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" Mr. Bardsley has faithfully consulted the original mediaeval 
documents and works from which the origin and development of 
surnames can alone be satisfactorily traced. He has furnished a 
valuable contribution to the literature of surnames, and we hope to 
hear more of him in this field.'' — Times. 

" No one who has not devoted a special study to the subject of 
Canon Bardsley's well-known volume can have any adequate idea 
of the interest that lurks in the study of English surnames. . . . 
The careful and extensive ' Index of Instances' is a help for which 
all readers of this entertaining and suggestive volume will feel 
grateful." — Daily News. 

"This is an exhaustive text-book. Old books, church registers, 
records, pipe-rolls have been ransacked for traces of the origin of 
the surnames of the English people. The book is as amusing as 
useful, and the facts are set out in a most entertaining way, inter- 
spersed with anecdotes and curious gossip."— Irish Independent. 

"Canon Bardsley's book is already a standard work; no other 
has treated the subject so systematically and so comprehensively." 
— Bookman. 

"The book is one to be enjoyed, and to be kept near at hand 
for the frequent references that are sure to be made to it. To many 
a reader it will be all the more acceptable for its joviality ; for the 
Canon loves a little joke, and, so long as it turns upon a cognomen, 
will have it too." — Textile Mercury. 

" When a book has reached its fifth edition, the task of a critic 
should be easy if not supererogatory, and Canon Bardsley's 
explorations into the dark ages when surnames first came into use 
in England deserve the popularity which they have earned. . . . 
There are many curious and extinct names revived in his pages 
which reveal at every point the extent of his reading and the pains 
he has taken in his researches." — New Saturday. 

London : CHATTO & WINDUS, in St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 

if- irr 








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" O my lord, 
"The times and titles now are alter'd strangely." 

King Henry VIII. 





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I WILL not be so ill-natured as to quote the names 
of all the writers who have denied the existence 
of Puritan eccentricities at the font. One, at least, 
ought to have known better, for he has edited 
more books of the Puritan epoch than any other 
man in England. The mistake of all is that, misled 
perhaps by Walter Scott and Macaulay, they have 
looked solely to the Commonwealth period. The 
custom was then in its decay. 

I have to thank several clergymen for giving me 
extracts from the registers and records under their 
care. A stranger to them, I felt some diffidence in 
making my requests. In every case the assistance 
I asked for was readily extended. These gentlemen 
are the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, St. Matthew, 
Friday Street, London ; the Rev. W. Wodehouse, 
Elham, Canterbury ; the Rev. J. B. Waytes, Mark- 
ington, Yorks. ; the Rev. William Tebbs, Caterham 
Valley ; the Rev. Canon Howell, Drayton, Nor- 
wich ; the Rev. J. O. Lord, Northiam, Staplehurst ; 
and the Rev. G. E. Haviland, Warbleton, Sussex. 
The last-named gentleman copied no less than 120 

viii PREFACE. 

names, all of Puritan origin, from the Warbleton 
records. I beg to thank him most warmly, and 
to congratulate him on possessing the most re- 
markable register of its kind in England. Certain 
circumstances led me to suspect that Warbleton 
was a kind of head-quarters of these eccentricities ; 
I wrote to the rector, and we soon found that we 
had "struck ile." That Mr. Heley, the Puritan 
incumbent, should have baptized his own children 
by such names as Fear-not and Much-mercy, was 
not strange, but that he should have persuaded the 
majority of his parishioners to follow his example 
proves wonderful personal influence. 

Amongst the laity, I owe gratitude to Mr. Cha- 
loner Smith, Richmond, Surrey ; Mr. R. R. Lloyd, 
St. Albans ; Mr. J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., Manchester ; 
Mr. J. L. Beardsley, Cleveland, U.S.A. ; Mr. 
Tarbutts, Cranbrook, Kent ; and Mr. Speed, 

Of publications, I must needs mention Notes 
and Queries, a treasure-house to all antiquaries ; 
the Sussex Archaeological Society's works, and 
the Yorkshire Archceological and Topographical 
Journal. The " Wappentagium de Strafford M of 
the latter is the best document yet published for 
students of nomenclature. Out of it alone a com- 
plete history of English surnames and baptismal 
names might be written. Though inscribed with 
clerkly formality, it contained more pet forms than 


any other record I have yet seen ; and this alone 
must stamp it as a most important document. 
The Harleian Society, by publishing church regis- 
ters, have set a good example, and I have made 
much use of those that have been issued. They 
contain few instances of Puritan extravagance, but 
that is owing to the fact that no leading Puritan was 
minister of any of the three churches whose records 
they have so far printed. I sincerely hope the list 
of subscribers to this society may become enlarged. 

For the rest — the result of twelve years' research 
— I am alone responsible. Heavy clerical respon- 
sibilities have often been lightened by a holiday 
spent among the yellow parchments of churches in 
town and country, from north to south of England. 
As it is possible I have seen as many registers 
as any other man in the country, I will add one 
statement — a very serious one : there are thou- 
sands of entries, at this moment faintly legible, 
which in another generation will be wholly illegible. 
What is to be done ? 

Should this little work meet the eye of any of 
the clergy in Sussex, Kent, and, I may add, Surrey, 
I would like to state that if they will search the 
baptismal records of the churches under their 
charge, say from 1580 to 1620, and furnish me 
with the result, I shall be very much obliged. 

Vicarage, Ulverston, 
March, 1880. 


W. D. S. in the Prologue = " Wappentagium de Strafford." 
C. S. P. = "Calendar of State Papers." 




I. The Paucity of Names after the Conquest 
II. Pet Forms 
(a.) Kin 
(b.) Cock 
(c.) On or In 
(d.) Ot or Et 

{e.) Double Terminatives... 
III. Scripture Names already 


(a.) Mystery Names 
(b.) Crusade Names 
{c.) The Saints' Calendar 
(d.) Festival Names 








I. The March of the Army 
II. Popularity of the Old Testament 

III. Objectionable Scripture Names 

IV. Losses ... 

(a.) The Destruction of Pet Forms 

(b.) The Decrease of Nick Forms 

(c. ) The Decay of Saint and Festival Names 

{d.) The Last of some Old Favourites. ... 

V. The General Confusion 






I. Introductory ... 

II. Originated by the Presbyterian Clergy ... 121 

III. Curious Names not Puritan ... ... ... 128 

IV. Instances ... ... ... ... ... 134 

(a.) Latin Names ... ... ... ... 134 

C>.) Grace Names ... ... ... ... 138 

(c.) Exhortatory Names ... ... ... ... 155 

{d.) Accidents of Birth ... ... ... ... 166 

(e.) General ... ... ... ... ... 170 

V. A Scoffing World ... ... ... ... 179 

(rt.) The Playwrights ... ... ... ... 182 

(/>.) The Sussex Jury ... ... ... ... 191 

(c.) Royalists with Puritan Names ... ... ... 194 

VI. Bunyan's Debt to the Puritans ... ... 198 

VII. The Influence of Puritanism on American 

Nomenclature ... ... ... ... 201 



I. Royal Double Names ... ... ... ... 213 

II. Conjoined Names ... ... ... ... 222 

III. Hyphened Names ... ... ... ... 224 

IV. The Decay of Single Patronymics in Baptism ... 228 
V. The Influence of Foundling Names upon Double 

Baptismal Names ... ... ... ... 233 

Index ... ... ... ... ... ... 239 






" One grows too fat, another too lean : modest Matilda, pretty 
pleasing Peg, sweet-singing Susan, mincing merry Moll, dainty 
dancing Doll, neat Nancy, jolly Joan, nimble Nell, kissing Kate, 
bouncing Bess with black eyes, fair Phillis with fine white hands, 
fiddling Frank, tall Tib, slender Sib, will quickly lose their grace, 
grow fulsome, stale, sad, heavy, dull, sour, and all at last out of 
fashion. " — Anatomy of Melancholy. 

" Be the jacks fair within, the jills fair without, the carpets laid, 
and everything in order ? " — The Taming of the Shrew. 

I. The Paucity of Names after the 

There were no Scripture names in England when 
the Conqueror took possession ; even in Normandy 
they had appeared but a generation or two before 
William came over. If any are found in the old 



English period, we may feel assured they were 
ecclesiastic titles, adopted at ordination. Greek 
and Latin saints were equally unnoticed. 

It is hard to believe the statement I have made. 
Before many generations had passed, Bartholomew, 
Simon, Peter, Philip, Thomas, Nicholas, John, and 
Elias, had engrossed a third of the male popu- 
lation ; yet Domesday Book has no Philip, no 
Thomas, only one Nicholas, and but a sprinkling of 
Johns. It was not long before Jack and Jill took 
the place of Godric and Godgivu as representative 
of the English sexes, yet Jack was from the Bible, 
and Jill from the saintly Calendar. 

Without entering into a deep discussion, we 
may say that the great mass of the old English 
names had gone down before the year 1200 had 
been reached. Those that survived only held on for 
bare existence. From the moment of William's 
advent, the names of the Norman began to prevail. 
He brought in Bible names, Saint names, and his 
own Teutonic names. The old English names 
bowed to them, and disappeared. 

A curious result followed. From the year 11 50 
to 1550, four hundred years in round numbers, 
there was a very much smaller dictionary of 
English personal names than there had been for 
four hundred years before, and than there has been 


in the four hundred years since. The Norman list 
was really a small one, and yet it took possession 
of the whole of England. 

A consequence of this was the Pet-name Epoch. 
In every community of one hundred English- 
men about the year 1300, there would be an 
average of twenty Johns and fifteen Williams ; 
then would follow Thomas, Bartholomew, Nicholas, 
Philip, Simon, Peter, and Isaac from the Scrip- 
tures, and Richard, Robert, Walter, Henry, Guy, 
Roger, and Baldwin from the Teutonic list. Of 
female names, Matilda, Isabella, and Emma were 
first favourites, and Cecilia, Catharine, Margaret, 
and Gillian came closely upon their heels. Behind 
these, again, followed a fairly familiar number of 
names of either sex, some from the Teuton, some 
from the Hebrew, some from the Greek and 
Latin Church, but, when all told, not a large 

It was, of course, impossible for Englishmen and 
Englishwomen to maintain their individuality on 
these terms. Various methods to secure a per- 
sonality arose. The surname was adopted, and 
there were John Atte-wood, John the Wheelwright, 
John the Bigg, and John Richard's son, in every 
community. Among the middle and lower classes 
these did not become hereditary till so late as 1450 


or 1 500.* This was not enough, for in common 
parlance it was not likely the full name would 
be used. Besides, there might be two, or even 
three, Johns in the same family. So late as 
March, 1545, the will of John Parnell de Gyrton 
runs : 

"Alice, my wife, and Old Tohn, my son, to occupy my farm 
together, till Olde John marries ; Young John, my son, shall have 
Brenlay's land, plowed and sowed at Old John's cost." 

The register of Raby, Leicestershire, has this 

entry : 

" 1559. Item : 29th day of August was John, and John Picke, the 
children of Xtopher and Anne, baptized. 

" Item : the 31st of August the same John and John were buried." 

Mr. Burns, who quotes these instances in his 
" History of Parish Registers," adds that at this 

# This is easily proved. In the wardrobe accounts for Edward IV., 
1480, occur the following items : — 

"John Poyntmaker, for pointing of xl. dozen points of silk pointed 
with agelettes of laton. 

"John Carter, for cariage away of a grete loode of robeux that 
was left in the strete. 

"To a laborer called Ry chard Gardyner working in the gar- 

" To Alice Shapster for making and washing of xxiiii. sherts, and 
xxiiii. stomachers." 

Shapster is a feminine form of Shapper or Shaper — one who 
shaped or cut out cloths for garments. All these several individuals, 
having no particular surname, took or received one from the occu- 
pation they temporarily followed. — "Privy Purse Expenses, Eliz. of 
York," p. 122* 


same time " one John Barker had three sons 
named John Barker, and two daughters named 
Margaret Barker." * 

If the same family had but one name for the 
household, we may imagine the difficulty when this 
one name was also popular throughout the village. 
The difficulty was naturally solved by, firstly, the 
adoption of nick forms ; secondly, the addition of 
pet desinences. Thus Emma became by the one 
practice simple Emm, by the other Emmott ; and 
any number of boys in a small community might 
be entered in a register as Bartholomew, and 
yet preserve their individuality in work-a-day 
life by bearing such names as Bat, Bate, Batty, 
Bartle, Bartelot, Batcock, Batkin, and Tolly, or 
Tholy. In a word, these several forms of Bar- 
tholomew were treated as so many separate proper 

No one would think of describing Wat Tyler's — 

* Any number of such instances might be recorded. Mr. W. C. 
I^eighton, in Notes and Queries, February 23, 1861, notices a 
deed dated 1 347, wherein two John de Leightons, brothers, occur. 
Mr. Waters, in his interesting pamphlet, "Parish Registers" 
(p. 30), says that Protector Somerset had three sons christened 
Edward, born respectively 1529, 1539, and 1548. All were living 
at the same time. He adds that John Leland, the antiquary, had 
a brother John, and that John White, Bishop of Winchester 
1 556-1 560, was brother to Sir John White, Knight, Lord Mayor 
in 1563. 


we should now say Walter Tyler's — insurrection as 
Gowen does : 

"Watte vocat, cui Tkoma venit, neque Symme retardat, 

Bat — que Gibbe simul, Hykke venire subent : 
Colle furit, quern Bobbe juvat, nocumenta parantes, 

Cum quibus, ad damnum Wille coire volat — 
Crigge rapit, dum Davie strepit, comes est quibus Hobbe, 

Larkin et in medio non minor esse putat : 
Hudde ferit, quem Judde terit, dum Tibbe juvatur 

Jacke domosque viros vellit, en ense necat." 

These names, taken in order, are Walter, Thomas, 
Simon, Bartholomew, Gilbert, Isaac, Nicholas, 
Robert, William, Gregory, David, Robert (2), Law- 
rence, Hugh, Jordan (or George), Theobald, and 

Another instance will be evidence enough. The 
author of " Piers Plowman " says — 

" Then goeth Glutton in, and grete other after, 
Cesse, the sonteresse, sat on the bench : 
Watte, the warner, and his wife bothe : 
Tymme, the tynkere, and twayne of his prentices : 
Hikke, the hackney man, and Hugh, the pedlere, 
Clarice, of Cokkeslane, and the clerke of the churche : 
Dawe, the dykere, and a dozen othere." 

Taken in their order, these nick forms represent 
Cecilia, Walter, Timothy, Isaac, Clarice, and David. 
It will be seen at a glance that such appellatives 
are rare, by comparison, in the present day. Tricks 
of this kind were not to be played with Bible 
names at the Reformation, and the new names 


from that time were pronounced, with such ex- 
ceptions as will be detailed hereafter, in their 

To speak of William and John is to speak of 
a race and rivalry 800 years old. In Domesday 
there were 68 Williams, 48 Roberts, 28 Walters, to 
10 Johns. Robert Montensis asserts that in 1 173, 
at a court feast of Henry II., Sir William St. John 
and Sir William Fitz-Hamon bade none but those 
who bore the name of William to appear. There 
were present 120 Williams, all knights. In Ed- 
ward I.'s reign John came forward. In a Wilt- 
shire document containing 588 names, 92 are 
William, 88 John, 55 Richard, 48 Robert, 23 
Roger, Geoffrey, Ralph, and Peter 16. A century 
later John was first. In 1347, out of 133 common 
councilmen for London, first convened, 35 were 
John, 17 William, 15 Thomas, (St. Thomas of 
Canterbury was now an institution), 10 Richard, 
8 Henry, 8 Robert. In 1385 the Guild of St. 
George at Norwich contained 377 names. Of 
these, John engrossed no less than 128, William 
47, Thomas 41. The Reformation and the Puritan 
Commonwealth for a time darkened the fortunes 
of John and William, but the Protestant accession 
befriended the latter, and now, as 800 years ago, 
William is first and John second. 


But when we come to realize that nearly one- 
third of Englishmen were known either by the 
name of William or John about the year 1300, 
it will be seen that the pet name and nick form 
were no freak, but a necessity. We dare not 
attempt a category, but the surnames of to-day 
tell us much. Will was quite a distinct youth 
from Willot, Willot from Wilmot, Wilmot from 
Wilkin, and Wilkin from Wilcock. There might 
be half a dozen Johns about the farmstead, but 
it mattered little so long as one was called Jack, 
another Jenning, a third Jenkin, a fourth Jack- 
cock (now Jacox as a surname), a fifth Brown- 
john, and a sixth Micklejohn, or Littlejohn, or 
Properjohn {i.e. well built or handsome). 

The nick forms are still familiar in many in- 
stances, though almost entirely confined to such 
names as have descended from that day to the 
present. We still talk of Bob, and Tom, and 
Dick, and Jack. The introduction of Bible names 
at the Reformation did them much harm. But the 
Reformation, and the English Bible combined, 
utterly overwhelmed the pet desinences, and they 
succumbed. Emmot and Hamlet lived till the 
close of the seventeenth century, but only be- 
cause they had ceased to be looked upon as 
altered forms of old favourite names, and were 


entered in vestry books on their own account as 
orthodox proper names. 

II. Pet Forms. 
These pet desinences were of four kinds. 

(a) Kin. 
The primary sense of kin seems to have been 
relationship : from thence family, or offspring. The 
phrases " from generation to generation," or " from 
father to son," in " Cursor Mundi " find a briefer 
expression : 

"This writte was gett fra kin to kin, 
That best it cuth to haf in min. " 

The next meaning acquired by kin was child, or 
" young one." We still speak in a diminutive sense 
of a manikin, kilderkin, pipkin, lambkin, jerkin, 
minikin (little minion), or doitkin. Appended to 
baptismal names it became very familiar. "A 
litul soth Sermun " says — 

" Nor those prude yongemen 
That loveth Malekyn, 
And those prude maydenes 
That loveth Janekyn : 

Masses and matins 
Ne kepeth they nouht, 

For Wilekyn and Watekyn 
Be in their thouht." 

Unquestionably the incomers from Brabant and 


Flanders, whether as troopers or artisans, gave a 
great impulse to the desinence. They tacked it 
on to everything : 

u Rutlerkin can speke no Englyssh, 
His tongue runneth all on buttyred fyssh, 
Besmeared with grece abowte his dysshe 
Like a rutter hoyda." 

They brought in Hankin, and Han-cock, from 
Johannes ; not to say Baudkin, or Bodkin, from 
Baldwin. Baudecho?i le Bocher in the Hundred 
Rolls, and Simmer quin Waller, lieutenant of the 
Castle of Harcourt in "Wars of the English in 
France," look delightfully Flemish. 
Hankin is found late : 

" Thus for her love and loss poor Hankin dies, 
His amorous soul down flies. M 

" Musarum Deliciae," 1655. 

To furnish a list of English names ending in kin 
would be impossible. The great favourites were 
Hopkin (Robert),* Lampkin and Lambkin (Lam- 
bert), Larkin (Lawrence), Tonkin (Antony), 
Dickin, Stepkin (Stephen),-)* Dawkin (David), Ad- 
kin, \ now Atkin (Adam, not Arthur), Jeffkin (Jef- 

* "I also give to the said Robert .... that land which Hobbe- 
kin de Bothum held of me." — Ext. deed of Sir Robert de Stoke- 
port, Knight, 1189-1199 : Earwaker's "East Cheshire," p. 334. 

f I have seen Stepkin as a surname but once. Lieutenant Charles 
Stepkin served under the Duke of Northumberland, in 1640. — 
Peacock's " Army List of Roundheads and Cavaliers," p. 78. 

X Adekyn was the simple and only title of the harper to Prince 


frey), Pipkin and Potkin (Philip), Simkin, Tipkin 
(Theobald), Tomkin, Wilkin, Watkin (Walter), 
Jenkin, Silkin (Sybil),* Malkin (Mary), Perkin 
(Peter), Hankin (Hans), and Halkin or Hawkin 
(Henry). Pashkin or Paskin reminds us of Pask 
or Pash, the old baptismal name for children born 
at Easter. Judkin (now as a surname also Juckin) 
was the representative of Judd, that is, Jordan. 
George afterwards usurped the place. All these 
names would be entered in their orthodox bap- 
tismal style in all formal records. But here and 
there we get free and easy entries, as for instance : 

"Agnes Hobkin-wyf, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 

"Henry, son of Halekyn, for \*j\ acres of land."— " De Lacy 
Inquisition," 1311. 

" Emma Watkyn-doghter, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 
" Thi beste cote, Hankyn, 

Hath manye moles and spottes, 
It moste ben y-wasshe. " 

"Piers Plowman." 

Malkin was one of the few English female 
names with this appendage. Some relics of this 
form of Mary still remain. Malkin in Shakespeare 
is the coarse scullery wench : 

Edward in 1306, who attended the cour pleniere held by King Edward 
at the feast of Whitsuntide at Westminster.— Chappell, "Popular 
Music of ye Olden Time," p. 29. 

* Sill was the nick form of Sybil and Silas till the seventeenth 
century, when the Puritan Silence seized it. I have only seen one in- 
stance of the surname, "John Silkin " being set down as dwelling in 
Tattenhall, Cheshire, in 1531 (Earwaker's "East Cheshire," p. 56). 


u The kitchen malkin pins 
Her richest lockram 'bout her reechy neck, 
Clambering the walls to eye him." 

" Coriolanus," Act ii. sc. I. 

While the author of the " Anatomy of Melancholy " 
is still more unkind, for he says — 

" A filthy knave, a deformed quean, a crooked carcass, a maukin, 
a witch, a rotten post, a hedge-stake may be so set out and tricked 
up, that it shall make a fair show, as much enamour as the rest " — 
Part iii. sect. 2, mem. 2, sub-sect. 3. 

From a drab Malkin became a scarecrow. 
Hence Chaucer talks of " malkin-trash." As if this 
were not enough, malkin became the baker's clout 
to clean ovens with. Thus, as Jack took the name 
of the implements Jack used, as in boot-jack, so 
by easy transitions Malkin. The last hit was when 
Grimalkin (that is, grey-malkin) came to be the cant 
term for an old worn-out quean cat. Hence the 
witch's name in " Macbeth." 

It will be seen at a glance why Malkin is the 
only name of this class that has no place among 
our surnames.* She had lost character. I have 
suggested, in * English Surnames," that Makin, 
Meakin, and Makinson owe their origin to either 
Mary or Maud. I would retract that supposition. 
There can be little doubt these are patronymics of 

* Nevertheless the surname did exist in Yorkshire in Richard II. 's 
reign : 

"Willelmus Malkynson, and Dionisia uxor ejus, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 


Matthew, just as is Maycock or Meacock. May- 
kinus Lappyng occurs in " Materials for a History 
of Henry VII.," and the Maykina Parmunter of 
the Hundred Rolls is probably but a feminine 
form. The masculine name was often turned into 
a feminine, but I have never seen an instance of 
the reverse order. 

Terminations in kin were slightly going down in 
popular estimation, when the Hebrew invasion 
made a clean sweep of them. They found shelter 
in Wales, however, and our directories preserve in 
their list of surnames their memorial for ever.* 

{p) Cock. 

The term "cock" implied pertness : especially 
the pertness of lusty and swaggering youth. To 
cock up the eye, or the hat, or the tail, a haycock 
in a field, a cock-robin in the wood, and a cock- 
horse in the nursery, all had the same relationship 
of meaning — brisk action, pert demonstrativeness. 
The barn-door cockerel was not more cockapert 

* I need not quote, in proof of the popularity of kin, our surnames 
of Simpkinson, Hopkins, Dickens, Dickenson, Watkins, Hawkins, 
Jenkinson, Atkinson, and the rest. I merely mention that the 
patronymics ending in kins got abbreviated into kiss, and kes, 
and ks. Hence the origin of our Perkes, Purkiss, Hawkes, and 
Hawks, Dawks, Jenks, Juckes, and Jukes (Judkins). 


than the boy in the scullery that opened upon the 
yard where both strutted. Hence any lusty lad 
was "Cock," while such fuller titles as Jeff-cock, 
or Sim-cock, or Bat-cock gave him a preciser 
individuality. The story of " Cocke Lorelle " is 
a relic of this ; while the prentice lad in " Gammer 
Gurton's Needle," acted at Christ College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1566, goes by the only name of " Cock." 
Tib the servant wench says to Hodge, after the 
needle is gone — 

" My Gammer is so out of course, and frantic all at once, 
That Cock our boy, and I, poor wench, have felt it on our bones." 

By-and-by Gammer calls the lad to search : 

" Come hither, Cock : what, Cock, I say. 
Cock. How, Gammer? 

Gammer. Go, hie thee soon : and grope behind the old brass pan." 

Such terms as nescock, meacock, dawcock, 
pillicock, or lobcock may be compounds — 
unless they owe their origin to " cockeney," a 
spoiled, home-cherished lad. In "Wit without 
Money " Valentine says — 

" For then you are meacocks, fools, and miserable." 

In "Appius and Virginia" (1563) Mausipula 
says (Act i. sc. 1) — 

" My lady's great business belike is at end, 
When you, goodman dawcock, lust for to wend.'* 


In "King Lear" 

" Pillicock sat on pillicock-hill 

seems an earlier rendering of the nursery rhyme — 

" Pillicock, Pillicock sate on a hill, 
If he's not gone, he sits there still." 

In " Wily Beguiled " Will Cricket says to 
Churms — 

"Why, since you were bumbasted that your lubberly legs would 
not carry your lobcock body." 

These words have their value in proving how 
familiarly the term cock was employed in forming 
nicknames. That it should similarly be appended 
to baptismal names, especially the nick form of 
Sim, Will, or Jeff, can therefore present no difficulty. 
Cock was almost as common as " kin " as a 
desinence. Sim-cock was Simcock to the end of 
his days, of course, if his individuality had come 
to be known by the name. 

" Hamme, son of Adecock, held 29 acres of land. 
" Mokock de la Lowe, for 10 acres. 
" Mokock dal Moreclough, for six acres. 

"Dik, son of Mocock, of Breercroft, for 20 acres." — "The De 
Lacy Inquisition," 131 1. 

Adecock is Adam, and Mocock or Mokock 
is Matthew. In the same way Sander-cock is a 
diminutive of Sander, Lay-cock of Lawrence, 
Luccock of Luke, Pidcock and Peacock of Peter, 


Maycock and Mycock of Matthew, Jeff-cock of 
Jeffrey, Johncock of John, Hitch-cock or Hiscock 
or Heacock of Higg or Hick (Isaac), Elcock 
of Ellis, Hancock or Handcock of Han or Hand 
(Dutch John), Drocock or Drewcock of Drew, 
Wilcock of William, Badcock or Batcock of 
Bartholomew, and Bawcock of Baldwin, Adcock 
or Atcock of Adam, Silcock of Silas, and Palcock 
of Paul : 

"Johannes Palcock, et Beatrix uxor ejus, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 
Ricardus Sylkok, et Matilda uxor ejus, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 

The difficulty of identification was manifestly 
lessened in a village or town where Bate could 
be distinguished from Batkin, and Batkin from 
Batcock. Hence, again, the common occurrence 
of such a component as cock. This diminutive is 
never seen in the seventeenth century ; and yet 
we have many evidences of its use in the beginning 
of the sixteenth. The English Bible, with its 
tendency to require the full name as a matter of 
reverence, while it supplied new names in the 
place of the old ones that were accustomed to 
the desinence, caused this. It may be, too, that 
the new regulation of Cromwell in 1538, requiring 
the careful registration of all baptized children, 
caused parents to lay greater stress on the name 
as it was entered in the vestry-book. 


Any way, the sixteenth century saw the end of 
names terminating in " cock." 

(c.) On or In. 

A dictionary instance is "violin," that is, a little 
viol, a fiddle of four strings, instead of six. This 
diminutive, to judge from the Paris Directory, 
must have been enormously popular with our 
neighbours. Our connection with Normandy and 
France generally brought the fashion to the Eng- 
lish Court, and in habits of this kind the English 
folk quickly copied their superiors. Terminations 
in kin and cock were confined to the lower orders 
first and last. Terminations in on or in, and ot or 
et, were the introduction of fashion, and being 
under patronage of the highest families in the land, 
naturally obtained a much wider popularity. 

Our formal registers, again, are of little assistance. 
Beton is coldly and orthodoxly Beatrice or Beatrix 
in the Hundred Rolls. Only here and there can 
we gather that Beatrice was never so called in 
work-a-day life. In " Piers Plowman " it is said — 

"Beton the Brewestere 

Bade him good morrow." 

And again, later on : 

" And bade Bette cut a bough, 
And beat Betonn therewith." 


If Alice is Alice in the registrar's hands, not so 
in homely Chaucer : 

"This Alison answered : Who is there 
That knocketh so ? I warrant him a thefe." 

Or take an old Yorkshire will : 

" Item : to Symkyn, and Watkyn, and Alison Meek, servandes of 
John of Bolton, to ilk one of yaim, 26 s . 8V— " Test. Ebor." iii. 21 . 
Surtees Society. 

Hugh, too, gets his name familiarly entered 
occasionally : 

" Hugyn held of the said earl an oxgang of land, and paid yearly 
iii 9 . vi d ." — "The De Lacy Inquisition," 1311. 

Huggins in our directories is the memorial of 
this. But in the north of England Hutchin was 
a more popular form. In the " Wappentagium de 
Strafford " occurs — 

" "Willelmus Huchon, & Matilda uxor ejus, iiii d ." 

Also — 

"Elena Houchon-servant, iiiiV 

that is, Ellen the servant of Houchon. Our Hut- 
chinsons are all north of Trent folk. Thus, too, 
Peter (Pier) became Perrin : 

" The wife of Peryn."— " Manor of Ashton-under-Lyne," Chetham 
Society, p. 87. 

Marion, from Mary, is the only familiar instance 
that has descended to us, and no doubt we owe 
this fact to Maid Marion, the May-lady. Many a 
Mary Ann, in these days of double baptismal 


names, perpetuates the impression that Marion or 
Marian was compounded of Mary and Ann. 

Of familiar occurrence were such names as 
Perrin, from Pierre, Peter ; Robin and Dobbin, from 
Rob and Dob, Robert ; Colin, from Col, Nicholas ; 
Diccon, from Dick, Richard ; Huggin, from Hugh ; 
Higgin, from Hick or Higg, Isaac ; Figgin, from 
Figg, Fulke ; * Phippin, from Phip and Philip ; 
and Gibbin, or Gibbon, or Gilpin, from Gilbert. 
Every instance proves the debt our surnames have 
incurred by this practice. 

Several cases are obscured by time and bad 
pronunciation. Our Tippings should more rightly 
be Tippins, originally Tibbins, from Tibbe (Theo- 
bald) ; our Collinges and Collings, Collins ; and our 
Gibbings, Gibbins. Our Jennings should be Jennins 
Jennin Caervil was barber to the Earl of Suffolk in 
the French wars (" Wars of England in France," 
Henry VI.). Robing had early taken the place of 
Robin : 

" Johanne Robyng-doghter, iiiiV — W. D. S. 

* In this class we must assuredly place Figgins. In the Hun- 
dred Rolls appears " Ralph, son of Fulchon." Here, of course, is 
the diminutive of the once common Fulke. Fick and Figg were 
the nick forms : 

" I Henry VIII. To Fygge the taborer, 6 d ." — Churchwarden's 
Books of Kingston-on-Thames, Brand's "Pop. Ant.," i. 147. 

The London Directory has all the forms and corruptions as sur- 
names, including Fick, Ficken, Figg, Figgs, Figgess, and Figgins. 


Such entries as Raoulin Meriel and Raoul Partrer 
(this Raoul was private secretary to Henry VI.) 
remind us of the former popularity of Ralph 
and of the origin of our surnames Rawlins and 
Rawlinson : 

" Dionisia Rawlyn-wyf, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 

Here again, however, the "in" has become " ing" 
for Rawlings is even more common than Rawlins. 
Deccon and Dickin have got mixed, and both are 
now Dickens, although Dicconson exists as distinct 
from Dickinson. Spenser knew the name well : 

" Diggon Davie, I bid her ' good-day ; ' 
Or Diggon her is, or I missay." 

"Matilda Dicon-wyf, webester, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 

The London Directory contains Lamming and 
Laming. Alongside are Lampin, Lamin, and 
Lammin. These again are more correct, all being 
surnames formed from Lambin, a pet form of 
Lambert : 

" Willelmus Lambyn, et Alicia uxor ejus, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 

Lambyn Clay played before Edward at West- 
minster at the great festival in 1306 (Chappell's 
" Popular Music of ye Olden Time," i. 29). The 
French forms are Lambin, Lamblin, and Lam- 
berton, all to be met with in the Paris Directory. 

All these names are relics of a custom that is 
obsolete in England, though not with our neigh- 


(d) Ot and Et. 

These are the terminations that ran first in 
favour for many generations. 

This diminutive ot or et is found in our language 
in such words as poppet, jacket, lancet, ballot, 
gibbet, target, gigot, chariot, latchet, pocket, ballet. 
In the same way a little page became a paget, 
and hence among our surnames Smallpage, Little- 
page, and Paget. 

Coming to baptism, we find scarcely a single 
name of any pretensions to popularity that did 
not take to itself this desinence. The two favourite 
girl-names in Yorkshire previous to the Refor- 
mation were Matilda and Emma. Two of the 
commonest surnames there to-day are Emmott 
and Tillot, with such variations as Emmett and 
Tillett, Emmotson and Tillotson. The archbishop 
came from Yorkshire. Tyllot Thompson occurs 
under date 1414 in the " Fabric Rolls of York 
Minster " (Surtees Society). 

"Rome, April 27, Eugenius IV. (1433). Dispensation from 
Selow for Richard de Akerode and Emmotte de Greenwood to 
marry, they being related in the fourth degree." — "Test. Ebor.," 

iii. 317. 

"Licence to the Vicar of Bradford to marry Roger Prestwick 
and Emmote Crossley. Bannes thrice in one day " (1466). — "Test. 
Ebor.," iii. 338. 


Isabella was also popular in Yorkshire: hence our 
Ibbots and Ibbotsons, our Ibbetts and Ibbet- 
sons. Registrations such as " Ibbota filia Adam," 
or " Robert films Ibote," are of frequent occur- 
rence in the county archives. The "Wappentagium 
de Strafford " has : 

"Johanna Ibot-doghter, iiii d . 

" Willelmus Kene, et Ibota uxor ejus, iiii d . 

" Thomas Gaylyour, et Ebbot sa femme, iiii d ." 

Cecilia became Sissot or Cissot : 

" Willelmus Crake, & Cissot sa femme, iiii d ."— \V. D. S. 

In the " Manor of Ashton-under-Lyne " (Chetham 
Society), penned fortunately for our purpose in 
every-day style, we have such entries as — 

" Syssot, wife of Patrick. 
" Syssot, wife of Diccon Wilson. 
" Syssot, wife of Thomas the Cook. 
" Syssot, wife of Jak of Barsley." 

Four wives named Cecilia in a community of 
some twenty-five families will be evidence enough 
of the popularity of that name. All, however, were 
known in every-day converse as Sissot. 

Of other girl-names we may mention Mabel, 
which from Mab became Mabbott; Douce be- 
came Dowcett and Dowsett ; Gillian or Julian, 
from Gill or Jill (whence Jack and Jill), became 
Gillot, Juliet, and Jowett; Margaret became Margett 


and Margott, and in the north Magot. Hence such 
entries from the Yorkshire parchments, already 
quoted, as — 

"Thomas de Balme, et Magota uxor ejus, chapman, iiii d . 
"Hugo Farrowe, et Magota uxor ejus, smyth, iiii d . 
"Johannes Magotson, iiii d ." 

Custance became Cussot, from Cuss or Cust, the 
nick form. The Hundred Rolls contain a " Cussot 
Colling " — a rare place to find one of these diminu- 
tives, for they are set down with great clerkly 

From Lettice, Lesot was obtained : 

" Johan Chapman, & Lesot sa femme, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 

And Dionisia was very popular as Diot : 

"Johannes Chetel, & Diot uxor ejus, iiii d . 

" Willelmus Wege, & Diot uxor ejus, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 

Of course, it became a surname : 

" Robertus Diot, & Mariona uxor ejus, hii d . 
"Willelmus Diotson, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 

It is curious to observe that Annot, which now 
as Annette represents Anne, in Richard II. 's 
day was extremely familiar as the diminutive 
of Annora or Alianora. So common was Annot 
in North England that the common sea-gull 
came to be so known. It is a mistake to suppose 
that Annot had any connection with Anna. One 
out of every eight or ten girls was Annot in York- 


shire at a time when Anna is never found to be in 
use at all : 

" Stephanus Webester, & Anota uxor ejus, iiii d . 
"Richard Annotson, wryght, iiiiV— W. D. S. 

As Alianora and Eleanora are the same, so were 
Enot and Anot : 

"Henricus filius Johannis Enotson, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 

Again, Eleanor became Elena, and this Lina and 
Linot. Hence in the Hundred Rolls we find 
" Linota atte Field." In fact, the early forms of 
Eleanor are innumerable. The favourite Sibilla 
became Sibot : 

"Johannes de Estvvode, et Sibota uxor ejus, iiii d . 

" Willelmus Howeson, et Sibbota uxor ejus, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 

Mary not merely became Marion, but Mariot, 
and from our surnames it would appear the latter 
was the favourite : 

"Isabella serviens Mariota Guile, hii d ." — W. D. S. 
" Mariota in le Lane." — Hundred Rolls. 

Eve became Evot, Adam and Eve being 
popular names. In the will of William de Kirkby, 
dated 1391, are bequests to " Evae uxori Johannes 
Parvying " and " Willielmo de Rowlay," and later 
on he refers to them again as the aforementioned 
" Evotam et dictum Willielmum Rowlay " (" Test. 
Ebor.," i. 145. Surtees Society). 


But the girl-name that made most mark was 
originally a boy's name, Theobald. Tibbe was the 
nick form, and Tibbot the pet name. Very speedily 
it became the property of the female sex, such 
entries as Tibot Fitz-piers ending in favour of 
Tibota Foliot. After the year 1300 Tib, or Tibet, 
is invariably feminine. In " Gammer Gurton's 
Needle," Gammer says to her maid — 

" How now, Tib? quick ! let's hear what news thou hast brought 
hither." — Act. i. sc. 5. 

In " Ralph Roister Doister," the pet name is used 
in the song, evidently older than the play : 

"Pipe, merry Annot, etc., 
Trilla, Trilla, Trillary. 
Work, Tibet ; work, Annot ; work, Margery ; 
Sew, Tibet ; knit, Annot ; spin, Margery ; 
Let us see who will win the victory." 

Gib, from Gilbert, and Tib became the common 
name for a male and female cat. Scarcely any 
other terms were employed from 1350 to 1550: 

"For right no more than Gibbe, our cat, 
That awaiteth mice and rattes to kilien, 
Ne entend I but to beguilen." 

Hence both Tibet and Gibbet were also used 
for the same ; as in the old phrase " flitter- 
gibbett," for one of wanton character. Tom in 
tom-cat came into ordinary parlance later. All 
our modern Tibbots, Tibbetts, Tibbitts, Tippitts, 


Tebbutts, and their endless other forms, are 
descended from Tibbe. 

Coming to boys' names, all our Wyatts in the 
Directory hail from Guiot,* the diminutive of Guy, 
just as Wilmot from William : 

"Adam, son of Wyot, held an oxgang of land." — "De Lacy In- 

" Ibbote Wylymot, iiiiV— W. D. S. 

Payn is met in the form of Paynot and Paynet, 
Warin as Warinot, Drew as Drewet, Philip as 
Philpot, though this is feminine sometimes : 

"Johannes Schikyn, et Philipot uxor ejus, iiii d ." — W. D. S. 

Thomas is found as Thomaset, Higg (Isaac) as 
Higgot, Jack as Jackett, Hal (Henry) as Hallet 
(Harriot or Harriet is now feminine), and Hugh 
or Hew as Hewet : 

"DionisiaHowet-doghter, iiii d ."— W. D. S. 

The most interesting, perhaps, of these ex- 
amples is Hamnet, or Hamlet. Hamon, or 
Hamond, was introduced from Normandy : 

" Hamme, son of Adcock, held 29 acres of land."— "De Lacy 
Inquisition," 131 1. 

It became a favourite among high and low, 

* Guion was not half so popular in England as Guiot. There 
are fifty-five Wyatts to three Wyons in the London Directory 
(1870). If Spenser had written of Guy on two centuries earlier, this 
might have been altered. Guy Fawkes ruined Guy. He can never 
be so popular again. 


and took to itself the forms of Hamonet and 
Hamelot : 

"The wife of Richard, son of Hamelot. "— " De Lacy Inqui- 
sition," 131 1. 

These were quickly abbreviated into Hamnet and 
Hamlet. They ran side by side for several 
centuries, and at last, like Emmot, defied the 
English Bible, the Reformation, and even the 
Puritan period, and lived unto the eighteenth 
century. Hamlet Winstanley, the painter, was 
born in 1700, at Warrington, and died in 1756. 
In Kent's London Directory for 1736 several 
Hamnets occur as baptismal names." Shake- 
speare's little son was Hamnet, or Hamlet, after 
his godfather Hamnet Sadler. I find several 
instances where both forms are entered as the 
name of the same boy : 

"Nov. 13, 1502. Item: the same day to Hamlet Clegge, for 
money by him laved out ... to the keper of Dachet Ferrey in re- 
warde for conveying the Quenes grace over Thamys there, iii 3 . iiirV' 

Compare this with — 

"June 13, 1502. Item : the same day to Hampnet Clegge, for 
mone by him delivered to the Quene for hir offring to Saint 
Edward at Westm., vi s . viii d ."— "Privy Purse Expenses, Eliz. 
of York," pp. 21 and 62. 

Speaking of Hamelot, we must not forget that 
ot and et sometimes became elot or elet. As a 


diminutive it is found in such dictionary words 
as bracelet, tartlet, gimblet, poplet (for poppet). 
The old ruff or high collar worn alike by men 
and women was styled a partlet : 

" Jan. 1544. Item : from Mr. Braye ii. high collar partletts, 
iii 8 . ix d ." — "Privy Purse Expenses, Princess Mary." 

Hence partlet, a hen, on account of the ruffled 
feathers, a term used alike by Chaucer and 

In our nomenclature we have but few traces of 
it. In France it was very commonly used. But 
Hughelot or Huelot, from Hugh, was popular, as 
our Hewletts can testify. Richelot for Richard, 
Hobelot and Robelot for Robert, Crestolot for 
Christopher, Cesselot for Cecilia, and Barbelot for 
Barbara, are found also, and prove that the desi- 
nence had made its mark. 

Returning, however, to ot and et : Eliot or Elliot, 
from Ellis (Elias), had a great run. In the north 
it is sometimes found as Aliot : 

" Alyott de Symondeston held half an oxgang of land. xix d ." — 
"De Lacy Inquisition," 131 1. 

The feminine form was Elisot or Elicot, although 
this was used also for boys. The will of William 
de Aldeburgh, written in 13 19, runs — 

"Item : do etlego Elisotae domicelkemese40\" — "Test. Ebor.," 
i. 151. 

1 bO£ b4 


The will of Patrick de Barton, administered in the 
same year, says — 

" Item: lego Elisotse, uxori Ricardi Bustard unam vaccam, et io 8 ." 
—"Test. Ebor.,"i. 155. 
"Eliseus Carpenter, cartwyth, et Elesot uxor ejus, vi d ." — W. D. S. 

As Ellis became Ellisot, so Ellice became Ellicot, 
whence the present surname. Bartholomew be- 
came Bartelot, now Bartlett, and from the pet 
form Toll, or Tolly, came Tollett and Tollitt. 

It is curious to notice why Emmot and Hamlet, 
or Hamnet, survived the crises that overwhelmed 
the others. Both became baptismal names in 
their own right. People forgot in course of time 
that they were diminutives of Emma and Hamond, 
and separated them from their parents. This did 
not come about till the close of Elizabeth's reiVn, 
so they have still the credit of having won a 
victory against terrible odds, the Hebrew army. 
Hamnet Shakespeare was so baptized. Hamon 
or Hamond would have been the regular form. 

Looking back, it is hard to realize that a custom 
equally affected by prince and peasant, as popular 
in country as town, as familiar in Yorkshire and 
Lancashire as in London and Winchester, should 
have been so completely uprooted, that ninety-nine 
out of the hundred are now unaware that it ever 
existed. This was unmistakably the result of 


some disturbing element of English social life. 
At the commencement of the sixteenth century 
there was no appearance of this confusion. In 
France the practice went on without let or hin- 
drance. We can again but attribute it to the 
Reformation, and the English Bible, which swept 
away a large batch of the old names, and pro- 
nounced the new without addition or diminution. 
When some of the old names were restored, it was 
too late to fall back upon the familiarities that 
had been taken with them in the earlier period. 

(e) Double Terminatives. 

In spite of the enormous popularity in England 
of ot and et, they bear no proportion to the number 
in France. In England our local surnames are 
two-fifths of the whole. In France patronymic 
surnames are almost two-fifths of the whole. 
Terminatives in on or in, and ot and et, have done 
this. We in England only adopted double diminu- 
tives in two cases, those of Colinet and Robinet, 
or Dobinety and both were rarely used. Robinet 
has come down to us as a surname ; and Dobinet 
so existed till the middle of the fifteenth century, 
for one John Dobynette is mentioned in an inven- 
tory of goods, 1463 (Mun. Acad. Oxon.). This Do- 
binet seems to have been somewhat familiarly used, 


for Dobinet Doughty is Ralph's servant in " Ralph 
Roister Doister." Matthew Merrygreek says — 

" I know where she is : Dobinet hath wrought some wile." 

Tibet Talkapace. He brought a ring and token, which he said 
was sent 
From our dame's husband. " — Act. iii. sc. 2. 

Colin is turned into Colinet in Spenser's u Shep- 
herd's Calendar," where Colin beseeches Pan : 

" Hearken awhile from thy green cabinet, 
The laurel song of careful Colinet ? " 

Jannet is found as Janniting (Jannetin) once on 
English soil, for in the " London Chanticleers," a 
comedy written about 1636, Janniting is the apple- 
wench. Welcome says — 

" Who are they which they're enamoured so with? 

Bung. The one's Nancy Curds, and the other Hanna Jenniting : 
Ditty and Jenniting are agreed already . . . the wedding will be 
kept at our house." — Scene xiii. 

But the use of double diminutives was of 
every-day practice in Normandy and France, and 
increased their total greatly. I take at random 
the following surnames (originally, of course, chris- 
tian names) from the Paris Directory : — Margotin, 
Marioton, Lambinet (Lambert), Perrinot, Perrotin, 
Philiponet, Jannotin, Hugonet, Huguenin, Jac- 
quinot, and Fauconnet (English Fulke). Huguenin 
(little wee Hugh) repeats the same diminutive ; 
Perrinot and Perrotin (little wee Peter) simply 
reverse the order of the two diminutives. The 


" marionettes M in the puppet-show take the same 
liberty with Mariotin (little wee Mary) above 
mentioned. Hugonet, of course, is the same as 
Huguenot ; and had English, not to say French, 
writers remembered this old custom, they would 
have found no difficulty in reducing the origin of 
the religious sect of that name to an individual 
as a starting-point. Guillotin (little wee William) 
belongs to the same class, and descended from a 
baptismal name to become the surname of the 
famous doctor who invented the deadly machine 
tnat bears his title. I have discovered one in- 
stance of this as a baptismal name, viz. Gillotyne 
Hansake (" Wars of English in France : Henry 
VI.," vol. ii. p. 531). 

Returning to England, we find these pet forms 
in use well up to the Reformation : 

"Nov., 1543. Item: geven to Fylpot, my Lady of Suffolk's 
lackaye, vii 5 . vi d . 

"June, 1537. Item : payed to Typkyn for cherys, xx d ." — " Privy 
Purse Expenses, Princess Mary." 

" 1548, July 22. Alson, d. of Jenkin Rowse." — St. Columb Major. 

" 1545, Oct. 3. Baptized Alison, d. of John James." — Ditto.* 

* Cornwall would naturally be last to be touched by the Refor- 
mation. Hence these old forms were still used to the close of 
Elizabeth's reign, as for instance : 

"1576, March 24. Baptized Ibbett, d. of Kateryne Collys 

"1576, July 30. Baptized Isott, d. of Richard Moyle."— St 
Columb Major. 


" Ralph Roister Doister," written not earlier than 
1545, and not later than 1550, by Nicholas Udall, 
contains three characters styled Annot Alyface, 
Tibet Talkapace, and Dobinet Doughty. Christian 
Custance, Sim Suresby, Madge Mumblecheek, and 
Gawyn Goodluck are other characters, all well- 
known contemporary names. 

In " Thersites," an interlude written in 1537, 
there is mention of 

" Simkin Sydnam, Sumnor, 
That killed a cat at Cumnor." 

Jenkin Jacon is introduced, also Robin Rover. 
In a book entitled " Letters and Papers, Foreign 
and Domestic" (Henry VIII.), we find a document 
(numbered 1939, and dated 1526) containing a list 
of the household attendants and retinue of the 
king. Even here, although so formal a record, 
there occurs the name of " Hamynet Harrington, 
gentleman usher." 

We may assert with the utmost certainty that, 
on the eve of the Hebrew invasion, there was not 
a baptismal name in England of average popu- 
larity that had not attached to it in daily converse 
one or other of these diminutives — kin, cock, in, 
on, ot, and et ; not a name, too, that, before it had 
thus attached them, had not been shorn of all its 
fulness, and curtailed to a monosyllabic nick form. 



Bartholomew must first become Bat before it 
becomes Batcock, Peter must become Pierre before 
Perrot can be formed, Nicholas must be abbreviated 
to Col or Cole before Col or Cole can be styled 
Colin, and Thomas must be reduced to Tom before 
Tomkin can make his appearance. 

Several names had attached to themselves all 
these enclytics. For instance, Peter is met with 
up to the crisis we are about to consider, in the 
several shapes of Perkin or Parkin, Peacock 
Perrot, and Perrin ; and William as Willin (now 
Willing and Willan in our directories), Wilcock, 
Wilkin, and Wilmot, was familiar to every district 
in the country. 

III. Scripture Names already in use at the 

It now remains simply to consider the state of 
nomenclature in England at the eve of the Re- 
formation in relation to the Bible. Four classes 
may be mentioned. 

(a.) Mystery Names. 
The leading incidents of Bible narrative were 
familiarized to the English lower orders by the 
performance of sacred plays, or mysteries, rendered 


under the supervision of the Church. To these 
plays we owe the early popularity of Adam and 
Eve, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Sara, 
Daniel, Sampson, Susanna, Judith, Hanna or 
Anna, and Hester. But the Apocryphal names 
were not frequently used till about 1500. Scarcely 
any diminutives are found of them. On the other 
hand, Adam became Adcock and Adkin ; Eve, 
Evott and Evett ; Isaac, Hickin, and Higgin, and 
Higgot, and Higget ; Joseph, Joskin ; and Daniel, 
Dankin and Dannet. 

{b.) Crusade Names. 

The Crusaders gave us several prominent names. 
To them we are indebted for Baptist, Ellis, and 
Jordan : and John received a great stimulus. The 
sacred water brought in the leathern bottle was 
used for baptismal purposes. The Jordan com- 
memorated John the Baptist, the second Elias, the 
forerunner and baptizer of Jesus Christ. Children 
were styled by these incidents. Jordan became 
popular through Western Europe. In England he 
gave us, as already observed, Judd, Judkin, Judson, 
Jordan, and Jordanson. Elias, as Ellis, took about 
the eighth place of frequency, and John, for a while, 
the first 


(c) The Saints' Calendar. 
The legends of the saints were carefully taught 
by the priesthood, and the day as religiously 
observed. All children born on these holy days 
received the name of the saint commemorated : 
St. James's Day, or St. Nicholas's Day, or St. 
Thomas's Day, saw a small batch of Jameses, 
Nicholases, and Thomases received into the fold of 
the Church. In other cases the gossip had some 
favourite saint, and placed the child under his or 
her protection. Of course, it bore the patron's 
name. A large number of these hagiological 
names were extra-Biblical — such as Cecilia, Catha- 
rine, or Theobald. Of these I make no mention 
here. All the Apostles, save Judas, became house- 
hold names, John, Simon, Peter, Bartholomew, 
Matthew, James, Thomas, and Philip being the 
favourites. Paul and Timothy were also utilized, 
the former being always found as Pol. 

(d) Festival Names. 

If a child was born at Whitsuntide or Easter, 
Christmas or Epiphany, like Robinson Crusoe's 
man Friday, or Thursday October Christian of the 
Pitcairn islanders, he received the name of the day. 
Hence our once familiar names of Noel or Nowell, 
Pask or Pascal, Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany or 


It will be observed that all these imply no direct 
or personal acquaintance with the Scriptures. All 
came through the Church. All, too, were in the 
full tide of prosperity — with the single exception of 
Jordan, which was nearly obsolete — when the Bible, 
printed into English and set up in our churches, 
became an institution. The immediate result was 
that the old Scripture names of Bartholomew, 
Peter, Philip, and Nicholas received a blow much 
deadlier than that received by such Teutonic 
names as Robert, Richard, Roger, and Ralph. 
But that will be brought out as we progress. 

The subject of the influence of an English Bible 
upon English nomenclature is not uninteresting. 
It may be said of the "Vulgar Tongue" Bible that 
it revolutionized our nomenclature within the space 
of forty years, or little over a generation. No such 
crisis, surely, ever visited a nation's register before, 
nor can such possibly happen again. Every home 
felt the effect. It was like the massacre of the 
innocents in Egyptian days : " There was not one 
house where there was not one dead." But in 
Pharoah's day they did not replace the dead with 
the living. At the Reformation such a locust army 
of new names burst upon the land that we may 
well style it the Hebrew Invasion. 




" With what face can they object to the king the bringing in of 
forraigners, when themselves entertaine such an army of Hebrewes?" 
The Character of a London Diumall (Dec. 1644). 

"Albeit in our late Reformation some of good consideration have 
brought in Zachary, Malachy, Josias, etc., as better agreeing with our 
faith, but without contempt of Country names (as I hope) which 
have both good and gracious significations, as shall appeare here- 
after."— Camden, Remaines. 1614. 

I. The March of the Army. 

The strongest impress of the English Reformation 
to-day is to be seen in our font-names. The 
majority date from 1560, the year when the Ge- 
nevan Bible was published. This version ran 
through unnumbered editions, and for sixty, if not 
seventy, years was the household Bible of the 
nation. The Genevan Bible was not only written 
in the vulgar tongue, but was printed for vulgar 
hands. A moderate quarto was its size ; all pre- 
ceding versions, such as Coverdale's, Matthew's, 


and of course the Great Bible, being the ponderous 
folio, specimens of which the reader will at some 
time or other have seen. The Genevan Bible, too, 
was the Puritan's Bible, and was none the less 
admired by him on account of its Calvinistic 

But although the rage for Bible names dates 
from the decade 1 560-1 570, which decade marks 
the rise of Puritanism, there had been symptoms 
of the coming revolution as early as 1543. Richard 
Hilles, one of the Reformers, despatching a letter 
from Strasburg, November 1 5, 1 543, writes : 

"My wife says she has no doubt but tha*- God helped her the 
sooner in her confinement by reason of your good prayers. On the 
second of this month she brought forth to the Church of Christ a 
son, who, as the women say, is quite large enough for a mother of 
tall stature, and whom I immediately nam£d Gershom." — "Original 
Letters," 1537— 1558, No. cxii. Parker Society. 

We take up our Bibles, and find that of Zipporah 
it is said — 

" And she bare him (Moses) a son, and he called his name Ger- 
shom : for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange iand." — 
Exod. ii. 22. 

The margin says, " a desolate stranger." At this 
time Moses was fled from Pharaoh, who would kill 
him. The parallel to Richard Hilles's mind was 
complete. This was in 1643.* 

* This connection of Scripture name with present circumstance 
ran out its full period. In the diary of Samuel Jeake, a well- 


In Mr. Tennyson's drama " Mary," we have the 
following scene between Gardiner and a yokel : 

" Gardiner. I distrust thee, 

There is a half voice, and a lean assent : 

What is thy name ? 

Man. Sanders 1 

Gardiner. What else ? 

Man. Zerrubabel. " 

The Laureate was right to select for this rebel- 
lious Protestant a name that was to be popular 
throughout Elizabeth's reign ; but poetic license 
runs rather far in giving this title to a full-grown 
man in any year of Mary's rule. Sanders might 
have had a young child at home so styled, 
but for himself it was practically impossible. So 

known Puritan of Rye, occurs this reference to his son, born August 
13, 1688: "At 49 minutes past 1 1 p.m. exactly (allowing 10' that 
the sun sets at Rye before he comes to the level of the horizon, for 
the watch was set by the sun-setting), my wife was safely delivered 
of a son, whom I named Manasseh, hoping that God had now made 
me forget all my toils." — "History of Town and Port of Rye," 
p. 576. Manasseh = forgetfulness. 

A bishop may be instanced. Aylmer, who succeeded Sandys in 
the see of London, was for many years a favourer of Puritanism, 
and had been one of the exiles. His sixth son was Tobel {i.e. God 
is good), of Writtle, in Essex. Archbishop Whitgift was his god- 
father, and the reason for his singular appellation was his mother's 
being overturned in a coach without injury when she was pregnant 
(Cooper's "Ath. Cant."ii. 172). 

Again : "At Dr. Whitaker's death, his wife is described as being 
1 partui yicina, ' and a week afterwards her child was christened by 
the name of Jabez, doubtless for the scriptural reason ' because, she 
said, I bare him with sorrow.' " — Cooper's "Ath. Cant." ii. 197. 


clearly defined is the epoch that saw, if not one 
batch of names go out, at least a new batch come 
in. Equally marked are the names from the Bible 
which at this date were in use, and those which 
were not. Of this latter category Zerrubabel was 

In the single quotation from Hilles's letter of 
1543 we see the origin of the great Hebrew inva- 
sion explained. The English Bible had become a 
fact, and the knowledge of its personages and 
narratives was becoming directly acquired. In 
every community up and down the country it was 
as if a fresh spring of clear water had been found, 
and every neighbour could come with jug or pail, 
and fill it when and how they would. One of the 
first impressions made seems to have been this : 
children in the olden time received as a name a 
term that was immediately significant of the cir- 
cumstances of their birth. Often God personally, 
through His prophets or angelic messenger, acted 
as godparent indeed, and gave the name, as in 
Isaiah viii. 1, 3, 4 : 

"Moreover the Lord said unto me, Take thee a great roll, and 
write in it with a man's pen concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz. 

"And I went unto the prophetess ; and she conceived, and bare 
a son. Then said the Lord to me, Call his name Maher-shalal- 

"For before the child shall have knowledge to cry, My father, 


and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria 
shall be taken away before the king of Assyria." 

Here was a name palpably significant Even 
before they knew its exact meaning the name was 
enrolled in English church registers, and by-and- 
by zealot Puritans employed it as applicable to 
English Church politics. 

All the patriarchs, down to the twelve sons of 
Jacob, had names of direct significance given them. 
Above all, a peculiar emphasis was laid upon all 
the titles of Jesus Christ, as in Isaiah vii. 14 : 

" Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call 
his name Immanuel." 

At the same time that this new revelation came, 
a crisis was going on of religion. The old Romish 
Church was being uprooted, or, rather, a new 
system was being grafted upon its stock, for the 
links have never been broken. The saints were 
shortly to be tabooed by the large mass of English 
folk ; the festivals were already at a discount. 
Simultaneously with the prejudice against the very 
names of their saints and saintly festivals, arose 
the discovery of a mine of new names as novel as 
it was unexhaustible. They not merely met the 
new religious instinct, but supplied what would 
have been a very serious vacuum. 

But we must at once draw a line between the 


Reformation and Puritanism. Previous to the 
Reformation, so far as the Church was concerned, 
there had been to a certain extent a system of 
nomenclature. The Reformation abrogated that 
system, but did not intentionally adopt a new one. 
Puritanism deliberately supplied a well-weighed 
and revised scheme, beyond which no adopted 
child of God must dare to trespass. Previous to 
the Reformation, the priest, with the assent of the 
gossip, gave the babe the name of the saint who 
was to be its patron, or on whose day the birth or 
baptism occurred. If the saint was a male, and 
the infant a female, the difficulty was overcome 
by giving the name a feminine form. Thus 
Theobald become Theobalda ; and hence Tib 
and Tibot became so common among girls, that 
finally they ceased to represent boys at all. If 
it were one of the great holy days, the day or 
season itself furnished the name. Thus it was 
Simon, or Nicholas, or Cecilia, or Austen, or 
Pentecost, or Ursula, or Dorothy, became so fami- 
liar. From the reign of Elizabeth the clergy, 
and Englishmen generally, gave up this practice. 
Saints who could not boast apostolic honours 
were rejected, and holy men of lesser prestige, 
together with a large batch of virgins and mar- 
tyrs of the Agnes, Catharine, and Ursula type, 


who belonged to Church history, received but scant 
attention. As a matter of course their names lapsed. 
But the nation stood by the old English names 
not thus popishly tainted. Against Geoffrey, 
Richard, Robert, and William, they had no pre- 
judice : nay, they clung to them. The Puritan 
rejected both classes. He was ever trotting out 
his two big " P's," — Pagan and Popish. Under the 
first he placed every name that could not be found 
in the Scriptures, and under the latter every title 
in the same Scriptures, and the Church system 
founded on them, that had been employed pre- 
vious, say, to the coronation day of Edward VI. 
Of this there is the clearest proof. In a " Directory 
of Church Government," found among the papers 
of Cartwright, and written as early as 1565, there 
is the following order regarding and regulating 
baptism : — 

"They which present unto baptism, ought to be persuaded not to 
give those that are baptized the names of God, or of Christ, or of 
angels, or of holy offices, as of baptist, evangelist, etc. , nor such as 
savour of paganism or popery : but chiefly such whereof there are 
examples, in the Holy Scriptures, in the names of those who are 
reported in them to have been godly and virtuous. " — Neale, vol. v. 
Appendix, p. 15. 

Nothing can be more precise than this. To the 
strict Puritan to reject the Richards, Mileses, and 
Henrys of the Teutonic, and the Bartholomews, 


Simons, Peters, and Nicholases of the ecclesiastic 
class, was to remove the Canaanite out of the land. 
How early this " article of religion " was obeyed 
one or two quotations will show. Take the first 
four baptismal entries in the Canterbury Cathe- 
dral register : 

" 1564, Dec. 3. Abdias, the sonne of Robert Pownoll. 
" 1567, April 26. Barnabas, the sonne of Robert Pownoll. 
" 1569, June 1. Ezeckiell, the sonne of Robert Pownoll. 
" 1572, Feb. 10. Posthumus, the sonne of Robert Pownoll." 

Another son seems to have been Philemon : 

" 1623, April 27. John, the sonne of Philemon Pownoll." 

A daughter " Repentance " must be added : 

" 1583, Dec. 8. Married William Arnolde and Repentance 

Take another instance, a little later, from the 
baptisms of St. Peter's, Cornhill : 

" 1589, Nov. 2. Bezaleell, sonne of Michaell Nichollson, cord- 

" I 599> Sep. 23. Aholiab, sonne of Michaell Nicholson, cord- 

" 1595, May 18. Sara, daughter of Michaell Nichollson, cobler. 

" 1599, Nov. 1. Buried Rebecca, daughter of Michaell Nichol- 
son, cordwainer, 13 yeares." 

Rebecca, therefere, would be baptized in 1586. 
Sara and Aholiab died of the plague in 1603. 
Both old Robert Pownoll and the cobler must 
have been Puritans of a pronounced type. 


The Presbyterian clergy were careful to set an 
example of right name-giving : 

" 1613, July 28. Baptized Jaell, daughter of Roger Mainwaring, 
preacher." — St. Helen, Bishopsgate. 

"161 7, Jan. 25. Baptized Ezekyell, sonne of Mr. Richard Cul- 
verwell, minister." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1582, . Buried Zachary, sonne of Thomas Newton, 

minister." — Barking, Essex. 

A still more interesting proof comes from North- 
ampton. As an example of bigotry it is truly 
marvellous. On July 16, 1590, Archbishop Whit- 
gift furnished the Lord Treasurer with the following, 
amongst many articles against Edmond Snape, 
curate of St. Peter's, in that town : 

" Item : Christopher Hodgekinson obteyned a promise of the 
said Snape that he would baptize his child ; but Snape added, 
saying, ' You must then give it a christian name allowed in the 
Scriptures.' Then Hodgekinson told him that his wife's father, 
whose name was Richard, desired to have the giving of that name. " 

At the time of service Snape proceeded till they 
came to the place of naming : they said " Richard ;" 

"But hearing them calling it Richard, and that they would not 
give it any other name, he stayed there, and would not in any case 
baptize the child. And so it was carried away thence, and was 
baptized the week following at Allhallows Churche, and called 
Richard."— Strype's " Whitgift," ii. 9. 

This may be an extreme case, but I doubt not 
the majority of the Presbyterian clergy did their 
best to uproot the old English names so far as 
their power of persuasion could go. 


Even the pulpit was used in behalf of the new 
doctrine. William Jenkin, the afterwards ejected 
minister, in his " Expositions of Jude," delivered in 
Christ Church, London, said, while commenting 
on the first verse, " Our baptismal names ought 
to be such as may prove remembrances of duty." 
He then instances Leah, Alpheus, and Hannah as 
aware of parental obligations in this respect, and 
adds — 

" 'Tis good to impose such names as expresse our baptismal pro- 
mise. A good name is as a thread tyed about the finger, to make 
us mindful of the errand we came into the world to do for our 
Master."— Edition 1652, p. 7. 

As a general rule, the New Testament names 
spread the most rapidly, especially girl-names of 
the Priscilla, Dorcas, Tabitha, and Martha type. 
They were the property of the Reformation. 
Damaris bothered the clerks much, and is found 
indifferently as Tamaris, Damris, Dammeris, Dam- 
pris, and Dameris. By James I.'s day it had 
become a fashionable name : 

" 1617, April 13. Christened Damaris, d. of Doctor Masters. 

11 , May 29. Christened Damaris, d. of Doctor Kingsley." 

— Canterbury Cathedral. 

Martha, which sprang into instant popularity, 
is registered at the outset : 

"1563, July 25. Christened Martha Wattam."— St Peter, 

Phebe had a great run. The first I have seen is — 

" 1568, Oct. 24. Christened Phebe, d. of Harry Cut"— St. 
Peter, Comhill. 

Dorcas was, perhaps, the prime favourite, often 
styled and entered Darcas. Every register has it, 
and every page. A political ballad says — 

" Come, Dorcas and Cloe, 
With Lois and Zoe, 

Young Lettice, and Beterice, and Jane ; 
Phill, Dorothy, Maud, 
Come troop it abroad, 

For now is our time to reign." 

Persis, Tryphena, and Tryphosa were also largely 
used. The earliest Persis I know is — 

" 1579, Maye 3. Christened Persis, d. of William Hopkinson, 
minister heare. " — SalehursL 

Some of these names — as, for instance, Priscilla, 
Damaris, Dorcas, and Phebe — stood in James's 
reign almost at the head of girls' names in Eng- 
land. Indeed, alike in London and the provinces, 
the list of girl-names at Elizabeth's death was a 
perfect contrast to that when she ascended the 
throne. Then the great national names of Isabella, 
Matilda, Emma, and Cecilia ruled supreme. Then 
the four heroines Anna, Judith, Susan, and Hester, 
one or two of whom were in the Apocryphal narra- 
tive, had stamped themselves on our registers in 
what appeared indelible lines, although they were 


of much more recent popularity than the others. 
They lost prestige, but did not die out. Many 
Puritans had a sneaking fondness for them, find- 
ing in their histories a parallel to their own 
troubles, and perchance they had a private and 
more godly rendering of the popular ballad of 
their day : 

*' In Ninivie old Toby dwelt, 

An aged man, and blind was he : 
And much affliction he had felt, 

Which brought him unto poverty : 
He had by Anna, his true wife, 

One only sonne, and eke no more." 

Esther* is still popular in our villages, so is Susan. 
Hannah has her admirers, and only Judith may 
be said to be forgotten. But their glory was from 
1450 to 1550. After that they became secondary 
personages. Throughout the south of England, 
especially in the counties that surrounded London, 
the Bible had been ransacked from nook to corner. 
The zealots early dived into the innermost re- 
cesses of Scripture. They made themselves as 
familiar with chapters devoted solely to genea- 
logical tables, as to those which they quoted to 

* Esther's other name of Hadassah had a share of favour. So late 
as William and Mary's reign we find the name in use : 

"1691, May 24. Christened Hadasa, daughter of Arthur 

" 1693, Sep. 4. Christened John, son of Nicholas and Hadassah 
Davis." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 


defend their doctrinal creed. The eighth chapter 
of Romans was not more studied by them than 
the thirty-sixth of Genesis, and the dukes of Edom 
classified in the one were laid under frequent 
contribution to witness to the adoption treated of 
in the other. Thus names unheard of in 1558 
were "household words" in 1603. 

The slowest to take up the new custom were 
the northern counties. They were out of the 
current ; and Lancashire, besides being inacces- 
sible, had stuck to the old faith. Names lingered 
on in the Palatinate that had been dead nearly 
a hundred years in the south. Gawin figures in 
all northern registers till a century ago, and 
Thurston* was yet popular in the Fylde district, 
when it had become forgotten in the Fens. Scot- 
land was never touched at all. The General 
Assembly of 1645 makes no hint on the subject, 
although it dwelt on nearly every other topic. 
Nothing demonstrates the clannish feeling of 
North Britain as this does. At this moment 
Scotland has scarcely any Bible names. 

In Yorkshire, however, Puritanism made early 
stand, though its effects on nomenclature were 

* In the Lancashire " Church Surveys," 1649- 1655, being the first 
volume of the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society's publica- 
tions, edited by Colonel Fishwick, occur Thurston Brown, Thurston 
Brere, Thurston Brich, on one single page of the index. 


not immediately visible. It was like the fire 
that smoulders among the underwood before it 
catches flame ; it spreads the more rapidly after- 
wards. The Genevan Bible crept into the dales 
and farmsteads, and their own primitive life 
seemed to be but reflected in its pages. The 
patriarchs lived as graziers, and so did they. 
There was a good deal about sheep and kine 
in its chapters, and their own lives were spent 
among the milk-pails and wool shears. The 
women of the Old Testament baked cakes, and 
knew what good butter was. So did the dales' 
folk. By slow degrees Cecilia, Isabella, and Emma 
lapsed from their pedestal, and the little babes 
were turned into Sarahs, Rebeccas, and Deborahs. 
As the seventeenth century progressed the state 
of things became still more changed. There had 
been villages in Sussex and Kent previous to 
Elizabeth's death, where the Presbyterian rector, 
by his personal influence at the time of baptism, 
had turned the new generation into a Hebrew 
colony. The same thing occurred in Yorkshire 
only half a century later. As nonconformity 
gained ground, Guy, and Miles, and Peter, and 
Philip became forgotten. The lads were no sooner 
ushered into existence than they were transformed 
into duplicates of Joel, and Amos, and Obediah. 


The measles still ran through the family, but it 
was Phineas and Caleb, not Robert and Roger, 
that underwent the infliction. Chosen leaders of 
Israel passed through the critical stages of teeth- 
ing. As for the twelve sons of Jacob, they could 
all have answered to their names in the dames' 
schools, through their little apple-cheeked repre- 
sentatives, who lined the rude benches. On the 
village green, every prophet from Isaiah to Malachi 
might be seen of an evening playing leap-frog : 
unless, indeed, Zephaniah was stealing apples in 
the garth. 

From Yorkshire, about the close of the seven- 
teenth century, the rage for Scripture names passed 
into Lancashire. Nonconformity was making pro- 
gress ; the new industries were already turning 
villages into small centres of population, and the 
Church of England not providing for the increase, 
chapels were built. If we look over the pages of 
the directories of West Yorkshire and East Lan- 
cashire, and strike out the surnames, we could 
imagine we were consulting anciently inscribed 
registers of Joppa or Jericho. It would seem as 
if Canaan and the West Riding had got inex- 
tricably mixed. 

What a spectacle meets our eye! Within the 
limits of ten leaves we have three Pharoahs, while 


as many Hephzibahs are to be found on one 
single page. Adah and Zillah Pickles, sisters, 
are milliners. Jehoiada Rhodes makes saws — not 
Solomon's sort — and Hariph Crawshaw keeps a 
farm. Vashni, from somewhere in the Chronicles, 
is rescued from oblivion by Vashni Wilkinson, coal 
merchant, who very likely goes to Barzillai Wil- 
liamson, on the same page, for his joints, Bar- 
zillai being a butcher. Jachin, known to but a 
few as situated in the Book of Kings, is in the 
person of Jachin Firth, a beer retailer, familiar to 
all his neighbours. Heber Holdsworth on one page 
is faced by Er Illingworth on the other. Asa and 
Joab are extremely popular, while Abner, Adna, 
Ashael, Erastus, Eunice, Benaiah, Aquila, Elihu, 
and Philemon enjoy a fair amount of patronage. 
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, having been 
rescued from Chaldaean fire, have been deluged 
with baptismal water. How curious it is to 
contemplate such entries as Lemuel Wilson, 
Kelita Wilkinson, Shelah Haggas, Shadrach 
Newbold, Neriah Pearce, Jeduthan Jempson, 
Azariah Griffiths, Naphtali Matson, Philemon 
Jakes, Hameth Fell, Eleph Bisat, Malachi Ford, 
or Shallum Richardson. As to other parts of the 
Scriptures, I have lighted upon name after name 
that I did not know existed in the Bible at all 


till I looked into the Lancashire and Yorkshire 

The Bible has decided the nomenclature of the 
north of England. In towns like Oldham, Bolton, 
Ashton, and Blackburn, the clergyman's baptismal 
register is but a record of Bible names. A clerical 
friend of mine christened twins Cain and Abel, 
only the other day, much against his own wishes. 
Another parson on the Derbyshire border was 
gravely informed, at the proper moment, that the 
name of baptism was Ramoth-Gilead. "Boy or 
girl, eh ? " he asked in a somewhat agitated 
voice. The parents had opened the Bible hap- 
hazard, according to the village tradition, and 
selected the first name the eye fell on. It was but 
a year ago a little child was christened Tellno in a 
town within six miles of Manchester, at the sug- 
gestion of a cotton-spinner, the father, a workman 
of the name of Lees, having asked his advice. " I 
suppose it must be a Scripture name," said his 
master. " Oh yes ! that's of course." " Suppose 
you choose Tellno;' said his employer. "That'll 
do," replied the other, who had never heard it be- 
fore, and liked it the better on that account. The 
child is now Tell-no Lees, the father, too late, 
finding that he had been hoaxed.* " Sirs" was the 
* To tell a lie is to tell a lee in Lancashire. 


answer given to a bewildered curate, after the usual 
demand to name the child. He objected, but was 
informed that it was a Scripture name, and the 
verse " Sirs, what must I do to be saved ? " was 
triumphantly appealed to. This reminds one of 
the Puritan who styled his dog " Moreover " after 
the dog in the Gospel : " Moreover the dog came 
and licked his sores." 

There is, again, a story of a clergyman making 
the customary demand as to name from a knot 
of women round the font. "Ax her," said one. 
Turning to the woman who appeared to be in- 
dicated, he again asked, "What name?" "Ax 
her," she replied. The third woman, being 
questioned, gave the same reply. At last he dis- 
covered the name to be the Scriptural Achsah, 
Caleb's daughter — a name, by the way, which 
was somewhat popular with our forefathers. No 
wonder this mistake arose, when Achsah used to 
be entered in some such manner as this : 

"1743-4, Jan. 3. Baptized Axar Starrs (a woman of ripe 
years), of Stockport. 

" 1743-4, Jan. 3. Married Warren Davenport, of Stockport, 
Esq., and Axar Starrs, aforesaid, spinster." — Marple, Cheshire. 

Axar's father was Caleb Starrs. The scriptural 
relationship was thus preserved. Achsah crossed 
the Atlantic with the Pilgrim Fathers, and has 


prospered there ever since. It is still popular 
in Devonshire and the south-west of England. 
All these stories serve to show the quarry whence 
modern names are hewn. 

I have mentioned the north because I have 
studied its Post-Office Directories carefully. But if 
any one will visit the shires of Dorset, and Devon, 
and Hampshire, he will find the same result. The 
Hebrew has won the day. Just as in England, 
north of Trent, we can still measure off the ravages 
of the Dane by striking a line through all local 
names lying westward ending in " by," so we have 
but to count up the baptismal names of the 
peasantry of these southern counties to see that 
they have become the bondsmen of an Eastern 
despot. In fact, go where and when we will from 
the reign of Elizabeth, we find the same influence 
at work. Take a few places and people at random. 

Looking at our testamentary records, we find 
the will of Kerenhappuch Benett proved in 1762, 
while Kerenhappuch Horrocks figures in the 
Manchester Directory for 1877. Onesiphorus 
Luffe appears on a halfpenny token of 1666 ; 
Habakkuk Leyman, 1650; Euodias Inman, 1650; 
Melchisedek Fritter, 1650; Elnathan Brock, 1654; 
and Abdiah Martin, 1664 ("Tokens of Seventeenth 
Century"). Shallum Stent was married in 1681 


(Racton, Sussex) ; Gershom Baylie was constable 
of Lewes in 1619, Araunah Verrall fulfilling the 
same office in 1784. Captain Epenetus Crosse pre- 
sented a petition to Privy Council in 1660 (C. S. P. 
Colonial); Erastus Johnson was defendant in 1724, 
and Cressens Boote twenty years earlier. Barjonah 
Dove was Vicar of Croxton in 1694. Tryphena 
Monger was buried in Putney Churchyard in 1702, 
and Tryphosa Saunders at St. Peter's, Worcester, 
in 1770. Mahaliel Payne, Azarias Phesant, and 
Pelatiah Barnard are recorded in State Papers, 
1650-1663 (C. S. P.), and Aminadab Henley was 
dwelling in Kent in 1640 (" Proceedings in Kent." 
Camden Society). Shadrack Pride is a collector 
of hearth-money in 1699, and Gamaliel Chase is 
communicated with in 1635 (C. S. P.). Onesiphorus 
Albin proposes a better plan of collecting the alien 
duty in 1692 (C. S. P.), while Mordecai Abbott is 
appointed deputy-paymaster of the forces in 1697 
(C. S. P.). Eliakim Palmer is married at Somerset 
House Chapel in 1740 ; Dalilah White is buried 
at Cowley in 1791, and Keziah Simmons is chris- 
tened there in 1850. Selah Collins is baptized 
at Dyrham, Gloucestershire, in 1752, and Keturah 
Jones is interred at Clifton in 1778. Eli-lama- 
Sabachthani Pressnail was existing in 1862 (Notes 
and Queries), and the Times recorded a Talitha- 


Cumi People about the same time. The will of 
Mahershalalhashbaz Christmas was proved not 
very long ago. Mrs. Mahershalalhashbaz Bradford 
was dwelling in Ringwood, Hampshire, in 1863 ; 
and on January 31, 1802, the register of Beccles 
Church received the entry, " Mahershalalhashbaz, 
son of Henry and Sarah Clarke, baptized," the same 
being followed, October 14, 1804, by the baptismal 
entry of " Zaphnaphpaaneah," another son of the 
same couple. A grant of administration in the 
estate of Acts-Apostles Pegden was made in 1865. 
His four brothers, older than himself, were of 
course the four Evangelists, and had there been 
a sixth I dare say his name would have been 
" Romans." An older member of this family, many 
years one of the kennel-keepers of Tickham fox- 
hounds, was Pontius Pilate Pegden. At a con- 
firmation at Faversham in 1847, the incumbent of 
Dunkirk presented to the amazed archbishop a 
boy named " Acts-Apostles." These are, of course, 
mere eccentricities, but eccentricities follow a 
beaten path, and have their use in calculations of 
the nature we are considering. Eccentricities in 
dress are proverbially but exaggerations of the pre- 
vailing fashion. 


II. Popularity of the Old Testament. 

The affection felt by the Puritans for the Old 
Testament has been observed by all writers upon 
the period, and of the period. Cleveland's remark, 
quoted by Hume, is, of course, an exaggeration. 

" Cromwell," he says, " hath beat up his drums cleane through the 
Old Testament — you may learne the genealogy of our Saviour by the 
names in his regiment. The muster-master uses no other list than 
the first chapter of Matthew." 

Lord Macaulay puts it much more faithfully in 
his first chapter, speaking, too, of an earlier period 
than the Commonwealth : 

"In such a history [i.e. Old Testament) it was not difficult for 
fierce and gloomy spirits to find much that might be distorted to 
suit their wishes. The extreme Puritans, therefore, began to feel 
for the Old Testament a preference which, perhaps, they did not 
distinctly avow even to themselves, but which showed itself in all 
their sentiments and habits. They paid to the Hebrew language a 
respect which they refused to that tongue in which the discourses of 
Jesus and the Epistles of Paul have come down to us. They bap- 
tized their children by the names, not of Christian saints, but of 
Hebrew patriarchs and warriors." 

The Presbyterian clergy had another objection 
to the New ^Testament names. The possessors 
were all saints, and in the saints' calendar. The 
apostolic title was as a red rag to his blood-shot 

" Upon Saint Peter, Paul, John, Jude, and James, 
They will not put the 'saint' unto their names," 

says the Water-poet in execrable verse. Its local 


use was still more trying, as no man could pass 
through a single quarter of London without seeing 
half a dozen churches, or lanes, or taverns dedi- 
cated to Saint somebody or other. 

" Others to make all things recant 
The christian and surname of saint, 
"Would force all churches, streets, and towns 
The holy title to renounce." 

To avoid any saintly taint, the Puritan avoided 
the saints themselves. 

But the discontented party in the Church had, 
as Macaulay says, a decided hankering after the 
Old Testament on other grounds than this. They 
paid the Hebrew language an almost superstitious 
reverence.* Ananias, the deacon, in the "Alche- 
mist," published in 1610, says — 

" Heathen Greek, I take it. 

Subtle. How! heathen Greek? 

Ananias. All's heathen but the Hebrew, "f 

* Several names seem to have been taken directly from the 
Hebrew tongue. " Amalasioutha " occurs as a baptismal name in 
the will of a man named Corbye, 1594 (Rochester Wills) ; Bari- 
jirehah in that of J. Allen, 165 1, and Michalaliel among the Pilgrim 
Fathers (Hotten). 

t Colonel Cunningham, in his annotations of the "Alchemist," 
says, speaking of the New Englanders bearing the Puritan pre- 
judices with them : " So deeply was it rooted, that in the rebellion 
of the colonies a member of that State seriously proposed to Congress 
the putting down of the English language by law, and decreeing the 
universal adoption of the Hebrew in its stead." — Vol ii. p. 33, 
Jonson's Works. 


Bishop Corbet, in his " Distracted Puritan," has 
a lance to point at the same weakness : 

" In the holy tongue of Canaan 
I placed my chiefest pleasure, 
Till I pricked my foot 
With an Hebrew root, 
That I bled beyond all measure." 

In the " City Match," written by Mayne in 1639, 
Bannsright says — 

" Mistress Dorcas, 
If you'll be usher to that holy, learned woman, 
That can heal broken shins, scald heads, and th' itch, 
Your schoolmistress : that can expound, and teaches 
To knit in Chaldee, and work Hebrew samplers, 
I'll help you back again. " 

The Puritan was ever nicknamed after some 
Old Testament worthy. I could quote many in- 
stances, but let two from the author of the " Lon- 
don Diurnall " suffice. Addressing Prince Rupert, 
he says — 

" Let the zeal-twanging nose, that wants a ridge, 
Snuffling devoutly, drop his silver bridge : 
Yes, and the gossip's spoon augment the summe, 
Altho' poor Caleb lose his christendome. " 

More racy is his attack on Pembroke, as a member 
of the Mixed Assembly : 

M Forbeare, good Pembroke, be not over-daring : 
Such company may chance to spoil thy swearing ; 
And these drum-major oaths of bulk unruly 
May dwindle to a feeble ' by my truly.' 
He that the noble Percy's blood inherits, 
Will he strike up a Hotspur of the spirits ? 


He'll fright the Obediahs out of tune, 
With his uncircumcis-ed Algernoon : 
A name so stubborne, 'tis not to be scanned 
By him in Gath with the six-fingered hand." 

If a Bible quotation was put into the zealot's 
mouth, his cynical foe took care that it should 
come from the older Scriptures. In George Chap- 
man's " An Humorous Day's Work," after Lemot 
has suggested a " full test of experiment" to prove 
her virtue, Florilla the Puritan cries — 

" O husband, this is perfect trial indeed." 

To which the gruff Labervele replies — 

" And you will try all this now, will you not ? 

Florilla. Yes, my good head : for it is written, we must pass to 
perfection through all temptation : Abacuk the fourth. 

Labervele. Abacuk ! cuck me no cucks : in a-doors, I say : 
thieves, Puritans, murderers ! in a-doors, I say ! " 

In the same facetious strain, Taylor, the Water- 
poet, addresses a child thus : 

" To learne thy duty reade no more than this : 
Paul's nineteenth chapter unto Genesis." 

This certainly tallies with the charge in "Hudibras," 
that they 

" Corrupted the Old Testament 
To serve the New as precedent." 

v This affection for the older Scriptures had its 
effect upon our nomenclature. No book, no story, 
especially if gloomy in its outline and melancholy 
in its issues, escaped the more morbid Puritan's 


notice. Every minister of the Lord's vengeance, 
every stern witness against natural abomination, 
the prophet that prophesied ill — these were the 
names that were in favour. And he that was least 
bitter in his maledictions was most at a discount. 
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were in every- 
day request, Shadrach and Abednego being the 
favourites. Mordecai, too, was daily commemo- 
rated ; while Jeremiah attained a popularity, as 
Jeremy, he can never altogether lose. " Lamenta- 
tions " was so melancholy, that it must needs be 
personified, don a Puritanical habit, and stand 
at the font as godfather — I mean witness — to 
some wretched infant who had done nothing to 
merit such a fate. " Lamentations Chapman " 
appeared as defendant in a suit in Chancery about 
1590. The exact date is not to be found, but 
the case was tried towards the close of Elizabeth's 
reign ("Chancery Suits, Elizabeth"). 

It is really hard to say why names of melan- 
choly import became so common. Perhaps it was 
a spirit morbidly brooding on the religious oppres- 
sions of the times ; perhaps it was bile. Any way, 
Camden says " Dust " and " Ashes " were names in 
use in the days of Elizabeth and James. These, no 
doubt, were translations of the Hebrew " Aphrah " 
into the " vulgar tongue," the name having become 


exceedingly common. Micah, in one of the most 
mournful prophecies of the Old Testament, says — 

"Declare ye it not at Gath, weep ye not at all : in the house of 
Aphrah roll thyself in the dust." 

Literally : " in the house of dust roll thyself in the 
dust." The name was quickly seized upon : 

" Sept., 1599. Baptized Affray, d. of Richard Manne of Lyme- 
hus." — Stepney. 

"May 15, 1576. Wedding of William Brickhead and Affera 
Lawrence." — St. Peter's, Cornhill. 

This last entry proves how early the name had 
arisen. In Kent it had become very common. 
The registers of Canterbury Cathedral teem with it: 

" 1601, June 5. Christened Afra, the daughter of William 

" 1614, Oct. 30. Christened Aphora, the daughter of Mr. Merre- 

" I0 35» J u ty 20 * Robert Fuller maryed Apherie Pitt" 

In these instances we see at a glance the origin 
of the licentious Aphra Behn's name, which looks 
so like a nom-de-plume, and has puzzled many. 
She was born at Canterbury, with the surname of 
Johnson, baptized Aphra, and married a Dutch 
merchant named Behn. When acting as a Govern- 
ment spy at Antwerp in 1666, she signs a letter 
" Aphara Behn " (C. S. P.), which is nearer the 
Biblical form than many others. It is just possible 
her father might have rolled himself several times 
in the dust had he lived to read some of his 


daughter's writings. Their tone is not Puritanic. 
The name has become obsolete ; indeed, it scarcely 
survived the seventeenth century, dying out within 
a hundred years of its rise. But it was very 
popular in its day. 

Rachel, in her dying pains, had styled, under 
deep depression, her babe Benoni (" son of my 
sorrow " ) ; but his father turned it into the more 
cheerful Benjamin ("son of the right hand"). Of 
course, Puritanism sided with the mother, and the 
Benonis flourished at a ratio of six to one over 
the Benjamins : 

" 1607. Christened Benony, sonneof Beniamyn Ruthin, mariner." 
— Stepney. 

" 1661, Dec. 20. Christened Margrett, d. of Bennoni Wel- 
lington, goldsmith." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1637, May 6. Order to transmit Benoni Bucke to England 
from Virginia."— "C. S. P. Colonial." 

" 1656, March 25. Petition of Benoni Honeywood." — "C. S. P. 

I don't think, however, all these mothers died in 
childbed. It would speak badly for the chirurgic 
skill of the seventeenth century if they did. It was 
the Church of Christ that was in travail. 

Ichabod was equally common. There was some- 
thing hard and unrelenting in Jael (already men- 
tioned) that naturally suited the temper of every 
fanatic : 

" 16 1 3, July 28. Christened Jaell, d. of Roger Manwaryng, 
preacher." — St. Helen, Bishopsgate. 



Mehetabell had something in it, probably its length, 
that made it popular among the Puritan faction 
It lasted well, too : 

" 1680, March 24. Married Philip Penn and Mehittabela Hilder." 
—Cant. Cath. 

" 1693, May 21. Baptized Mehetabell, d. of Jeremiah Hart, 
apothecary."— St Dionis Backchurch. 

But while Deborah, an especial pet of the fanatics, 
Sara, Rebecca, Rachel, Zipporah, and Leah were 
in high favour as Old Testament heroines, none 
had such a run as Abigail : 

" 1573, Oct. Abigoll Cumberford, christened."— Stepney. 

" 161 7, Oct. 15. Christened Abbigale, d. of John Webb, sho- 
maker." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" I0 35> J an - l 9' Married Jarrett Birkhead and Abigaile White- 
head."— Ditto. 

" May 30, 1 721. Married Robert Elles and Abigail Six." — Cant. 

Few Scripture names made themselves so 
popular as this. At the conclusion of the sixteenth 
century it was beginning its career, and by Queen 
Anne's day had reached its zenith. When the 
Cavalier was drinking at the alehouse, he would 
waggishly chant through his nose, with eye up- 
turned — 

" Come, sisters, and sing 
An hymne to our king, 

Who sitteth on high degree. 
The men at Whitehall, 
And the wicked, shall fall, 
And hey, then, up go we ! 


' A match,' quoth my sister Joice, 
'Contented,' quoth Rachel, too ; 
Quoth Abigaile, ' Yea,' and Faith, 'Verily,* 
And Charity, ' Let it be so.'" 

A curious error has been propagated by writers 
who ought to have known better. It is customarily- 
asserted that abigail, as a cant term for a waiting- 
maid, only arose after Abigail Hill, the Duchess 
of Marlborough's cousin, became waiting-woman 
to the queen, and supplanted her kinswoman. 
Certainly we find both Swift and Fielding using 
the term after this event. But there is good reason 
for believing that the sobriquet is as old as 
Charles I.'s reign. Indeed, there can be no reason- 
able doubt but that we owe the term to the enor-r 
mous popularity of Beaumont's comedy, " The 
Scornful Ladie," written about 161 3, and played in 
16 1 6. The chief part falls to the lot of " Abigal, 
a waiting-gentlewoman," as the dramatis persona 
styles her, the playwright associating the name 
and employment after the scriptural narrative. 
But Beaumont knew his Bible well. 

That Abigail at once became a cant term is 
proved by " The Parson's Wedding," written by 
Killigrew some time between 1645 and 1650. 
Wanton addresses the Parson: 

" Was she deaf to your report? 
Parson. Yes, yes. 

Wanton. And Ugly, her abigail, she had her say, too ? 
Parson. Yes, yes." 


That this sentence would never have been 
written but for Beaumont's play, there can be no 
reasonable doubt. It was performed so late as 
1783. In 1673, after yearly performances, it was 
published as a droll, and entitled "The False 
Heir." In 1742 it appears again under the title 
of " The Feigned Shipwreck." Samuel Pepys, in 
his Diary, records his visits to the playhouse 
to see " The Scornful Lady " at least four 
times, viz. 1661, 1662, 1665, and 1667. Writing 
December 2y, 1665, he says — 

" By coach to the King's Playhouse, and there saw 'The Scornful 
Lady' well acted : Doll Common doing Abigail most excellently." 

Abigail passed out of favour about the middle 
of the last century, but Mrs. Masham's artifices 
had little to do with it. The comedy had done 
its work, and Abigail coming into use, like Malkin 
two centuries before, as the cant term for a 
kitchen drab, or common serving wench, as is 
sufficiently proved by the literature of the day, 
the name lost caste with all classes, and was 
compelled to bid adieu to public favour. 

This affection for the Old Testament has never 
died out among the Nonconformists. The large 
batch of names I have already quoted from 
modern directories is almost wholly from the 
earlier Testament. Wherever Dissent is strong-, 


there will be found a large proportion of these 
names. Amongst the passengers who went out 
to New England in James and Charles's reigns will 
be found such names as Ebed-meleck Gastrell, 
Oziell Lane, Ephraim Howe, Ezechell Clement, 
Jeremy Clement, Zachary Cripps, Noah Fletcher, 
Enoch Gould, Zebulon Cunninghame, Seth Smith, 
Peleg Bucke, Gercyon Bucke (Gershom), Rachell 
Saunders, Lea Saunders, Calebb Carr, Jonathan 
Franklin, Boaz Sharpe, Esau del a Ware, Pharaoh 
Flinton, Othnieli Haggat, Mordecay Knight, Obe- 
diah Hawes, Gamaliell Ellis, Esaias Raughton, 
Azarias Pinney, Elisha Mallowes, Malachi Mal- 
lock, Jonadab Illett, Joshua Long, Enecha Fitch 
(seemingly a feminine of Enoch), and Job Perridge. 
Occasionally an Epenetus Olney, or Nathaniell 
Patient, or Epaphroditus Haughton, or Cornelius 
Conway, or Feleaman Dickerson (Philemon), or 
Theophilus Lucas, or Annanias Mann is met with ; 
but these are few, and were evidently selected for 
their size, the temptation to poach on apostolic 
preserves being too great when such big game 
was to be obtained. Besides, they were not in 
the calendar ! These names went to Virginia, and 
they are not forgotten. 


III. Objectionable Scripture Names. 
Camden says — 

"In times of Christianity, the names of most holy and vertuous 
persons, and of their most worthy progenitors, were given to 
stirre up men to the imitation of them, whose names they bare. 
But succeeding ages, little regarding St. Chrysostome's admonition 
to the contrary, have recalled prophane names, so as now Diana,. 
Cassandra, Hyppolitus, Venus, Lais, names of unhappy disastre, are 
as rife somewhere, as ever they were in Paganisme." — " Remaines," 
P- 43- 

The most cursory survey of our registers proves 
this. Captain Hercules Huncks and Ensign 
Neptune Howard fought under the Earl of 
Northumberland in 1640 (Peacock's "Army 
List of Roundheads and Cavaliers "). Both were 

"1643, Feb. 6. Buried Paris, son of William and Margaret 
Lee." — St. Michael, Spurriergate, York. 

"1670, March 13. Baptized Cassandra, d. of James Smyth." 
— Banbury. 

" ID 79> July 2. Buried Cassandra, ye wife of Edward Williams." 
— St. Michael, Barbados, (Hotten). 

" 1631, May 26. Married John Cotton and Venus * Levat." — St. 
Peter, Cornhill. 

Cartwright, the great Puritan, attacked these 
names in 1575, as "savouring of paganism" 
(Neal, v. p. xv. Appendix). It was a pity he did 
not include some names in the list of his co- 

* The following entry is a curiosity : 

" 1756, May 24. Buried Love Venus Rivers."— St. Peter, Corn- 


religionists, for surely Tamar and Dinah were 
just as objectionable as Venus or Lais. The 
doctrine of a fallen nature could be upheld, and 
the blessed state of self-abasement maintained, 
without a daily reminder in the shape of a Bible 
name of evil repute. Bishop Corbett brought it 
as a distinct charge against the Puritans, that they 
loved to select the most unsavoury stories of Old 
Testament history for their converse. In the 
" Maypole " he makes a zealot minister say — 

"To challenge liberty and recreation, 
Let it be done in holy contemplation. 
Brothers and sisters in the fields may walk, 
Beginning of the Holy Word to talk : 
Of David and Uria's lovely wife, 
Of Tamar and her lustful brother's strife." 

One thing is certain, these names became popular : 

" 1610, March. Baptized Bathsheba, d. of John Hamond, of 
Ratcliffe. "—Stepney. 

" 1672, Feb. 23. Buried Bathsheba, wife of Richard Brinley, 
hosier." — St. Denis Backchurch. 

The alternate form of Bath-shua (1 Chron. iii. 5) 
was used, although the clerks did not always know 
how to spell it : 

" 1609, July 1. Baptized Bathshira and Tabitha, daughters of 
Sir Antonie Dering, Knight. 

" 1609, July 5. Buried Bathshira and Tabitha, ds. of Sir 
Antonie Dering, Knight, being twines." — Pluckley, Kent. 

" 1601, Jan. Baptized Thamar, d. of Henry Reynold." — Stepney. 

" 1 69 1, Nov. 20. Baptized Tamar, d. of Francis and Tamar 
Lee." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 


" 1698, April 10. Buried Tamar, wife of Richard Robinson, of 
Fell-foot."— Cartmel. 

As for Dinah, she became a great favourite from 
her first introduction ; every register contains her 
name before Elizabeth's death : 

" 1585, Aug. 15. Christening of Dina, d. of John Lister, barbor. 
"1591, Aug. 21. Buried Mrs. Dina Walthall, a vertuous yong 
woman, 30 years. " — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Crossing the Atlantic with the Pilgrim Fathers, 
she settled down at length as the typical negress ; 
yet Puritan writers admitted that when she " went 
out to see the daughters of the land," she meant to 
be seen of the sons also ! 

Taylor, the Water-poet, seems to imply that 
Goliath was registered at baptism by the Puritan : 

" Quoth he, * what might the child baptized be ? ' 
Was it a male She, or a female He ? ' — 
' I know not what, but 'tis a Son,' she said. — 
' Nay then,' quoth he, ' a wager may be laid 
It had some Scripture name.' — ' Yes, so it had,' 
Said she : ' but my weak memory's so bad, 
I have forgot it : 'twas a godly name, 
Tho' out of my remembrance be the same : 
Twas one of the small prophets verily : 
'Twas not Esaias, nor yet Jeremy, 
Ezekiel, Daniel, nor good Obadiah, 
Ah, now I do remember, 'twas Goliah ! ' " 

Pharaoh occurs, and went out to Virginia, where 
it has ever since remained. It is, as already shown, 
familiar enough in Yorkshire. 

Of New Testament names, whose associations are 


of evil repute, we may mention Ananias, Sapphira, 
and Antipas. Ananias had become so closely 
connected with Puritanism, that not only did 
Dryden poke fun at the relationship in the " Al- 
chemist," but Ananias Didman became the cant 
term for a long-winded zealot preacher. So says 

"1603, Sep. 12. Buried Ananias, sonne of George Warren, 17 
years." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1621, Sep. Baptized Ananias, son of Ananias Jarratt, glass- 
maker. "— Stepney. 

Sapphira occurs in Bunhill Fields : 

" Here lyeth the body of Mrs. Sapphira Lightmaker, wife of 
Mr. Edward Liglitmaker, of Broadhurst, in Sussex, gent. She 
died in the Lorde, Dec. 20, 1704, aged 81 years." 

She was therefore born in 1633. Her brother 
(they were brought up Presbyterians) was Robert 
Leighton, who died Archbishop of Glasgow. 

Drusilla, again, was objectionable, but per- 
chance her character was less historically known 
then : 

" 1622. Baptized Drusilla, d. of Thomas Davis."— Ludlow. 

Antipas, curiously enough, was almost popular, 
although a murderer and an adulterer : 

" 1633, Feb. 28. Baptized Antipas, sonne of Robert Barnes, of 

Shad well. " — Stepney. 

" 1662. Petition of Antipas Charrington. "— " Cal. St. P. Dom." 
"1650. Antipas Swinnerton, Tedbury, wollman." — " Tokens of 

Seventeenth Century." 


Dr. Increase Mather, the eminent Puritan, in his 
work entitled '* Remarkable Providences," pub- 
lished at Boston, U.S.A., in 1684, has a story of 
an interposition in behalf of his friend Antipas 

Of other instances, somewhat later, Sehon Stace, 
who lived in Warding in 1707 ("Suss. Arch. Coll.," 
xii. 254), commemorates the King of the Amorites, 
Milcom Groat (" Cal. St. P.," 1660) representing on 
English soil "the abomination of the children of 
Ammon." Dr. Pusey and Mr. Spurgeon might be 
excused a little astonishment at such a conversion 
by baptism. 

Barrabas cannot be considered a happy choice : 

"Buried, 1713, Oct. 18, Barabas, sonne of Barabas Bowen." — 
All- Hallows, Barking. 

Mr. Maskell draws attention to the name in his 
history of that church. There is something so 
emphatic about " now Barrabas was a robber," that 
thoughts of theft seem proper to the very name. 
We should have locked up the spoons, we feel 
sure, had father or son called upon us. The father 
who called his son " Judas-not-Iscariot" scarcely 
cleared the name of its evil associations, nor would 
it quite meet the difficulty suggested by the 
remark in " Tristram Shandy : " 

" Your Billy, sir— would you for the world have called him 


Judas ? . . . Would you, sir, if a Jew of a godfather had proposed 
the name of your child, and offered you his purse along with it — 
would you have consented to such a desecration of him ? " 

We have all heard the story of Beelzebub. If 
the child had been inadvertently so baptized, a 
remedy might have been found in former days by 
changing the name at confirmation. Until 1552, 
the bishop confirmed by name. Archbishop 
Peccham laid down a rule : 

"The minister shall take care not to permit wanton names, which 
being pronounced do sound to lasciviousness, to be given to children 
baptized, especially of the female sex : and if otherwise it be done, 
the same shall be changed by the bishop at confirmation. " 

That this law had been carelessly followed after 
the Reformation is clear, else Venus Levat, already 
quoted, would not have been married in 163 1 
under that name. Certainly Dinah and Tamar 
come under the ban of this injunction. 

Curiously enough, the change of name was 
sanctioned in the case of orthodox names, for 
Lord Coke says — 

"If a man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after, at his 
confirmation by the Bishop, he is named John, his name of con- 
firmation shall stand." 

He then quotes the case of Sir Francis Gawdie, 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 
whose name by baptism was Thomas, Thomas 
being changed to Francis at confirmation. He 


holds that Francis shall stand ("Institutes," i. iii.). 
This practice manifestly arose out of Peccham's 
rule, but it is strange that wanton instances should 
be left unchanged, and the orthodox allowed to 
be altered. 

Arising out of the Puritan error of permitting 
names like Tamar and Dinah to stand, modern 
eccentricity has gone very far, and it would be 
satisfactory to see many names in use at present 
forbidden. I need not quote the Venuses of our 
directories. Emanuel is of an opposite character, 
and should be considered blasphemy. We have 
have not adopted Christ yet, as Dr. Doran re- 
minded us they have done in Germany, but my 
copy of the London Directory shows at least one 
German, bearing the baptismal name of Christ, 
at present dwelling in the metropolis. Puritan 
eccentricity is a trifle to this. 

IV. Losses. 
(a.) The Destruction of Pet Forms. 

But let us now notice some of the more disastrous 
effects of the great Hebrew invasion. The most 
important were the partial destruction of the nick 
forms, and the suppression of diminutives. The 
English pet names disappeared, never more to 


return. Desinences in "cock," "kin," "elot," "ot," 
" et," " in," and " on," are no more found in cur- 
rent literature, nor in the clerk's register. Why 
should this be so ? An important reason strikes 
us at once. The ecclesiastic names on which the 
enclytics had grown had become unpopular well- 
nigh throughout England. It was an English, not 
a Puritan prejudice. With the suppression of the 
names proper went the desinences attached to 
them. The tree being felled, the parasite decayed. 
Another reason was this : the names introduced 
from the Scriptures did not seem to compound 
comfortably with these terminatives. The Hebrew 
name would first have to be turned into a nick 
form before the diminutive was appended. The 
English peasantry had added "in" " ot" "kin" and 
"cock " only to the nickname, never to the baptismal 
form. It was Wat-kin, not Walterkin; Bat-kin, 
not Bartholomewkin ; Wilcock, not Williamcock ; 
Colin, not Nicholas-in ; Philpot, not Philipot. But 
the popular feeling for a century was against 
turning the new Scripture names into curt nick 
forms. As it would have been an absurdity 
to have appended diminutives to sesquipedalian 
names, national wit, rather than deliberate plan, 
prevented it. If it was irreverent, too, to curtail 
Scripture names, it was equally irreverent to give 


them the diminutive dress. To prove the absolute 
truth of my statement, I have only to remind the 
reader that, saving " Nat-kin," not one single Bible 
name introduced by the Reformation and the 
English Bible has become conjoined with a dimi- 

The immediate consequence was this ; the dimi- 
nutive forms became obsolete. Emmott lingered 
on till the end of the seventeenth century; nay, 
got into the eighteenth : 

"Emmit, d. of Edward and Ann Buck, died 24 April, 1726, aged 
6 years." — Hawling, Gloucester. 

But it was only where it was not known as a 
form of Emma, and possibly both might exist in 
the same household. I have already furnished 
instances of Hamlet. Here is another : 

"The Rev. Hamlet Marshall, D.D., died in the Close, Lincoln, 
in 1652. With him dwelt his nephew, Hamlet Joyce. He bequeaths 
legacies in his will to Hamlet Pickerin and Hamlet Duncalf, and 
his executor was his son, Hamlet Marshall." — Notes and Queries, 
February 14, 1880. 

It lasted till the eighteenth century. But nobody 
knew by that time that it was a pet name of 
Hamon, or Hamond ; nay, few knew that the 

* Even Nathaniel may have been a pre- Reformation name, for 
Grumio says, " Call forth Nathaniel, Joseph, Nicholas, Philip, 
Walter, Sugarsop, and the rest ; let their heads be sleekly combed " 
("Taming of the Shrew," Act iv. sc. I.), where he is manifestly 
using the old names. 


surname of Hammond had ever been a baptismal 
name at all : 

11 1620, Jan. 3. Buried Hamlet Rigby, Mr. Askew's man." — St. 
Peter, Cornhill. 

"1620. Petition of Hamond Franklin."— ««Cal. S. P. Dom.," 

It is curious to notice that Mr. Hovenden, in his 
"Canterbury Register," published 1878, for the 
Harleian Society, has the following entries : — 

" 1627, Aprill 3. Christened Ham 'on, the sonn of Richard 

" 1634. Jan. 18. Christened Damaris, daughter of Mr. Ham'on 
Leucknor. " 

Turning to the index, the editor has styled them 
Hamilton Struggle and Hamilton Leucknor. 
Ham'on, of course, is Hammon, or Hammond. 
I may add that some ecclesiastic, a critic of my 
book on " English Surnames," in the Guardian, 
rebuked me for supposing that Emmot could be 
from Emma, and calmly put it down as a form 
of Aymot ! What can prove the effect of the 
Reformation on old English names as do such 
incidents as these ? 

An English monarch styled his favourite Peter 
Gaveston as " Piers," a form that was sufficiently 
familiar to readers of history ; but when an anti- 
quary, some few years ago, found this same 
Gaveston described as " Perot," it became a diffi- 
culty to not a few. The Perrots or Parratts of 


our London Directory might have told them of 
the old-fashioned diminutive that had been 
knocked on the head with a Hebrew Bible. 

Collet, from Nicholas, used as a feminine name, 
died out also. The last instance I know of is — 

" 1629, Jan. 15. Married Thomas Woollard and Collatt Har- 
grave."— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Colin, the other pet form, having got into our 
pastoral poetry, lingered longer, and may be said 
to be still alive : 

"1728. Married Colin Foster and Beulah Digby." — Somerset 
House Chapel. 

The last Wilmot I have discovered is a certain 
Wilmote Adams, a defendant in a Chancery suit 
at the end of Elizabeth's reign (" Chancery Suits : 
Elizabeth"), and the last Philpot is dated 1575 : 

11 1575, Aug. 26. Christened Philpott, a chylde that was laide 
at Mr Alderman Osberne's gatt."— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

All the others perished by the time James I. 
was king. Guy, or Wyatt, succumbed entirely, 
and the same may be said of the rest. Did we 
require further confirmation of this, I need only in- 
quire : Would any Yorkshireman now, as he reads 
over shop-fronts in towns like Leeds or Bradford, 
or in the secluded villages of Wensleydale or Swale- 
dale, the surnames of Tillot and Tillotson, Em- 
mett and Emmotson, Ibbott, Ibbet, Ibbs, and 


Ibbotson, know that, twenty years before the in- 
troduction of our English Bible, these were not 
merely the familiar pet names of Matilda, Emma, 
and Isabella, but that as a trio they stood abso- 
lutely first in the scale of frequency ? Nay, they 
comprised more than forty-five per cent, of the 
female population. 

The last registered Ibbot or Issot I have seen 
is in the Chancery suits at the close of Queen 
Bess's reign, wherein Ibote Babyngton and Izott 
Barne figure in some legal squabbles (" Chancery 
Suits : Elizabeth," vol. ii.). As for Sissot, or 
Drewet, or Doucet, or Fawcett, or Hewet, or 
Philcock, or Jeffcock, or Batkin, or Phippin, or 
Lambin, or Perrin, they have passed away — their 
place knoweth them no more. What a remark- 
able revolution is this, and so speedy ! 

Failing our registers, the question may arise 
whether or not in familiar converse the old pet 
forms were still used. Our ballads and plays 
preserve many of the nick forms, but scarcely a 
pet form is to be seen later than 1590. In 1550 
Nicnolas Udall wrote "Ralph Roister Doister," 
in the very commencement of which Matthew 
Merrygreek "says or sings " — 

" Sometime Lewis Loiterer biddeth me come near : 
Somewhiles Watkin Waster maketh us good cheer. " 


Amongst the dramatis persona are Dobinet 
Doughty, Sim Suresby, Madge Mumblecrust, Tibet 
Talkapace, and Annot Aliface. A few years later 
came "Gammer Gurton's Needle." Both Diccon 
and Hodge figure in it : two rustics of the most 
bucolic type. Hodge, after relating how Gib the 
cat had licked the milk-pan clean, adds — 

" Gog's souls, Diccon, Gib our cat had eat the bacon too." 

Immediately after this, again, in 1568 was 
printed "Like will to Like." The chief charac- 
ters are Tom Tosspot, Hankin Hangman, Pierce 
Pickpurse, and Nichol Newfangle. Wat Wag- 
halter is also introduced. But here may be said 
to end this homely and contemporary class of 
play-names. 'Tis true, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
" Beggar's Bush," Higgen (Higgin) is one of the 
"three knavish beggars," but the scene is laid 
in Flanders. 

Judging by our songs and comedies, the dimi- 
nutive forms went down with terrible rapidity, 
and were practically obsolete before Elizabeth's 
death. But this result was more the work of the 
Reformation at large than Puritanism. 

(b.) The Decrease of Nick Forms. 

This was not all. The nick forms saw them- 
selves reduced to straits. The new godly names, 


I have said, were not to be turned into irreverent 
cant terms. From the earliest day of the Re- 
formation every man who gave his child a Bible 
name stuck to it unaltered. Ebenezer at baptism 
was Ebenezer among the turnips, Ebenezer with 
the milk-pail, and Ebenezer in courtship; while 
Deborah, who did not become Deb till Charles I.'s 
reign, would Ebenezer him till the last day she 
had done scolding him, and put " Ebenezer " care- 
fully on his grave, to prove how happily they had 
lived together ! 

As for the zealot who gradually forged his way 
to the front, he gave his brother and sister in 
the Lord the full benefit of his or her title, 
whether it was five syllables or seven. There can 
be no doubt that these Hebrew names did not 
readily adapt themselves to ordinary converse with 
the world. Melchisedek and Ebedmelech were 
all right elbowing their way into the conventicle, 
but Melchisedek dispensing half-pounds of butter 
over the counter, or Ebedmelech carrying milk- 
pails from door to door, gave people a kind of 
shock. These grand assumptions suggested 
knavery. One feels certain that our great-grand- 
mothers had a suspicion of tallow in the butter, 
and Jupiter Pluvius in the pail. 

Nor did these excavated names harmonize with 


the surnames to which they were yoked. Adoniram 
was quaint enough without Byfield, but both (as 
Butler, in " Hudibras," knew) suggested something 
slightly ludicrous. Byron took a mean advan- 
tage of this when he attacked poor Cottle, the 
bookseller and would-be writer : 

" O Amos Cottle ! Phoebus ! what a name 
To fill the speaking trump of future fame ! 
O Amos Cottle ! for a moment think 
What meagre profits spring from pen and ink." 

Amos is odd, but Amos united to Cottle makes 
a smile irresistible. 

Who does not agree with Wilkes, who, when 
speaking to Johnson of Dryden's would-be rival, 
the city poet, says — 

"Elkanah Settle sounds so queer, who can expect much from 
that name ? We should have no hesitation to give it for John Dry- 
den, in preference to Elkanah Settle, from the names only, without 
knowing their different merits " ? 

And Sterne, as the elder Disraeli reminds us, in 
one of his multitudinous digressions from the life of 
" Tristram Shandy," makes the progenitor of that 
young gentleman turn absolutely melancholy, as he 
conjures up a vision of all the men who 

' ' might have done exceeding well in the world, had not their 
characters and spirits been totally depressed, and Nicodemas'd into 


Even Oliver Goldsmith cannot resist styling the 
knavish seller of green spectacles by a conjunction 


of Hebrew and English titles as Ephraim Jenkin- 
son ; and his servant, who acts the part of a Job 
Trotter (another Old Testament worthy, again) to 
his master, is, of course, Abraham ! 

But, oddly as such combinations strike upon the 
modern tympanum, what must not the effect have 
been in a day when a nickname was popular 
according as it was curt ? How would men rub 
their eyes in sheer amazement, when such con- 
junctions as Ebedmelech Gastrell, or Epaphroditus 
Haughton, or Onesiphorus Dixey, were introduced 
to their notice, pronounced with all sesquipedalian 
fulness, following upon the very heels of a long 
epoch of traditional one-syllabled Ralphs, Hodges, 
Hicks, Wats, Phips, Bates, and Balls (Baldwin). 
Conceive the amazement at such registrations as 
these : 

"1599. Sep. 23. Christened Aholiab, sonne of Michaell Nicol- 
son, cordwainer." — St Peter, Cornhill. 

" J 569, J une *• Christened Ezekiell, sonne of Robert Pownall." 
—Cant. Cath. 

" 1582, April 1. Christened Melchisadeck, sonne of Melchiza- 
deck Bennet, poulter." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1590, Dec. 20. Christened Abacucke, sonne of John Tailer." 

" 1595, Nov. Christened Zabulon, sonne of John Griffin."— 

" 1603, Sep. 15. Buried Melchesideck King." — Cant. Cath. 

" 1645, July 19. Buried Edward, sonne of Mephibosheth 
Robins."— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1660, Nov. 5. Buried Jehostiaphat (sic) Star."— Cant. Cath. 


"1611, Oct. 21. Baptized Zipporah, d. of Richard Beere, of 
Wapping. " — Stepney. 

The " Chancery Suits " of Elizabeth contain a 
large batch of such names ; and I have already 
enumerated a list of " Pilgrim Fathers " of James's 
reign, whose baptisms would be recorded in the 
previous century. 

But compare this with the fact that the leading 
men in England at this very time were recognized 
only by the curtest of abbreviated names. In that 
very quaint poem of Heywood's, " The Hierarchie 
of Blessed Angels," the author actually makes it 
the ground of an affected remonstrance : 

Marlowe, renowned for his rare art and wit, 
Could ne'er attain beyond the name of Kit, 
Although his Hero and Leander did 
Merit addition rather. Famous Kid 
Was called but Tom . Tom Watson, though he wrote 
Able to make Apollo's self to dote 
Upon his muse, for all that he could strive, 
Yet never could to his full name arrive. 
Tom Nash, in his time of no small esteem, 
Could not a second syllable redeem. 

Mellifluous Shakespeare, whose enchanting quill 
Commanded mirth or passion, was but Will : 
And famous Jonson, though his learned pen 
Be dipped in Castaly, is still but Ben." 

However, in the end, he attributes the familiarity 
to the right cause : 

" I, for my part, 
Think others what they please, accept that heart 


That courts my love in most familiar phrase J 
And that it takes not from my pains or praise, 
If any one to me so bluntly come : 
I hold he loves me best that calls me Tom." 

It is Sir Christopher, the curate, who, in " The 
Ordinary," rebels against H Kit : " 

" Andrew. What may I call your name, most reverend sir? 

Bagshoi. His name's Sir Kit. 

Christopher. My name is not so short : 
'Tis a trisyllable, an't please your worship ; 
But vulgar tongues have made bold to profane it 
With the short sound of that unhallowed idol 
They call a kit. Boy, learn more reverence ! " 

Bagshot. Yes, to my betters." 

We need not wonder, therefore, that the come- 
dists took their fun out of the new custom, espe- 
cially in relation to their length and pronunciation 
in full. In Cowley's H Cutter of Colman Street," 
Cutter turns Puritan, and thus addresses the 
colonel's widow, Tabitha : 

" Sister Barebottle, I must not be called Cutter any more : that 
is a name of Cavalier's darkness ; the Devil was a Cutter from the 
beginning : my name is now Abednego : I had a vision which 
whispered to me through a key-hole, ' Go, call thyself Abednego.'" 

In his epilogue to this same comedy, Cutter is 
supposed to address the audience as a " congrega- 
tion of the elect," the playhouse is a conventicle, 
and he is a "pious cushion-thumper." Gazing about 
the theatre, he says — through his nose, no doubt — 

"But yet I wonder much not to espy a 
Brother in all this court called Zephaniah." 

This is a better rhyme even than Butler's 

11 Their dispensations had been stifled 
But for our Adoniram Byfield." 

In Brome's " Covent Garden Weeded," the arrival 
at the vintner's door is thus described : 

" Rooksbill. Sure you mistake him, sir. 

Vintner. You are welcome, gentlemen : Will, Harry, Zachary ! 
Gabriel. Zachary is a good name. 

Vintner. Where are you? Shew up into the Phoenix." — Act. ii. 
sc. 2. 

The contrast between Will or Harry, the nick 
forms, and Zachary * the full name, is intentionally 
drawn, and Gabriel instantly rails at it. 

In "Bartholomew Fair," half the laughter that 
convulsed Charles II., his courtiers, and courtezans, 
was at the mention of Ezekiel, the cut-purse, or 
Zeal-of-the-land, the baker, who saw visions ; while 
the veriest noodle in the pit saw the point of 
Squire Cokes' perpetually addressing his body-man 
Humphrey in some such style as this : 

" O, Numps ! are you here, Numps ? Look where I am, Numps, 
and Mistress Grace, too ! Nay, do not look so angrily, Numps : 
my sister is here and all, I do not come without her." 

How the audience would laugh and cheer at a 

sally that was simply manufactured of a repetition 

of the good old-fashioned name for Humphrey ; 

and thus a passage that reads as very dull fun 

* Zachary was the then form of Zachariah, as Jeremy of Jere- 
miah. Neither is a nickname. 


indeed to the ears of the nineteenth century, 
would seem to be brimful of sarcastic allusion to 
the popular audience of the seventeenth, especially 
when spoken by such lips as Wintersels. 

The same effect was attempted and attained in 
the "Alchemist." Subtle addresses the deacon: 

M What's your name ? 

Ananias. My name is Ananias. 

Subtle. Out, the varlet 

That cozened the Apostles ! Hence away ! 
Flee, mischief ! had your holy consistory 
No name to send me, of another sound, 
Than wicked Ananias ? Send your elders 
Hither, to make atonement for you, quickly, 
And give me satisfaction : or out goes 
The fire . . . 

If they stay threescore minutes ; the aqueity, 
Terreity, and sulphureity 
Shall run together again, and all be annulled, 
Thou wicked Ananias ! " 

Exit Ananias, and no wonder. Of course, the pit 
would roar at the expense of Ananias. But Abel, 
the tobacco-man, who immediately appears in his 
place, is addressed familiarly as " Nab : " 

" Face. Abel, thou art made. 

Abel. Sir, I do thank his worship. 

Face. Six o' thy legs more will not do it, Nab. 
He has brought you a pipe of tobacco, doctor. 

Abel. Yes, sir ; I have another thing I would impart 

Face. Out with it, Nab. 

Abel. Sir, there is lodged hard by me 

A rich young widow." 

To some readers there will be little point in 


this. They will say "Abel," as an Old Testament 
name, should neither have been given to an un- 
puritanic character, nor ought it to have been 
turned into a nickname. This would never have 
occurred to the audience. Abel, or Nab, had 
been one of the most popular of English names 
for at least three centuries before the Reformation. 
Hence it was never used by the Puritans, and was 
as a matter of course, the undisturbed property of 
their enemies. Three centuries of bad company 
had ruined Nab's morals. The zealot would none 
of it * 

But from all this it will be seen that a much 
better fight was made in behalf of the old nick 
forms than of the diminutives. By a timely rally, 
Tom, Jack, Dick, and Harry were carried, against 
all hindrances, into the Restoration period, and 
from that time they were safe. Wat, Phip, Hodge, 
Bat or Bate, and Cole lost their position, but so 
had the fuller Philip, Roger, Bartholomew, and 
Nicholas. But the opponents of Puritanism carried 
the war into the enemy's camp in revenge for this, 
and Priscilla, Deborah, Jeremiah, and Nathaniel, 
although they were rather of the Reformation than 
Puritanic introductions, were turned by the time 

* The story of Cain and Abel would be popularized in the 
" mysteries." Abelot was a favourite early pet form (vide " English 
Surnames," index j also p. 82). 


of Charles I. into the familiar nick forms of Pris, 
Deb, Jerry, and Nat. The licentious Richard 
Brome, in " The New Academy," even attempts a 
curtailment of Nehemiah : 

" lady Nestlecock. Negh, Negh! 
Nehemiah. Hark ! my mother comes. 
Lady N. Where are you, childe ? Negh ! 
Nehemiah. I hear her neighing after me. " 

Act iv. sc. 1. (1658). 

It was never tried out of doors, however, and 
the experiment was not repeated. Brome was 
still more scant in reverence to Damaris. In 
" Covent Garden Weeded " Madge begins " the 
dismal story : " 

11 This gentlewoman whose name is Damaris 

Nick. Damyris, stay : her nickname then is Dammy : so we 

may call her when we grow familiar ; and to begin that familiarity — 

Dammy, here's to you. (Drinks.)" 

After this she is Dammy in the mouth of 
Nicholas throughout the play. This, too, was a 
failure. Indeed, it demonstrates a remarkable 
reverence for their Bible on the part of the English 
race, that every attempt to turn one of its names 
into a nick form (saving in some three or four 
instances) has ignominiously failed. We mean, of 
course, since the Reformation. 

The Restoration was a great restoration of nick 
forms. Such names as had survived were again 
for a while in full favour, and the reader has only 


to turn to the often coarse ballads and songs con- 
tained in such collections as Tom d'Urfey's " Pills 
to Purge Melancholy" to see how Nan, Sis, Sib, 
Kate, and Doll had been brought back to popular 
favour. It was but a spurt, however, in the main. 
As the lascivious reaction from the Puritanic 
strait-lacedness in some degree spent itself, so did 
the newly restored fashion, and when the eighteenth 
century brought in a fresh innovation, viz. the classic 
forms, such as Beatrix, Maria, Laetitia, Carolina, 
Louisa, Amelia, Georgina, Dorothea, Prudentia, 
Honora — an innovation that for forty years ran like 
an epidemic through every class of society, and 
was sarcastically alluded to by Goldsmith in Miss 
Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia Skeggs, and the 
sisters Olivia and Sophia — the old nick forms once 
more bade adieu to English society, and now 
enjoy but a partial favour. But Bill, Tom, Dick, 
and Harry still hold on like grim death. Long 
may they continue to do so ! 

(c.) The Decay of Saint and Festival Names. 

There were some serious losses in hagiology. 
Names that had figured in the calendar for 
centuries fared badly ; Simon, Peter, Nicholas, 
Bartholomew, Philip, and Matthew, from being 
first favourites, lapsed into comparative oblivion. 


Some virgins and martyrs of extra-Biblical repute, 
like Agnes, Ursula, Catharine, Cecilia, or Blaze, 
crept into the registers of Charles's reign, but they 
had then become but shadows of their former selves. 
' Sis ' is often found in D'Urfey's ballads, but it 
only proves the songs themselves were old ones, or 
at any rate the choruses, for Cecilia was practically 
obsolete : 

"1574, Oct. 8. Buried Cisly Weanewright, ye carter's wife. " — 
St. Peter, Cornhill. 

"1578, June 1. Buried Cissellye, wife of Gilles Lambe."— St. 
Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1547, Dec. 26. Married Thomas Bodnam and Urcylaye 
Watsworth."— Ditto. 

" 1654, Sep. 20. Buried Ursley, d. of John Fife."— St. Peter, 

It was now that Awdry gave way : 

"1576, Sept. 7. Buryed Awdry, the widow of — Seward." — 
St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1610, May 27. Baptized Awdrey, d. of John Cooke, butcher." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

St. Blaze,* the patron saint of wool-combers and 
the nom-de-plume of Gil Bias, has only a church 
or two to recall his memory to us now. But he 
lived into Charles's reign : 

" Blaze Winter was master of Stodmarsh Hospital, when it was 
surrendered to Queen Elizabeth, 1575." — Hasted's " History of 

* "Jan, 1537. Item: payed to Blaze for brawdering a payre of 
sieves for my lady's grace, xx 8 . 1 ' — " Privy Purse Expenses, Princess 


"1550, May 23. Baptized Blaze, daughter of — Goodwinne." 
—St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" J 555> J ulie 21. Wedding of Blase Sawlter and Collis 
Smith."— Ditto. 

" 1662, May 6. Blase Whyte, one of ye minor cannons, to 
Mrs. Susanna Wright, widow." — Cant. Cath. 

This is the last instance I have seen. Hillary 
shared the same fate : 

" 1547, Jan. 30. Married Hillarye Finch and Jane Whyte."— 
St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1557, June 27. Wedding of Hillary Wapolle and Jane 
Garret."— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1 593> J an « 2 °- Christening of Hillary, sonne of Hillary Turner, 
draper." — Ditto. 

Bride is rarely found in England now : 

"1556, May 22. Baptized Bryde, daughter of — Stoakes. 
" 1553, Nov. 27. Baptized Bryde, daughter of — Faunt." — St. 
Peter, Cornhill. 

Benedict, which for three hundred years had 
been known as Bennet, as several London churches 
can testify, became well-nigh extinct ; but the 
feminine Benedicta, with Bennet for its shortened 
form, suddenly arose on its ashes, and flourished 
for a time : 

" 15 17, Jan. 28. Wedding of William Stiche and Bennet Bennet, 
widow. — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

"1653, Sep. 29. Married Richard Moone to Benedicta Rolfe." 
—Cant. Cath. 

11 1 575» Jan. 25, Baptized Bennett, son of John Langdon." — St. 
Columb Major. 

These feminines are sometimes bothering. Look, 
for instance, at this : 


"1596, Feb. 6. Wedding of William Bromley and Mathew 
Barnet, maiden, of this parish." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

"1655, Sep. 24. Married Thomas Budd, miller, and Mathew 
Larkin, spinster." — Ditto. 

The true spelling should have been Mathea, which, 
previous to the Reformation, had been given to 
girls born on St. Matthew's Day.* The nick form 
Mat changed sexes. In " Englishmen for my 
Money " Walgrave says — 

" Nay, stare not, look you here : no monster I, 
But even plain Ned, and here stands Mat my wife. " 

Appoline, all of whose teeth were extracted at 
her martyrdom with pincers, was a favourite saint 
for appeal against toothache. In the Homily 
" Against the Perils of Idolatry," it is said — 

" All diseases have their special saints, as gods, the curers of them : 
the toothache, St. Appoline." t 

Scarcely any name for girls was more common 
than this for a time ; up to the Commonwealth 
period it contrived to exist. Take St. Peter, Corn- 
hill, alone : 

" J 593> J an - *3« Christened Apeline, d. of John Moris, cloth- 

* Philip is found just as frequently for girls as boys : 

" 1588, March 15. Baptized Phillip, daughter of John Younge. 

" 1587, Feb. 7. Baptized Phillip, daughter of James Laurence." — 
St. Columb Major. 

t In the Oxford edition, 1S59, is a foot-note : "Appoline was 
the usual name in England, as Appoline in France, for Apollonia, a 
martyr at Alexandria, who, among other tortures, had all her teeth 
beaten out." 


"1609, M ch . 11. Christened Apoline, d. of Will m . Burton, 

" 16 1 7, June 29. Buried Appelyna, d. of Thomas Church." 

Names from the great Church festivals fared as 
badly as those from the hagiology. The high day 
of the ecclesiastical calendar is Easter. We have 
more relics of this festival than any other. Pasche 
Oland or Pascoe Kerne figure in the Chancery 
suits of Elizabeth. Long before this the Hundred 
Rolls had given us a Huge fil. Pasche, and a con- 
temporary record contained an Antony PascJieson. 
The different forms lingered till the Common- 
wealth : 

"1553, M*. 23. Baptized Pascall, son of John Davye."— St. 
Dionis Back church. 

" 1651, M*. 18. Married Thomas Strato and Paskey Prideaux." 
—St. Peter's, Cornhill. 

"1747, May 4. Baptized Rebekah, d. of Pasko and Sarah 
Crocker." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1582, June 14. Baptized Pascow, son-in-law of Pascowe John." 
— St. Columb Major. 

Pascha Turner, widow, was sister of Henry Parr, 
Bishop of Worcester. 

The more English "Easter" had a longer sur- 
vival, but this arose from its having become con- 
founded with Esther. To this mistake it owes 
the fact that it lived till the commencement of the 
present century : 

" April, 1595. Christened Easter, daughter of Thomas Coxe, of 
Wapping." — Stepney. 


"May 27, 1764. Buried Easter Lewis, aged 56 years." — Lidney, 

"July 27, 1654. Married Thomas Burton, marriner, and Easter 
Taylor."— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Epiphany, or Theophania (shortened to Tiffany), 

was popular with both sexes, but the ladies got the 

chief hold of it. 

" Megge Merrywedyr, and Sabyn Sprynge, 
Tiffany Twynkeler, fayle for no thynge," 

says one of our old mysteries. This form suc- 
cumbed at the Reformation. Tyffanie Seamor 
appears as defendant about 1590, however ("Chan- 
cery Suits : Eliz."), and in Cornwall the name 
reached the seventeenth century : 

" 1594, Nov. 7. Baptized Typhenie, daughter of Sampson Bray. 
" 1600, June 21. Baptized Tiffeny, daughter of Harry Hake." — 
St. Columb Major. 

The following is from Banbury register : 

"1586, Jan. 9. Baptized Epiphane, ye sonne of Ambrose 
Bentley." * 

Epiphany Howarth records his name also about 
1 590 (" Chancery Suits : Eliz."), and a few years 
later he is once more met with in a State paper 
(C. S. P. 1623-25) : 

" 1623, June. Account of monies paid by Epiphan Haworth, of 
Herefordshire, recusant, since Nov. II, 161 1, £b 100." 

* Mr. Beesley, in his "History of Banbury" (p. 456), curiously 
enough speaks of this Epiphany as a Puritan example. I need not 
say that a Banbury zealot would have as soon gone to the block as 
impose such a title on his child. 



This Epiphan is valuable as showing the transition 
state between Epiphania and Ephin, the latter 
being the form that ousted all others : 

" 1563, March 14. Christening of Ephin King, d. of — King. 

" 1504, June 30. Christening of Effam, d. of John Adlington. 

" 1020, March 30. Frauncis, sonne of Alexander Brounescome, 
and Effym, his wife, brought a head at Mr. Vo well's house. 

" 1635, Jan. 28. Buried Epham Vowell, widow." — St. Peter, 

But Ephin was not a long liver, and by the time 
of the Restoration had wholly succumbed. The 
last entry I have seen is in the Westminster Abbey 
register : 

" 1692, Jan. 25. Buried Eppifania Cakewood, an almsman's wife." 

Pentecost was more sparely used. In the " Rotuli 
Litterarum Clausarum in Turri Londonensi " occur 
both Pentecost de London (1221) and Pentecost 
Servicus, and a servitor of Henry III. bore the only 
name of " Pentecost " (" Inquis., 1 3 Edw. I.," No. 1 3). 
This name was all but obsolete soon after the 
Reformation set in, but it lingered on till the end 
of the seventeenth century. 

"1577, May 25. Baptized Pentecost, daughter of Robert Rose- 
gan." — St. Columb Major. 

" 1610, May 27. Baptized Pentecost, d. of William Tremain." 
— Ditto. 

" August 7, 1696. Pentecost, daughter of Mr. Ezekel and Pente- 
cost Hall, merchant, born and baptized." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

Noel shared the same fate. The Hundred Rolls 
furnish a Noel de Aubianis, while the " Materials 


for a History of Henry VII." (p. 503) mentions a 
Nowell Harper : 

" i486, July 16. General pardon to Nowell Harper, late of 
Boyleston, co. Derby, gent." 

" 1545, Dec. 20. Baptized Nowell, son of William Mayhowe." — 
St. Columb Major. 

"1580, March I. Baptized James, son of Nowell Mathew." — 

" 1627. Petition of Nowell Warner."—" C. S. P. Domestic," 

Noel still struggled gamely, and died hard, seeing 
the eighteenth century well in : 

" 1 7c 6, April 23. Noell Whiteing, son of Noell and Ann White- 
ing, linendraper, baptized." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

Again the Reformation, apart from Puritanism, 
had much to do with the decay of these names. 

(d.) The Last of some Old Favourites. 

There were some old English favourites that the 
Reformation and the English Bible did not imme- 
diately crush. Thousands of men were youths 
when the Hebrew invasion set in, and lived unto 
James's reign. Their names crop up, of course, in 
the burial registers. Others were inclined to be 
tenacious over family favourites. We must be 
content, in the records of Elizabeth's and even 
James's reign, to find some old friends standing 
side by side with the new. The majority of them 
were extra-Biblical, and therefore did not meet 


with the same opposition as those that savoured of 
the old ecclesiasticism. Nevertheless, this new 
fashion was telling on them, and of most we may 
say, " Their places know them no more." 

Looking from now back to then, we see this the 
more clearly. We turn to the " Calendar of State 
Papers," and we find a grant, dated November 5, 
1607, to Fulk Reade to travel four years. Shortly 
afterwards (July 15, 1609), we come across a warrant 
to John Carse, of the benefit of the recusancy of 
Drew Lovett, of the county of Middlesex. Casting 
our eye backwards we speedily reach a grant or 
warrant in 1603, wherein Gavin* Harvey is men- 
tioned. In 1604 comes Ingram Fyser. One after 
another these names occur within the space of five 
years — names then, although it was well in James's 
reign, known of all men, and borne reputably by 
many. But who will say that Drew, or Fulk, or 
Gavin, or Ingram are alive now ? How they were to 
be elbowed out of existence these very same records 
tell us ; for within the same half-decade we may 
see warrants or grants relating to MatatJiias Mason 

* Gawain, Gawen, or Gavin lingered till last century in Cumber- 
land and the Fumess district. The surname of Gunson in the same 
parts shows that " Gun " was a popular form. Hence, in the Hun- 
dred Rolls, Matilda fil. Gunne or Eustace Gunnson. The London 
Directory forms are Gowan, Gowen, and Gowing : 

"1593, Nov. 7. Buried Sarra Bone, wife of Gawen Bone." — 
St. Dionis Backchurch. 


(April 7, 1610) or Gersome Holmes (January 23, 
1608). Jethro Forstall obtains licence, November 
12, 1604, to dwell in one of the alms-rooms of 
Canterbury Cathedral ; while Melchizedec Brad- 
wood receives sole privilege, February 18, 1608, of 
printing Jewel's " Defence of the Apology of the 
English Church." The enemy was already within 
the bastion, and the call for surrender was about 
to be made. 

Take another specimen a few years earlier. 
In the Chancery suits at the close of Elizabeth's 
reign, we find a plaintiff named Goddard Freeman, 
another styled Anketill Brasbridge, a defendant 
bearing the good old title of Frideswide Heysham, 
while a fourth endeavours to secure his title to 
some property under the signature of Avery 
Howlatt. Hamlett Holcrofte and Hammett Hyde 
are to be met with (but we have spoken of them), 
and such other personages as Ellice Heye, Morrice 
Cowles, and Gervase Hatfield. Within a few 
pages' limit we come across Dogory Garry, Digory 
Greenfield, Digory Harrit, and Degory Hollman. 
These names of Goddard, Anketill, Frideswide, 
Avery, Hamlet, Ellice, Morrice, Gervase, and 
Digory were on everybody's lips when Henry VIII. 
was king. Who can say that they exist now ? 
Only Maurice and Gervase enjoy a precarious 


existence. A breath of popular disregard would 
blow them out. Avery held out, but in vain : 

"Avery Terrill, cooke at ye Falcon, Lothbury, 1650." — "Tokens 
of Seventeenth Century." 

But what else do we see in these same registers ? 
We are confronted with pages bearing such names 
as Esaye Freeman (Isaiah), or Elizar Audly (Eliezer), 
or Seth Awcocke, or Urias Babington, or Ezekias 
Brent,— and this not forty years after the Refor- 
mation. These men must have been baptized in 
the very throes of the great contest. 

Another " Calendar of State Papers," bearing 
dates between 1590 and 1605, contains the names 
of Coiet Carey (1580) and Amice Carteret (1599), 
alongside of whom stands Aquila Wyke (1603). 
Here once more we are reminded of two pretty 
baptismal names that have gone the way of the 
others. It makes one quite sad to think of these 
national losses. Amice, previous to the Reforma- 
tion, was a household favourite, and Colet a perfect 
pet. Won't somebody come to the rescue ? Why 
on earth should the fact that the Bible has been 
translated out of Latin into English strip us of 
these treasures ? 

Turn once more to our church registers. Few 
will recognize Thurstan as a baptismal name : 

" 1544, May 1 1. Married Thryston Hogkyn and Letyce Knight." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 



" 1573, Nov. 15. Wedding of Thrustone Bufford and Amies 
Agnes] Dyckson." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Drew and Fulk are again found : 

"1583, April 16. Buried Drew Hevvat, sonne of Nicholas 

" 1583, March 8. Buried Foulke Phillip, sonne of Thomas 
Phillip, grocer." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Take the following, dropped upon hap-hazard as 
I turn the pages of St. Dionis Backchurch : 

" 1540, Oct. 25. Buried Jacomyn Swallowe. 

" 1543, Aug. 3. Buried Awdrye Hykman. 

" I 543> J une I2 « Married Bonyface Meorys and Jackamyn 

" 1546, Nov. 23. Christened Grizill, daughter of — Deyne. 

M 1557, Nov. 8. Buried Austin Clarke. 

" 1567, April 22. Married Richard Staper and Dennis Hewyt. 

" 1573, Sep. 25. Married John Carrington and Gyllian Lovelake. 

" 1574, Oct. 23. Buried Joyce, d. of John Bray. 

" 1594, Nov. I. Married Gawyn Browne and Sibbell Halfhed." 

So they run. How quaint and pretty they 
sound to modern ears ! Amongst the above I 
have mentioned some girl-names. The change is 
strongly marked here. It was Elizabeth's reign 
saw the end of Joan: Jane Grey set the fashion- 
able Jane going ; Joan was relegated to the 
milkmaid, and very soon even the kitchen wench 
would none of it. Joan is obsolete; Jane is showing 
signs of dissolution.* 

* A good instance of the position in society of Jane and Joan is 
seen in Rowley's "A Woman never Vexed," where, in the dramatis 
pasoncz, Jane is daughter to the London Alderman, and Joan 
servant-wench to the Widow. The play was written about 1630. 


It was Elizabeth's reign saw the end of Jill, or 
Gill, which had been the pet name of Juliana for 
three centuries : 

" 1586, Feb. 5. Christening of Gillian Jones, daughter of 
Thomas Jones, grocer." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1573, Sep. 25. Married John Carrington, Cheape, and Gillian 
Lovelake." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

In one of our earlier mysteries Noah's wife had 
refused to enter the ark. To Noah she had said — 

!* Sir, for Jak nor for Gille 
"Wille I turne my face, 
Tille I have on this hille 
Spun a space." 

It lingered on till the close of James's reign. In 
1619 we find in " Satyricall Epigrams" — 

" Wille squabbled in a tavern very sore, 
Because one brought a gill of wine — no more : 
' Fill me a quart,' quoth he, ' I'm called Will ; 
The proverb is, each jfacke shall have his Gill. 7 " 

But Jill had become a term for a common street 
jade, like Parnel and Nan. All these disappeared 
at this period, and must have sunk into disuse, 
Bible or no Bible. A nanny-house, or simple 
" nanny," was well known to the loose and dissolute 
of either sex at the close of the sixteenth century. 
Hence, in the ballad " The Two Angrie Women of 
Abington," Nan Lawson is a wanton ; while, in 
" Slippery Will," the hero's inclination for Nan is 
anything but complimentary ; 


" Long have I lived a bachelor's life, 
And had no mind to marry ; 
But now I faine would have a wife, 
Either Doll, Kate, Sis, or Mary. 
These four did love me very well, 

I had my choice of Mary ; 
But one did all the rest excell, 
And that was pretty Nanny. 
" Sweet Nan did love me deare indeed," etc 

Respectable people, still liking the name, changed 
it to Nancy, and in that form it still lives. 

Parnel, the once favourite Petronilla, fell under 
the same blight as Peter, and shared his fate ; 
but her character also ruined her. In the regis- 
ters of St. Peter, Cornhill, we find the following 
entries : — 

" 1539, May 20. Christened Petronilla, ignoti cognominis. " 

" 1594, Sep. 15. Christening of Parnell Griphin,, d. of John 

Griphin, felt-maker." 

" 1586, April 17. Christening of Parnell Averell, d. of William 

Averell, merchant tailor." 

Two other examples may be furnished : — 

" 1553, Nov. 15. Peternoll, daughter of William Agar, bap- 
tized." — St. Columb Major. 

" 1590, April. Pernell, d. of Antony Barton, of Poplar." — 
Stepney, London. 

The Restoration did not restore Parnel, and the 

Sibyl had a tremendous run in her day, and 
narrowly escaped a second epoch of favour in the 
second Charles's reign. Tib and Sib were always 


placed side by side. Burton, speaking of "love 
melancholy," says — 

"One grows too fat, another too lean: modest Matilda, pretty- 
pleasing Peg, sweet singing Susan, mincing merry Moll, dainty 
dancing Doll, neat Nancy, jolly Joan, nimble Nell, kissing Kate, 
bouncing Bess with black eyes, fair Phillis with fine white hands, 
fiddling Frank, tall Tib, slender Sib, will quickly lose their grace, 
grow fulsome, stale, sad, heavy, dull, sour, and all at last out of 
fashion. " 

The " Psalm of Mercie," too, has it : 

" ' So, so,' quoth my sister Bab, 

And ' Kill 'urn,' quoth Margerie ; 
' Spare none,' cry's old Tib ; ' No quarter,' says Sib, 
' And, hey, for our monachie. ' " 

In " Cocke Lorelle's Bote," one of the personages 
introduced is — 

" Sibby Sole, mylke wyfe of Islynton." 

" Sibb Smith, near Westgate, Canterbury, 1 650. " Half-penny 
Tokens of Seventeenth Century." 

" 1590, Aug. 30. Christening of Cibell Overton, d. of Lawrence 
Overton, bowyer." 

Three names practically disappeared in this same 
century — Olive, Jacomyn or Jacolin, and Grissel : 

" 1 58 1, Feb. 17. Baptized Olyff, daughter of Degorie Stubbs." 
— St. Columb Major. 

"1550, Dec. n. Christning of Grysell, daughter of — Plum- 
mer." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1598, March 15. Buried Jacolyn Backley, widow." — St. Dionis 

Olive was a great favourite in the west of Eng- 
land, and was restored by a caprice of fashion as 
Olivia in the eighteenth century. It was the pro- 


perty of both sexes, and is often found in the dress 
of "Olliph," "Olyffe," and "Olif." From being 
a household pet, Dorothy, as Doll, almost dis- 
appeared for a while. Doll and Dolly came back 
in the eighteenth century, under the patronage of 
the royal and stately Dorothea. What a run it 
again had ! Dolly is one of the few instances of 
a really double existence. It was the rage from 
1450 to 1570; it was overwhelmed with favour 
from 1750 to 1820. Dr. Syntax in his travels 
meets with three Dollys. Napoleon is besought in 
the rhymes of the day to 

" quit his folly, 
Settle in England, and many Dolly." 

Once more Dolly, saving for Dora, has made 
her bow and exit. I suppose she may turn up 
again about 1990, and all the little girls will be 
wearing Dolly Vardens. 

Barbara, with its pet Bab, is now of rarest use. 
Dowse, the pretty Douce of earlier days, is defunct, 
and with it the fuller Dowsabel : 

"1565, Sep. 9. Buried Dowse, wife of John Thomas." — St. 
Dioftis Backchurch. 

Joyce fought hard, but it was useless : 

" 1563, Sep. 8. Buried Joyce, wife of Thomas Armstrong." — 
St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1575, April 5. Baptized Joyes, daughter of John Lyttacott."— 
St. Columb Major. 


" 1652, Aug. 18. Married Joseph Sumner and Joyce Stallow- 
hace." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Lettice disappeared, to come back as Laetitia in 
the eighteenth century : 

"1587, June 19. Married Richard Evannes and Lettis Warren." 
— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Amery, or Emery, the property of either sex, 
lost place : 

" 1584, April 9. Buried Amery Martin, widow, of Wilsdon." — 
St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1668. Emerre Bradley, baker, Hartford."—" Tokens of Seven- 
teenth Century." 

A vice shared the same fate : 

"Avis Kingston and Amary Clerke, widow, applied for arrears 
of pay due to their husbands, May 13, 1656." — C. S. P. 

" 1 590-1, Jan. Christened Avis, d. of Philip Cliff." — Stepney. 

"1600, Feb. 6. Baptized Avice, daughter of Thomas Bennett." 
— St. Columb Major. 

" 1623, August 5. Christened Thomas, the sonne of James 
Jennets, and Avice his wife." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Thomasine requires a brief notice. Coming into 
use as a fancy name about 1450, it seems to have 
met with no opposition, and for a century and a 
half was a decided success. It became familiar to 
every district in England, north or south, and is 
found in the registers of out-of-the-way villages 
in Derbyshire, as plentifully as in those of the 
metropolitan churches : 

"1538, Nov. 30. Married Edward Bashe and Thomeson Agar." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch, 


"1582, Nov. 1. Baptized Tamson, daughter of Richard Hodge. " 
— St. Columb Major. 

" 1622, Jan. 19. Christened Thomas, the sonne of Henery 
Thomson, haberdasher, and of Thomazine his wife." — St. Peter, 

" 1620, Jan. 21. Baptized Johanna, fil. Tamsin Smith, adulterina. " 
— Minster. 

" 1640, Jan. 31. Buried Thomasing, filia William Sympson."— 
Wirksworth, Derbyshire. 

In other registers such forms as Thomasena, 
Thomesin, Thomazin, Tomasin, and Thomasin 
occur. In Cowley's " Chronicle," too, the name 
is found : 

" Then Jone and Jane and Audria, 
And then a pretty Thomasine, 
And then another Katharine, 
And then a long et csetera." 

V. The General Confusion. 

But what a state of confusion does all this 
reveal ! By the time of the Commonwealth, there 
was the choice of three methods of selection open 
to the English householder in this matter of names. 
He might copy the zealot faction, and select his 
names from the Scriptures or the category of 
Christian graces ; he might rally by . the old 
English gentleman, who at this time was generally 
a Cavalier, and Dick, Tom, Harry, or Dolly, his 
children ; or he might be careless about the whole 
matter, and mix the two, according to his caprice 


or fancy. That Royalist had no bad conception of 
the state of society in 1648, when he turned off 
verses such as these : 

"And Greenwich shall be for tenements free 
For saints to possess Pell-Mell, 
And where all the sport is at Hampton Court 
Shall be for ourselves to dwell 
Chorus, "Tis blessed,' quoth Bathsheba, 

And Clemence, ' We're all agreed.' 
' 'Tis right,' quoth Gertrude, 'And fit,' says sweet Jude, 
And Thomasine, ' Yea, indeed.' 

" What though the king proclaims 
Our meetings no more shall be ; 
In private we may hold forth the right way, 
And be, as we should be, free. 
Chorus. ' O very well said,' quoth Con ; 

' And so will I do,' says Franck ; 
And Mercy cries, 'Aye,' and Mat, ' Really,* 
'And I'm o' that mind,' quoth Thank." 

As we shall show in our next chapter, " Thank " 
was no imaginary name, coined to meet the exi- 
gencies of rhyme. Thanks, however, to the good 
sense of the nation, an effort was made in behalf 
of such old favourites as John, William, Richard, 
Robert, and Thomas. So early as 1643, Thomas 
Adams, Puritan as he was, had delivered himself 
in a London pulpit to the effect that "he knew 
' Williams ' and ' Richards ' who, though they bore 
names not, found in sacred story, but familiar to 
the country, were as gracious saints " as any who 


bore names found in it (" Meditations upon the 
Creed "). The Cavalier, we know, had deliberately 
stuck by the old names. A political skit, already 
referred to, after running through a list of all the 
new-fangled names introduced by the fanatics, con- 
cludes : 

"They're just like the Gadaren's swine, 

Which the devils did drive and bewitch : 
An herd set on evill 
Will run to the de-vill 

And his dam when their tailes do itch, 
' Then let 'em run on ! ' 
Says Ned, Tom, and John. 
' Ay, let 'um be hanged ! ' quoth Mun : 
'They're mine,' quoth old Nick, 
* And take 'um,' says Dick, 
' And welcome ! ' quoth worshipful Dun. 

' And God blesse King Charles ! ' quoth George, 

' And save him,' says Simon and Sill ; 
' Aye, aye, ' quoth old Cole and each loyall soul, 

1 And Amen, and Amen ! ' cries Will. " 

Another ballad, lively and free as the other, pub- 
lished in 1648, and styled "The Anarchie, or the 
Blest Reformation," after railing at the confusion 
of things in general, and names in particular, 
concludes with the customary jolly old English 
flourish : 

" ' A health to King Charles ! ' says Tom ; 
1 Up with it,' says Ralph like a man ; 
' God bless him,' says Moll, ' And raise him,' says Doll, 
' And send him his owne,' says Nan." 

The Restoration practically ended the conflict, 


but it was a truce ; for both sides, so far as nomen- 
clature is concerned, retained trophies of victory, 
and, on the whole, the Hebrew was the gainer. At 
the start he had little to lose, and he has filled the 
land with titles that had lain in abeyance for four 
thousand years. The old English yeoman has lost 
many of his most honoured cognomens, but he can 
still, at least, boast one thing. The two names 
that were foremost before the middle of the 
twelfth century stand at this moment in the same 
position. Out of every hundred children baptized 
in England, thirteen are entered in the register as 
John or William. The Cavalier, too, can boast that 
"Charles,"* although there were not more of that 
name throughout the length and breadth of En^- 
land at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign than 
could be counted on the fingers of one hand, now 

* There seems to have been some difficulty in forming the femi- 
nines of Charles, all of which are modern. Charlotte was known in 
England before the queen of George III. made it popular, through 
the brave Charlet la Tremouille, Lady Derby ; but it was rarely 
used : 

"1670, Oct. 26. Sir Sam 1 . Morland to Carola Harsnet." — 
Westminster Abbey. 

" 1703. Charlotte Eliza, d. of Mr. John Harmand, a French 
minister. " — Hammersmith. 

"9 Will. III. June 29. Caroletta Hasting, defendant." — Decree 
Rolls, MSS. Record Office. 

Carolina, Englished into Caroline, became for a while the favourite, 
but Charlotte ran away with the honours after the beloved princess 
of that name died. 


occupies the sixth place among male baptismal 

Several names, now predominant, were for 
various reasons lifted above the contest. George 
holds the fourth position among boys; Mary and 
Elizabeth, the first and second among girls. George 
dates all his popularity from the last century, and 
Mary was in danger of becoming obsolete at the 
close of Elizabeth's reign, so hateful had it become 
to Englishmen, whether Churchmen or Presby- 
terians. It was at this time Philip, too, lost a 
place it can never recover. But the fates came 
to the rescue of Mary, when the Prince of Orange 
landed at Torbay, and sate with James's daughter 
on England's throne. It has been first favourite 
ever since. As for Elizabeth, a chapter might, be 
written upon it. Just known, and no more, at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, it was speedily 
popularized in the " daughter of the Reformation." 
The Puritans, in spite of persecution and other 
provocations, were ever true to "Good Queen 
Bess." The name, too, was scriptural, and had 
not been mixed up with centuries of Romish 
superstition. Elizabeth ruled supreme, and was 
contorted and twisted into every conceivable shape 
that ingenuity could devise. It narrowly escaped 
the diminutive desinence, for Ezot and Ezota occur 



to my knowledge four times in records between 
1500 and 1530. But Bess and Bessie took up 
the running, and, a century later, Bett and Betty. 
It will surprise almost all my readers, I suspect, 
to know that the " Lady Bettys " of the early part 
of last century were never, or rarely ever, chris- 
tened Elizabeth. Queen Anne's reign, even Wil- 
liam and Mary's reign, saw the fashionable rage 
for Latinized forms, already referred to, setting in. 
Elizabeth was turned into Bethia and Betha : 

" 1707, Jan. 2. Married Will m . Simonds and Bethia Ligboume." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1721. Married Charles Bawden to Bethia Thornton." — Somer- 
set House Chapel. 

" 1748. Married Adam Allyn to Bethia Lee." *— Ditto. 

The familiar form of this was Betty : 

" Betty Trevor, wife of the Hon. John Trevor, eldest d. of Sir 
Thomas Frankland, of Thirkleby, in the county of York, Baronet, 
ob. Dec. 28, 1742, ?etat. 25."—" Suss. Arch. Coll.," xvii. 148. 

* Bethia still lingers in certain families, but its origin has mani- 
festly been forgotten. In Notes and Queries, February 23, 1 86 1, Mr. 
\Y. A. Leighton deems the name an incorrect version of the scrip- 
tural Bithiah (1 Chron. iv. 18) ; while " G.," writing March 9, 1861, 
evidently agrees with this conclusion, for after saying that his 
aunt, a sister, and two cousins bear it, he adds, " They spell it 
Bethia and Bathia, instead of Bithiah, which is the accurate form" ! 
Miss Yonge also is at fault: " The old name of Bethia, to be found 
in various English families, probably came from an ancestral Beth 
on either Welsh, Scots, or Irish sides." She makes it Keltic. 

The latest instance of Bethia I have seen is the following, on a 
mural tablet in Kirkthorpe Church, York : — 

"Bethia Atkins, ob. Ap. 16th, 1851, aged 74." 


Bess was forgotten, and it was not till the 
present century that, Betty having become the 
property of the lower orders, who had soon learnt 
to copy their betters, the higher classes fell back 
once more on the Bessie of Reformation days. 

Meanwhile other freaks of fancy had a turn. 
Bessie and Betty were dropped into a mill, and 
ground out as Betsy. This, after a while, was 
relegated to the peasantry and artisans north of 
Trent. Then Tetty and Tetsy had an innings. 
Dr. Johnson always called his wife Tetty. Writing 
March 28, 1753, he says— 

u I kept this day as the anniversary of my Tetty's death, with 
prayer and tears in the morning." 

Eliza arose before Elizabeth died ; was popular 
in the seventeenth, much resorted to in the 
eighteenth, and is still familiar in the nineteenth 
century. Thomas Nash, in " Summer's Last Will 
and Testament," has the audacity to speak of the 
queen as — 

M that Eliza, England's beauteous queen, 
On whom all seasons prosperously attend." 

Dr. Johnson, in an epigram anent Colley Cibber 
and George II., says — 

" Augustus still survives in Maro's strain, 
And Spenser's verse prolongs Eliza's reign." 

But by the lexicographer's day, the poorer 


classes had ceased to recognize that Eliza and 
Betty were parts of one single name. They took 
up each on her own account, as a separate name, 
and thus Betty and Eliza were commonly met 
with in the same household. This is still fre- 
quently seen. The Spectator, the other day, 
furnished a list of our commonest font names, 
wherein Elizabeth is placed fourth, with 4610 
representatives in every 100,000 of the popula- 
tion. Looking lower down, we find "Eliza" ranked 
in the twenty-first place with 1507. This is 
scarcely fair. The two ought to be added to- 
gether ; at least, it perpetuates a misconception. 

< "7 > 



"And we have known Williams and Richards, names not found 
in sacred story, but familiar to our country, prove as gracious saints 
as any Safe-deliverance, Fight-the-good-fight-of-faith, or such like, 
which have been rather descriptions than names." — Thomas Adams, 
Meditations upon the Creed, 1629. 

" In giving names to children, it was their opinion that heathenish 
names should be avoided, as not so fit for Christians ; and also the 
names of God, and Christ, and angels, and the peculiar offices of the 
Mediator."— Neal, History of the Puritans, vol. I, ch. v. 1565. 

I. Introductory. 

There are still many people who are sceptical 
about the stories told against the Puritans in the 
matter of name-giving. Of these some are Non- 
conformists, who do not like the slights thus cast 
upon their spiritual ancestry ; unaware that while 
this curious phase was at its climax, Puritanism was 
yet within the pale of the Church of England. 
Others, having searched through the lists of the 
Protector's Parliaments, Commissioners, and army 
officers, and having found but a handful of odd 


baptismal names, declare, without hesitation, that 
these stories are wicked calumnies. Mr. Peacock, 
whose book on the "Army Lists of Roundheads 
and Cavaliers " is well worth study, says, in one of 
the numbers of Notes and Queries — 

"I know modern writers have repeated the same thing over and 
over again ; but I do not remember any trustworthy evidence of the 
Commonwealth time, or that of Charles II., that would lead us to 
believe that strange christian names were more common in those 
days than now. What passages have we on this subject in the 
works of the Restoration playwrights ? " 

This is an old mistake. If Mr. Peacock had 
looked at our registers from 1580 to 1640, instead 
of from 1640 to 1680, he would never have written 
the above. There is the most distinct evidence 
that during the latter portion of Elizabeth's reign, 
the whole of James's reign, and great part of 
Charles's reign, in a district roughly comprising 
England south of the Trent, and having, say, Ban- 
bury for its centre, there prevailed, amongst a 
certain class of English religionists, a practice of 
baptizing children by scriptural phrases, pious 
ejaculations, or godly admonitions. It was a 
practice instituted of deliberate purpose, as con- 
ducive to vital religion, and as intending to sepa- 
rate the truly godly and renewed portion of the 
community from the world at large. The Re- 
formation epoch had seen the English middle and 


lower classes generally adopting the proper names 
of Scripture. Thus, the sterner Puritan had found 
a list of Bible names that he would gladly have 
monopolized, shared in by half the English popu- 
lation. That a father should style his child Nehe- 
miah, or Abacuck, or Tabitha, or Dorcas, he 
discovered with dismay, did not prove that that 
particular parent was under any deep conviction of 
sin. This began to trouble the minds and con- 
sciences of the elect. Fresh limits must be created. 
As Richard and Roger had given way to Nathaniel 
and Zerrubabel, so Nathaniel and Zerrubabel must 
now give way to Leam-wisdom and Hate-evil. Who 
inaugurated the movement, with what success, and 
how it slowly waned, this chapter will show. 

There can be no doubt that it is entirely owing 
to Praise-God Barebone, and the Parliament that 
went by his name,* the impression got abroad in 
after days that the Commonwealth period was the 
heyday of these eccentricities, and that these re- 
markable names were merely adopted after con- 
version, and were not entered in the vestry-books 
as baptismal names at all. 

The existence of these names could not escape 

* " But the ridicule which falls on this mode of naming children 
belongs not to these times only, for the practice was in use lon°- 
before." — Harris, "Life of Oliver Cromwell," p. 342. 


the attention, of Lord Macaulay and Sir Walter 
Scott. The Whig historian has referred to Tribula- 
tion Wholesome and Zeal-of-the-land Busy almost 
as frequently as to that fourth-form boy for whose 
average (!) abilities to the very end of his literary 
life he entertained such a profound respect. Two 
quotations will suffice. In his " Comic Dramatists 
of the Restoration " he says, speaking of the Com- 
monwealth — 

"To know whether a man was really godly was impossible. But 
it was easy to know whether he had a plain dress, lank hair, no 
starch in his linen, no gay furniture in his house ; whether he talked 
through his nose, and showed the whites of his eyes ; whether 
he named his children Assurance, Tribulation, and Maher-shalal- 
Jiash-baz. " 

Again, in his Essay on Croker's "Boswell's Life 
of Johnson," he declares — 

"Johnson could easily see that a Roundhead who named all 
his children after Solomon's singers, and talked in the House of 
Commons about seeking the Lord, might be an unprincipled villain, 
whose religious mummeries only aggravated his fault." 

In " Woodstock," Scott has such characters as Zer- 
rubabel Robins and Merciful Strickalthrow, both 
soldiers of Oliver Cromwell ; while the zealot ranter 
is one Nehcmiah Holdenough. Mr. Peacock most 
certainly has grounds for complaint here, but not 
as to facts, only dates. 


II. Originated by the Presbyterian 

In Strype's "Life of Whitgift" (i. 255) we find 
the following statement : — 

" I find yet again another company of these fault-finders with the 
Book of Common Prayer, in another diocese, namely, that of 
Chichester, whose names and livings were these : William Hopkin- 
son, vicar of Salehurst ; Samuel Norden, parson of Hamsey ; 
Antony Hobson, vicar of Leominster ; Thomas Underdown, parson 
of St. Mary's in Lewes ; John Bingham, preacher of Hodeleigh ; 
Thomas Heley, preacher of Warbleton ; John German, vicar of 
Burienam ; and Richard Whiteaker, vicar of Ambreley. " 

I follow up the history of but two of these minis- 
ters, Hopkinson of Salehurst, and Heley of Warble- 
ton. Suspended by the commissary, they were 
summoned to Canterbury, December 6, 1583, and 
subscribed. Both being married men, with young 
families, we may note their action in regard to 
name-giving. The following are to be found in 
the register at Salehurst : 

"Maye 3, 1579, was baptized Persis (Rom. xvi. 12), the daughter 
of William Hopkinson, minister heare. 

"June 18, 1587, was baptized Stedfast, the sonne of Mr. William 
Bell, minister. 

" Nov. 3, 1588, was baptized Renewed, the doughter of William 
Hopkinson, minister. 

" Feb. 28, 1591, was baptized Safe-on-Highe, the sonne of Will m . 
Hopkinson, minister of the Lord's Worde there.* 

" Oct. 29, 1596. Constant, filia Thomse Lorde, baptisata fuit. 

* This child was buried a few days later. From the name given 
the father seems to have expected the event. 


"March, 1621. Rejoyce, filia Thomoe Lorde, baptisata fuit die 
10, et sepulta die 23. 

"November, 1646. Bethshua, doughter of Mr. John Lorde, 
minister of Salehurst, bapt. 22 die." 

These entries are of the utmost importance ; they 
begin at the very date when the new custom arose, 
and are patronized by three ministers in succession 
— possibly four, if Thomas Lorde was also a clergy- 

Heley's case is yet more curious. He had been 
prescribing grace-names for his flock shortly before 
the birth of his first child. He thus practises upon 
his own offspring : 

" Nov. 7, 1585. Muche-merceye, the sonne of Thomas Hellye, 

"March 26, 1587. Increased, the dather of Thomas Helly, 

" Maye 5, 1588. Sin-denie, the dather of Thomas Helly, minister. 

"Maye 25, 1589. Fear-not, the sonne of Thomas Helly, 

Under rectorial pressure the villagers followed suit ; 
and for half a century Warbleton was, in the names 
of its parishioners, a complete exegesis of justifica- 
tion by faith without the deeds of the law. Sorry- 
for-sin Coupard was a peripatetic exhortation to 
repentance, and No-merit Vynall was a standing 
denunciation of works. No register in England is 
better worth a pilgrimage to-day than Warbleton.* 

* From 15S5 to 1600, that is, in fifteen years, Warbleton register 
records mure than a hundred examples of eccentric Puritanism. 


Still confining our attention to Sussex and Kent, 
we come to Berwick : 

" 1594, Dec. 22. Baptized Continent, daughter of Hugh Walker, 

" 1602, Dec. 12. Baptized Christophilus, son of Hugh Walker." 
— Berwick, Sussex. 

I think the father ought to be whipped most 
incontinently in the open market who would inflict 
such a name on an infant daughter. They did not 
think so then. The point, however, is that the 
father w r as incumbent of the parish. 

A more historic instance may be given. John 
Frewen, Puritan rector of Northiam, Sussex, from 
1 583 to 1628, and author of "Grounds and Principles 
of the Christian Religion," had two sons, at least, 
baptized in his church. The dates tally exactly 
with the new custom : 

" 1588, May 26. Baptized Accepted, sonne of John Frewen. 
"1591, Sep. 5. Baptized Thankful, sonne of John Frewen." — 
Northiam, Sussex. 

Accepted* died Archbishop of York, being prebend 
designate of Canterbury so early as 1620 : 

" 1620, Sep. 8. Grant in reversion to Accepted Frewen of a 
prebend in Canterbury Cathedral."— "C. S. P. Dom." 

One more instance before we pass on. In two 

* This name crept into Yorkshire after Accepted Frewen became 
archbishop. "Thornton Church is a little episcopal chapel-of- 
ease, rich in Nonconformist monuments, as of Accepted Lister, and 
his friend Dr. Hale."— Mrs. Gaskell's "Charlotte Bronte," p. 37. 


separate wills, dated 1602 and 1604 (folio 25, Mon- 
tagu, " Prerog. Ct. of Cant," and folio 25, Harte, 
ditto), will be found references to " More-fruite and 
Faint-not, children of Dudley Fenner, minister of 
the Word of God " at Marden, in Kent. 

Now, this Dudley Fenner was a thoroughly 
worthy man, but a fanatic of most intolerant type. 
In 1583 we find him at Cranbrook, in Kent. An 
account of his sayings and doings was forwarded, 
says Strype, to Lord Burghley, who himself marked 
the following passage : — 

" Ye shall pray also that God would strike through the sides of 
all such as go about to take away from the ministers of the Gospel 
the liberty which is granted them by the Word of God. " 

But a curious note occurs alongside this passage in 
Lord Burghley 's hand : 

" Names given in baptism by Dudley Fenner : Joy-againe, From- 
above, More-fruit, Dust." — Whitgift, i. p. 247. 

Two of these names were given to his own 
children, as Cranbrook register shows to this day : 

" 1583, Dec. 22. Baptized More-fruit, son of Mr. Dudley Fenner." 
" 1585, June 6. Baptized Faint-not, fiL Mr. Dudley Fenner, 
concional digniss." 

Soon after this Dudley Fenner again got into 
trouble through his sturdy spirit of nonconformity. 
After an imprisonment of twelve months, he fled 
to Middleborough, in Holland, and died there 
about 1589. 


The above incident from Strype is interesting, 
for here manifestly is the source whence Camden 
derived his information upon the subject. In his 
quaint " Remaines," published thirty years later 
(1614), after alluding to the Latin names then in 
vogue, he adds : 

" As little will be thought of the new names, Free-Gift, Reforma- 
tion, Earth, Dust, Ashes, Delivery, More-fruit, Tribulation, The- 
Lord-is-near, More-triale, Discipline, Joy-againe, From-above, which 
have lately been given by some to their children, with no evill 
meaning, but upon some singular and precise conceite." 

Very likely Lord Burghley gave Fenner's selection 
to the great antiquary. 

Coming into London, the following case occurs. 
John Press was incumbent of St. Matthew, Friday 
Street, from 1573 to 1612: 

" 1584. Baptized Purifie, son of Mr. John Presse, parson." 

John Bunyan's great character name of Hopeful 
is to be seen in Banbury Church register. But 
such an eccentricity is to be expected in the parish 
over which Wheatley presided, the head-quarters, 
too, of extravagant Puritanism. We all remember 
drunken Barnaby : 

" To Banbury came I, O prophane one ! 
Where I saw a Puritane one, 
Hanging of his cat on Monday 
For killing of a mouse on Sunday." 

But the point I want to emphasize is that this 

Hopeful was Wheatley 's own daughter : 

" 1604, Dec. 21. Baptized Hope-full, daughter of William 


Take a run from Banbury into Leicestershire. 
A stern Puritan was Antony Grey, " parson and 
patron " of Burbach ; and he continued " a con- 
stant and faithfull preacher of the Gospell of Jesus 
Christ, even to his extreame old age, and for some 
yeares after he was Earle of Kent," as his tomb- 
stone tells us. He had twelve children, and their 
baptismal entries are worth recording : 

" 1593, April 29. Grace, daughter of Mr. Anthonie Grey. 
"1594, Nov. 28. Henry, son of ditto. 
"1596, Nov. 16. Magdalen, daughter of ditto. 
" 1598, May 8. Christian, daughter of ditto. 
" 1600, Feb. 2. Faith-my-joy, daughter of ditto.* 
" 1603, April 3. John, son of ditto. 

" 1604, Feb. 23. Patience, daughter of Myster Anthonie Grey, 

" 1606, Oct. 5. Jobe, son of ditto. 

1608, May 1. Theophilus, son of ditto. 

" 1609, March 14. Priscilla, daughter of ditto (died). 

"1613, Sept. 19. Nathaniel, son of ditto. 

H 1615, May 7. Presela, daughter of ditto. 

Why old Antony was persuaded of the devil to 
christen his second child by the ungodly agnomen 
of Henry, we are not informed. It must have 
given him many a twinge of conscience afterwards. 
Had the Puritan clergy confined these vagaries 
to their own nurseries, it would not have mattered 

* Faith-my-joy was buried June 12, 1602. While the name was 
Puritan in the sense that it would never have been given but for the 
zealots, it was merely a translation of the Purefoy motto, "Pure Foi 
ma Joi." Antony turned it into a spiritual allusion. 


much. But there can be no doubt they used 
their influence to bias the minds of godparents 
and witnesses in the same direction. We have 
only to pitch upon a minister who came under the 
archbishop's or Lord Treasurer's notice as disaf- 
fected, seek out the church over which he presided, 
scan the register of baptisms during the years of 
his incumbency, and a batch of extravagant names 
will at once be unearthed. In the villages of 
Sussex and Kent, where the personal influence 
of the recalcitrant clergy seems to have been 
greatest, the parochial records teem with them. 

Thus was the final stage of fanaticism reached, 
the year 1580 being as nearly as possible the 
exact date of its development. Thus were English 
people being prepared for the influx of a large 
batch of names which had never been seen before, 
nor will be again. The purely Biblical names, 
those that commemorated Bible worthies, swept 
over the whole country, and left ineffaceable im- 
pressions. The second stage of Puritan excess, 
names that savour of eccentricity and fanaticism 
combined, scarcely reached England north of 
Trent, and, for lack of volume, have left but the 
faintest traces. They lasted long enough to cover 
what may be fairly called an epoch, and extended 
just far enough to embrace a province. The epoch 


was a hundred years, and the province was from 
Kent to Hereford, making a small arc northwards, 
so as to take in Bedfordshire, Leicestershire, Buck- 
inghamshire, and Oxfordshire. The practice, so 
far as the bolder examples is concerned, was a 
deliberate scheme on the part of the Presbyterian 
clergy. On this point the evidence is in all respects 

III. Curious Names not Puritan. 

Several names found in the registers at this time, 
though commonly ascribed to the zealots, must be 
placed under a different category. For instance, 
original sin and the Ninth Article would seem to 
be commemorated in such a name as Original. 
We may reject Camden's theory : 

"Originall may seem to be deducted from the Greek origines, that 
is, borne in good time," 

inasmuch as he does not appear to have believed 
in it himself. The name, as a matter of fact, was 
given in the early part of the sixteenth century, 
in certain families of position, to the eldest son 
and heir, denoting that in him was carried on the 
original stock. The Bellamys of Lambcote Grange, 
Stainton, are a case in point. The eldest son for 
three generations bore the name ; viz. Original 
Bellamy, buried at Stainton, September 12, 1619, 


aged 80 ; Original, his son and heir, the record of 
whose death I cannot find ; and Original, his son 
and heir, who was baptized December 29, 1606. 
The first of these must have been born in 1539, 
far too early a date for the name to be fathered 
upon the Puritans. Original was in use in the 
family of Babington, of Rampton. Original Bab- 
ington, son and heir of John Babington, was a con- 
temporary of the first Original Bellamy (Nicholl's 
" Gen. et Top.," viii.). 
Another instance occurs later on : 

" 1635, ^ a y 2I - These under-written names are to be trans- 
ported to St. Christopher's, imbarqued in the Matthew of London, 
Richard Goodladd, master, per warrant from ye Earle of Carlisle : 

" Originall Lowis, 28yeres," etc. — Hotten's ''Emigrants," p. 81. 

Sense, a common name in Elizabeth and James's 
reigns, looks closely connected with some of the 
abstract virtues, such as Prudence and Temperance. 
The learned compiler of the " Calendar of State 
Papers (1637-38) seems to have been much bothered 
with the name : 

" 1638, April 23. Petition of Seuce Whitley, widow of 
Thomas Whitley, citizen, and grocer." 

The suggestion from the editorial pen is that this 
Seuce (as he prints it) is a bewildered spelling of 
Susey, from Susan ! The fact is, Seuce is a be- 
wildered misreading on the compiler's part of 
Sense, and Sense is an English dress of the foreign 



Senchia, or Sancho, still familiar to us in Sancho 
Panza. Several of the following entries will prove 
that Sense was too early an inmate of our registers 
to be a Puritan agnomen : 

" 1564, Oct. 15. Baptized Saints, d. of Francis Muschamp. 

" 1565, Nov. 25. Buried Sence, d. of ditto. 

" 1559, June 13. Married Matthew Draper and Sence Blackwell. 

" 1 570-1, Jan. 15. Baptized Sence, d. of John Bowyer." — 
Camberwell Church. 

"1651. Zanchy Harvyn, Grocer's Arms, Abbey Milton." — 
" Tokens of Seventeenth Century." 

" 1661, June. Petition of Mrs. Zanchy Mark." — C. S. P. 

That it was familiar to Camden in 1614 is clear : 

" Sanchia, from Sancta, that is, Holy.— "Remaines," p. 88. 

The name became obsolete by the close of the 
seventeenth century, and, being a saintly title, was 
sufficiently odious to the Presbyterians to be care- 
fully rejected by them in the sixteenth century. 
Men who refused the Apostles their saintly title 
were not likely to stamp the same for life on weak 

Nor can Emanuel, or Angel, be brought as 
charges against the Puritans. Both flatly contra- 
dicted Cartwright's canon ; yet both, and especially 
the former, have been attributed to the zealots. No 

* "On Jan. 28, 17 James I., William Foster . . . together with 
Sir Henry Burton, Susan Mowne, and James Bynde, and Sanctia 
or Sence his wife, joined in conveying to Robert Raunce and Edward 
Thurland ... a house and land in Carshalton on trust to sell." — 
"Bray's Surrey," ii. 513. 


names could have been more offensive to them 
than these. Even Adams, in his " Meditations 
upon the Creed," while attacking his friends on 
their eccentricity in preferring "Safe-deliverance" 
to " Richard," takes care to rebuke those on the 
other side, who would introduce Emanuel, or even 
Gabriel or Michael, into their nurseries : 

" Some call their sons Emanuel : this is too bold. The name is 
proper to Christ, therefore not to be communicated to any creature. " 

Emanuel was imported from the Continent about 

" 1545, March 19. Baptized Humphrey, son of Emanuell 
Roger."— St. Columb Major. 

The same conclusion must be drawn regarding 
Angel. Adams continues : 

" Yea, it seems to me not fit for Christian humility to call a man 
Gabriel or Michael, giving the names of angels to the sons of 
mortality. " 

If the Puritans objected, as they did to a man, 
to the use of Gabriel and Michael as angelic, 
names, the generic term itself would be still more 
objectionable : 

" 1645, Nov. 13. Buried Miss Angela Boyce. "— Cant. Cath. 

" 1682, April 11. Baptized Angel, d. of Sir Nicholas Butler, 
K nt ."— St. Helen, Bishopgate. 

"Weymouth, March 20, 1635. Embarked for New England: 
Angell Holland, aged 21 years. "— Hotten's " Emigrants," p. 285. 

In this case we may presume the son, and not the 
father, had turned Puritan. 


A curious custom, which terminated soon after 
Protestantism was established in England, gave 
rise to several names which read oddly enough 
to modern eyes. These were titles like Vitalis 
or Creature — names applicable to either sex. Mr. 
Maskell, without furnishing instances, says Creature 
occurs in the registers of All-Hallows, Barking 
(" Hist. All-Hallows," p. 62). In the vestry-books 
of Staplehurst, Kent, are registered : 

"1 Edward VI. Apryle xxvii., there were borne ii. childre of 
Alex'nder Beeryl: the one christened at home, and so deceased, 
called Creature; the other christened at church, called John." — Burns, 
" History of Parish Registers," p. 81. 

" 1550, Nov. 5. Buried Creature, daughter of Agnes Mathews, 
syngle woman, the seconde childe. 

" 1579, July 19. Married John Haffynden and Creature Chese- 
man, yong folke." — Staplehurst, Kent. 

One instance of Vitalis may be given : 

"Vitalis, son of Richard Engaine, and Sara his wife, released his 
manor of Dagworth in 1217 to Margery de Cressi." — Blomefield's 
« Norfolk," vi. 382, 383. 

These are not Puritan names. The dates are 
against the theory. They belong to a pre- 
Reformation practice, being names given to quick 
children before birth, in cases when it was feared, 
from the condition of the mother, they might 
not be delivered alive. Being christened before 
the sex could be known, it was necessary to affix 
a neutral name, and Vitalis or Creature answered 
the purpose. The old Romish rubric ran thus : 


" Nemo in utero matris clausus baptizari debet, sed si infans caput 
emiserit, et periculum mortis immineat, baptizetur in capite, nee 
postea si vivus evaserit, erit iterum baptizandus. At si aliud 
membrum emiserit, quod vitalem indicet motum in illo, si periculum 
pendeat baptizetur," etc. 

Vitalis Engaine and Creature Cheeseman, in 
the above instances, both lived, but, by the law 
just quoted, retained the names given to them, 
and underwent no second baptism. If the sex 
of the yet breathing child was discovered, but 
death certain, the name of baptism ran thus : 

" 1563, July 17. Baptizata fuit in sedibus Mri Humfrey filia ejus 
quae nominata fuit Creatura Christi." — St. Peter in the East, 

<<l 5^3t July 17. Creatura Christi, filia Laurentii Humfredi 
sepulta. " — Ditto. 

An English form occurs earlier : 

" 1 561, June 30. The Chylde-of-God, Alius Ric. Stacey. "—Ditto. 

Without entering into controversy, I will only 
say that if the clergy, up to the time of the 
alteration in our Article on Baptism, truly be- 
lieved that " insomuch as infants, and children 
dying in their infancy, shall undoubtedly be saved 
thereby (i.e. baptism), and else not" it was natural 
that such a delicate ceremonial as I have hinted 
at should have suggested itself to their minds. 
After the Reformation, the practice as to unborn 
children fell into desuetude, and the names with it. 


IV. Instances. 
(a) Latin Names. 

The elder Disraeli reminded us, in his " Curiosi- 
ties of Literature," that in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries it was common for our more 
learned pundits to re-style themselves in their own 
studies by Greek and Latin names. Some of 
these — as, for instance, Erasmus * and Melancthon 
— are only known to the world at large by their 
adopted titles. 

The Reformation had not become an accom- 
plished fact before this custom began to prevail 
in England, only it was transferred from the study 
to the font, and from scholars to babies. Reno- 
vata, Renatus, Donatus, and Beata began to grow 
common. Camden, writing in 1614, speaks of 
still stranger names — 

" If that any among us have named their children Remedium, 
Amoris, ' Imago-saeculi,' or with such-like names, I know some will 
think it more than a vanity." — " Remaines," p. 44. 

While, however, the Presbyterian clergy did not 

* Erasmus became a popular baptismal name, and still exists : 

" 1541, Jan. 3. Baptized Erasmus, sonne of John Lynsey." — St. 
Peter, Cornhill. 

"1593, Sep. 16. Baptized Erasmus, sonne of John Record, mer- 
chaunt tailor." — Ditto. 

" 161 1, July 18. Buried Erasmus Finche, captaine, of Dover 
Castle."— Cant. Cath. 


object to some of these Latin sobriquets, as being 
identical with the names of early believers of 
the Primitive Church, stamped in not a few in- 
stances with the honours of martyrdom, they pre- 
ferred to translate them into English. Many of 
my examples of eccentricity will be found to 
be nothing more than literal translations of names 
that had been in common vogue among Christians 
twelve and thirteen hundred years before. To 
the majority of the Puritan clergy, to change the 
Latin dress for an English equivalent would be 
as natural and imperative as the adoption of 
Tyndale's or the Genevan Bible in the place of 
the Latin Vulgate. 

A curious, though somewhat later, proof of this 
statement is met with in a will from the Probate 
Court of Peterborough. The testator was one 
Theodore Closland, senior fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, The date is June 24, 1665 : 

" Item : to What-God-will Crosland, forty shillings, and tenn 
shillings to his wife. And to his sonne What-God-will, six pound, 
thirteen shillings, fourpence." 

This is a manifest translation of the early Chris- 
tian " Quod-vult-deus." Grainger, in his " History 
of England " (iii. 360, fifth edition), says — 

" In Montfaucon's 'Diarium Italicum ' (p. 270), is a sepulchral 
inscription of the year 396, upon Quod-vult-deus, a Christian, to 
which is a note : ' Hoc asvo non pauci erant qui piis sententiolis 
nomina propria concinnarent, v.g. Quod-vult-deus, Deogratias, 
Habet-deurn, Adeodatus.' " 


Closland, or Crosland, the grandfather, was evi- 
dently a Puritan, with a horror of the Latin Vul- 
gate, Latin Pope, and Latin everything. Hence 
the translation. 

Nevertheless, the Puritans seem to have favoured 
Latin names at first. It was a break between the 
familiar sound of the old and the oddity of the 
new. Redemptus was less grotesque than Re- 
deemed, and Renata than Renewed. The English 
equivalents soon ruled supreme, but for a genera- 
tion or two, and in some cases for a century, the 
Latin names went side by side with them. 

Take Renatus, for instance : 

"1616, Sep. 29. Baptized Renatus, son of Renatus Byllett, 
gent." — St. Columb Major. 

" 1637-8, Jan. 12. Order of Council to Renatus Edwards, girdler, 
to shut up his shop in Lombard Street, because he is not a goldsmith. 

" 1690, April 10. Petition of Renatus Palmer, who prays to be 
appointed surveyor in the port of Dartmouth. " — C. S. P. 

"1659, Nov. 11. Baptized Renovata, the daughter of John 
Durance."— Cant. Cath. 

It was Renatus Harris who built the organ in 
All-Hallows, Barking, in 1675 ("Hist. All-Hallows, 
Barking," Maskell). Renatus and Rediviva occur 
in St. Matthew, Friday Street, circa 1590. Redi- 
viva lingered into the eighteenth century : 

" I 735» • Buried Rediviva Mathews." — Banbury. 

Desiderata and Desiderius were being used at the 


close of Elizabeth's reign, and survived the re- 
storation of Charles II. : 

" 1 67 1, May 26. Baptized Desiderius Dionys, a poor child found 
in Lyme Street." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

Donatus and Deodatus, also, were Latin names on 
English soil before the seventeenth century came in : 

" 1616, Jan. 29. Baptized Donate, vel Deonata, daughter of 
Martyn Donnacombe." — St. Columb Major. 

Desire and Given,* the equivalents, both crossed 
the Atlantic with the Pilgrim Fathers. 

Love was popular. Side by side with it went 
Amor. George Fox, in his "Journal," writing in 
1670, says — 

" When I was come to Enfield, I went first to visit Amor Stod- 
dart, who lay very weak and almost speechless. Within a. few days 
Amor died." — Ed. 1836, ii. 129. 

In Ripon Cathedral may be seen : 

"Amor Oxley, died Nov. 23, 1773, aged 74." 

The name still exists in Yorkshire, but no other 
county, I imagine. 

Other instances could be mentioned.! I place a 
few in order : 

" 1594, Aug. 3. Baptized Relictus Dunstane, a childe found in 
this parisshe." — St. Dunstan. 

* "April 6, 1879, at St. Peter's Thanet, entered into rest, Mary 
Given Clarke, aged 71 years." — Church Times, April 10, 1879. 

t The following is curious, although it does not properly belong 
to this class : 

" 1629, July II. Baptized Subpena, a man chUde found at the 
Subpena office in Chancery Lane. " — St. Dunstan. 


" 16 1 3, Nov. 7. Baptized Beata, d. of Mr. John Briggs, 
minister. " — Witherley, Leic. 

" 1653, Sep. 29. Married Richard Moone to Benedicta Rolfe." 
— Cant. Cath. 

" 1 66 1, May 25. Married Edward Clayton and Melior * Bil- 
linge." — St. Dionis, Backchurch. 

"1706. Beata Meetkirke, born Nov. 2, 1705; died Sep. 10, 
1706." — Rushden, Hereford. 

{b.) Grace Names. 
In furnishing instances, we naturally begin with 
those grace names, in all cases culled from the 
registers of the period, which belong to what we 
may style the first stage. They were, one by one, 
but taken from the lists found in the New Testa- 
ment, and were probably suggested at the outset 
by the moralities or interludes. The morality went 
between the old miracle-play, or mystery, and the 
regular drama. In "Every Man," written in the 
reign of Henry VIII., it is made a vehicle for 
retaining the love of the people for the old ways, 
the old worship, and the old superstitions. From 
the time of Edward VI. to the middle of Eliza- 
beth's reign, there issued a cluster of interludes of 
this same moral type and cast ; only all breathed 

* Melior was a favourite: — 

" 1675, April 15. Baptized Melior, d. of Thomas and Melior 
Richardson. " — Westminster Abbey. 

" 1664-5, Feb. 22. William Skutt seeks renewal of a wine 
licence, which he holds in behalf of his mother-in-law, Melior Allen, 
of Sarum, at £\o a year."— " C. S. P. Dom." 

"1552, July 11. Baptized Mellior, d. of John James."— St. 
Columb Major. 


of the new religion, and more or less assaulted the 
dogmas of Rome. 

These moralities were popular, and were fre- 
quently rendered in public, until the Elizabethan 
drama was well established. All were allegorical, 
and required personal representatives of the ab- 
stract graces, and doctrines of which they treated. 
The dramatis persona in " Hickscorner " are 
Freewill, Perseverance, Pity, Contemplation, and 
Imagination, and in " The Interlude of Youth," 
Humility, Pride, Charity, and Lechery. 

It is just possible, therefore, that several of these 
grace names were originated under the shadow of the 
pre-Reformation Church. The following are early, 
considering they are found in Cornwall, the county 
most likely to be the last to take up a new custom : 

" 1549, July I. Baptized Patience, d. of Will m . Haygar." — 
" 1553, May 29. Baptized Honour, d. of Robert Sexton." — St. 
Columb Major. 

However this may be, we only find the cardinal 
virtues at the beginning of the movement — those 
which are popular in some places to this day, and 
still maintain a firm hold in America, borne thither 
by the Puritan emigrants. 

The three Graces, and Grace itself, took root 
almost immediately as favourites. Shakespeare 
seems to have been aware of it, for Hermione says — 


"My last good deed was to entreat his stay : 
What was my first ? It has an elder sister, 
Or I mistake you — O would her name were Grace ! " 

"Winter's Tale," Act i. sc. 2. 

" 1565, March 19. Christening of Grace, daughter of — Hilles." 
—St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1574, Jan. 29. Baptized Grace, daughter of John Russell." — 
St. Columb Major. 

" 1588, Aug. 1. Married Thomas Wood and Faythe Wilson." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1565, . Baptized Faith, daughter of Thomas and Agnes 

Blomefield."— Rushall, Norfolk. 

" 1567, Aprill 17. Christening of Charity, daughter of Randoll 
Burchenshaw."— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

"1571, . Baptized Charity, daughter of Thomas Blome- 
field. "—Rushall, Norfolk. 

" 1598, Nov. 19. Baptized Hope, d. of John Mainwaringe." — 
Cant. Cath. 

" 1636, Nov. 25. Buried Hope, d. of Thomas Alford, aged 23." 
— Drayton, Leicester. 

The registers of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
tury teem with these ; sometimes boys received 
them. The Rev. Hope Sherhard was a minister in 
Providence Isle in 1632 ("Cal. S. P. Colonial," 1632). 
We may note that the still common custom of 
christening trine-born children by these names 
dates from the period of their rise : * 

"1639, Sep. 7. Baptized Faith, Hope, and Charity, daughters 
of George Lamb, and Alice his wife." — Hillingdon. 

* " 1 66 1, Sep. 6. Baptized Faith Dionis, Charity Dionis, Grace 
Dionis, three foundlings."— St. Dionis, Backchurch. 

The Manchester Evening Mail, March 22, 1878, says, "At 
Stanton, near Ipswich, three girls, having been born at one birth, 
were baptized Faith, Hope, and Charity." 


" 1666, Feb. 22. — Finch, wife of — Finch, being delivered of 
three children, two of them were baptized, one called Faith, and 
the other Hope ; and the third was intended to be called Charity, 
but died unbaptized." — Cranford. Vide Lyson's "Middlesex," 
p. 30. 

Mr. Lower says (" Essays on English Surnames," 
ii 159)— 

" At Charlton, Kent, three female children produced at one birth 
received the names of Faith, Hope, and Charity." 

Thomas Adams, in his sermon on the " Three 
Divine Sisters," says — 

"They shall not want prosperity, 
That keep faith, hope, and charity." 

Perhaps some of these parents remembered this. 

Faith and Charity are both mentioned as dis- 
tinctly Puritan sobriquets in the " Psalm of Mercie," 
a political poem : 

'"A match,' quoth my sister Joyce, 
'Contented,' quoth Rachel, too : 
Quoth Abigaile, ' Yea,' and Faith, ■ Verily,' 
And Charity, ' Let it be so. ' " 

Love, as the synonym of Charity, was also a 
favourite. Love Atkinson went out to Virginia 
with the early refugees (Hotten, "Emigrants," p. 68). 

"1631-2, Jan. 31. Buried Love, daughter of William Ballard." 
— Berwick, Sussex. 

" 1740, April 30. Buried Love Arundell." — Racton, Sussex. 

" 1749, May 31. Love Luckett admitted a freeman by birth- 
right." — " History of Town and Port of Rye," p. 237. 

" 1662, May 7. Baptized Love, d. of Mr. Richard Appletree." — 


Besides Love and Charity, other variations were 
Humanity and Clemency: 

" 1637, March 8. Bond of William Shaw, junior, and Thomas 
Snelling, citizens and turners, to Humanity Mayo, of St. Martin- 
in-the-Fields, in^ioooo." — C. S. P. 

"1625, Aug. 27. Buried Clemency Chawncey." — St. Dionis 

Clemency was pretty, and deserved to live ; but 
Mercy seems to have monopolized the honours, 
and, by the aid of John Bunyan's heroine in the 
" Pilgrim's Progress," still has her admirers. In- 
stances are needless, but I furnish one or two for 
form's sake. They shall be late ones : 

" 1702, Sep. 28. Married Matthias Wallraven and Mercy Way- 
marke." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1 716, May 25. Married Thomas Day and Mercy Parsons, of 
Staplehurst." — Cant. Cath. 

But there were plenty of virtues left. Prudence 
had such a run, that she became Pru in the six- 
teenth, and Prudentia in the seventeenth century : 

"1574, June 30. Buried Prudence, d. of John Mayhew. 
" 1 61 2, Aug. 2. Married Robert Browne and Prudence Coxe." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

Justice is hard to separate from the legal title -5 but 
here is an instance : 

" 1660, July 16. Richard Bickley and Justice Willington re- 
ported guilty of embezzling late king's goods."—" Cal. St. P. Dom." 

Truth, Constancy, Honour, and Temperance were 
frequently personified at the font. Temperance 


had the shortest life ; but, if short, it was merry. 
There is scarcely a register, from Gretna Green to 
St. Michael's) without it : 

" 161 5, Feb. 25. Baptized Temperance, d. of — Osberne." — 
Hawnes, Bedford. 

" 1610, Aug. 14. Baptized Temperance, d. of John Goodyer." — 

" 161 1, Nov. — . Baptized Temperance, d. of Robert Carpinter. " 
— Stepney. 

" 16 1 9, July 22. Married Gyles Rolles to Temperance Blinco." 
— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Constance,* Constancy, and Constant were common, 
it will be seen, to both sexes : 

"!593» Sep. 29. Buried Constancy, servant with Mr. Coussin." 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1629, Dec. Petition of Captain Constance Ferrar, for losses at 
Cape Breton."— "C. S. P. Colonial." 

" 1665, May 25. Communication from Constance Pley to the 
Commissioners in relation to the arrival of a convoy." — C. S. P. 

"1665, May 31. Grant to Edward Halshall of ^225 o o, for- 
feited by Connistant Cant, of Lynn Regis, for embarking wool to 
Guernsey not entered in the Custom House." — Ditto. 

"1671, Sep. 2. Buried Constant Sylvester, Esquire." — Brampton, 

Patience, too, was male as well as female. Sir 
Patience Warde was Lord Mayor of London in 
1 68 1. Thus the weaker vessels were not allowed 
to monopolize the graces. How familiar some of 
these abstract names had become, the Cavalier 

* Constance had been an old English favourite, its nick and pet 
forms being Cust, or Custance, or Cussot {vide " English Surnames,* 
p. 67, 2nd edition). The Puritan dropped these, but adopted 
"Constant" and "Constancy." The more worldly, in the mean 
time, curtailed it to " Con." 


shall tell us in his parody of the sanctimonious 
Roundheads' style : 

" 'Ay, marry,' quoth Agatha, 

And Temperance, eke, also : 
Quoth Hannah, 'It's just,' and Mary, 'It must,' 
'And shall be,' quoth Grace, ' I trow.' " 

Several "Truths " occur in the "Chancery Suits" 
of Elizabeth, and the Greek Alathea arose with it : 

" 1595, June 27. Faith and Truth, gemini, — John Johnson, 
bapt." — Wath, Ripon. 

Alathea lasted till the eighteenth century was well- 
nigh out : 

" 1701, Dec. 4. Francis Milles to Alathea Wilton."— West. 

" 1720, Sep. 18. Buried Alydea, wife of Will m . Gough, aged 42 
years." — Harnhill, Glouc. 

" 1786, Oct. 6. Died Althea, wife of Thomas Heberden, pre- 
bendary." — Exeter Cath.* 

* Sophia did not come into England for a century after this. 
But, while speaking of Greek names, the most popular was Phila- 
delphia : 

" 1639, May 3. Buried the Lady Philadelphia Carr."— Hilling- 
don, Middlesex. 

" 1720, Aug. 6. Married William Adams and Philadelphia 
Saffery."— Cant. Cath. 

"1776, Jan. 5. Buried Philadelphia, wife of John Read."— 
Blockley, Glouc. 

Whether Penn styled the city he founded after the Church men- 
tioned in the Apocalypse, or after a friend or kinswoman, or because, 
interpreted, it was a Quaker sentiment, I cannot say. But Phila- 
delphia, in James I. 's reign, had become such a favourite that I have 
before me over a hundred instances, after no very careful research. 
None was needed ; it appears in every register, and lingered on into 
the present century. 


Honour, of course, became Honora, in the eigh- 
teenth century, and has retained that form : 

" 1583, Aug. 24. Baptized Honor, daughter of Thomas Teage." 
— St. Columb Major. 

" 1614, July 4. Baptized Honour, d. of John Baylye, of Rad- 
cliffe. " — Stepney. 

" 1667, Oct. 9. Christened Mary, d, of Sir John and Lady 
Honour Huxley." — Hammersmith. 

" 1722, Oct. 4. Christened Martha, d. of John and Honoria 
Hart." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

Sir Thomas Carew, Speaker of the Commons in 
James's and Charles's reign, had a wife Temperance, 
and four daughters, Patience, Temperance, Silence, 
and Prudence (Lodge's " Illust," iii. 37). Possibly, 
as Speaker, he had had better opportunity to 
observe that these were the four cardinal parlia- 
mentary virtues, especially Silence. This last was 
somewhat popular, and seems to have got curtailed 
to " Sill," as Prudence to " Pru," and Constance to 
" Con." In the Calendar of " State Papers " (June 
21, 1666), a man named Taylor, writing to another 
named Williamson, wishes " his brother Sill would 
come and reap the sweets of Harwich." Writing 
again, five days later, he asks " after his brother, 
Silence Taylor." 

This was one of the names that crossed the 
Atlantic and became a fixture in America (Bow- 
ditch). It is not, however, to be confounded with 
Sill, that is, Sybil, in the old Cavalier chorus : 



" 'And God blesse King Charles,' quoth George, 
'And save him,' says Simon and Sill." 

Silence is one of the few Puritan names that 
found its way into the north of Engldnd : 

" 1 741, Dec. 9. Married Robert Thyer to Silence Leigh." — St. 
Ann, Manchester. 

The mother of Silence Leigh, who was a widow 
when she married, was Silence Beswicke (" Memo- 
rials of St. Ann, Manchester," p. 55).* The name 
is found again in the register of Youlgreave Church, 
Derbyshire {Notes and Queries, Feb. 17, 1877). 
Curiously enough, we find Camden omitting Silence 
as a female name of his day, but inserting Tace. 
In his list of feminine baptismal names, compiled 
in 1 6 14 ("Remaines," p. 89), he has 

" Tace — Be silent — a fit name to admonish that sex of silence." 

Here, then, is another instance of a Latin name 
translated into English. I have lighted on a case 
proving the antiquary's veracity : 

"Here lieth the body of Tacey, the wife of George Can, of 
Brockwear, who departed this life 22 day of Feb., An. Dom. 1715, 
aged 32 years." — Hewelsfield, Glouc. 

* "1658. Mr. Charles Beswicke, minister of the parish ch. of 
Stockport, and Sylance Symonds, d. of Mr. Robert Symonds, of 
Daubever, co. Derby, published March 28, April 4 and II, 1658." 
— Banns, Parish Church, Stockport. 

This Silence was either mother or grandmother to Silence Thyer, 
but I am not sure whieh is the relationship. If grandmother, then 
there must have been three generations of " Silences." 


Tace must have lasted a century, therefore. Silence 
may be set down to some old Puritan stickler for 
the admonition of Saint Paul : " Let the woman 
learn in silence, with all subjection" (1 Tim. ii. 11). 
The Epistle to the Romans was a never-failing 
well-spring to the earnest Puritan, and one pas- 
sage was much applied to his present condition : 

"Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God 
through our Lord Jesus Christ : by whom also we have access by 
faith unto this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the 
glory of God. And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also : 
knowing that tribulation worketh patience ; and patience, experience ; 
and experience, hope : and hope maketh not ashamed." — v. 1-5. 

There is scarcely a word in this passage that is 
not inscribed on our registers between 1575 and 
1595. Faith, Grace, and Hope have already been 
mentioned ; * Camden testified to the existence of 
Tribulation in 1614 ; Rejoice was very familiar ; 
Patience, of course, was common : 

"" I59 2 > J u ly 7- Buried Patience Birche." — Cant. Cath. 

"1596, Oct. 3. Baptized Pacience, daughter of Martin Tome." 
— St. Columb Major. 

" 1599, April 23. Baptized Patience, d. of John Harmer." — 

Even Experience is found — a strange title for an 

* "I myself have known some persons in London, and other 
parts of this kingdom, who have been christened by the names of 
Faith, Hope, Charity, Mercy, Grace, Obedience, Endure, Rejoice, 
etc." — Brome's "Travels in England," p. 279. 


"The Rev. Experience Mayhew, A.M., born Feb. 5, 1673; died 
of an apoplexy, Nov. 9, 1758." 

So ran the epitaph of a missionary (vide Pulpit, 
Dec. 6, 1827) to the Vineyard Island. It had 
been handed on to him, no doubt, from some 
grandfather or grandmother of Elizabeth's closing 

A late instance of Diligence occurs in St. Peter, 
Cornhill : 

" 1724, Nov. 1. Buried Diligence Constant." 

Obedience had a good run, and began very early : 

" 1 S73> Sep. 20. Bapt. Obedience, dather of Thomas Garding. 

" 1586, Aug. 28. Bapt. Obedyence, dather of Richard Ellis."— 

" 1697, April 30. Bapt. Robert, son of James and Obedience 
Clark." — St. James, Picadilly. 

Obedience Robins is the" name of a testator in 
1709 (Wills : Archdeaconry of London), while the 
following epitaph speaks for itself: 

"Obedience Newitt, wife of Thomas Newitt, died in 161 7, 
aged 32. 

" Her name and nature did accord, 
Obedient was she to her Lord. " — Burwash, Sussex. 

"Add to your faith, virtue," says the Apostle. 
As a name this grace was late in the field : 

"1687, May 25. Married Virtue Radford and Susannah 
Wright."— West. Abbey. 

"1704, Oct. 20. Buried Virtue, wife of John Higgison." — 
Marshfield, Glouc. 

" 1709, May 6. Buried Vertue Page."— Finchley. 


Confidence and Victory were evidently favourites : 

" 1587, Jan. 8. Baptized Confydence, d. of Roger Elliard."— 

" 1770, Nov. 17, died Confidence, wife of John Thomas, 
aged 61 years." — Bulley, Glouc. 

" 1587, Feb. 8. Buryed Vyctorye Buttres."— Elham, Kent. 

" 1618, Dec. 9. Buryed Victorye Lussendine." — Ditto. 

" 1696, May 17. Bapt. Victory, d. of Joseph Gibbs." — St. 
Dionis Backchurch. 

Perseverance went out with the emigrants to 
New England, but I do not find any instance in 
the home registers. Felicity appeared in one of 
our law courts last year, so it cannot be said to 
be extinct ; but there is a touch of irony in the 
first of the following examples : — 

" 1604-5, March 15. Baptized Felicity, d. of John Barnes, 
vagarant. " — Stepney. 

" 1 59°> J u ly 5* Baptized Felycyte Harris." — Cranbrook. 

Comfort has a pleasant atmosphere about it, and 
many a parent was tempted to the use of it. It 
lingered longer than many of its rivals. Comfort 
Farren's epitaph may be seen on the floor of 
Tewkesbury Abbey : 

"Comfort, wife of Abraham Farren, gent., of this Corporation, 
died August 24, 1720." 

Again, in Dymock Church we find : 

" Comfort, wife to William Davis, died 14 June, I775> aged 
78 years. 

" Comfort, their daughter, died 9 Feb., 1760, aged 24 years." 

Nearly 150 years before this, however, Comfort 


Starr was a name not unknown to the more 
heated zealots of the Puritan party. He was a 
native of Ashford, in Kent, and after various 
restless shiftings as a minister, Carlisle being his 
head-quarters for a time, went to New Plymouth in 
the Mayflower, in 1620. There he became fellow 
of Harvard College, but returned to England 
eventually, and died at Lewes in his eighty-seventh 

Perhaps the most interesting and popular of 
the grace names was " Repentance." In a "new 
interlude " of the Reformation, entitled the " Life 
and Repentance of Marie Magdalene," and 
published in 1567, one of the chief characters was 
" Repentance." At the same time Repentance came 
into font use, and, odd as it may sound, bade 
fair to become a permanently recognized name 
in England : 

" 1583, Dec. 8. Married William Arnolde and Repentance 
Pownoll."— Cant. Cath. 

" 1587, Oct. 22. Baptized Repentance, dather of George Ay- 
sherst. "— Warbleton. 

" 1588, June 30. Baptized Repentance Water."— Cranbrook. 

" 1597, Aug. 4. Baptized Repentance, daughter of Robert 
Benham, of Lymhouse. " — Stepney. 

" 1612, March 26. Baptized Repentance Wrathe."— Elham, 

" 1688, Dec. 23. Bapt. Repentance, son of Thomas and Merc, 
Tompson." — St. James, Piccadilly. 

In the " Sussex Archaeological Collections " (xvii. 


148) is found recorded the case of Repentance 
Hastings, deputy portreeve of Seaford, who in 1643 
was convicted of hiding some wreckage : 

"Repentance Hastings, I load, I cask, 2 pieces of royals." 

Evidently his repentance began too early in life 
to be lasting; but infant piety could not be 
expected to resist the hardening influence of such 
a name as this.* 

Humiliation was a big word, and that alone 
must have been in its favour : 

" 1629, Jan. 24. Married Humiliation Hinde and Elizabeth 
Phillips by banes."— St. Peter, Cornhill. 

Humiliation, being proud of his name, determined 
to retain it in the family — for he had one — but as 
he had began to worship at St. Dionis Backchurch, 
the entries of baptism lie there, the spelling of his 
surname being slightly altered : 

11 1630, Nov. 18. Baptized Humiliation, son of Humiliation 

This son died March n, 163 1-2. Humiliation 
pere, however, did not sorrow without hope, for in 
a few years he again brings a son to the parson : 

11 1637-8, Jan. 21. Baptized Humiliation, son of Humiliation 

* Repentance lingered longer than I thought. In the churchyard 
of Mappowder, Dorset, is a tombstone to the memory of " Repent- 
ance, wife of," etc. She died within the last twenty years. There 
is no doubt that these names found their latest home in Devon and 
Dorset. The names in Mr. Blackmore's novels corroborate this. 


Humility is preferable to Humiliation. Humility 
Cooper was one of a freight of passengers in the 
Mayflower, v/ho, in 1620, sought a home in the 
West. A few years afterwards Humility Hobbs 
followed him (Hotten, " Emigrants," p. 426) : 

" I596 r March 13. Baptized Humilitye, sonne of Wylliam Jones." 

"1688, May 5. Buried Humility, wife of Humphey Paget. " — 
Peckleton, Leic. 

Had it not been for Charles Dickens, Humble 
would not have appeared objectionable : 

" 1666-1667, Jan. 29. Petition of Dame Frances, wife of Humble 
Ward, Lord Ward, Baron, of Birmingham." * — C. S. P. 

All Saints, Leicester, records another saintly 

" Here lieth the body of Abstinence Pougher, Esq., who died 
Sept. 5, 1 741, aged 62 years." 

In some cases we find the infant represented, not 
by a grace-name, but as in a state of grace. Every 
register contains one or two Godlies : 

<<I 579> July 24. Baptized Godlye, d. of Richard Fauterell." — 

" 161 1, May I. Baptized Godly, d. of Henry Gray, and Joane 
his wife. Joane Standmer and Godly Gotherd, sureties." — South 
Bersted, Sussex. 

" 1619, Nov. Baptized Godly, d. of Thomas Edwardes, of Poplar.'' 
— Stepney. 

* This is another case of a Puritan name that got into high 
society. Accepted Frewen died an archbishop ; Humble Ward 
became first Baron Ward. His daughter Theodosia married Sir 
Thomas Brereton, Bart. 


" 1632, Oct. 30. Married John Waffordeto Godly Spicer."— Cant. 

Gracious is as objectionable as Godly. Gracious 
Owen was President of St. John's College, Oxford, 
during the decade 1650-1660, 

" Oct. 24, 166 1. Examination of Gracious Franklin : Joshua 
Jones, minister at the Red Lion, Fleet Street, told him that he heard 
there were 3000 men about the city maintained by Presbyterian 
ministers." — C. S. P. 

Lively, we may presume, referred to spiritual 
manifestations. A curious combination of font 
name and patronymic is obtained in Lively 
Moody, D.D., of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
1682 (Wood's " Fasti Oxonienses "). Exactly one 
hundred years later the name is met with again : 

" 1782, July 3. Lively Clarke of this town, sadler, aged 60." 
— Berkeley, Gloucester. 

At Warbleton, where the Puritan Heley minis- 
tered, it seems to have been found wearisome to be 
continually christening children by the names of 
Repent and Repentance, so a variation was made 
in the form of " Sorry-for-sin : " 

" !5 8 9» Jan 25. Baptized Sory-for-sine, the dather of John 

The following is curious : 

"Thomas Luxford, of Windmill Hill, died Feb. 24, 1739, aged 
72 years. He was grandson of Thomas Luxford, of Windmill Hill, 
by Changed Collins, his wife, daughter of Thomas Collins, of Sock- 
nash in this county, Fsq., and eldest son of Richard Luxford, of 
Billinghurst." — Wartling Church. 


Faithful* may close this list : 

" 1640, Oct. 18. Baptized Benjamin, son of Faithful Bishop." — 
St. Columb Major. 

Faithful Rouse settled in New England in 1644 
(Bowditch). The following despatch mentions 
another : 

" 1666, July 18. Major Beversham and Lieut. Faithful Fortescue 
are sent from Ireland to raise men." — C. S. P. 

Bunyan evidently liked it, and gave the name to 
the martyr of Vanity Fair : 

" Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive ; 
For though they killed thee, thou art yet alive." 

Speaking from a nomenclatural point of view, the 
name did not survive, for the last instance I have 
met with is that of Faithful Meakin, curate of 
Mobberley, Cheshire, in 1729 (Earwaker, " East 
Cheshire," p. 99, n). It had had a run of more than 
a century, however. 

The reader will have observed that the majority 
of these names have become obsolete. The reli- 
gious apathy of the early eighteenth century was 
against them. They seem to have made their 
way slowly westward. Certainly their latest repre- 
sentatives are to be found in the more retired 
villages of Gloucestershire and Devonshire. A 
few like Mercy, Faith, Hope, Charity, Grace, and 

* " Faithful Teate was minister at Sudbury, Suffolk, at the time 
Richard Sibbes, who was born close by, was growing up." — Sibbes' 
Works, 1. xxvi. Nichol, 1862. 


Prudence, still survive, and will probably for ever 
command a certain amount of patronage; but 
they are much more popular in our religious story- 
books than the church registers. The absence of 
the rest is no great loss, I imagine. 

(c.) Ex hortatory Names. 

The zealots of Elizabeth's later days began to 
weary of names that merely made household words 
of the apostolic virtues. Many of these sobriquets 
had become popular among the unthinking and 
careless. They began to stamp their offspring 
with exhortatory sentences, pious ejaculations, 
brief professions of godly sorrow for sin, or ex- 
clamations of praise for mercies received. I am 
bound to confess, however, that the prevailing tone 
of these names is rather contradictory of the 
picture of gloomy sourness drawn by the facile 
pens of Macaulay and Walter Scott. 'Tis true, 
Anger and Wrath existed : 

"1654. Wroth Rogers to be placed on the Commission of 
Scandalous Ministers." — Scobell's "Acts and Ord. Pari.," 1658. 

" 1680, Dec. 22. Buried Anger Bull, packer." — St. Dionis Back- 

I dare say he was familiarly termed Angry Bull, 
like " Savage Bear," a gentleman of Kent who was 
living at the same time, mentioned elsewhere in 
these pages. Nevertheless, in the exhortatory names 
there is a general air of cheerful assurance. 


The most celebrated name of this class is Praise- 
God Barebone. I cannot find his baptismal entry. 
A collection of verses was compiled by one Fear- 
God Barbon, of Daventry (Harleian M.S. 7332). 
This cannot have been his father, as we have 
evidence that the leatherseller was born about 
1 596, and, allowing his parent to be anything over 
twenty, the date would be too early for exhortatory 
names like Fear-God. We may presume, there- 
fore, he was a brother. Two other brothers are 
said to have been entitled respectively, "Jesus- 
Christ-came-into-the-world-to-save Barebone," and 
" If-Christ-had-not-died-for-thee-thou-hadst-been- 
damned Barebone." I say " entitled," for I doubt 
whether either received such a long string of words 
in baptism. Brook, in his " History of the Puri- 
tans," implies they were ; Hume says that both 
were adopted names, and adds, in regard to the 
latter, that his acquaintance were so wearied with 
its length, that they styled him by the last word as 
1 Damned Barebone." The editor of Notes and 
Queries (March 15, 1862) says that, "as his morals 
were not of the best," this abbreviated form "ap- 
peared to suit him better than his entire baptismal 
prefix." Whether the title was given at the font or 
adopted, there is no doubt that he was familiarly 
known as Dr. Damned Barebone. This was more 
curt than courteous. 


Of Praise-God's history little items have leaked 
out. He began life as a leatherseller in Fleet 
Street, and owned a house under the sign of 
the "Lock and Key," in the parish of St. Dun- 
stan-in-the-West He was admitted a freeman of 
the Leathersellers' Company, January 20, 1623. 
He was a Fifth Monarchy man, if a tract printed in 
1654, entitled "A Declaration of several of the 
Churches of Christ, and Godly People, in and 
about the City of London," etc., which mentions 
"the Church which walks with Mr. Barebone," 
refers to him. This, however, may be Fear-God 
Barebone. Praise-God was imprisoned after the 
Restoration, but after a while released, and died, at 
the age of eighty or above, in obscurity. His life, 
which was not without its excitements, was spent 
in London, and possibly his baptismal entry will 
be found there. 

A word or two about his surname. The elder 
Disraeli says (" Curiosities of Literature ") — 

"There are unfortunate names, which are very injurious to the 
cause in which they are engaged ; for instance, the long Parliament 
in Cromwell's time, called by derision the Rump, was headed by 
one Barebones, a leatherseller." 

Isaac Disraeli has here perpetuated a mistake. 
Barebone's Parliament was the Parliament of Bare- 
bone, not Barebones. Peck, in his " Desiderata 
Curiosa," speaking of a member of the family who 


died in 1646, styles him Mr. Barborne ; while 
Echard writes the name Barbon, when referring to 
Dr. Barbon, one of the chief rebuilders of the city 
of London after the Fire. Between Barebones and 
Barbon is a wide gap, and Barbon's Parliament 
suggests nothing ludicrous whatsoever. Yet (if we 
set aside the baptismal name) what an amount of 
ridicule has been cast over this same Parliament on 
account of a surname which in reality has been 
made to meet the occasion. No historian has 
heaped more sarcasm on the " Rump " than Hume, 
but he never styles the leatherseller as anything 
but " Barebone." 

But while Praise-God has obtained exceptional 
notoriety, not so Faint-not, and yet there was a 
day when Faint-not bade fair to take its place as 
a regular and recognized name. I should weary 
the reader did I furnish a full list of instances. 
Here are a few : 

" 1585, March 6. Baptized Faynt-not, d. of James Browne." — 

" 1590, Jan.. 17. Baptized Faynt-not Wood." — Cranbrook. 

" 1 63 1, . Thomas Perse married Faint-not Kennarde." — 


" 1642, Aug. 2. Married John Pierce and Faint-not Polhill, 
widow. "-^-Burwash, Sussex. 

This Faint-not Polhill was mother of Edward 
Polhill, a somewhat celebrated writer of his day. 
She married her first husband December 11, 1616. 


" 1678, Feb. 12. Buried Faint-not Blatcher, a poor old 
wicldow. "— Warbleton. 

The rents of certain houses which provided an 
exhibition for the boys of Lewes Grammar School 
were paid in 1692 as usual. One item is set down 
as follows : 

"Faint-not Batch elor's house, per annum, £6 o o."— "Hist, 
and Ant. Lewes," i. 311. 

Faint-not occurs in Maresfield Church (" Suss. 
Arch. Coll.," xiv. 151). We have already referred 
to Faint-not, the daughter of "Dudley Fenner, 
minister of the Word of God " at Marden, Kent. 

Fear-not was also in use. The Rector of Warble- 
ton baptized one of his own children by the name ; 
some of his parishioners copied him : 

" 1594, Nov. 10. Baptized Fear-not, sonne of Richard Maye. 
" 1589, Oct. 19. Baptized Fear-not, sonne of Wili m . Browne." 

Decidedly cheerful were such names as Hope- 
still or Hopeful. Both occur in Banbury Church. 
Hopeful Wheatley has already been mentioned. 

" 161 1, June 16. Baptized Hope-still, d. to Edward Peedle. 
" 1697, Dec. 30. Buried Hope-still Faxon, a olde mayde." 

Whether or no her matrimonial expectations were 
still high to the end, we are not told. 

One of the earliest Pilgrim Fathers was Hope- 
still Foster (Hotten, p. 68). He went out to New 
England about 1620. His name became a common 


one out there. Two bearers of the name at home 
lived so long that it reached the Georges : 

" Near this place is interred the body of John Warden, of Butler's 
Green in this parish, Esq., who died April 30, 1730, aged 79 
years ; and also of Hope-still, his wife, who died July 22, 1 749, 
aged 92." — Cuckfield Church, Sussex. 

"Dec. 1, 1714. Administration of goods of Michael Watkins, 
granted to Hope-still Watkins, his widow." — C. S. P. 

In the list of incumbents of Lydney, Gloucester • 
shire, will be found the name of Help-on-higJi Foxe, 
who was presented to the living by the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford in 1660. For some reason or 
other, possibly to curtail the length, he styled him- 
self in general as Hope-well, and this was retained 
on his tomb : 

" Hie in Cristo quiescit Hope-wel Foxe, in artibus magister, 
hujus ecclesiae vicarius vigilantissimus qui obiit 2 die Aprilis, 1662." 
— Bigland's " Monuments of Gloucester." 

How quickly such names were caught up by 
parishioners from their clergy may again be seen in 
the case of Hope-well Voicings, of Tetbury, who 
left a rentcharge of £1 for the charity schools at 
Cirencester in 172a Probably he was christened 
by the vicar himself at Lydney. 

We have already mentioned Rejoice Lord, of 
Salehurst. The name had a tremendous run : 

" 1647, June 22. Buried Rejoice, daughter of John Harvey. 
" 1679, Oct. 18. Baptized Rejoice, daughter of Nicholas Wratten.'" 
— Warbleton, 


Rejoice reached the eighteenth century : 

"1713, Sep. 29. Married John Pimm, of St. Dunstan's, Cant., 
to Rejoice Epps, of the precincts of this church." — Cant. Cath. 

Magnify and Give-thanks frequently occur in 
Warbleton register : 

" 1595, Dec. 7. Buried Gyve-thanks Bentham, a child. 

" I593» M ch . 11. Baptized Give-thanks, the dather of Thomas 

" 1591, Feb. 6. Baptized Magnyfy, sonne of William Freeland. 

" 1587, Sep. 17. Baptized Magnyfye, sonne of Thomas Beard. 

"1587, April 2. Baptized Give-thankes, sonne of Thomas Qui- 

It is from the same register we obtain examples 
of an exhortatory name known to have existed 
at this time, viz. " Be-thankful." A dozen cases 
might be cited : 

" 1586, Feb. 6. Baptized Be-thankfull, the dather of Abell 

" 1601, Nov. 8. Baptized Be-thankfull, d. of James Gyles. 
" 161 7, Nov. 27. Married Thomas Flatt and Be-thankefull Baker. 
1662, May 9. Buried Be-thankeful Giles." 

Thus Miss Giles bore her full name for over sixty 
years : and, I dare say, was very proud of it.* 
Besides Be-thankful, there was " Be-strong : " 

" 1592, Nov. 26. Baptized Be-strong Philpott." — Cranbrook. 

Many of the exhortatory names related to the 

* Antony a Wood says Robert Abbott, minister at Cranbrook, 
Kent, published a quarto sermon in 1626, entitled "Be-thankful 
London and her Sisters." When we remember that Warbleton in 
1626 had at least a dozen Be-Thankfuls among its inhabitants, and 
that Cranbrook was within walking distance, we see where the title 
of this discourse was got. 



fallen nature of man. One great favourite at 
Warbleton was w Sin-deny." It was coined first 
by Heley, the Puritan rector, in 1588, for one of 
his own daughters. Afterwards the entries are 
numerous. Two occur in one week : 

" 1592, April 23. Baptized Sin-denye, d. of Richard Tebb. 
" „ 29. Baptized Sin-denye, d. of William Durant. 

u 1594, March 9. Baptized Sin-denye, d. of Edward Outtered." 

This name seems to have been monopolized by the 
girls. One instance only to the contrary can I find : 

" 1588, Feb. 9. Baptized Sin-dynye, sonne of Andrew Champneye." 

Still keeping to the same register, we find of this 
class : 

" 1669, Jan. 21. Buried Refrayne Benny, a widdow. 
" 1586, May 15. Baptized Refrayne, dather of John Celeb. 
" 1586, April 24. Baptized Repent, sonne of William Durant. 
" 1587, July 16. Baptized Returne, sonne of Rychard Farret. 
" 1587, Aug. 6. Baptized Obey, sonne of Rychard Larkford. • 
" 1587, Dec. 24. Baptized Depend, sonne of Edward Outtered. 
" 1588, Ap. 7. Baptized Feare-God, sonne of John Couper. 
" 1608, Aug. 14. Baptized Repent Champney, a basterd. 
" I 595> Maye 18. Baptized Refrayne, d. of John Wykes." 

Many registers contain " Repent." Cranbrook 
has an early one : 

" 1586, Jan. 1. Baptized Repent Boorman." 

Abuse-not is quaint : 

" 1592, Sep. 17. Baptized Abuse-not, d. of Rychard Ellis. 
*' 1 592, Dec. 3. Baptized Abus-not, d. of John Collier."— Warble- 

The last retained her name : 

" 1603, Maye 20. Buried Abuse-not Collyer." 


Here, again, are two curious entries : 

" 1636, March 19. Baptized Be-steadfast, sonne of Thomas Elliard 
ri 1589, Nov. 9. Baptized Learn- wysdome, d. of Rychard Ellis." 

These also are extracts from the Warbleton 

registers. None of them, however, can be more 

strongly exhortatory than this : 

" 1660, April 15. Baptized Hate-evill, d. of Antony Greenhill."— 

Doubtless she was related to William Greenhill, 
born 1 581, the great Puritan commentator on 
Ezekiel. This cannot be the earliest instance of 
the name, for one Hate-evill Nutter was a settler 
in New England twenty years before her baptism 
(Bowditch). I suspect its origin can be traced 
to the following : — 

"1580, June 25. Baptized Hatill (Hate-ill), sonne of Will m . Wood. 
" ibo8, Nov. 17. Baptized Hatill, sonne to Antony Robinson." — 
M iddleton- Cheney. 

As Middleton-Cheney is a mere outlying parish 
from Banbury, I think we may see whence Hate- 
evil Greenhill's name was derived. 

Returning once more to Warbleton, Lament is 
so common there, as in other places, that it would 
be absurd to suppose the mother had died in child- 
birth in every instance. A glance at the register 
of deaths disproves the idea. The fact is Lament 
was used, like Repent, as a serious call to godly 
sorrow for sin : 

" I 594> J u ty 22 - Baptized Lament, d. of Antony Foxe. 


" 1598, May 14. Baptized Lament, d. of John Fauterell. 
" 1600, M ch 29. Baptized Lament, d. of Anne Willard." 

But we must not linger too much at Warbleton. 

Live-well commanded much attention. Neither 
sex could claim the monopoly of it, as my ex- 
amples prove. At the beginning of Charles II.'s 
reign, a warrant was abroad for the capture of one 
Live-well Chapman, a seditious printer. In such a 
charge it is possible he fulfilled the pious injunction 
of his god-parent : 

" 1662-3, March 9. Warrant to apprehend Live-well Chapman,* 
with all his printing instruments and materials." — C. S. P. 

He is mentioned again : 

" 1663, Nov. 24. Warrant to Sir Edward Broughton to receive 
Live- well Chapman, and keep him close prisoner for seditious 
practices."— C. S. P. 

This is no unique case. Live-well Sherwood, an 
alderman of Norwich, was put on a commission 
for sequestering papists in 1643 (Scobell's " Orders 
of Pari.;' p. 38). 

Again the name occurs : 

" 1702, Oct. 15. Thomas Halsey, of Shadwell, widower, to Live 
well Prisienden, of Stepney." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

Love-God is found twice, at least, for letters of 

* Live-well Chapman was a Fifth Monarchy man. There is still 
extant a pamphlet headed " A Declaration of several of the Churches 
of Christ, and Godly People, in and about the City of London, con- 
cerning the Kingly Interest of Christ, and the Present Sufferings of 
His Cause, and Saints in England. Printed for Live-well Chapman, 


administration in the case of one Love-God 
Gregory were granted in 1654. Also is found : 

" 1596, March 6. Baptized Love-God, daughter of Hugh Walker, 
vicar." — Berwick, Sussex. 

Do-good is exhortatory enough, but it rather 
smacks of works ; hence, possibly, the reason why 
I have only seen it once. A list of the trained 
bands under Lord Zouch, Lord Warden of Has- 
tings, 1619, includes — 

" Musketts, James Knight, Doo-good Fuller, Thomas Pilcher." — 
" Arch. Soc. Coll." (Sussex), xiv. 102. 

Fare-well seems a shade more worldly than Live- 
well, but was common enough : 

" x 589, July 16, Baptized Fare-well, son of Thomas Hamlen, 
gent." — St. Dunstan-in-the-West, London. 

" 1723, Sep. 5. Buried Mr. Fare-well Perry, rector of St. Peter's." 
— Marlborough. 

A writer in Notes and Queries, September 9, 1865 
(Mr. Lloyd of Thurstonville), says — 

" A man named Sykes, resident in this locality, had four sons 
whom he named respectively Love-well, Do-well, Die-well, and 
Fare-well. Sad to say, Fare-well Sykes met an untimely end by 
drowning, and was buried this week (eleventh Sunday after Trinity) 
in Lockwood churchyard. The brothers Live-well, Do-well, and 
Die-well were the chief mourners on the occasion." 

It seems almost impossible that the father should 
have restored three of the Puritan names acci- 
dentally. Probably he had seen or heard of these 
names in some Yorkshire church register. One of 
these names, Farewell, is still used in the county, 


as the directories show. I see Fare-well Wardley, 
in Sheffield, in the West Riding Directory for 1867. 
This closes the exhortatory class. It is both 
numerous and interesting, and some of its instances 
grew very familiar, and looked as if they might 
find a permanent place in our registers. The 
eighteenth century saw them all succumb, however. 

(d.) Accidents of Birth. 

Evidently it was a Puritan notion that a quiver- 
ful of children was a matter for thanksgiving. 
There is a pleasant ring in some of the names 
selected by religious gossips at this time, or 
witnesses, as I should rather term them. Free-gift 
was one such, and was on the point of becoming 
an accepted English name, when the Restoration 
stepped in, and it had to follow the way of the 
others. It began with the Presbyterian clergy, 
judging by the date of its rise : * 

" 1 6 16, . Buried Mary, wiffe of Free-gift Mabbe."— Chid- 

dingly, Sussex. 

" 1621, . Baptized John, son of Free-gift Bishopp." — Ditto. 

" 1 591, Jan. 14. Baptized Fre-gift, sonne of Abraham Bayley." 
— Warbleton. 

The will of Free-gift Stacey was proved in 1656 

* These two were twins : 

" 1589, Oct. 12. Baptized Fre-gyft and Fear-not, ye children of 
Tohn Lulham." — Warbleton. 


in London ; while a subsidy obtained by an un- 
popular tax on fires, hearths, and stoves in 1670, 
rates a resident in Chichester thus : 

" Free-gift Collins, two hearths." — "Suss. Arch. Coll.," xxiv.8l. 

The last instance I have seen is : 

"Dec. 4, 1700. The petition of Free-gift Pilkington, wife of 
Richard Pilkington, late port-master of Ipswich, county Suffolk." 
— C. S. P. 

Good-gift was rarer : 

" 1618, March 28. Bapt. John, sonne of Goodgift Gynninges."— 

One of the earliest Puritan eccentricities was 
Front-above, mentioned by Camden as existing 
in 1614: 

"1582, March 10. Baptized From-above Hendley." — Cranbrook. 

A subsidy collected within the rape of Lewes in 
1 62 1 records : 

"From-above Hendle, gent, in landes, 3040." — "Suss. Arch. 
Coll.," lx. 71. 

Many of these names suggest thanksgiving for an 
" addition to the family." More-fruit is one such : 

"1587, June 6. Baptized More-fruite Stone, of Steven." — 
Berwick, Sussex. 

"1592, Oct. I. Baptized More-fruite Starre."*— Cranbrook. 

11 x 599» Nov « 4« Baptized More-fruite, d. of Richard Barnet." — 

" 1608, Aug. 28. Baptized More-frute, d. of Ry chard Curtes."— 

* This, no doubt, will be a relative of the well-known Puritan, 
Comfort Starr, born in the adjacent hamlet of Ashford. 


We have already referred to More-fruit Fenner, 
christened about the same time. 

The great command to Adam and Eve was, 
"Multiply, and replenish the earth." Some suc- 
cessor of Thomas Heley thought it no harm to 
emphasize this at the font : 

" 1677, May 14. Buried Replenish, ye wife of Robert French." 

But " Increase" or " Increased " was the repre- 
sentative of this class of thanksgiving names, in 
palpable allusion to Psa. cxv. 14 : 

"The Lord shall increase you more and more, you and your 

I could easily furnish the reader with half a 
hundred instances. It is probable Thomas Heley 
was the inventor of it. The earliest example I 
can find is that of his own child : 

(l 1587, March 26. Baptized Increased, dather of Thomas Helley, 

" 1637, Sep. 15. Buried Increase, wife of Robard Barden. 

" 1589, Apr. 13. Baptized Increased, d. of John Gynninges." — 

One or two instances from other quarters may 
be noted : 

" 1660, June. Petition of Increased Collins, for restoration to 
the keepership of Mote's Bulwark, Dover." — C. S. P. 

Dr. Increase Mather, of the Liverpool family of 
that name, will be a familiar figure to every student 
of Puritan history. In 1685 he returned from 
America to thank King James for the Toleration 


Act. Through him it became a popular name in 
New England, although Increase Nowell, who 
obtained a charter of appropriation of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, March 4, 1628, and emigrated from 
London, may have helped in the matter (Neal's 
"New England," p. 124). 

The perils of childbirth are marked in the 
thanksgiving name of Deliverance. So early as 
1627 the will of Deliverance Wilton was proved 
in London. Camden, too, writing in 1614, says 
" Delivery " was known to him ; while Adams, 
whose Puritan proclivities I have previously hinted 
at, preaching in London in 1626, asserts that Safe- 
deliverance existed to his knowledge (" Meditations 
upon the Creed"). Deliverance crossed the At- 
lantic with the Pilgrim Fathers (Bowditch), and I 
see one instance, at least, in Hotten's " Emigrants : " 

" 1670, Feb. 18. Buried Deliverance Addison." — Christ Church, 

"Deliverance Hobbs and Deliverance Dane were both examined 
in the great trial for witchcraft at Salem, June 2, 1692." — Neal, 
"New England," pp. 533, 506. 

The last instance, probably, at home is — 

"1757, Jan. 7. Buried Deliverance Branan." — Donnybrook, 
Dublin (Notes and Queries). 

This " Deliverance " must have been especially 
common. One more instance : in the will of 
Anne Allport, sen., of Cannock, Stafford, dated 


March 25, 1637, mention is made of "my son- 
in-law Deliverance Fennyhouse " {vide Notes ana 
Queries, Dec. 8, i860, W. A. Leighton). 
Much-mercy is characteristic : 

11 1598, May 22. Baptized Much-mercie Harmer, a child." — 

This is but one more proof of Heley's influence, 
for he had baptized one of his own sons "Much- 
mercy" in 1585. 

Perhaps a sense of undeserved mercies caused 
the following : 

" 1589, Sep. 28. Baptized No-merit, datlier of Stephen Vynall." 
— Warbleton. 

That babes are cherubs, if not seraphs, every 
mother knows; but it is not often the fact is 
recorded in our church registers. Peculiar thank- 
fulness must have been felt here : 

"On Dec. 11, 1865, aged seventy-eight years, died Cherubin 
Diball." — Notes and Queries, 4th Series, ii. 130. 

And two hundred years previously, i.e. 1678, 
Seraphim Marketman is referred to in the last 
testament of John Kirk. But was it gratitude, 
after all? We have all heard of the wretched 
father who would persist in having the twins his 
wife presented to him christened by the names 
of Cherubin and Seraphim, on the ground that 
"they continually do cry." Perhaps Cherubin 
Diball and Seraphim Marketman made noise 
enough for two ! 


But if the father of the twins was not as thankful 
for his privilege as he ought to have been, others 
were. Thanks and Thankful were not unknown 
to our forefathers. One of the earliest instances 
I can find is the marriage lines of Thankful Hep- 
den : 

" 1646, July 16. Thankfull Hepden and Fraunces Bruer." — St. 
Dionis Backchurch. 

In Peck's "Desiderata Curiosa" (p. 537) we read : 

"Dec. M.D.CLVI. Mr. Thankful Frewen's corps carried 
through London, to be interred in Sussex." 

Thankful's father was John Frewen, Rector of 
Northiam, the eminent Puritan already referred to. 
Accepted, the elder son's name, belongs to this 
same class. Thankful seems to have become a 
favourite in that part of the country, and to have 
lingered for a considerable time. In the " History 
of the Town and Port of Rye " we find (p. 466) : 

"Christmas, 1 723. Assessment for repairs of highways: Mr. 
Thankful Bishop paid 7 s 6 d ." 

Again, so late as 1749 we find the death of another 
Thankful Frewen recorded, who had been Rector 
of Northiam for sixteen years, christened, no 
doubt, in memory of his predecessor of a century 
gone by.* Thankful Owen was brother to 

* A tablet in Northiam Church says — 

" In memory of Thankfull Frewen, Esq., patron of, and a 
generous benefactor to, this Church : who was many years purse- 


Gracious Owen, president of St. John's, Oxford, 
1 650-1 660. 

One more instance will suffice. The will of 
Thanks Tilden was proved in 1698. No wonder 
the name was sufficiently familiar to be embodied 
in one of the political skits of the Commonwealth 

" ' O, very well said,' quoth Con ; 
'And so will I do,' says Frank ; 
And Mercy cries 'Aye,' and Mat, 'Really,' 
♦And I'm o' that mind,' quoth Thank" 

Possibly the sentence "unfeignedly thankful" 
suggested the other word also ; any way, it existed : 

"1586, April I. Baptized Unfeigned, sonne of Roger Elliard." 
— Warbleton. 

The estate of Unfeigned Panckhurst was adminis- 
tered upon in 1656. 

From every side we see traces of the popularity 
of Thankful. During the restoration of Hawkhurst 
Church, a small tombstone was discovered below 
the floor, with an inscription to the "memory of 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thankful Bishop, of Hawk- 
hurst, gent., who died January 2, 1680 " ("Arch. 

bearer and afterwards secretary to Lord Keeper Coventry, in the 

reign of Charles the First." 

A flat stone in the chancel commemorates the second Thankful : 
" Hie situs est vir reverendus Thankfull Frewen hujus ecclesiae 

per quinquaginta sex annos rector sanctissimus & doctissimus . . . 

obiit 2 d0 Septembris, 1749, anno setatis 8i mo ." 


Cant," iv. 108). In the churchwarden's book of 
the same place occurs this curious item : 

" 1675. Received by Thankfull Thorpe, churchwarden in the 
year 1675, of Richard Sharpe of Bennenden, the summe of one 
pound for shouting of a hare." — "Arch. Cant.," v. 75. 

Several names seem to breathe assurance and 

trust in imminent peril. Perhaps both mother 

and child were in danger. Preserved is distinctly 
of this class : 

"Here lieth the body of Preserved, the daughter of Thomas 
Preserved Emms, who departed this life in the 18th year of her age, 
on the 17th of November, mdccxii." — St. Nicholas, Yarmouth. 

" 1588, Aug. 1. Baptized Preserved, sonne of Thomas Holman. 

" 1594, Nov. 17. Baptized Preserved, sonne of Roger CarTe." 
— Warble ton. 

Preserved Fish, whose name appeared for many 

years in the New York Directory, did not get his 

name this way. A friend of his informs me that, 

about eighty-five years ago, a vessel was wrecked 

on the New Jersey coast, and when washed ashore, 

a little child was discovered secured in one of the 

berths, the only living thing left. The finder 

named the boy "Preserved Fish," and he bore it 

through a long and honoured life to the grave, 

having made for himself a good position in society. 

Beloved would naturally suggest itself to grateful 

parents : 

" 1672, July 10. Buried Anne, wife of Beeloved King." — 


This name is also found in St. Matthew, Friday 
Street, London. 

Joy-in-Sorrozv is the story of Rachel and Benoni 
over again : 

" 1595. On the last daye of August the daughter of Edward 
Godman was baptized and named Joye-in- Sorrow." — Isfield, 

Lamentation tells its own tale, unless taken from 
the title of one of the Old Testament books : 

"Plaintiff, Lamentation Chapman : Bill to stay proceedings on a 
bond relating to a tenement and lands in the parish of Borden, 
Kent."—" Proc. in Chancer)', Eliz.," i. 149. 

We have already mentioned Safe-on-high Hop- 
kinson, christened at Salehurst in 1591, and Help- 
on-high Foxe, incumbent of Lydney, Gloucester, 
in 1 66 1. The former died a few days after bap- 
tism, and the event seems to have been antici- 
pated in the name selected. 

The termination on-high was popular. Stand- 
fast-on-high Stringer dwelt at Crowhurst, in Sussex 
about the year 1635, as will be proved shortly, and 
A id-on-high is twice met with : 

" 1646, June 6. Letters of administration taken out in the estate 
of Margery Maddock, of Ross, Hereford, by Aid-on-high Maddock, 
her husband." 

" 1596, July 19. Stephen Vynall had a sonne baptized, and was 
named Aid-on-hye." — Isfield, Sussex.* 

* We have already seen that Stephen Vynall had a daughter 
baptized No-merit at Warbleton, September 28, 1589. Heley's 
influence followed him to Isfield, as this entry proves. 


The three following are precatory, and we may 
infer that the life of either mother or child was 
endangered : 

" 1618, . Married Restore Weekes to Constant Semar " — 


" 1613, . Baptized Have-mercie, d. of Thomas Stone." — 

Berwick, Sussex. 

A monument at Cobham, Surrey, commemorates 

the third : 

"Hereunder lies interred the body of Aminadab Cooper, citizen 
and merchaunt taylor of London, who left behind him God-helpe, 
their only sonne. Hee departed this life the 23 d June, 1618." 

Still less hopeful of augury was the following : 

"1697, July 6. Weakly Ekins, citizen and grocer, London." — 
"Inquisit. of Lunacy," Rec. Office MS S. 

What about him ? His friends brought him 
forward as a case for the Commissioners of Lunacy 
to take in hand, on the ground that he was weak 
of intellect, and unfit to manage his business. It 
might be asked whether such a name was not likely 
to drive him to the state specified in the petition. 

While on the subject of birth, we may notice 
that the Presbyterian clergy were determined to 
visit the sins of the parents on the children in cases 
of illegitimacy. A few instances must suffice : 

"1589, Aug. 3. Baptized Helpless Henley, a bastard. "—Ber- 
wick, Sussex. 

" 1608, Aug. 14. Baptized Repent Champney, a bastard." — 


" 1599, May 13. Baptized Repentance, d. of Martha Henley, a 
bastard. " — Warbleton. 

" 1600, M**. 26. Baptized Lament, d. of Anne Willard, a 
bastard."— Ditto. 

"1600, April 13. Baptized Repentance Gilbert, a bastard." — 

" 1598, Jan. 27. Baptized Forsaken, filius meretricis Agnetis 
Walton." — Sedgefield. 

"1609, Dec. 17. Baptized Flie-fornication, the bace son of 
Catren Andrewes. " — Waldron. 

This is more kindly, but an exceptional case : 

" 1609, Nov. 25. Baptized Fortune, daughter of Dennis Judie, 
and in sin begoten." — Middleton-Cheney. 

(e.) General. 

There is a batch of names which was especially- 
common, and which hardly appears to be of Puritan 
origin ; I mean names presaging goo'd fortune. 
Doubtless, however, they were at first used, in a 
purely spiritual sense, of the soul's prosperity ; and 
afterwards, by more worldly minds, were referred 
to the good things of this life. 

Fortune became a great favourite : 

" 1607, Oct. 4. Baptized Fortune Gardyner."— St. Giles, 

" 1642, . Baptized Fortune, daughter of Thomas Patchett." 

— Ludlow, Shropshire. 

" 1652-3, M ch . 10. Married Mr. John Barrington and Mrs. 
Fortune Smith." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

"1723, April 8. Buried Fortune Symons, aged in years." — 

If Fortune meant fulness of years, it was attained 
in this last example. 


Wealthy is equally curious : 

" 1665 [no date]. Petition of Wealthy, lawful wife of Henry 
Halley, and one of the Duke of York's guards."— C. S. P. 

"1714, April 25. Buried Wealthy Whathing." — Donnybrook, 

"1704, Aug. 18, died Riches Browne, gent., aged 62." — Seaming, 

The father of this Riches was also Riches, and was 
married to the daughter of John Nabs ! {vide 
Blomefield, vi. 5). 

Several names may be set in higgledy-piggledy 
fashion, for they belong to no class, and are sui 

Pleasant f is found several times : 

" 1681, Nov. 8. Christened Pleasant, daughter, of Robert Tarl- 
ton.'" — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1725, Dec. 18. William Whiteing, of Chislett, to Pleasant 
Burt, of Reculver."— Cant. Cath. 

" 1728, Nov. 3. Buried Pleasant Smith, late wife of Mr. John 
Smith." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

The following, no doubt, had a political as well 
as spiritual allusion. It occurs several times in the 
New York Directory of the present year : 

" 1689, March 4. Petition of Freeman Howes, controller of 
Chichester port." — "C. S. P. Treasury." 

" 1691, Sep. 21. Petition of Freeman Collins."— Ditto. 

* "1723.— Welthiana Bryan. "— Nicholl's "Coll. Top. et Gen.," 
iii. 250. 

t Pleasant lasted for some time : 

" 1757, Jan. ii. Married Thomas Dunn and Pleasant Dadd."— 
Cant. Cath. 


" 1661. Petition of Freeman Sonds."— "C. S. P. Domestic." * 

What a freak of fancy is commemorated in the 
following : 

" 1698, June 23. Examination of Isaac Cooper, Thomas Abra- 
ham, and Centurian Lucas." — C. S. P. 

" 1660, June. Petition of Handmaid, wife of Aaron Johnson." 
— C.S. P. 

" 1661, August 29. Baptized Miracle, son of George Lessa." — 
New Buckenham. 

"1728. Married John Foster to Beulah Digby." — Somerset 
House Chapel. 

The Trinity in Unity were not held in proper 
reverence ; for Trinity Langley fought in the army 
of Cromwell, while Unity Thornton (St. James, 
Piccadilly, 1680) and Unity Awdley ("Top. et. Gen.," 
viii. 201) appear a little later : 

" 1694, Jan. 8. James Commelin to Mrs. Unitie Awdrey." — 
Market Lavington. 

"1668, Feb. 15. Baptized Unity, son of John Brooks." — Ban- 

Providence Hillershand died August 14, I749» 
aged 72 (Bicknor, Gloucester). Providence was 
a he. 

"1752, Nov. 5. Buried Selah, d. of Ric. and Diana Collins." 
— Dyrham, Gloucestershire. 

" 1586, April 10. Baptized My-sake Hallam." — Cranbrook. 

Biblical localities were much resorted to : 

* A dozen Freemans may be seen within the limits of half that 
number of pages in the Finchley registers. Here is one : 
" 1603, Feb. 26. Baptized Freeman, filius Freeman Page." 


" 1616, Nov. 26. Baptized Bethsaida, d. of Humphrey Tre- 
nouth." — St. Columb Major. 

" 1700, June 6. Buried Canaan, wife of John Hatton, 55 years." 
— Forthampton, Gloucestershire. 

"J706, April 27. Married Eden Hardy to Esther Pantall."— 
St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1695, Dec. 15. Baptized Richard, son of Richard and Nazareth 
Rudde." — St. James, Piccadilly. 

Nazareth Godden's will was administrated upon in, 
1662. Battalion Shotbolt was defendant in a suit 
in the eleventh year of Queen Anne (Decree Rolls 
Record Office). The following is odd : 

" 1683, Oct. 11. Buried Mr. Inward Ansloe."— Cant. Cath. 

V. A Scoffing World. 

While these strange pranks were being played, 
the world was not asleep. Calamy seems to have 
discovered a source of melancholy satisfaction in 
the fact that the quaint names of his brethren 
were subjected to the raillery of a wicked world. 
One of the ejected ministers was Sabbath Clark, 
minister of Tarvin, Cheshire. Of him he writes : 

"He had been constant minister of the parish for nigh upon 
sixty years. He carried Puritanism in his very name, by which his 
good father intended he should bear the memorial of God's Holy 
Day. This was a course that some in those times affected, baptizing 
their children Reformation, Discipline, etc., as the affections of their 
parents stood engaged. For this they have sufficiently suffered from 
Profane Wits, and this worthy person did so in particular. Yet his 
name was not a greater offence to such persons than his holy life." 

Probably Calamy was referring to the "profane 


wit " Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Chester, who, in a 
visitation held at Warrington about the year 
1643, is said to have acted as follows : — 

"A minister, called Sabbaith Clerke, the Doctor re-bap.tized, 
took'smarke, and call'd him Saturday." 

That this was a deliberate insult, and not a 
pleasantry, Calamy, of course, would stoutly main- 
tain. Hence the above sample of holy ire. 

Many of the names in the list I have recorded 
must have met with the good-humoured raillery 
of the every-day folk the strangely stigmatized 
bearer might meet. I suppose in good time, 
however, the owner, and the people he was 
accustomed to mix with, got used to it. It is 
true they must have resorted, not unfrequently, 
to curter forms, much after the fashion o-f the 
now almost forgotten nick forms of the Plan- 
tagenet days. Fight -the -good -fight -of- faith is 
a very large mouthful, if you come to try it, 
and I dare say Mr. White or Brown, whoever he 
might be, did not so strongly urge as he ought 
to have done the gross impropriety of his friends 
recognizing him by the simple style of " Faith " 
or " Fight." Fancy at a dinner, in a day that 
had not invented the convenient practice of calling 
a man by his surname, having to address a friend 
across the table, "Please, Fight-the-good-fight-of- 


faith, pass the pepper ! " The thing was impos- 
sible. Even Help-on-high was found cumber- 
some, and, as we have seen, the Rector of Lydney 
curtailed it. 

A curious instance of waggery anent this matter 
of length will be found in the register of St. 
Helen, Bishopgate. The entry is dated 1611, 
just the time when the dramatists were making 
fun of this Puritanic innovation, and when the 
custom was most popular : 

"Sept. I, 1611. Job-rakt-out-of-the-asshes, being borne the last of 
August in the lane going to Sir John Spencer's back-gate, and there 
laide in a heape of seacole asshes, was baptized the fhrst day of Sep- 
tember following, and dyed the next day after." 

This is confirmed by the burial records : 

" Sept. 2, i6ii. Job-rakt-out-of-the-asshes, as is mentioned in the 
register of christenings." 

The reference, of course, is to Job ii. 8 : 

" And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal; and he 
sat down among the ashes." 

This was somewhat grim fun, though. Probably 
Job-rakt-out-of-the-asshes, during his brief life, 
would be styled by the curter title of "Ashes." 
It is somewhat curious to notice that Camden, 
writing three years later, says Ashes existed. Per- 
haps this was the instance. 
A similar instance of waggery is found in the 


parish church of Old Swinford, where the following 
entry occurs : — 

11 1676, Jan. 18. Baptized Dancell-Dallphebo-Marke-Antony- 
Dallery-Gallery-Cesar, sonn of Dancell Dallpuebo-Marke-Antony- 
Dallery-Gallery-Cesar Williams." 

Allowing the father to be thirty years of age, the 
paternal christening would take place in 1646, 
which would be a likely time in the political 
history of England for a mimical hit at Puritan 

(a.) The Playwrights. 

There is a capital scene in " The Ordinary " 
(1634), where Andrew Credulous, after trolling 
out a verse of nonsensical rhyme against the 
Puritan names, says to his friends Hearsay and 
Sheer, in allusion to these new long and uncouth 
names : 

" Andrew the Great Turk ? 
I would I were a peppercorn, if that 
It sounds not well. Doe'st not? 

Slicer. Yes, very well. 

Credulous. I'll make it else great Andrew Mahomet, 
Imperious Andrew Mahomet Credulous. 
Tell me which name sounds best. 

Hearsay. That's as you speak 'em. 

Credulous. Oatmealman Andrew ! Andrew Oatmealman ! 

Hearsay. Ottoman, sir, you mean. 

Credulous. Yes, Ottoman." 

" Oatmealman Andrew ! Andrew Oatmealman ! " 


seems to have suggested to Thomson that un- 
fortunate line : 

"O Sophonisba, Sophonisba O," 

so unkindly parodied into — 

" O Jemmy Thomson, Jemmy Thomson O." 

From this quotation it will be seen that it is not 
to the church register alone we must turn, to dis- 
cover the manner in which these new names were 
being received by the public. Calamy might wax 
wroth over the " profane wits " of the day, but one 
of the severest blows administered to the men 
he has undertaken to defend, came from his own 
side ; for Thomas Adams, Rector of St. Benet, 
Paul's Wharf, must unquestionably be placed, 
even by Calamy's own testimony, among the 
Puritan clergy of his day. His name does not 
appear in the list of silenced clergy, and his works 
are dedicated to pronounced friends of the Non- 
comformist cause. In his "Meditations upon the 
Creed " (vol. iii. p. 213, edit. 1 872), first published in 
1629, he says — 

" Some call their sons Emanuel: this is too bold. The name is 
proper to Christ, therefore not to be communicated to any creature. 
It is no less than presumption to give a subject's son the style of his 
prince. Yea, it seems to me not fit for Christian humility to call a 
man Gabriel or Michael, giving the names of angels to the sons of 

" On the other side, it is a petulant absurdity to give them ridicu- 
lous names, the very rehearsing whereof causeth laughter. There 


be certain affectate names which mistaken zeal chooseth for honour, 
but the event discovers a proud singularity. It was the speech of a 
famous prophet, Non sum melior patribus meis — ' I am no better 
than my fathers ; ' but such a man will be sapientior patribus suis — 
1 Wiser than his fathers. ' As if they would tie the goodness of the 
person to the signification of the name. But still a man is what he 
is, not what he is called ; he were the same, with or without that 
title or that name. And we have known Williams and Richards, 
names not found in sacred story, but familiar to our country, prove 
as gracious saints as any Safe-deliverance, Fight-the-good-fight-of- faith, 
or such like, which have been rather descriptions than names. " 

I have quoted portions of this before. I have 
now given it in full, for it is trenchant, and full of 
common sense. Coming from the quarter it did, 
we cannot doubt it had its effect in throwing the 
practice into disfavour among the better orders. 
But there had been a continued battery going on 
from a foe by whose side Adams would have rather 
faced death than fight. Years before he wrote his 
own sentiments, the Puritan nomenclature had been 
roughly handled on the stage, and by such ruthless 
pens as Ben Jonson, Cowley, and Beaumont and 
Fletcher. A year before little Job-rakt-out-of-the- 
asshes was laid to rest, the sharp and unsparing 
sarcasm of " The Alchemist " and " Bartholomew 
Fair " had been levelled at these doings. The first 
of these two dramas Ben Jonson saw acted in 1610. 
By that time the custom was a generation old, and 
men who bore the godly but uncouth sobriquets 
were walking the streets, keeping shops, driving 


bargains, known, if not avoided, of all men. In 
1 610 Increase Brown, your apprentice, might be 
demanding an advance upon his wages, Help-on- 
high Jones might be imploring your patronage, 
while Search-the-Scriptures Robinson might be 
diligently studying his ledger to see how he could 
swell his total against you for tobacco and groceries. 
In 1610 society would be really awake to the fact 
that such things existed, and proceed to discuss 
this serio-comic matter in a comico-serious manner. 
The time was exactly ripe for the playwright, and 
it was the fate of the Presbyterians that the play- 
wright was " rare Ben." 

In "The Alchemist " appears Ananias, a deacon, 
who is thus questioned by Subtle : 

"What are you, sir? 

Ananias. Please you, a servant of the exiled brethren, 
That deal with widows' and with orphans' goods, 
And make a just account unto the saints : 
A deacon. 

Subtle. O, you are sent from Master Wholesome, 
Your teacher ? 

Ananias. From Tribulation Wholesome, 
Our very zealous pastor. " 

After accusing Ananias of being related to the 
11 varlet that cozened the Apostles/' Subtle meets 
Tribulation himself, the Amsterdam pastor, whom 
he treats with scant courtesy : 

" Nor shall you need to libel 'gainst the prelates, 
And shorten so your ears against the hearing 


Of the next wire-drawn grace. Nor of necessity 
Rail against plays, to please the alderman 
Whose daily custard you devour ; nor lie 
With zealous rage till you are hoarse. Not one 
Of these so singular arts. Nor call yourselves 
By name of Tribulation, Persecution, 
Restraint, Long-patience, and such like, affected 
By the whole family or wood of you, 
Only for glory, and to catch the ear 
Of your disciple." 

To which hard thrust Tribulation meekly makes 
response : 

"Truly, sir, they are 
Ways that the godly brethren have invented 
For propagation of the glorioas cause." 

Every word of this harangue of Subtle's would 
tell upon a sympathetic audience. So popular was 
the play itself, that a common street song was 
made out of it, the first verse of which we find 
Credulous singing in " The Ordinary : " 

" My name's not Tribulation, 
Nor holy Ananias ; 
I was baptized in fashion, 
Our vicar did hold bias." * 

Act iv. sc. I. 

This comedy appeared twenty years after " The 
Alchemist," and yet the song was still popular. 
Many a lad with a Puritan name must have had 
these rhymes flung into his teeth. Tribulation, by 
the way, is one of the names given in Camden's 
list, written four years later than Ben Jonson's 
* That is, he held him crosswise in his arms. 


play. This name, which has been the object of an 
antiquary's, a playwright's, a ballad-monger's and 
an historian's ridicule (for Macaulay had his fling 
at it), curiously enough I have not found in the 
registers. But its equivalent, Lamentation, occurs, 
as we have seen, in the "Chancery Suits" (1590- 
1600), in the case of Lamentation Chapman. Re- 
straint is met by Abstinence Pougher, and Perse- 
cution by Trial Travis (C. S. P. 1619, June 7). 

Still more severe, again, is this same dramatist 
in " Bartholomew Fair," which was performed in 
London, October, 16 14, by the retinue of Lady 
Elizabeth, James's daughter. Pouring ridicule 
upon the butt of the day, whose name of "Puritan" 
was by-and-by to be anagrammatized into " a 
turnip," from the cropped roundness of his head, 
this drama became the play-goers' favourite. It 
was suppressed during the Commonwealth, and 
one of the first to be revived at the Restoration.* 
The king is said to have given special orders for 
its performance. Whether his grandfather liked it 
as much may be doubted, for it once or twice 
touches on doctrinal points, and James thought he 
had a special gift for theology. 

Zeal-of-the-land Busy is a Banbury man, which 

* " And here was ' Bartholomew Fayre ' acted to-day, which had 
not been these forty years, it being so satyricall against Puritanism, 
they durst not till now." — Pepys, Sept. 7, 1661. 


town was then even more celebrated for Puritans 
than cakes. Caster, in " The Ordinary," says — 

" I'll send some forty thousand unto Paul's : 
Build a cathedral next in Banbury : 
Give organs to each parish in the kingdom." 

Zeal-of-the-land is thus inquired of by Winwife : 

"What call you the reverend elder you told me of, your Banbury 

Littlewit. Rabbi Busy, sir : he is more than an elder, he is a 
prophet, sir. 

Quarlous. O, I know him ! a baker, is he not ? 

Littlewit He was a baker, sir, but he does dream now, and 
see visions : he has given over his trade. 

Quarlous. I remember that, too : out of a scruple that he took, 
in spiced conscience, those cakes he made were served to bridales, 
maypoles, morrices, and such profane feasts and meetings. His 
christian name is Zeal-of-the-land ? 

Littlewit. Yes, sir ; Zeal-of-the-land Busy. 

Winwife. How ! what a name's there ! 

Littlnvit. O, they all have such names, sir : he was witness for 
Win here — they will not be called godfathers — and named her Win- 
the-fight : you thought her name had been Winnifred, did you not ? 

Winwife. I did indeed. 

Littlewit. He would have thought himself a stark reprobate if it 

All this would be caviare to the Cavalier, and it 
is doubtful whether he did not enjoy it more than 
his grandparents, who could but laugh at it as a 
hit religious, rather than political. The allusion 
to witnesses reminds us of Corporal Oath, who in 
"The Puritan," published in 1607 (Act ii. sc. 3), 
rails at the zealots for the mild character of their 
ejaculations. The expression " Oh ! " was the most 


terrible expletive they permitted themselves to 
indulge in, and some even shook their heads at a 
brother who had thus far committed himself: 

" Why ! has the devil possessed you, that you swear no better, 
You half-christened c s, you un-godmothered varlets ? " 

The terms godfather and godmother were rejected 
by the disaffected clergy, and they would have the 
answer made in the name of the sponsors, not 
the child. Hence they styled them witnesses. 

In " Women Pleased," a tragi-comedy, written, 
as is generally concluded, by Fletcher alone about 
the year 1616, we find the customary foe of may- 
poles addressing the hobby : 

"I renounce it, 
And put the beast off thus, the beast polluted. 
And now no more shall Hope-on-high Bomby 
Follow the painted pipes of worldly pleasures, 
And with the wicked dance the Devil's measures : 
Away, thou pampered jade of vanity ! " 

Here, again, is no exaggeration of name, for we 
have Help-on-high Foxe to face Hope-on-high 
Bomby. The Rector of Lydney would be about 
twenty-five when this play was written, and may 
have suggested himself the sobriquet. The names 
are all but identical. 

From " Women Pleased " and Fletcher to 
" Cutter of Coleman Street " and Cowley is a wide 
jump, but we must make it to complete our quo- 
tations from the playwrights. Although brought 


out after the Restoration, the fun about names was 
not yet played out. The scene is laid in London 
in 1658. This comedy was sorely resented by the 
zealots, and led the author to defend himself in 
his preface. He says that he has been accused of 
" prophaneness :" 

"There is some imitation of Scripture phrases: God forbid ! 
There is no representation of the true face of Scripture, but only 
of that vizard which these hypocrites draw upon it." 

This must have been more trying to bear even 
than Cutter himself. Under a thin disguise, Colonel 
Fear-the-Lord Barebottle is none other than Praise- 
God Barebone, of then most recent notoriety. 
Cowley's allusion to him through the medium of 
Jolly is not pleasant: 

"Jolly. My good neighbour, I thank him, Colonel Fear-the-Lord 
Barebottle, a Saint and a Soap-boiler, brought it. But he's dead, and 
boiling now himself, that's the best of 't ; there's a Cavalier's comfort." 

Cutter turns zealot, and wears a most puritanical 
habit. To the colonel's widow, Mistress Tabitha 
Barebottle, he says — 

" Sister Barebottle, I must not be called Cutter any more: that 
is a name of Cavalier's darkness ; the Devil was a Cutter from the 
beginning : my name is now Abednego. I had a vision which 
whispered to me through a keyhole, ' Go, call thyself Abednego''''' * 

* That some changed their names for titles of more godly import 
need not be doubted. William Jenkin says, "I deny not, but in 
some cases it may be lawfull to change our names, or forbear to 
mention them, eLher by tongue or pen : tut then we should not 


But Cutter — we beg his pardon, Abednego — was 
but a sorry convert. Having lapsed into a worldly 
mind again, he thus addresses Tabitha : 

" Shall I, who am to ride the purple dromedary, go dressed like 
Revelation Fats, the basket-maker ? — Give me the peruke, boy ! " 

I fancy the reader will agree with me that Cowley 
needed all the arguments he could urge in his 
preface to meet the charge of irreverence. 

(b.) The Sussex Jury. 

One of the strongest indictments to be found 
against this phase of Puritanic eccentricity is to 
be found in Hume's well-known quotation from 
Brome's "Travels into England" — a quotation which 
has caused much angry contention. The book 
quoted by the historian is entitled " Travels over 
England, Scotland, and Wales, by James Brome, 
M.A., Rector of Cheriton, in Kent." Writing soon 
after the Restoration, Mr. Brome says (p. 279) — 

"Before I leave this county (Sussex), I shall subjoin a copy of a 
Jury returned here in the late rebellious troublesome times, given 
me by the same worthy hand which the Huntingdon Jury was : and 
by the christian names then in fashion we may still discover the 
superstitious vanity of the Puritanical Precisians of that age. " 

A second list in the British Museum Mr. Lower 

be put upon such straits by the badnesse of our actions (as the most 
are) which we are ashamed to own, but by the consideration of God's 
glory, or the Churches good, or our own necessary preservation in 
time of persecution." — " Exposition of Jude," 1652, p. 7. 


considers to be of a somewhat earlier date. We 
will set them side by side : 

Accepted Trevor, of Norsham. 

Redeemed Compton, of Battle. 

Faint-not Hewit, of Heathfield. 

Make-peace Heaton, of Hare. 

God-reward Smart, of Fivehurst. 

Stand-fast-on-high Stringer, of 

Earth Adams, of Warbleton. 

Called Lower, of the same. 

Kill-sin Pimple, of Witham. 

Return Spelman, of Watling. 

Be- faithful Joiner, of Britling. 

Fly-debate Roberts, of the same. 

Fight - the - good - fight - of - faith 
White, of Emer. 

More-fruit Fowler, of East Hod- 

Hope-for Bending, of the same. 

Graceful Harding, of Lewes. 

Weep-not Billing, of the same. 

Meek Brewer, of Okeham. 

Approved Frewen, of Northiam. 

Be-thankful Maynard, of Bright- 

Be-courteous Cole, of Pevensey. 

Safety-on-high Snat, of Uck- 

Search-the- Scriptures Moreton, 
of Salehurst. 

More-fruit Fowler, of East Hoth- 

Free-gift Mabbs, of Chiddingly. 

Increase Weeks, of Cuckfield. 

Restore Weeks, of the same. 

Kill-sin Pemble, of Westham. 

Elected Mitchell, of Heathfield. 

Faint -not Hurst, of the same. 

Renewed Wisberry, of Hail- 

Return Milward, of Hellingly. 

Fly-debate Smart, of Waldron. 

Fly- fornication Richardson, of 
the same. 

Seek-wisdom Wood, of the 

Much-mercy Cryer, of the same. 

Fight - the -good - fight -of- faith 
White, of Ewhurst. 

Small-hope Biggs, of Rye. 

Earth Adams, of Warbleton. 

Repentance Avis, of Shoreham. 

The-peace-of-God Knight, of 
Bur wash. 

I dare say ninety-five per cent, of readers of 
Hume's " History of England " have thought this 


list of Sussex jurors a silly and extravagant hoax. 
They are " either a forgery or a joke," says an 
indignant writer in Notes and Queries. Hume 
himself speaks of them as names adopted by con- 
verts, evidently unaware that these sobriquets were 
all but invariably affixed at the font. The truth 
of the matter is this. The names are real enough ; 
the panel is not necessarily so. They are a collec- 
tion of names existing in several Sussex villages 
at one and the same time. - Everything vouches 
for their authenticity. The list was printed by 
Brome while the majority must be supposed still 
to be living ; the villages in which they resided 
are given, the very villages whose registers we now 
turn to for Puritanic examples, with the certainty 
of unearthing them ; above all, some of the names 
can be "run down" even now. Accepted or 
Approved Frewen, of Northiam, we have already 
referred to. Free-gift Mabbs, of Chiddingly, is met 
by the following entry from Chiddingly Church : 

" 1616, . Buried Mary, wife of Free-gift Mabbs." 

The will of Redeemed Compton, of Battle, was 
proved in London in 1641. Restore Weeks, of 
Cuckfield, is, no doubt, the individual who got 
married not far away, in Chiddingly Church : 

" 1618, . Restore Weeks espoused Constant Semer." 



"Increase Weeks, of Cuckfield," may therefore 
be accepted as proven, especially as I have shown 
Increase to be a favourite Puritan name. These 
two would be brothers, or perchance father and 
son. As for the other names, the majority have 
already figured in this chapter. Fly-fornication is 
still found in Waldron register, though the sur- 
name is a different one. Return, Faint-not, Much- 
mercy, Be-thankful., Repentance, Safe-on-high, 
Renewed, and More-fruit, all have had their 
duplicates in the pages preceding. " Fight-the- 
good-fight-of-faith White, of Emer," is the only 
unlikely sobriquet left to be dealt with. Thomas 
Adams, in his " Meditations upon the Creed," in 
a passage already quoted, testified to its existence 
in 1629. The conclusion is irresistible : the names 
are authentic, and the panel may have been. 

(c.) Royalists with Puritan Names. 

It may be asked whether or not the world went 
beyond s#ofrmg. Was the stigma of a Puritan 
name a hindrance to the worldly advancement of 
the bearer ? It is pleasant, in contradiction of any 
such theory, to quote the following : — 

" 1663, Aug. Petition of Arise Evans to the King for an order 
that he may receive ^20 in completion of the £70 given him by the 
King."— C. S. P. 


In a second appeal made March, 1664 (C. S. P.), 
Arise reminds Charles of many " noble acts" done 
for him as a personal attendant during his exile. 

" 1660, June. Petition of Handmaid, wife of Aaron Johnson, 
cabinet-maker, for the place for her husband of Warden in the 
Tower, he being eminently loyal. 

" 1660, June. Petition of Increased Collins, His Majesty's ser- 
vant, for restoration to the keepership of Mote's Bulwark, near 
Dover, appointed January, 1629, and dismissed in 1642, as not 
trustworthy, imprisoned and sequestered, and in 1645 tried for his 

" 1660, Oct. Petition of Noah Bridges, and his son Japhet 
Bridges, for office of clerk to the House of Commons."— C. S. P. 

Thus it will be seen that, in the general rush for 
places of preferment at the Restoration, there were 
men and women bearing names of the most marked 
Puritanism, who did not hesitate to forward their 
appeals with the Williams and Richards of the 
world at large. They manifestly did not suppose 
their sobriquets would be any bar to preferment. 
One of them, too, had been body-man to Charles 
in his exile, and another had suffered in person 
and estate as a devoted adherent of royalty. We 
may hope and trust, therefore, that all this scoffing 
was of a good-humoured character. 

It was, doubtless, the prejudice against Puritan 
eccentricity that introduced civil titles as font 
names into England — a class specially condemned 
by Cartwright and his friends. At any rate, they 
are contemporary with the excesses of fanatic 


nomenclature, and are found just in the districts 
where the latter predominated. Squire must have 
arisen before Elizabeth died : 

" 1626, March 21. Petition of Squire Bence." — C. S. P. 

" 1662, Oct. 30. Baptized Jane, d. of Squire Brockhall."— 
Hornby, York. 

" 1722, July 28. Baptized Squire, son of John Pysing and 
Bennet, his wife." — Cant. Cath. 

Duke was the christian name of Captain Wyvill, 
a fervent loyalist, and grandson of Sir Marma- 
duke Wyvill, Bart., of Constable Burton, York- 
shire : 

" 16S1, Feb. 12. Baptized Duke, son of Robert Fance, K nt ."— 
Cant. Cath. 

Squire passed over the Atlantic, and is frequently 
to be seen in the States ; so that if men may not 
squire themselves at the end of their names in the 
great republic, they may at the beginning. 

Yorkshire and Lancashire are the great centres 
for this class of names on English soil. Squire 
is found on every page of the West Riding 
Directory, such entries as Squire Jagger, Squire 
Whitley, Squire Hind, Squire Hardy, or Squire 
Chapman being of the commonest occurrence. 
Duke is also a favourite, Duke Redmayne and 
Duke Oldroyd meeting my eye after turning 
but half a dozen pages. But the great rival of 
Squire is Major. There is a kind of martial, if not 


braggadocio, air about the very sound, which has 
taken the ear of the Yorkshire folk. Close together 
I light upon Major Pullen, farmer; Major Wold, 
farmer ; Major Smith, sexton ; Major Marshall, 
ironmonger. Other illustrations are Prince Jewitt, 
Earl Moore, MarsJiall Stewart, and Admiral 
Fletcher. This custom has led to awkwardnesses. 
There was living at Burley, near Leeds, a short 
time ago, a " Sir Robert Peel." In the same way 
" Earl Grey " is found. Sir Isaac Newton was 
living not long ago in the parish of Soho, London. 
Robinson Cruso still survives, hale and hearty, at 
King's Lynn, and Dean Swift is far from dead, as 
the West Riding Directory proves. 

It was an odd idea that suggested " Shorter." 
I have five instances of it, two from the Westmin- 
ster Abbey registers : 

" 1689, March 3. Buried Shorter Norris." 

" 1690, July 9. Baptized Shorter, son of Robert and Ann 

Junior is found so early as 1657 : 

" 1657, . Christened Junior, sonne of Robert Naze." — Cant. 


Little is similarly used. Little Midgley in the 
West Riding Directory is scarcely a happy con- 
junction. In the same town are to be seen John 
Berry, side by side with " Young John Berry," and 
Allen Mawson, with Young Allen Mawson. 


VI. Bunyan's Debt to the Puritans. 

But if the Sussex jury was not visionary, except 
for the panel, neither was that at Mansoul ! What 
a text is this for the next biographer of Bunyan, if 
he have the courage to enter upon it ! To suggest 
that the great dreamer was not a reprobate in his 
youth, and thus spoil the contrast between his con- 
verted and unconverted life, was a perilous act on 
Lord Macaulay's part. To insinuate that he had 
a not altogether unpleasant time of it in the Bed- 
ford gaol, that he could have his friends to visit 
him, and, on the face of it, ink, paper, and quills to 
set down his meditations, even this is enough to 
set a section of political and religious society about 
our ears. But to hint that his character names 
were not wholly the offspring of his imagination, not 
thought out in the isolation of his dreary captivity, 
and not pictured in his brain, while his brain-pan 
was lying upon a hard and comfortless pallet — this, 
I know, not very long ago would have brought a 
mob about me ! In the present day, I shall only 
be smiled upon with contempt, and condemned to 
a righteous ignominy by the superior judgment of 
the worshippers of John Bunyan ! 

Nevertheless I ask, were the great mass of Bun- 
yan's character names the creation of his own 


brain, or were they suggested by the nomenclature 
of his friends or neighbours in the days of his 
youth ? It is the peculiarity of the names in the 
" Pilgrim's Progress " and " Siege of Mansoul " that 
they suggest the incidents of which the bearers 
are the heroes. But, in a large proportion of cases, 
these names already existed. Born in 1628, Bun- 
yan saw Puritan character names at their climax. 
Living at Elstow, he was within the limits of the 
district most addicted to the practice. He had 
seen Christian and Hopeful, Christiana and Mercy, 
of necessity long before he was " haled to prison " 
at Bedford. The four fair damsels, Discretion, 
Piety, Charity, and Prudence, may and must have 
in part been his companions in his boyish rambles 
years before he met them in the Valley of Humili- 
ation ; and if afterwards, in the Siege of Mansoul, 
he turned Charity into a man, he was only doing 
what godfathers and godmothers had been doing 
for thirty years previously. The name and sweet 
character of Faithful might be a personal reminis- 
cence, good Father Honest a quondam host on one 
of his preaching expeditions, and Standfast, u that 
right good pilgrim," an old Psedo-Baptist of his 
acquaintance. The shepherds Watchful, Sincere, 
and Experience, if not Knowledge, were known of 
all men, in less pastoral avocations. And as for 


the men that were panelled in the trial of the 
Diabolonians, we might set them side by side with 
the Sussex jury, and certainly the contrast for 
oddity would be in favour of the cricketing county. 
Messrs. Belief, True-heart, Upright, Hate-bad, 
Love-God, See-truth, Heavenly-mind, Thankful, 
Good-work, Zeal-for-God, and Humble have all, or 
well-nigh all, been quoted in this chapter, as regis- 
tered by the church clerk a generation before Do- 
right, the town-clerk of Mansoul, called them over 
in court. " Do-right "himself is met by "Do-good," 
and the witness " Search-truth " by " Search-the- 
Scriptures." Even " Giant Despair " may have 
suffered convulsions in teething in the world of 
fact, before his fits took him in the world of dreams; 
and his wife " Diffidence " will be found, I doubt 
not, to have been at large beiore Bunyan " laid 
him down in a den." Where names of evil repute 
come — and they are many — we do not expect 
to see their duplicates in the flesh. Graceless, 
Love-lust, Live-loose \ Hold-the-zvorld, and Talkative 
were not names for the Puritan, but their contraries 
were. Grace meets the case of Grace-less, Love- 
lust may be set by " Fly-fornication," and Live- 
loose by " Live-well " or " Continent." Holdthe- 
world is directly suggested by the favourite "Safe- 
cn-high ; " Talkative, by " Silence." 


That John Bunyan is under debt to the Puritans 
for many of his characters must be unquestionable ; 
and were he living now, or could we interview him 
where he is, I do not doubt we could extract from 
him, good honest man, the ready admission that in 
the names of the personages that flit before us in his 
unapproachable allegory, and which have charmed 
the fancy of old and young for so many generations, 
he was merely stereotyping the recollections of 
childhood, and commemorating, so far as sobriquets 
were concerned, the companionships of earlier years. 

VII. The Influence of Puritanism on 

American Nomenclature. 

Baptismal nomenclature to-day in the United 
States, especially in the old settlements, bears 
stronger impressions of the Puritan epoch than the 
English. Their ancestors were Puritans, who had 
fled England for conscience' sake. Their life, too, 
in the West was for generations primitive, almost 
patriarchal, in its simplicity. There was no banter- 
ing scorn of a wicked world to face ; there was no 
deliberate effort made by any part of the com- 
munity to restore the old names. To this day the 
impress remains. Take up a story of backwood 
life, such as American female writers affect so 
much, and it will be inscribed * Faith Gartney's 


Girlhood," or " Prudence Palfrey." All the children 
that figure in these tales are "Truth," or " Patience," 
or " Charity," or " Hope." The true descendants 
of the early settlers are, to a man, woman, and 
child, even now bearers of names either from the 
abstract Christian graces or the narratives of Holy 
Scripture. Of course, the constant tide of immi- 
gration that has set in has been gradually tell- 
ing against Puritan traditions. The grotesque in 
name selection, too, has gone further in some of 
the more retired and inaccessible districts of the 
States than the eastern border, or in England 
generally, where social restraints and the demands 
of custom are still respected. If we are to believe 
American authorities, there are localities where 
humour has certainly become grim, and the solemn 
rite of baptism somewhat burlesqued by a selection 
of names which throw into the shade even Puritan 

Look at the names of some of the earliest 
settlers of whom we have any authentic know- 
ledge. We may mention the Mayflower first. In 
1620 the emigrants by this vessel founded New 
Plymouth. This led to the planting of other 
colonies. Among the passengers were a girl named 
Desire M inter, a direct translation of Desiderata, 
which had just become popular in England ; 


William Brewster, the ruling elder ; his son Love 
Brewster, who married, settled, and died there in 
1650, leaving four children ; and a younger son, 
Wrestling Brewster. The daughters had evidently 
been left in England till a comfortable home could 
be found for them, for next year there arrived at 
New Plymouth, in the Ann and Little James, Fear 
Brewster and Patience Brewster. Patience very 
soon married Thomas Prince,, one of the first 
governors. On this same memorable journey of 
the Mayflower came also Remember, daughter of 
Isaac Allerton, first assistant to the new governor ; 
Resolved White, who married and left five children 
in the colony ; and Humility Cooper, who by-and- 
by returned to England. 

A little later on, in the Ann and Little James, 
again came Manasseh Faunce and Experience Mit- 
chell. In a " List of Living " in Virginia, made 
February 16, 1623, is Peaceable Sherwood. In a 
"muster" taken January 30, 1624, occur Revolt 
Morcock and Amity W T aine. 

There is a conversation in " The Ordinary " — a 
drama written in 1634 or 1635, by Cartwright, the 
man whose " body was as handsome as his soul," 
as Langbaine has it — which may be quoted here. 
Hearsay says — 

" London air, 
Methinks, begins to be too hot for us. 


Slicer. There is no longer tarrying here : let's swear 
Fidelity to one another, and 
So resolve for New England. 

Hearsay. 'Tis hut getting 
A little pigeon-hole reformed ra ff 

Slicer. Forcing our beards into th' orthodox bent 

Shape. Nosing a little treason 'gainst the king, 
Bark something at the bishops, and we shall 
Be easily received." 

Act iv. sc. 5. 

It is interesting to remember that 1635, when this 
was written, saw the high tide of Puritan emi- 
gration. The list of passengers that have come 
down to us prove it. After that date the names 
cease to represent the sterner spirit of revolt 
against episcopacy and the Star Chamber. 

In the ship Francis, from Ipswich, April 30, 
1634, came Just Houlding. In the Elizabeth, 
landed April 17, 1635, Hope-still Foster and 
Patience Foster. From the good barque James, 
July 13, 1635, set foot on shore Remembrance 
Tybbott. In the Hercules sailed hither, in 1634, 
Comfort Starre, " chirurgeon." In 1635 settled 
Patient White. In a book of entry, dated April 
12, 1632, is registered Perseverance Greene, as one 
who is to be passed on to New England. 

Such names as Constant Wood, Temperance 
Hall, Charity Hickman, Fayth Clearke, or Grace 
Newell, I simply record and pass on. That these 
names were perpetuated is clear. The older States 


teem with them now ; American story-books for 
girls are full of them. Humility Cooper, of 1620, 
is met by an entry of burial in St. Michael's, 
Barbados : 

" 1678, May 16. Humility Hobbs, from ye almshous." 

The churchwardens of St. James' Barbados, have 
entered an account of lands, December 20, 1679, 
wherein is set down 

" Madam Joye Sparks, 12 servants, 150 negroes." 

Increase Mather is a familiar name to students 
of American history. His father, Richard Mather, 
was born at Liverpool in 1596. Richard left for 
New England in 1635, with his four sons, Samuel, 
Nathaniel, Eleazar, and Increase. Cotton Mather 
was a grandson. About the same time, Charles 
Chauncey (of a Hertfordshire family), late Vicar 
of Ware, who had been imprisoned for refusing 
to rail in his communion table, settled in New 
England. Dying there in 1671, as president of 
Harvard College, he bequeathed, through his 
children, the following names to the land of 
his adoption : — Isaac, Ichabod, Sarah, Barnabas, 
Elnathan, and Nathaniel. Both the Mathers and 
the Chaunceys, therefore, sent out a Nathaniel. 
Adding these to the large number of Nathaniels 
found in the lists of emigrants published by Mr. 


Hotten, no wonder Nathaniel became for a time 
the first name on American soil, and that " Nat " 
should have got instituted into a pet name. Jona- 
than was not to be compared to it for a moment. 

But we have not done with the Chaunceys, One 
of the most singular accidents that ever befell 
nomenclature has befallen them. What has hap- 
pened to Sidney in England, has happened to 
Chauncey in America, only " more so." The 
younger Chaunceys married and begot children. 
A grandson of Isaac Chauncey died at Boston, 
in 1787, aged eighty-three. He was a great 
patriot, preacher, and philanthropist at a critical 
time in his country's history. The name had 
spread, too, and no wonder that it suggested itself 
to the authoress of " Uncle Tom's Cabin " as a 
character name. She, however, placed it in its 
proper position as a surname. It may be that 
Mrs. Stowe has given the use of this patronymic 
as a baptismal name an impulse, but it had been 
so used long before she herself was born. It was 
a memorial of Charles Chauncey, of Boston. It 
has now an average place throughout all the 
eastern border and the older settlements. I take 
up the New York Directory for 1878, and at 
once light upon Chauncey Clark, Chauncey Peck, 
and Chauncey Ouintard ; while, to distinguish the 


great Smith family, there are Chauncey Smith, 
lawyer, Chauncey Smith, milk-dealer, Chauncey 
Smith, meat-seller, and Chauncey Smith, junior, 
likewise engaged in the meat market. Thus, it 
is popular with all classes. In my London 
Directory for 1870, there are six Sidney Smiths 
and one Sydney Smith. Chauncey and Sidney 
seem likely to run a race in the two countries, 
but Chauncey has much the best of it at present. 

Another circumstance contributed to the form- 
ation of Americanisms in nomenclature. The 
further the Puritan emigrants drew away from 
the old familiar shores, the more predominant the 
spirit of liberty grew. It was displayed, amongst 
other ways, in the names given to children born 
on board vessel* It was an outlet for their pent- 
up enthusiasm. Shakespeare puts into the mouth 
of Pericles — 

" We cannot but obey 
The powers above us. Could I rage and roar 
As doth the sea she lies on, yet the end 
Must be as 'tis. My gentle babe, Marina (whom, 
For she was born at sea, I've named so) here 
I charge your charity withal, leaving her 
The infant of your care.'* 

Act iii. sc. 3. 

* A child was baptized, January 10, 1880, in the parish church 
of Stone, near Dartford, by the name of Sou'wester. He was 
named after an uncle who was born at sea in a south-westerly 
gale, who received the same name {Notes and Queries, February 7, 


The Puritan did the same. Oceanus Hopkins was 
born on the high seas in the Mayflower, 1 620 ; Pere- 
grine White came into the world as the same vessel 
touched at Cape Cod ; Sea-born Egginton, whose 
birth " happened in his berth," as Hood would say, 
is set down as owner of some land and a batch 
of negroes later on (Hotten, p. 453); while the 
marriage of Sea-mercy Adams with Mary Brett 
is recorded, in 1686, in Philadelphia (Watson's 
" Annals of Philadelphia," 1. 503). Again, we find 
the following : — 

" 1626, Nov. 6. Grant of denization to Bonaventure Browne, born 
beyond sea, but of English parents." — C. S. P. 

No doubt his parents went over the Atlantic on 
beard the Bonaventure, which was plying then 
betwixt England and the colonies {vide list of 
ships in Hotten's "Emigrants," pp. vii. and 35). 

We have another instance in the " baptismes " 
of St. George's, Barbados : 

" 1678, Oct. 13. Samuel, ye son of Bonaventure Jellfes. " 

Allowing the father to be forty years old, his 
parents would be crossing the water about th 
time the good ship Bonaventure was plying. 

Again, we find the following (Hotten, p. 245): — 

"Muster of John Laydon : 

"John Laydon, aged 44, in the Swan, 1606. 

" Anne Laydon, aged 30, in the Mary Margdt, 1608. 

"Virginia Laydon (daughter), borne in Virginia." 


All this, as will be readily conceived, has tended 
to give a marked character to New England 
nomenclature. The very names of the children 
born to these religious refugees are one of the 
most significant tokens to us in the nineteenth 
century of the sense of liberty they felt in the 
present, and of the oppression they had under- 
gone in the past. 

If we turn from these lists of passengers, found 
in the archives of English ports, not to mention 
"musters" already quoted, to records preserved 
by our Transatlantic cousins, we readily trace 
the effect of Puritanism on the first generation of 
native-born Americans. 

From Mr. Bowditch's interesting book on " Suf- 
folk Surnames," published in the United States, 
we find the following baptismal names to have 
been in circulation there : Standfast, Life, Increase, 
Supply, Donation, Deodat, Given, Free-grace, Ex- 
perience, Temperance, Prudence, Mercy, Depend- 
ance, Deliverance, Hope, Reliance, Hopestill, Fear- 
ing, Welcome, Desire, Amity, Comfort, Rejoice, 
Pardon, Remember, Wealthy, and Consider. 
Nothing can be more interesting than the analysis 
of this list. With two exceptions, every name 
can be proved, from my own collection alone, to 
have been introduced from the mother country. 


In many instances, no doubt, Mr. Bowditch was 
referring to the same individual ; in others to their 
children. The mention of Wealthy reminds us 
of Wealthy, Riches, and Fortune, already demon- 
strated to be popular English names. Fortune went 
out to New England in the person of Fortune 
Taylor, who appears in a roll of Virginian im- 
migrants, 1623. Settling down there as a name 
of happy augury for the colonists' future, both 
spiritual and material, she reappears, in the person 
of Fortune the spinster, in the popular New 
England story entitled " The Wide, Wide World." 
Even " Preserved',' known in England in 1640, was 
to be seen in the New York Directory in i860; 
and Consider, which crossed the Atlantic two 
hundred and fifty years ago, so grew and multi- 
plied as to be represented at this moment in the 
directory just mentioned, in the form of 

"Consider Parish, merchant, Clinton, Brooklyn." 

Mr. Bowditch adds " Sear ch-t he-Scriptures" to 
his list of names that crossed the Atlantic. This 
tallies with Search-the-Scriptures Moreton, of Sale- 
hurst, one of the supposed sham jury already 
treated of. He quotes also Hate-evil Nutter from 
a colonial record of 1649.* Here again we are 

* We have already recorded Hate-evil as existing in the Banbury 
Church register. 


reminded of Bunyan's Diabolonian jury, one of 
whom was Hate-bad. It is all but certain from 
the date that Hate-evil went out from the old 
country. The name might be perfectly familiar to 
the great dreamer, therefore. Faint-not Wines, Mr. 
Bowditch says, became a freeman in 1644, so that 
the popularity of that great Puritan name was 
not allowed to be limited by the English coast. 
In this same year settled Faithftd Rouse — one 
more memorial of English nonconformity. 

English Puritanism must stand the guilty cause 
of much modern humour, not to say extravagance, 
in American name-giving. Puns compounded of 
baptismal name and surname are more popular 
there than with us. Robert New has his sons 
christened Nothing and Something. Price becomes 
Sterling Price ; Carrol, Christmas Carrol ; Mixer, 
Pepper Mixer ; Hopper, Opportunity Hopper ; 
Ware, China Ware ; Peel, Lemon Peel ; Codd, Salt 
Codd ; and Gentle, Always Gentle. It used to be 
said of the English House of Commons that there 
were in it two Lemons, with only one Peel, and the 
Register-General not long since called attention in 
one of his reports to the existence of Christmas Day. 
We have, too, Cannon Ball, Dunn Brown, Friend 
Bottle (London Directory), and River Jordan, not 
to mention two brothers named Jolly Death and 


Sudden Death, the former of whom figured in a 
trial lately as witness. The Times of December 7, 
1878, announced the death of Mr. Emperor Adrian 
a Local Government Board member. Nevertheless, 
the practice prevails much more extensively across 
the water, and the reason is not far to seek. 

Mr. Bowditch seems to imagine, we notice, 
America to be a modern girl's name. He says 
administration upon the estate of America Sparrow 
was granted in 1855, while in 1857 America O 
Tabb was sued at law. America and Americus 
were in use in England four hundred years ago 
(vide " English Surnames," 2nd edit, p. 29), and 
two centuries ago we meet with 

"America Baguley, 1669, his halfpeny," 

on a token. Amery was the ordinary English 

( 213 ) 



I. Royal Double Names. 

"But two christian names are rare in England, and I only re- 
member now his Majesty, who was named Charles James, as the 
Prince his sonne Henry Frederic : and among private men, Thomas 
Maria Wingfield and Sir Thomas Posthumus Hobby." — Camden. 

If we take this sentence literally, the great an- 
tiquary, who knew more of the families and pedi- 
grees of the English aristocracy than any other 
man of his day, could only recall to his mind four 
cases of double Christian names. This was in 
1 6 14. 

At the outset, therefore, there is significance in 
this statement. Mr. Blunt, in his "Annotated 
Prayer-Book," says of "N. or M." in the Cate- 
chism — 

"N. was anciently used as the initial of Nomen, and 'Nomen 
vel Nomina' was expressed by ' N. vel NN.,' the double N being 
afterwards corrupted into M." 


If this be a correct explanation, " M." must refer 
to cases where more than one child was brought to 
the priest, N. standing for an occasion where only 
one infant was presented. In a word, " N. or M." 
could not stand for " Thomas or Thomas Henry," 
but for " Thomas or Thomas and Henry." If this 
be unsatisfactory, then Mr. Blunt's explanation is 

Camden's sentence may be set side by side with 
Lord Coke's decision. In his "First Institute" 
(Coke upon Littleton) he says — 

" And regularly it is requisite that the purchaser be named by the 
name of baptism, and his surname, and that special heed be taken 
to the name of baptism ; for that a man cannot have two names of 
baptism, as he may have divers surnames." 

Again, he adds — 

"If a man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after, at his 
confirmation by the bishop, he is named John, he may purchase by 
the name of his confirmation. . . . And this doth agree with our 
ancient books, where it is holden that a man may have divers names 
at divers times, but not divers christian names." 

This is all very plain. Even in James I.'s days 
thousands of our countrymen had no fixed sur- 
names, and changed them according to caprice or 
fancy. But the christian name was a fixture, saving 
in the one case of confirmation. Lord Coke is 
referring to an old rule laid down by Archbishop 
Peckham, wherein any child whose baptismal name, 
by accident or evil thought, had a bad significance 


is advised, if not compelled, to change it for one 
of more Christian import. 

The chief point of interest, however, in this 
decision of Lord Coke's, is the patent fact that 
no thought of a double christian name is present 
in his mind. Had it been otherwise, he would 
never have worded it as he has done. Archbishop 
Peckham's rule had evidently been infringed, and 
Lord Coke upholds the infringement. A child 
with such an orthodox name as Thomas (a name 
with no immoral significance) might, he lays it 
down, become John at confirmation. Even in such 
a case as this, however, John is not to be added to 
Thomas ; it must take its place, and Thomas cease 
to be recognized. 

Lord Coke, of course, was aware that Charles 
I.'s queen was Henrietta Maria, the late king 
Charles James, and his son Henry Frederic. It 
is possible, nay probable, that he was not igno- 
rant of Thomas Maria Wingfield's existence, or 
that of Thomas Posthumus Hobby. But that 
these double baptismal names should ever become 
an every-day custom, that the lower and middle 
classes should ever adopt them, that even the 
higher orders should ever go beyond the use of 
" Maria " and " Posthumus," seems never to have 
suggested itself to his imagination. 


There is no doubt the custom came from France 
in the first instance. There, as in England, it was 
confined to the royal and aristocratic circles. The 
second son of Catharine de' Medici was baptized 
Edward Alexander in 155 1. Mary Stuart followed 
the new fashion in the names of her son Charles 
James. The higher nobility of England slowly 
copied the practice, but within most carefully 
prescribed limits. 

One limitation was, the double name must be 
one already patronized by royalty. 

Henrietta Maria found her title repeated in 
Henrietta Maria Stanley, daughter of the ill-fated 
James, Earl of Derby, who for his determined 
loyalty was beheaded at Bolton, in Lancashire, in 
1 65 1. She was born on the 17th of November, 
1630, and was buried in York Minster on the 13th 
of January, 1685. Sir Peter Ball, attorney to the 
queen of Charles I., baptized his seventeenth 
child by the name of his royal mistress, Henrietta 
Maria. He followed her fortunes after as before 
the king's execution (Polwhel's "Devon," p. 157). 
These must both have been considered remark- 
able cases in their day. The loyalty of the act 
would be its sanction in the eyes of their 

But while some copied the double name of the 


queen (also the name of the queen's mother), 
other nobles who had boys to christen mimicked 
the royal nursery of James I. Henry Frederick, 
Earl of Arundel, was born in 1608, and Henry 
Frederick Thynne, brother of Lord Weymouth, 
was created a baronet in 1641. No one need 
doubt the origin of these double forms. Again 
loyalty would be their answer against objections. 

But side by side with these went " Maria " (used 
for either sex) and " Posthumus," or Posthuma — the 
only two instances recalled by Camden as in use 
among " private men." There seems good reason 
to believe that, for two or three generations at least, 
these were deemed, by some unwritten code, the 
only permissible second names outside the royal 

The case of Wingfield is curious. Three gene- 
rations, at least, bore a second name " Maria," all 
males. The first was Edward Maria, of Kimbolton, 
who received the female title in honour of, and from, 
the Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII., his 
godmother ; the second was Thomas Maria, 
adduced by Camden ; and the third is referred to 
in the following document : 

" 1639, April. Bill of complaint relative to the sale of the manor 
of Keyston, Hunts, by Edward Maria Wingfield. "— C. S. P., 1639. 

Maria had long been common in Italy, France, 


and Spain, as a second name, and still is, whether 
for a boy or girl, the child being thereby specially 
committed to the protection of the Virgin. The 
earliest instances in England, however, were directly 
given in honour of two royal godmothers, who hap- 
pened to be Mary in one case, and Henrietta Maria 
in the other. Hence the seeming transference of 
the foreign second name Maria to our own shores. 
Thus introduced, Maria began to circulate in 
society generally as an allowed second name : 

"1610, July 10. Baptized Charles Maria, sonne of Charles 
Chute, Esquire." — St. Dunstan-in-the-West. 

" 1640, . Died Gulielma Maria Posthuma Springett."— 

Tablet, Ringmer, Lewes, Sussex. 

This last was a bold procedure, three names 
being an unheard-of event. But the sponsor might 
reply that he was only placing together the two 
recognized second names, Maria and Posthuma. 
Later on, Maria is again found in the same family. 
In the year 1672, William Penn, the Quaker, 
married Gulielma Maria, daughter of Sir William 

Posthuma (as in the above instance), or Posthu- 
mus, is still more remarkable. The idea of styling 
a child by this name, thus connecting its birth 
with the father's antecedent death, seems to have 
touched a sympathetic chord, and the practice 
began widely to prevail. The first example I 


have seen stands as a single name. Thus, in the 
Canterbury Cathedral register, is recorded : 

"1572, Feb. 10. Christened Posthumus, the sonne of Robert 

The following is the father's entry of burial : 

" 1571, June 8. Buried Robert Pownoll." 

This is the earliest instance I have seen. Very 
soon it was deemed right to make it a second 
name : 

"1632, Sept. 18. Baptized Henry Postumus, son of James 
Gamble." — Doncaster. 

Sir Thomas Posthumus Hoby, Knight, lord of 
the manor of Hackness, died in 1641. He be- 
queathed the greater portion of his estates to 
" his dearly beloved and esteemed cozen John 
Sydenham," of Brimpton, Somerset, who, being 
baroneted in July, 1641, died in 1642, and was 
succeeded by his son Sir John Posthumus Syden- 
ham. Posthumus, possibly, in this case was com- 
memorative of Sir Thomas, and not of Sir John. 
William Ball, son of Sir Peter Ball, already men- 
tioned, married Maria Posthuma Hussey. This 
must have occurred before the Commonwealth, but 
I have not the exact date. 

The character of all these names is sufficient 
proof of their rarity. All belong, with one excep- 
tion, to the higher ranks of society. All were called 


after the children in the royal nursery, or Maria or 
Posthuma was the second component. Several 
formed the double name with both. It seems cer- 
tain that at first it was expected that, if people in 
high life were to give encouragement to the new 
fashion, they must do so within certain carefully 
denned limits. As for any lower class, it was never 
imagined that they would dream of aspiring to 
such a daring innovation. The earliest instance of 
this class, I find, still has Mary for its second com- 
ponent, and commemorates two English queens : 

" 1667, Jan. 12. Baptized Elizabeth Mary, being of the age of 
18 and upwards, daughter to John Allen, and Emm his wife, both 
of them being pro- baptists." — Cant. Cath. 

Even to the close of the seventeenth century, if a 
middle-class man gave his child a double name, it 
must be to commemorate royalty : 

" 1696, June 4. Baptized William Henry, son of Mr. Jacob 
Janeway, and Francis his wife." — Cant. Cath. 

William III. was christened William Henry. 

Speaking of Mary's husband, we may add that 
two of the most familiar conjunctions of the 
present day among the middle and lower classes, 
that of Anna Maria or Mary Ann, arose similarly. 
In Italy and France the two went together a 
hundred years earlier, in connection with the 
Virgin and her mother. In England they are 


only found since 1700, being used as commemora- 
tive of the sisters Anne and Mary, both queens. 
Like William Henry, the combination has been 
popular ever since : 

" 1717, Feb. 15. Christened Anne-Mary, d. of James Hebert, 

' * 1 729, March 30. Christened Anna-Maria, d. of Thomas and 
Mary Hoare, pewterer. " — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

The clerk of Finchley Church could not under- 
stand this conjunction — not to add that his educa- 
tion seems to have been slightly neglected : 

" 1 71 5, Feb. 26. Baptized Anammeriah, d. of Thomas and 
Eliz. Biby. 

" 17 16, M**. 17. Baptized Anameriah, d. of Richard and Sarah 

These are the first double names to be found in 
this register. 

The Latin form represents the then prevailing 
fashion. There was not a girl's name in use that 
was not Latinized. Goldsmith took off the custom 
in his "Vicar of Wakefield," in the names of 
Sophia, Olivia, and Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia 
Skeggs. The latter hit at the new rage for double 
and treble baptismal names also ; for the day 
came when two names were not enough. In 
1738 George III. was christened George William 
Frederic. Gilly Williams, writing to George 
Selwyn, December 12, 1764, says — 

"Lord Downe's child is to be christened this evening. The 


sponsors I know not, but his three names made me laugh not a 
little — John Christopher Burton. I wish to God, when he arrives at 
the years of puberty, he may marry Mary Josephina Antonietta 
Bentley." — "Memoirs of George Selwyn," by Jesse, quoted by 
Mr. Waters in " Parish Registers," p. 31. 

I need scarcely add that three do not nearly 
satisfy the craving of many people in the nine- 
teenth century, nor did they everybody in the 
eighteenth : 

" 1 78 1, April 29. Bapt. Charles Caractacus Ostorius Maximilian 
Gustavus Adolphus, son of Charles Stone, tailor." — Burbage, 

In Beccles Church occurs the following : 

" 1804, Oct. 14. Bapt. Zaphnaphpaaneah Isaiah Obededom 
Nicodemus Francis Edward, son of Henry and Sarah Clarke." 

Only Francis Edward could be got in the ordinary 
place, so the rest had to be furnished in a note at 
the foot of the page. 

"On Oct. 8th, 1876, in the revision of the parliamentary list at 
Preston, a claimant appeared bearing the name of Thomas Hill 
Joseph Napoleon Horatio Bonaparte Swindlehurst Nelson. The 
vote was allowed, and the revising barrister ordered the full name 
to be inserted on the register." — Manchester Evening News t October 
II, 1876. 

II. Conjoined Names. 

Returning to the first half of the seventeenth 
century, we find strong testimony of the rarity of 
these double names, and a feeling that there was 
something akin to illegality in their use, from our 


registers, wherein an attempt was made to glue 
two names together as one, without a hyphen or 
a second capital letter. Take the following, all 
registered within a generation or two of Camden's 
remark : 

" 1602, May 24. Baptized Fannasibilla, d. of Thomas Temple." 
— Sibbesdon, Leicestershire. 

Here is a palpable attempt to unite Francis 
(Fanny) and Sybil. 

"1648, Jan. 25. Baptized Aberycusgentylis, son of Richard 
Balthropp, gent." — Iver, Buckingham. 

Here the father has been anxious to commemorate 
the great Oxford professor, the father of inter- 
national law, Dr. Abericus Gentilis. He has 
avoided a breach of supposed national law by 
writing the two names in one. 

" 1614, Aprill 16. Buried Jockaminshaw Butler, wife of James 
Butler, potter, in Bishopsgate Street." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

The surname of "Shaw" has done service hundreds 
of times since then as a second baptismal name. 

11 1640, May 7. Baptized Johnamaria, ye son of Frances Ansloe, 
and Clare his wife." — Cant. Cath. 

Here again is the inevitable Maria, but so inwoven 
with John, that Lord Coke's legal maxim could 
not touch the case. It is the same in the following 
example : — 

" 1632, — — . Married John Pell to Ithamaria, d. of Henry 
Reynolles, of London." — Lower, "Worthies of Sussex," p. 178. 


One of the most strange samples of conjoined 

names is this : 

" 1595, April 3. Joane, whome we maye call Yorkkooppe, be- 
cause she was ye basterd daughter, as yt is comonlye reported, of 
one John York and Anne Cooper." — Landbeach. 

Here is a double conjunction ; John and Anne 
forming Jo-ane, and York and Cooper, York- 
kooppe. The first is neat, the second clumsy : 
but, doubtless, the clerk who wielded the goose- 
quill deemed both a masterpiece of ingenuity. 
The following is interesting : — 

" 1616, July 13, being Satterday, about half an hour before 10 
of the clocke in the forenoon, was born the Lady Georgi-Anna, 
daughter to the Right Hon. Lady Frances, Countess of Exeter ; 
and the same Ladie Georgi-Anna was baptized 30th July, 16 16, 
being Tuesday, Queen Anne and the Earl of Worcester, Lord 
Privie Seal, being witnesses : and the Lorde Bishop of London 
administered the baptism." — Vide R. E. C. Waters, " Parish 
Registers." 187a 

III. Hyphened Names. 

It will be noticed that so far the two names 
were both (saving in the case of Aberycusgentylis 
and Jockaminshaw) from the recognized list of 
baptismal names. About the reign of Anne the 
idea of a patronymic for a second name seems 
to have occurred. To meet the supposed legal 
exigencies the two names were simply hyphened. 
We will confine our instances to the register of 
Canterbury Cathedral : 


"1721, Jan. 20. Baptized Howe- Lee, son of Lee Warner, 
Esquire, and Mary his wife. 

" 1728, July 4. Baptized Francis-Gunsby, son of Dr. William 
Ayerst, prebendary of this church. 

"1746, Sep. 28. Baptized James-Smith, son of James Home, 
and Mary his wife. " 

I need not say that at first these children bore 
the name in common parlance of Howe-Lee, or 
Francis-Gunsby, or James-Smith. The two were 
never separated, but treated as one name. To this 
day traces of this eighteenth-century habit are 
to be found. I know an old gentleman and his 
wife, people of the old school, dwelling somewhat 
out of the world, who address a child invariably 
by all its baptismal titles. The effect is very 
quaint. In all formal and legal processes the two 
or three names have to be employed, and clergy- 
men who only recite the first in the marriage 
service, as I have heard some do, are in reality 
guilt of misdemeanour. 

How odd all these contrivances to modern eyes ! 
We take up a directory, and every other regis- 
tration we look on is made up of three names. 
The poorer classes are even more particular than 
the aristocracy upon the point. The lady-help, 
describing her own superior merit, says — 

"Do not think that we resemble 
Betsy Jane or Mary Ann, 
Women born in lowly cottage, 
Bred for broom or frying-pan." 



And yet, in forty-nine church registers out of fifty, 
throughout the length and breadth of England, 
there will not be found a single instance of a double 
christian name previous to the year 1700. Mr. 
Maskell has failed to find any instance in the 
register of All-Hallows, Barking, and the Harleian 
Society's publication of the registers of St. Peter, 
Cornhill, and St. Dionis Backchurch only confirms 
the assertion I have made. 

Many stories have arisen upon these double 
names. A Mr. Gray, bearing the once familiar 
Christian name of Anketil, wanted the certificate 
of his baptism. The register was carefully searched 
— in vain ; the neighbouring registers were as tho- 
roughly scanned — in vain. Again the first register 
was referred to, and upon a closer investigation he 
was found entered as Ann Kettle Gray. 

Not very long ago a child was brought to the 
font for baptism. " What name ? " asked the 
parson. "John," was the reply. " Anything else ?" 
"John //only," said the godparent, putting in an 
"h" where it was not needed. "John Honly, I 
baptize thee," etc., continued the clergyman, thus 
thrown off his guard. The child was entered with 
the double name. 

In Gutch's " Geste of Robin Hode " (vol. i. p. 342) 
there is a curious note anent Maid Marian, wherein 


some French writers are rebuked for supposing 
Marian to be composed of Mary and Ann, and 
the statement is made that it is from Mariamne, 
the wife of Herod ! Marian or Marion, of course, 
is the diminutive of Mary, the other pet form 
being Mariot. Nevertheless the great common- 
ness of the double christian name Mary Ann is 
consequent on the idea that Marian is compounded 
of both. 

In the registers of marriages at Halifax parish 
church (December I, 1878) is the name of a 

witness, Charity H . He — it was a he — is the 

third child of his parents, two sisters, Faith and 
Hope, having preceded him. His full baptismal 
name is " And Charity," and in his own marriage 
certificate his name is so written. In ordinary 
affairs he is content with Charity alone {Notes and 
Queries, August 16, 1879). This could not have 
happened previous to Queen Anne's reign. Acts- 
Apostles Pegden's will was administered upon in 
1865. His four elder brothers bore the four Evan- 
gelists' names. This, again, could not well have 
occurred before the eighteenth century was in. In 
Yorkshire directories one may see such entries as 
John Berry, and immediately below, Young John 
Berry. This represents a common pleasantry at 
the font among the "tyke?," but is necessarily 


modern. Nor could " Sir Isaac " or " Sir Robert," 
as prsenomens to " Newton " or " Peel," have been 
originated at any distant period. 

IV. The Decay of Single Patronymics 
in Baptism. 

The introduction of double baptismal names 
produced a revolution as immediate as it was unin- 
tentional. It put a stop to what bade fair to become 
a universal adoption of patronymics as single bap- 
tismal names. This practice took its rise about the 
year 1580. It became customary in highly placed 
families to christen the eldest son by the name of 
the landed estate to which he was heir. Especially 
was it common when the son succeeded to property 
through his mother ; then the mother's surname 
was his Christian name. With the introduction of 
second baptismal names, this custom ceased, and 
the boy or girl, as the case might be, after a first 
orthodox name of Robert or Cecilia, received as a 
second the patronymic that before was given alone. 
Instead of Neville Clarke the name would be 
Charles Neville Clarke. From the year 1700, say, 
this has been a growing custom, and half our present 
list of treble names are thus formed.* 

* The practice of hyphening names, as a condition of accepting 
property, etc., is 6f recent origin. By this means not a double 
baptismal, but a double patronymic, name is formed. But though 


The custom of giving patronymic names was, for 
a century at least, peculiar to England, and is still 
rare on the Continent. Camden notices the insti- 
tution of the practice : 

" Whereas in late yeares sirnames have beene given for christian 
names among us, and no where else in Christendome : although 
many dislike it, for that great inconvenience will ensue : neverthe- 
lesse it seemeth to procede from hearty goodwill and affection of the 
godfathers, to shew their love, or from a desire to continue and pro- 
pagate their ovvne names to succeeding ages. And is in no wise 
to bee disliked, but rather approoved in those which, matching with 
heires generall of worshipfull ancient families, have given those 
names to their heires, with a mindefull and thankfull regard of them, 
as we have now Pickering, Wotton, Grevill, Varney, Bassingburne, 
Gawdy, Calthorpe, Parker, Pecsal, Brocas, Fitz-Raulfe, Chamber- 
lanie, who are the heires of Pickering, etc." — " Remaines," 1614. 

Fuller says — 

" Reader, I am confident an instance can hardly be produced of a 
surname made christian in England, save since the Reformation. 
. . . Since it hath been common." — " Worthies," i. 159, 160. 

For two hundred years this custom had the 
widest popularity among the higher classes, and 
from some of our registers there are traces that the 
lower orders were about to adopt the practice. In 
the case of female heiresses the effect is odd. 
However, this was got over sometimes by giving 
a feminine termination : 

" 1660, Aug. 28. John Hendon, Knight, of Biddenden in Kent, 
and Northamtonia Haward, of Tandridge in Surrey, married." — 
Streatham, Surrey. 

manifestly increasing, the number of such double surnames is not 
yet a large one. 


" 171 1, Jan. 3. Buried Jermyna, d. of Mr. Edward Tyson, gent."' 
— St. Dionis Backchurch. 

" 1699, March 7. Nathaniel Parkhurst and Althamia Smith, of 
Kensington, married." 

Althamia was daughter of Altham Smyth, bar- 
rister, son of Sir Thomas Smyth, of Hill Hall, 
Essex (Chester's "Westminster Abbey," p. 173). 

But more often they were without the feminine 
desinence : 

"1639, Oct. 18. Buried Essex, daughter of Lord Paget."— 
Drayton (Lyson's " Middlesex," p. 42). 

Will of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, 1680 
(Doctors' Commons): 

" Item : To my daughter Mallet, when shee shall have attained 
the like age of sixteen, the summe of foure thousand pounds." 

The Countess of Rochester was Elizabeth, daughter 
and heir of John Mallet, Esq., of Enmore, Somerset. 

" 1699. Petition of Windebank Coote, widow, to the Lords of 
the Treasury, showing that her husband Lambert Coote was a 
favourite servant of King Charles II., and left her with a great 
charge of children."— " C. Treas. P.," 1697-1702. 

"Tamworth, daughter of Sir Roger Martin, of Long Melford, 
married Thomas Rookwood (who was born Aug. 18, 1658)." — 
"Collect, et Top.," vol. ii. p. 145. 

"1596, Nov. 21. Baptized Cartwright, daughter of Nicholas 
Porter."— Aston-sub-Edge, Gloucester. 

" 1634, April 18. Baptized Steward, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Stanley, Knight." — Stepney, London. 

" 1656, March 24. Douglas Sheffield, daughter oi Sir John 
Sheffield." — " Lunacy Commissions and Inquisitions," Record Office. 

" 1 709, Feb. 3. Tankerville Chamberlyne, spinster, daughter of 
Edward C."— Ditto. 


" 1601, Feb. Buryed Handforth, d. Thomas Davenport, a soldier 
in Ireland." — Stockport Parish Church. 

" 16 10, July 24. Baptized Kenburrow, ye daughter of Dr. 
Masters, one of the worshipfull prebendaries." — Cant. Cath. 

" 1688, March 29. Baptized Tufton, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
James Jefferys, one of the prebendarys of this church."' — Cant. 

Even down to the middle of last century the 
custom was not uncommonly practised : 

" 1763, Sep. 15. Thomas Steady, of Chartham, to Chesterton 
Harnett, of the precincts of this church, spinster, by licence." — 
Cant. Cath. 

" I 759» J une I2> Honourable Chatwynd Trumbull, widow." — 
"Lunacy Commissions and Inquisitions." 

As to the male heirs, we need not furnish illus- 
trations ; they would require too much room : 

" Sir Humphry Winch, Solicitor-General to Queen Elizabeth, 
married Cicely Onslowe. His eldest son was Onslowe Winch."— 
" Collect, et Top.," vol. iii. p. 86. 

" Woodrove Foljambe, born Jan. 25, 1648, son of Peter Fol- 
jambe. His mother was Jane Woodrove, of Hope, Derbyshire." — 
Ditto, p. 88. 

How common the practice was becoming among 
the better-class families the Canterbury register 
shall show : 

" 1601, April 16. Baptized Nevile, the sonne of Edwarde White- 

" 1614, Nov. 28. Baptized Tunstall, sonn of Mr. William 
Scott, the sonn-in-lawe to the worshipful Mr. Tunstall, prebendary 
of this church. 

" 1 61 5, May 15. Baptized Dudly, sonn of Mr. Doctor Jacksonn. 

" 1619, Dec. 16. Baptized Dudley, sonne of Sir John Wiles. 

"1624, July 26. Baptized Sydney, sonne of Sirre William 
Barnes, KV 


Dudley was, perhaps, the first surname that 
obtained a place among ordinary baptismal names : 

" 1614, Aug. 17. Christened Dudley, son of Thomas Styles. 
" 1684, April 17. Christened Dudley, son of Francis and Sarah 
Dylate." — St. Dionis Backchurch. 

The introduction of surnames at the font per- 
mitted private predilections full play. At Canter- 
bury we naturally find : 

" 1727, Feb. 22. Buried Cranmer Herris, gent., in ye cloisters." 
— Cant. Cath. 

" 1626, Oct. Baptized Bradford, sonne of Christopher Wilson, 
of Limehouse. " — Stepney. 

Hanover Stirling was a scholar of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1729. A Scotch Jacobite in 
London showed some skill in the heat of the great 
crisis of 171 5 : 

"171 5, June 10. Christened Margaret Jacobina, d. of Mr. 
Archiball Johnson, merchant. "-*-St. Dionis Backchurch. * 

This will be sufficient. The custom is by no 
means extinct ; but, through the introduction of 
second baptismal names, the practice is now rare, 
and all but entirely confined to boys. Two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, it was quite as popular 
with the other sex. 

Both Dudley and Sydney, mentioned above, 
have been used so frequently that they have now 

* " At Faversham a tradesman in 1847 had a son baptized Church- 
reform, and wished for another, to style him No-tithes, but wished 
in vain." — P. S. in Notes and Queries* February 3» 186b. 


taken a place in our ordinary list of baptismal 
names. So far as Sydney is concerned, the reason 
is easily explained. The Smith family have been 
so fond of commemorating the great Sydney, that 
it has spread to other families. Chauncey and 
Washington occupy the same position in the 
United States. 

V. The Influence of Foundling Names 
upon Double Baptismal Names. 

One circumstance that contributed to the 
adoption of two baptismal names was the christen- 
ing of foundlings. Having no father or mother 
to attest their parentage, being literally anony- 
mous, there sprang up a custom, about the year 
1500, of baptizing these children with a double 
title ; only the second one was supposed to be the 
surname, and not a baptismal name at all. This 
second name was always a local name, betokening 
the precise spot, street, or parish where the child 
was found. Every old register has its numerous 
instances. The foundlings of St. Lawrence Jewry 
got the baptismal surname of Lawrence. At 
All-Hallows, Barking, the entries run : 

" A child, out of Priest's Alley, christened Thomas Barkin. 
" Christened a child out of Seething Lane, named Charles Parish. 
"A child found in Mark Lane, and christened Mark Lane." — 
Maskell, "All- Hallows, Barking," p. 62. 


At St. Dunstan-in-the-West they are still more 
diversified : 

" 1597, M ch . I. Renold Falcon, a childe borne in Falcon 
Court, bapt. 

" 161 1, May 11. Harbotles Harte, a poor childe found at Hart's 
dore in Fewter Lane, bapt. 

" 1 6 14, March 26. Moses Dunstan, a foundlinge in St. Dunstan's 
hall, bapt. 

" 1618, Jan. 18. Mary Porch, a foundeling, bapt 

" 1625, Aug. 7. Roger Middlesex was baptized. 

" 1627, May 19. Katherine Whitefryers was baptized." 

" 1 6 10, Nov. Bapt. Elizabeth Christabell, d. of Alice Pennye, 
begotten in fornacacion. " — Stepney, London. 

" 1586, May 21. Christening of Peter Grace, sonne of Katherine 
Davis, an harlot." — St. Peter, Cornhill. 

" 1592, Aug. 2. Christening of Roger Peeter, so named of our 
church ; the mother a rogue, the childe was born the 22 d July at 
Mr. Lecroft's dore." — Ditto. 

The baptismal register of St. Dionis Backchurch 
teems with Dennis, or Dionys, as the name is 
entered : 

" 1623, Aug. 6. Joane Dennis, being laid at Mr. John Parke's 
doore in Fanchurch Streete. 

" 1627, June 3. Denis the Bastard, who was laid in the parish. 

" 1 69 1, Nov. 19. Ingram Dionis, a fondling taken up in Ingram's 

We see in these registers the origin of the phrase, 
" It can't be laid at my door." Doubtless it was 
not always pleasant to have a little babe, however 

* Sometimes, however, one was deemed enough, as, for instance, 
" Charitye, daughter of the Lord knows who ! " This is from 
Youlgreave, Derbyshire, but the correspondent of Notes and Queries 
does not give the date. 


helpless, discovered on the doorstep. The gossips 
would have their " nods, and becks, and wreathed 
smiles," if they said nothing upon the subject. It 
was a common dodge to leave it on a well-known 
man's premises : 

" 1585, April 23. A man child was laid at Sir Edward Osbourne 
gate, and was named Dennis Philpot, and so brought to Christes 

The same practice prevails in America. A New 
York correspondent wrote to me the other day as 
follows : — 

11 One babe, who was found in the vestibule of the City Hall, in 
this city (New York), was called John City Hall ; another, Thomas 
Fulton, was found in Fulton Street in an ash-box ; and a third, a fine 
boy of about four months, was left in the porch of Christ Church 
Rectory in Brooklyn. He was baptized by the name of Parish 
Church, by the Rev. Dr. Canfeild, the then rector, " 

The baptisms of " blackamoors " gave a double 
christian name, although the second was counted as 
a surname : 

" Baptized, 1695, M ch . 27, John Wearmouth, a Tawny, taken 
captive, aged 20." — Bishop Wearmouth (Burns). 

" Baptized, 1602-3, March, Christian Ethiopia, borne a Black- 
more. " — Stepney. 

" Baptized, 1603, July, Charity Lucanoa, a Blackamor from 
Ratcliff."— Ditto. 

" 1744, Sep. 27. Rum John Pritchard, a Indian and Mahomitan, 
baptized this day by self at Mr. Pritchard's."— Fleet Registers 

" 1 71 7, . Baptized Charles Mustava, a black boy, servant to 

the Honble. Lord Hartford."— Preshute, Wilts. 


Our forefathers did not seem to perceive it, 
but in all these cases double baptismal names 
were given. It must, however, have had its unfelt 
influence in leading up to the new custom, and 
especially to patronymics as second names. We 
are all now familiarized to these double and treble 
names. The poorest and the most abject creatures 
that bring a child to the font will have their string 
of grand and high-sounding titles ; sometimes 
such a mouthful, that the parson's wonder is excited 
whence they accumulated them, till wonder is lost 
in apprehension lest he should fail to deliver 
himself of them correctly. The difficulty is in- 
creased when the name is pronounced as the 
fancy or education of the sponsor dictates. When 
one of three names is " Hugginy," the minister 
may be excused if he fails to understand all at 
once that " Eugenie" is intended. Such an incident 
occurred about six years ago, and the flustered 
parson, on a second inquiry, was not helped by 
the woman's rejoinder : " Yes, Hugginy ; the way 
ladies does their 'air, you know." 

We must confess we are not anxious to see the 
new custom — for new it is in reality — spread ; but 
we fear much it will do so. We have reached the 
stage when three baptismal names are almost as 
common as two ; and we cannot but foresee, if 


this goes on, that, before the century is out, our 
present vestry-books will be compelled to have 
the space allotted to the font names enlarged. 
As it is, the parson is often at his wits' end how to 
set it down. 


Abacuck, 62, 85, 1 19 

Abdiah, 56 

Abdias, 45 

Abednego, 53, 63, 87, 190, 191 

Abel, 54, 89, 90 

Abelot, 90 

Abericusgentylis, 223, 224 

Abigail, 66, 67, 68, 141 

Abner, 53 

Abraham, 35, 85 

Abstinence, 152, 187 

Abuse-not, 162 

Accepted, 123, 152, 171, 193 

Achsah, 55 

Acts-Apostles, 58, 227 

Adah, 53 

Adam, 35 

Adcock, 16, 35 

Adecock, 15 

Adkin, 10, 35 

Admiral, 197 

Adna, 53 

Adoniram, 84, 83 

Agatha, 144 

Agnes, 43, 93 

Aholiab, 45, 85 

Aid-on-high, 174 

Alathea, 144 

Alianora, 23 

Alice, 18 

Aliot, 28 

Alison, 18 

Alpheus, 47 

Altham, 230 

Althamia, 230 

Althea, 144 

Always, 211 
Alydea, 144 
Amalasiontha, 60 
Amelia, 92 
America, 212 
Americus, 212 
Amery, 108, 212 
Amice, 102 
Aminadab, 57 
Amity, 203, 209 
Amor, 137 
Amos, 51, 84 
Anammeriah, 221 
Ananias, 69, 73, 89, 185 
And Charity, 227 
Angel, 130, 131 
Angela, 131 
Anger, 155 
Anketill, 101, 226 
Anna, 23, 35, 48 
Anna Maria, 220, 221 
Anne, 23, 208 
Anne-Mary, 22 1 
Annette, 23 
Annora, 23 
Annot, 23, 25, 33, S2 
Anot, 24 
Antipas, 73, 74 
Antony, 96 
Aphora, 64 
Aphra, 64 
Aphrah, 63 
Appoline, 95 
Aquila, 53, 102 
Araunah, 57 
Arise, 194, 195 
Asa, 53 
Ashael, 53 



Ashes, 63, 181 
Assurance, 120 
Atcock, 16 
Atkin, 10 
Atkinson, 13 
Audria, 106 
Austen, 43 
Austin, 103 
Avery, 101, 102 
Avice, 108 
Awdry, 93, 103 
Axar, 55 
Aymot, 79 
Azariah, 53 
Azarias, 57, 69 


Bab, 106, 107 

Badcock, 16 

Baldwin, 3, 85 

Baptist, 35 

Barbara, 28, 1 07 

Barbelot, 28 

Barijirehah, 60 

Barjonah, 57 

Barnabas, 45, 205 

Barrabas, 74 

Bartholomew, 2, 3, 29, 34, 36, 

44, 90, 92 
Bartelot, 5, 29 
Bartle, 5 
Bartlett, 29 
Barzillai, 53 
Bat, 5, 6, 34, 90 
Batcock, 5, 14, 16, 34 
Bate, 5, 16, 85, 90 
Bathsheba, 71, no 
Bathshira, 71 
Bathshua, 71 
Batkin, 5, 16, 77, 81 
Battalion, 179 
Batty, 5 
Bawcock, 16 
Beata, 134, 137, 138 
Beatrice, 17 
Beatrix, 17, 92 
Beelzebub, 75 
Belief, 200 

Beloved, 173 
Ben, 86 
Benaiah, 53 
Benedict, 94 
Benedicta, 94, 138 
Bennet, 94 
Benjamin, 65 
Benoni, 65 
Bess, 106, 114, 116 
Bessie, 114, 115 
Be-steadfast, 163 
Be-strong, 161 
Betha, 114 

Be-thankful, 161, 194 
Bethia, 114 
Bethsaida, 179 
Bethshua, 122 
Beton, 17 
Betsy, 115 
Bett, 114 

Betty, 114, 115, 116 
Beulah, 178 
Bezaleel, 45 
Bill, 92 
Blaze, 93, 94 
Boaz, 69 
Bob, 6, 8 
Bodkin, 10 
Bonaventure, 208 
Bradford, 232 
Bride, 94 
Brownjohn, 8 

Cain, 54 

Caleb, 52, 55, 61, 69 

Canaan, 179 

Cannon, 21 1 

Caroletta, 112 

Carolina, 92, 1 12 

Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia, 

92, 221 
Caroline, 112 
Cartwright, 230 
Cassandra, 70 
Catharine, 3, 36, 43, 93 
Cecilia, 3, 6, 22, 28, 36, 43, 48, 

5»» 93, "8 



Centurian, 178 

Cess, 6 

Cesselot, 28 

Changed, 153 

Charity, 67, 140, 141, 154, 199, 

202, 204, 227, 234 
Charity Lucanoa, 235 
Charles, 112, 206 
Charles Caractacus Ostorius 
Maximilian Gustavus Adol- 
phus, 222 
Charles James, 215, 216 
Charles Maria, 218 
Charles Mustava, 235 
Charles Neville, 228 
Charles Parish, 233 
Charlotte, 112 
Chatwynd, 231 
Chauncey, 206, 207, 233 
Cherubin, 170 
Chesterton, 231 
China, 211 
Christ, 76 

Christian, 33, 126, 199 
Christiana, 199 
Christian Ethiopia, 235 
Christmas, 211 
Christopher, 28 
Christophilus, 123 
Church-reform, 232 
Chylde-of-God, 133 
Cibell, 106 
Cissot, 22 
Clarice, 6 
Clemence, no 
Clemency, 142 
Cloe, 48 
Cock, 14 
Col, 34 

Cole, 34, 90, in 
Colet, 102 
Colin, 19, 31, 80 
Colinet, 30, 31 
Coll, 6 
Collet, 80 
Collin, 19 
Colling, 19 
Collinge, 19 
Comfort, 149, 167, 204, 209 

Con, no, 143, 145 
Confidence, 149 
Consider, 209, 210 
Constance, 143 
Constancy, 142, 143 
Constant, 121, 143, 193, 204 
Continent, 123, 200 
Cornelius, 69 
Cotton, 205 
Cranmer, 232 
Creatura Christi, 133 
Creature, 132, 133 
Cressens, 57 
Crestolot, 28 
Cuss, 23 
Cussot, 23, 143 
Cust, 23, 143 
Custance, 23, 143 


Dalilah, 57 

Damaris, 47, 48, 91 

Dameris, 47, 48 

Dammeris, 47 

Dam my, 91 

Dampris, 47 

Damns, 47 

Dancell - Dallphebo - Marke - An- 
tony - Dallery - Gallery - Cesar, 

Daniel, 35, 72 

Dankin, 35 

Dannet, 35 

Darcas, 48 

David, 6 

Daw, 6 

Dawkin, 10 

Dawks, 13 

Dean, 197 

Deb, 83, 91 

Deborah, 51, 66, 8^, 90 

Deccon, 20 

Degory, 101 

Deliverance, 169, 170, 209 

Delivery, 169 

Dennis, 103, 234 

Dennis Philpot, 235 



Deodat, 209 

Deodatus, 137 

Deonata, 137 

Depend, 162 

Dependance, 209 

Desiderata, 137, 202 

Desiderius, 137 

Desire, 137, 202, 209 

Diccon, 19, 82 

Dicconson, 20 

Dick, 8, 90, 92, 109, ill 

Dickens, 13, 20 

Dickenson, 13, 20 

Dickin, 10, 20 

Die- well, 165 

Diffidence, 200 

Diggon, 20 

Digory, 101 

Diligence, 148 

Dinah, 71, 72, 75, 76 

Dionisia, 20, 23 

Dionys, 234 

Diot, 23 

Discipline, 179 

Discretion, 199 

Dobbin, 19 

Dobinet, 30, 33, 82 

Do-good, 165, 200 

Dogory, 101 

Doll, 92, 105, 106, 107, III 

Dolly, 107, 109 

Donate, 137 

Donation, 209 

Donatus, 134, 137 

Dora, 107 

Dorcas, 47, 48, 61, 119 

Do-right, 200 

Dorothea, 92, 107 

Dorothy, 43, 48, 107 

Douce, 22, 107 

Doucet, 81 

Douglas, 230 

Dowcett, 22 

Do-well, 165 

Dowsabel, 107 

Dowse, 107 

Dowsett, 22 

Drew, 26, 100, IC2 

Drewcock, 16 

Drewet, 26, 8 1 
Drocock, 16 
Drusilla, 73 
Dudley, 231, 232 
Duke, 196 
Dun, 1 1 1 
Dunn, 211 
Dust, 63, 124 


Earl, 197 

Easter, 36, 96 

Ebbot, 22 

Ebed-meleck, 69, 83, 85 

Ebenezer, 83 

Eden, 179 

Edward Alexander, 216 

Edward Maria, 217 

Elcock, 16 

Eleanor, 24 

Eleanora, 24 

Eleazar, 205 

Elena, 18, 24 

Eleph, 53 

Eliakim, 57 

Elias, 2, 28, 35 ■ 

Elicot, 28 

Elihu, 53 

Eli-lama- Sabachthani, 57 

Eliot, 28 

Elisha, 69 

Elisot, 28 

Eliza, 115, it6 

Elizabeth, 113, 116 

Elizabeth Christabell, 234 

Elizabeth Mary, 220 

Elizar, 102 

Elkanah, 84 

Ellice, 29, ioi 

Ellicot, 29 

Elliot, 28 

Ellis, 28, 29, 35 

Ellisot, 29 

Elnathan, 56, 205 

Emanuel, 76, 130, 131, 183 

Emery, 108 

Emm, 5, 220 



Emma, 3, 21, 29, 48, 51, 78, 79, 

Emmett, 21 
Emmot, 5, 8, 21, 27, 29, 78, 

Emmotson, 21 
Emperor, 212 
Enecha, 69 
Enoch, 69 
Enot, 24 

Epaphroditus, 69, 85 
Epenetus, 57, 69 
Ephin, 98 
Ephraim, 69, 85 
Epiphany, 36, 97 

Er, 53 

Erasmus, 134 

Erastus, 53, 57 

Esaias, 69, 72 

Esau, 69 

Esaye, 102 

Essex, 230. 

Esther, 49, 96 

Eugenie, 236 

Eunice, 53 

Euodias, 56 

Eve, 24, 35 

Evett, 35 

Evot, 24 

Evott, 35 

Experience, 147, 148, 199, 203, 

Ezechell, 69 
Ezeckiell, 45 
Ezekias, 102 
Ezekiel, 72, 85, SS 
Ezekyell, 46 
Ezot, 113 
Ezota, 113 

Faint-not, 124, 158, 159, 194, 

Faith, 67, 140, 141, 147, 154, 

201, 204, 227 
Faithful, 154, 199, 211 
Faith-my-joy, 126 

Fannasibilla, 223 

Fare-well, 165, 166 

Fauconnet, 31 

Fawcett, 81 

Fear,. 203 

Fear-God, 156, 157, 162 

Fearing, 209 

Fear-not, 122, 159 

Fear-the-Lord, 190. 

Feleaman, 69 

Felicity, 149 

Fick, 19 

Ficken, 19. 

Figg, 19 

Figgess, 19 

Figgin, 19 

Figgins, 19 

Figgs, 19 

Fight - the - good - fight - of - faith, 

180, 184, 194 
Flie-fornication, 176, 194, 200 
Forsaken, 176 
Fortune, 176, 210 
Francis, 75 
Francis-Gunsby, 225 
Frank, 106, no 
Free-gift, 166, 167, 193 
Free-grace, 209 
Free-man, 177, 178 
Frideswide, 101 
Friend, 211 
From-above, 124, 167 
Fulk, 100, 103 
Fulke, 31 

Gabriel, 131, 140, 183 

Gamaliel, 57, 69 

Gavin, 100 

Gawain, 100 

Gawen, 100 

Gawin, 50, 100 

Gawyn, 33, 103 

Geoffrey, 44 

George, 11, III, 113 

George William Frederic, 221 

Georgi-Anna, 224 



Georgina, 92 

Gercyon, 69 

Gershom, 39, 57, 69 

Gersome, 101 

Gertrude, 1 10 

Gervase, ioi 

Gib, 25 

Gibb, 6 

Gibbet, 25 

Gibbin, 19 

Gibbing, 19 

Gibbon, 19 

Gilbert, 25 

Gill, 22, 104 

Gillian, 3, 22 

Gillot, 22 

Gillotyne, 32 

Gilpin, 19 

Given, 137, 209 

Give-thanks, 161 

Goddard, 101 

Godgivu, 2 

God-help, 175 

Godly, 152, 153 

Godric, 2 

Goliath, 72 

Good-gift, 167 

Good-work, 200 

Grace, 126, 140, 144, 147, *54, 

200, 204 
Graceless, 200 
Gracious, 153, 172 
Grigg, 6 
Gnssel, 106 
Grizill, 103 
Guillotin, 32 
Guion, 26 
Guiot, 26 

Gulielma Maria, 2 18 
Gulielma Maria Posthuma, 218 
Guy, 3, 26, 51, 80 
Gyllian, 103 


Habakkuk, 56 
Hadassah, 49 
Hal, 26 

Halkin, II 
Hallet, 26 
Hamelot, 27 
Hameth, 53 
Hamilton, 79 

Hammett, 101 
Hamnet, 26, 27, 29 
Hamon, 26, 29, 78 
Hamond, 26, 29, 78, 79 
Hamonet, 27 
Hamynet, 33 
Han-cock, 10, 16 
Handcock, 16 
Handforth, 231 
Handmaid, 178, 195 
Hankin, 10, II, 82 
Hanna, 35 

Hannah, 47, 49, 144 
Hanover, 232 
Harbotles Harte, 234 
Hariph, 53 
Harriet, 26 
Harriot, 26 

Harry, 88, 90, 92, 109 
Hate-bad, 200, 211 
Hate-evil, 119, 163, 210, 211 
Hatill, 163 
Have-mercie, 175 
Hawkes, 13 
Hawkin, 1 1 
Hawkins, 13 
Hawks, 13 
Heacock, 16 
Heavenly-mind, 200 
Heber, 53 
Helpless, 175 
Help-on-high, 160, 174, 1S1, 

Henrietta Maria, 215, 216, 218 
Henry, 3, 26, 44, 126 
Henry Frederick, 215, 217 
Henry Postumus, 2 19 
Hephzibah, 53 
Hercules, 70 
Hester, 35, 48 
Hew, 26 
Hewet, 26, 81 



Hewlett, 28 

Hick, 6, 85 

Hickin, 35 

Higg, 26 

Higget, 35 

Higgin, 19, 35, 82 

Higgot, 26, 35 

Hillary, 94 

Hiscock, 16 

Hitch-cock, 16 

Hobb, 6 

Hobelot, 28 

Hodge, 82, 85, 90 

Hold-the-world, 200 

Honest, 199 

Honora, 92, 145 

Honour, 139, 142, 145 

Hope, 140, 147, 154, 202, 209. 

Hopeful, 125, 159, 199 
Hope-on-high, 189 
Hope-still, 159, 160, 204, 209 
Hope-well, 160 
Hopkin, 10 
Hopkins, 13 
Howe-Lee, 225 
Hud, 6 
Huelot, 28 
Huggin, 19 
Huggins, 18 
Hugginy, 236 
Hugh, 6, 18, 19, 26, 28 
Hughelot, 28 
Hugonet, 31, 32 
Huguenin, 31 
Huguenot, 32 
Hugyn, 18 
Humanity, 142 
Humble, 152, 200 
Humiliation. 151 
Humility, 152, 203, 205 
Humphrey, 88 
Hutchin, 18 
Hutchinson, 18 
Hyppolitus, 70 

Ibbetson, 22 

Ibbett, 22 

Ibbot, 22, 81 

Ibbotson, 22 

Ichabod, 65, 205 

If-Christ-had -not -died for-thee- 

thou-hadst-been-damned, 1 56 
Immanuel, 42 
Increase, 168, 169, 194, 205, 

Increased, 122, 168, 195 
Ingram, 100 
Ingram Dionis, 234 
Inward, 179 

Isaac, 3, 26, 35, 203, 205, 206 
Isabella, 3, 22, 48, 5 1, 81 
Isaiah, 52 
Issott, 81 
Ithamaria, 223 


Jabez. 40 
Jachin, 53 
Jack, 2, 6, 8, 26, 90 
Jackcock, 8 
Jackett, 26 
Jacob, 35 
Jacolin, 106 
Jacomyn, 103, 1 06 
Jacquinot, 31 
Jaell, 46, 65 
James, 36 
James-Smith, 225 
Jane, 48, 103, 106 
Jannet, 31 
Jannetin, 31 
Janniting, 31 
Jannotin, 31 
Japhet, 195 
Jeduthan, 53 
Jeffcock, 14, 16, 81 
Jeffkin, 10 
Jehoiada, 53 




Jehostiaphat, 85 
Jenkin, 8, II, 33 
Jenkinson, 13 
Jenks, 13 
Jennin, 19 
Jenning, 8, 19 
Jeremiah, 63, 88, 90 
Jeremy, 63, 69, 72, 8$ 
Jermyna, 230 
Jerry, 91 

world-to-save, 156 
Jethro, 101 
Jill, 2, 22, 104 
Joafc, 53 
Joan, 103, 106 
Joane Dennis, 234 
Joane Yorkkoope, 224 
Job, 69, 84, 126 
Job-rakt-out-of-the-asshes, 181, 

Joel, 51 

Jockaminshaw, 223, 224 
John, 2, 3, 7, 35, 36, no, 

in, 112, 126, 197, 208, 215, 

Johnamaria, 223 
John Christopher Burton, 222 
John City Hall, 235 
Johncock, 16 
John Posthumus, 219 
John Wearmouth, 235 
Jolly, 211 
Jonadab, 69 
Jonathan, 69, 206 
Jordan, 1 1, 35, 37 
Jordanson, 35 
Joseph, 35 
Joshua, 69 
Joskin, 35 
Jowett, 22 
Joy-againe, 124 
Joyce, 67, 103, 107, 114 
Joye, 205 
Joy-in-sorrow, 174 
Juckes, 13 
Juckin, 11 
Judas, 36 
Judas-not-Iscariot, 74 

Judd, 6, 11, 35 
Jude, no 
Judith, 35, 48, 49 
Judkin, 11, 35 
Judson, 35 
Jukes, 13 
Julian, 22 
Juliana, 104 
Juliet, 22 
Junior, 197 
Just, 204 
Justice, 142 

Kate, 92, 105, 106 
Katherine Whitefryers, 234 
Kelita, 53 
Kenburrow, 231 
Kerenhappuch, 56 
Keturah, 57 
Keziah, 57 
Kit, 86, 87 
Knowledge, 199 

Laetitia, 92, 108 
Lais, 70, 71 
Lambert, 31 
Lamberton, 20 
Lambin, 20, 81 
Lambinet, 31 
Lambkin, 10 
Lamblin, 20 
Lament, 163, 164, 176 
Lamentation, 174, 187 
Lamentations, 63 
Lamin, 20 
Laming, 20 
Lammin, 20 
Lamming, 20 
Lampin, 20 
Lampkin, 10 
Larkin, 6, 10 
Lawrence, 233 
Laycock, 15 



Leah, 47, 66, 69 

Learn-wisdom, 119 

Learn-wysdome, 163 

Lemon, 211 

Lemuel, 53 

Lesot, 23 

Lettice, 23, 48, 108 

Life, 209 

Lina, 24 

Linot, 24 

Little, 197 

Littlejohn, 8 

Live-loose, 200 

Lively, 153 

Live-well, 164, 200 

Living, 170 

Louisa, 92 

Love, 137, 141, 203 

Love-God, 164, 165, 200 

Love-lust, 200 

Love Venus, 70 

Love-well, 165 

Luccock, 15 


Mab, 22 

Mabbott, 22 

Mabel, 22 

Madge, S3, 82 

Magdalen, 126 

Magnify, 161 

Magot, 23 

Mahaliel, 57 

Mahershalalhashbaz, 41, 58, 120 

Major, 196 

Makin, 12 

Makinson, 12 

Malachi, 52. 53, 69 

Malkin, 9, 11, 12 

Malkynson, 12 

Mallet, 230 

Manasseh, 40, 203 

Margaret, 3, 22 

Margaret Jacobina, 232 

Margerie, 25, 106 

Margett, 22 

Margotin, 31 

Margott, 23 

Maria, 92, 215, 217, 220 223 

Marian, 19, 227 

Maria Posthuma, 219 

Marion, 18, 24 

Mariot, 24 

Mariotin, 32 

Marioton, 31 

Mark Lane, 233 

Marshall, 197 

Martha, 47 

Mary, 12, 24, 105, 113, 218, 

Mary Ann, 220, 227 

Mary Given, 137 

Mary Josephina Antonielta, 222 

Mary Porch, 234 

Mat, 95, no 

Matathias, 100 

Mathea, 95 

Matilda, 3, 21, 48, 81, 106 

Matthew, 13, 36, 92 

Maud, 12, 48 

Maurice, 101 
Maycock, 13, 16 

Meacock, 13 

Meakin, 12 

Mehetabell, 66 

Melchisedek, 56, 8^, 85, 101 

Melior, 138 

Mephibosheth, 85 

Mercy, no, 142, 154, 199, 209 

Meshach, 53, 6^ 

Michael, 131, 183 

Michalaliel, 60 

Micklejohn, 8 

Milcom, 74 

Miles, 44, 51 

Miracle, 178 

Mocock, 15 

Mokock, 15 

Moll, 106, in 

Mordecai, 57, 63 

Mordecay, 69 

More-fruite, 124, 167, 168, 194 

Morrice, 101 

Moses Dunstan, 234 

Much-mercy, 122, 170, 194 

Mun, in 



Mycock, 16 
My-sake, 178 


Nab, 89, 90 

Nan, 92, 104, 105, ill 

Nancy, 105, 10b 

Naphtali, 53 

Nat, 91, 206 

Nathaniel, 69, 78, 90, 119, 126, 

205, 206 
Natkin, 78 
Nazareth, 179 
Ned, in 

Nehemiah, 119, 120 
Nell, io6 
Neptune, 70 
Neriah, 53 
Neville, 228, 231 
Nichol, 82 
Nicholas, 2, 3, 34, 36, 37, 43, 

45, 80, 90, 91, 92 
Nick, in 
Noah, 35, 69, 195 
Noel, 36, 98, 99 
No-merit, 122, 170, 174 
Northamtonia, 229 
Nothing, 211 
Nowell, 36, 99 

Obadiah, 72 
Obediah, 51, 61, 69 
Obedience, 148 
Obey, 162 
Oceanus, 208 
Olive, 106 
Olivia, 92, 106, 221 
Onesiphorus, 56, 57, 85 
Onslowe, 231 
Opportunity, 211 
Original, 128, 129 
Othniell, 69 
Oziell, 69 

Palcock, 16 

Pardon, 209 

Paris, 70 

Parish Church, 235 

Parkin, 34 

Parnel, 104 

Parratt, 79 

Pascal, 36 

Pasche, 96 

Pascoe, 96 

Pash, 11 

Pashkin, 1 1 

Pask, II, 36 

Paskin, 11 

Patience, 126, 139, 143, 145, 147 

202, 203, 204 
Patient, 204 
Paul, 36 
Payn, 26 
Paynet, 26 
Paynot, 26 
Peaceable, 203 
Peacock, 15, 34 
Peg, 106 
Pelatiah, 57 
Peleg, 69 

Pentecost, 36, 43, 98 
Pepper, 211 
Peregrine, 208 
Perkin, II, 34 
Perks, 13 
Perot, 79 

Perrin, 18, 19, 34, 8l 
Perrinot, 31 
Perrot, 34, 79 
Perrotin, 31 

Perseverance, 149, 187, 204 
Persis, 48, 121 
Peter, 2, 3, 18, 34, 36, 37, 4^ 

51, 79, 92, 105 
Peter Grace, 234 
Petronilla, 105 
Pharaoh, 52, 69, 72 
Phebe, 48 
Philadelphia, 144 



Philcock, 81 

Philemon, 45, 53, 69 

Philip, 2, 3, 26, 36, 37, 51, 90, 

92, 95> "3 
Philiponet, 31 
Phillis, 106 
Philpot, 26, 77, 80 
Phineas, 52 
Phip, 85, 90 
Phippin, 19, 81 
Pidcock, 15 
Pierce, 82 
Pierre, 34 
Piers, 79 
Piety, 199 
Pipkin, II 
Pleasant, 177 
Pol, 36 

Pontius Pilate, 58 
Posthuma, 217, 218 
Posthumus, 45, 215, 217, 2 1 8, 

Potkin, II 

Praise-God, 119, 156, 157, 158 
Presela, 126 
Preserved, 173, 210 
Prince, 197 
Pris, 91 

Priscilla, 47, 48, 90, 126 
Properjohn, 8 
Providence, 178 
Pru, 142, 145 
Prudence, 129, 142, 145, 155, 

199, 202, 209 
Prudentia, 92, 142 
Purifie, 125 
Purkiss, 13 

Quod-vult-Deus, 135 


Rachel, 66, 67, 69, 141 
Ralph, 20, 37, 85, in 
Ramoth-Gilead, 54 

Raoul, 20 

Raoulin, 20 

Rawlings, 20 

Rawlins, 20 

Rawlinson, 20 

Rebecca, 45, 51, 66 

Redeemed, 136, 193 

Redemptus, 136 

Rediviva, 136 

Reformation, 179 

Refrayne, 162 

Rejoice, 147, 160, 161, 209 

Rejoyce, 122 

Reliance, 209 

Relictus, 137 

Remember, 203, 209 

Remembrance, 204 

Renata, 136; 

Renatus, 134, 136 

Renewed, 121, 136, 194 

Renold Falcon, 234 

Renovata, 134, 136 

Repent, 153, 162, 175 

Repentance, 45, 150, 151, 153, 

176, 194 
Replenish, 168 
Resolved, 203 
Restore, 175, 193 
Restraint, 187 
Returne, 162, 194 
Revelation, 191 
Revolt, 203 
Richard, 3, 28, 37, 44, 46, 

103, no, 119, 131, 184, 195, 

Richelot, 28 
Riches, 177, 210 
River, 21 1 
Robelot, 28 
Robert, 3, 28, 37, 44, 52, no, 

211, 228 
Robbin, 19 
Robin, 19, 33 
Robinet, 30 
Robing, 19 
Robinson, 197 
Roger, 3, 37, 52, 90, 119 
Roger Middlesex, 234 
Roger Peeter, 234 



Rum John Pritchard, 235 
Rutterkin, 10 

Sabbath, 179 

Safe-deliverance, 131, 169 

Safe-on-high, 121, 174, 194, 200 

Salt, 211 

Sampson, 35 

Samuel, 205 

Sancho, 130 

Sander, 15 

Sandercock, 15 

Sapphira, 73 

Sara, 35, 45, 66 

Sarah, 51, 205 

Saturday, 180 

Sea-born, 208 

Sea-mercy, 208 

Search-the- Scriptures, 200, 210 

Search-truth, 200 

See- truth, 200 

Sehon, 74 

Selah, 57, 178 

Senchia, 130 

Sense, 129, 130 

Seraphim, 170 

Seth, 69, 102 

Seuce, 129 

Shadrach, 53, 63 

Shadrack, 57 

Shallum, 53, 56 

Shelah, 53 

Shorter, 197 

Sib, 92, 105, 106 

Sibb, 106 

Sibby, 106 

Sibilla, 24 

Sibot, 24 

Sibyl, 105 

Sidney, 207 

Silcock, 16 

Silence, 11, 145, 147, 147, 200 

Silkin, 11 

Sill, 11, in, 145, 146 

Sim, 6, 33, 82 

Simcock, 14, 15 

Simkin, II 

Simon, 2, 3, 36, 43, 45, 92, 

Simpkinson, 13 
Sincere, 199 
Sin-denie, 122 
Sin-deny, 162 
Sir Isaac, 197, 227 
Sir Robert, 197, 227 
Sirs, 54 

Sis, 92, 93, 105 
Sissot, 22, 81 
Something, 211 
Sophia, 92, 144, 221 
Sorry-for-sin, 122, 153 
Sou'wester, 207 
Squire, 196 
Standfast, 199, 209 
Stand-fast-on-high, 174 
Stedfast, 121 
Stepkin, 10 
Sterling, 211 
Steward, 230 
Subpena, 137 
Sudden, 212 
Supply, 209 
Susan, 48, 49, 106, 129 
Susanna, 35 
Susey, 129 
Sybil, II, 145 
Sydney, 207, 231, 232, 233 
Syssot, 22 

Tabitha, 47, 119 
Tace, 146, 147 
Tacey, 147 
Talitha-Cumi, 57 
Talkative, 200 
Tamar, 71, 72, 75, 76 
Tamaris, 47 
Tamsin, 109 
Tamson, 108 
Tamworth, 230 
Tankerville, 230 
Tebbutt, 26 
Tellno, 54 



Temperance, 129, 142, 143, 144, 
145, 204, 209 

Tetsy, 115 

Tetty, 115 

Thank, 109 

Thankful, 123, 171, 172, 173, 

Thanks, 171, 172 

Theobald, 25, 36, 43 

Theobalda, 43 

Theophania, 97 

Theophilus, 69, 126 

Tholy, '5 

Thomas, 2, 3, 26, 34, 36, 75, 
108, 203, 215 

Thomas Barkin, 233 

Thomasena, 109 

Thomaset, 26 

Thomas Fulton, 235 

Thomas Hill Joseph Napoleon 
Horatio Bonaparte Swindle- 
hurst Nelson, 222 

Thomasin, 109 

Thomasine, 108, no 

Thomas Maria, 215 

Thomas Posthumus, 215, 219 

Thomazin, 109 

Thomesin, 109 

Thurstan, 102 

Thurston, 50 

Tib, 6, 25, 43, 104, 106 

Tibbe, 25, 26 

Tibbett, 25 

Tibbin, 19 

Tibbitt, 25 

Tibbot, 25 

Tibet, 25, 33, 82 

Tibot, 25, 43 

Tiffanie, 97 

Tiffany, 36, 97 

Tiffeny, 97 

Tillett, 21 

Tillot, 21 

Tillotson, 21 

Tim, 6 

Timothy, 36 

Tipkin, 11 

Tippin, 19 

Tipping, 19 

Tippitt, 25 

Tobel, 40 

Toll, 29 

Tollett, 29 

Tollitt, 29 

Tolly, 5, 29 

Tom, 8, 34, 82, S6, 87, 90, 92, 

109, in, 122 
Tomasin, 109 
Tomkin, n, 34 
Tonkin, 10 
Trial, 187 

Tribulation, 120, 147, 185, 186 
Trinity, 178 
True-heart, 200 
Truth, 142, 144, 202 
Tryphena, 48, 57 
Tryphosa, 48, 57 
Tufton, 231 
Tunstall, 231 
Tyffanie, 97 
Tyllot, 21 
Typhenie, 97 

Unfeigned, 172 
Unity, 178 
Upright, 200 
Urias, 102 
Ursula, 43, 93 

Vashni, 53 

Venus, 70, 71, 75, 76 
Victory, 149 
Virginia, 208 
Virtue, 148 
Vitalis, 132, 133 


Walter, 3 
Warin, 26 
Warinot, 26 



Washington, 232 

Wat, 82, 85, 90 

Watchful, 199 

Watkin, 9, 11, 77, 8l 

Watkins, 13 

Watt, 6 

Weakly, 175 

Wealthy, 177, 209, 2IO 

Welcome, 209 

What-God-will, 135 

Wilcock, 8, 16, 34, 77 

Wilkin, 8, 9, 11, 34 

Will, 6, 86, 88, in 

Willan, 34 

William, 3, 7, 26, 34, 44, no, 

112, 184, 195, 203 
William Henry, 220 
Willin, 34 
Willing, 34 
Willot, 8 

Wilmot, 8, 26, 34, 80 
Windebank, 230 
Woodrove, 231 
Wrath, 155 
Wrestling, 203 

Wyatt, 26, 80 
Wyon, 26 

Young Allen, 197 
Young John, 197, 227 

Zabulon, 85 
Zachary, 46, 69, 88 
Zanchy, 130 
Zaphnaphpaaneah, 58 
Zaphnaphpaaneah Isaiah Obe- 

dedom Nicodemus Francis 

Edward, 222 
Zeal-for-God, 200 
Zeal-of-the-land, 88, 120, 187, 

Zebulon, 69 
Zephaniah, 52, 87 
Zerrubabel, 40, 41, 1 19, 120 
Zillah, 53 
Zipporah, 66, 86 










[MAY, 1901.] 


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Deacon Brodie. 
Old Corcoran's Money. 

The Firm of Girdlcstone. 

A Daughter of Today. I Vernon's Aunt. 
By A. EDWARDES.— A Plaster Saint. 
By G. S. EDWARDS. -Snazelleparilla. 

Carsed by a Fortune. 
The Case of Ailsa Gray 
Commodore Junk. 
The New Mistress. 
Witness to the Deed. 
The Tiger Lily. 
The White Virgin. 
Black Blood. 
Double Cunning. 
Bag of Diamonds, «fec 

A Fluttered Dovecote. 
King of the Oastle 
Master cf Ceremonies. 
Eve at vhe Wheel. &o. 
The Man with a Shado* 
One Maid's Mischief. 
Story of Antony Grace. 
This Man's Wife. 
In Jcopardv. rnng. 
A Woman Worth Win- 


One by One. 1 Ropes of Sand. 

A Dog and his Shadow. Jack Doyle s Daughter. 

A Real Queen. 

Seth's Brother's Wife. | The Lawtoa Girl. 

AStrange Manuscript Fonnd in a Copper Cylinder 
By PAUL GAULOT.— The Red Shirt. 
Robin Gray. I The Golden Shaft. 

Loving a Dream. The Braes of Yarrow. 

Of High Degree | 

28 CHATTO & WlNDUS, Publishers, tti St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C\ 

The Piccadilly (3/6) Novels— continued. 

The Lost Heiress. I Tbe Golden Rock. 

Fair Colonist | Foaaicker | Tales from the Veld. 

The Fate of Herbert Wayne. 

Fed Spider. I Eve. 

CECIL GRIFFITH. -Cor lnthla M&razlon. 

A Florida Enchantment. 

The Track of & Storm. | Jetsam. 

Glamour of Impossible. | Through a Xeykole. 

Under the Greenwood Tree. 

ofthePI of Jack 
Hamlin a. 
Barker's Lack. 
Devil's Ford, [celaior." 
The Crusade of the ' Ex- 
Three Partners. 
Gabriel Conroy. 

A Waif oftheFlains 
A Ward ef the Ctoiden 
Gate. [Springs. 

A Sappho of Green 
Col. Starbottle a Client. 
Susy. I Sally Dows. 
V.ell-Ringer of Ansel's. 
Tales of Trail and Tows, 

Garth. | Dust. 1 Beatrix Randolph. 

Ellice Quentin. David Poindexter a Dls- 

Bebastian Stroma. appearance. 

Fortune s Fool. I Spectre of Camera. 

By Sir A. HELPS.— Ivan de Biron. 
By I. HENDERSON.— Agatha Page. 
By G. A. HENTY. 
Dorothy's Double. I The Queen's Cap. 

Zambra the Detective. 
By JOHN HILL. The Common Ancestor. 

'Twixt Love and Duty. | Nugents of Carriconna. 

The Dicomplete Adventurer. 
VICTOR HUGO.-The Outlaw of Iceland. 
FERGUS HUME.-Lady from Nowhere. 

A Maiden all Forlorn. 
The Coming of Ccloe. 
Nora Creina. 
An Anxious Moment. 
April's Lady. 
Peter's Wife. | Lovice. 

A Mental ritrugele. 
Lady Vomer's Flight. 
The Red House Mystery 
Tbe Throe Graces. 
Professor's Experiment. 
A Point of Conscience. 

The Leaden Casket. I Self-Condemned. 
That Other Person. | Mrs. Juliet. 

Honour of Thieves. 
By R. ASHE KING—A Drawn Game. 
The President of Boravia. 

Madame Sans Gene. 
By ADAM LI LBURN. A Tragedy in Marble 

Rhoda Roberts. | The Jacobite. 

By HENRY W. LUCY. -Gideon Fleyce. 

Patricia Kemball 
Under which Lord? 
' My Love t ' | lone. 
Paston Carew. 
Sowing the Wind. 
With a SilUea Thread 
The World Well Lost. 

By justin McCarthy 

The Atonement of Learn 

Dun das. 
The One Too Many. 
Dulcie Everton. 
Rebel of the Family. 
An Octave of Friends. 

A Fair Saxon. 

Linley Rochford. 

De?jLady Disdain. 


Waterdale Neighbours. 

My Enemy's Daughter. 

Mist Misanthrope. 

Donna Quixote. 

Maid of Athens. 

The Comet of a Season. 

The Dictator. 

Red Diamonds. 

The Riddle Bing. 

The Three Disgraces. " 


A London Legend. | The Royal Christopher 

Heather and Snow. | Phantastes. 

W. H. MALLOCK.-TTn New Republic. 
P. & V. MARGUER2TTE.-Tke Disaster. 
By L. T. MEADE. 

On Brink of a Chasm. 
The Siren. 

The Way of & Woman. 
A Bon of lahmasl. 

A Soldier of Fortune. 
In an Iron Grip. 
Dr. Ramsey's Patient. 
The Voice of theCh&rmer 

An Adventuress. 
This Stage of Fools. | Cynthia. 

The Gun Runner. I The King s Assegai. 

LuckofGerardRidgeley. | Rensh. Fanning sQuest. 

Maid Marian and Robin Hood. I Golden Idol. 
B&sile the Jester. | Young Loehinvar. 


A Life's Atonement. 
Joseph's Coat. 
Coals of Fire. 
Old Blazer's Hero. 
Val Strange. | Hearts, 
A Model Father. 
By the Gate of the Sea 
A Bit of Human Nature 
First Person Singular. 
Cynic Fortune 

The Way of the World. 
BobMartin's Little Girl 
Time's Revenges. 
A Wasted Crime. 
In Direst Peril. 
Mount Despair. 
A Capful o' Nails. 
Ta'es in Prose A Verse 
A Race for Millions. 
This Little World. 


The Bishops' Bible. I Paul Jones s Alias. 

One Traveller Returns. | 

Saint Ann's. | Billy Bellow. 

Miss Wentworth s Idea. 
A Weird Gift. | Love's Depths, 

By Mrs. O LI PH A NT—The Sorceress. 
Held in Bondage. In a Winter City. 

Stralhmore. | Chandos. 1 Friendship 

Under Two Flags. 
Idaiia. [Gage. 

Cesil Caatlemainea 
Trieotrin. | Pack. 
l-'olle Farine. 
A Dog of Flanders. 
Pascarel. | Signa. 
Princess Napraxine. 
Two Woo'daa Shoes. 

Moths. | Rnffino. 
Pipistrello. I Ariadne. 
A Village Commune. 
Bimbi. I Wand*. 
Frescoes. | otiixuar. 
In Marcmma. 
By rim. | Gmlderoy. 
Santa Barbara. 
Two Offenders. 

Holiday Tasks. 
For Cash Only. 
The Burnt Million. 
The Word and the WilL 
Sunny Stories. 
A Trying Patient. 
A Modern Dick Whit- 

The Waters of Edera 

Gentle and Simple. 

Lost Sir Massingberd, The Talk of the To 1 
A County Family. 
Less Black than We're 

A Confidential Agent. 
A Grape from a Thorn. 
In Peril and Privation. 
Mystery of Mirbridge. 
Walters Word. 
High Spirits. [By Proxy. 
By WILL PAYNE.-Jerry the Dreamer. 
Outlaw and Lawmaker. I Mrs. Tregaskiss. 
Christina Chard. | Nulma. | Madame Izaa. 

By E. C. PRICE. 
Valentina. | Foreigners. | Mrs. Lara-aster's Rival. 

Miss Maxwell's Affections. 

By Mrs. J. H. RIDDELL. 
Weird Stories. | A Rich Man's Daughter. 

Barbara Dering. | Meriel. 

The Hands of Justice. | Woman in the Dark. 

CHATTO & W1NDUS, Publishers, Hi St. Martin's Laae, London, W.C. 20 

The Piccadilly (3/6) Novels— continued. 

By ALBERT ROSS. -A Sugar Princess. 



Peg Wofflngton ; and 
Christie Johastone. 

Hard Cash. 

Cloister & the Hearth. 

Never Too Late to Mend 

The Course of True 
Love ; and Single- 
heart & Doubleface. 

Autobiography of a 
Thief; Jack of all 
Trades ; A Hero and 
a Martyr ; and The 
Wandering Heir. 

Griffith Gaunt. 
Love Little, Love Long. 
The Double Marriage. 
Foul Play. 

Put Y'rself in His Place 
A Terrible Temptation. 
A Simpleton. 
A Wonian-Hater. 
The Jilt, & otherStories : 
&GoodStorie8 0f Man. 
A Perilous Secret. 
Beadiana ; and Bible 
RUNCIMAN.-Sklppera and Shellbacks. 

Round the Galley-Fire. 
In the Middle Watch. 
On the Fo'k'sle Head 
A Voyage to the Cape. 
Book for the Hammock. 
MyBteryof 'Ocean Star' 
Jenny Harlowe. 
An Ocean Tragedy. 
A Tale of Two Tunnels. 

My Shipmate Louise. 
Alone onWideWide Sea. 
The Phantom Death. 
Is He the Man ? 
Good Ship 'Mohock. 
The Convict Ship. 
Heart of Oak. 
The Tale of the Ten. 
The Last Entry. 

The Death Ship. 

By DORA RUSSELL—Driftof Fate. 

BAYLE ST. JOHN.— A Levantine Family. 


Dr. Endlcott's Experiment. 
Under False Pretences. 


Rogues and Vagabonds. 
In London's Heart 
Mary Jane Married. 
The Small-part Lady. 

Dagonet Abroad. 
Once Upon a Christmas 

Without the Limelight. 

Without Love or Licence. I The Outsider. 
The Master of Rathkelly. Beatrice & Benedick. 
Long Odds. I A Racing Rubber. 

A Secret of the Sea. I A Minion of the Moon. 
The Grey Monk. Secret Wyvern Towers. 

The Master of Trenance | The Doom of Siva. 
The Web of Fata. 
The Strange Experiences of Mr. Verschoyle. 


A Fellow of Trinity. 
The Junior Dean. 
Master of St.Benediet's. 
To his Own Master. 
Gallantry Bower. 
In Face of the World. 
Orchard Damerel. 

The Tremlett Biamonds. 
The Wooing of May 
A Tragic Honeymoon. 
A Proctor's Wooing. 
Fortune's Gate. 
Bonnie Maggie Lauder. 
I Mary Unwin. 

By JOHN STAFFORD.— Doris and I. 
By R. STEPHENS.— The Cruciform Mark. 
R. A. STERNDALE.— The Afghan Knife. 
R. L. STEVENSON.— The Suicide Club. 

The Young Master of Hyson Hall. 

By SUNDOWNER.-Toldby the Taffrail. 

By ANNIE THOMAS.— The Sirens Web. 

BERTHA THOMAS.— The Violin Player 


Like Ships upon Sea. I Mabel's Progress. 
Anne Furness. 

The Way we Live Now. I Scarborough's Family. 
Fran Frohmann. The Land League rs. 

Marion Fay. 

Stories from Foreign Novelists. 


Choice Works. 
Library of Humour. 
The Innocents Abroad. 
Roughing It ; and The 

Innocents at Home. 
A Tramp Abroad. 
TheAmerican Claimant. 
Tom Sawyer Abroad. 
Tom Sawyer, Detective 

Pudd'nhead Wilson. 
The Gilded Age. 
Prince and the Pauper. 
Life on the Mississippi. 
The Adventures of 

Huckleberry Finn. 
A Yankee at the Court 

of Xing Arthur. 
Stolen White Elephant 
£1,000,000 Bank-note. 

C. C. F.-TYTLER.— Mistress Judith. 


WhatShe CameThrough , Mrs Carmichael's God- 
Buried Diamonds. desses. | Lady Bell. 
Tiie Blackhall Ghosts. Rachel Langton. 
The Macdonald Lass. A Honeymoon's Eclipse. 
Witch- Wife. I SapDhira ' A Young Dragon. 

The Queen against Owen. 

A Court Tragedy. 

By E. A. VIZETELLY.-The Scorpion. 
By F. WARDEN.— Joan, the Curate. 

By CY WA RM A N.-Expreas Messenger, 


Chapenga's White Man. 


The Old Factory. 

Red Ryvington. 
Ralph Norbreck'sT.ust 
Sons of Bel. a!. 
Roy of Roy's Court. 
With the Red Eagle. 
Strange Crimes (True 

For Honour and Life, 
AWeman Tempted Him 
Her Two Millions. 
Two Pinches of Snuff. 
Nigel Fortescue. 
Birch Dene. 
The Phantom City. 
A Queer Race. 
Ben Clough. 

The Shadow of Hilton Fernbrook. 
By C. J. WILLS.— An Easy-going Fellow. 

Cavalry Life ; and Regimental Legends. 
A Soldier's Children. 

By E. ZOLA. 
The Fortune of the Rougons. 
Abbe Mouret's Transgression. 
The Conquest of Plassans. | Germinal. 
The Honour of the Army. 
The Downfall. I His Excellency. 

The Dream. I Money. I The Dram-Shop. 
Dr. Pascal. | Lonrdes. I Rome. I Pails. 
Tiie Fat and the Thin. | Fruitfulness. | Work 
By *ZZ. '— A Nineteenth Century Miracle. 


<*■ Pest 8vo, illustrated boards, 2s. each. 


Artemns Ward Complete. 

Maid, Wife, or Widow 7 |A Life Interest. 
Blind Fate. Mona's Choice. 

Valerie a Fate. | By Woman's Wit. 

Phxa the Phoenician. 


PhiTistia. | Babylon. 
Strange Stories. 
For Maimie's Sake. 
In all Shades. 
The Beckoning Hand 
The Devil's Die. 
The Tents of Shem. 
The Great Taboo. 

Dumaresq's Daught«r. 
Duchess of Powysiand. 
Blood Royal. [piece. 
Ivan Greet's Mast 
The Scallywag. 
This Mortal Coil. 
At Market Value. 
Under Sealed Orders. 


30 CHATTO & WINDUS, Publishers, til St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. 

Two-Shilling Novels— continued. 

Found Guilty. 
A Recoiling Vengeance. 
Tor Love andHonour. 
John Ford, &c. 

Fettered for Life. 
Little Lady Linton. 
Between Life it Death. 
Sin of Olga Zassoulich. 
Folly Morrison. 
Lieat. Barnabas. 
Honest Davie. 
A Prodigal's Progress. 


Camp Notes. I Chronicles of No-man's 

Savage Life. | Land. 

By Sir W. BESANT and J. RICE. 

Woman of IronBrace'ts 
The Hardin? Scandal. 
A Missing Witness. 

Ready- Money Mortiboy 
My Little Girl. 
With Harp and Crown. 
This Son of Vulcan. 
The Golden Butterfly. 
The Monks of Thelema. 

By Celia's Arbour. 
Chaplain of the Fleet 
The Seamy Side. 
The Case of Mr . Lucraft. 
In Trafalgar's Bay. 
The Ten Tears' Tenant. 


All Sorts and Condi- The Bell of St. Paul's 
tions of Men. 

The Captains' Room. 
All in a Garden Fair. 
Dorothy Forster. 
Uncle Jack. 
The World Went Very 

Well Then. 
Children of Gibeon. 
Herr Paulus. 
For Faith and Freedom. 
To CaU Her Mine. 
The Master Craftsman. 

The Holy Rose. 
Armorel of Lyonesse. 
S.Katherine s by Tower 
Verttena Camellia Ste- 

The Ivory Gate. 
The Rebel Queen. 
Beyond the Dreams of 

The Revolt of Man. 
In Deacon's Orders. 
The City of Refuge. 


In the Midst of Life. 


Californian Stories. 
Gabriel Conroy. 
Luck of Roaring Camp. 
An Heiress of Red Dog. 


Flip. | Maruja. 

A Phyllis of the Sierras. 
A Waif of the Plains. 
Ward of Golden Gate. 

The Martyrdom of Ma- 
The New Abelard. 
Tne Heir of Linne. 
Woman and the Man. 
Rachel Dene. | Matt. 
Lady Kilpatrick. 

Shadow of the Sword. 
A Child of Nature, 
God and the Man. 
Love Me for Ever. 
Foxglove Manor. 
The Master of the Mine. 
Annan Water. 


The Charlatan. 


The Shadow of a Crime. I The Deemster. 
A Son of Hagar. , 

By Commander CAMERON. 

The Cruise of the ' Black Prince.' 


The Adventures of Jones. 


For the Love of a Lass. 


Paul Ferroll. 

Why Paul Ferroll Killed his Wife. 

The Cure of Souls. | The Red Sultan. 

The Bar Sinister. 


8weet Anne Page. I Sweet and Twenty. 
Transmigration. The Village Comedy. 

Fiona Midnight to Mid- Vou Play me False. 

night. Blacksmith and Scholar 

A Flsht with Fortune. I Frances. 


Armadale, j AfterDark, 

No Name. 



Hide and Seek. 

The Dead Secret. 

Queen of Hearts. 

Miss or Mrs.? 

The New Magdalen. 

The Frozen Deep. 

The Law and the Lady 

The Two Destinies. 

The Haunted Hotel. 

A Rogue's Life. 

Every Inch a Soldier. 

The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountains. 

The Adventures of a Fair Rebel. 


My Miscellanies. 
The Woman in White. 
The Moonstone. 
Man and Wife. 
Poor Miss Finch. 
The Fallen Leaves. 
Jezebel's Daughter. 
The Black Robe. 
Heart and Science. 
' I Eay No ! ' 
The Evil Genius. 
Little Novels. 
Legacy of Cain. 
Blind Love. 

Pretty Miss Neville, 
Diana Barrington. 

•To Let.' 

A Bird of Passage. 

Proper Pride. 

A Family Likeness. 

A Third Person. 

The Evangelist ; or, Port Salvation. 


Village Tales and Jungle 

Two Masters. 
Mr. Jervis. 
The Real Lady Hilda. 
Married or Single ? 
I Interference. 

In the Grip of the Law. 
From Information Re- 
Tracked to Doom. 
Link by Link 
Suspicion Aroused. 
Dark Deeds. 
Riddles Read. 

The Man-Hunter. 
Tracked and Taken. 
Caught at Last I 
Wanted ! 
Who Poisoned Hetty 

Duncan ? 
Man from Manchester. 
A Detective's Triumphs 
The Mystery of Jamaica Terrace. 
The Chronicles of Michael Danevitch. 

A Point of Honour. | Archie Lovell. 


The New Mistress. I The Tiger Lily. 

Witness to the Deed. | The White Virgin. 

Bella Donna. I Second Mrs. Tillotson. 

Never Forgotten. Seventy - five Brooke 

Polly. Street. 

Fatal Zero. | The Lady of Brantome 

By P. FITZGERALD and others. 
Strange Secrets. 

Olympia. King or Knave 7 

One by One. Romances of the Law. 

A Real Queen. Ropes of Sand. 

Queen Cophetua. A Dog and his Shadow 


Seth's Brothers Wife. | The Lawton Girl. 

Prefaced by Sir BARTLE FRERE. 

Pandurang Hari. 


A Strange Manuscript. 


Robin Gray. i In Honour Bound. 

Fancy Free. ' Plower of the Forest 

For Lack of Gold. [ The Braes of Yarrow. 

What will World Say ? The Golden Shaft. 

In Love and War. 
For the King. 
In Pastures Green. 
Queen of the Meadow. 
A Heart's Problem. 
The Dead Heart 

Of High Degree. 
By Mead and Stream. 
Loving a Dream. 
A Hard Knot. 
Heart's Delight 





DEC 1 1 1985 


JUL 2 198 


JUN 2 7 N 


OCT 2 6 U 


i • 

.... , 

4UG / a , 




Ann ? z ' 


a r>o 1 c 4 


APS 1 5 L 


DEMCO 38-297 


^HJJ972 6088