe 
counties, where the weather was about a« cold, the 
peach crop was very abundant. 

Very different has been the effect of the present win- 
ter. After the buds had become swollen as above de- 
scribed, five degrees below xero during the latter part 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




of laat mooth, de«troj«d about half the bada, iadad- 
iog those whioh had beoooM most prominent ; and nine 
degrees below on the 6th of the preeent month, destroy- 
ed abont nine- tenths of the remainder. Every one, 
except the rare few which had been started or had 
swollen bat little, has been destroyed. 

Fig. 3 shows the magnified appearance of the inte- 
rior of a frait bad whieh has been killed— the oater 
part of the bod being ttoiojared ; bat the inner part, 
consisting of the petals and anthers, tamed brown or 
nearly black. It sometimes happens that the color is 
Isss changed, and they present the yellow appearance 
of a half deeayed or finoeen apple. Bat ail onii^ured 
bads, when cat through the center, are always A-esh, 
plump, and sound, without aty ohange of color. This 
difference in the color of the interior of the fruit bads, 
as most fruit-growers are aware, readily indicates 
whether a peach erop may be ezpeoked the foUowing 




Small OotagOQ Bouae. 



The object in this plan has been to arrange a house 
for %■ small family, where the mi str e s s has to do or see 
to her own work, and to secure the most conFenlenoes 
for the least coei. 




PKIHCIPAL FLOOB. OHAMBIR PLAN. 

This hoose is erected in what is called a balloon frame. 
The lower rooms are 8 feet 8 inches high, the -upper 
rooms 8 feet Roof to project two feet. Cellar wall 
16 inches aboFO ground. Weather boards either com- 
mon clapboards or vertical inch boards battened. The 
plan explains itself, and is thought to be very conveni- 
ent Cellar stairs under hall stairs. Chimney in the 
center. Hall lighted as other rooms fVom the side, 
rendering the cupola unnecessary. Sides 13^ feet long 
inside. Built with four inch scantling, it is about 33^ 
from outside to outside. L. H. Retkolds. Occo- 
quariy Va. [We have re-drawn and reduced the plan, 
made one or two very slight improvements, and added 
an elevation. We cannot give the precice cost, but 
think it should be well and plainly built for twelve hun- 
dred dollars. Eds.] 

••• 

13^ The LoNA- Island Lands advertised in this 
paper, are worthy the attention of all those who think 
of changing their location. 




Feeding Spring Pigi. 

Mbsbbs. Editobs— I would like you to let me know 
the best mode of raising spring pigs — what feed will 
make them grow the fastest I have a lot of very fine 
sows, Chester, Berkshire and Suffolk crossed. G. W. 
Evans. 

The best Sood for young pigs is miI^— first from the 
sow, and after this ends, skim-milk from cows. In all 
ehanges of the food of animals, the transition should 
be gradual. Sudden changes always injure. Pass 
graduaJly from new milk to skim-milk, and fh)m the 
latter to sour milk. If there is not enough skim-milk 
and sour milk for all the pigs can eat through spring 
and summer, then reduce their number. Or, barley 
or pea meal may be gradually added and inoreased in 
quantity. As the pigs grow larger and the milk de- 
creases, grain takes its place. There is a great mis- 
take often made in feeding milk to pigs, by allowing 
slop and dish-water to be thrown into it, which dilutes 
it, and consequently the animal cannot take in enough 
for his most rapid growth. Feed the milk in its con- 
centrated state. We have known spring pigs fed for 
the first few months with all the milk they could eat, 
and afterwards properly fattened, that weighed 300 to 
3S0 pounds at ten months. 

• • • 

Creek Mud and Compost. 

Is ereek mud, obtained from the small creeks run- 
ning up Into our salt marshes, of any value as a fer- 
tiliser 1 If so, how is the best way to apply it, and 
to what crop 1 Can you give the result of any exper- 
iment with it 7 I have used it alone, but with no ben- 
efit I luve since thought that by composting it with 
lime the effeot would be better. Is Mapes* salt and 
lime mixture to be preferred 1 (which, by the way, is 
too eomplioated Ibr the ordinary fanner.) By giving 
the above faiformation you would not only oblige me, 
but many farmers living near the salt water. 

I have used the salt meadow turf with much advan- 
tage, by drawing it in my cew yard and hog pens to 
decompoee. W. B. Ferlh Ambcy, N. J. 

In judging of the valn^cf- creek mud, we must know 
its sources and the character of the land to which it is 
applied. Where the quantity of water is small, and 
where much animal matter is thrtfwn in from slaugh- 
ter houses, manure yards, Ac, it may deposit valuable 
matter. But this is rarely the case,— for more com- 
monly, nothing is deposited but the washing of the 
earthy banks, or soil from fields ; hence tiie mud is 
little better than the same quantity of earth thrown 
over the land. It has the advantage only of being 
free fW>m stones, and hence may be conveniently used 
in some cases as the earthy constituents of compost 
Sometimes it happens that streams run rapidly through 
a clayey region, and deposit a good addition to the 
more sandy lands they afterwards pass through ; and 
at other times rapid streams may bring down a good 
sandy dressing for heavy soils. In the latter instances 
it will only pay to cart on gardens. As a general rule, 
the slow and long continued depoeits in stilt ponds, is 
apt to be more valuable than the rapidly heaped sedi- 
ments from running creeks We know of no practical 
trials of the mixture referred to. 



f^* It is said Prince Albert has consented 
choeen to the Presidency of the London Hort Society, 
plaoe of Um late Duke of I>evonshire. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




Value of SflCowinf wad BMpilif Machinef. 

LuTBiR TucKKB tc SoiT— 1 866 doiibti aro •zpFreMed by 
■ome correspondent of the Country Gentleman, as to the 
mowing machine being a money saving farm Implement. 
Having had some experience, I would like to say some- 
thing on this point. 

In 185d, we had a field of heavy and badly lodged clover, 
which was partly cut with scythes and partly with a mow- 
ing machine made by Walter Wood. The best that could 
be done with the hand mowing, was to cut a half of an 
acre to a man in a day. The stubble was then left in such 
a condition that the hay had to be gathered with a haud- 
rake. Having gone over some acres in this way, we con- 
cluded to try the machine— and found that by driving very 
fiut we could do the work to our satisfiiction ; leaving the 
stubble in a condition to be raked with a common revolv- 
ing horse-rake, foUowlDg around in the dlreoti(m taken by 
the mower. We had two pairs of horses in the field, 
changing teams as often as necessary ; these two paini of 
horses, a man to drive them, and the machine, earned in a 
day, twenty dollars— paying for the work done the same 
price it would have cost had we kept the scythes at work, 
and doing it much better. 

The aame sesaon we had a field of eight acres of oats, 
lodged and tangled ao badly that it would have required 
sixteen days work with scythes to cut it. In less than a 
day, a team and two men with the machiuo, put the whole 
into gavels— doing the work much more nicely, and saving 
more grain, than would have been possible with seythea 

When we first commenced using the machine, we sup- 
posed it could only be used in standing grain and grass, 
and on comparatively level ground, but experience has 
taught US that its greatest value is in tangled and lodged 
crops, and that it can be used wherever a wagon will run 
wlUiout turning over. 

We do all our mowing and harvesting, and gather our 
clover seed, with the same machine—" Wood's Manny"— 
and in every case it does its work cheaper and better than 
hand labor can do It. 

Last MI we out a little <rrer fifty bushels of clover seed 
in less than a day, witk a man to east off the gmveia, a boy 
to drive, aM one pair of borsMk What did the machine 
earn that dayf 

In cutting clovor for so^d, wo sot the machine so as to 
cut higher than we cut for Lay— in fact only intending to 
cut low enough to get all the seed. The gavels require 
turning two or three tbnes, aecotding to the weather, And 
then with a iMurley fork (long wooden tines,) oaroftilly lift 
on the wagon, handUngaaUtUe as possible tosave shelling. 

In mowing and reapii^Iet all the dew and rain get off 
before you commence cutting. The grass or grain will dry 
quicker standing ihan ^t will after it is cut, and it cuts bet- 
ter when dry than when wet. 

lliere is one Important measure that NOW it the time 
to attend to : get all the stones and sticks, and every thing 
that will endanger the machine, off the meadows, so that 
when the busy season of liaying comes, you can go ahead 
without fear. Oao. Oannas. FaxrnumU^ Onondaga Co., 

A controversy of Scythes «a If owing Maohlnes, seems 
to be bringing us in a retrograde position as to Agricultu- 
ral implements. All such discussions are valuable, but 
one great element in the calculations Is omitted on both 
sidea A man can easily cut an acre a day, If that acre 
yields one ton of hay ; but on a hot day, In grass of twt> 
tons, can he do It ? or at oil events, can he out twelve tons 
io a hot week f Can he cut half an acre of tangled clover ? 
Tbetif again, a good mower must begin at an early hour In 
the Booming, and what plies of wet grass must be opened 
after him at 9 or 10 o'eloek. A boy cannot spread hay as 
the machine does It, after two men who will out two acres 
a day. In good grass I do not want to cut more than four 
acres a day. This I can do between 8 and 12 o'clock, and 
in the afternoon put it in small cocks, and if the weather 
is threatening, my hay oovers make all safe. 

I have often bean asked fur advlee as lo mo^wing ma- 



chines, and my answer Is for ten acres of mowing It will 
not i>ay, and as to a company machine, every man wants 
It on the same day, and one careless man breaks twioe as 
much as his neighbor. A mowing machine is not a lenda- 
ble article, except the borrower will use it on yoar oum 
/arm. The Allen machine is decidedly my fisivorite for 
simplicity, ease of draught, and dose cutting. Two In- 
ohes off of the lower end of eaoh spear of grass, makes a 
heavy odds In the produce of an acre. W. H. DaxHUia. 
FiskkiU Landing. 



liOng-Ifiland TiandiTi 

To TBI Enrroaa— In answer to Inquiries by your read- 
ers, I have added to my noMoa of Long-Island land, amors 
full description of it and the oountiy. 

Probably but few persons have a correct knowledge of 
the Island— of Us extent and resources, its climate, soil, 
and history. It is more than 140 miles long, by an average 
breadth of more than 10 miles, embracing more than 1,400 
square miles. It has a sea coast of 800 miles, ivtth numfr- 
rons harbors and bays and streams ; some of great extent 
and capacity. These bays and ttreams abound in fish and 
wild fowl In the greatest numbers ; they are Inexhaustible. 
Of the &00 varieties of birds and wild fowl that are found 
on the North American oentinent, near 300 varieties are 
found on and frequent this beautiful and highly favored 
Island. It Is the great half-way bouse of the migratory 
tribes of birds; In their annual wanderings they give 
Long-Island a call 

I have in my advertisement, endeavored simply to set 

forth the facts, not learnedly but nndcrstandingly, and 

they cannot be disputed. I am prepared to sustain the 

whole by any amoxmt of prooC £. F. Pbok, M.D. 

• • • 

£jcperiments in Potato Culftnra* 

The proper mode of cnlUvathng the potato seems to 
be a subject of interesting Inquiry at the present time. 
I wrote you tome time sinoe my ezperienoe and obier- 
vatioB eoneemiag the one-eye eystem. I shall adopt 
that mode this seaaon, bat eliaU add to it anotker im- 
portant item — that is, a change of 96cd. I believe it 
will well pa^ a former to take a day's jovmey to ex- 
ohaag<e seed, if he plant but one acre. 

I last year saw a field of potaloef planted partly with 
seed that had been raised on the farm, and partly with 
seed brdbght only a distanoe of five mileR. The lat- 
ter were worth doable Mm Ibnner, thougb planted nde 
by fide at the same time, and reoeiving the aame cul- 
ture. 

An Idea haa prevailed qnite extennT^y in this 
quarter, that rich land waa dangerous to the potato 
crop, and that barn-yard manures dionld never be 
used. 

I last year broke up an old pasture lot — fVirrowed it 
out about six inches deep— dropped the seed in the fbr- 
row, and covered with a good forkfbl of horae manure 
After hoeing, gave eaoh hill a bandfnl of plaster. The 
vines were blighted too early for a good orop, but the 
potatoes were not injured by the rot, and they were 
considered a better orop tha^i those planted in the 
neighborhood without manure. 

I also tried the experiment of dropping the seed on 
sod, and covering with strtw, chip manure, and horse 
manure. These three experlmente gave equal results, 
and were satisfaotory for the season. M. F. Carlidt^ 

Schoharie Co^ N. T. 

■ • ♦ • ' '■ ■ 

|3r In answer to G. W., we would state that the 
postei^ on the Cultivator ii six eents a year. The 1 
is so plain upon the subjeot, that that there la room 
no dispute about it 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Noteiy Inquiiief, &o. 

Plaster and Ashm.— Jtf. jP, Carlide, N. Y., writw 
that be ** has the attthorlty of a good practical cbeiii- 
ut " for stating that theee never eboiild be mixed— 
their onion being said to form a snbetance " almoet as 
insoluble aa eaat^iron." He adde :— 

'' I am aware that this la coBtrarjr to the practice of moat 
farmers In this seeUon of the country, but I can And noue 
who have tried the mixture, that can glfe any satlsractory 
anuranee that they have been benefited by it Two years 
ago; I mixed six hundred pounds of plaster with about 
.fifteen bushels of leached ashes and an equal Quantity of 
hen manure, for a top dressing for com after nrst hotng. 
I could observe no benefit from Ike appUcatlon.** 

We do not thinlc the iMn-effisetof the mizture oan be 
accounted for<m the above hypothesb. The sulphate of 
lime acting on the carbonate of potash of the ashes, 
might possibly prodoee a oarl>oiiate of lime, and a sul- 
phate of potash, but in these forms they would be 
equally soluble. We should be glad to know if other 
correspondents have found that either plaster or ashes 
loses its beneficial effect when the two are eompounded ? 

Nbw-Tork Statx Aa. Socibtt.— The Gertnantown 
TcUgraphi in publisliing the list of officers reoentlj 
elected by this Society, remarks : 

" It is with great pleasure that we see the name of Ex- 
Chancellor MoCoum of Long Island, at Its head, the pre- 
sent year, as President ; for we we believe that a better, a 
more disinterested, and a more devoted friend of Agricul- 
ture, is not to be found within the limits of the State. 
Then, too, there is the old, long tried, and oft-proved Col. 
JoHSSOX, the Ck^responding Secretary, who has not only 
never come short of Lis duty, but has always gone far be- 
yond it, and to whose untiring exertions we verily believe 
the Society owes Us prolonged existence and useftilneas. 
And Uiero is Mr. Tncxaa, also, the unflinching friend of 

r th« 



the farmer, and one of the very pillars of t 

whose beat labors have been freely bestowed upon thii 



Society, 

eJy bestowed upon this 

honorably and ably condueted andfnost beneficial institu- 



tion." 

The editor has fallen into the same mistake as many 
other papers. It is the Junior Mr. Tuckkb who was 
chosen Treasnrer of the State Ag. Society. His ^aabors" 
in its iMhalf tan those of the future, rather than of 
the past, but the Senior trusts they will prove, when 
opportunity may offer, aa tluthful and eflioient, as they 
certainly will be heartily and cheeifolly bestowed. 

PLANTIHG KiKa Pbilip Oobb.— In answer to the in- 
quiry of ** G. D.," I would advise him to plant his 
King Philip com in drills, say 3i feet apart, and the 
stalks about 7 or 8 inches apart in the drills— or it may 
be planted in hills of 3 stalks eaeh, about 3 feet one 
way and 2 feet the other. The stalk is very small, 
and may therefore stand nearer together than the 
stalks of larger com. If planted thin, the failure re- 
sults Arom there not being enough stalks to give a pro- 
dncdve crop. That Is all. It will not succeed well on 
poor soil. Sbbbx. 

Ibquiby.— Can you or some of the subseribers to your 
valuable paper, inform me through the Cultivator, how 
to cure a valuable mare of mine. The first appear- 
ance of the disease or spiipiin, is a stiflfness and difi- 
eulty of raising the hind legs. There is considerable 
swelling across the small of the back, and also farther 
back over the hips. The urki* is very much colored. 
One leg swells oonsidesably ; tha other does net swell 
at all. The stiffness is confined entirely to her hind 
legs. She has been so three times. The first time was 
two years ago this spring ; then again a year ago, and 
gain this spring, each time in the month <^ Mareh. 
the time of year have any thing to do with it 7 
fint time being tnm home with her, I drove her 




home, a distanoe of seven miles, without any apparent 
injury. This was on Friday ; on the next Monday I 
drove her, she being to all appearance as well as ever. 
She has not been as bad either time since as at first 
Hard work, heavy drawing, and fast driving, do not 
seem to hart her. A Subscbibbb. 

Milk Wastiho pbom thb Tbats or Cows.— Tour 
correspondent, P. M'C , inquires for a remedy. Let 
him get from the druggist a small quantity of Collo' 
dion, or " liquid cuticle," and when the cow has been 
milked, apply it to the end of the teats. It instantly 
will form a thin toogh skin, which will close the orifice 
and prevent the omission of the milk. At milking 
time the false skin can be broken through, and the cow 
milked, and the Collodion again applied. In a week 
or ten days there will be no necessity for further ap- 
plication, as the defect will be cured. J>, L. Adaib. 

f^^ Messrs. Fowlbb A WsLiiS, publishers, of New- 
Tork, whose series of " Hand- Books for Home Improre- 
ment " we have favorably noticed heretofore, announce 
a forthcoming series to be entitled " The House," on 
Rural Arofaiteotare generally | " The Oarden^^* a 
pocket manual of practical hortieoitare; " The Farm," 
including general Agriculture; and *^Dome»He Ani' 
maUf" embracing Bees, Bogs, Rabbits, Ac, as well as 
larger farm stock. Price 30 ots. each or II for the four. 
We have no doubt they will be practically prepared, 
and worth more than their cost to the purchaser. 

* • m 

Bwttor Usiklmff. 

Mrs. Julia Pabkhvbbt of Jackson, Clintoft Oo., 
beaten by Mrs. Maby Arh Woollbt of Oswegatohie, 
St. Lawrence Co., V. Y., who made from two cows, 
oommenoing April 2, 1867, and eadiBg Jan. 9, 1856| 
four hnndred and ufaMty-seves pounds of bBtter-*-366 
lbs. of which were sold foriwealy-'ifweeiitf per pound i 
the balaiMe, with what mUk was needed, was wsed in 
a family of six adult peiBons. 

Our secret of maUng good butler, and a good deal 
of it, is, first, good eows— seoood, good winter eare and 
keeping) and third, thorough miiklBg and proper bua- 
agament of milk and ereans when w* get it. 

During the summer mj eows h«v# poor pasturteg as 
I live within half a mile of the village of Ogdeivburgh, 
where pasturing is poor and scarce, but I ibed my eows 
no extra feed during summer. JoMi M. Woouat. 
Ogdejiehurgh, N, Y. 

• e » ' 

Hints on Carrot Cnltnre* 
All who raise carrots are awaie that much depends 
upon early hoeing and thinning. The carrot, at first, 
is so small as to be hardly discernible, and many wait 
too long before they commence to hoe, allowing the 
weeds to get the advantage ; and no amount of hoeing 
can insure a good crop after it has once l>een overrun 
and choked with weeds. 7%e plan I adopt to enable 
me to distinguish the rows as soon as any other garden 
vegetable, is to mix and sow with the oarrot seed, a 
small quantity of radish seed, as that starts quiclL, 
has a broad leaf, and oan easily be told from any weecL 
This enables me hoe as soon as the oarrot is above 
ground, or a week or two sooner than without. They 
oan be pulled out at the first hoeing, or altowedl to re- 
main till? they acquire sobm sise, and yon have a crop 
of radishes without much injury to fhe oarrot, if the; 
are not suffered to remaha too long. D. E. L. "^ ' 
ctofi Center. 





THE CULTIVATOR 




InqulriM uid Answers. 

Hmr Mawurb.— I have on haod a few barrels of hen 
manare and of lime, and woald like to know the best 
method of applying it to my com crop — whether it is 
best to pat it in the hill or on the oom— what propor- 
tion to mix them, when to mix them, and the qaantity 
per acrel Nassau [Hen manare is ten or fifteen 
times stronger than oommon yard manare. It may be 
mixed with several times its balk of loam, stirred well, 
allowed to remain a few weeks, if convenient, to allow 
it to impregnate the loam, and then be applied in the 
hill. Or the hen manure may be sowed broadcast, well 
harrowed into the earth, and then tamed onder lightly 
with a gang plow or otherwise, and the qaantity used 
per aore must be in accordance with this strength. 
The lime may be treated in the last mentioned way.] 

Spamish Cbbstmut — Orakos Quikcs. — 1. How 
large is the Spanish Chestnut when full grown, and 
how far apart should they be set when transplanted 
from the nursery 1—2. Will the Apple or Orange 
Quince start readily from cuttings, and at what age 
does it oommence bearing 1 A. Babcock. Union Co.^ 
III. [1. The Spanish Chestnut is only a variety of the 
Caslanea vMcd, which grows to a great size, very old 
trees being known whose heads are 50 to 70 feet in 
diameter. In open ground, and favorable soil, it would 
probably require 30 years for the head to attain a dia- 
meter of 25 teet.->2. The Apple or Orange Quince, al- 
thoogh often raised from oattings, does not grow so 
readily as the large French stock. It usually bears in 
four or five years.] 

CuLTVBB or Millet.— I wish to inqoire if Millet is 
profitable for feeding stock Ihroagh the winter, and if it 
is good for cleaning meadow land for seUlng with timo- 
thy, and if timothy «wi \m set with It. Also what 
^iianliiy of seed pw aere and what time to sow, and if 
it must be harvested while in a green state. An an- 
swer to the above wiH oblige A Balt. Co. Sobscsibeb. 
[Stock of all kinds are fend of Millet bay, if properly 
eared, and ob • good mallow soil three to five tons per 
aere may be piodnoed. It is not a good erop to seed 
down with, as it is sown too late in the season for this 
porpose. It may be sown in Maryland from middle of 
June to the middle of July, at the raU of 20 to 24 quarts 
per acre. K shsold be cat for hay when the seed is 
Bbont half ripe] 

Hbatbs or Bbokbb Wibd^— Can yoa or any of year 
snbscribera Inform me what will cure a brokea-winded 
horse, otherwise in good health 1 I have seen or heard 
somewhere of an effectual care, bat cannot remember 
it 8. CUveat Ohio. [Heaves or broken-wind, once 
established, can be rarely if ever cared— but if always 
fed on wet, chopped food, it is usually so relieved as to 
be scarcely perceptible. Good, well cured oorn- stalks, 
are regarded as particularly favorable for the relief or 
cure of this disease— and com fed in the cob. A friend, 
whose fine horse we have long known, assures us that 
when yonng he had decided heaves, bat was completely 
cared within five years, by allowing him to have no drink 
but slops and grttuy duh-waUr, sour milk, Ac] 

LoccsT Skkd.— Will you please bform me through 
the Cultivator, whether the seeds enclosed are YeUow 
Locust or some other variety of Locost ? Should the 
seeds be always gathered in autumn, or will they be 
equally good if they remain npon the trees till early 



spring 1 LiBDLBT H. Osborhb. NortK Weare, N. H, 
[The seeds sent, are of the Tellow Locust They may 
be gathered at any time after fully ripe— but will never 
grow till swollen by scalding, and alk>wed to stand m 
the water till the swelling is completed.] 

Soil por Obchards.- I have a field of 15 or 18 
acres, rolling land, limestone soil, saflleiently fertile to 
produce 36 to 40 bushels com per acre. It lies high, 
and is dry and mellow, but is, to s II intents and pur- 
poses, a southern exposure. Will this field do forf^li^ 
and what sort would salt it best ? I had thought of 
setting it out with apples and peaches, but some of my 
neighbors say it would do first rate for peaches. I 
would like to have your opinion. H. S. Covington^ 
Ky. [li would doubtless be fine orchard land— but the 
^ upper and more windy parts would be best for the 
peaches, being freer from sharp, still frosts, and favor- 
ing an earlier ripening of the wood in autumn] 

Pruni.no Fruit Trees.— If you will inform me 
the best time to prune peach, plum and cherry trees— 
also grapevines, you will confer a favor. J. M. JlaH' 
ford Co.f Ct. [For young trees, cut off large limbs if 
required, towards the close of winter, and before tbe 
flow of sap — or early in autumn. Smaller branches 
may be removed at almost any time, but most coove- 
niently during the growing season. Trees properlj 
pruned from the commencement of their growth, never 
require the removal of large branches—" thumb-pruo- 
Ing," seasonably performed (rubbing off fresh shoots,) 
will givo every tree a symmetrical form snd obTiate 
lopping. Shortening-back the shoots and limbs of peach 
trees, should be done early in spring before growth 
commences, or at the end of summer. Cherries never 
need much pruning, 'cjteept dwarfii. Grapes are prun- 
ed at the close of winter, and pinched back when tbe 
fruit is as large as small peas] 

LxHOTH OP EvxxBRS OR Whipflb-trebs.- I woold 
like to know the measure of an evener for three horses 
to be used on the plow. I had one made last Call, but 
it does not work. What length is neoessary for the 
long evener, and how long should the short evener and 
whiflle-trees be 1 In giving me this information through 
the Cultivator, yoa would Booommodate me very much. 
A Young Farmbb. [The whole length of the long or 
three-horse evener, from hook to hook, (or from bolt to 
bolt,) should be about four feet and ten inches— or five 
feet two or three inches in extreme length. The two- 
horse-evener should be three feet four inches from hook 
to hook; and of the one-horse whifBe-trees two feet 
nine inches. It is perhnps unnecessary to add, that the 
long evener should be divided into two parts, so that 
one arm shall l>e one foot seven inches long, (for attach* 
ing the two horses) and the other three feet two inches. 
We never heard of but one man who was so stupid ss to 
think the "liUle horse" ought to har« the "litUeend" 
of the whiffle tree, or that the single horse shoald hsve 
the short end of the three-horse evener— and he did 
not take any agrioulturel paper. It was his (Uher 
who, in taking a bushel of wheat to mill on horse- 
back, balanced the grain in one end of the bag by a 
big stone in the other ] 

MowiBO Machirbb.— There seems to be a glorious 
but rather embarrassing uncertainty respecting ths 
mowing machines, after reading the artieles in your last 
three or four numbers on the subject One writer 
raises the question whether there is any advasUge hi 




THE CULTIVATOR. 




ufing them ai atf—«ad lUtai th« aeoovnt in fttTor of 
th« common tcyihag and m to wfcio^ irtnd U the beat, 
the iDezperieneed farmer is left to grope in utter dark- 
nem. Do let us have light and aatnraaoe, that we may 
know whether to bay any, and if any which kind. J. 
W. W. [The artides publiahed, tbow, we thiak, that 
there are eoTer^l good mowen, though no mu whioh all 
agree in prononncing tiu best. Some think one the best, 
and some another; and there is really so little differ- 
ence between several of them, thai it is doubtful whether 
there will ever be any veiy general assent to the opin- 
ion that either one of them is (he best But no farmer 
will be disappointed who purehsaes either of the well 
tested maohines mannfaetnred in this state. Mr. Jobv- 
STON showed pretty clearly in our last no., (p. 193) the 
advantages of the mowing machine over the scythe. 
The faet that the mowing can be done at less than one- 
half the cert with the mower, that it can be with the 
scythe, to say nothiog of the advantage of having it 
done at the proper time, would seem to settle the mat- 
ter pretty satisfactorily] 

HunoARiAM Qiuss.— There is a rumor here that the 
" Hungarian grass " is a crop very diffieuU to eradi- 
eaU from the fields it is planted in. I wish to plant a 
few acres of it this season, but if this report is true, I 
cannot afford to try it till I have more land to vatU 
than I now possess. Will you advise me in the mat- 
ter 1 F. W. B. lotta, [The Hungnrian groaji or 
millet is an annual, the seeds of which, according to 
liondon, will not survive the winter in the ground, and 
consequently would not liable to the okoeotion alluded 

Lamb Hobsb.— I have a yo^ng horse which is lame 
in the fore nigh leg. It same on very gradually at 
first, and I could hardly tell which leg was lame. He 
does not Hop any until driven a mile or two. I know 
he has not been foundered with grain or water. What 
will «nre him 1 I had a mare that was lame in the 
same way apparently, about four years ago, whioh b 
not lame much now, if any. The best bone doctors 
we have do not know what ails them. J. 8. B. 

BoBB Dust. — Do you know whore pure bone dost 
can be had from the manufacturer, and the price 1 
H. li. T. [The genuioe article can be procured at the 
manufaotory of Tbomas Coulsom In this eity. The 
prioe varies, acoording to finei|ess and quantity taken, 
from tl.75 to 92.75 per bbl] 

Fabb Book. — I will be obliged to you to send me 
the name of a good agricultural book, wherein I can 
obtain a practical knowledge of farming — that is, where 
I can get an idea of the^rsl rudimtnis of farming, com- 
mencing with wild land. C. M. F. SL LauU. [We 
know of no such book. Allen's American Farm Book 
comes the nearest to it of any work we have— price by 
mail post-paid, •1.25] 

HnNOABXAB GsAas.— a W, Ly Marj^» Garden, 
N C. You will have seen in the later numbers of the 
Go Gent , what this grass is, and where the seed can 
be obuined. It may be sown in your section from the 
middle of June to the middle of July, and if the seed 
can be obtained without too much cost, we would re- 
commend you to make a trial of it Yon oaa order 
the seed under the name of Qenian Millet, of J. Mk 
Thorbum A Co, New- York. 

P. S. Since writing the above we have received the 
April number of the Parmer and PUmUr^ published 



at Pendleton, S. , whose editor, Geo. Sbaborv, Esq., 
says — ** The Hungarian Grass is nothing more or less 
than the Millet which we have been raising now two 
or three years, and of which we have spoken hereto- 
fore. We have any quantity of seed to sell at tuo dot- 
lars a bushel— just half what we sold at lost year." 

Mules — In answer to the inquiry of C. P. R., (p. 
209,) Mr. Solomon Yanderren, Newton, N. J., informs 
US that he can supply mules of his own breeding, of 
first quality. 

Bbokuk WiHD. — S., Cleves, Ohio, inquires fer a cure 
of broken wind or heaves in horses. I will give my 
experience for what it may be worth. Seme years ago 
I had a horse whieh had the heaves very badfy. I fed 
him out straw and meal wet. I put with his feed a 
lump of mutton tallow the sise of a hen's egg, to each 
mess, until I fed about 1& lbs. I knew him three or 
four years after the cure^ but heard of no more heaves 
from him. 

I had a horse that got a large wrought nail in his 
foot by the side of the frog — made him very lame — 
had to pull hard to get it out I cfeaned out the hole 
with a knife ; put on beef gall and a large slice of fat 
salt pork, tied up the foot with a large piece of leather, 
and in one week it was well. D. P. Sekoharie, 

Oats fob Sbbkp. — Are oats injurious to ewes with 
lamb ? A neighbor fed several a pint each per day for 
some time before lambing, and every lamb died soon 
after birth. Qtber instances of liko kind have eome 
within my knowledge. Youro Fabbbb. 

Manubinq Grass Labds. — When is the best time 
to apply bam maonre to gram lands? Some say 
spriog; others autumn — others still think early au- 
tumn the best time, saying it will start a good coat of 
grass before winter, which protect* the roots and gives 
a much better yield the second year. If applied in 
the spriog, should the turf be hanowed at the time 1 
I wish those who have experimented on the subject 
would report on those and othar particulars interesting 
to grasiers, dairymen, and, in fact, farmers general- 
ly- K. ... 

Ibprotebbbt IB TUB RoD Fbbcb.—As the season 
is now at hand when the fences will require more or less 
attention, I will advert to an improvement In the "rod 
fence' ' that has come under my notice. A description 
of this fence will bo found on page 277 of the Cultivator 
for 1855,and in Co. Gent., vol. 6, p. 68. The improvement 
to which I allude is the addition of a stake on the inside 
joint of each panel, and between the two upper rails. This 
may be said to save a rail^M it raises the fence in height 
more than the thickness of a large rail, and at the 
same time renders it secure against the wind, which 
sometimes overturns these fonces, (when unprotected,) 
in a wholesale way. The length of the stake must of 
course correspond with the height of the fence, and the 
hole in the end of it must be bored to suit the angle 
at which it is set in the ground ; a little practice will 
make this all plain. I have seen a good fence with a 
slight bank under it, made in this way with five good 
rails to the panel, and six will be found ample. The 
warm should be about four feet, where the rails are 
eleven foot long. If these hints shall be of service to 
any of the readers of your valuable papen, my 
will be answered. C Salem County, N. X 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Awax4 9t Our Aprtl Premlmms. 

April 10th was the date fixed for the decision of the 
second list of prises offered for stthseriptions to oar 
Journals for 1858. Oar books show the following re- 
sult, to which we add the sanos respectively received 
by the same oompeUtors the first of January last:— 
April Prizea. Jan. Prizes. 

I. W. Brioos, Wayne Oa, $28 00 $20.00 

Hbvrt Wi Ltia, ConnecUout, 20.00 26.00 

HtXAX Mills, Lewis Ca, 20.00 None. 

J. R Howard, IfRss. 16.00 20.00 

Westchester Co. (Pa.) Ag. Society,.... 16.00 16.00 

Au a Moss, ChaaUoqae Ca, 16.00 16.00 

E. Bbnbdict, Clinton Ck>., 10.00 1500 

J. A. HoRTOM , New-Jersey 10.00 10.00 

H. SHsrpARD, New-<Ters^, 10.00 None. 

D. Campbbll, Caoada, 10.00 Noue. 

A Cart, Montgomer>' Co., 6.00 None. 

W. Oarpbhtcb, New-Jersey, 6.00 1000 

B. Mbrritt, Duchesa Co., 6.00 10.00 

a. W. Corriir, do 6.00 None. 

K T. Bhbppabv, Georgia, 6.00 None. 

Oar offer specified that if a first, second or third 
priae on the ApHl list^ should be taken by any one who 
had not been a competitor for the January priies, it 
shoald be somewhat iacreaoed. The only Inttaaee of 
the kind is that of Mr. U. Mills, to whom is accord- 
ingly awarded $26, instead of $20 as above sUted. 
The amoant of sabscriptions which takes the lowest of 
the prises, is $34« and the others range all the way up 
to the highest, which la awarded upon a list amounting 
to $247.12. As compared with laat year, we are pleased 
to say that the Aggregate of the subscriptions taking 
prises, does not show any falling off,— the amount be- 
ing, in fact, a trifle laiger this year than before,— but 
the aggregate of the premium! offered was also some- 
what greater. 

Among listo which came very near in amoant to those 
that were actually Buooaasfal, we may mention the sub- 
scriptions sent by H. V. Wbltoit of Connecticut; S. 
H. Williams, Jambs Lvov, L. Sblleck and 0. P. 
Khapp of this State ; E. Link of Tenneasee ; Jambs 
Sloam of North Carolina; P. Stbdmah of Massachn- 
setU; G. C. EoBUSOy of Canada; J>. C. Gbtty of 
Pennsylvania, and T. H. Matthbws of Maryland. To 
all whom we hav^ named, and a very large number of 
outers,— who were not discouraged from a continuance 
of their kind exertions during the past winter, by the 
almost unprecedented scarcity of money, and who have, 
at considerable pertooal sacrifice in many instances, so 
earnestly labored to prevent the revulsion from affect- 
ing the interests of our Journals, we tender our sincere 
thanks. And the faur degree of success which has in 
many instances crowned their efforts, will, we trust, 
lead to their protraction, now that the financial skies 
are growing brighter, in order that, as the summer 
passes by, the numbers of thinking, reading, impro- 
ving farmers, may be still fiirther increased, and the 
losses so many have sustained under the difficulties of 
the past year, be more than made up through the hints 
our Journals will suggest toward a better and more re- 
munerative practice. 

Carbots.— The N^lk Briiiah AgrieuUuritt statM 
that by mlsfaig a small quantity of bartey with the 
earret seed, the rows of the growing oarrots can h« 
easily distfaiguishsd, and thus hoeing can proceed pre- 
vious to the earrot pUnte appearing ni the saifaoe. 




Rbpobt oh Mowbbs AMD RiAFBBS.— Sincs we pub- 
lished the ezti»cto Atom the Report of the Trial of Mow- 
ers and Reapers at Syracuse last summer, several com- 
munieatioBS and pvetesto have been published in the 
agricultural papers or cnreulated in pamphlets, showmg 
various errors committed at the trial, and asserting that 
awards diiforent horn those given, would have been in 
accordance with justice and facts. The owners of the 
Ketehum mower think that machine should have re- 
ceived the first premlsm. The same superiority is 
claimed for tlie Allen BMNser, for Burrall's machine, 
and others. Some of Ihase daims are argued in a cour- 
teous and candid manner, asaong which that from 
Thomas D. BnnrmU is pwiioolarly worthy of commen- 



In answer to many Inquiiies by letter and otherwise, 
we cannot assume the ability to decide these coofiicting 
claims. The duties of the associate editor of this pa- 
per, as one of the committee of judges, were entirely 
distinct and separate from those of all the other mem- 
bers, being confined chiefly to an examination of me- 
chanical jfrmdpUs ; and circumstances not easiiy con- 
trolled prevented his preasnoe when the vote was ttksn, 
and the premiums awarded were not in all oases in ac- 
cordance with his own views. The extracts made in 
this journal were not presented as a nice balancmg of 
various merits, but as descriptions of the pecoliaritiei 
of the machines, and as containing many valuable 
suggestions. 

Om Stbam Plows.— It has been determhied by the 
BzecutiTe Board of the State Ag Society, in view of 
the increased demand -l^r some means of stirring sad 
pulverising the sail mum ebaaply and rapidly than 
that of ptowing by aainMl power, and of the atteatioa 
now given to the subjeetabfoad, /a 4^er « prixe qftiM 
hundred and Jifiy doUun for ft steam plow whieh 
should satisfactorily aeoempUsh the object desired. The 
stipulations requisite in sodh an implement will be 
drawn up by the Secretary at an early dny, to serve ss 
a basis for the aetics of the oomnsittee on awards, 
should one or more machines be presented for compe- 
tition. We are 1^ to see that this action of the Soei- 
ety places it in the front reak in the inducements ex- 
tended to inventors en this sul^ect, and we are also 
hi^py to note that ear Beard has hsMl the wisdom to 
abstain flrom the exkesagaaoe (as to the aaMMmt of 
the premium,) into which seme other aasociatioas hsrs 
and abroad have been led. Bxperienee as to one and 
five thoussad dollar prises, we beliere, shows in moil 
instsaoes, that the seoiety offering them has so very 
high a standard of exoelleooe, that they never can be 
won, or, on the other head, they are larger than the real 
deserte of the case, inasmuch as the first machines pre- 
sented are seldom practically successful. The obilefli 
is to lead inventors to "thUik the matter up," until 
such ideas and imprevements by degrees accumulate, 
u to furnish in the end, the complete machine. A few 
hundred dolhus, with the eertein^ of getting it, if 
fairly deserved, will, we predict, be quite as succmsfal 
in doing this as the thousand [unawacded] goineas 
offend by the British Societies. 

Fabhbrs, Show wmat You gam Do.— At the sug- 
gestion of one ef the most practical men and best form- 
ers on the Board, the State Ag. Society wiU add to its 
prises on crops, one of (hu Hundrtd DoUan 
best iehl of Indian Gon at not less than 10 acres. 





THE CULTIVATOB. 




the product to average not lea Uian one hundred Inuh- 
els to the acre I Wbeo that thousand bat beli or more 
are harvested, our readers shall hare the particulars. 
Meantime a little energetic efEbrt ou the part of erery 
farmer in the State, If he can't quite come up to the 
above, still to do the best he can, and come as near it 
as possible, would add a sum to the productive wealth 
of every town from the Hudson to Lake Erie, com- 
pared with which all the prisee the Society offers would 
be small. Farmers, show what you can do ! 

An Editoblal BxpsuunnnMB. — Among the trans- 
actions of the BzeeutiTe Comnlltee of the State Ag. 
Society at their meeting in this city last week, was the 
award of the 175 premium for Experiments on Indian 
Cora to Mr. Jobuph Harris of the Geneoet J^rmer. 
No man understands better how sneh trials should be 
conducted to be of praotioal use, and we may add that 
none can do the requisite field work more carefully and 
note the results more dearly. Bit experiments in the 
present instance are of peouliar intenst, and the re- 
sults, if establbhed by their farther lupetHion, will be 
of great value. The Journal of the Society, to be is- 
sued in a few days, will contain them, and thoee who 
are interested in the subject or who propose to compete 
for the premiums offered for the present season, should 
obtein a copy. We will endeavor to refer to the mat- 
tor more at length at an early opportunity. 

Potato Plamtikg.— We would call attention to Mr. 
Howatt'b article on potato culture in this number, and 
particularly to the manner in which he prepares his 
seed for planting. It will be seen that he cuts his po- 
Utoea, leavfaig but one eye tonneh piece^ three oribur 
weeka before planting, and immediately mixes them 
with lime. The pieces ace then left to dry until they 
are wanted for planting, when they, although dry and 
shrivelled, will be found to have started strong bnds, 
ready for a vigorous growth when placed into well pre- 
pared soH. Hon. A. B. DiCKtmox of Stouhen, who 
raises large quantlUes of potatoes, practioss a somewhat 
similar method, only that he covers the cut potatoes 
with tar diluted with warm water, instead of lime. 

Lbghorr Fowls.— We are indebted to Mr. Joax 
A. CASTXRKiiin of Dover, N. J., for a pair "of choice 
Leghorn fowls of pi^re blood." SEhey are a rery pretty 
pair of birds, and are well described in the 9th vol. Co. 
Cent., p. 237, and in the Cult, for 1657, p. 150. Mr. 
C. informs us that he keeps a large number of this 
variety. 

Famrixo and Assortixo MAcnixn.^Mr. R. Kvt- 
nxa of Randolph, Vt has exhibited to us a model of 
his Fanning and Assorting Machine, which, it appears 
us, must eventually take the place of all our common 
fenning mills. While occupying no more space and 
requiring no more power than the ordinary mills, it not 
only separates the chaff from the grain, but will sepa- 
rste oats, chess, grass and all foul seeds from wheat, 
and even assort the wheat, placing the large and plump 
and the shrivelled kernels in sepante apartments. It 
was thoroughly tested at the Vermont and New Hamp- 
shire State Fairs last autumn, but we regret to say that 
as yet Mr. N. has made no arrangement for the menu- 
fi&cture and sale of this valuable machine. 

Grxat Fair at St. Louis —The St Louis Agri- 

cultaral and Mechanical Association, which has held 

more rery successful Fairs in that dty, is now 

preparation for its next autumn Fair, wUoh, 




from the spirit manifested by the Managers of the So- 
ciety, and the citisens of the city, promises to be a more 
important industrial exhibition than has ever been held 
in this country. The Association having made out its 
Premium List, amounting to •16,000— a larger sum 
than ever before offered in this country — they have 
called upon the citisens to render their aid, by adding 
such special prises as any individual or individuals 
might deem benefloial to themselves or to the public. 
This call has been heartily responded to, and the pros- 
pect is that the total amount of premiums to be offered 
will be at least 130,000. Among thcM voluntary pre- 
miums, we notice that the bntehers offer I5p0 for fat 
cattle— the brewen $500 for the best crops of barley, 
and the livery stable keepers 9600 on horses, earrlages, 
and hay and oato— 9200 are offsred for the best labor- 
saving maehioe— 9600 for the best hemp breaking 
machine— 9200 for the best plan of a country house — 
925 for the best pair of capons, and the same for the 
six best sugar cured bams — a reaping and mowing 
madne for the best wheal— 9100 for the best hemp— 
9100 for the best swine— 9100 for the best contrivance 
for esoapfaig from a burning ho u se 9100 for the best 
specimen of work made by ius auprentice under 21 
years of age, Ac. 

Obitu ART.— Notices of two sudden and recent deaths 
among agricultural writers have been crowded out of 
our columns for several weeks. Edward P. Robxrts, 
Esq., long a contributor, and at one time, we think the 
editor and publisher of the American JPormer, Balti- 
more, suffered a stroke of apoplexy which he only sur- 
vived a few days. Prof. T. B. Hudsox, of Oberlin, 0., 
whose pen was fomiliar to the leaders of the Ohio Far- 
mer^ was run over and instantly killed by a train of 
cars on the railroad between that place and Cleveland. 
In both these sad events, the cause of Agriculture suf- 
fers a severe bereavement, and In the former of them, 
one of its oldest supporters in this uountry is taken 
away. 

COXTKHTXOX 07 AORIOULTUBAL EDITORS. — Wc havC 

received from the office of the American AgricuUu- 
riatf a circular proposing a convention of the editors of 
Agricultural and other Journals giving more or less at- 
tention to rural affairs, to be held. It suggests, some 
time in June, at such place as may be agreed upon. 
The ComiTRT Gbxtlxvah has no doubt a very pleasant 
time might be had, and would endeaver to be xepre- 
sented. 

BovBSTio WfxRs.— We are indebted to Jambs 
M'Crxbdt 2d, Plattsburgh, for two bottles of wine- 
one made from the strawberry, and the other from na- 
tive grspes, for which he will accept our thanks. 

Cabbages.— The value of cabbages for dairy stock, 
and also for breeding stock, and cattle that are being 
fattened, is not sufficiently appreciated. So says the 
North British Agriculturist Of course it recommends 
the culture of this crop on a more extensive scale, as 
also the selection of the larger varieties, and the ma- 
king the land manurially rich. Weight for weight, 
cabbage is equal to turnips, and the quantity which 
oan be grown on an acre greatly exceeds that of tur* 
nips. 

p^ The Davidson Co. (Tenn.) Ag. Society hold a 
spring fair at Nashville, on the 4th to 9th of May. 
Premiums for stock, Ae., are offered, the same 
the usual autumn fairs. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




Inquiry Awakkked. — We find abandant evidence 
that our paper b well read and a spirit of inquiry awa- 
kened, by the constant call for further information on 
the subjects discussed, particularly in regard to the prao- 
tical every- day business operations of the farm. A 
correspondent writes us as follows : ^ I wish to notice 
one fact which indicates that your paper has a wide 
circulation. Since my article appeared in the Co. Gent. 
of Feb. 18, I have received over a doien letters refer- 
ring to it, and asking for further information, from 
nearly ai mnny different States " Another corres- 
pondent says — " I wish you would remind people to give 
their post-office address when writing for information. 
I have received an enormous number of letters in refer- 
ence to matters discussed in my articles, most of them 
enclosing a stamp to pre-pay postage, but many of 
them lacking the information necessary to enable me 
to answer—some having the post-office, but without 
the State, and some without even the name of the post- 
office." We are greaUy troubled with such letters, 
and we would that it could be deeply impressed upon 
every one who writes a letter, that the first thing to be 
done is to write the name of the poet-offioe and State 
on the top of the first page. Such a course would save 
much trouble and vexation. 

Thorough-bred Horses roR ORSGoy.—Hr. Johh 
P. Welsh, who purchased of John B. Burnet of Syra- 
cuse, the celebrated thorough- bred horse Consiema- 
tunif for 93,500, with the intention of taking him to 
Oregon this season, has, as we are informed by a gen- 
tleman who saw Mr. Welsh a few days since, concluded 
to let Consternaiion stand in Kentucky the present 
season, to serve thorough-bred mares. Mr. Welsh has 
purchased in Kentucky, RiJUman^ a very superior tho- 
rough-bred colt of great substance, and promising to be 
a most valuable horse. Rifleman^ bay colt, foaled 
May, 1855, by "Gleneoe," out of the dam of " Marks- 
man and Fraxi^r," winner of the first prixe in the ring 
for thorough-breds, at the Fayette Co. Fair, held at 
Lexington, Ky., and also at the State Fair at Paris, 
Ky., in the year 1856. We congratulate our friends 
in Oregon on this addition to their stock. Mr. Welch 
sailed by the steamer of 1st April, and took this valua- 
ble horse with him. 

TO IVERVOUS SUFFER PAS. A retired Gentleman 
having been restored to health In a few days, aflcr many 
years of nervous BuflVrlng, will send (free) toiiMltit other*i, 
a copy of the prescription, and a supply of the remedy, 
on receiving a ntamped envelope bearing the applicaiit'« 
addrcsa. Direct to the Rev. Johk M. Dao.vall, 186 Ful- 
ton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. May 1— m3t. 

Blood and Wool HI a mire, 

ROTHWKLL'S, in Bags or Barrel*, for nalo by 
A. LONOIiTr, 
May 1— raSt 84 Cliflat., New-York. 

Hay and CoUon Press. 

DEDERICK'8 PARALLEL LEVER HAY AND 
COTTON PRESSES, fur compact pressing, are BtiU 
manufactured In Albany, N. Y. They are being Bhipped 
to nil i»arts of the Union nnd Canada«. and in evcrj- ceso 
give the most perfect satfsfnotion. This nrese was award- 
ed th« great medal, (flrat priwj) at the Pair of the U. 8. 
Agrioultural Society, held In Syracuse, N. Y., In 1867. For 
circulars, with full ezplauatory engravings and numerous 
flrot cUws references, apply personally or by mail to the 
undersigned. Presses constantlv on hand. Orders solici- 
ted. L. DEDERICK 9l CO., 
April 15— weowitmlt. Albany, N. Y. 



Sweet Potatoes— Their Northern CaUIvation. 

PLANTS sent by Express, far and near, at $2 ^t 1,000. 
To dealers who order 10.000 or more at a time, $1.60 
per 1,000. Boxed and delivered at Railroad without chargsi 
riants will be ready early in May. 

O. 8. MURRAY &, SON, 
Twenty Mile Stand P. O., Warren Co., Ohla 
April 1— weowStmlt 



Just Published. 
A BOOR FOR BTBRY PARMER. 

THE FARMER'S PRACTICAL HORSE FAR. 
RIERY— 12 ma 108 nam— price only 60 cents. 
Besides containing ample directions for doctoring Hor- 
ses, and a large number of valuable receipts, it contains 
the OBEAT BBORBT of fireHkioff, Tamlog and Training, and 
a fund of information on almost everything relating to the 
management of Horees, written in a clear and simple style 
—worth many times its coet toanv man who keeps ahorse. 
Sent free of postage on receipt of price. 

Address K, NASH, Publisher, 



March IS—weowftmSms 



Auburn. N. Y. 




Woods' Porlable Steam Enf fie Works, 

8 OorneliA-St, Utin, Oneida Oo. VT. 

AN. dk E. D. WOOD, (formerly A. N. Wood * Ccl, 
• of Eaton, Mad. Co.) Praotical MaohinUts, and Buildr 
esr of their celebrated 

I^ORTJIBLE STEAM ENGINES, 

for Fttrro, Mechanical, and Plantation purposes. 

We have mndo great improvements in our Engines iS» 
cently, particularly in the maooor of aetting the tubes in 
the boilers, (by Prosser's Patent,) addiutf a large wrougbl- 
iron dome in place of 6m^W cast or;es,—rnci eased the size 
of fire ix>x. with ash-pans that can be eloped up tight or 
oiiened at pleasure ; also in the manner of couoecting the 
governor to throttle, mailing It direct action. 

Wo can also furnish the Engines with Judson's govern- 
or valves, which are HUperior to any others, at from |Uto 
|40 extra, according losixe of eogine. 

Ba^v. Com, and Grain Mills supplied at manufacturer's 
prices. 

Parties wishing Circulars with cuts of Engines, lux. 
should eiiclo^e P. O. utamp to jmy postage on the same, 
Tlie following is our 

7BICE LIST FOR 1858. 

Horse Canh Estimate*! Space oc- Fly-wheel Face of 

power price weight copied diameter wheel 

U $176 1,000 TtB. 2 by 5 ft. 24 In. 4 in. 

21 250 2.000 " 4 by 6 " 39 "* 6* "* 

8 300 2,200 " 6 by 6 *• 89 «• ftj ** 

4 365 2,600 " 7 by 5 " 40 " 6 " 

6 650 8.600 *• 7 by 6 •* 44 «» 7 ** 

8 700 4,800 " by «* " 48 »• 8 *' 

10 876 6,000 " 10 by 6* " 60 " 8 " 

12 1,060 7,600 « 14 by oj " 72 « 12 •* 

15 1,300 9,000 " 15 by 7 " 72 •* 12 " 

20 1,700 10,000 '♦ 16 by 7 " 72 *• 12 - 

The 20 horse power Eaglne ia famished with extra 2 ft. 

pulley, 14-inch race. 

The above prices inolode boxlnr and delivery on board 
cars or boat. For Airther particoiara see our general Ct^ 
cular. A. N. A, E. D. WOOD. 
Utlca, Jan. 28— wtf 

Berkshire' Plg« for Sale! 

WARRANTED of pure breed, and at a low figui 
WILLIAM J. PETTEE, 
June 11— wfcmtf Lakevill, eCooo. 





THE CULTIVATOR. 




M APES' WROUGHT IROW AND STEEL SUB- 
SOIL PLOWS, iiioluding the '-Ooo-Hone SaUoil," 
for KAle at griouUAar»I Depot, 100 liurray-st. New- York. 
April 15-w2tmlt HENRY F. DIBBLES, 

FOR SALE, 

A BAY STALLION, three years old next June— got 
by Youug Kentucky Hunter, out of a Morgan mare. 
Uo M a verv superior oolt. Address O. S. ClTRTIS, care 
BARKRa, Whitakrb St, Co., Providence, R. I. 
March 26— w2tm2t 

SUFFOLK PIGS 

FOR SALE, at moderate prioM, by 
W. H. CLAY„ 
death Side P. O., Staten Island, 
March g&-wltmlt» or 82 Wall-et., New. York. 

THE CONCORD GRAPE. 

THE originator of this new Grape offers for sale a fine 
stock, raited from the parent vine. It has fully sus- 
tained its reputation as the 

Beat Grape for Oat-Door Callvro, 

having survived the last two severe winters unharmed. 
M-here tlie Isabella, Cat«wba, aod other vines were killed 
to the ground. 

For She, Beoaty, Quality and Bearing, 
It is unauroassed. It is perfectly hardv, and has never 
been aflfectea by rot or milaew. while it ripens fj»m three 
to four weeks earlier than the IsHbella, ana two weeks ear- 
lier than the Diana, in the garden of the proprietor. 

The following are some of the te«tinionials that have 
been received firom dilTerent aoorcee, respectiiig this 
Grape : — 

" We have received fW>m E. W. Boll of Concord, a flne 
specimen of tbe Concord Grape. This new seedling is at- 
tracting much attention among horticaJturists, and deser- 
vedly. It is a largo and handsomely ohuterod grape, and 
the flavor of the specimens wo have tanted is superior to 
that of the I«abella."~( Boston Journal, Sept.. 1864.] 

'*I have taken the ltbt*rty to gf«e you the impressions 
my late visit to your garden prixluoed in my mind. The 
exhibiiioo of your new Secdiiug G|»p«, now laden with 
its lutfcioits fruit, was to me ucrfecily bntisfactory. The 
size, bc*auty, rich bloom and fine flavor of the grape, fully 
a;iswer the glowing descriptions that have been given to 
it. Nono can look upon the wondtrfully luxuriant vines, 
loaded with their rich clusters, without rcsolviiig to obtain 
one for his own garden."— (Rev. A. BuUard, Cambridge, 
Mass., Sept. 19, 18M.] 

Mr. Mitl«r of Calmdale, Penn., fi.iys : " Last summer, 
when all my native and foreign vines lost most of their 
foliage, the Concord was tbe only vine which kept its fo- 
liage throughout.*' 

'^Wc tested at our late State Fair, several specimens of 
thiti new Eastern Grape, and were agreeably aisappointcd 
in it. Tbe berries are from a fourth to a third larger than 
either the Ii^abella or Catawba ; the bunches are larger 
and heavier ; the vine is far hardier than any other of 
northern origin \ and the fruit rii>eus from three weeks to 
a month earlier."— (Horace Groeley, Kew-York Tribune, 
Sent., 1854.1 

'* I regret the Grapes I received from you did not keep 
lunger. Tliey gave the utmost t>atirtfaction, ai;d every good 
judge of fruit said they were dtciitedly bttUr than iJU /so- 
4€tta.'-[L D. lugersol, llion, N. Y., Oct.. 1864.1 

'* The most beistutifal of the new haray Grapes is un- 
doubtedly the Concord." — (J. F. Allen, Report Mass. Hori. 
Society, 1864.1 

" The leiitimony in favor of this Grape is certainly very 
full and from well known horticult