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It may be useful to state the design of the present volume, which 
differs in its character from the preceding Series. 

The form of essay-writing, were it now moulded even by the hand of 
the Raphael of Essayists, would fail in the attraction of novelty ; Mo- 
rality would now in vain repeat its counsels in a fugitive page, and 
Manners now offer but little variety to supply one. The progress of 
the human mind has been marked by the enlargement of our know- 
ledge ; and essay-writing seems to have closed with the century whicii 
it charmed and enlightened. 

I have often thought that an occasional recurrence to speculations on 
human affairs, as they appear in private and in public history, and to 

other curious inquiries in literature and philosophy, would form some 
substitute for this mode of writing. These Researches, therefore, offer 
authentic knowledge for evanescent topics ; they attempt to demon- 
strate some general principle, by induction from a variety of particulars 
— ^to develop those imperfect truths which jfloat obscurely in the mind — 
and to suggest subjects, which, by their singularity, are new to inquiry-, 
and which may lead to new trains of ideas. Such Researches will 
often form supplements to our previous knowledge. 

In accustoming ourselves to discoveries of this nature, every research 
seems to yield the agreeable feeling of invention — it is a pleasure pecu- 
flar to itself — something which we ourselves have found out — and 
which, whenever it imparts novelty or interest to another, commimicates 
to hifl^lhe delight of the first discoverer. 

■' ' « A'-w V ^'*^ 3 







A new edition of Bayle in France is now in a proprea- 
•ive state of publication ; an event in literary historv which 
could not have been easily predicted. Every work which 
creates an epoch in hterature is one of the great monu- 
ments of the human mind ; and Bayle rony be considered 
as the father of literary curiosity, and' of Modern Literature. 
Much has been alleged against our author : yet let us be 
careful to preserve what is prepious. Baylu is the invent- 
or <^a work which dignified a collection of facts constitut- 
ing his text, bv the argum«ntative powers and the copious 
illustrations which charm us in his diversified commentary. 
Conducting the humble pursuits of an Aulus Gollius and an 
Atheneus, with a higher spirit he showed us the phUo$0' 
phy of Booktf and commi^nicated to such limited researches 
a value which they had otherwise not possessed. 

This was intniducing a study periecily distmct from 
what is pre-eminently distinguished as * classical learn, 
ing,' and the subjects which had usually entered into phi- 
lological pursuits. Ancient literature,' firom century to 
century, nad constituted the sole labours of the learned, 
and ' Varie lectiones* were long their pride nnd their 
reward. Latin was the literary language of Europe. 
The vernacular idiom in Italy was held in such contempt, 
that their youths were not suffered to read Italian books; 
their native productions ; Varchi tells a curious anecdote 
of his father sending him to prison, where he was kept on 
bread and water, as a penance for his inveterate passion 
for reading Italian books ! Dante was reproached by the 
erudite Italians for composing in his mother tongue, still 
expressed by the degradmg designation ofUvol^aref which 
tho * resolute' John Florio renders ' to make common ;* and 
to translate was contemptuously called txAgarixzart ; while 
Petrarch rested his fame on his Laiin poetry, and called 
his Italian nugdUu mdgam ! With us, Roger Ascham 
was the first who boldly avowed * To speak a» the common 
peopUf to think as wise men;* yet, so late as the time of 
Bacon, this great man did not consider his * Moral Essays 
as likely to last in the moveable sands of a modem lan- 

Siage, for he as anxioualy had them sculptured in the mar- 
e of ancient Rome. 'Yet what had the great ancients 
themselves done, but trusted to their own volgare 7 The 
Greeks, the finest aikd most original writers of the ancients, 
observes Adam Ferguson, * were unacmiainted with every 
language hut their own ; and if they necame learned, it 
was only by studying what they themselves had produced.* 
During fourteen centuries, whatever lay out of the pale 
of classical learning was condemned as barbarism ; in the 
mean while, however, • amidst this barbarism, another lite- 
rature was insensibly creating itself in Europe. Every 
Eople, in the gradual accessions of their vernacular genius, 
(covered a new sort of knowledge, one which m<fredeep» 
ly interested their feelings and the times, reflecting lbs 
image, not of the Greeks and the Lathis, but of themselves ! 
A sp'u^t of inquiry, originating in events which had never 
reached the ancient world, Mid the same refined taste in 
the arts of compositioo caught from the models of antiquity, 
at length raiseo tip rivals, who competed with the great 
■ocients themselves ; and Modem Literature now occu- 
Ities a space which looks to be immensi^r* coropartd with 
th9 narrow and the imperfect limits oTthe andML A 
•onplete collection of classical works, all the bees of aiH 
tii|uitj, nay be hired io a glass case; but those we 
rtiwiw flid only the milk and lumey of our youth ; to ob- 

tain the substantial nourishment of Eoropean knowledge, 
a library of ten thousand volumes will not satisfy our in- 
quirieii, nor supply our reasearches even on a single topic! 
Let not, however, the votaries of ancient literature dread 
its neglect, nor be over jmJous of their younger and Gothic 
sister. The existence uf their favourite study is secured, 
as well by its own imperishable claims, as by the staticma- 
ry intFtitutions of Europe. But one of those silent revo« 
lutions in the intellectual history of mankind, which are 
not so obvious as those in their political state, seems now 
fully accomplished. The very term * classical,* so long 
limited to the ancient authors, is now equally applicable to 
the most el«>^ant writers of eivexy literary people ; and al- 
though Latin and Greek were long characterized •■ < the 
learned languages,* yet we cannot in trath any longer con- 
cede that tliose are the most learned who are < inter Gre- 
cos Grspcistfimi, inter Latinos Latinis&imi,* any mere than 
we can reject from the class of * the learned,* those great 
writers, who^e scholarship in the ancient classics may be 
very indifferent. The modem languages now have alsc 
become learned ones, when he who writes in them is im- 
bued with their respective learning. He is a * learned* wri- 
ter who has embraced most knowledge on the particular 
subject of his investigation, as he is a * classical* one who 
composes with the greatest elegance. Sir David Dal- 
rymple dedicates his * Memorials relating to the History 
of Britain' to the Earl of Hardin icke, whom he stales 
with equal happiness and propriety, * Learned in British 
History.* ' Scholarship* has nitherto been a term reserv- 
ed for the adept in aorieni literature, whatever may be the 
mediocrity of his intellect ; but the honourable distinction 
must be extended to all great writers in modem literature, 
if we would not confound the natural sense and proprictf 
of things. 

MoJem literature may, perhaps, still be discriminated 
from the ancient, by a term it besan to be called by at the 
Reformation, that of (he New Learning.' Without sup- 
plaming the ancient, the modern must grow up with it ; the 
further we advance in society, it will more deeply occupy 
our interests; and it has already proved what Bacon, 
casting his philosophical views retrospectively and pros- 
pectively, has chserved, * that Time was the greatest of 
When Bayle projected his *Criticil Dictionary,' he 

rirobably had no idea that he was about effecting a revo- 
ution in our libraries, and founding a new province in the 
dominion of hionan knowledge ; creative genius oflen is 
itself the creature of its own age : it is but that reaction 
of public opinion, which is generally the fore-runner of 
some critical chanfe,or which calls forth some wanfo which 
sooner or later will be supplied. The predisposition for 
the various, but neglected literature, and the curious, but 
the scsttered knowledge, of the modems, which had long 
been increasing, with the speculative turn of inquiry, pre- 
vailed in Europe, when Bayle took his pen to give tho 
thing itself a name and an existence. But the sreat au- 
thors of modem Europe were not yet consecrated bengs, 
like the ancients, and their voltmoes were not read from 
the chairs oftroiversities; yet the new interests whidi had 
arisen in society, the new modes of human lifO| tho new 
spread of knowledge, the curiosity afler even the little 
things which concern us, the revelations of secret history, 
and the state papers which have sometimes escaped from 
national archives, the f>hilosophicil spirit which was has- 
tening its steps and rusing i^ new systems of thinkin% \ 


all ahke reauired rcMarch and ciiticisra, inquirj and dis- 
cossum. Bajrie had first studied his own a(0| before he 
(are the public his ireat work. 

* If Bayle/ says Gibbon, * wrote his dictionary to empty 
the various coiiectMu be had made, without any particu- 
lar design, he could not hare cho«en a better plan. It per- 
mitted bim CTery ihinf, and obiiced him to nothing. By 
the double freeJum of a dictionary and of notes, he could 
pitch ou what articles he pleased, and say what he pleas- 
ed in those artidrs.' 

* Jacta eat aim !* exclaimed Bsyle, on the pubiicatioo of 
his dictionary, as yet dubious of the extraordinary enter- 
prise : perhaps while going on with the work, he knew not 
at times, wfauhur he was directing his course ; but we 
must tliink, Uiat in his own mind he counted on something, 
which might have been difficult even fur Bayle himself to 
have developed The author of the * Cniical Dictionary* 
had produced a voluminous labour, which, to all a{ipear- 
ance, could only rank him areoof compilers and reviewers, 
for his work is formed of such materials as they might use. 
He had never studied any science ; he confessed that he 
eould never demonstrate the first problem in Euclid, and 
to his last day ridiculed that sort oT evidence called mathe- 
matical demons: ration. He had but httle taste for classi- 
cal learning, for he quotes the Latin writers cuiiously, not 
elegantly ; and there is reason to suspect that he had en- 
tirely neglected the Greek. Even the erudition of antiquity 
usually reached him by the ready medium of some Giu'man 
Commentator. His multifarious reading was diieflv coo- 
fined to the writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth coi- 
furies. With such deficiencies in his klerary ciiaracter, 
Bayle could not reasonably expect to obtain pre-eniiuenca 
in anv nngle pursuit. Hitherto his wriiings had not extri- 
cateo him from tho secondary ranks of literature, where 
Iw fbuad a rival at eveiy step ; and without his great work, 
the name of Bayle at this moment had been buried among 
hit ooiitroversia'lists, the rabid Jurieu, the cloudy Jacque- 
hit, and the envious Le Clerc ; to these, indeed, he sacri- 
ficed too many of his valuable davs, and was still answer- 
ing them, at the hour uf his deat6. Such was the cloudy 
horizon of that bright fame which was to rise over Europe! 
Bayle, intent on escaping from all beaten tracks, while 
the very materials he used pn;*mised no novelty, for all 
his knowledge was drawn from old books, opened an eccen- 
tric route, where at least he could encounter no parallel ; 
Bayle felt that if he could not stand alone, he would only 
have been an eq«ial by the side of another. Experience 
had more than once taught this mortifying lesson ; but he 
was blest with the genius which could stamp an inimitable 
ori|hnality on a folio. 

This oii^rinality seems to have been obtained in this 
manner. Tho exhausted topics of classical literature he 
. resigned as a province not adapted to an ambitious genius ; 
sciences hf rarely touched on, and hardly ever with- 
out betraying superficial knowledge, snd uvolvmg him- 
self ia absurdity : but in the history of men, in penetrat- 
ing Um motives of iheir conduct^ in cSf aring up obscure 
circuiastancvs, in detecting the strong snd the weak parts 
of him wh«i be was trying, and in the cross-examinatioo of 
the mmerous witnesses he sumroooed, he assumed at 
mwa the judge and tho advocate ! Books for him were 
pictures ch* meii*s inventions, and the histories of their 
thoughts ; for any book, whatever be its qualitv, nuist be 
considered as an experimrnt of the human mind. 

In controversies, m which he was so ambi-dexterous'— 
m the progress of the human mind, in which he was so philo- 
•ophical---furnished, too, bv his hoardine curiosity with an 
immense accumulation oT details, — skilful in the art of 
detecting falsehoods amidst truths, and weighing proba- 
bihty against uncertainty— holding tO(!vther the chain of 
argument from its first principle, to its remotest conse- 
quence— Bayle stands among those masters of the hunun 
iniellect who taught us to think, and also to unthink ! All, 
indeed, is a c>llec:ion of researches and reawnings : be 
bad the art of inetiing down his curious quotations with 
kis own subtile ideas. Ho collects every thing : |f truths, 
diey enter into history ; if fictions, into discussions : he 
>Uces the wcret bv the side of the public story : opinion 
s balanced against opinion : if bis arguments grow te- 
iious, a lucky anecdo?e or an euliveninj; tale relieve the 
blio pa^ ; and, knowing the infirmity of our nature, he 
Ncks up trivial things to amuse Ui, srhile he is grasping 
he most i^tract and ponderous. Hwaan nature in her 
Aifiing scenery, and the human nund in its eoeaotric diree- 
doM, Qp&a on'hia view; ao that an anknown ptraon or a 

worthless book, are equally objects for his speculatioo with 
the most eminent— they alike curiously instruct. Sucb 
were the materials, and such the genius of the man, whoa« 
ibllios, which seenied destined for the retired few, lie open 
on parlour tables. The men of gemus of his age sttKued 
them for instnictioo, the men of the world for their amus«>- 
ment. Amidst the mass of Acts which he has collected, 
and the enlarged views of human nature which his philo- 
sophical spirit has combined with lus researchei*, Bayle 
may be called the Shakspeare of diciiooary makers ; a 
sort of chimerical being, whose existence was not ima|pi»ed 
U> be possible before Uie lime of Bayle. 

But nis errors are votuminous as his genius ! and what 
do apologies avail ? They only account for the evil which 
they cannot alter ! 

Bayle is reproadied for carrying his speculations too 
far into the wuds of scepticism— he wrote in a distempered 
time ; he was witnessing the draganadcM and the revor*- 
tiomt of the Romish church ; and he lived amidst the Re> 
formed, or the French prophets, as we called them when 
they came over us, and in whom Sir Isaac Newton mote 
than h^ believed; these testified that they heard aoifek 
singing in the air, while our philosopher was convinced that 
he was hving among men for whom no angel would sing ! 
Bayle had left persecutors to fly to fanatics, both equaiQy 
appealing to the GKispel, but ahke untouched bv its bles- 
sedness! Hu impurities were a taste inherited from his 
fiivouriie oM writers, whose mantti seemed to sport with 
the grossness which it touched, and neither in France, nor 
at home, had the ago then attained to our moral delicacy : 
Bavie himself was a man without passions ! His trivial 

matters were an author's compliance with the bookseller's 
taste, whidi is always that of the public. His scepticism 
is said to have thrown every thmg into disorder. Is it 
more positive evil to doubt, than to dogmatise ? Even 
Aristotle often pauses with a qualifying perAsps, and the 
egotist Cicero with a modest k seems fe me. His sceptt- 
cinn has been oseftU in hiolorir, and has often shown how 
facts oniversaHy believed, ara <MNibtfiil and sometimes must 
he fidse. Bayle, it is said, is perpetwJIy contradicting 
himself; but a sceptic must dooM nis doubts ; he places 
the antidote close to the jpoisoQ, and lays the sheath bj 
the sword. Bayle has himself described one of thoss 
self-tormenting and many headed aceptics by a very nobis 
figure, ■ He was a Hydra who waa perpetually teshaf 

The time has now come when Bayle may instmet with> 
oat danger. We have passed the ordeab he had to go 
through ; we must now consider him as the hist oiian of 
our thoughts as well as of our actions ; he dispenses the 
hterary stores of the modems, in that vast repository of 
their wisdom and their follies, which, by its onginalitjr of 
design, has made him aa author common to aU Europe. 
Nowhere shall we fhsd a rival for Bayle ! and hardlj even 
an imitator ! He coonmred himself, fur hn power of rais- 
ing up, or dispelling objections and doubts, to * the ch md. 
oumpelling Jove,' The great Leibnitz, who was himself 
a lover of his oarsa smdifio, applied a line of Virgil to 
Bayle, diaracteruing his luminous and elevated gemus : 

* Sub pedihosque vklet nubes et sidera Daphs^* 
Beneath his fiiet he views ihs donds and sura. 

cHAKAcne&isTics or bayle. 

To know Bayle as a man, we must not study him in tim 
folio Life of Des Maisesux ; whose laborious pencil, with- 
out colour, and withoot expression, loses in its indistinci- 
nen the individuabsing strokea of the portrait. Look fisr 
Bayle in his * Letters,' those true chronicles of a htormry 
man, when they solely record his own pursuits. 

The personal character of Bayle was unblemished 

by calumny— his executor, Basrage, never couM mention 
lum without tears ! With simplicity which approached to 
an mfantine nature, bat with the fortitude of^ a Stoic, oar 
literary philosopher, from his earliest days, dedicated him- 
self to fitirrature ; the great sacrifice consisted of thons 
two main objects of human pursuits — fortune and a fanu- 
ly. Many an ascetic, who has headed an order, has noc 
so religiously abstained from all worldly interests ; yet 1st 
us not imagine that there was a sullenness in hisstoicisni ; 
an icy misanthropy which shuts up the heart from its ebb 
and flow. His oomestic aficctioai through life wars I! 
vid. When his mother desired to receive his portrait, 
seat h«r a picture of his heart ! Early ia Kfo the 
Bayle was strengihenhic iisdf by a phikoopUcal 
tion to all haaiaB sraala ! 



* I MB indeed of a dwpoeitioii neither to fear bad fortune, 
nor to have ver^ ardent desiret tor good. Yet I luee this 
tteadineff and lodiffercBce when I reflect, that jour love 
to me makes you ML §at •tvy thug that happens to me. 
It n. therefore, (Kmb thscflSiiaerition that my mi.->fortunes 
would be a torment to yon, that I wish to be happj i and 
when I think that my happiness would be all your joy, I 
should lament that my bad fortune should contmue to per- 
secute me ; though, as to my own particular interest, I dare 
promise to myieu that I sludl never be very much affected 
by R,» 

An instance oc cur r e d of those social affections in which 
a sUnc b sometimes supposed to be deficient, which might 
have aflforded a beautiuU illustration to one of our most 
elegantpoels. The remembrance of the happy moments 
which Eiayle spent when yo*mg on the borders of the river 
Auriege, a short distance from his native town of Carlat, 
where ne had been sent to recover from a fever, occasion- 
ed by an excessive indulgence in reading, induced him 
manv years aAerwards to devote an article to it in his 
' Critical Dictionary,* for the sake of quoting the poet who 
had celebrated this obscure river ; it was a * Pleasure of 
Memory !' a tender association of domestic feeling ! 

The nrst step which Bayle took in life is remarkable.— 
He dianmd hts religion and became a Catholic ; a year 
afterwards he returned to the creed of his fathers. Pos- 
terity might not have known the story had it not been re- 
corded in his Diary. The circumstance is thus curiously 


Tears of the Tears 

Christian of roy 

JEra. age. 

IMO. Tuesday, March 19. 22 I changed my religk)n-- 

noxt day I resumed the 
study of logic 


August Sa S3 

I returned to the reform* 
ed religion, snil made a 

Sivate abjuration of the 
ominh religion in the 
hands of four ministers ! 

His brother was one of these ministers; while a Cath- 
olic, Bayle had attempted to convert him by a letter, long 
enough to evince his sincerity : but without his subscrip- 
tion, we shoukl not have ascribed it to Bayle. 

For this vaeiilarion in his religion has Bavle endured 
bitter censure. Gibbon, who hiraMlf changed his, about 
the same * year of his ace,* and for as short a period, sar- 
castkallv observes of the first entry, that Baylo should 
have finMhed his logic before he chsnied his religion.' It 
may be retorted, that when he had leamt to reason, he 
renounced Catholicism! The true fact is, that when 
Bayle had only studied a few months at college, some 
books of controversial divinity by the Cai holies, ofierod 
many a specious argument against the reformed doctrines ; 
a yoiing stndent was easily entangled in the nets of the 
Jesuits. But their passive obedience, and their transub- 
■tantiatioo, and other stuff woven in their looms, soon 
•nabled such a man as Bayle to recover his senses. Tlie 
jproraJses snd the caresses of the wily Jesuits were reject- 
ed, and the push of tears of the brothers, on his return to 
the religion of his fathers, is one of the most pathetic in- 
cidents of domestic life. 

Bayle was willing to become an expatriated man ; to 
study from the love of study, in poverty and honour ! It 
happens sometimes that great men are criminated for their 
Boolest deeds by both parties. 

When his );rrat work appeared, the adversaries of 
Bayle reproached him with haste, while the author ex- 
pressed his Astonishment at his slowness. At first ' the 
Critical Dictionary,' consisting only of two folios, was fin- 
ished in li'tlft more than four years ; but in the life of 
Bavle this was e<)oivalent to a treble amount with man of 
ordinary application. Bayle even calculated the tim<i of 
his head-aches ; ' My megrims would have left me had it 
been in my power to have lived without study ; by them I 
lose many oays in every month'—- the fact is, that Bayle 
bad entirely given up every sort of recreation except tnat 
delicious inebriation of hn faculties, as we may term it 
for those who know what it is. which he drew 'from his 
books : we have his ayowal. * Public amusements, games, 
country jaunts, monring visits, and other recreations ne- 
cessary to many students, as they tell us, were none of 
mi hiMJanis I wasud bo tiaia oo tbem, nor in any do> 

mestic cares ; neyer soliciting for preferment, nor busied 
in any other way. I have been happily delivered from 
many occupations which were not suitable to my hu- 
mour ; and I have enjoyed the greatest and the most 
charming leisure that a man of letters could desire. By 
such means an author makes a great progress m a few 

Ba^le, at Rotterdam, was appointed to a professorship 
of philosophy and history ; the salary was a compt^tcnce 
to his frugal life, and enabled him to publish his celebrated 
Review, which he dedicates < to the glory of llie city,' for 
iUa nobii hax otia fecit. 

After this grateful acknowledjfmenl he was unexpect- 
edly deprived of the professorship. The secret history is 
curious. AAcr a tedious war, some one amused the world 
by a chimerical ' Project of Peace,' which was much 
against the wishes and the designs of our William III.— > 
Jurieu, the head of tiro Reformed pany in Holland, a man 
of healed fancies, persuaded Williara'.i party that this 
book was a part of a secrot cabal in Europe, raised by 
Loub XIV against William IK ; and accused Bayle as 
the author and promoter of this political conffderacy. The 
ma^'titrates, who were the creatures of William, dismiss- 
ed Bayle without alleging any reason. To an ordinary 
Ehilosopher it would have seemed hard to lose his salary 
ecause his antagonist was one 

* Whose swoird is sharper than his pen.* 

Bayle only rejoiced at this emancipation, and quietly 
returned to his Dictionary. His feelings on this occasion 
he has himself perpetuated. 

* The sweetness and repose I find in the studies in 
which I have engaged myself, and which are my delight, 
will induce me to remain in this ciry, if I am allowed to 
continue in it, at least till the printing of my I>ictinrtary 
is finished ; for my presence is aosolutely necevsai^ to the 
place where it is printed. I am no lover of money, nor 
of honours, and would not accept of any invitation, should 
it be made to me ; nor am I fond of iliu disputes and ca- 
bals, and nrofe^sorial snariings, which reign in all our aca- 
demies : Canam mihi et Mune.* He was indeed so charm- 
ed bv quiet and independence, that he was continually re- 
fusing the most magnificent offers of patronage : from 
Count Guiscard, the French ambassador; hut particulariy 
from our English nobility. The Earls of Shaftesbury, of 
Aibermarle, and of Huntingdon, tried every solicitation to 
win him over to reside with them as th^fir friend ; and loo 
nice a sense of honour induced Bavle to refuse the Duke 
of Shrewsbury's gift of two hundred guineas for thn dedi- 
cation of his dictionary, ' 1 have so often ridiculed dedications 
that I must not risk any,' was the reply of our philosopher. 

The only complaint which escaped from Bayle was the 
want of books ; an evil particularly frit during his writing 
the ' Critical Dictionary;' a work which should have been 
composed not distant from the shelves of a public library. 
Men of classical attainments, who are studying about 
twenty authors, snd chiefly for their style, can mrm no 
conception of the state of famine to which an ' helluo lib- 
ronim ' is too often reduced in the new sort of study which 
Bayle founded. Taste when once obtained may ae said 
to be no acouiring faculty, and must remain stationary ; 
but Knowleo^TQ is of perpetual ^wth, and has infinite oe- 
mands. Ta.^te, like an artificial canal, winds through a 
beautiful country; but its borders are confined, and its 
term is limited ; Knowledge navieates the ocean, and is 
perpetually on voyages of discovery. Bayle often crieves 
over the scarcity, or the want of books, £y which he was 
compelled to leave many things uncertain, or to take them 
at second hand : but he lived to discover that trusting to 
the reports of others, was too often suffftrini; the blind to 
lead the blind. It was this circumstance whidi induced 
Bayle to declare, that some works cannot be written in the 
country, and that the metropolis only can supply the wants 
of the literary man. Plutarch has made a similar confes- 
sion ; and the ekier Pliny who had not i^o many volumes to 
turn over as a modern, was sensible to the wants of books, 
for be acknowledges that there was no book so bad by 
which we might not profit. 

Bayle's peculiar vein of research and skill in difcus- 
sion first appeared in his * Pennies sur la Comete.' In 
December, 1680. a comet had appeared, and the public 
yet tremUed At a portentniia meteor, which they still ima- 
gined was connected with some forthcomine and terrible 
event! Perrons as curious as they were terrified teased 
Bayle by their inquiries, but resisted all bis arguoaota* 



Tbej found many ihin^ more than argumrnta in hit aniufl- j 
ing yolumea : * I am not one uf the aumuri by profegi ion/ { 
says Bsyle, in giving an account uf the mcihcHl he meant , 
to pursue, ' who follow a serieit of viewy ; who first project i 
they subject, then divide it into bonks ami chaptent, and ; 
who only choose to work on the ideas they have planned. | 
I, for my part, give up all claims to authurathip, and shall < 
chain myself tu no sucli servitude. I cannot meditate with < 
much regularity on one subject ; I am too fond of ctiange. | 
I often wander frum the subject, and jump intu places of 
which it might be difficult to ^ uem the way out ; so that I 
ahall make a l«anwd doctor who looks for method quite un- 
pati«nt with roe.' The work is imiced full of curiosities 
and aneedotes, with many critical ones concerning history. 
Aft fint it found an eatiy entrance into France, as a sim* 
E^e account of comuts ; but when it was discovered that 
BayleS comet had a number of fienr tails coneemine the 
French and the Austrians, it aooo became as terrinc as 
the comet itself, and was prohibited ! 

Bayle*8 'Critique generate de fhistoire du Calvinbroe 
par le Pere Maimbourc,* had more pleasantry than bitter. 
ness, eicept to the palate of the vindictive Father, who 
waa of too hot a constitution to relish the delicacy of our 
author** wiu Maimbourg stirred up all the intrigues he 
could rouse to get the Critioue burnt by the hangman at 
Paris. The lieutenant of tne police, Dc la Reynie, who 
was among the many who did not dislike to see the Father 
corrected by Bayle, delayed' this execution from time to 
time, till there came a final order. This lieutenant of the 
police was a shrewd fellow, and wishing to put an odium 
on the bigoted Maimbourg, allowed the urascible Father to 
write the proclamation himself with all the violen«% of an 
enraged author. It is a curioiii specimen of one who evi- 
dentfy wuhed to bum hit brollier with his book. In this 
curious p«t>clamatian, which has been preserved as a litera- 
ry curiosity, Bayle's ' Critique* is declared to be defamato- 
ry and calumnious, abound mg wifh seditious forgeries, per- 
nicious to ail good subjects, and therefore is condemned to 
be torn to pirces, and burnt at thi> Place de Crrve. All 
printers and books^llrrs are forbidden to print, or to sell, 
or disperse the said aboininable hook, under pain of death ; 
and all oth«*r per<on$. of what quxUtv or conoitittu soever, 
are to undergo the penalty of exemplary puni^Khment. De 
le Reynie must have smiled on submissively receiving this 
effusion frum our enraged author ; and to punish Maim- 
bourg in the only way he could contrive, and to do at the 
same time the greatest kindness to Bayle, whom he ad- 
mired, he dispersed three thousand copie»«f this proclama- 
tion to be posted up thrr^ugh Paris : the alarm and the cu- 
riosity were simultaneous ; but the latter prevailed. Every 
book collector ha«tened to procure a cony so terrificaljy de- 
nounced, and at the same time so amusing. The author 
cfthe * Livres conilamn^ au feu* might havo insert -d this 
anecdote in his collertion. It may be worth adding, that 
Maimbourg always affected to say that he had never read 
Bayle^ ivork ; but he afterwanfs confcss^ed to Menage, 
that ha wald not help valuing a bonk of such runovity. 
Jurieuwta to jealous of its success, that Beanval nttnbutKS 
hia peraonal natred of Bayle to our young philosopher 
OTerwiadowing that veteran.' 

The taste for literary h)<(tory we owe to Bayle ; and ^e 
great interest he communicated to these rrsearches spread 
in the national tastes of Europe. France has been always 
the riefaest in these gtores, but our acquisitiftns have been 
lapid ; and Johnson, who delighted in th^m. elevated their 
wieam and their end, by the> ethical pHili<R<iphy and the 
epirit of criticism which lie awoke. With Bayle. indeed, 
hit minor works were the seed-pbts ; but his great Dic- 
tiottary opened the fiiiMl. 

It it curious, however, to detect the difficulties of early 
attempts, and the rodi ff ere n t success which sometimes at- 
tends them in their first slate. Bayle, to lighten the fa* 
tigue of oorrectinf the second ediuon of his Dictionary, 
wrote the first volume of 'Maponses aux Questions d*un 
Provincial,* a supoosititious correspondence with a country 
gentlenum. It was a work of mere literary rurinsiiy, ami 
«r a bettet description of miwellaneous writing than that 
of the prevalent fashion of giving thoughts and nrmximt, 
and fanciful charactfrs, and idle stories, which had satiated 
the public taste : however the book was not well received. 
He atlribut«>s the public caprim tn hb prodigality oTitera- 
ry anecdotes, and other mi»Wi« titermimt and his frequent 
Molatioat! but he defends himself with tkill. * It is against 
Uw aatore ef things to pretend that in a work to prove and 
' ap CMlt, an author tbookl only oako ate oif hiaomi 

thoughts, or that he oughi to quoti* very seldum. 1 bote 
who vav, that the work dues not sufHi.ienilv interest the 
piibhc, are doubtless in the ri^ht; but an author cannoc 
interet^t the public exceiil he discu^^st-s moral or political 
subjects. All others with vihich men of letters till their 
bouks are useleta to the I'Ublic and we ouj^ht to con- 
sider ihem as only a kind of iVdiIiv nounslimeiit in ihera 
stives; hut which, hi>wevt-r, gratify the curiosity ofmany 
readers, accofdiitg to the diversities of their tasti-s. Whai 
i:* there fur example, lc:ts interesting to the public than 
the Bibliotkitpte Choine of Coloinies (a small bibliograpf.i 
cal work ;) vet is that work looketi on as excellent in its 
kind. I could mention other works which are rea:l, though 
containing nothing which intt>rests the public* Two yean 
after, when he resumed these letters, he changed his plan ; 
he became more argumt'ntative, and more sparing of lite- 
rary and historical articles. We have now c» rtainly ob- 
tained more decided notions of the nature of this Kpeciee 
of composition, and treat such investigations with in<:re 
skill ; still they are ' caviare to the multitude.' An accu- 
mulation of dry facts, without any exertion of ta^te or dis- 
cussion, fcmns but the barren and obscure diligence of 
title-hunters. All things which come tn the nader with- 
out having first passed through the mind, as well a^ ihe 
pen of the writer, will be still open to the fatal objectidn of 
msane industry raging with a depraved appetite for trash 
and cinders ; and mis is the line of demarcation which will 
for ever separate a Bayle from a Prosper Marclmnd, and 
a Warton from a Ritson : the one roust be satisfied ro be 
ustfiil, but the other wUl not fail to lieligh'. Ycr s(mii«» 
thing must be alleged in favour of those who n.ay some- 
times indulge renearches too minutely ; perhaps (lure is a 
point beyond which nothing remains hui useless curiositv ; 
yet this too may be relative. The pleasure of thene pur- 
suits ia only tasted by those who are accustomed to them, 
and whose employments are thus converted into amuse- 
ments. A man of fine genius, Addison relates, tra!iif d up 
in all the polite studies of antiquity, upon being ob!ig«'d fo 
search into several rolls and records, at first (onnd ihis a 
very dry and irksome emplovment; yet he ast^ured me, 
ihat at last he took an incredible pleasufe in it, and pre- 
ferred it even to the reading of Virgii and Cicero. 

As for our Bayle. he exhibits a perfect model oi the real 
literary character. He, with the secret alchymy of human 
happiness, extracted his tranquillity out of the hn^cr metaU, 
at the cost of his ambition and his fortune. Throughout 
a voluminous work, he experienced the enjojpient of per- 
petual acquisition and delight ; he obtained glory, and ht- 
endured persecution. He died as he had lived, in the 
same uninternipied habits of composition ; for with hie 
dying hand, and nearly speechless, he sent a fresh proof 
to the printer ! ,. 


Mr Fuseli, in the introduction to the seoond part of his 
Lectures, ha« toucheil on the character of Cicero, respect- 
ing hi;* knowledge and feeling of Art, in a manner which 
excites our curiosity. * Though,* fays that eloquent lec- 
turer, * Cicent seems to have had as little natiit tasU for 
painting and sculpture, and even less than he had taste for 
poetry, he had a conception of Nature, «nd with his usual 
acumen frequently scattered useful hints and pertint-nt 
obeervalions. For many of these he might iirobahly be 
indebted to Hortenoiu*:, with whom, though his rival in 
eloquence, he lived on terms of familiarity, and who was a 
man of declared 'aste, and one of the first collectors of the 
time,* The inqiiirv may amuse, to trace the prr-grefs of 
Cicero's taste for the vrorksofart; which was probably a 
late, but an ardent pursuit with this celebrated man ; and 
their actual enjoyment seems with him rather to have been 
connected wi-h some future plan of life. 

Cicern. when about forty three vears of age, seems to 
have projected the formation of a library and a collection 
of antiquities, with the remote intention of secession, and 
one day stea'ing away from the noisy honours of the re- 
pub'ic. Although that great man remained too long a 
victim to his political ambition, yet at all times his natural 
dispositions would break out, and amidst his public avoca* 
tions he often anticipated a time when life would be un- 
varied without uninienupted repose : but repose, destitute 
of the ample fu-niture. and even of the luxuries of a mind 
occupying itself in literature and art, would only for him 
have opened the repose of a desert ! It was rather hit 
provident wisdom than tbeir actual enjoyment, which m- 
duced him, at a boned period of hit life, to accmiQlata 



from all parts, books, and aCatiiea, and curiosities, witliout 
uumber; in a word, to bocomc^ according to the term, too 
oflen misapplied and misconceived among us, for it is not 
always understood in an honourable sense, a collector ! 

Like other later ooUectmrs, Cicero often appears ardent 
to possess what he was not able to command ; sometimes 
he entreats, or cireuUously negociates, or is planning the 
future means to secure the acquisitions which he thirsted 
after. He is repeatedly soliciting his literary friend Atticus 
to keep his books for him, and not to dispose of his coUec- 
t'lojM on any terms, however earnestly the bidders may 
crowd ; and, to ke«p his patience in good hope (for Atli- 
ciis imagined his collectiun would exceed the price which 
Cicero cuuld afTord,^ he desires Atticus not to despair of 
hxA being able to make them his, for that he was saving all 
his rents to purchase these books for the relief of his 
old ace. 

This projected library, and collection of antiouitiek, it 
was the mtention of Cicero to have placed in his favourite 
villa in the neighbourhood of RonK-, whose name, conse- 
crated by limp, now proverbially describes the retirement 
of a man of elegant taittes. To adorn his villa at Tuscn- 
luni formed the day .dreams of iIum man of genius ; and his 
pa.<<!>ion broke out in all the enthusiasm and impatience 
which so frec]»vntly characterize the modem collector. 
Not only Atticus, on whose fine taste he could depend, but 
every one likelv to increase his acquisitions, was Cicero 
prrseculing witli entreaties, on entreaties, with the sediic- 
tii>n of large prices, and with the expectation, that if the 
orator ana cnioiiil wuiild submit to accept any bribe, it 
vi'Duld hardly be refused in the shape of a manusciipt or a 
statue. ' In the nam** of uur frit^mlsliip,' itays Ciccr**, ad- 
drf.<{sing Atticus, ' AufTer nothing in c«rape voii of what- 
ever you find curious or rare.' When Atticus infurmiid 
him that he should send him a fine statue, in whioh the 
hi'.vis of Mercury and Minerva were united together, 
CViccro. with the euthuifia^fn of a maniacal idver of ilie urp- 
F-nt day, finds every objt-ct which is uncommon the very 
tl'.in:! fi>r whi''li ho has a proper place. ' Your discovery 
i>> adinirsble. and tho statue you mention seems to have 
b^en ma<l'? purposely for my rabiii'^t.' Then follows an 
emlanaiion of t*ie mysterr of this allegorical statue, which 
expressed the happy union of exercise and study. 'Con- 
tinue.' hr. adds, * to collect for nie, as you have promised, 
in OS great a quantity a» poitnbU, morsels of this kind.' 
( ■icf'ro, Ilka other collectors, may be suspected not to have 
been ynry difficult in his choice, and for him the curious 
was not |e«s valued than the beauiifiil. The mind and 
temp#'r of Cicero were of a robust and philosop'iical cayt, 
not t/io subject to the tortures of those whose morbid ima- 
If.-nation and delicacy of taste touch on infirmity. It is. 
however, amusing to observe this great man, actuated by 
all the fervour and joy of collecting. ' I have paid your 
aeent — as Toa ordered, for the Me^aric statues — send me 
as many <m them as you can, arul a» noon as poiriUe^ wijih 
any others which you think proper for the place, and to 
my taste, and goocl enough to please yours. You cannot 
imagine how greatly my pasnon inrrrasfs for this nort of 
things ; it is siich that it may appear ridiculout in the eyes 
of many ; hut you are my friend, and will only think' of 
saMsfving my wishes.' Again — * Purchase for me, with- 
out thinking further, all that you discover of rarity. Mjr 
friend, do not spare my purse.' And, indeed, in 'another 
place he loves Atticus both for his promptitude and cheap 
pnrchases : TV mtUtum amannUf quod ta (^ te dUigenUrf 
pmvoque eurata nmt. 

Our collectors may not be displeased to discover at their 
lif ad so venerable a persouaee as Cicero ; nor to sanction 
their own feverish thirst and panting impatience with all 
the ripture^ on the day of possession, and the * saving of 
rents' to afford commanding prices— by the authority of 
the greatest philosopher of aniiquity. 

A fact is noticed in this article which requires eliicida^ 
tion. In the life of a true collector, the selling of his books 
is a sinc\ilar incident. The truth is, that the elegant friend 
of Cieero, residing in the literary city of Athens, appears 
to have enjoyed but a moderate income, and may be said 
to have traded not only in books, but in gladiators, whom 
he let out, and also charged interest for the vsq of his mo- 
n#»y ; circumstances which Cornelius Nepos, who gives 
an account of his landed property, has omitted, as, pt rhaps, 
not well adapted to heighten the interesting picture which 
he gives of Articos, but which the Abb^ MongauU has de- 
tected in his curious notes on Cicero's leUers to Atticus. 
b k eertain that be emplojedhia alayea, wiio, *lo thefooU 

boy,' as Middleton expresses himself, were all literary and 
skilful scribes, in copying the works of the best autbi»rB fur 
his own use ; but the duplicates were sold, to the common 
profit of the master and the slave. The state of hterature 
among tho ancients may be paralleled with that of the age 
of our first restorers of learning, when printing was not yet 
established ; then Boccaccio, and Petrarch, and such men, 
were collectors, and zealously occupied in the manual la- 
bour of transcription ; immeasurable was the delight of 
that avariciousness of manuscript, by which, in a certain 
given time, the possessor, with an unwearied pen, coukl 
enrich himself by his copy ; and this copy an estate would 
not always purchase ! Besides that a manuscript selected 
by Atticus, or copied by the hand of Boccaccio and Pe- 
trarch, must have risen in value, associating it with the 
known taste and judgment of the collector. 


The congenial histories of literature and of art are ac- 
companied by the same periodical revolutions ; and none 
is more interesting than that one which occurs in the de- 
cline and corruption of arts, when a single mind retuniing 
to right principles, amidst the degenerated race who had 
fomaken tht-m, seems to create a new epoch, and leaches 
a servile race once more how to invent ! These epochs are 
few, but are easily distinguished. The human mmd is ne- 
ver stationary ; it advances or it retrogrades ; having 
reached its meridian pomt, when the hour of perfection 
has gone by, it must verge to its decline. In all Art, per- 
fection lapses into that weakened stale too of^en digni- 
fied as classical imitation ; but it sinks into mannerism, and 
wanrons into HHectation, till it shoots out into fantastic 
novejiies. When all languishes in a state of mediocrity, 
or is deformed by false tastes, then is reserved for a for- 
tunate genius the glory of restoring another golden age of 
invention. The history of the Caracci family serves as 
an admirable illustration of such an epoch, while the per- 
sonal characters of the three Caraccis throw an additional 
interest over this curious incident in the history of the 
works of genius. 

The establishment of the famous ocoodnme, or school of 
painting, at Bologna, which restored the art in the last 
stage of degeneracy, originated in the profound meditations 
of Lodovico. There was a happy boldness in the idea ; 
but its great singularity was that of discovering those men 
of genius, who alone could realize his ideal conception, 
amidst his own family drcle ; and yet tliese were men 
whose opposite dispositions and acquirements could hardly 
have given any hope of mutual assistance ; and much less 
of melting together their minds and their work in such uni- 
ty of conception and execution, that even to oar days they 
leave tlie critics undetermined which of the Caraccis to 
prefer ; each excelling the other in some pictorial quality. 
OAen combining together in the same picture, the minded 
labour of three painters seemed to proceed from one pallet, 
as their works exhibit whidi adorn the churches of Bolo^ 
na. They still disputed about a pictinv, lo ascertam 
which of the Caraccis painted it ; and stiB one prefers 
Lodovico for his grandioeita, another Agoitiiio for his in- 
vention, and others Annibale for his vigour or hii grace.* 

What has been told of others, happened to Lodovico Ca- 
racci in his youth ; he struggled with a mind tardy in its con- 
ceptions, so that he gave no indications of talent ; and was 
apparently so inept as to have been advised by two mas- 
ters to be satisfied to grind the colours he ought noC Qlliefw 
wise to meddle with. Tintoretto, from friendship, abort- 
ed him to chsnge his trade. * This sluggishnlMa of litel- 
lect did not proceed,' observes the sagacious Lami, 'from 
any deficiency, but from the depth of his penetrating mind ; 
early in life (le dreaded the ideal as a rock on which m 
many of his contemporaries had been shipwrecked.' His 
hand was not blest with precocious facility, became hia 
mind was unsettled about truth itself; he was still seeking 
for nature, which he could not discover in those wretched 
mannerists, who boasting cTtheir freedom and expedition 
in their bewildering tastes, which they called the ideal, 
relied on the diplomas and honours obtained by intrigue or 
purchase, which sanctioned their follies in the eyes of the 
multitude. • Lodovico,' says Lanzi, ' would first satisfy hit 
own mind on everv line : lit* would not paint till paintmg 
well became a habit, and till habit produced facility.' 

Lodovico then sought in other cities for what He could 
not find at Bohtgna. He travelled to inspect the woriu of 
the elder nuwtere ; he meditated oo all their details ; be 

* Land, Siorla ?ittcrica, V. 60. 


ntsd U lbs Ten ihi 

11 mn nbd, — iIh ridi Truiu of hn own •tudisi, — ud {albec Ihrcsdini ■ oreole, 
m Gni jiroapitd tun to invroi ■ mw ichuol oC punt- { cMh, to rtnunil him. u fii 

Aetuniin^ En Brtofim. 

: Tnani hli dvinidcd h 

» b* mcl him kiU 
diiKda I ha liubi- 

1. LodoTicD, 

daw obumtinn of nalure with the imll^ The 

rhuucnd in A-nsiin^i 

CI him Kilkin. oiih ■ ooblifQun. ■ du m 
mie Nil nfi! Tht ■■«• 

,ffM Mj d.l.y,I^"(iAer*-' '■ ■"-'^" - 

diipcuition of lbs (riBi biDurir. Sitrh ni Ihs liiiplfl idea plicin( Agosiino under > in>i:er. who ■•« cclcbnlei 
■nd iha buppr pojeci of Lodofien ! Errrr t>«frci>«i ' '■i*r>cihiy jffiecuiiaD.hefiied Anciibilctn 9! 


inivd ; bul (M ■■ 




ipliliide 6ir 

ccl.b™.ed for 

n IIudT. 



• .ol 

bum be 

■dkpitQg rhrm wjih fti 

Pvaphrueil bir MunD, 

mUned, wtili hiTfiT uM, 

He thouahi i. ._ .... _^ . 

jnuihful xpiui.K ohn litd nnt ye 
inved. He hid > biolher mh-n'- 1. 
oejond H poor cnpvitt'i, and him I 
tnitwqvvd bv undue nmrtialilv. to ae 
he found !■ 

liiuallj <te- 

, uhimerir 
Thcfe l>niihii*, ArMiiw and Annibde, km h; m 
id iliei bj thrir mauten tai habiii, were of ihe i 

lailor, ud Annihile i 

talent on the (ml projeci of Iho reSurnaiiao of ihe w 
hr hia pnideiKe looj; baianced iheir unequal temprn, aad 
, wirb thai penerruioD which an auvofTj chaneterisea lua 
I pniui, directed iheirditilDcl laleola in hn one tremi pnr- 
wBe. Frum Ihe hierari Anatino he bblainrd Ihc pht> 
I lo'ciphj oferiticil leciurpjandacienuficiBiw-ipln; inno. 

■carceli Kibmiiled the norka of LodonFa, ><hi>in he pre- 
ferred to rnti, nl.icconllnjlaatiadiiional nisKKir irhich 
enableii him, aa il were, imperMiMd. lo beenme ihe maa. 
I« owr hii cniiain and hia hrulber ; Lod'irico anif Aen<h 

lint Emdti; AnnJbale hardlv decided lo penVve're 'Z 

principin of nitiire ] 

oa the patenialboUTl, while AioninnwaanctnipiedbT^ "'^ iHe openmi anew ™/orMhe be»,nnen.' Tb. 

elegant worka of Ihe pnldimiih, whence ba arq.iirej ihe ^°^/ "", f"™""*" -"J rawa. drawinp., pnn.., a 

fine an of enjra.inE. in which he berame Ihe An- "1""' for an.t™., ud for ih. h™Kfi-rurr; recei.m, .u 

u*io of Ki. „me. Th«r manner., perhap., re.di.d I™, | ^'".r ^, ''-l".™ ] L"=^J1?:'.■"""'■ '- •j::^i' 1' ." 

turn : t, philngphcr and poel, of the mnal poliilied 
»aiini, iheaiaeleBehanlinf ciinnr<atiiin.rirrenwTedl 
Uie ni1((r, be became The companion of Ihi learned 
lenoUe. A«ibal< 

ic together, and eecape their own ei 

bboni WM td w ""I' him niilen. t>i.-ilum. or if h« l" "" n*", howrer, thai Aipwliiw &und ba emin-ne* 
Nature had nraniely maHe I h»e brother, little leaa than ^'i'^l'^'^Sf^T'^":*'^ poiBiinf out firm hii. -toe-. 
Mcmiea. Annibala dea^.ted hi. brother for haritif tB- wh^^^fj j'," i^b,"d' rtriJ"^?. The''" 

■reftrtoMrFoatll^fc- "»" 

"ha* Ihe poel.ehiDtrd their pri 

Sclml i which, br Klenint ih. beiuilea. mtrrnliw Uie IKnkn^ Ibo htmirtf t^'lefuliy celet 

^;!^X1^\:t::::T'SSf^:^C"»:':^.i''':- >■"•■ Aenrio«,MO^ha.beent,.n.milTed.„ 
aiit ^tea. .ttemtittfl to l^irm a perfect vTMem.' He achnow- Aioatino lib r the ancient leei*]Btnr« conHimta 

»w*f^li^ii^kVatn |™ibTelMj^KeTSi"IIiIhIJ."^' I """" ™ no" -'" '■"''">. •"«' Mr. Fi.-eli 

nitic Ihrfflt nv a mnntMlliK il vatnnnKdkanlcal ImHukm I '<■" pnaerred ii m their leelun-.. Thii •infill 
tbaCariKlihifiririirdtnatiirsandinimeiabirqiiilij nu- ' ' 
iNail. and xecnndn II aMIn BleiHD* la pn^a laa llHTMdtl'iiie. 
« and narmh. ■ Wheiher.' 

_i. hi ii-iWnt rtia p-'feniitna 'I. . , ,. 

Ihar. wbirh I railHr hniv. we look fnnhw In ibe arle 
den Bpnn niir nwn ninliee after nature -. whlrliaTer oi 
plaiii th' nntl-m mitV flu nn.' fcr It. nn. Thti. ihrc 
lliim^.DiiFr>vi-*.r« ' ■ " 

oT Ihe Canrrri i>I.<ti m a men imiiiiuna at ina 
bM L*nri. In itn<=iMinK lAtneinn rrolen, li] 
•r««p(<'Tinletti-i* ■■ »— i — ■ -- 


poetics,' Mr Pueli 

pnen.' ConaNleied a> a dijacliTe and deiorip. 
n poem, no loTer cf art. whn hiareet read il.will c-ire 
repeat il till he hae (M it br heart, tn thii academy 

i not nnlate tbe rnrnlilt pr^eipW of an'; fer, thniif h 
e rnii« bare oniallv deacribed the charairler of tliia 
w idioDl ta h»". be*ii an imilalion of ihe precediii[ 
e», it Hai their finl principte lo be prided by nature, 
* D'lrpotlUa, Tka din Fainna, n. 41~4BI 


and their ovrn dispontioos ; and if ibeir Minter was defv 
cicDt in originality, it wai not ibe fAult ofthia academy, to 
much as of the aieadeaician. In diiiictilt doubts they had 
re&turae to Lodunco, whom Lan» d<><icnb«ii io his srhooi 
hka Homer amon;; tho Gret- k*, foa$ lAjrcMorum proi'ouad 
m every paint tny. Even the recreaiiuns of the pupils were 
conirivcil Kt k«-ep their mind and hand io ex^fcise ; in their 
walks «kfiching landdcapcii from nature, or amusiiv; fhcm- 
sekes wi!n wliai thn Jtuiians call CanaKturat a term of 
larc:e !<i;;nificaiion ; for it tncludea naoy torts oTgrulesque 
inveniioiiA, whimiiral incongruities, uvtch as thoso ara- 
be<qii«>:i found ai tL'rf.iUneum, wheroAndiises, ^neas, 
and A'<can:u9, are burie«qut*d by heads of apes and pigs, 
or Anon, \viih a grotesque m>iiiun, is stradilliog a great 
trout : nr like that iudir.MUM parody which came irom the 
hand nC Titi.m, in a playful hour, when he sketched the 
Laocoon Mhoyo three fi»ures cunymt of apes. Annibale 
had a fH'CuIiar fudlity in iliuse iiirongruouo inventions, an<i 
even the severe Leonardo da Vtnci coMldered them as 
useful exercise;*. 

S>ich wa« the academy founded by the Caracci ; and 
Lo.loviro lived to realizu his project IB the reformation of 
art, and witue^^cd the 9ch<M)l of Bolugna llounshmg al'resh 
when nil the oihem had fallen. The great masttrs of this 
last oiHxrh of Italian psintin|( were their |>apils. Such 
were D intinnichmo, who arcnniing to the expr**iutioD of 
Bellori, (ff/inea gli animi, roioritee ia vitft; he drww the 
soul and coloured life.* A'bano, whcMte grace distinguinh- 
«« liim as (hn Anaf*reon of painting ; Giiido, whose touch 
wax all be.iu:y and dflinicy, and, as Paitteri deKs!h:fu!iy 
expresse^i it, * whoni; faees came from Paradine ;*t a scholar I 
of whom his master became jealous, while Amnbalo, 10 I 
deoros^ Gindo, patrnnixi'd Demenichino; and eveo the ' 
wise Lodovico could not dissimula'e the fuar of a new com- \ 
peiitor in a pupil, and to mortify Guidu, preferred Guerci- 
no, who trod in another path. Lanfranco closes this glo- 
rious \\9\, who:«e freedom and grandeur for their full display 
reuuirvd the am^ile (ielii of Kumo va^i history. 

The iiern-t hisiory of ihiM Arcoflemia forms an illustra- 
tion ft-tr that chapter 011 ' I<iler.ary jL-aloiisy' which I have 
writt-in in ' The Literary Character.* Wu'have seen even 
the gentle Lodovico mfected by ii ; but it raged in the 
breant of Anninale. Careleit.<« of fortune as they were 
through life, and freed from the bonds of matrimony, that 
thev mi^ht wholly devote themselves to all the eDthusiaxm 
of their art, they lived together in the perpetual intercourse 
of their thoughts ; and even at their meal^ laid on their ta- 
ble I heir crayon9 and their papers, so that any motion or 
gesture which occurred, as worthy of picturing, was in- 
stantly sketcheJ. Annibale caufiht something of the ctiti- 
oal taite of Agoittino, learned to work more slowly, and to 
finish with more perfectioD. while his inventions were en- 
riched bv the elevated ihouchts and erudiion of Agos:ino. 
Yet a circumstance which happened in the academy be- 
trayed the mordacity aitd envy of Annibale at the superior 
accomplt<hments oif hit more learned brother. While 
A«o<iiiio was describing with great eloquence the beauties 
of the Laocoon, Annibale approached the wall, and 
snatchin; up bin rrayrms, drew the marvellous figure with 
such perfection, that the spectators gazed on it in asion- 
iRhm^'nt. Alluding Io his brother's lecture, the proud artist 
disdainfully obvurvtui, ' Poets paint with words, but paints 
er.* only with their pencils.** 

The brothers could neither live together nor endure ab. 
sence. Many yearw iticir life wa9 one continual struggle 
and mortification ; and Ago«tiiio often sacrificed his geni- 
us to pacify the j«a!ousy, of Annibale, by relinquishing his 
pallet to resume those exquisite encravings, in which he 
corrected the faulty outlines of the masters whom he copi- 
ed, so that Ins engravings are more perfect than their 
originals. T«> this unhappy circumstance, observes Lan- 
zi, we must attribute the loss of so many noble compo^i- 
tton^ which otherwise Agoetino, equal in genius to tho 
other Caraccis. hail loft us. The jealmisy of Annibale, at 
lenirth for ever tore them asunder. Lodovico happened not 
to be with thein when they were engaged in paintmg togeth- 
er the Fame^an gallery at Rome. A rumour spread that 
in theii^ present combined labour the engraver had excelled 
the pain'er. This Annibale couM not forgive ; he raved 
■t the bile of the serpent : wonis could not mollify, nor 
kindness any loncer ap^iease that puriiirbed spirit ; neither 
Ibe huroihating forbearance of Ago5tino, the counsels of 

♦ Bellori, Le Vlw do PIttori. fcc, 
t Pa^peri, Viie de PIttori. 
I D* ArctarlUe, IL aOL 

the wine, nor the mediation of the treat. Thej aepvated 
for ever ! a separation in which iLej both langi^ibed| tiD 
Ago*iino, broken hearted, sunk into an early gmvo, 
! and Annibale, now brothcriess, loot half his genios ; his 
' great invention no longer aocompanied him-— for Agostino 
was not by hw side !♦ Afier sufllering many vexations, and 
preyed 00 by his evil temper, Annibale was deprived of 
his senses. 


We have Royal Societies for Philosophers, for Anti- 
quaries, and for Artists^ — none for Men oTLetters ! The 
lovers of philological studies have regreUed the want of an 
I asylum since the days of Anne, when the vstaUiahnent 
I of an English Academy of Literature was deaigned; but 
I political changes occurred which threw out a literary ad- 
I miiiiitration. France and luly have gloried in great 
national academies, arid even in provinciafones. WiUi us 
the cu.-iuus hiiiory and the fate of the societies at Spald- 
ins, Stauifiird, and Peterborough, whom th'^ir zealous 
founder bved to see sink into country clubs, is that of roost 
ofourruro/ attempts at hierarv academies! The Man- 
chester Society hail but an ambiguous existence, and that 
ot Exeter expired in its birth. Yet that a great purpose 
may be obtained by an inconsiderable number, the hMorr 
of' the Society fur the Encouragement of Arts, Manulae. 
, tures,* &c, may prove ; for that originally coiisislod onlr 
of twelve perMint brought together with great difficulty, 
and neiihir dii(iin>;uijiht^ for their ability nor theu- rank. 
I The oppont'n's to the eKtablivhment of an academy ia 
this country may urge, and find Bruyere on their side, that 
no corporkte body generates a single man of genius ; no 
Milton, no Hume, no Adam Smith will spring out of an 
academical community, however they may partake of one 
common labour. Ol' the fame, too, shared among the 
many, the individual feels his portion too contracted, be- 
sides that ho will often suffer by comparison. Literature, 
with u!«, ixisis indfoendent of patronage or association.— 
We have <lone well without an academy ; our dicti<ioary 
and our siyie have been polished by individuals, and not 
by a spcitly. 

The advi»caies for such a literary institution may reply, 
that in what has been advanced against it, we may perhaps 
find rnorc glory than profit. Had an academy been 
established »n this country, we should have possessed all 
our present ailvantages with the peculiar ones of such an 
institution. A series of volumes composed by the learned 
of Enjiland, had rivalled the precious * Memoirs of tho 
French Academy ;' probably more philosophical, and more 
congenial to our modts of'thinking! The congregating 
spirit creates hy its sympathy ; an intercourse exists be- 
tween its members, wfjich had not otherwise occurred ; hi 
this attritiiin of minds the torpid awakens, the timid is embol- 
dened, and the secluded is called forth ; to contradict, and 
to b<i con'radicted. is the privilege and the source of know- 
ledge. Those original ideas, hints and suggestions which 
some literary m«*n sometimes throw ottt, ooco «r twice 
during their whol^ lives, might here be p ru a ciK d; and if 
endowed with siiHicieni funds, there are iinportant labours, 
which surpass the means and industry of^lbe individual, 
which wiriild be more advantageously formed by such hter- 
ary iinionii. 

An academy of literature can only succeed by the same 
means in which ori'.onatrd all siirJi academies->among in- 
dividuals themselveK ! It will not be 'by the favour of 
the MANY, but by the wisdom and energy of the few.' 
It is not even in the power of Royalty to create at a word 
what can only be ft*rmed by the co-operation of the work- 
men thomsf-lvos. and of the great taskmaster, Time ! 

Such in*tiriitinns have sprung from the same principle, 
and have followed the same march. It was from a pri- 
vate meeting that » The French Academy* derived its 
origin ; and the true beginners of that celebrated institu- 
tion assuredly had no forenght of the object to which their 
conferences tended. Sereral literary friends of Paris, 
finding the extent of the city occasioned much loss of 

• Mr FossN desolbes the f allery of the Famese palace at a 
work of unifbrm vtgonr of exenition. rhich nochhig csn equal 
but its imbecility ami incongruity of conception. This oefl- 
cieocy in Annibale was always rendily supplied by the taste 
and leamins of Agostino ; th^ vigour of Annibale was deficient 
both in lu'nfniiilicy and correa invniinn. 

t Long afkcrihbenit:le wascompowd, a Roval Academy of 
Literature has been project i^l ; wiih ihe state oj^its existence, I 
am unacquaimed. It has occasioned no aksraikin in thm rs* 
scare hes. 




II. lu! itt ibeir \uiu, a{rr«d to meet oo a tu«d day every 
wck, and cbiMe Cuurai'* re«ideDce w cenirtcal. They 
inrt lor lh« purpoiM of general omivercatmo, or to walk 
lu<.euier, or, whai wa« not ka«i Mociaj, lo |Muriake in some 
reirtf»hing coUatuin. Aii being Uterary men, thoao who 
were aultaum subuuileU iheir new works lo thu ftieadl^ 
auctviy, who, without jealousy or malice, freely commiini- 
CttiL-dlheu' stricture*; the 'wurka were improved, the 
auiiiors were delighted, and the critics were honest ! Such 
w«t the happy Uc of the members of this private society 
durmg three or iVmr years. Peiisson, the earliest historian 
of the French Aca^my, has delightfully described it : 
• It was such that now,' when they speak of these first 
davs of the academy, they call it the golden age, during 
wbicb, with L«i the innocence and freedom of that fortunate 
period, without pomp and n<Mse, and without any other 
laws than those of friendship they enjoyed together all 
which a society of nunds, and a rational Ufe, can yield of 
whatever sevens md charms.* 

They were hiqMiy, and they resolved to be silent ; nor 
was this bond and compact of friendship violated, till one 
of them, Malleville, secretary of Marshal BaM(inipiere« 
beine anxkiui that his friend Faret, who had just printed 
his VHamntU JVoaune, which he had drawn from the fam- 
ous * II Cortigiano*ol Castiglioue, should profit by all their 
opinioBS, procured his admis*ioii to one of their confer- 
ences ; Faret presented them with his bo^>k, heard a great 
deal concerning the nature of his woik, was charmed by 
their kterary commimicatioiis, and returned home readv to 
burst wiih the secret. Could the society hope that oli^s 
wouM be more faithful than they had been to themselves ? 
Faret happt'ned to be one of ilio^c huiithearted men who 
are communicative in the degree in which they are grete> 
ful, and he whispered the s<'cret lo De» Marc ts and to 
Boisrobert. The first. a« soon as he heard of such a lite- 
rary senate, used erery effort to cppear he lure them and 
read the first volume d his * Ariaiir :* Boisrobert, a man 
of disiinciion, and a comniou tnend to tnrm all. could not 
be refused an aumiscion ; he admired the frankne^^s of their 
mutual criucijunw. The socif.y besides, wa> a new ob- 
ject; and hw daily biijineii» «a& tn furi:ish aji amuMn^ 
story to his patron Kicheii»u. The cardinal minister 
wa» very literary, and apt to be so flipped in his hours of 
retirement, that the phy»iciau dixiared, that * a.l hii* drugs 
were of no avail, uuieAS his ^laiieiit mixed with them a 
drarhm of B>iisrulHTt.' lu one of lho>e foniinate mo- 
ments, when the cardinal was * in the vein.' Bi>isrob^rt 
painted, with the v^armest hues, this rt:i:ion of literary fe- 
licity, of a small, happy society formed i.-f rritics and au- 
thors! The minister, who was ever run^icering things 
in that particular aspect which might tend to hut own glory, 
instantly asked Boisrobftrt, whether this private meeting 
would not like to be cunstiiuied a public boiiy, and esta- 
biiiih Itself by letter* patent, olfermi; them his prutection. 
The flatterer of tb« nini«:er was nverjiHrd, and executed 
■the important mission: bu; n»>i one of iiie nicnibert: »har«-d 
in the rapture, wlule some regretted an honour wl'.ich wc-uld 
only disoirb the sweetness ami fainiliariiy of their inter- 
■course. Malleville, whose inai^ier wa« a prisoner in the 
Bastile, and Serisay, the inltmiant cf the Diike of Rfiohe- 
fbucault, who was in diiterace at cuur;, loudly protested, in 
lhcst%le of an opt>osiiioii party. a):aii-»i the proiectit'n of 
the minister; but Chapelain. wh" «as knonu lo have no 
party-interests, argued so clearly, that he leli them to infer 
that' Richelieu's ^<T was a cxffnmanc/.* that the cardinal 
was a ounister who wi'.ied not things by haives ; and was 
one of those very great mm « no aveuce any contempt 
shown to them, eren on such httle men as ihemsotves ! In 
a word, the dogn bowed their necks to the po'den coiiar. 
However, the appearance, if not the realitv. of freedom 
was left to them ; and the ministtfr allowed t^ieni to frame 
their own constitution, and eltct their own magistrates and 
enizens io this infant and illustriniM repullic cf literature. 
The hist«M7 of the further establishment of the French 
arademy it elegantlv narrated by Peiissrn. The usual 
difficulty oeenrred of' fixing oo a title ; and they appear to 
have changed it so often, that the academy was at first 
nddresstd by more than i-ne title; Academic d€% htaux 
JStpriU ; Ac'ademie de CElcptmrr : Academie EmincnU, 
in allusion tu the quaiity of the canimal, its protector — 
Desirous of avoirlins the exiravacant and mystifying titles 
of the I'alian aca.l' mies,* ihey fixed on the moKt unaffect- 
ed, * VAokdemit Fhutigmm; IhiI though the national gen:- 

• Bee an artida * On die ndicoloos titles aaeonied by the Ita* 

us may disguise itself for a moment, ii cannot be oDlirelj 
got rid of, and they assumed a vauntine device of a Inarei 
wreath, including' their epigraph ^ a PlmmortcUiUJ* Tbw 
academy oi Petersburgh has chosen a more enlightened 
iflacription Pmiiatim (' little by httie,') so expressive oTtbe 
great laboura of man— even of the inventions of genius ! 
Such was the origin of L' Academie Fran9aise ; ii was 
long a private meeting before it became a pubjic institu- 
tion. Yet, like the Royal Society, its origin has been at- 
tributed to political motives, with a view to divert the atten- 
tion from popular discontents ; but when we lo^ik intu the 
real origin of the French Academy, and our RoyaJ Soci- 
ety, it luust be granted, that if the government either in 
France or England ever entertained this project, ii came 
to them so accidentally that at least we cannot allow them 
the merit of profound invention. Statesmen are often con- 
sidered by speculative men in their closets to be mightier 
woiider.workere than they often prove to be. 

Were the origin of the Royal Society inquired into, it 
might be justly dated a century before its existence : the 
real founder was Lwd Bacon, who planned the iiisfw 
lutUm in his pluloeophical romance of the New Ailaniia ! 
This notion is not fanciful, and it was that <>f its first 
founders, as not only appears by the expression of old Au- 
brey, when alluding to ihe commencement of the itocieiy, 
he adds, Kcundum menUm Domini Baconi ; but by a rare 
print designed by Evelyn, probably for a fr< ntiispiece to 
Bi«liop Sprat's hif^tory, aitbouuh we seldom find the print 
in the volume. The design l» preaous to a Gran|;t-rite, 
exhibiting three fine portraiis. On one side is represented 
a library, and on the table iie the statutes, thejuuriials, and 
the mare of the Rmal Stif iety; on its opf)o^itr «ide are 
su!(pt-niied nuimrous pljiiosophical instruments ; in the 
i renire of the prsni is a co.unin, on which is placed a bust 
i ofCharK'S II, liie patron; on each side whole lengths of 
! Lord Brouncker. the first president, and Lord Bacon, as 
[ llie founder, inscribed Artium In$t(atratur. The graver cf 
j Hiiiiar has preserved this happy intention (tf Evelyn's, 
I which exemp.ifies what may he called the cnnMniiiiy and 
■ genealo^ry of gemus, as its spirit is perpetuated by iis suc- 
I cesf^ors. 

{ When the fury of the civil wars had exhausted all parw 

ties, and a breathing time frcm the passii.ns and inadnc-ss 

. of the ase a.lbwed ir-c^'ni^us men Id return tree more to 

• their forsaken studies, Bacun^s vmon of a philosuphicai 
society appears to have occupied their reveries. It charm- 
ed !he' fbncy of Cowley and Milton: but the potitics and 
religion ot the times were stii! |x«sessed by the same frenzv, 
and divii.iiy arid politics were unanimouFly aereed to Se 
utieriv proscribed from their inquiries. On the subjf ct of 
reltgifU they were more pamcularly alarmed, not only at 
th«' time of' the foundation of the society, but at a much 
later period, when under the direction of Newton himself. 
Even Bishop Sprat, their first historian, observed, that 
* they have fn>elv admitted men of different re.ieioos, coun- 
tries, and profesviims of life ; mrf to lay the foundation of 
an Eneii^b. Sfc.'4rh, Iri«h, popish, or protesiani philosophv. 
but a PHiLO«OFiiY or mankind.' a curious prutv«t of 

I the most iliiistriouii of philojtophers mav be f« und : when 

• 'the Society f"r promoting Chrisiian Knowledge* were 
! licslmus of holriuis their meetings at the hoose of the Royal 

Society. N* wton drew iim a numl>er of argnnientj aeai'nst 
their admi^^ion. One cf ihem is. that 'It i^ a fundamental 
rule of the society not to meddle with religion : and the 
reas^on iji. that we mav cive no occaiiion to religious bodies 
'• lo meddle with us.* Newton would not even complv with 
I their wishes, Ie*t by this compliance the Roval S'.-cie'T 
I might ' dissatisfy I hose of other reUgionji.' The wisdom 
of the protest by Newton is as admirable as it is remarka- 
[ bi'', — the preservation of the Royal Society from the pas- 
, sii-ns of the age. 

I It was in the lodgings of Dr Wi*kins in Wadham Co!- 
lege, that a small plulosophical club met together, which 
proved to be, as Aubrey expresses it. the iiini?ic'«.'a <f 
the Roval Socielv. When the members were dispersed 
I about London, thev renewed their meetings fi»st at a 
' tavern, then at a i>rivale house: and when th** ^ociery be- 
came too great to be ra-leH a cl'ib. they a^^« n-b'ed in • the 
pari* isr' of Grr<ham C'ol>t'e. whi-.h iise.l had been raised 
by the mur.ifietnre of a ciMen who em'xwed it iilieraiiy^ 
and preserte i a ncb'e eianii«!e to tl e ini^iticuals now as. 
s»*mi«!ed uiH'er its nxif. Trie «nriefv at'c'-rwards derived 
i's f.tie in.m a srrt of arrui'ir. The warm loya'ty of'yn in the first honefn! ca\* of the Reforaticn, m" hii 
I dedicatory epistk of NaudeV treaiise on libraries, called 


thit pliiluK^hicil miKUiig Lha RajriJ Sockit. TbcH I nuitcn of lUlii nor nlinicw. ■ButbcfbreourDHlmaM- 
IrtmH nrD unracdiiilelir vtHtd Ihcir ihuiki to Evilin f« mi,' ••.yi Sixliiun, '*■ hud ruticii ibil hu iniijKt)! took 
[he hapji; dciiKMIun, whii^h tiu so gialcful lo Cliuliii a haU miflAf 0/ nr today, uol txuaf bfbniiHl Ihtl wa 

before cha pro 
Evslyn iKe Rayii Si 

Cfl ; Lba tioblfl AnmdtUftn Libnryj tba 
ulvioti v£ Lhfl DobJa Uomrdi ; the lut 
hi4 HI little iDclmkaon fiu' booJii, that 
hie HDceiurttawl cnllActed }av open tt 

Heruun awl ihe oii 
HfTed when lilfclyn 1 
Bg in hii finJvoBt la Oxford, and hi 
liminuhiDg dmilv, to the Ko>>l Society ! 
The Socielj of Anliquanri Dii)|hl em 

lerrualed^ ud imffcred (0 expirci bf somo obicura cause 
of poUlicaLjesloiuy. It long ceaied to vusl, and wai only 


luch couhi have boss 

Ihii inibimaUDa, wai one of the fint projected. Jamea 1 

boldly than Spelniaa 00 Ibe lupprenion oT Ihia iocietj 
but wheiher Jamee wai niicuiKiriDed by ' takint 

iking.deduiiifhuueirtb _ . , ._. .__ 

of siliei gill, of the laioe fashioa Uaniieiiioaably much wax ioal, Tor much couk 
j-ned hefuie hia majaaly, >u b« boms pnduesd; ajid apelmao'i work 00 law tcrmi, ' 

:le,ir1y 10 

ii>g ander Edward VI, iufll'ted a 

.._.... Ihei, .«iu., for 

wrckly incieij, which Ihey calleJ ■ the Antiquanei 

iuaB*eunoui paniculanDTiheir literary inieccmiae 
delicnlful to dincuirr Rawleiik barruwin( maoul 
from lbs library uf Sir Roberl Cotun, and Seldcn de 
hit atudin from ibe cnUeciiooi of RBwt,:Lgh. Their 

as Goueh and odiere deai^iiale this monarch, m^j m ba 
doubiAir; aasuredl j Jamos was sot a man to canlsaB Ibair 

Ths king at ibis lims was busied by runhennf aiimilar 
project, which WIS to Touad ' King Jamu'a College at Cbsl- 
*ea ;' a project ociginaling wiih Dean SuleliST and lea- 
Inuely approisd by Pnnee Henry, loruss a nursery for 
youngpolemicsmicholaiiiul dinnily,&r the purpnee rf 
defending the ptoteetini caUHt from ihg attacks of caiho. 
lies and aeclariee; a college which was afuiwardecallHl 

' by Laud ' CoBlroierey Cnllego.' In this society wera 
■ppoiiited hiilDrians and aniiquariet, Ear Camden and 

< UaTwood filled These office). 

! TheiociMyofAnli 

£har'le''a" 11,' for 

Aehmide i 

'er, though lu 
I Diary not 


led in n&l. There ire I»o irtit/lhX 
besides the modern ArthjKotagvi, we hasa 
f ' Curious Diicounei,' written by the Fa- 
- Society in the age of Eliubeih, 

ing they proposed aqueilionDT Ivro respecling the huturr 
or (ha aoliquiiies ofihe Engliih nation, on which each 

hirer a diiseriaiuin or an opiniun. They alia ' slipped to. '. eiuecicl;, woul'dhanensaehtdouraKHlBmantiquariesi biit 
gelhor.' From ihe days of Atheneus tathoie nf Or Jnhn- | netihe- nrofuund views, ikor eliK|urnI disquisilioni, hav* 

vllecled from then dispersed 
ireiervql with a parental hand. 
Tne philoaophi -' - - ■ ' ■' 

III memben. The 
e>. Oneof'ihoss 

< To Mr Stowe. 

tlon folloninge yi atl Mr Garter's house, 00 Fridays the 
lllh i^lhis November. ISBB, beini A1 Soules days, at II 
frf'the cbdie in the allsraoone, where your oppiniuun in 
wryiing* or olhnwiie it eipeclsd. 

■Of Ihe aniiquilie, eliniaJogie, and priTiJcdgn of parishes 
in Enitlande. 

' Yt VI dvpyred thai you give not notice hereof to any, 
bill aiicli as huie the Uks somoni.' 

760. Cinhben, Arehbyihope of Canierhiir 
of ibe Pope thu in eiiks' ami lowni^ ibere >h 
poyntad chnrch varda Ibr buriall of lhfl dead, n 
were ued In be'hurird abmde, ft cri.] 

cellence of our French Hvals in their Acadenie.' so pe- 
remplorily required. Il is, however, hopeful 10 hear Mr 
Hairaoi declare. ' 1 think our last volumes improve a little, 

in with the Academy of 

tl ia gencratly supposed that 

of the Society of Anliqua 



layout their I 
usually furninl 

poplar, and gel trees and hedge* 

ai people I 
pages rapidly with iha prodnclii 

. . Academy far tlir Slwiy 0/ 

^nliayi/yivtd HiMarufomniifdby QuftnElira/telX. And I is drii 
to pri-erve all ihe mi-morials of fiislorv »liich the dlKsdu- no ion 
tion of the moniiieriM had wailfred .hoiit Ihe kingdom, ( the » 
thoy propn«ed torrecta lihrarv, tobe callod 'ThoLibrarj 
df Quren Elisabeth.' Th« d-aih ofihe i|<ieen orarnrned 
thai botmirtba pn^eet. Thi< HoriFly wan somewhat in- 
tovuptid hv ihr nsnikl caiilalties of hiiman life ; Ihe mem- 
bers wrv iJw-ran), or died, and II eeaied M' Iwenly 
?fy:.i. _!?."*"■ '^j^' J,,, °,r^ -. .u. ti.„ij.. 

11 is ona of iho results of that advi 
is now stalking forth and ragi 

ig forth and raging for iia own innova- 
only rrjecled authority, but hsvo also 
-; and often tne unbondsned veiiel 

; could think ; and it ii no( imagined that the welUread 
ay qogie from Ihe delicacy of their 'aMe. and Iha fulnna 

.... ^ ij^. Whal«er is e»pr««d 

eiprmed : Il b a wretched taste 10 be 
i-^ocriiy wh<a tba aacelienl Ilea before 


oSca; Ihoy -eilled iheir ragulalions, among "hich, one I "*■ We quota, lo save'proring what bu been riemi 
«aB'f(iran«lin(oADea,Ibey ahouldDsilher maddlewith I slnlad, tafeiruig 10 whers the pnob n^b* CwnA.'^ 



^oou to wcnvn ounelYes rrom the odium of doubtful opiii- | 
iona, which the world would not willmgl j accept rrom our^ 
•olTet ; and we may quote from the cumeitj which oolj 
a<|uocaiioo iUelf caa give, when ia our own words it 
would be divKaied of that lint of aaaem phrate, thai de- 
tail of narrative, and that naivdd which we hare for ever 
lo«U aod which we like to recollect once had an existence. 
The aocienta, who ia theee matters were not perhaps 
such blockheads as some mav cuneeive, considered poetical 

2uotaiMM as one of the requisite ornaments of uratoiy. 
'ic«sro» even in his philosopliical works, is as little sparine 
of quotations as Piutarch. Oid Montaigne is so ntufled 
witn them, that he owns if they were taken out of him, 
little of hanuetf wouki remam ; and yet this never injured 
that original turn which the old Gascon has given to his 
thoughts. I suspect that Addison hardly ever composed 
a Spectator which was not fuuoded on some quotation, 
noted in ihoee threaiblioiBanuschpt volumes which he bad 
previously coUe^ed ; and Addison lasts, while Steele, who 
always wrote from firat impressions and to the times, wnh 
perhaps no very inferior genius, has passed away, in4'>- 
much that Dr.lBealtie once considered ihat be was obii- 
|ing the wurU by collocting Addison's papers, and care- 
iuliv omitting Steele's. 

CluolatJon, lUce much better things, has its abuses. One 
may quote tili one compiles. The ancient lawyers used 
to quote at the bar tilt they had stagnated their own cause. 
* Retoumons a nos moutons,' was the cry of the client. 
But these vagrant prowlers must be conttp ned to the bea- 
dles flf criticism. Such do not always understand the au> 
thot* whose names adorn their barren pages, and which are 
taken, too, from the iliird or the thirtieth hand. Those 
who trust to such false quolers will often learn how con- 
trary this transmission u to the sense and application of 
the original. Every transplantation has altrred the fruit 
of the tree; every new channel, the quality of the stream 
in its remove from the sprins-head. Bayle, when writ- 
ing on ' Cumeis,* diMovered ihi'i ; fv»r, oavin^ collected 
many things applicable to his work, as ihey stood quoted 
in some miodem writers, when he came to compare th-^m 
with their ori^uai:*, he wa* surprised to tind that they 
were nothing lor his purpo^tc ! the originals conveyed a 
quite contrary* sense to that of the pretended quoters, who 
ofien, from innocent blundrring, and sometimes from purw 
posed deception, had falsified their quotations. This is a 
useful story fur second-liand autlioriiies ! 

Selden hdd (ormcd som<s n >:io:is on this subject of quo- 
tatKMis in hii * Table-talk.' art. ' BoakM and authors ;* but, 
as Le Clerc justly obiervej proutloTliis iinm*;nse reading, 
he has too o'ten violated his own precept. * Im quotiag of i 
books,' says Selden, * qu^le such auinora a<i are usually 
read ; othiVf read fx your omi sa'i^faciiun, but not name ; 
them.' Now it happens that no writer names more au'.hors, i 
except Prynne, than th«» learned Selden. La Mothe le ! 
Vayer's curious works consists of tifieen volumes ; he is ' 
among the greatest quoters. \Vho<.-rer turns them over , 
will perceive that he is an unginaJ tninker, and a gre&t wit ; j 
his style, indeed, u meaj^e, which, as much a^ ni» quota- ■ 
tiun4, may havn proved fatal to him. But in bo(h these 
cases It IS evUtm*., that even quoters who have abused 
the privilege of quouuon, are not necea<anly writers of a 
mean genius. 

The Quoters who deserve the title, and it ought to be 
an honorary one, are those who Irusti to no one bijt them- 
■elves. In borrowing a pas^ase, they carefully ob»erre 
its connexion ; they collect authorities, Vj reconcile any 
disparity in liiem befjre they furnish the one which they 
adit]>t ; 'they advance no fact without a witne«s, an-l they 
are not loose and general m their rrferencrs, as I have 
been tdd is our historian Henry so frequently, that it it 
suspected he deals much in second-hand waire. Bayle 
lets us into a mjrsterv of author-craft. * Suppose an 
able man is to prove tiiat an ancient author entertained 
certain particular opinions, which are only insinuated 
here and there through his works, I am sure it will take 
him up m-tre days to collect the pasva^es which he will 
have occasion for, than to orgve at random on those pa^ 
■ages. Ilavmg once fofind out his authorities and hii 
quotations, which perhaps will not fill six pas<*s, and may 
have cost him a month's labour, he may finish in two morn- 
ings' work, twenty pa<!es of ar;:umen:!t, objeclinnt, an-J • 
answers to objections; and cons<-<]imntly, «hat proceeds I 
Jrem owr omn grfwua $ometimea rosts much ia$ Ume than ; 
what IS rrpatiit far eeUscft'ng'. Curneille would have re- ; 
■Boro limn lo dejood a tragedy by a collection of I 

authorities, thsn to write it : and I am supposing the si 
number of pages in the tragedy and in the defence. Hein- 
sius perhaps bestowed more time in defending his Htrodaa 
u^katicidm against Balzac, than a Spanish (or a Scotch) 
metaphysician bestows on a large volume of controversy ; 
where be takes all from his own stock* I am somewhat 
concerned in the truth of this principle. There are arti- 
cles in the present work occupying but a few pages, which 
could never have been produced had not more time been 
alhttted to the researches which they contain than aome 
wouM allow to a small volume, which might excel in ge- 
nius, and yet be likely not lo be long remembered ! All 
this is lalnrar which never meets the eye. It is quicker 
work, with special pleading and poignant periods, to fill 
sheets with g«ier^ising principles : tntne bird's-eye views 
of philosophy for the nonet seem as if things were !#een 
clearer when at a distance and m masse, and rcqu re littl« 
knowled;;e of the individual parts. Such an art of tonting 
may referable the famous Luilian method, by whi^h the 
doctor lUuminatuM enabled any one to invent arguments by 
a ma'^hine ! Two tabies, one of attritrntes^ and the other 
of sv^'ecCs, worked about circularly in a frame, and placed 
correlatively to one another, pn»duced certain rcMnbina- 
tions ; the number ofquations multiplied as they were work- 
ed ! So that here was a mechanical invention, by which 
they might dispute without end, and write on without an/ 
particular kiiowledce of their subject ! 

But I ho pains-raking gentry, when heaven sends them 
genius rnougb, are the m<Mr. instructive sort, and they are 
those to whom we shall appeal while time and truth can 
meet together. A wdl-read writer, with good taste, is one 
who has the command of the wit of o:her men ; he searches 
where knowledge is to be found ; and though he may not 
himself excel in mvention, his ingenuitv may compose one 
ol' those agreeable bor«ks, the delic<B of literature, that will 
out-last the fadms meteors of his day. Epicuru^r is said to 
have borrowed from no writer in his three hundred inspired 
volumes, while Plutarch, S«a*eca, and the eider Flmy, 
made such free use of* ihrir libraries ; and it has happrned 
that Epicurus, with his unsubstantial nothinijne^s, ha* 
' melted into thin air,' while the solid treasures Iiave buoyed 
themselves up amulst the wrecks of nations. 

On this subj'-ct of Quotation, literary politics, for the 
commonweahh has its policy and iis cabinet.secrers, are 
more concerned than the reaiier suspects. Authoniies in 
matters of fact ore often called for ; in matters of opinion, 
indeed, whicK, perhaps, are of more importance, no one 
requires any autiionty. But too open and genrroiis a 
revelation of the chapter and the page of ine urikrinal 
quoted, has often pruvcd detnm«mial to the l^jititnate 
honours of the quo'er. They are unfairly appropriated by 
the next comer ; the quoter is never quoted, but the au- 
thority he has afTmled is produced by h» succes«or with 
the air of an original research. I have seen MSS thus 
confident iy rcf<:rrcd to, which could never have met the 
eye of the writer. A learned historian declared to me of 
a contemporary, that the latter had appropriated his re. 
searches ; he might, indeed, and he had a right to refer to 
the same originals ; but if his predecessor had opened the 
sources for him, gratitude is not a silent virtue. Gilbert 
S'uart thus lived on Rol>ertson : and a* Professor Du^ald 
Stewart ob't^rvjs. * his curio<t:v has seldom led him into 
any paih where the genius and industry of hut prederes]«'»r 
had not previously cleared the way.' It is for this reasrko 
some authors, wfio do not care to trust to the equity and 
gratitude of their successors, will not furnish the means of 
supplanting themselves ; for, by not yieldin; up their ao- 
ihonties, tKey themselves becitme one. Some authors, 
who are pleased at seems their names occur in the mar- 
{:ins of other books than their own. have practised this po- 
htical management ; such as Alexander ab Alexandre, 
and other compilers of tliat stamp, lo whose labours of 
small value, we arc often oblijted to refer, from the cir- 
cumrtance that they themselves have not pointed out their 

One word more on this long chapter of quotation. To 
make a hat>py one is a thing not easily to be done. Car- 
dinal du Perron u^m^I to say, that the happy application 
of a vi;rse from Vireil waf worth a talent : and Bayle, 
perhaps too much prcpos«esMed in their favour, has in- 
sinuated, that ihero h not less inveniion in a just and hap. 
py ap«>licatii>n of a tbo'ight found in a book, than in being 
the firitt author of that thought. The art of quotation re- 
quires more delicacy in the practice than those conceiw 
who can see nothinf more in a quotation than an extract. 



WhtnoTer the mind of a writer is •aturated with the full 
inipiraiion of a i^rcat author, a quotaiioti givet compiele- 
oeM to the whuie ; it teait bi« feeling« with uodiaputed 
autburity. Whenever we would prepare the mind by a 
forcible appeal, an opening quotation is a symphony pre- 
luding on the chorda whoie tones we are about to har^ 
moaice. Perbsps no writers of our timet have discovered 
mure of this delicacy of quotation than the author of the 
* Pursuits of Literature ;' and Mr Soutbey, in some of 
his beautiful periodical invesiiijations, where we have often 
acknowledged the solemn and striking effect of a quotation 
from our eider writers. 

THE OEIOIll or DAirTE*S nrrcRHO. 

Nearly six centuries have elapsed since the appearance 
of the great work of Dante, ana the literary historians of 
Italy are even now disputing respectmg the origin of this 
poem, singular in iui nature and m its excellence. In as. 
certaining a point so long inquired after, and so keenly dis- 
uuted, it will rather increase our admiration than detract 
from the genius of this great poet; and it will illustrate the 
useful pruiciple, that every great genius is influenced by 
the objects and the feelings which occupy his own times, 
only duTe: iog from the race of his brothers by the magical 
f'fot: of h'u developments ; the light he sends forth over the 
world h» ui'ten catches from Une faint and unobservMl 
suark which would die away, and turn to nothing, in ano- 
ther hand. 

The Divina Commedia of Dante is a visionary journey 
through the three realms of the after-life exi«teiice ; and 
thougb in the classical ardour of our poUrieal pilgrim, he al- 
lows his conductor to be a Pagan, the scenes are those of 
monkish imagination. The invention of a vision was the usu> 
al vehicle for religious instruction in his age ; it was adapted 
to the genius of the sleeping Homer of a monastery, and to 
the comprehension, and evun to the faiih, of the populace, 
whose minds were then awake to these awful themes. 

This mode of writing visions has been imperfectly de- 
tected by several modem inquiries. It got into the Fabliaux 
of the Jongleurs, or Provencal bardj, before the days of 
Danie ; ihey had these visions or pilgrimages to Heil ; the 
adventures were no doubt solemn to them— but it seemed 
absurd to attribute the origin of a sublime poem to such in- 
ferior, and to us even ludicrous inventions. Every one, 
therefore, found out some other origin of Dante's [nfemo— 
since they were resolved to have one— in other works 
more congenial to its nature ; the description of a second 
life, the melancholy or the elorified scones of punishment 
or bliss, with the animated shades of men who were no 
more, had been opened to the Italian bard by his favourite 
Virgil, and might have been suggested, according to War- 
too, by the Samnium Seimmit of Cicero. 

But the enure work of Dante in Gothic ; it is a picture 
of his lime:!, of his own ideas, of the people aboyt him ; 
Dolhing of classical antiquity resembles it; and although 
the name of Virgil is introduced into a Christian Hades, 
it is assuredly not the Roman, for Dante's Virgil speaks 
and acts a<f tiie Latin poet could never have done. It is 
one of the absurdities of Dante, who, like ourShakspeare, 
or like Gothic architecture itaelf, has many thingi which 
* lead to nothing' amidst their massive greatness. 

Had the Italian and the French commentatori,who have 
troubled themselves on this occasion, known the art which 
we have happily practised in this country, of illustrating 
a great national bard, by endeavouring to recover the 
contemporary writings and circumstances which were 
connected with his studies and his times, thev had long ere 
this discovered the real framework of the Inferno. 

Within the last twenty years it had been rumoured that 
Dante hsd borrowed, or stolen his Inferno from * The Vis- 
ions of Alberico,' which was written two centuries before 
his time. The literary antiquary Buttari had discovered 
a manuscript of this Virion of Alberico, and, in haste, 
made extracts of a startling nature. They were well 
adapted to inflame the curiosity of those who are eager 
after any thing new about something old ; it throws an air 
of erudiiion over the small talker, who otherwise would 
care little about the original ! Thu was not the first time 
that the whoie edifice of genius had been threatened by the 
notion of a remote earthquake; but in these cases it 
uraally happens that those early discoverers who can judge 
of a little part, are in total blindness when they would de- 
cide on a whole. A poisonous niikiew seemed to have 
t i t led oo the laurels of Dante ; nor were wo relieved from 
our constant inquuiea, till il Sigr. Abaia CandUieri at i 

Rome, published, in 1814, this much talked of manuacripty 
and has now enabled us to see and lo decide, and even 
to add the present little article as a useful supplement. 

True it is, that Dante must have read with equal atten- 
tion and delight, this authentic vision of Alberico ; for it is 
men, so we are assured by the whole monastery, as it 
MpfMMied to their aocifnt brother, when a boy ; many a 
striking, and manv a positive resemblance in the * Divma 
Commedia' has been pointed out; aikd Mr Cary, m his 
English version of Dante, so English, that he makes 
Dante speak in blank verse very much like X>anf e in stan- 
zas, has observed, that * The reader will, in these marked 
resemblances, see enough to convince him that Dante 
had read tm» nngidar work.* The uruih is, that the 
' Vision of Alberico' must not be considered at a ain' 
gular work— but on the contrary, as the prevalent mode 
of composition in the monastic ages. It has been ascer- 
tained that Alberico was written in the twelfth century, 
judging of the age of a manuscnpC bjr the writing. I shall 
now preserve a vision which a FreneMiuitiqiiary had kmg 
ago given, merely with the design lo show bow the monks 
abused the simphcity of our Gotho ancestors, and with an 
utter want of taste for such inventions, he deems the pres- 
ent one to be ' monstrous.' He has not told us ihe age in 
which it was written. This vision, however, exhibits .such 
complete scenes of the Inferno of the great poet, that tho 
writer must have read Dante, or Dante must have read 
this writer. The manuscript, with another of the sauM 
kind, is in the King's library at Paris, and some future 
researcher may ascertain the age of these Gothic compo- 
sitions ; doubtless they will be Ibund to bcloug to ibe age 
of Alberico, for they are alike stamped by the same daric 
and awful imagination, the same depth of feeling, the 
solitary genius of tho monastery \ 

Il may, however, be necessary to observe, that these 
* Visions' were merely a vehicle for popular instruction ; 
nor must we depend on the a^e of their composition by the 
names of the suppositious visionaries affixed to them : they 
were the satires of the times. The following elaborate 
views of some scenes in the Inferno were composed 
by an honest monk who was dissatisfied with tlie bishops, 
and took this covert means of pointing out how the neglect 
of their episcopal duties was punished in the after bfu ; he 
had an equal quarrel with the feudal nobiiity for their op- 
pressions : and he even boldly ascended to the thnme. 

* The Vision of Charles the Bald, of the places of pun- 
ishment, and the happiness of the just. "^ 

' I, Charles, by the gratuitous gift of God, king of the 
Germans, Roman patrician, and likewise emperor of the 

* On liie holy night of Sunday, having performed the di- 
vine offices of matins, returning to my bed to sleep, a voice 
most terrible came to my ear ; ** Charles ! thy spirit shall 
now issue from thy body ; thou shalt go ana behold the 
judgments of God ; they shall serve thee only as presages, 
and thy spirit shall agam return shortly afterwaras.'^ Iih 
stantly was my spirit rapt, and he who bore me away was 
a being of the most splendid whiteness. He put into my 
hand a ball of thread, which shed about a blaze of light, 
such as the comet darts when it is apparent. He divided 
it, and said to me, ** Take thou this thread, and bind it 
strongly on the thumb of thy right hand, and by this I 
will lead thee through the infernal labyrinlh of punisb- 

* Then going before with velocity, but always unwinding 
this luminous thread, he conducted ne into deep valleys 
filled with fires, and wells inflamed, blazing with all sorts 
of unctuous matter. There I observed the prelates who had 
served my father and my ancestors. Although I trembled, 
I still, however, inquired of them to learn the cause of 
their torments. They answered " We are the bishops 
cf your father and your ancestors; instead of uniting 
them and their people in peace and concord, we sowed 
among them discord, and were the kindlers of evil ; for 
this are we burning in these Tartarean punishments ; we, 
and other men-slayers and devoureri oTrapine. Here al- 
so shall come your bishops, and that crowd of satellites 
who surround you, and who imitate the evil we have 

* And whilst I listened to them tremblinjtiy, I beheld 
the bkckest demons flying with hooks of burmng iron, who 
wouM have caught that ball of thread which I neld in mv 
hand, and iMkre drawn it towards them, but it darted sucn 
a reverberating light, that they could not lay hold of the 

e In MS8, Bib. Reg. Inter Itt. M^ S«f7, p. IM. 



Ihrettd. Tfa«»e droioDi, wbm ai mj back. ha>tl«d to 
precipitate mv ini'j inot« •ui];»hureviu pit*: but hit om^ 
diMflvr. wbo caiTMtd tbe bail, wound about mj shoulder a 
doubled uread, dra vuij^ mit lo bun viib lucb force, that we 
aACeaded hifb mMmiaiM of fivne, from wbeiice isvued 
laket and burom^ ■treamt, lueJtiDf aiJ kinds of mruk. 
There I Ibund trie ftfwls of lordi «ho had Mrrred mr falher 
and my bruinerk ; some plunged in up lo the hair of their 
bradi, 'Ab^TB to ineir chini, o:b*Tf with half th«ir bcidie* im- 
merted. I'hear yeitin^. enrd lo me, *' It » for iuflainin^ dis- 
conlt-DU wrh tout father, and vour brolherr, and rours^lf, 
lo make war and tprtad murd«-r and rapine, eager for 
earthiT rpoKf, fhat we nvw puflV-r iheMr ir>nD*'ntii in these 
nrera'of boLing metal." Wfiile I wa< UmiJir bendwE 
over tbetr vullerin^, I beard at my back the ciamour <ii 
voicet, polaUe$ pottnltr tvrmenla patiuntw ! *• The pow- 
erful auifer loroMai^ powerful! r :" and I lo'Aed u;i. and 
beheld on the ■bona boilini; virearu^ and ardini fijrria'*e«, 
biaziof widi pitch and auipbar, fuii of irrrat draeoo*. large 
KurpMM, sad aerpeota of a atranpe FjAecier : where also 
I aaw woe of my anceiitori, (•rinces, and my brorhert al- 
so. wboKaid to ne, " A!ai, Charlei! behold our heavr 
puoiabmeal for evil, and f'lr proud mahgnafit rvunselii, 
which in our realms and in thine we yielded to from ihv 
luvt of dominion." As I was erMTin^ wii}i ih^ir ffr'tans, 
draiotiB hurried on, who sought to derour me with ihroatv 
open*-d, beichmz flame and sulphur. Bui my leader 
trebbled the thread awfr me, at whu*e reKpkndent hght 
these were overooiiie. Le&dinp me then tfi-cureiy, we 
deseended into a great valley, which on one icjde was'dark, 
oeepl vHwre lifted by ardent furnaces, while the ameoi- 
tT of iIm oUier was so'pleavant and splendid that I cannot 
<jescribe il. I turned however, to the ribi<cure aiid flaming 
side ; I beheld roroe kings of my race agonized in p^ai 
and strange punishments, arid I thoiigni how in an instant 
the huge biack friants who in turmoifwere working to vet 
this whole valley into flames, would have hurltd nie into 
th^se ftiifs; ] still trembled, whnn the luminnus thread 
cheered my eyes, and on the other fide of the vaiiev a 
lifpt for a I'ltile' while whitened, gradually brc&kuig : I ';>b. 
served two fountains ; one, who«e waters had extreme 
h*'at, the other mr«re temperate and r'ear : and two large 
vessils filled with these waters. The luminous thread 
res'ed "M one of the fervid waters, where I saw my father 
Louis cjvered to his thi^shs, and th<iugh labouring in the 
angles •/bodily pain, he sp'ike to me, " My son Charles, 
fear if^thing ! I kiiow that thy spirit shall return thy 
body : and God has permitted' thee lo come here that thou 
mayst wnnefs. becauAe nf ihe rins I hare ctmimitted, the 
punishments I endure. On*' day I am placc-d in the boi!- 
mg ba!h of this large vesKel. and on another changed into 
that of m'ire temrierate waters: ihis I owe to the pravers 
of Saint Peter, Saint Denis, Saint Remy, who are' the 
patrons of our royaJ house ; but if by prayers and ma.<frcs, 
offerings and alms, psalmody and vi;ils, my failhful bishrips 
and abbots, and even aJI the ec li'siastirHlorder, assist me, 
it will not be long before I am delivered from these boiang 
waters. Look on your leO !*' I I'Mked. and beheld two 
runs of b:Mlmg waters. " The^e ar« prepared for ihoe." 
ho said, " if thou wilt nrrt l>e thine own corrector, and do 
penance for thy crimes !*' Then I began lo sink with hor- 
ror; but my guide perceiviup the panic of mv spirit, said 
to me, •' Follow me to the nght of the valley Wight in the 
florious light of Paradise." ' I had no: lonp proceeded, 
when, amidst tbe moat illu^rious king*, I beheld my uncle 
Lotharius seated on a topaz, of marvellous magnitude, 
crowned with a most precious diadem ; and beside him 
was his ROD Louis, lUie him crowned, and seeing m^, he 
spake with a blandibhment of air, and a sweetness of vriice, 
**f;harles, my successor, now the third in the Roman 
Empire, approach ! I know that thou hast come to view 
these places of punishment, where thy father and my bro- 
ther groans to his destined hour ; but still to end by the 
intercession of the three saints, the fiatruns of the liings 
and the people of France. Know that it will not be long 
ere thou shall be dethroned, and bhortly after thou shah 
die !|* Then Louis turning towards nic : '• Thv Roman 
empire shall pass into the handK of Louis, the son of my 
daughter ; give him the sovereign authority, and trust to 
hw hands that ball of thread thou holdesi?* Directly I 
loosened it from the finger of my ri:;ht hand to give the 
empire to his son. This invested him witli empire, and 
bs became bnliiant with all light ; and at the same instant. 
admiraUo to see. my spirit, greatly wearied and broken, 
NCnmed and glided into my body. Hence let all know 

whatever happen, that L'>.:i« T.t>e youn|! possesses the 
Roman eaipir*^ oes:inod vy God Ana kj ihe Lora wrtio 
rei^oe:h orer iik- livini; arid :r:e o«a!l. and wLose lUDgaoui 
enoureih f'*r evr and ii>r aye, wi.^ pi'rfLtrih tshen be abMi 
caii me away to an- irn: jii*-.* 

The Frrnch iiterary ant iq'.iuies judged of thes«» * Vii^ 
ions. Will) the mere nuTHiTjaliir ^fireir ia»''e. Errry tiar:£ 
Gothic wiih mem is barLiarou». ur. Tijt\ »'■<; w^-ii'vis mwi 
redeeuiuig spirit of cenM?. ri'ir i;ir srcri : ;.<jr.H»r o:' tnrse 
curiHi» do<.-unu'nts <d tr.e ac"- 

I'ne Vjsi-ju of CxiLr.r:* rce- Ba:r may it. fecund in :he 
aiiCitn: c.'ir'<nici'-s of Si U-ni!-, wiiir.h wrre wri<:t-n uifd*" 
L" e eye (f At^tx.* Suger. 'he ithrut--' ani: aii.r m::.:?::i.r w 
Louif lit** Yr'unc. ax*d whicji wnt '.-t ria.Ti.y co;ii»p;.yfi: ri - 
fore LV tnineen:>j ttuTur^*. The Ji arni a writtr of :fir 
fuuriu voiume of tbe Jl/c/on^cs tir^ dunt grar-it SiUeo- 
thOpUy wu:i had as l::i e i&^ie for,ihf sr iuyf;eri3i.i> \ i:<)( i:s 
as the other French cn'JC. ap>iln£ize> lor irie veri«-rab.f 
Abbe SugerV aarnusi-'U of sucn ri«i-.'bs : ' Asfurf-c. :v.' ; •■ 
says, 'li^ie Abt*^ butrer was too wise and Vjh hr,.\}SU'.rx\^-. 
lu be'ijeve iriMnnlar visions : bu: if he ^uifrred r.s in^eninri. 
or if he in»eriHJ it himself in th*^ rnroi:iCie of S: E^-friis, it 
u because he felt that such a fab.e oifcrej an txreiirn: 
lesson to kings, to ministers and bishops, and i'. had he**!! 
well il'tney had not had worse tale;* t^iia Uiein.' The la'tcr 
part is as phiiOsoi»hicai as the former ue the reverse. 

In ihesr eztrai«rdinary pruducuuns iif a Guthic ncv see 
may a>»urr civ dis<:ov»-r Dante : but what are they'rrf^rt 
than I he frame wr.irkol' his unimn a led picture! It isoniy i:iL5 
mechanical hart ot his sulj.iir.e c(.uctpii.>ns that we < an 
pretend to have ciKrovered; other poetj^ nii:;hi have 
adopted these *■ Visi'.<np.* but vie should have hhu n'> * r>i- 
vina Coinmedia.* Mr Carey has fineiy ol^ervi J ul ih^-nc- 

Eretended origins «.f Dan'e'« genius, aiihon^ri Mr Car«-r 
new only The Vision of Albencn. ' It is the scale cf 
magnificence on which this conception was frame j. and 
the wonderful development of it in all its partn. that mav 
justly entitle our poet to rank among the few minds ;'o 
whom the power of a great creative faculty can be ascrib- 
ed.* Milton might originally have sought the seminal hint 
of his great work from a sort of Italian mystery. In th« 
words of Dante himself, 

* Foca favilia gran fiamma secorda.* 

II ParatUso, Can. L 

Frcm a small spark 

Great flame hath risen.* 


After all. Dante has said in a letter, * I found the original of 
my helj in the world which we inhabit :* and he said a 
greater tnitli than some bterary antiquaries can always 
comprehend !* 


Such a title might serve for a work of not incurious nor 
unphiloEophicai speculation, which might enlarge our gen- 
eral news of human affairs, and assist our comprehension 
of these events which are enrolled on the registers of his- 
tory. The scheme nf Providence is carrying on subluna^ 
rv events, bv means inscrutable to ns, 

* A mishiy maze, but not without a plan !' 

Some mortals have recently written history, and ' Lectures 
on History,^ who presume to explain the great scene of 
human affairs, affecting the same familiarity wiih the de- 
signs of Providence, as wiih the events which they com- 
pile from human authorities . Every party discovers ia 

* In thn recent edition of Dante, by Romanis, in four re- 
lumes, quario. the Iset )ireserres ihe Visiun of Alberko, aiiu a 
strange i:orre5pciuiIenre on its piilii:catiim ; the rcitemblancea 
in numeruiis rwiiaees arc pnimed o>u. It id curious to observe 
that the ?ooil Catholic Abbate Cariri>11ieri. at first maintained 
the authe'nticiiy i»r the Vision by nllesine that similar revela- 
tion have nnc'been on usual !— the CaveJiere Ghcrardi Roaai 
aturkrdihe whole as the cmde leeewl of a boy who was only 
made the instrument of the monksl and was eaher a Ji&r. or a 
parrot ! Wi: inny cxiireM our HfrifHii^hineiit ihut at the present 
day. b subjerii-i mere iittrary ii'ijuiry i*hoitid have been in- 
vnfveil wii'h ' th»' faith nf the Rom;in Chi-rch.* Canct- llieri 
becomes at It^ncih suNmiiti^ive ti> the !ive!y attacks ot Rossi, — 
and the e«litrir irrnvely ailiis hi« * conr!uMon» which had near- 
ly conclude*! rii-ihiii*: i Hr tliftr-.ivera pictures, sculntures, and 
a' myfri<>ry arird, as well a^ Vlsinm* in the twetfih and thir- 
teenth ciMiiuries, ln>m which he inia^riricsthe Inferno, the Pur- 
gatorio, am! the Parailifo, owe their first conception. The 
riir^nality of Dame, huwurcr. i^ maiiitaiiied on a right priori- 
pie': that the poet only empl>tjed the ideoa and the maicriak 
which he found in his own country and his own itanes. 



the events which at first were adverse to their own cause, 
but finally terminal'' in their favour, that Providence had 
used a peculiar and particular interference : this is a source 
of human error, and intolerant prejudice. The Jesuit 
Mariana, rxulune over the destruction of the kingdom and 
nation of the Goths in Spain, observes, that ' It was by a 
particular providence, that out of their ashes might rise a 
ruw and holy Spmn^ to be the bulwark of the Catholic re^ 
ligion ,*' and unquestionably he would have a<lduced as 
proofs of this * holy Spain,' the establishment of the inqui- 
sition, and the dark idolatrous bigotry of that hoodwinked 
people. But a protestant will not sympathize with the feel- 
mss of the Jesuit ; yet the protestants too, will discover par- 
ticular providences, and magni^ human events into super- 
natural ones. This custom has long prevailed among fana- 
tics : we have had books published by individuals of ' par- 
ticular providences,* whicn, as they imagined, had fallen to 
their lot ; they are called passages of providence ;' and 
one I recollect by a cracked brained puritan, whose expe- 
rience never went beyond his own neighbourhood, but wno, 
having a very bad temper, and many whom he considered 
his enemies, wrote down all the misfortunes which hap. 
p«*ned to them as acts of particular providences,' and 
valu«'d his blessedness on the efficacy of his curses ! 

Without venturing to penetrate into the mysteries of the 
present order of human affairs, and the ercat scheme of 
fatality or of accident, it may be sufficiently evident to us, 
that oAen on a single event' revolve the fortunes of men 
and of nations. 

An eminent writer has speculated on the defeat of 
Charles I, at Worcester, as ' one of those events which 
most strikingly exemplify how much better events are dis- 
posed of by Providence, than they would be if the direc- 
tion were lefl to the choice even of* the best and the wisest 
men.' He proceeds to show, that a royal victory must 
have been succeeded by other severe struggles, and by 
diffVrent parties. A civil war would have contained within 
itself another civil war. One of the blessings of his defeat 
at Worcester was, that it left the commonwealth's men 
roasters of the three kingdoms, and afforded them * full 
leisure to complete and perfect their own structure of gov- 
ernment. The experiment was fairly tried ; there was 
nothing from without to disturb the process ; it went on duly 
from change to change.' The close of this history is well 
known. Had the royalists obtained the victory of Wor- 
cester, the commonwealth parly might have obstinately 
persisted, that had their republic not been overthrown, 
* their free and liberal governmeni' would have diffused 
its universal happiness through the three kingdoms. This 
idea is ingenious; and might have been pursued in my 
proposed ' History of Events which have not happened,' un- 
d(>r the title of * The Battle of Worcester won by Charles 
II.' The chapter, however, would have had a brighter 
close, if the sovereign and the royalists had proved them- 
selves better mnn than the knaves and fanatics of the com- 
monwealth. It is not for us to scrutinize into ' the ways' 
of Providence ; but if Providence conducted Charles 
II to the throne, it appears to have deserted him when 

Historians, for a particular purpose, have sometimes 
amused themselves with a detail of an event which did not 
happen. A history of this kind we find in the ninth book 
of Livy ; and it forms a digression, where, with his delight* 
All copiousness, he reasons on the probaUe consequences 
which would have ensued had Alexander the Great in- 
vaded Italy. Some Greek writers, to raise the Parthians 
to an equality with the Romans, had insinuated that the 

great name of this military monarch, who is said never to 
ave lost a battle, would have intimidated the Romans, 
and would have checked their passion for universal do- 
minion. The patriotic Livy, disdaining that the glory of 
his nation, which had never ceased from war for nearly 
eight hundred years, should be put in competition with the 
career of a yownz conqueror, which had scarcely lasted 
ten, enters into a pamllel of man with man, general with 
general, and victory with victory.' In the full charm of 
his imagination he brings Alexander down into Italy, he 
invests him with all his virtues, and *d(i!(ks their lustre' 
wiUi all his defeets. He arrane»'s tho Macedonian army, 
while he exuliinsly shows five Roman armies at that mo- 
ment pursuing th'-ir eonqiieitiM ; and he cautiously counts 
the numerous allies who would have combined their forces ; 
be oven denceods to compare the weapons and the modes 
of warfare of the Macedonians with those of the R<Mnans. 
X«ivy, as if he had cmiifht a momentary panic at the first 

success which had probably attended Alexander in his de- 
scent into Italy, brings forward the great commanders ho 
would have had to encounter ; he compares Alexander 
with each, and at length terminates his tears, and claims 
his triumph, by discovering that the Macedonians had but 
one Alexander, while the Romans had several. This 
beautiful digression in Livy is a model for the narrative of 
an event which never happened. 

The Saracens from Asia had spread into Afirica, and 
at length possessed themselves of Spain. Etide, a dis- 
contented Duke of Guienne, in Prance, had been van- 
quished by Charles Martel, who derived that humble but 
glorious surname from the event we are now to record. 
Charles had lefl Eude the enjoyment of his dukedom, pro- 
vided that he held it as a Ibf of the crown ; but blind with 
ambiti<»i and avarice, Etide adopted a schema which threw 
Christianity iuielf, as well as Europe, nio a crisis of peril 
which has never since occurred. Bv aurjring a daughter 
with a Mahometan emir, he rashly begu an intareourse 
with the Ifthmaelites, one of whose Btfoorite prDJacta was, 
to plant a formitlable colony of their ftith ib Frtace. An 
army of four hundred thousand combatmntti ■■ dbe chroni- 
clers of the time aflirm, were seen deseendiBgiiitqGuienne, 
possessing themselves in one da^ of ha domains; and 
Eude soon discovered what sort ofworkmen he had called, 
to do that of which he himself was so incapable. Charles, 
vrith equal courage and prudence, beheld this heavy tem- 
pest bursting over the whole country ; and to remove tho 
first cause of this national evil, he reconciled the d&sooo* 
tented Eude, and detached the duke from his fatal lOiuice. 
But the Saracens were fast advancing throu^ TiriiniiBt, 
and had reached Tours by the river Loire : AbderUi, the 
diiefofthe Saracens, anticipated a triumph in the awhi- 
tode of his infantry, his cavalry, and his camels, exhibit- 
ing a military warfare unknown in France ; he spread out 
his mighty army to surround the French, and to take them, 
as it were, in a net. The appearance terrified, and the 
magnificence astonished. Charles, collecting his far infe- 
rior forces, assured them that they had no other France 
than the spot they covered. He had ordered that the cily 
of Tours should be closed on every Frenchman, unless he 
entered it victorious ; and he took care that every fugitive 
should be treated as an enemy by bodies of gent tTannes, 
whom he placed to watch at the wings of his army. The 
combat was furious. The astonished Mahometan beheU 
his battalions defeated as he urged them on singly to the 
French, who on that day had resolved to oflfer their lives 
as an immolation to their mother countrj. Eude on that 
day, ardent to clear himself from the odium which he had 
incurred, with desperate valour, taking a wide compass, 
attacked his new allies in the rear. The camp of the 
Mahometan was forced : the shrieks of his women and 
children reached him from amidst the massacre; terrified, 
he saw his multitude shaken. Charles, who beheld the 
light breaking through this dark cloud of men, exclaimed 
to his countrymen, ' My friends. Ood has raised hu ban- 
ner, and the unbelievers perish !* The mass of the Sara- 
cens, though broken, could not fly ; their own multitude 
pressed themselves together, and the Christian sword 
mowed down the Mahometans. Abderam was found 
dead in a vast heap, unwounded, stifled by his own mul. 
titude. Historians record that three hundred and sixty 
thousand Saracens perished on la Jmurmm de Toutm ; but 
their fears and their joy probably magnified their enemies. 
Thus Charies saved his own country, and u that moment, 
all the rest of Europe, from this deuige of people which 
had poured down from Asia and Africa. Erery Christian 
people returned a solemn thankgiving, and saluted their 
deliverer as ' the Hammer* of France. But the Sara- 
cens were not conquered ; Charles did not even yenturo 
on their pursuit ; and a second invasion proved almost as 
terrifying ; army still poured down on army, and it was 
long, and af\er many dubious results, that the Saracens 
were rooted out of France. Such is the history of one of 
the most important events which has pused ; but that of 
an event which did not happen, would be the result of this 
famous conflict, had the Mahometan power triumphed ! 
The Mahometan dominion had predominated through 
Europe ! The imaginaticHi is startled when it discovers 
how much depended on this invasion, at a lime when 
there existed no political state in Europe, no balance uf 
power in one common tie of confederation ! A single 
battle, and a single treason had before made the Mahom- 
etans sovereigM of Spain. We see that the same events 
had nearly been repeated in France ; and had the crescent 



tomrad abov* the croa, u every «|>pearaiice pnKuiaed 
to the Saraceme hoeU, the least of our eviU had uow been 
thai we should have worn turbam, combed our beard* in- 
■lead 6[ thaviog them, have beheld a niure magnificent 
architecture tiian the Grecian, while ihe public uitnd had 
been bounded by the arte and literature of the Moorish 
university of Cordova. 

One or the great revolutioM of modem Europe, perhaps, 
bad nol occurred, had the pereooal feelings t^ Luiber beeu 
rMpected, and had his penooal intere«t beou consulted. 
Guicciardini, whose veracity we cannul euApect, hiu pre- 
eervrd a fact which proves how very nearly some iiniior- 
tanl events which have taken place,' might not have hap- 

fened ! I transcribe the passage from liis ihirieenth bo«'k. 
Crsar (ihc Emperor CharleatV,) afjcr he had given a 
hearing in the Diet of Worms tu Martin Luther, and 
caused his opinions to be examined by a number ofdivinei*, 
who reported thai his doctrine was erroneous and perni- 
dotts to the Chrislian religion, had, to gratify the poniitf, 
put him iHider the ban of the empire, which so terrified Mar- 
tin, that, if the injurious and threatening word* which were 
given bim by Cardinal San £iuto, the apostolical legate, 
had not thrown him into the utmost despair, it is believed 
it would have been easy, by giving him some prefWinent, 
or providing for him some honourable way of living, to 
make him renounce his error*.' Bv this wo may infrr, , 
that one of the true authors of the tlefbrmaiion was this ; 
very apostoUcal legate *, they had succeeded m terrifying J 
Luther, but they were not satisfied till they had insulted 
him ; and with such a temper as Luther's, the ttciise of 
poraooal insult would remove even that of terror ; it would 
ooqiiestioiiabiy survive it. A similar proceeding with 
Franklin, from our ministers, is said to have produced the 
same oflTect with that political sage. What Guicciardini 
has told of Luther preserves the sentiment of the times. 
Charles V was so fully perMjaili^d that he could have put 
down the Reformation, had he nd himself at once of the 
chief; that iiaving granted Luther a safe-guard to appear 
at the Council at Worms, in bis last moments he repent- 
ed, as of a sin, that having had Luther in his hands, he 
suffered him to escape ; for to have violated his faith with 
a heretic he held to oe no crime ! 

In the history of religion, human instruments have been 
permitted tube the great movers of its chief revolutions ; 
and the most important events concerning national reli- 
gions appear to have depended on the passions of individu- 
als, ana the circumstances of the time. Impure means 
have often produced the most glorious results ; and this, 
perhaps, may be among the dispensations of Providence. 
A similar transacuon occurred in Europe and in Asia. 
The motives and conduct of Constantino the Great, in 
the alliance of the Christian faith with his government, 
are far more obvious than any one of those qualities with 
which the panecyric of Euseoius so vainly clonks over the 
oimee and unchristian life of this polyihcistical Christian. 
In adopting the new faith as a amp iTHatj and by invest- 
mg the church with temporal power, at which Dante so 
bMignandy exclaims, he founded the religion of Jesus, but 
corrupted its guardians. The same occurrence tofjk place 
in France under Clovis. The fabulous religion of Pagan- 
ism was fast on its decline ; Clovis had resolved to unite 
the four different principalities, which divided Gaul into 
one empire. In the midst of an important battle, as for- 
tune hung doubtful between the parties, the Pagan mo- 
narch invoked the god of his fair Christian queon, and ob- 
tained the victory ! St Remi found no difficulty in persua- 
ding Clovis, after the fortunate event, to adopt the Chri»- 
tian creed. Political reasons for some time suspended 
the king's open conversion, at length the Pranks followed 
their sovereign to the baptismal fonts. According to Pa^' 
quier, Naud<S, and other political writers, these recorded 
miracles,* like those of Coosiantine, were but inventions 
to authonze the change of relicinn. Clovis uned the new 
creed as a lever by whose machinerv he would be enabled 
to crush the petty princes his neighbors ; and like Con- 

* The roh'aclei of Clovis cnnsisted of a shi^M, which wns 
picked up after having fallen from ihe Hkie« ; the aiuni. line oil. 
conveyetl fn»m Heaven by a white dove in a phial, which, till 
the reien of Lonis XVI, consecrated the kinj:.-* ol Frmire ; and 
Iheorinamme, or standani with toldcn flami?.'!, lon«( cuKpcnded 
over the vnmb of St Denis, which the French kin^s only raised 
over the urnib when their crown was in imminent ])eiil. No 
fiaure kinc of France can be anoinu^i with the sainte ampoule, 
or oil broiTffhi down to earth by a whiia liove ; in 1794 it wns 
broken by some profane hand, and aniiquarles bars since 
agrsed that U was ouly sn aocisni lachrymatory ! 

■tantine, Clovis, sullied by Crimea of as dark a die, ob- 
tained th« Lille of < the Great.' Had not the most capri. 
cioUB • Defender of the Faiih' been influenc«-d by iliemosC 
fiulent of pdwuoui*, the Reformation, &o fceWy ai»d so im- 
iierfectly begun and coniiuued, had possibly never freed 
Euglaiid from the papal thraldom ; 

* For gospcl-liglu tirst beam'd from Bulleo*s eyes.' 
The catholic Ward, in his siugular iludibrastic poem of 
*Eiiglancl'j Kjt3furiiia:ion,' in hoine odd rliynieii, has cha> 
racterised il by a naivttc^ which we are n.uch too delicats 
tu repeat. The cathoiir. writers censure Pmiip for recall- 
ing the Duke of Alva from the Netherlands. According 
to these humane politicians, the unsparing kword, and tiie 
pf.nai lin'S of this resolute captain had cvriainly accum- 
pliihed llie fate of the heretics ; for angry Iiohm, however 
numerous, would find their numerical force dimiiiishf.d by 
gibbits, and pit^holesi. We have lately been informed by a 
curious writer ihat Protestantism once existed in Spain, and 
was actually ezlirpated at the moment by the crushiug am 
of tlio inquufiiion.'^ According to these catholic |iouu> 
cians, a great event in catholic history did not occur — the 
spirit orca>holicism, predominant in a land of protestaats 
— from the Spanish monarch liiiling to suppiirt Alva in 
finishing what ho had begun ! Had the armada ol Spain 
safely landed, with the benedictions of Uonie, in England*. 
— ai a moment when our own fleet was short of gunpow- 
der, and at a time when the English cathohcs formed a 
Kwerful party in the nation— we might now be going to 

Ader his immense conquests, had Gustavus Ado1[Aus 
not fierished in the baUle of Lutzen, where his genius ob- 
tained a glorious victory, unquestionably a wondert'ul 
change had operated on the affairs of Europe ; the protea* 
tant cause had balanced, if not preponderated, over the 
catholic interest; and Austria, which a|>pt'ared a sort of 
universal monarchy, had seen her eagle's wing clipped. 
But * the Anti-Christ,' as Gustavus was called by the 

Ehests of Spain and Italy, the saviour of protestantism, as 
is called by England and Sweden, whose deatl. oo> 
casioned so many bonefires among the catholics, that Ihe 
Spanish court interfvrvd lest fuel should become too scarce 
at the approaching winter— Gusiavus fel! — the fit hero for 
one oT those great events which have never happened! 

On the first publication of the * Icon Bafilike* of Cbariea 
the First, the instantaneous effect produced mi the nation 
was puch, fifty editions it is said, appearing in one year, 
that Mr Malcolm Laing observes, that * had this book,' a 
sacred volume to those who considered that sovereign as a 
martyr, appeared a weeile toontTf * il might have preserved 
the kins,' and possibly, have produced a reaction of popu- 
lar feeling! The chivalrous Dundee made an offer to 
James II, which, had it been acted on, Mr Lainf acknow- 
ledges might hove prod ucrd another change ! What then 
had become of our ' glorious Revolution,' which from its 
earliest step, throughout the reign of William, was Rtilt 
vacillating amidst the unstable opinions and contending 
interests of so many of its first movers? 

The great political error of Cromwell is acknowlcd|^ 
by all parties to have been the adoption of the French m- 
terest in preference to the Spanish ; a strict alliance with 
Spain hau preserved the balance of Europe, enriched the 
commercial industry of England, and above all, had 
checked the overcrowing power of the French government. 
Before Cromwell had contributed to the predominance of 
the French power, the French Huguenots were of conse- 
quence enough to secure an indulgent treatment. Tha 
parliament, as Elizabeth herself had formerly done, con- 
sidered so powerful a party in France as useful allies ; and 
anxious to extend the principles of the Reformation, and 
to further the sup|)rossion ot popery, the parliament had 
once TiHtened to, and had even commenced a treaty with 
deputies from Bourdeaux, the purport of which was the as- 
sistance of the French Huguenots in their scheme of form- 
in; themselves into a republic, or independent state ; but 
Cromwell, on his usurpation, not only overthrew the de- 
! sism, but IS believed to have betrayed it to Marnrine. 
What a change in the affairs of Europe had Cromwell 
adopted the Spanish interests, and as»>isied the French 
Huguenots in becoming an independent state ! The revo- 
cation of the edict of Nantes and the increase of the 
I French dominion, which so long aAerwards disturbed the 
peace of Europe, were the consequence of this fatal error 
of Cromwell's. The independent state of the French 

• This fact was probnbly quite unknown to us, till k 
given in ihs (^uarurly Kovlsw, Vol. XXIX. 



Huguenots, and the raduobon of ambitious France, per- 
haps, to a secondary European power^ had saved Europe 
fWim the scourge ofthe French revolution ! 

The elegant pen of Mr Roscoe has lately aflbrded me 
another curious sketch of a ktMtory of evmtt u>hick hone not 

IVl. De Sismondi imagines, against the opinion of every 
historian, that the death of Lorenzo dc'Mcdici was a mat- 
iMrof inditferfiice to the prosperity of Italy ; as ' he could 
not have prevented the ditfcrcnt nrojects which had been 
matured in the French cabintM, htr ti>e invasion and con- 
quest of Italy ; and therefore he concludes ihat all hicto- 
rianK are mistaken who bestow on Lorenzo the honour of 
having; preserved the peace of Italy, hecauye the {ireat 
inva!«inn that overthrew it did not laice ^)lacu till two years 
aher his death.' Mr. Roscot^ has plalosophiraily vindi- 
caled the honour which his hero has justly received, by 
employing the principle which in this article ha& been de- 
velop<-d. ' Thoujjh Lorenzo de'Al edict cuuld not perhaps 
have prevented the important events that l<Mik place in 
other nations of Europe, it hy no nieaus follows that the 
life or death of Lorenzo were equally indiirerent to the 
afTairtr of Italy, or that circiimstanres would have been the 
same in case he had lived, os in the event of his death.' 
Mr. Roscoe then pnMicedsj to show how Lf»reiizo'« ' pru- 
dent measures, and proper reiiresentation!),' nii^ht proba- 
bly have prevented the French L'xpediiion. which Charles 
vIII was frequently on the point of abandoning. Iioreii- 
zo would not certainly have taken the precipitate measures 
of his Kou Piero, in surrendering the Florenirne fortresses. 
His family would not in consequence have been expellu<l 
the city ; a powerful mind might have influenced the dis- 
cordant politics of the Italian princes in one common (i*> 
fence ; a slight opposition to the fugitive army <if France, 
at the pass of Faro, might have given the Frenrh sove- 
reigns a wholesome lesf^on, and prevented ihr>sc bloody 
contexts that were>«oon afierward** renewed in Italy, ui* 
anngUrrmnve at Cheitxvforir.Mth^ tnhale game, no the death 
of an individual of ouch importance in the affairs of Eu- 
rope as Lorenzo dc' Medici, could not fail of pntducim; 
a change in its |K>litiral relations., as must have varied 
them in an inf.nlculable dejrree.' Piiinotti also describes 
the state of Italy at this time. Had Lorenzo hvi^d to 
have seen his son elevated to the paiiacy, this historian, 
adoptini; onr pre«!ent prmciple, eirlaims, 'A happy era 
for Italy and Tutieany had tjif.x occl'rri.1) ! On this 
head we can, indeed, be only allowed to conjecture ; hut 
the fancy, gui<led by reason, may expatiate at will in thi$ 
imaginary »tnte, and contemplate Italy reunited by a 
■tronger bond, flourishing under its own institution and 
arts, and delivered frnmall those lamented struggles which 
occurred within so short a period of time.' 

Whittker in his • Vindication of JMary Q,ueen of Scots,' 
has a specidation in the true spirit of this article. When 
■uch dependance was made upon Elizabeth's dying without 
iasue, the Countess of Shrewsbury had her son purposely 
residine in London, with two giiod and able horses continu- 
ally readv to give the earliest intelli^encu r>f the sick Eliza- 
abeih's deatli to the imprisoned Mary. On this the histo- 
rian observes, ' And had this not improlnihte tvini uclunlly 
taken plane, what a diffcrmt compUrion would our kUtwy 
have aMunUdfmm wJiat it wear* at prrnentl Marv would 
have been carried from a prison to a throne. Her wise 
conduct in priFon would have been applauded hy all.— 
From Tutbury, from Shefllield, and from Chatsworth, she 
would have been said to have touched with a gentle and 
masterly hand the springs that actuated all the nation, 
affainst'thc death of her tyrannical cousin,' &c. So duc- 
tile is history in the hands of man ! and so peculiarly does 
it bend to the force of success, and warp with the warmth 
of prosperity ! 

Thus important events have been nearly occurring, 
which hov-ever, did not take place ; and others have hap- 
pened which may be traced to accident and to the charac- 
ter of an individual. We shall enlarge our conception of 
the nature of human events, and gather some useful in- 
struction in our historical reading, by pausing at intervals ; 
contemplating, for a moment, on certain event* vJiich have 
not happent^d ! 


' A false report, if believed during three days, may be 

of great service to a government.' This political maxim 

has been ascribed to Catherine of Medici, an adept in 

eQyp9 d'etat, the arcana imperii ! Between lolid lying and 


disguiaad traib ther« it a difference known to wiiten akSl- 
ed n * the art of lovenung mankind bv decemnc them f 
as politica, ill underatood, have been defined, and aa tf 
all party politics, theae forgara prefer to use the truth di*- 

C' cd, to the groaa lictkm. When the real truth can no 
^er be concealed, then ihey confidently refer to it ; for 
they can still explain and oMcure, while they aecnre on 
their side the party whoae cause they have advocated. 
A curious reader of history may diacover the temporary 
and sometimes the lasting advantages of spreading ru- 
mours designed to disguise, or, to counteract the real 
state of things. Such reports,' aet a going, serve to break 
down the bharp and fatal point of a panic, which might 
instantly occur ; in this way the public is saved from tlie 
horrors of consternation, and the stupefaction of despair. 
Tlie&e rumours give a breathing time to prepare for tho 
disaster, which is doled out cautiously; and, as might be 
shown, in some casea these first reports have left an event 
ui so ambiguous a state, that a doubt nay alill ariae 
whether these reports were really so destitute of truth '. 
Such reports, once printed, enter into history, and sadly 
perplex the honest historian. Of a buttle fought in a re. 
mute situation, both parlies for a long time, at home, may 
dispute the victory afler the event, and the pen may pro- 
I long what the sword had long decided. Tois has been 
I no unusual circumstance : of several of the most impor- 
I tunt battles on which the fate of Europe has hung, were 
we ti> rely on some re|>orts of the time, we micht still 
; doubt of the manner of the transaction. A skirmiah has 
: been often raised into an arrftngrti battle, and a defeat 
I c<»ncealt-d, in an account of the killed and woundedi 
I wliil» victory has been claimed by both parties ! Viller<^f 
I in all his eneounters with MarllMirough, always sent home 
despatches by which no one could suspect that he wss dis- 
comfited. Pompey, after his fatal battle with Cicsar, 
sent letters to all the provinces and cities of the Romana« 
describing with areater courage than he had fought, so that 
a report generally prevailed that Ca?rar had lost the bat- 
tle ! Plutarch informs us, that three hundred writers had 
described the battle of iVIaralhon. Many doubtless had 
co|>ied their iiredecessors : but it would perhaps have sur- 
prised us to have observed how materially some differed 
m their narratives. 

In looking over a collection of manuscript letters of the 
times of Janirs the First, I was struck by the contradic- 
tfifv re|)orts of the result of the famous battle of Lutzen, 
so ::lorious and so fatal to Gustavus Adolphus ; the victo- 
ry was suitieiiines reported to have been obtained by the 
Swedes : but a general uncertainty, a sort of mystery, 
a-^iiaied the majority of the nation, who were stanch to 
tho protestarit cause. This state of anxious suspense 
lasted a coiibidcrahle time. The fatal truth graaually 
came o*U in rtpmt* changing in their progreu ; if the vic- 
tory was allowed, the death ofthe Protestant Hero doaed 
all hope ! The historian of Gustavus Adolphus observes 
on this occasion, that • Few couriers were belter received 
than thoKe who conveyed (he accounts of the King's death 
to declared enemies or concealed ill wishers ; nor did the 
report greatly displease the court of Whitehdl, where the 
ministry, as it usually happens in cases of timidity, had 
its degree of apprehensions for fear the event should not 
be tnie ; and, as I have learned Q^om good authority, im- 
posed silence on the news writers, and intimated the same 
to the pulpit in case any funeral encomium might proceed 
from that quarter.' Although the motive assigneo fay the 
writer, that of tho secret indisposition of the cabinet of 
James the First towards the fortunea of Gustavus, is to 
me by no meana certain : unquestionably the knowledge 
of this disastrous event was long kept back by * a timid 
ministry,' and the fluctuating reports probably regulated 
by their designs. 

The same circumstance occurred on another important 
event in modem history, where we may observe the artifice 
of party writers in disguising or t-tippressing the real fact. 
This was (he famous battle of the Boyne. The French 
catholic party long reported that Count Lautun had won 
the battle, and that William [11 was killed. Bussy Ra^ 
but in in some memoirs, in which he appears to have 
registered public events without scrutinizing their truth, 
says, * I chronicled this account according as the first n» 
ports gave out, when at length the real fact reached them, 
the party did not like to lose their pretended victory.' Fere 
Londel, who published a register of the times, which is 
favourably noticed in the * Nouvellea de la RepoUiqae dea 
LettreBi'lbr 1699, has recorded the erent in this dectp- 



titeinaiiiMr: *ThebftttleorUMBo7DeaiIreUuid;Sdiaiii- 
barg M killed there at the bead of the Bngbah.' Thn it 
t an eqiuTocator !* The writer reeolved to cooeeal the 
defoal of Jamea'e party, and cautioiislj Mippreaeea any 
mention oTa Tictor/y but Terr careTuily givee a real fact, 
br which his readers would bardlj doubt of the defeat of 
the English ! We are so aocastomed to this traffic of 
ialse reports, that we are scarcely aware that many im- 
portant erents recorded in history were in their daj 
strangely disguised by such mystifying accoun t s. This 
we can only discorer br reading private letters written at 
the moment. Bayle has collected several remarkable 
absurdities of this lund, which were soread abroad to an- 
swer a temporary purpose, but whicn had never been 
known to us had toeee contemporary letters not been pub- 
fished. A report was preralent in Holland in 1580, that 
the kings of France and Spainand the Duke of Alva were 
dead ; a felici^ nHiich for a time sustained the exhausted 
spirits of the revohitiooistt. At the invasion of the Span- 
idi Armada, Boriei^ mread reports of the thumb screws, 
and other instruments or torture, which the Spaniards had 
brought with them, and thus ii^amed the hatred of the 
nation. The horrid story of the bloody Colonel Kirke is 
considered as one of those political forgeries to serve the 
purpose of bladcening a zealous partisan. 

False reports are sometimes stratagems of war. When 
the chieft of the league had lost the battle at Ivry, with an 
army broken and discomfited, they still kept poewssion of 
Paris merely by imposing on the inhabiunU all sorts of 
Use reports, such as the death of the king of Navarre, at 
the fortunate moment when victory, midetermined on 
which side to incline, turned for the leaguers ; and they 
gave out false reports of a number of victories they had 
elsewhere obtained. Such tales,distributed m pamphletoand 
ballads among a people agitated by doubts, and fears, are 
gkdly believed ; flattering their wishes, or soothing their 
alarms, they oontribute to their ease, and are too agreeable 
to allow of time for reflection. 

The history of a report creating a panic may be traced 
in the Irish rasurrection, in the curious memoirs of James 
II. A forged proclamation of the Prince of Orange was 
set forth by one Speke, and a rumour spread that the Irish 
troops were killing and burning in all psjrts of the kingdom ! 
A panic like magic instantly ran through the people, so 
that in one quarter of the town of Drogheda thev imagined 
that the other was filled with blood and ruins. tXiring this 
panic pregnant wommi miscarried, a^ed persons died with 
terror, while the trath was, that the Irish themselvM were 
disarmed and dispersed, in utter want of a meal or a lodg- 

the tmhappy times of our civU wars under Charles 
the First, the newspapers and the private letters aflbrd 
specimens of this political contrivance of false reports of 
every species. No extravagance of invention to spread a 
terror against a party was too gross, and the city of Lnodon 
was one day alarmed that the royali«ts were occupi<Mi by 
a plan of Mowing up the river Thames, bj an inuneme 
ooantity of powder ware-housed at the nver side ; and 
Uiat there existed an organized ihoneh invisible brother- 
hood of many thousands with ooasecraled fauMS ,* and those 
who hesitated to give credit to such ramours were brand- 
ad as mahcnants, who took not the danger of the pariia^ 
■Mot to heart. Forged conspiracies and reports of great 
but distant victories were inventions to keep up the spirit 
oTa party, but oftener prognosticated some intended change 
in the government. When they were desirous of aug- 
mooting the army, or mtrodocng new garrisons, or using 
an extreme measure with the city, or the royalists, there 
was always a new conspiracy set afloat ; or when any 
great aflair was tobe carried in parliament, letters of great 
victories were published to dishearten the opposition, and 
infuse additional bokhiess in their own party. If the report 
lasted only a few days, it obtained its purpose, and verifi- 
ed the observation of Catharine of Medicis. Those po- 
liticians who raise such Mse reporU obtain their end : 
like the architect, who, in boildinff an arch, supports it 
with cmmlar props and pieces of timber, or any temporal 
ry rabbish, tiU be doees the arch ; and when it can sap- 
port itself, he throws away the props ! There n no class 
of politi^ lying which can want for illustration if we eoo- 
■nlt the records of our civil wars ; there we may trace the 
whole art in all the nice management of iu shades, its 
noaKtiea, and its more complicate parts, from invective to 
iS* aad from imoendo to p reva r i c ation ! we may ad- 
• ibaacrapiikiaBCorraetionofalie which they had told. 

by another which they are tdling! and triple lyiii|^ 
overreach their, opponents ; royafists and parliamenii 
ana were alike ; for to tell one great truth, * the father of 
lies' is of no party ! 

As * nothing is new under the sun,* so this art of de. 
oeiving ihe public was unquestionably practised among the 
aacieots. Sjrphax sent Scipio word that he could not 
imite with the Romans, but, on the contrary, had declared 
for the Carthaginians. The Roman army were tbea 
anxiously waitiUE for his expected succors : Scipio was 
careful to show me utmost civility to these ambassadors, 
and ostentatiously treated them with presents, that hm ad- 
diers might believo they were only returning to hasten the 
army of Syphax to join the Romans. Livy censure* the 
Roman consul, who, after the defeat at Cannae, told the 
deputies of the allies the whole loss they had sostai 
* This consul,' says Livy, * by giving too faithful and 
an account of his defeat, made both himself and his afssy 
appear still mow contemptible.' The result of the samph- 
city of the consul was, that the allies, despairing timt the 
Romans would ever recover their losses, deemed it prodaaC 
to make terms with Hannibal. Plutarch tells an amusiag 
story, in his way, of the natural progress of a report, whi^ 
was' contrary to the wishes of the government ; the »*«*»»ip- 
py reporter 8ufi*ered punishment as long as the runnour pre. 
vaileo, though at last it proved true. A stranger lanoibig 
from Sicily, at a barber's shop delivered all the particudais 
of the defeat of the Athenianii ; of which, howerer, the 
people were yet uninformed. The barber leaves untrim- 
meo the reporter's beard, and flies away to vent the news 
in the city, where he told the Arcbons what he had heard. 
The whole city was thrown in a ferment. The Archoas 
called an assembly of the people, and produced the luckless 
barber, who in his confusion could not ^eanv satisfactory 
account of the first reporter. He was con^nu»ed as a 
spreader of false news, and a disturber of the public: quiet ; 
for the Athenians could not imagine but that they were in- 
vincible ! The barber was dragged to the wheel and tor- 
tured, till the disaster was more than confirmed. Bayie, 
referring to thu story observes, that had the barber repor. 
ted a victory, though it had proved to be false, he wouldBot 
have been punishM ; a nhrewd observation, which occurred 
to him from his recollection of the fate of Stratocles. 
person persuaded the Athenians to perform a public 
nee ana thanksgiving for a victory obtained at sea, thooch 
he well knew at the time that the Athenian fleet had been 
totally defeated. When the calamity could no longer 
be concealed, the people charged him with being an hrnpoe- 
tor : but Stratocles saved his life and mollified their anger 
by the pleasant turn he gave to the whole affair. * Have I 
done you any injury T said be. * Is it not owing to me 
that you have spent three days in the pleasures of victory T 
I think that this spreader of good, but fictitious news, ahoidd 
have occupied the wheel of the luckless barber, who had 
spread baa but true news ; for the barber had no intention 
of deception, but Stratocles had ; and the question here to 
be tried, was not the truth or the falsity of the reports, bat 
whether the reporters intended to deceive their feDow^cili- 
zens ? The ' Chronicle' and the * Post' must be chalenged 
on such a jury, and a'l the race of news-scribes, whom 
Patin characterises as hominum genu* aud a eiuimum men. 
darimmum avidunmvtm. Latin superlatives are too rich 
to suffer a translation. But what Paiin says in his letter 
S56 mav be applied : * These writers insert m their papers 
things they do not know, and ought not to write. It is ths 
same trick that is playing which was formerly played ; it 
is the very same farce, only it is exhibited by new actots. 
The worat circumstance, I think, in this, is, that this trick 
will continue playing a long course of vears, and that ths 
public sufi*er a great deal too much by it.' 


Mahuscrxpts are suppressed or destroyed fixMu motiveg 
which require to be noticed. Plagiarists, at least, haTe ths 
ment of preservation : they may blush at their artifices, 
and deserve the nillory, but their practices do not iacBr ^m 
capital crime of felon v. Serassi, the writer of the cuikw 
life of Tas9o, was guilty of an extraordinary suppression in 
his zeal for the poet's memory. The story remains to bs 
told, for it is little known. 

Galileo, in earlv life, was a 'lecturer at the un i veis it y el 
Pisa : delighting m poetical studies, he was then mora of a 
critic than a philosopher, and had Ariosto by heart. Tte 
freat man caught the literary mania which broke not i * 
his time, when the Cniseans so ahsordly bci|^ tkair • 



troverria TasMtcbe,' and raited up two poetical factiona, 
wfaidi infected the Italian* with a nationu fsTer. Tasto 
mad Arioato were perpetually weighed and outweighed 
against each other ; Galileo wrote annotations on Tasso, 
stanxa after stanza, and without reserve, treating the ma- 
jesUc bard with a severity which must have thrown the 
Tassoists into an agony. Our critic lent his manuscript 
to Jacopo Mazzoni, who, probably being a disguised Taa- 
soiiit, by some unaccountable means contrived that the 
manuscript should be absolutely lost !•— to the deep regret 
of the autn >r and all the Ariostoists. The philosopher de- 
scended to his grave— not without occasional groans-^-nor 
without exulting reminiscences of the blows he had in his 
youth inflicted on the ereat rival of Ariosto-^and the rumour 
of such a work long floated on tradition ! Two centuries 
had nearly elapsed, when Seraasi, employed on his elabo- 
rate life oir Tasso, among his uninterrupted researches in 
the public libraries of Rome, discovered a miscellaneoua 
volume, in which, on a cursonr examination, he found de- 
posited the k»t manuscript or Galileo ! It was a shock 
from which, perhaps, the zealous biographer of Tasso 
never fairly recovered ; the awful name of Galileo sanc- 
tioned the asperity of critical decision, and more particu- 
larly the severe renrarks on the language ; a subject on 
which the Italians are so morbidly deficate, and so trivially 
grave. Serassi's conduct on this occasion was at once 
political, timorous and cunning. Gladly would he have 
annihilated the original, but this was impossible ! It was 
some consolation that the manuscript was totally unknown 
—for having got mixed with others, it had accidentally been 
passed over, and not entered into the catalogue ; his own 
diiiijtfbt eye only had detected its existence. ' Netsuno 
fin ara ta^fuori di mCf H vi nOf ne dove sta, e cost non potra 
darn alia luce* &c. But in the true spirit of a collector^ 
avaricious of ail things connected with his pursuits, Serassi 
cautiously but completely, u^nscribed the precious manu- 
script, with an intention, according to his memorandum, to 
unravel all its sophistry. However, although the Abbate 
never wanted leisure, he persevered in his silence ; yet he 
oden trembled lest some future explorer of manuscripts 
might be found as sharpsighted as himself. He was so 
cautious as not even to venture to note down the library 
where the manuscript was to be found, and to this day no 
one appears tu have fallen on the volume ! Oh the death of 
Serassi, his papers came to the hands of the Duke of Ceri. 
a lover of literature ; the transcript of the yet undiscovered 
ordinal was then revealed ! and this secret history of tlie 
manuscript was drawn from a note on the title-page writ- 
ten by Serassi himself. To satisfy the urgent cunosity of 
the literati, these annotations on Tasso by Galileo were 
published in 179S. Here is a work, which, from its earliest 
stage, much pains had been taken to suppress ; but Seras- 
si's coilectinfr passion inducing him to preserve what he 
himself so much wished should never appear, finally occa- 
sioned its publication ! It adds one evidence to the many} 
which prove that such minister practices have been frequent- 
ly used by the historians of a psrty, poetic or politic. 

Unquestionably this entire suppression of manuscripts has 
been too frequently practised. It is suspected that our 
historical antiquary Speed owed many obligations to the 
learned Hiijfh Broughion, for he possessed a vast number 
of his MSS. which he burnt. Why did he burn ? If 
persons place themselves in suspicious situations, they 
muiit not complain if they be suspecfted. We have had 
historians who, whenever thev met with information which 
has not suited their historical system, or their inveterate 
prejudices, have employed interpolations, castrations, and 
foriceries, and in some cases have annihilated the entire 
document. Leiand's invaluable manuscripts were led at 
his death in the confused state in which the mind of the 
writer had sunk, overcome by his incessant labours, when 
this royal antiquary was employed by Henry VIII to 
write our national antiquities. His scattered manuscripts 
were long a common prey to many who never acknow- 
]ed);ed their fountain head ; among thexe suppressors and 
di'apidators pre-eminently stands the orady Italian Poly- 
dore Vergil, who not only drew largelv from this source, 
but, to cover the robbery, did not omit to depreciate the 
father of our antiquities — an act of a piece with the cha^ 
racter of the man, who is said to have cdliected and burnt 
a greater number of historical MSS than would have 
loaded a wacon, to prevent the detection of the nnmerooa 
fabrications in his history of England, which was eompoMd 
Co tniify Mary and the cathol*c cause. 

Tb« Hmrisian muniKripl, 7S79, is a eoUsctioo «rttmt«- 

letters. This MS. has four leaves entirely Utrn out, and 
is accompanied by ti^ extraordinary memorandum, sign* 
ed by the principal librarian. 

' Upon exammatioo of this book, Nov. IS, 1764, these 
four last leaves were torn ouu 

< C. Morton. 
' Mem. Nov. IS, seat down to Mrs Macaulay.' 
As no memorandum of the name of any student to whooi 
a manuscript is delivered for his researches was ever 
made before or since, or in the nature of things will ever be, 
this memorandum must involve our female historian in the 
obloquy of this dilapidation.'^ Such dishonest practicei 
of party feelins, indeed are not peculiar to any party. 
In Mr Koscoe^s interesting * Illustrations' (^ his Ufe of 
Lorenzo de'Medici, we discover tliat Fabfoni, whose cha- 
racter scarcely admits of suspicion, appears to have kpown 
of the existence of an unpublished letter of Sixtus IV, 
which involves that pontiff deeply in the ysassination pre 
jected by the Pazzi; but be carefully soiiiireBsed its no- 
tice : vet, in his conscience, be could not avoid alluding to 
such documents, which he concealed by his silence. Mr 
Roscoe has ably defended Fabroni, who may have over* 
looked this decisive evidence of the guilt of the hypocriti- 
cal pontiff in the .mass of manuscripts ; a circumstance not 
likely tu have occurred, however to this laborious historical 
inquirer. All p&rty feeUng is the same active spirit with 
an opposite direction. We have a remarkable case, where 
a most interesting historical production has been silenil/ 
annihilated by the consent cA both partie$. There onoo 
existed an important diary of a verv extraordinary cfaMke* 
ter. Sir George Saville, afterwar(U Marquis ot Haliftza 
This master-spirit, for such I am inclined to consider the 
author of the httle book of Maxims and Reflections,' with 
a philosophical indifference, appears to have held in equal 
contempt all the fticiions of his times, and, consequently, 
has oAen incurred their severe censures. Among other 
things, the Marquis of Halifax had noted down the coo* 
versaiions he had had with Charles the Second^ nd 
the great and busy characters of the age. Of this curkMM 
secret history there existed two copi«>s, and the noble wri' 
ter imagined that by this means he had carefully sectnred 
their existence ; yet both copies were destroyed from op* 
posite motives ; the one at the instigation of Pope, wha 
was alarmed at finding some of the catholic intrigues of 
the court developed ; and the other at the suggestion of a 
noble friend, who was equally shocked at discovering that 
his party, the Revolutionists, had sometimes practised 
mean and dishonourable deceptions. It is in these legteie* 
of honourable men, of whatever partv they may be, thai 
we expect to find truth and sincerity ; but thus it happen* 
that the last hope of posterity is frustrated by the arlineef^ 
or the malignity, of these partv-passions. Pulteaey, aH 
terwards the Earl of Bath, had also prepared meoMHrs ot 
his times, which he proposed to confide to Dr Douglas, bi- 
shop of Salisbury, to be composed bv the bishops ; but hil 
lordship's heir, the general, insisted on destroying these 
authentic documents, of the value of which we nave a no- 
tion by one of those conversauons which the earl was in 
the habit of indulging whh Hooke, whom he at that timo 
appears to have intended for his historian, " 

The same hsistility to manuscripts, as may be easily 
imagined, has occurred, perhaps more fremienthTi on the 
continem. I shall furnish one considerable (act. A 
French canon, Claude Joly, a bold and learned writer, had 
finished an ample life of Krasmus, whioJi included a his- 
tory of the restoration of literature, at the close of the 
fii^eenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century. Colo- 
mi^ tells us, that tne author had read over the works ol 
Erasmus seven times; we have positive evidence that the 

* It is now about twenty-seven years ago since I flrat pub- 
lished this anecdote ; at the same time I received hiformstran 
that our female historisn and dilapidator hsd acted hi this man- 
ner more than once. At that distance of time this rumour so 
notorious at the British Museum it was impossible to authenti- 
cate. The Rev. William Graham, the surviving Lwlband of 
Mrs Macaulay, intemperately ceiled on Dr MonM, In a very 
advanced period of life, to declare that * it appeared to him thai 
the note does not contain aify evidence that the leaves were 
torn out by Mrs Macauley.* It was more apparent to the un- 

Erejiidiced, that the doctor must have singularly lost the use of 
is memory, when he could not explain his own ofllrlal note^ 
which, perhaps, at the time he was compelled to insert. Dr 
Moiton was not unfriendly to Mrs Macauley's poliUcaJ party ) 
he was the £ditor of Whltelocke*s Diary of his Embassy to tb# 
Qnean of Sweden, land has, I believe, largely eastraisd ih# 
woft. The ortfinanies at the British MoseiiS' 



ii». was fiobbed for tbe press ; the Cardtosl De Noaille* ' 
woaU fifsaifis tbe work itself; this importsat history was • 
not ooly soppreasad, bat the hope entertained of finding it ' 
among the cardiDars papers was never realized. 

Tbeaeare instances of the annihilation of history ; but 
thare is a partial soppression, or casiraiion of passaees, 
equaUj iaul to the canae of truth ; a practice too preraJent 
among the first editors of memoirs. By such depriTations 
of the ten we bare lost important truths, «hile in some 
cases, by interpolations^ we have been loaded with the 
fictions or a party. Original memoirsi when published, 
should BOW be deposited at that great insiiiutiori cunse> 
crated to our national history — the British Museum, to be 
verified at all times. In Lord Herbert's hbtory of Henry 
the Eighth,! find, by a manuscript note, that several things 
ware not permitted to be prmted, and that the uriginal us. 
was s m yoaed to be in Mr Sheldon's custody, in 1687. 
CaasdeB told Sir Robert Filnaore that he was not suffer* d 
to prmt all Ins annals of Ehzabeth ; but be providently 
sent these enuigated passages to De Thou, who prmted 
them ftithfuUy ; and it is remarkable that De Thou him- 
self osed tbe same precaution in the continuation of his own 
history. We like distant truths, but truths too near us 
never &U to alarm ourselves, our connexions, and our par- 
tv. Milton, in composing his history of England, intro- 
duced, in tbe third book, a very remarkable digression, on 
the characters of the Long Parliament ; a most animated 
deacripiion of a class of political adventurers, with whom 
modem history has presented many parallels. From ten- 
demefls to a party toen imagined to be subdued, it was , 
struck oat by command, nor do I find it restituted in Ken- ' 
nett's Collection of English hiitories. Thir admirable and , 
aiqiriailf deKneatioQ ms been preserved in a pamphlet j 
printed in 1881, which has (ortunately exhibited one oi the | 
warmest pictures in design and colouring by a master's ! 
hand. One of our most important volumes of secret histor>-, | 
< Whitelocke's Merooiials,' was published by Arthur, Earl 
of An^esea, ia 1882, who took considerable liberties wiih . 
the manuscript; another edition appeared in 1792, which i 
restored the many important passages through which the 
earl appears to have struck hb castrathfig pen. The ren- '. 
titution of the castrated passages has not much increased 
the magnitude of this folio volume ; for the omissions usually ' 
consisted of a characteristic stroke, or a short critical 
opinion, which did not harmonize with the private feelings ' 
of the Earl of Anglesea. In consequence of the volume 
not being much enlarged to the eye, and being unaccom- 
panied by a single line of preface to inform us of the value 
of tfaia more complete edition, the booksellers imagine that ' 
there can be no material difference between the two 
editione, and wonder at the bibliopolical mystery that they 
can afford to sell the edition of 1688 at ten shQlings, and < 
have five guineas for the edition of 1732! Hume,' who, I 
have bean told, wrote his history usually on a sofa, with 
the epKorean indolence of his fine genius, always refers to 
the old truncated and faithless edition of Whitelocke— so 
bttle in his day did the critical history of books enter into 
the studies of our authors, or such was the carelesness of 
our historian. There is more phHonophy in edtfions, than 
some philoaopbers are aware of. Perhaps most * Memoirs* 
have been unfitithfully published, 'Curtailed of their fair 
proportions f and not a lew might be noticed which sub- 
sequent editors have re st ored to their original state, by 
outing their dislocated limbs. Unquestionably, passion 
has sometimes annihilated manuscripts, and tamelv re- 
venged itseta'on the pftP^ra of hated writers ! Louis ^IV, 
with hm own hands, after the death of Fenelon, burnt all 
tbe manoacripts which the Duke of Btu^imdy had preserv- 
ed of his preceptor. 

As an example of the su pprca s ors and dilapidators of 
manuscripts, I shall giye an extraordinary fact concerning 
Louis XlV more in nis &vour. His character appears, 
fike aooM other historical personages, equally disguised by 
adulation and calumny. That monarch was notlhe Nero 
which his revocation of the edict of Nantes made him 
•eem to the French protestants. He was far from appro- 
ving of the violem measures of his catholic clergy. This 
opiiuon of that sovereign was, however, carefully rappress- 
ed when his * Instructions to the Dauphin' were first pub- 
lisbad. It is now ascertained that Louis XIV was for 
■sany years equally zealous and industrious ; and, among 
other iMcful attempts, compoaed an elaborate * Discours' 
ibr the Dauphin for his future conduct. The king gave 
... toPeliBBimtorafiwrbiitaftflrthtraTiBMB, 

our royal writer frequently inserted additional 
The wi>ik first appeared lu an aot>fi) mouj ' Krcueild'l 
SGultt. Liiteranes, Amslerdam. 1767/ iKhich Hmrhter^ m 
his ' Anonyrors,' irlU u*, was reoi^e par PeiissoD ; le tool 
pubhe par'l'Abbe OUvet.' When at length the prated 
work was coliatrd wiih the mafiuf<ri{>t original, aeveraJ 
suppressions of the royal sentimmts appealed, and the 
editors, too catholic, had, with more particular camion, 
thrown aside what clearly thoHed Louis XlV wax far 
from approving of the violences used agitinkt ihe protest- 
ants. The following psscage was entirely omit teo. * It 
seems to nie, my son, that those who employ exi rente aijd 
violent remedies do not know the nature of the rvii. occa- 
sioned in part, by heated minds, which, left 'o themselves, 
would insensibly be extinguished, rather than rrkiaoie 
them afresh by the force of cpnlraoiciioo ; above aU. whea 
the corruption is not confined to a small number, but de- 
fused through all parts of tbe state ; besides, the Reforas- 
ers said many true thmgs ! Tbe best method to have re- 
duced httle by little the Huguenots of my kw^dom, was not 
to have pursued them by any direct severity pouted at 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu is a remarkable insvanca 
of an author nearly lost to the nation : she is only known 
to posterity by a chance publication, for such were her 
famous Turkish letters ; the roaniij>cript of which her fa^ 
mily once purchased with an intention to suppresii, bat 
they were fiuslraied by a trsnscript. The more recent 
letters were relucianily extracted out of the family trunks 
and surrendered in exchsnge for certain family documenls 
which had fallen into the hands of a bookvelier. Had a 
depended on her relatives, the name of Lady Marv had 
onlv reached us in the satires of Pope. The'greater part 
of her epistolary correspondeitce was destroyed by her 
mother; and what that Eond and Gothic lady spared, was 
suppressed by the hereditary austerity of rank, v( which 
her family was too susceptible. The entire correspond- 
ence of this sdroirable writer, and studious wcmai>—>fcr 
once, in perusing some unpublished letters of Lady Mnrr, 
I discovered that *»hehad been in the habit of'^ reading 
seven hours a Hay for many years' — would undoubtedly 
have exhibited a fine ststue, utstead of the torso we nvw 
possess : and we inifiht have lived with her lady!«hip. as 
we do with Madame de Sevign^. This I have mentioned 
elsewhere ; but I have since discovered that a c^msiderabia 
conespondence of Lady Mary's, for more than twenty 
years, with the widow of Col. Forrester, who had retir«<i 
to Rome, ha# been stifled in the birth. These letters, with 
other MSS of Lady Mary's, were given by Mrs Forres- 
ter to Philio Thicknesse, with a discretionary power to 
publish. Thev were held as a great acqui!«ition by Thicks 
nesse and his l>ookseUer ; but when they had printed od 
the first thousand sheets, there were parts which ihev con- 
sidered might eive pain to some of the family. Thick- 
ness says, * Lady Mary had in many places been uik 
commonly severe upon her husband, for all her letters vrere 
loaded with a tcnp or two of poetry at hinj '* A negtv 
tiation took place with an agent of Lord Bute's— -after 
some time Miss Forrester ttut in her claims for the MSS 
— and the whole terminated, as Thicknesse trlln us, in her 
obtaining a pension, and Lord Bute all the MSS. 

The late Duke of Bridi^ewater, I am mformed, iNimt 
many of the numerous family papers, and bricked up a 
quantity, which, when opened after his destli, were found 
to have perished. It is said he declared that he did not 
choose that his ancestors should be traced back to a per- 
son of a mean trade, which it seems might possibly hava 
been the care. The loss now cannot be appreciated ; bat 
unquestionably, stores of history, and, perhaps, of btera- 
ture, were sacrificed. Milton's manuscript of Comna 
was published from the Bridgewater collection, for it had 
escaped the bricking up ! 

Manuscripts of sreat interest are frequently siippresaed 
from the shameful indifference of the possessors. 

Mr Mathias, in hi;; Essay on Grav. lelis us, that * in 
addition to the valuable manimcripis of Mr Gray, there ia 
reason to think that there were %vme other papers, yUn 
/?»6y/7<r, in the possession of Mr Msfon; but tbcMgh a 
very diligent arid anxious inquiry hait been made after 
them, they cannot be discovere<i i^ince his death.' There 
was, however, one fragment, by Mr Mseon'sown deacrip> 
tion of it, of very great value,' namely, ' The plan of an 

* There wasone psraare he recolleaed — * Just Mfcmjbai 
a Ufeleas trunk, and scarce a draamfaig head !> 



intended speech in Lalin on his appoinimcnl as profess(»r 
of Modern History in the University of Cambridge.* Mr 
Mason says, * Immediately on his appointment Mr Gray 
sketched out an admirable plan for his inauguration 
speech ; in which after enumerating the preparatory and 
auxiliary studies requisite, such as ancient history, geo- 
graphy, chronoioj^y, &c, he descended to the authentic 
sources of the saence, such as public treaties, state-re. 
cords, prirate correspondence of ambassadors, &c. He 
also wrote the exordium of this thesis, not, indeed, so cor- 
rect as to be given by way of fragment, but so spirited in 
point of sentiment, as leaves it much to bo regretted that 
ne did not proceed to its conclusion.* This fragment can- 
not now be found ; and after so very interesting a descrip- 
tion of its value, and of its importance, it is dimcult to con- 
ceive how Mr Mason could prevail upon himself to with- 
hold it. If there be a subject on which more, perhaps, 
than on any other, it would have been peculiarly desirable 
to know, and to follow the train of the ideas of Gray, it is 
that of modem history, in which no man was more infi* 
mately, more accurately, or more exlen»ively conversant 
than our poet. A sketch or plan from his hand, on the 
subjects of history, and on those which belonged to it, 
might have taught succeeding ages how to conduct these 
important researches with national advantage, and, like 
some wand of divination, it might have 

* Pointed to beds where sovereign gold doth s^row.** 


I suspect that I could point out the place in which these 
precious ' folia Sibyllae' of Gray's lie interred ; it would no 
doubt be found among other Sibylline leaves of Mason, 
of which there are two large boxes, which he left to the 
care of his executors. These gentlemen, as 1 am inform- 
ed, are so extremely careful of them, as to have intrepidly 
re'3i8ted the importunity of some lovers of literature, 
whose curiosity has been aroused by the secreted trea- 
sures. It is a misfortune which has frequently attended 
this slort of bequests of literary men, that they have left 
their manuscripts, like their household furniture ; and in 
several cases we tind that many legatees conceive that all 
manusicripts are either to be burnt, like obsolete receipts, 
or to be nailed down in a box, that they may not stir a 
law.suit ! 

In a manuscript note of the times, I find that Sir Rich- 
ard Baker, the author of a chronicle, formerly the most 
popular one, died in the Fleet ; and that his son-in-law, 
who had all his papers, burnt them for waste paper ; 
and he said, that ' he thought Sir Richard's Me was 
among them !' An auto-biography of those days which 
we should now highly prize. 

Among these mutilators of manuscripts we cannot too 
strongly remonstrate with those who have the care of the 
works of others, and convert them into a vehicle for their 
own particular purposes, even when they run directly 
counter to the knowledge and opinions of the original 
writer. Hard was the fate of honest Anthony Wood, 
when Dr Fell undertook to have his history of Oxford 
translated into Latin ; the translator, a sullen dogged 
fellow, when he observed that Wood was enraged at 
seeing the perpetual alterations of his copy made to 
please Dr Fell, delighted to alter it the more ; while the 
greater executioner supervising the printed sheets, by ' cor- 
recting, altering, or dashing out what he pleased,' com- 
felled the writer publicly to disavow his own work ! Such 
have heard was the case of Bryan Edwards, who com- 
posed the^ first accounts of Mungo Park. Bryan Ed- 
wards, whose personal interests were opposed to the abol- 
ishment (if the slave trade, would not suffer any panage to 
stand in which the African traveller had expressed his 
Conviction of its inhumanity. Park, among confidential 
frien'ls. treqiientlv complained that his work did not only 
not contain his opinions, but was even interpolated with 
matiy which he utterly disclaimed ! 

Siit»preMsed books become as rare as roanuKripts.— 
When I was employed in f>ome researches respecting the 
history of the Mar>prelate faction, that ardent conspiracy | 
as;ain<«t ilie established Hierarchy, and of which the very ' 
name is but imperfect ly to be traced in our history, I dis- ' 
covered that the books and manuscripts of the Mar-pre- ' 

♦ I hnrc seen a transcript, bvthe rsvoiir ofs eentleman who j 
aart It to me, of Orav's direrilons for resdinsr Hl«orr. It had 
its merits nt a time when our best histories had not been pub- . 
li^hed. l>tit it is entirely supersedeil by the admirable ' Methods' 
ofLetigleidu Fresnoy. | 

lates have been t«o cautiously suppressed^ or too complete- 
ly destroyed ; while those on the other nde have been as 
carefully preserved. In our national collartion, the Brit* 
ish Museum, we find a great deal against Mar-prelate, 
but not Mar-prelate himself. 

I have written the history of this conspiracy in the third 
Tolume of * Quarrels of Authors.' 


A lady of bas bleu celebrity (the term is f ettins odious, 
particularly to our seonantcs) had two friends, wnom she 
equally admired— an elegant poet and his parodist. She 
had contrived to prevent their meeting as long as her stra^ 
tagems lasted, till at length she apologized to the serious 
bard for inviiing him when his mock umbra was to be 
present. Astonished, she perceived that both men of 
genius felt- a mutual esteem for each other's opposite 
talent ; the ridiculed had perceived M» malignity m the 
playfulness of the parody, and even seemed to consider 
It as a compliment, aware that parodists do not waste 
their talent on obscure productions ; while the ridiculer 
himself was very sensible that he was the inferior ^oet. 
The lady-critic had imagined that a parody must necessa- 
rily be malicious ; and m some cases it is said those on 
wnom the parody has been performed, have been of the 
same opinion. 

Parody strongly resembles mimicry, a principle in hu- 
man nature not so artificial as it appears : Man may be 
well defined a mimic animal. The African boy, wiho 
amused the whole kafle he Journeyed with, by minu^g 
the gestures and the voice of the auctioneer who had sold 
him nt Uie slave market a few days before, could have had 
no sense of scorn, of superiority, or of malignity ; the boy 
experienced merely the pleasure of repeating attitudes and 
intonation which had so forcibly excited his interest. The 
numerous parodies of Hamlet's soliloquy were never made 
in derision of that solemn monoiogue, any more than the 
travesties of Virgil by Scarron and Cotton ; their authors 
were never so gaily mad as that. We have parodies cm 
the Psahns by Luther; Dodsley parodied the book of 
Chronicles, and the scripture style was parodied by 
Franklin in his beautiful story of Abraham ; a stoir be 
found in Jeremy Taylor, and which Taylor borrowed from 
the East, for it is preserved in the Persian Sadi. Not one 
of these writers, however, proposed to ridicule their origi- 
nals ; some ingenuity in the application was all that they 
intended. The lady critic alluded to had suffered 1^ a 
panic, in imagining that a parody was necessarily a coiw 
rosive satire. Had she indeed proceeded one step further, 
and asserted that parodies might be classed among the 
most malicious inventions of literature, when they are 
such as Colman and Lloyd made oa Gray, in their ones to 
* Oblivion and Obscurity,' her reading possibly might haye 
supplied the materials of the present research. 

Parodies were frequently practised by the aocieats, and 
with them, like ourselves, consisted of a work grafted oa 
another work, but which turned on a different subject by 
a slight change of the expressions. It might be a sport 
of fancy, the innocent child of mirth ; or a satirical arrow 
drawn from the auiver of caustic criticism ; or it was that 
malignant art which only studies to make the original of 
the parody, however beautiful, contemptible and ridi^oas. 
Human nature thus enters into the compositioB of paro- 
dies, and their variable character originates in the purpose 
of their application. 

There is in ' the million' a natural taste for farce after 
tragedy, and they gladly relieve themselves by mitigating 
the solemn seriousness of the tragic drama ; for they find, 
that it is but * a step frtm the sublime to the ridiculous.' 
The uste for parody, will, I fear, always prevail ; for 
whatever lends to ridicule a work of genius, is usually 
very agreeable to a great number of contemporaries. In 
the history of parodies, some of the learned have noticed 
a supposititious circumstance, which, however may have 
happened, for it is a very natural one. When the rhap- 
sodists, who strolled from town to town to ehant different 
fragments of the poems of Homer, had recited, they were 
immediately followed by another set of strollerih— biiffooES, 
who made the same audience merry by the burlesque turn 
which they gave to the solemn strains which had just so 
deeply engaged their attention. It is supposed tnat we 
have one of these travesties of the Iliad in one Sotades, 
who stircee<led by only changing the measure of th« 
verses without altering the words, which entirely disguised 
the Homeric character; fiagments of whvci\^w»Sft»tni^*'a^ 



■,1 hate w ilw canMtj </ ifaa 
lunalGnaiB.* Hnner'ibMtltartbafrafiaad mca,i 

Innad crilie, A* «ld*r HciDMn, uawn, m* oM wnim 
I7 lb* pott. Ml ■• I puady oa ih* ponn. Il ■• •ndnllT 
■■ (Ood hMDonnd u> •»• M *aj is th* ■ Rcjactcd Ail- 
A«»n.' Aod il mi bie«s«e Hmdft wu tha mM pop- 
Dlit pMi, th*i fan HMUnalMtttpublfxif ibv pbylQl boD- 
QOn of tin parodiA ; inkmi ihv prololvpfi u funilur to 
IK, ■ liuodjr II DoiluDE ! OClhm: pirodiMi oT Hsmerwe 
■ij rsfnt Ibe Uam nCtmni, Timon oTPtiiiiH, wboH (mto. 
din ««n tnnnj Silli, Fnini 8U>nu> brine »>•>' '^^ 
penoBife ; be Imllnl ihsni al Uk KphuuctJ phiJoaophen 
of hit •!«; hiBiamaiiaa b ^nfled m Uh weiiiDf oi iIiq 
Dad, u> rtcouat iha etil <t«iip d ihoH babblcn, KhDa 
Iw canpira u ihs bi^i is wlucb JEoliH dtpmiwd all hia 
wiadt ; h al kicw ioAatcit with enpij idcai I W« ■bnild 
Ilka IS biK ippropniled khik of itaaia jtUi, or ptrodia 
of TiKB tba SiHofnpb, whirh, honcTtt, •Hm U hiTC 
beaa ■( tint calumoHwi.t Shcuumi'i • School Mic 

oTlhw nnil ftn parodj. 

Thia upta far parodlra wav vary pretalent with (he 
GraeiUB, >od la ■ ipabaa oT huDout which prrhapa hu 

aiHnc puaagai of ihia naiura in hu pamdim of Ihe oW 
(hiralnc nmiaiKu; Fielding in aome pirU of hiaTooi 
Jonet and Joaeph Andrawi, in hia burlraque poalica! de- 
Knptinu ; aod Swifi m hit ' Bitlie of Booki.' tod ■ Tale 
«faTlib^ bWtewwnlera ban rqiuJlrd the ddiucT and 
Mol* of Pope'eparadteaiB tha -Rape of the Lock. ''Such 

e ■ e to borianjiia. 

■ tibenl uae of it in (heir aatiiical 
sa carrird it Dq Ihrou^ ad mora 
ipeu uiira. Staeca'i loaek Eltigt 
u in hii Dialoguet. Tbrni ara 
id BD vHcdoucal one ncwdr^ 

which Iha audience had joal laea aibilined, 
comedj ; Ihe lame uion who had appeared : 

Ihoufh (lie UBK, wai inconfruoiu and ludmaua. Tbt 
CjclniM of Euiipidei u prohaM]' the oa\j r-miiiiai 
ipecuneii; for Ihu mav be cor>Bidtrcd aa a paiodta' 

■he BBlh book of Ihr Oimty ikie adnnlint' ■ 

UlTBteainthe care of Polypfieniua, wbtre Sileaiiaa^a 
chonu of talfra are farcicallj miiodiieed,lo Bontiaat aat 
the (rare unaute of Uooier, of (be ahifia aod eacxpid 
(ha cu o n uig man * frooi thr one ejod cere.* Tbe ykM 
are too coana for the French tatte of Bnimojr, wCh 
hia moiluion, foeaon wiih a crilical |tswl ai^ biakii 
apdofj Ibr Eunpidea harinE wniien a <arce : Brvatr, 
hke VmuH, a foiced to ea( hu oouo, bu( wiih a wo^a 
fracc, awallowuif and eiecralinc Lo Iba end. 

In dtamalK cmpoaitHJo, AiialophLica ia pKrpataali 
hookinimpaioiliea of Eunpidea, oboca of all pacta be haul 
at wriraiaTiGichjluiiSaphiiclei, and other - ' ' 

" 1 ■ ^ „ length, ha* found 

iratrd w 


aa phik 
parodj will piobaU; ha 

aected in a clearrr light Tr 

Dramatic parodita in mooi-iD meiaiura wera mi 
hy our viTBciHu nrighbouTB, and tobt be aaid Id n 
atltHi^ hlerarf ttllltB peculiar (a ibe FrEDch 
ft lia( bad occarred io Greece a nnular gaiety of 
geniut ineoiuciouilj rcproiiiiced. Tbe dramai 

Thumb,' ■ 

of Claudiiia, and Lu 

lehearaal,' 'Ya 

ongiaal ; oa ha« neilher Batiiraliied the dranaii^ ponn 
I the hoDouja of a a aaa i^ 

Hof Ibe 

HeiuT BtephrDi appaara tha ui bart luned ihia ivb^ 
arodr 1 biB rtreucMa hare been bcrrnwrd b; thr Abt 

whcnre ta. 

BpanbeiD Lea Cmri,n 
m pat pradaflnen( en oai 

ntanagcBeot. Fuielier colieeled aaBeoriheat>|wnin.a 
and not mukilTullt defrnda ibeir naiura aid thn ohin 
againat the proleat ofLa Motle, whoae irafedin hadW 

verel^ luflered from Iheae burleaquei. Hia nlabrwed da- 
moaficdagrdroflnrideCaitro, the fable of wbieb mb 
«ia™ncralrdMdclaKir.tine marriaie, prDdo«^,»rf 
lbohappiej(piniditiin JjnnifcCTotCel. Inthwaandt 
Ibo cauae of the mTateriou. oba-intcr of Piemi tb>^e>,B 

il t hlfb iTlre Ibr a book, Hi-law Madame h BmlhTit, ia thw djamtml b* h_ h 
cac '( ibe tlBwi.. Lib^ Mooiieut It BuiUi/: -j mm m 

le lEmpeteur Jullen ti hii ''"'^ "'ItJ^' '* "'^,''*' ^"»«'en ra&ba, 

I tan u a M campot*,> no ■nraikaii nj la Comedie et ant It Oaida da 1nMui_L-^_T 



Ik Ilk, nnot, M nonn qiH meprU : 
Lioajqiia d|^ dinl aan coui m ftpria.^ 

IPmtatf to .^xu lb CikoilM. 




1 of ProBiJi 

IT 'Tragtti^ 

- , . ^MJ "felj »pproT(> of ihtir iBgilifflEU 

whila we DnM udl draid that cilrurdmirj Tucilur la 
«vhicb the piiUie» or n(h«r honiui i»lure, ire » proDB, u 
•odutines to luigh it wlul mi uuMhar tima thej would 

Trfcg^y a randared comic or buHoHue bj tJlariD^ Iho 
atatim tni jnannrf I at Ihe permnt; end tha'Pererta may 
occur, of roiaiDf whet ic comic aod burleaqua Lnlo Irejc^j. 
Od eo lillla dapendt (he lublirne or Uia ridiculoui ! Beil. 
tie leji, ■ lo moat hunuD charAclen ihen are blamjihei, 
moral, inieUectuaJ, or corporeal ; by exa^geratiDg which, Lo 

niiuu Iha tutuae, abilitieB, or eitatnal advaatueaofindi- 
tiduaJt, you form epic or tn|ic characten ;** a lubjecl 
humoroualr touched on hj Lloyd, in tba prolopie to ■ the 
'"'-iia Wift. 

_ _. laUphjiical diicuinaii, 

inteUoct which imparlt lo the indinduaJ an aptitude for 
ona punuil mora than Tor aoothar. What Lord Bbaltaa- 

tyry, aalinly rrjiclad ; but cif lain there appaan a landao- 

Biperieuca wiD often mmei andein hypoihaiiiti. The 
(■■ 'gr^^Mpoaiia/ May be objaetioiiBbla, u ua all laroM 

• Band* OB roetrr aad HDik^ p. L 


Our children pau through the lamB public odueaMD, 
while they are roceinng liiila or Done ftr Ihair bdiiidu*) 
' iHild LhcT barv niffideiiL etreDvlh c^cbamfr 
any. Tba graal lecrel uT aducatioo i> to 

rnilicuoi, fnuij nolaled the 

irafic tale. In Iba puody there wae BgrueUuDg ludic 

loBf-coBceaJad perplauiiae, ia the maid-ierranl brinnng 
Ibrwardi a whole lafiUmato famdy of hjer own ! La A^tlte 
waa abo failed by a projected parody ofhu ' M achabeoa' 
^-where ibe haaty ntamage grLhairouDeMachabaui,aAd 

her fim peDitaaljal aetf perouadee a youth to marry her, 
wkhoul BnldeifiuD|to cofuull her rnpcciabla mother, 
would haia produerd an aicaUent icene fur the jurodV' 
But La Hotte pnSled an iniry prefaca to hie Inei da 
Caetro^ ho mnijEhfl anrual all parodiea, which he auerta 
to be merely a French failiion,(«e han Kan,, 
that it wai once Giaciaa) the r^ipriog of a dangeioui 
■^rit of ridicule, aod Ihs malicioui unutemEnu oT nper- 

■ad falie ; it ii not a piece of. hutToonerr » much aa a ? 
eritiial eipoaitioo. What do wa parody but the abiunii- ' r' 
tiea oT dramatic wrilen, who frequently make Ihair heroei ^ 

he ingeniDuity adili, ' it is the public, not wa, who are the 
■uthon of IhHi raaODiii ; lor ih>y an awally bul the 
cchoee of the pit, and wa parodiaii, hare only lo ^Te a 

Many uag»lie>; Fuicller, wilh admirahle truth, obeerreij 

WffTiamhad imgediei mcendy which lary mudi reouirad 
parodiai la njipoae them, asd to ahame our inconuderala 

The ranu and bombaat oT aone of theta might hare 
produced, with little or no altenlioii oT the inflated or - 
nail, > A Modem Sebeanal,' or a 
Warm "" 

educalion. A prafe 
cha4U;e Tiewt, or by fa 
choKa be lubDiitted lo th< 
lake efaiht and 

■-'-'- ' — id and raalLatini u """ ---'■---- -- - 

J.' o/tArnaiid, aa ai 

'0 perpauiall^ 

ut of cbaracler ! Our mi 

I hippily deicrilird Ihii error. 
A lauKhiDE philowipher, the Damocriltia of our day, 
:e compared human life to a table pierced mih a BUB- 
' dT hdea. each of whicii hai a jun made eiactly to fit tl, 
; which p^ni beui| ituch in KMtiljr, aid without aelee- 

ircbbithop of York in Jamei 

tancboly, and huuired Ifaa r . . . 

deaa: ^My lord,' aaid Iha arcblhebop, *1 

old LoidTbo- 
hop, rory rae- 
graee't peDnrc- 


Lord Fairfaji,'is not fingidar. 1 am alao aadl* diBappomt- 
ed in my eoni : one I lent mio the Nelharjande lo train 
him up a aoldier, and ba makei a tolerable cemib^ jualica, 
but a men ooward al fightiiif ; my neiL I eent to Cam- 
bridge, and be prorea a good Lawyer, but a mare dimoe al 
diriniiy ; and my youn|;ael I aenl to the inna cd' court, and 
he ii Eood at diTinily, bul nobody at the law.' Tha nlal- 
ar of Uiia anecdote addi,' Thief hare often heard IVomtfaa 

aldeat >oo wai the Leed Fardinando Fair&i— and Iha 
lunimith lo Thomaa I^cd Vairfai the loo of Ihii Lord 
Fa rdbundo, heard Ihe old Lord Thomaa call ak>ud to bii 
graodioo, 'Tom! Tom! mind Ibou tha batde! Thy 
fathar'ia good man, bul mere coward ! all Ihe aaodlo- 
pecL ii from Ihee !' It u andani that iba old Lord Thomaa 
Fairfax waa a military character, and in hie caraeal deiira 
of cootinumg a bna cf beroea, had preeoBcartAj tomdiehia 
eldeil eon a mihlarr man, who wa diKonar turned oal to 
bs admirably fitted br ajrorahipfiil juaiieeof Ihoquaram. 

natioB and not thoao WMIurtl di^nailion. In ibe pro- 

u bare ptnialed in the aama wiifaof hanng * great mili- 
tary ehatatar m hia &nuly : haiinf mimed one in Ua 
elder KM. u>d aattlad hn other aan in diBemttTocaliaB, 

Fairfai, who nitki* M diningi^ahad a figure in ibo chil 

Ad MreiM, a 

ia oaapairc^ 

I in life will, nerhapa, area <btlb* 

Iwnii bazardouB. Han* wiD b( 

■' • ■ fcawi- 

inclined, ia deapair c^any IhiDg better. Is throw dka with 
fivtune ; or adopt the daiemnBaiian oT tha fttbat «bo aai- 
iled hie eoM bf a wUBiical analogy which b* W^n ts 
hanfbimad cf ibair diepomikaB or apiaiw br«Mk«N*- 



putnutt. Tba bujn wen suduig under k twigs in ibe 
imtn, Mid ft neighbour itfported Id (Se fftiher ihv conrcrn- 
lion ha hftd OTerheftrd. Jofan iruti«d 11 would niD boobm^ 
fof ba wuhed lo bv ft prcv^flr; Brftft^ev^, wool, 10 b«« 
dotb^, likehurftlbeiiSminuFl, Booer, 10 be 1 iMRhini ; 
uldEdtDuud, plunu, lubes gnicer. Tlia firhcr look IhcM 
wuh«i ftj ft biDl, ftnl we iTfl u^d ui lh« iilic of Jobo Aojitr 

UbCHi djfferraE al\infv* Ui wbtdi il ftpp«ftn Uut Ihej lellled 
MeceKfulLj, ' WbfticFer ft T^^usg mui it Am ftppbet 
binueir ID II umnKmly hit dsUgfai ifierwftrdft.' Tim ii 
4D unponftfll pnodplfl 
KA alippi J Ibe parenl 1 

or how to let ftl wbfti we mfty caJI uie comwIanJ qniLuep 
oflbenuna, Apinkulftr opporluiutj ftfbrded me ftmir 

nml imponuit mquiriel in ihe hielnr; ef man : the ke( 
which reeulnulheiDviiibleunHHic/IheKiul wiih ibc heitj : 

bill an undolbied Inlercoune, oliich prabshl^ mul CIS 
elude our percepUmiH. The comtnnilirjn of metapfatfl 
wiLb phjiici b«fl oniy beea productite of ihv wiJdHt'lftfe 
tales imiHij phdoeophtn: with ine pftrtj ihe VDut Ktl 
la puft iwar in jU ift^l pufl' of ftir, w> 


broiher* in Uood ftDd ftffecuon, jutd 
who evn ta ihei/ very Ana thftred ftUke ; ' 
■apftrftlcd from eftcb other ; wbo were liu| 
Mttpierftj lived UDder the tame roc^^ ftnd w 

than lolftllT diiliDCl in Ihe ijuftliiiei of th- 
■iniiiT fti Iheir Iith bad bsen. Ibeir ftbiliu< 

poeiiioa* of Ibe nertii 
bo^ : l[ 

ed by iftboiir ; the odwr unpUient M"wh»iner M 1 
lo hu own punml : Ibe one bficftl, hUioncal, ftDC 
the other unn|e ftfqidred nottajn^. tlrcided on 1 
byhiiowB ernuiiiAi. Ws would coofidenllrc 
Ihe one ft (real legal charaurr, ftnd in the otlin 
nfgeniiu. If nature had not uxirilj plared 

id fan. 

And I obierTfld bow the ' 
wftft diBiincilv marked fmr 

A .tory reeofiM of Crew 


ftnd oT Dftnle, « 


niut, mav illmtnle 


proent lopie. Cecco m 

aultn*^ thftl ofttitr. WM 

re potent Ihaa ui, while Di 

ened the conlrftry. 


proee hui priaaple, the pn^l Ilil 

anbftrd refernd to 


al, which, bj repealed prft 

had lanihi to hold 

andle io iu paw while l.e t 


read. Cecco de- 

link not nnprepftred 



perfnnnini ilB part, 

Cecco, Id-ling up the lid of ftp 

1I7 abawed Die wealnteuof 

;n\f aojuirrd, and dropping Ihe caDdle, 

we iball find with DrGregorj, in hu leiniirwi ■■■ Ik* 
duiiea and qualilicaEJoDB of a phyjiician/ Ihkt it Ur^ 

I Whether wacceiidrr Ibe ralgardliliiiclian of luMa^ 

pherdeniea iliai a reciprocal aclico lakes plfcw b«t>«a 
our mofal and phjaical coodilioo. Of these ■ynf|fihife. 

occult, while the eltecla ire obriout. Tliia cbMs jet m- 

pans ipcmingljr uocooDecled, in a word, tba rrewi mi a 
inflnence of the mind ftiid ihe bod^T hfti long llaod ti» ftl- 

bftTing ihe care of our eitcrior organ iiation, the uihsr t^ 
of Ihe interior. Can we conceif e the mftloriatfa mhak- 

anil the houie (re lo iaaeparaUc, that in ariking ■■ ui 
put of Ihe builduif, jou UKTilftblj reach (he dweller. If 
the mind tr disordered, we nuy ^ten look for ili wttM iat 
■ocne corpareftldrTsngFinent. OTieDftre our Ihoughla db- 

, leDdiosctxKiDI for. Thii giaie of Ihe bud*, eslled lbs 
JMgiU, it ft disorder lo which the ladies aie puiiruhrlj 

eulregied by a fFinale patient 10 gi« » name 10 ber » 
known coiDpiaiDis : thu he found no diflictdlj la dn, ax bs 

declared iliai bpr disorder wii almoapherical. Ii waa ib> 
disorder of her frame under dimp wealber, >bieb wu n- 
aciinf on her mvid ; and phyBicfti dksm, bj «pentiaf sn 
her body, miehl be applied to nstor* bit 10 bcr bait' 
lost aenii^s. Our una£uialioDishi|he« when (mralovacb 
ia Dot orerloaded; m ipnn^ than inwimer; in SDlitBds 
I than amidtl companT ; and in an obacureil lit hi Iban ■ 
. the blaie and brat uT the noon. In all then cases lbs 

le i> hsriled al IMden when 

A fttroke cf personal r^ilic 
Bsyei mfonnii ue of hii prr 
by a courer of medicine L * 

styahe, ' I erer like pbyii .._., ^,. 

wwM hue pure twifineis of thought, and Eery flights of 
fancy, yoB muW haie a rare of the pentiw part ; in line, 
jna must pnrgs the beHy V Such was really Ihe praciice 
of the |>oel, as La Miille. who was ■ pfaysicisn, inliinni 
«, uul in lib medical chaneirr did not perceire Htal lidi- 
cdI* ia Ibe lubjeci which the wilt and mom readers uii- 
qosiiioublr bate en}nyfd. Th* win hen were as cnie] 

lent r«ipe liir writng.' Amonf other phiiosnnhert. one 
of the isoet Amoui dupulinis '>f anliiiuili>, Cftmcadei, 

cartes ; snd that Ihe moil artiEcial lo 
what reasonable, may be SHallDwrd''wiIh • the blue jiiU.' 
Our dnmeitic happinesi oAen depends on the state of gnr 
biliary and di^sliTe orgaas^ and the htlle diilurbaoc^ of 
conjugal life may be mure efficaciously cured fay the phy- 

neier act » direclly aj a sharp medicine. The kftmed 
Gsubiui. an eminent professor of medicine al Leyden, who 
called himself ' profeasor of the paesiooi,' gives the case 

husband, unkirf^wn to herself, hid gradually reduced lo m 
model of decnmm by phlebotomy. Her compleiion, in- 

deed, k 


I lilnded II 


had often found br riperience the benrlirial fITfcis wiihutii 

miod by applirftiiiMi lo ihe body.' Descartes conjednred. 
that as The mind seems so dependeni on the distKisriion nf 
the bodily orgiBs, if any means can be found Id render 
mm wiser and more inteniout ihaniheyhsie beenhitber> 
to, such a ntelhod might be sought from the aiaiitaBce 
of nrdiniie. The rcienrs of nwralt and of mediriB* 

than has been rusptcled. Plalo Ihoueht thai a man niMI 

' oust IhalT '"*" '™' ""' * "' "' "" "'"" 

mn 1 goad man ; which 
I oftbg(o^,u«td]MW 



There are unquestionably, constitutional moral disor' 
ders ; some ^ood tempered but passionate persons have 
acknowledzed, that they cannot aToid those temporary 
fits to which they are liable, and which, they say, they al- 
wsys sufTered * from a child/ If they arise from too 
great a fulness of blood, is it not cruel to upbraid rather 
than to cure them, which might easily be done b^ taking 
away their redundant humours, and thus quieting the 
most passionate roan alive ? A moral patient, who ulows 
his bram to be disordered bjr the fumes of liquor, instead 
of being suffered to be a ridiculous being, might have 
opiates prescribed; for in laying him asleep as soon as 
possible, you remove the cause of his sudden madness. 
There arc crimes for which men are hanged^ but of which 
they might easily have been cured by physical means. 
Persons out of their senses with love, by throwing them-, 
selves into a river, and being dragged out nearly lifeless, 
have recovered their senses, and lost their bewildering 
passion. Submersion was discovered to be a cure for some 
mental disorders, by altering the state of the body, as Van 
Helmont notices,* ' was happily practised in England.* 
With the circumstance this sages of chemistry alludes to 
I am unacquainted ; but this extraordinary practice was 
certainly known to the Italians ; for in one of the tales of 
Poggio we find a road doctor of Milan, who was celebrat- 
ed for curing lunatics and demoniacs in a certain time. His 
practice consisted in placing them in a great high walled 
court yuxl, in tlie miast of which there was a deep well 
full oTwater, cold as ice. When a demoniac was brought 
to this physician, he had the patient bound to a pillar in' 
the well, till the water ascended to the knees, or higher, 
and even to the neck, as he deemed their malady required. 
In their bodily pain they appear to have forgot their me- 
lancholy ; thus by the terrors of the repetition of cold 
water, a man appears to have been frightened into his 
senses ! A physician has informed me of a remarkable 
case : a lady with a disordered mind, resolved on death, 
and swallowed much more than half a pint of laudanum ; 
she closed her curtains in the evening, took a farewell of 
her attendants, and flattered herself she should never 
awaken from her sleep. In the morning, however, not- 
withstanding this incredible dose, she awoke in the agonies 
of death. By the usual means she was enabled to get 
rid of the pMson she had so largely taken, and not only 
recovered her life, but what is more extraordinary, her 
perfect feoMfl! The physician conjectures that it was 
the influence of h«r dttordlered mind over her body which 
prevented this vast quantity of laudanum from its tuual 
action by temunaiing in death. 

Moral vices or infirmities, wmch originate in the state 
of the body, may be cured by topical applications. Pre- 
cepts and «thics in such cases, if they seem to produce a 
momentary cure, have only mowed the weeds, whose 
roots lie in the soil. It is only by changing the soil itself 
that we can eradicate these evils. The senses are five 
porches for the physician to enter into the mind, to keep 
It in repair. By akering the state of the body, we are 
changing that of the mind, whenever the defects of the 
mind depend on those of the organization. The mind, or 
soul, however distinct its being from the body, is disturbed 
or excited, independent of its volition, by the mechanical 
impulses of the body. A man becomes stupified when j 
the circulation of the blood is impeded in the viteera ; he 
acts more from instinct than reflection ; the nervous fibres 
are too relaxed or too tense, and he finds a difficulty in 
moving them ; if you heighten his sensations, you awaken 
new ideas in this stupid being ; and as we cure the stupid 
by increasing his sensibility, we may believe that a more 
vivacious fancy may be promised to those who possess 
one, when the mind and th^ body play together in one 
harmonious accord. Prescribe the bath, frictions, and fo- 
mentations, and though it seems a round about way, you 
get at the brains by nis feet. A literanr man, from long 
sedentary habits, could not ovorcome his fits of melan- 
choly, till his physician doubled his daily quantity of wine; 
and the learned Henry Stephens, aAer a severe ague, had 
such a disgust of books, tne most beloved objects of his 
whole life, that the very thought of them excited terror 
for a considerable time. It is evident that the state of 
the body often indicates that of the mind. Insanity itself 
often results from some disorder in the human machine. 
'What is this mind, of which men appear so vain?' ex- 
daims Flechier. ' If considered according to its nature, 
it b a fire which tickneas and an accident moat sensibly 
fMrta out ; it k a deficale temparament, which sooo growa 

disordered ; a happy conformation of organs, which wear 
out ; a combination and a certain motion of the spirits 
which exhaust themselves ; it is the mo«l lively and the 
most subtile part of the soul, which seems to grow old 
with the body.* 

It is not wonderful that some have attributed such vir- 
tues to their system of die/, if it has been found productive 
of certain efiects on the human body. Cornaro perhaps 
imagined more than he experienced ; but Apollonius Ty- 
aneus, when he had the credit of holding an intercourse 
with the devil, by his presumed gift of prophecy, defended 
himself from tho accusation of attributing his clear and 
prescient views of thin(;8 to the light aliments he lived on, 
never indulging in a variety of food. * This mode of life 
has produced such a perspicuity in my ideas, that I see as 
in a glass things past and future.* We may, therefore, 
agree with Bayes, that * for a sonnet to Amanda, and the 
like, stewed prunes only* might be sufficient ; but for * a 
grand design,' nothing less than a more formal and formida- 
ble dose. 

Camus, a French physician, who combined literature 
with science, the author of * Abdeker, or the Art of Cos- 
metics which he discovered in exercise and temperance, 
produced another fanciful work, written in 1753, 'La Mede- 
cine del*Esprit.' His conjectural cases are at least as nume- 
rous as his more positive facts ; for he is not wanting in ima- 
gination. He assures us, that having reflected on the physi- 
cal causes, which, by differently m<Klifying the body, varied 
also, the dispositions of the mind, he was convinced that by 
employing these diflTorent causes, or by imitating their pow- 
ers by art, we might by means purely mechanical afi*ect 
the human mind, and correct the infirmities of the under- 
standing and the will. He considered this principle only 
as the aurora of a brighter day. The great difficulty tu 
overcome was to find out a method to root out the defects, 
or the diseases of the soul, in the same manner as phy- 
sicians cure a fluxion from the lungs, a dysentery, a dropsy 
and all other infirmities, which seem only to attack the 
body. This indeed, he says, is enlarging the domain ot 
medicine, by showing how the functions of tho intellect and 
the springs of volition are mechanical. The movements 
and passions of the soul, formerly restricted to abstract 
reasonings, are by this system reduced to simple ideas. 
Insisting that material causes force the soul and body to 
act together, the defects of the intellectual operations de- 
pend on those of the organization, which may be altered 
or destroyed by physical causes ; and he properly adds, 
that we are to consider that the soul is material, while ex- 
isting in matter, because it is operated on by matter. Such 
is the theory of La Medecine de l*Esprit,^ which, though 
physicians will never quote, may peraaps contain some 
facts worth their attention. 

Carous's two little volumes seem to have been preceded 
by a medicfal discourse delivered in the academy of Dijon 
in 1748, where the moralist compares the infirmities and 
vices of the mind to parallel diseases of the body. Wo may 
safely consider soma .Infirmities and passions of the mind 
as diseases, and coyld.they be treated as we do the bodi- 
ly ones, to which tlwy bear an affinity, this would be the 
great triumph of* oiorals and medicine.* The passion of 
avarice resembles the thirst of dropxical patients ; that of 
envy is a slow-wasting feyer ; love is ohen frenzy, and 
capricious and sudden restlessness, epileptic fits. There 
are moral disorders which at times spread like epidemi- 
cal maladies through towns and countries, and even nations. 
There are hereditary vices and infirmities transmitted from 
the parent's mind as there are unquestionably such disea- 
ses of the body : the son of a father of a hot and irritable 
temperament inherits tht same quickness and warmth ; a 
dauehier is oflen a coanterpart of her mother. Morality, 
coum it be treated medicinally, would require its prescrip- 
tions, as all diseases have their specific remedies ; the great 
secret is perhaps discovered by Camus — that of operating 
on the mind by mean* of the body 

A recent writer seems to have been struck by these cu- 
rious analogies. Mr. Haslam, in his work on 'Sound 
Mind,* says, p. 90, ' There seems to be a considerable 
similarity between the morbid state of the instruments of 
voluntary motion (that is the body,) and certain aflections 
of the mental powers, that is, the mind. Thus, pareiytU 
has its counterpart in the d^ed* of recolUtUion, where the 
utmost endeavour to remember is ineffectually exerted. 
T^remor may be compared with ineapahUity tif'jixing the 
atten^on^ and this moolurUary 9tate of muMda ordinarili 
subjected to the will, also finds a parcel <«Vax«*^^^ 



loMc lis infliMmon in tbe mm of tfaou^, and becomes 
subject to spootsneous mtnisioiM ; as msj be exempli- 
fied in rcuerict, dnammgt and some species of marfiiew.* 

Thus one philosopher diaoovera the anaWies of the 
mind with the body, and another of the body wiui the mind. 
Can we now hesitate to beheve that such analogies exist — 
and adnmcing one step farther, trace in this reciprocal in- 
fluence that a part of the soul is the body, as the body 
becomes a part of the soul ? The most important truth 
remains unuinUged, and ever will in this mental pharma- 
cy ; but none is more dear than that which led to the new 
of this subject, that in this mutual intercourse of body and 
mind the superior is often coTemed by the inferior ; others 
think the mind is more wilfully outrageuus than the body. 
Plutarch, in his essays, has a famibar illustration, which 
he borrows from some philosopher more ancient than him- 
self: * Should the Body sue the Mind before a court of 
judicature for damages, it would be found that the Mind 
would proTe to have been a ruinous tenant to its hndlord.* 
Tbe sage d* Cheronsa did not foresee the hint of Des- 
cartes and the discovery of Camus, that by medicine we 
may alleviate or remove the diseases of the mind ; a prac- 
tice which indeed has not yet been pursued by physicians, 
though the moralists have been often struck by the close 
analogies of the Mind with the Body ! A work by the 
learned Dom PerneUy, JLa oonnotssonce de Vhomme moral 
]^ eeUe de Phomme phjfnqutf we are told is more fortunate 
m its title than its execution ; probably it is one of the 
many attempts to develop this imperfect and obscured truth, 
which hereafter mav become more obvious and be univer- 
sally comprehendecL 


Tbe history of Psalm singing is a portion of tbe historr 
«f the reformaticm ; of that great religious revolution whicn 
s^Mu-ated for ever, into two unequu divisions, the sreat 
establishment of Christianity. It has not, perhaps, been 
remarked, that Pndm singing, or metrical Psalms, dege- 
nerated into those scanduuus compositions which, under 
the abused title of hynaUj are now ttind by some sects.* 
These are evidently the last disorders of that system of 
Psalm nnging which made some refigious persons eariy 
oppose its practice. Even Stemhold and Hopkins, our 
first Psalm mditors, says honest Fuller, * found their woik 
afterwards met with some fit>wns in the faces of great 
clergymen.* To this day these opinions are not adjusted. 
Archbishop Seeker observes, < that though the first chris- 
tians (from this passase in James v. IS, " Is any merry ? 
let him un| Psalms !") made singing a constant part of 
their worship, and the whole congregation joined in it ; yet 
afterwards tne singers by profession, who had been pn»- 
daUly appointtd to lead ma direct than by degrees uaurped 
the whole performance. But at the Reformation the j»eo- 
fU were restored to their rights P This revolutionary 
style is singular : one might infer by the expression of the 
people being restored to thar righiSj thai a mixed assembly 
roaring out confused tunes, nasal, cattnral, -and sibilant, 
was a more orderly government oT Psalmody than when 
.the executive power was consigned to the voices of those 
whom the archbishop had justly descrttied as having been 
first prudently appointed to lead and direet them ; and who, 
i>y their subsequent proceedings, evidently discovered, what 
they might have salely conjectured, that such an universal 
sunrage, where every man was to have a voice, must ne- 
cessarily end in clatter and chaos !t 

Thomas Warton, however, regards the metrical Psalms 
.of Stemhold as a puritanic invention, and asserts, that 
notwithstanding it is said in th«r title page that, they are 
* set forth and allowed to be suug in all churches,* they were 
never admitted by lawful authority. They were first intro- 
duced by the Puritans, and afterwards continued by con- 
nivance. As a true poetical antiquary, Thomas Warton 
condemns any modenu$ation of the venerable text of the 
old Stemhold and Hopkins, which, by changing obsolete 
for familiar words, destn^s the texture of the original 

• It would be polludiif these paees with ribaldry, obecenhy, 
jmd blasphemy, were I to five specimeos of some hymns of the 
Moravians and tbe Methodists, and some of the still lower 

t Mr Hamper, of Birmingham, has obligingly supplied me 
with a rare tract, entitled ' Singing of Psalmes, vindicated from 
4he charge of Novelcy,* in answer to Dr Russell, Mr. Marlow, 
itc, 1608- k furnishes numerous authorities to show that it wss 
practised by the primitfTe Christiana on almost every occasion. 
J slialJ sbonly quote aremarkable passage. 

style ; and many stanzas, already too nakmd 
like a plain okl Gothic edifice stripped of its 
of antiquity ^lave lost that kttle and almost only 
support which th^y derived firom ancient _ 
alterations, even if executed with pradence 
only corrupt what they endeavour to explain ; 
a motly performance, belonging to no chnracter of wiil^ 
and which contain more improprieties than those 
it professes to remove. This forable criticiam is 
of our poetical antiquary ; the same feeline wraa 
enced by Pasouier, when Marot, in iua^Ktft^^ 
the Roman de la Rose, left some of the cbmolele , 
while he got rid of others ; cette higarmre de lang^g* 
el modcnie,was with him writing no languai^e at alt. 
same circumstance occurred abroad when they r«oolvcdl» 
retouch and modernise the old French metrical voraiaa d 
the Psalms, which we are about to notice. It produced tb 
same controversy and the same dissatisfaction. The chmck 
of Geneva adopted an imprtmed ver8ion,bui the chana of Ite 
oki one was wanting. 

To trace the history of modem metrical PBahoody, ws 
must have recourse to Bayle, who, as a mere hterary h»> 
torian, has accidentally preserved it. The inventor wm 
a celebrated French poet ; and the invention, though per- 
haps in its very origin incUning towards the ahuae to waidk 
it was afterwards carried, was unexpectedly adopted br 
the austere Calvin, and introduced into the Geneva disev 
pline. It is indeed strange, that while he was sfiipii^ 
religion not merely of its pageantry, but even of its deerai 
cm^monies, that this levelling reformer should have iatr^ 
duced this taste for tinging Psalms in opposition to neriiisx 
Psalms. ' On a parallel principle,* says Thomas Wartoa, 
* and if any artificial aids to devotion were to be allowed, 
he might at least have retained the use of pictures in the 
church.' But it was decreed that statues should be aami- 
lated of' their fair proportions,'and painted glass be dashed 
into pieces while the congregati<m were to sing ! Calvin 
sought for proselytes among * the rabble of a republic, who 
canhave no relisn for the more elegant externals.* But to 
have made men sing in concert, in the streets, or. at thdr 
work, and merry or sad, <m all occasions to tickle the ear 
with rhymes and touch the heart with emotion, 
traving no defiaent knowledge of human nature. 

It seems, however that this project was adopted 
dentally, and was certainly promoted by the fine natoral 

genius of Clement Marot, the favoured bard of Franca 
le Fust, that,< Prince of Poets, and that Poet of Princes,* 
as he was quaintly but expressively dignified by his coi^ 
temporaries. Marot is still an inimitame and true poet, 
for be has written in a mabner of his own with such mark- 
ed felicity, that he has left his name to a style of poetry 
called maritoque. The original La Fontaine is his imit^ 
tor. Marot delighted in the very forms of poetry, as wefl 
as its subjects and its manner. His Ufe, indeed, took 
shapes, and indulged in more poetical licenses, than e 
his poetry : licentious in morals ; often in prison, or at 
court, or m the army, or a fugitive, he has left in his no> 
merous little poems numy a curious record of his variegaW 
ed existence. He was indeed very far from being devout, 
when his friend the learned Vaiable, the Hebrew proless- 
or, probably to reclaim m perpetual sinner ftota pro&DS 
rhymes, as Marot was suspected of heresy, confession and 
meagre days being his abhorence ! suggested the new pr«^ 
ject of translating the Psalms into French veret^ and as 
doubt assisted the bard ; for they are said to, * traduita ea 
rithme Fran^ais selon la verity Hebraique.* Tbe fanooa 
Theodore Beza was also his friend and prompter, and 
afterwards his continuator. Marot published fifty-two 
Psalms, written in a variety of measures, with the'saias 
style he had done his ballads and rondeaux. He dedicaU 
ed to the king of France, comparing him with the rojral 
Hebrew, and with a French compliment ! 

Dieu le donne anx peoples Hebraiques 
Dieu te devoit, ce pense-je, aux ClalliqueB. 

He insinuates that in his version be had received %mm» 

* —par les dfvins espriis 

Qui ont sous toy Hebrieu langage apris, 
Nous soni jett^s les Pseauroes en lumiera 
Glairs, en au sens de la forme premiere.* 

This royal dedication is more solemn than usnat; y«c 
Marot, who was never grave but in prison, soon recovsiad 
from this dedication to the king fat on tnrnii^ the Istf «« 




another, ' Auz Dames de France !* Warton M^t of 
...rot, that < He teems anxious to deprecate the raillery 
ivhich the new tone of his versification was likely to incur, 
and is embarrassed to find an apology for tummg saint/ 
His embarrassments however, terminate in a highly poeti- 
cal fancy. When will the golden age be restored| ei- 
claims this lady's Psalmists, 

* Quand n'surons plus de cours ne lieu 

Les chsnsons de ce petit Dieu 

A qui lea peinires font des aisles ? 

O vous dames et demoiselles 

Que Dieu fait pour estre son temple 

£t Taiies, sous mauTais exemple 

ReteDtir et chambres et sales, 

De chansons mondaines ou sales,* fce. 

Knowing, continues the poet, thit songs that are silent 
about love can never please you, here are some composed 
by love itoelf; all here is love, bat more thao mortal ! Sing 
these at all times, 

El lesconvertirecmuer 
Faisam vos levfM remtier, 
Et vos doigtB sur les vapinettes 
Pour dire saimes chansoncttes. 

Marot then breaks forth with that enthusiasm, which per 
haps at first conveyed to the sullen fancy of the austere 
CaJvin the project he so successfully adopted, and, whose 
influence we are still witnessing. 

O bien heureuz qui voir pourra 
Fleurir le temps, que Pon oira 
Le laboureur a sa charrue 
Le charreiier panny la rue, 
Et l*arti8an>en aa boutique 
Avecqaea un Pacaume ou cantJque, 
En ann labeur ae aoulager ; 
Heureux qui erra le berger 
Et la beri^ere en bois esuns 
Faire que rocbera et estangs 
Apres eux cbanient la hauteur 
Du aaint nom de leura Createur 

Coqimencez, damea, commences 
Le necle dor^ ! avaocez ! 
En chamant d'un cueur debonnaire. 
Dedana ce aaint cancionnaire. 

Thrice happv they, who mav behold, 
And listen, in that age of gold ! 
Aa by the plough the labourer atrays. 
And carman mid the public wave, 
And tradesmen in his shop shall swell 
Their voice in Psalm or Canticle, 
Singing to solace toil ; again, 
From woods shall come a sweeter atrain ! 
Shepherd and shepherdess shall vis 
In many a tender Psalmody ; 
And the Creator'a name prolong 
Aa rock and atream return their song ! 

Begin then, ladies fair ! begin 
The affe renewed that knows no sin ! 
And wuh light heart, that wania no wing. 
Sing '. Trom this holy song-book, aing '* 

This ' holy song-book* for the harpsichord or the voice 
was a gay novelty, and no book was ever more eagerly 
received by all classes than Marot's ' Psalms.' In the 
fervour of tnat day, they sold faster than the printers could 
take them off their presses ; but as they were understood 
to be »mgtj and yet were not accompanied by music, every 
one set them to favourite tunes, commonly those of popular 
ballads. Each of the royal family, and every nobleman, 
chose a psalm or a song, which expressed his own personal 
feelings, adapted to his own tune. The Dauphin, after- 
wards Henry II, a great hunter, when he went to the chase 
was sin^ng Ainn <pi*on vU le eerf bruyre. * Like as the 
hart desirfith the water-brooks.' There is a curious por- 
trait of the mistress of Henry, the famous Diane de 
Poictiers, recently published, on which is inscribed this 
9er§e of the Pealtn. On a portrait which exhibits Diane in 
an attitude rather unsuitable to so solemn an application, 
no res son could be found to account for this discordance : 
perhaps the painter, or the lady herself, chose to adopt the 
fkvourite Psalm of her royal lover, proudly to designate 

♦ In the curious tract already referred to, the following quo- 
tation is remarkable ; the scene the fancy of Marot pictured to 
Mm had anciently occurred. St Jerome in hie aeventeenth 
Epistle to Marcel fus thus describes h: < In christian villages 
Hale else Is to be heard but Psslms ; for which way soever you 
cum yourself, either you have the Plouehman at his plough 
ilnging Hallelujahs, the weary Brewer refreshing himself with 
a psalm, or the Ylne^dresser chanting forth somewhat of Da- 

?9,* ^ * 

the object of her love, besides its double allusion to her 
name. Diane, however, in the first stage of their mutual 
attachment, took Du fond de ma pentU^ or * From the 
depth of my heart.' The Gtueen's favourite was, 

iVe vueilUa paa, o shrey 
Me reprendre en ton ire 

that is, ' Rebuke me not in thy indignation,' wjpch she 
sung to a fashionable jig. Antony, king of Navarre, simg 
Revenge may prens la quereliet or, ' Stand up, O Lord, to 
revenge my quarrel,' to the air of a dance of Poitou.*— 
We mav conceive the ardour with which this novelty was 
received, for Francis sent to Charles the Fifth Marot's 
collection, who both by promises and presents encouraged 
the French bard to proceed with bis version, and entreat- 
ing Marot to send him as soon as possible Corifitemini 
Jjomino quoniam 6ontM, because it was his favourite 
Psalm. And the Spanish as well as French composers 
hastened to set the Psalms of Marot to music. The 
fashion lasted, for Henry the Second set one to an air of 
his own composing. Catharine de. Medicis had her 
Psalm, and it seems that every one at court adopted some 
particular Psalm for themselves, which they often played 
on lutes and guitars, &c. Singing Psalms in verse was 
then one of the chief ingredients in the happiness of aoeial 

The universal reception of Marot's Psalms induced 
Theodore Beza to conclude the collection, and ten thou- 
sand copies were immediately dispersed. But these had 
the advantage of being set to music, ibr we are told, they 
were * admirably fitted to the violin and other musical in- 
struments.* And who was the man who had thus adroitly 
taken hold of the public feeling to give it this strong di- 
rection ? It was the solitary Thaumaturgus, the ascetic 
Calvin, who, from the depth of his closet at Geneva, had 
engaged the finest musical composers, who were no doubt , 
warmed by the xeal of propagating his faith, to form these 
simple and beautiful airs to assist the Psalm singers. At 
first this was not discovered, and Catholics as well as Hu- 
genots, were solacing themselves on all occasions with this 
new music. But 'when Calvin appointed these Psalms, 
as set to music, to be sung at his meetings, and Marot's 
formed an appendix to the Catechism of Geneva, this put 
an end to all Psalm singing for the poor Catholics! Ma- 
rot himself was forced to fly to Geneva from the fulmina^ 
tions of the Sorbonne, and Psalm singing became an open 
declaration of what the French called * Lutheranism,' when 
it became with the reformed a regular part of their religious 
discipline. The Cardinal of Lorraine succeeded in per- 
suading the lovely patroness of the * holy song book,' Di- 
ana de Poictiers, who at first was a Psalm singer and an 
heretical reader of the Bible, to discountenance this new 
fashion. He began by finding fault with the Psalms of 
David, and rqvived the amatory elegancies of Horace : at 
that moment even the reading of the Bible was symptom- 
atic of Lutheranism ; Diana, who had given wav to thne 
novelties, woukl have a French Bible, because the oueen, 
Catharine de Medidiy bad one, and the Cardinal nnding 
a bible on her table, Bbpediately crossed himself, beat his 
breast, and otherwise stft well acted his part, that, < bavins 
thrown the Bible down and condemned it, he remonstrated 
with the fair penitent, that it was a kind of reading not 
adapted for her sex, containing dangerous matters ; if she 
was uneasy in her mind she snould hoar two mssscs in- 
stead of one, and rest content with her Paternosters und 
her Primer, which were not only devotional but ornamen- 
ted with a variety of elegant forms from the most exquisite 
pencils of France.' Such is the story drawn from a cu- 
rious letter, written by a Hugenot, and a former frieud of 
Catharine de Medicis, and by which we may infer that 
the reformed religion was making considerable progress m 
the French court, — had the Cardinal of Lorraine not in- 
terfered by persuading the mistress, and she the king, and 
the king his queen, at once to give up Psalm singing and 
reading the Bible ! 

* This infectious frenzy of Psalm-sinsring,' as Warton 
describes it, under the Cslvinistic preachers had rapidly 
propagated itself through Germany as well as France. 
It was admirably calculated to kindle the flame of Fana- 
ticism, and frequently served as the trumpet to rebellion. 
These energetic hymns of Geneva excitcKl and supported 

* As Wanon hss partly drawn from the ssme source, I have 
adopted his own words whenever 1 could. It Is not easy to 
write after Thomas Wanon whenever he Is pleaaed whh his 



% ▼uictT of popular instruciioas in the most flourbhiof; ' 
cities of the Low Couiitri«*», and what our poetical antt- 

Jiaary could never forgire/ ' fomented the fury which de- 
aced many of the modt beautiful and venerable churches 
of Flanders.* 

At length it reached our island at that critical moment 
when it had fir!it embraced the Reformation ; and here its 
domesflb history was parallel with its foreign, except, 
perhaps, in the splendour of its success. Siemhold, an 
enthusiast for the reformation, was much ofiVnded, says 
Wanon, at the lascivious ballads which prevailed among 
the courtiers, and with a laudable design to check these 
indecencies, he undertook to be our Marot — without his 
genius ; ' thinkins therebv,* says our cynical literary his- 
torian, Antony Wood, * that the courtiers wouU sing them 
instead of their sonnets InU did noi, only some few ex- 
cepted.* They were practised by the puritans in the reign 
of Elizabeth ; for Shakespeare notices the puritan of his 
day * singing Psalms to hornpipes,'* and more particularly 
during the protectorate of Cromwell, on the same plan of 
accommodating them to popular tunes and jig!», which one 
of them said ' were too good for the devil.' Pcalms were 
now sung at Lord Mayors' dinners and city feasts ; sol- 
diers san^ them on their march and at parade ; a few 
houses which had windows fronting the streets, but had 
their evening psalms ; for a story has come down to us, to 
record that the hypocritical brotherhood did not always 
care to sing unless they were heard ! 



The Italians are a fitnciful people, who have often mix- 
ed a grain or two of pleasantry and even folly with their 
wisdom. This fanciful character betrays itself in their 
architecture, in their poetry, in their extemporary comedy, 
and their Improvuatori ; but an instance not vet accounted 
for of this national levity, appears in those dt^nominations 
of exquisite absurdity given by theoMelves to their Acade- 
mies ! I have in vain inquired for any as»icnable reason 
why the most ingenious men. andgrv^ and illustrious per- 
sonages, cardinals and princes, as wed as poets, scholars, 
and artists, in every literary city, should voluntarily choose 
to burlesque themselves and their serious occupations, by 
afiVctmg mysterious or ludicrous tides, as if it were carni- 
val time, and they had to support masouerade characters, 
and accepting such titles as we find in the cant style of our 
own vulgar clubs, the Society of < Odd Fellow's/ and of 
* Eccentrics !* A principle so whimsical but systematic, 
must surely have originated in some circumstance not 
hitherto detected. 

A literary friend, recently in an Italian city, exhausted by 
the moeco^ entered a house whose open door and circular 
■eats appeared to offer to passengers a refreshing torhelto; 
he discovered, however, that he had got into * the Acade- 
my of the Cameleons,' where they met to delight their 
brothers, and any * spirito gentil' they could nail to a reci- 
tation. An invitation to join the academicians alarmed 
liim. for with some impatient prejudices against these 
little creatures, vocal with f rote e ripu, and usually with 
odes and sonnets begged for, or purloined for the occasion. 
he waived all further curiosity and courtesy, and has return- 
ed home without any information how these * Cameleons' 
looked, when changing their colours in an * acaidemia. 

Such liierary institutions, prevalent in Italy, are the 
spurious remains of those numeriNis academies' which si- 
multaneouslv started up in that countrv about the sixteenih 
century. They assumed the most ridirulous denomina- 
tion's, and a great number is registered by Buadrio andTira- 
boschi. Whatever was their design, one cannot fairlv 
reproach them, as Mencken, in his * Chariatanaria Erudi- 
lorum,* seems to have thought, for pompous quackerv ; 
neither can we attribute to their nnndesty their choice of 
senseless titles, for to have degraded their own exalted 
pursuits was but folly! Literary historv affords no 
parallel to this national absurdity of the refined Italians. 

* My friend. Mr Dowce, Ima^nes, that this alludes to a 
common practice at thii time smonc the Piiritan» ofbnrleiiquir.e 
the plain chant of the Papists, by ailapcinevulear ami liulicn>u(> 
mwic n fwfllfns and \nnu9 C(>mpf>;iirion.«/ll)ij6t. of Shakfpenre, j 
I S,i5. Mr Douce does not recollect his authnritr. My itlt^a i 
di/Tprs. May we not coniecture thai the iiimiion was the' same i 
which induced Stemhold to verbify the ?solme, to be pun£ m* ' 
stead of lascivious hallad<i ; and the nM»*t iwniilar tuneicame ' 
afterwards to be adonced. that the sinrer n.i^t practise his ' 
lavoariie one, as we find it occurred in France. 

Who could have suspected that the mosu eminml 

and men of genius, were associates of ihe Ozsoss. iii« Aa 

Uutieif the Fntttutati? Why should Genoa buftst «ais 

* Sieepy,' Viterbo of her * Obstinates,' Sienna of her 'I» 
sipids,' her * Blockheads,' aati her * Thunderstruck ;* 
Naples of her < Forioso; while Macerata exuiu m 

* Madmen chained V Both Q,uadno and Tirabovchi ( 
not deny that thfse fantastical titles have (xcmmoned rkm 
Italian academies to appear very ridiculous to the 
torn ; but the«e valuable historians are no phi 
thinkers. They apologize for this bad tastct, by des^iia| 
the ardour which was kindled throughout Italy at the re» 
toration of letters and the fine arts, so that cv'enr ooe. 
even every man of genius, were eager to enroll tkev 
in these academies, and prided themselves in keanog i; 
emblems, that is, the distinctive aims each academy 
chosen. But why did they ravsiify themaeWea ? 

Foity, once become national, is a rigorous plant, whad 
sheds abundant seed. The consequence of having adofC 
ed ridiculous ii:les U>r these academies, sii gees ted to tnes 
many other characteristic fopperi(>s. At Florence vrert U^ 
ther of the *Umidi' assumed the name of something aqianc 
or any quality periaining to humidity. One was called *ihr 
Frozen,* another *fhe Damp :' one was * the Phf,' 
another * the Swan ;' and Grazzini, the celebrated Doi«i> 
ist, is known better by the cognomen of JLa Xjutrm, * tkt 
Roach,' by which he whimsicaitv designates himself anne 
the 'Humi'ds.' I find among the iiuenmdiy one man oriear»> 
ing taking the name of Stordito insmsofo, another Tendn^ 
so Insensato. The famous Florentine academy oT/JiOsks 
amidst theirgrave labours to sift and purify their langoafe. 
threw themselves headlcmg into tlus vorlex <^ foil v. Tli«^ 
title, the academy of ' Bran,' was a conceit to indicate tbes 
art of sifting ; but' it required an Italian prodigalitv ofcor^cc 
to have induced these grave scholars to exhibit Ihemcehes 
in the burlesque scenery of a paiftomimical academv. fiv 
thfir furniture consists of a mill and a bake-house ; a nit> 
pit for the orator is a hopper, while the learned direcMr 
sits on a mill-stone ; the other seats have the forms <if i 
miller's dossers, or great panniers, and the backs coasoi e' 
the long shovels used in ovens. The table is a baker^ 
kneading-trough, and the academician who reads has hat' 
his body thrust out of a great bolting sack, wiih I know 
not what else for their inkstands and portfolios. But ike 
most celebrated of these academies is that * degfli Arcadau 
at Rome, who are still carrying on their pretenstons muck 
higher. Whoever inspires to be aggregated to these Ar- 
cadian shepherds, rec*>ives a pastoralname and a title, boi 
not the deeds, of a farm, picked out of a map of the ancicat 
Arcadia or its environs ; for Arcadia itself soon becaaie 
too small a possession for these partitionera of mooui^hioe. 
Their laws, modelled by the twelve tables of the ancieat 
Romans; their language in the venerable majesty of thcv 
renowned ancestors ; and this erudite deroocracr datiw 
by the Grecian Olympiads which Crescembini, their ftrsi 
ciistode. or guardian, most painfullv adjusted to the vulgar 
era, were designed that the sacred erudition of antiquity 
might for ever be present among these shepherds.* Go^ 
doni. in his Memoirs, has given an amusing accomit of 
these honours. He says * he was presented with two di- 
plomas ; the one was my charter of aggregation to the 
Arcadi of Rome, under the name of Polininn, the other 
gave me the invratiiure of the PhUgean fields, f was 
on this saluted by the whole assembiv in chorus, under the 
name of Poluaeno Phlegeio, and emWaced by them as a 
fellow shrplierd and brother. The Areadums 
rich, as you may perceive, mv dear reader : we 
estates in Greece ; we water them with our labours for the 
sake of reaping laurels, and the Turks sow them wiib 
grain, plant them with vines, and laugh at both c«r 
titles and our songs.' When Fontenelie became an Ar- 
cadian, they baptised him II Pa$tor Pigrasto, that is. 

* amiable Fountain !' allusive to his name and his delight- 
ful style : and magnificently presented him with the entire 
Isle of Delos I The late 'Joseph Walker, an enthusiast 
for an Italian literature, dedicated his ♦ Memoir on Italian 
TraptH^y' to the C*Mintess Spencer : nnt in<scribing it with 
his christian hut his hea'hen name, and the title of hisArca- 
dian estates, EubanU Tirinzio ! Plain Jo«eph Waik#^r m 
his masquerade dresi, with his Arcadian signet of Pkii*s 
reeds dangling in his title-page, was perf(»rming a charac- 
ter to which however well adapted, not being nnderviood 
he got stared at for his affectation ! We bar laielT 

♦ rresccmbini, at the close of » La bellazza della Vm* 
Poetia.' Roma, 1700. ^'*" 

•re werr 


lille ■■<■ Tne illuiuiuua Arcidiniu.' Ci'trwoW, and i» 

' tiiiindar 

.hadfuriuFd ihBioo»ldE«»'dc(mefptioo<Drih* 

■< 111 orifin ! bi.1 p«li«il vincinilon in propheu 

. unit «l 

l« HF rend ihcir nntt—wt mutL not look br lh*t 

, d,/-. 

w (^ fiei— ihB eTenl predicud 1 


L'>i>r» ftcmdii* llw dri Ginge 

E d.- Cimimrl I'inltconiU ■nnc. 

I MrM 

ihi» hu rKtxilj -iih -irmih dxfoided ih« ongi- 

, nd^n 

AifiA ; and Ihe unimod chsnicier df iu mtmbf r», 


u b-on eond-mr«i <u> IwirmTirg ibm sHecisiion, 
.i>'«ti>'li«r mudwiy. ■Beibro tha criiici of ilis 

r ofiecrataociaucPtOne nui >ei vnlirn, buloTwhiph 

hii auch liirnrj HxieiKi, in ilicir >im origbat 

naniculariy in acdmiaaiiul Roma, and ihe rival princi- 
palilisaoriial;. If I*a gnu oalioni, like ihuas orEngland 

ioct aaaeinbly of philowiphici' — ' -■■"■ "— 

Sir Phdip Stdne* and Sir 


iment of Iho Frcncb 

_... .... ^_.. - .. ., .. iHiIly alriad ihroK „^ 

Hf ) «ith CretcemlMiu lot Ihair r.-nnduclur, and »ilb tht I (hny 

ffi. Alba-ul^T^tufUTOB. (Cl=n.MiX[,)dlihai ,„1, 

* -"inlanguagu, and imeniiiBeni, fled and <ln- Rm 


IciHh, but which 


lengih accorded b* Iha poliiica] Richchpu nbaFriiDe u>1ho 
pr«idrnl, ihall' b« abould lllis Iha mcmbcn accniding aa 
Ihamcmhenlibtdhin.' Thui we haT« aMjeruined ons 
principle, Ibat tottrvmrMt in Lhoav tipiai looked on a 
ftew ancielir wiih * polilica[ glaocc ; nor il ia improbable 
thai aome of (ben combined an oaleniible m'ah a laleol 

There ia m vaat ef erideace lo proro Lhat the madera 

Ki foclinglT a)ivr lo Ihelr obacurc (^lory. aiid ihat 
lO rreqiiinllj made iniidioue comparuiina of their 

Witt erer; thing Romas, inipirad luch cnihuiiaala 

ink or learning, jet aiiJl accident orcipHca cresied Ihr purchua ■ ntanuaeript, bat the relic of genina wu louched 
ifturyini tiile, and inrenleil IhoK enpropriale emblemn, ^^^^ , reliiioui emotion. Thaclaaoical puril* of Cieeta 
'hictiilill added to Iha Tally. The Aicadian ancielT de. „„ conlraxed oiih Ihe barbaroui idiom of the Miaaal; 

4r an eclagi 
■nd all he ' 

in the Arcadia of ancient Greece, hatening 
nd aimple alraini of iti i hephcrda.' Enthuai. 
inua amijil auieeplible Iialiani, and thii name, 
1 and byaoclaBiaimn.wascHlfiiTed on Ihe an. 
■n more [cconlly at Plorancs Ihe actadrmla 
jimaiariji, or Iho ' Kgeon-houae,' pnivoi with 

■be Ca.allero Paiii. a gentleman, "ho, bliE 
orriiif noiae, choie for hii aliidy a ganet in 

™"T evenin) 

the m-mberi, after a hrarty'laueh, urumed the title of the 
Calami-aria, invented a device coniiming of tbe top of a tin . 
ret, with aeveral pixenna flying aboi.l il, l«.riii(| «n«ii. 
graph from DanU, Quantu vrdtr a pan, by which they 
■ipreoed Iheir deilgn nol 10 apply themaeleea to any 
■ingle ohjeii. Such facia auilicienily prove Ihii aome of 

Plato, ai 

latia, unleia they are raally 
'eaaon for laughing at Ibena- 

curiona but abecorB tinguliri ■ 
lai go farther back among the 
laliluliMia. How were tber 
ita jn which they first ap^ar- 

heMidille jlna.U.tM See, alao, Mr Rew'e 
laNonhof luly, vol. i, SO*. MrHallam ba» 
■uch an Inilltuiian aa the eocieir dejill Antdi 
I havD endured puhUc thUcule inEnilaDd to ■ 

,. I Ihe melaphyaical rovoriea of 

and what thw^naed the ' Enlhiuiannua Ali«> 

lua;' tbe dreaTof the Plalonlala «emed loth* 

faiKifiil Italian! mun el««led than the humble and pure 
ethica of Iha Qoapela. The vain and anoroua Eloba 

bet. of the aposllea, fur picking the ears of com in their 

walk*, and at their meats eaiing with uowaabed bandi.— 
Touched by ihia mania of aniiqully, ihe learned affected 

or a JuliuB ; or any olher rusty name unwiahul In 
baptbam. Thia froniy for tbe ancient republic not inij 
menaced ihe pontificate ; bui their Platonic, or ihev 
pagan ardoura, arcmed In be alriking at the (bundaiiea 
™Chrialianity itself. Such were MareUu. Ficinus, 

Pompnniui Leliis, who lived at the cl"ee of tbe fifteenlli 
century, nol only celebrated bv am annual lesiival the 
foundatinn of Rome, lad faiaeJ allara lo Romulue, hut 
ooenlT«pm«d hia cMlwnlit for ihe ihristiaDrohgioo, 
wVieh this ™ion»ry declared w«. only fit for barbarian.; 
but Ihi. eiiravagance and irrcl.gion, Nicenil, 
weiecommon wiih many of the learned ofihoae tunea, 
and Ihia very Pomponig. wa. at length formally aeoant 
of Ihe crime of chanpng iha bapUamal namea of the young 
per»na whom he ungbi, for pa^ai. one. ! ' Th« wa. the 
tiated" Ihe limea,' aays ihe author we have juvlijiiolrd; 
but il waa imagined lhat there waa a myalery cmcealed in 

•cry Poaipom'na ; lor he la diaunpiiahed 
Prinop* AcademiB,' by hb friend Pditiaj 
cellanea,' of ihai eleganlecholar. Thu ™uuu.r™> 
pontificate of Paul the Second. The regular meennga of 
' Ihe Academy' aoon eiciled the iealousy and enspKHD. 
of Paul and gave rise to one of Ihe moal homd penecu- 
liona and acenet of lorture, even lo death, in which 
lh«a academiciana were mvolvad: Thia doaed with a 
decree of Paul'a, that fiir the future no ons should pro- 
nounce, eilher lariously or in jeel, the very nanie of 
atadrmi. nnder Iho pentttr of heresy '. The 1ID17 is told 
hTpiuSlaT™ a th"»aier., in h« life of Pauf Iha Se- 
cond ; and alihough Ibis hiaiorj mav be aajd to bar Ihe 
bmiaea of Iha woarfed umI dislocaied body gf the imbappr 
hiMcriaa, Ihe facia are na>)iwalwaa»a, and coiuMtaa 



with oar subject. Platina, Poinpoiihis, and many of tbei'' 
rhends, were suddenly draif k<^ to prison ; on the first and 
second daj torture was applied, and many expired under 
the hands of their executioners. ' You would have una- 
gined,* says Platina, * that the castle of St Aiwelo was 
turned into the bull o( Phalaris, so loud the hollow vault 
resounded with the cries of those miserable young men, 
who were an honour to their a^ for genius and learning. 
The torturers, not satisfied, though weary, having rackml 
twenty men in those two days, of whom some died, at 
length sent for roe to take my turn. The instruments of 
torture were ready ; I was stripped, and the executioners 

Sut themselves, to their work. Vianesios sat like another 
linos on a seat of tapestry work, gay as at a wedding ; 
and while I hung on the rack in torment, he plaved with a 
jewel which Sanea had, asking him who was the mistress 
vrhich had given him thu love token J Turning to me, he 
asked *why Pomponio in a letter should call me Holv Fa- 
ther V Did the conspirators agree to make you Pope ? 

* Pomponio,* I repliea, * can best tell why he gave me this 
title, for I know not.' At length,having pleaseJ,but not sat- 
isfied himself with my tortures^he ordered me to be let down 
that I might undergo tortures much greater in the evening. 
I was carried, half dead, into my chamber; but not long 
after, the inquisitor baring dined, and being fresh in drink, 
I was fetched again, and the archbishop of Spalatro was 
tliere. They inquired of my conversations with Malates- 
ta. I said, it only concerned ancient and modem learning, 
the military arts, and the characters of illustrious men, 
the ordinary s-ubjects of conversation. I was bitterly 
threatened by Vianesius, unless I confessed the truth on 
the following dav, and was carried back to my chamber, 
where I was seized with such extreme pain, that I had 
rather have died than endured the agony of my battered 
and dislocated limbs. But now those who were accused 
of heresy were charged with plotting treason. Pompcmius 
being examined why he changed the names of his friends, 
he answered boldly, that this was no omeern of his judges 
or the pope : it was perhaps oul of ragpect ^ antiquity, 
to stimulate to a virtuous emulaAon^uAhm we had now 
Iain ten months in prison, Paul otMMUunself to the cas- 
tle, where he charged us, among other Ihags, that we had 
disputed concemmg the immortali^ of the soul, and that 
we held the opinion of Plato ; by disputing you call the be- 
ing of a God m question. This, I said, might be objected 
to all divines and philosophers, who to make the truth 
appear, freouently question the existence of souls and of 
God, and or ail separate intelligences. St Austin says, the 
op'mion of Plato is like the faith of Christians. I followed 
none iif the numerous heretical factions. Paul then accus- 
ed us of being too great admirers of pagan antiquities ; 
vet none were more fond of them than himself, for he col- 
lected all the statues and sarcophagi of the ancients to 
place in his palace, aivi even affected to imitate, on 
more than one occasion, the pomp and charm of 
their public ceremonies. While they were arguing, men- 
tion happened u> be made of * the Academy,' when the 
Cardinsl of San Marco cried out, that we were not 

* Academics.' but a scandal to the name ; and Paul now 
declared that he would not have that term evermore men- 
tioned under pain of heresy. He leA us in a passion, and 
kept us two months longer in prison to complete the year, 
as it seems he had sworn.* 

Such is the interesting narrative of Platina, from which 
we may surely infer, that if these learned men assembled 
for the communication of their studies ; inquiries sugges- 
ted by the monuments of antiquity, the two learned lan- 
guages, ancient authors, and speculative points of philoso- 
phv, these objects were associated with others, which ter^ 
rifiwd the jealousy of modem Rome. 

Sometime after, at Naples, appeared the two brothers, 
John Baptists and John Vincent Porta, those twin spirits, 
the Castor and PoUux of the natural philosophy ol that 
age, and whose scenical museum delighted and awed, by 
its optical illusions, its treasure of curiosities, and its na. 
tural majnc, all learned natives and foreigners. Their 
name is still famous and their treatises De kumana 
pkysiognofnia and Mat[xa natwraliMf are still opened by the 
curious, who discover these children of philosophy, wan- 
dering in the arcana of nature, to them a world of perpet- 
oal beginnings ! These learned bn>thers united with the 
Marquis of Manso, the friend of Tasso, in establishing 
an academy under the whimsicalname of dcgfi OzMMa,(the 
Laiy) whicfa so ill deacribad their mtantioiis. This acado- 

my did not saffidentlv embrace the views of tbs 

brothers, and then they formed another onder their pm 
roof, which they appropriately named di Seertii j the s^ 
tensible motive was, that no one should be adnnitted ali 
this interior society who had not signalized himaelf by warn 
experiment or discovery. It is clear, that, whatever thrj 
intended by the project, the election of the ■seoihersvas 
to pass through the most rigid scrutiny — and what was lit 
consequence i The court of Rome again started op mtk 
all its fears, and, secretly obtaining mfonnation of 
discussions which had passed in this acadenaj de^ 
ti, pn^ibited the Portas from hoMing such aasembl 
applying themselves to those iUicit sciences, whoae a 
ments are criminal, and turn us aside from the atody of ihs 
Holy Scriptures.* It seems that one of the Porta* kd 
delivered him in the style of an ancient oracle ; bat wkil 
was more alarming in tnis prophetical spirit, several of kit 
predictions had been actually verified! The iafsTBMi 
court was in no want of a new school of proph ecy . Ba^ 
tista Porta went to Rome to justify himself^ and, ooatrai 
to wear his head, placed his tongue in the caatody of hs 
Holiness, and no doubt preferred being a member of iks 
Aceademia degU Omm, to that of gU Secretin To cm- 
firm this notion that these academies excited the jealoaiy 
of those despotic states of Italy, I find that several of the* 
at Florence, as well as at Sienna, were considered as 
dangerous meetings ; and in 1568, the Medici suddcaly 
suppressed those of the * Insipids,' the * Shy/ the * Dm- 
heartened,* and others, but more particularly the *Staa> 
ned,* gii IrUrtmati, which excited loud laments. We hats 
also an account of an academy which called itseff ths 
Lantemifttf from the circumstance that their first 
ings were held at night, the academicians not ca 
torches, but only Lantem». This academy, indeed, 
Toulouse, but e'ridently formed on a model of its 
In fine, it cannot be denied, that these literary 
or academies were frequenilv objects of alarm ^o the fit- 
tie governments of Italy> &na were oflea intermpted If 
political persecution. 

From all these facts I am inclhied to draw an iaferaaea. 
It is remarkable that the first Italian Acadentues wars 
only distinguished by the simple name of their fooadcn; 
one was called the Academy of PomponiusLsef us, anolhtf 
of Panormita, &c. It was after the melancholy fate «f 
the Roman Academy of Lctus, which could not, how> 
ever, extinguish that growing desire of creatine literary a^ 
cieties in the Italian cities, from which the membcri 
derived both honor and pleasure, that suddenly we £»• 
cover these academies bearing the roost fantastical titles. 
I have not found any writer who has attempted to solve this 
extraordinary appearance in literary history, and the dift* 
cuhy seems great, because, however frivoloos or fiuia»> 
tical the titles they assumed, their members were illustrieaa 
for rank and genius. Tiraboschi, aware of this difficidtv, 
can only express his astonishment at the absurdity, and Isa 
vexation at the ridicule to which the Italians have heea ex- 
posed by the coarse jokes of Menkenitis in his C%arlal» 
nana J^rvditontm.^ I conjecture, that the inrentioa cf 
these ridiculous titles, for literary societies, was an atteaipC 
to throw a sportive veil over meetings which had alamed 
the papal and the other petty courts of Italy ; and to qmK 
their fears, and turn Wmt their political wrath, they ii^ 
plied the innocence of their pursuits by the jocularity with 
which the merobers treated themselves, and were wilhaf 
that others should treat them. This otherwise ine^S 
cable national lerity of so refined a people has not oeci 
in any other country, because the necessity did not 
anywhere but in Itidy. In France, in Spain, and in ' 
land, the title of the ancient Ac a demits was never pro- 
faned by an adjunct which systematicallv degraded aad 
ridiculeo its venerable character, and its illiistrioQs tntm' 

Long aAer this article was finished, I had an o pp oit u a k y 
of consulting an eminent Italian, whose name is already 
celebrated in our coontry, II Sigr. tJoo Foscolo ; lus 
decision ought necessarily to outweigh mine ; but althoogh 
it is incumbent on roe to put the reader in posBession of 
the opinion of a naUve of his high acquirements, it is not 

♦ NIferon. ror xliii. Art Porta. 

f See Tiraboechi, vol. rii. rsp. ir. Accsdemie, and Qaad- 
rio^s Delia storta e delta ra^one d'ogni poesia. fai ibe im- 
mense receptacle of these seven quarto volumes, print^ 
a small type, the curious may consult the volnadaoaa 
Art.Aoeademia. ' 


l\ 3ip. FoicoLO 11 or opimnn, ih.l ih. onsin of I*. 
fcnl«M^ dlloi n-ioiod l^Uio Il»I*n Aejdemio. w- 
tiKlj .Kao rrom ■ inm of ge.UBg fid of iho "T"* l»- 

Tlii OMOioii m^J —uttj in liilan, and Ihii li« msr 
deem 1 lufficienl aix^oEj for nicli tbsurdilj-, but Khea 
•ciriEt rob« and cowled bB«da. laureaied ti«d« awl M<n- 

oul of mere ompUmeDl lo Moh peat and If 

would luppoae that thevbid *Bir good reawtu ; and thai 

the nr.' After all, I ™ild almort fiatler myiolf Ih" ~- 


hn hero. The knowledge of the cnlic in our blerur lua. 
tory ii nol cutioui : be appeva to h«o adTanced no far- 
ther, than ID ban Uken up the fini opinkm he (aaai ; bol 
th» lened for an aUempt lo blacken [he noriJ cbaiaclep 

of Sir aamuol Luke, one of Cromwell'. Captaim, at the 

pTeaBfld to make hie hnd and hotpitobU PaJron the Hn 

dote,'*-*! if it could oolbe matched ! Whip --J ■p— 
are ai like u two e(E> when thty are will anu •.^,, 
their frirndi too often become Iheir firjtuctimi! If 
Sinuel niembled that renowned perionificalion, the i 
and unavoidable when (he poet 

Lcalleet deaign of ridicDling aillj aulbota and ita|rid 

It ia unqiieitionibl J proved, hj the confen ion of itff eral 
filindi of Boiler, Ihil Ihe prolK'rpe of Sir Hudibru wai 
■ DeTonihire nan : and if Sir AufA dt £r<ii be Ihe old 

THPriti^^Of io FXr-rWDrihiei,*) Ihii diicorer. ihe 
II iggeition which led Sutler lo Ihe namt of hu hero; bur- 
iquini ihn nae SaMby paLniiB him wii 

rijui Siinl of the couniT ; I 

,e Knighti 


Thii onpn of the name u more Mpi 
rilClet of the work than deriiing it frm 
„( Spenier, wilh whom Ihere eiiili no •luiuiiuui. 

It 11 ai honourable aa il ii cxinordbiary, that luch waa 

Old Southem call! him : - Hudibiaa Builer ;' and iT anj 
one would read the mod copioui life we hare uflhiiireu 
Kl in Ihe great GenenI Diclioiiiry, he nuit look for m 
me he ii not ucuHomed to find_among Engliab aulhon 
-thai of HtuUbna '. One fact ii remarkable ; that, hke 
enante*, and unlike Rabclau and Sterne, Butler, m hii 
■oalwoHi, baiaol lent down to poiterily a ringle pa»- 
Iga of indecent ribaldrj, Ihoujh it wai wnilon amxfil a 


» from the , 

Comic uuriile, -baleTer they may allcre to Ihe conirarj, 
will alwiyi draw liriely and moil Inilyfrom their own 
circle. After .H, il Joe. not appear thai Sir Samuel an 
for Sir Hudibrai ; altbou^ from the haliu iliU in th- 
poam, at the end of Pari I, Cinto I, hii name would tx- 

w web he rnembit^i Hudi' 

a ilj itrolie i 

left poiterilT to lettle the aflair, which 
■Ih thoir while. Bui Warbuflon teDp. 
that a fneiid of Buller*! had declared the perron wu h 
Dnonihire man ; one Sir Henry Roieirell, of Ford Ab- 
bey, in Ihnt counly. There ii a curioue life of 
wit, in Ihe great General Dictionary ; the write 
Dr Birch, made Ihe moit au ' 
GonTcmporariea of Buder, or 
Cbarlei Longu. 

of Bull' 



„ ....^h of Ihe link _ , ,_ _. 

ihii lir. belieree thai Sir Samuel wu tha hero of Buder.ani 

ihe candour which becomoetha IMnry hinorian, be bv 
added Ihe following marginal nol«i ' WTiibit Ihu ■bei' 
w>. It pre.., I wai auurad br Mr LongucTille, ihit 8i 
Samuel Lukeitnal EAe pirtan lidiculed under Uie nam* of 


brother bard, in 


lieqiiealhed In LoDguerille ihe only lege 
FDuld I«Te— all hi. manuacripi. ; and 

Hif frimd fttlaafHdIa bury him wilh ihi 
lie deierreiL (OMH Aa tombe of bii brother bard. 
Wealminner AbUk taB he wa. compelled 10 eon.i, 
,heU>rdtoinob«5na(klplicein Faul'i, Covent.G. 
rlen. Many yen* Bllet, when Alderman Bather rail 

Abbey, olheii were dfiiroui of placing oneorer Ihepooi 
humble gra»e.lone. Thii prebehly eiciied ume comp 
lition: and Ihe following fine one, altnbuied to Denn 
hai perhapi never been puUiebed. If il be Dennia't, 

The body ofMr Samuel BuUer 
Author of Hudihrai. 
He wai a whole ipeciea of Poeti in one ! 
Admirable in I Minnei ^— 
In which no one elie ha. been tolerable i 
A Mmoer which began and ended in Him 
In which he knew no Guide. 
And hMfoundnoFollowen. 
To thii loo brief ankle I add a proof that iha 
ID, which i* branded by our imtnonal Builer, ( 
re the cailigitioa. Folly ii (Hnelhoei imSK 


w Coil. BoJIt, 1 dU 

with hi 

«lly Ii 

detcnpiion of Iha IGiighl ; whence il ii highly protaiM.', 
that il wu thn gentleman, and not Sir Samuel La1«! 
whole penon he hid in bin eye. The reuon Ihii he givi' 
for calling hii poem Hv^brat wi., because the name ol 
Ihe old liilelar laint of Deronihire wu AufA dt Brv,' 
I find ihii in the Grub .Ireel Journal, January, ITS], i 
periodical paper conducted by Iwo eminent lilerarr phv. 
■ician., unJer Ihe ippmpriale namei of B.viu. inj Vlv 

..jpi up iha plague m Torkey 1^ lyiw hid in lOBW ob. 
icure cofBer, till il breaki oul ifrem. Receally we have 
Ken a nnuhte malanee where one of the ichoiil to which 

lU loolt Wk with bUMan 

u ooee jfrvai cm>ll to their tuCl 
mtila] delbHtara of Pope fimn On 

mfoimiiion concerning a D 
Charlee BDikrrhaa klndlTcoi 
faiholk Clatgyman> taunngi 
Ih. volumlmnii regimn nflhi 
MBS and recorda, of Ihe UkK 

.nektofVlrjil, indDrRiw 

uelii ealnl. Hi 
thn reaeatchii of i 
10 bivtng eiaiabief 



mn;* in ithich (ha uitlKV caotvodj, th«l tho but mca 
bBVe eipeTwDced Ibv k^ eney of lh« Holy Spirit u ui im- 

iDTicpToc/i bj ibslfniai Abt:! iDLidTUuDTiafdanl Tbs 
•ulbor of liudihiii i> denounced, ■ 0« Hiaut] Builer, 
m CfilebriCcd btufbon m Ok Bbaaiiaaed roigD of Chiriri 

undeiiuuk tu burlntjue ihfl jiioua puniui. Ha ridkulvi 

ii. ■ leil 11 ihould bs muiiktii,' be added k LCnucmm 
iHIiKi, ■ pureli lo Blim rouln ihu I am n jot.' UK 

* the fool, hii BiibKfjuetit Cdtlor, who, 1 TVfTvl to m, 
wu Rvbm Dodilev, ihou^iL proptr to ■u|i|iii— iha 

rDtiirrr; he appr 
S*rah L.knd.' T£* 

hnniiuuwn IS u i^u fatam, aiid duk luitrrn of the portniT of ny old Khool di 

ipini.'-|- Such in the wtiirn wbnas uctIK ipiril ii . rnwliipMO' to ihu firtt ediliti 

■uUdrKending unoDg lu frnpiihe niDnheryDrthe<lnFru, j houK nf tiB oM Rbaal-mnli 

•iddnig poagiMfjcj to the rcrj ndicule IhejKoold annihi- < birch tree' vrilh ibe 'uia stti 

■paliciblgioeonUiapDnTin! ibe table. 1 bare Uid uids ihe thouibiiof fanie a pid 

Tb« natr pari of Hudibru i) the dkhI peifecl j that I deal IB Lhii nnproaiiiiiig fchi-mp ; and lii ihem Dpc* tin 

waa Iba rich [nut of milured mediiation, of wit, of leint. j tindikip *hith i> en||ia<iii|i, the red Itllrr whiet I p»- 

and gliding Ibe 
lbu>,'ih»e ibeGnt •h«tWc<im_ ., 
of fane a pM 

_^ ..Jibing good hilt inT drcoraiii*^ I 
ntlfhbouTbood and ID Wurwicksbln | 

had beeu perp*™>llT acted on by mne of Ihe iniai eiira- ] leemly orntmenta of Ibe fini Hipenny panptri thai wu 

Dtdmarr eveou andpenoiif <i poliiKal and ifli^mui ha- I eyer 10 highly honour' ' -"-" ■■ ' 

lorj. Builer liad liird aiuidit BcerKi "hicb might haic ! oiih Oti'-bj, of ' 

Ficited iikdi|ikaina and grief; but bii iTroog CfAlanipt of ^ I ripecl that ■□ 

Ibe acloia coukd onlj 'upply ludiCToue imagei and caiulic i there ihould be iweoly of my noenii »i™. i 

nillrry. Yet once, vhcD iillany waa al iti unilb, hii lelf. 1 am nicaaed oilh MjDde'i engniinn. 

Tba aecond part xai predpitaled in the foliowniii year. [ poetical cliiracteiiilic. ' 1 dire lay ii niiiBI bt 

Aa imeml of futiitcpo yuri iraiillowrd to elapae before reel; fori ham added eight or ten iiinzai 

Ibe third lod laal part waigiTCD io ihe worlds bul then foitnighi. But inaccurac; u more eicwible 

e«Tj tbiag bad changed; the poet, lb* rabiect, --■'•'— ' - ' '- •■■---•--- 

pairon! the old tbetne of the Kclaniti badWi 

wiih tbeit royal tibcnuir, had be 

doiage of Hudibra- lo 

■; for people ofiwl ■rithofH li 

oFhu muiipa, ' The enchiated k»Mi,' and ' i 
ouaiuit,' of Hudibru reHtcled the ^^ 

labiyd«pi«it. I hire been at .o« pak. 
itif rmm A Philipi' mnforliine of mrrc c.Uii 
le cbarm ofplar^ mien," ^. I hare addr 

thai Biitler had become the uumiof ^^g burienne for the terj foohibneii it eipoa* 
; he had [htnicKjr n honeillT npoin- obaenalioni made onMM Ihe Rebeanal.alToa 



CromvelT, and Ihe 1 

it oai iniended fi 
(Od DodileT, the I 
blundered in de.i 

ireammf other neri. „ ChroBonhoionihologoe, »tl nhkh bt 

ul one that preceded ,her. and ad>etlue it '■ The School- Miilreo." tie, a len 

■^ r — r a prnoo lerjoafly call) liiii, or niiier buHeeque, ■ 

->h or low Bpecin of poetry, he aaya wron^. For i^ 
regular and funnal poetry may be caJled Irdbnc, fbfiy, 

aid tho hypocrite* of 

and weal 



w lying bcfctem 


id p™ily plca» 
, at lennh fc— ' 

bimiplf with hit gnphici 

It his engraver, Myode had ladly bungled wiih the poet's 
'■1. Veiod and ditappcintrd, he wrirea, ^ 1 have bce« 
gued to doalh about ihe ill eieeution of my dcngn. 
ithibf IB certain m IxkmIoii but efpenie, which 1 cu ii 
placed in Ibe bindibip 
-L ._. :. I..,, -^uin 

- Tbii 

ihich mil 


•0 thit w( *- - 

le SchooUMiil 

' The Sehod-Miiiren' nf 
od for ite limplicity and len- 
demeu, not for lU engaiiilriy ludicroui mm ! 
Thii diwmery I owi ' " ' 

£uicy. To ibii piece of LUDiomooa roeriT, « he oUi 
• Bie QunmrlT Bertew, loL »1U, p. 1 1), where I fouud ihii 

qomeiion juBly rern^eied. 
ITWi work.miWtthed in I7W, li (uiioii. Sa lie maienali 

1 The ™e of Rine Charin ihe FInt iniLy lUted ■nii» 
Igiin Cook, Buaer of Onyi tno, ii Builet'i ' RcmatBiu' 


una, ina mnfl unprDvemenia, which ihow that 
ine bad more judgment ind felicity m aavere at- 
Uiin perbipi b pupeded. Bone of these I wii 

lemnd llama, the.rfrai edition baa. 

II be neciaury Ibe Iba reader lo dsihlahii 



A dt..i,ti« 


ttnr u opportDDitf of 
of pijinf nil eaa|ill> 

tmmtj. whiet b* glad- 
It Kim; coadodbif 
blM piMa *iib mpMI- 

dvDt ud loTmJ dtj of 

I hl*o doconrsit ■ poom ij Ihii iniil po<M, wbicta hu 

Mr. QiSbrd. Profiled Is i Inulatoi, InnklioB i* lb* 

hiTs udiilly besn lh« jobbanU bookHHonj bat ima- 
f lonoiii OHO Hmann nur French and luJiiD mkb. In ihia 
poaiD, if tilt foadoHi «ar bs giudod 

•hould IhoT be rrid Lk< 

mini Mm 

Ludod by tha emaprf 
•Iff foel 1 ihjiha which, 
Bodem OHln, bo intl finl 

i; Dnrdco 

I iho OluL 

ii.Ckurchill ibuwdii 
ik. Grwl ibtcfof U 

duinbutugioDiiTiEi, < Bui n wio loDguc, hu rmm'd niih iho ■orld' 
ud dupomnf rao- ' And luih ihs nuUul Biri* of m {ood book*, 

Upon It, but nUl 1o 

Ai > dofbnuad he ._ „ 

Such bookoi, doarn iruHlilon of lika coitt 
A I wu Ibo niuui whcrowHh (hojr tri 
Aod tbiihaO) mol thai one, (hiimti ' 


!l7 look* 

-— cMd; 

For thoueh Spline, («Tfp hira hia firil ajn aod *( 
Re oouJd be caJI'd, heocrfonh, Oi EnfOA rtgm, 

re tiian iho rgaier-Talbsr 



WiJ] be receiTed in court ; if not, wodd I 

Had cloalh'd taini »! Here's alt I cao mpphr 

To jDur deKrt obo hate dnaa it, frieod ! And Ihta 

When ;du behold me in>h mj orifo, iha man 
Thai would h«« iom, Ihnl, whit"^ --' 

■ Jomn, 


tranilalFd with the tat&e i 

or (ho Spaniah bawd; a . __. 

He had naaded a e«i>iderahla line in SpwD, ud km i 
perfect muter of both lanfuajea ; ■ rare taleal ta i 
tianalalor ; lul Iho eenargiimee K, Ihal he a a tmAlu 

Ba etaleW bv the T 
Ftjio Arabella, child i 

And ai ihee heud lh< 

Aj fait did h«>o 

aearcel} nentiooed 

(proUly^'n"™ ^T MicUe.) 
dT Arabella Smart, Mr Lodre ohatrrea,''^ 
hulory.' The whole HfeoflUl 
iklo WBi nimp«Hl, Mia Aihin pabflihel 
■ — «.' Thai ijTeealile wrkei haa 
' >IR waahif iht blusa of 

^;rir«.> ' 


ladjT teeBia to cooskt of secret hbtory, which, probably, 
we canool now recover. The writeni who have ventured 
to weave together her kxMe and icaitered iiory are aoi- 
bif^uous and coolradictory. How such siight dooicatic lu- 
cideoia aa her lite conauted of could produce rcaulta ao 
frcatlv dispruporuoned to iheir apparent cauae, may al- 
wava excite our curioaiiy. Her name acarcely ever occura 
without raiamg that sort of intereat whioh accompanies 
myatehoua eventa, and more parlicularlv when we discover 
thiat thn lady ia ao frequently alhided to by her (ureign 

The hiaioriana of the Lady Arabella have all fallen 
into the froaaeat errora. Her chief hiatorian haa com* 
■litled a violent injury on her very person, i^hich, in the 
history of a female, ia not the least' important. In hastily 
eonsulting two paaaa^ea relative to her. ho applied to the 
Lady Arabella the dcfecuve understanding and h«:ad- 
■trong dispoaiiinos of her aunt, the CtHinlics uf ^htf w»- 
biary ; and bv another misconception if a term, as I tliink, 
aaaerta that the Lady Arabella was disungtmhrd neither 
fiv beauty, nor intellectual otialitiei.* Thia authoniative 
decisioo perplexed the modem editor, Kippis, wh<*so re> 
■earches were always limited ; Kippis had pleamd from 
Oldys*s precious manuscripts a single note, which shook 
to its fbundaiiooa the i^ole structure before him ; and he 
had also found, in Ballard, to his utter confusion, some 
hints that the Lady Arabella was a learned wiiman. and 
of a poetical genius, though even the writer himself, who 
had reooffded this discovery, was at a loss to ascertain 
the fact ! It is amusing to observe honest George 6al- 
lard in the same dihmma as honest Andrew Kippis. 
' This lady,* he says, ' was not morr distingiii^heii for the 
dignity of her binh, than ceivbrati-d for her fine parts ami 
learwng ; and yet,' he adds, in all the simplicity of his 
inffenuoasneaa, * I know so httle in relation to the two last 
accomplishments, that I shiHiM not have given her a place 
in thesr memoirs had not MrKvelvn fMit her in hi« IiM of 
learned women, and Mr Philips (Milton's nephew) intro- 
duced her among his modem poetesses.' 

* Thi> Lady Arabf lla,* for by that name »he is usually 
nofioi'd hv her contemitorariea, rather than by hi-r maidt-n 
name of Stuart, or by nt*r nmrried one of Srv'moiir, an lihr 
latterly subacnbed hers*- If, was, by her affinity with James 
the Kirat, and our F.hrabeth, plared near the throne ; too 
Bear, it srems, for her happineNfi anil quiet! In thnr rommon 
desernl fnim Margarri, ihr i-ldriit daiifhter cif Hrnry VII, 
she was cousin to the SriHtmh monarch, hut bum an Kiii*- 
lish wfHnan, which gavr hrr vitiiic advantage m a cSaim 
to the ihnmf of Kni^lanil. * Hrr diHiliIe relation to roy- 
altv,* aaya Mr. Lo«l|;c, *«as et^iially olmoxioiis to the 
jealoiiay of Khiabeih, and the tiiitidily of Janirs, and iliry 
aerretly dreadrd the mipfMivnl Han^'rr fif hrr havini; a h*- 
gilimale offmpring.* Yet Janif-s himse'f, llirn iinniariird. 
pnifHMed for the hu^hanii of ih** laily Aralirlla, oik* of hrr 
CfNisins, ].ord Kkinc Smart, whitm he had crralrd Duke 
of LeiMix, and designed for hi^ heir. The firpl I lung ««e 
hear of 'the I.ailv Arabella, com eriiH a iiiariiNffe : inar> 
nafcs ara the incidents of hei lifr, and the laial event 
which lermmatnl it was a marriase. Nmh «aa the »r. 
crei spring on which hercharacii-r and her mi^liirtuiies re. 
vol veil. 

This prtipnseii match was desirable to all partus ; liiil 
there waa on« greater than them all, %«hii (In hail the Ihum. 
Kluabeth ililerpiweil ; she im|iriwiiieil the l.silv Atshrlls, 
and would not deliver her up In the Vmf, itl wlmm ^he 
ppohe with aapenly, and f ven ttiili cimli-iiipi f The 

# Morant In thr Btnsraphla Briiantili • Thu |ri,i«» |iliih<ti«r 

ba« lirrii lirlrcit'il lijr Ml |.iiil|f|i Tin' ••ttiiM I piiIuhII In llir 
rsflder's jihtaiiiriil A i nini iii|iii|Hiy li ih i «ki|iii>i. <illii,lii,i/ 

to the tltctitnt Ai.ilill* sfiil Hi-vitii Hliiilmlniiiiiihli, h,,4 

ll»h «0 nilH h ninre lllrfli ihf k.lllrh^h |HillV. Ii'Hh II.'.. Ill, u 

other resMiiis iif ilif> IhiIp ilm,^, i „| ||,r |Mihiiiril inMnii.. i ni 
the )ianle«(h«*MiM-lvi«ii\ii ihr |hf<|ili>,ihiti mii .mh ||„|, |„,. 

lenskin* were fflrti'iiiiiti.t. (nil i.fHiiilii. 'l-hi V * i.irm.f 

fhlhmh III tlirlr|irr «iiii» ■ III! thru liiiii:.ii. • Miniiiii mkiii ilir 
term i»i<ra*'eliil tii ti« in«kl«<rii mii (•fHitnn , imi in iIh- miI,. ,.| 
• Itiat day, I ihlnh, iiniiiiii'rtiil in ii|i|iii»ii| iiifnai i.inj, |,, ||,, , |, „ 
of the people, mrii 11 tiijc iiiMi ijifii ih-iihhm mul |||,.|| |„.|,», h 
varr mil ciNiMderalilr in ili« innliiiuilr WtoiM ti inii lif mIi 
Mud I'l s|i|ilv iini;rai rf III in |i« iinili m »tt,^,. m « Uiniiy „| 
iMMise? Ami hsii snv imliilrnl •Uiii.-i 1 1 riiii «|4iiiil ■^•iii,,i|t 
fc would nni hut^ lieen illniii>i»liril tiy tin. «i«i.( .i| |Hiiiiii,it 
grace in these lii\i-r". I iln i>tii Ki-filfii im* •niiti.-mv fm tin 
■anas of unffrarslul in niiiikwliiiiii in^iai inn*, hm a • ihIi al 
Ikarary aiuuiusrv hasasiKiloiird my tiinniiin 
ff A drcumnatica whkh wadUcuvei by a MimuMi uisMialal, 

createst infirmity cf Elixabeth waa her nrratcnoa o» 
duct respecting the successMO to the Snglish lte«Br, 
jealowy of power, her strange unhappioeas in liw oon 
personal neglect, made her averse to see a succmu i 
her court, or even to hear of a distant one ; in a suce«r ' 
she could only view a competitor. Camdeu teiia us ua:* ! 
frequenilv observed, that *most men neglected tbe te-^] 
sun,* and thia melancholy preaeniimeat of pciMau t^\ 
lect this political coquette not only lived to expevieaet.B ; 
even tliis circumstance of keeping the auccessicn oMcbr. i 
miserably disturbed the queen on her deatb-bed. &' 
ministers, it appears, harassed her when abe waa na 
speechleas ; a remarkable circumstance, whtch has ki«« 
to escsped the knowledge of her nuueroua hutonaH.a 
which 1 fehall take an upporiuuity of dMcloaing m IA» ■- 

Elizabeth leaving m point so important alwava p»te» 
maiical, raised up the very evil she so greativ drraOM. ; 
multiplit-d the a»pirants, white every party bunKMr«c ac 
bv sel:rciii:g its own claimant, and none more bua- [ 
tfian the coiiiiiieiital powers. One c-f the moet ninoai r 
the piojcct of the Pope, who intending to put aside Ji^ \ 
I. on account of his reiigi<Mi, formed a rhimerical sct«« 
of uniting Arabella with a prince of the huoae ef S*- 
voy ; the pretext, fur without a pretext nopoiitieian aem 
waa thi ir descent from a bastard of our Edward IT : ■» 
Duke of Parma «as. however, married, but the Piwc i 
his infailihili'v, lurnrd his brother the Cardinal la-o si 
DiikeV hubsrituie by teculari&ing the churchaMn. Ia a 
cajte the Cardinal would then become Kuc of £mIhcx 
right of thi« lady ! — provided he obtained the crown I* 

We niijiht conjecture from this circumstance, that An 
belia was a cnthoiic. and so Mr Butler haa recrnilvy* 
118 ; hut I know of no o^her authority than X>odd tbeCfr 1 
tholic historian, who has inscribed her name amoat » 
iiarty. Parfons, the wily jtunit, was so doubtful how at 
lady, when yonng. »tood di»pos«-d towards catbolicaa 
that he describes ' her religion to be aa tender, greea, e: 
fl<-iibie. as i» her age and sex. and to be wrousht hne 
afier and settled acconiing to future events and 'imea.* Tr: 
in 161 1, when she was finally acnt into eonlineinear. mi 
well informed of court alTiirs' writes, • that the Lady An- 
bella hath nor hemfouTul tnciinaNe to poptry.*^ 

Kven Henry IV of France was not antrieodlr to tte 
papmiiral project of placine an Italian cardinal ca '^ 
Kngll^h throne. It had always been the state intertsca 
the Kremh cabinet to favttur any scheme which mnff' 
preserve the realms of Knsland and Scotland as separat 
kingdoms. The mantiscrint Cf'trenpondence of Char!<f 
IX with his amhas>iador at' the ciHirt of London, whick I 
have se< n. tend* solely tn ihi5 treat purpose, and perbaBi 
It was her French and S(lani^h allir*, which finallv ha^ 
teiiifi the pnliiicaS mart\rdom of the Scottish Marrl 

Thus we have di»covercil firo chimerical husbanda cT 
the Lady Arabella. The pretentions of thu lady to tbr 
throne had evidently b<>come an object with specuUti^ 
iHiliticiann ; and peVhaps it wa* to withdraw herself fraa 
the cmhanassments into which »he waa thrown, thai, ae* 
c«tniing to I)e Thou, she intended to marrv a sob of tks 
F.arl of Northumberland : but to the jealous terror of 
K.lif alteih, an Knglish Earl was mit au object of leas maj 
nit tide I ban a Scotch Duktv. This is the Ihini abadowv 

Whrn James I ascended the English throne, there cx- 
tkiid sn A III I- Scott i»h party. Hardiv had the novtlieia 
imniari-h entered into the ' Land of t^romise.' when ha 
mmiheih thione wa« shaken by a fi.K-.ii>h plot.w hich me wh* 
irr calU • a viate riddle :* it uivolvt d Raw Inch, and uaci- 
iiet leillv the ladv Arab«lla. The Scottish monarch was lo 
He gill tii< i\|, Mml Arabella was to be crowned. SSomeof 

whrii iHir T.inieii I wsx r.frrnnfi'e ^iih the rab'rriet ofMadrid. 
l|p liiiiiplHiiia itt Kii7Ai«iih*]t irrittmri I ort-iin ; thu the qoeen 
iitt^ipiil III fni< Inn hii Mil.rrN c-i.iir i:. K'risrd. nor wouU 
ili liioi ii|i Ilia iiiii Ir** i<ni>i:1iirr. AraN .'S. in U married to the 
Ihilif III I I iii«. Ai «|iii h i.nic tbr ,.i«r<fn mn pAiabras muv 
■••In iiin I ill Hill lii«ii)*pioi I rN I'l i-na r' ■'•^V" ]ii T (jr Earths * 
pIh- iimiI liiiii-li wffJi. I tiiirviiir iiiwfh i*ir.:rmpi of the kine* 

• 1*11- ■ %in iiuiiiM- iriiiT. Ill** rrxrix of cardinal D*Os- 
Mi \ III \ 'l In* iHilii'iii iiiriKi r\f«ef:(j to iaciiiuia tba 
I •iiii|iii<.i 111 Mi'la"*"'* !■ iiiiiiif il-ni Mill -.ti «iih;hnse of' Ar- 

I'lHf ■ Mi i| ii mill' iimm «Kiiii « ihfci 4* I. f ri^'i^n^ ladv bad 

m |ii«iti . I..I..I.III.I, 111 "II iiiii»i 1 1 r i>h « > ''t >iik(* twn the radaas 
III ii.i rti.iu,,! itMHiii" ill M*i% ,>i S%-t'>iUrid, the mfsSrrf 

Jaini-il,. I- 1,. I — wMiww 

f \Vlii«i,..„| a M«IN»II«I", nil Wl. 


^ tlieie silly conspirators having written to her requesting let- 
^ tars to be addresed to the King of Spain, she laughed at the 

* letter she receivedi and sent it lo the King. Thus for a 

* Second time wan Arabella to have been ^ueen of England. 

* This occurred in 1603, but was followed by no narsh 

* measures from James the First. 

^ In the following year, 1604, 1 have discovered that for 
■ the third time, the lady was offered a crown ! ' A great 
f Embassador is coming from the King of Poland, vvliose 
chief errand is to demand my Lady Arabella in mar- 
riage for his master. So may your princess of the blt)od 
(row a ffreat queen, and then we snail be safe from the 
danger of mi»9uper»cribing lettera.*^ This last passage 
seems to allude to something. What is meant of ' the 
danger of wissuperscribing letters V 

If this royal offer was ever made, it was certainly for- 
bidden. Can we imagine the refusal to have come from 
the ladv, who, we shall see, seven years afterwards, com- 
plained that the king had neglected her, in not providing 
her with a suitable match ? It was this vtry vane that 
one of those butterflies, who quiver on the fair flowers 
of a court, writes, that * My Ladye Arabella spends her 
time in lecture, reiding, &t*.,and she will not hear of mar- 
riage. [ndiri'Ctly there were speaches used in the recom- 
mendatinn of Count Maurice, who pretendeth to be Duke 
of Guildres. I dare not attempt her.'f Here we find 
another princely match proposed. Thus far, to the Lady 
Arabella, crowns and husbands were like a fairy banquet 
seen at moonlight, opening on her sight, impalpable and 
Yanishine at the moment of approach. 

Arabella, from certain circumstances, was a dependant on 
the king's bounty, which flowed very unequally ; often re- 
duced to great personal distress, we find by her Ictteni, that 
* she prayed for present money, though it should not be 
annually.' I have discovered that James at length grant- 
ed her a pension. The royal favours, however were prob- 
ably limited to her ffood behaviour.l 

From 1604 to 1608, is a period which forms a blank leaf 
ui the story of Arabella. In this last year this unfortunate 
lady had again fallen out of favour, and, as usual, the cause 
was mysterious, and not known even to the writer. Cham- 
berlain, in a letter to Sir Ralph Winwood, mentions * the 
Lady Arabella's business, vjhaUoevtr it loas, is ended, and 
she restored to her former place and graces. The king 
gave her a cupboard ot* plate, better than 200/. for a new 
year's gift, and 1000 marks to pay her debts, besides 
some yearly addition to her maintenance, want being 
thought the chiofest cause of her discontentment, though 
the be not altogether free from tuepieion of being eoUapeed.*^ 
Another mysterious expression which wouki seem to allude 
either to politics or religion ; but the fact appeara by an- 
other writer to have been a discovery of a new project of 
marriage without the king's consent. This person of her 
chmce is not named ; and it was to divert her mind from 
the too constant object of her thoughts, that James, after a 
Merere reprimand, had invited her to partake of the festivi- 
ties of the court, in that season of revelry and reconcilia- 

We now approach that event of the Lady Arabella's 
life, which reads like a roroaotie fk^on : the catastrophe, 
too, is funned by the Aristoteltaa canon ; for its misery, 
its pathos, and its terror, even romantic fiction has not ex- 
ceeded ! 

It is probable that the king, from some political motive, 
had decided that the Lady Arabella should lead a single 
Kfe ; but such wise purposes frequently meet with cross 
ones ; and it happened that no woman was ever more 

• This manuscript letter from William, Earl of Pembroke, 
Co Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, Is dated from Hampton-Court, 
Oct. 3, 1603. Sloane's MSS, 4161. < 

f Lodfe's Illustrations of British History, iii, 298. It is cari- 
ous to observe, thst this letter by W. Fowler, is dated on the 
same day as the manuscript letter I hare just quoted, and it is 
directed to the same Esrl of Shrewsbury ; so that the Earl 
must have received, in one dsy, accounts of two diflerenl pro- 
jects of marriage for his neire ! This shows how much Ara- 
bella engaged the designs of foreigners and natives. Will. 
Fowler wns a rhyming and fantastical secretary to the queen 
of James the First 

\ Two letters of Arabella, on distress of money, are preserved 
by Ballard. The discovery of a pension I made in Sir Julias 
CoMar's manuscripts ; where one is mentioned of 1000/ to the 
Lady Arabella. 81oane*s MS. 4160. 

Mr Lodge hss shown that ths king once granted her the doty 
on oats. 

f Winwood*s Msmorials, iii, 117—119. 

solicited to the conjugal state, or seems to have been so 
little averse to iL Every noble youth, who sighed for di»> 
tinction, ambiiioned the notice oT the Lady Arabella ; and 
she was so frequently contriving a marriage for herself, 
that a courtier of that day writing to another, observes, 
Mhese affectations of marriage in her, do give some advan- 
tage to the worid of imparUng the reputatioD of her con- 
stant and virtuous disposition.''* 

The revels of Chrutmas bad hardly closed, when the 
Lady Arabella forsot that she had been forgiven, and 
again relapsed into her okl infirmity. She renewed a con- 
nexion, which had commenced in childhood, with Mr 
William Seymour, the second son of Lord J^Niuchamp, 
and grandson of the eari of Hertford. Hu character has 
been finely described by Clarendon : lie loved his studies 
and his repose ; but when the civil wara broke out, he 
closed his volumes and drew his sword, and was both an 
active and a skilful general. Charles I created him Mar- 
quis of Hertford, and governor of the prince ; he lived to 
the Restoration, and Charles II restored him to the duke- 
dom of Sumereet. 

This treaty of marriage was detected in February 1609, 
and the parties summoned before the privy council. Sey- 
mour was particularly censured for daring to ally himself 
with the royal blood, although that blood was running in 
his own vems. In a manuscript letter which I have dis- 
covered, Seymour addressed the lords d'the privy coundl. 
The style is humble ; the plea to excuse his mtended mar- 
riage is, that being but * A young brother, and sensible ol 
mine own good, unknown to'the worid, of mean estate, not 
born to challenge any thing by my birthright, and there- 
fore my fortunes to be raised by my own endeavour, and 
she a lady of great honour and virtue, and, as I thought, 
of great means, I did plainly and honestly endeavour law- 
fully to gain her in marriage.' There is nothing romantic 
in this apology, in which Seymour describes himself as a 
fortune nunter! which, however, was probably done to 
cover his undoubted affection for Arabella, whom he had 
early known. He says, that * he conceived that this noble 
lady might, withoot oosDoe, make the choice of any subject 
within this kinffdaai; which conceit was begotten in mo 
upon a general rspoffL afttr her ladyship's Uut being called 
before your hrdJktpt.f that it might be.' He tolls Uie story 
ot this ancient wooing---' I boldly intruded myself into 
her ladyship's chamber in the court on Candlemass day 
last, at what time I imparted my desire unto her, whica 
was entertained, but with this caution on either part, that 
both of us resolved not to proceed to any final conclusion 
without his majesty's most gracious favour firat obtained. 
And this was our first meeting! After that we had a 
second meeting at Brigg's house in Fleet-street, and then 
a third at Mr Baynton's ; at both which we had the like 
conference and resolution as before.' He assin'es their 
lordships that both of them had never intended marriage 
without his majesty's approbation.! 

But Love laughs at privy councils, and the grave pro- 
mises made by two frightened lovera. The parties were 
secretly married, which was discovered about July hi the 
following year. They were then separately confined, the 
lady at the house of Sir Thomas Parry at Lambeth, and 
Seymour in the Tower, for ' his contempt in marrying m 
lady of the royal family without the king's leave.' 

This, their first connnement. was not rigorous ; the lady 
walked in her garden, and the lover was a prisoner at largo 
in the Tower. The writer in the Biographia Britannica, 
observes, that * Some intercourae they had by lettera, 
which, alter a time, was discovered.' In this History o* 
love these might be precious documents, and in the library 
at Long-leat these love-epistles, or perhaps this volume, 
may yet lie unread in a comer.§ Arabella's epistolary 
talent was not vulgar, Dr Montford, in a manuscript letter, 
describes one of those effusions which Arabella addressed 
to the king. * This letter was penned by her in the best 
terms, as she can do. right well. It was nfien read with- 
out offence, nay, it was even commended by his highness, 
with the applause of prince and council.' Qqe or theaa 

♦ Win wood's Memorials, Vol. 111. 119. 

t This evidently alludes tn the gentleman whose name ap- 
peara not, which occasioned Arabella to Incur the klng^ dis- 
pleasure before Christmas ; the Lady Arabella, It is quits dear, 
was resolvedly bent on marrying herself! 

{ Hari. MSS, 700S. 

$ It is on record that at Long-leat, the seat of ths BCarqnls of 
Bath, certain papers of Arabella are pre se rved. I teava ^ 
the noble owner ths ploasura of ths roatacdbk 


1DT>-I*llcr oufht, 11 

-a mjHir, if il pIctH nor 
} coiiwdtr ihorauihl J cf Mf 

WM bar own, eilsd hsr i^t iriih UiM canKiouancia nhlch 
Iriompheil e>eDO»r Ihu iklil* frtnK ■oiteu'ljiubdufid 
Udnolli, ThBfun.Uu.iyleof)«iiMa«B'iril'.iKeiii»T 
bnr comjmruoo wiih our own. 1 ihiL give tl (nlirii. 
>£ady .Jni6<f^ to JUr Wmam Stsmmr. 
' I'un BiGBediof lanj lo hsv ihu yon biTs not b«B 

Sioul > puhitic cracCTtfa; ' ju^lke MiilTOurnriiictlj hit 

iTi ihniiTrhi tliii he ILied end I II il indimed, ' A copy of nj pelitisa la the Kia^ 
MiJHly-' In uiother ihe implonia Ihu ' IF the neomtj 
uf my >»u ind IbrtuiM, togellier nilh my wetkncH, faan 

""^Twich^ing'ihr ^ence ^ which'l Im n^'puBuhed, I 
mntt huroUy beMtch jour mijesly, in your inool priacrij 

i!iil; foTmy oun conKirpee niioeuinf before God ibu I 

»li then Ihe vth at him Ihu now I un, I could htv 

J." k ' ^ ' I 'ih "id ' F ~God' take Itt ' li a" "'•"*''' "''b iny other mm. but to haia lifed tH 

BoTvouV'f"^'"'^"* "p°° 'T«f^j- \^ ^3 1 ;!;°„^l!E;;^s^f.B"/e.''^°^ll7iS»eCho^^h"^"S^ 

teabymewhBt inconToa.enee. il will bnpg onelo, ua „„, (i,ow otherwi.* unfortiaala neier) lo biT. aay dnn 

KiroHunt,l»Murey«i,d»uot.maaomuchMth«WMk. „|-^i„ „,j^,<. Wood in them' 

M- of body I find .a myitlf; for « «« un™ ^ «■ * "j f g^ , i,,/, rf L«iy Jane Drummond, in reply lo lb 

cnUae I'f ArHtielli'i confinement. The pilhy eiprtu^ 
ul James (he First ii cheiecfenetic of die moBarcb ; and 
the ■olemn forrbaliDi^ uf Lid^ DrunnHHid, who ippevn 
V, have been ■ lidy oireicelleol judgBienl, kbmed,)^ dw 

than we look for, in being luffrred to enjoi olUKlf with 
hie majeely'a faTouc. But if we be uot able lo liie to it, 
f, for my pari, abel think myielf a psturn of miifiirlu" 

No irpualio) but that dupniei me of the cumfurl of }< 

o irparaiio) but that < 

I aulBceth ma you are nun* I ftoi 
M bt ctn^irlad, becoue kr daldrrn 
hat indeed, ia Iha reined 

"l<f'"l "'^"■J'"'' 

w kindneu ; lor id i ihiok you win tccmmt ao long a 
leiWr, yooiaelf nol haying written lo me Ihu good while Ki 
much aa how you do. But, iweel sr, I >p*«k not Ihia Id 

ud I aLali iccounl mneirhippv in being 

' Your failhrull lonng wife, 

In anmining tha manuicripla of ihi) lady, ihe defect tl 
dlleamuit be aupphed by our aagacity. The followio^ 
■pelilioli,' aa ihoc»lle it, addretied lo the king in defent.' 
ofber aeer«l marriage, muat haie been wnllen at Ihij 
tiios. She nnioHlralea with the king (or what aha caU^ 
bil ne^l of her 5 and while ahe feara lo bo lioleBtly at- 

Hnledfroni bet huabaiid, aha aaaenr ■- ■■ - 

Dm and noble apiiil, which 

OB Ihe eaaiae t^lttr eo 
nth aaen your ladyihip'a iHttr. 
'hen (he gare *cHir ladyahip** 
e did take it well enoiifb, but 
that ye Aorfe^eii ^ tke/erMd. 

nj to youir ladyahipin Una purpoae^ but wiihaJ did r^ 
semberher kmdly lo »our ladyibip, aoil eentyou tfaia lik 
le token in wilneai o( the conlinuanca of bar Diajeatr'* 
ttour to your ladyfhip. Now, where your ladyahip d*- 
itre* me to deal openly and (inely with you, I protex I an 
layipolhing on knowledge, for I neier (poke (oany i/ihat 
purpoH but to ibe qveeii ; but lilt miAim nfllat daU, nlk 
Ijit aampit hov topit of your qvUilf m Uit iAt eaae 4aa 
hen ued, woJiei iitt fiv Oiat jv Anil nt^finJ as aaqt 
fnd to ymr tn^blit oi ye eafwt or / vith-' 
In reium, Lady Arabella fipreaKB her graleful Ihub* 

accept In reniembfaijce of ihe poor pruoner llial wrnghl 
rhem, u luipea her royal haoda wul rouchiafe la wear 

queen <^ Ihe Senta. beguiled 
* ^0 of cmbroidevj; tor 

hia kind loSir Anfrei 
•B polly offices 

offend your majeaij Ihe laaal ■■peci.lly in that wheieb) I ^ he pr«ei 

b»*e Icogdiwim) lo merit of your majealy, aa apnea i> ' laGuglodei 

bribnyourmajealy waamyaorereien. And Ihough yn^r gf theae wonunien lova, loe ner wnoee •erion idu mat 

majealy'i neglect of me, my good liking of thia grnllemLi.[i artrnX aooie reluation.' 

ihaliamy hoaband, ■odmyrortuDfidrewine toacontnii tj^ .errel eonenondnico tf ArabcHa ud SejaniR 

beWo I aoiuauiled your majeatj. I humbly bcaeech ya,LT ,„, diecorered, and waa followed by a and anna. It 

(ine it Rould be offeneiie lo your majeiiy, htTincffuilsyi i ihia unhappy lady lo Ihe ittielcr care of Ihe Hiihofi of 

St/bee givm m ynir n^ cnnial to batoB wyM/m onji ] Durham. Lady Arabella wai as eubdued al Ihia diuul 

mhjtct ofyaie mnjee^'e (which likewiie your tna^ly had aeparalion, lh»i eh* gave way to all the wildneM rf dv- 

done long aince.) Beeidea, never harino been either pro. -aj, j >he fell euiiiienly ill, and could not (laiel but is ■ 

bibiled any, oe apoken to for iiiiy,iii Ihialand, by youritM. |(ner, and with* phyaician. In her way to Durhani, aha 

joaty tlitec aem ytvi that 1 hue liied in your mairtl^'i I waa aogreWlidiaquieled inlhefinlfew mile* of her n^ 

aafM to lelT me your mind, and ac 
ofniobedi -- • — '^ — ■--- 


The phjaician relumed 
id declared ihal aba wu ai 

■wO* J( aeem B> •t;>ar>rie », lofc™ Gorf Aal* jomed. yi..iir forlraier The kmgobaernd,-ll ia enauch lonake lay 

Dor make me, that bate the honour to be ao near yi.trr n; much mare for her wKoat nijti^ail rmi inn/tart spirit 
B*jeMy in blood, Ihe fint pfeeedenl Ihal eicr waa, thwipli i li,fapti>i upon hrririf far rnattr nujinoiitmi ^f boig (kn 
ournnwaa aaa* haTo left aeane ai little imiiable, for -.j I eMeniw lAe iroiU Aoe.' Hia^rraolulioa, bowanT.iru, 
|0«diB*F»eaouan king M your Biaje»Iy,taD«ITd'a deal- | 

• KarL lUI, nOt. 

1 ■ abe ehouki pn>»ad to DurhuB, if ha i 
f* unrand,' npliad Iha doctor, 'thai w 



4oubt of her obedience.* * Obedience is that required/ 
replied the king, ' which being performed, 1 will do more 
for her than thb expected.** 

The king, however, with his usual indulgence, appears 
to have con^enied that Lady Arabella should remain for 
% month at Highgate, in confinement, till she had suffi- 
ciently recovered to proceed to Durham, where the bishop 
posted, unaccompanied by bis charge, to await her recep- 
tion, and u> the great relief of the fnends of the lady, who 
hoped she was still within the reach of their cares or of 
the royal favour. 

A second month's delay was granted, in consequence 
of that letter which we have before noticed as so impres- 
tive and so elegant, that it was commended by the king, 
and applauded by prince Henry and the council. 

But the day of her departure hastened, and the Lady 
Arabella betrayed no symptom of her first despair. She 
openly declared her resignation to her fate, and showed 
her obedient willingness, by being even over-careful in 
little preparations to make easy so long a journey. Such 
tender grief had won over the heart of her keepers, who 
could not but sympathize with a princess, whose love, holy 
and wedded too, was crossed only by the tyranny m 
statesmen. But Arabella had not within that tranquillity 
with which she had lulled her keepers. She and Sey- 
mour hod concerted a flight, as buld in its plot, and as 
beautifully wild, as any recorded in romantic story. The 
day preening her departure, Arabella found it not difficult 
to persuade a female attendant to consent that she would 
suffer her to pay a Ia»t visit to her husband, and to wait 
for her return at an appointed hour. More solicitous for 
the happiness of lovers than for the repose of kings, this 
attendant, in utter simplicity, or with generous sympathy, 
4iBsisted the Lady Arabella in dressing her in one oi the most 
elaborate disguisings. ' She drew a pair of targe French, 
fa^jhioned hose or trowaers over her petticoats ; put on a 
mari*s doublet or coat ; a peruke, such as men wore, 
whose long locks covered her own ringlets ; a black hat, a 
black cloak, russet boots with red tops, and a rapier by 
her side.' Thus accoutred, the Lady Arabella stole out 
with a gentleman about three o'clock in the afternoon.-^ 
She had only proceeded a mile and a half, when they stop- 
ped at a poor inn, where one of her confederates was 
waiting wiin horses, yet she was so sick and faint, that the 
ostler, who held her stirrup, observed, that * the gentleman 
could hardly hold out to London.' She recruited ner spirits 
by riding; the blood mantled in her face, and at six 
o'clock our sick lover reached Black wall, where a boat 
and sf^rvanls were waiting. The watermen were at first 
ordered to Woolwich ; there they were desired to push on to 
Gravesend, then to Tilbury, where, complaining of fatigue, 
they landed to refresh ; but, tenipted by their freight, they 
reached Lee. At the break of^ mom they discovered a 
French vessel riding there to receive the lady; but as 
Seymour had not yet arrived, Arabella was desirous to 
he at anchor for her lord, conscious that he would not fail 
to his appointment. If he indeed had been prevented in 
his escape, she herself cared not to preserve the freedom 
she now possessed ; but her attendants, aware of the dan- 
ger of being overtaken by a king's ship, overruled her 
wishes, and hoisted sail, which occasioned so fatal a ter- 
mination to this romantic adventure. Seymour indeed had 
escaped from the Tower ; he had lefl his servant watch- 
ing at his door to warn all visiters not to disturb his mas- 
ter, who lay ill with a raging tooth ache, while Seynoour 
in dis£uise stole away alone, following a cart which had 
just brought wood to hu apartment. He passed the war- 
ders ; he reached the wharf, and found his confidential 
man waiting with a boat, and he arrived at Lee. The 
time pressed ; the waves were rising ; Arabella was not 
there ; but in the distance he descried a vessel. Hiring 
a fishennan to take him on board, to his grief, on hailing 
it, he discovered that it was not the French vessel charg- 
ed with his Arabella ; in despair and confusion he found 
another ship from Newcastle, which for t good sum altera 
ed his course, and landed him in Flanders. In the mean 
while the escape of Arabella was first known to the gov- 
ernment, and the hot alarm which spread may seem mdi- 
crous to us. The political conseouences attacited to the 
union and the flight of these two doves from their cotes, 
shook with consternation the grey owls of the caUnet, 
more particularly the Scotch party, who, in their »error, 

« These pankulars I derive from the roanuscripc letters 
aaong ihspapenofArabeUaSuiaru Uarl. M8S, 7003. 

paralleled it with the gunpowder treason, and some politic 
cal danger must have impended, at least in their i m ag in sp 
tion, fur Prince Henry partook of this cabinet panic. 

Confusion and alarm prevailed at court ; couriers were 
despatched swifter than the winds wafted the imhappy 
Arabella, and all was hurry in the sea ports. They sent 
to the Tower to warn the lieutenant to be doubly vigilant 
over Seymour, who, to his surprise, discovered that 
his prisoner had ceased to be so for several hours.— 
James at first was for issuing a proclamation in a style so 
angry and vindictive, that it required the moderation of 
Cecil to preserve the dignity while he concealed the terror 
of his majesty. By the admiral's detail of his impetuous 
movements, he seemed in pursuit of an enemy's fleet ; for 
the courier is urged, and tne post-masters are roused by a 
superscription, which warned them of the eventful des- 
patch: < Haste, haste, post haste! Haste for your life,- 
your life V* The family of the Seymours were m a state 
of distraction ; and a letter from Mr Francis Seynsour to 
his grandfather, the Earl of Hertford, residing then at his 
seat far remote from the capital, to acquaint him of the 
escape of his brother and the lady^ still bears to posterity 
a remarkable evidence of the trepidations and consterna- 
tion of the old earl ; it arrived in the middle of the night, 
accompanied by a summons to attend the privy-council. 
In the perusal of a letter written in a small nand, and fill- 
ins more than two folio pages, such was his agitation, that 
in nolding the taper he must have burnt what he probably 
had not read ; the letter is scorched, and the flame has per- 
forated it in so critical a part, that the poor old earl jour- 
neyed to town in a state of^ uncertainty and confusion. 
Nor was his terror so unreasonable as it seems. Trea- 
son had been a political calamity with the Seymours. 
Their progenitor tne Duke of Somerset the protector, had 
found that ' all his honours,' as Frankland strangely ex- 
presses it, ' had helped him too forwards to hop headless.' 
Henry, Elizabetli, and James, says the same writer, con- 
sidered that it was needful, as inched in all sovereignties, 
that those who were near the crown * shouU be narrowly 
looked into for marriase.' 

But we have left toe lady Arabella alone and mournful 
on the seas, not praying fur favourable gales to convey her 
away ; but still imploring her attendants to linger for her 
Seymour; still straining her sieht to the point of the hori- 
zon for some speck which might give a hope of the ap- 
proach of the boat freighted with all her love. Alas ! 
Never more was Arabella to cast a single lock on her lover 
and her husband ! She was overtaken by a pink in the 
king's service, in Calais roads ; and now she declared that 
she cared not to be brought back again to her imprison- 
ment should Seymour escape, whose safety was dearest 
to her ! 

The bfe of the unhappy, the melancholy, and the dis- 
tracted Arabella Stuart is now to close in an imprison- 
ment, which lasted only four years ; for her constitutional 
delicacy, her rooted sorrows, and the violence of her feel- 
ings, sunk beneath the hopelessness of her situation, and a 
secret resolution in her mind to refuse the aid of her physi- 
cians, and to wear away the faster if she could, the freble 
remains of life. But who shall paint the emotions of a 
mind which so much grief, and so much love, and distrac- 
tion itself, equally possessed ? 

What passed in that dreadful imprisonment cannot per- 
haps be recovered for authentic nistory ; but cnougn is 
known ; that her mind grew impaired, that she finally lost 
her reason, and if the duration of her imprisonment was 
short, it was only terminated by her deatn. Some loose 
efiusions, often begun and never ended, written and eras- 
ed, incoherent and rational, yet remain in the fragments of 
her papers. In a letter she proposed addrec«ing to Vis- 
count Fenton, to implore for her his majesty's favour again, 
she says, * Good, my lord, conskicr the fault cannot be un- 
committed ; neither can any more be required of any 
earthly creature but confession and most humble submis- 
sion.' In a paragraoh she had written, and crossed out, 

♦ * This emphatic injunction,* otwerves ray friend Mr Ham. 
per, * would he efieaive when the messenger could read ;' but 
In a icuer written by the Earl of Eflsex about the year 169T, to 
the Lord High Admiral at Plymouth, I have seen sddcd to the 
words < Hast, hast, host for lyfe !' the expressive symbol of a 
gallows prepared with a halter, which couUl not be misunder- 
stood by the most illUerate of Mercuries, thus ^__^ 




■I ■nma Illtt ■ prcwiU of her work had beep i 
ths king, ud llitl *be hid do ods ibout hei ' 

■ Help will coma [oo Iml* . mnd be (uured U 
pj^FBoaii ur eMcr, 6ul Btom f lAiMl jwd, lAiiIf 

■Siaei )>j Cukivoi 
It «>l*er I t„r ^J haw" 

Jing iue\t Hiib k« 

and IhU for God'i 

That At bad frenuenllT mediuisd oa tuicide eppi 
tj uiulhar letter—' I could not be n> uochnnliu u le 

would coocana if I ihould be ni^en^y inTorcBd la dg i 
One iiifnwBi w« bwj nis u u evidence of her u 

'lo »U bunilitj, diB matt wnicbed and unrortui 

tba owal meraral king itaii e«er wai, dniirini noibing but 
nenj ud fimiir, not baint more afflicled for ■d]' thing 
than for ibe Imae of Ihsl which lulb binne Ihii loDg tinu 

lb* aolj comfort ii h«d in the world, uid whirj- '^ 

to do ugain, I would noi (jlTmlure the la»e C 
worldlr comibn i mnci it ii I ddiro, and ihi 
Socb i> the biiloiy of tba Lujj Aribelli 

imponaflt panonago, daiifford by othe n, at least, to play 
> high chancier in ilia poUlical drama, Thrica Klected 

Maiy gallui tpiriti upired aAer tier hand, bui when her 

of doaeiii' ^.'ppben I She ii .aid not ID have been l^t uti- 
fol, and 10 have been beauiiful \ and her ver3r ponrair, ani- 
bij^Dna ai her life, ii neither Ihe one nor Lheoitaer. Sheii 
aaid to hare been a poeieu, and iiDt a linele verie egbaiaD. 

loBnd a Latin letter of her conipoiliion in her manuicripti. 
Tba Dalenalaaf ber life are eo (cant; ihat 11 canr.ol be wrH- 

ba aa pathetic ■■ it would be ritraordinary , could n oartata 
iia inTolvedincidanli, and paint forth her dehriout feeluigt, 
Acquainted ralhar with her conduct than mlh bar charao 
tor, for Di the Ladj Arabella baa no 

per*DDageB whose Jineb havi 
altT, aodivhoHi ■dveniutea, 

ai leait, the merii of notelly, alihough noi of panefjne. 
""-■■- -'-!Miy eniiehed hj his firsl[.-, combined 

Family alliuica wa> the policr of 1 ha I n rude 1 
liiical iniereiia. Bacon and Cecil married 
Waliiniham and Mtldir 
and Leicester, were I in 

ihadow Ihan betaclf 1 A wrt 
id by their roy' 

rrj hertelf, was aniioua 
marry her court depcndanlB, and 10 dispose of 

n and aranca, which had inslicaled Coke to farm 
jica, puniihed their crealure, by mating hinj witli 

.1 lawyer Buffered hit lecond marriaBC lolak* 
an illeftal manner, and condescended 10 plead 

lar marrliget. Coke, »ilh his habitual oiide, ima(i«tl 
ihat I he rank of the parlies concerned would ha»e eeihia 
above such resHcIions ; 'he laivs which he adniiuiiiered 

lioni foe ihe'gT^al. *°But Whiigifi t.u"* primfiivi. C^S. 

- nee involved Coke, and iba wholi 

in Ibe acclenasiical eoan, and 

jT ill penaliiei. Tho archbiabop 

fully aenailda of Iha oveibeariMg 

appears lo im*v uwu imiy avuBunD u _. 

lempar of Ihia great lawyer ; for when Coka beci 

altorney-Eanaral, we cannot but cunshler, as an iugenigai 
reprimand, the ardtbishop^s pR of a Greek Teaiaawnl, 

ty, and whan ■dvenlutea, 
'love and distrsctioa, ciosi 
Its : a *ad eiampls of a female •iciim to the siata ! 
' Through one dim liul«, frlnrd wlih Ivy ruund, 

■lEcessI'* suns a languid rmdiB nee threw, 

Toptbil how llerc* her angrr guinllsn frown'd, 

A mark bow fast ber wsning beauty flew !■ 

gej'mour, who was tnerwaids percnitled to return, 

itfuiahed hinuelf by his loyally tnrough throe succei 

cs ; for ha 
y by the . 

Sir Rdward Coke— or Cook, as now pmnouoced, and 

hai ihand iba faio of his great rival the Lord Chancellor 

Bacon for no hand worthy of iheir genivi has |iursued whose via; 

Coke, who was only tba greatest of lawyei " if-n-i 

thirty books which he had wrillen wUh his owi 
pleanDg 10 himeelf, was a tnanual which be 

bis bfe pail.' This mannaciipl, which Lloyd 
•moni ihe Hly whic' " '"^ " 


Coka was out of 


for mo 


• Dtea than 

and his great rival Bacon 



Perhaps Coke fall 

ly appeM. 



bis judies, who - 



., Ihan by tba wea 



red him nlh sludle 

It. Th 


he kin 

g of the traalmenl 1 


d chief-Jua- 


■perianced, and. in 

angry le 

James de. 




lem.-- alld°*af>er»ar< 

the CO 

. tpuke of 


Ih .0 many good w 


ant Than, 



heard that the pepe 



oke are still 



ired In tho'lsmbetli M'bS.'Ni 


. I ofiucl) thinfi BS were found In a trunk 

ofSic Edward Cuke-abyiha klnt*a commamt, I8M.- but mora 
paiikular1]FlnAn.);i,'lCaialnfuavr Sh Edward Cokav 

B I paneralhenBriisd •ndtnughtlo WhilrhsIL' 

o I • Lloyd'a «Ia» Wonhiea. ait «Hr nirholaa Banon. 

,. 1 ) MwAlkln'sCBunnrjamtsiheFlrKsiiiiearrdiwoyaan 
aflrrlbis snkle was wrillen 1 it hnsocrsslnned no altsratkn. 
Irtlerihe reader to her clear n(n'>tivr,ToMl.p,IO, andp-Mi 

U I butaeCRiWMafTlsranlydiBeavetedinprbiudbooka. 


H Luid Cbuulkor kgcrlun, in ■diDimilenng ihs «rb| 
on piipuluilj.' Cv£ii, honcTsr, l<»i no fricDili m Ibn 
Ailjimies KDi u purcbuc hu CMu of 8. 3,, Coke 

lUB could DOI hiTS icted betler,' BurlM|c'i 
huicter itu Iliu of Richard lh« TtuH. Ii u 
auj ihal Coke, iblfi lo defcod utj ciun, bore 
lo ucnplj. Il ii nippoHd that he bmd lud bii 

KTc u uihdp»unlT,ib«lUieTiuijiKlaBa dftT kauwUWT ' fnmiyiiDod berort th«cuuadf-1ablc hrn-pecked. In JuDa, 
■I ■ <ucrju.tH:. u> Itieii >i)H>«>r> ' 1616, Sir Ed.ani appeui to h.«i yicldsd (1 diicrslioa la 
[■ Ujm trmpuruy alivnalKin of the ro]ral nnilrv^ Coke ' hu liidy^ for id an unnibluhcd teller J find, (hat 'hu curat 
■^-^ ^^^^ ihcv raufeHBl bj a prajflct whjch inrolTod ad4H bFBrlhaEhbcBnrDrcsa to yield ta phh-s Ifaan he ever bmuI ; 
,-._ «.. _ .^_ . in Scolland, and ■- ^'- "- ' i--—^-'-^- -•■- -" 

mvjy ukf bu odIt dauiehitr 
«.Su- John VilU-r.. C 

laty Winwood, ohoi 

. The pii 

" In Ibe hUwini jear, 1617, the 
Inltr changed. The paluical 

irriige dT hia daufhler 
u Coke had r«ind in 

.1 hj tSi<m au 


100 pravsd iiroDf er (hao riage with 

f detp poliej Jie wt\y ■ prowml. 

Lady Hail 

John, indeed, protniied to be but a liclilT bride^ 

With Lord OiFnrd, which ihrv oppoicd anioil lb* 
nrdcr, of Coke. 

ia phjloaophFTf IV I 


lo which dnro 


La al Isasl equally potent, with 


HI of hia dauf hter, on whom he mf- 

luuru. ono wnoao EniDQ peara nvrer id narn f:aJt a tlwHIfhi till ahe became an ID, 

n Enc4liiaiiuiia, now rat limmeiil for hie palitica] purpoeev, confined her (nm hei 

d tu^gcBtiDnv he could : moiher, and at len^h eat the hauehlj mother farradf jm, 

i btii Lord Bacon uM pneoncd, and brouphi her to account for all her paat nii» 

lo refuaa whac bia m^ doiopf. Quick wac Ihe chanf^ oTaceDe, and the contnM 

chief waa aa wnnderful. Coke, who, in the precediu year, u 

larlf, Iheworld'ar '■ -■ - -— ' ' - '■ 

to atan-^4 nipUre with BuekiOf him hiniaelf, the world'a aurpriae, prored 
BOa aintduu lelMr from the kjn|, bui a very ad- own came m the preeeikA a 
e ;t and where the lord keeper trembled lo find own worda, ' ^ol upon hia 

-d ihe rijf hta of ihe i 



Luy Haunak, 
b.^a both Ihe 
t^'ttpICA, The ntolher of Buckinuhl 

I bu- Tcr occHimed a lit of lirktieH 

-ihn ■ lady, 'l-awl Law! Law!' th 

<nu ill • Of*cle :' and Lord Baenn, 

' pa- dialiked it Ibe nwro, becaute h« _ 

IhsiT waa hia old 9nog.' 

II the fuiinua law. 
pmiid creal-raJlea 
iKini Ihe lip* of 

id been oTien rtn^ 
fa. where Lady 

j«d ■ n|hl of ber ibnner hueband. WhenCoke fcU inlo 
*Wt- hie lady ■bandonod him I and, id aroid her hue- 
lud, fmjoewly DiDTed her reaidencea in town and coun- 
ITT. [ tra'-« h«r wiih naliciDua aclivitv diafumiahin|r hia 

I chief-jun 

iblea. and, in fad, leering Ihe failer 
le krdchieAjuctice, empty houaea a 
be wanbMwew Lady Hation and I 

tlicity of ihs alyle in dornei 
a>eofienob*erTed,lhal oi 

Iranacribed it from the ori|iBa], ai 
fix ita leoglfa. 

npanied by as rnipoainf train of oobli 
tape lal alyle, Lady Haumdaclaimeoagainnheiiyraniih ' mi 


tm'^byfcBr F^^-ftvIe, rroh; 
Prtrcitire. Il I* only wkh hli ino 

fcechea. CbiL^'te;^ 

: »ta*'-rrmttm, bi ■ocklnfhainahlra : the i 
Jr-ni.EKI. hwaelheeeeneof'Orayal 

a.n ; a cataBB. M wUeh la fliad a »!« 

Jamea, ■ to ihe Lonl Keeper,' ii |>rinnd in Leueia, 

m, lOih July, I«1T. 

nf iheea people apeak no lan^ai^ bul IhuDileT 
itmng, aecoununt inia their dieapeat and beat war 
upon you, I would with patience pretxi* myaalf 
eitremiiiea, and atudy to defend the brcachn by 
a their adnnta^ they auppoae i« eome in ufxia 
I he&cefnnh quit the waya M paciAeatiDti and c w ih 
' poiition hrrrlnfore, and unteaannablT endeaToored. which, 
letteraof J. la my opinion, lie inott open tu troupe, acandal and <taiH 
quaint ayle (It; ■rberDrDnloill briefly eet down their objectKHW, and 

^l"'"' jlj^ ' The Grat ia,you eon«eyed away yoni daiiahier from her 
bihennn **""'- *"■■■'■'> ' ii*^ •*™' «• P'o'ide for her quiet. 
Seereiary Winwood thiealminf thai ahn ahould be mar> 
Lord Barnn ' ried finm ne in rpite oi my leelh, and Sir Edward Cook 
dayly tomrntini the(iH wuhdiwosran tmdin|lob«tow 
her aiaiiul her hkinf. which he uid ahe wii to lubmil to 
hit ; beaidea, my dauj^ier daily comfilaTned, and tcniicht 



* S«eoDd. That jou endeavoured to bestow her, and to ; ^uesttr the ynolher from her own. child, she omfy 
biad Iwr lo my Lord of Oifiml wiibout ber knowledge and tng the chiUCa good, vi/A the ehiid*t Idantr, atni to ^p- 
co—e nt, feraient ; and Ae, fu» private end agamMi the rkd^w aof 

* Upon thif rabject a lawyn, by wajr of invecUTe, may mlhout care of her preftrment ; which differing reM^tcsa. a 
open ma mouth wide, and aniici|>ate erery hearer'* judg- thejf justify 'the mother m ali. to condemn the^- the J^^ea i 
mem by the ri^t <rf'a father ; tbis, dangerous u the pre- a tranajncfor of the ruUa of nature^ and as a ptrxerr .- 
aident to others ; to which, ncTertheless, this answer may > hia rigfUa^ aa a father and a huaband, t» the k^ri boa. e 
be jusdy returned. ; ehUd and wife. 

* Answer. My daughter, as aforesaid, terrified with Iter : * Lastly, if recrimination couid lessen the fautt, rait :a j 
Other's threats and hard usage, and pressmg me to find ' in the worst sense, and naked of all i h« cott»idrrabi« ty \ 
•ome remedy firom this notence mtended, I did compas- . cumsiances it hath, tihai w ihis, nay. what had ih^ "vr* 
aiooate her condition, and bethought myself of this ccmv tin); of this inicntiuii been comparaTivflv with Sir £^ci 
tract to my Loid of C>zford, if so she liked, and thereupon Cook'a moat notoriou* riot, committed 'nt my L/erd c/ J- 
I gave it to her to peruse and consider by herself, which guyCa house, when vithout comaatde or vnrranl, oMMvtgi 
she did ; >he liked it, cheerfully writ it with her own hand, with a dozen fUowa veil weauoned, wiihf/ut cau»e irjn > 
subdcribcd it, and returned it lo me ; wherein I did nothing furfhatid qflertd, to hate uhat he vauld. he took cuck rr 
of my own will, but foUuwed her^s, after I saw she was bo doors of tht gote-houae and of the himse itM-lf^ and bna 
adverse to Sir Thomas Villiers, that she vuliintariiv and dau^rhirr in that hartaroua manntr fmm the mtth'^,m 
deliberately protested that of all men Uvint^ ahe wouid • would notaufrrthc viudur to come near her : andwi.-^* 
meter huit Aim, nor could ever fancy him for a husband. I tra« befitre the lord* ftt'the council to anstrer thiM entrsa. « 

* Secondly. By this I put her ui no new way, nor mio ; justified it to mcJie it goo>t by tatn, and tnat he feartdtikejK 
any other that her father bad heretofore known and ap- ■ v/'ao jfrfofncs*,* afian(r«>rou3word f<>riheeni*ourageBi«s:J 

proved ; fcr he saw such letters as my lady of Oxford had 
wnl to me thereabouts ; he never furbad it ; he never tiis- 
hked it ; only be said they were then too young, and there 
was tune enouch fur the treaty. 

all notorious and rebcliiiMis malefactors; efcpeciallr 5- a 
him that had been the rhief jiiMice of the law, and'f^ -^ 
people reputed the oracle of the law ; and a mo«t ca&c*^ 
ous bravado cai>l in ihe teeih and face of th« state it '^ 

* Thirdly. He always lefi his daughter to mv disposing ■ kinc's absence ; and therrfore most crnsiderabie f r '> 

and my bringing up ; Imowing that I purposed her my for- '• maintenance vf authority and the quut of the l«iw4 ; f.-r 

tune and whole estate, and as upon these reasons he left ' if it be lawful for him «it!i a dozen to rater abv bis'i 

her to my car^s, so he eased himself absohttely of her, never house thus ourrageou«iy for anv right to whicii he prvtcK& 

muddling with ker, negteeting her, and caring notlungfor it is lawful fur any matt iMith one hurdrvd, nay, with frt 

her. '. hundred, and consvijucntly with as manv as he ran ^v 


is therein mteresied.) it must be either in honour or in frt' 
hold. Read the treaty ; it prows m-ither ! for it is onlv a 
complement : it id no eniEagrmtmt prrscntly nor futurelv ; 
besides the law shows what forgery is ; and to counterleit 
a private man*s baud, nay a magistrate's, makes not the 
fault but the cause, whert-furu : 

* Secondly, the cod justifies, at the least, excuses, the 
fact -, for it \«as only to hold up mj/ daughUrra mind to her 
own dioice and liking : for her eyes' oiiU . and for uo other's, 
that she might see wime retribution, and tbtrt-by with the 
mitre constancy emiure her impnwiitiientfhavini; this on!y 
antidote to resist the poinon of thai p'ace, company, and 
conversation; myself and all her Iriend;* barred I'runi her. 

king commanding you, upon your allegiance, to come aad 
bnni; ii tu him, or to send it lum ; or not having it, to «<• 
uifv his name to who broucht it. and where he was : y<a 
refused a i. by which you doubled and trebled a high con 
tempt to his majesty. 

* Answer. I uas so sick on the week before, for tk 
moni part I kept my bed. and pven that instant I was is 
weak as I wat< not able lo ri!>'e fmm it without help. nor!o 
endure ihe air ; whii'h iniiisp05ition snd weakness mv two 
physician*. Sir Wiliiam Paddy and Dr Atkins, can affm 
inie : which so beinr, I hopi> his majesty will gracx«»v 
excuse the necessity, and not impose a fault, w hereof 1 
ton not cui!ty ; and for the sending it, I protest lo C^ I 

and no person nur speech admitted to her ear, but such as I had it nut : and for tellme the panics, and where he is. I 
■poke Sir Thomas Viliier's language. I most hiimbiy beseech his sacred majesty, in his great 

* The fourth. Thai vou plotted to suqiriite your daugh- 
ter to take her away by force, to tlie bceacli of the kiii^^'s 
Cace and particular commandment, and lur that purpose 
d assembled a number of desperate fellows, whereof tho 
conseouence might have b«>en «langerous ; and the atfnHit 
to the king was the greater that surh a thiiig was offered, 
the king being forth of the kingd<tm, whirhi by example, 
misht have drawn on other assemblies to in<>re dangerous 
attempts. This field is large for a plentiful babbler! 

^Answer. I know no such matter, neither in any place 
was there such assembly ; trtie it is I spoke to Turner 
to provide me stNne tall fellows for the lakine a pos- 
session fiir me, in Lincolnshire, of aoroe landii Sir William 
Mason had lately dis-seired me ; but be it they were 
assen^led and convoke J to swh an end, what was d«4ie ? 
was any such thing attempted 1 were they up«>n the place ? 
kept they the heath or the highwars by anibuiMradi s f or 
was anyplace, any day, a|ipointed for a rendexvoun ? No, 
BO such matter, mit siMneihing was mtendrd ; and I pray 
you what says the law of such a single mienii«m, which in 
not withu the view or notice of the law / Besides, who 
intended this— (he mother ? and wheref«»re ? brcau«e she 
tMStmnaliiratfy and harharouafy serludedfrom ker daughter, 
smdhar daughter forced againat her wiU, rtm/rory to her 
vow and liking f to the will of him she disliked ; nay, the 
laws of God, of nature, of man, sp<>ak fur me, anti cVv out 
upon them. But they had a wairant from the km^^'s or- 
der from the commissioners to keep ipy daughter in th«Mr 
custody : yet neither this warrant nor the coniroisM<mers* 
did prohibit the mother coming to h^r, btit contrardy al- 
lowed her ; then by the same authority mieht >he (et lo 
her Haushler. that Sir Edward Co<^ had U9ei\ to keep her 
from her daughter ; the husband ha«ing no powrr, war- 
rant, or permission from God, iha king, or iha law, to as^ 

dom and himnur, to consider how unworthy a part ic wrrv 
in me to brinp any man into trouble, from which I am w 
far from redeeming him as I can no way relieve mv^cl^ 
and therefore humbly crave his majesty, m his pnncelv 
consideration of my distri'S»ed cuntiirion, to forgive ■• 
this rt'servrdness. proceeding from that just sense, » f^ the 
rather, for that the law of the land in civil causea, aa I aa 
informed, no way iieth me thereunto.' 

AnuHie other papers it appears that Coke accused his 
lady of having * emb<-z7!ed all his giit and silver plate and 
vessel, (he having little in any houfe of mine but that, hm 
marriage with me brought him) and instead thereof foisted 
in alkumjf of the same' sorte, fashion, and u«e. with iba 
illusion to have cheated him of the other.' Coke insists oA 
the inventory by the schedule! Her 'ad\<hip savs, *I 
made siirh plate formatter and form fi-r my uwn u«e at 
Purb<Tk. that serving we'l en«>ush in the coun:ry : and I waa 
loth to trunt Niich a siib!<'an<"e in a place so remr-ie, and m 
the fiiard (if few ; but for the pi^te and vcttselhe »ai*h ia 
wanting, thry are every ounce with:n one "f my thrcv 
h(Ki*'rs.' she iitniplain's that Sir Edwsrd Cc ke and hia 
si^i i*lenient had threatened her servants sn ^neviiUiily. that 
the jMnif men nin away to hide lh*'msf I»e« frt^m his forv, 
aiNl dare ihiI appear abrttad. ' S:r K inward b>-ckc into 
Hatton 11i<ii««-, Bi'i/rd U)H>n my co.-\ch aird each h<.rses, 
nay. niv appnrrl, wlm-h he driaii:^ ; ''^ruf: a!-, my servants 
out <»1 diMim Miihi'Ul wa^rs; sent «.iown his men ro Corfa 
to iii%riiti«rv, •■• i.T, ship, uiij earr\ aw^v a ' i;-.e g.xidt, 
whn'h Ihmih irliiatJ hini hv the ra-t'e K'« r»r. I e rhreail 
totimi; %iMii li«iil»lni»*ii warr.ii'* f«»r !?:»• ::«-r'"-. -n ."^i-ce Th*-re* 
of. Hut \"'iii ImilshMi f»(iiliii*'?>e « t ■ ;• I> <V'»i! vt T.ave the 
ui»r oiiK i»l iJif ir«»«tl« ilnmiij h-* 'I'V, t,. i. v : , 1;^^.* ^^ |||^ 
name a^iperimin-d. %«itli«>iii iii«-;,i*'< •. I '»■. jr.*.: dt^rirtnM 
ne of siu-h iiB**i briiij; |:«>v%U b>H'^ht ;i: n y marriagv, or 



boagtit with the money I spared from my allowancet. 
4Stop, then, his high tyrannical courtes ; for I have sufiVr- 
«dl beyond the measure of any wife, mother, nay, of any 
ordinary woman in this kingdom, without resixrct to my 
lather, my birth, my fortunes, with which I have m highly 
raited him* 

What arailed the relation of this sick, mortified, and 
proud woman, or the more tender feelings of the daughter, 
in this forced marriage to satisfy the political ambition of 
the father ? When I^Mrd Bacon wrote to the king respect- 
ing the strange behaviour of Coke, the king vindicatiid it. 
for the purpose of obtaining his daughter, blaming Lord 
Bacon (or some expressions he had used; and Bacon, 
with the servility of the courtier, when he found the wind in 
his teeth, tacked round, and promised Buckingham to 
promote the match be so much abhorred.* Viliiers was 
married to the daughter of Coke at Hampton-Court, on 
Michaelmas Day, 1617— Coke was re-admitted to the 
council table— Lady Hatton was reconciled to Lady 
Compton and the queen, and gave a grand entertainment 
on the occasion, to which, however, * the good man of the 
house was neither invited nor spoken of: ne dined that day 
at the Temple ; she it still bent to pull down her husband,' 
adds my informant. The moral close remains to be told. 
Lady Viliiers looked on her husband as the hateful object 
of a forced union, and nearly drove him mad ; while she 
disgraced herself bv such loose conduct as to be condemn, 
ed to stand in a wnite sheet, and I believe at length ob- 
tained a divorce. Thus a marriage projected b^r ambi- 
tion, and prosecuted by violent means, dosed with that 
utter misery to the parties with which it had com- 
menced ; and for our present purpose has served to show, 
that when a lawyer, like Coke, holds his high handed tyran- 
nical courses,' the law of nature, as well as the law of 
which he if * the oracle,' will be alike violated under his 
roof. Wife and daughter were plaintiffs or defendants on 
-whom this lord chief-justice closed his ear : he had btockp 
«d up the avenues to his heart with * Law ! Law ! Law V 
his * old song !' 

Beyond his eightieth year, in the last parliament of 
Charles II, the extraordmary vigour of Coke's intellect 
flamed clear under the snows of age. No reconciliation 
ever took place between the parties. On a strong report 
of his death, her ladyship accompanied by her brother 
Lord Wimbledon, posted down to Stoke*Pogie8 to take 
possession of his mansion ; but beyond Colebrook, they 
met with one of his physicians commg from him with the 
mortifying intelligence of Sir Edwanl's amendment, cm 
which I hey returned at their leisure. This happened in 
June 1634, and on the following September the venerable 
sage was no more ! 

or coke's STYLE, AND HIi CdCDUCT. 

This great lawyer perhaps set the example of that style 
of railing and invective at our bar, which the egotism and 
eraven insolence of some of our lawyers include in tlieir 
practice at the bar. It may be useful to bring to recollec- 
tion Coke's vituperative style in the following dialogue, so 
beautiful in its contrast, with that of the ereat victim before 
him I The attorney-general had not sufficient evidence to 
bring the obscure conspiracy home to Rawleigh, with 
which, I believe, however, he had cautiously tampered. 
But Coke well knew that James the First had reason to 
dislike the hero of his age, who was early engaged against 
the Scottish interests, and betrayed by the ambidextrous 
policy of Cecil. Coke struck at Rawleigh as a sacrifice 
to his own poliiical amlntion, as we have seen he after- 
wards immolated his daughter; but his personal hatred 
was now sharpened, by the fine eenius and elegant litera- 
ture of the man; faculties ana acquisitions the lawjrer 
so heartily contemned ! Coko had observed, * I know with 
whom I d(eal * for we have to deal to-day with a man of 


Coke, Thou art the moat vile and execrable traytor 

that ever lived. 

Ratt>leigh. You speak indiscreetly, barbarously, and 

Coke. I want words sufficient to express thy viperous 

Rawleigh. I think you want words indeed, for you have 
•poken one thing half a dozen times. 

Coke. Thou art an odions fellow ; thy name is hateful 
|4> all the realm of England for thy pride. 

• Lambeth M88, 998, an. 60, and 73. 

Rawleigh, It will so near to prove a measuring cast 
between you and me, Mr Attorney. 

Coke. Well, I wiiu now make it appear to the worlds 
that there never lived a viler viper upon the face of the 
earth than thou. Thou art a monster ; thou hast an Eng- 
lish face, but a Spanish heart. Thou viper ! lor 1 tkom tbet» 
thou traitor ! Have I angered vou 7 

Rawleigh replied, what his daimtless conduct proved— 
* I am in no case to be angry.'* 

Coke had used the same st^Ie with the unhappy favour^ 
ite of Elizabeth, the Earl of^ Essex. It was usual with 
him ; the bitterness was in his own heart, as much as in his 
words ; and Lord Bacon has left among his memorandums 
one entitled, * Of the abuse I receivM of Mr Attorney- 
General publicly in the Exchequer.' A specimen vnll 
complete our model of hiH forensic oratory. Coke ex- 
claimed, * Mr Bacon, if you have any tooth against me« 
pluck it out ; fur it will do you more hurt than all the teeth 
m your head will do you good.' Bacon replied, ' The less 
you speak of your own greatness, the more I will think of 
it. * Coke replied, * I think scorn to stand upon terms of 

Sreatness towards you, who are less than little, less than 
^e least.' Coke was exhibited on the stase, for bis iU 
usage of Rawleigh, as was suggested bv TbeohaJd in a note 
on Twelfth Night. This style of raiung was lone the pri- 
vilege of the law^^era ; it was revived by Judge Jeffreys; 
but the bench of judges in the reign of William and Anne 
taught a due respect even to crimmals, who were not sup- 
posed to be guilty till they were convicted. 

When C^e once was himself in disgrace, his high 
spirit sunk without a particle of magnanimity to dignify the 
fall ; bis big words, and his ' tyrannical courses,' when he 
could no longer exult that * he was upon his wings again,' 
sunk with him as he presented himself on his kuees to the 
council-table. Among other assumptions, he had styled 
himself * Lord chief-justice of England,' when it was de> 
clared that this title was his own mvention, since he was 
no more than of the King's Bench. His disgrace was a 
thunderbolt, which overthrew the haughty lawyer to the 
roots. When the tupereedeas was carried to uim by Sir 
George Coppin, that gentleman was surprised on present- 
ing it, to see that lofty * spirit shrunk into a very narrow 
room, for Coke received it with dejection and tears.' The 
writer from whose letter I have copied these words adds, 
O tremor et nupiria non eadunt in fortem et eonatantem. 
The same writer encloses a punning distich : the name of 
our lord chief- justice was in his day very provocative of 
the pun both in Latin and English ; Cicero indeed had 
pre-occupied the miserable trifle. 

Jua &mdire Coeue potuit ; ted etmderejwra 
Non potuit ; potuit condere jura Cocut, 

Six years afterwards Coke was sent to the Tower, and thea 
they punned against him in English. An unpublished let- 
ter of^ the day has this curious anecdote : The room in 
which he was lodged in the Tower had formerly been a 
kitchen ; on his entrance the lord chief-justice read upon 
the door, * This room wants a Cook !' They twitched the 
lion in the toils which held him. Shcnstone had some 
reason in thanking Heaven that his name was not suscepti- 
ble of a pun. This time, however. Coke was 'on his 
wings ;' for when Lord Arundel was sent by the king to 
the prisoner to inform him that he would be allowed 
* Eight of the best learned in the law to advise him for 
his cause,' our great lawyer thanked the king, * but he 
knew himself to be accounted to have as much skill in the 
law as any man in England, and therefore needed no such 
hf Ip, nor feared to be judged by the law.' 


Aulus Gellius desired to live no longer than he was able 
to exercise the faculty of writing ; he might have decently 
added, — and find readers ! This would be a fatal wish for 
that writer who should spread the infection of weariness, 
without himself partaking of the epidemia. The mere 
act and habit of writing, witho«Jt probably even a remote 
view of publication, has produced an agreeable delirium ; 
and perhaps some have escaped from a gentle confinement 
by having cautiously concealed those voluminous reveries 
which remained to startle their heirs ; while othera agun 
have lef\ a whole library of manuscripts, out of the mera 
ardour of transcription, collecting and copying with peco- 

* State Trials. 



in thfl Kducuoa of Ihe pen 
BO lubililute r« the Bov 
KAiAping btuik pmper vUh 
•hulowi of lh«ir nund ! ] 


lhiU)ilflwh>rslilin'e,iudhTlh>i>idcormrb«d,l'hiTe I •srg Ih« mul •tlusbli! 

dl the mtLoniln for •riling; mi whco 1 >»ik« in the ! Tbe plr -■■--■'- - 

d«k, Ii.rit.,«liliciugh- - 

Wm. Prjnos, Ek|., of Liacaln'a . 

Milb Ihii mMlo' Jucundi icli Inborn,' IS43. The ucrsl 
liiHor; of Ihu ToluDiiiHiin aHihor concludrp witb 1 eh** 

Itillorr tf Choainide, inrormi lu iKu while hv iloait ihcra, 
lbe]r ' burnt hit hii|{B *olu<n«i under hb noK, which h*il 
^i}inatl luflocited liim.' Yel nich uriiihe ipinl oT pirif, 

Falrarch wai ncit alwft;^i m hii 
Ibg naldplicily of the wnlingi d 

Dt abflie their arduvr one jot ; uid ibeir pen niR 
Lie in the (brbiddan page which even booktslEen 
publish. Miuij iiutiDcei mi^hl be recorded, 
_-^i ^_- ■_ .L_ of Gaipar Banhius, 

»hoie"'Xil"".!^T '"'*"'{ 

•e reciled by beul al 

Tbey produced lolia aFier Sillo, lihe alnanafki i and L>i I literature, modi 

Omen and Bailer Hrou more llian liilT lo leTenly to- Toiion lo a "■- 

Inmga, moat of them oT the moil formiJabLe aiie. The I world. It 

truth ia, bowcrer, that it wat then eaiier to wiila up loa p™»t mo 

Iblio. than iooiirdiyi Id wriie down toanociaio; forcor- I when the 

nablr, a 

vj life, that he retreated fconi (he buaj 
^arr that hia eailj productiona were com* 
'efullj and jitdiciomi^ than hia later onei, 

lowed itaelf by the uaiial prognoatic of Ihia d«ngenHia 
_._, ^.^ _. ^, iBBue — etfreqie facilily of cooipoailion, and a pridr and 

ipired by the icribblini: demoa of Lhlt Rah- I ""'pi eolleciiiini or relerrncea, uuiung to hii nieniory, 

ed, that were ■ ihe hcavem formni of paper,' and ' aarilT led him ii 
Ihetrerioflhoearilipena, andirilieeniir''i<'>niii 

tbed. They weni 

:l[wotk, iharplyarblunlly, 

k, theaer 

liirge on the world. The Spaniih To*- 
dan bs had lived ; and nf Lope de Vega it 

."'l "m^;^ w'^ro,!' 

-y thin, 

I lii on four celebrated ScrMBJ to gite Iheir aecrel hia. 
lor* ; our Piynne, Gaapar Barihiue, the Abbj de Mamllea, 
and the Jeniit Theophiliii Raynaud, wha will all ahow 
■hats book uighl be wriltenon 'aulhatawhOMworkahan 

Prynne Beldam dined: erery three or four houn he 
imncheJ a manchel, and refreahed hie eih*uiled a^nrite 
with ale bmighl to him by bia aerranl ; and when ' he waa 

he Gied on < a long <iuilted cap, which came an inch orer 

muchliehl^ and ihen, hunger nor thint did he ejtnenence 

.a.e tha, rf bi. vduminoXpa^e.. Prynne harwritteh fPP'"'^.' 

a libran, am-innng, I A^7, to nearly two hundred ^J *•' 

not quile lay him ouen°lo Hor-c^"' c'e'^ir " 

add> Barihiui, ' but that I think 
De ceniure ol Horace too hyperbolical, for I am Dot tna. 
ant what il i^ to make a great numberof Teneain a Jmflrt 

inl txwka of the Iliad, which amount to aboie two Iboo- 
and Tenea.' Thin rapidity end volume were the greal 

BaRhiua, on Ihe lyaiem be had adopted, aeema to have 
written ■ whole library ; a circumttuice which we dii. 
cover by the condnual referencen he makea in hii primed 

ram Id hia Sutiua, be imrte hii own name, to which ii 
ig lial of imprinted worlii, which Be vie ihinki 

of thrm. All me>e',™d"many'^h >I"'«irbe 
' ~ ' ' world, would any bookieller be in- 

The extraordinary peraeveraoceoTPrynneinthiifrver or I !>"»" '» ^'y'', ■ ih'bwkiellen had been fonwHy ioc». 

Ihe pen .ppean in the followiBg ,„le ^oiie of hii i.tri- ' l'^"'/'^ "T^""??!"' ,''!: ™' '"™t^ '"'J"' .'"^ tH 

ordiMry VSumei. ■Comfort.hle Conliali anion die- hoard .o much of the celeWated Barthiu., that they hU 

eomf'HUble Fean of Imorifenment t r«.i.inin. ™,e I.:^ ' ""'*" f ' '""f .'^'" •'"' l*"*.'"" f"'" 'olimeiof the much- 

gmf'HUble Vt 
lin T-TMi, Sei .___.. 

Afr IVm. Prywu <m hii Ciamhtr IValU. 

'■la of Scripture, wriUeii 6s 
Tier iroUi, in the Tower of 

Enili,bVerae,164l.' Prynne lilerilly TeriB^ I^pi" 
With dMpcrau Lhorcoal rouud hli darkened wuUa.* 

eferred-to 'Ailvei 
inhed — but fn 



fitiiei. The plan ta vasi, at the rapidity with which it 
«afl [ffiT'-HKd : Bayle finely characieri74M it by a i»ni!le 
«-tr-Hi'— * lu immeiitity ures even the iina);ination.' But 
':.•* -rii'n u, thin mighiy labour turned out to be a compleie 
Uiu"*^: there wan oeiihcr order nor judgment in iheae 
mi-ii*-* uf learning; crude, obicure, and contradictory; 
' .---n ax w« mij^ht expect (rum a man who trusted to his 
ni'^iD'jry, and would not throw away liis time on any cor- 
'-^-■hJD. Uif coutradJctiiMis are flagrant; but one of his 
r-.rad^ would apnioKize fur these by telltn^ us that * He 
•ir '*? ev»-ry thing which offered itself to hw imajgination ; 
i t^iAt i<oir thing, ti>-morrow another, in order tnat when 
c- *i ^idd rerise it again, this contrariety of opinion mi^bt 
::.a !-:•• tiim to ciamine the subject more accurately.' The 
i: *':>«• fif ine fnends of authors are as extravagant as 
'>■■'««- •/ ihrir enemies. Bar ihius evidently wrote so much, 
*f.4[ of'ea he forgot what he had written, as happened to 
•n-kber cr«at book-man, one Didymus, of whom duinti- 
no reo'trds, that on hearing a certaui history, he treated 

• a« iirterlv unworthy of cr^lit ; on which the teller called 
'f >jn^of Didvmuri*s own books, and show«Hl where he 
s.ziit r^ad y. at full length ! That the work failed, we 
:tr^ rtie evidence oTGIement in his < Bibliotheque curieuse 
>ie Livrea diffiriles fc (rouver,' under the article BaHknUy 
r-.rre w discover the winding up of the history of this 
tk-k. Clement aeatiooa more than one edition of the 
A'-vfr-tana; but on a more careful inspection he detected 
'III :hir iild title pages had been removed for others of a 
•n 4 .^r d;it«* ; the bof4seller« not Lemg able to sell the book 
.■nr-Nvil thi!c deception. It availed little ; they remained 
"k 1 1 '.'ii-ir uniuild editiunof the two fir^t voiuni^s of the Ad- 
r-nuna, and the author with three lliuu*<and folio sheets in 
■?ivi4cri{it— while both parlies coin(ilained to>:ollier, and 

.'(f hpjrt ciiu^d arquirr nothing from the works of an au- 

r. c iif whom Ba}le i«ay« that * liis wriliiigs rise lo such a 

■' kt'si'Has bulk, that one can Rcarce conceive a single man 

^'-u fi be capable of executing so great a variety ; perhape 

b r •syio^ cierk, who lived tu grow old amidst the du*t of 

11 'fire, ever transcribed as much as this author has writ- 

'-•1.' This was the memorable fate of one of that race of 

-n:i-TS who imagioe that their capacity extends with their 

1 -u n^. Their land seems covered fertihty, but in sbak. 

..^f 'fi'-ir wheat no ears fall. 

Aiivhfr memorable brother of this family of the Scrib- 

—1 :- -ye ASbe De Marulirs, wh.i with great ardour as a 

-1 in <:/ iefers, and in the enjoyment of the leisure and ojiii- 

■ • -- ^> n^''r**ary to carry on his pursuits, from an entire 

ij-'^^rr of judgment, closed his life wiih the bitter rrgrecs 

u ' a vuliimiDrtus author; and yet it caniiol be denied that 

^ ra< c<iotrib«ited one precious volume to the public stock 

. ■ ••rarure ; a compliment which cannot be paid to some 

»-^-» hare enjoyed a higher reputation than our author. 

H^ nas \ef\ u« his rery citnous ' Memoirs.' A poor writer 

is-^^ed. but the frankness and intrepidity of his character 

- 'wcJii- him, while he is painting himself, to paint man. 

G Sb m was struck by the honesty of his ^kju, for he says 

iB !..s .ffe. * The dulnesa of Michael de Marolles and An- 

ta-TCT Woad* acquire aome value from the faithful r©- 

yr^^^riTatinn of men and manners.' 

I hare elsewhere shortly notic-d the A hb^ DeMarol. 
.*^ m *S«! character of a * literary sinner ;' but the extent 
■ -" .- L« ■in« never struck me so fjrciblv as when I observed 
'"L" '^'^ '^"T'^Bwa counted up in order in 
N --erin'a ' Hommes iliusires.' It is extremely amu.ting 
.-. i-riers the swarratng fecundity of hi« pen; from year to 
'-»". •I'h author after author, was this translator weary- 
<r*y hers, but remainod himself unwearied. Sometimes 
"■ ■> IT 'jir^e clasxicaJ victims in a sex<on were dntg^pd 

- - . biJ fllaufhter-house. Of about seventy works, lifty 
*•»-•• versjons of the classical writers of antiquity, accnm- 
"■•"i-^J '■'irh noiee. But some odd circumslancoM hap|ien- [ 

- - »'.. ^ir ex*fBordinary translator in the courFf of his life. ' 
^" I-'Ejang, a eritic'nf that dav, in his • Keu'N's de bien I 

-v: j.-^.' drew all his examples of bad translaiitm from our ; 

-.-•-, «n» was mofi- angry than usual, and amoni; hurir- j 

- -1^ cri^ of oar Marsyas resoundod. Do I/blian:f, who ■ 

• :•?«- t*»i« DOC out of malice, but fmni urgent necejcsiiv 

-. I. <j«.rat4 hw principles, seemed very hurry, and was ' 

• ' .-^TrfU nih«rrihe tnthe n|»fnifm thai Anthonv Woo<f wrjji 
: '.i-^.n. aUhoush he h.-nl no likin? fur works of 

.:. .-' ri: -i> . ar:1 a«ed (Jittiiiary jjoou *'urvilv I An anihiiri* 
;--* ..i <-hirartFT Is nfli*ii conCniiidiMl with ihr natiin' of hit 
■-rx A' ih'fcoy has sallies at times to whirh a dull miiii a>u(d 
r t ^ su^^'Tt : whhntstke ardnnrnf this hermit of literature. , 
■MT: «oBid ht ««r lunry hMory > 

deiiirous of appeasing the angried translator. One day in 
Easter, finding the abb^ in church at prayers, the critic fell 
on his knees by the side of the translator : it was an extra- 
ordinary moment, and a singular situation to terminate a 
literary quarrel. * You are angry with me,' said L'Etang , 
* and I think you have reason ; but this is a season of mei< 

abbe again meeting L'Kiang, reproached him with duping 
him out of a pardon which he had no desire to have be- 
stowed on him. The last reply of the critic was caustic : 
* Do not be so difficult ; when one stands in need of a gen- 
oral pardon, one ought surely to grant a particular one.' 
De Marolles was subject to encounter critics who were 
never so kind as to kneel by him on K aster Sunday. Be- 
sides these fifty translations, of which the notes are of^en 
curious, and even the sense may be useful to consult, hia 
love <if writing produced many odd works. His volumes 
were richly bound, and i'recly distributed, for they found no 
readers ! In a * Discours pour servir de Preface sur les 
Poetes Iraduita par Michel de Marolles,' be has given an 
im|>osing list of * illustriouii persons and contemporary au- 
thors who were his friends,^ and has preserved many shi- 
gular facts concerning them. He was, indeed, for so long 
a time convinced iliat he had struck oflT the true spirit i^* 
his fine originals, that I find he at several times printed 
some critical trealiiie to hack his last, or usher in his new 
version ; giving the world reasons why the versions which 
had been given uf that particular author, ' Suit en pruse, 
Suit en vers out 6y6 si peu approuvees jiisqu' ici.' Among 
these numerous tran.sla'irtnh he was the first who ventured 
on the Dei|>onsoppistiiof Athenicus, which still bears an 
excessive price. He entitles his work, ' Les quinze Liv- 
res de Deip<^inosophistei« d' Atheiiee, Ouvrage delicieux, 
agreableiiient diversifie et reiupli de Narrations s«Lvantoii 
Kur t'Mites Sorter de Mati^res et do Sujets.' He has 
prefix*'d various prclimitiary diitsertatioiis: yet not «aiisfied 
wall having performed thi/ great labour, it was followed by 
a small quarto of forty pages, which might now be consi- 
dered curirius ; ' Aualyiic, in Description succincte dea 
(JhuM's cuntcnues dans h'S quinzes Livres de Deiponoetv 
pluMtes.' Hu wrote, * Quatrains ?ur les Persunnes de la 
Cour et les Gens de Lettrei*,' which the curioub would 
now be {^bd to find. After having plundered the classical 
gcniii.^-cs of antiquity by his barbarous style, when he had 
nothing ni'>re left to do, he committed sacrilege in transla» 
ting the Bible ; but, in the midst uf printing, he was sud* 
deiily stopped by authority, for having iuherteid in his notes 
the reveries of the Pre-Adami(e Isaac Peyrere. He had 
already revelled on the New Testament, to his version of 
which he had prefixed so sensiSle an introduction, that it 
was afterwards translati d intu Latin. Translation was 
the minia of the Ahbe '!e Marolles. I doubt whether he 
ever fairlv awoke out of the heavy dream of the felicity d[ 
his translations : for late in life I find him observing, * I 
have entpl«>yed much lime in study, and I have translated 
many boolis; cnnhidering this rather as an innocent 
amii^r-meni which I have chosen for my private life, than 
as thmgs ^vry necessary, although th»y are not entirely 
iis*'lef>M. Some have valued them, and others have cared 
little about them; but however it may be, I see no- 
thine which ehlifrt me to Mirvt that thry conXoin not at 
leoMt a^ much enod tu fniil, both for their own matter and 
the form which I have jiven to them.' The notion he en- 
lertainrdof his irans!aii(»ns was their closeness ; he was 
not aware of hi9 own spiritless style ; and he imagined 
that poetry only consisted in the thou'^hts, not in the grace 
and narm>-ny of verse. He insisted that by giving the 
public his numerous tran.<'lations, he was not vainly mulli- 
plyins book;*, beraiivf he neither diminished nor increased 
their idi-at in his faithful version)*. He had a curious no- 
tion that some were more scrupulous than they ought to 
he res|>^ctins lran:«laiinns of authors wh'i, living so many 
02«»!* paxt. are rarelv P'ad from the diffinilry of under- 
standinv: ihrm ; am) why should they iinacine that a 
translati' n ix iiiiiirioiis tu t}itni. or wcmld <>cra»ion the ut- 
tir nrjjh'rj ot" thi* originals ? ' We do not think so highly 
of our own workx,' savs the indefaiijfable and mixlest 
Abbe ; ' but nriiher do I despair that ih«*y may be useful 
evn to «hi'<o scrupulous persons. I will m^t suppress the 
truth, while I am iioticinsthrse uneratrfiil labours; if they 
have sivfn nie much pain by my assiduity, they have re- 
paid me by the fine things the'v have taueht me, and bj 
thu opinion which I have conceived that postenty^ 



just than the present timcB, will award a more favourable 
judgiseDt.' Thus a miserable translator terminates bis 
long labours, by drawing his bill of fame on posterity 
which bis contemporaries will not pay ; but in these cases, 
as the bill is certainly lost before it reaches acceptance, 
iprhy sboald we deprive the drawers of pleating themselves 
wiu the ideal capital ? 

Let us not, however, imagine, that the Abb^ Dn Moral- 
les was nothing but the roan he appears in tho character of 
a vcjununous translator ; though occupied all his life on 
these miserable labours, he «aa evidently an mgenioua 
and nobly-minded man, whose days were consecrated to 
literary pursuits, and who was among the primitive col- 
lectors in Europe of fine and curious prints. One of his 
works is a ' Catalogue des Livres d'£stampes et de Fi- 
gures en Taille-douce.' Paris, 1666, in 8vo. In tho pre- 
face our author declares, that he had collected one hun- 
dred and twenty-three thousand four hundred prints of six 
thousand masters, in four hundred large volumes, and one 
hundred and twenty small ones. This magnificent collec- 
tion, formed by so much care and skill, he presented to the 
king; whether graluitously given, or otherwise, it was an ac- 
quisUion which a monarch might have thankfiiUy accepted. 
Such was the habitual ardour of our author, that after- 
wards he set about forming another cdlection, of which he 
has also given a catalogue, in 167S, m 12mo. Both these 
catalogues of prints are of extreme rarity, and are yet so 
highly valued oy the connoisseurs, that when m France I 
could never obtain A copy. A long life may be passed 
without a evon sight of the * Catalogue des Livres d'Esiam- 
pes of the Abb6 de MaroUes.* 

Such are the lessons drawn from this secret history of 
voluminous writers. We see one ventini^ his mania in scrawl, 
ing on hii prison-walls ; another persisuog in writing folios, 
while the booksellers, who were once caught like Reynard 
who had lost his tail, and whom no arui could any looker 
practise on, turn away from the new trap ; and a third, 
who can acquire no readers but by giving his books away, 
growing gray in scourging the sacred genius of antiquity 
by his meagre versions, and dying without having made 
up his mind, whether he were as wdful a translator as some 
«f his contemporaries had assured him. 

Among these worthies of the Scnbleri we may rank the 
Jesuit Theophilus Raynaud, once a celebrated name, 
eulogised by Bayle and Patia. His collected works fill 
twenty folios ; an edition, indeed^ which finally sent the 
bookseller to the poor-house. This enterprising bibliopo- 
list had heard much of the prodigious erudition of the 
writer; but be had not the sagacity to discover that other 
literary qualititf were also required to make twenty folios 
mt all saleable. Of these * Opera omnia' perhaps not a 
iingle copy can be found in England ; but they may be a 
pennyworth on the continent. Raynaud's works are 
theological ; but a system of grace maintained by one work, 
and pulled down by another, has ceased to interest man- 
lund : the literature of the divine is of a less perishable na- 
ture. Reading and writing through a life </ eighty years, 
and giving only a quarter c^ an hour to his dinner, with a 
vigorous mentorv, and a whimsical taste for some singular 
subjects, he could not fail to accumulate a mass of know- 
ledge which may still be useful for the curious ; and, b«»- 
sides, Raynaud had the Ritsooian characteristic. He 
'was one of those who, exemplary in their own conduct, 
with a bluer zeal condemn whatever does not agree with 
their notions ; and however gentle in their nature, yet will 
set no limits to the ferocity of their pen. Raynaud was 
often in trouble with the censors of his Ihm^s, and much 
more with his adversaries ; so that he frequently had re- 
course to publiMhing under a fictitious name. A remarka- 
ble evidence of this is the entire twentieth volume of his 
works. It consists of th^ numerous writings published 
anonymously, or to which were perfixed funru de purrt. 
This volume is described by the whimsical title of Apo-^ 
pompttut; explained to us as the name ^ven by the Jews 
to the scape.goat, which, when loaded with all their male- 
dictions on its head, was driven away into the desert. 
These contain all Raynaud's numerous diatribes; for 

♦ These two catalogues have always been ofexirome rarity 
and price. Dr Ll«^r, when st Paris, lfi66, notices this clrcum- 
suince. I have since mH with them in the very curious collec- 
tions of my friend Mr Douce, who has uniques, as well as rari- 
ties. The monograms of our old masters in one of these caia- 
iogiies are more correct than in some laiter publications : and 
Che whole plan and arranirement of these catalogues of prints 
ars peculiar and Interesting 

whenever he was refuted, he was always refuting ; be did 
not spare his best friends. The title of a v ork against 
Amauld will show how he treated his adversaries. *Ar» 
nauldus redivivus natus Brixie seculo xii. renatus in Gai- 
lie etate nostra.' He dexterously applies the name of Ar- 
nauld, by comparing him with one of the same name in 
the tweUlh ceniurv, a scholar of Abelard's and a turbulent 
enthusiast, say the Romish writers, who was burnt ahve 
for having written against the luxury and the power of the 
priesthood, and for having raised a rebellion against 
the pope. When the learned De Launoi had succeas- 
fully attacked the legends of saints, and was called the 
Denichewr de £^atntt,— the * Unnicher of Sainta,* erery 
parish priest trembled for his favourite. Raynaud entitled 
a libel on this new Iconoclast, * Hercules Commudianus 
Joannes Launoius repulsus,' &c : he compares Launoi to 
the Emperor Cominodus, who, though the roost cowardly 
of roen, conceived himself formidable when he dressed 
himself as Hercules. Another of these maledictions is a 
tract against Calvinism, described as * Relitfio bestianim,' 
a religion of beasts, because the Calviuists deny free-will ; 
but as he always fired with a double>barreIlt>d gun, under 
the cloak of attacking Calvinism, he aimed a deadly shot 
at the Thoroists, and particularly at a Domincian friar, 
whom he considered as i>ad as Calvm. Raynaud exults that 
he had driven one of his adversaries to take flight into 
Scotland, adpultea Scotieat tranagreteuM ; to a Scotch pol- 
ta|^ ; an expression which Saint Jerome used in speaking 
ofPelagius. He always rendered an adversary odious by 
coupling him with some odious name. On one of these 
controversial books where Casalas refuted Raynaud, 
Monnoye wrote, * Raynaudus et Casalas inepti ; Ra^^vK 
do tamen Casalas ineptior.' The usual terminatum of 
what then passed for sense, and now is the reverse ! 

I will not quit Raynaud without pointing out some of 
his more remarkable treatises, as so many curiosities of 

In a treatise on the attributes of Christ, he entitles a 
chapter, Ckriahu bomu, 6on«i, bonum : in another on the 
seven-branched candlestick in the Jewish templf , by an 
allegorical interpretation, he explaina the eucbanst ; and 
adda an alphabetical list of names and epithets wbicb have 
been given to this mystery. . 

The seventh v<duroe bears the general title of JIforiofia: 
all the treatises have for their theme the perfections and 
the worship of the Virgin. Many extraordinary thines are 
here. One is a dictionary of names given to the Virgm, 
with observations <m these names. Another on the dev<H 
tion of the scapulary, and its wonderful effects, writtca 
against De Launoi, and for which the order of the Carmes 
when he died bestowed a solemn service and obsequies 
on biro. Another of these * Mariolia' is mentioned bv 
Gallois in the Journal det Sgavans, 1667, as a proof of hv 
fertility : having to preach on the seven solemn antkeiM 
which the chu^ sines before Christmas, and which 1m»> 
gm by an O ! he made this letter on^ the subiect of bw 
sermons, and barren as the letter appears, he has struck 
out * a multitude of beautiful particulars.' This hicraiy 
folly invites our curiosity. 

ui the eighth volume is a table of saints, classed bv their 
station, condition, employment, and trades ; a list of titlea 
and prerogatives, which the councils and the fathers bavs 
attributed to the sovereign pontiff. 

The thirteenth volume has a subject which seems modi 
in the taste of the sermons on the letter O ! it is entitled 
LcMt Brevitatia! in praise of brevity. The maxims are 
brief, but the commentary lone. One of the nai¥ral suIn 
jects treated on is that of Noace: he reviews a ereat 
number of noses, and, as usual, does not forget the Ho^jr 
Virgin's. According to Raynaud, the nose c{ the Virgin 
Mar^ was long and aquiline, the mark of goodness wid 
dignity ; and as Jettus perfectly resembled his mother, hs 
infers'that he must have had such a nose. 

A treatise entitled Heterodita aphitudtia cf awosish 
Pietatia Cttleatium, TeTreatrtum^ et InfemanKtu^ contains 
many singular practices introduced into devotion, which 
superstition, ignorance, and remissness have made a part 
of religion. 

A treatise directed against the new custom of hirisg 
chairs in churches, and being coated during the sacrifiee 
of the mass. Another on the Ca^sarean operation, which 
he stiematises as sn act aeainst nature. Annther on 
eunuchs. Another entitled Hipparckua de ReSgiom JVs- 
gotitUare, is an attack on those m bia own conpany ; tbn 


mtd nerehanl; tha jeauila wore that; aecuaed of 
ThB raelof of a college at Arignon, who Ihou^t 

n.«l cuciou. work of Barnaud, connoclrd with 
a, I pnXM ; it i> entitled EnUmata da Mi-lii ac 
•wiM. iti»t juMa out iiijaHa BinijvUm mnfliime. 
1), 1B&3, 4in. with nuceiwT indeiaa. Ona of hia 
inni bean cnndernned at Kmne.fae drew up theM 

loiiti ; bid bKokt. but nr>l nocont : bonka not bad. 

Nicaron hu girtn tha tillaa of IIS of hia lhin|>, which ha 
bad looked D>*r. 

Nothing i. mofo idle, and wl«t i, 1» to ba forrran in 

acriptiotl. rf loaaliliea i' wh.r. il i. rerj doubtful 

the placa Oioj deKiibe^l it caniin ibeir raadara narer 
canr Thaao dwenptire p«-,.^ in which wntara of 

tha floaal aro ihruai id logalher. If a acene from nature, 

liil of »bnii»o BameM, whirh the fathura h«« (iren 
Atemdo), ia entitled Mphab^iBii bmialilatit h»- 
> potm tjnitatit. 

' all, Rarnind waa a nun of *ut acquiramaBi, 
(real flow of ideal, but laetelaat. and nod of alt 


tint bookiellar lo 
Write a book like 
;>rinl it.' It hap- 
of Barri waa pillaged from Rajnaud, 

I qnirsr on him who had h««n ploughing wiih hia 

I ara the writera who, EDJoring an the pleanm 
t the paini of compfnitioD, hare nlYen apologiaed 
m repealed produclioni, bf dieliring thai the; 
lOlf for theii own aniuiFmsnl; but (Ui^h prime 
nh nhnuld not be broufhl on the puUie iiage, 

iniUfi inliuuia in hia'orj and i 

fonj calta him ' Qrand aataui 

bill with a croaked hrad-piree, 
ird with knnttjr eombiDatwm, i 

I intiquiuea ; each 
inquano: Langlel 
d« pBliU lirrea.' 

xnti did 

and panaltiaa 

ii)hlaAer bribe curioue 
tni he could nnrr diacme 

nrinted them ti 

: r n< 

find, e»m in wofka of calabriij, whole pagaa of Ifawa ge- 
neral or Ibeae pinimlar daacripiiTa riisicnea, which lain 
nolhing bdiiad, bat noon aubalanlin* propped up b* rah 
domapiUiM. Tba eU wriun ww* tpiita ddighlad to SU 
up Ifaalr mhumaooa pife* with wbu wu a fraal wtinf 
of Mua* and Ihinkiig. In lb* AUric of Scoian ainam 
pagea, cnnttiiiiDC nearij tm hundrad **na*, daacribe a 
palai.-e, oommancing at the faeadt, ud 11 langth Gniahing 
' Iha garden; but hia daacnpIioB, w« tnj aay, wu 
1 betur deKribfid bj Boilaau, whoaa good laace fttt 

Un Autaur qualqnaTiila trop plain de ion obH 
Janiala aana I'apulaec n'lUndiinne un atijel. 
8>U raumre un palab II m'ln dapdni la (kca 
II ma Btoowno aprta de len-a™« en larraBe. 
Icii'tHFrt uri perron, lirafiw un corridor ^ 

And Ihen ha adda ao eicollcDI & < 

Tout ce nn'on diida otip eM hi 
L'Eaprll rawiM le rajeua k I'l 

iiibject, aod curioualf aniioui lo aei 
he moit elaboraia duplar of hia m 
[dWRtinumnrPLIRT. Wecanns« 

,,„ ,--. ...-J Imolhi elegant rer- 

TlicnMiliBg Bonawhal in Iha dtlifhl of Iho 
ila iniiili ; hul wa cannM wiih the wi ' 

nHHinmla. It ia n^ parthdce. u with Si Jnhii 
■ngenat; mf eat, ai nilh Pope StOrcgorT; mi 
og, aa whh St Domini'-k ; mr lamb, aa wiih Si 
a ; mj itreat black mMtilT, ai with Comeliua Aiiip- 

liiemered in Niceron thai thia Cathermol could 
get a printer, and war raiher compelled to atudy 
If in bj> two hundred quanoa cf four or ^ght pagei;. 
V wai of inferior qualir* ; and when he eoald not 

I lo promiie Ihe end at another lime, which did not 

haopfm^ But his rreaicTi aniiety waa lo publiafa I 

■ead hia worVa ; \d deaifair he adoplnd an odd eipe- 

WbRieTErMaii.irurCatherinolca.netoPari<,he ! 

haunt Ih'r fptaitt wher* hooka ar^ aold, and while ' 

eared to be looking orar ihem, be adroulr alkdnl i 

hbawndiaaenaiionaamondheiaoldbDoka. " ' 

a think of tboi* which, in Ir 




their length, but their happiness, which enter into our 
comprehension ; the imagination can only take in and keep 
together a very few parts of a picture. The pen must not 
intrude on the province of the pencil, any more than the 
pencil must attempt to perform what cannot in any shape 
be submitted to the eye, thoush fully to the mind. 

The great art, perhaps, of local description, is rather a 

general than a particular view ; the details must be left to 
ie imagination ; it is suggestion rather than description. 
There is an old Italian sonnet of this kind which I have 
often read with delight ; and though I may not communi- 
cate the same pleasure to the reader, yet the story of the 
writer IS most interesting, and the lady (for such she was) 
has the highest claim to he ranked, Uke the lady of Eve- 
lyn, among littrwry wive*. 

fVaneesca Turina BufaUni di Citta di CasUllo, of noble 
extraction, and devoted to literature, had a collection of 
her poems published in 1628: she frequently interspersed 
little domestic incidents of her female friend — her husband 
—her son— her grand-children ; and in one of these son- 
nets she has delineated her palace of San Gutsttno, whose 
k>calities she appears to have enjoyed with intense delight 
in the company of * her lord,' whom she tenderly asso- 
ciates with the scene. There is a freshness and simplicity 
in the description, which will perhaps convey a clearer 
notion of the spot than ever Pliny could do in the volumin- 
ous description of his viUa. She tells us what she found 
when brought to the house of her husband. 

Ample ralle, ample logfle, ampio cortile 

E stance ornate con gentil piuure, 

Troiiai giungendo, o nobili sculiure 

Di Marmo fane, dk scalpel non vile. 
Nobil giardin con un perpetuo Aprile 

Di varij fior, di fniui, e di verdure. 

Ombre soavi, acque a temprar i*arsure 

E strade di belili non dis»)mil« ', 
E non men forte ostel, che per fortezza 

Ha il ponte, e i fianchi, e In rirconda intorno 

Fosso profundo e di real larghezza 
Qui fei col mio Signore doico soggier no 

Con santo amor, con somma conlrntezza 

Onde ne bcnedico il mese e il giomo ! 

Wide halls, wide ealleries, and an ample court. 

Chambers adom'd by picture's soothrng charm, 

I found tog' ther blended ; noble sculpture 

In marble, polished by no chisel vile : 

A noble ganlen, where a lasting April 

All various flowers, and fruiu, and venlure showers ; 

Sod shades, and waters tempering the hot air ; 

And undulating paths, in equal beauty ! 

Nor less, the castled glory sunds in force. 

And bridged and flanked. And round its circuit winds 

The deepened moat showing a regal size. 

Here with my lord I cast my sweet sojourn. 

With holy k>ve, and with supreme content ; 

And hence I bless the month, and bless the day '. 


It sometimes happens in the history of national amuse- 
ments, that a name survives, while the thing itself is 
forgotten. This has been remarkably the case with our 
Court Masques, respecting which our most eminent wri- 
ters long ventured on so msny false opinions, with a per- 
fect Ignorance of the nature or these compositions, which 
combined all that was exquisite in the imiutive arts of po- 
etry, painting, music, sonr, dancing, and machinery, at a 
period when our public theatre was in its rude Infancy. 
Convinced of the miserable stale of our represented dra- 
ma, and not then T>ossessinc that more curious knowledge 
of their domestic history, which we delieht to explore, they 
were led into erroneous notions of one of the most gorgeous, 
the most fascinating, and the most poetical of dramatic 
amusements. Our present theatrical exhibitions arc in- 
deed on a scale to which the two-penny audiences of the 
barn-playhouses of Shakespeare could never have strained 
their sisnt ; and our picturesque and learned cosfvme, with 
the bril&ant changes of our scenery, would have maddened 
the * property-men* and the * tire-women' of the Globe or 
the Red Bull. Shakespeare himself never beheld the 
true maffical illusions of his own dramas, with * Enter the 
Rad Coat,* and * Exit Hat and Cloak,* helped out with 
* painted cloths ;' or, as a bard of Charles the Second's 
time chants,— 
But while the public theatre continued long in this con- 
Look bark and see 

The scranre vicicsinides of poeirie : 

Tour aged fathers csme to plays for wit. 

And sat kuee>deep in nut-soells in the pit 

tracted stale, without scenes, without dresses, without %m 
orchestra, the court displayed scenical and dramatic cx' 
hibitious, with such costly roagnihcence, such inventive 
tancy, and such miraculous art, that we may dr»ubi if the 
combined genius of Ben Jonscn, Inigo Junes, and Lawes 
or Ferobusco, at an era most favourable to the arts of in^ 
agination, has been equalled by the modem tpeeUtdt of th* 

But this circumstance had entirely escaped the know« 
ledge of our critics. The critic of a Masque must not 
only have read ii, but he must also have heard, and have 
viewed it. The only witnesses in this case are those let- 
ter-writers of the day, who were then accustomed to com- 
municate such domestic intelligence to their ab»ent friends i 
from such ample correspondence I have often drawn some 
curious and sometimes important information. It is amus- 
ing to notice the opinions of some great critics, bow Crooi 
an ori)iinal mis-statement they have drawn an lilegiti. 
mate opinion, and how one inherits from the other, the er. 
ror which he propagates. Warburton said on Ma»ques, 
that ^ Shakespeare was an enemy to the se/oo/eries, as ap- 
pears by his writing none.* This opinion was among the 
many which that singular critic threw out as they arose 
at the moment ; for Warburton forgot that Shakespeare 
characteristically introduces one in the Tempest's most 
fanciful scene. Granger, who had not much time to study 
the manners of the age whose personages he was so well 
acquainted with, in a note on Milton's Masque, said that 
* These compositions were triflime and perplexed aUcfo- 
ries ; the persons of which are fantastical to the last de- 
gree. Ben Jonson, in his " Masque of Christmas," has 
mtroduced *' Minced Pye" and " Babie Cake," wk^ct 
their parts in the drsma. But the must wretched peffvt' 
manee$ of iIhs kind could please by the help of music, ma- 
chinery, and dancing.' Granger blunders, describing by 
two farcical characters, a species of composition of wfaira 
farce was not the characteristic ; such personages as he 
notices would enter into the Aiiti-Mafque, which was a 
humorous parody of the more solemn Masque, and some- 
times relieved it. Malone, whose fancy was not vivid, 
condemns Masques and the age of Masques, in which he 
says, echoing Granger's epithet. < the wretched taaU of the 
times found amusement.' And lastly comes Mr Todd, 
whom the splendid fragment of the * Arcades,' and the 
entire Masque which we have by heart, could not warm ; 
while his neutralising, criticism fixes him at the freexinf 
point of the thermometer. * This dramatic entertainment, 
performed not without prodigious expense in machinery aM 
decoration, to which humour we certainly owe the enter- 
tainment of < Arcades,' and the inimitable * Mask of Co> 
mus.' Comus, however, is only a fine dramatic poem, 
retaining scarcely any features of the Masque. The only 
modern critic who had written with some research on th« 
departed elegance of the English drama was Wmrtoo, 
whose fancy responded to the fascination of the fairy-hke 
magnificence and lyrical spirit of the Masque. Warton hail 
the taste to give a specimen from 'the Inner Temple Mask, 
by "William Browne,' the pastoral poet, whose address to 
Sleep, he observed, * reminds us of some favourite toucben 
in Milton's Comus, to which it perhaps gave birth.* Yet 
even Warton was deficient in that sort of research, 
which only can discover the true nature of these singular 

Such was the state in which some years ago I found all 
our knowledge of this once favourite amusement of our 
court, our nobility, and our learned bodies of the four inns 
of court. Some extensive researches, pursued among coo- 
temporary manuscripts, cast a new light over the obscure 
child of fancy and magnificence. I could not think lightly 
of what Ben Jonson has called ' The eloquence of 
masques ;'— entertainments on which three to five thousand 
pounds were expended, and on more public occasions ten 
and twenty thousand. To the aid of the poetry, compos- 
ed by the ^nest poets, came the most skilful musicians, and 
the most elaborate mechanists; Ben Jonson and Inigo 
Jones and Lawes, blended into one piece their respective 
genius ; and Lord Bacon and Whitelocke and Selden, who 
sat ill committees for the last great Masque presented to 
Charles the First, invented the devices; composed the 
procession of the Masquers and the Anti-Masquers ; while 
one took the care of the dancing or the brawlers, and White- 

^ Rinee this srtlcte was written, our theatres have attempted 
several scenes in the style of these Coun-Ma^uee, withaomi- 
i rable success hi the machinery. 



^ loeke the music ; — the sage Whitelocke ; who has chroni- 
- d«d his self-compiacency on this occasion, by claiming the 
iBveniion of a Coranto, which for thirty years afterwards 
~ was the delight of the nation, and was blessed by the name 
of'Whitelocke's Coranto,' and which was always called 
^ Ibr, two or three times over, whenever that great states- 
' Buui *came to see a play!'* So much personal honour 
' wms considered to be mvolved in the conduct of a Masque, 
that even this committee of illustrious men was on the 
* point of being broken up by too serious a discussion coo- 
eeming precedence ; and the Masque had nearly not taken 
place, till they hit on the expedient of throwing dice to de- 
cide 00 their rank in the procession ! On this jealousy of 
honour in the composition of a Mask, I discovered, what 
hitherto had escaped the knowledge, although not the cu- 
riosity, of literary inquirers ;— 4he occasion <m the memora- 
ble eatnity between Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones, who had 
hitherto acted together with brotherly affection; *acir> 
eumstance,' says Mr GifTord, to whom I communicated it, 
'not a little intportant in the history of our calumniated 
poet.* The trivial cause, but not so in its consequences, 
was the poet prefixing his own name before that of the 
architect, on tne title-page of a Masque, which hitherto 
bad only been annexea ; so jealous was the great architect 
of his part of the Masque, and so predominant his power 
and name at court, that he considered his rights invaded 
by the inferior claims of the poet ! Jonson has poured out 
the whole bitterness of his soul, in two short satires ; stU 
more unfortunately for the subject of these satires, thej 
provoked Inigo to sharpen his pen on rh3rme ; but it is 
edgeless, and the bitmt composition still lies in its manu- 
waryt sta^e. 

while thesA researches had engaged my attention, ap- 
peared Mr Gifibrd's Memoirs of Ben Jonson. The cha- 
racteristics of masques are there, for the first time, elabo- 
rately opened with the clear and penetrating spirit of that 
ablest of* our dramatic critics. I feel it like presumption to 
add to what has received the finishing hand of a master ; 
but his jewel is locked up in a chest, which I fear is too 
rarely opened, and he will allow me to borrow something 
from its splendour. 'The Masque, as it attained its highest 
degree of excellence, admitted of dialo^nie, singing, and 
dancing ; these wnre not independent of one another, bat 
combined, by the introduction of some ingenious fable, into 
an harmonious whole. When the plan was formed, the 
aid of the sister arts was called in ; for the essence of the 
nasque was pomp and glory. Moveable scenery of the 
most costly and splendid kino was lavished on the masque ; 
the most celebrated masters were employed on the songs 
and dances ; and all that the kingdom uTorded of vocal and 
faistrumental excellence was employed to embellish the ex- 
hibition. Thus magnificently constructed, the masque 
was not committed to ordinary performers. It was com- 
posed as Lord Bacon says, for princes and by princes it 
was played. Of these masques, the akill with which their 
<Mtiaments were designed, and the inexpressible grace 
with which they were executed, appear to have left a vivid 
impression on tne mind of Jonson. His genius awakes at 
ooce, and all his faculties attune to sprightliness and plea- 
sure. He makes his appearance, like his own Delight, 

* accompanied with Gh^ce, Love, Harmony, Revel, Sport, 
and Laughter.* 

' In curious knot and maxes sc 
The spring at first was taught to go ; 
And Zephyr, when he came to woo 
His Flora had his motions f too ; 
And thus did Venus learn to lead 
The Idalian brawls, and so to tread 
As If the wind, not she, did walk, 
Nor pressed a flower, nor bow*d a stalk. 

And in what was the taste of the times wretched V con- 
tinues Mr Gifford, in reply to Messieurs Malone, and the 
rest, who had never cast even an imperfect glance on what 
«oe of the completest gentlemen of that age has called, 

• The courtly recreations of gallant gentlemen and ladies 
of honour, striking to exceed one the other in their mea- 
aores and changes, and in their repast of wit, which have 
been beyond the power of Envy to disgrace.' But in 
what was ' the taste of the times wreiehed ? In poetry, 
painting, architecture, they have not since been equalled : 

♦ The rouste of Whitelocke's Coranto is preserved In 'Hawk- 
tn'i History of Musk: ;* might it be restored for the ladies as a 
walls .' 

t The figures and actions of dancen in masques were called 

and it ill becomes us to arraign the taste of a period which 
possessed a cluster q£ writers of whom the meanest would 
now be esteemed a prodigy.* I have been carried farther 
in this extract tiian I intended, by the force of the current, 
which hurries Malone down from our sight, who, fortunate- 
ly for his ease, did not live to read this denouncement for 
his objection against masques, as * bungling shows ;' and 
which Warburton treats as ' fooleries ;* Granger as 
wretched performances ,** while Mr Todd regards them 
merely as * the humour of the times !' 

Masques were often the private theatricals of the fami- 
lies of our nobility, performed by the ladies and gentlemen 
at their seats ; and were splendidly got up on certain occa- 
sions ; such as the celebration of a nuptial, or in compliment 
to some great visiter. The Mask of Gomus was composed 
by Milton to celebrate the creation of Charles the First as 
Prince c^ Wales ; a scene in this Mask presented both the 
castle and the town of Ludlow, which proves, that al- 
though our small public theatres had not j^et displayed any 
of the scenical illusions which long afterwards Davenant 
introduced, these scenical eflfects existed in great perfec- 
tion in the Masques. The minute description introduced 
by Thomas Campion in his ' Memorable Mask,* as it is 
called, will convince us that the scenery must have been 
exquisite and fanciful, and that the poet was always a 
watchful and anxious partner with tne machinist ; with 
whom sometimes, however, he had a quarrel. 

The subject of this very rare mask was ' The Night and 
the Hours.' It would be tedious to describe the first scene 
with the fondness with which the poet has dwelt on it. It 
was a double valley ; one side, with dark clouds banging 
before it ; on the other, a green vale, with trees, and nine 
golden ones of fifteen feet nigh ; from which grove, towards 
* the State,' or the seat of Uie king, was a broad descent 
to the dancing place : the bower of Flora was on the 
rieht, the house of Night on the left ; between them a 
hill hanging like a din over the grove. The bower of 
Flora was spacious, garnished with flowers, and flowery 
branches, with lights among them ; the house of Nifht 
ample and stately, with black columns studded with golden 
stars ; within, nothing but clouds and twinkling stars ; 
while about it were placed, on wire, artificial bats and 
owls, c<Mntinually movmg. As soon as the king entered 
the great hall, the hautboys, out of the wood on the top 
of the hill, enteruined the Ume, till Flora and 2iephyr 
were seen busily gathering flowers from tlie bower, throw- 
ing them into baslcets which two silvans held, attired in 
changeable taffety. The song is light as their fingers, but 
the burden is charming : 

Now hath Flora robb'd her bowers 
To befriend this place with flowers ; 

Strow about ! strow about ! 
Divers, divers flowers affect 
For some private dea^ respect ; 

Strow about ! strow about ! 
But he's none of Flora*s friend 
That will not the rose commend \ 

Sirow about ! strow about ! 

I cannot quit this masque, of which coflectors know the 
the rarity, without preserving one of thotie Doric delica- 
cies, of which, perhfl^is, we have outlived the taste ! It is 
a playful dialog^ue between a Silvan and an Hoar, while 
Night appears in her house, with her long black hair 
spangled with gold, amidst her Hours ; their faces bladt, 
and each bearing a lighted black torch. 

Silt Air. Tell me, gentle Hour of Ni^ht, 

Wherein dost thou roost delight? 
Hour. Not in sleep ! 
SiLTAir. Wherein then? 

HouR« In the frolic view of men ! 
Silt Air. Lov'st thou music ? 
Hour. Oh! 'tis sweet! 

SiLv Air. What's dancing ? 
Hour. E'en the mirth of feet. 

Silt Air. Joy you in faines and in'elves? 
Hour. We are of that sort ourselves ! 

But, Silvan ! say, why do you kive 

Only to frequent the grove? 
SiLTAjr. Life is fullest of content 

When delight is innocent. 
Hour. Pleasure must vary, not be long ; 

Come then, let's close, and end the song ! 
That the moveable scenery of these nmsques formed as 
perfect a scenial illusion as any that our own age, with all 


Tiisd bi 1ho« who h»e nad ihfl few inuaiiu which h»e lidlT idJut« Um aufiiificcuce, iha dchdi 
tHcD primed. Thty uiusUy conlriitd a Joubl* inmaaof I wgrld oomni W Uu iprcl.iori. So IiiOb 
ths Kens : one pari oaa fuiaome lime conc-aled rmm Ihc ler of mnc maaquos knoirn, Ihal alt our 
apecialor, "hich produHd lurpnie and TariMT. Tliua, in ' haic faiiin inio lapeaied blund^-n, and u 
iCe Lord'a Muk ai Ihe niuiii(e of Ibe hlaiino. ' --'■ — -: -> >--- -- ■-- 

wood in perapPthTP, rhBinnermoi 
c« Ifaa nirhl a Ihickel^ from whjc 

trd Ori.h«ui 
n fall oTa c 

"aTC^rUie >l 

While Ihia cloud n 
rndsr pari of iha actna, vaa uu 
|Rnp<icii>e iio« opened, wilh po 
and fcmale lUluei of ailier, aco 
mam* of archiieciure, GUinr ihe end 
DHiKeui. and leened all of foldim 
men of Promolhou. deicended froi 
•nier of Jupiler Inmed itiem acian ii 
dent, 100, thai Itw ■>» oTlht proacrni 
■iih Ihs maiaiAcence of thg acent 
daacrilMd, ' and changeable coortn 

nl ofinifHialAre played aboui ihehouae 

he mufic of a full K>ni ; and si Ihe end 
le cloud broke in Iwain, and one part rf 

«,blj el 

for I find chnno 
cei of Ihs aoni,' 
e ibao (<>nj diflarr 

■ iimj>iicii)r, ne£lij[eace. or conapiracjr.* Hurdf a cold 
Blemalic cnlie, Ibcaighl ho iDi}>hl sarvLj (vofer the niaaqUB 
Iha Trmpeat, u ■ puilini! lo ehaiH all the maiqiiFi of 
maiHi, nol only in in eon^rfeC'iBii, bin in ihe nJAdavr of 
lahuwj' — 'which,' nddii Mr Gifard, 'wai danced and 

Aad BOW, ID eloae out 
maaquea, let ne apply the GfciUe etyle of Ben Jooaoo 
hiniHir: ' The ilory of all the» lolemniiiei had periihed 
lilie a blaie, and «neoal inihebehulder'aerii ; loihgri- 
lived an iJte hodiea of all iningi in compuieon of (heir 

De> Maiieaui w(> an aciin hleniy man uf hii dar, 
whoae connriioni witli Baylr, 9l Eirrmond, Lockx, and 
Tolasd, »iih hii name tet off by an F. R. 3. haee oeo. 

aownf their 'honimaa illuilrcf.' Of bi< prirale bmrj 
I nothing: leenia known. Havinf aomeihing impwiaftt la 
I communicaio reapvclintf one of bit fneiada, a far freaiar 

:tural di 

aliona ^ ere the pride of Ini^Jonei 

1 alt the rert of ihe 

not him of hia due, but lay ihe blame on my warn of 
appro hendim hia initrucliona, for the oivrvif of hia 

I kftnt of adinira- 
-B cT Ihal day, who 

la, and which Mr. Oiflbrd had preiei 

Maiieaoi bccomn 
Ha wai one oflh 


refuse., whom polilinl 

of inlole 

-ance, had dHvea to 0« 

plion of L 

oui. XIV. which aoppUed 

uawiih ourakWw 

orker. h) > 

k.alao produced a race of 

proved n 

11 lobe aa eiquiaite in Iha 

hand icral) of book, m 

aku^; aoe 

-ereitfonwT, £*Ci*, 


<her>. On 

llwl lender suie of 

In lime Id beeonte halTia 

(piadeauflho iwo ( 

7 nalinda of Europe, that 

hia pen. 


ecriple, which 1 hat 

Ihal it wai mere aecidart 


en laile, witboiil nnctar 

H^ of hia (tvle were luS. 

or <i>m, Ihe iinip)i<;i 

^ and' flue 


iheflr.tmaiiqw,'t&c. Thi<'lu 


ll HI 


very nufical effect, ih 

greal poal 


>er hand bal hia own! 


Hi rivalled InlEnJnnea, 



ii(hl a (Toa 

pnel. w 



fanciea w 

re .noil) br the huntlinl machi 


., 'Theer 



y diatvned. 

and ai happily pm in ut 



'.he kin,'. 




I moat ner 




bote much of the iipbi<nnhe»t 


lo their 

nencil.' P 

Kir Campion, in one of h 


deH:nbini where th 



e placed iin 

er Ihe ilafe. and in ain 


open, and ihs maei) 

era apjwa. out at I heir in 


Ihia TiiidiciiTo mar 



lanni I 

of the in 

they had 

been ahowc 

mi were 

Id Ihe aam 

niahl:' that ia, Ihov'" 



the rehearaal. and failed in the rej 

«i have perpleied the nine maaqoe™ 

on the 




Bui inch accidenta wen 


t IM WBoTi'i Jnuon', toI. ill, p. n. 

lUervuB i liierarf anecdoiaa, ciirinuBq(KMatic«f,Dotice«af 
obacure bookn, and all Ihat tuprllrt which mwl eater iMo 
Ihe hiiTory of liieraTure, wiihoiii fonninf a hiiiory. Tb«H 
liitle th inn? which did lo well of ihemaelvea. inilioiK aay 
eooneiioo wiih any ihin| clae, became invial whn Ihev 
auumed ihe form of Toluminoua mintileneaii and Dea 

Wiihlhii lort of laleni he praduced a cowoua life of B«;1e, 
in which he told etery ihian ho poaaibly could { and Hk 

ii he ■ inavouifaulitoumiiBoUiinE. and* wrilar 
lo be dr5cienl In Ihe detelnpnienl of charaeler. and thit 
■ympaihy which Ifarowi inipiralinn over the Tivi(yin)r paf* 
of bveriphy, rei, to admit every thini baa ihu menl— 
lhat we are iiire to God whal we want ! Warburmi doi- 

and wilh Ihe irapaiieni vincity of hia i 

'Aimed all 
ra we ha«e had before Toland and Dei Mai. 
1 aro indeed alranie. inhpid Grealurea; andyevlb^ 
^rread ihaworal oflhcin.Ihan be nUiaed id id throufta 
Ihs of Millon'a, «r ihe olher*! life of Boileau ; whers 

lereaUnf! paaaagea, Ihal it makea their — ^-' -'■- 

enuabook wiihoiila life; fW 
u, anerallhiilediauainirr 
:h in ihe employ of ihe Dutch 
" — - Iho liienuT 

what do we know cTBiHlea 
Dei Miiteaui waa much in Ihe 

bookartlen. then Ihe freat monnp 
marl of Europe. HeauppUed Iheir 

in IhoH dart. I ham aeen annual accninU of Dea Man** 
1, for foiirorfiie pounda ; and yel ba 

lent Ihe ■ N'ov. 

H- held a conndenlial cc 

Duleh bookMllan, who Co 


.. iT« nlwnd tktm thvi hi 

^ h« gal only ■ Sew tonat u RotlBrdua, Ifa< 

LhDU dajii, wtiich perbip* «rt 
, — — ,.- . •iiihor Mould aliro ippeal toi 
CvTifB JI1UR41 fot the comntrndbJJon ht' inij^ht Cvl in ol> 

4»a OBtf, Ihftl, lih« OLhrr BEDUgfElfed coaiiDudiU' 
op UTick* was a4(«n of home nukOufkeUiry ! 

l™l..e from hVB«i««rip.7..lrr. InS'L-k-T^H^ l«™pl.l« en<.<l-d 'L.-ine,' .h>eh »u 

■e^m. jou™1,«K!I hnpe <hi> HWood p>n iHU Kim -^.l^ l^'rTi^ ■,;."'* '^"'' "t^^:' ^ 

W-; h. -m„i p«i., wr)l, .nd ran.. pu«Uy -h.i h. ^J"^,"?" J'™''-": ■"r"''"",'""' f" ""!"! "ywlf"" 
I ihiioccuiMi H- '""/''■*" ""r'" W*"^- •*!"> ■" aJmnenl iM, I 

■■■f AT firwidi, 1 wi 

il h« ehould m 
tekiw that ht it Oirn 
ilone would bn iufficiei 

It the De /jmirri who 

^■ay Mrs, be liTed imoniit Ihem, rrom ' Oritur' Hm- 
'n. nf to AddiHio. Lord Hilifii, ind AnlhDny CoJIim. 
I Cod a nniHu t^BrHUroT our DriMinsPiui in >he 
taHl-*ntia( of Ediwit, Earl of Oiford, u> i>h«« fiihtr 
(Plpi'l EvI of Oifont] and himaeir. Iha lulkm ovei the 
Barlriui treuurei. Hii [ordihip ii i rhtic with hi|ch 
T*rw priaeiplea, ud hifh-church no^ona. 'Thn 1>« 

II he had II 

i"n on oc«-ioD of ThuiiMM'i 
njiiaiiiied with inr preaenl db> 

hirtarv rri.wb oT Dn Mti- 
f rankiHj Aalhniiy Cnllimi, a 

whn in* coniimird r.«rr>|>oftJmr.! wiifa Mir I.friMaW 
train irfBH'd hm t* hit riicid. ai.d •fnjilnvod him m hia 
went in lib litrrar.r nareriH. TlifK a iltp tiantlinn rf 
an eiienrivtf Miraiy. wrni in ■ Mai' of nmprlual acllTilT, 
and CalliB< was fucfa a IriH lurrr nf hm brnkn, iha( be 
dm* Of ihe nialoTM "ith h» own opn.I Anlhni* Col- 
liM wriHo Mtfiral irHl-limiwii worln withnii prefiifnf bia 

on loair i.h».'urr and poltmu'al pmnli. ht incurred iha 
odium nf a/rwlh'nier. i_tirni mbi^h ihrn hreao 

h the Frrn"l 

....... ......J'rll/'"'- 


hit pemmul characu.r indr|iFndenl; btjt 

tnMab in the dark, till Ihe tame hrrame hcrcdh 
iih trmr. I iha'l menlinn a fan rf Ihit ciurt bi- 

le rriend chanctnbiic of an 
ot be deemed unpatrmiied. ret whole 
^tmr. ■lirr an ■• painful Uboun, miiht be nuerled in 
mw CaliBRiHarAutbDrL' 

Aeoun like Baile; hannc wriiwn ihr liCof Bavl", 

.. . « Siiowlf a Bajk : >o ihuit u 

niDii! He had pubtiihed, a. a 
d Cbillin(<rarth. He 

fl polisbrd > 
ttfaf'.Ihal Dr Bi 

TJh> latr Mr. Cna. 

IraordiBanrfaM.Ihal Dr Rntkir, whn to ablr renlini b* 
hi> ' R.'maik<.' iindrr the nam- 'if niilrJ.'iilbrru* Lipden- 

in 1 menti 

•ce. In 

• T(i rJen niiDuKh writer of kime meril, andflnenfa 
ten-T ki-a orhmnkm men, cnnrinin; uf i^allniini. Xi Hva- 
Ti^. Pt.p*>.t Mairhaod, ht, whn rarrt^t nn a umiirf revww 
W ^Vw JiTi. piMlibnl at lb* H*(tM iindrrihr liil- nf ' Jinir. 
H. LnpraiiT.' Th^ all tompoHd In French i and VanKITcn 
fa>r -jtc *«■ tranalaitom of aor GiiaidliB. HoUnun Cruine, 

■ar . he jvemiiad to ImhHe the Pper4aiar, in hi' ■ L« Ml- 
Ki' inpr.- ITiifwhich »hlMU ■ l4cliin of Ihg uiiliiIrreMine 
au-maofi natlBM, when hacoaMnimnaliaTrriilivdt. 
Di L>BMn haa h>4 kta nane alin^ |nln mir bincrxplilcal 
■ (be hiality nfthe alpha. 

, Ihil thii perion coald nrTrr hat* bets 
^.okmy Collin,, who bad alwaTa a plentiful fbrlDiM; 
and whrnitwRR ■uei'Mpd to bin ihaithia 'A. Collini,' 
ai hr printed it. mutt bare brrn Arthur Collini the hialorr. 

he peni^pd in aendini; the lie down lo poftertty, Mi^eil 

inmlnal pennon waa 5«, "A_per illem ■ 
I irlevoiBly reduced, wl 

I. If a 

Re »• mrm in aa a. 

brrinlT^— «lDin''a> 


ill maJeitr'aprlTrcbaB- 


■houbl be rnMtrmt«l,aDd ihat alw iboaU be iheMz 
of Tiolaiing wbat is bmsi sacred. IT our lur faa 
desifined Uiat bis BISS diould remain n ifecr ha 
would certsiolj have \eh '.hem to ber br hu jiei 
testsinrni : his sclinj; oiherwisc U an evVdva: pni 

csii in ihis preiieni diflAcrion of mimi : and I &' 
self thai the mutual otccm and friendship wfaxs I 
linued so inanv vc-ars betwern IVIr Coliin* SM * 

vtr6u, without alieratioii in hw srcond <:dition, observing 
tu a fnciid of niiue, that * the fti>ry, whilr it told well, 
might serve a« a sirikin!; invtAncf of his great relative's 
generosity ; and that it shimlJ Mtand. bi-cause it cou'sd do 
no harm loany but Antltmtu Cr>i>iiu, whom he considered 

as little short of an aUieist/ :?o much for this pious fraud! I was not his intentionT 
but be It reoHiected thai thu Antiiony C«.iliti>s was tlie | A'i this 1 proposed to represent to ber m tbt ■ 
confideniul friend oi Locke, of whrnn L'>«'ke >aid. on his \ spectlui manner; but you wih do ii itfinitdr : 
dying bed, that * Citllnis was a man wnnm he valued in the 
first rank of those that he left behind hiio.' And ilie Isr*. 
words ut Collins on h>s own deatti-bed were, that * he W4S 
persuaded hs was foing to that plare which God had de- make \ou reaaiiy embrace whatever lends to M 
Bii;ned for them that love hinu' The cause t-f true reli- ; tuem<iry. 

gioii will never be assinted by usiii>; such leaky vessels as i I scud you the fifty guineas I received, whickl 
Cumbert(uur» wilful calumnie*, which in the end must run | U>ok upon as the wages of iniijuiry ; and I denrt v 
out, and be found, like the present, mere empty fictions! | mm iheni to Mrs Collins, who, as I liope it ol hs 
An extraordinary arcumstance iMxiirred on the deatli of equity and regard to Mr Collinses intentions, wiik 
Anihony Collins, He left behind him a considerable to cancel my paper, 
number of his own manuscripts, and there was one colleo I am, &c, 

tHNi formed into oisht octavo volumes ; but that they might P. Dks Ma 

be secured from the common fate of manuscripts, he be- The manuscripts were never returned to DrsM 

Jueath.'d them all, and ciifided them to the care of our f^,. s^ven years afterwards Mrs Collins, who *; 
)es Matieaiiz. The choice of Coliins reflect* honour on j ^,^^4. \^^^ ^ ^^.^y gpiriied ladv. addressed M 
the characternfDesMuizeaux, yet he proved unworthy of I fo.|„«ine letter on the subject of a reiwrt. thai 
11! He tiutfered himself 10 betray hiMriist, practiced on by | p^miiticd tran«:ripls of these very mairusrrus 
Ihe earnest dt sire of the widow, and pirhaoi by the arlicol . abroad. This occasioned an aniinaied corres 
a Mr Tom.inson, wiio appearir to have been introiiucrd [ f^^^^ ]y^^^^ sides. 

into the family by the recommi niiaii'in of Dean £?ykc:(, 

whom at length hu KUppiaiileil. and whom the widuw to 

save her reputation, wa.-i afterwards ohiiged to discard.* 

In an unguarde J moment he relimjui«hed thin precioiM U- 

gae^oftkt manuscriplty and acci'piid^/l[jf i^inca»a» aprt' 

srni. But if De# Msizeaux lo^t ins honour in ihi.<$ iran>ai> 

tion, he waM at heart an honest man, who had swerved fur 

a single moment ; his consKTieucc was sixm awakeutd, and ._. _._ „ 

he eiperienced the most vio>nl compunctions. It was ui a j is'was desired, biil caH on vou in this inamier 

paroxysm of this nature that he addre«^^ , vkhat auihority you had for ii'uch a reflection; 01 

grounds you went on for saying that these irai» 
in the Bi>liop of Londoirs hands. 1 am det* 

^ir, March 10. 1 

I !iavc thus lone waited in exoeciatrno 
would ere this have called on Dean Sykes. as Sii 
said you iiitcnd*-d, that I nughl have iiad some si 
in reiaiion to a very unjust reproach, vis., that I, 
bodv ihailiiat!iru>'.ed, had betrnytd s«iiiieoriKet 
or MSS, of Mr C(»iiins into the Buhop of I^ooda 
I cannot therefore, since vou have not been wiib 

trace out the ground* of ;uch a report : and tou 

ter to a mutual friend of the late Anthony Collins aniniim- 

Sir, January 6, 1730. 

I am very g\id to hear vou are come to town, and ' friend of mine, no friend (»f Mr Ctillins, no fnci 

a« vou are my best Iriend, now \ have lost Mr Coiling, ^ive mon |iisiice, if you refuitc to acquaint me what I 

me' leave to oihmi my heart to you, and to heir your a^Mst- 1 you had for such a charge. I desire a verv apse 

ance m an aflair wh^ich hishly concern^ both Mr Collin.o's . to thiit, who am, Sir, 

(your friend) and my own honour arid reputation. I'he | Your servant, 

case, in few words, standit thus: Mr Cuilins hy his last | Eliz. C< 

will and testament kft me hi* mnnuscnpts. Mr Tomlin- ; To Mr De* Maizrmuc, at hialoHg' 

son, who first acquainted me wi;h it, told me that Mrs Col- ; ing$ nert door tu tht Quakrr's bu- 

lins should be clad to hav-^ them, and I made them over to rying-grxmiui, Hanov<r*tLrtttyOut 

her; whcreu|KHi she wa* pleased to presen' me with tifiy of Ijmt; Acre* 

guineas. I desired her at the same time to take care they To A/nt ColUfit. 

should be kepi sa'e and unhurt, which she promiwd to do. * 2^far^ \ 

Thi* was dime the 2oth of la*! month. Mr Tomiiuson, I had the honour of vour letter of the 

who manact d all th;? affair, wis prcyenl. , ,nd as I find that someihinc has been niipanpr 

Now, havinz furth-r o»ii»ideri'd that matter. I find that = bep leave to set ihis matter right. 

I have done a nmsl wnked thing. I am perjiiiaded that I ; B*ing latelv with somr honnurahle prr<nn9 ] 

have betrayed the trust of a person who tor S6 years has it had bem rt'i-orted that s-me of Mr CV MSS ' 

Civeu me continual m'tanee^ c.f hi<f frit-ndohip and cunii- into the hand^ of t^trancers, and that I ^hould 

dence. I am ronvuic-d that 1 have ac ed ciuiirary to the rert-ive from \ou puch information as might en 

will and intentmnff mv dear deceased friend ; showed a di:«!irove that report. "What occasi'>ned this si 

di!iregard \o the particular mark of ejiteem he gave me on what |>articu1ar MSS were meant, I was not 1 
that occasion ; in shrnl. that I have forfeited what is dearer I cover : so I was left to mv own conjectures, whi 
to me than my own iife— honour and repuraimn. . serious consideration, induced me to believe thi 

The*e m-lancholy thou^hnhave made »n j.reai an impres- relate to ihe MSS in eight v.ilumes in 8vo. of n 

sion upon me, that I prot»-st to you I can enjoy no re.«t ; i» a transcript. But as the original and the trai 

they haunt me every where, day and night. I earnestly b*-- m voiir possession, if vou please, madam, to con 

C reserve th-m than myself: and that, as the library was I in voi'ir'hands, and that the report is false and s 

ft to her. they might nalnraliv go along wuh it. Besides, 1 All thi^ I take the libertv to offer out of the sinni 

I thought I could n'»i tr^o much c.i-r.ply with the desire of a ' I alwavs professed for vou, and for the memorv. 

lady to whom I have so many oWigaHons. But I see now i jjn^, to' whom I have eildeavotircd to do justice" c 

clearly thit thi* is not fuifil'ing Mr Collins»« will, and that : sions, and particularlv in the memoirs that have I 

the duties of our con«ci«-nce are superior to all other re- I use of in the General Dictionarv : and I hope 

Ifard"*. But it w in her tiower to fvgive and mend what I ' concern fur his reputaii. n will further appear wl 

have done imnnidentlv, hut with a go-^ inti>ntion. H«t I lish his life. 

high sense of vir'tie and generrnity will not, I am sure, let Sir, Atril i 

her take any advantage of my weakness : and the tender My ill state of health has hindered m 

regird she ha« fir ih- memory of th*- best of men, and the knowledging' sooner the receipt of VMirs, froo 
tenderesi **( husbands, will not suffer that hi.t inren'ion^ hoped for some «aticfartinn in relation to your 
• Thi« mfonn«t?»n i< frpm a nfK^ found anionc D(:s M.^l- which 1 cannot hut thmk mv«e1f vrrv deeply < 
-ns'« pap<>r« ; bm K.< truth I ha»s no mianfltn aKert-in. You tel! m«' ih»w. that vo»i wa* left tn vmir own c 



p«nicn)ar M8S wer« rtpoitcd lo Imv« fallen intotlw 

of arrangers, and that upon a terioni coiwideratioB 

was induced to believe that it mi^ht relate to theMSS 

iin et^ht vols. 8vo, of ^tncli thrre Has a transcript, 

~ I must het; of} ou to satisfy me very explicitly who were 

iho persons that repuricd iliis to you, tnd from whom did 

'yen receive thi:; information / You know that Mr Cothnu 

left several MSS behind him ; what grounds had vuu for 

your conjecture that it related to the MSS in eight vds. 

imlber than to any other MSS of which there wu a tran- 

•cript? I beg that you will be yrvry plain, and tell me 

what strangers were named to you ? and why yoti said the 

Bishop of London, if your informer, said stranger to you? 

I am so much concerned in this, that I must repeat it, if 

jou have the singular respect for Mr Collins wnich you 

profess, that you would help me to trace out this reproach, 

which is so abusive to, 


Your Servant, 

Eliz. Collirs. 
TV Mrs CoUina. 
I flattered myself that my last letter would have 
satisfied you, but I have the mortification to see iliat my 
bopes were vain. Therefore I beg leave once more to 
aet this matter right. When I told you what had been 
reported, I acted, as I thought, the part of a true friend, by 
acrquainting you that some of your MSS had been pur- 
tomed, m order that you might examine a fact which to 
me appeared of the last consequence; and I verily believe 
that every body in my case would have expected thanks for 
auch a friemliy information. But instead of that, I find 
myself represented as an enemy, and challenged to pro- 
duce proofs and witne»ses of a thing dropt in conversation, 
a hear-say, as if in those cases people kept a register of 
what I hey hear, and entered the names of the persons 
who spoke, the time, place, &c, and had with them per- 
sons ready to witness the whole, tec. I did own I never 
thought of such a thing, and whenever I happened to hoar 
that some of my friends had some loss, I thought it my 
duty to acquaint them with such report, that they might in- 
quire into the matter, and see whether there was any 
ground for it. But I never troubled myself with the names 
of the [>er8on* who spoke, as being a thing entirely need- 
less and unprofitable. 

Give me leave farther to observe, that you are in no 
way concenud in the matter, as you seem to be apprehen- 
sive you are. Suppose some MSS have been taken out 
of Tour library, who will say you ought to bear the guilt of 
\l1 What man in his senses, who has the honour to know 
you, will say you eave your consent to such thing — that 
you was privy to it ? How can you then take upon your- 
self an action to which you was neither privy and con- 
senting? Do not such lhing<« happen every day, and do 
the I'Mers think themsdvrs injured or ainutd when they 
are talked of 7 Is it impossible to be betrayed by a person \ 
we confided in / ' ' 

You call what I told you was a report, a surmise ; yo<i 
call it, I say, an infifrmatum^ and spt-ak of informera as 
if there wax a plot laid, wherein I rrn-ivcd the informa- 
tion : I thought I had the honour to be b«'tter known to 
you. Mr Collins loved me and estpemed me for my in- 
tegrity and sincerity, of which he had sevt ral proofs ; how 
I have been drawn in to injure him, to forfeit the good 
opinion he had of me, and which, were he now alive, 
would deservedly exp<»se me to hiH iitmo«it contempt, is a 
grief which I shall carry to the grave. It would be a sort 
of comfort to me, if those who have ronnented I should be 
drawn in were in some measure sensible of the guilt to- 
wards so good, kind, and generous a man. 

Thus we find that tmm years after £)es Maizeaux had 
inconsiderately betrayed his sacred trust, his remorse was 
still awake ; and the sincerity of hit> grief is attested by 
the aflfecting style which describes it : the spirit of bis de- 
parted friend seemed to be hovering about him, and, in his 
imagination, would haunt him to the grave. 

The nature of the»e manuscripts ; the cause of the 
eament desire of retaining them by the widow ; the evident 
unfriendliness of her conduct to Des Maizeaux ; and whether ■ 
these manuscripts, consisting of eight octavo volumes 
with their transcripts, were destroyed, or are still existing, 
are all circumstances, which my researches hare hithsrto 
DOC ascertained. 


Neology, or the novelty of words and phrases, is an in- 

novation, which, with the opulescs of our present language, 
the English philologer is most jealous to a low ; but we 
have puritans or precisans of Englihh,superstiiioii*ly nice ! 
The fantastic coinage of ati'ectaiion or caprice will cease 
to circulate from its own alloy ; but shaH we reject the ore 
of fine workmanship and solid weight ? There is no go- 
vernment mini of words, and it is no statutable offVnce to 
invent a felicitous or daring expression unauthorized by 
Mr Todd ! When a man of genius, m the heat of his 
pursuits or his feelings, has thrown out a peculiar word, it 
probably conveyed more precision or energy than any 
other established word, otherwise he is but an ignorant 
pretender ! 

Julius Ciesar, who, unlike other great captains, is autho- 
rity in words as well as about blows, ^rote a large treatise 
on 'Analogy,' in which that fine genius counselled to 
* aToid every unusual word as a rock !** The cautious 
Quintilian, as might be expected, opposes all innovation 
m language. * If the new vrord is well received, small 
is the glory ; if rejected, it raises laughter.*! This only 
marks the penury of his feelings in this species of adven* 
ture ! The great legislator of 'words, who lived when his 
own language was at its acme, seems undecided, yet 
pleaded for this liberty. * Shall that which the Romans 
allowed to Cccilius and to Plautus be refused toVirgil and 
Varius V The answer to the question might not be fa- 
vourable to the inquirer. While a language is forming, 
writers are applauded for extending its limits ; when esta- 
blished, for restricting themselves to them. But this is 
to imagine that a perfect language can exist! The good 
sense and observation of Horace perceived that there may 
be occasions where necessity must become the mother of 
invented words : 

-fli forte nocesse est 

Indciis monstrare recentribus ub«lita rerum. 

If you write of things abstniw or new, 
Some of your own inventing may be used, 
So it be seldom and discreetly done. 


But Horace's canon for deciding on the legality of the 
new invention, or the standard by which it is to be tried, 
will not serve to a&sist the inventor of words : 

-lieu it, semperque licebH, 

Signatuni priBsente iiota prucudere uummum.| 

— an uniJ imputed power 

Of coining money from the rn»ed ore. 

Nor less of coiiiin« words is still confesc, 

If with a ]e{;al public rtamp imprest. 

This prascM nota^ or public stamp, can never be affixed 
to any new coinage of words ; for many received at a sea- 
son have perishtMi wiih it. The privilege of stampins 
words is reserved for their greatest enemy— Time itself! 
and the inventor of a new word must never flatter himself 
that he has secured the public adoption, for he must lie in 
his grave before he can enter the dictionary. 

In Wjllfl's address to the readrr, prefixed to the collec- 
tion of voyages published in 1577, he finds fault with 
Eden^s translation from Peter Martyr, for using words that 
i>melt too much of the Latine.* We should scarcely have 
expected to find among them yondermue, portenUmse,,de9pi' 
coo/e, obaetpiiouSf homicide, imhihed, drutructivt, prodigioua. 
The only words he quotes, not thoroughly naturalized, are 
dominatorg, ditionarie*, (subjects,) aolicitute^ (careful.) 

The Taller, No, 230, introduces several polyiiyilables 
introduced by military narrations, * which, (he says,) if 
they attack us too frequently, we shall certainly put them 
to flight, and cut off the rear ;' every one of them still 
keep their ground. 

Half the French words used aflectedly by Mclantha, m 
Dryden*8 Marriage Jt-!a-mode, as innovation* in our lan- 
guage, are now in common use, ludvet^, foihie, cAo^n, 
grimace, embarrat^ double entendre, equivoque, edaireiue. 
mtfU, ridicule, all these words which she learns bv heart 
to use occasionally, are now in common use. A E^ Rus- 
sel called Psalm-singers BaUad-mngera, having found the 
song of Solomon in an oki translatinn, the Ballad of BaU 
lada, for whicJi he is reproached by his antagonist for not 
knowing that the signification of words alters with time; 
should I call him hnave^ he ought not to be concerned at 

« Aulus Gellius, lib. I, c. 10. f Instit. lib. i, c 6. 

\ This verse was corrected by Bentlsy procudere niminmn. 
Instead of producers nomen, whir^ the nitks agree Is one o( 
his happy conjtcturta 



it, for the ApMtle Paul w also called a knart of Je*u$ | 
CkriMi. ! 

UnquetiiuoaUj, weoloot op<>n« a wide door i«) inno- 
Tatiun ; vcarcrlyhas a ceomry passed siuce our language 
was paichrd up wiih ((ailic idioms, as in I lie preceding; cen- 
tury It was piebald wiih Spanish, and wiih Italian, and 
eren with Dutch. The poliucal inlurcourstr of islanders 
with their neifEhbours has ever influenced their lani^tiace. j 
In Elizabeth's ni$Ln Italian phrases and Netheriand words 
wcra imported ; in James andCharlfS the Spanish framed 
the stvie of courtesy ; in Charles the Second the nauon 
and the language were equally Frenchified. Yet such 
are :he sources whence we have often derived some of the 
wealth of our lani^afe ! 

There are three foal corrupters of a laneuafe ; caprice, 
affeciaiioo. and isoorance ! Siirh fayhinnabie cant terms 
as * theatricals,* and * miisical«,' invrnted by the flippant ; 
Tophanif still survive among his cr>iifratemiiy tif frivolny. : 
A ladv eminent for the eletEanci* of her ia«tR, and oTwhfHn ' 
one of the best judgr«, the celebrated Mifs Edgewurth, • 
observed to me that she spoke the purest and must idi(»- 
matic EngiMh she had ever heard, tiirfw out an ob^ierva- 
tion which might be eitended to a great deal of our pro^ent 
fashionable vocabulary. She is now old enough. «w said, 
to have lived to hear the vutgari^ins of her youth adoptf-d 
in drawins-niom circles. To /miutA, now so famiiiar irum j 
the fair*-si bps, m her youth wa^ only kn^wn in the ser- 
vants' hall. An eipresaiion very nfe of iare among our | 
young ladles, a nice man^ whatever it may mean, whether ' 
the man retembie a pudding.or sunieihiiig more nice, con. 
vevs th^ oflennive ootiun that thev are ready to eai him 
up! When I was a boy, it wsji an a^e of Bvn ton ; this , 
good tone mysteriously conveyed a -^ublime idea of fashion ; ; 
the term imported late in iho eighteen' h crniiiry, closed 
with it. Tvxtddie for awhile f iic<-ecded bore ; but hare has ' 
recovered the supremacy. We want another Sw;ft to 
give a new editurn of his * Pi'hi'.e Convrrsation.' A dlc- 
tionarv of barbarisms too might he cn|;er:ed fmm sume 
wretched neologis:^, whn*e |ien» arc now at w(»rk I L»rd 
Chestertield, in his exhortaiioiin to confurm to Johnviiii's 
Diirtionary, i*a« de«roii«, however, that the tnat kii- ■ 
cograpner should add aK an a|iperidi.x ' A nc*Jogical fhr- , 
tionary. containing thone polite, ihoiigh perhaps not strictly ■ 
grammatical, words and phrase;* conimnniv iHcd, an<l 
sometimes understood by the heau monde? This last 

Ehrase was doubtless a con'nhiitiun ! Such a dictionary 
ail aireiuly appeared in the French tanguaee, drawn up - 
by two cau«tic critics, who in the Jhrtionnaire neotogique 
aPttaage dt$ heaux Kfpritit du Siefle,vtt\Wctfd together the 
numerous iinlu'-ky inveuMdn^ of atfectHiiiin, wi'h their 
modern authorities ! A coller'i -n «>f the fine words and ■ 
phrases culled from some very modern (loetry, might sh<>w j 
the real amnuni of the favoiirs bcstriwed on us. 

The attempts of neologi«ts are, however, not neces«a- 
rily to be condemned ; and we may join with the commen- 
tators nf Auhis Gelhus, who have lamented the ios » of a 
chapter, of which the title only has descended to us. That \ 
chapter would have demon!*trated what haofiens to ali j 
languages, that some neologisms, which at first are crin- ' 
aidered forced or inelegant, become sanctioned by use, j 
and in time are quoted as authority in the very language 
which, in their early stage, they were imagined to have 

The true hisrory of men's minds is found in their ac- 
tUMis ; their wants are indicated by their contrivances ; 
and certain it is that in highly cultivated ages we discover 
the roost refined intellects attempting neologisms. It would 
be a subject of great cunosity to trace the origin of many 
happy expressions, when, atid bv whom created. P.ato j 
auMtifuted the term Providenre for fate ; aihl a new yvs- 
tem of human affairs arose from a single word. Cicero 
invented sereral ; to this philosopher we owe the term of 
mora/ philosophy, which before his time wa^ called the 
philosophv of manNcrt. But on this rubjt-ct we are per- 
naps more inreresred by the modem than by the ancient 
languages. Richaidson. the painter of the human heart 
ha* coined kome expressions to indicate its little secret 
movements which are admirable : that great genius me- 
rited a higher educatirn and more literary leisure than tho 
Kft of a pnnler could afford. Montaigne created som^t 
bold expressions, manv of which have not survived him ; 
mcirnost/ie so oppomie to curiosity, well describes that 
state of neghgencv where wu will not learn that of which 
we are ignorant. With us the word ineurumt was described 

by Heylin, in 1666, as an udimubJ word ; ii bis htM » 
p'rupriateiy adopted by our beat wriiera ; ahhnigh wi aj 
want tncvnoafy. Charrun invenird wiramg^K ^mmaim . 
fully, but whiiti. says a French critic. wrouAd he cm n 
substaiitfTe of the word etrtmge ; our Lock* ia ite 
instance produced f<ir* fureignness' for * renoceaev^ 
lif relaMun to somnhmg.' Malherbe b u t rowed fp_ ^ 
Latin hmdu-mx. $iatnU, which have been rce«ved; Hi 
bolder word dcvotdhr, by which he pro p osed 
cemer de vouhir, has not'. A term, however. 
and precihe. Comeille happily inioducvd 
vene in the Cid, 

Vous etes mmbicv, nais bob pmm 

Yet this created word by their ffrcat poet haa mi i^ ' 
tioBed this fine descripiuiii among ihe Freoch. far wan 
told that It is almost a solitary instance. Balfaevai 

great inver.'or of neologisms. ' Vrhnaul/i and ft^m en 
struck in hi.4 mint. ' Si le mot/rficiter n'eai pw FraasH 

il le sera I'annee qui virnt :' so'contidirnfir praud w«» 
neobgist, ami it prospered as well aa Mrbamiii, c/wteta , 
says, * U.u3nd I' usage aura muri fiarnii noua ua Bataes \ 
roaiivaif g<Kii. et currig^ Camtrtmmt de ia mk 
8 y pout irtMiver. nous nous y accoiiiunDeroae ^„^^ ^ 
autres que nous avons em luunl^ de la wa^tun lanfoe.* B» 
rac wax. however, too sanguine in scnne other woids: w | 
his deiecttr, his seriomtd, &c, still retain ihcr *• binam ' 
of novtliy.* ; 

Menage invented a term of which aa evfuiraleiitawM. ' 
ing in our language : ' J'ai fail pnmiatr h l*imiia&sa * 
ri fallen protatore, pour dire im hoounr uui dcrit ca piwa' 
To divtiiigiiish a prose from a verse writer we anev hail 
* proser.' Drayton u^es it : but this uaefiU dHUaeiw- ^- • 
unluckily de:!enerated, and the cnrreat aenae u w 
urgent, that ihe purer sense is irrecoverable. 

Wh-n D'Ablancourt wan translating Liiciaii, be ■ 
ed m French the words im/afeiree and imdoigni;*ioi 
a ni'mientary languor, rather than that habitual 
in which sense they are oowr accepted ; and in traaaaDH 
Taciiu^, he createtl the word (urAe/canaraf, but il dd M 
pnwpcr. any more than that of lfai;»er ij e m e i rf. Segrav 
I II vented ih»- word im/icirrfoNoo/e, which, after havmf km 
rejiT'ed, uas revived, and is equivalent to our ezpreamv 
unpnrdonnftU . Moliere ridiculed s<ime BeolociaaMeT^ 
Prcrie:iM€M of his dav : but wr are loo apt to ridicule ika 
which i* new and wfnch we often adopr when il 

old. Moliere laughed at the term tentaimmUer to ■ 

one who assumed the manners of a blackguard; tha 
pres>ive word has remained in the langiiacf. 

There are two remarkable French wor» created bv^ 
Abbe de Saint Pierre, who passed hb meritorioue Ift a 
the contemplation of polmcal morality and unireraal luai 
volctice— ^iVw/oisanee and /rionole. He inveared gimiA 
as a coniemptiiuus diminutive of glohe; to deacribe thtf 
vanity of si>me egotists, so proud of the small lalenta wba* 
they may have "received from nature or fWm accidftf. 
Bim/uisonce first appeared in this sentence: • L'E»pnl4t 
la vraie religion el la principal but d I'evanfilecesifaAai^ 
fauanre, c'eyt^MJire la pratique de la charity eavvr* b 
procliain. Thiii word was so new, that in the Biomeui sf 
its creation this good man explained its necessiir aad ov^ 
gin. Complaining that ' the word " charity^ is abwtd bf 
all sorts of Christians in the |iertecutioD or their cmaiia^ 
and even heretics affirm that they are practiaiBe ChriHan 
charity in persecuting other heretics, I have aoiMhl for a 
term whicn misht convey to us a precise ideaef doiH 
good to our neighbours, aiid I can fitrm none more vnotr 
io make myself understood than Ihe term of iinfmameg 
gO(^-doing. Let those who like, use it ; I woul3 oalv be 
understood, and it is not equivocal.* The happj wortf was 
at first critised, but at length every kind heart fuuad a 
responded to its own feeling. Some verses frtim Voltain^ 
alluding to the political reveries of the good abhdL Bsbea 
the critical opposition ; yet the new word anawaiaj Io tha 
great rule of Horace. 

' Certain lerivlaieur. dont la plume fecoode 
Fit uint de vains projects po^ir le blen du roooda, 
F.i qui depuis trrnte ans ^rit poiirdes ingraia, 
Vifr.9 lie rreer u't mi>t qui manque a Vaucelaa: 
Ce mnc est Bieiifai^^nce, il me plait, il rassembla 
Pi N' cctiir en em rru, bieii den vertus ensemble, 
PetKs rramuiairii*r.R. grands prerepteurii de 
Qui pe<pz la j-tar^ie ei merure^ Io* nioiji, 
Pareilte ex)iression voun semble hazard^e, 
Mais L'univers enuer doit «a chcjir l*id6e !' 


Tbn French roroli 
akui bvbuiicd lh< 
of tbiir liiemun, ■ 

oTirn ihow* ih* 

Thcv rnrm u 

^7 Diclimarr. Our pliin Eoglii 

msy »aKliiiici produce Ihe li»u(irul, lh« reviTil of Ih* 
dnd ii Ibc oiore lulhenllc minctis ; tor t ne* word idsiI 

ed, r«t> on ■ buii ot pcmiuenr ilrenph — il huboth 
novelly and lulborily ! A colleclion orptetitntjMe isordi, 
frmai among our ucienl vfriten, wcmld ctrtiBiiiiiie ■ pn- 
cloui flup|>len»n( ID Ihc hwlory ofouf linguage. Kir man 

MB ■erred 10 ennob thia o<ld mixture tj{ ptii\b]otj and of the tfcol^ 
politkt; Cbib, e/ttbiMi, comitij juri, Jugtde pair, bfend ' Ihan ouiidioi 

n dmaralivtion 


tba riBMriiabla cipreMHis oT vrierfpciuit bclonai 
«lliBvel)r m id birth to the jeviLlK uuleneu oTlha AVbi 
8mj», thai political tcior who, in changiDg lidea, aevar 
imfuatd pf ompiinf in hii new put I 

A uaw Hord, IM ruull of much cooBideratioD with ill 
ADibor, or a tarnivbLChiibou^ uiAdowd to tba iangua^, 
eaniaji a coDdcIiic anemblage of idea* by • fntuaaia 

which giTM ■ noTK preciie eiprellion 10 the feeling ihtB 
ur other wordi which we could u». 

Tha laic E>r Boucher, of whoae prejecled TheanirlM 
of our andent En^li^ih language wa only poAfleaa Ihu firat 

ia iuAered to moulder away among hia family, in the proa* 
pectin of that wurk, did me the honoiir, then lynung wn~ 
(er, to quoie an opinion t had formnl early in lif* of lh« 
poreii iouice of neology — which Ii in the refiiiiat of M 

D- tod ic M to lie f d -I--— ~ — , ■-■■■ ■ worui, luu wiie nacon « nrare Hawitif n iptM :' 

»hiVhy a '.lg".iirDkc,^SIL:K,Sl'. We h.« lortmay ™ui.iie andpieiote«i«ei|.roanona 

he called ihm. ,u>^JM>tn. We ha>e not dropped iho """'K''. "'T.''"'"™ "'.'"' '"■"J^ph"'- "' 't "h'l ^'^ 

fortunate eipremnn ftomTny want of ita ute, huL tf per- "'""^ "" '*"" ^••^'^•'" «""'y "' «" -""" "'•leh dieir 

ceuii.>ii ui our leiicographera, The celefaraled Maiqui. lehoure require ty more then th« Ihem.ei.ei know. The 

of Laudewne iDtroduced a ueeful word, which ha. bleu "»""■»' P"" "' ""' '"•pJ't* ha.e been impoteriahad ! 

.«f late warmly adopt«< in Prance aa well ai in Englaiwi- The aenju. ih.tlhr«w. .t. prophelice.e o>e( the ai.guaite, 

toUxmbt; thenouu baa been drawn out of the.erb- "d the ta.ieihat niu.i come from lei.copa- 

Iwifuage a i»y oppoaite meej 
«iff J^°illa™ wd"'a niMi 'p^ 

id to tihtrttite waa 

and are lurptiaed by Ibe aplnei 

Blauiioirr ans FLrreREI. 

Gl'mxary hai supplied a Tariely of iutancei. 

Ur Pneatley eyiployed a Fonible, hut not an elegant 
trrm, to mark the general in£K»itiu» which had begun in 
hi' day; Ibiahe frequently ealle 'Ihe ^rm/afhnawkdge,' 
Burke allenpied to brand with a new name Ihil act ot 
Bert, ]>eiultnt,(o|iliittical acioliiU, whoK phihnophy, Iho 
French, iinee their rerolutioaary period, hiTSdiiiinguiah- 

fMmafhaaa. Ma would bare deiigiiileil Ihein aa lilt- 
mm, bill frw eiolic worda will circulate ; new wordi 
milt be the coinage of our own language id blend with 

We Ean lound how alrengih conaiati in tha teltclion of 

ibao tba original, we arr loiing ■omeibinf in Ibal U-d tS 

Be ihia aa il may ! I ihall not uureawinably awail for ibo 
artiili of our noieltiea to relrofrade into ma««i»e grralnera, 
although I cannot avoid reDiuidirif Uirm how often they 
reriTs the forgotten thingi of paii lunea ! It ia well knoxn 
(hat many tt our notelliei were in nee h* our ineettun! 
In tha biMory of iha human mind there a, iaimi, a aoil 

i make then Ibolt 

the diamond, the intellect itaeif diiappeare. A philoaopher, 

in an eiieneire Tiew of a Bubjeci m all iiB heanngv, may , propoae Lagire what, in the'lyleof our limea, may be, 

eonirey to ub the reault of hii laat confliderationi, by the led ihe philoK>phy orpftOTTfiaB — atopic which FeemB 

CMnige of a no>el and Bignificanl eipreBiion aa 11 ' "- '^'- '— ■■ ■- ■■ ^-'--' ' 

PmfrBBOr Duiald Stewart— pottUcot redfUBura. Li 

introduce Ihe tern of father-land >o deicribe nur lufa'e 
aiitinn ; t hare lired to ace it adopted by Lord Byton and 
hy Mr Sonihey. Thia energetic ripreision may there- 
fen ba conaidered aa (uiheniicaled 1 and palriotiam may 
Mimp it wHh iia ghiry and in aSedion. Paiher-land ia 
mngedal with ihc language hi which we find ihai other 
An* Mpraaiion of mathT-iongue. The palriotie naolBcinn 
nriginaied wiih ne m Holland, when, in early lifs, it wu 
KIT daili piinnil to lurll orer tho gkirinuB hiilory of ilB 
fndapcDdeiiceiindFrlhetiUaof FinfrriiDHfBcAe^ubirn— (be 
hwlory of fathertand ! 

IfwoaeknowtedfeUiallbecreatiunoraDnie neolo^iBrni 
• TbB Quamrly Rerlew reconilj i7iar>Kl the wnrd liherBl- 

led ihe philoK>phy ofpftOTDiaB — atopic which FcemB tit- 
gin. Tha art of reading proterbi haa not, hideed. ainava 

aerrationi, like iheir aubjcct, muat be vertttile and uncocH 
nected ; and T muBt iMBpeak indulgence firr an aiieuipt Id 
illuatrate a very curioiia branch of hteraiure, ntber not ud> 


Lord CheBterfield. 'never hu n-court 

lemnly inlerdicted Iheir u*e. they appe 

e convenant with ibo hiaiory (if prorcrhfl, 
icBlioaably have amiM un ihcne ' men of 
ler Blamp, who, mihrdayBorRliiaheih, 

* The cry of tho jpacabopper ia \il 



perhaps, aven ouw *iwp«ct, thai these Deflected fraKincnts 
of w'udom, wnich ex;st aiDoo^ ail natioa*, ttiJi cdVr many 
laterestiDi; ribjec^s tor the riudies of Th« phiiuj^'phcr and 
the hifioriaQ: aii-i f*! ni'.n «/ inv wortd suliopva an ez- 
lenftre tch •u! oTLurnhn ijfe and iDtDner?. i 

The hom«-«'iuii atias«>, and the ruvty *»ayed saws* 
irhicb renain in ine inoiiLns of ihr peupie, art.- adapitrd to 
tt.eir cajjacitiei* and their humoiira ; <-a^i y reiiiemtH-rrd. i 
an^ readily appiitrJ: ine«e arc ihe phi.osophy oi :ne vu.- ' 
«:ar. aoff oTiCD more yi^un-j than inat of ih*-ir ina^tL'rs! , 
Whoever wou.c i^arn wnat ihr]fft\t\v think, and huw tney i 
frel. fflu»T not reject even thvite a> ini»i^|iuficani. Tlie iiri>- 
«>rb4 of the s'rttt and of ttir foaruet. true to nature, an J 
Ii^TMi* ori:y because- ih y re tn^-^. arf r t curds h'j'.v tne 
p'jpij.act ai Alheu« arid at R-.-mc wvre in*! harur people as 
at Par H and at Loniti-n, and as 'Ji*-/ haui before been in 
tne cry uf J'.ru**!*:;!!! 

Proi-*rbs*:ici*tt:.l tt'-f^tT-r h^fJt-i. T»k- Sparjards dale the 
onein of thiMr rtfraric* que dffn l-iM lini'iM trtuil futgO' 
••ayuiKSof od ».v«-'. by i,.t;r lirf>i(3t.a,' li<-i>ire the exist- i 
cbceofany writtn?Hiiiit>''irianjiia;:i'. rr>iii:i.erirciini-<ance 
thai tnc^e af? ni inv r,\\ ronidiii-<' i>r ruiii-5t vuijar uliom. 
'r*.e m'/si anri'.':it :»'»^ni in \\\*: K«ida. ' the s ihini'.* speech 
ol Ujjn.* ab-iun'> wjih an-'U-nt pruvcrh*. s:niiiii!:lv li'^KcruK 
live of ihe aiicient ttcindinaviaiis. Undoubteoiv pr>>vtrbs 
in trie «ar:i<-«t ^^r< Uwiie served j<» \\,\: unvtrittrn language 
of mora.ity. and rven 'jf the u^< fui ari> ; like liir oral tradi- 
tiuns r>f ihe Jrws, they tlfjnted down from avf tu a'^e on the 
iiui of '(uccehMVv ^*'n' raii«in«. The name of ilie tirbi itavi; 
wi-fo iianrtioneil ili«' ifavin:! wou'd in time be furiintlru, whiU* 
theopiru •n,the m-rtaunor, or Ihe expression, remained coo- 
se^'raied inioa f/rorrr^.' Such wa« ine iinirin of thuse memo- 
rable yen-encrs by winch men l^-amt to think and to speak 
a'>pu)ii:eiy ; they were precept"* whirh no man could cnn'ra- 
di<:: a* a ixnw. when auliioriiy wa5 \aiued more than opinion, 
ari i exi»»:rience pn-fern-d to novel'y. The proverbs of a 
fa'h^r became th*: inheritance i>l a son : the miiitress of a 
fami.y |>cr|»etiiated iierii through her honxrhold : the work- 
man rontifn^ed ffi^nie irikditional ^rcrel uf hi9 craft into a 
proverhta! expreSKion. Whc-n count rit-n anr not yet popu- 
i"U«, and pn>ti**riy has not yet producetl erea't inequa- 
Ii:it4 in i's ranks, every day wiil show them liow 'the 
drunkard ani th** i;.utif»n cuin>;to pi>verty. and drowsiness 
cli>ih>-« a man wnH rags.' At such a period he who gave 
c'liin^t:) i!av«* wealth. 

It mi«bt tnerff-ir-.' hav* been decided, a finori, that the 
most homely prov< rb> \\<^^l*A abound in the most ancient 
writers— and su<;h wi- finii in He>iud : a \>oe\ whose learn- 
ing; was not drawn from Uxik^fi. It cr>u donly have been in 
the asncuiiural s'ate that this venrrabi*- bard could have 
udicated a slate of repose by this rustic proverb. 

"r»>rti,\i')»- iitv irrto ciTnr kutovcio. 

* Hanc yuur ploiii^h-bcam o'er the hearth !* 

The envy nf rival workmen is as justly describ<*d by a 
reference to the humble manufacturer^! of earthen-ware as 
by the eiirvalcd jeaiou<«iesof the literati and the artists of a 
niore p<ilished age. The famous proverbial verse of He- 
siod*s Works and Days, 

Ka( Ktoafttvi Ktfiafiti kStui, 

IS literally, ' The pt^tter is hostile to the potter ! 

The admonition of the poet to his bntther, to prefer a 
friendly aconirnoilalion to a litigious law-suit, has fixed a 
paradoxical proverb often applied, 

T.^fJK vincv rrarro;. 

* The hulf is b«uerthan the whole !' 

In the proeresM of time, the !>tock of fxtpuiar proverbs 
received a'^jt-s^iiiiis from th'> hiffh<**t sources of human in- 
telligence ; as ;he philosophers nf antiquity f jrm*.'d their 
colleciinn-*, ihey increased m weijjht and niiinU'r.* Kras- 
mns has pi>ii>ird otit jiome i if the>»' sources, in the re^priiijtps 
of oracli-s : ihr alii^oriral ^ymlylh of Pythac"ra> ; ihe 
versi's of the poe'9»; ai!ii.«inn>' to hi!«lori"ial inriHcnt ; my- 
tlioiojyy and aiiolojiiie : and oth«*r r»"Condi'e ori^Uis : such 
rilM'iiiiiiar matters romins from all qu.irier*. wtre np-ited 
d'>wn into tlii** v»>f boily ot' apriori«'ic kiiowUdL't.. Tho^e 
* wwtia of the. vine, and tht'ir fiark taying*.' as they iro 
distinuMiisiirr' in ih:ii liri'e oilliTUon whieh bears «Iip urme 
oflhf I'n-al Hebrew inonarrji. a' 'niL'tn 'efriii 'n havenquir- 
ed conitnenlHrics ; fir what el>r ran wi: inirr of tlie fiiivma- 
lic wudom of tli«' saj!e«, whi:n the roya' mra-mioaraphi-r 
Qla«se.t amoDi; th-ir !i|iirlies, that of ^ untltrttanding apro- 
ptrb ami thr interprrtation V This elevated notion of *ihe 

dark sayin^is of the wise* accorda with the bnki 

of their ori^n, which Ihe Siaginte has thrown kjc. 

• considered Liem as tne wrecks of an anrici.: pai.?fc.i 
I which had been loM to mankmd by the fAtni rev^vj id 
I all human things, an.i ttiat tiad heeii v^ivc ir a 's 
' cenera: ruin by ineir piliiv eiegniice, and tf>y'r •z,-.r 

• form; like thnse marine shells found un the l^-^ of Bh» 
; tains, the relics of the Deluf:e ! Even at a ia:cr 
' Ihe >ase of Cheron^a prized \iicta aRion^r *h« bom: 

my9t»;rie» : and Plutarch has described xAem in a 
I wnich uroverbs inav '-ven »iih ment : ' UodT the R. i 
. th»-se curiou:^ senTrhce^ are hid tho^e germs a*' max 
whicii the masters uf piiiiosopliy have afterwarcs cet 
into ut many voiumrs.' ^ 

At ti.e hij:iest peri'id of Grecian geniuv, the traixi 
tlie comic pi»t-?s intrtxluced into ttieir dramas ine 
style. St Paul quotes a line which siili rei 
the tirst exercises of our school-pens : 

I * £vil communicatkiiis corrupt good 

! Ii is a verse found in a fra^fmeni of Menander, ihr 
poet : 

^cifXfffcv tiBti ^pncd* hftiXat coccu 

As this versf is a proverb, and the sptistle. nnd ndeces t 
hit:nesi authority, Jesus himself, consecrates liieBiir 

■ proverbs by their occasional application, it is ibk«v I 
whether St Paul quotes the (Grecian poet, or ooH r«?es • 
siin.e ada^f. Proverbs were brisht sbsfis a v \ 
Greea and Latin quivers ; and when Btrbtier, bv a Ml* • 
of >ui>erticial wits, was accused of pedantrrforhtSH* ■ 
some ancient proverb$, the sturdy critic 'vindicatrd ■ '. 

, taste, by showing that Cicero constantly inrrodocec GiMi . 
' proverbs into his writing"— that Scaliffer and EraMB 

lo«>d thf m. ar.d had tornied colieciions drawn &«■ v 

stores of antiquity. 

Some ditHcuiiy has occurred in the definitioB. Proved 

■ must be distiniruished from proverbial phrastes. and 3i> 
sententious maxims ; but as proverbs hare many 
fnrni their miscriianeous nature, the das* itself 
admits of any definition. When Johnson defined a 
to be * a short !<enience frequently repeated bv the 
this definition would not include the most ciinnas 
which have not always rirrulated amon£ the pomvKt. 
nor even belon:; to them : nor does it designate rhe va, 
qualities of a proverb. The pithy qiiairiinesis ol'old Utsr 
has admirably descril>ed the in:!rr>dieQts of an exquisite ff^ 

■ vt'rb to br Knse, $hortneUy arid salt. A firoverb m d«=» 
guisiied from a maxim or an apophlheffm, bv that brev^ 

• which condenses a thought ur a metaphor, where c«e tk^ 
I IS vaid ani) another is ti» be applied ; this often p ro c s P* 
! wit: and that quick pungency which excites surprise. >£ 
I strike's with conviction ; Ihis cives it an epijnvmniaiic i 
\ Geiir^e Hcri>erl entitled th" small cuUectmrii which he k 

ed 'Jai'ula Prudentiim,* Darts or Javeiins! 
hurled and s'rikini! deepiy ; a characteristic of a piuwrt 
whirh [Mssib'.y H^rbfTt may ha%'e borrowed frcitn a rt^ 
: markable passage in Plato's dialogue of * Protagoras, iv lit 

Thi^ inriuf'nre of proverbs over the minds amd coaum 
tions of a whole people is strikin^'ly iiluptrared br this pat- 
losopher's explanation "f the term to taonuie { the wm« 
of ^p»'«'ch peculiar to the Laeeda^moniantf. Thw peoo* 
atr<F>cl<-<i to appear unlramed^ and sel•m(^d only emulous *t 
*'xrr*l the rest of the Greeks in fortitude anid in miJiarT 
skill. Af^crirdiiii? to Plato's notion, this was rcallv a p&> artihcf, with a view to conceal their pre<^e«wwtf 
wiMloin. With the jealou.ty of a (>etty state thrx arifip'fd 
to confine their rtinowncd sagacity within ihemserves, aad 
under their military to hide iheir contemplative chsracicr! 
The philosopher a^^iires those who in other citi 
they hconiaedf merely by imitating the sev«rs mwKi 
and the oii,«T warlike manners of the 
that they wen? grossly df'ceived : and thtia 
«rnhes the sort of wiwlom which this singular 

'If any one wi^hc^ lo r^nv<*rse with ihe MaasHlrf 
the Laf cdvmoniaiis, he wi!i at first find him lor tha 
fiart, ap[<Brciiily, de>:pir,iblr in rr in ve rsalion ; 
ward^, wli»»ri n propi-r f»pri<<rfii!»rv nre«<>nts 
•«Hme mi-an p'-rson. likf a niiUfut jttnilnVrr uili 
Unce worthy of att'-nli'in »hfjrt nnd rontortrd; solhMk 
who ri.nv«Tses with him wi'l appear to bo in no 
superi'tr to a boy ! Tlia' to lnnmi*e. therefore, 
much more in philosophiMog than in the love of 



by fome of the pment age, and was known- 

*^ ihm aocienls, they being pereuadeti that the abihty uf 

~~*^^kHng tueh saUenres as lbe»e is the pruvinco of a man 

^'NMfectly learned. The seven sages were emulatorji, lo- 

^ 'tf», and discipios of the Ijutdtemonian truditiun. Their 

^^^nKlom wan a ihiii<; of this kind ; viz., short ttntencc* vt- 

^^ jrwl hy taeht ami worthy to be remembered. These men, 

'*jnemblin); logciher, cuii:j!ccrutcd lu Apullo the fiPbl fruits 

* 'if iheir wisdom ; wniinir in the tcniph'. of Api>llu, at Dfl- 
^^'ihi, those sentences whirh are celebrated by all men, %'iz., 
^'^fTnow Thytdj! and iVo.'Ai/i^ too much ! But on what ar- 
-^3oanl do L nientiun the^c thin::*' / — 'o show that the mode 
^^^ phUotoplty among the ancients wat a certain laconic dic' 

The ' laconisms ' of the liaccdxmonians evidently pnr- 

-^ took of the proverbial style: they were, no doubt, Dtien 

■■^proverbs themselves. Ihe very instances whicii Plato 

^■iNipplies of this * laconising ' are two most venerable pr<^ 


„^ All this elevates the science of proverbs, and indicates 

"^ that these abridgments of knowledge convey great rvsulis 

<K with a parsimony of words prodigal of sense. They have, 

therefore, preserved many * a short sentence, not repealed 

by the people.* 

It is evident, however, that the earliest writings of every 

* people are marked by iheir most homely, or domestic pro- 

* verbs ; for these were more directly addressed to their 

* wants. Franklin, who may be considered as the founder 
' of a people, who were suddenly placed in a sta<:c of civil 
" aociety which as vet could afibrd no literature, discovered 

* the philosophical cast of his genius, when he filled his al- 
^' manacks with proverbs, by the ingenious contrivance of 

* framing them into a connected discourse, dcUvored by an 

* old man attending an auction. * These proverbs,' he tells 
" ua, * which contamed the wisdom of many ages and na- 
^'^ tioos, when their scattered counsels were brouglit tofl^ether, 

. made a great impression. They were reprinted m Bri- 

*^ tain, in a large sheet of paper, and stuck uu in houses ; 

^' and were twice translated in France, and distributed 

^ among their poor parishioners.' The same occurrence 

^ had happcnea with us ere we became a reading peo[>le. 

* ' Much later even than the reign of Elizabeth our ancestors 

^ had proverbs always before them, on every thing which 

* bad room for a piece of advice on it ; they had them 
^ painted in their ta|)estries, stamped on the most ordinary 

utensils, on the blades of their knives, the borders of their 
plates, t and *conn<^d them out of Goldsmith's rings.' The 
usurer, in Robert Green's 'Groat's worth of >\it,' com- 
pressed all his philosophy into the circle of his ring, hav- 
ing learnt sufficient Laim to understand the proverbial 
motto of ' Tu tibi cura !' The husband was reminded of 
his lordly authority when he only looked into his trencher, 
one of its learned aphorisms having descended to us^— 

* The calmest husl»nds make the stormyeat wives.' 

The English proverbs of the populace, most of which 
are still in circulation, were collected by old John Hey- 
wood.| They are arransed by Tusser for * the parlour-^ 
the guest'schamber— the hall— the table^essons,' &c. Not 
a small portion of our ancient proverbs were adapted to 
rural life, when our ancestors lived more than ourselves 
amidst the works of God, and less among those of men. 
At this time, one of our old statesmen, in commending the 
art of compressing a tedious discourse into a few signiticant 
phrases, suggested the use of proverbs in diplomatic inter- 
course, convinced of the great benefit which would result 
to the negotiators themselves, as well a* to others ! I givo 
a literary curiosity <^ this kind. A member of the House 
of Commons, in the reign of Elizabeth, made a speech 
entirely composed of the most homely proverbs. The 
subject was a bill against double-payments of book-debts. 
Knavish tradeamen were then in the habit of swelling out 
their booknlebtii with those who took credit, particularly 
to their youBfer euttomers. One of the members who 
began to qwak ' for very fear ithook,' and stood silent. 
The nervous orator was followttd by a blunt and true re- 

♦ Taylor*! Translatktn of PJHio'a Works, Vol. V, p. 38. 

t One oflbe (htit tenchers for such thuMc mundeU are called 
to the G«M. Mag., for 1793, p. 398, is rneravcd then', and iho 
iMcrlpdona of an encirs set given.— See also the HUjiplcmeiii to 
that volume, p. 1187. 

X Haywood's ' Dialoeue, conieynin^eihe Number in EfTecie 
of all tne Proverbs In ihe English Tunjre, 1561.' There are 
men edkions of this Hule volume than W barton has noticed. 
There It some humour in his narrative, but his metre and his 
nbaklTy are heavy taxes on our curiosity. 

preseniative of the famed governor of Baritana, deliver* 
mg himself ilius — * It is now my chance to speak some- 
thing, and that without humming ur hawing. I tliink thit 
law IS ii i^ood law. Even reckoning makes long friends. 
As far goes the penny as the pinny's nia&ter. ViffiiatUibuM 
non dormientibiu jura siJjveniunl. Pay tlie reckoning over- 
nt^jlit, and you shall not be troubled in the morning. If 
ready nuiiuy be nienaura puUiraf let every one cut his 
coat according to his cloth. When his old buit is in the 
wane, let him btay till that his money brmg a new suit in 
the increase.** 

Another instance of the use of proverbs among our 
siatci<nu-n occurs in a nlanu^cript letter of Sir Dudley 
Carltcin, written in 1632 on the impeachment of Lord Mici- 
dlesex, ^ho, he says, is ' this day to plead his own cause 
in the exchequer-chamber, about an account of fourscore 
thousand pounds laid to liis charge. How his lordships 
sped 1 know not, but do rrmember well the French pro- 
verb, Qui mange de Coye du Roy chicra une plume quar^ 
ante una apre*. ' Who eats of the king's gootie, will void 
a feather forty years afler !' 

This was the era of proverbs with us ; for then tliey 
were spoktn by all ranks of society. The free use of in- 
viul proverbs got them into disrepute ; and as the abuse of 
a thing raises a just opposition toils practice, a slender wit 
afl'eciing * a croRs humour,' published a little volume of 
' Cro>sing of Proverbs, Cross-answers, and Cross*hu- 
inotirs.' lie pretendb to contradict the most popular 
ones ; but he has not always the genius to strike at amu«- 
111:* paradoxes.! 

Proverbs were long the favourites of our neighbours : n 
the splendid and refined court of Louis XIV,lhey gave rise 
to an odd invention. They plotted comedies and even 
fantastical ballets, from tlieir subjects. In these Curiosi- 
ties of Literature 1 cannot pass by tiuuh eccentric invcuiiona 

A Comedy of proverb is described by the Duke do la 
Valliere, which was performed in 1634, with prodigious 
success. He considers that this comedy ought to be 
ranked among farces ; but it is gay, well-written, and cu- 
rious for containing the best proverbs, which are happily 
introduced in the dialogue. 

A more extraordinary attempt was A Ballet ofproverba. 
Before the opera was establiahed in France, the ancient 
ballets formed the chief amusement of^lhe court, and 
Louis XIV himself joined with the peifiormers. The 
singular attempt of forming a pantomimical dance out of 
proverbs is quite French ; we have a < ballet des prover- 
Des. danc^ par le Roi, in 1654.' At every proverb the 
i^rene changed, and adapted itself to the subject. I shall 
jjive two or three of tho entricB that we may form some no- 
t i>M of these eapriodoi. 
The proverb was 

Tel menace qui a grand pewr, 
' Ho threatens who is afraid 1' 

The scene was composed of swaggering scaramouchea and 
some hcmest cits, who at length beat them off. 
At another entr^ the proverb was 

Uoccation fait le larron. 

' Opportuniiy makes the thief.' 

Opportunity was acted by le Sieiir Beaubrun, but it is diffi- 
cult to conceive how the real could personifv the abstract 
personage. The thieves were tho Duke J'Amvillo and 
Monsieur de la Chesnaye. 

Another entree was the proverb of 

Ce fpti tricnt de lajiute $^fn va au tambeur, 

* What comes by the pipe goes by the tabor.' 

A loose dissipated officer was performed by la Sieu' 
I'AoKlois ; the pipe by St Aignan, and the teUwr by le Sieu' 
le Comtc ! In this mariner every proverb was'spo^Mn in 

* Townshend's Historiral Collertions, p. 283. 
f Ii WHS puh)ii<hed in 1616 : the writer only catches at some 
verbal cxpre;<siotis— at^ for iniFtanee, 
The vulvar proverb runs, ' The mere the merrier.' 
The cross — * Nu ::o I oise hand is enough in a pnrse !* 
The proverb. ' It i:i a ^rent way to the txittom oi the uea.' 
The cro««, — ' N<»t «jo I it isi Inn n Mone's cart.' 
The pntviTh, * The pride of the rich mokes the labours of the 

The croris.— * Not no ! the labours of the poor make the pride 

of the rirb.' 
The proverb. * He runs far who never turtis.* 
The crosi«,— * Not so ; he may break his neck in. v ^Iboiv 




odioiit the wbola eomecird by dialogue : uore rauit hbve 
depeivled on the acta than the poet.* 

The French lung retained this fondness for proverbs ; 
for they stili have dramatic compositions entitled proverbetf 
on a more refined plan. Their invention is so recent, that 
the terra is not m their great dictionary of Trevoiix. 
These proverbet are dramas of a single act, invented by 
Mannontel, who possessed a peculiar vein of humour, but 
who designed them only for private theatricals. Each 
proverb furnished a subject for a ft- w scenes, and created 
a situation powerfully comic : it is a dramatic amusement 
which diHTS not appear to have rr ached m, but one which 
the celebrated Catharine of Ku:ssia delig^ed to compose 
for her own societv. 

Ainonz the middle dames of societr to this day, we 
may observe that certain family proverbs are traditionally 
preiiervod : the favourite saying uf a father is repeated by 
the sons : and fre<]n>-ntly the conduct of a whole genera- 
tion has bfreii intluencedby such domestic pmrerbs. Thia 
mav be perceive«1 in many of the mottos of our dd nobility, 
which sef m to havi^ orismated in some habitual proverb of 
the fouiidpr of the family. In a^i^s when proverbs were 
most prevalent, such pi:hy sentences would admirably serve 
in the ordinary business of life, and load on to de'cision, 
even in its greater exigencies. Orators, by some lucky 
proverb, without wearying their auditors, would bring ciki- 
viction home to their bosoms : and great characters would 
appeal to a proverb, or deliver that, which, in lime, bv its 
aptitudf*. became one. When Nero was reproacheJ for 
the ardour with which he eave himself un to the studv of 
music, he replied to his censurers by the CiJreek proverb, 

• An artist lives every where.* The emperor answered 
in the spirit of Rousseau's system, that evfry child should 
be taught some trade. When Ct^^iar. after anxious de- 
liberatiiMi. decided on the passage of the Rubiron (which 
very event has given rise to a proverb,) rousing himself 
with a start of courage, he committf^l himsrlf lo'Fortnne, 
with that proverbial expression on his lips, used by game- 
sters in desperate play : having pas.<cd the Rubicon, he 
exclaimed * The die' is cast I' Tfie answer of Paiilus 
.Emiiiiis to the relations of his wife, who had remonstrated 
wiih him on his determination to separate himself from 
her asninst whom no fault could be a;ii';;ed, has become 
one of our most familiar proverbs. TitM hero acknow- 
ledged the excellencies of his lady ; but, requestine them 
to look on his shoe, which apfieared to be well made, he 
observed, * None of you know where the shoe pinches V 
He either used a proverbial phrase, or by its aptness it 
has become one of the must popular. 

There are, indeed, proverbs connected with the charac- 
ters of eminent men; they were either their favourite 
ones, or have originated with (hemseUes : such a collec- 
tion would form an historical curiosity. To ihe celebral»-d 
Bayard are the French indebted for a military proverb, 
which some of them still repeat. Ce fpte le ganUUt eaene 
U t^^irin le moner, * What the gauntlet gets, the gorget 
consumes.' That reflecting soldier well calculated the 
pnttits of a military life, which couviimej:. in the piimp and 
waste which are necessary for its inaintiMiance. the slen- 
der pay it receives, and «'ven what its ra:»ai*i:y sonip'imeA 
acquires. The favourite proverb «»f Rra<mu> was fVtfi- 
na ienU ! * Hasten slowly !*t He wished i: to he inscribed 
wherever it could meet oiir eyet : •.« iiiib'.i ' builiiings, and 
4«i our rings and seals. One of nur fiwn statesmen used a 
f.ivoiirile sentence, which ha« enlarged our 8i<ick of na- 
tional proverbsi. Sir Annas Pawiet, when he perceived 
ton m'lch hurry in any bisin^'ss. was acngtom-d to say, 

• S'ay awh;le.'lo make an end the sooner.' Oliver Crom- 
well's coarse, but descriptive pnn'erb, conveys the con- 
tempt he fell fur somr of liis m^an and troublesome coad- 
jutors : ' Nits will be lico !' The Italians have a |»roverb, 
which has been occasionally applied to certain political 
personages :— 

Epli r queHo rhr Dh t'uole ; 
K «an fjuelh rhr />i> iwra .' 
* He IS what fi<»d p!ra«es : 
H«; siia.i be what Gml wills !* 

E'e ihi< was a nntvt^rb. it hsd ?ened as an embroidered 
niotti -in the mvs'ieal mantle ^'f <"'a«triirrio Ca^tracani. 
That nr.farv g* i; 'la. who ^oTjht tn revoln'iniii^e Italy, 

* I: 1 ■« '■-."^ ; !*■;_'-•»■*:■ '• t*^ ' tK-i' w'ir:»*; atn'.i-»**nT.i h;m 
lnjen •.■••'\ :-v\v '.:•:.''■ -; ni •!• cri o. ii. I'.ic acuNj of Cha- 
rjwl« « i~ • J r'V" >'■' ni:"^ {'':«. 

t X>>A r • ]nir> '■:•'■= m-Ko of a noble fjmily. 

and aspired to its tovereigaKj, liwd kmg 
the wild romantic ambitiuo which pnwohed'tk 
confederate against him ; the njaCenoBi mbiis ki 
sumed entered into tJie proverbs of his 
Border proverb of the Uouglaees, * It wrre betkrai 
the lark sing than the moiue cheep,* wa« aim 
every border chief, to ext»re»s, as &ir Waher & 
serves, what the great Bruce had poinled oou 1 
woods and hills m their country were iheir ad 
warks, instead of the fortified placen. whicb ihc 
surpassed their neighbours in the arts of aaaHun 
defending. These illustrationa indicate one of shKiiM| 
of proverbs ; ihey have oAen reFulteii froa tW mm\ 
neous emotions or the profound rrflrcti«ina of 
ordinary individual, whose enereeiic capr«— iue 
by a faithful ear, never to perish ! 

The poets have been very busy with provwhi aiial 
languages of Europe : some appear to have W«a bp»: 
yoiirite lines of some ancient poem : eren in i 
times, many of the pointed verses of Boikraa aid P«| 
have become [MTOverbial. Many triTiai and lecef^j 
verbs bf ar the jingle uf alliteratioo or rhyow, etaa i-l 
sisted their circulation, and were pirobably alnKk^ej 
tempore ; a manner which Swift firacciaedi, wm se i [ 
reaay coiner of such rhyming and IwlicroiHi proverbs: »: 
lighting to startle a cciflector by his facetioisi or swiff i 
hiimuui', in the shape of an * od saying and tme.' 5« r 
of these rhyming proverbs are, however, tcffsc asi •■ '. 
gant : we have 

* Little strokes 
Fill great oaks.* 

The Italian — 

Chi duo lepri cacao, 
Uno perde^ e C aitro loana. 
' 'Who htmu two hares, k>ses one and laayea the oAa: 

The haughty Spaniard — 

El dor es Aoiwr, 
Y d pedir dolor, 

* To ghre if honour, to ask is frief." 

And the French — 

Ami de ttMe 
Est variable. 

* The friend of the table 
Is very variable.' 

The composers of these short proverbs wera a s^s^ 
rous race of poets, who, prohaUy, amonc the dreaai s' 
their immortality never suspected that thev were is ^ 
scend to posterity, themselves and their works uakaw i. 
while their extempore thoughts wouM be repeated by tbes 
own nation. 

Proverbs were at length consigned to the penpls. wks 
books were addressed to scholars : but the people dii art 
firul themselves so destitute of practical wisdoai, by pr»- 
serving their national proverbs, as some of those dsprc 
students who had ceased to repeat them. The eafioai 
humours uf mankind, in the mutability of huaiaB afis*. 
had given birth to every species : and men were wise, or 
merry, or satirical, and mourned or Vejoioed in p i H se i fc i. 
Nations held an universal intercourse of proverbs, froa 
the eastern to the western world : for we dis c over aasof 
those which appear strictly natioaal many which are com- 
mon to them all. Of our own familiar ones sereral nay 
be tracked among the mows of the Latins and tke 
Greeks, and have sometimes been drawn frmn ' Toe 
Mines of the East :' like decayed families which re«a« 
in obscurity, they may boast of a high lineal desml 
whenever they recover their lost title-deeds. The vslfar 
proverb, ' To carry coals to Newcastle.' local and lA^ 
matic as it appears, however, has been borrowed and a^ 
nlieil by ourselves : it may be foimd among the F 
in the * Bu<tan' of Sadi we have Infers piper m 
tan : * To carry pepper to Hindostan :' amon£ the 
brews, * To carry oil to a city of Ohvea :* a similar pr^ 
verb occurs in Greek : and in Galiantfs ' Maxima ef dw 
East' wir may discover how manv of the most 
proverbs among ii:<. as wt:ll as some of Joe MiUcT*a 
an* of orieij'al oriijin 

The f'-js'^mbraorf uf rertain pr<iverli« in diffi^renf 
mn<t. howi-v^r. be oOfh ?*f'ii-i» 'ci ili»* identiiT of 
na'iire ; •^imi'a*' s'tua'mnu arnil »inu'ar (»ht****ts hire 
tKNiabiy made men iliink and act and express 









mBke. AW n&lions are parallels of each other ! Hence ' 
«U panemioeraphcrs, or cotiectors of proverbs, complain 
of tne diffictul^ of separating their own national proverbs 
from those which had crept into the language Trom others, 
particularly when nations have held much mtercuurse t<^ 
fether. We have a copious collection of Scottish pro- 
verbs by Kelly, but this learned man was mortified at dis- 
covering that many which he had long believed to have 
been genuine Scotush were not only English, but French, 
Italian, Spanish, Latin, and Greek ones; many of his 
Scottish proverUi are almost literally expressed among 
the fragments of remote antiquity. It would have sur- 
prised nim further had he been aware that his Greek ori- 
i|inals were themselves but copies, and might have been 
ound in D'Herbelot, Erpenius, and Golius, and in many 
Asiatic works, which have been more recently introduced 
to the enlarged knowledge of the European student, who 
formerly fotmd his most extended researches limited by 
Hellenistic lore. 

Perhaps it was owing to an accidental circumstance that 
the proverbs of the European nations have been preserved 
in the permanent form of volumes. Erasmus is usually 
-considered as the first modern collector, but he appears to 
have been preceded by Polydore Vergil, who bitterly re- 
i)roaches Erasmus with envy and plagiarism, fur passing 
oy his coUectioo without even a poor compliment fur the 
inventor! Polydore was a vain, superficial writer, who 
prided himself in leading the way on more topics than the 

firesent. Erasmus, with his usual pleasantry, provoking- 
y excuses himself, by acknowledging that he had forgotten 
his friend's book ! Few sympathize with the quarrels o£ 
authors ; and since Erasmus has written a far better book 
than Polydore Vergil's, the original * Adagia^ is left only 
to be oimmemorat^ in literary history as one of its curi- 

The ' Adagia' of Erasmus contains a collection of about 
five thousand proverbs, gradually gathered from a constant 
study of the ancients. Erasmus, blest with the genius 
which could enliven a folio, delighted himself and all Eu. 
rope by the continued accessions he made to a volume 
which even now may be the companion of literary men for 
a winter day's fire>side. The successful example of Eras- 
mus commanded the imitation of the learned in Europe, 
and drew their attention to their own national proverbs. 
Some oX the most learned men, and some not sufficiently 
■o, were now occupied in this new study.j 

* At the Roval Institution there is a fine copy of Polydore 
Vergil's * Adsffia,' with his other work, curious in its day, De 
Invi>ntoribus Rerum. printcKl by Froheniiia, in 1521. The 
wood-cuts of this edition seem to be execute«1 with inhnitable 
delicacy, resembling a penciling which Rophael might have 

t In Spnin, Fernandez Nunes, a Greek professor, and the 
Marquis of Santellana. a grardee, published cnllectiuns of 
their Refrans, or Provurbs, a term derived a referendo. because 
It Is often repeated. The * Refrane* o Proverbios CaMtellanos,* 
par Cflpsar Oudin, 1624, translated into French, is a valuable 
mmpilaiion. In Cervantes and Quevedo, the best practical 
illiutrators, they are sown with no iiparinr hand. There is an 
ample collection of Italian provertw, by Florio, who was an 
Rnelishman, of Italian origin, and who published * II Glanlino 
di Ricreatione^ at London, so early as in 15f>l, exceeding ««lx 
chnumnd poTerbs : but thev are unexplaineti, ami iiro often 
obscure. Another Italian In fcngland, Torriano, in 1W1», piib- 
lished an interesting collection in the diminutive form of a 
twenty.fours. It was subMquent to these puhlicaikin^ in En- 
gland, that in Italy Anirelus Monosini, in 1604, publiaheii his 
collertion ; and Julius Varint, in 1642, produced his Sruoladel 
Vulffo. In France, Oudin, after others had preceded Iiim, 
pub!i«hed a collection or French proverbe, under the title of 
rurio»iifsTran9t>iiie8. Fleury de Bellinsr^n's Explirntion dc 
Prnverhrs Francois, on conip«rlne it with Lcs Illurtres Pro- 
vertw Hii(t(Tr{quei, a nuheequent pidilication, I diwovereil to be 
the same work. Ti Is the firM BUempt to rentier the Kiuly of 
proverbs somewhat amusinc. The plan consipia ofn dialoene 
between a philosopher and a Saiicho Pnnza, who blurts out 
his prorertei wkh more driieht than underrtondinc. The 
philosopher takes that opportunity of explaiiiinir them by the 
ereniaiii which they originated, which, howorr, are not nl- 
ways tn \\e depended on". A work ol hich nirrii on French 
pn)verte Is the unfinished one of the Al»»)6 Tuet, wnsihli' iind 
learned. A rollection of Danish proverbs, accompanied l»y a 
French translation, was primed at (^iponhaecn. in a qunrto 
volume, 17«l. Eiigiainl may b<w«ofnoiiifi'ri<ir iwrTinioL'ia- 

Shers. Theernveand imliciouB nnmdcn, the rclicious Iler- | 
pn. the entertainins Howel, the facetions Fuller, and the la- . 
Nifiouit Rhv, with others, have prcivrved our nnilona! eaying*. 1 
The ftcoctish ha'e been larirelv collected and explain-d by j 
die leaned Kelly. An excellent anonymous collection, not un- ■ 

The interest we may derive from tfafl ttudy of proverb* 
is not confined to their universal trutba, nor to the^r poign- 
ant pleasantry ; a philosophical mind will discover in pro- 
verbs a great variety of the most curious knowledge. The 
manners of a people are painted after life in their domestic 
proverbs ; ana it would not be advancing too much to aii- 
sert, that the genius of the ago might be often detected in 
its prevalent ones. The learned Sclden tells us, that the 
proverbs of several nations were much studied by Bishop 
Andrews ; the reason assigned was, because < by (hem he 
knew the minds of several nations, which,' said he, ' is a 
brave tiling, aa we count him wise who knows the minds 
and the insidei of men, which is done by knowing what is 
h^tiial to then.' Lord Bacon condensed a wide circuit 
of philosophical thought, when he observed that * the ge- 
ntm, wit, and spirit of a nation are discovered by their 

ProveriM peculiarly national, while they convey to us 
the modes of^thinking, will conseouently indicate the modes 
of actin|t among a people. The Romans had a proverbial 
expression for their last stake in play. Rem ad triariot ve- 
nisse, ' the reserve are engaged .*' a proverbial expression, 
from which the military habits of the people might be infer- 
red ; the triarii being their reserve. A proverb has pre- 
served a curious custom of ancient coxcombry which ori- 
ginally came from the Greeks. To men ^ effeminate 
manners in their dress, tliey applied the proverb of Unieo 
tiigituh Bcalpit eajnit. Scratching the head vrith a single 
finger was, it seems, done by the critically nice youths in 
Rome, that they might not discompose the economy of 
their hair. The Arab, whose unsettled existence makes 
him miserable and interested, says, * Vinegar given is bet- 
ter than honey bought.' Every thing of hi^h esteem with 
him who is so ofteii parched in the desert is described as 
milk — * How large his flow of milk !' is a proverbial expre»> 
sioo with the Arab, to distinguish the most copious elo- 
quence. To express a state of perfect repose, the Ara- 
bian proverb is, ' I throw the rein over my nack :' an allu- 
sion lo the loosening of the cords of the camels which are 
thrown over their backa when they are sent to pasture. 
We discover the rustic manners of our ancient Britons in 
the Cambrian proverbs ; many relate to tAe hedge, * The 
cleanly Briton is seen in the Aetf^e : the horse looks not on 
the hedge but the com : the bad husband's hedge is full of 
gaps.' The state of an agricultural people appears in such 
proverbs as, * You must not count your yearlings till May. 
day :' and their proverbial sentence for old age is, * An old 
man's end is to keep sheep !' Turn from the vagrant Arab 
and the affricuhural Briton to a nation existing in a high 
state of artificial civilization ; the Chinese proverbs fre- 
quently allude to magnificent buildings. Affecting a more 
solemn exterior than all other nations, a favourite proverii 
with them iw, ' A grave and majestic outside is, as it were, 
the palace of the soul.' Their notion of government is quite 
architectural. They say, < A sovereign may be compared 
to KhaU; his officers to the steps that lead to it ; the peo. 
pie to the ground on which they stand.' What shotilc we 
think of a people who had a proverb, that * He who give* 
blows is a master, he who gives none is a dog?* We 
should instantly decide on the mean and servile spirit of 
those who could repeat it ; and such we find to have been 
that of the Bengalese, to whom the degrading proverb be. 
Inngs, derived from the treatment they were used to receive 
from their Mogul rulers, who answered the cltims of their 
creditors by a vigorous application of the whip ! In some 
of the Hebrew proverbs we are struck by the frequent allu- 
sion? of that fugitive peoplr to their own history. The 
crut'l o|»pre!Ksion exercised by the ruling power, and the 
confidence in their hope of change in thedav of retribution, 
was delivered in this Hebrew proveri*— * When the tale of 
bricks is dmibled, Moses comes !' The fond idolatrv of 
their devotion lo their ceremonial law, and to every thing 
conrvected with their sublime Theocracy, in their mapnifi- 
cent Temple, in finely extiressed bv this proverb—' None 
evrr to<ik a stone out of the Temfile, but the dust did fly 
into his eyes.' The Hebrew proverb that * A fast (or ii 
dream, is a* fire for stubble,' which it kirwlles, could only 
have been invented by a people whope superstitions at* 

comn»on, in vnrinns Innmrpej". 1707 : the collector sad tratv. 
lator wuft 1)r J. Mnpletotl. It mwfi be acknowledged thst al- 
tlumt'h I '» nation exrcwls our nwn in rtcr'ine ^erw!, we rarely 
rivjil the delirncr, the wit. and »he felicity of expression of the 
Spaninh and Italian, and the poignancy of some of the ¥tKw^ 



ttehed a holy mrttery to full and dr«aiiu. They iiiia- 
eined that a refigioua fast was propitious to a religious 
aream ; or to obtain the interpretation of one which had 
troubled tbeir ima^^ination. Pey!i.foneI, who long ffsided 
among the Turks, ubserre*, that theu* prjvt:rb:$ are full of 
sensot ingenuity, and ele{.rancc. the surest ledt of the intcl- 
lectuiJ abilities of any nation. He said tiiis to correct the 
volatile opinion of De Tott, who, to convey an idea of their 
stupid pride, quotes one of their favourite adages, of which 
the truth and candour are admirabie ; * Kiehes in tho In- 
dies, wit in Europe, and pomp among the Ottoman!*.' 

The Spaniards may ap(>cal to tiit'ir proverbs to show 
that they were a highliniiided and independent race. A 
Whiggiiih jealiHisy of th«> monarchical i>ower sitainped it- 
pelf on this ancient one, Va d rey fuuia no pue*ie, y no hoMia 
do qumt : * The kinj; goes as far as he is able, not as far as 
he desires.* It must have been at a later period, when 
the national genius became more subdued, and every Spa- 
niard dreaded to find under his own roof a spy or an in- 
former, that another pniverb arose, Cun el rty y la inqui' 
sidofi, chiton! * Wiin the king and the inquisition, hush !' 
The gravity and taciturnity of the nation have been ascribed 
to the eriects of this proverb. Their p4>puiar but sup- 
pressed fefiin::^ on taxation, and on a variety of dues ex- 
acted by tlieir clergy, were murmured in provf rbs— />o 
que no Una Chritto U€va el Jitco! ' What Chnst takfs 
uoi, the exchequer carries away !' Tney have a number 
of sarcas^lic provtrbs on the tenacious gripe of the * abad 
avaricnto,' the avaricious priesit, who, * having eaten the 
oiio otfered, claims the di^h !* A striking mixture of chi- 
valrtc habitc, domestic dcc<'ncy, and epicurean comfort, ap- 
pears in the Spanish pn«vt-rt>, Z^ mu^try la salsa a la 
mano de la ianca : ' The wife and the ^auce by the hand 
of the lance ;* to honour the uanie, and to have the sauce 

The Italian proverbs have tak^-n a tinge from their deep 
and politic genius, and their wisdom s«.-cms wholly concen- 
trated in their personal interests. I think every tenth pro- 
verb, in an Italian collection, is snmc cvnical or some nelf- 
ish maxim: a 'book of the world i'or'woridlings !' The 
Venetian proverb Pria Veneiiahi^ poi Chrisliane : ' FirKt 
Venetian, and then Chri^iiiaii V condenses the whole spirit 
of their ancient Republic into the smallest space possible. 
Their political pmverbs, n'> doubt, arojie from the extra- 
ordinary statu of a p'.'opie, sometimes dirtracted among 
republics, and somenmes st^rvile in pe;iy c<iurt<t. Tiie 
Italian savs, / popoli s'arnmarzano, ed i prenriui s'a^tbrae- 
etano: * The people murder uiie anuiiier, mid princ«rs em- 
brace one another.' Chi pnUtica co* gramii. Cultimo a ta- 
vola^ e*l primo a' strappoizi: *\\ho dandles afier the 
great is the last at table, and the tirst at biuw«.' Chi non 
aa adulare, non sa regnnTt : * Wno knows not to flatter, 
knows not to reign.' Chi serve in eorte mvore suV pasrliato : 

* Who serves at court die^i on straw.' Warv ciiniiing in 
domestic life is per(>eiua.iy imprcifscd. An Iiaiian proverb, 
which IS immortalized in our iaiigiiage. lur ii enters in'o the 
history of Milton, was that by whi<>ii tb«' ele^arit Wotioii 
counselled the young pnetic traveller to iiave — ll lito sci- 
olto. td I pentieri strctti, * An open cmintenaiice, but clo<e 
thoughts. In the same spirit, Chi ptirla Sf/nina, chi tart 
raccozlie: * The ta.ker sows, the si.enl reaps :* as well as. 
/otfi di mielet e ti maneieran le mosrhe ; * ^lake yourself 
all honev, and the tlies will deirour you.' There are some 
which (ii'fplay a deep knowledge of human nature: A 
iMcea ti vidi^ a Pisn ti conniAbi! * I saw yuu at Lucca, 1 
knew you at Pisa !' Guardati d'actto^ di ri 't dolc€ : * lie- 
ware of vinifgar made of sweet wme,' provoke not the rage 
of a patient man ! 

Among a people who had often witnessed their fine 
country devastated by petty warfare, their notion of the 
military charactr-r was not usually heroic. Jl s-Addto per 
fax male i ben pacnto : * The soldier is well paid lor do- 
ing mischief.' Soldato. ncpii, efuoco, pnsto si fun luoro: 

* A soldier, fire, and water, soon make room tor thi m- 
aelves.' But in a poetical people, endowed with great 
aen?ibility, their provcrb?i> would sometimes be tenJi-r airl 
fanciful. They paint the activity of frieiid>h:p, Chi ha 
Vamor net prtt't, ha to spronr a i tianrhi : » Who feels love 
in the breast, ff oN a spur in his limbf ;' or its genvrmis 
passion. Gli amid Irnmut la i»orta cm un Ji!o di raf natch: 

* Frit-nds tie their purse with a cobweb's thread.* They 
characterized the universal lover by an elegant proverb— 
Appirare il ^laio ad ofn'useio : * To hang vvt* ry door with 
May ;' alluding to the bough which m the nights of May 
Che country-people are accustomed to plant before the 

docir of their mistress. If we turn to the French, ve £> 
cuvertiiat the military <,-eiiius of France diciatid '.h* 
verb, ^lailic a maille sc fuit U haubtri^eon : * Lick b* a 
is made the coat i>f niaii ;' and 7\/ roup de lamfmtKin 
qu'un coup de laiict : *Tli" loni.uo ^irtKesi u-.-ryer 
th>.' luiice :' aT:d Cc yui vitrj tlu tatnltomr «Vn rttmrsf 14 
Jtutt' : What cimn-s bv iii»- labor ::inrs back wiui u-^-i^. 
P'lint darsint jmjU dt Suisse has bi o.'nif proierbca.. * 
strvrs an Kiii:>biirjh Keviewt-r; a STrikif.g ex^cfflRa 
which, Willie French or coM pre^f^-ju'fi 
was justly used to characii*rize the iiiihKrral arri -fit 
policy of the car.'i-nal :tiid federal ;:<*vemiiientjs (<f Sv.jbv 
land, when it bc::an to di-tjeiierate frum itM mora, m:.-^ | 
ism. The ancient, perhaps tho exiimrt. spint cf £a«.aw 
men, was once e.xpnsscd by our proverb, * Better be 'M 
head of a dog liiaii the tad of a lion :* •'. e. the nrrt of a ) 
yeomanr\' rutiier than the last of the frentry. A fxe«» [ 
philosopfier might have discovered our own ancii-a: slL 
in arch* ry uiiiong our proverbs ; for none but true lox«i^ 
j lites could have surli a proverb a«, *■ I will either ouce i 
. sha'fl or a bolt of it!' ^i^jnilying. says the author of Ivaa^ 
[ a determination to make one use or other of the thing »>p 
{ ken of: the boit was the arrow peculiarlv fitted to :> 
; cross-bow, as that of the lt)ns-bow was called a »cc. 
Those in>tances sutTirieniiy demonstrate that the cila.*l^ 
terioiiccircunisiances and feelings of a people ared4ci*r> 
ed in thfir popular notions, and stamped vn their fsfluir 

It is also evident that the peculiar, and often idioBUE, 
' humour of a {»eople is best preserved in their prov«rta 
I There is a shrewdness, nithoiigh deficient in delnracT. ■ 
; the Scotiish pnwerbs: they are idioinatic, facetious, nt 
' stnke home. Keilv. who has collected three thonsiai. 
j informs us. that, in 17*25. the Scotch were a ereat pruni^ 
j bial nation; tor that lew among the better sort wui 
■ verse any rouMderable time, but will confirm everv 
! tion and observation with a Scottish proverb. The _ 
lative Scotch of our own times have prubablv degeaerasirf 
in prudential lore, and deem themitelves much wiser tku 
their proverbs. They may reply by a Scotch provrrba 
I proverbs, made by a great man in Scot lanH, who. bavng 
given a splendid entertainment, was harsh! r Idid, dni 
* Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them ;* bai h» 
readily answered, ' Wise men make proverbs, and fedi 
reneat them I' 

j National humour, frripienily local and idiomatical,d«paii 
; on the arilikial habits of mankind, so opiioyice to oca 
. o:hor: but there is a iiaiurai vein, which the'ptipulace, ar 
j w.iys true to nature, {ireserve even among the gravcat bm^ 
I pie. The Arabian proverb, * The barber learns his ait at 
! the orphan's t'ace:* tho Chinese, * In a field of meioasds 
I not pull up your shoe ; under a plum-tree do not adjust voir 
, cap ;* — to impress caution in our conduct under cirrua- 

• stances t*f suspicion : — and the Hebrew one, *He that kalh 
: had one of his family hanged may not say to his neichbor, 
j han^ up this fi«h !* are aii instances of this sort of hiimoar. 
. Tiie Spaniards are a grave people, but no nation hu 
' equalled them in their peculiar humour. Theeeaiutof 
I Ci-rvantes partook largely of that of Ins country- ; that maa. 
I tie of gravity, which a:nio:it conceals under it a latent face- 

tiousii'-ss, and with which hehasimbueii his style and maiH 
I ner with such untrans'.aleable idiomatic raciness, ina« be 
. traced to the prnverhiai eriiitiiion of his nation. * To s'leai 
j a sheep, anil give away the trotters for Gcid's sake !' is Cer- 
j van; 10 naruru ! To one who is serking an nnftortuniiv to 
I iniarrel with anoth*-r. their proverb nins. Si quieres dar 
I p'llos a nt maimer pidtlr al *ol a heviTy * Hast thou a mind 
' to tniarrel wiin thy wii'v, bid her bring water to thee in the 

• biin->iiine !* — .i v« ry lair quarrel may be picked ui> aboal 
! the motes in the clearest water ! On the judges in Galiicia, 
' who, 'like our fornuT Justices of peace, ' for half a dozen 

ehickens wouM dispense with a dozen of penal statutes,* 
•A juezes Galicianos, con los pies en los manos ; * To 
the judges of Galiieia go with feet in haiiii :'adroll allusion 
' to a pri/senl of poultry. us:ia!!y held by the U-gs. To de- 
scr:l)e pirsons wiio live InjiU without visible means. Loi 
que rabriio« vi-irien. y eabnis no timen, dedonde kit 
vient-n ? ' They that aell kids and have no goals, how 
came they by tin m .'* Kl vino no trae bragas, 'Wine 
wears no iire-ch'-s :* ibr men in wine expose their most w^ 
crel thoughts. Vino di un orejo, • Wme of one ear? ■ 
go<)d wine : for at bad, shaking our heads, both our ears 
are vi'*ible ; but at good, the Spaniard, by a natural getlH 
culation lowering one side, shows a single ear. 
Proverbs abounding in sarcastic himwur, and 


%miifif rverr people, are those which are jpoiiiied at rival 
oauatnee. 'Thev ripose tomn prevalent tolly, or ailudt to 
•ooii* (i»f racA wliich the natives have incurred. In France, 
th' BurfunduuM have a proverb Mitux vaut ban repa» que 
M hafMi ; * Belter a^ood dinner than a fine coat.' These 
fNjd people are sreai gormandizers, but shabby druHers; 
x^y Areciimfnonly vaid tu have * bowclii of ailk and velvet ;* 
••tat », all ibrir Milk and velvet goes 4ur their bowels ! Thus 
Pv.ardy » famous fur * hot heads ,* and the Norman for 
tBudUet sem dedUf * his saying and his unsaying !Mn Italy 
tih* iHimeroua rival cities pelt one another with proverbs : 
Cki ha9 /are am Tbsco nan amvien esar loscOf ' He who 
c*-ais wirh a Tuscan must not have his eyes shut.* A 
Tntfia ehi vi noser, mat vi n poaee^ * Whom Venice breeds, 
«M puorly feeds.'-— Among ourselves, hardly has a county 
escaped from some popular amp; even' Deighbouring 
tovas have their sarcasms, usually pickled in some unlucky 
r.rme. The egotism of man eagerly seizes on vihalever 
Krves to depreciate or to ridicule hu neighbour : nations 
r'Mvrrb each other; counties flout counties; obscure 
v:«ns sharpen their wits on towns as obscure as them- 
Kiv«*— the same evil pruiciple lurking in poor human na- 
!tf^, if It cannot always assume predominance, will mean- 
ly fratify itself by insult or contempt. 

There IS another source of national characteristics, fre- 
i;jrii'.:y producing atrange or whimsical combinations ; a 
ir^jie, from a very natural circumstance, have drawn 
tAnr proverbs from local objects, or from allusions to pe- 
rnv customs. The influence of manners and customs 
f^tf the ideas and language uf a people would form a sub- 
frtuf extensive and curious research. There is a Japa- 
iv« proverb, that * A fog cannot be dispelled with a fan !' 
Hai we not known the origin of this proverb, it wuuld be 
ei4snt thai It could onlv have occurred to a people who 
'4d euostanily before ifiem fogs and fans ; and the fact 
v^evt thai fogs are frequent on the coast of Japan ; and 
lui from the aee of five years both sexes of the Japanese 
carry fius. The Spaniards have an odd proverb to de- 
mbe those who teaze and vex a person before they do 
!• the very benefit which thev are about to confer— ^ct- 
■{ aiSKlly, hut speaking roughfy ; Moetnr primero la hor~ 
'a 7W r/ /nfw, * To show tiie gallows before they show 
'Xf town ;' a circumstance alluding to their small towns, 
•uch have a gallows placed on an eminence so that the 
|i..ims breaks on the eye of the traveller before he gets a 
>ir« of Ibc town itself. 

Tke Cheshire proverb on marriage, ' Better wed over 
t3p BiiaD than over the moor,' that is, at home or in its 
nnany ; muon alludes to tiie dung, &c, in the farm-yard, 
•tJe the road from Chester to London is over the moor- 
J»i u Staffordshire ; this local proverb is a curious in- 
■unce of provincial pride, perhaps of wisdiMn, to induce 
:te grntry of that county to form intermarriages ; to pro> 
rA^ their own anaent iamihes, and perpetuate ancient 
fc'.eiidsnips between them. 

Ib the Isle of Man a proverbial expression forciblv in- 
dicate* the object constantly occupying the minds of the 
■habitants. The two Deemsters or judges, when ap- 
praied to the chair of judgment, dcclate they will rertder 
j-j#tice between man and man * as ei]ually as tlie herring 
fcooe bes between the two sides :' an imago which could 
DtJC have oocurrcd to anv people unaccustomed to herrini*^ 
imt^rj. There is a Cornish proverb, * Those who will 
wt be ruled bv the rudder must be rult^ by the rock* — 
the strands o^ Cornwall, so often covered with wrecks, 
e«i.d not fail lo impress on the imaginations of its inhabi- 
tancs the two objects from whence they drew this salutarv 
pfT'verb. afamst obstinate wrong-heads. 

When Scotland, m the last century, felt its allegiance 
TB England doubtful, and when the F'rench sent an ezpe- 
dsv« to the land of cakes, a local proverb was revived, 
ie stkow the identity of interests which ad*ecled both na- 

* If 9kiddnw hath a cap 
Bcruflel woes full well of that.' 

are two hiirh hills, one in Scotland and one in 
1; so near, that what han|)«ns to the one will not 
be long era if reach the other. If a fo2 lodges on the one. 
isas sure to ram on the other ; the mutual sympathies of 
tfte two countries were hence deduced in a copious Hisser- 
tvioo. bv Oswald Dvke, on what was railed * The Union- 
Fowb.' which Isea/nrouerAs of our countrv, Fuller has 
ia Im • Worthioi/ and Ray ami Gruae have 

I was amused lately by a ouious financial rerelatioa 
which I found in an opposition paper, where it appears that 
' Ministers pretend to ui^e their load of taxes more por- 
table, by shitting the burden, or altering the pressure, with- 
out however, diminishing the weight ; according to the 
Italian proverb, Accomnuxlare le bisaccienella etrada^ * To 
fit the load on the journey ; — it is taken from a custom of 
the mule^rivers, who placing their packages at first but 
awkwardly on the backs of their poor beasts, and seeing 
them ready to sink, cry out, 'Never mind! we must m 
them better on the road !' 1 was gratified to diycover, by 
the present and some other modem instances, that the 
taste for proverbs was reviving, and that we were return- 
ing to those sober times, when the aptitude of a simple 
proverb would be preferred to the verbosity of poUiicianSi 
Tories, Whigs, or Radicals ! 

There are domestic proverbs which originate in inc^ 
dents known only to the natives of their provmce. Italian 
literature is particularly rich in these stores. The hvely 
proverbial taste of that vivacious people was transferred 
to their own authors ; and when these allusions were (^ 
scored by lime, learned Italians, in their zeal for their na^ 
lional hierature, and in their national love of story-telling, 
have written jn^ave commentaries even on ludicrous, but 
popular tales, in which the proverbs are said to have ori- 
ginated. They resemble the old facetious conttay whose 
simplicity and humour still live in the pages oif Bo^ 
caccio, and arc not forgotten in those of^the Queen of 

The Italians apply a proverb to a person who while he 
is beaten, takes the bluw^s quietly :— 

Per beaio rh* clle non furon prsche ! 
*■ Luckily they were not jjcachus !' 
And to threaten to cive a man— 

UiiA ]H.-sca in uii occhio, 
* A peuch in the eye,' 

means to give him a thrashing. This proverb, it is said* 
originated in ilie close of a certain droll adventure. The 
community of the Castle Poggibonsi, probably from some 
iocular tenure observed on St Bernard's day, pay a tri- 
bute of ;ieaclies to the court of Tuscany, which are usu- 
ally shared among the ladies in wailing, and the pages of 
tlie court. It happened one season, in a great scarcity of 
peaches, that the cood p^'ople at Poggibonsi. finding tnem 
rather dear, sent, instead of the customary tribute, a quan- 
tity of fine juicy fics, which was so much disapproved of 
by the pages, tnal as soon as they gut hold of them, they 
liesan ni rage to empty the ba^liets on the heads of the 
ambassadors of the Po^gibonsi, who, in attempting to fly 
as well as they could from the pulpy shower, half-blindecl, 
and recollecting that peaches would have had stones in 
them, cried out — 

Per b»'ato ch' elle non furun pesche ! 
Lifkily they wer*» not peuchos I 

Fart le ecalte di SanC Amhrogw ; < To mount the stairs 
of Saint Ainbro:<e,' a proverb allusive to the business of 
the school of scandal. Varchi explains it by a circum- 
stance so comnum m provincial cities. On summer eve- 
nings, for fresh air and go«sip, the lounsers met on the 
ste(»5 and landing places of the church of St Ambrose; 
whatever left the party, ' they read in his book,' as our 
rommentaior express^^i it ; anil not a leaf was passed over! 
All liked to join a parly so well informed of one another's 
concents, and every one tried to be the very last to quit it, 
— not to leave his churacti-r brhind !' It became a pro- 
verbial iihra'ie with those who left a company, and were 
too teiuier of thnr harks, to request thev would not 'mount 
the stairs of St Ambrose.* Jonson has well described 
such a company : 

* Y'ou are w) truly iV'urVl, but not bt loved 
Oiu* ol' another, a« no one dart* x bn nk 
C'tnip.iny from the re»t, lest they shoiild fall 
Upon him alMent.* 

There are legends and histories which belong lo pro- 
verbs ; and some of the most ancient reier to incidents 
which have not always been coniineinoratrd. Two 
CJreik pn^vorhs have arcidrniallv b«»»'n ixpbiiird by Pai>- 
sania-* : ' I If is a man ot'Tein'ilns !* tu iiesicnbe a nersun 
of unqiies:iMnahle vrraci y ; and * To rut with ihe Tene^ 
( a\e;' lo cxnress an absolute ami irrrvoeable refusal. 
The first originated in a km:; of Teiifdo<, wiio decreed 
that there shmild always stand bi'hind the judfe a man 
holding an axe, readv to t* xtrcuie ju<(ti<'e on any one con- 
victed of falsehood. The other arot** from the same king, 
whose father having reached his island, to supfilicaie urn 


>• fnr ilu injur/ inflicted on hioi by th* u 
er, wu oreptriag Id IukI ; (Inidy iha ih 
IV III OMt la 1 rock ; when ihc ko cui 

. WW cOiinilireil u Ihe b«ii ^ipUd Ibr Ik 
mm, or rrdo kbk alliBr ciuK whicb I 
rrerAd, (his DOLinn muai havA 

d Miy 

LS oolj pro- 

protnib, ipplied Lo 1 perioD niimd by hii own Begl«I. 
Ths TkUi or>n cminiinl penon perpaluaiiid Ibn eijirBMioa 
which hs cvualLf fmploTsd on the occuion. One of Ihc 
Th»lran pnleni»rchi. in llio nudil of a oonmii! p»ni, r»- 

irino. Blthougt] prDflird by Qie courier lo open Lhem immo- 
(liaiely, he emilpd, end in gmiety leyinji Ihe letter under 

houre he htd loil, end beceiBB Ihn lutbor oT k pmrarb 

The philoaoihiul uTiquiry n»y oTien diicoTer how 
nuyi proierb commemorile* ui evonl which hu «»- 

emnt b Spuiiih hirtory ie preierved by i. proMtb. 
Ytwt^ar ^nienlo tueldat; ^ And revenge fiTehnnilred 

Kcnllainint Bui Iha proHFib ii hialoricel. Thn Spi- 

of York ia 
df Lord - 
with lh» I 

The IlaJiui Unory oT ita own aon 
VD^l'beinir n niudi depended on i 
ficily, oflbnii many inalancea of t 

I throuffb 1 ifood^iumourad prorerb,- 

roierb. Tbeeiirf; 

who la allowed Om in)* 

When Rinaldo degli Al^ui (tm hantikc^ b* Iha ri 

•b«l bflh 

rerd baitin, Ihe Spaniirda ai 

Tivod when they entirely 

ur la France, rcTiewing tha 

obier¥ev, (hax a. provrrb amonf the connion peopTe cmH 

which in ■ lioifle 4{B declined from nobility and wealth m 
Dowrli' int meiiaiieiii, r«'e riie In the proiferb, CeiU oni 

b:inii'r, and nne hund"-d veira a b*r«m> !■ The Iialian 
proverb, Cm f Euin^io «* diDrMn Airdini, ' Witi. the 
ir^pel we become hereiics/'-rellecti the pojicyof the 
nourl of Rome 1 and muil be diled at ihe time of the 

the Tulfar toiijnia enoiunter«l oiioh ui inTinciUa opnn. 
ri'inn. The Scotch prororh, fit Aal inimlnl On mautm 
gmlmMlUdil; thai ia, pii the fint of ii ! Themaidec 
ra that welMonwR beheadini eniine, rented by the 
I may b« applied 

I de* Medici. Macliia' 
the expelled nan rent Coinia ■ memce. in a prorrrb, /a 

gaUina eoiMva ! • The hen b brADdini !' >aij of dm aw- 
dilating ven|eince. The unduililed Cnmo lapted by 
uiolher, thai ' There wai no brooding out of iho aaal T 

1 give anejumple of peculiar intereat; for it ia p erpo 
luafDd by Daole, and ii coonaclod with the c ha f a ctw af 
Mil ion. 

When ihe rimiliea of the Anadei and Ihe Dbeni Ml 
their honour wounded in the affrntit the younjier BuondeU 
man te had put upon lhem. in hruakinj-off hia inalf^ wilh 
a ynunf lady of their faniily, by marrying amlher. a 
I council wAi held, and Ihe death of the youftf curaher w 
I proposed V the aole atooeoBni [or their injared hcmoiir, 
Biu the cooaeqiiFncoa which they aalicipaiHl, ud wbidh 
aflerwardi praiad » fald to Iha FlorMIiHa, kvf tm- 
I pended their deciaioo. At lsn|!lh Hoscha I aailimi aa^ 
' denly riain^. eiclaimedf io two proverha.^ThBl ihoaewbn 
! conaidflred every thingwoitid never CDDciodeoaBikirtUvf^ 
doling mlh an ancienl pniierbia] aayiag — csan/t^bi caa* 
ha! 't deed done haa an end [* Thia pronrb aeaW n* 

Lerando I moneherin per liaura ft 
Orldo— ^ Rlcordcmll encordel Mci 

Malm'dnfeachhind. upti 

Sullied hi. lUt. and 'erlrd- 
Of Ml 

Pnnch )iir|ana Gtrinc 

Earl of Mortun, who for lome yeara tniemiid Scntland, 
ud aliernnla, << la aa id, aery unjuatly tiiRrred by hii 

fate wat thared bv ihe f 
wnplaa of dialurbed tin 
renatli^la incident ban 
Aevl, da man took Ae Ctfifiunr ! 

hbtory, waa violenilr uhen bv aboi 

e. thai thai 

n; boih alike tad et 

la paralleled by the French in vofini by ' acclanw 
' An ancient Eniliah pmierh preaertea a cuiioui 
_ TeMert arc rent fo OtforJ, 
n Henry the Eiehlh do. 

u m^ at B 

. When He. 

baaed Ihe ailv 

ermb. called fMm. f 

00 each 

aide; the bra 


their ail 

erfacee. pror 


for the 

feeNnf which 

ailed ab 

fwmiHl the at 

le oflh 

the remariiabi 

been pr 

Rn'land wa. 

o be Ihe 


Jto it, r«rl JioH**.' 

Wh-lher at th. 

rr, Ihe pD|Hilai 

n Elilabeih n. 

.under Jam- ihe Pir.1 

ta an r^'*— thai prnvad 

Thii Italian pnnart 
deeply >n(aied in w 

and warned th^t it mijrni leminaie in ma orinoneaa, ne tr- 
aolvedly eoncluded bta work, ctclaiminr with rrf^al rnaf.- 
nanimity allhnuch the fatal prognoalicailnn had been ac- 
companied, eoaq/ftfla p^» Aa-' Did ihi< proverb alao id' 

when the ( 

ili^mnded fludualed betwesn dobbta 
Ihe Italian pronrb aaya 

LefmtU dtfitOrt ABrrigt. 
Tba (ruil of brother Alherigo. 
1 Ihe IbUowing paaaage of Daott, uMsrtMIha 


■ml or Ihn dinner Ihe boni blew to •nnouDcn thn | ,\etA hu oAcn bean urillen lo daat 
— but il viu ihc lixnal nt ihii duiinuUiing cdD' i ^fpionrbi could ihoai hid long ba 

•ti wen (nard Bleu, whe, nnhbg in, inmiolusd An iiuurniwnl^e difficullj •: 

i> Uitt of ronnuti ui ipi, ■ raiij, 
,i. Eichdiv- 

*ilh Ihou of innthrr jKOple. When ■ Ftmch- ^^Tered hi prnleceuor'i nude iniperiVci, tiui cun »•■ 

'ould IflluundcnivulUiU hr hu netlled nMlh hu I Juoned to meet Iha lune hie. The UTaniemenl of pn- 

n, ihi prof eib ii, /" m payd I«j mn ^n^/ut .- ' I , ,eibt hu biffled Ihe injenuiij of eTcry one of iheir coU 

■id ill Bf Enfluti.' ThiapniTerbmnniiedwhen ' [gclan. Our Riy, inrr tiin| premedilalion, h» chmn 

Oh Fnaeh kiny, wu 'iken pmnnrrby our Black I ^ ajiien lailb tba appearucg of u ilphabelKal order; 

L^ fnr muf French ^ortli ; uid Ihe Fiench peojile t^.' ii do alphkbe'l. Alter ten jcin' labour. Ihe loiij 

thiH perpKUialed the mihllrr glorj it our nation, ^u couM only arrange h» provnrbi by cumfnon-^eri 

■air own idea of il, bj making Ihe EngUtlt and Lheir —bj cotDplMe lenteDcu — b]rph>uei or torou of ipreciv 

■nijriBaTBauua lermi. Aniiibm relaiei. lo the tame tn pronrbial limilel — andioon. All Iheie vf puraued 

—Onltfaptal dtimu fVin^, f< Jan C'*ru> |n ilpbabelkil order, 'bj ibe finMeiieroT the moefnit- 

■ii.' -Now ihe Pope il become Frwich ud J»ue lenal •ord,"or,iriherebediore wordi'-eoMiiymofarui," 

lEailiih;' aprnrsrh which aroM when Ihn Pope, by that which uiuallv ■iiDd>rareinoai.' The moat pal iini 

fivu Rome, held hii courl al Aiignoo in France; ejaminer wiU uiually And that he wr— 

Im EDflith pnapenid ■ ' ' ' 

ihw hair Ihe kingdom, 
ig England il well kno* 

The Spaniah proTerb cc 


Y pai eon hghlma '. 
• War wilh the world, 

And peace with Enghmd ? 
dWt thil pranrb wai «e of the rewha oT lheir me* 
Ue unadii, and waa oaiy coined after iheir coaiiciion 
I aplendid follx which ihej had commitled, I eannol 

[o Spain agajntr her potent rival and neighbour. Tht 

"l iiKl'al*Te'"^'1ho levelled En^luhman in 'their 
irjr, /n^u' Ilal'aitaU t ui diattio oicarmilii ; ' Thr 

a die Firal, Ihai land of the oT*|iui? 

QMd a higher rank in Ei 



ana) prore^led our' nation—' The; airee like Ih< 
k«of LoDdon!' We were once beUerluned lor mei- 
^briatnaas^ and their piea; and jl nHiBthare been 

nr iQ Ihn pruverb Ha pin du fart cht i Jrnu iti naiats 
HtUhnTa : ' He haa more busmrae than Kngluti 
u al Chriilnaii.' Our pie-le>tuiE genlry weie notiii. 
, and Shakerpeirr'a (bbo wia uaually laid open in thf 

■ defournl alonceShiikHpeare and their paatiy. Some 

nmai letTe ihe ikiirul eiudant to the delicacy nT tte 

■a neglected atoreii of curioiia aniiiemrnt, and oTiieap 
^l inlo the wa)ri of nun, and to piunt out the bold and 
cealed Imlhi which are acalterrd ui theaecollectianB. 
ereieenu to be m Dccurrrnce in human aflair^ lo which 
lepmverbnty not br applied. All knowledie wa^ 
g apborijtical aod traditional, pithily conlractikc the 
nverira which wen? lo be iibtanilj comprehended, and 
ily reuined. WhUeTer be ihe reioluiieoary aiue of 
B, BBilar principle* ud like acruirencH are reiuminc 
na; and inliquily.whrnnerit it justly applicable toetrr 

own afe. A jwoleib will often 

igacity cC 
me cDlleclcr lo diacorer thai word whicb ii ' Ihe moM m*' 
teriti,' or 'thewordi equally raalerial.' We have lo 
iearch through all that mulliplicily oTdiiaioni, or canjia> 
ing-boiei, in which thii Jnggler of proTerba preianda M 

A nill inare Ibrmidable obiection againct t collaetiai of 
proeerbi, for the impaiieni reader, ii their unreadaUe- 

provefbe, Ibcir alippery nature reaiila all hope of retauung 
one in a hundred ; Ihe iiudi of proverb* oiuBt he a frequent 
recurrence lo a (raduil colleclien of favourite oon, which 

throw a perpetual fre»bneaa over Iheae ihorl and rimple 
telle ; every day may fumieh a new connnenlary ; and we 
may grow old, and find novelty in proveib* by their pei^ 
peiuJ applicaiioD. • 

There are, prrhape, about Iwrnly Ibouiand prorerbe 
amonfi Ihe nalion* d" Europe i many of Iheae have ipread 
in lheir comncn intercoiine; many are borrowed frainlh* 
ancient*, chiefly Ihe Greek*, who ibcmaelrei largely tnok 
frori the Eiflem naiiona. Our own proverba an loa 
often delicienl in Ibat eleiance and mgenuity which 
are oflcn found in the Spanish and Ihe Italian. Proverba 

of Mt in ihHe countriea, without any feeling of Tul|aiiiy 
being auocialed with them ; Ihey arc loo nunrniuB, too 
willy, and loo wiae, to eeaea lo pltaie by their potjnaney 
and Ihflb apiit'ide. I have heard them raU Irom ihe lip* 
of men of letter* and of ilalennen. Whm reemlly the 



L proluund llali 

the Lanaroni i.f Naple*. JHda nmtiiiliK, mita rannpu, 
mrtadaan..' >Ha)f.dTice,halfe(anple,ha1f money!* Tba 
remit confirmed th« iniih oT Ihe proverb, which, had it 
been known al Ihe lime, nighi hate quieted the hancal 
lean of a great part of the naiion. 

Proverba haie ceaaed In be ttudied, or rniptoyed in tvn- 
vertatim, aince Ihe line we hate drrived oii knowledge 
fron book*; bin in a phikwophical ap they apprir i^ offer 
infinite ■ubjeen for ipeculeme ciiiintilT ; nniiinaiing in 

rntoun nf life, Ihey ire nfltn 1 
I, Ihry drti^hl by lheir airy lai 

nr torn, and etn hy the eletann 

e leiMlcmeaa of iheir acntiment. They 

aire a deep inaight into tkmeiitic life, ami o| — '"" — '"■ " 

heart of man, in all the va 

pv-^a frequent review of proterb* ihould ei 

reading* t and althnufh Ihev trr no Innfer i 

platfiilne* ■ t 

ife. ami open for up Ihe 

if n 

of ThMighi ! 

C L" K 1 S 1 T I K S or 

■HHiifhH lixt b-1 k. nir mcriiioin riicinauin iT '•>- 
DMivni.' Hrnu'if ii"I ]<riibiblv pturr lit onrlHfll'ii. VThr-ii' 
ciei lilt lant KtrJ nnninMri bj lU pwtiawilh dif- 

eruk oTdnoB:' ' Thi'n, ■ rR ■ liiile liiuiMcv aiul mrw 
•giiUT in Fhifttpf hit f rjumi, aakxif iht fbriunv mT an nfw 
ponai. Whik uir jianj ii voninl in uHCDianglini; ■ 


rd oflh- ki 

nnloni ii Gw ■ cmWutv or iwu — » rt )»< binjieiKd ! 

Vau(«ai, wh^ pu>--i] hit Khairlifrin IbtfiulirMinirii. 
would no> (llcni thai the mjc vti to dclcimiM ihc ni«n- 
mfOfwonU; fifr. lavi he, k a ihe bu^mvf^of vwli to 
vnlun iKl- wnvt. Kani for a kinz whik ditcom ed in 

danD* a poMml nnlic. in iha a(uny uT a * tnDnmnn if 

criiK, cvnriocril ihai he ha* naile huiunif uod>-nt>ind. 

■RiMil* tmdi, iHit' inlf I i^iiH; nu* admit of (utuaK* of 
vii.iKWi.n. TnnxT iii' a wd. c*paU<< <if Aii kmb*. 
■nd Tou lavr (iTiy partin : Shmildtnae fricod'arprwa 

word, no liOErr rin^biE ihe lo^n of a piriT, wnohl lir in 
(britrtfuliiM in Ihc LNc-innuy. Sidt nwcv nwokin; nh'-n 
BiixlcniitT ofi 

to Ihinr noitua! afl>in<ihmmi, bnrh naniea ili'eiiTeT ihe 
now tUnj iTine indrr the bnn and chaff afin llw heated 
tfoaliua^ 'Plain and AriiDtlr probablj apred mdi 
batter (ban the nppoHle |ianin Iher rai^nl up iauilined ; 
Ibeir difiernxN- WB1 is the niann'r iif einnwiuii, ruber 
Iban m ibe jminti rii>cuf i-^. The Noui'naiiMi ard the 
wt..tL ^jj ijij KfM Kith their bnwb. nnd 

Kvcd brlteid. The remonl of a. maOunwidi 
•I n liiiiiiiiiKu n* over a wonle bod* of pbirinmi. 
r ii>ri n:M <h.' t'riltii'lr ihe itu/rjiiili,' aanC ftu 
t TrailJ d.t SoimImh: 'bv ihu ■m/.i oue. 

n nar^ a p'niiive idri m wBnilr, fnAi oknn hi 
kv reafunnin liave bieii earned on, noi onitai 
iviiciau, but evi'il hv )^'>nietrieiuu.' Tbe vwi 

riieri; rcaHH.uii and rca»>n harp betrn ofiesna 
I; > man mar hive m rnllr>* caparin lor rb^ 
ithout being liiuch iNllueneed by reaaon'. tad uhi»| 
mble, pcrnapH diffVn from both ! So Tblodwratua ^ 

cu, w&skati* 

ailj empluTcd trrmi vhich had 

never been cotHprehendrd ; heBU iSe nwoi ckar 
ofHoiana ha»f bi'i^n impuied to fnunderv of lem. ' 

Here ' a^ainx Ian !' Thi^ir roundrr'iaaB John Arrr, 
(l.i!,™rrr.if I.uih-.r, who, nLiie he hrrrf, had kr^ Si 
la'j Wj— fX'U I'lplodinr, nhich thcv did ■>« .v 

It th.n 

Ii IhTni 

... . . ..- , UDd wb«C 

dannrd siniinit ihe lor <if Gad. To « hat ^f»^ — - 
if hi) >rci iHnhed thii mbaldOFlrine is kDowtiita"' 
real soiioH nf liiii Acrkida pmhibir nerrr will be ! In 
eoiHidered him ar a hiFml'ii dreamer in th«?lo(T.«^s 
conTiHed hn brad br Fallal ctnlroTeniFi arilh tbi ii' 
bolMufheiHi, wliolnt'iiwinn thi< rxrlT refornHT rti r- ; 
tbetl of rr<i(4iiil and itnaprDw. windi- and rrBftr!*.*! 
......_. -.„„.:__:.,_. .. - . 

tells u< 

i**fm *Jaw,' Arnro^i' 

■roHs . 

'r euni|irrli>'i>l their 

:h the 

n^imandniFnt* of Klnrr*. iihirh W "* I 

Hdrred Here abmnted bv the G-«pfl, brine denmi '■' I 
tiie Jem and not (or Ihe Chti«!ian». A^riro'a Sw.^' I 
tho wnnlt llir ' Law of God,' and ■ Ihnt Ihrrv bu ac 

ioinnl what the rpuii cf partv iiad pundered! 

l>u we Nallrr onruKrn iVl the I^suniehiei of the 
Nimmalin* and Ae ReaSiit* leimiiui'rri mith ibeae ac^d. 
jng fdnoliMn I Mnileni nnwBie. wei^htd uainn Ih* 

ab*nl-tr, miT nnlie Th>- "iVn irmih:!- r<r awhilr. bat il 
•K\i \iHrnt atrieshi" q-ni-r nf rri"hne»», and iiilfide 
uuoaa equip-n«-. We luid 'lirir i-^irr t:;!! Iiirkbi anKn^ 

RealMi ■jfV'-'^ eii^aimed ni l-'irtHi) fnrad, Sharon 

iln. nhet!, 



Locke. wIm ho* himielf m admirabir niticeil ihr ■ abuH 
ofworda.' bna brrn e'largnl iiiih nfini vane and indem 

bare confined lui philotnphir : thiK b* anme unbi^not 
eipreMhaa. sur |>rrat meiaphniciui hi> hevn nadr i 

been mi'Undrriiood.' Thtie rridentlr pm'ai:edapt 
■ cnnfiiiion of imnli' amoni them ! The grocr mifjrr 
Bad the .cnrr rfieatr of ilie iaBfeuiat* Bod the Jtm 
rhuK-ihrrhif' imdnratn^nabr Klurh nmumrr vf > 
di^ilied. ■ WhiMbrr al! men reeeind from G>>d mifivt 
ftrr fiir ihrir roBreoion T was an inquiry aonic uB^■r• 
nelaphjriml ihenln^ ret afloat i the Jeauit* arroAa 
Id Ihi'ir'irarldlv mtpn nf mnkiD; nirn'a conorienre' r«i. 
dlfinh-H] it ; bi'r t)ie Janpenivla iriaistrd, that thia tmflr^ 
tnvr wraild never be ijB'wijiu. iinleH acromuci^ ^ 
ep-nV cnm- 'Thm ihe mjffimf grap, vtlucb if si 

Inntiipbanrlr ciii'd the Jeaiiila. extililoi! over their a£iT> 
iwioa. "niia • mafinan of ■mrdi' Ihickenec!, tiD the ?»■ 
»iia inirudiired in thia i.<pimarhf with xhr JanaeDim. ca- 
pal buU^. roTil edirif, and a trcmeni of drKpnont! lS« 
Jahiraial*, in dnpair, a|>pea1ed te nnraelr* and prodifin. 
whieh Ih^y (oi up for piihUe repreaeniaiian ; Iwi. itav 
a'l. Inihtir Pa*n1,wboar inmonil itUtv the Jpmiitn- 

_. a Ibe'iranntBhiliivor nnraldir 

m the eB|::e*n oTAr iaiellertiial Sfi" 

aoi conjiiehead the aame idea*; U* Ncwion wrote 
Lophe. 'I bee voiir panlon for trprrvealiiiE that r 
Mruek at the roni nf imiraUtv hi a nnarip^e laid don 
vmir hx k '.f I.l"!*— ^ni ihjt I i<vk ti a IIoMnat 
The nilf«r-ib-e of nninisn between l^vke and Reid la 
eomeqiit-flre of an anibi^tf m tbe word jTrnrijitr, ai r 

•Ti:mer-fHi« of Enl'ind. I, -IH. 

t We owe (hia eur! ">' ii-ru^^i'hel liter In iho iril ^ 
eara of Pr...*a*<r D"?-:^ Si'wirt.'n hiieifdVni Di>»T 

o the Sorbnnne. were atiuek oul ol 
Cnne «t11*)* iafit on «i« mol a 
Reeipiii loga le* e)|<lni< d'aicniir. 

riitr lam de Clireiirna, Matijrt* il'uoe dijxbunfua 
Whether the 9on waaainilnrlo the inbnaiKctfb 


!«Ming one Mother iDpircn.' Thomil 
* twe« Abebid and Salnl Bemird, -hen It 

I inMmuiuMr Ingnmtrhy! al Ihr council cT Bule, Tor Itic 

trrUitcoCaiulitbnrd ir<>rili,rtiirij lo delerniine iht >i|wi- 
ficaiion oCiIk ftriidn from, ty, bul,aiu{ate]ii, »hlch it 
•nmi ware perpfUiillv occaiioninj fresh dispiitei among 
(heUiOHlei and ihe t^ohcniiaii). Had Jerome of Prigus 
hiwmi, like our Shak^'prorF, ihe nnue of an if, or 
Bjrrved wiih Hobbea, ihar hv should not Iievo bepn lopui- 
Ine in Ihe use of Ihe Terb ■■— he mirhl haTO been iparH 
from Ihe Saniea. The philoiopher of Mslmabiiiy haade- 
cllrtd, Ihai ■ PerhaiH Juitgintnt waa nothing elK but the 
eompoMtiun or joining of fuw namtrnf iMngi, or moda. by 

titHj Frred the church from ihli ' cnn^ion oTwordii.' Ilia 
boinn*. nil one oseuion. (tandin; m equal terror of the 
ccled the Jeauiti, andoflhe 
lined Ihe eau.e of the Domini- 

- - , , .rhere a cnma or ■ full stop 

placed It Ihe bcKJnnini! orihe fihI purported that bin hall' 

when Ihe riTaJ partiei de.pitrhpd dcpvlalinoa to Iho'court 
oTRons to plead for ilir pi^ririd, or advnraie Ihe comma; 

lualrd copy to Ihe |iirtieii; nor wai It hia fiuilt, bnl ihnl of 
the apirit of parly, if ihr ra|K of Iho one Kiuld noLinlBidu 

In JBrtapnidrnrn much confiuioa ha* oecuTTcd in the 
am tt lite Xna Jtinhtt I yaiUMMcial union and human 
hiMliinpiH kre iDTulved id ihe prrciruin oT ihn nprmiinn. 
Whm Hi>nte«|iiieu lai-l down u ihe aclive principle d'a 
rrpablK rirliir, it iwennl lo inR'r ihat a republic was Ihe 
beat of eonnnwiiu. In Ihr drfrnro of thia Krral work 

tu, he onl;r meini pnliiieal tirlvr, the Inrn of the couiitrr. 
In politic*, wh.ll fvila have leaulled from abntracl Irma 
In which no idvas tri: aOiinl! Siich aa • ThA I^nnalitv of 
Man— Iho Soverri.nly or the Majraly of the Pcopf"— 
LnvalW— Rcforir— . nn Liberty herielf!— Public i>|nninn 
— Public iniiTc'l' — and oihcr alMiiacl notions, which h»e 

ideal, as mundi.haie been u»d an watrhwordu : Ihe com. 
baianta irill be uaually found nill ihe to fight Iw worda In 

■iinification. Thin ii admitably lourhcd i*i hv Locke, In 
hiM chapter of ■ Abuin of Worda.' • Wiadnm, Glorr, 

mwiili ; bill if a great many of lhi<iir> who iiw Ihim ahould 
be Kktd what ihey mcnn by iIkhi. Ihcj would he at a 

irrilale Iho feeluiga of Ihe populace, by u 
' Ihe king can never do nvrooi I' In the lim 
., ' 11 la euiioui,' aayi Lord Ruaael, • to ret 

ctiveen king and people.' 

thiHich ihcy ha»e Irameil ihoae aoiindi, and hate ihmi 
rrndy a) ihelr tonfiio'a end, yet there are nn dotermiiMd 
iJnH laid up m iheir minda which are to be eiprened to 
uiticra by them.' 

pented in tbr HniKe of CommiHi.'', brcauae ho wu not 
an elcrlor, he waa Inid ihat a verv small i«rt of the people 
of F.ncland were elecion. A> ihi-y could nM call Ihia an 

called ii a rinual one II impnwd m ihe Eniliih nalinn, 
who culd not ohji-rt Iha' nihen ahniild br laicd rather 
than IhFmaelvpii ; biil with ihe Americans il waa ■ auphiam ! 
And I hia virlHal repreacnlation inalraH o' an arOinloar. 
terniinaird hi «ir reparaiinn; 'which,' pavi Mr Flood, 
■at Iho lime appearwi I'l have awept awav mmtof our 
flnrr and our lemiory ; fnrlj Ihouaand live*, and one hun- 

That fata) eipreaainn whirh Roiineau had inlmhicrd, 
I.'RfBlIt^ del hommra, which finallv involvrd the hapni- 
nua of ■ whole proplei I'n.l he liiccl. hr> had probably 

havp refeirrd in hn niiiid to p^liiiral I'liiatiii-. bill not an 
jf pnmiFawiHi. of proprnv. of auihoritv. deatrvr- 

,' and ' Re. 

n of aoeial order aad nf nn 


ople would neceia 
power from them 

arily d 

cide thai 'kinpde- 


'right diTinc,'— » 'confuiion of wonJi," do. 

d boih only relalivelr 

true. When we li.ten >o 

nlly to aa4 ahalraM 

Ihe majetly of Ih 


e'— Ihe aotereiintr of 

Iho people 

—whence the inf 

bal ' all power la de- 


the people,' wee 


Jlfualon of wordl, 



for Bovere 

e, 10 conduel, and w 

aeltio Ihe 

vaciUalioni and ou 



Public opioir>n npreaara 160 
in place, and public inler.^.! 


ho ideaa rf one party 
of another party «l^ 
atanee of ha-ui, th. 



opposite enda ; ' In Ihe lime of ihe Fiench Directory,' 
obiervei an Italian pliilogophcr of profound viewi in the 
revoluiion of Napld., iho dt-mocratic faction pronooncod 
that " Eiery act of a tyrannical forf inment ia in ii( otifia 
d"'"^'b ' ';'"P°*"'"" "''''^'' "' *"' "«'" •'"". "It«n- 
eable. The dwlHne of Ihe illef.lity of 4o"'a'"''™ "" 
rant wa* ptoclaiRied by Brulua and Cicero, in th. 

a peipelua 
vailed then 

otifuuiided right a 

who had favoured 

I Ihe ^pulaca ol 

■-aeTtini pcjitica, haa 

have found no difficulty in aolving doubia, and reconciling 
eontradidiona. Our own rcioluiionarT limee, 
abnunde witb daiwernua eiamplea from alt pvlira ; of ape- 
GiDUB hyMheies iiir cnoipliance wiih the fovemment of Ihe 
daf,orthepaa>ionanfpiriiimaDI. Hen i. » in.ianoe 
in which the aubtile eonfuaer of wotdi, preltnded lo >ub- 

When the unhaptiv Chkrlei Iho Pirn plead'ed', That "o p w 
the bill of attaind'-r againal Ihe Eatl of Siralfurd waa 
apaintl hia conaciencc, thalretnarkableeharacterof bold- 
"."'. .■'" ™\'^'-'y- "■ Clarendon charaeleriin Williama, 
Archbiahop of lark, on thia argiineai of amuine* (a rim- 
pie word enuu^b.) denonatrated'thaiihtTe wera (neaerto 
o/'ronu-jflifF, public and pnvale I that hia paUie conaciencs 

man !' Such waa the ifnoinininua arEUraenI which derided 
Ihe falo of thai great Yiclin of alate '. It waa an impudent 
'confuHimofworda,' whenPrynne (in oidei toquietlbe 

the kiniil ubterred, that Uie aiatute of iSih Edward III, 
ran in th" aingulir number—' If a man aliall lery war 
aiiainai th king,' and, Ihen'Ibre, could noi be eilHidtd to 

wi-finil Sherlocii bltil wi'ib the apiri^Jf WiliiamB?'iiie 
ArrhWshop of York, whom we haw juM Jell. When 
aome did nol know how lo charge and diar^arge them. 

legal right ; one | 

prhad that ihrre were two con- 

n-bl bypoaseMinn; it«] aince all authority cornea frim 
Go.!, the people were obliged to Iranafrr their albgiuiee 
to him aaaking of Goil'a making; roihat he whnhad the 
providential right nereaBarily had ihe legal one! a yerr 

•adty fnn 

» of thoBi 

drd from hia irrliireabip, for awu^ng Ihat 'the pnaaeaeiDn 
of Ihe >o>l »»■ I nghi; by which prinei[df, any Ubk 



r8igmii|{ over a coiintrvi whether by treachery, cnme, and 
umrpalKHi, was a legitimate •nvereign. For this coDve* 
MeM principie the lecturer was tn«l, and declared not 
gmliy — by persona who have latel;|r found ibeir advantage 
m a codIimioii or words. Tn treaties between nations, a 
* confusi<>n of words' has been more particularly studied ; 
and that neeotialor has conceived himself most desterous 
who, by this abuse of worus. hi# retained an arriere- 
pencce which may faiiien or loa«en the ambi|^ous expres- 
sion he had so cautiously and so finely inlaid in his mosaic 
of treachery. A scene of thn naiupri draw out of *Mv*' 
Hair's Negotiation with the Court of England.* AVhen 
titat secret asent «f Loui« XIV was nejioUaiinu a peace, 
an insunerabra difficulty anise rrnpecting the acJinow lejo- 
ment or the Hanoverisn succession. It was abMlutely 
Decestary on this delicate |>oint, to quiet the aniieiy of the 
English public, and our allies ; but though the French 
king was willing to reci>gnize Aniie*s li'le to the throne, 
yet the settlement in the house <^ Hanover was mcompat 
ible with French intorr^^ts and French honour. 

Mesna£er to:d Lord Bohngbroke iltat * the kinir, his mas- 
ter, would consent to any such ariicic, looking the other 
way, at might discnrasie him from the oblication of Oiat 
a^rttmemtj as the occa>ion should present.* This ambigu- 
ous language was probably understood by Lord Bohng- 
broke : at the next conference his Lordship informed the 
secret agent, ' that the (^ueen c.-uld not admit of any ex- 
ptanationa, whatntr her xntentionx might be ; thai the tme^ 
cevtion was settled by act of parliament ; that as to the 
private sentimtrnts of the queen, or of any about ber, he 
could say nothing.* All this was said with such an air, as 
to let me understand that he gave a teertl ossenl to what I 
had proposed, ^ ; but he desired me to drop the dis- 
course.' Thus two sreat neg'^Uafors. both equally urgent 
to conclude the treaty, foundan insuperable obstacle o^ 
cur, wliicli neither could control. Two honest men would 
have parted : but the skilful confounder of words,' the 
French diplomaiisr, hit on an expedient; he wrote the 
words which afterwards appeared in the preliminaries, 
' that Loui9 XIV will acknowledge the queen of Great Bri- 
tain in that quality, as also the nicc^snon of the crown oc- 
eordinf to the present settK-ment.* * The English at:ent,' 
adil!«the Frenchman, would have had me add— «n thi house 
ofHa'wver, but this I entreated him not to desire of me.* 
The term present settlement, then was that ariicle which 
was looking the other way, to disengage his ma$>ter from 
the (^ligation of that agreement as occasion should pr<>sent ! 
that is, that Louis XIV chose to understand by the pre- 
sent settlement, the old one by which the British crown 
was to be restored to the Pretender! Anne ami the Eng- 
lish nation were to understand it in their own sense— as 
the new one, which trmnsferreil i* to the house of Hanover I 

Whea pobcicians cannot rely upon each other's inter- 

E relation of Me of the commoneU tLortit in our lan£uage, 
ow can they possibly act together? The Bishop of 
Winchester has proven this observation, bv the remarka- 
ble anecdote of Uie Duke of Portland aiicf Mr Piti, who, 
with the view to unite |»artit'S. were to h(»ld a ci'nfrrencc 
on^orr and eyuo/ terms. His grare did not object to (he 
word fair, but ihe word equal was more speritic and limi- 
ted : and. for a ni*res5ary preliniinarv, he re^iui'stvd Mr 
Pill lo infirm him what he underttood hy the word equal ? 
Whether Pitt was puzzled by the question, or would 
not deliver up an omVre-Mns^e, he put off the explana- 
tion to the conference. But the Duke would not meet 
Mr Pitt rill thi> word wa« exjiUined ; and that important 
negoMation was broken off*, by not explaining a simple 
word which appeared lo require none ! 

Then* is nothing more fatal in langua^ than to wander 
from the popular acceptation of word:f ; and yet this popu- 
lar senf'' cannot always acord with preusion of ideas, 
for It is itself subject to ereai changes. 

Another source, therefore, of the abuse of words, is 
that miitabilitv to which, in th; course of time, the verbal 
edifice, as well as more substantial ones, is doomed. A 
familiar instance pres<*nts itseif in the titles of tyrant, pa^ 
nuitet and nphist^ originally honourable distinctions. The 
abuses of dominion made the appnipnaic-d title of kings ; 
odious ; ?he tiiie of a m.tgistrate, who had the care of the 
public granaries of corn, at length was applied to a 
wretched flatterer for a dinner ; and absurd philosophers oc- 
casioned a mere denomination to become a by-name. To 
employ such terms in their primitive sense would now 
confuse all ideas ; yet there is an affectation of erudition 

which has freoucntly revived tei 

ly. Bishop Watson entitled his 

* an Apology :' this word, in its prinutirc 

been lost for the multitude, whom he 

ed in this work, and who coukl •qIt uDdcrataai s ■■! 

sense they are accustomed lo. UnqucctioadWe, ■■ | 

of its readers have imagined that the biahop was* 

an excuse fur a belief in the Bible, ineteaa of a 

tion of it« truth. The word impe-rtinent by Ihe 

jurisconsults, or law.<ounse]lors, who gmve ihev 

on ca^ts, was used merely in opposition to pe 

tio pertinens is a pertinent reason, that is, a 

laining tu the cause in question ; an*] a ratio 

an imprrtinent reason, is an argument not 

the subject.* Impertinent then ori|»inaiy i 

absurdity, nor rude ininision, as it does in our 

pular sense. The learned Amauld hannf 

a reply of one of his adversaries by the vpiihct mfi 

nent, whvn blamed for the freedom ot his iangBa|e. 

plained his niraning by giving this history oi the ssi 

which applies to our own hnguige. Thus ak( 

the word indiffkrmt has entirely changed : aa 

whose work was ind\fftrentl]/ writlt-n, woidd , 

have claimtMl our atitiitiun. In the Liturgy it is ptwe 
that * niai;istrates may indifferently minisier jinsicc.* '^ 
differtntly uriginal y meant impeffttaUy. The won ( 
rng'ani, in iia> priroiiive signihcatioo, only signified is 

i'ress from the subject. The Decretals^ or those ka 
irom the |iopes deciding on points of ecdesiasucal ns^ 
pline, were at length incorporated wiifa the canoa ■*, 
and were called extravagant by wandering tmf of tht h* 
of the canon law, bemg confusedly dispersed tteta^ 
that collection. 

When Loiiierhad the Decretals pubticiv burnt aiWi* 
temburgh, the insult was designed Am- tJfie pope, mta 
than as a condemnation of the canon law iiseif. Suppesi, 
in the present case, two persons of oppositt* opmiuos. Tm 
catholic, who had said that the decretals were eznavagM, 
might not have intended to depreciate them, or wake u* 
concession to the Lutheran. Wliat coufusion of watt 
has the common $ense of the Scotch iu«:taphysiciaM i^ 
troduced into plulo^ophy ! There are no words, prrhays, 
in the laueuage, i^hich may be so differently inierprrbd; 
and Professor Dtigaid Stewart has collected, ia a m ' 
noie,in the second volume of his * Philosophy of the Hi 
Mind,* a singular variety of its opposite Bigni6ca 
The Latin phrase, * sensus coiiiniunis,' may, in vi 


passages of Cicero, be translated by our ph 

sense ;* but. un other occasions, it means aomethiag d^ 

fereiit : the * sensus communis of the schoolmen is mgm 

another thing, and is synonymous with concerption, asd 

referred to the seat of intellect ; with Sir John Uaries, ■ 

his curious nKtaphysical poem, 'common sense is mti 

as imagination. It created a controversy with Bcattii 

and Rcid ; and Reid, who introduced this vague ambf»' 

ous phrase in philosophical language, often undenrtood 

the term in its ordinary acceptation. This change of tht 

mfaning of the words, which is constantly recurring is 

metaphysical disputes, has made that curious but c' 

science' liable to this objection of Hobbes, * wuh 

wonis making nothing understood! 

Controversies have been keenly agitated about the ptia- 

ciples of morals, which resolve entirely into oer6(i/ " 

or at most into questions of arrangement and 

tion of little comparative moment to the points at i 

This observation of Mr Dugaid Stewart's might be ffla^ 

trated by the fate of the numerous inventors of systems 

of thinking or morals, who have only employed very dd^ 

ferenr and t-ven opposite terms in appearance, to exprcm 

the same thing. Some, by their mode of philosophismg, 

have strangely unsettled the words at{f'intcrewt and ae^ 

iove ; and their misconceptions have sadly misled the ro* 

taries of these systems of morals ; as others also, by sneb 

vague terms as * utility, fitness,' lie. 

* It Is i'till a Chancery word. An answer in Chancciy, fte, 
is relerred fur impuninence, reported impcnineni — and the ia^ 
|i«'r(inei.ce ordered lo be struck out, meaning only what ii 
immaieriat nr euperfluoud tending to unnecessary czpriua. 
I am indeticd tor this explanation to my friend, Mr Meii- 
vale : and to aiuHher learned friend, formerly In that conn, 
whs dercriltes its moaning as * an excess of words or nrnmr 
in the pleadings,* and w)>o has received many an oScial fbs 
f->r ' expuiteing iniperiinenco,* leaving, however, he 
)ed^e4. a sutlicieut quauliiy to make the lawyers 
their verbosity. 


« Bpicnnn Mimad IhU iha «nr«ip taui em- ■■ ■ urn, u ■ In, bul br, u eiptuKtion, ud *Ueh 

B pMaim, nppMing the iiDr«]inj luiimtvof iha aDptDjrnl br ihcm Ul, Hinlfiii opfKHita ihRi|[i, butiMTir 

hj ih« hTiikii of pluninblB cmpiium, hn prin- ihe plunaitl Ii il am, UwrEron, autngv, ihtt Uwj euH 

u BOD dimnrdBJ ; nhilc hiiinin<,perhiMchiiWB not JM Irll lu irbal ara rktaaiT aihil ii raalT ohal il 

iBvkaTpvidoi.wu-amiljiiIyiHedbvifcaMiMD- viJua? Hooaifar Baj, the n»ar tpukluig oT ibea aU, 

Epiomia, of wham 3»«i haidia-D robuuuTuI aituna ua ibil the Eiuliih milm ^ i...-:- 

— L ;. _i. 1 i-.f . f'-.i-.^j ~..n.-H^. Ki,a Bmilh, the dco 

, Mr 

MB aemi, id irh<ia-i nrden ■ Inaf, ■ Cjlhandun cuBfauniliB^, lika Bmilh, ths dcDoBiiDuioa cf h 

miHt, mnld hare ■larieil Indifnaallr al Malihui, ' If I coiuenL 10 einnluj your word labou 

'Tb.lbB«hc«lnEp.u™-«rr. "cl;Si'i"«1,.'^ "d>«,J?L'2J^!u« "?; 

m*. (Kla which»iaUi.i™mcipl» Lb 'the ,l„y „ ,|„ „rJ..Dg«l for labour ; and wb» Ui» hypc^ 

rf«»da,'wbH!h Locke oalla ' an a&-,«i«l obaeurily ch„idria= Engliihaaai •ilhdiama.,r«cMe. ' ih. glul^ 

; rran applying oW word, to new, or upiuual igBi- „„kei,,. .„[' ,™eluit« (hal we inay produce o«^ than 

•• , . , . r 11 .1 wecan eomumeplhaparadoiKBl MooaiturSaT diicotn*. 

BB ibfl HUfed ^ caiTuiion of wordr which van rias |j,^j 1 commodilwa' ia a wrona wofd for 11 aivet a wrou 

er cf ila ^,, , j, ii„,)d ba DRdueliinn " fw Kli anon ia. ih! 

H and of UiB SaddiKi 

of idi*. 

onhip rf Ihe Dei'jr ; ha would ikh hata own irfaioy, it ihd, 

■m only be purchaxid wi 
— li., lu dieiionarj 

a panIM id tha fale of Epicunn. Thi 

cooTuiion of wort 

I finioua Banforian 

PT- Blrarto,' 

p ef Butnr'i 

U iinplie. party, wi 

4a duanh and Jufifdoai, la, bytba ihji'hliamil Inhii 

nni' ihial twre lo Ihe ablcii judie, Mr 

palriotiui and hi> « Fsiui lo lo tiadenl • 
laboor.* Wa, mho nmain uDiniiiaied in ihli mTiierj of 
uplaiaiiif the otHntioDa of Uada bj ouiaphyiical HJeaa, 
UM rttifelBf up ihaonaa to conduct ihooe mini ncTer ihci^ 
j__ 1 .._ , .._r . _ ofwonla,' and lean 

erf pnvaU opimoH, and 
andiprrhapa. in Lime, may aiaiiifjimi 
mry. whto inii good ifiDocdDt word ha« been 
u^kwBrd• and (urwardi a lilllr lonpr, iome new 

iOQ— (Ae rial mttral a/ Ornt Briiaiti ." Tha 
■1 of Ihii coniroHr-iaiirt prohaUj relorlod on 
own term of rhe rtal inCfrnJ, whieh niight hv a 

■I Ihe nrfiinifliti of France 
; bul Iheie axarmblie* ■ 

IS uLraTuced to ua aa n 

Aa dninkinnai, gooil-fellnwihlp** nil •.' 

Sin Tbokii Wiat. 
a raTene, when lojaItT my be ridiculed ai 
' The riflil dlilne of kln^a-lD govern wrong I' 

droH, hiTB bean anaih^niaiJAd bf puriTani, whilo 

■ aunealfld a iet oT oppooi'e nnriona ro each. 

, have left Ihia heir-k>om ct lognrnarhj to a race aa 
a ami inefra«aWe! An mrannlinary Miena haa re- 
I been rierTorrned by a rtew company nf arlom, in (be 
m comniT oT Pnliiiea] Scanomt : and the whole di. 
a hail hem carried on in an irlmiiabia ' coBfiiaion of 

■ !> ThiannMnini, Bndunna*onin|rnlersitTOe*gr 

Ctnmiri, a f^moua Spiniih biihop, wta a gnnd ansfai- 
lect of wonli. InffniDua in theory, bu error* were cco- 
Gned id hia pracuce : he iiid a grait deal and meant no- 
ihin; ; and by an eaari diinmnui ufhii micNeci, laliea al 
Ihe lime, it appeared ihsi ' be had geniua bi Ihe eighih db 
gree, elonurnc* io the Bflh.bul judgmenl only ia the ab 
cond P Thia great rntn would poi rcld Ihe andenla; liv 
he had a noiion ihat the nuideriia mual have aatuired aJl 
Ihry poaacaaed, wilh n aood deal of iheir own * iolo ihn 
bargain.' Two himdreiTiDd lilly-lwo worka, differing in 
breuilh and lenclh, bcflidri hip manuacripfa, atieal, that if 

readera poaieaaej i 
obtcure and eqijii 

'ihia < eoDfuioB of 

Torabulariea by which we were 10 learn il ; but il ii aup- 
poaed thai he wai ihe only man who underwood himaeU. 
He put erery author in deapairby Ihe woikt which ba »- 
nnunced, Thia famoui atchiiect oTwordi, bowener, built 

nn of Sbrrly and enalitti ; wiih Iho Jmne, what fa 

amid what iF perpetually 1 
nfurneiB of worda, whicli 
complain of hi* predeecaai 

tnl • By ihif meana we may 
eomn^ 1 ihal riireme lain* or 

mini urgrf «1 alBiiiHrky and naiiie power, at, perhajB, ibe 1 
oflumatBrkr. fRnirtlrh Eilhif.] 
I Balllet fin* the <1alra anil pinna ofihoae ^mBjar«. 



in the best temper, to define ud In wtUe the signification t 
of whst the willy South calls * those rabble-charming 
WMtb, which carry so much wild-fim wrapt up in tnem.' 


Political calumny is said to have b«en reduced into an 
art, bke that of logic, by the Jesuiu. This itself may be a 
pobtical calumny! A powerful budy, who themselves bad 
practised the practices iif calumniatocs, may in their turn, 
often hare been calumniated. The passage in question 
was drawn out of one of the classical authors used in (heir 
colleges. Busembsum, a German Jesuit, had composed, 
in duodecimo, a 'Medulla Theologic rooralis,' where, 
among (rther casuistical propositions, there was found lurk- 
ing in this old Jesuit's * marrow* one which favoured regi- 
cide and assassination ! Fifty editions of the book had 
passed unnoticed ; nil a new one appearing at the critical 
moment of Damien's attempt, the duodecimo of the old 
Scholastic Jesuit which had now been amplified by its com- 
mentaturs intfi two fohos, was considered not merely ridi- 
culous, but as danserous. It was burnt at Toulouse, in 
1757, by order of the parliament, and condemned at Pans. 
An Italian Jesuit published an * apoiosy' f'tr this theory of 
assassination, and the same flames devoured it ! Whether 
Busembaum deserved the honour bestowed oo his ingenu- 
ity, the reader may judge by the passage itself. 

< Whoever would ruin a person, or a ^emment, must 
begin this operation by spreading calumnies, to defame the 
person or the government ; for unquestionably the calum- 
niator will always find a great number of petHms inclined 
to believe him, or to side with him ; it therefore follows, 
that whenever the object of such calumnies is once lower- 
ed in credit by such means, he wiil soon lose the reputation 
and power founded on that credit, and sink under the per- 
manent and vindictive attacks of the calumnistor.' This 
is the politics of Satan— the evil prmciple which regulates 
so many thin<^ in this world. The enemies of the Jesuits 
have f »rmed a list of great names who had become the vic- 
tims of such atrocious Machiavelism.* 

Tnu has been one uf the arts practised by all political 

Eirlies. Their first weak invention is to attach to a new 
ction a contemptible or an opprobrious nick-name. In 
the history of the revolutions of Europe, whenever a new 
party has at length established its independence, the origi- 
nal denomination which had been fixed on them, marked 
by the passions of the psrty which bestowed it, strangely 
contrasts with the name final! v established ! 

The first revolutionists of Holland incurred the contemp- 
tuous name of *Les Gueux,* or the Bcgjjars. The Duch- 
ess of Panna inquiring shout them, the Count of Barla- 
mont scornfully descnbed them to be of this class ; and it 
was flattery of the Great which gave the name currency. 
The HollsJiders accepted the name as much in defiance 
•s with indignation, and acted up to it. Instead of broaches 
in their hats, they wore little wooden platters, such as 
beggars used, and foxe&' tails instead of feathers. On the 
targets of some of ihese Gveiur they inscribed, * Rather 
Turkish than Popish !* and had the print of a cock crow- 
ing, out of whose nioulh was a label Vive lt» Gtteux j,ar 
ftwl U monde ! which was everv where set up, and was the 
favourite sign of their inns. The Protcstanis in France, 
after a variety of nick-names to render them contemptible, 
such as Ckrutodiiu, because ihey would only talk about 
Chnst, similar lu utir Puritans ; and PtxrpoiUoUf or Ptir-' 
|iirr(^4, a small bate coin, which wa;* odiously applied to 
them; at lengih seltie«l in tlie well-kuown term uf //ii- 
ruenoitf which probably was derived, as the Diciionnaire 
de Trcvoux susseMt, frtmi their hidine themselves in se- 
cret places, and apptaring at niglit, like king Hugon, the 
great hobgoUin of France. It appears that the t^rm has 
been preserved by an earth* n vessel withi>ut feet, used in 
cookery, which served the Hug;umotti on meagre days to 
dreks their meat, and t(i avmd observation; a curi(Hi:i in- 
stance, where a thing still m use proves the obscure cir- 
cumstance of its on»in. 

The atrocious insurrection, called La Jae^iriey was a 
term which origina'ed in cruel derision. W hen John of 

reign, they were told that Jwe/fme 

all . But Jmk gooJ^^nm came furward ■ 

appeared under this fatal name, and the 

in madness, and being joined by mil thm 

thieves of Paris, at once proiKMinced 

every gentleman in France ! Froisaan has the Sfl 

ralive ; twelve thousand of these JWefvcs hm im 
piated their cnmes ; but the Jaequeruy wiio Ha a 
their first appellation in deiision, ■sauacdnai* 
de guerre. 

Ill the spirited Memoirs of the Diike of Giok. 
by himself, uf his enterprise against the kofba 
pies, we find a curious account of ihispoliticai ir i 
mg people by odious nick-names. ' Csenaio aasl 
savs the duke, * cherished under-hand, that am 
rascality had fur the better sort uf citizens and en 
pie, who, by the involences they sulTcred irxmt 
uniusily haled them. The brtter class ianak 
suburbs of the Virgin were called hletck 
ordinary sort of p»-ople toiik the name of 
French and English an old word lor n leprous br 
hence the lazaroni of Naples. We can ras&i 
the evil eye uf a lazar when he encountered a ii 
The Duke adds — * Just as at ihe beginiJiog of 'I 
tion, the revohers in Flanders lurmerly tocik ik 

France was a prKoner in Ensland, his kinedom appears to 
have been depolatcd by its wrelchpd nnbles, who. in the 
indulgence of their {»ar!*ions, set no limns to their luxury 
and thf ir extortion. Ttit-y des|>oikd iht-ir peasant ry with- 
out mercy, and whrnthi-stecomnlainrd.and even reproarh- | !inle suspecti-d that thi*« innort-nt term origina 
ed this tyrannical nobility wi:h havin;; forsaken their sovc- ; litiral nick-name ! SUhtmette was minister 

^ors ; those tif Guienne, that of eoJers ; 
inandy, that c( hart-feet ; and of Beausse md Si 
wooUen-pattenn* In the late French reeolnua 
served the extremes indulged by both pani<s d 
cerned in revolutiun — the wealthy and the poor! 
who, in derision, called their humble fellosv-cnn 
conicmptu'His term of sonxa/ottes, proT(»ked 
injustice fn>m the populace, who, as a dn anfii 
only a flight, rendered the innocent term uf or 
signal for plunder or slaughter! 

It is a curious fact that the French yerb , 

well as the noun /rondhir, are used to descnft>c 

condemn the measures of government ; and b 

sively, designates any hvperboliral and mali| 

cism', or any sort of condemnation. These v 

been only in'trotluced into the language since tl 

of Cardinal de Relz succeeded ni raiHing a fad 

Cardinal Mazarine, known in French huiory fc 

name of the Frondeurt. or the Slingers. Ii'm 

pleasantry, although it became the pass-yrord U 

tion in France, and the odious name uf a facts 

observed, that the parliament were like thuee s 

who fling their stones in the pits of Pans, and 

they see' the Licutntant Cii'il, run away : hut 

collect acain directly he disapf»fars. ' The • 

was lively, and formed the burthen of snnrs; 

wards, when aflTairs were seiiied between ine I 

parliament, it was more particularly a|»plt*-d lo 

of Cardinal de Reiz. who ptill held oiii. • We 

the application,' says De Retz ; Tor wr cibserv 

distinction nf a name heated the minds <»f peopi 

evening we resolved lo wear hai-»irinrs in 

slinss. A hatter, who might be trusted with 

made a great number as a new fushiun, and i 

worn by many who did not understand ihe J€4 

selves were the last to adopt them, that ih 

might not appear to have come irom us. T 

this trifle was immense ; every fashionable 

now to assume the shape of a >iine: brt- ad, ( 

handkiTchiefs. fans. ^., and we onrseiyt-s be 

in fashion by this foiiy, than by what was esce 

revoiutmnary term was nt-vfr furcottui by ih< 

circnmMance which micht have l^-en consider 

nnstic of that after-revolution, which I.)e Rvtz 

agination to project, hut not the dann;* to rxta 

see, however, this great |Ki!iiirian, rtmfe»»iin| 

tages his partv derived by enccMiraemg the a| 

a by-name, which served ' t(» heat the minds c 

ft in a curious circumstance that I should 

count in this chapter on ' Political Nu'k-name 

term with all lovers of art, that of SilhtrttrUe I 

understood as a btark pro/lte ; but it is nKire ei 

that a term so univertaiiy adn|iiefi should not 

any dictionary, either in that of JJArndttnie^ o 

and has not even b«'en ;»n*!«erve«i, where it u 

pensable, in Millin's Dirtitmnairt dtn Bra 

♦ See Recueil. Chmnolonque et Analnkiue detnot ce qui a ■ France in 1759: that ihtukI was a rritical 

liJt sn Portugal la Sori^t6 dc Jesus. Vol. ii, secL 406. 


sury was in an exhausted condiiion, and SiUkn 



maiii who would bold no intercourse with financiers, 
longers, could contrive no other expedient u> pre- 
a national bankruptcy, rhan excessive economy, and 
imbie reform ! Paris was not the metropoUs, any 
than London, where a Plato or a Zeno could long 
~ lister of state, without incurring all the ridicule of 
itdied wits ! At first ihev pretended to take his ad- 
», merely to laugh at him ! — they cut iheir coats shorter, 
I wore them without sleeves; they turned their gold 
ifllJboxes into rough wooden ones ; and the new>fai>h- 
k^Ml portraits were now only profiles of a face, traced by 
i^mdk pencil on the shadow cast by a candle on white 
p^rl A!l the fashions assumed an air of niggardly 
CMMmy, till poor Silhouette was driven into retirement, 
:3ttl all' his projects of savings and reforms; but he left 
Ht name to describe the most economical sort of portrait, 
Sd one as melancholy as his own fate ! 
"Tbw political artifice of appropriating cant terms, or odi- 
hfc nick-names, could not fail to flourish among a people 
'.1 perpetually divided by contending interests as ourselves ; 
*itiy party with us have had their watch-word, which has 
%vod eitner to congregate themselves, or to set on the 
to-dogs of one faction to worry and tear those of another. 
V* practised it earlv, and we nod it still prospering ! The 
Puritan of ElizabetVs reign survives to this hour ; the 
tying difficulties which that wise sovereign had to over- 
OMM in settling the national religion, found no sympathy 

■ •ither of the great divisions of her people ; she retained 

■ much of the catholic rites at might be decorous in the 
Ai«r religion, and sought to unite, and not to separate, her 
bUdren. John Knox, in the spirit of charity, declared, 
hmX * the was neither gude protestant, nor yet resolute pa- 
mA ; l«t the world judge quilk is the third.* 

A jealous piurty arose, who were for reforming the refor- 
Mtion. In their attempt at more than human purity, they 
bcaiaed the nick-name of Puritans ; and from their fasti- 
ioasness about very small matters, Precisiana ; these Dray- 
Mi characterizes as persons that for a painted glass win- 
iQ«r would pull down the whole church. At that early 
mnod these nick-names were soon used in an odious sense ; 
br Warner, a poet in tlie reign of Elizabeth, says,— 

If hypocrites, why puritaines we term be asked, in breefe, 
but an irom$ed-terme ; good-fellow so spels theefe !> 

Honest Fuller, who knew that many good men were 
SBKMig these Puritans^ wished to decline the term allo- 
Mlber, under the less offensive one of Noiu-confwmiiU. 
Bat the fierce and the fiery of this party, in Charles the 
]Pirti*s lime, had been too obtrusive not to fully merit the 
Iranical appellative ; and the peaceful expedient of our 
Moderator dropped away with the page in which it was 
written. The people have frequently expressed thf ir own 
actions of different parliaments by some apt nick-name. 
In Richard the Second^s time, to express their dislike of 
the extraordinary and irregular proceedings of the lords 
against the sovereign, as well as their sanguinary mea- 
sures, they called it ' The uxmrler'Vnrkinfr and the unmeT' 
etful parliament.' In Edward the Third's reign, when the 
Black Prince was yet living, the parliament, for having 
Mirsued with severity the party of tlie duke of Lancaster, 
was so popular, that the people distinguished it as the good 
parliament. In Henry tire Third's time, the parliament 
OTOOsing the king, was called ' Partiammtum iruonum,* 
Uiemad parliament, because the lords came armed to in- 
■vt on the confirmation of the great charter. A Scottish 
Parliament, from its perpetual shift inss from place to place, 
was ludicrously nick-named the running parliament ; in the 
■ame spirit we had our long parliament. The nick-name 
oT Pemioner parliament stuck to the House of Commons 
which sate forty years vrithout dissolution, under Charles 
the Second : and others have borne satirical or laudatory 
epithets. So true it is, as old Holingshead observed, ' The 
eommon people will manie times give such bie namea as 
■eemeth beid liking to themtelvea.* It would be a curious 
■pecnlation to discover the sources of the popular feeling ; 
influenced bv delusion, or impelled by gootl sense ! 

The exterminating political nick-name of maUgnoaU 
darkened the nation through the civil wars : it was a pro- 
acription—and a list of good and bad lords wss read by the 
leaders of the first tumults. Of all these inventions, this 
diabolical one was roost adapted to exasperate the animosi- 
tiee of the people, so often duped by names. I have never 
detected the active man of faction who first hit on this odi- 
0m brand fir penowi but the period when the worid 

changed its ordinary meaning was early ; ChariM, in 164S, 
retorts on the parliamentarians the opprobrious distinction, 
as ' The true maUgnani party which has contrived and 
countenanced those barbarous tumults.' And the royalista 
pleaded for themselves, that the hateful designation was ill 
applied to them : for by malignity you denote, said they, 
activity in doing evil, whereas we have always been on the 
suffering side in our persons, credits, and estates; but the 
parliamentarians, 1 grinning a ghastly smile,' would reply, 
that ' the royalists would have been m*fliignant had they 
prpved successful.' The truth is. that malignnney meant 
with both parties any opposition of opinion. At the same 
period the oflTunsive distinctions of rou7ui-Aea<& and cava^ 
lier$ supplied the people with party-names, who were al- 
ready provided with so many religious as well as civil causes 
of quarrel ; the cropt heads of the sullen sectaries and the 
people, were the oriffin of the derisory nick-name ; the 
splendid elegance and the romantic spirit of the royaUstt 
long awed the rabble, who in their mockery could brand 
them by no other appellation than one in which their bear- 
ers gloried. In these distracted times of early revolution, 
any nick-name, however vague, will fully answer a pur- 
pose, although neither those who are blackened by ihe 
odium nor tlK>se who cast it, can define the hateful appella- 
tive. When the term of ddinquentt came into vogue, it 
expressed a degree and species of guilt, says Hume, not 
exactly known or ascertained. It served however the end 
of those revolutionists, who had coined it, by involving any 
person in, or colouring any action by, deunqueney ; and 
many of the nobility and gentry were, without any ques- 
tions being asked, suddenly discovered to have committed 
the crime of ddinqtteney ! Whether honest Fuller be fa- 
cetious or grave on this period of nick-naming parties I 
will not decide ; but, when he tells us that there was ano- 
ther word which was introduced into our nation at this 
time, I think at least that the whole passage is an admira- 
ble commentary <hi this party vncabulary. * Contempo- 
rary with malignant* is the word plunder^ which some 
make of Latin original, from planum dare^ to &ve/, to pUme 
all to noUiing ! Others of Dutch extraction, as if it were 
to j^ume, or pluck the feathers of a bird to the bare skin.* 
Sure I am we first heard of it in the Swedish wars ; and 
if the name and thing be sent back from whence it came, 
few English eyes would weep thereat.* All England had 
wept at the introduction of the word. The rump was the 
filthy nick-name of an odious fartion^the history of this 
famous appellation, which wa<t at first one of horror, till it 
afterwards became one of derision and contempt, must be 
referred to another place. The rump became a perpetual 
whetstone for the loyal wits, till at length its former ad- 
mirers, the rabble themselves, in town and country vied 
with each other in ' burning rumpi* of beef which were 
hung by chains on a gallows with a bonfire underneath, 
and proved how the people, like children, come at length 
to make a play-thing of that which was once their bugbear. 
Charles II during the short holiday of the restoration- 
all holidays s^'em short ! — and when he and the people 
were in good humour, granted any thing to every one,— 
the mode of * Petitions' got at length very inconvenient, 
and the king in council declared, that this petitioning was 
< A method set on foot by ill men to promote discontents 
among the people,' and enjoined his loving subjects not to 
subscribe tnem. The petitioners however persisted— 
when a new party rose to express their abhorrence of pe- 
titioning : both parties nick-named each other the peti- 
tioners and the ahhorrers\ Their dav was short, but 
fierce ; the petitioners, however weak m their cognomen, 
were far the bolder of the two, for the commons were with 
them, and the ahhorrers had expressed by their term rather 
the strength of their inclinations, than of their numbers. 
Charles II said to a pttitioner from Taunton, * How dare 
you deliver me such a paper V < Sir,' replied the peti- 
tioner from Taumoo, * My name is Dare!' A saucy 
reply, for which he was tried, fined, rnd imprisoned : when 
lo . the commons petitioned again to release the petitioner! 
* The very name,' says Hume, * by which each party de- 
nominated its antagonists discover the vinilence and ran- 
cour which prevailed ; for besides petitioner and t^horrerf 
this year is remarkable for being the enoch of the well- 
known epithets of fVhig and Tort/.' These silly terms of 
reproach arc still preserved among us, as if the palladium 

♦ Plunder, obvrves my friend, Mr Douce, is pure Dutch or 
Flemish— Fluoderen, from Plunder, which means propeny or 
any kind. 



of Brilith liberty was guarded by lhcff« exotic names ; fiir i Gray, the critic mho 

they are not Logluih which the partHu so ioTtdioiwly ! hum of oivn,' vid the poet who 

lude, have laiaiiy ii.jiired a fine aarural f»«a • 
sionr. Mr Can|*bi-ll, with a broikcr's (tt%9§,m 
tr»e pnrseni ariKie was compoccvi} napailsBBti 
endowinriirs and the |iorsiiiia of ibas port: telh 
had cuUectvd ••em to ■»« Co open • man iafMi 
I am aware how lightly the poeiicmi daraoiri 


our ear'.ier poets, but alio has * ra.-k«r 
blrndt'd •ozrther the rural swaia with ihc difci^i 
All ih:s requires some eiptanaiii-B. It i« oec oaiv 
pofsrs»ing the chararlerstiei nfpoef ry, but at a 
another way. for which 1 daim the atieniKB ^a 
I hare fof ined a |iirturc of the dome t ic life cf a 


and were productive of all his unhappines*. T 
he incurred in those pnetical studieit to whkh i 
voted hiy huyfif ; Kis hecrrt sorniws in not feavi 

passed his dajs 

they _ . 

bestow on each ulher. They are ludicrous enough 
their origin ; the friends of the court and the adv«icates (if 
bneal succesMon, were hy the repubbcan parly branded 
with ihe tile of Tone*, which wai the name of cvrtain 
Iri«h robbers : while the ouun party in return could fmd no 
(^her rcveuge than bv apprupriaiing to the cuTenanters and 

the rrpub:icaB8 of ifiai class, the name of liie Scotch b*.- j stone is held bv some preat con*i*Bipi.rar 
▼erage of sour nilk, wh««c virtue ihey coasidrred so ex- i very poet hay left us at least one pttcvt of 
pressive of their dispositions, and which isf cabled ithigg. \ ginality. Mr Campbell has rcgretied thai 
So ridiculous in ther on^iin were these pernicious nick- | oolv ^'affected that arcadianisir/ which * gnei i 
aamcs, which long excited fluds and quarreis in domestic ■ air' of n>a5querade m his pasCural f.haracicc' ti 
hfe, and may still be said to divide into two great |>arties 
this land of' pffbtical fn-cdom. But nuiliing becomes ob- 
solete in po.nic&l factions, and the meaner and mure 
soindalous the name alRxcd by one party to another, the 
man it becomes not only their ralKm;; cry or their pass 
word, but even ctmstr.uies their glorv. Thus the Hut- 
landers loag prided iliemselves on the humdia'ing nick- i the puntuiis of a votary of taste, both equally 
name of * Ics gui-ux :' the PnHe«tabts of Prance on ttie | their endeavours, fnim the habits, the enni 
scornful one o( the Huguen*dM; the non-coofurmists in i events which occurred to Shcnstcvne. 
England on the mockery (/ tne ptttriUn; and ail parties ) Four materijil r.irvumtances ipfluenced kji 
have perpetuated liieir anzer by their in^lnriuux names. 
Swift was wvU aware of tbis truth in political hi^ciury : 
* each party,' says that sagacioii? obai-rver, * ^rows pr<Hid 

of ihata|ipeilaiiun which tiieir adversaries at first iniended ; a d«imr*ric unKtn. fn»m prttdcniial mniives, wra 
as a reproach ; itf thi^t sort were the GMeiph$ and the | he lovi-d ; the ruinous state of his domestx afi 
GhibeUimea, HnrucnaUt and Cta-alitrM* \ from a seducing |>a««i<jn for crratin^ a new las 

Nor has it b -en only by uick-uaniins each other by de- { srape-^ardrning and an ornamented farm; aad 
riaurToro|^Mt>b-ious terms that parties have been marked, \ difappnin'ment of that promised palxonace, w 
but ihey have alw worn a liver v, and practised dibtiiictive ' have induced him to have become a p- litical 
manners. What sufftrings did^iiot Italy endure fur a lon^ 1 which his inclinations, and, it is said, his talei 
series of years, under those fatal party-names nf the ' lift*, were alike sdapted: with these pctinls n 
Ouiiphn and the GhiheUinra: altema-elv'thc viclurs and ! may trace the different states of his B:irti. rbc 
the vanquished, the beautifat land of Italy drank the bkiod •; did', and what he waw eame^tlv intent to have « 
of her chiilrcn. Italy, lii^e Greece, opens a moving j Why have the * Etegies' ct Sme9csto?ie. i 
picture of the hatred.'' ind jealoiiiiics of small republics : [ years ago formed for many of us the fa%-oarii 
her Bivtea and her Ami. her Gmiipra and her GkiSellirus ! \ our youth, cea5>ed to deiiglit us in marure Iifel 
In Boi(»£iia, two great families once slMKik that ci:y with j haps that these Elegies, planned wi*h p»ccal 
their di>i!«iu»s \ the Ptpoli adopted the inferests ; j have little in their extTution. They form a a 
the Mnlutxzi the Spani<«h. It %vas mcurrins some danger ctical truth*, but without poetical «>xpression ; 
to walk the streets of Bolo^a, fc»r the PepoU wore their ', notwithstanding the pa^tof al romance in whie 
feathers on the right siiie of their cafis, aiid the Maluezzi ■ has enveloped himself, the subjects are rea], a 
on the left. Such \va.< the party-hatred of the two great 
Italian factions, that they carried their rancour even into 
their domestic habits ; at tab.'c the Gurtph* (daced their 
knives and sfioons longwise, and the Chifteliines across ; 
the one cut their bread across, the otht r ionswise. Even 
in cutting an orange tiiey could not a^frer : fur the Guetj^ 
cut his orange horizimtaMy, and the GHUmMiiu downwards. 
Children were tausht these artifices of faction — their 
hatreds becimc tratiiiional, and thus the Itahan« perpetu- 
ated the full benefits U* their party-^iiirit, from generation 

Men in private life go down to their graves with some 
nnlucky name, not received in baptism, but more dcscri{>- 
tive and piciiirci^ue ; and even ministers of state have 
winced at a political christening. Malagrida the Jesuit 
and Jemmy Twitchcr were nick-names, uiiich made one 
of our ministers odious, and another contemptible. The 
Earl of Godolphin caught such lire at that of Volpone, 
that it drove him into the opposite party for the vindiciivc 
purpose of obtaining the imfioliiiral proscciilion of Sache- 
verell, who in hiA famous sermon had first applied it to the 
earl, and unluckily it hail stuck to him. 

* Faction,' says' Lord Orfijrd, *■ is as capricious as for- 
tune; wrongs, oftpres^ion, the zeal of real patriots, or the 
genius of false ones, may sometimes be employed (or years 
m kindling substantial oppuitition to authority ; in other 
seasons the impulse of a moment, a baUad, a wVA-nomr, a 
faahien, can throw a city into a tumult, and shake the fouiid- 
aijons of a state.' 

Such is a slight history of the human passions in poli- 
tics I We might despair in thus di>covenng that wisdom ; delightful feelings ; whose subjects spontanro 
and patrotisra so frequently originate in this tiirbid source of ; themselves from ptiMing incidents ; they still 
parly; hut we are consoled when we reflect that the most . emotions, which will interest the youn^ poc 
important political principles are immutable ; and that they | yoiine lover of taste, 
are those, which even the spirit <^ party must learn to ' 


iiigs could not, therefore, he ficticious. 
In a Prefa'*e, remarkable for its sraceful 

rt tcll« a«, that * He entered on his siibjccis 
particular iwdentM in life suggested, or d» 
mind recommended thtm to his choice.' He 
'He drew his pictures from the spot, bikI he ft 
sibly the affection:* he commtmicaies.' He a^ 
th'jfie nttendants on niral scenery, and all iha 
to rural life, were not the counterfeited scenes 
poet, any more than the sentiments, which were 
iVaiiire. Shenstone's friend, Graves, whoknc 
in hfe, and to his last days, informs us, that ihi 
were written when he Had taken the Leasow 
own hands; and though his /«rme orw/r « 
thoughts, he occasionally wrote them, * panlv/ 
tone. * to divert my present impatience, and | 
will he a picture of most that passes in my 
a portrait which fiends may value.' This, 
secret charm which acts so forcibly on the fir 
of our youth, at a moment when not too dii 
pleased, the rrflectcd delineations of the hab 
affections, the hones and the delights, with aB 
lie associations of thn poet, alwa}*s true to Na 
hack that picture of ourselves we instantly rei 
is only as we advance in life that we )o«e ihe r 
early simplicity, and that we discover that SIm 
not endowed with hish imagination. 

These Elegies, with m-me other }K>ems, n 
vrith a new interest, when we discover throa 
true MenKMra of ShensUme. Records of qm 

The dogmatism of Johnson, and the fastidiousnen of 
* Thsss curious particulars I found la a Manuscript. 

Elety IV, the first which Shenstone 
entitled' ' Ophelia^ TTm,' and it was no nnrc 
was erected by Graves in MieJileton Church, 
mory of an extra«»rdinary youne woman, Utn 
the literary daughter of a learned, but poor, 
Utrecia had formed so fine a taste for literatim 
posed vrith audi elegance in verso and proaa, 



judge' declared, that * he did not like to rorm his 
u€ any author till he previously knew hers.' 

had been long attached to her, but from motives 
fewUiBce broke off an intercourse with this interesting 
pIB, who sunk under this severe disappoiulmtnt. — 

Eher pnidem lover, Graves, inscribed the urn, her 
Bbenstone, perhaps naore feelingly cummemorated 
tuaa sod her tastes. Such, indeed, was the friendly 
••Mirse between Shenstone and Utrecia, that in Ele^y 
iin, written long after her death, she still lingered m 
Mnioiscences. Composing this Elegr on the calami- 

■ ekwe of Sumerville's life, a brother nard, and victim 
Mrrow circumstances, atid which ho probably contem- 
$ti AS MM image of his own, Shenstone tenderly recol- 
t» thti he used to read Somerville's poems to Utre- 

Oh, lose Ophelia ! smoothly flowed the day 
To feel his music with my flames agree ; 

To taste the beauties of bis meltini; lav, 
To taste, and fancy it was dear to Thee ! 

mf tnie is tbe feeling! how mean the poetical ozpres- 

■ ! 

riM Seventh Elegy describes a vision, where the sha- 
m of Wolsey breaiks upon the author : 

* A graceful form snpear^d, 

'White were his kxxs, with awful scarlet crowned.* 

this fanciful subject was not chosen capriciously, 
L sprung from an incident. Once, on his way to Ghel- 
iham, Shenstone missed his road, and wandered till late 

■ight among the Cotswold Hills ; on this occasion he 
pears to have made a moral reflection, which we find in 
I * Essays.' * How melancholy is it to travel late upon 
w ambitious project <hi a wiuter's night, and observe the 
■t of cottages, where all the unambitious people are 
\rm and happy, or at rest in their beds.' While the be- 
{bted poet, lost among the lonely hills, was meditating 

' ambitious projects,' the character of Wolsey arose 
(bre him ; the visionary cardinal crossed his path, and 
■nd his imagination. * Thou,' exclaims the poet, 

* Like a meteor's fire, 
Sboc^blazhig forth, disdainiog dull degrees.* 

Elegt VII. 

■d the bard, after discovering all the miseries of unhap- 
r grandeur, and murmuring at this delay to the house of 

• friend, exclaims, 

* Oh if thefe ills the price of power advance. 
Check not my speed where social joy* invite !* 

bn silent departure of the poetical sceptre is fine : 

'The troubled vision cast a mournful glance, 
And sighing, vanished in the shades of uighL* 

Bd to prove that the subject of this Elegy thus arose to 

• poet's fancy, he has himself commemorated the incident 
at gave occasion to it, in the opening : 

* On disunt heaths, beneath autumnal skies, 

Pensive I saw the cirrling shade* descend ; 
Weary and faint, I heard the storm arise, 
While the sun vanlshM like a faithless friend.* 

Eliof VII. 

The Fifteenth Elegy, composed * in memory of a pri- 
Hn family in Worcestershire,' is on the vxiinction of the 
■dent family of the Penns in the male line.* Shen- 
ioae's mother was a Penn ; and the poet was now the in- 
•bttant of their ancient mansion, an old timber-built 
oQse of the age of Elizabeth. The local description was 

real scene—* the shaded pool,'—* the group of ancient 
Ims,'— the flocking lOoks,' and the picture of the simple 
tanners of his own ancestor*, were realities, the emo- 
ons they excited were therefore genuine, and not one of 
MMe * mockeries' of amplification from the crowd of verse- 

The tenth Elecy, * To Fortune, suggesting his Motive 
If repining at her Dispensations,' with his celebrated 
Pastoral Ballad, in four parts,' were alike produced by 
rbat one of the great minstrels of our own tiroes has so 
nely indicated when he sung 

* The secret woes the world has never known ; 
While on the weary night dawnM wearier day, 
And bitterer was the grief devourd alone.* 

In this Elefy, Shcitstohe repines at the dispenvations 
f fortune, not for having deniea him her higher giAs, uor 
Ml she compels him to 

* Check the fond love of Art that flr'd my veins,* 
tThis «• laarn fion Dr Raah*aHi«ory of WoroeaMnbJrt. 

nor that some * dull dutard with boundless wealth,' finds 
his * grating reed' preferred to the bard's, but that the 

* tawdry shepherdess' of this dull dotard, bv her * pride,' 
makea * the rural Ihane,' despise tlie poei's Delia. 

* Must Delia's sonneas, elegance, and ease. 

Submit to Marian's dreM ? lo Marian's gold ? 
Must Marianas robe from (iiiiunt India please ? 

The simple fleece my Delia's linibe iriluld ! 
Ah ! what \» native worth etiteemed ofclowns? 

*Tm thy false glare, O Kunune f thine they Mse ; 
*Tis for my Delia's sake I dread ihy i'rowns, 

And my last gasp shall curses breathe on thee !* 

The Delia of our poet was not an * Iris en air.' Sbeh- 
sTomc was early in life captivated bv a young lady, whom 
Graves describes with all those mild and serene graces of 
pensive melancholy, touched by plaintive love-tongs and 
elegies of wo, adapted not only to be the muse, but the 
mistress of a poet. The sensibility of this passion took 
entire possession of his heart for some years, and it was 
in partmg from her that he first sketched his exquisite 

* Pastoral Ballad.' As he retreated more and more into 
solitude, his passion felt no diminution. Dr Nash informs 
us, that Shenslune acknowledged that it was his own 
fault that he did not accept the hand of the lady whom he 
so tenderly loved ; but his spint couU not endure to be a 
perpetual witness of her degradation in the rank of society, 
oy an inconsiderate union with poetry and poverty. That 
such was his motive, we may infer from a passage in one 
of his letters. * Love' as it regularly tends to roatrtroony, 
requires certain favours from fortune and circumstances to 
render it proper to be indulged in.' There are perpetual 
aUtisions lo these * secret woes' in his corre«pond( nee ; 
for, alihouyh he had the f»riitude to refiise marrisffe, he 
had not the stoicism to contract his own heart, in cold and 
sullen celibacy. He thus alludes to this subiect, which 
so often excited far other emotions than those of humour^— 

* It is long siiKC I have considered myself as undone. 
The world will not, perhaps, consider me in that light en- 
tirely till I have married my maid !' 

It is probable that our poet had an intention of marrying 
his maid. I discovered a pleasing anecdote among the 
late Mr Bindlev's collections, which I transcribed from the 
original. On the back of a picture of Shenstone himself, 
of which Dodsley published a "print in 1780, the following 
eneruetic inscription was written by the poet on his new 
year's gifl. 

' This picture belongs to Mary Cutler, given her by her 
master, William Shenstone, January 1st, 1754, in ac- 
knowledgment of her native genius, her magnanimity, her 
tenderness, and her fidelity. W. S.' 

* The Progress of Taste ; or the fate of Delicacy,' is a 
poem on the temper and studies of the author ; and 

* Economy ; a Rhapsody, addrerscd to young Poets,' 
abounds with self-touches. If ShcnMone created little 
from the imagination, he was at least perpetually under 
the influence of real emotions. This is the reason why 
hie truths so strongly operate on th«> juvenile mind, not yet 
matured : and thus we have sufficiently ascertained tho 
fact, as the poet himself has expressed it, < that he drew 
his pictures from the spot, and he felt very sensibly the 
affections he communicates.' 

An the anxieties of a poetical life were early experi- 
enced by Shenstone. He first published some juvenile 
productions, under a very odd title, indicative of modesty, 
perhaps too of pride.* And his motto of ConUnht* pauris 
tectorUmat even Horace himself might have smiled at, for 
it only conceals the desire of every poet, who pants to de- 
serve many ! But when he tried at a m<>re elaborate po- 
etical labour, * The judgment of Hercules', it failed to 
attract notice. He hastened to town, and he beat about 
literary cnfiee>hoiises ; and returned to the country from 
the chase of Fame, wearied without having started it. 

* While at collei^e he printed, without his name, a small 
volume of venies, with this title, *Foeme upon various Ores- 
skms, written for liie Entertainment of the Author, and primed 
for the Amusement of s few Friemts, iirrjudired in dis Fa« 
vour.* OvfonI, 1787. 12 mo.>-Nash*s Hintory of Worcester- 
shire, Vol. i, p. 528. 

I find this notice of it In W. Lowndes'fl Catalogue : 44SS 
Shenstone (W.) Pi»erT.», 3/, ir«, Prf.— (Sheni«tf>ne took un. 
common pnhis Ut siipprera this booV, by rollertJnf nnd iV giroy. 
in* r«'P»ei« wherever he met wuh them.) — In Lon/rman's Bi. 
bliotheci Anirlo'Piieiics. it in valued at W. OxC 17S7 ! Mr 
Harris infiirms me, thst sIkiui ihe yar 1770, Fleicher, the 
bookseller, nt Oxfonl, had many coT>i<^ of thie first edition, 
which he soW at Eigteen pence each. The prices are «xsMskCk%\ 
The prices of books arc connoctod ^\\!kiCKv^\t>dMM>s^ 



* A braath revired Um— but a breath o*enfareir.* 
Even the * judgment of Hercules' between Indolence 
and Industry, or Pleasure and Virtue, was a picture 
of his own feeling ; an argument drawn from his own rea- 
sonings ; indicating the uncertainty of the poet's dubious 
disposiiioo : who nnally, by siding with Indolence, lost that 
triumph by which his hero obtained a directly opposite 

In the following year begins that melancholy strain in h'u 
correspondence, wluch marks the disappointment of the 
man who had staked too great a quantity of hin happiness 
on the pocucal die. This was the critical moment of life 
when our character is formed by habit, and our file is de- 
dded by choice. Was Shenstnne to become an active, or 
contemplative being ? He yielded to Nature !* 

It was now that he entered into another species of po- 
etry, working wim too costly materials, in the magical 
composition of plants, water, and earth ; with the^e he 
created those emotions, which his more strictly poetical 
ones failed to excite. He planned a paradise amidst his 

When we consider that Shenstone, in developing his fine 
pastoral ideas m the Leasowcs, educated the nation into 
that taste for landscape-gardening, which has become the 
model of all Europe, this itself constituies a claim on the 
gratitude of postenty. Thus the pnrate pleasures of a man 
of gunius may become at kngth those of a wh«ile people. 
The creator of tiiis new taste appears to have rereivud far 
less notice than he merited. The name of Shens'oue 
does not app'»ar in the Esisay oii Gardening, by Lord Or- 
ford : even the supercilious' Gray only bestowed a ludi- 
crous imaj;e on these pastordi scenes, which, however, 
his friend Masnn has celebrated ; and ihf- genius of John- 
son, incapacitated by nan ire to touch on objects of rural 
fancy, after descnbing some of the offices of the landscape 
de«i^ncr, add«, that < no will not inquire whether iney de- 
mand any great powers of mind/ Johnson, however, 
conveys to us his own feelings, when he immediately ex- 
presses them under the cha.HCter of *a sullen and surly 
specuiaior.' The aiuious life of Shenstone would indeetl 
have bren remunerated, could he havr read tne enchant- 
ing eulogium of Whcailey on the i^easoweii ; which, said 
he, ' is a perfect picture of his mind — simple, elegant and 
amiable ; and wi!! always sugweftt a doubt wheiiier the 
spot inspired his verse, or wh<?ih<fr in the scenes which he 
formed, he only realizeii the pastoral images which abound 
in his sonzs.' Yes ! Shenstone had been delighted could 
he have Beard that Munte^uteu, rm his return h'line, 
adorned his ' Chateau Gothique, mats omes He hois char- 
mans, dont j'ai pns I'ldee en Au«leterre ;' and Shenstone, 
even with his modest and iimid natiir**, had been proud to 
have witnessed a noble foreigner, amidst memorials dedi- 
cated to TheocritU'* and Virgil, to Thomson and Gesner, 
raising in his grounds an inscription, in bad English, but 
in pure taste, to Shenstone himself; for having displayed 
in nis writings * a mind tiaiiiral,' and in his Leasowes * laid 
Arcadian gre*fns niral ; and recently Pindemonte has 
traced the taste of English gardening to Shenstone. A 
man of genius sometimes receives from foreigners, who 
are placed out of the prejudices of his compatriots, the 
thbute of postenty ! 

Amidst these rural elegancies which Shenstone was rais- 
ing about him, his muse has pathetically sung his melau- 
dK>ly feelings — 

But did the Muses haunt his cell. 
Or in his dome diil Venus dwell ? 
When ail the structures shone complete 
Ah me ! H'v u< Dain>jn*s om>';i confession. 
Came Poverty aitd t .lok pof se^f.iioii. 

The PaoGAcss or Tastc. 

The poet observes that the wants of philosophy are con- 
tracted, satisfied with ' cheap contentment,' but 

* Taste alone requires 

Entire profusion ! days and nights, and hoars 
Thy voire, hydmpic FaiKy ! calls aloud 
For cosily draughts .♦ 


An original image illustrates that fatal want of economy 

• On this subject Graves makes a very useful observation. 
*In this decision the happiness of Mr Shennone wa« matfrially 
concerned. Whether he determined widely or not. ^*e<»ple «'»f 
taste and people of worJiily prudence will pn^bably be ol vrry 
different opinions. I somewhat suspect, that ■* people of worid- 
Ij prudence" ars not half the Ibols that " people of laste*^ in- 

which conceals itself mmidst the beuttifal 

* Some graceleaa 

Some svmptom ill-concealHi, shall 

Burst like a pimple from the vrtious nds 
Of and blood, {woclaiming wauu^ tiisea« 
Amidst the bloom of show.* 


Ho paints himself: 

* Observe Floreliols mica : 
Why treads my friend with melancholy Mfp 
Thai beauteous lawn .' Why priisnve aoaysMl 
O'er statues, grnitoes, urns, by criuc art 
Proponion'd lair ? or from his lofty dome 
Reiuiiis bis eye unpleased disconvoJaie ? 

The cause is * criminal expense,' and he cnhi 

* Sweet interchnn^ 
Of river, valley, mountain, woodsi, and plaiai 
How glailsoiue once he ntiigetl your aaute cs 
Your simple scenes how raptiird ! ere expoi 
Had lavish'd thousand omameois, and Udgfel 
Convonicnc* to perplex him. Art to pall. 
Pomp to dcjt;ct, and Beauty to tlitfpleaae. 


While She nstone was rearing hazela mad h 
opening vistas, and winding water* ; 

* And having shown them where lo 
Threw iiuie pebbles in their way ;* 

while he was pulling down hovels and cow-b 
pose mottoes and inscriptions fur 4;arden-«cais 
while he had so finely lA -ifcured with a tender 
gr<tve of Virgil, and thrown over, * in the midsK 
tation of yew, a brid;:e of one arch, built uf a 
loured stone, and simple even to rudeness,'* m 
Oberon in some Arcaiiian scene ; 

* Where In cool |m>i and mossy cell 
The irippiiig fawns an-1 fuiries dwell -^ 

the solitary magician, who had raised all tbea 
was, in reality, an iinf >rtunate poet, the lenam i 
dated farm-house, where the winds passed ihi 
the rains lodged, often takin*! refuge in his owa 

Far from all resort of mirth. 
Save the cricket on the hearch ! 

In a lettert of the di^tcousoiate founder of I 
gardenins, our author paints his situation with a 
ry — lamenting that his hoii^e is not fit to recei 
friemls, were they so disposed ;' and resolved Ic 
other*, he proceeds : 

' But I make it a certaui nile, *' arcere 
giis." Persons who will despise vou for 
goo«l s**t of chairs, or an uncouth ^re-shovcl, a 
time that they can't taste any exceiU*nce in a 
overlooks those things ; with whom it is in vain 
mind is furnished, if the wails are naked ; indee 
much of one's acquisitions in virtue by an hotv 
with such as judge of merit by money-— .vet I ai 
then impelled by the social passion to sit half 
ray kitchen.* 

But the solicitude of friends and the fate of i 
a nt ii^hbour and a poet, often compelled Shensto 
amidst his reveries ; and thus he has preserve 
ings and his irresolutions. Reflecting un tbi 
Somerville, he writes, 

* To be forced to drink himself into pains oi 
in order to get rid of the pains of the mind, h 
which I can well conceive, because I may, wil 
ty, estt;em myself his equal in point of economy 
sequeniiv ought to have an eye on hi<< misfbri 
you kindiv hinted to me about twelve o'clock, a 
thers.) — ^I »hou!d retrench — I will — but vou shi 
m«> — I will not let you know that I took it in co 
will do it at solitary times as I may.' 

Such wf>re the calamities of * great taste' « 
fortune ;' but in the case of Shenstone, iheae < 
bined with the other calamity of ' mf'diorritv of 

Here, then, at the Leasowes. with oocasiooi 
town in pursuit of fame, which perpetually « 
grasp: in the correspondence of a few delict 
whose admiration was siih?ti!uted for more ^ei 
brity ; composing diairih«-s against eronnniT i 
while his income was oiminishing every veav 
lected author grew daily more indolent and aedc 


• Wheatley on Modern Gardening, p. 172. 
t In Hull's Collect on, Vol. U, Letter U. 


InwHf hiBRir (Blinlr uila bii attn hannila^s, 
■tduMdcipunduu Arudiuialiludc.* TbcnHi 

lu lu- — Uuf E ot hu broibvn hai 
1 Li^iuJ jvu which ha 

■j( ! Aid khall 

ind obicure^ Like 

ba pvrEoiKtid lo 

eU«i of mcfl of ■«o»biliLyud tatUi bul t£ 

• I HpfHafl jou bbT» bfl«B inlorouHl that bj &*er wu 
& 1 frraJ ■■MurB hifpdeluiHlnaca], ud Lell 1117 aeivtt 

lubjMi, I coukl nuJil; Uiink mfulf lots ■ Kriijv; I 
tLi lijtial uid an tpiidpaif -, for aurcly 1 waa ofieoumai 

Th« frAium of Ihia lad poctnil an more particularly 

WM m ■uficiealUiiBtrodiicBiBj wbolouauK/mrlaiKbolT 

t3r Lie 1 Ba« Leait, and ihe life which I breiee [ ihall 
iaai. 1 am aaAy aikd eanoui, aoi drjrcted and franiici 
•■i dmrfard »ll preaeikt thinKi, Jual u becomei a mad- 
■aa Id do, I im infiALlelj frleaaed (IhouKh II ii a j^luoinj 
p; t viih ihe •pplicaiion of Di StiMt complaiat > Ihal he 
■ ijrccd 10 die in a rajre, hke a puiaoncd ral in a hole.' 




would warn ako 10 be adjiwd.' 

W(in were theio ■ hopei and eipecia 



mfliinei he weani hinucir, 

nnhe canik Thiianide bai 


■del hai DOI al.taJy perca 

ed, .ha< 

her had h 


n. in eaily bf. ; uckemnn h> 

•pinl after lbs poii 

a poellcal calehrll)', unallai 

able by 

hit ),..I>U., 


d from the 


potwaieJ for poh""' •'"'< 

CI, in w 



nilriajt.ibal' ha would ha 

we, if ha had had a lufficie 


t >» 

iidl..lh»i>.' Shemlvneh 



1UD for 

te«^ fa™ had 

uduced hlllu nwx than atit 

eliei and 


d when he indulged hu paitoral fa 



domed. Johneon fiKCibly eineind hu eituttioa: 'Hk 
ealh waa iirobaUr haiirnrd by hii anilBtiei. Hawaaa 
unp ihal ipcol lie oil in blizinf . li ia lud, that if fa* 
lad lirad ■ hide loof er, he would bafe been aaaiMad hj a 

lance froia ilioalure.andlhe rcmarkaMe chancten innlT- 
ed III the unparalleled Iraniaclion. The Rreai archiiocl when 
iibilruclvd in Ihe progrcH of hm work, by [be [rre^ular 
pajmeBik of (he wuikmrn a|ipear> lo biie pnciiied ma 
of hia awn comic piMi lo pul Ihe drhli on ihe hrro him- 
aelf; while the duka who had it much ai heart w inhabit 

ripltiut and Aurcaoyeof Aioua would mritbrr appntvt nor 

•illy dua of hope* and as. 

...i""' them up; '1 

btn 10 man nnelf fram all bopei ind fipecia'iow 
■aaioH'. I fnd mj wild^ucke, and I waiermy earaa. 
1^. HaofiT twooA iT I ckM eiiiniuiih my imbitinii 
fK>, M Midulfa ibi deaira efbeinj aomeihing iwire benc- 

• Gninwaa lUDpn™! la huTeplaniwI alhla frienrl 9b»n- 

■amitv'anniafeanillnilnlenci biihrTliuiiriirriiuIh. Nkh. 
-kMB, nl. Ul, p. lU. Nadt** IliMirT of 

_ _._. Surh in 

■idn had c-nni Uumrd ibe ii 
•hilert anit (ilotier of nmrili. 

ami XLIII. w«h u new ihHn iif pilitlnil nmiriii'H. 

t r ilmw Ihf indprula nf ihh trrtri hWr«T f"™ <"• '"'••*- 
|»li-<IM'>npi>rihrDiikeiirMarll>irMich bihI RirJnhnVia. 
hciiih. H alMi rWim wm rmlitrnriBl rlnftntHiv d V^ 
bf u^ wkh Jacub Toum, hli fmai and publbhit. 


and rdalhra of the duka of Marlboroiiich, and probably his 
acent in aome of his coocernt, a warrant, cnraiitutmf 
Vanbnifh mrveuor, with power H'eomtneimg am the behalf 
efthelMeef MaHbcnmgh. How be prerailed on Lurd 
Godolphin to leei this appuiotmrot does not appear^-bu 
lordship probably conceived it was usefal, and mi|rht a»- 
•ist in ezpediiinf the great work, the favourite object of 
the hrro. This warrant, however, Vanbraf h kept en- 
tireljr to himself; he never roemioned to the duke thai he 
was in the possession of anv sudi power ; nor on his re- 
turn, did be claim to have it' renewed. 

The building proceeded with the same delavt, and the 
pajments with the same irroKularity ; the veteran now 
foresaw what happened, that he should never be the in- 
habiiant of his own house ! The public money issued 
from the Treasury was never to be depended on ; and af- 
ter 1712, the duke took the buiUing u|ion himself, for the 
purpose of accommudaiing the workmen. They had 
hitheno received what was called 'crown pay,' which 
was bifh wages and uncertain payment— and ihey now 
gladly abated a third of their pnces.' But iboufh the duke 
had iroderiaken to pay the wc»fkmen, this cnold make no 
alterati«in in the claims on the Treasury. BlenI.eim was 
to be buih far Marlborough, not by him ; it lias a roonii- 
nient rai^d by the nation to their hero, not a palace to be 
built by I heir mutual ctintribuiions. 

Whether Marlborough foimd that his own miliion misht 
be slowly iiijur«^d while the Treasury remained cti!l obdu- 
rate, or that the architect wan still more and more in- 
volved, T cannot tell; but in 1715, the workmen appear to 
have struck, and the old delars ^nd siand-«till sgam re- 
newed. It was then Sir Johni fur the fir«l tim<*. produced 
the warrant he had eztracicNt from I«ord Gorinlphin, to lay 
before the Treasury ; adding, however, a memorandum, 
to prevent any misconception, that the Juke was to be 
cocwidered as the paymaster, the debts inrurred devolving 
on the crown. This part of our secret his'ory requires 
more deveiofiment thsn I am enabled to affurd : a? my 
informaiion i!> dia«»n from 'the Case' of the duke of 
Marlbfirniigh in reply to Sir Jtthn's depositions, it is pos- 
sible Vanbnifh may suflTvr more tlian he ou}iht in this 
narration ; which, however, incidentally notices his own 

A new scene opens! Vanbrugh not ob'ainins his 
daim» from the Treasury, an'l the workmen becoming 
more damomu*, thv architect Middettly turns round on the 
duke, at once to charge bim with the whole debt. 

The pitiable hiMnry of this magnifirent monument of 
public fratitude, from its be^rinningii, i« given by Van- 
Drugli in his deposition. The great architect represents 
himself as being comptroller r/ her majesty's works ; and 
as mirh was annninted to prepare a rnodel, which model 
of Blenheim Hou^9 her majesty kept in her palace, and 
gave her comnuinHs to issue money acconling to the di- 
rection of Mr Travers, the queeti's surveyor-general; 
that the lord treanirer appointed her majesty's own offi- 
cers to supervise these wnrks : that it was upon defect of 
■MHiey from the Treasury that the wtirkmen grew imeasy ; 
thai the work was stufiped, till further orders of money 
from the Treasury : that tho queen then ordered cnouch 
to aacare it from winter weather ; that afterwards she or- 
dered more for payment of ihe workmen : that they were 
paid in part ; and opon Sir John^s telling them the queen's 

resolution to cram them a further supply, {afier a ttnpput 
to k by the thdehee^e order) thev wen' on aiid incurred the 
present debt ; that this was afterwards brought into the 
nouse of commons as the debt of the crown, not owing 
from the queen to the Duke of Marlborough, but to the 
workmen, and this bv the queen's officers. 

During the uncertain profress of the buildinf, and while 
tha workmen were ufitsn in deep arrears, it would seem 
that the architect oAen de^isned to involve the Marlbo. 
roughs in its fate and his own ; he probably Ihoucht that 
sonie of their rmmd million mif ht hear to be chipped, to 
6nith his great work, with which, too, their slory was so 
intimatelv connected. The famous diiirhess had evi- 
dently put the duke on the He' endive ; but once, perhaps, 
was the duke on the point of indiilfing some fcnerous ar- 
chitectural fancy, wlien lo! Aiocsa Mapped forwards and 
' put a stop to the buiklins.' 

Whon Vanbrugh at leneth produced the warrant of 
Lord Qudolphin, empowerng him torontraf*t for the duke, 
this instrument was utterly disclaimed bv Maribfirough ; 
tha dtika dadaraa it aziatail without hij knowledge; and 

that if such an 

valid, no man wookl ba aale, bat 

act of another ! 

Vanbnifh secanatohavo 
plot, till it fell mto 

not fouiul difficolt to maaafe; but ftftcr he 
the Treasury failed iu iia goldca a uuim, ka 
sat down to conirive bow to aake iImb 
debtor. Vanbrugh sweara ihai * Bo 
the crown, as engaged lo iho Dak« 
expense ; but that he bdievao iho 
upon the duke as their pay i— stir.' 
swear thai he mada a eoBiroet wkk 
which contract was Mt ankaowB to Amt doke. 
denied ; but the duke in hia rcpljT 
not that the workoieii were aaiplni 
hia own agent ; * waver kaviu fcoBrtf til 8v MiP; 
ducedthe warrant from Lord OoMplMBplM Srla! 
was * his surveyor !* which ho diadakao. 

Our architect, however opfiaailo lua depaaAHiHfa- 
contrived to beoime a wiiiMMa lo soch forta aa mki'; 
conclude the duke to be Ihe debtor for iho baikfaF*' 
his depositions has lakao aa looeli caio tokos* 





guilt of (lerjiiry without iho pnoishncnt of it, m w ■ ) 
cr>ulddo.' He so manated, iLougb bo has BMseiati 

contradictions, that the aafnral tendencj ofaoe p«taa | 
evidence presses one wav, aod tbo naioral tc^orri' 
another part presses the direct oootrarr way. In toV 
mer mvmorial, the main design warf toVKoeagafethfia 
from the debt : in his depusittoos, the laaia draira ^i* 
charge the duke nith ihe debr. Vaohrugih, it oati 
confessed, exerted not less of his dramatic t^a baa^ 
tectural genius iu the building of Blenh«-in ! 

* The Case' conclutirs with an elt^iiimt 
where Vai.briigh is distinguished aa the "na n tf i 
ihoufh TKit, in This predicament, the mao of boaov. 'l\ 
at last ihe charge run into by order of the cnvwa m^*\ 
upon the duke, yet ih-> infamy of it muai |*o 
mho was perha|M the only Archuejt in the vsorM 
of building such a house : and the only fneod aa ibeeoi 
capable of cnu'rivinf to lay the dtbt upon our tt> ' 
mas so highly obliged.' 

There is a curious fkci in the depnatkmo of 
by nhich we might infer that the idea nf Blenheiai Boa 
niight have originated with the duke him8« V: bo 
that in 1704, the duke met him, and tdd hina ke 
to bnild a house, and must consult him about a aiodd/t" 
but it was tlie queen m ho ordered the preaoot boosa M li 
buili with All expedition.' 

The wlMile ctinduct of this national ediSee 
of the nation, if in truth the naricai ever eatrrerf 
into it. No speciHc sum had been voic^ in 
so great an urideriakine : which afierw&rds wan ibe< 
sion of involving all the parties concerned io iroaWe wi 
litifation, ihrt>atened the ruin of the architect ; »mA I Ali 
wc shall see, by Vanbrugh's letters, was finiabed at M 
sole charge, and even under the snperimendcace. (/ ^ 
duchess nerself ! It mav be a qoestioa. whet hot ti^ an. 
nificent monument of gfory did not rather orismaie ■ ifet 
spirit of party, in the urgent desire of tbe quren lo a^bvlM 
pride and jealousies of ihe Marlborouffha. Fttaa the <i^ 
cumstance to which Vanbrufh has swnm, that ibe Ms 
had dei>if ned to have a house built by Vanbrticb. bcfaa 
Blenheim had been resolved on, we may aopposo ihai thi 
intention of the duke's affiirded the queea a sufsaaaaaif 
a national edifice. 

Archdeacon Coxe, in his life of Marlborouyb, has flb> 
scurelv alluded to 'h« chtnimstancea attending the hati- 
ing uf Blenheim. *The illness of the duke, aad iho ii 
litigation which ensued, caused such delajra. that 
f ress was made in the work at the time nf hia 
In the interim, a serious miauixlerstandinif aroao hm 
the duchess and the architect, which fiirma the aubfici «f 

a voluminous correspondence. Vanbrtigh wma ir 

quenre removed, and ihe direction of the huikfinc 
to other hands, under her own immediate 

This 'voluminous correspondence' would probaMTiA 
ford * words that bum' of the lofrv insolence of AtfORaTaal 

* thoiifhts that breathe' of the comic wit ; it Baig;ht?f« re> 
late, in many curious points, to the stupendoua fcbric iu 
self. If her grace condescended to criticise its parts wilb 
the frank roughness she is known to have doao lo tbo ar- 
duiect himaelf, hia own defence and az| 



bn [pmichJ I ^ <'k dui», uid Ihcnfin had no dcmuid upon hk iiUil* 

« p«'cniT ' pro»ll«l w,.h Si? HobcR W.lp.,1. lo Mp «• n a .dmm, 
•aorLDnlOrKird, DuibiDgia left (uf | a*'* I pmpoml li him, by vJiich I gnl my waiijr m qiiM 

' Lord OrKird.auibiDf tall 
•— (o UshoM, and lobefu: 

lO'idanbld vrcifbt 

dW kMioriu gf wir ind uoliiic* werbnbi wilb contempl , m my ""a" fortuor, »hitli ih. hu h'lMil/ fodr.iwund 
*• fiuliKCrcl hiiioriwof »n,«od o( humu n.iu.e;— kio d.-.uoj ii .o ihmw im inioM Eiifluii huide ih« 
•^ '» Totuninaii comapondmee' which indkatei to lo fiui.h mj data, ai /*efoi.4*on, m afWntAaw.' 

, a«lTMrTDJuip«irirri>uTnini»iji! 

, or Ibil qiHvral balincii the fam 

. hm^ I bare gnli r*eunnd aateru •iTacinia m 
SaBeontdMiiul UturauT Vanbrngh'a id Jacub Tm 
Than •>• u iqualiij of ths (aniua oC Buniiiim, ai 

Hm VtBbrugh, cnolfha** had iha ]iaucneii lu hate 

and Van- """"d lo coni».lT-wriiiiij, baa nwllod Ibe acltJauaM 
■rniui uf Aioni. Thi ' (chcirn ' bj vhicli Vanbni^'a 
Fenila intfnlUin, aided by Sir Roben Watpols, fioaJl; 


W* ban mn Vanbru^l 
Eurrcd bytba buildnijr i> 

,-_.. . - ,^-^-. -- «.bl«, ti Bl»l ... 

■Bf OH, Ikal iba duka beini; iiiH by aoms of iha ?n>riiniFii 

u 4ecauBI M Tmwhi of iha peal wnhh nT Ihc Mirlbo- 

mcnin wrijib la Lonl Godolphui aod hi 
«ind mUliun hwheen nwiini aboDl i 
-lai, 4^, Thia ihe Tnaa.ry knew b. 

iMt!) lO.OOW. a inr la nail fi(»*fliii Atrim uni; 
U,O0U. a i«r in hsrn brnair clmi and go lo la* : tfiKI. 

iMi OodolphiD only £.00(M. a few joiniurr, il he utliira 
m.T Indr ; ihia lar> la a wrelchrd anuria. The rrii (if iha 
haapf fnr ihfae are bul anipirtno^, £oea (o Lofd Qodolithifl, 

AlMaa, aa the quarrel healed and the pliil Itaidirnad, 
«iih UMBaJkkaBwaa ofPuek, and lb« haurhiiMaioTan 
Enpifiaa oTBIeidieim, inrenied the mml cruel innilt ihai 
•tar arcbilecl aBdared !— one perfeciljr cbaraarinlK of 
dwl allnordiiiarj wamaB. Vanbru|ih wenl ti> Bteidwira 

paanie In Lord Ocfofd'a ' ADndoua of Paialinj,' whar* 

and KeDl toUw wirli htm; bul thouifh iie prtttd lo 6f M 
At rigM, m raihrrhcuuae ha pnTcd lobaui ihe liibi, ah* 
ealplujred Sir Cbrialupber Wren lo build Iha houaa in 8l. 

I haTB lu aild ■ curtoui ditcoeer]' mpeclina Vanbnifh 

In all ihe bloiraphir* of Taabnigh, from the lioM oT 
Cibbet'a Lin-t of ihe P.kk, the pan of iba hb oT 

■ccndBl fxini an anciFiil familj in CAaaUn, Bhich can* 
oriamally rrnm /Vnniv.lhcHJib bylhe name, wrhieh urwar^y 
mTiirnntouU be F'oa Bmfk, ha Hi.iild appear luWoT 
Duldi eilraiiiun. A lale u iinnerrallf repealid thai Sir 
JiiliK OBue «iaiiin( Fmnu in tho proarcutioa of hia irrht- 
Ireiural aludiea, ithile tailing a auiTey of asaa BirliSG*- 
liima, eniled alarm, and waa nrrieil to Ihe Baalilat 
whrrv, to drrprn the ioiemtla of Iha almj, ha altotelHNl k 
variety of o'^nf&rt, whicfa ho iraiat baee roatmiaicaiad 
to the Ajremor, vh:>4 whbperinf il dottbtleaa ta an aAir 
of aiate to aeieral of the D.4ileaae, theaa adinirera of 

cured the reteue nf Ihia En^liih Moliere. Thiitala^ 

b-iillat Greenwich, nn the apol aiill Failed 'Vanbruih'a 
Fidda,' two wliiiniical Ihiuii«i ooa «i iha aide of Grecn- 
•nct. Park ia aiill tailed ' ihe Ba>iil>.-Hoiiaa,' hu!t on its 

ihe Batlilt wai an objecl nhich lotnFlimaa occuuiad tba 
ima^naiiim </ our architeei, ia prubable ; for, by Ibe Latter 
■e have juit quoted, i»e djiciirer frijni himaelf^ihe aingu- 
lai incident of Vanbriuh^ hatios bean &i>m i. lAi Aiablf. 

"^-ecaat bia earijrdajia inr" -^ "- ' i--l_. 

«Boii|ih, ahe haaini *iin»bi>in leamrd that mt Kt/e wu of 
(he conpant, ml wiavnmliriiiglttbtfiniiiiHtmiUirrt, 
with ordera thai if •lu came with ihe Ca.ile Itooard la- 

prdtoe, or eirea In vnicr tba park : u) ahe wa> forced 10 
nl all dit ioi^ and ksrn me companj M ibe inn I' 

Thia Wu a can da iMtatrtin ihiajoinlpmiedT of Alluv- 
ia and Vaubrufin The architecl oTBleDhrim,' Idtiog bii 
■yea (owtrda hia om maaain fruideur, eiilrd la k ihili 
in, and impriaooeil wiih one who required nthar to be 

driran iiio a ap« >l 

unled prey, hai 

■eini'f of a pieaenWoi7. Thia pnb- 
dnCfld the foliowing eiploaion ! 

^ I hare been Tuned Into chanerry bt thai B^ B. B. tha 
DncbesanfMarib'ituiili, whara >l - ' 
■BOB ma br her fiiaod tba late fc 
MHclMMd,) «hn dacUnd that 

•ceHor (Kari oT 

■old h( bad < noiitical <:<>i.nriii^.;> and one of hia • pujid- 
cal' iDin had |.r<4ubly «ca>iunrd hia conGnemeW i* ll>t 

al Greenwich, • furiified privin! luiieared tn bia Gnt 

by Ihe aoTieninr and jei impudeni tetin of -Attcdittt ttf 

Jdfe.- -iih winch TurmerlyVanllaa and hia imilalM 

aicniT Rimar or at* waLTia biwleisb.* 

nature! Hia -bor* rf life,' wiih^ incidenla of pn... 

periiy and adeeraity. of t\«ry and bun>yiat>od, -aa aa 

iHwuhle to cnnceiie ila reality. From bia -arlieat day* 
in hia chararler to Iha hlLe.L ; airf it ^eo ineeS»«] hia 

• BBwIrlih, aa wiiTnciiinl in a moch liter pariod, wro* 

I — Hiui, RhwIt. Baain ruaiS«riea,aii.-OnliDim|ibTi)f rra- 
I parKamaa.' 


iD the prmctiee of mean triificet and P«nj deceplioiu ; 
which appear Uke folly in the wisdom ot a ta^e ; like in- 
eptitude u the profound riews of a politician ; lUie cow- 
ardice in the magnanimity of a hero ; and degrade by 
their littleness the grandeur of a character which was 
dneed by a splendid death, worthy the life of the wisest 
and the greatest of mankind! 

The sunshine of his days was in the reign of Elixa- 
b^. From a boy, always dreaming of romantic con- 
qu-.sts, for be was l>orn in an age of heroism ; and funned 
by nature for the chivalric gallantry of the court of 
a maiden queen, from the moment he with such infinite art 
cast his rich mantle over the miry spot, his life was a pro- 
cress of glory. AW about Rawteigh was splendid as the 
dress be wore : his female sovereign, whose eyes loved to 
dwell on men who might have bvvn fit subjects for ' the 
Faerie dueen* of Spender, penurious of reward, only re- 
compensed her favuurites by suffering ihem to make their 
own fortunes on sea and land ; and Elizabeth listened to 
the riowinc projects of her hero, indulging that spirit 
which couM have conquered the world, to have laid the toy 
at the feet of the sovereign ! 

This man, ihis extraordinary being, who was prodigal 
of his life and fortune on the Spanish main, in the idleness 
of peace could equally direct nis invention to supply the 
doDiestic wants of every-day life, in his project or * an 
office for address.* Nothing was loo high for his ambition, 
nor too humble for his genius. Pre-emin'tnt as a military 
and a naval commaD(»r, as a statesman and a student, 
Rawleigfa was as intent on forming the character of Prince 
Henry, as that prince was studious of moulding his own 
aspirmg Qualities by the genius of the friend whom hecon- 
teniulaiea. Yet the active life of Uawleigh is not more ro- 
maraable than his contemplative one. He may well rank 
among the founders of our literature : for composing on a 
Bub|ect exciting little interest, his fine genius has sealed his 
unfinished volume with immortality. For magnificence 
of eloquence, and massiveness of thought, we must still 
dwell on his pages.* Such was the man, who was the 
adored patron of Spenser ; whom Ben Jonson, proud of 
calhng other favourites * bis sons,* honoured by the title of 
his 'father;* and who left political instructions which 
Milton deigned to edit. 

But how has it happened, that of so elevated a char- 
acter. Gibbon has pronounced that it was * ambiguous,* 
while it is described by Hume as * a great but ill-regu- 
lated mind V 

There was a peculiarity in the character of this emi- 
nent man : he practised the cunning vf an adventurer ; 
a conning, most humiliating in the narrative ! The great 
difficulty to overcome in this discovery is, how to account 
for a sage and a hero acting folly and cowardice, and at- 
tempting *o obtain by circuitous deception, w bat it may be 
■apposed so magnanimous a spirit wouU not only deign to 
possess himself of by direct aiid open methods. 

Sroce the present article was written, a letter, hitherto 
impubbshed, appears in the recent edition of Shakespeare, 
whkfa curiously and minutely records one of those arti- 
fices of the kind which I am about to narrate at length. 
When tuder Elisabeth, Rawleigh was onm in confine- 
nMot, aad it appears, that seeing the queen passing by, he 
waa suddenly seized with a strange resolution of com- 
bating with the governor and his people ; declaring that 
the mere tiffht of the queen had niade him desperate, as 
a confined lover would feel at the sight of his mistress. 
The letter gives a minute narrative of Sir Waller's 
astonishing conduct, and carefully repeats the warm 
romantic style in which be talked of' his royal mistress, 
and his formal resolution to die rather than exist out of 
her presence. This extravagant scene, with all its co- 
louring, has been most elaborately penned by the ingenius 
letter-writer with a hint to the person whom be addresses, 
to suffer it to meet the eye of their royal mistresns, who 
conld not fail of admirin|( our new ' Orlando Furioso ;^ 
and soon after released this tender prisoner ! To me it is 
evident that the whole scene was |ot up and concerted for 
the occasion, and was the invention of Rawleigh himself: 
the romantic incident he well knew was perfectly adapted ■ 
to the queen's ta^ite. Another similar incident, m which I | 
have been anticipated in the difcloMire of the (act, though 
not of its na'iire, was what Sir Toby Matthews obscurely 

• I shall give in the article * Literary Unions,' a curious ac< 
CDOnc how * Rawletrh's Histnry nfihe World' waa composed, 
which has hUherto escaped discovery 

alludes to his letters, of * the ^iltr blow be gan ^md 
in the Tower ;* a passage which had long cxnMWfr 
tentiun, till I discovered the curious iocideni m sQBe'» 
nuscnpt letters of Lord Cecil. Rawleigh 
fined in the Tower for the Cobhana caivpiff«rr; i »•■ 
absurd and obscure, that one historuui has'cihCEt 
* state-riddle,* but for which, ao manjr j^mn afiff.B^ 
leigh so cruelly lost his life. 

Lord Cecil gives an account of the e: 
prisoners invwved in this cnosuracj. 
whilst diverse of us were in the Tower ex 
these prisoners, Sir Walter attempted to 
whereof when we were advertised, we i 
found him in some agony to be unable to 
fortunes, and prutestin'^ innocencT, with 
life ; and in that humour kt had woiamd» " 
right pap, hut no wajf mortally , bem^ m 
than a s/a6, and now very well cured boKb m hoAf ■ 
mind.** This feeble attempt at suicide, dua 'iM ttm 
than stab,* I must place among those acentw ■ tha kii > ' 
Rawleigh, so mean and incoinprehensable 
of the man. If it were nothing but one 

* Fears of the Brave !> 
we must now q>en another of the 

'Follies of the Wise!* 

Rawleigh returned from the wild aod 

d' Guiana, with misery in every shape aboa't bM.* *B 
son had perished ; his devoted' Key mis would not svm 
his reproach ; and Rawleigh, without foriune ani mam. 
hope, in sickness and in sorrow, brooded over tte K 
thought, that in the hatred of the Spaniard, ati«* la *»bri» 
htical pusillanimity of James, he was arriving onlv ta w^ 
inevitable death. ' With this presentiment, be Lad rm 
wished to give up his ship to the crew, h^ thev ccshsm 
to land him in France ^ b«it be was probably uresDiau x 
this decision at sea, as he was afterwards at land, *te? 
he wished to escape, and refused to fly : the dearest iff^ 
lect was darkened, and magnanimiiy itself becaaie *«— »• 
iated, floating between the sense of'honour and of i^. 

Rawlei};h landed in his native county oT I>ev<«: b 
arrival was the common topic of conversation and bcv* 
the object of censure or of commiseration : but his pcna 
was not molested, till the fears of Janacs became Mn 
urgent than his pity. 

The Cervantic Gondomar, whose Equips ard qoksa 
had concealed the cares of state, one day nshed mio v 
presence of James, breathlessly calling out for* audMnct' 
and compressing his ' ear^piercing* message into w 
laconic abruptness of * piratas ! piratas ! piratas !* Then 
was agony as well a* politics in this cry oT Gonddi^. 
whose brother, the Spanish governor, had been maM»> 
cred in this predatory expedition. The timid mora-n, 
terrified at this tragical appearance of his facetious fheuu 
saw at once the demanas of the whole Spanish calory 
and vented his |>aliiative in a gentle proclamation. Raw- 
leigh having scttUd his affairs in the Wvkt, set oil* for Lon- 
don to appear before the king, in consequence of the pn)C«> 
mation. A few miles frtim Plvmnuib, he was met b« §r 
Lewis Siucley, vice*admiral uf Devon, a kinsman and a 
friend, who, in communication with gnvernmenr had a> 
cepted a sort of sunviV/anre over Sir Waller. Ii is m\ 
(and will be credited, when we hear the siorv of Stuc>Ti 
that he had set hiit heart on the «Aip, as a probable gced 
purchase; and on the person, against whom, to colour ktf 
natural treachery, he professed an oM hatred. Ut fint 
seized on Rawleigh more like the kinsman than the nce- 
admirai, and proposed travelling together to Lcwdon and 
baiting at the houses of the friends of Rawlei^. 'nbe 
warrant which Studey in the meanwhile had desired was 
instantly despatched, and the bearer was one Manourv. a 
French empiric, who was evidently sent to act the part be 
did, — a part played al all times, and the last title in Frvndi 
politics, that so c^ten had recourse to this instrument of 
state, is a Mouton ! 

Rawleigh still, however was not placed under anv hanh 

♦ These letters were written by Lord Cecil to Sir Thoir-as 
Parry, our ambasrador in Fraice, and were iraiiMTibed trinia 
the ropy-boi>k of Sir Thcimas Parry** curresfiondcitce, which 
is prewrveil in ih« Prpysian library «i Cambrulce. 

4 Mr fricni!, Mr Hanii^er. of Deriter.f] Hoitse./ Birmingham, 
amonir other rurious coltenionif which he pitfsenes, hifiwas 
me that he has ' a manuscript of tirposiiinns taken in fNtrfn 
relative to the losses of some merchants who had becnaa^ 
dared by Sir Walter In this voyage.* " 



t, rettrvnt : bis confidential aMociate, Captain Kinf , ac- 
I oompanied him ; and it is probable, that it' Rawlcigh had 
a effectuated his escape, he would have conferred a great 
I Ibvour on the government. 

I Thej could not save him at London. It is cortain that 
. he might have escaped ; for Captain King bad hired a 
! Teasel, and Rawleigh had stolen out by night, and might 
have reached it, but irresolutely returned home ; an- 
other night, the same vessel was ready, but Kawieigh 
never came ! The losa of his honour appeared the greater 

As he advanced in this eventful journey, every thing as- 
■umed m more formidaUe aspect. His friends communi- 
cated fearful advices ; a pursuivant, or king's messenger, 
fave a more menacing appearance ; and suggestions arose 
ID his own ound, that ne was reserved to become a victim 
of state. When letters of commission from the Privy 
cooncil were brooght to Sir Lewis Stucley, Rawleigh was 
observed to change countenance, ezclaimmg with an oaih, 
* Is it potsible my fortune should return upon me thus 
again T He lamented before Captain King, that he had 
neglected the opportunity of escape ; and which, every day 
he advanced iiuaDd, removed him the more from any 

Rawleigh at first suspected that Manoury was one of 
those instruments of state, who are sometimes employed 
when open measures are not to be pursued, or when the 
cabinet have not yet determined on the fate of a person 
implicated in a state crime ; in a word, Rawleigh 
thought that Manoury was a spy over him, and probably 
over Stucley too. The first impression in these matters 
is usually the right one ; but when Rawleigh found him- 
self caught in the toils, he imagined that such corrupt 
agents were to be corrupted. The French empiric was 
sounded, and found very compliant; Rawleigh was desi- 
rous by his aid to counterfeit cickness, and for this purpose 
invented a series of the most humiliating stratagems. He 
imagined that a constant appearance of sickness might pro- 
duce delay, and procrastination, in the chapter of accidents, 
might end in pardon. He procured vomits from the 
Frenchman, and whenever he chose, produced every ap- 
pearance of sickness ; with dimness of sight, dizziness m 
his head, he reeled about, and once struck himself with 
■uch violence against a pillar in the gallery, that there was 
no doubt of his malady. Rawleigh's servant one morning 
entered Stucley's chamber, declared that his master was 
out of his senses, for that he had just lefi: him in his shirt 
upon all four?, gnawing the rushes upon the floor. On 
Siucley'd entrance, Rawleigh was raving, and reeling in 
strong convulsions. Stucley ordered him to be chafed and 
fomented, and Rawleigh afterwanls laughed at this scene 
with Msnoury, observing that he had made Stucley a per- 
fect physician. 

But Rawleigh found it ret^uired some more visible and 
alarming disease than such ndicuk>us scenes had exhibit- 
ed. The vomits worked so slowly, that Manoury was 
fearful to repeat the doses. Rawleigh im^uired, whether 
the empiric anew of any preparations which could make 
him look ghastly, without injuring his health. The French- 
man oflerrd a harmless ointment to act on the surface of 
the skin, which would give him the appearance of a leper. 
*That will do!' said Rawleigh, <for the lords will be 
afraid to approach me, and besides it will move their pitv.' 
Applying the ointment to his brows, his arms, and his 
breast, the blisters rose, the skin inflamed, and was co- 
vered with purple spots. Stucley concluded that Raw- 
leigh had the plague. Physicians were now to be called 
in ; Rawleigh look the black silk ribbon from his poniard, 
and Manoury tightened it strongly abont his arm, to dis- 
order his pulse ; but his pulse beat too strong and regular. 
He appeared to take no food, while Manoury secretly pr<^ 
vided him. To perplex the learned doctors still more, 
Rawleigh had the urinal coloured by a drug of a strong 
ecent. The physicians pronounced the disease mortal, 
and that the patient could not be removed into the air 
without immediate danger. * Awhile after, being in his 
hed-chamber undressed, and no one present but Manoury, 
Sir Walter held a looking-glass in hi* hand, to admire his 
spotted face,* and observed in merriment to his new con- 

* A friend informs me, thst he saw recer.tlr st a print*deal* 
er*s a painted portrait of Sir Walter Rawleigh, with the fare 
thus spoued. It w extraoniinary thai any artist should have 
chosen such a subject for his pencil ; but should this be a por^ 
Crate of the times. It shows that this strange stratagem had ex* 
cfead public aitaaiiop 

fidanl, how they should one day laugh for having thus co* 
zened-— the king, council physicians, Spaniards and all. 
The excuse Rawleigh oflfcred for this course of poor stra- 
tagems, so unworthy of his genius, was to obtain time and 
seclusion for writing his apology, or vindication of hie 
voyage, which has come down to us in his * Remains.' 
**! he prophet David did make himself a fool, and suffered 
spittle to fall upon his beard, to escape from the hands of 
his enemies,' said Rawleigh in his last v peech. Brutus, 
too, was another example. But his discernment often 
prevailed over this muckery of his spirit. The king li- 
censed him to reside at his own house on his arrival in 
London; on whirh Manoury observed, that the king 
showed by tliis indulgence, that his majesty was favoura- 
bly inclined towards nim ; but Rawleigh replied, * They 
used all these kinds of flatteries to the Duke of Biron, to 
draw him fairly into prison, and then they cut off hb head. 
I know they have concluded among them, that it is expe- 
dient that a man should die, to re-assure the trafiic which 
I have broke with Spain.' And Manoury adds, from 
whoso narrative wo have all these particulars, that Sir 
Walter broke out in this rant : * If he could but save him- 
self for this time, he would plot such plots, as should make 
the king think himself happy to seno for him again, and 
restore him to his estate, and would force the king of 
Spain to write into England in his favour.' 

Rawleigh at length proposed a flight to France with 
Manoury, who declares that it was then he revealed to 
Stucley what he had hitherto concealed, that Stucley 
might double his vigilance. Rawleigh now perceived that 
he had two rogues to bribe instead of cne, and that they 
were playing into one another's hands. Proposals are 
now made to Stucley through Manoury, who is as com- 
pliant as his brother-knave. Rawleigh presented Stuclev 
with ' a jewel made in the fashion of^ hail powdered with 
diamonds, with a ruby in the midst.' But Stucley ob- 
serving to his kinsman and friend, that he must kise his 
oflice of Vice-admiral, which had cost him six hundred 
pounds, in case he sufl^red Rawleigh to escape ; Raw- 
leigh solemnly assured him that he should be no loser, 
and that his lady should give him one thouiaad pounds 
when they got into France or Holland. About this lime 
the French quack took his leave ; the part he had to act 
was performed ; the juggle was complete : and two 
wretcnes had triumphed over the sagacity and magnani- 
mity of a sage and a hero, whom niisfortune had levelled 
to folly ; and who, in violating the dignity of his own cha- 
racter, had only equalled himself with vulgar knaves; 
men who exulted that the ciicumvenler was crciimvented : 
or, as they expressed It, ' the great cozener was cozened.' 
But our story does not here conclude, for the treacheries 
of Stucley were more intricate. This perfect villain had 
obtained a warrant of indemnity, to authorize his compli- 
ance with any offer to assist Rawleigh in his escape ; ibii 
wretch was the confidant and the executioner of Raw- 
leigh ; be carried about him a license to betray him, and 
was making his profit of the victim before he delivered him 
to the sacrifice. Rawleigh was still plotting his escape : 
at Salisbury he had despatched his confidential friend 
Captain King to London, to secure a boat at Tilbury ; he 
hao also a secret interview with the Ftench agent. Raw- 
leigh's servant mentioned to Captain King, that his boat- 
swain had a ketch of his own, and was ready at his ser^ 
vice for ' thirty pieces of silver ;' the boatswain andRaw- 
leigh's servant acted Jiidas, and betrayed the dot to Mr 
William Herbert, cousin to Stucley, and thus the treach- 
ery was kept among themselves as a family concern. The 
night for flight was now fixed, but he could not part with- 
out his friend Stucley, who had promised never to quit 
him ; and who, indeed, informed by his cousin Herbert, 
hsd suddenly surprised Rawleigh putting on a false beard. 
The partv met at the appointed place ; Sir Lewb Stuc- 
ley with his son, and Rawleigh disguued. Stucley in sa- 
luting King, a^ked whether he had not shown himself an 
honest man '/ King hoped he would continue so. They 
had not rowed twenty strokes, before the watermen ob> 
served, that Mr. Herbert hsd lately taken boat, and made 
towards the bridge, but had relumed down the river af^er 
them Rawleish instantly expressed his apprehensions, 
and wished to return home; he consulted King^the wa- 
termen took fright-^tucley acted his part well ; damning 
his ilUfortiine to have a friend whom he would save, so 
full of doubts and fears, and threatening to p'lMol the wa- 
termen if thejr did not proceed. Even King was ovcf- 


s bf the earaest eondnet oTStudey, and a new •pint 
wai iouMfd inio the rowers. At the^ drew near Gnren- 
wich, a wherry cro eie d them. Rawlrigh declared it came 
to diaeover them. King tried to d'av hi« fear*, and as- 
rared him that if once they reached Graretrnd, be would 
haiard his life lo get to Tilbury. But in these delays and 
discussioati the tide was failing; ihi* watermen declsred 
they eould not reach GraresriM before morning ; Raw- 
leifh would have landed at Purflect, and the boatswain 
enooaraged him ; for there it was thought he could pro- 
cure horses for Tiibury. Sir Lewis Siuclcy too was zea- 
lous ; and declared he was content to carry the cloak-bag 
on his o«n shoulders, fur half a mile, but King declared 
that it was useless, ib<^y could noc at that hour get horses. 

tofoby land. 

Tbey rowed a mile beyond Woolwich, approaching 

published an apdogy for hit conduct ; 
which, at least, for its sbility, might niwm 
sideraiion ; but I have since discorercd, a oae of 
nuscript letter-writers, that it was wrillea bj I> i 
who had been a chaplain to Henrj Prince of Waica Tb 
writer pleads in Stucle>'s jusiifiraiion, that hm was i sw 
agent ; that it was lawful to lie iur the d in e u sf y tf sv^ 
son ; that he had a personal hatred 



fur having abridged liis father of his sbara of 
money ; and then enters more into Rawleifh's 
who ' bf iiig lirsperate of any fortune here, 
the height uf bis mind, would have nuide up hv 
elsewhere, upon any terms against bia sovcrngp 
country. Ii' it not ' marvel,' continiiea ibc 
Stticley, * that he was angry with me at 

_, ^ ^ bringing him back? Besid«i, being a man oTse pi 

two or three ketches, wLen the boatswain'^ doubted wir, it mas no rmall grief, thai a nian of mean en 
whether any of these were the one he had provided to fur* should be thtMicht to go beyond him. Xo ? 
nisb them. ' ' We are betrayed !' cried Kawleigh, and or- diter arte. Nt^ue enim Urjiaiior idta ea 
dared tne watermen to row back: he strict Iv examined ^ets artt perire na. (This apt laiinity befra%8 
the boatswain, alas! his ingenuity was baffled by a shuf- But nhy did vou not execute your mmiiiiBsiim 
flmg villain, whose real answer appeared when a wherry (openly ?) — ^Vby ? My comimssimi wae to thi 
hailed the boat ; Rawkish observed that it contained Her- I to discover his pretenuons, and to seize his 
bert*s crew. He saw that ail was now discovered. He per^,' kc* 
took Siuelev aside ; his ingenious mind still siiggesi'mg ! But the dnctnr, though no miskilful vrriter, here 

C rejects for liimseirio return home in safiriv, or how Stuc- in vain ; for what ingenuity can vi-il the turpitude of 4| 
>y might plead that he bad only pretended to go with and practiced treachery? To keep up appearances. Sr 
Rawlrigh, to seize on his private papers. They whis- ' Judas resorted mere than usually to court ; where. iE» 
pered together, and Rawleigh took some things from his \ ever, he «as perpetually enduring rebufl'if, nr avr«c«e.a 
pocket, and handed them to Siucley ; probably more * ru- one infected with the |ihgue of imachery. He otfrrtcai 
biea powdered with diamonds.*— Some effect was instan- king, in his own juiiitkniion, to take tlie sacramct*., 3K 
laneously produced: for the tender heart «tf his friend whatever he had laid to Raw leigh's charge was iriK. m 
Stucley relented, and hf: not only repeatedly embraced i would pmdiice two unexceptionable witnesses m im » 
him with extraonlinary warmth of affrciinn. but was voiii- j like. * Why. then,' replied his msjesty, * the mnr« ■»> 

bie in effusions of friendship and fidelity. Stucley persuad- cimis was Sir Walter to utter these speeches ai his deal' 
ed Rawlrigh to land at Gravesend, the strange wbcrrv j SirThom> i Bad2er,whostood by, observed, * ilwiai 
which liad dogged them landing at the same time ; these I take off Sturlev's head, as Stucley has done Sir Wal'e'i. 
were people bdonging to Mr Herbert and Sir William St j and let him at )iis death take the sacramrnt and hw «a:S 
John, who, it seems, had fi»rmerly shared m the spoils of ' upon it, snd Til bt-lieve hiro; but till Stuclej loees M 
this unhaapy hero. On Greenwich bridge, Stuclev ad- i head, I shsll credit Sir Walter Rawleigh** bare affirmatw 
vised Captun King that it would be advantageous to Sir before a thousand of Siuckley's oaths. When Siuoty. 
Walter, tbat King should confess that he had joined with : on pretence of giving an account of his ofBce, placed l» 
Stucley to betray his master ; and Rawleigh lent himkeif sell in the audience chamber of the lord admiral, ne 
to the suggestion of Stucley, of whose treachery he might his lordyhip parsed him with<»ut any notice. Sir Jucas 8> 
■till be uncertain ; but King, a rough and honest seamen, i tempted to address the earl: but with a bitter look )■ 
declared tbat he would not share in the odium. At the ■ lordship exclaimed. < Base fcHow! darest thou, who ir: 
moment he refuted, Stucley arrested the captain in the ! the scorn and contempt of men, offer ihyaelf in my pee^ 
king's name, committing him to the charge of Herbert** | ence ? Wf re it not in my own house. I would cud^l iMs 
men. They then proceeded to a tavern, but Rawlrigh, wiih my Riaff for presuming on this sauc men.' Tbisara^ 
who now viewed the monster in his irue shape, observed, I laiing affront SnicVy haMened to cnnvey to the kiag ; ks 
* Sir Lewis, these actions will not turn out to your credit ;* ' maje«lv an»wered hini. * What wouldft thou have me do? 
and on the following day, when they passed' through the t Woulifst thou have me hang him? Of my soul, if 1 
Tower-/ale, Rawleigh 'turning to I^ing, observed, * Stuc^ ', hang ail that^peak ill of thee, all the trees of the c 
ley and my servant Cotterell have betrayed roe. You need "* 

ba in DO fear of danger, but as for me.' it is I who am the 
mark that is shot at.' Thus concludes the narrative of 
Captain King. The fate of Rawleigh soon veriSed the 

This long narrative of treachery will not, however, be . - — 

complete, unless we wind it up witfi the fate of the infa- ! chequer five hundred pminds. ss the reward of hia 
laoaa Sluelcy. Fiction gives perfection to iu narratives, < o^ and p«'rfiily. It was the price of hlood. ann was 
hv the privilege il enjoys of disposing of its criminals in j hardly in his hands ere it was turned into the fraudolml 
tie BBoat cxemplarv maimer: but the labours of the hiHto. ! coin of ' th** Cheater !* He was seized in the palace if 
rian are not always refreshed by this moral pleasure. Re- : Whitehall, for diminishing the guld c^in. ' The manatr 
tribuiMO is not always discovered in the present stage of of the discovery.' vays the manuscript-writer.* wa« strange 
human existence, yet bnrory is perhaps equally delightful 
as fic'imi, whenever its perfect catastrnphes resemble 
those of romantic inventioD. The present is a splendid 
example. j 

1 have discovered the secret history of Sir Lewis Stuc- 
ley, in several manuscript letters of the times. 

Rawleigh, in hii admirable address from the scafRild, 
where he aeeroed to be rather one of the spectators than 
the sufferer, declared he forgave Sir Lewis, for he had for- 
given all men : but he was bound in charity to caution aD 

would not Miffire, %o gr^at is the number !' 

One of the frequent crimes of that age. ere the 
of bank-notes existed, was the clipping of po!d : and'rhi 
was oTie of the private amu<ements suitable to the chares 
ter of our Sir Judas. Trearhrry and forgerv are iKv faas 
crime in a different form. Stuclev received out of the ex> 

if my ocrastr^ns would suffer me tn rela'e the pana*uiar*.* 
On his eiaminatifin he attempted to thif^ the crime to Sui 
own son, who had f!ed. and on his man, who being takes, 
in the words of the Irtier-writf r. was * wiJing to yet ibe 
raddle upon the neht horse, and accused his master.' 
IManoury too, the French cmpirK-, was arresied at Pjw 
mouth for the same crime, and acruved his worthy fneniL 
But such was the interest of Stucley «i;h governmeai, 
bought probably with his last shilling, and. as one says. 
with his la^t ih'iri. that he obtained his own, and his sea's 

men against him, and such as he is ! Rawlrigh's last and j pardon, for a crime that ought to have finally ronrludcd 
solenm notion of the treadiery of hn * kinsman and friend ' j 
was irrevocably fatal to this wretch. The hearts of the 
people were open to the deepest impressions of sympathy, ' 
meltiag into team at the pathnic address of the magnan'i- j 
spirit who had touched them : in one moment Sir 

the history of this b]*^sed familv.'t A mi-re solen.n and 

m ■ 

* StnrVj's hpmble petition, toufhine the hrincit.ppp Sir 
W. Rawleieh, 4io, IClt? ; rc|>ub;j!^hcd m S< m<r*s Tracts, voL 
hi, 731. 

tXhc »r#»eH«»tea reup'vtip? 5:nrl.-T I hnve derired frem 

■wk, whkh God aad aea bad fixed oa him, he 1 noia carefully ptaaenrnd. 



^ tragicft) catastrophe wa« reserved fur the perfidious Sluc- 

a \»y. He was deprived of his place of vice-admiral, and 

M m destiuite in the world. Abandoned bj all human be- 

>j isfs, and most probably, bv ihe son whom he had tutored 

M in the ar*s uf villany, be appears to have wandered about 

^ u infamoua and distracted beggar. It is possible that even 

b 90 seared a oooscieDce majr have retained some remaining 

B touch of seonbiiii J. 

9 — — All are men, 

9 Condemned alike to gman ; 

The lender tor an<ither>8 pain, 
The unfeelinff lor hi* own. 

And Camden has recorded, amoni; his hintorical notes on 
JttBMlf that io August, 1620, * Lewis Siucley, who be- 
tnjed Sir Walter Rawlei;{h, died in a manner mad.' 
Boicb ■ the cataairophe d" one of the most perfect domes- 
tie tales; an histoncal eianiple not easily paralleled of 
moral retribution. 

The secret practices of the ' Sir Judas ' of the court of 
JuBM I, which I have discovered, throw lisht on an old 
tradition which still exists in tlie neighbourhood of AfTe- 
ton, once the residence of this wretched man. The coun- 
try people have long entertained a notion that a hidden 
treasure lies at the Iwtiom of a well in his grounds, guard- 
ed by some siijperoatural power; a tradition no doubt 
originating in this man's hit tory, and an obscure allusion 
to the gold which Siuciey received for his bribe, or the 
other gold which be clipped, and might have there con- 
cealed. This is a striking mstance of the many historical 
facts which, though entirely unknown or forgotten, may 
be often diacovered to lie hid, or disguised, in popular tra- 


The close of the life of Sir Walter Rawleigfa was as 
extraordinary as many parts of his varied history : the 
promptitude and sprigntlinefs of hi# genius, his careless- 
ness of life, and the equanimity of that grrat spirit in 
quitting the world, can only be paralleled by a few other 
heroes and sages :— Rawleigh was both ! But it is not 
■tmplv his dignified yet sctive conduct on the scaffold, nor 
his admirable spe<H:h on that occasion, ciraimstsnces by 
which many great men are judged, when their enerffies 
are excited for a moment to act so great a part, before 
the eyes of the world a«srmblcd at their feet ; it is not 
these only which claim our notice. 

We niav pause with admiraiinn on the real grandeur of 
Rawleigh^s character; not from a single circumstance, 
bowevtr great, but from a tissue of continued little inci- 
dents, winch ocTurrrd from the moment of his condemna- 
tion till he lay his head on the block. Rawleigh was a 
man of such mark, that he deeply engaged the attention 
of his contemporaries; and to this we owe the preserva- 
tion of several interesting particu'ars of what he did and 
what ho said, which have entered, into his life ; but all has 
not been told in the published narratives. Contemporary 
writers in their letters have ael down every fresh incident, 
and eajterly caught up his sense, his wit, and what is more 
delightful, those (paries of the natural cheerfulness of his 
invariable presence of mind : nor could these have arisen 
from any affectation or parade, for we shall see that they 
served him even in his last tender farewell to his lady, and 
on many unpremeditated occasions. 

I have drawn together in a short compass all the facta 
which my researches have furnished, not omitting those 
which are known, concerning the feelings-and conduct of 
Rawleigh at these solemn moments of his life ; to have 
preserved only the new would have been to mutilate the 
atatue, and to injure the whole by an imperfect view. 

Rawleigh one morning was taken out of his bed in a fit 
of fever, and unexpectediv hurried, not to his trial, but to 
a sentence of death. Tlie story is well known.— Yet 
pleading with * a voice grown weak by sickness and an 
ague he had at that instant on him,' he used everv means 
to avert his fate : he did, therefore value the life ne could 
so easily part with. His judges there at least, respected 
their state criminal, and they addressed him in a tone far dif- 
ferent from that which he had fifteen years before listened 
to from Coke. Telverton, the attorney-general, said, * Sir 
Waiter Rawleigh hath been as a star at which the worid 
have gazed ; but stars may fall, nay, they must fall, when 
they trouble the sphere where they abide.' And the lord 
ducf-juatico notiond Rawlaigb'a great work ^ I know that 

you have been valiant and wise, and I doubt not but yoa 
retain both these virtues, for now you shall have writiftn 
to use them. Your bonk is an admirable work ; I wouki 
give you counsel, but I know you can apply nnto yoorself 
far better than I am able to give you.' But the judge 
ended with saying, ' execution is granted.' It was atifling 
Rawleigh with rosea ! the heroic sa^ feltaa if liateninf t» 
fame from the voice of death. 

He declared, that now being old, siddy, and in disgraeey 
and * certain were he allowed to live, to go to it again^ 
life was wearisome to him, and all he entreated was to 
have leave to speak freely at his farewell, to satisfy the 
world that he was ever loyal to the king, and a true lover 
of the commonwealth ; for this he would seal with hie 

Rawleigh, on his return to his prison, while some were 
deploring his fate, observed, that * the world itself is but a 
larger prison, out uf which some are daily selected for ex* 

That last night of hb existence was occupied by writint 
what the letter-writer calls *a remembrancer to be left 
with his lady,' to acuuaint the world with bis sentimeote^ 
should he be denied their delivery from the scaffokl as he 
had been at the bar of the King's Bench. His ladjf visited 
Aim that night, and amidst her tears acquainted him, that 
she had obtained the favour of disposing of hb body ; to 
which he answered smiling, ' It is weU Bess, that thou 
mayest dispose of that, dead, thou hadst not always the 
disposing of when it was alive.' At midnight he entreated 
her to leave him. It must have been then, that, with unshaken 
fortitude, Rawleigh sat down to compose those verses on 
his death, which being short, tlie most appropriate may be 

* Even such is Time, that takes on trust, 

Our youth, our Joys, or all we have, 
And pays us but with age and dust ; 

Who in the dark and silent grave, 
When we have wandered all our wayi^ 
Shuts up the etory of our days !* 

He has added two other lines expressive of his trast in hie 
resurrection. Their authenticity is confirmed by the writer 
of the present letter, as well as another writer, enclosing 
' half a dozen verses, which Sir Walter made the ni^t 
before his death, to take his farewell of poetrv, wherein ne 
had been a scribbler even from his youth.' The enclosure 
is not now with the letter. Chamberlain, the writer, wan 
an intelligent man of the world, but not imbued with anT 
deep tincture of literature. On the same night Rawleign 
wrote this distich on the candle burning dimly : 

* Cowards fear to die ; but courage stout. 
Rather than live in snuff, will be put out.' 

At this solemn moment, before he lay down to rest, and 
at the instant of parting from his lady, with aH his donee- 
tic afTections stilt warm, to express his feelings in verae 
was with him a natural efiusion, and one to which he had 
long been used. It is peculiar in the fate of Rawleigh, 
that having before suffered a long imprisonment with an 
expectation of a public death, his mind had been accna* 
tomed to its contemplation, and had often dwelt on the 
event which was now passing. The soul, in ita aoddcB 
departure, and its future state, is often the rabjeet of hit 
few poems ; that most original one of ' the FfereweUy 

Oo, soul, the body^s guest, 
Upon a thankless errand, Iec 

is attributed to Rawleigh, though on oncertahi endenee. 
But another, entitled ' the Pilgrimage,' has this beantifid 

* Give me my of qnleL 

My staffer truth to walk upon, 
Mr scrip of joy immortal diet ; 

My boule of'^fialvsiion. 
My gown of elory. Hope^s true gage. 

And thus 1*11 take my pilgrimage— 
Whilst my soul, like a quiet Palmer, 

Travet^eth towards the land of Heaven—* 

Rawleigh's cheerfulneea was ao remarkable, and hk 
feariessness of death so narked, that the Dean of Weat- 
miiMter, who attended him, at first wonderim at the hero, 
reprehended the lightness of his manner ; but Rawleigh 
gave God thanks that he had never feared death, for it waa 
but an opinion and an imagination ; and as for the manner 
of death, he would rather die so than of a burning fever ; 
and that some might have made shows outwardly, but ho 
felt the joys withu. The Dean says, that he nadft ^m* 


wtnf of bit detth than if he hmd beco to t«ke a journey ; 
* Not/ nid he, * but that I am a creat sinner, for I have 
been a aoldier, a aeamani and a ccnjrtier.* The writer of 
a OMUHncripi leuer tells u«. that the ]>an declared 
he died not odIt relipoosly, but he found hin to be a man 
aa ready and aJi aWe to pve. as to take intiructioa. 

On the moming of his death he smoked, as usual, his 
favourite tobacco, and when ther broufht him a cup of 
excellent sack, beine asked hoir he liked it. Rawleieh an- 
•wend, ' As the fellow, that, driokinn ^ ^* Giles's bowl, 
u he went to Tybnm, said, ** that was food drink if a man 
micht tarry bv'ir.**' The day before, in passuig from 
Weatminstf-hall to the Gate^iouse, his eye had caught 
Sir Huffh Bi^ston in the throng, and caiiin/on him, Raw- 
lei|(h requested that he would see him die irv.morrow. Sir 
Hufh. to secure himself a se«t on the scaffold, had provided 
bimaelf with a letter lo the shtfridf. which was not read at 
the time, and Sir Walter found his fnend thn:si bv, la- 
meniinf that he could not get there. * Farewell!* «-x- 
daimed Rawleieh, * I know not what shift von will mike, 
bat I am sure t--* have a place.* In goinf fmm the prison 
to the acaC>ld. among others who were pressing hard to 
MO him, OQ- old man, whone head was ba'd, came very 
forward, insomuch that Rawleiih noticed him, and asked, 
'whether he would have oufht of him?* The oM man 
answoreid, * Nothinf but lo see him. and to pray God for 
him.* Rawleiffh replied, * I thank thee, cood friend, and I 
mm sorry I have no better thins to return thee fir thy good 
will.' (Mxerving his bald head, he con'inued, ' but lake 
this nifht-cap. (which was a verv rich wrought one that he 
wore) for ihou ha-^t more need t)t it now t]ia~n I.' 

His drem, ii,« was usual with him. was el-f ant. if not 
rich. Olilys descnbe^ ir. hut men'ion^, that * he had 
a wroufhi night-cap under hi« hat,* this we have otherwise 
disponed of; he wore a niff-band. a black wrou:!ht velvet 
Btf ht-fown over a hair-coloured satin doublet, and a black 
wn»u<nt waistcoat ; b'ack cut taflety breeches, and ash- 
coloured silk stockings. 

He ascended the scafibid with the same cheerfulness as 
he had passed to it : and observins the lords seated at a 
distance, some at windows, he requested they would ap- 
proach him, a* he wished that ihey shoulif all witness 
what he had to say. The request was complied with by 



His speech is well known ; but siwne cnpies con- 
tain matters not in others. When he finished, he re- 
quested Lord Anindel that the kin 2 would n-*r suffer any 
hbels to defame him af:rr d^'ath— ' And now I have a long 
journey to go, and must take mv leav**.' • H^ embraced 
an the lords and other friend* wnh such courilv comp!i- 
ments, as if he had met th«*m at some fea*:,* sav's a letter- 
writer. Havins taken off hi* 20wn. he ralkd lo'ihe heads- 
man to show him the aie. which not beinf Utstanliy done, 
he repeated. ' I prithee let mc see it. D<»st thou ihink 
that I am afraid of it 7** He pa^tfed the edee lifhtly over 
his finfer, and smiling, observed to the sheriff,* * This is 
a sharp medicine, but a sound cure fi>r all diseases.' and 
kissinc it, laid it down. Another wnter has, ' This is 
that, that will cure all sorrow!*.' After this he went to 
three Mveral comers of the scaffold, and kneelins down, 
^eairod all the people to pray fur him. and reated a long 

Kyer to himself. When he began to fit himself for the 
efc, be first laid himself down to tr^- how the block 
fitted him ; aAer n«ing ud. the execiiMoner kneeled down 
to aak his forpvenes:)! which Rawteifh wuh an embrace 

Kve, but entreated him not to strike nil he vnve a token 
lifiiflg op his hand, * and then, frv not. hut'strike home? 
When he laid his head down to receive the stroke, the ex- 
ecutinoer desired him to lay his face towards the east. 
* It was DO rreat matter which wav a man's head stood* 
eo the heart lay neht.* said Rawleish ; but thejie wtre not 
his la«t words. He was once more to speak in this world 
with the same inirepidity he had lived in it— for, bavins 
lain some minutes on the block in prayer, he gave the sig- 
nal ; but the executioner, fiiher unmindful,' or in fear, 
fiuled to strike, and Rawleif h. after once or twice puitin* 
forth his hands, was comr>elle«l to ask him. * Why doel 
thou not strike? Strike! man.'* In two blows He was 
beheaded : but from the first, hts body never shrunk from 
the spot, by any discomDosure of his' posture, Hhich, like 
hia mind, was immoveable. 

* In all the time he was upon the scaffold, and before. 
■aya one of the manuscript letter-writer*. * then* appeared 
Bot the least alteration in him. either in his voice or coun- 
; bat he seemed as free from ail manner of appre- 

hension as if he had been 

spectator than a aufferer; aaj, 

much more sensible than did be, m> that b« haih amc 
here in the opinioo of men such hntwn mmA reys^ 
It IS thought his greatest enemiit« are thcj ite vt 
sorrowful for his death, which they mm ■ ' 
much to his advantage.* 

The people were deeply affected at ih 
ranch, that one said, that * we had doC sdcL ^ 
to cut off;* and another * wished the head and 

upfjn Secretary NaunioQ*a shoulders.' The 

fcred fur this ; he was a wealthy citizen, aad cteat 
monger, and one who haunted Paul'a Walk. Cos 
was made, aiKl the citizen saromeoed to the priwH 
He pleaded that he intended no disrcapcct to 3ikr 
tary ; but only spoke in reference 10 the oU 

* two heads were better than one V Hm 4 
lowed at ihe moment : but when afterwafda caikd 
contribution to St Paul's cathedral, and having 
a hundred pounds, the Secretarv obe c iee d to 
< two were belter than one, Mr "Wiemarkr 
fear, or charily, the witty dtizea doubled his 

Thus died this glorious and gallant cmealier, ^ 
Osborne says, * Hu death was nunaced bj bn 1 
high and religious a resolution, as if a Roman had 
Christian, or raihera Christian a Roman.* 

After having read the preceding article, 

nished at the greatness, aind the variable nature 
extraordinary roan, and Ibis happy geoius. With 
who once meditated to write hu lue, we aaj 
pronounce * his character is ambiguous ;* but we" 
hesrate to decide, that Rawleigh knew better how »a 
than to live. * His glunuus hours,' save a cuoiempiiv^ 

* were his arraignment and executmn /—but nei — — '' ■" 
forsotten the mlcrmediale years of hu lettered 



An union of talents, differing in their qualitica. wd^ 
carry some important works to a more extended pm» 
tion. In a work of great enterprise, the aid oT a fhotfi 
hand may be absolutely necessary to onmpkie the lahouii 
of the projector, who may have neither die courage, tm 
leisure, our all acquisitions necessary for pa pI:m -m«j r» 
favourite ta>k which he has otherwise maiirrvd. Mv 
gfrat works, commenced by a master genius have 11^ 
mained iintinished, or have been deficient for want «i 1M 
friemlly iiuccuur. The public had been gratefui 10 J<M> 
son, had he united in his dictionary the laboiirs of sc«i 
learned eiymf>logirt. Speed's Chronicle ow«s mcwt ef a 
value, as it doe* its oniam'.-nts. to the hand of Sir Kobsn 
Cotton, and other curious researchern, who coatniMtfd 
entire iHiriioiis. G(>guei*s esteemed work of the * Onfa 
of the Arts and Sciences* was greatly indebted 10 the 6a> 
lernal zeal of a devoted fnend. The still valued books 1^ 
the Pori-ruyal Society were all formed by this hafgv 
union. The secret history of many eminent' works woaik 
show the advantages whicn mav be deri^ from this cash 
lunation of uleuls, differing in their nature. CumberUaifs 
masterly versions of the fragments of the Greek dramane 
(K)ets had never been given to the poetical world, had bs 
not accidentally possessed the roanuscnpt notes of his rf^ 
lative. tne learned Bentley. This treasure supplied that 
research in ihe m***! obscure works, which the volane 
studies of Cumberland could never have explored : a Of^ 
cumstance which he concealed from the world, prood of 
the Greek erudition which he thus cheaply poesesssd. 
Yet by this literary union, Bentley*8 vast erudition madt 
those researches which Cumberland could not : ^imj Cem* 
berland f ave *he nation a copy of the domestic drama tf 
Greece, uf which Bentley was' incapable. 

There is a larse work,' which is still celebrated, of which 
the composition has excited the astonishment even of the 
philosophic Hume, but whose secret history remains vet 
to be disclosed. This extraordinary volume is * The Hia» 
tory of the World, by Rawlei«h'.* I shall tranacnbe 
Hume's observation that the reader may observe the lite^ 
rary phenomenon. * They were stnick'with the 

* TYie rhh*rpsn!rnlsr9 in this narrative are drawn from tna 
marm-rrijii .• tt^r* nf the day, in the S'oanc coliflctien, 
Ihiir res|vftive ilat^*, Nov.' 3, 1618, Larkln 10 Mr 
eriiig; OcL 31, 1618, Chamberlain's kttera 


^■ttibury enlcr^nleli^ And rarjnaui in the purruitt of til^O' 
> iain,nwJi dmtf of thtmoti rtduu and Mdentary iivt*; nod 

< tak« ud rucuw » irni V oork, u hii Hiiiorjr or th« 
WorlJ.' Now when Ihr Iruih i) lii««m, iho woodB/ful in 

ia ttbncaiaf hia awn Ibriiui*, ind in perprluil (mtrprue, 
could alUn ra Mcb crudil* punuiii. Whi^ra could Kai>- 
lci|h obiKln rbil DunilMr ■cquainiincc wiih ths nhbin>,af 
wbuts ltii|[Uua faa wu protMbU rnUrcljr igDorut f Hii 
Bmnanui pubfoatioM, tbr rSlmirxu of iba mMI ulna 
nisi. ihannhriccHeniinihcirliiiii). wtra aTJdenil/ com- 

Dwla inquiriei, hul full of tha diUy buiinan uid iba wii. 
dom of hunuilira. Hia cnnBntmrnt in IhaloKcriwhicb 
Ullrd tTTrral ipui, km Indcfd lulBcicBI for tba compo. 
■iiiun of ihia (olio volumr, and oT a iFcniid nhkh ■[ipnri 

UrW happriiKl tliat ha iiTcif amoiiflilarirv chanctcn, 
wilh the noaliniiinalB rritndiihip. There hr joined ihe 
Earl of KonhvnlbeTland, Ihe paiim of Ihe philoaaphen 
oThia aic, and oiih iihoin Itawlriib puraued hia chemi- 
cal •iwdira: atxl Serjeant Hnfkinii,> imeiand a wit.ind 
IbapDebcal'laihrr'orBeB JnhnHii, who aebnowledfed 
I tlial 'ilwaa Hialiin' •>!>" b>J iv.luhHl bin;' aiul ih>t 

leullad HMkine on bin blcrarj wor 
Kripl. Bui howercr liurtrjitbf 
moinhcra of ib* Tiiwrr proird 10 Rawleifh, do panicle 
of Hrhrew. and perhapa lilllf of Gr"-— ' — ° — * 
from a **bemi»i and a poel. '^'"" — ' 

Jura, flnaicd 
at the c 
Kan Ibe labovr ofi 

(nmribiiioi ; and ihrrs wm in KMli*l> pbibaopber fnin 
whuni DcKanni, ii ■■ hhI, Hen h) hh cm counirrmtn. 
bnnownl larHr— Thomia Harui, sboni Anihoiw Wand 
cbtrtfca vitb inAifinf in'oRawleiffh*! vohime pbiloaophi- 
ral noiioBi, while Rlirleiib wii compnimK hii Hielarrof 
Ihe W'-rld. Bui if Raoleith'a pHmiU mrjmmtl rvn 
tiuttof tfir mati rtrhint an*i tvlmbtnf live*, ap Hume nk^ 

RrclorofN'orlhwald.inlbecaunlviifNorTulk, •rhowaaa 
in-al famurita of Sit Waller Raoleich. and hnd been hia 

Wal»t'> hi-ii^y fntCfiiiciFmii.rhronnlnir. and readinc 
Orn'k and Hebrew aulhoi* vrte performed bv bin. la 
8ir WillFr.'- Thua ■ ninpla faiil, irheB di'irorared, 

knnwledfe waa trqiiired, vrliich an Hune pifieiouilj de- 
tcdvdk required 'a reeluee ami eeriehrary jife.'aurhai ihe 
■liidiea and the haUla would be of » counlrj cleifTmin in 



IhraN-TNirinherlnr br^h.of whkhll haa murb ihr apprPT> 
anre. ?fo.T4j-lf)-A7, HiI*landHin tbeiuninni'er>ea[alofoe. 

r cooled ibcm Ih™ 

naiw r-f Anthnnj Wof-d** iieperi» of wnlrh more than 
mrk full wa" iHiriK ai hia de«ire heliire him, vben dylor. 

<l finhbi w 

-.-„ .--, ., — , ^^InRniTbiid wen emploTtd in 

naklnit hia hinorT : Bm himirir had wrkien a pitca tg blm 
■f Ibe runli- war. wbkh he altered ami en in bh t>ook.> Jon- 
•erll<la<lniealeMrnilIi>nlhaanolalleEedawflr<l bi 

I tltnrj t4 Rawlelcb-a treat work bad neTrr been 
d i on Ihia accaakm, however, Jnnaon only apoke 

M aaj hare cblitly ncsllMUd the laitrlcal 


aid of a frit 

ndlj hand, we 



riied of lh« 

deluhtrul hi.l1 

wyof Am 




hr nice di 

</.«>lT C«» 




■he idea of Ihe work w 


celebrated P 

own »ork 


al occaaim judi- 


ed, no. bill..!. 

d by .be «le 



man who 

projecud it, 

hil ' 11 would 

roqu-e lb 




iheii prnj^r onJer; Ibe alibovgh Jovi 


Iv aceurale in ibe arraiuemenl of biefacii in hiabouk of 
EuloaiunB.' AfuiwarA, when Vaaari beian to eellecl 
hia iolbrmuion, and contulled P.ilua JotimoB ihe plaa, 
alihauijh ihti auihur hifMj approved of what ha nw, ha 
aUe|ed biiowB wanioflriuneandabdiiyioconipleiaiuck 

and ihb w 





int which c 

looked r< 

foe Ihe aaa 

liced I like Hoganb, 

le Hoganb, be require* 

of ihadaaf miter oT 
i^iha Painiera, who vrrste underthe dirtctMOof 
Vaaan, and probably ofim uaed bia owDDMural aiyle, and 
convej'cd 10 ua ihoae refleciim which luraljcone fratB 
Lheir aource. I aball give Ihe pavage, aa a curiuoa is- 
alancB where ihe Mcrei hielorv of buoEi ii oflrn delected 
in ihe m«i obtruro conicra of rcirarch. Who could 
have imafined thai in a colleciion of the livtatft' SatiH t 
Biati diW ordine de' PrediaUri, we are 10 louk fut ihc 
writer of Vaian'a liaea T Dor Serafioi Raw, Ihe author 
of Ibit eccleaiaaiicnl biography, haa ihia reference : ■ Wha 

lera, aciilpinra and archilecia, KriUBt for iMf fttolrr part 
bj) Dm Silrmo Raat, my brolhei, fut Ihe Sinsr Cava- 
liere M. Giorgio Vaaan, hia treat fricnd.'< 

wrilten by hipiaelf, lliough onbablj undoi hia didation, 

know thai DrMornllwroie ihe* Analjiia ofBeauiy'for 

Ua miaiakea or omiHiana which appear in thai «erie» at 
volumea, writien al Ion; inlemla, and by diflrrent baiida. 
Mr Pwcli haa alluded lolhem iBulieraaioniabmraii and 
cannoi account for Vaaari'a ■ incredibla deieliciion af n- 
mmiacence, whteb nrompied him 10 iranafer what be had 

Parma in ihr aubarquent onei.' Again; Vaaari'a ma- 

»».^ —- ^i,L _ .___ I. ._ 1^1^ tapidiiy in wriling 

the Capella Siuin, 

rare, ihai hia accoui 
to of RalTaella. la 

loai 10 acrniinl for 

.Vca. Mr FuaeS 

-, „«, ,<^™ ^_ . Herodocu of eor 

■Dd if Ihe mwa «nip1idi<r of hi> nireatin, aad tba 
■ ofheaping aneedeie 01 ' - 

lome dejnre 10 ihat appellaiion, we ought not Mlbrg 
■hal the uformaiion of every day adda aonetbing la ll 
auibeniiciij id* iha Greek hitiwiin, whibl ever; di 
fumiebea naUer le queaiiunihe credibiNlj oTibe Tbc«i 


- the 


and dw dinjoiated nalcriala of which were oflen tbuncTin > 

It H 

iiari emplnyed olhen 
Kd that Paulua Joviui 

write lor him ; we eee IbaL 
« work he had originally pro. 
■ ahoDid bold ihe pen for bim. 
lied n Ihia ariicle mighi be por* 
ned; bul Ihe lecrel hialorj of Iwo great worka ao well 
known arf aa auffidtnt aa Iwenlj oiben of wiiiingalea* 
eclebraied. The liiemrj pheno '■''^ "-' ''' 


del $eco)u AVIl, da Gievaniie riemenle Ilelll, Luna. Hat,' 
p.9fl. NiriUBlxiiefciiiiowbatbr had laid on Ihia aubjKI bi 

Brcbilccuirc, Sea Brum 

D, Bib. llaLdalAii^«<^ 



lolTed by tbo di^nsovery of a little Tact on liferarj 
which darivea importance from thia circuiiutaoce. 


There ire objecU connected with htenry curiosity, 
which| though they may never gratifjr our tight, yet whose 
wwy hiatunr ii literary ; and the originality of ilieir inven- 
tica, nbould they eicite imitation, may serve to constitute 
A cUss. I notice a book-curionity of this nature. 

This extraordinary volume may be said to have con- 
tained the travels and adventures of Charles Magius, a 
noble Venetian ; and this volume, so precious, consisted 
only of eighteen pages, composed of a scries of hi;:hly. 
finifhed miniature paintings on vellum, some executed by 
the hand of Paul Veronese. Each page, however, may 
be said to contain many chapters ; for, fpenerally, it u 
eomposed of a large centre-piece, surrounded by ten 
■mall ones, with many apt inscriptions, allegories, and al- 
lusions; the whole exhibiting romantic incidents in the 
Kfe of this Venetian nobleman. But it is not merely as a 
beautiful production of art that we are to consider il ; it 
becomes aasociaied with a more elevated feeling in the 
occasion which produced it. The aullior, who is himself 
the hero, after naviiij been long calumniated, resolved to 
■el before the eves oT hbaccusfrs the sufTertnirs and ad- 
▼enturns hecoufd perhaps have but iudifferenily described : 
and instead of composmg a tedious volume for his juBtifi- 
eation, invented this new species of pictorial biography. 
The author minutely described the remarks bic situations 
in which Ibrtune had^ placed him ; and ihe artiitt:!, in em- 
bellishing the facts he furnished them with to record, emu- 
lated each other in giving life to their truth, and putting 
mto action, before the spectator, incidt nts which the |»en 
bad less impressively exhibited. This unique production 
may be conjjerod as a model, to represent the actions of 
tboee who -May succeed more fortunately by this new 
mode of perpetuating their history; discovering, by the 
aid of the peiacil, rather than by their pen, tiie forms and 
colours of an exUaordinary life. 

It was when the Ottomans (obout 1571) attacked the 
Ide of Cyprus, that this Venetian nobleman was charged 
by his republic to review and repair the fjrtifieatioas. He 
was afterwards sent to the Pope to iie^roiiate an allkncc : 
he returned to the senate, to give an account of his com- 
missi'jQ. Invested wiih the chief command, at the head 
of his troops, Magius ihrt^ bhnself inio the island of 
Cyprus, and after a skilful defence, which could not pr«>- 
vent its fall, at Famacusta, he was takrn prisoner by the 
Turks, and made a slave. His age and infirmiiics in- 
duced his master, at length, to sell him to some Christian 
merchaiitii ; and after an absence of several years from 
his beloved Vetiice, he suddenly appeared, lo the astonish- 
ment and moniftcatioQ of a party who had never called 
to calumniate htm ; whilst his own noble family were com- 
pelled to preserve an indignant silence, having ha<l no 
communicatioDt with their lost and enjilaved relative. 
BCagius DOW relumed to vindicate hi* honour, to reinstate 
bioMelf in the favour of the aenare, and to be restorcMi to a 
venerable pafvnt amidst his family : to whom he intro- 
duced a frrsh branch, in a youth of »even years old, ihe 
child of his ousfortunes, who,' born in trouble, and a atran- 
fer to dottesiic endearments, was at one moment united 
to a beknrod circle of relations. 

I shall giv« a rapki view of some of the pictures of this 
Venetiaa nobleman's life. The whole series has been 
•laboraiehr drawn up by the Duke de la Valliere, the ce- 
lebrated bonkHSollector, who dwells on the detail with the 
corioaity of an ainateur.* 

In a rich frontispiece, a Christ is expirin; on the cross 
ReUfion, leaning on a cohimn, contemplates the Divinity, 
and Hopo ia not dislant from her. The irenealogical tree 
oTibe houte of Maims, with an allegorical repre^en'ation 
of VenicOiito nobility, power, and riches: the arms of 
Mafins, hi which is inserted a view of the holy sepulchre 
of Jerusalem. oT which he was trade a knight ; his por- 
trait, with ■ Latin inscription ; ' I have passed through 
arms and the enemy, amidst fire and water, and the Lord 

* The duke*8 description is not to be found, as mifrht be ex- 
pncied. In Mi own valued cauloruc, but was a contribution to 
Oalgnat^s ILI8, where it occupies fuurtern pni^es. This sin> 
cular work wm at Gteifniat's sale for 90i livrrs. It was ibrii 
the gohlr n il| e of iitersry curiosity, when the nimt thinss 
were not roMiiis : and that prire was tven then considered 
•xiraonllnary though the work was an unique, b must con- 
sin of abom IBO subjects, by Itailsn artists. 

conducted me to a safe asylum, in the year of grace I£7I.' 
The portrait of his son, aged seven years, finished wkh 
the greatest beauty, and supposed to have come from the 
hand of Paul Veronese ; it bears this inscription : « Ovei^ 
come bv violence and arufice, almost deud before his birtht 
his mother was at length delivered of him, full of life, with 
ajl the loveliness of infancy ; under the divine proteclionb 
his birth was happy, and his life with greater happineaa 
shall be closed with good fortune.' 

A plan of the islu of Cyprus, where Magiot coounaadcd, 
and his first misfitrtune happened, his slavery by the 
Turkf— The painter has expressed this by an embtem of 
a tree ahaken by the winds and scathed by the lightning; 
but from Ihe trunk issues a beautiful green branch shininf 
in a bnlluni sun, wirh this device—* From this ikilcn tnmE 
springs a branch ftill of vigour.' 

The missions of Mafius to raise troops in the prorines 
of la Pu|;lia — In one or these Magius is seen returning to 
Venice ; his final departure,— a thunderbolt is viewedTall- 
ing on his veasel— his passage by Corfu and Zante, and 
his arrival at Candia. 

His travels to Egypt— The centre figure represents tba 
province raising its right hand extended towarda a pafan- 
iree, and the l^ft leaning on a pyramid, inscribed *Celo- 
braied throughout the world for her wonders.' The smaller 
pictures ore the entrance of Magius into the port of Alex- 
andria; Rosetia, with a caravan of Turks and different 
nations ; the city of Grand Cairo, exterior and interior, 
with views of other places; and finally, his return to Ve- 

His journey to Rome— the centre figure an armed Pal- 
las sealed on lrof>hies, the Tvber beneath her feet, a 
l?lobe in her hand**, inscribed Qtiod rentm vietrix ae dbmrna 
'Because she is the Conqueress end Mi>t/e»s of iho 
World.' The ten small pictures are vief^s of Ihe cities in 
the Pope's dominion. Hi« first siidicnoe at the conclave, 
formH a pleasing sixl fine compoitiiion. 

Hit travels into Syris^he principal figure is a fenialo 
einblemaiical of that fine country ; she is seated in tho 
midst of a ray ord-ard. and embraces a bundle of roses. 
in<cribed Mundi deticitr^* The delight of the univene.' 
The small compartments are views of towns aiid ports, 
and the sjiot where Magius collected his fleet, 

Hi« piifrimase to Jerusalem, where he was made a 
knight of the holy repulchre— the principal figure repre- 
sems Devotion, iuKcnbed Dudt. * It is she who conducts 
me.' The compariroenis exhibit a variety ol objects, with 
a correctness of drawing, which are described as belonging 
lo the class and partaking of the charms, of the pencil of 
Claude Lorraine. His vessel is first viewed in the road- 
stead at Venice beat by a storm ; arrives at 21anie to n» 
fresh ; enters the port of Simiso; there having landed, bo 
and his companions are proceeding to the town on asses, 
ftir Christians were not permitted lo travel in Turkey on 
horset^— Tn the church at Jerusalem the bihhop. in his pon- 
tifical habit, receives him as a knight of the holy sepul- 
chre, arraying him in the armour of Godfrey of Bouillon, 
and placing his »word in the hsmls of Mapiiis. His arri- 
val at Reihlem, to see the cradle of tho Lord— and his ro- 
tnm by Jaffa with his companions, in the dress of piliprims ; 
Ihe groups are finely contrasted with the Turks mingling 
amongst ihem. 

The taking of the citv of Famagusta, and hia alaverr— 
The middle figure, with a dog at its feet, represents "Fi- 
delity, the character of Magius who ever preferred it to 
his life or his freedom, inscribed Capth^ — * She has re- 
duced me to Klavery.' Six smaller pictures exhibit tho 
diflerent potnis of the islsnd of Cyprus, where the Turks 
eflTerted iheir descents. Magius retreating lo Faraagusta, 
which he long defended, and where hbi cousin, a tkilful 
engineer, was killed. The Turks compelled to raise the 
siege, but return with greater forces— the sacking of the 
town and the palace, where Magius was taken.— One 
picture exhibits him brought befiire a bashaw, who haa 
him stripped, to Judge of his strength and fix his price, 
when after examinaiinn be ia sent among other slaves.— 
He is seen bound and tied np among his companions in 
misfi»rtune— again he is forced to labour, and carriea a 
ca*k of watir on his sho«iMrrs.— In anotbsr picture, bis 
master, finding him weak of body, conducts Mm lo a slave 
merchsni to sell him. In snollfpr we sec him leading an 


ass loaded with packages ; his now 



unkini vilh r>ti(ae ca 

uf iha buiiudu. ThsTahcddsuldiribaa 
1^1 mrft frieafinfly Axsculad. 
B uT hii iltTsrT — Tbe miiMls figun koHliDf to 

* - --- Tb. 

' tg Bipren ihx eonliilunce of Muiut. T 
Heo ludinit "iih Iboir piUigs ind Ihiir iIbti 

of Ctptui pnfoirin^ doftih la ins 1o« of bar 

Hi ia ohich ihc ou urriw) ; ihB lucccttlid. 

Da GnniBUnkklad lo uulhgc. 

ira to Vwiin— "nia paiaier Tor hit pniici|Ml 

a ■m, (ad bar kuin in th« oilier, tn daKribe 
li whidi Muiui had npponKl hi* niafbr- 
Raiial—' Sha bruii ow Iwcli.' In iha 

ma ha ■ Mca ai Ibe cuatom-hoiua 

ttaa houaafhii faihar; Iheoldiiiui 
DMat mn, and aabimMa him. 
a t* BUhI b]P a ainila pictun, wlucS rtprtienu 
of Vantee, mlb uie Doco on hii ihrone ; Mi- 
ila aa accooot oThia dilfunDi aa^itorment*, and 

Ai« wlijti you coDimiilvd ID my cara ; iLnd 1 will 
ilh iha ■amfl fiilvlii^ wh^t TflmiinB la be dnne.* 
irod hj [faa Knaie wiih iha mosl dnrin^Uhrd 
id Hiiotnii1jjiiiiiilied,hut praii«d aDdhonourrd. 
11 maEnificeni of ihosc piiniinn u ihv one ai- 
Paul Veronrge. Il !• dHcribed bjr the Duks 

' falhcr and mi hrolhen ibandnoBd ma; W 

^tb> Turl 

ook (ha jbIb of Cypnu, aod hii 
cnnfidonca or (ha cmirafa to da- 

; hii hand taoMi Ihia icroll, y«, arilmbMl 
: Md Dnii oHKrU ilhid ia bmam--' Yc 
of me; bill Lhs Lord haa turned h to JZnod.' 1 

had decreed him. AnniherKcej 

cd, where MaEiuK aD| 

: on bii left ban 
a erwl, and ma| 

lii ruber, mwhic 
the ronT, u iffroi 
ipe pnbabiT n 
■»'• eariT daj 

nT-ilh'an e^anlin 
led, with Iha Tilli oTI 

irapcctire Iha landaci 
ifhbourhood of Hatfiua*! earlj dan. 
DOM imernling inridenu which I hare 
cofilotii deicnpliwi dT Iha Djka da Ir 
lea u now oT Ihia production, an aura 
■ea of reniarkablB stenea, painted unda 

of the noblf Maihu, and ihe ron 
imi thia alaborate and cotUy curiae 
wiihiHil ioma irnubig that 1 biTs di 
nt; but while ihiit emtiloTed, I ai 

imporiant principle in momli and in poTitio, nni 

b^ ihii meani lo diiiinpiieh betwnrn tba eoni 
Ihe oilenfible, molive. On Ihii principle hi*. 

ihe cErcHMUl'niflat and eJaruettn mm Ihev uaually 
Vhrn we nniuke tba characlara of men, we 
e nature oTthair ■elioaa, and we ahall find in Ihe 

prodDcnl frifm verv diffirr- 
iUa onea. Pelyhiii), tba 

waflhaueiniia, h«i marksd oat 

M af tmmi and fnun, and apily illui. 
"^ ^ Iks fcna wfaicta b* eiplaina. 

theaeeand Panic war,ibouf[h hndied tan yeinbtiBinlb* 

frnva bialorian, ^ vlw knowinoiliow [olraca ibe orifbaoT 

■aba their 

iieaUed u 
betlar employed ihan ^ 

fur the moat trifling ineidanla |ire binh lo maltera of lb 
freatait moment and impiiflADce.' Tba latlar part af thia 
remark of Pol jbuiB poiala out aaoCher principle wbkh bu 
been ofiea aerified bf hiatorji and which furniihed Iha 
..,- ,.-.,- of iQruj, EisHmcna par im 


d an aliiance of the wvereigni oTCbn^ 
IB Turki. The arowed o^ecl waa Is 
oppoae Ibe prognaa of ibe Otloouna aiaioat Iha Mua^ 
lukei of Egypt, wba wera more friendly to Ibu CtaniUaiiai 
but the concealed niative wiih bia boLoeia wu to eniidi 
binuelf and hia Tiniily wiih the ipoiln of Chrivendom, aad 
ta (ggrudiaa Ihe papal ihiooe by war; aod auch indead. 
Ihe policy of Ibeie poaiiffi had aJwayi been in Iboae mi 
cniaadei which ihey eidted agaioil the Eaat. 

The RBfonnalion, eicellenl ai ita reaulta hare pnfad 
in the ouae of fenaine freedum, orij{inaiad in do purar 
aource liivi human paceioa aod Bemab oiolifea : it waa dw 
progeny of aririce id Grrmany, of niiaally ia France, and 
of loTB in Eniland. The laiter ia eleaanily alludad in bj 

> And piapal-liebl flra beam-d froni auUin'a lyia.' 
The ReTormauon la cwaidered by Iha Duke of Nenn ia 
a work printed in lASO, aa it had Van by Fnoda I in hia 
apology in 1S3T, ae ■ enifi d'Hal of CharUa V, Urnnk 
uniraraal moaardiy. Tho duke aaya, ihai iba Enpenr 
iilenily HnniUedLudwrioeaUhliahbia principLaa in Qar* 
many, Ihal IJhj BUffal aplil Iba confederacy of tb* alaai** 
priocea, and bjr ihia diaiaioa bciliinia their more eaajono* 
qeral, and play Ibem offone uainal another, aad by Ibaaa 

bouae of Auaina, Had Clwrlei V not been the mere ere^ 

Uireof biapdiiiea, andhad he fell any teal for Ihe Caiho> 
lie cuiaa, wfakh be pretended lo fight fin-, nerer wookt he 

Iwenty yeara without the leaal oppoeition. 

The Iimoua league in France waa raiaed for ' rali|ion 
and Ihe relief of public griaTancet / aucfa waa the pr»- 
teil ! After the ptincea and the psaple had alike becomo 
ita Tictimi, Ihii 'league' waa diecoieml lo hare baao 
fiirmad by ihe pride and the anbition of Ihe Gulaea, aided 

Z' ihe maehinaliooB of Ihe Jeauiii againai the atlampu aT 
1 Pruice of Cnnd^ to diilodgo iheu rrooi ibwr ■ aaM af 
power.' While Ihe Huguenotn pilligud, bunt, ud bum- 
ored; deeltring in iheir minirmoea, ih«i Ihey warn <nl^ 
fighimg IB re&at tAi king, whom ihey aaaenod wia ■ pn* 
Bcwer of Ihe Guiiu ; the caiholiea repaid them iritli Iba 
tame peraeeulinn and iha lanie nianifeainea, dedinig IbU 
Ihay only wiahed (e libtnde ilu Primrt af Oti^, who waa 
Ihe priMOer nf ibe Huinieuoia. The people war* M n 

BJiiy aomuch CaTbntic againai Huguenot, aaGyweaAiHl 
Condi. A pirallelereni occuned beiweea ourCEnlaa 

which he dumoaatrmied by 

a renlutionary party in Francr 

of JVoadran, ihoak thai kingdi 

lion of Can^nal Maiarine. and hrld out for Ibeir pnust 

the public rrerdom. Bui ihat factica, eompoaad ef nam 

of tbe diaeoiunled French princea and ibe nob, wu ••• 

lirdy organtied by Cardinal Dt Reii, who held Iboi ia 

band, to check or to ipur them aa the occaiaan reqair«d, 

IreB a mere pemnal pique againet Manrine, win baa 

net trraied that (iTaooua geniuf wiib all the deAraaea b* 

aiacted. Tbia appear* from hia own memoin. 

We haT* BDuInd ai Jamea I threatening Ihe alata^ 
(inenl by the Engliah ambaaiiadar. aboui Tonriia, a 
Dulcb pnifeawiT, who had aapouaad Iha docninaa of A^ 

ti^ya>eal4*lifiaai dnettiiaea, but the onceaiaid oa* wa* a 

■tniKf^ ibr pndoaiiiiaiico between the Penuonary Bane* 
Teh, aMistra bj the French inieresi, and the Pnnce of 
Orange, supported bj ihe English. * These wrre the real 
■ource*,' fays Lord tiardwicke, a sta'.ecman aiid a inaii of 
letiera, deeply conversant with secret and public hUtory, 
and a far more able judge than Diodati the owus Divine, 
and Brandt the ecclesiastical historian, who in the symid 
of Dori could see nothing but what appeared in it ;' and 
gravely narrate the iJle squabbles on phrases concerning 
predetfiioation ur grace. Hales, of Laion, who was ye- 
cretary to the English ambasrador at this synod, perfectly 
accords with the account of Lord Hardwickr. * Our sy- 
nod,* wntes that judicious observer. * goes on like a waich ; 
the main wheels upon which the lihole business turns arn 
Ii^ast HI si^ht; fur ail things of ntomontare aciea inpriraiA 
sessions ; w/utt it tlone in pmUie is only for ^u»v and tnier' 

The cause of the persecution of the Jansrnists was the 
jealousy uf the Jesuits ; the preUxt was to grace tufimnU. 
The learned La Cruze observes, that ilie sanie circum- 
stance occurred in the affair of Nestorius and the church of 
Alexandria ; the pretext was orthodoxy, the cause was the 
jealousy of the church of Alexandria ; or rather tUv. 6ery 
and turbulent Cvnl, who personally haled Nestorius. 
The opinions ct Nestorius, and the council which con- 
demned them, were the same in effect. 1 only produce 
this remote fact to prove that ancient timet do not alter the 
the truih of our pnnciple. 

When James II was so strenuous an advocate for fofe* 
ration and Ubfrtif of eonsciencr in removing the test act, 
this enlif hlened principle of government was only a yrc 
fuf with that HfOnk-ridden monarch ; it is well known that 
the enHe was lo introduce and make the catliolics predom- 
inant in his counals ami government. The result, which 
that eager ami blind politir^ian hurried on too fasr, and 
which therefore did not take place, would have been, that 
< hberty of conscience' would soon have become an * overt 
act of treason,' bef«>re an inquisition of his Jesuits ! 

In all political affairs dr 'p the pretexis and strike at the 
coKses ; we may ih»« understand what the beads of parties 
may choose to rxmceal. 


A writer whona learning gives value to his eloquence, 
in his Hampton Lncunres has cenvured, with that liberal 
spirit so friendly lo the cause of truth, the calumnies and 
rumours of parties, whidi are still industriously retailed, 
though they have been oTien confuted. Forged docu- 
ments are still referred to, or tales unsupported by evi- 
dence are conSdently quoted. Mr Hcber's subject con- 
fined his inquiries to theological history; he has told 
US that * Augustine is not ashamed, in 'his dispute with 
Faustus, to take advantage of the popular slanders sgainst 
the followers nf Manes, though his own experience, fur 
he had himself been of that sect, was sufficient to de- 
tect this falsehood.' The Romanists, in spite of satis- 
factory answers, have continued to urge against the 
English proteslant the romance of Parker's consecration ; 
wfaUe the prolcstant persists m falsely imputing to the 
eaiboKc public formularies, the systematic omission of the 
~ commandment. * The calumnies of Riroius and 


Siinstra against the Moravian brethren are cases in point,' 
continues Mr Heber. ' No one now believes them, yet 
tbey once could deceive even Warburton!' We niay 
also add the obsolete calumnv of Jews crucify ins boys— of 
which a monument raised lollugh of Lincoln perpetuates 
the memory, and which a modem historian records with- 
out any scrapie of doubt ; scvei al authorities, which are 
cited on this occasion, amount only to the single one of 
Matthew Paris, who gives it as a popular rumour. Such 
accusatioos usually happened when the Jews were too rich 
and the king was too poiir ! 

The falsehoods and forgeries raised by parties are orer- 
whelming ! It stanles a philosopher, in the calm of his 
fltndy, when he discovers bow writers, who, we may prc» 
■uine, are searchers after truth, should, in fact, turn out to 
be searchers afler the grossest fiction?. This alters the 
habits of the literary man : it is an unnatural depravity of 
his pursuit*— and it proves that the personal is too apt to 
predominate over the literary character. 

I have already touched on the main point of the pre- 
MQt article in the one on * Political Nick-names.' I have 
there shown how political calumny appears to have 
beao reduced into an art ; one of its braadies would- e 

thit of converting fa r gc i k« and 


When one nation is at war 
doubi that I he two govemmeMa 
courage the most atrocious libels oa ej 
den the people to preserve ih«n- 

tribute cneerfully to the expenses of 

and England formerly complained of Hoih 
mans employed the same policy acviDbl ih 
and Persians. Such is ihe origin of a vast 
pusiiitious papers and volumes, which ram 
mole date, confound the labours of ifae li 
and too often serve the purposes of the 
whom they become auilHinties. The c 
cious libels which «» ere drawn oot •€ ih 
Cromwetrs lime against James the First k 
the cliaracter of thai monarch, jr t are now 
to by )>arty writers, though in' ihrir ow« c 
obs«jlete and doubtful. During ihe cini i 
the First, such spurious •Kicuments exvt 
speeches which were never vpoken ; of let 
ten by the names subscribed ; priute^l dr 
declared ; baitifes never fought, aitd vicfom 
ed ! Such IS tlie laucuage of Rushworth, 
of this evil spirit of party-^gerics, whUr b 
|»ected of having resdiided or suppressd 
not agreeable to bis patron C root well, j 
p< rhaps, a necessary list might be drawi 
forgeries of our own, which have been •on 
to as genuine, but which are the invent ion 
tirisis! Bayle ingeniously <»bserves, that 
every century such productions should I 
skilful discriminator, to save ihe future i 
rors he can hardiT avoid. * Hnw uianT i 
error by the satires of the sixteenth ce 
of the present age will be no less acuve m 
they wiii siill b« preserved in public hbrar 
The art and skill with which some ha 
forged narrative, render its detection a 
When young Ma it land, the brother to the 
der to palliate the crime of the assaasinaiii 
Murray, was employed to draw up a preir 
between him, Knox, and others, to siigmai 
odium of advising to dethrone the vounv i 
subrtilule the regent for their sovereign, 
duced so dramatic a performance, bv pv 
son his peculiar mode of expression, th all] 
long bajffled the incredulity if those wl 
consequence deny the truth of a narrain 
correct in its particulars ! * The ficiKNii 
pan, ciK'losing the voung Pretender, broc 
rents to the cause of the Whigs than the 
observes Lord John Russell. 

Among such party narratives, the ho 
bloody Colonel Kirk, has been worked un 
all his eloquence and pathos ; and, frotn its 
picion has arisen of its truth. Yet, so fa 
Kirk, or the reif n of James the Secorwl, < 
history, it is, as Ritson too honestly eTp!r« 

Sudent and a barefaced lie !' The' siinp!< 
Ltimet in a few words : he probablv m as i 
ture of this political fiction. Huat«> was d 
self the fabricator of the tale ; but he had 
cal authortiy. The origin of this fable i 

Eious fraud of the Whis party, to whom Ki 
imsclf odious; at that moment stories stj 
ins were greedily swallowed, and which 
ates, have become a part of the history of' 
original story, related more circumstamia 
more affect inely, nor perhaps more trulr. i 
Wanley's • Wonders of the Little WorWl ' 
relieving it frfim the tediousness of old W 
A govermv of Zealand, under the boU 

Endy, had in vain sought to seduce the a 
autiful wife of a citizen. The covema 
husband on an accusation of treason • 
wife appeared as the suppliant, th*<t »ot« 
brief eloquence, succeeded as a lover, q 
her husband's life couki only be tcpared 
ance. The woman, in tears and in ar 
without a hope of vengeance only delave 
our ! Pointing to the prison, the governor i 
seek your husband, enter there,~and take 

• Book m, ch. 89, asc 19 



f The wife, in the bitterneM of her thoughts, ret 
ol without the coiuolatioo that she had snatched her 

from ihe grave, pasted intu the pritoD ; there in 

eell, t> her aslonishmeni and horror, khe beheld the 

pM of her husband laid out in a coflin, ready for burial ! 

iouming over ii, she at lensth returned to ihc governor, 

mimw^y exclaiming, ' You have kept your word ! you have 

r rwiored to me my husband ! and be asHured the favtiur 

^aU be repaid!* The inhuman villain, terrified in the 

■^^ a rw ence of his intrepid victim, attempted to appease her 
-MBgeance, and more, to win her to his wishes. Retum- 
'~if onme, she assembled her friends, revealed her whole 
orjt and under their protection, she appealed to Charles 
B«»!d, a strict lover of justice, and who now awarded 
^ .A nngular but an exemplary catastrophe. The duke first 
Banded that the criminal governor should instantly 
y the woman whom he had made a widow, and at 
Mme time sign his will, with a clause importing, that 
U he die before his lady he constituted her his heiress. 
.rf^kJI this was concealed from both sides, rather to satisfy 
duke than the parties themselves. This done, the 


^A^unhmppy woman was dismissed alone! The governor 
gg ^vaa conducted to the prison to suffer the same death he 
as laad inflicted on the Jinsband of his wif* ; and when this 
^ %mdy was desired once more to enter the prison, she be- 
^ lield her second husband headless in his coffin as she had 
lier first ! Such extraordinary incidenis in so short a pe- 
^ siod overpowered the feeble ' frame of the sufferer; she 
^ diffd^eaving a son, who inherited the rich accession of 
wu^ fortune so &tally obtained by his injured and suffering 

Such is the tale of which the party story of Kirk ap- 
to Ritson to have been a re/aenmento ; but it is 
rather the foundation than the superstructure. This 
flriiie was nght in the main, but not by the by ; in the 
gMieral, not in the particular. It was not necessary to 
point out the present source, when so many others of a 
Mrmllel nature exist. This tale, universally told, Mr 
Douce cmsiders ai the orijin of * Measure for Measure,' 
•nd was probably some traditional event ; for it appears 
■Hnetimei with a change of names and places, without any 
of incident. It always turns on a soldier, a brother, or a 
husband executed ; and a wife, or sister, a deceived victim, 
lo save thf^m from death. It was, therefurc, easily trans- 
ftried to Kirk, and Pomfret's poem nf * Cruelly and Lust' 
long made the story (>opular. It could only have been in 
this form that it reacbea the hi^tiirian, who, it must be ol>- 
■erved, intro luces it as a ' story common/y told of him;' 
but popular traffic romances should not enter into the dusty 
documents of a history of England, and much less be par- 
ticularly !(|iecified in the index ! Bf-llefitrest, in his old ver- 
non of the tale, has given the circumstance of * the Cap- 
tain, who having seduced the wife under the promise to 
save her husband's life, exhibited him soon afterwards 
timufh the winduvD of her apartment sutpended on a gih- 
Acf.' Thi4 forms the horrid incident in the history of* the 
bloody Colonel,' and iirved the purpose of a party, who 
wished lo bury him in oilium. Kirk was a soldier of for- 
tune, and a loo^e liver, and a great blusterer, who would 
•oroelimes threaten to decimate his own regiment : but is 
■aid to have forgotten the menace the next day. Hateful 
as such military men will always be, in the present instance 
Colonel Kirk na« been shamefully calumnia'ed by poets 
and historians, who suffer themselves to bo dupeif by the 
forgeries of political parties ! 

While we are detecting a source of error into which the 
party feelings of modem historians may lead them, let us 
confess that they are far more valuable than the ancient ; 
lor to Uji, at least, the ancients have written history with- 
out producing auihori'ies ! Mod*irn historians miist fur- 
nish their readers with the truest means to become their 
critics, by providing them with their authorities ; and it is 
only by judiciously appreciating these that we may con- 
fidently accept tbeir discoveries. Unquestionably the an- 
cinnti have often introduced into their histories many tales 
similar to the story of Kirk p opular or parly forgeries! 
The mellifluous copiousness of Livy conceals many a tale 
of wonder; the shaver of Tacitus e'ches many a fatal 
stroke ; and the secret history of Suetonius too ofien- 
raises a suspicion of those whispers, Quid rex in aurem 
regina dixerity quid Jwtofalmlata tit cum Jow. It is cer- 
tain that Plutarch has often fold, and varied too in the te)- 
ing, the same stor^, which he has applied to different 
A critic m the Biiioaian style has said of the 



Sive Plutarch, Mendax Uk PbttarthMM ^i nim < 
is H erraribut oonsutos, oUm amacnhitiavit.* * That 
lying Plutarch, who formerly scnbblod the Uvea of the 
orators, made up of falsities and blunders ! There is in 
Italian a scarce book, of a better design than execution, 
of the Ahbate Lancellotti, FarfaUoni degU atUuhi hi»» 
tariei,—* Flim-flams of tbe ancients.* Modem historians 
have 10 dispute their passage to inmiortality step by step ; 
and however fervid be their eloquence, their real test as to 
value, must be brought to Ihe humble references in their 
margin. Yet these must not terminate our inquiries ; for 
in tracing a story to its original source, we shall find that 
fictions have been sometimes grafled on truths or hear- 
says, and to separate them as they appeared in their first 
stage, is the pride and glory of learned criticism. 


A people denied the freedom of siieech or of writinfy 
have usually left some memorials of their feelings in that 
silent language whicli addresses itself to the eye. Many 
ingenious inventions have been contrived, to give vent to 
their suppressed indignation. The voluminous grievance 
which they couki not trust to the voice or the pen, the/ 
have carved in wood, or sculptured on stone ; and have 
sometimes even facetiously concealed their satire among 
the playful ornaments, designed to amuse those of whom 
ihey so fruitlessly complained ! Such monuments of the 
suppressed feelings of the multitude are not often inspected 
by the historian— their minuteness escapes all eyes but 
those of the philosophical aniK^uary ; nor are these satiri- 
cal appearances always considered as grave authorities, 
which unquestionably they will be found to he by a close 
observer of human nature. An entertaining history of the 
modes of thmkinc, or the discontents of a fieople, drawn 
from such disperstsd efforts in every era, would cast a new 
light of secret history over many dark intervals. 

Did we possess a secret history of the Saturnalia, it 
would doubtless have afforded some materials fw the pre- 
sent article. In those revelii of venerable radicalism, when 
the senate was closed, and the PHeus^ or cap of liberty, was 
triumphantly worn, all things assumed an appearance con- 
trary to what they were ; and human nature, as well as 
human laws, might be said to have been parodied. Among 
so many whimsical regulations in favour of the licentious 
rabble, there was one which forbad the circulation of mo- 
ney ; if any one offered the coin of the stale, it was to be 
condemned as an act of madness, and the man was brought 
to his senses by a penitential fast for that day. An inge- 
nious French antiquary seems to have discovered a class 
of wretched medals, cast in lead or copper, which formed 
the circulating medium of these mob Lords, who, to ridi- 
cule the idea of money, used the basest metals, stamping 
them with grotesque figures or odd devices, — such as a 
sow ; a chimerical bird ; an imperator in his car, with a 
monkey behind him ; or an old woman's head, Acca Aoic- 
renHaj either the traditional old nurse of Romulus, or an 
old courtesan of thn same name, who bequeathed the fruits 
of her labours to the Roman people ! As all things were 
done in mockery, this base metal is stamped with s. c, to 
ridicule the tenatui contultOy which our antiquary happily 
explains,! in Ihe true spirit of this government of mockeij, 
Satumalium cowmltOy agreeing with the legend of the re- 
verse, inscribed in the midst of four foA', or hones, whidi 
they used as dice, Qut ludit arram det, quiod aatia titr^ Lrt 
them who play give a pledge, which will be sufficient.' 
This mock money served not only as an expression of tl^ 
native irony of the radical gentry of Rome during their 
festival, but had they spoken their mind nut, meant a ri- 
dicule of money itself; for these citizens of equality have 
always imagined that society might proceed without this 
contrivance of- a medium which served to represent pro- 
perty, in which they themeelves must so little partidpate. 

A period so glorious for exhibiting the suppressed sen- 

*■ Taylor, Annot. od Lysiam 

t BAudeInc de Dairvaf de \* Utility dee Voyages, IF, 045. 
There Is a wnrk, by Ficoroni on these lead coins or Tickets. 
Thry are found in the cabinets of the curious me lalliiL 
Pinkerton, referring to this entertaining work, rrgretn that 
* Such ciiriourt remains have almost escaped the notice of 
me«laliirts, and hare not yet been ranire<i in one cisss, or 
named. A sficcial work on ihem would be htsrhly accepta- 
ble.' The lime has perhaps arrived when antiquaries may 
becin to k>e phiktsophers, siid philosophers antkiuiiries ! The 
iinhapiiy neparaiiwi of erudition from philosophy, and of phi. 
losopny from erudition, haa hitherto thrown impediroenis im 
the progress of the human mind, and the biaiory of man. 


%BeBts of the populace, w were these SahmtaUa, had 
heen nearlT lost for us, had not some Dotioiw been pre> 
Mrred by Lucian ; for we |lean bui sparingly from the 
soleiDn psces of the hutonan, eicept lo the remarkable 
anstance which Suetonius has preserred of the arch>mime 
who followed the body of the Emperor Vespasian at his 
funeral. This officer', as well as a similar one, who ac- 
conpanied the seneral to whom they eraiiied a triumph, 
and who was allowed the unrestrained licentiousness of 
his tongue, wtrre both the organs of poptilar feeling, and 
studied to gratify the rabble, who were their real masters. 
On this occasion the arch-mime, representing both the ex- 
terior penona^ and the character of Vespasian, arcord- 
iog to custom, inquired the expense of the funeral ? He 
was answered, * ten millions or sesterces !' In alIu:iion to 
the love of mon«v which characterized the emperor, his 
mock representative exclaimed, * Give me the money, anii, 
if you wiU, throw mv budy into the Tiber !' 

All those mock ot)ici*9 and fesiivali amons; the ancients, 
I consider as organs of the suppressed opinioas and feel- 
ings of the populace, who were allowed no o:her, and had 
not the means of the printing ates to leave any permanent 
records. Ala later period, Ik'fore the discovery of the 
art, which multiplies, with such facility, libel.4 or panegy- 
rics; when the people could not speak freely against thijse 
rapacious clcrcy, who sheared the fleece ancl cared not for 
the sheep, many a secret of popular indication was con- 
fided not to books (fur they could noi read) but lo pic- 
tures and seulpMires, which are books which the people can 
always read. The sculptors and illuminators ol' those times, 
DO doubt shared in comravxi the popular feelinss, and bold- 
ly trusted to the paintings or the canini^s which met the 
eyes of iheir luxunous uid iiklnlent masters their «aiirical 
mventioos. As far back as in 1300, we find in Wolfius* 
the description of a picture of thL* kind, in a MS. of 
^sop*s Fables, found in the Abbey of Fulda, among other 
emblems of the corrupt lives of the churchmen. The 
present was a wolf, large as life, wearing a monkiUi cowl, 
with a shaven crown, preaching to a flock of sheep, with 
these words of the afiostle iu a label from his mouth.— 
* God is my witness how I long for vou all in my bowels !* 
And underneath was inxcribed, — * This h^Miied wolf is the 
hypocrite of whom it is said in the Gospel. ** Beware of 
fiilse prophets !" * Such exhibitions were often introduced 
into articles of furniture. A cushion wai found in an o'd 
abbey, in which was worked a fox preaching to geese, 
•ach goose holding in his bill hia praving beads ! In the 
stone wall, and nn th«i oohmms of tlie gr^at church at 
Strasburg was once viewed a mmber of wolves, bears, 
foxes, and other mischievous animals carr}-ing holy-water, 
cm ufixes, and tapers ; and othf>rs more indelicate.' These, 
probably as old as the year 1300, were engraven in 1G17, 
by a proieslant : and were not destroyed till 16B6, by the 
pious rage of the catholics, who seemed a*, jenielii lo have 
rightly construed these silent lampoons ; and in their turn 
broke to pieces the protestant images as the others had 
done the papistical dolls. The carved seats and sialU in 
oar own cathedrals exhibit stibjects, not only strange and 
satirical, but even indecent. At the time they built church- 
es thev satirized the ministers; a curious instance how 
the foeiings of the people struggle to find a vent. It i^ 
eoQJectured that rival orders satirized each other, and that 
some of the carvings arc caricatures of certain monkfi. 
TbA margins of iltuminate>l manuscripts frequently contain 
infenious caricature!*, or satirical allegories. In a mag- 
nificent chronicle of Proissari I observed several. A wolf, 
as tisual, in a monk's frock and cowl, streiching hi« paw to 
bless a cock, bendinz irs head subniissivelv to the wolf; or 
a fox with a crmier, dropping bead a. whirfi a cock is pick- 
ing up; to satirize the blind devoiion of the bigots: per- 
haps the figure of the cock alluded to our Gallic neiEb- 
bours. A eat in the habit of a nun, holding a platter in 
its paws to a mouse approaching to lick it ; alluding to the 
allurements of the abbesses to draw young women into 
ihetr convents; while somstimes I have seen a sow in an 
abbess's veil, mounted on stilts ; the sex marked by the 
sow's dugs. A pope sometimes appears to be thrust by 
devils into a caldron : and cardinals are seen roasting on 
spits ! These omamenta must have been generally execu- 
ted by monks themselves ; hut these more ingenioos mem> 
bets of the ecclesiastical order appear lo have srmpa- 
diixed with the people, like thf curates in oar church, and 
smied the pampered abbot and the porple bishop. Chnrcb- 
* LecL Mem. I, ad. an. IMi. 



men were the usual objects of tbe 
of the people in those days; but die 'kaifhis 
lords have not always escaped fraos the * ( 
but deep,' of their satirica! peoeil*. 

As the Reformation, or rather the 
tening, this custom beeone so ^u e in l, ikni ■ §m tf nl 
dialogues of Firasmus, where two Fi 
tained by their bust, it appears that i 
tions were hung up as common fliniitiB« in Ikr 
of inns. The facetious genius oT! 
or describes one which he had seen c^ na ape ■ itei 
of a Franciscan sitting by a sick man's bed,i~ 
ghostiv counsel, holding up a crucifix in oae hsM»^ 
with tKe other be is filching a purse out of ibe aca M^ 
pocket. Such are * the straws* bv which we ^vaas 
observe from what comer the wind riscsr * Mr D^b 
recently informed us, that Geylcr, wh'jsn he atf a 
herald of the Reformation,' precedio j L.iiiher hv *■ 
vears, had a stone chair or pulpit in ihe cathedral's Sin 1 
burg, from which he dchvered his led area, or raAan^ | 
the thunders of his anathemas afainst the bh^s. b * 
stone pulpit was constructed under hia <Mra ssyn^ - 
dcnce, and is covered with verr indeceni ficarassf^ ; 

and nuns, expresMv designed by hioaio 

ligaie manners. We see Geyler duukg what fir i 
had been done ! 

In the curi'ius folias of Sauval, the St< 

there is a ccifiioiis chapter eniitlrd • Seretk^ . 

tat*.* In this enumeration of their attempcn in gia M 
to lh<>tr suripressed indignation, it n very r< iniihskn B 
prrcedtJif the time of iMthtr^ the minds 'ofmaav wiap 
iectly Luthtran respecting the ido'airous wonha rf > 
Ronian rliurch ; and what I now notice would has* r^ 
entered into that significant Hutoria Hefitnmaiimmm^h 
formntionan^ which was formerly projected bj catf^fli 
writers. ' , 

Luther did not consign the pnpe^ decretals lotfafav I 

till 1520 — was the first open act cif rda 

insurrection, for hitherto he had suboiitted to the 
Rome. Yet in 1490, thirty years precc 
event, I find a priest burnt lor having; anau 
derision from the hands of another ce) ^ 
Twelve years afterwards, 15(^2, a student 
same deeil, trampling on it ; and in 1^3 thi 

of Anne de Buurg, a counsellor in the pariiai 

to use the expression of Sauval. * corrupted the w^vid.' & 
IS evident that the Huguenvs were Gut oa the lam^ 
From that period I fiiid continued accocune whieb pai the Hugueno*8 of Prance, like the Puritans ef& 
land, wer^ mo.«l refcMute iconoclasts. They atr 
heads of Virsins and iiitle Jesuses, or blimted 

gers by chipping the wooden saints, which 

at tlie comers of streets. Every morniaa disanwari W 
srandalous treatment they had underfsoiir la the h^ 
Then their images were painted on the waUa. bai ^gm 
were heretically scratched and disfigured ; aad Mot ^ 
saints could not defend themselves, a rojal edict was s^ 
lished in their favour, commanding that all holr pnaisji 
in the streets should not be allowed short oT tea fovcta 
the ground ! Thev entered churches at nicfat i^arac V 
or breaking down the fmons, the Aenitovvs, the ciac^ia 
the colo^al rree-Aomos, which they did not alwavs wmeud 
in dislodging for want of time or tods. Amidst* these ba^ 
ties with wooden adversaries, we may snule at ibe fi«» 
quent soietun processions instituted to ward off the f«fr 
geanec of the parish saint; the wooden was expiated bra 
silver image, secured by iron bars, and atteaded bv ifet 
kmg and ih<s nobiiiiy, carrying the new saint, with snsai 
that he would protect himself from the heretics! * 

In the early period of the RtformaticKi, aa iasfaaossc^ 
curs of the aft of concealing what we wiah oaly tbe fce 
should comprehend, at tbe same time that wa are 
sing the public. Curious collectors are at 
* Tlie Olivetan Bible :' thu was the first ti 

lished by the protestants, and there 

Calvin was the chief, if not the only translator- bat at Atf 
moment not choosing to bocorae responsible iv this wtm 
version, he made use of the name of an nbatuie rvdslitib 
Robert Pierre Olivetan. Calvin, however, prellAjJ 1 
Latin preface, remarkable for delivering posiiioaisverTi^ 
posite to those tremendous doctrines of abaohite puAwn 
nation, which in his theological deniotiaai be alwrwarih 
assumed. De Bure describes this nrst pnilannni BWs 
not only as rare, but when feond as iisimBj 


•d, u (hs walUratd fintcdiiia 
I sBiMpun, tj in* pwpMuil lua at Lhc muliiiudi 
Efai ■ cunooi bet hu ocued ibe dMHaioa boih oT D 
Bonwd Btbai tl lb* tul of the Tdunu ug round Ic 
tmm. vbiek, in ■ mkhM nuuier, (uitacDiicile ill 

oM, caaM poiHUy (iHpcct. Tha hth* ain bM paatin 
IM I fn iha bM Moltnos i 

■kia tU dlinuii Bibta >m iddraned. 
L« Vuidoii, p(if|da uTiiiRilqiia 

Aa aMgnn htd beeo too inanificiit ■ GOBiiinDce to 
tan ■■■wariid lb* parpaH of coocraliDf (ran lbs world 
KbicohiamrM. Than i. » .drtHUicB b iha invan- 
»«■* *« aiiiial UtUnnT dl iha worIi ihruigh Ihaia im 

— >* M^McM tf ujr pmoa hdI butmclKl wiih ih* 

Tho ■(• of Eliubelh, obao Iba Rom— 

iUUlhcicDIi Kcra odiouilo Iha piHipIc pmducpdara- 
MAible unciiura, ui laaenHiui uraalum— ■ nrtoD'a 
If ad I A chuich bell furou Iha bilmel j tha ornuiniti, a. 

with ipecUdai reidiu, 

ir (or tha ai^a, and other 
]ar ud brawt. Ml iiluok 

, Bemerd da G<l«ii, who, 

a fooaa haldiii| a roiar; 

prieillT onumanu fur II 

mill oTparehineiil paido 

A Tunoui Biiltoo of . 

Ln hu chuilabia fiolem 

IB, to Iha popular r.nej, Hu hetd wu ( 
hair hrlmal; i croiiar io nna hand and 1 
olhor; halTi rochet and half a cuinu: hei 

the charge when he oiiKht Ihg lu, hiub i 
called iha coaKrler.' and Iho ' Biahopof Mi 
popuUruifiirn-paalinaerniintowni; for tba prop)* liki 

oToKdll-eBitrBniifwajreTiRdiiiEnrnia, '' " ' 
: ._!. i__ rf,|,„ ailirB.i- 

lirieme- 1'™''^'' 

■nadiBf IboM of tha BatwHlii, ami ■ 
m m nMr puM « Iba onliwb nunei ■ 
MaMt iHaairmlc bkiaiT, ud hinorj rail 

TTari eoofideiKa 

Mlhaatie ■iiiintiali thaahwlory iUair; bun inrdal iinot 
hm ■Bae*pliUeorthabadpuneB(lhinipamphl>!t oran 
ncwry; and Fitucrj will praeiiaa iii an, and decciTa ui 

afild! A ealamiTDr afieiHw oineial mtTbcmore ■„ - 

falbli HmoPlfurrirepate; and a libel haa t beller Oppvtimt' 

i* m ;l rfbaioitnreaerTBj, whan tha ariial i> lUirul, Ihin l^'ediba lown.ho publi.hrd ai . . _ 

■apla TTBiki whan iBiarrtU; eieeulad. MartalioTlhia •npe«'« kiilini ihn «ni»ur. wiU ihn woni Oppertanaa. 

chian BBBLiuaa, and wara Iha Bmcunnra nfihoie tmli. i ThecreatminiMer waalhaaulbnrof thiarrt-mf Amedal 

tKaIiu«auhibi<edtnaricaTurepHi>tii. Thrreiaalirn ' '"^^ ^^^^ (mbaaudnr at the court of France, Vaa 

aBMiannf woodan cntl about lbs line oTCalnn, whrra Bmniiwheii, wlum tha French rrprrafnl a* a haufhif 

Ibougfa the; ahould atao Eghl igamit tfaai*> 
*r curioira Io c^narre rf thia new aperita 

oTnationd feeling. Mini>ien of lUla conda. 

HHenI the devitri. Lord Orfoni aava, that 
n rordi were the iiiTeniinn of Georie Town*. 

alTair of Bynn, whiifi wti aonn fallowed b. a 
n informoil of xn ancient pack of ciidi which 

>t uniiieni]l]i ihufflctl by a writer uT arcrel hia- 
myp be aiirpriiHKl In find ihe pan SoUt prae- 

llie Duke of Snaj had taken by ein-piian Ba- 

XabnBtiaai lar 

haWt, aMineaB; bnrint la 

1ir of 4 Pieiiehrn««, 

WIT in leit 1 but wan 

medal. Medal* may, 

■H.oraSr«iiiBrti.__ . 

been the orf-a«inn nf tha Dutch 
will bo hardily made for an idl* 
inwfTer, indicaiB ■ prrparatorr 

IB Ura* wa htn of Hw (reat refom 

■'■riBen war* an grrti atidlera fur v"' 

' OrPnivlDhnTin.aarfoiii>- ""' 

• h«« m nwdal with hia pwtrait, in. , I™" 

■nna*. Dona Olrmna. draa.-d a. i Pot*, with iha 
■ra ■■ h« bead, ud Iha kan nfSt Peter in her handi ■ 
Wh«, IB Iba reifB of Mary, Eniland *ai i;rDBnin( 
■itr Spauh UhiencB, ud do remonatnnce could 
mek Ifcr lima*, iha qiireg^ peraon and (neemmen' wara 

'mmeaima herBijait; nakad, nwaiMi, withered, aad 
wiMed. wilh •nfjanraTBtKl circunuianca nf defnrmiiy 
<bi eoidd dwcrara ■ fanale Giura. aeaterf in a reial chair ■ 
■ sava osbar baad, ■urmiBdad wiihM. R and A in 
Mala, ac H Hiaa a i B d by amll lenera; Afc^a Ae(i«i 
iafb -' a nmbarjr Ssuwrdt wm turima her to ikin 


MHnhp-f ^'« s,ij that tha 



Bittoin MflaMqtit du Pom 


•teafc«»a""»fBpT«T'**«~'"'™e''ni». tiH 'il^Z^^,,^' 
m fkk MaaHT thai ih* «»». -m i. mf-J/*' "j r!^ 

•Mr PweapiaiiM ■ pmlM dJiID. t^ Jjj„a»a col- 
fc^ ftr a o-tM -i^ D. ™ irtarf ^^^ ,w»Bty 

e wgrld the hiRh feelhi of bar power 

which Hnllanri had 

hrnaanimed. Twnye«,,l\«- lb. 
1, the repiihtir paid dear lor the d*> 

i>oi» about Ihiimed 

Tic.; but ihiny ye. 

cnndodeH a glorioiH 

peace, and France and Spun wer* 

mnpelled Io receiTC 

the nmli.linoof the DiMeh Joahua 

with Iha Freneh ni 

.* In ihm .el,ir.1e> of Mlional 

•».ire, it i. odd that Ihe pfalerotiic Dutch, mnr. than nnr 

other nation, and frot 

n tha rarlieal period ofiheirrepuMie, 
freeiT, if not licen'inuiilv. Il w» a 

ahmild hare indulfcd 


Their lute »ai ..•mil.' [r<»a. Wo 

owVtt. them, e.en 

n Iha reixn of RUtabi^h. ■ eeyen 

who haeint retired indi.fual from 

eir prutineei, .tmek a ned.l with 

JVm grtgrm, ard iHfratoi im*<a« dcapv .- 
onwhkbthe aBfrj jurenile aTitee ilnKk ano-her, npr^ 

• ThN anclenijTiTTiriinrr. — ilew rit>iiri> nt ih» pr^lar 
ftelinn, la tnlrrably (leeii In Milvum'a HiMKry of ' Cartea- 
tartur' nlaii H, Ac. 1. 

tTbahbuvyoftMamrrial- "- 


^tgiTHMfiimmmf metdtt h i^im.' 
AaiXta«r DHtil, with ui nnllaDl portrait oT Cr<Hnwc1l, 
mi ilnKk bji ihs Dutch. The pmtccior, crowDed wiUi 
fcuTBla, ii OD bit kneel, L^ji°£ hu Keid id tb* lap of lb* 
mDmuiwMllh, but lontelj eihibiring hlmtK' Ut tb* 
FroDch ud Spaniah ambuudon vith pw tndHMic; : 
tfw FraKhmu), cmcred with ■ jlmn dc Hi, u puabmf 

JaacB^JMr* '0f 1 rhoww appar^tnX tm rojr iHffii itia^ 
*(, £hu It GroMt Van Loon h kt; ri|hl ID dMouneing 
lUl aans medal, n (roMlj flauerio); li iba BniUih, ai 
■aa datmabla wid inderims ! Bui irb; doM Tan Luon 
•■(f IB thia Inmpiah inrenlisn? why dnsatha Datehman 
qaarrd with hia own eheeia ? The bnnodr of iha medal 
*• clum, hut the inirrntiDn helonfi to hia coonlrj. The 
Dutch went on, carameDlin|i In thii mannei on EaRliih 
aSiin, Train iFrig:^ lo relin. Charin the SecotHJ declared 
war afwTiit Ihim in 167% Ha a niillciiiiii mrdil, ihougb 
ibe Sliio-OTneril nfferrd lo break ihe Jis bv puTchatinc 

Ibr a preieil Tor a Dutch war, which Chailea carrd mnre 
about than Ihs naia bvtia of hia eier^e. Chvlea also 
eoinplainid oTb icaiKlaloui piciiiie wbich the hrnthen De 
Wnt had in their hnuie. repreienllnji a n*nl hatlle wilb 
die Enfluh. Charlo ihe Seeoml lerini la ban bren 

htTe eipeclfd in a profeHed wll; a race, hawever, who 

liimH) to Ihfir lifw. The kinj; employed Emlvn lo write 


1. t>ook<, 


imnhantly whrn thp 
Ihronr. The hlrlh. 
cheil which Mineri 

loiiDm in« inai ai ^nuiea ijivriiai. vi ine napfWH 
at IhMi political pnnli if one b; Tarlor ihr waiti-poM, 
not iudndW m hw folio, but prefiied lo hu ' Mad raahioa, 
odd radiiooi vr the emblema of theaa diairacud limea.' 

irted i Gah By in the i 

,u».all)r « 

ig of Ihe Frrr , 
I""", bjsivinganei 

tiKBiy, a 

aerpD or right' Spaniard! are arm acaud amuix) a Ian* 
turn 1(1, wiih Ihcir rnnled muilaibioi, their halam pMa 

ilbeir girdlw. The 'Dutch wert 


variety aa ihe vniliinnily OC (ma would allow. We han 
largely pa rlici paled in the lindiccivo apirit, which ihaa* 
(iroleiquo eaibleini kreii up among lb« people ; ihey iMtk 

Ibieignera, and coniidered Ihem only aa Gl to be alaTea;* 

placed a hnr of demarcitisn for imiua and luie, and 
niiikcd il by ihcir moijuiaina. TL Spaniard! .mrr, iik- 
■ aJiied Ihai the cnKferrncca of God »iih Mowa on Mount 
Sinii were in the Spani.h language. If a Japannp ba. 
c^unra Ihe friend of a Foreigner, he ia cim.iderrd am cno- 
millmg tifaaon lo hia empiTor ; and rejected aa a fala* 
Wlhei in a coumry whirh we are told ii lipiratiiittr 

Sa> tidml npporertumsur dr 
ini to ihe remnrei. nt the i 

: hfan. ' called Ttnka, or Ihe kingdnin 

wirmiUR-pan : and in 

Lmit Iha Pmaneenih did ant »Bnw sT ibeae l<idicm«a aiiil 
Mtirtcal eihibi'inoi ; and while tho political idnlairy which 
hia fiwiv aradeniiciana i>aid Is hin. eibauned iinrir in the 

I Ihr I II 

I appeara thai wn wr 
' ■ ~ r Man 

writM aa a Hnllandi . _ .. . . . , ,., 

haaint al lentih adulated Ihe r-and mnnarrh b> a com- 
pUmenlarj mldal. He laya. ' The Engli-ib cannot be re. 
pmached with a eimilir dAmamV Alier the faiiKxi! 

Iha head nT the Frctteh monath and the SngUah Q.ieen, 
*ilh thia imcrlplian, LMiaeiaa Manvi, Atma ifaW. 
Loar •" thia.ooe of onrqueena had been nhibiirdliy 
omalrea with owiidrnble eneriy. On ihe drfeii of th- 
Aiiaada, Bliaabrih, Pinktrtoti lella ua. itnick a nwdai 
npraarniiiw Ihe Enrli4i and Span'iah Aeeta, flr^ervfum 
ntrm inial argt. Phili|> had medala diapened m Eiie- 
lanl of Ihe aame impreaiinn, with ihia addili..n, K'lgn- 
ttr. Em ineKru niffi. Thena the queen anppreaasd, 
hot publiabed anoiher medal, wilh Ihia legend : 

Hatperidiiin rrirm derlrk rlrm i nefalnr, 

and a lart* cnllMtinn of ihein wnuM admit of a nilice! 

prima! Nllan 
^cuna la a hBguaf* 

■1^ m And prrliirdInRi»hwnr<l. 
al colleninna, iwn awbaalil.ral 

Hra'cna. Joh« 

(pi-iiHniiua of our humanity. 

The «vi1 ware of iha IciKtw in Fraace, and ihoae in 
Eailaod unriei Charlea Ihe Fini, bear the innrt airikini 




reifn anial n 




mt and yiHicd wv* muhl wiih i 

id perbapi wot 



The an of judfini; of tho rharaciera of penona by Ibair 

wiUhhu eonaiiainl, may become an inatrumenl gnided b». 
and iBdialire of Ihe natural diipeittionf. But refnlaW 

iteam-rniine ; a bary of beaDiiea will now wnie aurh fae- 
aimilexfcarh other, Ihatin a heapof letia 

piearnted la 

— thoueh like Bananto anrann the caakew, hia hai'piDeaa 
ahmild br risked on Ihe chnier— he would deapair of fiimg 
on the rlihi one, all apprirint io haae cMiie rum Iha 

• JklMnaaemarbaleiund In Arlatntle-a pnllHra. enl.l. c. 1 

do'liTdii "aX™ d«"Ho"™m™'w.M; 
Ifoua Ihr he nm-iTOimifc cnnil.un^ nf w 
IMWnt Ikii^lmilaB nr iha wmlnfj'f *>nl 
m^ ovraoly i>k«B Cnn Iba orljUMl au 



I . 

lanmg-prett. Even brothers of different tempers 
kvM taught by the same master to ^ive the sam^ 
10 their tellers, the same regularity to their line, and 
'« our haikl-wrinngs as monotonoua as4ire our 
rs in the present habits of society. The true phy- 
ly of writing will be lost among uur rising genera- 
it u no longer a face that we are looking on, but a 
— wtHul mask of a single pattern ; and the Tashionable 
riling of our young ladies is like the former tigbt- 
Dg of their roothtr's youthful days, when every one 
,e had what was supposed to be a nne shajie ! 

uredly Nature would prompt every individual to have 

ulincl sort of writing, as sne has given a peculiar 

tenance— a voice— -and a manner. The flexibiliiy of 

muscles differs with every individual, and the hand 

«II ibilow the direction of the thoughts, and the emotions 

'%«| ihe habiis of the writers. The phlegmatic will por- 

'^mjr his words, while the playful haste of ihe volatile will 

-smrcrly sketch them ; ihe slovenly will blot and efface 

■crawl, while the neat and orderly minded will view 

^«flmelves in the paper b«ifore ihcir eyes. The merchant's 

^erk will not wnte like the lawyer or the poet. Even 

'lAtions are distinguished by their writing ; the vivacity and 

ifiableness of the Frenchman, and the delicacy and sup- 

sileness of the Italian, are perceptibly distinct from the 

ilowness and strength of pen discoverable in the phlepm- 

Vic German, Dane, and Swede. When we are in grief. 

Mm do not write as we ahould in joy. The elegant and 

, correct mind, which has acquired the fortunate habit of a 

fixity of attention, will write with scarcely an erasure on 

the pa^f u Fenelon and Gray and Gibbon ; while we 

find ra Pop«3's manuMcripts the perpetual struggles of cor- 

rectioo, and the eager and rapia inierliiieaiions struck off* 

in heat. Lavaier's notion of hand-writing is by no means 

chimerical ; nor was General Paoli fanciful, when he told 

Mr Nfirthcote, that he had decided on the character and 

disposiiioDS of a roan from his letters, and the hand-writ- 

Long before the days of Lavater, Shenstone in one of 
ilia letters said, * I want to see Mrs Jago*s hand-writinjf, 
that 1 may judge of her temper.* One great truth roust 
however be conceded to the opponents ofthephftiognomy 
of writing ; general rules only can be laid down. Yet 
the vital principle roust be true, that the hand-writing 
bears an analogy to the character of the writer, as all vo- 
luntary actions are characteristic of the individual. But 
many caiijies 0|»erate to counteract or obstruct this result. 
I am intimately acquainted with the hand-writings of five 
of <><-r great poets. The first in early life acquired among 
Scottinn advocates a hand-writing which cannot be dis- 
tinpiished from that of his ordinary brothers ; ihe second, 
educated in public schools, where writing is shamefully 
neglected, composes his sublime or sportive verses in a 
achool-boy*s ragged scrawl, as if he had never finished 
his tasks with tlie writing master; the third writes his 
highly-wrought poetry in the common hand of a merchant's 
clerk, from early commercial avocations; the fourth 
has aJI that finished neatness, which pftlished his verses ; 
while the fifth is a specimen of a full mind, not in the habit 
of correction or alteration ; so that he appears to be print- 
ing down his thoughts, without a solitary erasure. The 
hand-writing of the ^U and third poets, not indicative of 
their character, we have acounted for ; the others are ad- 
mirable specimens of characterinlic autographs. 

OMys, in one of his curious notes, was struck by the 
distinctness of character in the hand-writings of several 
of our kings. He observed nothing farther than the mere 
fact, and did not extend his idea to the art of judgini of 
the natural character by the writing. Oldys has described 
these hand-writings with the utmost correctness, as I have 
often verified. I shall add a few comments. 

* Henry the Eighth wrote a strong hand, but as if he 
had seldom a good pen.*— The vehemence of his charac- 
ter conveyed itself into his writinft ; boM, hasty, and com- 
manding,' I have no doubt the astertor of the Pope's su- 
premacy and its triumphant destroyer, split many a good 

* Edward the Sixth wrote a fair legible hand.' We 
have tlijs promising young prince's diary, written by his 
own hano; in all respects he was an assiduous pupil, 
and he had scarcely learned to writt and to reign when we 
lost him. 

* Queen Eiir^heth writ an upright hand, like the bas- 
tard Italian.' She was indeed a most elegant caligraober, 

whom Roger Ascham had taught all the elegancies of Ihe 
pen. The French editor of the little autographical work I 
have noticed has given the autograph of her name, which 
she usually wrote in a very lar^e tall character, and pain^ 
fully elaborate. He accompanies it with one of the Scot- 
tish Mary, who at times wrote elegantly, though usually 
in uneven lines; when in haste and distress of mind, in 
several letters during her imprisonment which I have read, 
much the contrary. The French editor makes this obserw 
valion : ' Who could believe that these writings are of the 
same epoch ? The first denotes asperity and ostentation ; 
the second indicates simplicity, softness, and nobleness. 
The one is that of Elizabeth, queen of England ; the other 
that of her cousin, Mary Stuart. The diflference of these 
two hand-writings answers most evidently to that of their 

* Jamea the First writ a poor ungainly character, all 
awry, and WA in a straight line.' James certainly wrote 
a sluvenly scrawl, strongly indicative of that personal neg- 
ligence which he carried into all the little things of life ; 
and Buchanan, who had made hini an excellent scholar, 
may receive the disgrace of hu pupil's U|rly scribble, which 
sprawls about his careless and inelegant letters. 

* Charles the First wrote a fair open Italian hand, and 
more correctly perhaps, thon any prince we ever had.* 
Charles was the first of our monarchs who intended to 
have domiciliated taste in the kingdom, and it might have 
been conjectured from this unfortunate prince, who so 
finely discriminated the manners of the different painters, 
which are in fact their hand-writings, that he would have 
not been insensible totheelngsnciesof the pen. 

* Charles the Second wrote a little fair runnin?hand,as 
if wrote in haste, or uneasy till he had done.' Such was 
the writing to have been expected from this illustrious 
vagabond, who had much to write, often in odd situations, 
and could never get rid of his natural restlessness, and 

* James the Second writ a large fair hand.' It is char- 
acterised by his phlegmatic temper, as an exact detailer 
of occurrences, and the matier-ofobusiness genius of the 

* Quern Ann wrote a fair round hand :' that is the wri- 
ting she had been taught by her master, probably without 
any alteration of manner naturally suggested by herself; 
the cnpviug hand of a commoo character. 

This subject of autographs associates itself with what 
has Iteen dignified by its professors as caligraphy, or tho 
art of beautiful writing. As I have Komeihing curious to 
communicate on that subject considered professionally, it 
shall form our following article. 


There is a very apt letter from James the First to prince 
Henry when very young, on the neatness and fairness of 
his liand'WritinE ; the royal father suspec'ing that the 

Erince's tutor, Mr, afterwards Sir Adam Newton, had 
elped out the youiij; prince in the composition ; and that 
in this specimen of^caligraphy he had relied also on the 
pains of Mr Peter Bales, the great writing-master, for 
touching up his letters; Ijis majesty shows a laudable 
anxiety that the prince should be impressed with the high- 
er importance of the one over the other. James shall 
himself speak. * I confess I long to receive a letter from 
you that may be wholly yours, as well matter as form ; as 
well formed by your mind as drawn by your fingers ; for 
ye may rcmeinhcr, that in my book to you 1 warn you to 
beware with (of) that kind of wit that may fly out at the 
end of your fingers ; not that I cammend not a fair hand- 
writinc ; sed hoc farito^ Ulud non omittito; i.nd the other 
is muUo mat^a prcMpuum.* Prince Henry, indeed, wrote 
with that eleiiance which he borrowed from his own mind , 
and in an age when such minute elegance was not univer- 
sal among the crowned heads of Europe. Henry IV, on 
receiving a letter from prince Henr>', immediately opened 
it, a custom not usual with him, and comparing the writing 
with the signature, to decide whether it were of one hand, 
Sir Georao Carew, observing the French king's hesita- 
tion, called Mr Douglas to testifv to the fact ; on which 
Henry the Great, admirine an art in i^hich he had little 
skill, and looking on the neat elegance of tl e writing be- 
fore him, politely observed, ' I i^re ihst in wri'ing fair, ^ in 
other thinES, the elder must yield >o the yonneer.' 

Had this anecdote of neat wriiine reached the profes- 
sors of caligraphy, who in this country have put forth such 



m I 

pufllbl puMfrnci oo the ut, tbne rojtl namet bad uo 
aueitinaabiy ^Moacd iheir ptfo. Not, indeed, that 
Uieae pemnea require any ireah inflaUoo ; fiir sever hat 
there been a race of profettora in any art, who hare ex- 
ceeded IB •olemnitj aftd preiennont the practitiooers in 
thM simpte and mechanical craft. I muat leave to more 
nfeniow inveatigatora of human nature, to reveal the oc- 
eut canae which haa operated such powerful deluaiona on 
theae * Vivo hi Phime !* men, who have been generally 
eba er ve d to ooaaeaa leaat intellectual ability, in proportion 
to the exceUeooe they have obtained in their own art. I 
Miapect ihb maniacal vanity ia peculiar to the writing;- 
maatera of England ; aiMl I can onljr attribute the immense 
uaportanee which they have conceived of their art, to the 
perfectioo to which they have carried the art of short-band 
writing ; an art which waa always better understood, and 
■ore akilfully practiaed, in England, than in any other 
emmtry. It will aurprise aome when thejr learn tnat the 
artiata in verae and colours, poeta and painters, have not 
raised loftier pretensions to the admiraiioo of mankind. 
Writmg-masters, or caligraphars, have had their eo- 

Cved * efllgies,' with a Fame in flourishes, a pen in one 
mI, and a trumpet in the other ; and fine verses in- 
icribed, and their ve?y lives written ! They have com- 

' The nimUy-tuming of their ailver quiO,' 

to the beautiful in art, and the suMiree in invention : nor 
b this wonderful, since they discover the art of writing, 
like the invention of lanstiate, in a divine original ; and 
from the tablets of stone which the Deity himself delivered, 
they trace their Grerman bn>ad-texr, or their fine running- 

One, for * the boM atrihing of those words, Vive la 
PbtKU* ^"w ao aensible of the reputation that this last 
piece 0^ command of hand would give the book which he 
thua adorned, and which his biographer acknowledges wss 
the product of about a minute — (but then how many years 
of flourishing had that single minute cost him!)— that he 
daima the glory of an artist, observing,— 

< We seldom find 
The man •/ Uuintu with the artial join'd.' 

Anolher was flattered that his wnim^ couM impart nn- 
Borubty to the moat wretriied coapoaitions !— 

' And any linea prove pleaaing, when you write.' 
Sonietimea tKe caligrapher is a sort of hero :— 

' To you, yon rare commander of the quill, 
Whose wit and worth, deep learning, and high akill. 
Speak you the honour of great Tower Hill !* 

The last line became traditionally adopted by those who 
ware ao ludty aa to live in the neiehbourhood of thia Par- 
Miawii. But the reader most form some notion of that 
charm oTcaligraphy which has so bewitched its proft 

* Soft, boU, and free, yoor manuscripts still pleaae.' 

* How justly bold in SnelPs improving hand 
The Pen at once joins fineedom with command ! 
With nofineta atrong, with ornaments not vain, 
Loose with proporfioB, and with neatness plain; 
Not awdl'd, not (nil, complete in every part, 
And artful aaoat, when not affecting art.* 

And theae deaeribe thone penciled knots and floonshea, 
* the antela, the amb, the bttda, and the beaata, whidi aa 
caa of them obaerved, he could 

Even by the gende inetion of ku kamd^ 

■S the ipacisaa mtroeii/a of caUgraphy ! 

* Thy tender atnkta inimitably fine. 
Grown with perfection ^rurvjkwng ISm§; 
And to each grand perfimmanet add a grace, 
Aa ewrSmg kmr adorns a beauteona face : 
In every page new faneuM give deliiht, 
And ^Mrtmg nmndthe nurgin charm the aight. 

One Maaaey, a writing-maMer, published, in 176S, 
' The Origin and Profrees of Lettera.' The treat singu- 
larity of thia volume is * A new species of biography ne- 
ver attempted before in Englifh.' This cnnaiata of the 
fivea of 'Enfliah Penmen,* otherwise writinr-masters! 
If aome have foolishly enoofh imagined that the aeden- 
tmry Kves of authors are void of interest from deficient in- 
ciMot tad ialaraatiDf catastrophe, what moat they think 

of the barren laboora of those, wbo^ ai 

become eminent, to use ibcir 

* dish, daah,k)iut4ail fly,' the lean thej 

to the public ; tat what caa the 

ter do but wear away hia hh a 

copy, or mimetimea anaich a pen to 

tbou^ he cannot oompooe tM pajEe f 

^nry origmal notion oa wriiiiif aiaaii 

aome of those cali|rapbefa, wfaolMd obii 

by their excellence in the ait, 

eanU$aty, Utt Umr prmnfiam mkmOd 6r 

been mtnng to tnxk en mdinanf 

Massey is an enthnaiast, fortunately fcr 

He considers that there are tekooim ^' 

of puntin£ or scu^ture ; aad ezpetMt 

fraternal feeling on ' a natural geaim, 

graiMl performance, a bokl atriliuiK freeiioB, iMaWi 

neaa in the sprigged letters, and penciled katta «ifa| 

ishes ;* while this Vasari of Trritinf ■nsHia idea il 

controversies and the libels of many a rWal pm-wj 

* George Shelley, one of the bknsi c ' ' 

who have made a shining figure ia tlie eommnnens W 

English caligraphy, bom I snppoen of 

bec^se brought up in Christ's hospital, yet wim^\ 

humble blue-coat he laid the foundatioa of ' 

excellence and lasUng Ame, for he 

master to tlie hospital.* Shelley nnhliahcd 

writing ;' but, alas ! Snell, anolher mu' 

the other. He was a genius who wooU 

near the throne.'—' I have been inf 

jealous heart-burning*, if not bich 

and Col. Ayres, another of our greo< rcj 

inff commonweal, both eminent men. yet, Idbr «i 

celebrated poets, Pope and Addieon, or, to carrv 4t 

parison still higher, like Camt €md I*omp t ^ , 'em 

bear no superior, and the other do eqiml.' faded 

great SneU practised a little stratnipeni a^inft Mr S* 

ley, which, if writing-masters hetJ courta-oaital. ai 

hero ought to have appeared before hia brotheta. h* 

of his works he procured a number of 

letters, in which Massey ooofesses * are 

strokes upoa Shelley,' as if he had arrogmied wen* 

to himself in hia book of * Natural IVriinic.' *IV« b 

great fault with penciled knots and apri^iped leitna. Sfe» 

ley, who was an advocate for omanaenia in 



ship, which Snell uiierly rejected, had parodied s*^ 
known line of Herbert's in favour of hie fkmwiiB mett 

' A Knot may take him who from tttUwz fics, 
And -turn ddight into an 


These reflections created ill-blood, and eren aa opn a^ 
ference amongst several of the sncerter oftssCa m iPJ&V 
The commanding genius of Snell, had a more tflrriE 
concert when he publinhed hia * Standard Ridea.' ^ 
tending to have demonetraUd them as ~ 

* This proved a bone of c«Hiiention, and 

rific quarrel betw«^ii Mr Snell and Mr Clark. 
rel about " Standard Rules'* ran so hich 
that they couM scarce forbear sciirrib«s h 

and a treatment of each other onbec 

Both sides in this disputn had their abertora^; and to nr 
which had the most truth and reason, nam wiiif i ■■ at 
tantae eem p o n ere Htee ; perhaps foA partiea wugM ht at 
fond of their om Mehrmee. They should have left ihra » 
people to choose which they like<l best.* A canifid pott*- 
cian ia our Massey, and a philosophical historiaa too: Iv 
he winds up the w'hole story of this civil war by < 
its result, which happened as all such great cos 
have ever closed. * Who now-a<^av8 takes th«u« ». 
ord Rutetj either one or the other, for their ^nidr in 
ing 7* This is the finest lesson ever offered to the fnr«« 
heads of parties, and to all their men ; let them nwdbtaia 
on the nothingness of their ' standard rnlea*— br lbs to 
of Mr SneU! ^ 

It was to be expected when once these writing mam 
imacinMl that ihev were artists, that they would be in* 
fected with those pJsffue-FpoCs of genius, envr, detraciioB, 
and all the/o/oene dii metier. And mieh to'ihia hear vs 
find them! An eztraordinarv scene of this nature has ht^ 
been exhibited in mv neighWirhood, where two deog' 
champions of the quill have been posting up libejc m il 
windows reypectioff the inventor of a iinn erf 
the Carsfairian or theLewisi^n? When the 
maa philosopher asserted that he had discB ee i e d tba as- 



thod of fluxions before Sir Isaac, and when the dispute 
new so violent that even the calm Newton sent a furmal 
defiance in set terms, and got even George the Second to 
tKj to arbitrate, (who would rather have undertaken a 
campaign) the method of fluxions was no more cleared up, 
than the present affair between our two heroes of the 

A recent instance of one of these efnregious calivraphers 
nay be told of the late Torekins. This vainest of wniing^ 
masters dreamed through hfe that penmanship was one of 
the finff arts, and that a writing-master should be seated 
with his peers in the Academy ! He bequesthed to the 
British Museum his opu» tnagnum ; a copy of JVlacklin's 
Bible, profusely embellished with the most beautiful and 
▼aried aecoratiuos of his pen ; and as he conceived that 
both the workman and ine work would alike be darling 
olyects with posterity, he left something immortal with the 
Iviacy, his nne bust by Chantry ! unaccompanied by 
wnich they were not to receive the unparalleled gift. 
When TomkJns applied to hsve his bust, our |;reat sculp- 
tor abated the usual price, and courteouslv kind to the 
feelings of the man, said that he considered Tunikins as 
mn artist ! It was the proudest day of the life of our wrii- 

in^HDiasier ! 

But an eminent artist and wit now living, once looking 
on this fine bust of Tomkins, declared, that * this man had 
died for want of a dinner !' — a fate, however, not so Id- 
■lentable as it appeared ! Our penman had long felt that 
be stood degraded in the scale of genius by not being re- 
eeived at the Academy, at least among the class of en- 
grmmn; the next approach to academic honour he con- 
eeived would be that of appearing as a guest at their an- 
nua] dinner. These invitations are as limited as they ase 
aelect, and all the Academy persisted in considering i om- 
kins OS a writing'matter ! Many a year passed, every in- 
trigue was practised, every remonstrnnce was iitged, every 
■tratagem of courtesy was tried ; but never ceasing to de- 
plore ihe failure of his hopes, it preyed on hisspinis, and 
the luckless calisrapher went down to his grave — without 
dining at the Academy! This authentic anecdote has 
been considered as * satire improperly directed'^^by some 
friend of Mr Tomkins— but the criticism is much too 
grave ! The foible of Mr Tomkins as a writing-master, 
presents a striking illustration of the class of men here de- 
lineated. 1 am a mere historian— and am only responsi- 
blo for the veracity of this fact. That * Mr Tomkins hvcd 
in familiar intercourse with the Royal Academicians of his 
day, and was a frcqiient guest at their private tables,* «nd 
moreover was a most worthy man, I believe — but is it lean 
true that he was ridiculousfy mortified by beins never in- 
vited to the Academic dinner, on account of bis caligra- 
phy ? He had some reason to consider th^t his art was nf 
the exalted class, to which he aspired to raise it, when h>s 
iriend concludes his eulogy of this wiiting-master thus— 
< Mr Tomkins, as an artist, stood foremost in his own pro- 
fession, and his name will be handed down to posterity 
with, the Htroet and Statetnunt whose excellences his 
jMnaiansAto has contributed to illustrate and to commemo- 
rate.* I always give the Pour and the Contre ! 

Such men about such things have produced public con- 
tests, eomhaU a routronce, where much ink was spilt by 
the knights in a joust of goose-quills ; these solemn trials 
have often occurred in the history of writing-masters, 
which is enlivened by public defiances, proclamations, 
and judicial trials by umpires ! The prize was usually a 
golden pen of some value. One as late as the reign of 
Anne took place between Mr German and Mr More. 
German having courteously insisted that Mr More should 
•et the copy, be thus set it, ingeniously quaint ! 

As more, snd More, our understanding clears, 
So more and more our ignorance appears. 

The result of this pen-combat was really lamentable; 
they displayed such an equality of excellence that the uro- 

Sires refused to decide, till one of them espied that Mr 
lerman had omitted the tittle of an i ! But Mr More was 
evidently a roan of genius, not only by his couplet, but in 
his *Enay on the Invention of Writing,' where occturs 
this noble passage : * Art with me is of no party. A no- 
ble emulation I would cherish, while it proceeded neither 
from, nor to malerdeoce. Balea had htn Johnson, Nor- 
man his Mason, Ayree his Matlock and his Shelley ; yet 
Art the while was do eafferer. The busv-bndy wno offi- 
cMNwIj eapkiji biaMlf in creating mieundentaJBifingi b^ 

tween artists, may be compared to a tum-«tile, which 
stands in every man's way, yet hinders nobody ; and he 
is the rianderer who gives ear to the slander.'* 

Among these knights of the * Plume volant,' whoie 
chivalric exploits astounded the behulden, must be dis- 
tinguished Peter Bales in bis joust with David Johnson. 
In this tilting match the guerdon of caligrapby was won 
by the greatest of caligraphers i its onns were assumed 
by the victor, onire, a pen or ,* while * the golden pen,' 
carried away in triumph, was painted with a hand over tlra 
door of the caiigrapher. The history of this renowned 
encounter was only traditionally known, till with my own 
eyes I pondered on this whole trial of skill in the precioua 
manusCTipt of the champion himself; who, like Cesar, 
not only knew how to win victories, but also to record 
them. Peter Bales was a hero of such transcendent em^ 
nonce, that his name has entered into our history. Ho- 
lingshed chronicles one of his curiosities of microscopic 
writing, at a time when the taste prevailed for admirmg 
writing which no eye could read ! In the compass of a 
silver fienny this caligrapher put more things than would 
fill several of these paces. He presented ^ueen Eliza- 
beth with the manuscript set in a ring of gold covered with 
a crystal ; he had also contrived a magnifying glass of such 
power, that, to her delicht and wonder, her majesty read 
the whole vcliime, whicn she held on her thumb nail, and 

* commended the same to the lords of the council, and the 
ambassadors ;' and frequently, as Peter often heard, did 
her majesty vouchsafe to wear this caligraphic ring. 

* Some will think I labour on a cobweb' — modestly ex- 
claimed Bales in his narrative, and his prevent historian 
much fears for himself! The reader's gratitude will not 
be proportioned to my pains, in condensing such copious 
fiages into the size of a * silver penny,' but without its 
worth \ 

For a whole year had David Johnson affixed a challenge 

* To any one who should take exceptions to this my 
writing and leaching.' He was a young friend of Bales, 
daring and longing for an encounter ; yet Bales was mag- 
nanimously silent, till he discovered that he was * doing 
much less in writing and teaching' since this public chal- 
lenge was proclaimed ! He then set up his counter chal- 
lenge, and m one hour afterwards JohtMon arrogantly ao- 
cepted it,* in a niott despiteful and arrogant manner.' 
Balcs's challenge was delivered * in good terms.' * To all 
Englishmen and strangers.' It was lo write for a gold 
pen of twenty pound's value in all kinds of hands, * best, 
straightest and fastest,' and most kind of ways; a full, a 
n>ean, a small, with link and without line ; in a slow set 
hand, a mean facile hand, and a fast running band ,** and 
farther, * to write truest and speediest, most secretary and 
clerk -like, from a man's mouth, reading w pronewwing, 
either English or Latin.' 

Young Johnson had the hardihood now of tuminff the 
tables on his great antagonist, accusing the veteran Balea 
of arrogance. Such an absolute challenge sajra ha, waa 
never witnessed by man, * vrithout exception of any in tba 
workl!* And a few days af>er meeting Balee, 'of set 
purpose to affront and disgrace him what he conldf, riiowed 
Bales a piece of writing of secretary's hand, which be 
had very much laboured in fine abortivef parchment,' 
uttering to the challenger these words: * Mr Balea, give 
roe one shilling out of voiir purse, and if within six moniha 
you better, or etjual this piece of writing, I will give you 
forty pounds for it.' This legal deposit of the shilline waa 
made, and the challenger, or appellant, was thereby bound 
by law to the performance. 

The day before the trial a printed declaration waa 
aflixed throughout the city, taunting Balcs's J proud po* 
verty,' and his pecuniary motives, as * a thing untentle, 
base, and mercenary, and not answerable lo the dignity of 
the goklen pen !' Johnson declares he would maintain his 
challenge for a thousand pounds more, but for the re- 
spondent's inability to perform a thousand groats. Balea 
retorts on the libel ; declares it as a sign of his rival's 
weakness, * yet who so bold as blind Bayard, that hath not 
a word of Latin to cast at a dop, or say Bo ! to a goi«e !' 

On Michaelmas day, 1695, the trial opened before five 

* 1 have not met wfth More*s Book, snd am obliged lo tran- 
scribe this fiom the Bioft BrlL 

f ThU was written in the reign of Elizabeth. Holyoks no- 
tires * virg in-perchment msde of an sbortive skin; msm- 
brsna vIrgo.* Peacham on Drawing, calls parchment ainipl j 

jud(a: lb* tptKllinl ud I 
MpfHriated plWTB, uid ID ir 
«i>h ■ ih> foUrn pen.' la 


lou crinn. Amcaiff Umh a 
;il ID Utiy, •nd aArrwinii 

Tbe Hcood, rur •Knurrinil cleri-lilis writinf, liic- 
laDBf lo thcD b«h ia EB|iuh iriI in Lilin. Bilti |.t- 
fbfiBrd b«i, beiDjt firflt dutiF i vnitfeu pinifhftii iriiltiiut 

l«wii|[ Ihar he wuEcd ih« Ltria loOfu'. ud wtA naclcrli! 
Tlw third lad iau inil fur flic vniini id Hindry kindi 

BOM ■ ■inheaiie {'niwriina,' and roi ihe lupenar xncir 
of iha Rinu hud. In ihe c>iun hand Uie reipuodeni 
cicoeded Ihe i|<|iv:lab'. tod likcwivi in iha ■« imi ; aid 
in luiard trcrvtMry hu ^la oniiuwhat fH-rfecWr, 

Ar Ivntih B*l<i peiMpi prrcrinnj ui Eijuilibriun in 
the judicial drcimni, >i> omirihila hu uiia^iiii, pn- 

pnird if incrrliry ud BoniiD huid fuur niTi taricd, 
ud olJeruii Iha dfrendini tu M plH all hB prrriuui id- 

Tm chillcnter wu •iknt ■ At ihii numrm •ome tf ihc 

Bain, ID conidcnlwa of iDa Twlh oT ■!» rhiilcnfri, 
Uciho mighi bodiifribcad ta ihe vpirid, irqiwiiodihauihvr 
joiiflaa Dnc lo |iua judfmeiii in public, liilci viuraii ipt, 
thai he in nu niBiiaMnlnl; (vt by ihsar mrtai the 
*»iiia( u iha {nklni pra nuihi out br nn f.uaout'.<f tpirad 
uoihcnnieH <nwM bafabeaa. Tu Ba'n ih« |inis wu 
ftmidtd. nil MIT hidori haa a Mar* HUtrrruat clua ; 
tba Hkiir MadiiiT-liwi ;4' iba Arat ehli1«ir»: 

Whaa i4i> frnt tnal had ttoaed, an) 1Ij1c<, cairriaf 
oiTihr imldim |>cn. «uliiac> hid ii iiainiad awl ki upfiir 

lu hail BH th' gulden ptn, bm Ihat (hr drfi'iiiliiii bid <ib- 
taiBBd Iha umE h> ' pinu and ththt. and Mhcr biia ami 
cunniiif pracucai.' Bile* fiudicaird hia claim, and 
odViHl lo ahow Ihe wocld hia ' irajl»t-pi«:»' whi'b hid 
aojuirrd n. Jonfoa iuucd la ' Appral lo a]l inpaciil 

dl> liir trn da», a libi^l aiaimi Ihc Jud^Lt and itjc iicln- 

placrnTliiaJ; which he riptciad nrhara bi'rB hrf^rc 

and ihoula aaU tunuils 'llh which lln eh^laiiirr had 
hiihtno hem uoacquamirrf. Th* judcri wan inicndrd 
Id be Lwcire; but -if ihr An, (iwr wrr* Ihrchallniiier'i 
fnewb. honeA jr^nUemen, but iin*kil!ad in juilfiuv uf 
■lofl handa ; ami he otTcml Ifain tony pimnda lo ba al- 

ha cloaaa hi' ' appeaJ* by declaruitr Oval Bik« had Wr in 

Bain iviainiad hinirlf of iha (oldcn pen bra Wk! 

cui, miidellcd by bM •lilin;. ThB iBanwdUrsib- 
-.hini.wbo. bkeDurPoTKO for ana . - 
lu onu oT ihe unaii alriani wriura ofGmt. hi 

nulla Cir baraniiru) M-niin^, and prv btnh ti ii 
mrerb or familiar phraM, <a write Itkt on mm^^I T 


tk nbte Ban Ucna/iirl Arr.' The 

wbowu Ihe holder, lakini tba dcfenl. .u, ..i... 

Ihe (niden pan lo ba urnrd lo Ihe lirli wife ; and Bi 

work, BOld'il al a (real laaa, aathai when the judfea i 

Isbahad! Thejudiaa bauli aihaired a iheir owno 
duet, wera oompailcd to pea aucb a verdict aa milled 

S icb il ihe •horleet biHorj I nuld cmitriee of Ihii 
taliT'-rUwpea: aoinethiDi mmanaiKlT eloiida oeenaa 
bii-'nTiliedel'nlaal; Bal-n'ahi'lrHT.likr Ceiai'e.iibHl . 
■B a-forU 'tri' i-ct. Vfhfi can letl wheiher he ha* not i 
(tvrrd iiaer hie d-feal*. and milr dwelt nn hii aiciocin 1 | 

Than ia a atm ■- phra*e cnnnerled wiih tha an of ihc 
ealiirarh'T. whir'i I tIhiA mie he f iimd in "now . if noi in . 
•lln->(enilan;Hic>*.MimIrlt(fne>«W.' LailinhaTe 
beea fn^iieolii cvnrrtml I" inj-k; l^'r are teoiiliYiif » | 
WKKwiiaf and linni like anie'*! hul h-iwreec iali:lli<>< 1 

tbeotharctlaaiia' Bccompliibaitnti. Tbiaruciliilphnaa, j 

freaitr pari ofiWe^ 

Il i> ranurkahla ihii ihi 

renl'^J modm i^^T' 

porariei, while Ihay ban nM Ihi'lria ■ 

and pMleriiy : Thuiniii priaripiea of n 
■r|>riHil by Ihr giaadaur of iha DKiida uf L 
paliiiral TrarduBi. Il wai their iiMipiai 

OTiiivvuiniiicuteewhicbprndiicedaueii aWtyiv - 

The peiiy rural irpiiblica, and tha pciTj -t— nf-h- pa* j 
whii, al firal eaate furward ai Iha pralrctor* of lb* pi^ 

(hair A 

u and the 

rApenniiH-a. P>^ 


h. in 



wanne.1 be Liee and anei. n 






-ins 'h 


-,• be cr 

lea. 'Morien e«i 



link a ■ 


whicl. r.™erly «r« 


aha 11 1 

rU be 



bound TO law 








able ma 

jlora, the 




Dot' t llnlia, il mn bnirlil 
Til dell- a'lnnMiK'it.a' 
Dl rhi c ••ffnide il deino 

Cofi ilq-niie r mt.'nH t. 

Xel pf n.- 
Dfieml. \i'n-(4 

Enlkla iu b>anii>'aTi'iu ^iVucfida t 

The ni!jl!i»h>iiriirie< ufihr cliidiiiv ti^iin f 
T -KI iw<r- H' 'mi M ih'e, ihy r9ii>i iheu kMp'i 

ta ihy kit dai^ai alecp, a-id Mck npoaa t 



Slwp, vil« Adolureo! the homicidal swonl 
Ten^ftil, «hall waken thee ; and lullM lo ntumbcr, 
While naked in thy minion*« arms, »hall atrike ! 

Among the domestic contests uf Italy the tnic principira 
' polilicml freedom were developed; and in that country 
^ • may find the origin of Philosophical History, which in- 
^~^iidea ao many important views ajid so many new results, 
^VUkknown lo the ancients. 

IMachiavel seems to have b^cn the fir^t writer who dis- 
1, COTered the aetcret of what may be called comparative Ais- 
^ ^ory. He it was who first aoughi in ancient luvtorv for the 
snai«rials which were to illustrate the events ofliis own 
_ €inaes; by fixing on an\1ogous factv, similar personages, 
^. amd parallel periods. Thia was enlarging the field of bin- 
.. <ory, and opening a new combination lor philtMsophical 
^ spvculation. His profound genius advanced still further *, 
^ iie not only explained modern by ancient history, but he 
^ «ieduced those results or principles founded on this new 
^ sort of evideiMrc, which guided him in forming his opinions, 
^j History had hitherto been, if wc except Tacitus, but a 
^y aiory well told, and in writers of limited cnpaaiy, the de- 
^ . tail and number of facts had loo often been considertNl as 
. ^ the oulv valuable portion of history. An erudition of facts 
is not the philosophy of history; an hintonan unskilful in 
^ the art of applying ma facts amasses impure ore, which he 
^ cannot strike inio coin. The chancellor D'Aeuesseaii, in 
, ^ his iiistnicli<ms to his son on the study of history, has ad- 
^ BUrablv touched on this distinction. * Minds which are 
^ purely nistoiieal mistake a fact for ao argument ; they are 
■^ M aoeastomsd to satisfy themselves by repeating a great 
■ WMnberoT (acts and enriching their memory, that they be- 
eome incapable of reasoning on principles. It often hap- 
^ pens that the result of their knowledge breeds confiiFion 
and universal indecision : for their farts, often contradic- 
tory, only raise up doubts. The Fuperfiuniif; and the fri- 
volous occupy the place of what is essential and solid, or 
at Iea^(l so overload and darken it, that wo mutt sail with 
them in a sea of trifles to get to firm land. Those who only 
▼ilue the philosophical part of history, fall into an oppo- 
site extreme ; they judge c)f what ha^ been done bv that 
which should be done ; while the others always decide on 
what shcMild be done by that which has born ;' the fir^t are 
the dupes of their reasoning, the second of the facts which 
they mistake far reasoning. We should not separate two 
Ihingsi which niiifht alwavs to go in concert, and miilually 
len-i an aid, reason and eramjtle. Avoi«l equallv the cori^ 
tempt of some philos«ipher8 for the science of facts, and 
the distaste or the incapacity which those who confine 
them^elveN lo faciM often contract for whatever depends on 
pure reasoning. True and solui phil-isophy hhould direc* 
U4 in th^ study of hiiiory, and the study of'historv i^hoiild 
give perfecti'in to philosiiphy. Such was th*- enlightened 
opinion, a;* far bark as at the beginning of the last cenlurv, 
of the studious ch.inrfllor of Franre, befure the more re- 
cent dewignatiun (»f PhUotophical History was ho generally 
received, and so familiar on our litle-^iagcs. 

From the moment that the Florentine secretary conceiv- 
ed the idea that the history of the Roman pt-oplc, opening 
such varieil spectacles of human nature, served as a point 
of comparison lo which he might |>erpf-tually recur to irv 
the analogous facts of other natitms, and the events pass- 
ing under his own eye ; a new light broke out and ran 
through the vast extents of history. The maturity of ex- 

Eerience seemed to have been obtained by the historian, in 
is solitary meditations. Livy in the grandeur of Rome, 
and Tacitns in its fated decline, exhibited for Machiavel a 
moving picture of his own repnblicjt — the march of ilestiny 
in all human governmenta! The text ofLivv ami I'acitii's 
reveale.i to him many an imperfect secret — the fuller truths 
he drew from the depth of his own observations on his 
own limes. In Machiovel'a • Discourses on Livv.* we 
raav discover the foundations of our PhUotojihical HiMtory. 
The example of Machiavel, lifcp that of all creative ge- 
nius, infliienred the character of hi^ age, and his history of 
Flor<>nrii produced an emulative spirit among a new dytiiae- 
ty r»f historians. 

Th«>se Italian historians have proved themselves to be 
an extraordinary race, for they devoted their days to ihe 
comiK)sition of hiMoric!«l work's, which thev were certain 
could not see the light during their lives ! They nobly de- 
termined that their works should he posthumous, rather 
than he compelled to mutilate them for the pres«. These 
historians were rather the saints than the msrtvrs of his- 
toiy s ibaj did noC ihvaya penooailj suflsr for trath, but 

during ihfir protracted labour they sustamed their spirits 
by anticipating their glorified after-state. 

Among these Imlian historians mii«t be placed the illus- 
trious Uuicrianhni, iho friend of Machiavel. No perfect 
edition of this historian existed till recent times. Tne his- 
tory Itself was uosthumous ; nor did his nephew venture 
to |»ublish It, till twenty years after the historian's death. 
He only pave the first sixteen bofAs, and these castrated. 
Tho obnoxious passages consisted of some statements re- 
lating to the papal c<iurt, then so important in the affairs 
of Europe ; some account of the origin and progress uf the 
papal power; some eloquent pictures of the ahuves and 
disorders of that corrupt court ; and some free caricatures 
on the government of Florence. The precious fragments 
werefoitiinately preserved in manuscript, and the Protes- 
tants procured transcripts which they published separately, 
hut which were long very rare.* All the Italian ediiions 
continued to be reprinted in the same truncated condition, 
and appear only to have be^-n reinstaieii in the immurtai 
history, no late as in 1775! Thus it required twocenturies, 
before an editor ctiuld venture to give the world the pure 
and complete text of the manuscript of the lieutenants 
general dT the papal army, who had been so close and so 
indignant nn observer of the Roman cabinet. 

Idriani, whom his son entitles gentihtom Fhfrentino r the 
writer of th6 pleasing di«sertation ' on the ancient painters 
noticed by Pliny,' prefixed to his friend Vosari*s bio- 
graphies ; wrote, as a continuation of Guicciardini, a his- 
tory ofhis own times in twenty-two books, of which Deni- 
na gives the hi^fhest character for its moderate spirit, and 
from which Dc Thou has largely drawn and commends for 
its aiillientiriiy. Our author, however, did not venture to 
publish his history during his lifetime : it was after his 
death that hi* s<>n became the editor. 

Nardi, of a noble family and high in office, famed for a 
translation of Livy which rivals iis'original hi iho pleasure 
it affords, in his retirement from public affairs wrote a his- 
tory of Florence, whirh closes with the loss of the liberty 
of 'his country, in 1531. It was not published till fifty 
years after hi<! death; even then the editors suppressed 
manv pas^i.iges which are fiiund in manuscript in the li- 
braries of Florenre and Venice, with other historical docu- 
ments of this noble and patriotic historian. 

Ab«)iit Ihe same time th«* senator Philip Nerfi was 
writing hi«« • Commcnta/j tie* fatti civili* which had oc- 
currrd in Florenre. He gave ihem wirh his dving hand 
to his nephew, who presented the MSS to tlhe Grand 
Diike ; yet although thifc work is rather an apology than a 
criniir.niion of the Medici family for their ambitious views 
and their over-grown fniwer, probably some slate-reason 
interfered to prevent the publication, which did not take 
plare till 150 vears after the death r>f the historian ! 

Beninrdo Scgni com|iosed a history of Florenre PtiU 
more valuable, which shared the same fate as that of Nerii. 
It was only after his deaih that his relatives accidentally 
discovered this history of Florence, which the author had 
carefully concealed during his lifetime. He had abslvned 
fn>m communicating to any one the existence of such a 
work while he lived, that he might not be induced todierk 
the freedom of his pen. nor com|Homise the cause and the 
interests of truth. His heirs presented it to one of tfie 
Medici family, who threw it aside. Another copy had 
been more careftilly preserved, from which it was printed, 
in 1713, sbfitii 150 year<« afler it had been written. It ap- 
pears to have excited great ciiriositv, for Lenglet du Fres- 
noy observes, that ihe scarcity of this history is owing to 
the circiimstsnrc 'of the Grand Duke having bought up 
the- copi*fii.* I)ii Fresnoy, iiideed, haa noticed more than 
once this sort of address of the Grand Duke ; for he ob- 
serves on the Florenlino hi«lorv of Bniio, that the work 
was not common ; the Grand Duke having bought up the 
copies, lo supiircFS ihem. The author was even obliged 
to flv from Italy, for having delivered his opinions too 
freely on the house of Ihe Medici. Thi« honest historian 
thus Expresses himself at the close ofhis work. * My de- 
sign ha« but one end ; that our posterity mav learn hy 
thes** notices the root and Ihe causes of so many troubles 
which we have suffered, while ihev expose the maligniiy 
of those men who have raised them up. or prolonged them ; 
as well as the goodness of those who dio all which they 
could to turn them away.' 

* They were printed at Basle in 1fi6D— at London In 180S— 
In Amsterdam. }W9. Hnw msrv attemps m echo the voice 
of suppressod truth !— Uo jm*a Bib. Ital- 100%. 



II WM the Mine motire, the femr of oAeoding the great 
peranoagee or their famiiiee, of whom these hinorians had 
so fipeelj wnltm, which det#»rred Benedetto Varchi fnan 
puhKchicg his weH-lmown * Storie Florentine,* which was 
not ^ven to the world till 17f 1, a period which appears to 
have roused the slumhers of the literary men of Italv to 
recnr to their native historians. Varchi, who wrote with 
so mnch seal the history of his Tatber-land, is noticed by 
Nardi as one who never took an actiTe uart in the events 
he reenrds ; never having; comlMned with any psrty, and 
fivinf merdy as a specutor. This historian closes the 
narrative of a horrid cnme of Peter Lewis Famese with 

* I know well this story, with 
freely exposed, may horeafier 
history ; but also 1 know, that 

said oil this siibject, the Krcat 

dnty of an historian is not to be more careful of the repu- 
tation of persons than is suitable with truth, which is to be 
preferred to all things, however detrimental it may be to 
the writer.** 

Such was that free manner of thinking and of writing 
which prevailed in these Italian historians, who, often 
firing in the midst of the ruins of popular freedom, poured 
forth their injured feeHnfii in their secret paiees ; without 
the hope, and perhaps without th« wish, of seeing them 

Siiblished in their life-time : a glorious ezan^e of sel^ 
enial and lofty patriotism ! 

Had it been' inquired of these writers why they did not 
publish their histories, they might have answered, 

tluv admirable reflection 
many others which 1 have 
preyrnt the reading of my 
besides what Tacitus has 


nearlv the words of an ancient sagr, ' Because I am not 

permitted to write as I would ; and I wouM not write as I 
■m permitted.* We cannot imacine that these ;rf at men 
were in the least insensible fn the applause they denied 
themselves; thev were not of tempers to be turned aside ; 
and it was the highest motive which can inspire an histo- 
rian, a stem devotion to truth, which reduced th«>m to si- 
lence, but not to inactirity ! These Florentine and Vene- 
tian historians, ardent with truth, and profound in political 
sagacity, were solely writing these legacies of history for 
their countrymen, hnpelevs of their sraiifude ! If a French- 
man wrote the English hl«tory, that labour was the ali- 
ment of his own elory ; if Hume and Robertson dcvuted 
their pens to history, the motive of the task was less glo- 
rious than their work : but here we discover a race of his- 
torians, whose patrioiinn alone instigated their secret la- 
bour, and who substituted for fiime and fortune that 
nightier spirit, which, amidst their conflicting passions, 
has developed the truest principles, and even the errors, 
of Political Freedom! 

None of these hivtoriatis, we have seen, piiblinhed their 
works in their life-time. I have called them the saints of 
historv. rather than the martrrs. One. however, had the 
intrepidity to risk this awful responsibility, and he stands 

* Mjr friend Mnrivale, whnss critical rewtarrh is onlv equal. 
led bv the elecance of his taiie, has rnppijed me with a note 
which proves^ but too well, that even writers who compoM 
uninfluenced by fmnf feeTinfs. may no*, however, be euffi. 
denily scrupoloos In weirMng the fviilence of the fkcts whirli 
Cbev collect. Mr Merivale observes. * The etran?e and im. 
pmihalile narrative with vhkh Varchi has the misfortune of 
ckwinr his hbcory, should not have been even hinted at with. 
out addinc. that ii is denounced bv other writers as a most im. 
pude t forgery, inver ted years after the orcurrenee is mipfto- 
sad tn have happened, by the " A]vwtate** bls'iop Pfinis Pan. 
Ins VsnreriusL Bee its fifutttk>n in AmianI, Hist di Fano n, 
149 et seq. 100. 

* Varrhi^s •*harscter, as an hlotnrian. cannot hut suffer great. 
ly fmm bin bavin? given it inwrtinn on such amhorty. The 
rssponribiliiy of an author for the truth of what he relates 
•houM render us very caudotis of giTing credit tn the writers 
of memoirs not iniemled tn see the lif hi till a diAant period. 
The rredihilHy of Vergerius. aa an acknowledeed libeller of 
Pope PanI III. and his family, appears siill more concltisively 
from his artirle in Bayle, note K.* It mii»i be addeil, that the 
calumny of Vercerins mav be foimd in Wolflns's LecL Mem. 
n. 001, in a trart de Idoln Lanreiano. piiblis bed 1550. Varrhi 
Is more partkohir in his details of this monstrous tale. Ver. 
gerius^ libels, urlversaHy reail at the time, though they were 
colleeted afierwards. are now not to be met with, even in pub* 
He IfbrarW^ Whether there was any truth in the story of 
Peter Lewis Famese 1 know : but crimes of as monstrous 
a die occur In the autbe> tic Guicriardini. The ttcfj \b not 
yet fbraoden, sinee in the last etlttinn of Haym*s Biblioiera 
Ilallana, ilie best ediikm i« marked as that which at p. 03P 
contains < lasreleraiezza di Pier Lewis Famese.* I am of 
opinion thai Varrhi believed the stoir, by the solemnly of his 
praposiiifln. Whatever be iu truth, the hlsUMiaa*a fiBeling 

elrvaiad and tatrepkL 

forth among the tnoat iOi 
historical manyrdom! 

This great historian is Giannoiw, 
the kingdom of Naplea is rrasai 
inquiries concerning the civil and 
tion, the laws and cttttoas of tbat 
interruptions from his profcsaioiial 
twenty years were consumed in wrritiBg dw hinrj. b' 
searches on ecclesiastical osurpatioas, Uid mwm i» 
tures on the clergy, are the cfaioT suhiccla of hiihdiB 
unreserved pen. These pasaagos, carkmn, grast ato 
diffnant, wera afterwards eztracfed frtMi wm kmmi 
Vemet, and published in a anal! voluaie, ^dsrifeia 
of * Anecdotes Eedeaiasliqiies,* 1738. WhcaG^H 
ccmsulted with a friend on the nropriety of pahMaiii 
history, his critic, in adnuriaf ton work, predicted Aiift 
of the author. *Toa bavn,' said be, *^tagti mm 
head a crown of thorns^ andof very ahaip oncs^ At'b 
torian set at nan^t his own personal rrpona ; asd all 
this elaborate history saw the lifhu FVob ilat nan 
the historian never enjoyed a day of qinct! BaH» 
tempted at first to eitiagnish the author wiib his wnkd 
the books were seized on ; and copiea of ibr frsi mm 
are of extreme rarity. To escape the fanfs nf isii» 
rial power, the historian of Naples Iktw fron Kapns 
the publication of bis immortal work. TThe l^nn ■ 
excommunicated author sought an asylnia ai Ti^ 
where, thouf h he found no friend in the esspeisr, wm 
Eugene and other nobles became his pnirsns. Fsea 
to quit Vienna, he retired to Veniee, vtben a nrv f(» 
cution arose from the jealo«isv of the siain inqnisiiiaass . 
one night laiided him on the l>orders of the pofr*s di^ 
ions. Escaping unexpectedly with his life to Gtaen.* ' 
was preparing a supplemental volume to his cckknK 
historv, when, enticed by a treacherous friend to a cv*^ 
lie rilfatre, Giannone was arrested by an order of tbr ta| 
of Sardinia ; his manuscripts were sent to Romc. as^ii 

a fort. 









historian imprisoned in a fort. It is curkms thai ikf » 

Prisoned Giannone wrote a vindiraiion of the r^hts of « 
ing of Sardinia, against the claims of the court of Rev. 
This powerful ap|ieal to the feelings of this 
at first favourably received ; but, under the 
ence of Rome, the Sardinian monarch, on the 
nary plea that he kept Giannone as a prisoner 'tf tm 
that he miffht preserve him from the papal power, orseif 
that the vindicator of his richts should be more ri'se* 
confined than beftjre ! and, for this purpose, tranifip^ 
his statC'prisoner to the Citadel of Turin, where, die 
twelve years of persecution and of agitation, our 0«tf 
bi'toriaii closed his life ! 

Such was the fate of this historical martyr. 
the catholic Haym describes as opera srratt 

fuoeo e troppa hotrta. He hints that this Hi ^ 

paralleled by De Thou*s great work. Thi* Italian Isvo? 
will ever be ranked among the most philoiv»phicaL BriL 
profound as was the masculine genius of fiismiimi^ s^ 
was his love of fame, that he wanted the intrepidirv mf^ 
site to deny himself the delight of gtvin|r his bistosy M lis 
world, though some of his great predecessors bm^ g^ |m 
a noUe and dignified example. 

One more observation on these Italian historiaflB. AI 
of them represent man in his darkest c«*loars : their i 
is terrific ; the actors are monsters of perfidT, of 
manity, and inventors of crimes which seem' to wi 
namel They were all ' princes of dai^nesn ;* and ibe tfi 
seemed to afford a triumph ti) Manieheism ! The 
passions were called into play by all parties. Bat if i 
thing is to be sscribed to the manners of the times, 
more may be traced to that science of pchties, whicft 
sought for mastery in an undefinable stroggfe of uafowtn- 
able political power ; in the remorvelem ambit ion rf ihs 
despots, and the hatreds and jeakNisies of the 1 1 nuhfc ■ 
These Italian historians have formed a perpetual satim 
on the contemptible simulation and dissimnlafton. and tLi 
inexpiable crimes of that system of politics, which kns de- 
rived a name from one of themselves— the great, may vs 
add, the calumniated, Machiavel ? 


Our ministers and court favourites, as well 
the continent, practised a very impolitic 
likely to be repeated, although it has never failed m can a 
popular odium on their name, exciting sren the cnrr if 
their equals— in the erecuon of palaces for 



•hidi outvied tbote of the ■overeign ; and which, to the 
mt of iIm populaee, appemred ai a perpetual and inso- 
leal exhibit ioB of what they deemed the ill-earned waget 
oTpoariaikiB, oppreeatoo, and court-favour. We diaoover 
iM aaductioii or this paeaion roroeientation, this haughty 
HMO of tbeir power, and thia self-idolatry, even amoog 
db^ wanm, pradeot and the wisest of our ministers ; and not 
one but liVod to lament over this vain act of imprudence. 
To these ministers the noble simplicity of Pitt will ever 
farm an admirable contrast ; while )p personal character, 
maaaiaeawn, deseeads to postenty, unstained by ca- 

The bonnes of Cardinal Wolsey appear to have exceed- 
ed ibe palaces of the sovereign in magnificence ; and po- 
taai aa ho was in all the pride of pomp, the ' great Car- 
4maF feoad rabid envy pursuing him ao rfciae ai nis heels, 
■^ "^ raliaqttiahed one palaee after tha other, and gave 
" to tbe monarch, what, in aU his overgrown 
• he trembled to r«un lor himsolf. The state 
of that day was o(^ pointed at this very circuro- 
staaeo, M appMrs in Skiltoa's *Why come ye not to 
Oaortf aad Roy*s < Rede me, and be not wrothe.* Skel- 
IM^ railiRg rhymes leave their bitter teeth in his purple 
yriie ; aad the style of both these satirists, if we use our 
mm orthographv, shows how little the language of iha 
•■■Ha paopM MS varied during three centuriea. 

Set op the wretch on high 
In a throne uiumphsnily ; 
Make him a great state 
And he will pUy check-male 

Wkh royal majesty 

The King*s Court 
§houl«l have the excencaos, 
But HampcoQ Court 
Hath the pre-emioence ; 
And Tork*8 Place 
With my Lord's grace. 
Te whoee magniflcence 
Is all the confluence, 
Bulls, and soppllcations ; 
Erobasslee or all nationa. 

Eaf , ia eoatemplating the oalace, is malidoasly re- 
■iiM of tha butcher*B lad, and only gives plain aenae in 

Baih the Cardinal any gay manstoa ? 
Oreai palares without comparison. 

Most glorious of outward sight, 
And whhin decked point^det loi,* 
More like unin a paradiRe 

Than an earth I v habitation. 
Be Cometh then of some noble stoOc ? 
Bis fbiher couH match a bullock, 

A butcher by his occupation. 

Whatavar wa nwv now think of the stmctorej and the 
W apartaaeata of Wolaey*s palace, it is described not 
Sily ia bis own times, bat much later, as of unparalleled 
■na j firw aoe ; and iadoed Cavendish's narrative of the 
CanKaars eatertaiament of the French ambassadora, 
fifca aa idea of the miaiaterial-prelate's imperial esla- 
Ihahaaant, very panlinc to the comprehension of a mo- 
4mm 'wmp^aor. Six hundred norsons, I think, were haa- 
faacad aad slapt in an abode which appears to us so mean, 
lat which Sum caHa ' so statelv a palace.* To avoid 
the odiaaa of Evinf in thia splendid edifice, Wdsey pre- 
Matod it ta die king, who. in recompense, suffered the 
Caidiaal oeeaaionally to inhabit this wonder of England, 
a Iha character of keeper of the king's palace .'f so that 
Woleay only dared to live in his own palace by a subter- 
face ! This perhapa was a tribate which ' minsterial 
ba t 'b ti *'— pud to popular feeling, or to the jealousy of a 
ivval saaatcr. 

1 havo ebawhare shown the extraordinary elegance and 
fradiffality of expcadiiifre of Buckingham's reaidencea ; 
Aey ware each aa to have extorted the wonder, even of 

e Fnint^vtca, aterm incenfousty erpFafned by my learned 
Itsad Mr Douce. Be thinks that it is borrowed fVom the la 
fesara of the needle, as we haT« point-face, so point •«1«vlce, I. 
a. pnim. a siHch, and devise, deriwd or in ventint • applied to 
is arlbL any thing uncommonly eracf, or work^ fvtth the 
Bwty aad preclsjnn of akches made or rfeir|«erf brthA needle. 

JevM, or a iriven point. Md hence ex.1 -*' fZll^JT^Ll 
Joner*. ToL IV, ItT 8« fbr rariou. V^ Cg^T ^?* t f 

Alt Pofnt^feriM, 
rirsas r. ML 


Bassompierre, and onqueationably excited the indigaatmi 
of those who bved in a poor court, while our gay and 
thoughtless minister alone could indulge ia the wanton pro> 

But Wtdsey and Buckingham were ambitiooa and ad« 
venturous ; they rose and shone the comets of tbe political 
horizon of Europe. The Roman tiara still haunted the 
imagination of the Cardinal : and the egotistic pride of 
having out-rivalled Richelieu and Olivarex, the nomiaal 
ministers but the real sovereigns of Europe, kindled the 
buoyant amrits of the gay, the gallant, and the apleadid 
Villiers. But what * folly of the wise' must account for 
the conduct of the profound Clarendon, and the aensible 
Sir Robert Walpole, who, like the other two mimatera^ 
equally became the victims of this imprudent passion for 
the ostentatious pomp of a palace. This magnificence looki» 
ed like the vaunt of msolence in the eyea of the pecfde, 
and covered the ministers with a popular odium. 

Clarendon Houae is now only to be viewed in a print; 
bat its story remains to be told. It was built on the site 
of Graftoo-atreet ; and when aAerwarda purchaaed by 
Monk, the Duke of Albemarle, he left his title to that 
well known-street. It was an edifice of conaiderable ex* 
tent and grandeur. Clarendon reproachea himaelf in bin 
life for * his weakness and vanity,' in the vast expeaae ia- 
curred in this buildmg, which he acknowledges had * mora 
contributed to that gust of envy that had so violently sha^ 
ken him, than any misdemeanor that he was thought to 
have been guilty of.' It ruined his estate ; but he had 
been encouraged to it by the roval grant of the land, by 
that passion for building to whicn he owns ' he was natu- 
rally too much inclined,' and perhaps by other circirai- 
siances, amoog which was the opportunitv of purchaainf 
the stones which had been designed fur the rebuiMing or 
St Paul's : but the envy it drew on him, and the exceaa 
of the architect's nroposed expense, had made his life 
< very uneasy, and near insupportable.' The truth ia, 
that when this palace was finished, it was imputed to him 
aa a state-crime ; all t!ie evils in the nation, which were 
then numerous, pestilence, conflagration, war, and defeat8| 
were discovered to be in some way connected with Glarea- 
don4iouse ; or, as it was popularly called, either Dunkirk- 
House, or Tangier-Hall, from a notion that it had been 
erected with the golden bribery which the chanceUor had 
received for the sale of Dtmkirk and Tangiers. He waa re- 
proached with having profaned the sacred stones dedicated 
to the use of the church. The great but unfortunate maa> 
ter of this palace, who, from a private lawnrer, had raiaed 
himself by alliance even to royalty, the (athernn-law of 
Uie Duke of York, it was maliciously suggested, had per^ 
suaded Charles the Second to raarrv the Infanta of Porto- 
gal, knowing (but how Clarendon obtain«d the knowledge, 
his enemieshave not revealed) that the PorUi(^iteee Pnn- 
cess was not likely to raise any obstacle to tbe mheritanca 
of bis own daughter to the throne. At the Reatoration, 
among other enemies, Clarendon found that the royalisCa 
were none the least active ; he was reproached by tbea 
for preferring thoae who had been the caaae of thair kla 
troubles. The same reproach baa beea iaa a rrad ia Iha 
late restoration of the Bourbona. It ia perhapa dMoolt 
and more political to mainuin active mea, who have ob- 
tained power, than to reinstate inforior talealt, who at 
least have not their popularity. This is oae of no pual- 
lel cases which so frequently strike us in exptoriiig political 
history ; and the ultroM of Louis the Eighteeain are only 
the rmfntuU of Charles the Second. There wai a atroag 
popular delusion carried on by the wits and the JIfusss, 
who formed the court of ChaHes the Second, that the go- 
vemrornt was as much sliared by the Hydes aa the Sto- 
arts. We have in the state-poems, an unsparing lampooa 
entitled, * Clarendon's Hnuee-warming ;' but a satire yieldl 
ing nothing in severity I have diacovered in maBineripl;^ 
and it is also remarfcable for turning chiefly on a pua o 
the family name of the Rari of Clarendon. The witty 
and malicious rhymer, after making Charlea the Seeoaa 
demand the great seal, and resolve to be his own 
cellor, proceeds, reflectmg oo the great political — ^ 

Ln! his whole ambttioe already dividea 
The sceptre between the Stuarts and the Hydea. 
Behold, in the depth of our plague and ware, 
He built him a palace oiit-braves the stars ; 
Which house (we Dunkirk, he Clarendoa, \ 
Lodks down with shame upon St Jamea ; 
But 'IH not bia goldea gkibe that wifl aave hioh 



BeiBf leM than tbc cattom-lioufe farmera gave him ; 

Hia diapel for eootecraiiun calls, 

Wbote sacri^efe plubdered iIm sumes from Paui'». 

When Qiie^o Dido landed nhe boujht a« much f^ruund 

As the Hffig <*f a lury fai bull would surround ; 

But n hen ibe said Hijde was cui mto tboass, 

A citT and kinedom to Hyde belongs : 

So here in c<iuri, church. aixJ cf»\-, far and wide, 

Here's nauehi lo be seen but Hyde f Hyde ! Hyde ! 

Of old, and where law ih^ kinffdimi divides, 

'Twas our hides of land, 'ti* now land cf Hydes! 

Clarrndon^ouse was a palace, which had been rai«ed 
with ai least as much fondness an pride : ami EveUn tells 
M, that the garden was planne'l hv himself and hn lord- 
■hip; but the cost, as ufuaj, lr»«hlc<i the calciilaiiun, ar.d 

and as if master of some invisiUe whwptrkf paLt-LBl 
j secrets of christian pnnoes niec ml hbcloact. WoHrml 
! then il h«' bequeathed no f rest wealth to his d 
I ms privateiy iraerrtd in the quire of I^uf s a* 

I edto fu» ereditan. thoufh DM no mucli as oar 

! debred lo his memory.' 

j Some curious in^'uirtfr najr aflToH on a caraV^ 



tb« noUe roaster griered in siience amidsf thi^ splcncid 
pila of architecture.* Even wiicn in his exile the Mie 
«•> proposed to pay his debts, and secure some prrfvisinn 
fiir bis jtNinger chiliiren. he honestly tells us, that • h** re- 
nUMd still so infatuated with the delight he had enjnvej, 
that though he was deprived of it, he hearkened vervun- 
wyiinglj to the advice.' In 1683 Clarendon-House' met 
ha (ate, and was abandoned to the brokers, who had pur- 
chased it for its materials. An aflecting rircum«rarice is 
recorded by Evelyn on this occasion. In returning to 
town with the Earl of Clarendon, the son of the sreat 
earl, ' in passing by the giorinus palace hi« father btnlt but 
hw years before, which they were now Jcmulishio;, being 
•old to certain undertakers,! tiin.ed mv head th«* con'rarv 
way till the coach was gone post by, least I might minis'- 
ter occasion of speaking of if. which must meHs have 
grieved him, that m so short a lime this pomp was f^lien.' 
A feeling of infinite delicacy, so perfectly cbaractcritiiic 
of Evelm ! 

And now to bring down this subject lo times still near. 
er. We find that Sir Robert Walpole had placed himself 
exactly in the siMiation of the great minister we have no- 
ticed ; we have hi« conf^*sion to his hnither Lord "Walooie, 
and to his friend Sir J<'hn Hynde Cotton* Th>> hisfirian 
of this mini«ter f»b<erves, that his magnificf ni hiii'dincs ar 
Hougliton drew on him great obloquy. On si-eing his~bro- 
Iher'a house at Wolierlon, Sir Ro|>«'rt exi»-f55< d "his u ii«h- 
ea that he had ronrented himself \%tih a similar >tniruirr. 
In the reign of Anne, Sir Robert silting bv Sir Jofin Hvnde 
Coflrsn, alluding to a sumptuous hmisf\«hirh was then 
bniMing by Hariey. observed, that to crmsfrucl a grrat 
house was a high act of imprudence in any mint*:pr I It 
was a long time after, when b** bad hfcftnti prime mini«. 
ter, that he forgot the whole rcMili of th*» pu-nent ariir'p, 
and pulled down his family mansion at Hoiivhton to builil 
ila magnificent f*difire ; it was then Sir Jt>hn Hvndc Cotton 
reminded him of the refI<'Clion which he had rn.-i<1e «ome 
years ago: the reply of Sir Robert is remarkable — ' Your 
recnllecrion is toola'e ; I wi>h you had rfm\nd*H\ me of it 
before I began buikling, for then it might have been of ser- 
vice ro roe!' 

Tlie siateaman and p(4itician then are susceptible of 
all the se«luction of ostentation and thf pride of pomp ! 
Wkoeo«ilH have credited II? But b*-wildirfd wiihf>ow*^r. in 
the magnificence and masniiiide of the ediHce.t whrh tliVir 
eolnssal greatn*-88 inhabits, they seem to contemplate on 
Us image ! 

Sir Francis Wal«ingham died and left nothing to pay his 
debts, a« annear* hv a curious fart noticed in thf :innnv- 
nofts li'e ofSir Phi in Si<lnev prefixi'd to the ArrnHia.and 
eriden'lv written by one acquainted with the f imily hi«*r»>- 
ry of his frien*! and hero. The chivalrir Sidn^-, though 
pought af^er bv court lieautieii. solirited Ihe hand of the 
daughter of Waismgham, although, as it appearR. she 
CfwIH have had no other portion than her own virtues and | 
her father's name. *And herein,* observes our anonvmousi I 
biographer. * he was exemplary to all gendcmon hot to I 
carry their love in their purses.' On tiiis be notices this I 
aecr^i htatoryofWal«ingham. 

• This is that Sir Pranci* who imnoverished himself to ' 
enrich t*»e state, and indeed made Eng'and his hnr; and 
was so far from building up of for'uno bv iho brncfit of his 
place, that he demo^ifched that fine estate l^'fi by his an- 
certors to purrha«* t^fnr intelligence from ail parts of 
Christendom. He had a kev to unlock the pop«''s rnbinet • ! 
• At the ir^t'wsy of the Three Kinc's Inn. n^nr Dover- j 
*reet. In Pirca^lllv. are two pUaners wiih rorinlhian rspira]*. ! 
whk:h beloneed to C fa rendoo- House, and arc perhap the only I 
rsmaina of that edifice. J 


great ministers of state who have Toluniarily 

augmentation of their private fortune, whi^ ifaew orfs 
tiieir days to the nobii pursuits of patnoiie giorv' '» 
labour of this rest-arcb will be freat, and iW sn 



j Such was the title of a famous political tfacf. i^n 
j at a momrnt when a pt-oplc, in a state of Msnrmnac 
• forth a declaration that taxati<m was rvranar ! L ■■« 
acainst an insignificant lax they proiesxed, bat im 
t;.xatian itseif! and in (he temper of the mf istLsi 
stract proposition appeared an insoleiit paradai. I n 
instantly run down bv that everlaniinff pan? Hw* i iti 
back as in the laws of our Henry the First /are doom 
by the odd descriptive term of aeephali, «, p^ttk w^ 
tuadM !* the strange equably of leTellrrs ! ^ 

These political monsters in all times have bai «■» 
ciaiioo of ideas of fojctitioii and fyramiy, and wrtw 
one name instantly suggests the other : Thm hawH i 
tooneGigliof Sienni, who published the first Mr."! f 
dicii-mary of the Tuscan language.f of which irVS ' 
leaves amused the Fknrntines ; these haviitf kae a ' 
honour of bring consigned to the flamee br the hma i 
the hangman fur certain popular errors ; vodi a«.i»»> 
stance, under the word Gram Duca we find ITdl^ 
Mli I (see Taxes !) and the word GahrUa was rsvxm.. 
by a reference lo Gran Dmea I Grand-I^ke ane ia 
were synonymes, according to this mordacious )et«iY> 
phcr ! Such gnrvinces, and the mode of expresaiag '» 
are ec tally anci'^r. A Roman consul, bv Irwiag i » 
on Malt during' the Punic «iar, was nicknamed aaSatf 
and condemned by the • majesty' of ihe people ! Eeis: 
formerly done his 'duty to the country, but the sdbr •« 
now hi9 reward ! Hi' retired from ftome, let his >Ki 
grow, and by his sordid dress, and melancholr air eras 
his acute sensibiity. The Romans at lenir*li wanted -> 
»alter to command the army — as an injured man be ^ 
fusf-H — but he wa* told iha't he should bear the raV^cr i 
the Roman peopl«.« with the tenderness of a son fnr iher> 
moiirs of a parent ! He had lost his repntatira bv a r> 
•lucMve tax on salt, though this tax had provided an a-a* 
and oh'ained a victory ! 

Certain it is that Gu'li and his numerous adherents i- 
wrong ; for were they freed from all restraints as moci v 
if iliey *lfpt in forests and not in houses r wererheva. 
habitants of wilds and not of ciiies, we% that everv m 
shrmld he his own law.giver, with a perpeioal jii.^,.^ f 
from all taxation, we could not necessanly infer their i^ 
litical happiness. There are nations wliere tawira s 
hardly known, foi the people exist in such iirier wuIjAjJ- 
n*»*s, that they are too poor lo be taxed : of whieh tae 
Chinese, among othem, exhibit remarkable iastanceL 
When Ner<. woultl have ab«ilished all taxes, in h»s exce^ 
sive pa*«ion for fiopulanty, the senate thanked hin fvka 
gf»od will to Ihe people, but assured him that this was a 
cvrtain means not of repairing, but of niininr the cnev 
monwealth. Bodin, in his nirious work • the Republic* 
has noticed a class of pr>liticians who are in twt great 
favour with the people. ' Many seditious citizens and de- 
sirous of innovations, did of Kite years promise immwi-v 
of taxes and subsidies to our people ; but neither oMid 
ihev do it, or if they could have done il, ihey would not; 
"Oiwel's Ir.terpretor. art. Acephall. This we m- 
expi'iHe.My fin<l in a snvc antiquarian l8w.|Iirtii*Rarr ' r«> 
liahly rlerive.1 (mm Pliny's description of a people whom snve 
iraveUers h; d nnoneil to have (oiind in this' ia 
their lri?hi sml haste in atiom|-iine lo land on a hoeti^e rhrn 
ninonc I lu'iiavn CCS. How it came to be inirodoccd into !**# 
laws of Henry the First renialns lo be toM ».v some prvir.^nr-4 
anilquarv ; bui it wn* common In the niiildle aces. Cowe' 
fciys. 'Th(w are colled ncephali who were the levellers of 
that nsf. a:iil ackriowleilge.l i.o head or i«nperK^r. 

f Viirrttmlari.^ di Snnia Cafrrina e liella l.inrua S<«Pe« 
1717. Thti* punr.«m lexicon w.m prr.hiliiud At Rome bv de^rrr 
of the Court of Floreiirr. The hsmrv of ihi* minpreived 
work mj>v be f »iin'l in II Giormie dp' Leitcrati d' Italia. Toipo 
Txix— 1410. Tn the Ian eilition of Havm'a * Bihli(«(ec.-i hsH- 
a'<«.' 1S03. It Is wild to be reprinieil at Manilla, neiP Isle* FB- 
Ijppine .'—For the book-ljcensen It is a gnn way to ^ for k 


( «r if 11 vgisilaiiF.ihaukl ws hm ut coamawMUs, be- | Mnlihiiumud prinuil)' on ih* ri|hi cTclHiian of aafifc 

a h(lllo(i.«nd«nilfo<indilioiiorono.'* I rrttH, aiwilia laluiu inong U ' ' ' ■"■- 

■ Thsuwliipiutd uid naknlirrni of ' luuioa' u, how. I ,iut. Tlic qualioii of nowy «■ 
i aw, »odiou> m the [xiiplr, ihiL ii ni}' Ik cuiidu* Id ot^ I mnliWB. Bui in Ei>|lti>d U >■ 

■ Moeiheiru fnaavd bj lanrtuotnu, tat oicnbjr iho | idiDioT luea iho ablnl putudaKHi >lo(|iitai U*tiwa 

I IdAio finl br»kin(oul oT Iho Anorwaii IroublH, llwjr | uifl;cred.'* 

■1 ocden al Ui 

prabiMv "-Kild ban ..«««) la Ihe mothorrfoiiolry 
ritlita/taMalknt,m->i<GtihftMtcnB ngvlanan [it ib 

e ptnj clunoniwljr iMani ihu U 

obttrru, Lhil * Iha <liiiincIion bFlneea (oj 
tauainiMio Ml*l' Even dMpoiie p.- 
enadauended lodnjuM ih« coninbuiioiu 
bjaoas appellilini "hich ihould iiaill} 

A tun of phi|."of.hiiil hitiorj of wniion tppetn a 
IhaMTrwiTa nTW'-od, iihnbauiryonHoBKr. Hittalla 
(■Ihii 'ihtpivwiU (a iiriDof MiriuiTa(ij[DlS«lioa in 
ihaEaB) wliich ■redi'ilribuled (bbwII)' bf ifw bashaw of 
Daina»:u> to thr: tcnnl Arab prineaj (hnujrti whoia lor- 
rito'T he Fundui'ta the raraTan of uilirina lo Mecca, are, 
M Comlan'inntiln. called a/ree fill, and cnntidered aa aa 

vhieh rh« ajijufllmrnl of Iheeo /«* prod 
ooaalaia of ro*6(Tji, aiwl th« Aiabj of™'" 

ninion of f 
bloody coni 

Ij waa .lire 
paid onlr aa 

ling or'aialK.D.' Dba<r>i Mr Hallim, ' ■• 

f^fnii^ apfbtd: Inplainer wordi, ihia only iipiifiea, 

ihe adniniiiiklion, it Mlowi ihal ' laulioo la no Ifrauif ;* 
Dr Johntna ihan waa MrriblT abiued id hb day Ibr a mr 
d( praters >HJUIa . 

Siiil thall Uie hidoccdI word ba hateful, and Ihe peopit 
inll lurn ann oo Iheir beal frknd, who in tdninialratHn 

Rooun SalhiatBr! An* 

pei^plof and 

r iho pn-lainry wariof EnElaod.hebnuchl 
dnard the Pnirih bran anniitl lunof lifi; 
I, tn be paid al London, and likawian i<>Di- 
le Enfliah miniiiori. Holiogahead asd ill 
ill ihii a yarij triAvtr ; bvi Cominca, tht 



•ofi nimet lo hard Ihinfa. bj Tsiiinc a Irraonical acL br a 

tion. When it wai fonnrrlf thou^hl doirahle, in iho re~ 

laiation of moral! which iHvmled inTeaicato inililuie 
tha offlce ••tcrttor. ihn* maptlratee wtre elected beannt 
Ihii lilloibul il aeeraod aoh*rth and auDaro inlhnl dioi- 
palednif, thai Iheae refonnera of mannen wereeompelln! 

HTt. but I dfiuri IKT^ it imuiHrt ddia eUta, all Iprsd 
onlbeiiroprirly oflheolSeaundrrlhe anfirnnJ term. Fa- 
ther Jofcpfi ih- "ecrel aient of Cardinal Richrlieii, waa 
Iho intisnior of leOcrt ik caltliit, dn-cniaiDt thai intirument 
of dMirammby ihe amtiainf lerm of atalidliU^, Kl- 

nill of ihil bUlH-dima. a ••»l«d lelKr from hit niaje>tf ! 

like other mere abilraci 
inhere* in aomo aeniib 
rormed lo iuelf aone fa' 

nance, bcconee ihe crii 
paited ihal Uvn (real ci 


tiiuiion, if n.* alwtie in ii> pr»cli( 
itinii mwarJi the feeling of Ih* 

m hiite the nam ' 

Ikhmmt. An I 
lon|[ the irfficc of puit-Tance. A purieyor waa an dA- 

proiirenea or jnumrjri. Hii sppreatiTa office, by arbi- 
tranlv filing Ihe markel-fincta, and compelling IhecomifT- 

H, would conceal in nature '. The term oflcn 
ngi-ly coniraaied wilhlhelhinf ilulf. Lenei 
>re ioni lai-td undrr the pathetic appeal of 

I greal journey,' and afterwarda having * rode 
ore pan of the land*, an<l uted ihe people in 
nner.lhallhryerelibpralinlheir ■!().; Old 

med abri^eiMe,' Ed-1'rd'lV w""" 

"oiJ^'. KCing k'iied'a wXw°for ha<rinf c^trib<i?od ■ 

nierjared al Ihe lintular honour and dalighl Ihal aha 
doublrdher 6nnalima. and a arcnnd kin had ruhied her! 
hit in Ihe lurciieitmf reignnf Riehud III, Ihe lana bad 

which Ihe I>ilie of Bucliinfham delinrtd frea lb* Huat- 
inii in Guildhall, he eiplained ihe term to Ihe •aliibelina 

(entir call ' anpplii 

nwiont <if whai. . . 

' Ihe pitii-ibte name of ftc 

'w« held m Ihe lime of Eilward IV, your 

inBuch'e Life of Richard III, n 

e Ihal of all UBurpa 

Tern) a Mcli opinion. Yen 

f Wood'a Ingnlrj oo Homer, p 
IBodin'ar"""'"*-""^" i™" 

d under llicie preleadad ^A*. 

pnee to imiiiw. broer then Iha 
'tn madebjBarrlDgtiinaeaft of 


Hit ■neeewor, howerer, fbuDd meam to lerv * a be- 
Bevoioaee ;* but when Henry YUI denuded one. the 
ciiisein of London appeeled to the act of Richard III. 
Cardinal WoUejr inusted that the law oT a murdenius 
iMurper ahoiild not be enforced. One of the conunon- 
oouncil eoormeeoiulj replied, that *Kin|| Richard, c«in- 
iointly with parliament, had enacted many good sfatuten.' 
Kven then the ciiiien seeun to bare eumprehended the 
apiril of our consututioo— that taxes should nut be raised 
without ooQseni oT fiarliament ! 

Charles the First, amidst his urf ent wants, at first had 
hoped, by the pathetic appeal to benevolcneet that he should 
bare touched the hearts of his unfriendly cummitnerv : but 
the term of bemevUenee proved unlucky.' The rcsi^ters of 
taxatioH look fuil advantage of a sifnificant mesniii?, which 
bad long been lost in the custom ; ase>ertinf by ints nrry 
term that all levies of money were not compulsory, but thn 
voluBlary fifts of the people. In that political crisis, when 
in tbo fnflnesB of time all the national grievances, which 
bad hitherto been kept down, startird up with one voice, 
the courteous term strangely contrasted with the rough 
demand. Lord Di^by said ''the granting of stUmdieSf un- 
der ao preptisterous a name as of a 6enero/»ice, was — a 
WM t ev ot tn ci J' And Mr Grim^tone <jb<ervtK}, ihat * Thtry 
have granted a benevolence, but the ita'ure of the thing 
agrees not with the name,* The nature indeed had so 
oniirely changed from the name, that when James I had 
tried to warm the hearts of his * henrvolent' pe<»{ilp, he got 
* little money, and lost a great deal of love.* ' Srjbsidies,* 
that is, grants made by parliament, observes Arthur Wil- 
aoo, a dispassionate historian, * get more of the people's 
nonev, but exactions enslave the mind.* 

When benevolenen had become a gnevance, to diminiftli 
the odium they invented more inviting phrases. The sub- 
ject was cairiousiy informed that the sums demanded 
were only loan* ; or he was honoured by a letter under the 
privjfteeu; a bond which the king enirag* d to repay at a 
definite period ; btit privy seals at length got to be hawked 
about to persons curoing out of church. *Pri%y seal*,' 
■ays a manuscripl letter.'' are flying thick and threefold in 
light of all the world, which might surely have been better 
pmbrmed in delivering them to every man privalelv at 
noma.' The general loam^ which in fact wa.i a forced loun, 
was one of the most crying grievances under Charles I. 
Ingenious in the destruction of his own popularity, the 
king contrived a new mode, of ' secret instructiont to com- 
mitmmun** They were to find out persons who could 
bear the largest rates. How the cummtssioni-rs «icre to 
acquire this secret and inquisitorial knowledge appears in 
the bungling oonirivance. It is one of their orders that 
after a number of inquiries have been put to a person, con* 
eeming otliers who had spoken against loan-mnnev; and 
what arfuments they had used, this person was 'to be 
charged in his majesty's name, and upon his allegiance, 
Bol to disclose to any other the anjiwer he had given. A 
atriking instance of that fatuity uf the human mind, when 
a wedi goTemment is trying to do what it knows not how 
to perform : it was seeking to obtain a secret purpose by 
the moat open and general means ; a self^idestroying prin- 

Our aaeestors were children in finance ; their simplicity 
baa been tuo ofien described as tvranny ! but from my soul 
do I believe, on this obscure subject of taxation, that old 
Burleigh's advice to Elixabeth includes more than all the 
aquabbling pamphlets of our political economists — ' win 
hearts, aisd you have their hands and purses !' 


Montaigne was fond of reading minute accounts of the 
deaths of remarkable persons : and. in the simplicity of 
his heart, old Montaigne wished to be leamod enough to 
Ibrra a collection of these deaths, to observe * their words, 
tbeir actions, and what sort of countenance thev put upon 
k.' He seems to have been a Utile over curious about 
deaths, in reference, no doubt, to his own, in which he 
was certainlv deceived ; for we are told that he did not 
A« as he had promised himself,— expiring in the adoration 
of the mass ; or, as his preceptor Buchainan wouM have 
called it, in * the act of rank idolatry.' 

I have been told of a privately printed volume, under 
the singular title of * The Book of Death,' where an am- 
dew has compiled the pious memorials of many of our 
eminent men in tbeir last moments : and it may form a 

* These * Private Instnictkms to the CommlsuKmers for tho 
Oeneral Loan* may be found In Rushworth, i, 418. 

companion-piece to the liitla toIi 

mes qui sont morts en plaisanlant.* Thw work, I Ik 
must be monotonous ; the dr«tlia of riM lifhlcom ■■ 
resemble each other; the learned and fbe ctofHKflB 
only receive in silence that hope which nwaiia ■ ikc aB» 
naiit of the grave.* But this vduae sriU noc CkidkM m 
dKcioive principle ; since the just wod the rahfioni In 
not always encountered death with uaditfcranea, nvas 
in a fit composure of mind. 

The functions of the mind are coasieeted with Amid 
the body. On a death-bed a fortnight** dmenae aif » 
duce the firmest to a most wretched aiaie; whdaimai 
coDirary, the soul struggles, as it were in lortnre, ■•!» 
bust frame. Nani, the Venetian hiaiorinn, has 
described (he death of Innocent X, who was a 
unblemished by vices, and who died at an adi 
with too rf»hiist a coosiitution. I^opo htrngm « 
ogtmia, con dolore e eon pcnso, a y er u» <toa s' raanwdi fi^ 
rorpo ro6iislo, egli sptrv a seOe A Grensraro, isel sOi 
prime de mui mtnur. * After a lon^ and terr«bia 
lAith great bodily pain and difficulty, his sool aepamstf fr 
self from that rbbost frame, and expired in hia cighrf ia 

Some bare composed sermons on «ieath, wfair Av 
passed many yean of anxieiy, approaching to inadMa,a 
contem^ilating their own. The certainty of aui immson 
separation from all our human sympaihiea may, cwmi 
death-bed, suddenly disorder the ima^ inatiua. The pfll 
physician of our times loM me of a general, who bad dm 
faced the cannon's mouth, dropping down in terror, ^n 
informed by him that his disease was rapid and tab 
Some have died of the strong iroaginatioo ntdeath. Tkat 
is a print of a knight brought on the scaflTuld tuaoflfr: M 
vi« wed the headsman ; he was blinded, and knelt dova ■ 
receive the stroke. Having passed thmugrh the whoitat» 
remony of a criminal rxecution, accompanied by all B 
disgrace, it was ordered that his life should be spared.— 
instead of the stroke from the sword, they poored cold «^ 
ter over his neck. After this operaticm the knight remain* 
ed motionless ; they discovered that he had e^iirrd ia iki 
very imagination oiT death ! Such are anaotig the maar 
causes which may affect the mind in the hour of its itf 
trial. The habitual associations of the natural c ha iacar 
are most likelv to prevail — though not always! Tbeii* 
trepid Marshal Biron disgraced his exit by womaniab tcvSi 
and raging imbecility ; the virtuous Erasmus, with nnscra* 
ble groans was heard crying out Domine ! Dommme!Jm 
finem ! fac ,/inem 1 Bavie liaving prepared his proof far 
the printer, pointed to where it lay when dvin^. Tke iMl 
words which Lord Chesterfield was heard* to speak weia, 
when the valet opening the curtains of the bed. a^TaomH' * 4 
Mr Dayrolcs — ' Give Dayrdes a chair !* * This goo^ 
breeding,' observfd the late Dr Warren his phTsnaSi 
' only qiiit.'i him with his life.* The last words of '^ctsoa 
were, * Tell CoUingwood to bring the fleet to an anchor. 
The tranquil grandeur which cast a new majesty osor 
Charles the First on the scaffoM, appeared whm hedi^ 
dared — ' I fear not death ! Death is not terrMe to mc!f 
And the characteristic pleasantry of Sir Thonaas Msia 
exhilarated his last moments, when obserrinf the weak- 
ness of the seaffold, he said, in mounting it, • I prar v«a 
see me up safe, and for my coming down, let me aluft'lbr 
myself!' Sir Walter Raleigh passed a similar jest whca 
going to the scaffold. 

My ingenious friend Dr Sherwen has famished ma 
with the following anecdotes of death. In one of the bhio> 
dy battles fought by the Duke of Enghien, two Frcneb 
noblemen were left wounded among the dead on the MA 
of battle. One complained loudHf of his pains, the oiksr 
after long silence thus offered him consolation. 'My 
friend, whoever you are, remember that our God Aed ca 
the cross, our kmg on the scaffold ; and if you bare ft ^fg ^ 
to look at him who now speaks to you, yon wiU sea tkat 
both his legs are shot away.' 

At the murder of the Duke O'Enghien, the royal 
looking at the soldiers who had pointed their fusees, 
'Grermdiers! lower vour arms, otherwise you will 
or only wound me !' To two of them wtio _ 

tie a handkerchief over his eyes, he said, * A toval 

who has been so often exposed to fire and swurJ, can see 
the approach of death with naked eyes, and witboai Icar.' 

After a similar caution on the part uf Sir George Lialey 
or SirCharIcA Lucas, when murdered in nearly diesaam 
manner at Colchester, by the soldiers of Fairiha, tha kgral 




bcro in aiHWcr to their aitertioiw and auurtncef that 
c»f wmikl lake care not to mis* him, nitbly nrplivd ' You 
have often raisaed dm when 1 have been nearer to you m 
tae field of bailie.' 

W*kea the fovemor of Cadiz, the Marquis de Solano, 
va!« murdered by the enragrd and mistaken citizens, to 
one of his nsunlerera who had run a pikf: throu|;h his back, 
hf calmly turned round and said, 'Cuward to strike there! 
Come round, ifynu dare~>race, and destroy ine !* 

Mr Abrmethy in his Physiological Lectures has inge- 
Bi jusiy obaerved, ' Shakspeare has represented Mer- 
Mio coatiouiug to jest, though conscious that he was nior- 
raSij w.«jiidr<l ; the expiring Hotspur thinking of nothing 
but hnnour ; aoil the dying FalstalT still cracking his jests 
v^ja Banloipti** nose.' If such facts were duly attended 
to. 'Jiey would prompt us to make a more liberal allowance 
f # earn ocher's cooidiict under certain circumstances than 
wf tre accustomed to do.' The truth seems to be, that 
efcenever the fuociioas of the mind are not disturbed by 
' *JHr n^rrous functions of the digestive organs,' the per- 
KMil character predominates even in death, and its ha- 
i>*u: aM(x:utioQ< exist to its laii moments. Many reli- 
r «i9i aersiins may have died without showing in their last 
tavaents any ii those eiterior acts, or employing those 
f^-rent ezpressioun, which the collector of < The Book of 
Oatt)* would only deign to chronicle ; their h<»pe ia not 
it'twred m their last hour. 

Yft okany with us have delighted to taste of death long 
br'jre (hey* have died, and have placed befiMre their eyes 
V. 'he furniture of mortality. The horrors of a rharnt-l- 
VQ«e is the scene of their pleasure. The *Miiliitglil 
.M'd:ia' inns' of Quarles preceded Younii's ' Night 
TvNighis* by a century, and both tliese poets loved pre* 
;crBaiuraJ teiror. 

< If I iBuet die. Til snatch at every thing 
That may but mind me of my latest breath ; 
Deain's-heads. Uraves, Knells, BiacLs,* Tomba, all 

these shall bring 
Into my soul i-'uch utefwU thuuehl* of death, 
That this sable king of frars 
Shall not catch me unawares.' CIuarles. 

Bn'. If may he dnnbtfiil whether the thouehU of drath are 
%mfml. whenever they put a man out of ihe (mkcncmiou of 
lit fi**ilti««. Young pursued the schein*: ofl^iiaHes : he 
rai«cd about him an artificial emotion of dcaih ; he dark- 
tactf '\w eepuichral study, placing a skull on hm table by 
iamiwichl : as Vh Donne had his purtrait taken, fir;*! wind- 
x/ a sh«*et over his head and d-Hing hn eye<; keeping 
'Z.I* melanchnlv picture by his bed-side at long as he lived, 
r% retmnd him of his mori'ahty. Yituug even in his garden 
aai ais roDcrits of death : at the emi tif an avenue was 
ri^wed a aeat of an admirable chiaro ti^ruro, which, when 
i>r-r«Mched. preaented only a painted surface', with an in- 
^rr\-^wtm, alluding to the deception of the ihings of this 
mz'.^. To be looking at * The mirror which flatters not ;' 
•? dtsoorvr ourselves only as a skeleton with the horrid 
.''m of owTupiion ab<iut us, has been aniitng those p«'nitcn- 
•u.! in«enlNMia, which have often ended in shaking ihe in- 
P ^«n' bT the pangs which are only naiufal to the damned. 
wV I iiy«Jt' adverting to those numenius testim«Niies, the dia- 
m.^^^ of launatic*, I shall offer a picture of an accomplished 
a»l innocent lady, in a curious and unaffecit-d transcript 
pc^^ ha» left of a mind of great sensibility, where the pre- 
Liural terror of death might perhaps liave hastened the 
ksure one ah« suffered. 
p-om the 'ReliquiB! Gethiniana*.t I quote some of 
X^,«.:v Oethin's ideas on ' Death.' — * The very thoughts of 
s^a'-t die'ueb one's reason; and though a man may have 
^^/ir emerLleot qiialilieo, yet he mav have the weakness 
^ B^: commanding hi* aenliments. N«>thing is worse for 
iyr|^*t isealih. than to be in fear of death. There are some 
va wise. a« neither to hate nor fear it ; but for my part I 
mvc ntt aversion for it, and with rt-anon ; for it is a rash 
^.;Qnfti.icrate thiar« that always comts before it is looked 
r jr . nx«ay* comes unseasonably, pariN frirmN, ruin^ 
>eaute. lauffht at youth, and draws a dnrk veij over all 
of Ida. This dreadful evil U but ifif* <»vil of 
, and what wa cannot by any means aroi J ; and 

- II MTti* wa* the term ibr mourning in Janie.: f he firftt and 
r- B' r • rhe Firsc*s lime. 

• \t« .'nvoverv of ihe nafirrs of rliLi mr- i-olinnp g,f what 
* -' f w and whaf colleoerf. wiJI N- fnmul in thi> jLterr ixut 
c ■ : a- >• r« Set »8 of Iheis CuriosMff vf LiierHtun-, 

No. 11. 

it is that which makea U ao tarriblo to ma ; for were it on- 
certain, hope might diminish tome nart of the fear ; but 
wheu I think I must die, and that I may die every mo- 
ment, and that too a thousand several ways, 1 am in such 
a fright as you cannot imagine. I see dangf rs where, 
perhaps, there never were nny. I am pf^rsuaded 'lis hap- 
py to be somewhat dull of apprehension in this case ; and 
yet the b«-st way to cure the pensiveners of the thoughts 
of death IS to tluiik of it as liillu as pi>si>ible.* She pro- 
ceeds by eiiuinrraiing the terrors of ihe fearful, who * can- 
not enjoy theinsclvis in the pleasantesl places, and al- 
though they are neither on sea, river, or creek, hut in good 
health in iheir chamber, yet are they so well instructed 
with the/r«r ofdi/injf^ that thry do not meavure it only 
by the yrctent daiiKtrs thai wait' on us. Then is it not 
best to Miibniit to God ! But some |>eople cannot do it aa 
they would ; and though they are not destitute of reaaoo 
but perceive ihev are to blame, yet at the same time that 
their reason rimilenins them, their imagination makes their 
hearts feel what it pleases.' 

Such iM the picture uf an ingenuous and a relisioiis mind, 
drawn by an amiahle woman, who, it is evident, lived al- 
ways in the fi-ar of ilt-nih. The Gothic skeleton was ever 
hauniin;; her iiiiacmntifin. In I)r Jolinson the same hor- 
mr was sujrgeHted by the thoughts of d^ath. When Bos- 
well once in conversation persecuted Juhnron on this sub- 

ject, wheiher we 

iroach of 

el It i 


! It 

might not fortify 
he answered in 

< And now that wa 
on riHin; this morning. 

our minds for the ap- 
a paitsion, 'No, Sir! 
uiiillfrs not how a n'.aii dies, but how he 
liven'. The art ofilyiiig ij« not of iniporraiice, it lasts so 
short a time !* But when Rnnwrll pi-r.^ivted in the con- 
verftaii'iii. Jnhnsiin Mat thrown into iiuch a j>taf of a<;itn- 
tion, that he thundered out, *(«ive us no more of this!' 
and, further, sirriily told the trrmb.ini* and too cunous 
philiHiopher, *■ Don't let us mret trwmornm !' 

1 1 may be a qiit-stion whether tho!t*f who by iheir pre- 
paratory conduct have appeared to show the greatest 
indiffi-rence for death, have not rather betrayed the most 
curious arl to disgnisf I's terrors. Sonie haVi' invented a 
mode of eseapini! troin lift* ui the midst of convivtal en- 
joyment. A mortuary preparation of this kind has be^n 
recorded of an aunabk nnn, MonrnfF, the author of*His- 
loire drs Charik' and ' L'Arl de Plairr,' by his literary 
friend La Flare, who wa^ an actor in. a« well as the his- 
torian of the siiiLMilar narrative. One mornuic La Place 
recfived a note from Moiicriff, reqtip«iiii^ ihat "he would 
iiiimeiliateiv select for hiin a d«ireii vtilunirs mtt* t lik*-lr to 
amu!«e. ami of a natun* to withdraw the r^adt-r fri>ni being 
occupied by melanch^ily thought:*.' La Place was ittariled 
at the unintual request', and tlew to his old fnend, uhom 
he found deeply engaged m beinc measured \*^ a new pe- 
ruke, and a lalfety robe de rhanibre, eamerilv etiJMning 
the utmost expedition. * Shut llir door!' — ^aid MtMicriff*, 
observing the surprise of hi« friend, 
are alone, I confule my secret : 

my valet in dressing me Khowcil nie on this |f*i! this dark 
spot— from that moiiif nt I knew I '■ wm condemned to 
death :^' but I had presence rii'mind i-ixiugh not tu betray 
myself.' ' Can a head wi well organmed as yours imagine 
that such a tritli* is a ventence iif death ?— • Doii*i vpeak 
so loud, my ft lend '.^tr rather deign tu listen a mommt. 
At my a£f it is fatal! The sysiuni from which I have de- 
rived the felii liy iif a Umii; nie has been, that whenever 
any evil, moral or phyiioal, happens to us, if there w a 
remedy, ail must be sacrificed to deliver us from ii. but 
in a contrary case. I do not ch«K>se to wrestle with destiny 
and to bi*i!ui coinplauitii, mdle^v as useleM ! All that I 
request of you. my friend, is tu ansisi me to pass awav tha 
few days which remain fur me, freu fn>m all care's, of 
which uther«%ise they might be too susceptible. But do 
not think,' he aildni with warmth, ' that I mean to elude 
the religiiMis diiiiHs nf a ciiizi^n, which ao manv of late ai^ 
feet to ciinlfmn.* The gnud and virtuous curate of my 
parish is comnu; here unJer a pretext of an annual <'nnin- 
hiiiion, and I have even ordered my physician, on whose 
confidencf I can r*>lv. Here is a tist of ten or twelve 
pen>ons, friends beli>v<>d ! who are mostly known to you. 
I shall write to ihern this evening, to tell' thrin •/ my con- 
demnation ; but iflhev wish me to live, thry will do roe 
the favour to assemble herr at five in the evening, where 
thi'V may be certain of finding* all ihoite objects of amuse- 
ment, whirh I shall study to discover suitable to their 
ta«ies. And you. my o'nl friend, with my doctor, are two 
on whom I most depend.' 

La Place was strung ly affected by this appeal— neither 





the good 
those who 

(he approach of death. 

• FaottliariM Toureelf earl? with death!* 
old MB with a swUe-' It ia oiriy dreadU for 
dread it? 

Duriag tea dm after this mcoiar eowrertaikm, the 
whole olBCoocriff '• remaining lifejua apartmeat was open 
to hie friende, of whoa several were Indies ; aH kinds of 
plajred till nine o'doch, and that the sorrows 

of the host inicht not diotnrh^ his fuests, he played the 
at his tovoorite fame of ^isMfC* a sapper, se»* 
by the wit of the sMster, ooaenided at eleven. On 
the tenth nicht, in taking lenre of his friend, Moncriff 
wh isper ed to him, * Adieu, my friend! to-morrow morning 
I shaM return your hooks T He died, as he forssnw, the 

I have sometimes thoogfat that we might form a history 
of this /w ^ dtalk, by timdng the first appearances of 
the skeleton which haiunu our fonemT inw^inaiion. In 
the modem history of mankind we mifht discorer some 
very strong contrasts in the notion of death entertaiDed by 
■en at ▼arious epochs. The foUowinf artide win supply 
a sketch of this kind. 


an easy 

death ! was the et« 
damsiion of Ausustos ; it was what Anionius Pius en- 
joyed ; and it b that for which every wise man will pray, 
said Lord Orrery, when perhaps he was ooatemplating on 
the cleee of Swift's life. 

The aiMients contemplated death without terror, and 
BSt it with indiflereaee. It was the only divinity to which 
they never saehfieod, convinced that nahnman being conld 
tarn aside its strolce. They raised altars to fever, to mii*- 
fertune, to all the evils of iifo ; for these might chsnge ! 
But though they did not court the presence of death in 
any diape, they acknowledged its tran<|uUlitv ; and m the 
heantifui (mbles of their allegorical religion, Death was the 
daughter of Night, nnd the sister of Sleep ; anfl ever the 
firiond of the unhappy ! To the eternal sleep of death the v 
dedicated their sepulchral monuments— ufitemali i9<nRiie/* 
If the full light 01 revelation had not yet broken on them, it 
can haidlv be denied that they had some ilimpees and a 
dawn of tae life to come, from the many aflegorical inven- 
Ikms which deechbe the transmigraiioo of the soul. A 
httsrfly on the extremity of an extinguished lamp, heki 
up by the m sss engcr of the Gods intently gazing i^wve, 
isBpUed a dedication of that soul ; Love, with a amancholy 
air, his legs crossed, leaning on an inverted torch, the flame 
thus natarallv extingnishing itself^ elegantly denoted the 
tsisatinn of htmmn iifo ; a rose sculptured on a saroopha- 
gaa, or the esableflss of epicureaa life traced on it, m a sfcuD 
wreathed b^ a ch^t !et of flowers, such as they wore at 
their convivial ssee^ings, a flask of wine, a patera, and the 
aamll bones used as cnee ; all these symbou were indirect 
allnsioas to death, veiling lU painful recollectioBS. They 
did not ooUute their isBaginatioa with the contents of a 
eharaeft-Bouse. The sarcophaei of the ancients rather re- 
call to as the resaembranee of the activity of kfe ; for they 
are sculpinred wiih battles or games, m basso rebm ; a 
•ort of lender hoaaage paid to the dead, observes Mad. 
Do SCasI, with her peculiar refinem en t of thiidting. 

It wouU seem that the Romans had even an avcrsioB 
to mention death in express terms, for they disguisni its 
vary asms by soaw periphrasis, snch as rfjireiisil e oiIb, 
'he has departed from life;^ and thev did not sav that 
their friend had dM, but that he had hW; vitai! Inthe 
old Latin chronic'es, and even the FamUra and other do- 
nimsnls of the middle aces, we find the same delicacy 
about using the fetal wonf DiuA^ espedallv when aopiie^ 
to Ungs aad great people. * TVsasirr o l8meml»^Fitmm 
jnam mmMn Si rntUdt eo kmmmmlMa eonligtril, ^.* I 
am indebted to Mr Merivale for this remark. Eton 
aamag a people less refined, the obtrusive idea of d^ith 
has beea stndiottsly avoided : we are told that when the 
Ka^ieror of Morocco inqtures after any one who has re- 
contly died, it is against etiooette to mention the word 
* death ;* the answer is * his destiny is closed !* But this 
tsademem is onlv reserved for * the elect* of the Mussel- 
A Jew^ death is at once plainly expressed, * He is 
■, sir ! askii^ vour pardon for mentioning such a con- 
iMe wretch i* i. e. a Jew! A Christian's is de- 
by • The iafidel is dead .c or < The cuckold is dead !* 

L'Aadfiiriii KipUquAs, I, mi. 

The artists of antiquity have so rarely attempted to per-' 
sonify Death, that we have not discovered a single revoll-' 
ing image of this nature in all the works of aotaquity*-— fo 
conceal its deformity to the eye, as well as to elude its 
sagfostion to the mind, seems to have been an universal 
feeling, and it accorded with a foadameotal principle of 
ancient art ; that of never ofiering to the eye a disturtioa 
of form in the violence of passion, which de st royed the 
beauty of its representation ; such is shown in the Lao- 
coon, where the mouth only opens sofflciently to indicate 
the suppressed agony of superior htimanitv^ without ei* 
preasiBg the loud err of vulgar suflerinir. Pausantas oon- 
ddetnd as a penonincatioo of death a female figure, whose 
teeth and nails, long and crooked, were emiraren on a co<^ 
fin of cedar, which enclosed the body of^Cvpselus ; this 
female was unquestionably onlv one uf the Pkrtm, or the 
Fates, * watchful to cut the thread of life ;* Heeiod d^ 
scribes Atropot indeed as having sharn teeth, and bi^ 
BiilB, waiting to tear and devour the deao ; but this image 
waa in a iMrbarous era. Catullus ventured to persoo fly 
the Sister-Destiniiw as three Crones ; * hot in general, 
WsBkelama obserrea, * they are portrayed as beaoiifol 
TirftBB, with wmged heads, one of whom is always in the 
•ttkodo of wridng on a scrofl.' Death was a nonentity to 
the ancient artist. Could he exhibn what repreaenu no- 
tltfagt Could he animate into action what lies in a state 
of eternal iranqnilKrrf Elennt images of repose aad 
tender sorrow were aA he could invent to indicate the slate 
of death. Even the terms which difierent naiinns 
bestowed on a buriaHilace are mx associated with 
tioos of horror. The Greeks cal«d a bunrmg.enMmd bv 
the soothing term of Cotmetrim. art ' the ueepinr-place ? 
the Jews, who had no hnrrors of the grave, by BeiUmm, 
or * the bouse of the living ;* the Germans, w'ith rehgmns 
simplicity, « God's field.' ^ 

Whence, then, originated that stalking skelelbn, sng- 
gesting so many false and sepulchral ideas, and which for 
us has so hmg served as the image of death ? 

When the christian religion spread over Eunme.tho 
world changed! the certainty of a fiiture state efexiM- 
ence, by the artifices of wicked worldly men, terrified ia- 
stead oT consoling human nature ; and in the resurrvmon 
the ignorant multitude seemed raiher to have dreaded re- 
tribution, than to have hoped for remuneration. The 
Founder of Christianity every where breathes the blessed- 
ness of social feelings. It is * our Father !* whom be ad- 
dresses. The hormn with which chrwtianity was after- 
ward* disguised aroes in the corruptions of chrisiianuy 
among those insane ascetics, who, misinterpreting * the 
word of hfe,' trampled on nature ; and imafined that t» 
secuie an existence in the other world it was mrnmaii 
not to exist in the one in which (Jod had placed them. 
The dominion of mankind fell into the usurping hands of 
those inmerious monks whose artifices trafficked with the 
terrors of ignorant and hypochondriac < 

The scene was darkened by penances and by nilgianign^ 
by andnight vigils, by miraculous shrines, aind bloodvfln- 

spectrcs started up amidst their i 

cf masses increased their supernatural 

Anndst this geaeral gloom of Europe, their tnmUed 

einatiflas ware frequently oredictins the end of the world. 
It waa at this period that they first beheld the grave yawn, 
and Dsath in the Gothic formof a gaunt anatomy paradiag 
through the naiverse ! The people were fiighisasd, as 
thev viewed every where hong before their eyao, m the 
tenught of thaar cathedrals, and their < psla cWeaicn.* the 
Bwst revohing emblems of death. Th^ sianled the tra- 
veller on the bridge ; they stared on the sinnar m the 
carvings of his table and chair ; the spectra moved in tho 
hangings of the apartment ; it stood in the niche, and 
the picture of their sittmg-room ; it was worn m tbcir ri 
while the ilkuninator shaded the bony phantom in dwi 
gins of their * horm,' their primers, and their 

Their barbarous taste pe r ce i ved no abouniily in ^ . 

action to a heap of dry booea, whidi could owrkaept^ 
gelber in a state of immovability and r epna e ; wsr that ii 
was burlesquing the awfiil idea of the resarrectsan, by a- 

* A repreeentstkm of Desth by a skeleton 
the Egyptians ; a coicnm more singular than 
vailed, of enclosing a skeleton oTheaucirol 
small coffin, which the bearer carried round nt thair 
menis ; observing, * after death you will i 
drink then ! and be happy !* a symbol of Death ia a 
paity was not designed to excite tsRiic or cloamj U 


kahiuag ibc iBOomipuble apirit under the uaiuttural and 
b d i Cf ou s figure oTmortAfity drawn out of the ourniptioa of 
ike grav*. 

Ajb a n ecdote oTtheee roonkiih timefl has been preterved 
\ff old Oerard Leigh ; and as old stones are beat set ufi* 
bv oU words, Gerard speaketh ! * The sreat Maximilian 
i&e CBBpo r or came to a monastery in hiten Almawe (Ger- 
■aay.) the BKMtks whereof had caused to be curioudy 
Banted the diaraelof a roan, which ihey lenned— death ! 
When (hat welMearned emperor had beholden ii awhile, 
he called unto hira his painter, commanding to blot the 
•keleiiio out, and to pamt therein the image oT— a fool. 
Wherewiih the abbot, humbly beseeching him to the euo- 
trarr, a%id, " It was a good remembrance !'*—-* Nay," 
qaor a tlie esaperor, ** as vermin that annoyeth man's body 
uolooked tar, so doth death, which here is but a 
■age, and life is a certain thing, if we know to 
■u***' The original nund of Maximilian the 
Great is characterised by this cnnoiis story of cooverting 
«sr emblem uf death into a party-coloured fool ; and such 
ODrica] aUusions to the iblly of those who persisted in 
thctf BQCMMi of the ^eleton were not onosual with the ar* 
tws of those times ; we Sad the figure of a fool ntting with 
•aae drolery between the le|s of one of these skeletons.f 
This story is associated with an important &et« After 
liwy bad successfully terrified the people with their char- 
id^house figure, a reaction in the mibiic feelings occurred, 
br the skel^on was now emplojred as a medium to convey 
fee most bcetMMS, satirical, and burlesque notions of hu- 
■M life. Dsath, which had so long harassed their im« 
aginatioaB, suddenly changed into a theme ferule in coarse 
ksoKMir. The Iiafiana were too long accustomed to the 
Mody of the beautiful to allow their pencil to sport with de- 
tormiij ; but the Gothic taste of the German artists, who 
eoald only copy their own homely nature, delighted f o give 
fiuoteii paasious to the hideotia physiognomy of a noseless 
skoU ; lo put an eye of mockery or malignity into its hol- 
low sock St, and to stretch out the gaunt anatomy into the 
postores of a Hogarth ; and that the ludicrous might be 
cmrried to its extreme, this imaginary being, taken from 
the bone-house, r-as viewed in the action of dandng ! 
Thu blending of the grotesque with the most disgusting 
^aagr of mortality, is the more singular part of this history 
«f ibe ak'*l«!on, and indeed of human nature itseir*. 

* The Dance of Death' erroneouiily considered as Hol- 
hcai*s with other similar dances, however differently treats 
«d, have one common subject which was painted in the 

of burving-«rounds, or on town-4ialls and in roar- 
ss. The ribject is usually The Skeleton in the 
of leading all ranks and conditions to the grave, person- 
ated after aature, and m the strict costume of the limes. 
This inveniiiKi opened a new field for genius ; and when 
we can hr a m-Moent forget their luckless choice of their 
hooy and bloodless hero, who to abuse us by a variety of 
MS a sort of horrid harlequin in these pantomi- 
, we may be delighted by the numenius hu- 
^aratcters, which are so vividly presented to us. The 
ongin of this extraordinary invention is supposed to be a 
fiivannle pageant, nr religious mummery, invented hj the 
dergr. who in these ages of barbarous Christianity alwaya 
bund it n ec ess a ry to amuse, as well as to frighten the po- 
palaoe ; a cireusMtance well known to have occurred in so 
many other grotesque and licentioui festivals they allowed 
the pe op l e. This pageant was performed in churches, 
« which the chief characters in society were supported in 
a sort of masqnerade, mixing together in a general dance, 
m the coarse of which every one m his turn vanish- 
ed fran the scene, to show how one after the other diocl 
sf.J The subject was at once poetical and ethical ; and 
Ms poets and painters of G^ermany adopting the i^elelon, 
em forth this cbimerical Ulysses of another world to roam 
aaoag the asen and manners of their own. One Macaber 
MiinpiisuJ a popular noem, and the old Gaulish version re- 
farawd is stulpnntrd al Troyes, in France, with the an- 
ocet UockB oi wood<uts onder the title of * La grande 
Danse Macabre des hom as cs et des femmes.' Merian's 
* Tediea Tans,' or the < Dance of the Dead,* is a curious 
set of priais of a daaee of death from an ancient painting, 
I tbmk DOC entirely defaced, in a cemetery at Basle, in 
Seiueriaad. It was order^ to be painted by a oouaeil 

* The sechlsace of Annorle, p. 100. 
t k wood^ot p rsssrvsd hi Mr Dlbdin*s Bib. Dec 1, SO. 

I My wslUrsad fHead Mr Douce hss poursd forth hhi en- 
rims kaewMii oa this saMsct hi adissensilon prsflated lot 
talaaMe sdUoB of BoUars ^ Oaaos of Dssth.* 

which was held there during many years, tocoounenoralo 
the mortality occasioiied by a plague in IdSO, The pre* 
vailing character of all these works is unquestionably 
grotesque and hidicrous; not, however, that |(eiiia8. 
however barbarous, couM refrain in this large sub|ect or 
human life from inventing scenes often imagined with great 
delicacy of conception, siid even great pathos ! Such is the 
newHnarried couple, whom Death is leading, beating a 
drum, and in the rapture of the hour, the bride seems with 
a melancholy look, now insensible of his presence ; or 
Death is seen issuing from the cottage of the poor widdow 
with her youngest niU, who waves his hand sorrowfully, 
while the mother and the sister vainly answer ; or the oM 
man, to whom deaili is playing on a psaltery, seems anxi- 
ous ; that his withered fingers sboula once more touch the 
strings, while he is carried cff in calm tranquillity. The 
greater part of these subjects of death are, however, hidi* 
emus and it may bo a question, whether the spectators of 
these dances oTdeath aid not find their mirth more excited 
than their religious emotions. Ignorant and terrified as the 
people were at the view of the skeleton, even the grossest 
simplicity could not fail to laugh at some of those domestic 
scenes and familiar persons drawn from among themselves. 
The skeleton, skeleton as it is in the creation « genius, ges- 
ticulates and mimics, which even its hideous skull is nude 
to express every diversified character, and the result is 
hard to describe ; for we are at once amused and disgust- 
ed wirh sn much genius founded on so much barbarism. 

When I he artist succeeded in conveying to the eye the 
most ludicrous notions of death, the poets also discove r ed 
in it a fertile source of the burlesque. The curious colleo- 
tor is acquainted with many volumes where the most ex- 
traordinary topics have been combined with this subject. 
They maile the body and the soul debate tofetber, and 
ridicule the complaints of a damned soul ! The greater 
part of the poets of the time were alwa3rs composing on the 
subject of Death in their humourous piecee.* Such his- 
torical records of the public mind, historians, intent on po- 
litical events, have rarely noticed. 

Of a work of this nature, a popular favourite was long 
the one entitled * Ijt fautmtmrir si Im esmses wMtdu au'an 
mporU a ettte neetmii ; Lt tout en wrt burU»^me§j 1658 :' 
Jacques Jacques, a canon f>f Ambrun, was the writer, whe 
humorously says of himself, that he gives his thoughts just 
as they lie on his heart, without dissimulation ; * for I have 
nothing double about me except my name ! I tell thee 
some ^ the most important truths in laughing ; it is for 
thee iPv jtenarr taui a ban.* This little volume was pri>- 
cured for me with some difficulty in France ; and it is con- 
sidered a» one of the happiest of this class of death-poems 
of which I know not of any in our literature. 

Our oanon of Ambrun, in facetious rhymss, and with 
the naivttd of expressifU) which bekMigs to his age, and aa 
idiomatic turn fatal to a translator, excels in pleasantry ; 
his haughty hero condescends to hold venr amusing dia^ 
logues with all classes of society, and delights to con f ound 
their * excuses inutiles.' The most miserable of men, the 
galley-slave, the medicant, alike wouM escape when ho 
appears to them. * Were I not absolute over tnesi,' Death 
exclaims, ' they would cunfound me with their loag s pesch 
es ; but I have business, and must gallop oo ? am (•»• 
graphical rhymes are droU. 

* Ce que j'ai fait dans rAflfrique 
Je le tais oicn dans l*Aroerique ; 
On l*appelle monde nouveau 
Mais ce sont des brides k veau ; 
Nulls terre h rooy nVst nouvelle 
Je vav partout sans qu'on m*apprila, 
Mon bras de tout temn commanda 
Dans le pays de Canada ; 
J^ai tenu de tout temps en bride 
La Virginie et la Florida, 
Et j'ai bien donr»6 sur le bee 
Aux Francis du fort de Kebec 
Lorsque je veux je fais la nique 
Aux Incas, aux Rois de Mexique. 
Et montre sux nouveaux Grenadias 
Q,u*ils sont des foux et des badina. 
Chacun sait bien commeje matte 
Ceux du Bresil et de la Platte, 
Ainsi qtie les Taupinemhou s 
En UB BMM, je fats voir h lout 

^ Go^H Bib. Franfolss, voL i, Ml 


Que ce que iwit dam la natitre, 
Doit prendrede moj tabUtore !* 

The perpetual employments of Death ift ip liy eopioiM 
mih a (aeilitj oThumom'. 

* Egalonent je Tav rengeant, 
Lo coooseiller etle wrgoaot, 
Le f«ntilhomme et le bergeri 
Le Dourgeuis at le boulanger, 
Et la inaistreeae et la serrante 
Et la niepce cocbme la lante ; 
Monsieur I'abb6, monsieur son moiaet 
Le petit clerc et le chanoine ; 
Sans cfaouc jo mets dans mon butin 
Maistre Clandf, maisire Martin, 
Dame Luce, dame Perrette, &c. 
J*en prrnds uii dans le temp* ou*!! pleore 
A qudnue autre, au contraire a Tbeare 
Que deinisurement ii rit 
Je donne e coup qui le frit. 
Pen preuds un, pendant quM se lore ; 
En se couchant I'autre j'enlere. 
Je prends la malade et le sain 
L'un aujuurd'hui, l*aulre le demmn. 
Pen surprends un dedans son lid 
L'antre a I'estode qiiand il lit. 
J*en surprends un le vsntre plein 
Je men^ I'autre par le ftiro. 
Pattrape l*un pendant qu*il prie, 
Et I'autre pendant qu'il renie, 
J'en saisis un au cabaret 
Entre le b!anc et le clair«t^ 
L'autre qui dans son oratove 
A son Dieu rend honneur et gloire : 
J'en surprends un lors qu'il se pasme 
Le jour qu'il epouse sa femme, 
L'autre le jour que plein du deuil 
La sit-nnt! il voit dans le cercuil ; 
Un k pied et l'antre i cheval 
Dans le jeu l'un, et l'autre au bal ; 
Un qui mange et Pautre qui boit, 
Un qui paye el I'autre qui doit. 
L'un en €t6 lorsqu'il moissonne 
L'autre < n Tendances dans I'autre 
L'un criant almanachs noureauz— 
Un qui deroande son aumosne 
L'autre dans le temps qu'il la domm. 
Je prends le bon maistre Clement, 
An temps quhl rrnd un laoement, 
Et prends la dame Catherine 
Le joor c>i'-^!e prend medicine.' 
Teil of gai<*iy m the old canon of Ambmn corert 
deeper and more philosophical thoughts tban the sinfular 
none of treating so solenm a theme. He has introduced 
many scenes of human lite, which still interest, and he 
addresses the * Teste k triple couronne,' as weA as the 
* fiwsat de galere,' who exclaims, * Laissez moi rirre dans 
mes fers,* * le gueu,* the * bourgeois,' the * chanotne,* the 
' panrre soldat,' the * medicin,' in a word, all ranks in life 
are exhibited, as in the * dances of death.' But our ob> 
ject of noticing those boriesque paintings and poems is *o 
■how, that after the monkish Goths had opened one gene- 
ral scene of melancholy and tribulation orer Europe, and 
given birth to that di«mal afcetrftm of death, which still ter- 
rifies the imagination of many, a reaction of feeling was 
ezpmienr«d by the populace, who at length came lo laugh 
at the gloomy spectre which had so long terrified them ! 


Peter Heylin was one of the popular writers of his times, 
like Fuller and Howell, who, devoting their amusing pens 
lo subjects which deeply interested their own busy age, 
will not be slighted by the curious. We have nearly out- 
lived their divinity, but not their politics. Metaphysical 
absurdities are luxuriant weeds which must be cut down 
by the scythe of Time ; but the great passions branching 
finom the tree of life are still * growing with our growth.' 

There are two biographies of our Heylin, which led to a 
literary quarrel of an extraordinary nature ; and, in the 
progress of its secret history, all the feelings of rival au- 
thorship were called out. 

Heylin died in 1682. Dr Barnard, bis son-in-law, and 
a scholar, cosomunicated a sketch of the author's Ufe to be 

e Tablaturs d'un luth, Coigrave says, is the belly of a lots, 
meaning * all m nature most dance to my music !* 

prefixed to a posthumous folio, of which Heyfin's 
the editor. This life was given by the son, but 
mously, which may not have gratified the author, the 

Twenty years had elapsed when, in 1662, appeared 
• The Life of Dr Peter Heylin, by George Vernon.' The 
writer, alluding to the phur life prefixed to the poet humous 
folio, aaserts, that in borrowing soro«-ihing from Barnard, 
Barnard bad also * Excerpted passages out of my paptn^ 
the very words as well as matter, when he had il>cm m 
his custody, as any reader may discern who will be at the 
pains of comparing the life now poblt»hed with what is 
extant before the KdmaUa £eeUma$tiea ;'' the quaint, 
pedantic title, after the fashion of the day, of the postha-' 
mous folio. 

This strong accusation seemed countenanced by a deifi- 
cation to the son and the nephew of Heykn. Roimed 
into action, the indignant Barnard soon produced a 
complete Lif^, lo which he prefixed * A necessary 
catkm.' This is an unsparing castigation of Yemoo, tlw 
literary pet whom the Heylins had fondled in preference to 
their learned relative. The long smothered family grudge, 
the suppressed mortifications of Uterary pride, alter the 
subterraneous j^rumblings of twenty years, now burst oat, 
and the volcanic particles flew about in caustic 
ries and sharp invectives ; all the lava of an author's 
geance, mortified bv the choice of an inferior rival. 

It appears that Vernon had been selected by the son of 
Heylin, in preference to his brotber-in4aw Dr Bareard, 
from some family d»agreeme4it. Barnard tells us, in de- 
scribing Vernon, that * No man, except himself, who was 
totally Ignorant of tlie Doctor, and all the circumstances 
of his life, wouM have engaged in such a work, which 
was never primarily laid out for him. but by reason oi 
some unhappy difiTerences, as usually fall out m fiuailies ; 
and he who loves to put his oar in troubled waters, 
of closing thrm un bath made them wider.' 

Barnard tells his story plainlv. Heylin, the 
tending to have a more elaborate life of hb father prefixed 
to his works, Dr Barnard, from the hi;!h reverence ia 
which he held the memory of his father-in4aw, offered 
to oonlribiite it. Many conferences were held, and the 
son intrusted him with several papers. But suddenly bis 
caprice, more than bis judgment, fonded that George 
Vernon was worth John Barnard. The doctor affects to 
describe his rejection with the morn stoical indiffereaee. 
He tells us, ■ I was satisfied, and did patiently expect the 
coming forth of the work, not only term after tema, bat 
rear uter year, a verv considerable time for such a tract, 
but at last, instead ot the hfe, came a letter to mt from a 
bookseUer in London, who kved at the sign of the Black 
Bov, in Fleet Street.' 

flow it seems that he who lived at the Black Bojr had 
combined with another who lived at the Fleur de Loee, 
and that th'e Fleur de Luce had assured the Black Boy 
that Dr Barnard was concerned in writing the Life of 
Heylin,— >this was a stronc recommendation. But lo! 
it appeared that * one Mr Vernon, of Gloucester,' was to 
be Uie man ! a gentle thin-skinned authoHiog, who bleated 
like a lamb, and who was so fearful to trip out of iu shel- 
ter, that it allows the Black Boy and the Fleur de Loee to 
commwi'icate its papers to any one they choose, and 
or add, at their pleasnro. 

It occurred to the Black Boy, on this propon ed 
metiral criticism, that the worii required additioa, so^ 
traction, and division: that the fittest critic, 
name, indeed, he had originally engaged in the work, 
our Dr Barnard ; and he sent the fMickage to the dodoTg 
who resided near Lincoln. 

The doctor, it appears, had no appetite for a SA diaai 
ed by another, while be himself was in the verr act of the 
cookery ; and it was suffered to lie cold for throe weeks 
at the carrier's. 

But entreated and overcome, the good doctor at leaglh 
sent to the carrier's for the h(e of his father-in4aw. * I 
found it, according to the bookseller's descriptioa matti 
lame and imperfect ; ill begun, worse carried oa, and al^ 
ruptly concluded.' The learned doctor exerdaed 
plenitude of power with which the Black Boy had ii 
ed him ; — be very obligingly showed the aoihor ' 
confused state faiis materials lay together, and horn ta pat 
them in order ; 

' Nee ikcnndia deseret hunc, nee lucldas ovda.* 
If his rejectiom wara oopioiis, to abow hii food sni an 



well fts his seTcrity, his additioos were generous, though 
ke need ibe precAutioo of c&refully distioguishing by * di»- 
tMct parftgr«4»htf* bit own ioiertiuo amidst Vernon'* ma^fi, 
witb a geoUe bint, that * He kuew more of Heyhn than 
•Bj man now living, and ought therefore to have been the 
UJIgrapher.* He returned the MS. to the gentleman with 
freat civdiiy, but none he' received back ! When Vernon 
prelead«d to aik for impruvemeuis, he did not imagine 
that the work was to be improved by being nearly destroy* 
cd ; and when he asked tor correction, he probably ex- 
pected ail might end in a compliment. 

The AArraiive may now proceed in Vernon's details of 
ius doleful mortifications, m being * altered and mangled ' 
by Dr Barnard. 

* Ia»iead of thanks from biro (Dr Barnard,) and the 
return of oommtm civility, he disfigured my papers, that 
ao soooer came into his hands, but he fi-U upon them as a 
Uoa rampant, or the cat upon the poor codk in the fable, 
saymg, Ti$ kodu wuki c2i«efrpent— mo my papers came 
home miserably clawed, bloued, and blurred ; whole sen- 
leaces dismembered, aiod pages scratched oui; seyeral 
leaves omuted which ought iom printed,— shamefully he 
med my copy ; so that before it was carried to the press, 
be swooped away the second part of the life wholly from 
ii — la the room of which he shuffled in a preposterous con- 
ckisuia at the last page, which he printed in a different 
cbaracter, jet could not keep hinuelf honest, as the poet 

Didique iua paginajfw es. 


far he took out of mr comr Doctor Hey1in*s dream, his 
Mkness, his last words before his death, and left out the 
bvaing of his surplice. He so mangled and metamor- 
phosed the whole life I composed, that I may say as Socia 
did, Egnut mihi nan credo Hie diter, Sotiat me tnalia mu/- 
cenl mmiU PlatU.* 

D<ictor Barnard would have * patiently endured these 
wrongs ;* but the accusation Vernon ventured on, that 
Barnard was the plagiary, required the doctor * to return 
ibe poisoned chalice to his own lips,* that ' himself was the 
plagiajy both of words and matter.' The fact is, that this 
rteiprocal accusation was owing to Barnard having had 
a pnor perusal of Heylin's papers, which afterwards came 
iatA the hands of Veraon : they both drew their waters 
from the saroi* source. These papers Ilevlin himself had 
IcA for ' a rule to guido the writer of his lite.' 

Baraard keenly retorts on Vernon for his surreptitious 
■le of whole pases from Heylin's works, which he has 
mpropriated to niniself without any marks of quotation. 
M am DO Boch excerplor (as he calls me ;) he is of the 
koaoor of the man who took all the ships in the Attic 
k&vco fur his own, and yet was himself not master of anv 


* But all this while I misunderstand him, for possibly be 
Meaneth his own dear words I have eicerpted. Why 
teh be not speak in plain downright En£lish, that the 
»ord amy see my faults ? For every one does nut know 
what is u t t t ytim g. If I have been so bold to pick or snap 
« word from bim, I hope I may have the benefit of the 
drT||rv. What words nave I robbed him of? and how 
kavel become the richer for them f I was never so taken 
with him as to be once tempted to break the command- 
■mts, because I love plain speaking, plain writing, and 
p^am deal'mg, which he does not : I hate the word €»• 
tryted, and the action imported in it. However, he is a 
haofid mao, ami thinks tnere is no elesanry nor wit but 
■ his own way of talking. I must say ss Tully did, Malim 
•jwidem UukBOlam pnidentiam quam ttuUam loquacitatem.* 

la his turn ha accuses Vernon of being a per7«etual 
r, and for the Malone minuteness ot hiis his- 

*Bat how have I excerpted hU matter? Then I am 
10 rob the spittle-house ; for he is so poor and put to 
bard skifia, that has much ado to compose a tolerable 
r, which he haik been hammrring and conreivin; in his 
for four years tofeiber, before hr could bring forth hii 
of intolerable transmpiions to molest the reader's 
mticace and memory. How doth lie run himself out of 
Wsaih, sometimes w twenty pages and more, at other 
toase fifte<*a, ordinarily nine and ten, collected out of Dr 
He^iio's old books, before be can take his wind again to 
rscan to bis atory. I never met vrith such a transcriber in 
aft ay daya; fiv want of natter la fill up a oocmcm, of 

which his book was in much danger, he hath set down the 
story of Westminster, as long as the ploughman's tale 
in Chaucer, which to the reader would have been aiora 
pertinent and pleasan*. I wonder he did not transcribe 
bills of chancery, especially about a tedious suit my father 
had for several years about a lease at Norton.' 

In bU raillery of Vernon's affected metaphors and com* 
parisons, * his similitudes and dissimilitudes strangely hook- 
ed m, and fetched as far as the Antipodes,' Barnard ot^ 
serves, * The man hath also a strange opinion of himself 
that he is Doctor Heylin; and because he writes his life, 
that he hath his natural parts, if nut acquired. The soul 
of St Augustine (say tiie schools) was Pythagorically 
tranfused into the corpse of Aquinas ; so the soul of Dr 
Heyhn into a narrow soul. I know there is a question in 
philosophy, cm anim<B $irU trqtialet 7 Whether souls be 
alike? 6ut there's a difference between the spirits of 
Elijah and Elisha : so small a prophet with so great a 

Dr Barnard concludes by regretting that good counsel 
came now unseaitonable, else he would have advised the 
writer to have transmitted his task to one who had beea 
an ancient friend of Dr Heylin, rather than ambitiously 
have assumed it, who was a professed stranger to him, by 
reason of which no betier account could be expected from 
him than what he has given. He hits off the character of 
this piece of biography — ' A life to the half; an imper- 
fect creature, that is not only lame (as the honest book- 
seller said,) but wauteth lees, and all other integral parts 
of a man ; nay the very soul that should animate a body 
like Dr Heylin. So that I must say of him as Plutarch 
doth of Tib'. Gracchus, " that he is a bold undertaker 
and rash talker of those matters he does not understand." 
And so I have done with him, uulcss he creates to himself 
and mc a future trouble.' 

Vernon appears to have slunk away from the dueL 
The son of Heyiin stood corrected by the superior life 
produced by their relative ; the learned and vivacious Bar- 
nard probably never again ventured to qJIUt and improm 
the worke of an author kne«'ling and praying for correc- 
tions. These bleating lambs, it seems, often turn out 
roariag lions ! 


The * Mtthode pour itudier niistoiret* by the Abbd 
Lenglet du Presnoy, ii a master-key to all the locked-up 
treasures of ancient and inudem history, and to the more 
secret stores of the obscurer memorialists of vvcrw nation. 
The history of this work and its author are equally re- 
markable. The man was a sort of curiosity in human 
nature, as his works are in literature. Lenglet du Fres- 
noy is not a writer merely laborious ; without genius, he 
still has a hardy originality in hi<r manner of writing and of 
thinking; and his vast and restless curi Mi^y fermenting 
his immense hook-knowledgr, with a freedom verging on 
cvnical causticity, led to the purciiit of uncommon topics. 
£lven the prefaces to the works which he i>diied are 
singularly curious, and he has u:»ually added biUiothetpue^ 
or critical catalo;;ues of auth>^rs, which we may ctili con- 
sult for notices on Uie writers of romances— H>f those on 
literary suhjec's— on a'chymy, or the hermetic philosophy ; 
of those who have written on ap{)ariti;tns, visions, ^.— 
an historical treatise on the s<-crvt of confession, ^.; 
besides those < Pieces Jiistiticatives,* which constitute 
some of the most extraordinary docunr. ;.'^ in the philoso- 
phy of History. His manner of wriiiug recurVd him 
readers even among the unlearned; his mordacity, bis 
sarcasm, hLs dersion, his pregnant interjections, Hb un- 
guarded frankness, and of;«.n his strange opinions, con- 
tribute to his reader's amii«erocnt more thtm comports with 
his graver tasks; but his peruiiariti<*s cannot alter the 
value of his knowledge, whati-ver :hey iiuy sometimes 
detract from hii opinions; and ue miiv safeiy admire 
the ingenuity, without qiiarrellins v>\\\\ the sincerity 
of the writer, who havins comp<«ed a ^%ork on Woage 
tlti Romans, in which he gayly inif.u 'led the authen- 
ticity of all ln$tory, to ptove himself not to have 
bfen th»* author, amhi-<)eTTrr'>uit'v pub.isheu another of 
L* Iliitoirf Jyxtijl/^ contre itM Romanst ; an J perhaps it was 
not hi;i fault that the attack %\as hpinled, and the justifica- 
tion dull. 

This • Mcthode' and his • Tableites Chronologiques, 
of nea:'y forty other pnblirations are the only ones which 
outlived their writer: volumes, merely curious, are exiled 
to the shelf of the ooUecior ; the very name of an author 


ha oM work 

mlwmjt oaderfoiBg the 

io the 
two vofuows n niSb It 
repriced 'at hoi e sad abroad, aad traosiaiod iaio ta- 
la 17t9 it aMtnaed tba dignity of fear 
but at lius atafB it eaoooalered ibe TifUaaea of 
I, aad tiM laeoratiM hand of a celebrated cm. 
anir Qn» do Boss. Itbai^thaifroaiaperaooaldMliko 
of tbo antbor, be caneeBed ooe bun d red aad fifhr PM** 
firooi tbe priatod eopy tubakted to bb ccnsorahip. He 
bad ferMerijr appffovod of tbe work, aad bad quieclj paiard 
over l oie or these ohooiioiu paflsafcs : it is certaia 
that Qnm do Base, in a dioMrtatioa oo the Jaaos of iho 
aaciaaie ia this work, actuaOr erased a high c oaiia cn da- 
laoa of hammeV,* which Leaflet had, with aanwiil coorw 
OBjr, beo ui we d oa Gioa do Base ; far as a cntic he is aMM 
of paaerrnc, aad there is always a caustic fla- 
ia his drops of hooej. lliis enscar either 
to diadaiB the coaBmradifion, or availed himself 
of ii as a trick of potiej. This was a tryiajt situanoafar 
aa amhor, aow praod of a treat work, and who hiaasHf 
■sore ef the ball thaa of the laadi. He who 
at the scratch of aa epithet, beheld bis perfect 
bruised bjr erarares aad BMUlated br caocrls. This 
sort of troobles iadred was not uaosual with Leaflet. He 
had occupied his oU apartsseai m the Basiile soofiea, that 
at the siiiht of the officer wno was ia rhe habil oTcondoa- 
inf hisB there, Leaflet w«iaki call far his ni^t^ap and 
saoff ; aad 6ais& tte work he had then ia Iwnd at the 
Bastile, where he told Jordan, that he atade hM editioa of 
Maroi. He often sUeoUy restituted aa epithet or a aeo- 
teaoe which had beea coadeianed by the emsrar, at the 
risk of returniai oace OBore ; but ia the preseat desperate 
afiair he took his rereage byeolleciiax the castrations into 
a quarto vnlunie, which was sold daodestioelr. I fiod, by 
Jordao, ia his iw y ag e fittgwre, who visiied him, that it was 
his pride to read these canceb to his friends, who feoe- 
rally, but secretly, were of opinion that the dectnon of the 
ernscar was aot so wrong as the hardihood of Lenglet ia- 
HSlad on. Ail this increased the public rumour, aad 
r«med the pnce of the cancels. The craft and mystery of 
aaiboiBhip was practised by Leaj^let to periisiaioB, and he 
o&sa exulted, not only in the subterfuges by which he par- 
ried his eeaarars, but m his bargaias with'his booksellers^ 
who were equally desirous to possess, while they hatf- 
leared to eojov, his uncertain or his periloiM copynghts. 
When the aa»7ae copj of the Mtthode, m it« pristine sute, 
before it had suffered any diiapidatiuns, made its appear- 
ance at the sale of the curious library of the ccascar Qros 
de Boce, it provoked a Rnzburgh compeJl'ioQ, where the 
collectors, eagerly out-bidding each other, the price of diis 
uaeastrated copy reached to MM livres ; aa eveat more 
extraordinary ia the history of French bibiiogrmphy, than 
ia oar owo. The curious may now find all these cancel 
sheets, or raiftMfi'eai, p r ese rve d in one of those works of 
literarv hutory, to which the Geramas have contributed 
aMre largely than other European nations ; and I have 
d is cover e d that even the erasures, or bndam, are aa^y 
furnished in mnocher bibbographical record.! 

This Medmde, after several later editions, was still 
cnlargiag itself by fresh supplements ; and having beea 
tran«laied bv men of letters in Europe, by Coleti ia Italy, 
by Mendien in Gennany, and bv Dr Rawlinsoo in Eng- 
land, these traaslators have enriched their own oditioos by 
more copions articles, deagned for their respective na- 
tiona. Tbe sagactty of the oriflnal writer now renovated 
hn work by the iafusioas of hb translators; like old 
JEsoo, it had iu veins filled with green juices; aad thus 

* Tbb fiia appears in the account of tbe minuter erasures. 

f Tbe cssiratkins are in Beyeri Memoria hitUNico-crkias 
Hhfonim rariorum, p. 108. The ItniMcs are careftilly noted ia 
the Caisloffue of the Duke de la VaJliere, 4467. Tboee wIm> 
are coriotM in sorh Mngularities will be cratilted by the extra- 
ordinary opinions and resulu in Beyer'; and wbieh after all 
were purloined from a manincript * Abridgment of Universal 
Hbiory,' which was drawn up by Count de Boulainvilliera, 
and mnre adroitly, than delicately, inserted by Lenglet io hb 
own work. The original manuscript exists In various copies, 
which were afterwanle discovered. The mil uter corrections, 
la the Dnke de la Valliere*s esulofoe, fumbha mo« anUvwi. 
lif ankb b iha dryaM of WbUbgraphy. 

Tbe persoaal character of oar author 
as many of the imro a ww topics which cagaged hbi 
lies ; these we mtghc com hi de had ongiaatcda 
oentridty, or wave chosen at raadocs. But 

of iud^m «i i t in 
and hm critical 
have, for the greater part, 
lioned by the poUie voice. It b cnrioas to 
the first direetMB arhich the mind of a hardy 
take, win chen aocoaat for that varietr of o 
pics he dcbghts ia, aad which, on a doser c] 
amy be found to bear aa inviuble conoexiQn 
preceding inquiry. As there b an assocbtioa 
m bierary hbtory there b aa amocbtion of reoearch ; sad 
a verv judicioas writer SDay thus be impelted to 
on si^bfccts which may be deemed strange or iaj 

Thb uhsiitatifiai may be itlostrated by the literary 
torr of Leaglel do Fronoy. He opened hb career by 
■dJitssiag a letter aad a tract to the Sorhonae, oa the ca- 
traoffdiuary a&ir of Bfaria d'A^reda, abbess of the ao^ 
nerv of the laMaaeukie Conception in Spam, whoaa mj^ 
tica^ life of the Viipn, published on the dece as e of the 
abbeaa, aad which was received with luch raptare ia 
Spaia, had Jost appeared at Paris, where it exaied t&a 
BHn m ms of'^the bmnis, aad the inoo 

inquiriea of the 
Thb mystical hfe was declared to be founded on appari- 
tioas aad revelatioao experienced by the abbess. Leaglet 
proved, or asserted, that the abbem was aot the wntrr of 
thb pretended life, though the manuscript existed in ber 
haad-writmg ; aad secoiMlly, thai the apparitioas aad reva- 
latioas recorded were against all the rules of apparitiflaa 
and revelaiioas which he bad painfully discovered. The 
affair was of a deficaie aature. Tbe writer w 
and incraduloas; a grey-beard, mor*: deeply veraed 
theology, replied, aad the Sorhoaists silenced oa 
pber in oadMryo. 

lieaglet confiaed theae researches to hb portfolio ; aaa 
ao long a period as fifW-five years had elapaed before they 
saw the hght. It was' when Cahnet published lus fTbsit 
tatioos on Apparition, that the soliject provoked Leagist 
to retnra to us forsakea researches. He now i uWi4ifd 
aM he had formerly composed on the affair of Maria 
d*Agreda, aad two other works ; the one * DrmiS Mtla- 
rwue if dagSMfi^ tmr Ire ^pparifbas, Ut Fiaisns. cf Im 
Ktpelmtumf fartteubtrtM,* in two volumes ; and * ffmaJ 
de DiatvtaHmu aadenncs el aeacelles. ear Ut Apjnrkimm, 
^.' with a catskvue of aothurs on this swlMect, m foar 
volumes. When ne edited the Romtan de im Asse ; in 
oompding the glossary of this ancient poem, it led him la 
reprut maay m the earliest French poets ; to give aa ea» 
Urged edition of the .^IrreCt (TAmtomr^ that work of lova 
and chivalry, in which his fancy was now so deef^ ia»- 
beddod ; w^e the subject of Romaace itself imtura^ led 
to the taste of romantic productions which appcarvd ia 
*Wmg* des il e s i aas ,* aad its aocompanyma eopisos 
Bomenclature of all roounees and romanoo-wnteta, aa- 
aeat and modem. Our vivacious Abb6 had been b»> 
wikiercd by hb delight in the works of a cbeorical phik»> 
aopber ; aad though he did aoc believe ia the esisteace of 
apparitions, and certaialy was more than a scepcie m hia- 
toiy, yet it b certaia that the * grand oBuvre* was aa arti- 
cle ia hb creed ; it would have ruined ban in riypi ikasali, 
if he had been rich enough to have been naned. It al- 
tered hb health; aad the moat important reauk of Im 
chemical studios appears to have bc^a the invoaiioB of a 
tynip, in which he aad great confidence ; hat iia trial blew 
him np into a tympany, from which he was oaly r ett e v ad 
by haviag recourse to a drug, abo of hb own dbeovsfy, 
which, ia ooanteractiag the syrap, r educed him le aa 
alarming state of atrophy. Biit the misdiaaceo of the 
hisloriaa do not enter mto hb history ; aad oor tmtimkf 
most be still eager to open Lenglet*s * Histoire de la Pin- 
losopbie Hermetiqoe,* aooompamed b^ a catalofue of the 
vrriters in thb mysterious science, in two voiinaea; as 

well as hb enlarged edition of the works of a graal 
celsbn, Nicholas la Fevre. Thb philosopher waa ap- 
pointed by Charles the Second superiniendetit over 2a 
rojral laboratory at St James's : he was abo a OMvdbar «f 
the Royal Society, and the friend of Boyle, la whaai ha 

• The last sdkkm, enlarged by Drooec, b in 19 vohnBaa,bat 
b not later than 1772. It b still an faMsrImabIs manaal fiv Aa 
hbmrical itodenc, as wen as hb Tabli 



commnaieated Um tacrat of infusing young blood into old 
▼eiM, with a notion that he could renovate that which ad- 
mils of no Moood creaiion.*^ Such wat the origin of Da 
Fresaoj'a active eorioiity on a rarieiy of tingular topics, 
tha germs of which may be traced to three or four of our 
author's principal works. 

Our Abbe promised to write his own life, and his pug- 
nacious vhracity, and hardy frankness, would have sea- 
■ooed a piece of auto-biography ; an amateur has, how- 
ever, wntten it in the style which amateurs like, with all 
the truth he could discover, enlivened by some secret his- 
tory, writing the Ufe of I^englel with the very spirit of 
Lenglet ; it is a mask taken from the very features of the 
man, not the insipid wax-work of an hyperbolical eloge- 


Although Lenglet du Fresaoy commenced in early life his 
career as a man of letters, he was at first engiged in the 
great chase of political adventure ; and some striking facts 
are recorded, which show bis successful activitv. Michault 
describes his occupations by a paraphrastical delicacy of 
language, which an Englishman mifrht not have so hap- 
pily composed. The minister for foreign afiairs, the Mar- 
ottw de Torey, sent Lenglet to Lisle, where tho court of 
tne Elector of Cologne was then held ; * He had particular 
orders to watch that the two ministers of the elector should 
do nothing prejudicial to the king's affairs.* He seems, 
however, to have vtateked many other persons, and de- 
tected many other things. He discovered a captain, who 
agreed to open the gates of Mens to Marlborough, for 
100,000 piastres ; the captain was arrested on the parade, 
the letter of Marlborough was found in his pocket, and the 
traitor was broken on the wheel. Lenglet denounced a 
foreign general in the French service, and the event war- 
ranted the prediction. His most important discovery was 
that of the famous conspiracy of Pnnce Ceilamar, one of 
the chimerical {Hots of Alberoni ; to the honour of Len|^et, 
he would not engage in its detection, unless the minister 
promued that no blood should be shed. These successful 
meidents in the life of an honourable spy were rewarded 
with a moderate pension. Lenglet must have been no 
Tulfar intriguer ; ne was not onlv perpetually confined by 
hn very patrons when he resided at home for the freedom 
«f his pen, but I find him early imprisoned in the citadel 
«f Strasburgh for six months : it is said for purloining some 
•omious books from the library of the Abb6 Bignon, of 
which he had the care. It is certain that he knew the 
^ue of the scarcest works, and was one of those lovers 
of bibliography who trade at times in costly rarities. At 
Vieniia he became intimately acouainled with the poet 
Rousseau and Prince Eugene. The prince, however, 
who suspected the character of our author, long avoided 
him. Lenglet insinuated himself into the favour of the 
prince's librarian ; and such was his biblincraphical skill, 
that this acouaintance ended in Prince Eugene laying 
aside his political dread, and preferring the advice uf 
Lenglet to bis Ubrarian's, to enrich his magnificent librae 
ry. When the motive of Lenglet's residence at Vienna 
became mure and more suspected, Rousseau was em- 
ployed to iMfeA him; and not yet having uuarrrUfd with 
Die brother spy, he could only report that the Abb^ Len- 
glet was every morning occupied in working on his * Ta- 
blettea Chrooologiques,' a work not worthy of alarming 
the government ; that he spent his evenings at s violin 
player'e married to a Frencn woman, and returned home 

e The Plctfcmnsire Historiqne, 1789, in their article Nkh. 
Le Fevre, notices the third ed{ik>n of his * Course of Chemis- 
try,' that of 1084, in two volumes ; but the pesent one of Len- 
etc do Fresnny's Is more recent, 1751, enlarired into five vo- 
mes, two of which contain his own additiims. I have nf^ver 
met with this edition, and it is wanting st the British Museum. 
Lb Fevre published s tract on the great cordial of Sir Walter 
Bawlelf b, which may be curious. 

,f Thw anonymous work of * Memoires de Mnnsienr l>Abb6 
Lenglet du Fresnoy/ althonsh the dedication is sirned G. P., 
is written by Micnault, of Dijon, ss a presentation copy to 
Count de Vienne In my possession proves. Michsult is the 
wricsr of two volumes of agrees ble ' Melanges Hlf^oriqiies, 
ef P*ilk>lofk|oes ;> sod the present is a very curious piece of 
literary history. The Dictionnaire Historlque has compiled 
the article of Lenglet entirelv from this work ; but the Journal 
des Sj^vans was too ascetic in this opinion. * Etoic-ce la peine 
4e fsire un Ihrre pour apprendre au public qu'iin homme de 
leltres, futEsplon, Escroc, bixarre, fnugueux, cynique IncsnS' 
We d*amki6, de decence, de soumiwion aux loix ?* kc. Yet 
they do not deny that the hibltography of Lenglet du Frssnoy 
li at an dslldcnc In curloiity. 

at eleven. As soon as our historian had discovered that 
the poet was a brother spy and newsmonger oo the side of 
Prince Eugene, their reciprocal civilities cooled. Lenglet 
now imagined that he owed his six months' retirement ia 
the citadel of Strasburgh to the secret ofllciousnem of 
Rousseau : each grew suspicious of the other's fidelihr ; 
and spies are lUce lovers, for their mutual jealousies settlM 
into the most inveterate hatred. One of the most ddama- 
tory libels is Lenglet's intended dedication of his edition of 
Marot to Rousseau, which being forced to suppress in 
Holland, by order of the Slates-eeneral ; at Brussels, by 
the intervention of the Duke of Aremberg ; and by vfwj 
means the friends of the unfortunate Rousseau could con- 
trive ; was however many yeara aAerwards at length sul^ 
j<nned by Lenglet to the first volume of his wotic oo Ro- 
mances ; where an ordinary reader may wonder at its ap- 
pearance unconnected with snv part ot the work. In this 
dedication or * eloge historique' he often addresses * Mon 
cher Rousseau,' but the irony is not delicate, and the ca- 
lumny is heavy. Rousseau lay too open to the unlicenseyl 
causticity of his accuser. The poet was then expatriated 
from France for a false accusation against Saurin, in at- 
tempting to fix on him those criminu couplets, which so 
lone disturbed the peace of the literary world in France, 
and of which Rousseau was generally supposed to be the 
writer ; but of which on his death-bed he solemnly pro- 
tested that he was guiltless. The esiip de grace is given 
to the poet, stretched on this rack of invective, by just ac- 
cusations on account of those infamous epigrams, vriiich 
appear in some editions of that poet's works ; a lesson for 
a poet, if poets would be lessoned, who indulge their im- 
agination at the cost of their happiness, and seem to invent 
cnmi^, as if they themselves were criminals. 

But to return to our Lenglet. Had he composed his 
own life, it would have oflTered a sketch of poHtiMl serri- 
tude and political adventure, in a man too intractable for 
the one, and too literary for the other. Yet to the honour 
c^bis capacity, we must observe that he might have chosen 
his patrons, would he have submitted to patrrniafe. Prince 
Eugene at Vienna ; Cardinal Passionei at Rome : or 
Mons. Le Blanc, the French minister, would have held 
him on his own terms. But * Liberty and my books !* 
was the secret ejaculation of Lenglet ; and from* that mo- 
ment all things in life were sacrificed to a jedooa spirit ol 
independence, which broke out in his actions as well •■ in 
his writings ; and a passion for study for ever cniilMd tho 
worm of ambition. 

He was as singular in his conversation, which, mys 
Jordan, was extremely agreeable to a foreigner, for he de- 
livered himself without reserve en all things, and on eXL 
persons, seasoned with secret and literary anecdotes. He 
refused all the conveniences offered by an opulent sister, 
that he might not endure the restraint of a settled dinner 
hour. He lived to his eightieth year, still busied, and then 
died by one of those grievous chances, to which aged men 
of lettera are liable : our caustic critic slumbered over 
some modem work, and, falling into the fire, was burnt to 
death. Many characteristic anecdotes of the Abb^ Leng- 
let have been preserved in the Dielumnaire Hutarupu^ but 
I shall not repeat what is of easy recurrence, 


A learned friend, in his very agrees hi i * Trunester, or 
a three months' journey in Fnuoce and Swisserland,' could 
not pass through the small town of Trevoux without a 
Uterary association of ideas which should sccompany eve- 
ry man ol* lettera in his toura, abroad or at home. A mind 
well informed cannot travel without discovering that there 
are objects constantly presentint themselves, which snf- 
geti Uterary, historical, and moral facts. My friend writes, 
* As you proceed nearer to Lyons you slop to dine at Tre- 
voux, on the left bsnk of the' Soane. On a sloping hill, 
down to the water-side, rises an amphitheatre, crownea 
with an ancient Gkithic castle, in venerable ruin ; under 
it is the small town of Trevoux, well known for its Journal 
and Dictionary, which latter is almost an encyclopssdia, as 
tiure are few tfdngt ef which eomeOdng it not etad m that 
meet valueMe oompilatum^ and the whole was printed at 
Trevoiix. The knowledge of this cirrumstanoe greatly 
enhances the delisht of any viritor who has consulted the 
book and is aci{iiainted with its merits; and must add 
much to his local pleasures.' 

A work from which every roan of lettera amj be eon- 
tinually deriving such varied knowledge, and which ia litda 



known but to the muM. curkNu readers, claims a place in 
theise volumes ; nor is ttie history uT the work itstlf wiih- 
oiil interest. Eight large fuhos, each cooskiiiog of a 
thousand closely pnnied pages, stand like a vast mountam, 
of which, befiire we climb, we roajr be anxious to learn 
the security of the passage. The 'history of dictionaries 
is the most mu<able of ail histories; it is a picture of the 
inconstancy of the knowledge of man; the learning of one 

Sneration passtis awar with another ; and a dictionary of 
is kind is always to be repaired, to be rescinded, and to 
be enlarged. 

The small town of Trevoux gave its name to an excel- 
lent iittrrary journal, long conducted by the Jesuits, and to 
this diciiunarr — as Edinourgh has to its criiical Review 
and Annual Register, &c. It first came to be duting uished 
as a Ulerary tOMU from the Due du Maine, as pnncv sove- 
reign of DiMnbes, transfernng to this little town of Trevoux 
not only bu parliament and other public in»ti(utiotts, but 
also establishmg a magnificent printing house, in the be- 
f inniniE of the last century. The duki^, pmbablv to keep 
nis printers in constant employ, instituted the ' Jowmol dt 
Trevoux ,*' and this, perhaps, greatly tended to bring the 
printing house into notice ; so that it became a favourite 
with many good writers, who appear to have had no other 
connexion with the place; and this dictionary borrowed 
its first tjtle, which it always preserved, merely from the 
place wherr it was printed.' Both the j^iurnal and the dio- 
tiuoary were, however, consigned to the cares of some 
learned Jesuits ; and perhaps the place always indicated 
the principles of the wntrrs, of whom ncKie were more 
eramtrnt for elegant literature than the Jesuits. 

The firft edition of this dictionary sprung from the 
spite (if rivalry, occasioned by a Frf'iich dictionary puk^ 
lished in Uoiiand, by the protestant Basnage de Beauval. 
The duke ret his Jesuits hastily to work ; who, after a 
poinpttus announcement that this dictHmary was formed 
on a p'an suggested by their pa'ron, did little more than pil- 
lage Furetiere, and rummage Bannaiee, atid [»roduced three 
n*'w (iiio9 without any noveltit^; they plea^ed (he Due du 
M line and no oi<e elsf. This wa!< in 1*04. Twenty 
years after il wa<( re piiblmhed an.i im;>nived ; and editions 
mcreasiiig, the volumes succeedfd each other, till it reach- 
yi lo iu present roasniiude and value in eight larse folios, 
in 1771, ih'!' only editiun now esteemed. Many of the 
names of the contributors to this excellent collection of 
words and things, the influstry of Monsieur Barbier has 
revealed in hiji ' Diciionnaire d'es Anonyroen.* an. 10782. 
The work, m the progress of a crnniryi evidently became 
a favni«r«te receptacle with men of letters in Prance, who 
eagerly contributed the smallest or the largest articles 
with a zeal bonourabie to literature and mMt useful to the 
public They made this dictionary their common^ace 
bo(»k fur ail th«ir curious ai quisiii<»ns ; every one compe- 
tent to writrt a short article preserving an important fact, 
did not aspire to OMninle the dicrii>nary, or even an entire 
article in it; but it was a trea.<*ury iii which such roitrs 
collected together formed lU wealth : and all the Uierati 
may be saiiJ to have been engaged in perfecting these 
voUimes (luring a century. In (hi* manner, from the hum- 
ble beginnings of three volumes, in whirh the plagiary 
much moff than tlie contributor was visible, eight were at 
length built up with more durable materials, and which 
dsim the attention and ihe gratitude of the student. 

The work, it appears interested the government itself, 
as a national concern, from the tenor of the following an- 

Most of the minor contributors to this great coller*tion 
were satisfied to remain anonymous ; but as might be ex- 
pected among soch a number, sometimes a contributor was 
anxious to be known to his circle : and did not Idee this 
penitential abstinence of fame. An anecdote recorded of 
one of this class will amuse : a Monsieur Latitour du 
Chatel, avocat au parkment de Normandie, voluntarily 
devoted his studious hours to improvn this work, and fur- 
nished near three thousand articles to the supplement of 
the edition of 1752. This ard-nt scholar had had a livelv 

3iiarrel thirtv vears before with the first authors of the 
ictionary. He^iad sent them one thousand three hundred 
articles, on condition tha' the donor should be hand!«oreely 
thanked in the preface of the new edition, and further re- 
ceive 8 copy en frand papier. Thev were accepted. The 
oonductiirR of ih«" new edition, in 1721. forgot all the pro- 
■»»*es — nor thanks, mr copy ! Our learned avocat, who 
was a btUe irriubin, as his nephew who wrota hii ttfe ac- 

< knowledges, as soon as the great work appeared, ascwi 
j ished, like Dennis, that * they were raiiluif his own ihim- 
' der,* without saymg a word, quits his coontnr town, and 
' ventures, half dead with sickness and indignniioa, cm tm 
expedition to Paris, to make bis complaint to ibe dwac^ 
lor ; and the work was deemed of that importnaoe in tht 
eye of government, and ao zealous a contributor was eon- 
SMlered to have aucb an honourable claim, that the dian- 
eellor ordered, first, that a copy on large paper, abould be 
immediately delivered to Monsieur Lautour, richly bound 
and free of carriage ; and secondly, as are paranon of iho 
unperibrmed prtjmise, and an acknowledgment of grati- 
tude, the omission of thanks shouM be inserted and ex- 
plained in the three great literary journals uf France; a 
curious instance among others of' the French govemiMnK 
often mediatmg, when difficulties occurred m great literary 
undertakinp, and considering not lightly Ihe rlaiwa and 
the honour of men of letters. 
Another proof, indeed, of the same kind, coDceming ibe 

? resent work, occurred after the edition of 1752. One 
amet l*ain^, who had with others been usefully emploved 
on this edition, addressed a proposal to the government Rr 
an improved one, dated from the Bastile. He propoMd 
that the government should choose a learned person, ac- 
customed to the labour uf the researches such a work r«- 
quires; and he calculated, that if supplied with ihreo 
amanuenses, such an editor wouM accomphsh his task in 
about ten ur twelve years ; the produce of the edition wonM 
soon repay all the expenses aiid capital advanced. This 
literary projector did not wish to remain idle in the Ba^ 
ble. "Fifteen years afterwards the last improved edition 
appeared, published by the associated booksellers of Paris. 
As for the work itself, it partakes of the chnracter of 
our EncyclopsNlias ; but in this respect it cannot be sa/ciy 
consulted, for widely has science enlarged its doasains and 
ci»rrecied iu err«irs since 1771. But it is precious as a 
vast C(»lleclion of ancient and modern learning, particularly 
in that sort of knowledge which we usually term antiqun- 
rian and philolofical. It i« not merely a gramrostical, 
scientific and technical dicti<»narv, but it is replete with d^ 
vinity, law, moral philosophy, critical and hisiorical leam- 
ing, and abounds with innumerable miscellaneous ciirKia»- 
ties. It would be diflkult, whatever may be the subject 
of inquiry, to open it, without the gratification of soao 
knowledge neither obvious nor trivial. T heard a hmh of 
great learning declare, that whenever he could not recol- 
lect his knowledge he opened Hoffman's Lexicon CTnratvw 
»ale Histonmmf where he was sure to find what be had 
lo<t. The works are shnilar; and valuable as are tba 
German's four folii>s, the eight of the Frenchman may 
safely be recommended as their subeiitute, or their rnp- 
nlement. As a Dictiooarv of the French Language il 
bears a peculiar feature, which has been presumpfuonaly 
dropped in the Dictionnaire de I'Aradrmie; the last »- 
vents phrases to explain words, which therefore have no 
other auihoriiy than the writer himself! this of Trevooz 
is furnished, not only with mere authorities, hot also with 
quotations from the classical French writers— an improve^ 
ment which was probably suggested by the English Di> 
lionary of Johnson. One nation improves by another. 


It is, perhaps, somewhat mortifying in oor litrrmry i^ 
searches to discover that our own literature h%* been only 
known to the other nations of Europe compsratively wiib> 
in recent times. We have at length triumphed over 
continental rivals in the noble sirugieles of geniua, and 
authors now see their works printed even at Ibrcifn 
es, while we are furnishing with our gratuiUMia 
nearly the whole literature of a new empire ; yet m> .-^ 
as in 'the reign of Anne, our poets were only known br tha 
Latin versifiers of the * Muse AnglicaMe;' and whcti 
Boilean was told of the public funerd of Dryden. be was 

C leased with the national honours bestowed on genius, bnt 
e declared that he never heard of his name belbre. Tbii 

great legislator of Parnassuj has never alluded to one of 

our own poetii, so insular then was our hierarv dory! 

The most remarkable fact, or perhaps assertion, I havo 
I met with, of the little knowledge which the continent had 

of our writers, i< a French translation of Bishop Hafi^ 
'; * Character* (/ Virtues and Virei«.» It is a ifnnrirrinm, 
, printed at Pari* of 109 pagc<«, 1610, with thb titl^. Cmwe^ 
. Urtn de VertuM tt de Vieee: tiri* de PAn^mt de Jf. Jm^ 
I HaU. In a dedication to the Earl of Salnbnrv^the'tiwS- 
J klor infiinns his lordship that ee l«vre e$i Im ' 


duetion di VAngloUjamau impriai6« aueun vulgaire. The 
firat irantlatioo from ihe Ea»i»h ever priuteil in any mo- 
dern ItQguaf e ! VViieiher uie tranitlatur is a bold liar, or 
an ifnorant blunderer, remainsi to be ascertained ; at all 
erenta it ia a humiliating demonstration of the small |ir<»- 
greai which our home literature had made abroad in 1610 ! 
I come now to notice a contemporary writer, proTes^ed- 
\j writing the history of our Poetry, of which his know]. 
«dm will open to us as we proceed with our enlightened 
and amateur historian. 

Father duadrio's Delia Storia e ddia ragwnt (Togm 
Poesia,— is a gij^antic work, which could only have been 
firojected and persevered in by somo hypochondriac monk, 
who, to get rid of the enma of life, could discover no plea- 
•aaier way than to bury himself alive in seven monstrous 
doeely-pnnted quirtos, and ernry day be compiling some- 
thing on a subject which he did not understand. Furtu- 
■alely for Father duadrio, without taste to feel, and dis- 
cernment to decide, nothing occurred in this progress of 
literary history and criticism to abridge his volumes and 
bis amusemenu ; and with diligence and erudition unpa- 
ralleled, he has here built up a receptable for his immenie, 
curious, and trifling knowlege on the poetry of every na- 
tion. Cluadrio is among thai class of auinort whom we 
receive with more gratitude than pleasure, fly to sometimes 
to quote, but never linger to reaa; and fix on our shelves, 
but aeldom have in our hands. 

I have been much mortified, in looking orer this volu- 
minous compiler, to discover, although he wrote so late as 
about 1750, how liitle the history of English Poetry was 
known to foreigners. It is assuredly our own fault. We 
have t<M) lung neglected the bibliography and the literary 
history of our own country. Italy, Spain and France, 
have enjoyed eminent bibliographers — we have none to 
rival iHem. Italy may justly glory in her Tiraboschi and 
her Mazzuchelli ; Spain in the Bibliothecas of Nicholas 
Antooio ; and France, so rich in bibliogra|>hical treasures, 
aff«*rds models to every literary nation i«f every species of 
literary history. With us, the partial labour of the hermit 
Anthony fur the Oxford writer*, compiled before philo«(H 
phinal criticism existed in the nation ; ami Warion's His- 
tory of Poetry, which was left unfinished at its most cnii- 
cal porioJ, when that deliiihtfui nniiquary of taste had 
jiist touched the threshold of his Paradise^these are the 
sole great labours to which foreigners might resort, but 
these will not be found of much use to them. The neglect 
of our own literary history has, therefore, occasioned the 
•rrort, sometimes very ridiculous ones, of foreign writers 
respecting our authors. Even the lively Chaudon, in his 
' Diciionnaire Hisionque,' gives the most extraordmary 
accounts of most of the English writers. Without an Eng- 
lish guide to attend such wearv travellers, they have too 
often been deceived by the Mirage$ of our literature. 
They have given blundering accounts of works which do 
ex'ut, and chronicled others which never did exist ; and 
have ofren made up the personal history of our authors, 
by conftNindiug two or three into one. Chaudon, mention- 
log Dryden*s tragedies, observes that AUerbury translat- 
ed two mto Latin verse, entitled Achitophelznd Alualwn !* 
Of all these foreign auihorf none ha* more egregiously 
failed than this good Father Q,uadrio. In this universal 
history of poetry, I was curious to observe what sort of 
fi^re we made ; and whether the fertile genius of our ori- 
final poets had struck the foreign criiic with admiration, 
or with critical censure. But litUe was our English poetry 
known to its universal historian. In the chafiter on those 
who have cultivated * la melica poesia in propria lingua tra 
Tedeschi, Fiamminghi e Inglesi'f we find the following list 
oTEngluh poets. 

* Of John Cowper; whose rhymes and verses arepre- 
■arred in m inuscript in thu college of the most holy Trini- 
tj, in Cambridge. 

* Arthur Kelton flourished in 1548, a skilful English 

Kit ; he composed various poems in English ; also he 
ds the Cambrains and their eenralngr. 
•The works of W.Wvcherlev in Englitih prose and verse.* 
These were the only English poets whom Q,uadrio at 
5rst could muster together ! In W\9 subsequent additions 
he caught the name of Sir Philip Sidney %viih an adven- 

* Even recently il Csvaliere Onofrio Bnni, in his Eloge of 
lAnsI, In naming the three Augusun periods of modem Ihe. 
rature, Axes them, for the Italians, nnner Leo the Tenth ; for 
Ibe French, under Lewis the Fourteenth, or the Great ; and 
Mk the Ennish, under Charlee the Second ! 


turous criticism, * le sue pocsie assai buone.* He ther 
was lucky enough to pick up the title— not the Toluoia 
surely— which is> one of the rarest ; ' Fiort poetici de A. 
Cowley,' which he calls * poesie amoroso :' this must mean 
that early volume of Cowley's, published in his thirteenth 
year, under the title of * Poetical Blo&soms.' Further bo 
laid hold of * John Donne' by the kkirt, and * Thomas 
Creech,' at whom he made a full pause ; iufonning hia 
Italians, that his poems are reputea by his nation as * aa- 
sai buone.' He has also ' Le opere di Guglielroo ^ but to 
this christian name, as it would appear, he had noi rea- 
tured to add the surname. At length in hie progress of 
inquiry, in this fourth volume (for they were pubhshed a* 
dinerent periods) he suddenly discovers a host of English 
poets — in Waller, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Roscom- 
mon, and others, among whom i^ Dr Swifi ; but he ac- 
knowledges their works have not reached him* Shakespeare 
at length appears on the scune ; but Qiiadrio's notions are 
derived from Voltaire, whom, perhaps, he boldly translates. 
Insteuii (if improving our drama, he conducted it a totaU 
rovina neUe $ue fane tnon$truo»e% eke n ckiaman tragedie ; 
cUeuTu eeene vi abUa tumino»e e belle e aleuni tratti ei trovono 
terribiU e graruU, Oiway is said to have composed a tra- 
gic drama on the subject of * Venezia Salvata ;' he adds 
with surprise, 'ma aflatto regolare.' Regularity is the 
essence of genius with such critics as CtuMrio. Drvden 
is also mentioned ; but the only drama specified is * Kin| 
Arthur.' Addison is the first Englishman who produced 
a classical tragedy ; but though duadrio writes much 
about the life of Adiiison, he never alludes to the Spectator. 

We come now to a more curious point. Whether 
Cluadrio had read our comediet may be doobiful; but he 
distinguishes them by very high commendation. Our 
comedy, he says, represents human life, the manners of 
citizens and the people, much better than the French and 
Spanish comedies, in which all the business of life is mix- 
ed up with love affairs. The Spaniards had their gallan- 
try from the Moors, and their manners from chivalry ; lo 
which they added their tumid African taste, differing from 
that of other nations. I shall traosUite what he now adds 
of Engliiih comedy. 

* The Engl'sh more skilfully even than the French, have 
approximated to the true idea of comic subjects, choosing 
for the argument of their invention the customarr and na- 
tural objects of the citizens and the populace. And when 
religion and decorum were more respected in their thea- 
tres, they were more advanced in this species of poetry, 
and merited not a little praise, above their neighbour- 
ing nations. But more than the English and the 
French, (to speak according to pure and bare truth,) 
have the Italians sifnalized themselves.* A sly, insinua- 
ting criticism ! But, as on the whole, for reasons which 
I cannot account fur. Father Cluadrio seems to have rel- 
ished our Eniilish comedy, we must, value his candour. 
He praises our comedy ; ''|>er il hello ed il buono ;' but, as 
he is a methodical Aristotelian, he will not allow us that 
liberty in the theatre, which we are supposed to possess 
in parliament — by delivering whatever we conceive to the 
purpose. His criticism is a specimen of the irrefragable. 
* We must not abandon legitimate rules to give merepUaa- 
ure thereby ; because fileasure is produced by, and flows 
from, ihn beautiful ; and the beautiful is chiefly drawn from 
the good order and unity in which it consists !' 

Quadrio succeeded m discovering the name of one of 
our greatest comic geniuses ; for, alluding lo our diversity 
of action in comedv, he mentions in his fiflh volume, page 
148, — ' n celebre Benjaneon nel'.a sua commedia inlitolato 
Bartolommeo jRncere, e in quellaaltra commedia intitolato 
Ipaum Vcftx.* The reader may decipher the poet's namo 
and his JPiair: but it required the riitical sagacity of Mr 
Douce to discover that by hemm VeHx we are to under- 
stand Shadwell's comedy diEpmm WelU. The Italian 
critic had transcribed what he and his Italian printer 
could not spell ; we have further discovered the source of his 
intelligence in St Evremood, who had classed Shadwell's 
comcoy with Ben Jonson's. To such shifts is the writer 
of an universal history d'ogni ooesta, miserably reduced ! 

Towards the rlose of the ftftn volume we at last find the 
sacred muse of Milton, — but, unluckily, he was a man'di 
pochissima relieione,' and spoke of Christ like an Arian. 
diiadrio quotes Ramvay for Milton's vomitini forth abuse 
on the Roman church. His figures are said to be of\en 
mean, unworthy of the majesty of his subject; but in a 
later place, excepting his religion, our poet, it ii decided 
on, is worthy * di molti laudi.* 



ThiM Biuch for the informmiioa the curiooi mav obtain 
OB EDjlith poetry, from iu univenal history. Quadrio 
unquestiuoablT writes with more ignorance than prfjudice 
against us : he has noc oni v highly distinguished the comic 
gcmus of our writers, and raised it above that of our neigh- 
bours, but he has also advanced another discovery, which 
ranks us still higher for original invention, and wwch I am 
confident, will Im as new as it is extraordinary to the Eng- 
lish reader. 

Quadrio, who, among other erudite accessories to his 
work, has ezhauslcd the most copious researches on the 
origin of Punch and Harlequin, has also written, with 
eqinl curiosity ami value, the bistotj of Puppet-ehows. 
But whom has he lauded? whom has be placed para- 
mount, above aU other people, for their genius of inven- 
tion in improving this art ? — The Engluh ! and the glory 
which has hitherto been universally conceded to the Italian 
nation themselves, appears to belong lo us ! For loe, it 
appears, while others were dandling a!nd pulling their liule 
representatives of human nature into such awkward and 
imnatoral motions, first invruted pullers, or wires, and 
gave a fine and natural action to the artificial life of these 
gesti<»ilaiing niachineaj 

We seem to know Uttle of ourselves as connected with 
the history of puppet<i«hows ; but in an article in the curi- 
ous Dictionary of Trevoux, I find that John Brioch6, to 
whom had been attribuied the invention of jllarioiMaes, is 
only to be considered as an improver ; in his time (but the 
learned writers supply no date,) an Engtiakman disco- 
vered the secret of rooming them by springs, and without 
airings ; but the Mariouelles of Brioche were preferred for 
the pTeasantrieii which he made them deliver. The erudite 
Quadrio appears to have miire successfully substantiated 
our claims to the pulleys or wires, or springs of the puppets, 
than any of our own antiquaries ; and perhaps the uncooi- 
memoriUed name of this Englishman was that PowelL whose 
Solomon and Sheba were celebrated in the days of Addi- 
son and Steele ; the former of whom has composed a clas- 
sical and sportive Latin poem on this very subject. But 
Quadrio might well rest satisfied, that the nation, which 
couki boast of its /Vnitoortm, surpaned, and must ever 
■urpass the puny efforts of all doU-toving people ! 


In Professor Dugald Stewart's first Dissertation on the 
M nofrc Bs of Pbilosophy, I find this singular and significant 
jerm. It has occasioned me to reflect on those contests for 
foUgion, in which a particular faith has been made the osten- 
sible pretexr, while the secret motive was usually political. 
The historians, who view in these religious wars only re- 
ligion itself, have written large volumes, in which we may 
never discover that they have either been a struggle to 
obtain predominance, or an expedient to secure it. The 
hatreds of ambitious men have disguised their own pur- 
poses, while Chnstianiiy has borne the odium of loosen- 
ing a destroying spirit among mankind ; which, had Chiis- 
tianity never existed, would have equally prevailed in 
human affairs. Of a mortal malady, it is not only necessary 
to know the nature, bat to designate it by a right name 
that we may not err in our mode of treatment. If we call 
that rah'giMi which we shall find for the greater part wpoHH- 
co{,we are likely to be nustaken in the regimen and the cure. 

Fox, in his * Acts and Monuments,' writes the mar- 
tymlogy of the pntnlanta in three mighty folios ; where, 
in the third, * the tender mercies* of the catholics are ' cut 
in wood* for those who mi|^t not otherwise be enabled to 
read or spell them. Sucn pictures are abridgments of 
long narratives, but they leave in the mind a fulness of 
boiTor. Pox inade more than one generation shudder ; 
and his volume, panicularlv this third, chained to a read- 
ing-desk in the nails of the great, aiid in the aisles of 
cmirdies, often detained the loiterer, as it furmshed some 
■ew scene of papistical horrors to paint forth on returning 
to hb fire-side. The proCestants were then the martyrs, 
because, under Mary, the protestants had been thrown 
out of power. 

Dodd has opposed to Fox three curious folios, which he 
calls * the Church History of England,* exhibiting a most 
abundant martyrolc^ of the cathoUcMf inflicted by the 
hands of the protestants ; who in the succeeding reign of 
Elixabeth, alter long trepidations and balancings, were 
confirmed into power. He grieves over the delusion and 
asductkm of the black-letter romance of honest John Fox, 
which, he says, *has obtained a place in protostant 

churches next to the Bible, while John Pox 
teemed Uttle leas than an evangehsu' Oodd'a ^ ^ 
are not leas pathetic; fiirthe situation of IhooBilwlic^ who 
had to aeorcte himself, as well as to aoAry wr ~~ 
adapted for romantic adventures than emaa tho 
cholj but ■oaotonons story of the proti 
the oell, or bound to the stake. Theso 
over, were ttlemntinK all aorta of intrigues; mad tho 
and martjra of Dodo to the parliament of E ng j hnH 
only traiUMTS and conspiratore ! 

Heylin, in his history of the PttntanM and the 
riant, blackens then for poUtical derUs. He is the Soa^ 
Milet uf Usiory, delighting himself with horrors at ^mA 
the pamter himself must liave started. He tella ^J^^ 

* oppositions^ to monarchical and episcopal gov< 
their * innovatiotts* in the church ; and their * embc 
of the kuigdoms. I'he sword rages in their hands ; 
son, sacrilege, plunder; while * more of the bluod of Eng- 
lishmen had poured like water within the space offov 
years, than had been shed in the avil wars of Yoifc and 
Lancaster in four centuries !' 

Neale opposes a more elaborate history ; where thess 

* great and food men,* the puritans and the presbyterians, 
*iu« jplaced amon^ the rtformen^ while their foaw ■ 
blanrbed into angelic purity. Neale and Ins party opined 
that the protestant had not sufficiently protested, and that 
the reformation itself needed to be relormetl. The 
ried the impatient Elizabeth, and her ardent chi 
and disputed with the learned James, and his ooorlly 
bishopn, about such ceremonial trifles, that the 
may blush or smile who has to record them. And 
the fnaiian was thrown out of preferment, and m 
into separation, he turned into a fnabvter. K^^ 
formity was their darling sin, and their sullen triimipb 

Calamy, in four painuil volumes, chronides the bloo^ 
less mariyroloey of the two thousand silenced and ejj|ecied 
ministers. Tncir history is not glorious, and thetr heroes 
are obscure ; but it is a domestic ta^e ! When the second 
Charles was restored, the pr^byUriantj like every other 
faction, were to be amused, if not courted. Some «/ the 
king's diaplains were seiected from among them, and 

r ached once. Their hopes were raised that they sfaotrid, 
^ some agreement, be enabled to share in that fccltai 
astical estaUishment which they had so often opposed ; 
and the bishops met the presbyters in a ooovocatina at iba 
Savoy. A conference was heM between the high dbnrek, 
resuming the seat of power, and the lam ehmrck^ now pn»- 
trate ; that is, between the old dergy who had reoeally 
been mercilessly ejected by the new, who in their tun 
were awaiting ihev fate. 'The conference w 
with arguments by the weaker, and votes by the 
Many curious anecdotes of* this conference have 
down to us. The presbyterians, in their last sti ug g la , 
petitioned for indtdgenee; but oppressors who had hi i iima 
petitioners, only showed that they possessed no longer lbs 
means of resintance. This coi^erenee w^ followed op 
by the Act of Unifomnty. which took place on BarthQl»> 
mew day, August S4, 1692 : an act which ejected Cain- 
my's two thousand roinisiera from the bosom of the eslaW 
lished diurch. Bartholomew day with this party was 
long paralleled, and perhaps is still with the dreadfiri 
French massacre of that fatal saint's day. The ralsmilj 
was rather, however, of a private than of a ptrtiKe natora. 
The two thousand ejected ministers were indeed deprived 
of their livings ; but thi^ was, ?iowever, a happier fate than 
what has often occurred in these contests for the aeeorily 
of political power. This ejection was not like the expm- 
sion of the Moriscoes, the best and most usefid aulMectsoT 
Spain, which was a human sacr'dice of half a nullion of 
men, and the proscription of many Jews from that land of 
Catholicism ; or the massacre of thousands of Hogocnola, 
and the exmilsion of more than a hundred thousand hf 
Louis the Fourteenth from France. The presbyterian 
divines were not driven from their father-land, and ctMS- 
pelled to learn another language than their motfier^ongoa. 
Destitute as divines, they were suffered to reasaiB as dti* 
zens ; and the result was remarkable. ' These divines 
couki not disrobe themselves of their learning and their 
pieiv, while several of them were compelled to heroins 
tradesmen; among these the learned Sansuel Cbandlsr, 
whose literary productions are numerous, ke|ic a ~ 
seller's shop in the Poultry. 

Hard as this event proved in its result, it was 
pleadsd, that* It was hot tike for like.* AndUmtths 



tory of ' the like* misht not be curtailed in the tellini;, op- 
poeed to Cal Amy's chronicle of the two iht)us&nd ejected 
miiMlen etaiidi viother, in foiin majinitiide, of the tame 
■ort of dtfoaide of the clergy of the church <^ England, 
with a liileby no means less pathetic. 

Thin is Walker's * Attemnt towards recovering id ao- 
ooant of tha Olargy of rhe Church of Cnrland who were 
■eooafcorod, harassed, &c., in the lato Times.* Walker 
is nimself astonished at the size of his Tolume, the wimbtr 
of his sufferers, and thu variety of the sufferings. ' Shall 
tho church,* says he, * not have the liberi? to preaerve 
fbe hbtory of her sufferings, as well as tne wqfaratiun 
to aal forth an account of theirs? Can Dr Calamy 
be aoqaitted for publiihing the history of the BarVtoto' 
■MV siilkrers, if I am condemned for wntini; that of the 
Mjmmitrml lopaluU?* He allows that *ih« number of 
the ejected s mounts to two thousand,' and there were no 
lees than ' seven or eij^ht thousand of the episcopal clergy 
imprisoned, banished, and sent a stanrins,' &c. sc. 

Whether the reformed were martyred by the catholics, 
or the catholics executed by the reformed ; whether the 
puritans expelled those of the established church, or the 
established church ejected the puritans, all seems reduci- 
ble to two classes, conformists and non-conformists, or, in 
the political style, the administration and the opposition. 
When we discover that the heads of all parties are of the 
same hoi temperament, and observe the same evil conduct 
in similar situations ; when we view honest old Latimer 
with his own hands hansini^ a mendicant friar on a tree, 
and the government chanjnns, the friars bindinz Latimer 
to the stake ; when we see the French catholics cutting 
out the tongues of the protostan's, that thev might no loo- 
K^r protest ; the haughty Luther writing subminsive apolo- 
fnes to Leo the Tenth and Henry the Ei^ih for the scur- 
rility with which he had treated them in his writings, and 
finding that his apologies were received with contempt, 
then retracting his retractions ; when we find that haughti- 
oat of the haughty, John Knox, when Elizabeth first a^ 
eendod the throne, crouching and repenting of having 
written his famous excommunication against all female 
oovereignty ; or pulling down the monasteries, from the 
axiom that when the rookery was destroved, the rooks 
woukl never return ; when we find his recent apologist ad- 
Buring, while he apologizes for, some extraordinary proofs 
of Maehiavelian politics— an impenetrable mystery seems 
to hang over the conduct of men who profess to be guided 
by theMoodless code of Jesus— hut try them by a human 
aUndard, and treat them as poUtidana; and the motives 
once discovered, the actions are understood ! 

Two edicts of Chirles the Fifth, in 1555, condemned to 
death the Reformed of the Low Countries, even should 
Chey return to tho catholic faith, with this exception, how- 
ever, n favour of the latter, that they shall not be burnt 
aKve, but that the m«^ shall be beheaded, and the women 
buried alive ! ReUgion could not then be the real motive 
of the Spanish cabinet, for in returning to the ancient 
fiitth that point was obtained ; but the tnith is, that the 
I^Mnirt government considered the reformed as rebeb, 
whom it was not nfe to re-admit to the rights of citizen- 
ship. The undisguised fact appears in the codicil to the 
srill of the emperor, when he solemnly declares that he 
bad written to the inquisition * to born and extirpate the 
horetics,' after trying to moXre Chrittiant of thenty because 
he is oonrinced that they never can become sincere catho- 
lies ; and he acknowledges that he had committed a great 
&ult in permitting Luther to return free on the faith of 
hit safe conduct, as the emperor was not bound to keep 
a promise with a heretic. * It is because that I destroyed 
him not. that heresy has now become strong, which I am 
eonvinced might have benn stifled with him in its birth.'* 
Tho whole conduct of Charies the Fifth in this mighty 
reyotation. was. from its beginrfing, censured by conteoi- 
poraries as purely poCrdW. Francis the First observed, 
that thA emperor, under the colour of religion, was placing 
himself at the head of a league to make his way to a pro- 
dominant monarchy. The pretext of religion' is no now 
thing, writes the Duke of Nevrrs. Charles the Fifth had 
Bever undertaken a war against the protesrant princes, 
but with the design of rendering the imperial crown heredi- 
tary in the house of Austria ; and he has onlv attack*^ 
the electoral princes to ruin them, and to abolinh their 
right of election. Had it been zeal for the catholic reli- 

m, wooM be have delayed from 1519 to 1549 to arm. 

It ho might hayo extinguished the Lntheran heresy, 
* Uoiaoie*! Orttlcal History of the InquisWon. 


which he could easily have done in 15267 But he con- 
sidered that this novelty would sorve to divido the Ger- 
man princra ; uud he patiently waited till the effect was 

Qood men of both parties, mistaking the nature of theaa 
religious wars, have drHwn horrid inferences! The 
*dragonados of Louis XCV, excited the admiration of 
Bruyere ; and Aiiqueiil, in his * Esprit de la Ligue,' com- 
pare's the revocation of the edict m Nantos to a salutary 
amputation. The massacre of St Bartholomew in its 
own day, and oven recently, has found advocates ; a Greek 
professor ut tho limo asserted that thorn were two datmt 
of proiostants in France, political nnd roligious ; and that 
' the late ebullition of public vcngoanco was solely directed 
against the former.' Dr M*Crie etuving the catholic 
with a catholic's curse, execrates * the stale sophistry of 
this calumniator.' But should we allow that the Greek 
professor who advocated their national crimo was tho 
wretch tho caivinisiic doctor deacribes, yet the nature of 
things cannot be altered by the equal violence of Peter 
Charpentier and Dr M'Crio. 

This subject of * Political Religionism' is indeed as nice 
as it curious ; politica have been so cunningly worked into 
the cause ofrtiijifion, that the parUes themselves will never 
be able to separate thom ; and to this moment, the most 
opposite opinions are formed concerning the same events, 
and the same persons. When public disturbances recent* 
ly broke out at Nismes on the first restoration of the Bour- 
b(ms, the protestants, who there are numerous, declared 
that they were persecuted for religion, and their cry echoed 
by their brethren the dissenters, resounded in this country. 
We have not forgotten the ferment it raised here ; much 
was said, and something was done. Our mint«ter howev- 
er persisted in declaring that it was a mere politieal afiiur. 
It b clear that our government was right on the ecmsr, and 
those zealous complainants wrong, who only observed tho 
effect ; for as soon as the Bourbonists had triumphed over 
the Bonapartists, we heard no more of those sanguinary 
persecutions of the protestants of Nismes, of which a dis- 
senter has juiit published a large history. Il is a curious 
fart, that when two writers at tlte same time were occupied 
in a life of Cardinal Ximenes, Flechier converted the car- 
dinal into a saint, and every incident in his administration 
was made to connect itself with his religious character ; 
Marsollter, a writer very inferior to Flechier, shows the 
cardinal merely as a politician. The elegancies of Fle- 
chier were soon neglected by the public, and the deep in- 
terests of truth soon acquired, and still retain, for the leia 
elegant writer, the attention of the statesman. 

A modern historian has observed, that ' the affairs of 
religion were the grand fomenters and promoters of the 
thirty ytanf leor, which first brought down the powers of 
the North to mix in the politics of the Southern states.' 
The fact is indisputable, but the cause is not so apparent. 
Giistavus Adolphus, the vast military genius of Ins age, 
had designed, and was successfully attempting, to opposo 
the overgrown power of the imperial bouse of Austria, 
which had long aimed at an univerMi monarchy in Europe ; 
a circumstance which Philip IV weakly hinted at to the 
world when he placed this motto under his arms—* Sing 
ipso factum at nikU f an expression applied to Jestis Christ 
by St John. 


An enlightened toleration is a blessing of tho last ag»— 
it would seem to have been practiced by the Romans, 
when they did not mistake the primitive Christians for 
iieditious members of bociety ; and was inculcated even 
by Mahomet, in a passage in tho Koran, btit scarcely 
practised by his followers. In modem history, it was con- 
demned, when religion was turned into a political contest, 
nnder tho a«:piring house of Austria— ami in Spaii>— ana 
in France. It required a long time before its nature was 
comprehended — and to this moment it is far from being 
clear, either to the tolerators, or the tolerated. 

It does not appear, that the precepts or the practiea 
of Jesus and the apostles incnlcate the eompaBhi of any 
to be Christians;! vet an expresMon employed in tho 
nuptial parable of the great supper, when the hospitable 

♦ NanrT^ C<«nsideratSons Polhlqoes. p. 115. See a cuiloaa 
note in Hsrtt^'s Life of (histavns Adolphus, H, 129. 

t Bishop Barlow's ' Several mlacellsneons and weighty 
Csses of Conscience rwolved, 10W.» His * Case of a Tols- 
rniion In MaPers of Reltfflon,* addressed to Robert Bojle, p. 
19. This volume was not Intended to have been glvsn to tno 
world, a clicumstaace which dees not naka k iht Issac oriou a. 


lord c o oi man dad tb« aerrmnt, 6admf tint he bad still room 
to accmnmodate mora fursts, * to fo out in the highways 
and hfidcve, and eempi/l/hm to eoew m, tAol my AoMT Mqr 
btJUlrd^* was alleced as an authority bj ihuse catholics, 
who <»lled ibenMelres * the coorertors/ (or u«iaf reliKioas 
force, «ihich, still alkMfio]; to ihe hospifahle lord, tlMgr 
calkd * a charitable and sahitary rioleoce.' It was this 
circamiCance which produced Bayle** Cororoeataire 
phikMuphiqoe cur oes Paroles de Jesus Christ,* published 
' imder the suppontitioos name of an Engtiakw^tui, as 
prioted at Cantrrbnry in 1686, but really at Asuterdam. 
It is 'wriou^ thai Locke publish«>d his first letter on * To- 
lovatioo' in Latin a' Ghoda. m 1689— the second in 1690 — 
and the third in I69t. Bavle opened the nuod of Lncke, 
and sometime after quotes Locke's Latin letter with hifh 
eommenda'ioo.* Toe caulioa of both writers in |iub- 
lisliinK io fi»rei|n> places, howerer, indicates the prudence 
wIm^ it was deemed necessary to obserre is writing in 
ianxir of Toleration. 

These wera the first pAafosopMee/ attempts ; but the 
•artiest advocates for Toleratioo may be found amonf the 
rebfinos c o ntrofetsialists of a precedine period ; it was 
probablr started aronnf the fu|plive sects who had found 
an asylum in Holland. It was a blesstnc which they had 
fooe mr to find, and the miserable, reduced to human feel- 
mfs, are cnmpasnooaie to one another. With us the 
sect called * the Independents* had, earlr in our rerohitioa 
trader Charles the First, pleaded for the doctrine of re- 
ligious UbertT, and lonf maintained it against the presby- 
terians. Both proved persecutors when they possessed 
power. The first of our respertaMe divines who advo- 
cated this cauM was Jeremv Tavlor, in his * Disrourseon 
the libertT oT Prophesying,* 1647, and Bishop Hall, who 
had plMfded the cause of moderaiion m a discourse about 
the same period. t Locke had no doubt eiamined all 
these writers. The history of opinions is among the 
BKKt curious of histories ; and I su!«peei that Bayle was 
well acquainted with the pamphlets nf our seetarists. who, 
in their flicht to Holhind, eonveved those curiosiries of 
theoloty, which had cost them their happiness and their 
estatns : I think he indicates this hidden source of his 
ideas, bv the extraordinarv ascription of his book to on 
BnrUJtmmn, and fixing the place of its publication at 

Tolerauon has been a vast engine in the hands of mo- 
dem poliliciatts. It was established in the United Pro- 
vinces of Holland, and our mnneroos non-conformists 
took refuge in that asvlum for disturbed consciences ; it at- 
tracted a vahiable community of French refugees; it 
coodocted a colonv of Hebrew fufitives from Portufal : 
ennventides of Brownists, quakers* meetmgs, French 
churches, and Jewish synaffofues. and (had it been re- 
juired) Mahometan mosques, in Amsterdam, were the 
precursors of its mart and its exchanfe; the moment 
thev could prest'rve their consciences sacred to themselves, 
they lived without mutual perseaitioo, and mixed together 
•s vnod Dutchmen. 

The exmmmunieated part of Europe seemed to be the 
most enlifhtened. and it was then considered as a proof 
of the admirable progress of the human mind, that Locke 
and Clarke and Newton corresponded with Leibnitz, and 
•others of the learned in France and Italy. Some were 
astonished that philosophers, who differed in their re- 
UgiumM (^tmMM, shoukl communicate among themselves 
^vith so mudi toleration.^ 

It is not, however, clear, that had any one of these sects 
mt Amsterdam obtained predommance, which was some- 
times attempted, thev would have granted to others the 
toleration they participated in common. The infancy of 
a party is accompanied by a political weakneas, which 
dkables it from weakening others. 

e In the article Ssncterlus. Note F. 

t Recent writers snMtc.c our sectariflfj assert that Dr Owen 
was the flrrt who wrote in favour of to^erstion. in lf-18 1 Ano- 
ther cislnis the honour fnr John Goodwin, the chaplain of 
Oliver Cromwell, who poblijlied one of his obrtiire pnleml- 
cal traru i-« ISM. amon^ a number of other pertone, who at 
that crWs dW not venture to prpflx their name* to pleas In fa- 
vnor of Toleration. S(» delicate and so nbacure dM this mbject 
then appear! In 1G51, thev tran«latrd the liberal treatise of 
Ointius de Imperio summariim poceMatum cirra sacra ; under 
the tale «»f ' The anthorhy of the hirhest powers aboot sacred 
tMurs,* London. 8vo. IWI- To the honour of Groilos, the 
firat of nhilosophral reformers, be k recorded, that he dis- 

plssssd both panics ! _ ^ 

^ J. P. Babaui, aor U Bevotafion FnmsaiB, p. ST 

The cathoBc in tUi oountrypleads for toleration ; in la 
own, he refuses to graU it. Here, the preritytcrina, wto 
had cumplained of persecution, once fixed in the seat rf 
power, abrogated every kind of independenc e •mm^ 
others. When the flames consumed Servetns nl Geneva, 
the controversy becan, whether the civil Boafiairmte aniht 
punish heretics, which Beza, the aaaoeate of Cafna, 
ocaintained : he trion^ibed in the smaO |HCwlfsT'maii 
city of Greneva ; but the book he wrote was fistni te the 
prolestants a fow leagtios distant, among a nsnforiiT sf 
catholics. Whenever the prolestants complained </tts 
perse^tionsthey su.Tered, the catholics for authority a^ 
sanction, never fitiled to appeal to the volume ofiJbcv < 

M. Necker de Saossure has recently obeervad ea * what 
trivial circumstances the change or the preservation of the 
established religi«»n in different districts of Europe kaa d^ 
peialed !' When the Reformation penetrated into Sw itiai w 
land, the government of the principality of Nenfirhattl, 
wishinff to allow liberty of conscience to all thehr enhjec's. 
invited eadi parish to vote * for or arainst the ndoptian sf 
the new worshin ; and in all the parishes, except twoi, As 
majority of suffVaces declared in favour of the prolestaat 
roromimion.* The inhabitants of the small villafe of 
Creissier had also assembled ; and formiuf an even num- 
ber, there happened to be an equality of voce* for aad 
acainst the change of religion. A shepherd kcmg 
absent, teodine the flocks on the hills, they 
him to appear and decide this important question 
havinff no likinr to innovation, he gave his voiee in fiii 
of the existinf form of worship ; and this parish 
catholic, and b so at this day, in the heart of the proK 

I proceed to some facts, which I have arranged for the 
hisrnry of Toleration. In the memoirs of James ths 
Second, when that monarch published * The Dedaratiaa 
for Liberty of Conscience,* ihe cathoKc reasons and Ifte- 
ralises like a modem philosopher : he accnses ■ the jeal- 
onsT of our rlerfy, who had degraded themselves into m^ 
trifiiers ; and like mechanics in a trade, who are afraid sf 
nothinff so much as interl o pers thev had therefore m^ 
duced indifferent persons to tmagiiM that their earnest con- 
test was not about their faith, but about their tenuvval 
possessions. It was inconffrtious that a dhorch, iHiieh 
does not pretend to be infallible, should constrain persnaa, 
trader heavy nenalties and punishments, to bdiere as sks 
does : they delighted, be anqrted, to hold an iron red 
over dissenter's and catholics : so sweet waa ikmnaioa, 
that the very thoufht of others participatinf in their lree> 
dnm nwde them deny the very doctrine they preached.* 
The chief arfument the catholic urfed on this 
was the reasonableness of repealing laws 
men liable to the greatest punishments for that it was net 
in their power to remedy, for that no man could force kam- 
sdf to believe what he reallv did not believe.* 

Shich was the rational langnare of the moat hiceced sf 
aealots ! — The fox ran bleat like the lamb. At the vny 
moment James the Second was utterinr this mild cxpnrtn. 
lation. in his own heart he had snathematixed the natina; 
for I have seen some of the brat's private papera, whack 
still exist ; they coimst of communications chieflv by the 
nMst bifoled priests, with the wildest profects, and amst 
infatuated prophecies and dreams of restorint the tnw 
catholic faith in England ! Had the Jeniit-Jed 
retaiiked the English throne, the language Ae now 
cd to the nation would have been no lonter used ; and in 
that case it would have served his protestant aobjects. He 
asked for toleration, to become intolerant! He devoted him* 
sel(| not to the hundredth part of .the Englirii nation; aad 
yet he was surprised thai he was left one mommt wirhnat 
an armv ! When the catholic monarch issued thb decla- 
ration for * liberty of conscience,* the Jekyll of bis da? oh* 
served, that * It was but scafl^oldinf : ther intend to oniid 
another honse; and when that house (Popery) la bnikt 
thev will take down the scaffold.*! 

When the Presbytery was our lord, they who had en* 
dored the tortures of fiersecution, and raised such shavp 
outcries for freedom, of all men. were the most infoteraal: 
hardly had they tasted of the Circiean cup of dimiinisa, 
ere they were transformed into the roo«t hideena or iht 
most ffrotesqoe monsters of political power. To their 
eyes toleration was an hvdra, and the dethroned hiih epa 
' * Life of James the Seetmd, front his own pspert, H. 1 14. 

t This wss a Baroa Wallon. From DrB. 
nuscript Diary. 



had ncTer to Tehamentlv dedaimed avaintl what, m ludi- 
rrous rage, one of the mgh-flyini( preflbyieriana called * a 
curted intolerable toleraiion!' Thej adVocated the righta 
of pertecutioo, and * Shallow Edwardi,* as Milton calli 
the author of *The Graogrena/ published a treatise 
mgmn$t taUnihn, They who bad so long eonplaioed of 
* the liceosersi* now sent all the books thej condemned to 
penal fires. Pr^rnne now vindicated the very doctrines 
tinder which he himself had so severely suffered ; assum- 
ing the highest pocsible power of civil government, even 
to the infliction of death, on its opponents. Prynne lost 
all feeling for the ears of others! 

The idea of toleration was not intelligible for too long a 
p«nod in the annals of Europe : no parties probably could 
conceive the idea of toleration in the struggle for pre- 
dominance. Treaties are not proffered when conquest 
M the concealed object. Men were immolated ! a mas- 
sacre was a sacrificie ! medals were struck to commemo- 
rate these holy persecutions !* The destroying angel, 
holding in one hand a cross, and in other a sword, with 
these words — ygonottorutn Straget, 157f .— ' The mas- 
sacre of the Huguenots ' — proves that toleration will not 
agree with that date. Castelneau, a statesman and a hu- 
mane man, was at a loss how to deciHe on a point of the 
utmost importance to France. In ISSt they first began to 
bum the Lutherans or Calvinists, and to cut out the 
tongues of all nrotestants, * that they might no longer pro 
test.' According to Father Paul, fifty thousand persons 
had perished in the Netherlands, by different tortures, for 
religicm. But a change in the religion of the state, Cas« 
telneau considered, would occasion one in the government: 
he wondered how it happened, that the more they punish- 
•d with death, it only increased the number of the vic- 
tims : martyrs produced proselytes. As a statesman, he 
looked round the great field of human actions in the his- 
tory of the past ; there he diitcovered that the Romans 
were more enlightened in their actions than ourselves ; 
that Trajan commanded Pliny the younger not to molest 
the Christians for their religinn ; but should their conduct 
endanger the state, to put down illegal ai$emblies; that 
Julian the Apostate expressly forbid the exteuHon of the 
Christians, who then imagined that they were securing 
their salvation by martyrdom ; but he ordered all their 
coods to 

history.'! Such were the sentiments of Castelneau, m 
1560. Amidst perplexities of state necessity, and of our 
common humanity, the notion of toleration had no*, entered 
into the views of the statesman. It was also at this lime 
that Oe Saincles, a great controversial writer, declared, 
that had the fires lighted for the destruction of Calvinism 
not been extinguished, the sect had not spread ! About 
half a centunr subsequent to this period Thuanns was 
perhaps the first great mind who appears to have insinu- 
ated to the French monarch and his nation, that thoy 
might live at peace with heretics ; by which avowal he 
called down on himself the haughty iiidignation of Rome, 
•ad a declaration, that the man who spoke in favour of 
heretics mu^t necessari.y be one of the first class. Hear 
the afllicted historian : * Have men no compassion, after 
forty years passed full of continual miseries? Have they no 
lear, afirr the loss of the Netherlands, occasioned by 
that frantic obstinacy which marked the times ? I erieve 
that such sentiments should have occasioned my book to 
have iMen examined with a rigour that amounts to calum- 
ny.* Such was the language of Thuanus, in a letter 
written in 1606 4, which indicates an approximation to 
ieUratUm, but which term was not probably yet found in 
any dictionary. We may consider, as so many attempts 
at toleration, 'the great national synod of Dort, who.^e his- 
tory is amply written by Brandt; and the mitigatine pro- 
twtan tism of Laud, to approximate to the ceremonies of 

• It IS curious to observe that the catholics were afterwards 
asihamed of these Indiscretions : they were unwHIin^ tn own 
that there were any medals which commemorate massacres. 
Tboanus, in his 5Sd book, has minutely dencribed them. The 
medal*, however, have become excessively scarce ; but co- 
pies inferior to the originals have been sold. They had alsu 
p too re s on similar subjects, accompanied by insulting in9crip> 
dons, which Utter they have effaced, sometimes very Imper- 
Actty Ace HoTlh's Memoirii, p. 312—14. This enthusiast 
advertised in the papers to request travellers to procure them. 
f Meaolree de Michel de Castelneau, Li v. I, c. -i 
\ Ufa of Thuannsi bj Rev. J. Collinson, p. 115 

the Roman church ; but the synod, aRer holding about two 
hundred sessions, closed, dividing men into universalista 
and semi-universal'ists, supralapsarians and sublapsarians f 
The reformed themselves produced the remoaslraiils ; and 
Laud's ceremonies endeo in placing the altar eastward, 
and in raising the scaffold for the monarchy anH the hier> 
archy. Error is circuitous when it will do what it has not 
yet learnt. They were pressing for conformi^ to do that 
which a century afterwards they found could only be done 
by toleratum. 

The oenret hiatmry qf taUratkm among .certain parties 
has been disclosed to us by a curious document, from that 
religious Machiavel, the fierce ascetic republican John 
luiox, a calvinistical Pope. * While the posterity of Abra- 
ham,' says that mighty and artful reformer, * mertfno m 
niMiber, and while they sojourned in differoni ceumirietf 
they were merely required to avoid all participation in the 
idolatrous rites of the heathen ; but aa toon aa tktjfvro^ 
pered into a kingdom^ and had obtained jtonoemon of Co' 
noon, they were strictly charg«Kl to suppress idolatry, and 
to destroy all the monuments and incenUves. The same 
duty was noir incumbent on the professors of (he true re- 
lisfion in Scot lend : formerly, when not more than Un per- 
sons tn a county were enlightened, it would have been 
fooliahneta to have demanded of the nobility the suppres- 
sion of idolatry. But now, when knqwiedge had bcwn in- 
creased,' he* Such are the men who cry out for U4»- 
ration during their state of political weakness, but who 
cancel the bond by which they hold their tenure whenever 
they * obtain poaseasion of Canaan.' The only commen- 
tary on this piece of the secret history of toleration is tha 
acute remark uf Swift : * We are fully convinced that wo 
shall always tolerate them, but not that they will tolerate us.' 

The truth is, that toleration was allowed by none of the 
parties ! and I will now show the dilemmas into whid» 
each party thnist itself. 

Wnen the kings of England would forcibly have esta- 
blished episcopacy in Scotland, the presbyters passed an 
act againnt the toleration of diMaenterafrompre^terian do^ 
trinea and diacipline ! an^ thus, as Guthrie observes, they 
were committing the same violence on the conscience of 
their brethren, which they opposed in the king. The presW- 
rians contrived their famous covenant to dispossess the 
royalists of their livings ; and the independents, vrho assum- 
ed the principle of toleration in their very name, shortly aP 
ter enforced what thev railed the engagement, to eject tha 
prerbyterians! In England, where the diaeenters were 
ejected, their great advocate Calannr complains that the 
dissenters were only making use of the same arguments 
which the most eminent reformers had done in their noble 
defence of the reformation afainst the papists , while the 
arguments of the established church against the dissenters 
were the same which were urged by the papists against 
the protestant reformation!! When the presbyterians 

• Dr M'Crie's Life of John Knox, ii, 122. 

1 1 quote from an unpublish^ d letter, written so late as In 
1749, addreMed tn the author of * The Free and Candid Dis- 
quisition,^ by the Reverend Thomas Allen, Rertor of ReUering, 
Northsmptonshire. However extravagant his doctrine sp. 
pears to us, I suspect that it exhibits the concealed sentiments 
of even some protestant churchmen ! This rector of Kecter- 
ins attributes the cnmwth of schifmstothe negligence of the 
clergy, and seems to hare persecuted both the arrhbishops, 
' to his detriment,* as he tells us, with singulsr plsns of rs- 
form liorrowed fVt>m monastk: ini»titutk>n«. He wished to re- 
vive the practice inculcated by a canon of the cxioncll of Lao- 
dicea, of^ having prayers ad horam nonsm et ad vesperam — 
prayers twice a day in the churches. But his grand project 
take in his own woris : 

* I let the archbishop know that I had composed an irenlcon, 
wherein I prove the neressHy of an eccleslasikvl power over 
consciences in rostters of religion, whkh utterly silences their 
arguments who plead so hsnl for toleration. I took my 
scheme rrrm ' a Discourse or Eccleslssticsl Polity,* wherein 
the authority of the civil maelMnite over the consciences of 
subjects In manners of external relislon is asnerted ; the mis 
chiefs and inconveniences of toleration are represented, and 
all pretences pleailed In behalf of liberty of ronerience ars 
fully answered. If this book were reprinted snd consMered, 
the khig would know his power and the people their duty.* 

The rector of Kettering aeems not tn have known that tha 
author of this ' Discourse on Ecclesisstical Polhy.* was tha 
notorious Parker, immnrtalixed by the ssdre of MarvvlU 
This political apostate, from a republican and presbjrterian, 
became a furious advocate for arbitrary goveniment in church 
and sute ! He easily won the favour of James the Second, 
who made him Bishop of Oxford ! His principles were so 
vk)lent, that Father Petre, the coufcaaor of James the Second ! 


■* of fui- '*"" pmoM «rtb* Tnii* mte to bi 

"'ijiiiISr «li«f mt for lb. klBod of Ih. Pm 

_ . oT offrnilBj fauaiiHt, 
>u inik ihe biatuip> »ha biri 
' ~ u ; but Ch«. 

ib^ ijiprir in Iheit brgbuimct, John Kboi ud Ftlhri ^"^ ajilaitdiiit ihc vdrm iia] of fte p^irc 

pMro, ia offino, woiui Fatc eqiall.v Krntl Jim« Ihc S«- prirririd to fiva up ihi> iiinli mhir Ihin la ml 

diffieul'ir o'' fanxiof » d«r mioa of TolcratwD. Thu ■■"'* 

laafaed man. aflar harioi bcni mmtd l» ihi Trtifioiu '» ll"> prmdiiiK tnKlt, ■Palhial F ili|iii«b»; «• 

wan oT Ihe Nalhnluli, ruund BBhandunUv rplmi in a harf •howi how to praTido afanui Ihc poaaiblB «^loftta 

prnTsuor'a chair alLrTdeo, and wrihoul iIiIGeiiiIiv abJurFd t°'m'«' brronin: ihc tcltratml Tolnatiin bit, Bdacd, 

rapac;. Hainbliah<id>DaM|»iiiKal«irlii;iiiitidan»d bcin «iip«1ed oTuidltrFrciire <n Rrtuion Hartf; bMwiA 

aa hit rml priiKipla, thai ooIt «u rrli>i«t ihouki be al- •«'"<' ■""^'> it i* oaljF u mdifitrriKs u> ihe buiiBiibiB 

lonadta a Hoplc, aBdthaliwcleinr[K7>hauldberraitfd " Ihrolon'— Ihmca 'nut of God, huIoT maa,' ihai Wn 

tt WB coafirniiiH, who, he declim. •houU b« punutd pniihed, and Ihal an pcrithiii{ anuDd ui ! 

Ueutofflopnac'rTAIhebodf touaJ. ['rr. mm arc hia *»»to«» rea th« rtMnta ituaaeai. 

tnida. Stiufc nalioD) ihw in ■ pnitmaDi Rpublic- ^^ '^■■*l dminnl now Ijioi befan ma, tba aaB- 

ud, i> (act, WBoUand il wai anproTing of all -he homir^ f*^ letin-oTCharin th« Ninlli, will pnn, ihal ibal b- 

rf'bFiroppnaann, thu D«k» D'Alra and Philip II, from P""'!*! maatK-™, calttd b^ Iho wwU nt^rHai, «aa, ■ 

which IhiT had hard[r m«T-nd. Ii oai a pnnripli br '*" '""^ eibm«, contidend menlT aa pafAieri; h> 

which wc mutt imiriT^j mfrp, ra<a Bmle. ihal m Hrf- ™ '""* ■«!'l""« "«" *ip«di(nti which a pnteDdnl » 

cr mjde of 
Thaednn Cnmlierl.* Ihn Rrm admcair arpa!i 

» aOra ntlirT^ ot 


■Hon fffutRl bi ™' "T™*"' ""•" ■'"■ ">'• •>• H» "IwT, UM mat. 

io!iiical and nl- ^1" iMnam brtan •» St Banholomew dar, ■ Aa- 

•anloiih ^"^ '''^' '■""' 'B I'lvm during ana An: ikl 

IB Piilol "^ol •'"•' iolemiptfd Ihe comipondnKC tt oat caan 

n* are ^'l' '"■' "f Ii"'""- A l~i« ailencB ruind : the w lU 

liurallT "« ''!:• "' '"" "" '»'' -I'ifb tJ"t «b" "-Id »n, boa 

r. out if '"■ B""-"™"*" biio»howi„«ci».rla»«e(ta.». 

iStrm, "c "eolmlD a political eipcdieol, Charlea IbcNMb, 

aa to blame Chulei Martal for eimrrhiiiE ihe Frii 
wham he had rnnq'Hml, loa-lopt Chrniianilv! 'A 
dsnable iPtI,' he ob.f rrrj. • in a Kramor : hiil in fiiel 

Etion fneeed upna (hem, which muit b? inlTixtn?td 

brcint idnlalon lo brcmnp Chritiianii ; and in hair fo 
«n sppwiiaiiT In eiprtu hie opinioa* in ihe dark hi? 

noinalioa of Chri«ian.. nrTnthel-n were fomd 
Mr. tba papiMe. lor ihrir pa<ii» nb«(ii>nre in the i 
nary of ih- RomaD Ponr.T, Thi calholi'^ hai t 
Ar told Di. on Ihie word 7Uenui>>a. thai, Ci mm t 
t firl m mm f a mmm out It •un'rr lifi lolmnt 
U.t II wai a word which emned DTrrcrnl 
■ ■lohon* in nudcm! The prMniii 

Qmen. and alarmed ihe Ftendi protceiama by ato^ 
iheir hrpH, which loaf rnted on the ud of iba E^U 



dated Bih PebrtnrT, I5TS, wa^ 

urd br Ihe km 

L.M1XI. Pe»-lo<^ h, 1Uh» 


le , mnUeni 

of MrdiciJ. w 

10 pertiwH, ma.T haTo diciated ihitltl- 

ouih nrned br ihe kini with Ui 

hind.t Sue 



The Earl of (F>fc*Bfcr(W«h 


n Ihe bapliim 


.iniham. oor 

ofCharlot, hadlhe 



w far Iher 

.. ..,. IMTihaWy wa> nil! the dimlreai of hie eouneih. 

• ha» '■ °( n^rrymi itir r>uheD>AluKon wiih Elizabeth. 'Vbw 

, „ whether ^'' '"'' wiehed ■••Rlllr ihit I'liiiiulfnl ipiiii. and the bb 

lr> ' InninnhanItT 1 IP"'*'™' ^^ Elitabeth bad been broken of in »■■ 

noi liWr erer In qwieeofihen. • n--^ -i 

■leh ovirriaa for loJeraiioA ; the atronf 

A >*liriaa wbie 
mklr Meraied. if « 
palMat aaneadpnc) 

When Prieeiltiai 

■Mie tun of h<n< < 
■donhif iha ti 

prindplee of preienrfed 
It it Ihe weak who lait^ 

>r ainniaK Ihal Ibe 

lu'lnleralkin li eondaniiMif u 
• Cnrnhm WHdon 
itrnrwillliiinnr Onn 

. HeWMihenmi 

la T^arani, ad rt 

n Toleranci. HnMd 

, Sofaleofhb'hroiber.thaDi*. 

of ADfiHi, who had not lont before hern eiprdited ai tin 
tame fraiDen errand ; and Eliiabrth had alrsadr iA|ic>t< 
In Ihe ditparilT of their am. Ihe Duke of Alflm bewi 
enlr Hvent'en, aod the mai^Fn quren ni and ijurtr : ba 
Cuhinne ohtemd. ihal D'AleDjon waa enJT oai t*m 

wrrnarj. ■ laenUna Ihii rlrcBmieai „ __. 

linnnain Hinofinw. 11 it taid ihtl Charltt. whn dltd mnf 
niei>iinniinuihaainiMeaK(:UarhlaafB.(hai liawaA 
oMcveii ai^ hi> dnpairhrt. and hurmturad Iha 1 imii if 

piindenH ihn*! iha IbNtar of Ifaia MaKBcaL nwaij || m* 

DAen cgmpoaad af |i>piihr ultt of [hn aaBp. 


Mmnr thu tin bnih>r, aMio* wboB this ab{«tica ihav conum 
W >m eecumd in EliubMh, Ibr ha hwl bna Hnt buk | theu gpo i 
■poa ugihci pftif I' — •oaifldiAeah]! whkhtbaqiiecDhul aodn u p« 

« K(H oT hu bwi d< 

Wonmiar of her veu affucliwi Tar the auaan el E 
land, and hat and the lun^t ilhcl inlnniioD la praaom il, 
and Ihal Ifaav were theroroie dEiiiwii at Ihii propoatd 

odruif of iha Earl oT WorcaMcr 

Ua, firing him claarlj aad poutadljr ta 
«, aod ti D41W practii^ by Iha quaaa b 

« tgnnl< (Am. Tha urra- 

e of anoUirr; and hatia^ alao, during her t 
lad Ihoaa of har lubjucca whom the fotind aec 
balliour. Il ii (nia Ihia hu bean doaa b^ thi 


ii|n, pun- 

) Walahinfham, who bepi ■!«»■ doaa by a^i 

Wm^/'lo 1 

■dBflviadgiDf thatlba aaid cchuil had in 

ta ipaak on ihv ha«d ; ami ha than addi 

in Bafliah lo Wi>rce9l«r. And anarwardi Iha i 

to niT llilj and imlhar to undcnland, (hat tht 

aoiKh u I wubed. bui o 

Thia leilar oT Chult 
I here fooduda. ' Mjr ladri 

LDner ; (or GiidiBf 

I m; Kiacooia, ready 10 ba ai- 
rraign and ir^ in open joatica aa 

II Rmdrained. to mj nry frau 
{laacher la main) in whM hu 


r ladT 

^ ... ^raiJSirPr 

nitanily replied, that ehe had noiror ■ ' her am had neTer interfered bnnre™ lh( 
iFniLonod, gn nhieh ehe nnulJ nnl | her tiibjecle, and in mum eipecu iha aaina ravour; il- 
iiaatti, hr aeeoonla thtj had received froni En|land, 
•any ihiFM wera armini tn aaaiil Ibeir rebela at Rnchalla.' 
IH> aceuilamed lo bmincii m uiii nature, but inal na 'My lidjand molhar' adnncei another ilep, and doclarei 
Umaairbaew rarcarliioihaltheuiHeaTlhunt'irnliaiiaa , [hat E lie ibai h bt Irutjr la bound loaanit haraon agaiul 
fbr mamtfa not being more advanced, nae rraTly Uifib bra rcbeliinui aubiecle; and Iher eipaci, at leaai, thai 

'-' — >— >■■- -■ ii-;.uj .1... ^,...... ...., „,j, j^i^ iinpiheae amamenti in all hei 

BEapLaiiJy punuh Iha affandara. 1 raauDt 

Iha nid Wakingh 
newhat aaloniihad, i 

jirdnerarlabacoRiplatint, (aahaptKnediolhat | 'Ai>l on haaiint thii, Iha nid Wakinghara ehang«l 

ot my brother the Dulia of Anjou :) and the oihrr point mlnur, and appeared loniewhat aalonHhad, aa my laJy 
■ Ike interrian btl-een mi bnKher Ihe Duko of m) mother noil pmeiiad by hii face; and « Ihia.ha 


le rorca which 11 

■M laW had happtnci lately in lUi ]dttdBm ; and during would 

kaaa wall limed to have ipakea nilh Ihem lunnming I 
*(~>d laarriata ; and ^at himiell' and ihuta et hia naii 
IhiI bean in (real Tear m this kingdom, ihinbio^ that < 
iMaadnl to eiiirpaie all Ihoaa oT the aaid raligioa. On ih 
lady and maiher auwemd him iiHluil]>,and in ofd< 

oof vanl thaio paap>o rhim aaai 
-'-' 1haIinEn(land,» 

ehhuoi: bi 

ut the t 

a InwloiE 

Su. - 

sanr lika nor Talue a prines who had nol hia r»1i(inn ■< ju 

iMarti and whoanr would deairs lo harsihi* aiherwiae, „„ 

maid be depriTini bin of what wa holdteareii in thia ., 

mtM : That he might recolleut that my brother bad al- da 
waya inoited nn 111" rreedi - ■ ■ ■ -'-- 

.. wai inpoaeible toimardkt Ihaan.' 
<■ Cbariae Ihe Ninib enBloaea tha copy of a laitar br had 
»> raeaiveil from Lnodoa, in part agrsainj; with an aecouat 
■■ tha arabMaadiH had aent 10 Ihe kini. nt an Engliih eipa* 
i"i diiioa noariT rrady tn aail for La Rochellt, to aani hia 
'i rehFllioui >uhje4:i*. Ha le rtitl fiinher alarmed, ihai Elf 
'" isbelh romania ihe werlritnui, and aaaiala underhand tha 

diacmtenied. He tir(e> Ihe imbuaador 10 haitrn 10 Iha 

panad baiweao har aa- 
Engliih aflaira which Charlea 

la diScully oT iu public eierciic, which he al*an hv deade and not by warda ; to ac' nprnlyonapoinl which 

iatialad on, which had braken off thii negmlation : the ,;]niile •/ to diuimulatioa. The b«l pnoT oT her Triesd- 

Dnka d'Alensoa win be uliifiad when thii piHtil ii aireed .hip will be ihe mairiage ; and tha ambanaador, aflar 

win Bol occaaion huo the pain and ihe thame of panio^ ,hi„k» ate deairoua of Ihia project. . ' . . - 

Mar Iha aeaa withoui happily terminal ini ihi> affair. In acquaint the oobob with what baa 

nfard 10 wU hat Becvrtd tint latUr da}i$. that he mual lawufc™ u,J myealf." 

hare asan haw it happened by ihe fiuli of the chieli of g^^i, ^ tha Gm Ian 

lbo« who roinainad hero ; for when Ihe lale admiral wai tha Niolh deapatehei. .- . - 

treaefaaroualy wounded al N«re Dame, he knew ihe af- .ilanco iif .Li monlh.. diirinr which time La Motn F«a- 

fliefion it ibraw oe unio, IfearTul thai it might have occa- Um waa i»i admilled into ihe pmence oT Eliiabeih. The 

aianed fraal troublaa m iIm bin(dam,| and the diligence apolngT (m ihe maiiacre 1^ Si Bartholomew cmnra rnai 

■• OMd 10 TariTy jodidally wheaea it proceeded ; «nd Iba ,h, ^^^^ himeeli; and conlaini le.efal remarkable eipnw- 

TarUitalina WBanearlyfiniahed,iThen1heywereaobrgFirul «ona, which are at l*an diTeaied of Ihal nvle of bigolij 

•a to nla« a conapiracy, lo aitempl the h*ti of myatif, ,„j emitation wo might haee eipecied: on Ihe ennlrair, 

Olf lady and mnlher, and my hrollieni, and endanger Ihe ihii nnguinary and inconiidrrale young nHnareh.aa bail 

whole iiaie ; which waa ibe cauae, Ihal 10 a»oid ihie, I rtprgMnted, wiiiea in a auhdued and anrowing icne, l»- 

wat conpelled, 10 inr lerr great regrcl, to permit wbal toenling biahani neceialty, rrgrelting ha wwld noc ha™ 

bed happened in thia city; butashp hid wiinnird, Igaira recDurae 10 ihalawhandappeannginnihenforhiarniina 

erdara to alop, la aoon u poaiible. Ihii fury "f Ihe p4^le, ,„ ,^„,, ,h„ fury of the people, which he himarlf had let 

■•d place ertrf 00a in repoaf . On thia, Ihe Sieur Wal- i^^, Caiharino Je Mi-dide, who had goterned him 

of iIh aaid religion had been interdicted in ihi^ kingdom. j„„, „i(hi unqueitionahly haTB penuaded him Ihat ■ 

Tn wKw4i bIw ftlao anewered. Ihat thit had not been dona Gonvplracv waa on the point of raploaion. Charlea the 

M ; namf ly. Ibal Ihe (hry B( f,,^ jjij ,„„,, ,„J fail ehaiaaor ia unfaTouraU* 

•oonrr be aniyed, who elea ^„,^ h* 1h» hiiioriana. In Ihe wiluininnui eorreapood- 

of tha paii rahmiUni.and would again „„ ^j^h I ha*e riasinod, could we judge by eiaie let- 

"' '' ''religion, had ,„,^ ihe charaMerofbimwha aiibaeribn Iben.wennat 

nh are notkad Torm a rery diffrrcni noitont the* are lo pm<ii and as 

brCamden, w"hoitaetTeithallhBilii»fnhfcame«arWhy „„«, that one might c-nreive Ihry wen diclaled by 

ncalriniaB many, and tn put in »nJ to Ihl- irouhle .h. ion- |h, _,ng monarch himaelf; 

aantad tSallha young duke jKnild come o«t.«>iially, ' "■ ..„.„,„. 
Uai be itarid Botba o&odad If bar luilor ihouiU raliim home 

hoi fer ( food aad holy purpa 
Ih* eithdie pec^jlo night the 

kd bean reminded of tha pail 

Wtb b**n let knee againat iboae of ihi 



of fiMare eveafs, Cicero baa prrserwd a complete account fmin a more intimate kaowiedfe of the kinc's dwraefer. or 
of die fltalc><ootnvaiices whwb were pfaciised by the Ro- from fomeiMitate circumstances which may am bave beta 
It. to insui amnnf ih« people those hopes recorded for our informatioa, of which I hiaTe aa afcs u as 

aia hf which they rcfulaied paUtc opinina. The suspicion, nmains to be ascertained. The aaads nf msa 

pagn cvaaa, aow becoow obsolete and nlliculous, has | of great politica! sacacitj were unauestiftaablv at iku a»> 
aeeawMHd this Ireaiiso to be rarely consulted ; it remains, , romt full of obscure indiMraiions of the appraachiaf chaaft ; 
Wivaver, «■ a diaptcr in ihe history of man ! Erasmus, when at Canterbory before the tomb of Becktc 

To thtaa two books of Cicero ou * Divio iiion* perhaps ' obserring it loaded with a vast proAisioa of jewels, 
a third mi^ be added, on political and moral prcdictioa. that thoso had been distributed amoof the poor, aad 
The priaciplei wiiich awy even raise it mto a science are '. the »hnne had been only adorned with boughs and f 
■eUPendeot ; they are drawn from the heart of man. and * For,' said he. * tliose who bare heaped up ail 'his 
tiwy depend on the nature and coaneiioo of humao treasure will one day be plundered, and &11 a 

* We presume we shall demonstrate the positive ■ thove who are in .power :' — a predictioo litfraOj fUtilcd 
of socfa a factitiy ; a faculty which Lord Bacon ' about twenty vears afer it was made. The'aakBewa 
of * making thiags future and remote as pre- ■ author of the' Visions rf Piers I^oughmaa, who wrntc ia 

the rtrign of Edward the Third, surprised the world bv a 
famous prediction of At fail of the rtBgimu / 

.* The aruspex. the augur, and the astrologer, have 
vanbhed with their own superstitions : but the moral^nd 

the pohlical predictor, proceeding on principles authorized I hand of o kmr. The event was realized two 
be nature and experience, has become more skilful in his ' years afterwards, by our Hennr the Eishih. The prntess- 
ufainiliui oo the phmomena of human history: and it | ant whient hare not smipled* to declare, thai in this ia- 
has oiisB happeaed that a tolerable phiiooopher has not | stance he wa« Jirino manine afUtms. But moral aad pafr> 
aHule aa indifferent prophet. j tical predictioo is not inspiration ; ihe ooe may be wriiai*i t 

No great political or lO'iral revolution has occurred which j out by man; the othrr de»cend8 from God. The same 
has not been accompanied by its frogmottie ; and men uf | principle which led Erasmus to predict that thoae who w 
a philosophic cast of auml, in their retiremtrnt, frerd from ; * in power* would destroy the rich shrines, 
the delusions of parties and of sects, at once inteUigent m • other dass of men in tociwy could mate with 

the ^mieqmid a^wd i^ssiuus. whi e they are wiihdra« n innn 
their oooAicting mieresis, hare rareiy been coofoundrd by 
the astooi<thinent which overwhelms those who, alnorbed 
in active bfe, are the mere creatures of sen«a(itxi. sgitatcd 
by the shadows of truth, the unsubstantial apiicrarancts of 
Ikags- latcQoctual nations are advancing u an eternal 
cirde of eveati and passions which succeed each other. 
aad the last is necessarily ctmnected with its anrervdent ; 
the suhtary force of some fortuitous incident oniy can in- 
terrupi this coocaiaaated nr<^srrs" of human atfa'irs. 

Thai every great event has been accompanied by a pre- 
safe or progaostic, has been obrwrrved by L'vd'Bari^n. 
■ The shepherds nf the people should understand th* prof' 
mot^irs of ttate-tempfSiM : hol'ow blasts if wind seeminsly 
at a distance, and secret swei'ings lA the sea. often pre- 
cede a storm.* Such were the prosmosiics discerned by 
the politic Bishop Williams in Charles the F:rsi*s time, 
who dearly foresaw and predated the final success of the 
Poritaaic party ia our coualry ; attentive to his own se> 
coriry, he abandoned the goverameat and sided with the 
risinc opposiiiQO, at a moment whca such a change m 
public affairs was by no means appareat.^ 

In this spirit of foresichi our coatemplatiec antiquary 

io anffiry a 
body as the monks, conducted the author of Piers PlopfS- 
man »n the «ame conr'usinn ; and since power oarfr ct-dJ 
arromp'i<h that freit norp've. he fixed oa the hiflMVl as 
the m"*t libfiy : aihl thus the wise predictioB waa,~so loag 
af'er. h'enl'y'srcon'fiiished ! 

Sir Waller Rawlrirh foresaw the fomre co o se qpeacra 
of the separatijtrsi and the jcectaries in the national chnrcb, 
and 'he very !*cene his imagination raised in 1590 Has beca 
eihThited. to the letter of hi* desmprioe, two centories i^ 
ter the ored'CTK-n ! His memorable words are, ■ Tisk wff 
even hrinr it (o oa««. if it w<»re not resisted, that God wcoV 
be turned out ifchttrcKe* into 6oms, and fr**m the are an* 
into rheJSfldi aiwl mom/otfu, and under hedf r m aH order 
ofdisc:pIin*> and c^urch-govemmeot left to anracase/'***- 
nion and men's fancies, and ai smsv himHt mf nH^wm 
spnnv up av there are parish-churches within Eng^aiN?.* 
We are struck by the profound genius c£ Tachos. wbs 
clearly foresaw th? calamities which so loag ra^aced Es- 
rope on the fiill of the Roman empire, in a work 
five hundred rears before the event! In that stxbli 
lieipation of the future, he f-bserred, * When the R< 
shall be hunte^ out fn->m those cnimtries which they have 
conouered, what wi-I thea happen ? The reroltrd p^ep''* 

Dugdale most have, antii ipated the scene which was ap- ; freed from their master<4tppressor, wiD not be able lo si6» 

proaduag in IMl. in the destruciirm of our andent monu- sist without destmyinf iheir neighbours, aad tha Moat crari 

meats ia cathedral churches. He hurried oo hu iirnerant wa*^ will exist amcrfir all the^ naiioos.' 

labours rf taking dranrhu and tran^cribins inscriptions. We are told that So-'on at Athens, conteandatiaff ea lbs 

as be says, * to preserre them for fntme and better times.' t*nrt and citadel of MnrvcKia. suddenly exr!a*Bied. * How 

PosteritT owes to the prescient spirit of Oufdale the an- blind is n-an to fuiiiriry ! Cou'd the A'hemaas fat a ts 

eieat Moouaienta of En(dand. which bear the marks of ^ what misrhief thb will do their city, ihev would evea est 

the haste, as well as the zeal, which have perpetuated it with their own tteth. to ret rid of \t !' — a prrdietira 

tbsm. . veritied more than two hundred rears afterwards ! TbaJca 

Coatjaeatal vrriters formerly employed a fortunate ex- ■ desired to be buried ia an obscure quarter of MPesia. oh* 
when they wished to have an Hutaria Rffomta- 
Rtfw mafimim : this history of the Reformat ioo 
lid have commenced at least a century before the Re- 

itwlf* A leUer from Cardinal' Juhan lo Pope 

EtHceaias IV. written a centurv before Linher appeared, | they dared to threaten his duminioiis while he 
dearly predids the Reformation and its 

He observed that the minds of men were ripe for somo- 
thiar traffical ; he felt the axe striking at the root, and the 
tree beginnins to bend, and thai his partr. instead of prop- 
ping it, were hastening its fall.t In Enfland, Sir Tho- 
mas More was not less prescient in his views ; for when 
bis soa Roper was oh«errine to him, that the Catholic re- 
figioo, under * the Defender of the Faith,* was in a most 
flourwhing s*ate. the answer of More was an evidence 
of poliiieal foresifht. — < Truth it is, son Roper! and 
fee I pray G*^ 'hat we may not live to see the day that 

we would ffladly be at leafue and composition with here- ; only predicred what happened in his own 
tics, to let them have their churches quietly to themselves, what ncctirred long a^^er, accordmf lo the te s t i w ow s ii 
so that they wooM be contented to let us have ours qinetlv Cornelius Nrpos. The philosopher indeed, affects as 
Ives.' Whether our great chancel or predicted i serret reve'sM-^n. nor visionary serofN<.sif ht : he hoaesfly 

t^Hs IIS that this art had been aroiwed merehr bv 

'^rvinf that ihat very sr>ot would in time be ibe 
Charlemagne, in his old ace, ohservinf from the 
of a castV a Nonran desren* oa hi^ coast, tears started i 
the eves of the aced mnnarch. He predicted. rKal 

s vet Bs- 
inc. what would they do when he should be no iD««re! A 
niejsncholy predic'ion, says De Foix.of their syb Mqp n a t 
incursions', and < f the protracted calamities of the Preach 
nation durm; a whole centurv ! 

There seems to be something in m*nds, wbVli tab* ia 
extensive views of human nature, which serves rhem as 
* kind of divina'i«*n, and the consciousness of this &enlry 
has been asserted by some. Cicero apiteaWto Attirw bow 
ke had always jinlged of the affairs of the RepuHKc as a 
ffood diviner : ami that its overthrow had happened, as bs 
had foreseen, f* nrteen years before.* Cieero had not 

bat also 

• See Roahwonh, vol. i. p. 420. His la.isuage sras deci- 

f ThH l-mer W in the w.'»'"lr« "f .?!'-eas Svlrios : a ctT|:ioii« 
sxtraa is riven hr Brvenet. f^ his ' Vanaiionp.* See also M09. 
Cent. XIII, part ii. chapt n«xe 2, m. 

ar.d 'he adnr>ini«'nitirn of public affairs, while 
his friend cf several remarkable iastancea 

• Fp. ad An. Lib. 10, Ep. 4. 


^ bjr iha vifon ; but I bh oihar ■igni.' Ckeru 
tJirD eiproHe* hiimelf vilh Ihn fuanloii ukmunty of i pbi- 
]o«apfa«- «hii cvuld DO! ufKDlj ridicule riie prevailing hh 

hia < Hfiu/ tthiiii, in ibn giHi prndiii| choi uf tba linl 
euaflieu of Pimfey ind of Ccmr, he tbowi ihe nieaiu 
ba uaad fur hii purnw. • On ona iide I coniidar ihe hu- 
■Hor wkl iBDiiu a Ciatir, and « the olhrr Lha condilion 
and iha ■inoer of ciiril wari.'* In ■ word, Uia poliiiol 
drnwr Ibtauild aTeita bj their depcnlence on grnenl 
eaiWM, *hila tba muni diTiner, bjr liir aiperiuics uT the 
Hnaaal chwictH, uuidpued ihE a 
tXhtra, too, hire uaarlad Iho poti 

II fuuhy. 

D6«d i:har«cLer. 

tnad Iha ranilti of thi 
It a lime «) 

a (ppueot 

iBawMlfmptnicular, which 1 baJ not rorMecu.'t Thi* 
beahj Manii u> ba daKrib«d bf a rtmariiable cn^u> 
itaa aoiplojicd by Thiir^idd*. in hii ehartcier uT The. 

1aii«B. 'Bf (■pecieioCunuiiiiHeuliirly hli own. Cor 

jar MibaratMHi ; ti Iha Mme li 

and tmm anharr, meini 

tariiiin lubtarfuiH pnciuHl br the preUnded dr 

lia daj , he ra* rili the iteni prinriplt tn obich nne oT 

,_._..._ ^j,|i,,„_ "h, rrmaklj declarrd Ihal 

tk* fium kaiBt aloan 

ftln, wkioH, hmanr, lia conrraW fmm iha in-i1iiltHle.$ 
Siidi iatbalnMpriai^iple by which a phlhuophici] hii- - ^- - 

Himia aAira mkc ihrmtelfti ; Ihey fiow oiil nT on* 

nnatlj Iwppan a* ihcir haw hipprntd. Tha neci 
dcpaadeDca aC aBoMi m cauin, and tlia aimilirilr oi nv- 

, parmiLio pualleli with iha nul. The philnuphic nie 
or hall wni irulr deduced Ihe impnnant prinriple, iSal 
■ Ihe ttilng that htlh b«n> ia Ihat which ahail be.' The 
nial Tacla of hidnry, deadened by Iha touch oT chronnlo- 

eompithenJ iha pHnciplei which nreaiMriiy larminalo in 

H alarnal aprinp ; »d whelbar b* 
a, he ciDiiuI eicipa out oC iIm 

icijrar ihu tiia lime and Iha plaet 

a i llial. he layi, all may aea bow 
jt aliarad by ihe change* and dn 

inilar eveoilul poriod in our own hulory, Iha ncileclaii 
Jumei which pieurvsd ihe jiublic aad prirala hiemr* 
our Charle. the Firftand CromweU ware BollMicd 
ith eager eurioeiiy. Ofirn the icene eiiitiof baliirc at, 

(H r«|o(iaB |>agaa. Bin aa Iha annala orhuinan naiura 

ind Kumi:, Hid uvcnln of ihoae tunea bad been only rapoH 
liiceJ. AinoD^ Ehoin ihr •am't pniiciplai had rarnlinatvd 

uiiui Fransiue, unr una Sucial* d'Aulaun Laiint,' iHib- 
uhed Bi l^arii m IbOI. The ' Iducirty of Laiia Audmra,' 

By eairacii inaenujuily appli«l, iha eveni uT ihai ma- 
lauoiiuiy pu-iua are ao appuaiiaLy dvtcrilied, kndead ao an 
nuwly uarraieri, ibai ihey will not fad 10 aurprita ihoaa 
who are not accuaioncd id deled the perpalua] paralldl 

hilory of * ■ 

a playrd Uieir pan on both th 

n ihe 'Satire MiMiippJa d 

.co*eri all 

dellaj on Ihu principle. ' 

■nen imaiiuiMe etrnia o 
be reduced lua maihema 
liua ie fanciful, bul iii foun 

Tulnad by ArHUHJe, and d< 

nlraa. When Mr C.daralg 
Morning Pual and tba Cou 

n, ihtt ihey hara aTordad Iha 
unpebliahed riJunM, aniiilad 
• The whda wurk wa( mo- 
I wijtild ba pcaiibJe,* uya Iha 
table ni chart id which bH Uw 
Iha hiilory uf a peopi* would 

1 of Ihe lecrpt ptiu^ A- 
vibcd by Thucydidaa, appear* 

ID Ibeee iCenai. Thai 

aXpadlB. Lib. «, ep. 4. 

tThH remarkable cnnrenlO" I flnri In M 
Itau auc la Lanfui Francolia, Pan II. p. II 

t Orvria ye^ faifrrti, jrai farf ir^fie0Ldi 
trr' (Wi^afc., rat n to^xfl" '' '*"T" 

4 *«,«.■. 

Tboctdides, Lib- l- 

I in maaauarada' 

n, by takiuf Iha 

lemporary hilloriana, mamcrialiHa, and pimphlHoari. 
Thru fairty •ubtntriing the pnuta uf (^ftrDm lia« IhoM 
of IHmtt. a* Iha balance faeourad iha Twrner or the lai- 

fewn™!" ho'essayi " On ihe pnbibl. final Reiteiaiiaa 

of ihaBuurboD>,"rreal nyKlf auilimiied ID 
itaa effect produced oD many intelliieDt men, ihal wore i'^ 

remained unpul>liahed. Thii linnilarlr curioua iModoeUaa 
waaeupprened, but Rprlined ai raria. hhaa eufferrd ibi 
nHM cruel muUlaiiona. 1 read, whh aurpriaa and iutrudhHi] 
tba alnfla copy which Iwta anuradwia iha .wlyMM vrd 
from tba haroe of tba antlia adlilen. 


4ates wanting, it rsii^ht have been suspected that the es- 
■aTt liadbeen written within the last twelve mouth*.'* 

in moral predictions on individuals, many have disco- 
itnd the future character. The revolutionarv character 
of Cardinal de Reiz, even in his youth, was (detected by 
the sagacity of Mazarine. He tHen wrote the history of 
the ooospiracv of Fiesco with such vehement admiration 
if bii hero, that the Italian politician, after its perusal, 
prw&ettil that the yuunj; author would be one of the most 
* turbaknt tpiriu of the age ! The father of Marshal Biron, 
eTM MBid the giory of his sob, discovered the cloud which, 
invisible toothers, was to obscure it. The father, in- 
deed, well knew the fiery passions of his son. * Biron,' 
■aid the domestic seer, * I advise thee, when peace takes 

flaoe, to go and plant cabbages in thy garden, otherwise 
warn thee, ihou wilt lose tHv head on a scafToM !' Lo- 
renzo de Medici had studied the temper of his son Piero: 
for Guicciardini informs us, that he haid often complain*^ to 
his moat intimate friends, that * he foresaw the iroprudfDce 
•nd arrogance of his son would occasion the ruin of his 
lamily.' There is a remarkable prediction of James the 
First, of the evils likely to ensue from Laud's violence, in 
a conversation given by Uacket, which the king held with 
Archbishop Williams. When the king was hard pressed 
to promote Laud, he gave his reasons why ho intended to 

* keep Laud back from all place of rule and authority, be- 
cause I find he hath a restless spirit, and cannot see'when 
matters are well, but loves to toss and chance, and to 
bring thin^ to a pitch of reformation iloatinz jo his own 
brain, which endangers the steadfastness of that which is 
in a good pass. I speak not at random; he hath made 
kiaself known to me to be such on one.' James then 
civea the drcumsUnces to which he alludes; and at 
length, when, still pursued by the archbishop, then the 
organ of Buckingham, as usual, this king's good-nature 
too easily yiekled ; be did not, however, without closing 
with this prediction : * Then take him to you — but, on my 
foul, you will repent it !* The future character of Cn»ro- 
well was apparent to two of our great politicians. • This 
eoarse unpromising man,' said Lord Falkland, pointing to 
Cromwell, * will be the first person in the kincdom, if the 
nation comes to blows !' And Archbishop Williams told 
Charles the First confidentially, that ' There was Iftal in 
Cromwell which foreboded someihins dangerous, and 
wished his majesty would either win him o*er to him, or 
get him taken oflf.' The Marquis of WellesleyV incom- 

E arable character of Buonaparte predicted his fall when 
ighest in his glory; that great statesimati then poiKed 
forth the sublime laniniage of philosophical prophecy. 

* Hb eagerness of power U so inordinate ; his jealousy of 
independence so fierce : his keenness of appetite so fever- 
ish m all that touches his ambition, even in the roost 
triflmg things, that he must pliinee into dreadful difficul- 
ties. He is oce ot'an order of minds that by nature make 
for them<t Ives freat reverses.' 

Lord Mansfield was once asked, after the commence- 
ment of the French revolution, when it would end ? Hi* 
k>rdship re|ilied, « It is an event without precedent^ and 
therefore wil/unU mvgwuti^* The truth, however, is, 
that it had both. Our own history hnd furnished a prece- 
dent in the times of Charles the First. And the prognos- 
tics were so reduudant, that a volume might be collected 
of passages from various writers who had predicted it. 
gowever ingenious might be a history of the Reformation 
before it occurred, the evidence could not be more au- 
thentic and positive than that of the great moral and po- 
litical revolution which we have witnessed in our own days. 

A prediction, which Bishop Butler threw out in m ser- 
mon before the Hoise of Lords, in 1741, does honour to 
his political sagaci'v, as well as to his knowledge of hu- 
man nature ; he calculated that the irrelijrious spirit would 
produce, some time or other, political disorders, similar to 
those which, in the rrventeenth'century, had arisen from 
religious fanaticism. 'Is there no danger,' he observed, 
•that all this may raise somewhat like thrxt U veiling rpirit, 
upon atheistical principles, which in the last age prevmled 
upon enthusiastic ones? Not to speak of the po« ib.lity 
that «<t^eren< tortM o/propU may unitt m it upon these am- 
^aryyrmdpUsP All this literally ha* been accompl'sh- 
ed. Leibnitz, indeed, foresaw the results of those selfish, 
•nd at length demoralizing, opinions, which bo'an to pre- 
vail through Europe in his day. These disorganizing 

•Bjpmphla Litemria, or Biogropliical sketched of my Lite- 
V«7i of?** <^^' '"■• By 8. T. Coleridge, Esq. 1907.— 

principles, conducted by a political sect, who tried * loW 
worse than they could l>e,' as old Montaigne cxpresMcs ■: 
a sort of men who have been audaciou^y coagratibaliBd 
as * having a tosle for evil ;* exhibited to the ■aiciaisiksd 
world the dismal catastrophe the philosopher had prcem- 
ed. I shall give this remarkaMe passage. * I fad ikax 
certain opinions approaching those of Epicorus and 8pe» 
noea, are, Itille by little, msinuating the«»elves iote tae 
minds of the great rulers of public affairs, who serve as 
the guides of others, and on whom all matlcra depend : be- 
sides, these opinions are a.-so sliding mto faskioaabic bonki, 
and thus thty are prfparinp oil thing* to ikoA genera) re^ 
vohition teluch menaea Eurtrpe ; desiruvtnc thoae ceacnaa 
sentiments of the ancients, Greek and llonsaa, which pre- 
ferred the k>ve of country and public good, and the caret 
of posterity, to fortune and even to life. Our j mh lis wpmi^* 
as the English call them, excessively dirainisb, and are an 
more in fashion, and will be still less while the Iraat vicwos 
of these men preserve only one principle, which ihey caJ 
honour ; a principle which only keeps Uiem firoaa not dviaf 
what they deem a low actionj while they openly laugh ai 
thft love of country— ridicule ihose who are acalmii fcr 
public ends— and when a well-int<;ntioo«d man asks wkii 
will become of their posterity '/ they reply, ** Then, as 
now !" But it may happen to theu 'persons tkomtmlret Is 

haee to ewlure thont evil* which they Miete are rcsen ed fm 
others. If this epidemical and inieliecmal disorder coud 
be corrected, whose bad ^ects are already cisibU, those 
evils miifht still b>* prevented ; but if i' procf eds in ns 
growth, Proridence will correct man hy the vtry rtwobdism 
which mtut spring from it. Whatever may hai*pett in- 
deed, all must turn out as U5U3l f*ir ihe best in feneral at iW 
end of thf) account, although this cannot happen wUhaat As 
punishment of thone who amtrUmte even to the gtnersi gsoi 
ny their evil actions* The most superficial reader «i3 
hardly require a commentary on this very renarkaMe |«s- 
sa£e ; he must instantly pereeive bow Letboiis, m the 
seventeenth century, foresaw what has occinred m ike 
eighteenth : and the prediction has been verified la the 
history of the ac'ors in the late revolution, while the re- 
sult, which we have not perhaps yet had, according is 
Leibnitz's own exhilarating system of optimism, ia an edae- 
tion of £(Hxl from evil. 

A vreat e** nius, who was oppressed bv malignant rirals 
in his own times, has been noticed by Madanae de StacI, 
as bavins left behind him an actual prophecy of the Frenea 
revoluTinn ; thiA wa^ Guihert, who. in bib comaacniarr en 
Fi'hrd's Pi^ybius, published in 1727, declared, ih«t *a 
conspiracy is actuallv forming in Eorope, hy means at 
once so subtile and efficacious, that lam sorry not lobave 
come into the world thirty yean later to witnesa ita resttt. 
It must be confessed that the sovereigns of Europe wear 
yery had spectacles. The proofs of it are maihematical, 
if such pntofs ever were, of a conspiracy.' Guihert on- 
questionably foresaw the anti-monarchicaJ spirit gathersg 
up its miuhty wini^, and risinj; over the universe! bet 
could not judze of the nature of the impulse which he pre- 
dicted ; prophesyine from the ideas in his lumiaooa musU 
lect, he seems to have been far more curious about, thaa 
certain of the consequences. Rousseau even circomsun- 
tially predicted the convulsions of modem Europe. Be 
stood on the crisis of the French revolution, which he vi- 
vidly foresiw, for he seriously advised the hieher classes of 
society to have their chiMren taught some useful trade: a 
notion highly ridiculed on the first appearance of the Eaiile; 
but at its h'lur the awful truth struck ! He, too, foresaw 
the horrors of that revolution ; for be annoonoed thai 
Emile desiened to emigrate, because, from the moral atate 
of the people, a virtuous revolution had beoooae imposti 
ble.l The eloquence of Burke was oAen oracoiar ; and 

* Piiblii-: spirit, and public spirits, were about ibe year I70C 
househr.lil wnpis with us. Leibnitz was struck by their sif «i< 
ficance, but it mieht now puzzle u* in find synonym*, or cvca 
lo exfOjin tl«e very terms themrelvci* 

f Tlii« extraonlinnry pnf:jta?e is at the doee of the third bock 
of Emile, to wh'ch I must reffr the read r. It Is ctircws* 
however, tn oMervn, that in MOO Ruusaeau poured fimnh ihs 
htHowip-r awful prei'Ji tidii*. which were consklered qoKc aV 
(turd. *■ VoMs VMiM fi'z k i'nrJrc aciuel rfe la aocaftii sars 
Boneer qre cet onlre cKt siijot k des revolntions inevitabi rs 
le "irard tlevietit petit, le fiche JleTieni pauvre. le moeantes 
dcvient siijet— nous appmchon^ I'^int de crioc et du sidcW des 
revoiuiions Que fcra dom Jans la baseease ce aaireae qoa 
vouti n'anrof elev6 que pour la rrandeur? Que fera dans la 
pauvret^ ce publicain qui ne mrah vivreque d^or ? Que fnradt 
pnurvii de tout, ce fdftueux imbecUle qui ne saJI poini mm 
de lui Jieme :* Sec. &c. 


a flpeech of Pitt, in 1600, painted the state of Europe aa 
it was onljr realised Hiieeii yearn afierwarUa. 

But many remarkable preuiciiuns have turned out to be 
lUae. Whenever the fact* on which the prediction in raised 
are altered in their situation, what was relatively true 
ceaaea to operate as a general principle. For in»iaiice| to 
that strikiii||[ antiapation whicti RouMeau formed oi ihe 
French revolution, he added, by way ot note, ais n marka- 
Me a prediction on uoffAiicuv. «/e tiens pour imposaibie 
que U» grandee moncurchiet dc CEurope aunt encure long 
iemu a dwer ; tovtee on brilU, ft tout etat qui ttriiU est aw 
mmdedm. The predominant aniMuonarchicat Kpirii among 
our ruing geiieration set^ina to hasirii on the accomplish" 
nient oi the prophecy ; hut if an important alteration has 
occurred in the nature of things, we may question the re- 
sult. If by looking into the past, Kuusseau Ibund (acts 
which sufficient iy proved that nationti in the height of their 
splendour and comipiiun had clo«ed th* ir caieer by falling 
an eaay conquei^t to barbarous invaders, who annihilated 
the moel polisned people at a single blow ; we now hitd t^iat 
BO such power any longer exists in the great family of 
Europe : the state of the question ra therefore changed. 
It i' nmo how corrupt nations will act against corrupt na- 
tioaa equally enlightened ? But if the citizen of Gene- 
va drew his prediction of the extiiiclitm uf monarchy m 
Europe from that predilection fur democracy which as- 
sumes that a republic must necessarily finiduce more liap- 
|MDes» to the people tlian a monarchy, then we say that 
the fatal ex(>enment was again repeated ^ince the predic- 
tioo, and the fact proved not true ! The very excess uf 
dsmocracy irieviiably terminatea in a monarchical state ; 
and were all the monarchies in Europe republics, a philo- 
sopher might safely predict the restoratiun of monarchy ! 

If a prediction be raised on factii which our own preju- 
dices induce us to infer will exist, it must be chimerical. 
We have an universal Chronicle of the Monk Carion, 
printed in I&9S, in which he announces that the world was 
about ending, as well as his chronicle of it; that the 
Turkish empire would not last many years ; that after the 
death uf Charles the Fifih the empire of Germany would 
bs torn to pierces by the Germans themselves. This mr>nk 
will no longer pus* fur a prophet ; he belongs to that claxs 
of bisioriaos who write to hiimuur their own prejudices, 
fike a certain lady-propheteii<, who, in 1611, predicted 
that grass was to grow in Cheapside about this uine! 
TIm monk Carion, like others of greater name, had mis- 
calculated the weeks of Daniel, and wished mure ill to 
Chs Alaliometans than sui^ the Christian cabinets of Eu- 
rope to inflict on them ; and, lastly, the monastic hiuto- 
riaa had no notion that it would |tlease Providence to pros- 
per the heresy of Luther! Sir James Macinioflh once 
observed, * I am sensible, that in the 6eld of political pre 
^efion, veteran sairaciiy hui often been deceived.' Sir 
Jsoiei alluded to the memorable example of Harrington, 
who publiithed a demonstration of the impossibdiiy of re. 
oMabliahing monarchy in England six months before the 
restoratiQa of Charles th« Second. Btil the author of the 
Oceana was a political fanatic, who ventured to predict 

erent, not by other similar events, hut by a theoretical 
principle which he had formed, that ' the balance of 
power depends on that of property.' Harrington, in his 
ooolracted view of human nature, had dropped out of his 
calculatimi all the stirrine passions of ambition and parly, 
and the vacillations of the multitude. A similar error oTa 
crest genius occurs in De Foe. * Child/ says Mr George 
Chalmers, ' foreaei-ing from experience that men's ooa- 
dmet miwt finally be decided by their prmdples, foretold j 
AeetiMual revolt. De Foe, allowing his prejudices to ob- 
scure hia sagacity, reprobated that sufigesrion, because he 
dcMned inUreal a more strenuous prompter than enthuai' 
mam* The predictions uf Harrin^on and De Foe are 
prscmely such ss we might expect from a petty calculator— 
a polirical economist, who can see nothing farther than im- 
mediate results ; but the true philosophical predictor was 
Child, who had read the pa$t. It is probable that the 
American emancipation from the mother-country of Eng- 
land was foreseen, twenty or thirty years before \\ occurred, 
thoofh not perhaps by the adminiWation. Lord Orford, 
writing in 1764 under the ministry of the Duke of New- 
castle, blames * The instructions to the governor of New 
York, which seemed better calculated for the latitude of 
Mexico, and for a Spanish tribunal, than for a free British 
■ettWrnent, and in suoh opulence and such haughtiness, 
dm suspieioiis had long been eoneeived of their meditating 
to throw nff the dependence an their mother country,* u 

this was written at the time, ss the author asserts, it is a 
very remarkable passage, observes the noble editor of his 
memoirs. The prognosiica or presages of ihb revulutioo, it 
may now be dimcult to recover ; but it is evident thai ChiM 
beture the lime when Lord Oiford wrote this pasiisge pre- 
dieted the separation on true and phikwophical prmdples. 

Even when the event does not always justify the predi- 
tion, the predictor may not have been the less oohetl m 
his principles of divinsuon. The catastrophe of honan 
life, aiid the turn of |;rtat events, often prove accfdental. 
Marshal Birun, whom we have noticed, might have as- 
cended the ilironi- instead of the scaffold ; Cromwell and 
De Ktiz might have become only the favourite general, or 
the mintoter of their sovereigns. Fortuitous events are 
not comprehended in the reacti of human prescience ; mch 
must be consigned to those vulgar superstitions which pre- 
sume to ducover the issue of human events, without pre- 
tending to any human knowledge. There is nothing su- 
pernaiurul in the prescience of Ihe pliilos<>pher. 

Sometimes predictions have been ct^ndemned as false 
ones, which, when scrutinised, we can scarcely deem to 
have failed : they may have been acrompli*hed, and they 
may aoain revolve on us. In 1749, Dr Hartley published 
hi:«* Observations on Man ;' and predicted the fall of Ihe 
existing governments and hierarchies in two simple pro- 
potfiiions ; among others— 

Prop. 81 . It is probable that all the civil gQvemments 
will be overturned. 

Pnop. 82. It is probable that the present forms of 
church-government will be dissolved. 

Many were alarmed at the^e predicted falls of church 
and state. Lady Charlotte Weniworth asked Banley 
when there teirible things would happen? The answer 
of the predictor was not less awful ; ' I am an old man, and 
shall not live to see them : but vou xn- a young woman, 
and probably will see Ihem.' In ine subsequent revolutions 
of Americd and of France, and perhaps now of Spain, we 
can hardly deny that these predictions had failed. A for^ 
luiious event has once more thrown back Europe into its 
old corners ; but we still revolve in a circle, and what is 
now dark and remote may again come round, when lime 
has performed its great cycle. There was a prophetical 
pa3t>age in Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, reganling the 
church, which long occupied the speculations of its ex- 
pounders. Hooker indeed seemed to have done what no 
predictor of human events should do ! he fixed on the period 
of its accomplishment. In 1597, he declared that it would 
' peradventure fall out to be ihree-eco'e and ten years, 
or if strength do awe, into four score!' Thnite who 
had outlived the revolution in 1641, when Ihe long parlia- 
ment pulled down Ihe ecclesiastical establishment, and 
sold the church-lands, — a circumstance which Hooker 
had rontcmpiated^-and were af\erwards relumed to their 

E laces on ihe Restoration, imagined that the prcMiiction 
ad not yet been completed aiKT were looking whh great 
anxiety towards the year 1677, for the close of this extra- 
ordinary prediction ! When Bishop Barlow, io 1676, was 
con.^ulted on it, he endeavoured to dis.<ipatc the panic, by 
referring to an old historian, who had reproached our na- 
tion for their proneness to prophecies ! The prediction of 
the venerable Himker in truth had been fully accomplished, 
and the event had occurred without Bishop Barlow hav- 
ihg recurred to it ; so easy it seems to forget what we dis- 
like to remember ! The period of time was loo literally 
taken and seems to have been only the figurative expres- 
sion of man's age in scriptural language, which Hooker 
had employed ; but no one will now deny that this pre- 
scient ssge had profoundly foreseen the results of that rising 
party, whose desisns on church and state were clearly de- 
picted in his own luminous view. 

The philosophical predicKrr in foretelling a crisis, from 
the appearances of things, will not rashly assign the period 
of ii'ne; for the crisis which he anticipates is calculated 
on by that inevitable march of events which generate each 
other in human affairs ; but the period is always dubious, 
being either retarded or accelerated by circumstsnces of a 
nature incapable of entering into this moral arithmetic. It 
is probable, that revolution, similar to that of France, would 
have occurred in this country, had it not been counteract- 
ed by Ihe geniuN of Piif. In 1619, it was easy to foretell, 
by the political prognostics, that a might? war throughout 
Europe must necessarily occur. At that moment, ob- 
serves Bayle, the house of Austria aimed at an unirerssl 
monarchy ; the consequent domineering spirit of the oii> 
oisters of the Emperor and the king of Spain, combined 

cnRiosiTiES or 

«atk tkn dOHiBiuIiiiB louunniMt* tha be* nupan, . aiiula hm naqiMstioBiU; nrnsMd. Wc Ina 
aaMd ■ ra ■rlin* ta tkn ■■paml duniHi— ; puUie opi- and iu prinapln in Iba DCaavr depodraea 
■.n livl k**l> ■upfX"**''. nU narr paaata (n> Hnpa- i aa fHKral caoan, and mi bare •tHwa ihai, m 

litBi : mivia Ihair Mwey, iai 


cirda 1 aad n ten 

Tb* ■ppnaikwxl >b* dmiH of i)m wi 
■radi M edi butha pmodr'-- - — -- 

TbM« la, ba<r*«cr, ■ ipiril sf poiiical 

a Lag w uiiDaUH, knowlHlfe cf ibc pint. 
.-. 1 Aulborit^ u aKtad^»bi> « n>n i uiL« aflbrda pafal^ 

pioup ibta IbajF an unphUoaofriiical. Knox Iha nlbrr 
ponMard au cTtraordiaarjr pitruua cf ihu awful pruptai 

8abil Gilu'i la EdiaVirfh ;* 

m ; buT iiD« ■ IbeliBtiiafa d" I and mifbi of adiFnanai, aa AnHfb itka «f ea^ol ii 
rb (nieiunai are BO) ItH ia»- ibow ibai aboutd tuT* ufriield and daftaJait Ibe aaBC.** 
The pbUonphj of bmorf bindi liw f»m tnk lb* pfc 
'Dt, and combtnet Uk pnaasi wuh the fniurT; vadbkbil 
parutn of ih« odHT 1 Thi ii rml iiiii ij a rtiiaj. ■ m 
ufaona prraou, W*? arr uiki. ceaian;* dtilartnianJ by in antccedcnl, and Ih^ pnpi» 
7aiR«l>rljF, he prcdicuid iliti uiili ihrvHiih thecbua of bumaa uuinia; wUa **a 

1 inprobaMe t 


bappmed. Of Mur aiM Dafolav, tar pranuiced, ihal , A mib and biauiifiil lighl n Ihw ibrowa saar Aa •■■ 
■ailbc kiaf, Cii Iha quaea'a piauurc, bad fwe lo maia, | nali of iDankinil, bjr ih« aaalopa and Iha patsDda rfdf- 

.uaaa'a piauu 
■be Lsd, in bia jowm, <r«4d «k. 
bia ovanhrov.' Olh«r it/ibini prcd>a»Di of 
of Tboaai Maiilaad, and <f Kirta^dii fiTG'vii 

U) Uidiibgair, whara hawi- ■■ --- 

d alaita 

■ba lift of a bdond ninnuch. com 
Idai'i friaodif anil had ina Spanii 
bii njaMT. Thai hifh-ipinied ■ 
lor tbnr HficiEude^ but uitrHv ili^ 
areas accurml. aivi in liie f i ' 

Lulud aiL^i Kww of Aa 

■oiTlii; iheir (loddy Tlwni ut <lKtan— 
Anf I, pefhaia. (iiinn( Ihcae nuirbe one 

I Monda oih vhai Hori'llj-praieM nea ' 

B bave deuoaHrated tbat ac 

nent ■hiipered la ibc few. acaa 

of aatura, ot plaved wiib ac^ Mr 

lioD which with fnai dtSenk* pap- 

what, wuboat il, might haTe bcea dsoc Willi pal 

llMnin ifaa ajriatt V'^ 



«tM. The cabinetf of the lorera of mechanical am 
Ibrmed enchanted apartments, where the admirers foared 
to stir or look about them ; while the philosophers then- 
•el Tea half imacined they were the very thauraaturgi, fiir 
which the world fave them too much credit, at least fi>r 
their quiet! 1/Vould we rno after the shadows in this 
gleaming land of moonshine, or sport with these children 
in the fresh morning of science, ere Aurora had scarcely 
peeped on the hills, we must enter into their feelings, view 
with their eves, and believe all tbty confide to us ; and 
out of these bundles of dreams sometimes pick out one or 
two for our own dreaming. They are the fairy tales and 
Che Arabian nighui' entertainment of Science. But if 
the reader is- stubbornly mathematical and logical, he will 
only be holding up a great torch against the muslin cur^ 
tain, upon which the fantastic shadows playing upon it 
most vanish at the instant. It is an amusement which 
can only take place by carefully keeping himself in the 

MThat a subject, were I to enter on it, would be the 
narraiivee of magical writers ! These precious volumes 
have been so constantly wasted by the profane, that now a 
book of real ma^ic requires some to find it, as well as a 
maxician to use it. Albertus Magnus, or Albert the Qreat, 
as he is erroneously styled — for this sage only derived this 
•nviible epithet from his surname De Orooif as did Hugo 
Grotius--thi8 saze, in his < Admirable Secrets' delivers 
his opinion that these books of magic should be most pre- 
ekwisly preserved ; for, he prophetically added, the time is 
arriving when they would be understood ! It seems they 
were not intelligihle in the thirteenth century ; but, if Al- 
bertus has not miscalculated, in the present day they may 
be ! Magical terms with talismanic figures may yet con- 
coal many a secret ; funpowder came down to us in a sort 
4f anagram, and the kaleidoscope, with all its interminable 
muliipTications of forms, lay at hand, for two centuries, in 
Baptiata Porta's * Natural Mai^ic.' The abbot Triihe- 
nius, in a confidential letter, happened to call himself a 
magician, perhaps at the moment he thought himself one, 
«nd sent three or four leaves siufied with the names of 
devils, and with their evocations. At the death of his 
friend these leaves fell into the unwary hands of the 
Prk>r, who was so frightened on the first glance at the dia- 
bolical nomenclature, that he raised the country against 
the abbot, and Trithemius was nearly a lost man ! Yet 
after all, this evocation of devils has reached us in his 
• Stsganographia,' and proves to be only one of this inge- 
mous abbot's poly graphic attempts at secret toridW; for 
hs had flattered himself that he had invented a mode of 
concealing his thoughts from all the world, while he com- 
Bonicated them to a friend. Ro^er Bacon promised to 
raise thunder and li^tnins, and disperse clouds, by dis- 
•ulving them mto ram. The first magical process has 
been obtained by Franklin ; and the other, offer more use 
to our agriculiunsts, may perchance be found lurking in 
some comer which has been overlooked in the • Opus ma- 
jos* of our * Doctor mirabilis.' Do we lau^h at their ma- 
fical works of art ? Are we ourselves such indifTerenl 
artists 7 Cornelius Agrippa, before he wrote his « Vanity 
of the Arts and Sciences,* intended to reduce into a sys- 
tem and method the secret of communicatinK with spirits 
I Jj™**'* ^ «*^ authority, that of Porphy rius, Psel- 
los, Ptotinus, Jaroblicus— and on better, were it necessary 
to allege it— he was well assured that the upper reifions 
of the air swarm with what the Greeks called eUmonet, 
mit as our lower atmosphere is full of birds, our waters of 
&di, and our earth of insects. Yet this occult philosopher, 
who knew perfecilv eight languages, and married two 
wives, with whom he had never exchanged a harsh word 
"^j*"? <\"»''»"» ^•^ «'^«i7 *»here avoidedas having by his 
nde, for his companion, a personage no less than a demon! 
This was a great black dog whom he suffered to stretch 
hMMelf out among bis magical manuscripts, or lie on his 
bod, often kissing and patting him, and feeding him on 
dKnce morsels. Yet for this would Paulus Jovius and all 

I'w' * **•** ***™ P"* *** *^* °"**'»' of fi''8 «"<* f*«- 

E. The truth was afterwards boldly asserted by Wierus, 
warned domestic, who believed that his master's dog 
was rsally nothing more than what he appeared ! « I be- 
■•J*» ••f» ^^t * that he was a real natural doK ; he was 
■Moed Hack, but of a moderate size, and I have often led 
to by a string, and called him by the French name 
Afrtppn had men him, Monsieur ! and he had a female 
wfio waa ctM Mad«noisdle ! I wonaer how autbora of 

such great efaaraetar shouU writo to absurdljon his van* 
ishing at his death, nobody knows how !' nit as it it 
probu>le that Monsieur uid Mademoiselle nnist bavn 
generated some puppy demons, Wiarus ought to have 
been more drcumsianiial. 

Albertus Maf^nus, for thirty years, had never ceased 
working at a man of brass, and had cast together the qual> 
ities of his materials under certain constoilations, wtiidk 
threw such a spirit into his man of brass, that it was re- 
ported his growth was visible ; bis feet, legs, thighs, shoal* 
ders, neck, and head, expanded, and made the city of Co* 
loene uneasy at possessing one citizen loo mighty for them 
all. This man of brass, when he reached his mabiri^, 
was so loquacious, that Albert's master, the great sdiolas* 
tic Thomas Aquinas, one day, tired of his babble, and de* 
daring it was a devil, or devilish, with his staff knocked 
the head off; and, what was extraordinary, this brasen 
man, like any human being thus effectually silenced, *wofti 
never spake more.' This incident is equally historical 
and authentic ; though whether heads of brass can speak, 
and even prophecy, was indeed a subject of profound in- 
quiry, even at a later period. Naude, who never quen- 
Uooed their vocal powers, and yot was puzzled concern- 
ing the nature of this new species of animal, has no doubt 
most judiciously stated the question, whether these speak- 
ing brazen heads had a sensitive and reasoning nature, or 
whether demons spoke in them ? But brasshas not tho 
faculty of providing its own nourbhment, as we see in 

itiants, and therefore they were not sensitive ; and at 
or the act of reasoning, these brazen heads presumed to 
know nothing but the future : with the past and the prsn* 
ent they seemed totally unacquainted, so that their mem- 
ory and their observation were very limited ; and as for tbo 
future, that is alwayn doubtful and obscure— even to heads 
of brass ! This learned man then infers, that * These bra* 
len heads could have no reasoning faculties, for nothing al- 
tered their nature ; they i^aid what they had to say,whir% no 
one could contradict ; and having said their say, you might 
have broken the head for any thing more that you could 
have got out of it. Had they had anv life in them, would 
they not have moved, as well as spoken ? Life itself it 
but motion, but they had no lungs, no spleen; and, in fact, 
though they spoke, they had no tongue. Was a devil in 
them ? I think not. Vet why should men have taken all 
this trouble to make, not a roan, but a trumpet 7* 

Our profound philosopher was right not to agitate tho 
question whether these brazen heads had ever spoken f 
Why should not a man of brass sneak, since a ooll can 
whisper, a statue play chess, and brass ducks have per- 
formed the whole process of digestion '/ Another magical 
invensbn has been ridiculed with equal reason. A ma- 
gician was annoyed, as philosophers still are, by passengert 
in the street ; and he, particularly so, by having horses led 
to drink under his winoow. He made a magical horse of 
wood, according to one of the books of Hermes, which 
perfectly answered its purpose, fri^tening away the hor- 
ses, or rather the grooms ! the wooden horse, no doubt, 
save some palpable kick. The same magical story might 
have been told of Dr Franklin, who finding that under nit 
window the passengers had discovered a spot which they 
made too convenient for themselves, he charged it with hit 
newlydiscovered electrical fire. After a few remarkable inci- 
dents had occurred, which at a former period had lodged tho 
great discoverer of electricity in the Inquisition, the modeni 
magician succeeded just as well as the ancient, who had 
the advantage of conning over the books of Hermes. Instead 
of ridiculing these works of magic, let us rather becooM 
magicians ourselves ! 

The works of the andent alchemists have afforded 
numberiess discoveries to modem chemists : nor is even 
their grand operation despaired of. If they have of lata 
not been so renowned, this has arisen from a want of what 
Ashmde calls ' apertness;' a qualification early inculcated 
among these illuminated sages. We find aulhraiic ac- 
counts of some who have lived three centuries, with tole- 
rable complexions, possessed of nothing but a erodblo 
and a bellows ! but they were so unnecessarily mysterious, 
that whenever such a person was discovered, he was sort 
in an instant to disappear, and was never afte i w ar dt 
heard of. 

In the * Liber Patris Sapiontia' this selfish cautjoninstt 
is all along impressed on the student, for the aocoaplifbp 
ment of the treat mystery. In the commentary on Ihii 
precious work of the ak^bonust Norton who 



* B« thon in a place Becrec, t>j tbjMlfalone, 
That nn man aee or hear what thon shalt saj or doM. 
Tnuc not ihj friend ux> miK.-h wherefloe cr choa gn. 
For be tbou triwtMi be^t, someiyme may be thy foeJ 

Ashmole fthsenrvs, that ' Norton fives eiccediiur jrood 
advice to the student in thin science where he bids him be 
secret in the carrymc oq of his studies and operations, and 
not to let any one know of his undertakings but his good 
angel and himself; and such a close and retired breast bad 
Norton's roaster, who, 

* When men disputed of colours of the rose. 
He woukl nut speak, but kept himself full dose !* 

We regret that b^ each leaving all his knowledge to < his 
good angel and himself.* it has happened that * the good 
angels,' luive kept it all to themselves ! 

It canaot, however, be denied, that if they coukl not 
always extract gold out of lead, tbev sometimes sticceeded 
in washing away the pimples oo ladit* s* faces, notwith- 
Btaikding that Sir Kenelm Digby poisoned his most beau- 
tiful lady, because, as Sancho would have said, he was 
one of those who would * have his bread whiter than the 
finest wheaten.' Van Helmont, who could not succeed in 
discovenns the true eluir of life, however hit on the spirit 
of hartshorn, which for a good while he considered was the 
wonderful eiixir itself, restoring to life persons who seem- 
ed to have lost it. And ihoufh this delifhtful enthusiast 
could not raise a giiost, yet lie thought he had ; fur he 
raited something aerial mm spa-water, which mistaking 
for a ghost, he gave it dial very name ; a name which we 
stid retain in gmt^ ^rom the German geiil, or gho^t ! Par* 
acslsas carriod the tiny spirits about him in the hilt of his 
great aword! Having first discovered the qualities of 
faiidaiiimif this illustriuus quack made use of it as an uni- 
versal rensdy; and distribuied. in the form of pills, which 
he carried in tho basket<4iilt of his sword : the operations 
be perfimisd were as rapiil as xh^.y seemed magical. 
Doublless we have lost some inconceivable secrets by some 
■Mtipccted occurrences, which the secret itself, it would 
•eemi oiifht to have prevented taking pla'<e. When a 
phibwopher had discovered the art of prolonsin? life Id an 
in«1efinite period, it is most provoUins to find that he 
should have allowed himself to die at an early age ! We 
have a very authentic history from Sir Kenelm Digby 
him^rlf, that when he went in disiruise to visit Descartes 
at his retirement at Esmond, lamenting the brevity of life, 
which hindered philosophers getting on in their studies, the 
French philosopher assured him that ' he hati considered 
that matter ; to render a man immortal was what he could 
not promise, but tliat he was very sure it was pa«sible to 
lengthen out his life to the period of the patriarchs.' And 
when his death was announced to the world, the ahh^ Pi- 
cot, an ardent disci(»le, for a Ion? time would not believe it 
possiMe; and at leoE'h insisted, that if it had occurred. 
It must have been owing to some mistake of the philoso- 

The late Holcroft, Loiitherboureh, and Cosway, im- 
a^ned that they should escape the vulgar era of scriptu- 
ral life by reoreanixing their old bones, and moistening 
their dry marrow ; their new principles of vitality were 
supposed bv them to be found in the powers of the mind ; 
this seemed more reasonable, but proved to be as litile 
efficacious a« those other philosophers who imaginn they 
have detected the hidden principle of life in the e^ls 
fhicking in vinegar, and aDiide to * the book-binder who 
creates the book-worm !* 

Paracelsu'v has revealed to us one of the grandest <«e- 
crets of nature. When the world began to dispute on the 
verv existence of the elementary fo!k. it was then that he 
boldly offered to give birth to a fairy, and has sent down to 
posterity the recipe. He describes the impurity which is 
to be transmuted into such purity, the gros^ elements of a 
delicate fairy, «ihich, fixi.*d in a phial, placed in fwming 
dung, will in due time settle into a fiill^mwn fairy, burst- 
ing through its vitromis pnson— on the vivifying principle 
by which the anri'>nt Egvptians hatched their eggs in 
oveas. I recollect a* Dr Farmer's sal« the leaf which 
preserv«-d this recin*; ft>r maktng a fairy, forctblv folded 
down by the Iraroed commentator ; from which we must 
infer the credit he gave to the experiment. There was a 
greatness of mind ii Paraee!su«, i* ho. having furnished 
a rectne to Tn\ke a fairy, had the delicacy to refrsin fntm 
it. Even Baptista P 'rta, one of the most enlightened 
phil^isopherv, does out denv the possibility of engendering 
creatures, which * at their full growth shall not exceed the 

size of a moose :' but he adds » they are only pretty little 
dogs to plav with.' Were these akin to the iaries cf 
Paracelsus f 

They were well convmced of the existence of soch ele- 
mental' beings ; frequent accidents in mines simwed the 
potency of the metallic spirits ; which so tormeaied the 
workmen m some of the German mines, by b::ndiiess, 
giddiness, and suditen sickucss, that thev have been 
obliged to abandon mines well known to be rich in silver. 
A metallic spirit at one sweep annihilated twelve ninrn, 
who were all found dead together. The fact was unqoes- 
tiooable ; and the safeiy-lAmp was undiscovered ! 

Never was a philosophical imagination more beaatifol 
than that exquisite PaUngenens, as it has been termed 
from the Greek, or a regeneration ; or rather, the apM- 
ri'ions of animals and plants. Scbott, Kircher, Gaffard, 
Borelli, Digby, and the whole of that admirable srhool, 
diMovered in the ashes of plants their primitire forms, 
which were again raised up by the force ol heat. Nrvthiag, 
they say, perishes in nature ; all is but a coniiniiatin«. or 
a revival. The semina of resurrection are cooccaird ■ 
extinct bodies, as in the blood of man; the ashes «f 
roses will again revive into roses, though smaller artd paler 
thin if they had been planted : unsubstantial and unodo- 
riferous, they are not ruses which grew on ro«e>trees, b«i 
their delicate apparitions ; and, like anparitiom. thev are 
seen but f >r a moment ! The process of the Po&Leriwsis, 
this pic'ure of immortality, is described. These phii>jso- 
phers having burst a flower, by calcination disengaged the 
salts from its ashes, and dep^isited them in a glass phial; 
a chemical mixture acted on it ; till in the fermentatioa 
they assumed a bluish and spctral hue. This dust, thas 
excited by heat, shoots upwards into its primitive forms: 
by sympathy the parts unite, and while each is rvtnmiag 
to its destined place, wc see distinctly the stalk, the leaves, 
and the flower, arise : it is the pale sp^tre of a flower 
coming slowly forth from its ashes. The heal passes 
away, the magiral scene declines, till the whoI<; matter 
again precipitates itself into the chaos at the bottom. This 
vegetable phoenix lies thus concealed in its cold a«bes, tiU 
ihe presence of heat produces this remirroctton— in ks 
absence it returns to its death. Thus the dead naiuraSy 
rerive; and a cf»rpse may give out its sliadowv r^anima- 
tion, when not too deeply buried in the earth. Bodies 
corrupted in their graves have risen, particulaHy the 
murdered ; for murderers are apt to burv thrir Tictinw in a 
slight and hasiy manner. Their salts, exhaled in vaotnr 
by means </ their fermentation, have arranged themsie.^vss 
on the surface of the earth, and formed those phaolf«H, 
which at night have of^en terrified the parsing spectator, 
as authentic history witneme«. They have opened tbs 
graves of the phantom, and diM:overed the bleeilinff coniss 
beneath ; hence it is astonishini! how manv ghosts mav be 
seen at ni^ht after a recent battle, standing nrer their 
corn-tesl On the same principle, my old philoeopber 
Gaffarel conjectures on the raining of frogs ; but tbess 
frog^. we must ctmceive, ran only be the ghosts rf frngs; 
and Gaffarel himself has modestly opened this ^rt bv a 
* peraJventure. A more satisfactory origin of gbosB 
modem philosophy has not afforded. 

And who does not believe in the existence of ghfnis ? 
for. as Dr More forcibly says. * That there ahouM be se 
universal a/ame and/«ar of that which never wa*. mw w, 
nor can he ever in the world, is to me the greatest nnrads 
of ail. If there had not been, at some tim« or other, tras 
miracles, it had not been so easy to impose on the pc«^ 
by false. The alchemist would never go aboot to snphvli- 
cate metals to pass them off for true gold ami silver, 
unless that such a thing was acknowledged as true gsU 
and si'.ve' in the world.' 

The Pharmacopceia of those limes combtm^ more «f 
morals with medicine than our own. Thev dircnvefvd 
that the agate rendered a man eloquent and even wittv; 
a laurel leaf placed on the centre of the skull, fortified ths 
metnorv : the brains of fowls, snd birds of swift wing, 
wonderfiillv helped the imagination. AU such specifics 
have not disappeared, and have greativ reduced ihs* 
chances of an invalid recovering, that which perhaps h/' 
never iiosses«ed. Lentils and rape-«eed were a eemua 
cure for the small pox, and vrrv ohvimidv, ih<Mr gn— 
re«emh1ing the spots of thi< disea«e. Ther dv^OTCted 
that those who lived oo * fair plants became fiiir, th««e m 
friiitfnl ones were never barren: on the prineiiile that 
Hercules acquired his mighty strength by fiiiiilnn oB ika 



nirrow of lions. But their Uli:iinan9, p'-ovided iher wer« 
feouiiM, «eein to have been wonder fully operative ; nnd 
had we the same confidence, and malted down the guineas 
we giv« physicians, en^^rkvins on them tahsmanic figures, 
I would anxwer fur the go<Ml eflVcts of the experiment. 
Maud^, indeed, has utterly ridiculed the occult virtues of 
tahsmans, in his defence of Virfril. accused of beinj^ a 
mafician: the poet, it seems, cast into a well a taiisman 
of a hursc-leech, graven on a plate of gold, to dnv«> away 
the great number of horse-leeches which infested Naples. 
Naiid6 poniiively denie;* that talismans ever possessed any 
■ach occult virtues : Gaflarel regrets that so judicious a 
man as Naud6 should have gone this kngih. giving the lie 
to so many authemic authors ; and Naude's f»aradox is 
indeed, as strange as his denial ; he suspects the thing is 
IKM true because it is so generally told '. ' It leads one to 
flospect,* says he, * as animals are said to have been 
driven away from so many places by these talixmans, 
whether they were ever driven from any one place.' 
Gaflarel, 8uppressin» by his goi>d temfter his indignant 
feelings at such reasoning, turns the paradox on its 
maker :— « A« if. because of the great number of battles 
that Hannibal i;* reported lohave fought with the Romans, 
we might not, by the aaine reason, doubt whether he 
fought any one with them.' The reader must be aware 
that the strength of the argument lies entirely with the tirin 
beKerer in talismans. QalTarel, indeed, who passed his days 
m collecting * Ouriotii^s inoiiie,' is a most auihenne 
historian of unparallele«l events, even in hit own times ! 
8och as that heavy rain in Poitou, which showered down 
* petites bestioles,^ little creatures like bi-^hofis with their 
mitres, and monks wiili their capuchins over their heads ; 
it M tnie, afterwards they all turned into butterflies ! 

The museums, the cabinets, and the inventions of our 
•arly virtuosi were the baby-house of philoso|ihers. Raptis* 
Ca Porta, Bbhop Wilkins,'and old A«hinol«i, were ihev now 
Ihriog, had been enrolled among the quiet members «if ' The 
i^ocielv of Arts,' instead of flving in the air, collecting ' A 
winf oi*the phcenix, as tradition goes;' or catching the d is- 
Jonted syllables of an old doting astrologer. But these 
•arhr dilettanti had not derived ihe same pleasure from the 
nac/iil inventions of the aforesaid ' S icieiy of Arts,' as 
tiiey received from what Cornelius Asripfia, in a fit of 
•pleeQ, calls * things vain and suf>erfluon9, invented to no 
Other end but ftvr pomp and idle pleaMire.' Bapiista Porta 
was more skilful in the mysteries of art and nature than 
•ay man in his day. Having founded the Academia de- 
f h' Otiom, he held an inferior associatinn in his own house, 
catted di Secreti, where none was admitted but those elect 
who had coromtmicaied some secret ; for, in the early period 
of modem art and science, the slightest novelty became a 
ii c re t , not to be confided to the uninitiated. Porta was 
tMi|uesiionably a fine genius, a^ his works still show ; but 
it was his misfortune that he attributed his own penetrat- 
ing sagacity to his skill in the art of divination. He con- 
Moered himself a prognosticaior ; and, what was more un- 
fiirtonafe, some eminent persons really thought he was. 
Predictions and secret* are harmless, provided they are 
BOt believed ; but his Holiness finding Porta's were, warn- 
•d turn thai roigical sciences were great hinderanres to 
Che Mndy of the Bible, and naid him the compliment to 
ibfhid his prophesying, Porta s genius was now limited, to 
•■tonish, and sometimes to terrify, the more ingenious 
part of / 5ccrf(i. On entering his cabinet, some phantom 
«f ma attendant was sure to be hovering in the air, moving 
•t he who entered moved ; or he observed in some mirror 
fhftt his face was twisted on the wrong side of his shoulders, 
and did not quite think that all was ri<!ht wheri he clapped 
his hand on it ; <fr passing through a darkened apartment 
a magical landscape burst on him, with human beings in 
taocion, the boughs of trees bending, and the very clouds 

Cling over the sun ; or sometimes banquets, battles, and 
ting-parties, were in the same apartment. * All these 
mectacles my friends have witnessed ! exclaims the selC 
deKghted Baptista Porta. When his friends drank wine 
out of the same cup which he had used they were mortifi. 
•d with wonder : for be drank wine, and they only water ! 
«r on a summer's day, when all oomplained of the sirocco, 
he would freeze his 'guests with cold air in the room ; or 
€m a sudden, let off a flying dragon to sail along with a 
«racker in its tail, and a cat tied on its back ; shrill was 
dwseond, and awful was the concu«kion ; si that it required 
■iroag wrrWf in an age of appariti«>ns and devils, to meet 
great philosopher when in his best humour. Alber- 

tus Magnus entertained the Earl of Holland, as that eait 
paitsed through Cologne, in a severe winter, with a warn 
summer scene, luxuriant in fruits and flowers. The fact 
is related by Trithemiiis — and this magical scene connect* 
ed with his vocal head, and his books <ie ^eerefis Jfit/tentm. 
and De MirahUibutj confirmed the accusations ihev raised 
against th«.' great Albert, for being a magician. His anol<^ 
gist, Theophilin Raynaud, is driven so hard to defend Al- 
bertus, that he at once asserts, the winter changed to sum- 
mer, and the speakm;; head, to be two infamous flams ! 
He will not believe these authenticated facts, although he 
credits a miracle which proves the sancity of Albertus,— - 
after three centuries, the body of Albert the great remained 
as sweet as ever ! 

* Whether such enchauntments,* as okl Mandeville 
cautiously observeth, two centuries preceding the days of 
Porta, were • by craft or by nygromaurye, I wot aere.' 
But that they were not unknown to Chaucer, appears in 
his ' Frankelein's Tale,* where, minutely describing them, 
he communicates the same pleasure he roust himself have 
received fnim the ocular illusions of * the Tregeloure,' or 
' Jogelour.' Chaucer ascribes tiie miracle to a * naturall 
magioue ;' in which, however, it was as unsettled, whether 
the * Prince of Darkness' was a party concerned. 

* For I am siker that there be sciences 
By which men ninken divers apparenoca 
Swiche. as thise subtil tregetoures play. 
For oft at festes have I wel herd say 
That tregetoures, within an halle largo, 
Have made come in a water and a barge. 
And in the halle rowen up and doun. 
Sometime hath si med come a grim leoun, 
And sometime doures spring as in a mede, 
S(»inutime a vtne and gra|ies white and rede ; 
Sometime a ca&tel al of lime and »ion, 
And whan hem likeih voiJeth it anon : 
Thus seineth it to everv mannes si"hl.* 

Bishop Wilkins's museum war visited by Evelyn, iHm 
describes the sort of curiosities which occupi:;d and aamaad 
the children of science. * Here, too, there was a hoUow 
statue, which gave a voice, and uttered words by a long 
concerled pipe that went to its mouth, whilst one speaks 
through it at a good distance:' a cironnidtonce, which, 
perhaps, they were not then aware revealed the whole 
mystery of the ancient oracles, which they attributed to 
demrnis, rather than to tubes, pulleys, and wheels. The 
learned Charles Patin, in liis scientific travels, records, 
among other valuable productions of art, a cherrystone, 
on which were engraven about a dozen and a halt of porw 
traits ! Even the greatest of human geniuses, Leonar- 
do da Vinci, to attract the royal patronage, created a Hon 
which ran before the French monarch, dropping /Uun dt 
lit from Its shaggv breast. And another philosopher who 
had a spinnet which played and stopped at command, 
might have made a revolution in the arts and sciences, 
had the half-sfifled child that was concealed in it not been 
forced, unluckily, to crawl into day-light, and thus it was 
proved that a philosopher might be an impostor! 

The arts, k» well as the sciences, at the first institutioa 
of the Royal Society, were of the most kmusirig class. 
The famous Sir Saniuel Moreland had turned his house 
into an enchanted palace. Every tiling was full of devices, 
which showeil art and mechanism in perfecuon : his coach 
carried a travelling kitchen ; for it had a fire-place and 
grate, with which he could make a soup, broil cutlets, and 
roast an egg; and he dressed his meat by clock-work. 
Another of these virtuosi, who is described as * a gentle- 
roan of superior order, and whose house was a knick- 
knackatory,' valued himself on his multifarious inventions, 
but most in ' sowing salads in the morning, to be cut for 
dinner.' The house of Winstanley, who afterwards raised 
the first Eddyston^ light-house, must have been the won- 
der of the age. If you kicked aride an old slipper, pur- 
p<Mely lying in yfiur way, up started a ghost before yoii ; 
or if you sat down in a certain chair, a couple of f igantic 
arms would immediately clasp you in. There was an ar- 
bour in the garden, bv the ride of a canal ; you had scarce 
ly seated yourself, when yon were sent out afloat to the 
middle of the canal— ^rom whence you could not escape 
till this man of art and science woiird you up to the ar- 
bour. What was passing at the • Ro'val Society* was 
also occurring at the * Arademie des S.rienres' at Paris. 
A great and gouty member of that philosophical body, OQ 
the departure of a stranger, would point to his legs, to 



ihm inip o wib i K ty of ooodoodBg him to the door ; jet 
tlko at tooialied winter nerer friled Boding the rirtuoeo 
wtitiog for him oo the outside, to make his final how ! 
While the visiter was fmng down stairs, thn inventire 
|eaius was desceodinf with great telodijr in a machuM 
from the window : so that be proved, that if a man of 
•dence cannot fiarce nature to walk down stairs, he may 
drive her out at the window ! 

If they travelled at home, they set off to note down 
prodigies. Dr I^ott, in a magnificent proiect of joumey- 
mg through England, for the advantage of * Learning and 
Trade,* and the discovery of* Antiquities and other Curi- 
osities,' for which he solicited the royal aid which Leiand 
enjoyal, among other notable designs, discriminates a 
class thus : * Next I shall inquire of animals ; and first of 
strange people.*— * Strange accidents that attend corpora- 
tions of (amities, as that the deans of Rochester ever 
since the fuundatioo h? tntm have died deans and bisbops; 
the bird with a white breast that haunts the family of Ox- 
enbam near Ezeterjast before the death of any of that 
family ; the bodies oTtrees that are seen to swim m a pool 
near'Brereton in Cheshire, a certain warning to the heir 
of that hooourablo fanuly to prepare for ibe next world.' 
And such remarkables as * Number of childnrn, such as 
tht) Lady Temnle, who before she died saw seven hun- 
dred descendeo from her.' This fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, who lived neariy to 1700, was requested to give an 
•ditioa of Phny : we Kave lost the benefit of a roost ctipi- 
oos com m entary ! Bishop Hall went to * the Spa.' The 
wood about that place was haunted not only by * freeboot- 
•rs, hot by wolves and witches; although these last are 
ofitimas biot one,' They were called hupt ganmz : and 
the QrMhi, it set ma, knew them by the name uf Xwoy- 

^y maawohres; witches that have put on ibe shapes 
• aval hsiSTf 'We saw a boy there, whos« half-face 
was dovoarad by one of them near the villsge ; yet s«>, as 
,■ that Iho car* was rather cut than bitten off.* Rumour 
kad spfMMi that the boy had had half his face devoured ; 
wbeii it was exammrd,'it turned out that bis ear had only 
been scratched ! However, there can be no doubt of the 
mtistence of witch wolves ^ for Hall saw at Limburp.h 
' one of those miscreants executed, who confessed on the 
wheel to have devoured two and forty children in that 
form.* They would probably have fotmd it difficult to have 
summoned the mothers who had lost the chdJren. But 
observe our philosopher's reasoning : * It would iuke a 
large volume to scan his problem of lyeanihropy.* He 
had laboriously collected all the evidence, and had added 
his arguments: the result offers a curious instance of 
•cute reasoning on a wrooj; principle.* 

Men of science and art then, passed their days in a 
bustle of the marvellous. I will furnish a specimen of 
philoaophieal correspoodeoce in a letter to old John Au- 
brey. The writer betrays the versatility of his curiosity 
by very oppomte discoveries. * Mv hands are so full of 
work taat I have no time to transcribe for Dr Henrv More 
an account of the Barosrable apparition — L<trd Keeper 
North would take it kiodiv frnm you— give a sight of ihis 
letter from Barnstable, toIX Whiichcot.' He had lately 
heard of a Scotchman who had been carried by fairies 
faito France ; but the purpose of his present letter is to 
communicate other sort of apparitions than the ghost of 
Barnstable. He had g«ine to Glastonbury, < to pidc up a 
few hemes from the holy thorn which' flowered every 
Christmas day.' The original thorn had been cut down 
bv a military saint in the civH wars; but the trade of the 
ptace was not damaced, for they had contrived not to have 
a smgle holy ihnm, but several, * by grafting and inocula- 
fion.' He promises to send these * berries :* but requests 
Aubrey to inform * that person of quality who had rather 
have a 6iis^ that it was impossible in get one fur him. I 
am toM,' he adds, * that there is a person about GlasCon- 

• Rail's praciilate is diat €hod*s woiic could ntt sdmk of 
any subsiuniial chance, which Is above the reach of all inlcr- 
nal powers ; but ' Herein the dfTell playa the double sophist, 
er ; the srvrcerer with sorcerers. Hee both deludes the wuch*s 
concHc and the beholder*s eyes.* In a word. Hall believea, in 
what he cannot underaund ! Yet Hall wHI not bdieve one of 
the Cailtollc miracles of * the Vlnrin of Louvaln, * ihoueh Lip> 
sius haii wriuen a book to cnmmemurate *ihe goddean.* as 
Hall sarcasiirullv calls her; Hall was toM. with great imhf* 
nation, in the shop of the bookseller of Lipsius, ibat when 
James the First had just looked over this work, he flung it 
down, vodfsratisf * Damnaikm m htaa that made k« and m him 

bury who hath a nursery of them, which bo aafla fcr • 
crown a piece,' but they are supposed not to b« * ol lbs 
right kind.' 

The main object of this letter is the writer's ■ aaspsBMB 
of gokl in this coimtry ;* for whidi he offers three rraaons. 
Tacitus says there was goM in EnglaiKl, and that Agiippa 
came to a spot where he had a prospect of Irrland frnm 
which place he writes ; seoooaly, that * an bunesi maa' 
had in tnis spot fbimd sttmes from which b« had estracied 
good gold, and that he himself * had seen in the hraksa 
stones a clear appearance of gold ;' and thirdiy, 
a story which goes by tradiuoo in that part of the 
try, that in the bill alluded to there was a door iaio a bels, 
that when any wanted money, they used to go aad knack 
there, that a woman used to appear, and give to sack as 
came. At a time one by greediness or otb ei w ia e gave 
her offence, she flung to the door, and ddivavvd Ihii di 
saying, still remembered in the ooimtry : 

" When all ths Daws be gone and dead. 
Then ... Hill shall shine gold red." 

My fancy b, that this relatea to an ancient fanuly of ibli 
name, of which there is now but one roan left, and be aol 
Idiely to have any issue.' These are bia three reasons; 
and some mines have perhaps been opened with no bsftw 
ones ! But let us not imagine that this great aatvafart 
was credulous ; for he tells Aubrey that * he thoogbtitwM 
but a monkish tale, forged in the abbey, so fimous m kt» 
mer time ; but as 1 have learned not to despise oar 
fathers, I question whether this may not nCv to 
nch roine m the hill, formerly m use and now lost. I 
shortly rf quest you to discourse with my lord abooi ii, is 
have advice, &c. In the mean time it will be beat toln^ 
ail privaU for his majesty's service, his lordship^s, and pcr> 
haps some private person's benefit.' But he has alao posmva 
evidencr : * A mason not long ago oommg to ike renter ol 
the abbey for a freeaione, aiKl sawing it, out came divsff 
pieces of gold of 3/ lOi value a piece, of ancient csam. 
The stone belonged to some chimney-work ; the goU aiw 
hidden in it, perhaps, when the Dissolution was near. 
This last incident of findmg coins m a chioaaey-pMca, 
which he had accounted for very rationallv, scrres onlv la 
confirm his dream that they were coinecT out of the goU 
of ibe mine in the hill ; and he becomes more ort^at for 
*a private search iiiio these mines, which 1 have, 1 1( 

way to. Id the pos .script he adds an aoconnt of a wel, 


which by washing wrought a cure on a person deep in iba 
king^s evil. * I hope you don't forget your promiae to eea^ 
auoicate whatever ihiov vou have, relating to jonr Idea.' 

This promised Idea ofAubrey mav be found m his MSS^ 
under the title of * The Idea of Universal ~ 
However whimsical, one would like to see it. 
life might furnish a volume of these Philosophica} 
he was a person who from his incessant busile and 
tiabie cunositv, was called * The Carrier of 
of the Royal Society.* Many pleasam nigh' 
vately' enjoyed bv Aubrey and his co 
the * Mine in the llill ;* Ashmule's manuscrmu at Oifori, 
contain a coUeciion of many secrets of the Konencmm; 
one of the oompletest inventions is * a Recipe bow to wdk 
invisible.* Such were the fsncies which rocked 
ren of science in their cradles! and so feeble 
steps of our curious infancy ! ^ut I start in mn 
drttding the reader may also have foUen asleep! 

* Measure is most excellent,' says one of the 
* to which also we being in like manner , 
friendly and pious Asclepiades, here fiiuab' 
at the dawn oC philosophy ! 


Literary forgeries recently have been freqoentlT i 
in, and it is urged that they are of an iniaoceat natwre ;1 
impostures more easitv practised than delected leave tbsar 
mischief behind, to taVe effect at a distant period; and m 
I shall show, may entrap even the judicious ! It may la- 
quire no high exertion of genius, to draw np a giave m> 
count of an ancient play-wrif ht whose naaae Caa m 
reached us, or to give an ex'ract from a vtrf noi e inaco 
ble to our inquiries: snd as diilneas is no proof afi 
riou*iies9, forgeries, in time, mix with auihefitier 

We have ouraehres witnessed versions of Spaniib 
Portuguese poets, which are pasaed on their nHm 
readers without diflkulty, but in which no parts «fi 
tanded originals cap beinMad; and ta the ■nm 




what0T«r antiqaaries nuiy affirm, the poemi of Chatter- 
IM and Oniao are veiled kn mjrstery ! 

If we poMessed the secret history of the literary life of 
George Steevent, it would display an unparalleled series 
of arch deception, and malicious ingenuity. He has been 
happily characterized by Mr Gifford, as * the Puck of 
Cummentators !' StKOvens is a creature so spotted over 
with btm^iry forgeries and adulterations, that any remark- 
able one about the time he flourished may be attributed to 
him. They 'were the habits of a depraved mind, and 
there was a darkness in his character many shades deeper 
tiwn belonged to Puck ; even in the playuilness of his in- 
vention, there was usually a turn or personal malignity, 
and the real c^ject was not so much to raise a laugh, as to 
■ grin horribly a ghastlv smile,* on the individual. It is 
more than rumoured, that he carried his insenious malig- 
■ity into the privacies of domestic life ; ana it is to be re- 
gretted, that Mr Nichols, who might have furnished much 
■ea«t history of this extraordinary literary forgerer, has, 
from delicacy, mutilated his colieciive vigour. 

George Steevens usually commenced liis operations by 
opening some pretended discovery in the evenin^papers, 
which were then of a more hterarv cast ; the St James*s 
Chronicle, the General Evening Post, or the Whitehall, 
ware they not dead in body and in spirit, would now bear 
witness to his successful efforts. The late Mr Boswell told 
me, that Steevens frequently wrote notes on Shakspeare, 
purposely to mislead or entrap Malone, and obtain for 
himself an easy triumph in the next edition ! Steevens 
loved to assist the credulous in getting up for them some 
■trange new thing, dancing them about with a Will o' the 
alarming them by a shriek of laughter ; and 
like a grinning Pigwiggin sinking them chin-deep into 
a qua^^mire! Once he presented them with a fictitious 
portrait of Shakspeare, and whenr the brotherhood were 
sufficiently divided in their opinions, he pounced upon 
tbem with a demonstration, that every portrait of Shab> 
•peare partook of the same doubtful authority ! Steevens 
usually assumed the nomde guerre of Collins, a pseudo- 
eoinmentator, and sometimes of Amner, who was dis- 
covered to be an obscure puritanic minister who never 
read text or notes of a play-wright, whenever he explored 
iBto ' a thousand notable secrets* with which be has pol- 
luted the pages of Shakspeare! The marvellous narra- 
tnre of the upas-tree of Java, which Darwin adopted in bis 
plan of ' eplisting imagination under the banner of science,* 
appears to have been another forgery which amused our 
*Puck.' It was first given in the London Magazine, as 
•D ectract from a Dutch traveller, but the extract was 
aaver discovered in the original author, and * the effluvia 
of this iK»xious tree, which through a district of twelve or 
Ibnrteen miles had killed all vegetation, and had spread the 
akdetnos of men and animals, affbtxling a scene of melan- 
choly beyond what poets have described, or painters de- 
lineated,' is perfectly chimerical. A splendid flim-flam! 
When Dr BerkenluMit was busied in writine, without 
■inch knowledge or skill, a history of our English authors, 
Bieevens allowed the good man to insert a choice letter by 
George Peele, giving an account of < a merry meeting at 
the Globe,* wherein Shakspeare and Ben Jonson and 
Vtd Alleyne are admirably made to perform their respec- 
tive parts. As the nature of the * Biographia Literaria' 
f«quired authorities, Steevens ingeniously added, * Whence 
I copied this letter I do not recollect.* However he well 
%nsw it came from * the Theatrical Mirror,* where he had 
Snt deposited the precious original, to which he had un- 
fuaffdedly veatunid to affix the date of 1600 ; unluckily, 
Posle was discovered to have died two years before he 
wrote his own letter! The date is adroitly dropped in 
Berkenhoutt Steevens did not wish to refer tonis ori- 
ginal, which I have often seen quoted as authority. One 
af these numerous forgeries of our Puck, appears in an 
article in Isaac Reed's catalogue, art. 8708. * The Boke 
af the Soidan, conteyninge strange matters touchynge his 
Ms and deaths, and the ways of his course, in two partes, 
Itow,* with this marginal note by Reed. * The foregoing 
was written by George Steevens, Esc^, firom whom I re- 
asived it. It was composed merely to impose on " a Ute- 
«ary friend," and had its eflfect ; for he was so far deceived 
as (o its authenticity that he ^ve implicit credit to it, aiid 
pot down the person*s name ra whose possession the ori- 
^■al books were supposed to be.* 

Gas of tho sort of tventioos wUeh I attribute to Stee- 
.#■■ km htm fot op with a deal of roDaatic sflTset, to 

embellish the. poetical fife of Milton ; and unquestionably 
must have sadly perplexed his last matter-ol-fact editor, 
who is not a man to comprehend a flim-flam !— for he has 
sanctioned the whole fiction, by preservinz it in his bio- 
graphical narrative ! The first impulse ot' Milton to travel 
in Italy is ascribed to the circumstance of his having been 
found asleep at the foot of a tree in the vicinity of Cam- 
bridge, when two foreign ladies, attracted by the loveliness 
of the youthful poet, alighted from their carriage, and 
having admired him for some time as they imagined un- 
perceived, the youngest, who was very beautiful, drew a 
pencil from her pocket, and having written some lines, put 
the paper with her trembling hand into his own ! But it 
seems, for something was to account how the sleeping 
youth could have been aware of these minute particulars, 
unless he had been dreaming them, — that the ladies had 
been observed at a distance by some friends of Milton, 
and they explained to him the whole silent adventure. 
Milton, on opening the paper, read four vereet from Gua- 
rini, addressed to those * human stars* his own eyes ! On 
this romantic adventure, Milton set oflT for Italy, to dis- 
cover the fair * incognita,' to which undiscovered lady we 
are told we stand mdebted for the most impassioned 
touches in the Paradise Lost ! We know how Milton 
passed his time in Italy, with Dati, and Gaddi, and Fres- 
cobaldi, and other literary friends, amidst its academies, 
and oAeo busied in book-collecting. Had Milton*s tour in 
Italy been an adventure of knight-errantry, to discover a 
lady whom he had never seen, at least he had not the 
merit of going out of the direct road to Floreneo and 
Rome, nor of having once alluded to this Dmm* dt sss 
pentieM^ in his letters or inquiries among bis firieads. who 
would have thought themselves fortunate to havalmrooaesd 
so poetical an adventure in the nimeroiM eaassai tlMp 
showered on our youthful poet 

This hUtorietU^ scarcely fitted for a novd, 6rst appearoi 
where generally Steeven*s literary arouseaisnts wsfs cai^ 
ried on, in the General Evening Post, or tho St Jaaiss^ 
Chronicle : and Mr Todd, in the improved aditioa of MS* 
ton*s Life, obtained this spurious origiul, where tho 
reader may find it ; but the more curious part of the ilory 
remains to be toM. Mr Todd proceeds, * The preceding 
highly-coloured relation, however, is not nngtdar; my 
friend, Mr Walker, points out to me a counter-part in the 
extract from the preface to Poeeia de Marguerite'JEleanore 
ClotUde^ depute Madame de Surville. Poete Prancma da 
XVSiide. Parte, \80S: 

And true enough we find among * the family traditions' 
of this same Clotude, that Justine de Levis, great-grand- 
mother of this unknown poetess of the fiOeenth century, 
walking in a forest, witnessed the same beautiful apedade 
which the Italian Unknown had at Cambridge ; never was 
such an impression to be eflfaced, and she could not avoid 
leaving her tablets by the side of the beautiful sleeper, de- 
claring her passion \n her tablets to four Italian vereee ! 
The very number our Milton had melted to him ! Oh ! 
these yb«r verses ! they are as fatal in their number as tho 
date of Peeps letter proved to George Steevens ! Some- 
thing still escapes in the most ingenious fabrication which 
serves to decompose the materials. It is well our veraci- 
ous historian dropped all mention of Guarini— else that 
wouM have given that coup de grace— a fatal anachronism ! 
However his invention supplied him with more originalitjf 
than the adoption of this storv and the four verses would 
lead us to infer. He tells us how Petrarch was jealous of 
the genius of his Clotilde*s grandmother, and has even 
pointed out a sonnet which, * among the traditions of the 
family,* was addressed to her ! He narrates, that the gen- 
tleman, when he fairly awoke, and had read the * four 
verses,* set oflT for Italy, which he run over till he found 
Justine, and Jtntine found him at a tournament at Modena ! 
This parallel adventure disconcerted our two grave English 
critics— they find a tale which they wisely jtrase improba- 
ble, and because they discover the tale copied, they con- 
clude that * it is not siiigular !* This knot of perplexity is, 
however, easily cut through, if we substitute, which we 
are fully justified in, for * Poete du XV Siecle*— * du XIX 
Siede!* The* Poesies' ofClotilde areas genuine a fa- 
brication as Chatterton's; subject to the same objections, 
having many kieas and expressions which were unknown 
in the language at the time they are pretended to have 
been composed, and exhibiting many imitations of Voltairo 
and other poets. The present story of the four ItaHoH 
W9»t >nd the beautiful SUepet, wouM bs quito suficiMit 



lilt, it^tii Madamt ^ SwnMlt. moA iba Munsmr 

KhidJ bf lucre IcriddK Ihc |tci'1u.u iniiiuxTnpt, (ud 
hv «■■ copyntE TirT rhc pireb, ii> lT0d. ThdM preiry 
1,'fof HK^ Ihry are, of hn graauU tajUt, vm thol in 

\.m in« hMiiMincri T(i=ml«iHor.wlH).™ 
PMUB' XJ be iho |i<-ct, |wbli>h'd ih.^niiB 1S03. 
ck ihio, u ih> biiirxT of ■ liiermrj furf rry ! A Pnek 


Th? precediDg uiicle hai re 
tiiluiuB mifht b« cuiinp»«l oi 

aded at </■ (obwcl h 
I uT hleralun. A ln^ 


tory! A PreiKh ChciKrtiun picki up th« obKur' i>le, 
tOii bvholJ, ttiuDithei the liivrtrj inquirer* nf Ihe vf rj 
owa'ry whi-nc« ihe imixtiijre •pruiif! Bui 1h« four 
AabiiMrKj, vKt ib« Sfn^f Ks^fc.' Oh! Mociiieiir 

of Clwikle't livniel of Iho Gnrelllll HBIUrT. •wn< lil»- 
Bimu ytnoB* ■'■ un)<ickv in Ihii world ! ' Perh>p> nna 

of Mi&vii UM Juatint <U Lrria if doi >■> ariiiiiil mm ii 
•.era*-.! muT Iw hiil in ih, jlOrA oTD'Urit. or •now of 
Ih*i Ion;! rumucci nf ilie SrjKlerm, nl . - . . 

■od ihe Fmch ChiUerluiu irir h»*e 

Will 11 bo mdiicil ib.1 liir i>w >njini 
cj pirn of malice, SircTau muld e<v 
pauiua u • pankil cniic 7 Yei ihu heieniund, br 
•hiWBC oui of hia ediiion ihc pnriu vf Shikiprin, iriili 
■ rMBWhabt* hjjier-criliciiDi, thml "ihe ■roafnt act of 

pubUMBI ihU could bo filmed would ful la e ■ 

nadm ta'o Ihrir Hrrlce.' Not ••nlv he dcnnuiKi 
•WMU of ShtkniKiin. hil ihe Honei uieir. wiih i 
Mrdfliimba, < Wh>t hm inilh or nalure la do »iih 
DMif' The tecr.i biilory of Ihii unwirrknimble mui 

Uwir 'ludiliuoB. S'«Tei»hiDiHirhidronnrrlyrop 
hidlHir 0D*> ITT kif of K eonnwDUtoi'i iiride. h 


ianr wilh Halmw rupeclini Shikiipean'i w<r«; 

m t&u ihe poci h*d for|i"Iirn lo nirniion hii wife b 
iim will : inl hii recnllection of Mr* Shakipure 
to inaHi f he itlif hloeis uf iiis rrfard, for ho only a 

e<iDieniu>rane«, Thry tvra pcrplei tit u 
day. Move liaiirer rbrrf^rin have brrD \ 
Scolchneo, ol whoni Archibculd Bower, I.aad<r, tml 

Qenr^o Smveni aiiut again luakr hii appranncr fw a 
OKUiorablfi Irirk |>layed un thi anliqitary Goujh. Tks 

dnnkii.g-ho'n of Hi'dTkouie In indicaie hu laai faial a- 

wLne Ihe anliquarllli eie of Gui;h attrn porrj on ibt 
Triwrihlii odde and eula; It perTrcily lUFCHdnl OH ike 
-"■■- • ■— Sociftj.' He purr^xd 

GiAigh nerrr forpte 


On »TT 


of Ihe Ann 

(or the Arrhvlofia !* 
ir Sltvtem, for ihu B. 

in iho Qentknun^i M^^uioe wl 

1acV4-d hi* graphic prri 
whidi had noihuif hui 
pirhed aa Gnu^h drrin 

rirait of one of ea 

lod of hii own 'yn, unH bt 
fiirly taken in by inmelbinf acntched much wont. Suck 
w» Ihe orii-in of hit adoplion of rliri rra^jim-'in of a dii^ 
ney^lab, which I hare iten, and wilh a boner joH^ wo^ 
derod at the iniudicioui anijqiiartf, who caild haTe hc*tt 

rd in bfilof papR'd ij4r u a emirne 9al0fl IDBCnptKA : bn 
hoharicDuniedonhiiioinlt The tnck ii ■»( aoonful 
Mittwrini. Onu DeGrumhad ennavnl OB narUe 

fomelinie after, hnvmi; ordered a new planlaiioB « Iba 
•pot. ihe di'ieri rould nnt fail of dirinierring what lay 

MiioGTamn had raised ihii monument to hia Bute! De 
Grania tare ii oul u an odd eoineideace of naun, ari 

Thenarhle wai Thrown by, and nomore [ho<i[hi itf. S*^ 

Thai DeGnxidnd hii inula, equally mprciable,wsol4 
poderhy. had not iho ato^ by aooa 

a Portugu 

or and ihnler In aniiquidn. Bu it was Steerena, who placed 

imiiiuary. When Ihe Jan Mr Pr«e. a pTofaiind brabB. 
wu prtparln^nwitieadlMeitilionan lb ihe BiK tanmaril 
the flam Kejiped (hrwaril tn aaee any fitithertraf tral lannbia- 
lion: [henirkeil wh had altiflif y Bucrerdcd (on veU ! 

t Thr hmk may be fiHwd <■> ihe Briiiah Mui—. Rllk 
DENVT it the nadlnr on Ihe Hurthitcniii iioo* : ba tbc ma 
onhoTrashy of Ihc nane ia HABBUCRVT. 

SylVaixH Uiban. my unllrm ntd olil Trfand, omm a irMa 
itncouiteona on llila rraee nrcatinn — He (alia sa, bp ft r , 
ihai >Tbe bbuiiy of ihti wanton irlck. whh a Or-riaiiW it 

He • >yi thai this wick'ni roMrliance of Ororfe g m e a na ■■* 
to eninplhii bmnut dnftnnan! Doe* SylTanaa ihaa ^Nf 
Ihai ■ tba Dirrrinr' waa nn ahn ' eninpperi r> And IkM la 
alvaye Mrurk »nl hie o>n nume in the pmr-ahaeB nf Aa 
Miniln* nnbilitiitiiK hii nfltclal dailtnalVm. brwUtt Ab 
whole aocieiy kaelT leeiiied in icnen ' iha DiracBW !■ 

lo poderhy. had not iho atg^ by m 

An incident of rhia nalure n recoi 

le hiitory, conlriTed with [he iDlentHn to h 



up the naliooal spirit, am) diffiwe hopeii of the new enter- 
priu of Vanco de Gama, who hatl ju»t »ailed on a Toya|(e 
of diacovery to the Indies. Three HioneH were discoTered 
near Cinira, bearing in ancient characters, a Latin in- 
scn|ilion ; a bibylhne oracle addressed prouheiically * To 
the inhahitaniM «>f the West !' »taiin|^ thai when ihe»e three 
atones shjUl be found, ih*^ Gang*- g, the Indus, and the Ta- 
gus should cichantie their coniroodiiies ! This was the 
pious fraud of a Portuguese |M>et, sanctioned by the ap* 
probaiiiio of the king. When the si ones had lain a sum- 
cieut tim\) in the damp eanh, so as to become apparently 
antique, our poet invited a niiiuorons party to dinner at his 
country-house ; in the midst of the eniertainmeni a pea- 
sant rushed in, announcing the sudden discovery of this 
treasure ! The inschpiion was placed among the royal 
collections as a sacred curidsny ! The prophecy was a^ 
conip.islied, and the oracle was long considered genuine ! 

In such cases no mischief resulted ; the annals of man- 
kind were not confused by spurious dynanties aiid fabulous 
chrunok>gie« ; but when liierary forguries are published by 
those wlMMe character hardly adniiis of a suspicion that 
they are themselves ihe im|Mwtors, the difficulty of assign- 
ing a DKiiive only increases tliat of forming a decision; to 
tdopt or to reject them may be equally dangerous. 

In this class we must place Aunius of Viierbo, who pub- 
lished a pretended collection of hisionans of the remotest 
nntiqiiity, some of whose namet had descended to us in 
the works of ancient writers, white their works themselves 
had been lost. Afterwards he subjoined commentaries to 
confirm their authority, by passages from unknown ao- 
thors. These at first were eagerly accepted by the learn- 
ed ; the blunders of the presumed editor, one of which 
was his mistaking the right name of the historian he forged, 
were gradually detected till at length the imposture was ap- 

Srent ! The pretended originals were more remarkable 
' their number than their volume ; for the whole collec- 
tion does not exceed 171 pages, which lessened the diffi- 
culty of the foTfery ; while the commentaries, which were 
afterwards publisherl, must have been manufactured at the 
same lime as the text. In favoiir of Annius, the high rank 
he occufHed at the Roman court, his irreproachable con- 
duct, anid his derlarati'»n that he had recovered some of 
these fragments at Mantua, and that others had come 
from Armenia, induced many to credit these pseudo-his- 
torians. A literary war sotHi kindled ; Niceron has dis- 
criminated between four parties engaged in this conflict. 
One pikrty decried the whole of the collection as gross for- 
geries ; another obstinately supported their authenticity ; 
a third decided that they were forgeries before Annius 
poesessed th^m, who was only credulous; while a fourth 
party considertd theni as partly authentic, and described 
their blunders to the interpolations of the editor, to increase 
their importance. Such as they were, they scattered con- 
fusinn over the whole face of history. The false Berosius 
opens his history before the delude, when, according to 
faim, the Chaldeans through preceding ages had faithfully 
preserved their historical eviilences ! Annius hints, in his 
commentary, at the archives and public libraries of the Ba- 
bykmians: the days of Noah comparatively seemed mo- 
dem history with this dreaming editor. Some of the fan- 
oToi writers of Italy were duped : Sansovino, to dehght 
tha Florentine nobility, accommodated them with a new 
title of antiquity in their ancestor Noah, Imperatore e 
w o narcAa ddU grnA^ vine e mmi in quelle j^arti. The 
Spaniards complained that in forging these fabulous ori- 
firn of different nations, a new series of kinfs from the 
ark of Noah had been introduced by some of their rhodo- 
mootarfe historians to pollute the sources of their history. 
Bodm*s otherwise valuable works are considerably injured 
by Annius*s supposititious discoveries. One historian died 
of grief, for having raised his elaborate speculations on 
tbeee fabiiloas originals ; and their credit wa< at length so 
much reduced, that Pignoria and MafTei both announced 
to their readers that they had not referred in their works io 
the pretended writers of Annius! Yet, to the present 
bmir, these presumed forgeries are not always given up. 
The problem remains unsolved — and the silence of the re- 
■pectable Annius, in regard to the forgery, as well as 
what he afirmed when alive, leave us in doubt whether he 
really ratended to laugh at the world by these fairy tales of 
the giants of antiquity. Sanchoniath'oti, as preserved by 
Eosebiuii, HMy be dnssed among these ancient writings, 
or forgeries, and has been equally rejected and defended. 

Another Kferary forgery supposed to have been graAed 
«■ llMee of Anaa, involved the loghirami family. It wu 

by digging in their grounds tliat they discovered a number 
of Etrus<:8n antiquities, consisting of inscriptions, attd also 
fraginenis of achrunide, pretended to have been composed 
sixty years btfore ihe vulgar era. The characters on the 
marbles were (he ancient Etruscan, and the histurical work 
tended lo confirm the pretended discoveries of Anniua. 
They were culiecfed and enshrined in a magnificent lolio 
by Curiius Inghirami, nho, a few years after, published a 
quarto volume ucceeding one thousand pages to kupport 
their auihenticity. Notwithstanding the erudition ol the 
forger, these monuments of antiquity Betrayed their modem 
condiment. There were uncial letters which no one knew ; 
but these were said lo be undiscovered ancient £truacan 
characters ; it was more difficult to defend ihe small iialio 
letters, fur they were not Ubed in the age assigned lo them; 
besides (hat there were dots on the letter t, a custom not 

firac(i»cd till the eleventh century. The style was copied 
rom the Latin of the Psalms and the Breviary ; but Ing- 
hirami discovered that ihere had been an intercourse be- 
tween the Etruscans and the Hebrews, and that David 
had imitated the virriiings of Noah and nis descendants ! 
OfNohh the chronicle details speeches and anecdotes! 

The Romans, who have preserved so much of the Etriia- 
cans, had not, however, noticed a single fact recorded in 
these Etruscan antiquities. Inghirami replied, that the 
manuscript was the w(»rk of the secretary ol the college of 
the Etrunan augurs, who alone was preniitted to draw his 
materials frcm the archives, and who, il would seem, waa 
the only ecribe who has favoured posterity with so much 
secret bisiory. It was urged in favour of the authenticity 
of these Etruscan monuments, that Inghirami waa to 
young an aniiqnary at the time of the diseoveiy^ that be 
could not even explain them ; and that when fresh re> 
searches were made on the spot, other similar moomnenta 
were also disinterred, where evidently they had \tmg lain ; 
the whole affair, however contrived, waa confined to the 
Inghirami family. One of them, half a century b afa riu 
had been the librarian of the Vatican, and to him istaeribao 
the honour of the forgeries wliirh he buried where he wai 
sure they would be found. This, however, is a mere eoa- 
jecture !' Inghirami, who publi>hed and defended their au- 
ihenticity, was not concerned in their fabrication; the de- 
sign was probably merely to raise the aniiquity of Vola- 
terra, the family estate of the Inghirami ; and for this pur^ 
p<»se one of iis learned branches had bequeathed his poe- 
terity a collection of spurious historical monuments, which 
ten<U'd to overturn all received ideas on the first ages of 

It was probably such impostures, and those of the/a2ss 
deeretalM of Indore^ which were forged for the maintenance 
of the papal supremacy, and for eight hundred years form- 
ed the fundamental basis, of the canon law, the discipline 
of the church, and even the faith of Christianity, which led 
to the monstrous pyrrhonism of father Har^ouin, who, 
with immense erudition, had persuaded himself, that, ex- 
cepting the Bible and Homer, Herodotus, Plautus, Pliny 
the elder, with fragments of Cicero, Virgil, and Horace, 
all with remains of classical literature were forgeries of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ! In two diaserta- 
tions he imagined that he had proved that the JEneid waa 
not written by Virgil, nor the Odes of Horace by that 
poet. Hordotiin was one of those wrong-headed men, who 
once having fallen into a delusion, whaiever afterwards 
occurs to them on their favourite subject only tends to 
strengthen it. He died in his own faith ! He seems not 
to have been aware, that by ascribing such pnxiigal inven- 
tions as Plutarch, Thucycfidcs, Livy, Tacitus, and other 
historians, to the men he did, he was raising up an unpar- 
alleled age of learning and genius when monks could only 
write meagre chronicles, while learning and genius them- 
selves lay in an enchanted slumber with a suspension of all 
their vital powers. 

There are numerotis inslancea of the forgeries of small- 
er documents. The Prayer>Book of Columbus presented 
to him by the Pone, which the great discoverer of a new 
world bequeathed to the Genoese republic, has a codicil in 
his own writing as one of the leaves tcslifies.but as volumes 
composed against its authenticity deny. The famous de- 
scription in Petrarch's Virgil, so often quoted, of his first 
rtnamtre with Laura in the church of St Clair on a Good 

* The volume ot these pretended Amlquhies Is enihled 
Etnisrsrum Anilqulfsiem fragments, fo. Frsnc. 1107. That 
which Inghirami published to defend their authenticky b bi 
lullan. Diflcorso sopra oppoalzioni (aue all' Antkhka Tokim 
410. Flrenze, 1M&. 


FrUar. S Aftil, ISTI, ii hu b«d nemOj tnsa 
he ataowii ii « farntrr. Bj lalciiliiiiiia, il tppun 
• April, IB7, frljaii ■ MoikUt ! Tlw GooJ Prid^ 

fin il gnnw di' li nl fl toB J irwn 
Pit (■ iiiiiA dal uo buocs i ni. ' 

• Itwudo tha di^wtm Iha nfiiirth* hid war 
•d In coapuHon Tor hii Hikar.' Tba tintr inKfinnl 
thia dEachpiiaii aUudad ui Qood Pridif ud Ui* ocJipas iI 
tba Cnidliuoii. BiKlwwitudi thapuwaiDihaMS. 
io the iopnul Sbnij <t Vhuu, which Atibt C«Luii| 
hi* (Banal 

Em il pana cfa' al h) d «to ran 
Pmf b p»A da auo falign, m iw 
Quud Id (u pnaa ; a una mi cuwdu 
Cba ben roairi occhi denim mi lapro. 

• Il wu eo iha itj (bat I wu ewlinted, damlioa for in 
Maker appaand b Iha njpi «f a brilliaat am, and 1 
did nol wall conaidar Uwt il **( jour aj ea Uul enchun- 

The Gnt naMini, i«!onJin|i 
BMiaa sten*, buiiniwa' 
•oonet. Tba Laun oTSidi 

bar aodalT aoidat her fainilr.* ir Ihe AbM C«>ii<i^> 
Utemrjta eaaftriad.thj pod nunc nTPrUxrchurniRl 

would ba cario oi if iha famoui itarr of the 6ral msctiqi 
wiib Lan ta Iha chorcb of Si Clirs oripnated in ihs 
blunder of tba fvnrar'a niiacancqMt«i of a pauage 
which «u iacHTeelJ^ prialad, ai appean bj >iblin| 

LiUmy lor|eri*i hare beei _. . 

Cv ; datea bate been ah^red i fictiti 
]|» hue ben te; 

Ihia pan of the hiatorr ot lilerarr targarf. Tor (hie aitii 
baa alrewJr Fo*" Tolumiixui. Wheo of diacoTer, bo 

ooa of ihQ moat erilical of bibbographen, were coDcert 
in a forpirj of Lhia nature, il mi^ be uierul to ipread 
aJaimamanfcalleWn. The duke de It VtllHTe.and I 

1 1jefer^ once coocerted to^iher 
eafer puTT:ha*er cf Uterary raritjea with a 
TUm faipatnnit, ■ book, bj Iha date, 
btTe been pnnled rn l£9B. though, prohaUr, a modem 
fvccrr of 1698. The tills of aueh i wwk had Iooe 



iconrie. of Jtpi 
1 lialened ID thev cnDnenu. He farfol *• 

whu^fa ihn Japanacs wrsie ; bvl auppoHd, hb* 
I, ihe^ wrote fiom Ih* ri^hi to the kft, whici h* 

_..,. n ,. -icofiiaoa- — 

to Ilia In 

LCIu>l]7 Por^ Io 

Crw l^undBTi; hariof midTri 

nuallj, h 

made il a pnnFiplo in this liopoaiun Bf tot to irary wba 
ne had ooce uid a thuif. All Ihia <rw pnijcctBd Bbaaa) 
fearful ordtlecuoo bir Iboae abool him. 

Ho i«ai hiouolf Burpriacd at hie facilily of imstiait 
ind ibo profreae oThii Torfery. He had f nnnaj (a alpha- 
bat, a eoniiderable portion ofa nan Unguaf o, a giaialMI. 

Crom a euTlDiu pgbllcailoi 
flflfoHi, which Iwkb c 
to pvocuTfl, bvt wbtcb 

bMbnwa can decide o , 

COBiB wa han hliheno posaaagd of Iha l^ai 

lofreoaich. i propoaed 

Ihe iritoui of eoDieraion died awaT in [naea. and l^'aaal 
inirhed nef loot of hia coaiort pranilsd, while iIm «W 
of tho biahop wi ■ - - ■ 

pmlnelad or doutafid. I 


ehuM, uil caimj hio In England ; ihii inu eigBrir («»- fH'l'" ' "'^ 

wiii5jr(.b,Mirpl.W»dtmui™r.AfcwI>,ieh«h.lliBp, i»f»Ui"«*ft^ 

UHJ f»ir widi, k«p> hin. in iwd humour ; bui no« I ;^|;^™^" ^ 

' ii be h>3 ilreidy in hi> nf '" '— ' ■- ■---■-— 



inidt bim CDUtriis il, hs i)»ir«J to 
noa of koi 

bwl htil biti ■ ihorl lima lo , " 
. ™coll«>it; H ihii inihs 1 ,/' 
. .h. ...ri. _.~ .. k. : -"Q' 

100 callnd ttw /Vwuasi j^m.' 

lU ohiloniH, but 11 hiul i» Tiulu. Th< projuci failod, and 

fhrmotanj^an u a protidwitjal iwHnf lo rapam cf all 
hii impotlurci of FonnnM ! 

Among lh«a Iiuinrj far||Vrin B*T ba daiaod aivartl 
iDgenioiH one* rabricaiBd r« a paiiUcaJ purpflvs- We h^d 
cerLmiolT Dumernui dddi duxiog our civil wan in tfaa mga 
tf Ctaiiet I. Thia ii Mt Ibe place Id roniiniie the eoD- 
irorenj retpecEing ibe mjttamut £ikmi BviUJU, which 
hai beBn ranked •ohiui ihem, fniM lb« ajnbicuDui elaim 
of Gauden. A recent wnler who wonld proGalil* incJins 
■KM to ieave liie Doaaicb wwe be hiring, pot oolj bin hekd 
but lh« liule fame he might obtain bv IM ■ Veneft* iud Id 
lie wrillen br liiiB at Cariibnolie Cutle, «aild depriT* 
■ -B alto of ihea, " -- ■ '- -■— - ■— ' — - - 

ir, and PiaJmanaiEaar wi 

■mpoilor; he wai niber de'iiroui orBtlinglhe rnaikcloisr . „. 
Whurace. Pialmanauaar, in thia bard inaJ, bid giTen """ 

th-bed racanutna M 

liiL&df 1^ Delight,' 

price Ihef haie obiained, are (imlublf coo- 

liiB looee taiahliDg life. There ii a ludicroui apoacta uT 
rh« alranga Rirl of Pemhnike, which, waa forged bjr tha 
--'-'- " -'-r.aodaii John Firhenhoad, agrau hu- 
btd • buif pan in theaa iputioiu latian 

« facilUT, «™bi 

Ifoduced the hrgen of m aniira pew tanjm 
ich. ha renurkiUy obaarrea, ' by what I haia 
uma inio England, t cannot uy but I CMihJ 
_. ., uedit wiihleii diffirrultjUiancanbecooeeiTec 
I applied cloael; lo il.' When a •anion of the calec 
wunade into tha pratended Foraioaan langmga, . 
wu laboutiad to tlia judgment of th« lint a^lmUH ; 
pMnd 10 tham ^mmttieal, a 

■a pronauDcad lo be a 
... « that 11 memUad no 

oihar! and ihej could not concrin thai ■ arriplinf eouM 
bo iba inraolor of a luiguage. ITlbe reidar ia eunoua lo 
OUBiDa (hia eitrmwdinari impoalun, I rafcr him to 'hat 
htMw; curioailjr, ' An hutoiia] and geofrtphical Daa- 
enptma of Furmoea, wilh account* of Iha Religion, Gua- 
(IBM, and Mannen of Iha InbabiUnta. bf Qeorga Paal- 
" ' <orthaaaidIala.'lT04; witgrnime. 

alphabet: In bin conlenr^Ei berora 
la Rojal SocielT with a Jeauit juil raturncd from China. 

n iminaior. Tha good father nmaiii«l obilinaia in hia 
«n cooiiciion, but conkj not aatiActohl* eommunicaie il 
. olhan 1 and Paalmauinat, iHsr polild j ukin( part 

^mmimimda^iitmila-i,njmdtnliHlm,! DrMead 
baadlf inaiiled Paalmanaaziar vrai a Dutchinin or a 

Thia bai fallen to mj' lot, Ibt 
■i« in loe cuunc « lo} m<iB[i.-hei, I hare lo record that wo 
i u haTa bolh forgen and purioinen, u well u olbor mora 
>ca; obvioua impoalon, in Ihe lepublio uf lallen! Tha p»- 
riad lenl irllde deicriidi to relate anacdolea of anma cob 

hid ' ihui bj purchaie ; and ihe ontj apolocy which can ba at 
tiim legad foribeipfeiKli^ ptceola, u 8l Auatio caZIa tha*iiw 
luea of the heatheua. of the praaanL innocenl criauoila, ia 

;iauica] Dicli 

nei. Accordinc to Oraoo^ 
' Claaaica] DiclioouT of the Vulgar Tongua/ wo hif* had 
« lebmled oUeOan, both in the laimed and tulglr idiont. 
But HUE of tham, nbo had afme reuou loo io bo tawlef 
WI Ihia point, diatinguitbaa Ihia mode of complating^bia 
collectiooi, not bv book-atraiing, but by fc«J i -aow< u i#. Oil 
■ome occaaiona,' in marcy, wo mual allow of aoneniof 
namea. Weie not the Spailana illuwod lo ataal iram (■« 

Ii ii (aid IhaL PioeUi made occaiional idditioni lo hia 

'»■ N"F 

r aJlowfd lo pfOaper ! 
! Il ia probable that 

bo w» paid to aiptoda Ihtir doctrii 
pacj ! Thia fahuFoiu hiaiory of Fo 
been projacled b* hia anful promple 
raoiua into Paifmanauur'i handi 
pelad 1«th m Iba domealtc and fora 

bun7 tha anlhor, who waa acircelj 


A light-fingered Marcu 
apol : however, thia ia, a 

we owe lo ihia ipadaa of acuunulattoB muj pradoui 

manuacripu in tha CoHouian eoHoctioa. It appaara bf 

;>uil in ditguine, a tool oT the manuicript nole-book of Sir Nieholai Hyde, cbiaf-jua- 

ouabl him brilMd by Ihp i lice of Lhe king'a bench from Iha aecood 10 tho aanalb 

h : the oreibriariani thai I Tear of ChaHaa Ihe Fint, that Sir Robert Colioa had ia 

nd cry up epiica- ' "Ja library, recorda, aridencea, ladgar-booka, orvind leu 

laiaemi lo haTp I lera, and olher atale-papen, belonging to Iha kmg; for 

nea, who put Ta- "be altomey-general of itiii lime, lo prore Ihia, abowad a 

leiiit him J Irum- copy of Ibeponfoi which Sir Robert had obtained Cnat 

lhe bookteDsn In Gough hai more ihin mainuaied thai RawHoaoa and 

-dinary Tolume ; and aa Ihe forraar I and be aaiaili thai Ihe colicclor of tbe wHion ueaaurt* 

ibhc poaaeaied of thia iaiand wotr n^e aa free aa Dr Willia wiih bii fnand'a cnlna. Bw ho 

rdlliai and coolndictiona. ibeia aa- haa ilaa put forth a declanlion relating lo Biabop More, 

oature. Our fnrcKr r»i(^ied 001 Ii> ^' famuua collector, thai ' the biabop eolleeted hia library 

id done, hot ' by phimiiTinj ihoao oflhedergy in bia dioesaai aoaa b* 

.._., 1 •- - ^utdmuratiaimlitTar' Thiaphu*- 

dweriboDewand mrpnaing ihingi aither hai 
isthor Kodied lo clath with ihem, probably ihi 

hae* u opportDoity of pratendini to correct lU.u. .... - ,. — - .- - - - 

fciM «ditioa waa iomediaiely add i lhe world waa mon- drriKg rheo caoauiad taihei olajaUnt «Ji( 

" ■ ■ . L. . r_ _v ...- . . [_.. I _b.L.k ...— .bnr.ii Ub» iJ i-lvjia .Hiirf 


«bOM «|ipt€iitie«lup bu noi iipirol. I h.™ aijtmit 
ton piBiJunI bf 1 lery d«r r.imd <;4»nic wek bLMirf 

- ----- -■•— ■'-It ttwy mnacratm ttid rt hl> n«a- 

*' - ■ - -ppeir tiiu Bufaop 

diniiniahFd both Ihsn ml hii Ubeur, kj icquntnaf 
[ilundrrrr nfuliquiir nu Tai oul sf Jxir FHCb. 

ufaop When Qnoft, ii«eh«t on ihn odd nibjmt IB Iha h* 
" •" I'dilion of hit • Briii»h TnpifTiphj,' ' An AcadiiBk' lo lb« 
"« > < h-nilfDui'ii MxtuiK Inr Autim 1771. iiuiiHHI'4 ibu 

Hsn <W uliidiT lu nulcot hu 
M« imHiiikla'BulBehtriBcr; < 
pncaulwn bIu^J br « fnen.! ofirw minop, -no iimu.j ,(,1, [hirfoij \iunrf pillenjii wu 

u ■!»]> u ha could. On bsing uked ibo mioii of ihii ; „,i ihc rt", ind Ihit ' one miiht 
_jj .1.. Livi: 1.,, „(rnuo^lj niiiKH, ■ iSe | jingaid nliqtmf in the prcwnl 

Buhop <ir Ely dioM wiih nu ro 

aaiil'lc <rhiiii( bi Sir Kobcn C< 
tU> wuh iba foundir uf Ibo B 
Su B«ben, that • ir b« held 
V U< *fU. bu 

I if tb«>e ' li^hi-6nnr«d uuquai 

ho Ihoilld M^ M Sir TVuniKU 

Ikfrvrrid. Al til* dit*> 

forded 10 

larniruTed in »err imponiini inliiicHi coiuHiifnocr. Hv 
uanrci ua Ibii ihr (>Mxm»l JiilikF which P.ip* Innnciiw 

eardiiul. fi'MU haTini brcn diiicird in ihe librvy of u 
HDinini Frruch collscior, ofliaiini nurloinvd i in«i nrs 

U Fn[irD furr-6hgi-r of E 
irmm pr-rfrci whan Aficiwd, 
■(imdbif , *hcn 'Puck'di 


drf«fwd «il < 
ba buad Uw 

bit dTini-bed, tl thnaa awful n 
>r bBbilm aide, may nol be e. 

:urk><» handt. Sir Willii 


tint Jams 

E« w amhor on _ 

Mda4li «iin*rr(»n h>i 

DiHdale poaaaaacd ibc 

•mV Cuwlrn. nil witl 

OaBdaaVownld'c, whi 

«rih> r4io iifanr B»hop niiiianni; imo, 

> did jCMil from Mr Camdan. a> he lajr a 

■Aarwanli rktfcu Iib idfumuiKin, hv Ihi 

.n Ayag luibuia tnair dread nich cuIIbc- 

or LOBD ■*(»> AT >«MI. 

hlalocT oT Lord Bacoa would be Ibal cT lh« iNe). 

far ul Ilea, awl a IhciKiawoilif if ihe pbiti»|itf 
(raphcr rrmaint yt In be wrineo. The perawal 

Tbaitd;ka, wl 

of Df larjed, and which ha> intfinabt* p 
iriBI of Dur phikrwphy ■ i 

a, I r 


:I, been ' 

-hich a. 


to ha» ab- 
T BMirfa af 

wilh pnfeet eafelT, lo be didlad at their teuurn. A 
•dnntura af Ihia kind happmod to Baron Siouh, the fi 
maua iiilii|uary. Il wai in loakinf ortir the f i:m) of ih 
rnra) oibiiwt nt madalr^ tlial the beeper paresived the loa 
of one ; hit itlaee. bt* pension, and hiB reputalioo were a 
Waka ; aad ha imiaied ihal Biron Sio-eh ibould be mn 

Ihia erudite eollaclor avured the keeper of Iht rnial cab 

AlfcniH, aeal'malj iwallowed a whalo ieri« 
hiofa ; wbeo be landed at Ljow, ^maniiif w 

rrpmbaled : thai ibei wi 

I and mnrlificali '^■-'- ' 

01 that from a i 
«d of hii feeli 
V of poaleriij,' 

I iheinaturily of ami.and perhapa amidal tba t«pci« aad 
. the rrjectnra of bi> plant, may hara felt al tina all dM 

Bacon eu hit Tiein ttmath 
irily of ami.and perhapt amidal tba t«pcin aa 

Ha found Ihal thaonet wera 

id hia brolher aniiniary Dufbur,— whf 

kiuoa tointtiiraorhiapalieni. whetha 
'tba biMher empire? VailianI thow« 
hif'-h Mture bad kindly relieaed hitr 
■dali iraa left lo the cnj Bt Eicter. 
•aMnied the baqiiail by a clauae in h 

renUont of Gw< 
dqnarj wti aD< 

Ihni Ibit tury oT Ooofb'a pocknhif ^ 

Staaaana, afier ha iHacnieied thai ll>a ••- 
r iha riw ada>kltd io ilia unuoWni of ibi 
BvaiH bimaelf wa. not iherr ! SylranB 

« c*ulo|us.wnt>r not 

lecioreflhe workaof Homh. amlililleanjated '" txmitt 
haollFniiin. wror an ahn^ letirr id Oou^h. to otuln fna 
Mill>on..parlyin.(«ea-i'm.,biBurrha«oreirban|.. Oaairt 
tataiite>l the manner nrhiatildrau Iiy amu^ rafUaaUtea 
badmhLFiliohai'ebaen '■piieniiJun'T one.' Thnaamalbi 
Isiplaublo'eniiaancanf Staaaeni. who oatd u> bna« llal al 
Lbe mitfhiaaoui Irirlia ha piajad on Iht frm« aMlquaiT. ate 
wai nraly oiat-klnd lo any «■», aiaa ba • ptoaawn kM 1 



dalioQtof the new philo.Hophy. At fixteeo, he philoso- 

{ihued ; at iwenrv-«u, be had framed hi« sjraiem idi«) some 
brm ; and afier ijrty yeara ufcontiDuvd labours, unfinished 
to his last hour, he left behind him su^ieot lo fuuod the 
great philosophical reformation. 

On his entrance into active life, study was not however 
his prime object. With his fortune to make, hi« court 
connexions and his father's example opened a path for 
ambinoa. He chose the practice of common law as his 
means, while his inclinations were looking upwtrd« to 
political affairs a« his end. A psssion for study however 
Dad stronitiv marked him; he had read much more than 
was required in his prufessional character, and this cir- 
cumstance excited tne mean jealousies of the minister 
Oacil, and the attorney-i^eneral Coke. Both were mere 
practical men of business, whose narrow conceptions and 
whose stubborn habits assume, that whentiver a roan 
acquires much knowledt^e foreign to his profession, he will 
know less of professional knowledf^e than he oufhl. 
These men of stnmg minds, yet limited capacities, hold in 
eon'empt all studies alien toiiheir habits. 

Bacon earif aspired to the situation of solicitor-general ; 
the court of Elisabeth was divided into factions; Bacon 
adopted the interests of the generous Kssex, which were 
immical lo the party of Cecil. The q<ieen, from his boy^ 
houd, was delighted bv conversing with her * voung lord- 
keeper,' as she early distingiiinherl the precocfouti gravity 
and the ingenious turn of mind of the future philosopher. 
It was unquestionably to attract her favour, thst Bacon 
presented to the queen his * Maxims and Elements r>f the 
Commmi Law.' not published till after his death. Elixa- 
beth simered her minister to form her opinions on the 
legal character of Bacon. It was alleged that Bacon was 
addicted to more general pursuits than law, and the 
miscellatteous books which he was known to have read 
confirmed the accusation. This was urged as a reason 
why the post of solicitor-general should not be conferred 
oa a man of speculation, more likely to distract than to 
direct her affairs. Elizabeth, in the height of that political 
prudence which marked her character, was swayed by the 
ndsar notion of Cecil, and believed that Bacon, who 
afterwards filled the situation both of solicitor-general and 
lord chancellor, was ' A man rather of show than of 
depth.' We have been recently told by a great lawyer, 
that * Bacon was a master.' 

On the accession of James the First, when Bacon still 
foand the same party obstructing his political advance- 
ment, he appears, in some momentary fit of disgust, to 
have meditated on a retreat into a foreii^n country; a cir- 
cumstance which has happened to several ot our men of 
genius, durios a fever of solitary indignation. He was for 
•ome time thrown out of the sunshine of life, but he 
Ibuod its shade more fitted for ronteraplaiion ; and, unques- 
tioiiablv, phUosoj|>hy was benefited by his solitude at Gray's 
Ian. His hano was always on his work, and better 
thoufhts will find an easy entrance into the mind of those 
who feed on their thouf hts, and live amidst their reveries. 
In a letter on this occasion, he writes, * My ambition now 
I shall only put upon my pen, whereby I shall be able to 
maintain memory and merit, of the times succeeding,' 
And manv years aAer when he had finally quitted public 
life, he toM the king, ' I would live to studv, and not study 
to live : yet I am prepared for date oboium Bellicario ; 
and I that have borne a bag, can bear a wallet.' 

Ever were the txmks succcedivo in his mind. In that 
delightful Latin letter to Father Fulgentio, where, with the 
simplicity of true grandeur, he takes a view of all his 
wonts, and in which he describes himself as *one who 
aerved posteritv,' in communicating his past and his future 
designs, he adds, that ' ihoy require some aces for the ri- 
pening of them.' There, while he despairs of finishing 
what was intended for the sixth part oi his Instauration, 
how nobly he despairs ! * Of the perfecting this I have 
cast away all hopes: but in future aees, perhaps, the de- 
•ign may bud again.' And he concludes by avowiny, that 
the seal luid constancy of his mind in the great design, 
aAer so many years, had never become cold and indiffer- 
«it. He remembers how, forty years ago, he had coro- 
poeed a juvenile work about those things, which, with cnn- 
fideace. but with too pompous a title, he had call