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Full text of "Current industrial reports. SMT (93)-3. Manufacturing technology. Prevalence and plans for use"

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SMT (93)-3 



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PENNSYLVAN « 

UNI VERS 

JAN271995 
DOCI 



Manufacturing 
Technology: 
Prevalence and 
Plans for Use 
1993 




U.S. Department of Commerce 
Economics and Statistics Administra 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Acknowledgments 



The 1 993 Survey of Manufacturing Technology: Prevalence and Plans for Use, was 
a complex project that relied on the talents and efforts of many people. Although the 
participation of all these individuals was crucial to the success of the project, a number 
deserve special acknowledgment. 

Primary direction of the program was provided by Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Acting 
Associate Director for Economic Programs. This report was prepared in the Manufac- 
turing and Construction Division under the general direction of John P. Govoni, Acting 
Chief. David W. Cartwright, Assistant Chief for Manufacturing Census and Related 
Programs, was responsible for the overall management of this project. Judy Dodds, 
Chief, Food, Textiles, and Apparel Branch; Donna McCutcheon, Chief, Publication 
Coordination Branch; Stacy Cole, Chief, Research and Methodology Staff; and 
Deborah Tasky, Chief, Electronic and Information Systems Staff, guided the planning 
and implementation of this project. 

Program responsibility, data processing and analysis, and standard error analysis 
were shared by the following individuals who participated in the project: 
Robert McGrath, Thomas Melaney, Terry Pennington, and Stephen Pope. Individu- 
als who contributed to the preparation of this report are Edward Bates, 
Deborah Dillon, Alicia Green, Mike Haas, Richard Hanks, Leo Hool, Stephen 
Joseph, Nathaniel Shelton, Nancy VanDerveer, Mary Walter, and Kim Yarbrough. 

Lillie M. Skinner coordinated the various phases of the publication process assisted 
by Kelly Taylor and Enid Winters. 

The staff of Administrative and Publications Services Division, Walter C. Odom, 
Chief, provided publication planning, design, composition, editorial review, and printing 
planning and procurement. Nena Flynn coordinated and edited the publication. 
David Coontz provided design and graphics services. 

This report is the product of a joint effort between the Bureau of the Census and U.S. 
Army Material Command with the purpose of providing informative statistics on the use 
of advanced technologies throughout the country's manufacturing environment. 



SMT (93)-3 





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Manufacturing 
Technology: 
Prevalence and 
Plans for Use 
1993 




Issued November 1 994 



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f 

V . 

U.S. Department of Commerce 
Ronald H. Brown, Secretary 
David J. Barram, Deputy Secretary 

Economics and Statistics Administration 
Everett M. Ehrlich, Under Secretary 
for Economic Affairs 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Martha Famsworth Riche, Director 







^fPARTMB^ 




Economics and Statistics 

Administration 
Everett M. Ehriich, Under Secretary 

for Economic Affairs 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

Martha Farnsworth Riche, Director 
Harry A. Scarr, Deputy Director 

Paula J. Schneider, Principal Associate 

Director for Programs 
Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Acting Associate 

Director for Economic Programs 
Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Assistant Director 

for Economic Programs 



MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION 
DIVISION 
John P. Govoni, Acting Chief 



SUGGESTED CITATION 

U. S. Bureau of the Census, Manufacturing Technology: Prevalence and Plans for Use 1993, 
SMT (93)-3, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1994. 



For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 



Contents 



INTRODUCTION 1 

SUMMARY TABLES 

1. Percentage of Establishments Using and Planning to Use Technologies, by 

Characteristic of the Establishment 5 

2A. Number and Percentage of Establishments Using, Planning, and Implementing 

Selected Technologies 8 

2B. Number and Percentage of Establishments Using, Planning, or Not Planning to Use 

Selected Technologies 9 

3. Number of Establishments by Number of Technologies Used or Planned 10 

CHARACTERISTIC TABLES 

Percentage of Establishments Using, Planning, or Not Planning to Use, and the 
Single Most Significant Reason for Using Selected Technologies: 

4A and 4B. By Major Groups 34 to 38 11 

4C and 4D. By Employment Size 18 

4E and 4F. By Age of Plant (Years) 22 

4G and 4H. By Manufacturing Process 28 

41 and 4J. By Market for Most Products 34 

4K and 4L. By Market Price for Most Products 42 

TECHNOLOGY TABLES 

Percentage of Establishments Using, Planning, or Not Planning to Use, and the 
Single Most Significant Reason for Using Selected Technologies: 

Design and Engineering: 

5A and 5B. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) or Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) 

Systems 50 

5C and 5D. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Output to Control Manufacturing Machines 54 

5E and 5F. Digital Representation of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Output Used in 

Procurement Activities 58 

Fabricated/ Machining and Assembly: 

6A and 6B. Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) or Systems (FMS) 62 

6C and 6D. Numerically Controlled (NC)/ Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) 

Machines 66 

6E and 6F. Materials Working Lasers 70 

6G and 6H. Pick and Place Robots 74 

61 and 6J. Other Robots 78 



IV 



Automated Material Handling: 

7A and 7B. Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/ RS) 82 

7C and 7D. Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) 86 

8A and 8B. Automated Sensor-Based Inspection or Testing Performed on Incoming or 

In-Process Materials 90 

8C and 8D. Automated Sensor-Based Inspection or Testing Performed on Final Product ... 94 

Communications and Control: 

9A and 9B. Local Area Networks for Technical Data 98 

9C and 9D. Local Area Networks for Factory Use 1 02 

9E and 9F. Intercompany Computer Networks Linking Plants to Subcontractors, Suppliers, 

or Customers 1 06 

9G and 9H. Programmable Controllers 110 

91 and 9J. Computers Used for Control on the Factory Floor 114 

SHIPMENTS TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES BY SELECTED TECHNOLOGY 
TABLES 

Percentage of Establishments Using, Planning, or Not Planning to Use, and the 
Single Most Significant Reason for Using Selected Technologies Who Ship 
Directly to Federal Defense Agencies: 

10A. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) or Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) Systems 118 

10B. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Output Used to Control Manufacturing Machines 119 

10C. Digital Representation of Computer-Aided Design Output Used in Procurement 

Activities 1 20 

11 A. Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) or Systems (FMS) 121 

1 1 B. Numerically Controlled (NC)/ Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machines 1 22 

1 1 C. Materials Working Lasers 1 23 

1 1 D. Pick and Place Robots 1 24 

1 1 E. Other Robots 1 25 

1 2A. Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/ RS) 1 26 

12B. Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) 127 

13A. Automatic Sensor-Based Inspection or Testing Performed on Incoming or In-Process 

Materials 1 28 

13B. Automatic Sensor-Based Inspection or Testing Performed on Final Product 129 

1 4A. Local Area Networks for Technical Data 1 30 

1 4B. Local Area Networks for Factory Use 131 

14C. Intercompany Computer Networks Linking Plants to Subcontractors, Suppliers, or 

Customers 1 32 

1 4D. Programmable Controllers 1 33 

1 4E. Computers Used for Control on the Factory Floor 1 34 

APPENDIXES 

A. Explanation of Terms A-1 

B. Report Form B-1 

C. Sampling and Estimating Methodologies C-1 

D. Estimates of Relative Standard Errors D-1 



Manufacturing Technology: Prevalence and Plans for Use 
1 993 



INTRODUCTION 

In a continuing effort to address and provide detailed 
information on technology advancement and use, the 
Bureau of the Census has authored a third report on 
technology use throughout the United States. The report is 
entitled "Manufacturing Technology: Prevalence and Plans 
for Use" (SMT/ 93-3), for 1993. The survey discussed in 
this report is a direct followup to the original SMT which 
was published in 1989. Its objective is to again measure 
the current and planned use of advanced technologies 
within the country's manufacturing sector and to observe 
differences that might have occurred during the 5-year 
span from 1988 to 1993. The Survey of Manufacturing 
Technology (SMT) for 1993 has expanded the list of 
questions used in the 1988 edition to fourteen questions. 
The questions request information on exports, research 
and development, formal training programs, employment 
practices, and foreign ownership. 

The Bureau of the Census understands the need for 
accurate and useful data on technology use. It was real- 
ized in the early 1980's that information on technology use 
was in great demand and short supply. Presently, during 
the early years of a new decade and a new administration 
the need for advanced technology knowledge is more 
important than ever. The private business community, as 
well as the Federal, State, and local governments, require 
detailed information on technology use to make important 
corporate and administrative decisions. Therefore, based 
on the enthusiastic response received on the 1988 edition 
and with additional financial support from the United States 
Department of the Army, this survey was developed. 



SIC Major Group 

34 
35 
36 

37 
38 



Description 

Fabricated Metal Products 
Industrial Machinery and Equipment 
Electronic and Other Electric 
Equipment 
Transportation Equipment 
Instruments and Related Products 



The SMT questionnaire was designed to obtain reliable 
measures of prevalence for 17 advanced technologies. 
These methods used to obtain these measures are as 
follows: time frames in which the manufacturing establish- 
ments started to use or planned to use the specific 
technology, significant reasons for using the technology. 
those with no plans to use the technology, and specific 
information on plant characteristics using time frames for 
when they started using or plan to use, significant reasons 
for using, and no plans to use, and specific information on 
plant characteristics. The 17 technologies were chosen 
from the following general areas: 

• Design and engineering 

• Fabrication/ machining and assembly 

• Automated material handling 

• Automated sensor-based inspection and/ or testing 

• Communication and control 



SCOPE OF THE SURVEY 

The SMT is a sample survey of 8,336 establishments 
with 20 or more employees, selected to represent a total 
universe of 42,991 manufacturing establishments classi- 
fied in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Major Groups 
34 through 38. These major groups accounted for 43 
percent of all employees and value added as reported in 
the 1987 Census of Manufactures. 



For a complete description of the advanced technolo- 
gies covered by this questionnaire, see appendix B. Report 

Form. 



SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 

General Use of Advanced Technology. In 1993. most 
manufacturing plants classified in SIC Major Groups 34 
through 38 used at least one of the 17 advanced technolo- 
gies included on the survey m their production operations. 
In the survey, it was found that 75 percent of the plants use 
at least one technology, with 29.1 percent reporting that 
they use five or more of the technologies. This was an 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



increase over the 1988 figures of 68.4 percent using at 
least one and 23.1 percent using more than five. Larger 
plants tend to adopt all of the technologies in this survey 
more rapidly than smaller plants. Of those establishments 
with 500 or more employees, 90.6 percent and 80.2 
percent reported the use of at least one and at least five 
technologies, respectively, compared with 69.1 and 18.3 
percent, respectively, for establishments with less than 
100 employees. However, establishments with less than 
100 employees showed a significant increase in technolo- 
gies used, over the 1988 data. In 1993, an additional 38.6 
percent reported using at least one technology and an 
additional 1 3.5 percent reported using five or more tech- 
nologies. During the 5-year span, those establishments 
with 100 to 499 employees showed the most significant 
increase in using two or more technologies, from 72.1 
percent to 82.5 percent, and also showed an increase in 
using five or more technologies (37.4 percent to 50.3 
percent). 

While a very limited amount of time has been spent 
trying to draw conclusions from the data, the following 
aspects of the establishment characteristics were found to 
be interesting. 

• Advanced technology use tended to be greatest when a 
plant performed both fabrication/machining and assem- 
bly at the same location. When compared with 1 988, the 
1 993 data showed a steady increase in the use of one 
or more technologies in all the manufacturing pro- 
cesses. 

• For 1 993, narrow differences separated the different SIC 
major groups, with the exception of Major Group 34, 
"Fabricated Metal Products," where advanced technol- 
ogy use was consistently less than the other major 
groups. 

• The age of the plant and use of advanced technologies 
showed little direct relationship. 

• Of those establishments who exported 20 to 49 percent 
of their total shipments, 93.5 percent use at least one or 
more advanced technologies. 

• Those establishments who do their own research and 
development used more advanced technologies than 
those who have no research and development program. 

• Foreign ownership seemed to be a factor in advanced 
technology usage. The use of advanced technologies 
was generally at least 10 percent higher among those 
establishments whose ownership was 10 percent or 
more foreign. 

Prevalence of Individual Advanced Technologies. Preva- 
lence of the 1 7 advanced technologies in this report varied 
widely. Marked differences occurred when establishments 
were grouped by different characteristics. The establish- 
ment characteristics used to group plants in this report 
included the number of employees at the plant, the plant's 



age, the type of processing employed at the plant, the 
market for most products of the plant, the market price for 
most products of the plant, whether or not any of the 
products of the plant are made to military specifications, 
whether the plant is a contractor to the U.S. military, and 
which Federal Defense Agency directly purchases a plant's 
products. 

Establishments were not asked to provide the extent of 
use of a technology in their operations. For example, 
regardless of whether an establishment had one pick and 
place robot or 100 pick and place robots in place, each 
establishment was counted equally as using pick and 
place robots in their operations. Therefore, interpretations 
as to the extent of use and penetration for a technology 
should be made cautiously. In addition, all references to 
plans to use a given technology are for those establish- 
ments that do not currently use the technology in their 
operations. While it is realized that establishments cur- 
rently using a given technology may have plans to acquire 
more of that technology in the future, this information was 
not collected in the survey. 

What follows are brief highlights of the survey findings 
for each of the 1 7 technologies covered by the survey. 

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and/or Computer-Aided 
Engineering (CAE). In 1993 CAD/CAE systems were the 
most prevalent of the 17 advanced technologies on this 
survey. A total of 58.8 percent of the establishments 
reported that they currently use CAD or CAE systems. In 
addition, these technologies had the lowest number of 
establishments reporting that they had no plans to use 
them. 

As with many of the technologies, large establishments 
were more likely to have adopted CAD or CAE systems. Of 
those establishments with more than 500 employees, 87.2 
percent used CAD/CAE systems in their operations, com- 
pared with only 49.5 percent for those plants with less than 
100 employees. Establishments producing products with a 
higher market value were more likely to have adopted 
CAD/CAE. Those plants manufacturing products with a 
market price of over $10,000 used CAD/CAE systems at a 
83.4 percent rate versus 46.3 percent of those establish- 
ments whose products had a market price of less than $5. 

When establishments were asked to give the single 
most significant reason for adopting CAD/CAE systems, 
they reported a virtual tie between two reasons. The two 
reported were improved quality and increased output. 

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manu- 
facturing (CAM). A substantially smaller number of estab- 
lishments reported that they used CAD output to control 
machines used for manufacturing. Less than one-half of 
the number of establishments who reported that they used 
CAD/CAE systems reported that they used CAD/CAM. 
Also, a large portion of the sample, 49.5 percent, responded 
that they have no plans to use CAD/CAM in the future. 
However, the use of CAD/CAM technology did almost 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



double during the 5-year span between 1988 and 1993. 
The prevalence in Major Group 35, "Industrial Machinery 
and Equipment," increased significantly, along with increases 
in the other major groups. 

The use of CAD/CAM systems was more common in 
those establishments that were defense contractors. It 
ranked fifth in "used in operations" of all technologies, for 
establishments that shipped products directly to Federal 
Defense Agencies. 

Digital Data Representation. The use of digital represen- 
tation of CAD output for controlling machines used in 
procurement activities was another technique covered in 
this survey. It is one of the technologies that, when 
compared with the 1 988 survey results, did not become as 
prevalent as expected. Still, significant increases in "used 
in operations" did occur. Again, establishments with 500 or 
more employees used it at more than twice the rate as 
others. The most significant reason reported for using the 
technology was improved quality. 

Flexible Manufacturing Cells or Systems (FMC or FMS). 

Overall, 67.5 percent of establishments had no plans to 
use this technology in the near future. This figure ranked 
seventh among all 1 7 of the technologies covered by our 
survey. The establishments responded that improved qual- 
ity (12.2 percent) and increased output (13.7 percent) were 
their primary reasons for using this technology. Of the 
establishments reporting that they used FMC for systems, 
20.7 percent indicated that the transportation industry was 
the primary market for their products. 

Numerically Controlled or Computer Numerically Con- 
trolled Machines (NC/CNC). Of the technologies sur- 
veyed, NC/CNC was the second most commonly used 
(46.9 percent). Establishments classified in Major Group 
35, "Industrial Machinery and Equipment," reported the 
highest prevalence of this advanced technology (61.8 
percent). 

Materials Working Lasers. Materials working lasers tech- 
nology was the fourth least-used of the 17 technologies 
surveyed (5.0 percent). It is another technology that is 
being adopted more slowly than expected from the 1 988 
survey. Still the number of establishments that reported 
that they used it in their operations grew over 20 percent 
from 1988 to 1993. 

Pick and Place Robots. Unlike most of the technologies 
covered by this survey, pick and place robots were more 
likely to be found at older plants than at new ones. Use of 
this technology was most common in Major Group 36, 
"Electronic and Other Electric Equipment." Of the tech- 
nologies covered by this survey, this one had fewer 
respondents with any plans to acquire it in the next 5 years. 

Other Robots. A large percentage (82.3 percent) of 
establishments reported that they had no plans to use this 
technology in the next 5 years. It ranked third of all the 
technologies for no plans to use. 



Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS). 
Only 2.6 percent of the respondents reported that they 
were using AS/RS. Just 4.5 percent of the establishments 
planned to use it within the next 5 years, and 83.1 percent 
of the establishments reporting had no plans to use it at all. 
This technology was one of the few whose prevalence 
actually fell from 1988 to 1993. 

Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS). The AGVS 
was by far the least used technology, as indicated by the 
respondents to this survey. Just 1.1 percent of all estab- 
lishments reported that they used AGVS in their opera- 
tions. In addition, 86.9 percent of the firms responded that 
they had no plans to use it, and only 2.1 percent responded 
that they plan to use it within the next 5 years. The 1988 
data suggested a slow adoption rate for AGVS over the 
next 5 years; however, the 1993 SMT shows an actual 
decline in the number of establishments that reported 
using AGVS in their operations. 

Automated Sensor-Based Inspection or Testing. The 

survey separated this technology into two categories: (1) 
used on incoming or in-process materials and (2) used on 
final product. The prevalence of both of these technolo- 
gies remained essentially unchanged between the 1988 
and 1993 surveys. There was a slight difference in the 
industries that had most often adopted the technology. 
Automated sensor-based inspection or testing on incom- 
ing or in-process materials was more prevalent in Major 
Group 37, "Transportation Equipment;" however, use on 
the final product was more common in Major Group 36, 
"Electronic and Other Electrical Equipment." 

Local Area Networks for Technical Data (LAN-T). The 

responses to the 1988 survey indicated that prevalence of 
LAN-T in manufacturing establishments would nearly double 
in 5 years. While the results of the 1993 survey showed 
that many of the plans to acquire this technology were not 
realized, there was still a large increase in the prevalence. 
As with the 1988 survey, establishments in Major Group 
38, "Instruments and Related Products," were the most 
common users of this technology (40.7 percent). 

Local Area Networks for Factory Use (LAN-F). In the 

1993 survey, 22.1 percent of the respondents reported 
that they used LAN-F in their manufactuhng operations. 
This is several percentage points higher than the 1988 
survey of 16.2 percent. 

Intercompany Computer Networks Linking Plants to 
Subcontractors, Suppliers, and/or Customers. The 
1 993 use of this technology (1 7.9 percent) did not meet the 
1993 expectations of 35.1 percent reported in the 1988 
survey. There was, however, a significant increase m the 
prevalence of the technology. In addition, a substantial 
percentage of our respondents reported that their estab- 
lishment planned to acquire the technology m the next 5 
years. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Programmable Controllers. The number of establish- 
ments that reported in the 1993 survey that they were 
using programmable controllers was 30.4 percent. This 
technology ranked third among all technologies surveyed 
(behind CAD systems and NC/CNC machines). Its preva- 
lence was spread equally throughout the SIC major groups 
surveyed. 



Computers Used for Control on the Factory Floor. 

This technology was one that had fairly broad use among 
both large- and medium-sized establishments. Of the 
establishments that reported they used this technology, 
62.8 percent had over 500 employees, and 41 .8 percent 
had 1 00 to 499 employees. The age of the plant and type 
of manufacturing process did not vary significantly among 
the establishments using this technology. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 1. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND PLANNING TO USE TECHNOLOGIES, BY 
CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ESTABLISHMENT 



Establishment characteristic 



Year 



Number 
of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 1 
(a) 



Minimum number of technologies used 
(Percent of establishments) 



Not 

spec- 
ified 2 



Planning to acquire at least 1 addWonal 
technology within 5 years 



Percent of column- 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equipment . . . 

36, Electronic and Other Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Products 

Employment size: 
20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 
Less than 5 

5 to 1 5 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both • 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 
Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1986 



42,991 
39,556 



13,190 

12,746 

14,231 

13,176 

7,472 

7,293 

4,110 

3,425 

3,988 

2,916 



30,502 

27,369 

10,321 

9,903 

2,168 

2,284 



893 
731 
722 
295 
303 
690 
310 
464 
763 
377 



6,795 
6,870 
6,388 
5,688 
23,393 
21,016 
2,577 
2,619 
3,838 
3,363 



4,358 
4,451 
5,791 
5,342 
18,796 
17,861 
3,974 
3,243 
2,141 
2,626 
3,679 
2,137 
4,252 
3,896 



17.9 
23.7 



25.1 
32.6 
12.5 
18.1 
13.6 
17.1 
24.3 
28.2 
15.3 
21.3 



23.2 

30.5 

5.8 

10.1 

2.5 

1.5 



16.1 
25.6 
17.3 
24.7 
15.6 
25.7 
18.6 
25.2 
28.2 
7.2 



19.2 
27.0 
18.5 
26.6 
13.4 
21.2 
39.0 
50.2 
28.1 
7.0 



26.4 
38.2 
13.9 
23.5 
15.7 
23.6 
13.7 
21.7 
9.7 
12.6 
23.3 
33.4 
28.5 
11.6 



75.0 
68.4 



67.1 
58.6 
81.5 
75.6 
78.8 
73.4 
68.7 
62.7 
78.0 
72.3 



69.1 
60.9 
89.3 
83.2 
90.6 
93.7 



82.9 
74.0 
81.2 
75.2 
83.4 
73.9 
80.3 
74.4 
4.1 
3.0 



80.3 
72.7 
79.9 
73.0 
85.7 
78.6 
56.3 
48.3 
5.3 
3.0 

69.6 
61.6 
85.7 
76.4 
83.4 
76.2 
85.5 
77.9 
90.1 
86.8 
75.1 
65.6 
11.5 
10.4 



62.2 
54.1 

52.2 
44.1 
69.8 
61.1 
66.5 
59.8 
55.6 
49.3 
66.8 
58.0 



53.4 
44.5 
82.5 
72.1 
89.1 
91.4 



65.5 
56.4 
68.2 
59.6 
68.8 
58.4 
67.8 
60.5 
1.9 
1.6 



62.3 
55.9 
62.9 
55.9 
74.1 
64.1 
38.8 
32.3 
3.4 
2.3 

53.4 
47.1 
70.8 
61.9 
69.1 
60.1 
72.8 
65.1 
78.0 
71.7 
62.8 
46.4 
10.4 
7.4 



51.1 
41.6 



42.6 
32.2 
56.7 
46.2 
55.5 
48.2 
47.6 
41.5 
55.0 
45.8 



40.9 
30.9 
73.7 
60.3 
87.4 
89.3 



51.4 
42.8 
54.9 
45.4 
57.8 
45.8 
57.2 
46.7 
1.8 
0.5 



49.9 
42.1 
49.8 
41.9 
62.2 
50.2 
29.1 
22.8 
2.8 
1.1 



45.3 
36.9 
59.4 
48.3 
56.5 
44.9 
60.4 
52.9 
64.6 
60.9 
49.4 
33.3 
7.9 
5.2 



39.0 
31.7 

32.0 
24.1 
41.5 
33.8 
45.4 
39.0 
39.1 
34.4 
40.7 
33.6 



27.9 
21.3 
62.3 
48.1 
84.1 
85.1 



37.4 
31.5 
41.0 
34.7 
43.2 
33.9 
46.9 
37.3 
1.4 
0.1 



35.1 
30.6 
38.5 
32.3 
48.4 
38.7 
19.8 
16.8 
1.8 
0.7 



35.8 
28.9 
44.0 
36.2 
42.1 
32.8 
50.1 
45.3 
51.8 
49.8 
37.7 
24.6 
5.7 
4.1 



29.1 
23.1 

22.3 
17.0 
30.2 
23.1 
35.6 
30.1 
33.2 
28.7 
31.1 
25.8 



18.3 
13.2 
50.3 
37.4 
80.2 
79.4 



23.4 
22.4 
30.9 
25.2 
32.6 
24.3 
36.7 
28.1 
0.5 
0.1 



26.9 
18.9 
26.9 
24.9 
36.6 
28.8 
13.4 
13.1 
1.1 
0.7 

26.3 
21.1 
32.3 
26.5 
30.7 
23.1 
42.0 
35.2 
40.7 
38.0 
26.9 
18.6 
4.2 
3.0 



7.0 
7.9 

7.8 
8.8 
6.1 
6.3 
7.6 
9.5 
7.0 
9.2 
6.7 
6.4 



7.7 

8.6 
5.0 
6.7 
6.9 
4.8 



1.0 
0.4 
1.5 
0.1 
1.0 
0.4 
1.1 
0.4 
67.7 
89.8 



0.5 

0.3 
1.6 
0.4 
0.9 
0.1 
4.7 
1.5 
66.6 
90.0 

3.9 
0.2 
0.4 
0.1 
0.9 
0.2 
0.8 
0.4 
0.2 
0.6 
1.6 
1.1 
60.0 
78.0 



52.3 
59.7 

48.3 
54.6 
53.4 
62.3 
56.0 
63.0 
51.4 
57.7 
55.0 
63.8 



47.4 
53.7 
64.6 
71.5 
61.8 
80.3 



59.5 
66.5 
58.0 
65.5 
56.3 
66.2 
55.6 
62.1 
1.6 
2.3 



50.7 
59.2 
55.3 
61.2 
62.3 
70.4 
32.5 
44.4 
2.1 
2.5 

56.9 
60.2 
60.4 
70.6 
56.0 
65.2 
62.8 
68.7 
53.6 
70.6 
53.7 
53.9 
8.0 
7.0 



31.3 
42.0 



30.8 
39.7 
29.6 
46.5 
40.4 
41.3 
27.6 
36.6 
29.9 
50.3 



31.1 
41.4 
35.8 
46.8 
5.5 
57.8 



41.1 
51.3 
42.4 
44.6 
26.5 
42.9 
35.4 
36.1 
0.6 
5.5 

35.8 
36.5 
40.2 
36.1 
42.9 
52.3 
11.1 
27.9 
1.0 
64 

38.6 
39.5 
37.8 
54.2 
34.7 
44.7 
44.9 
393 
356 
43.3 
30.7 
34.0 
5.4 
9.2 



46.3 
72.7 



43.0 
71.0 
44.5 
71.3 
52.5 
76.2 
46.5 
75.6 
54.2 
73.5 



44.7 
67.4 
56.9 
80.3 
46.9 
84.7 



49.2 
72.1 
45.1 
72.4 
51.9 
74.6 
40.5 
71.3 
8.6 
63.1 

42.5 
67.9 
50.9 
70.8 
48.0 
75.4 
39.5 
62.9 
22.4 
690 

51.9 
734 
509 
75.7 
44.3 
71.8 
462 
77.3 
453 
75.0 
434 
649 
245 
56.7 



51.2 
76.1 



46.3 
759 
52.5 
72.9 
52.9 
79.8 
58.4 
80.2 
51.1 
77.5 

50.1 
70.5 
56.3 
829 
44.4 
848 



47.8 
76.7 
52.1 
75.4 
51.4 
77.7 
51.7 
74.8 
71.4 
65.8 

407 
71.2 
50.2 
75.1 
55.2 
78.0 
45.4 
71.0 
52.4 
75.8 

556 

74.6 
57.4 
78.0 
510 
75.2 
483 

?:; 

365 

78 5 
542 
673 
438 

6" • 



604 
787 



57.4 
79.3 
573 
76.0 
66.8 
81.1 
67.8 
827 
664 
784 

57.6 
73.7 
69.6 
83.5 
667 
85.0 

70.9 
77.1 
61.7 
78.9 
55.5 
80.1 
59.5 
77.5 
21.4 
64.4 

539 
74.6 
62.0 
76.6 

B3 : 

80.5 
536 
74.8 

25.6 
73.2 



660 
76.1 
59 8 
81 
585 
783 
70.6 
831 
495 
795 
616 
71.2 
-*.- 
N ' 



700 
79 4 



75.8 
79.1 

■ i 

772 

V: I 
816 
■'.~- 
835 
670 
797 



70.4 
73.0 
694 
85.0 
68.6 
852 



739 
768 
70.7 
800 
661 
80.3 
708 
78.8 
78.8 
100.0 



57.5 
75 5 
66 1 
765 
746 
812 
e- r 
77.7 
36 
89 4 



75,1 
77.1 
717 
822 
682 
79.0 
705 
«• 5 

?; -• 

-s: 

-;.• 
H S 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 1. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND PLANNING TO USE TECHNOLOGIES, BY 
CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ESTABLISHMENT— Continued 







Number 
of 
estab- 
lish- 


Minimum number of technologies used 
(Percent of establishments) 


Planning to acquire at least 1 additional 
technology within 5 years 


Establishment characteristic 














Not 






Percent of column: 








Year 


ments 1 
(a) 



(b) 


(C) 


2 

(d) 


3 

(e) 


4 
(f) 


5 

(g) 


spec- 
ified 2 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


Market price for most products: 


































Less than $5 


1993 


5,274 


22.4 


76.1 


61.4 


51.9 


43.7 


34.6 


1.6 


60.9 


37.3 


53.0 


54.1 


69.5 


80.6 


76.7 




1988 


5,101 


32.1 


67.8 


52.0 


40.4 


30.3 


22.5 


0.1 


65.3 


39.8 


77.5 


80.4 


82.5 


83.5 


84.7 


$5 to $1 00 


1993 
1988 


10,422 
9,209 


18.8 
26.3 


79.8 
73.2 


65.0 
56.7 


54.3 
43.1 


41.2 
34.0 


31.6 
25.0 


1.4 
0.5 


59.4 
64.0 


37.1 
41.2 


50.8 
72.6 


59.5 
76.5 


56.4 
78.8 


72.2 
78.1 


76.8 




83.3 


$101 to $1,000 


1993 
1988 


8,846 
7,843 


16.2 
25.1 


82.8 
74.7 


69.6 
59.7 


56.1 
45.2 


42.0 
33.8 


29.5 
24.1 


0.9 
0.3 


57.7 
64.0 


36.3 
39.0 


48.5 
72.6 


46.6 
75.8 


66.2 
77.9 


60.6 
78.9 


75.2 




79.2 


$1,001 to $2,000 


1993 


2,023 


20.1 


79.2 


60.3 


48.5 


37.1 


28.6 


0.8 


51.9 


25.9 


48.3 


54.0 


47.4 


69.8 


69.7 




1988 


2,002 


23.2 


76.8 


60.8 


46.9 


33.2 


24.9 


- 


63.8 


38.7 


71.3 


73.8 


77.6 


81.5 


85.4 


$2,001 to $10,000 


1993 


4,265 


14.6 


84.5 


71.7 


56.5 


42.3 


30.0 


1.0 


55.2 


36.2 


40.6 


57.0 


54.8 


71.4 


65.1 




1988 


4,436 


26.0 


73.8 


60.1 


44.4 


32.6 


23.0 


0.2 


66.2 


48.0 


72.8 


74.4 


79.0 


80.5 


81.6 


Over $10,000 


1993 
1988 


7,340 
6,328 


9.0 
17.9 


90.5 
81.9 


77.0 
66.8 


63.7 
53.3 


47.5 
41.0 


35.8 
30.0 


0.5 
0.2 


54.9 
70.2 


38.8 
59.1 


38.9 
72.7 


41.2 
76.0 


62.6 
78.4 


73.8 
79.7 


61.2 




79.7 


Not specified 


1993 


4,821 


30.2 


15.5 


12.9 


11.3 


8.1 


6.1 


54.3 


10.8 


9.7 


4.9 


54.4 


48.4 


63.3 


67.1 




1988 


4,639 


13.0 


21.3 


16.0 


13.2 


10.9 


8.2 


65.7 


15.3 


20.0 


59.8 


68.9 


71.9 


71.0 


68.2 


Products made to military specifications: 




, 






























Yes 


1993 


14,112 


10.4 


88.9 


77.2 


65.5 


51.3 


39.5 


0.8 


64.1 


45.6 


46.3 


58.6 


65.4 


72.7 


74.1 




1988 


14,588 


16.2 


83.7 


69.0 


55.0 


44.6 


33.4 


0.1 


71.3 


50.0 


75.5 


78.2 


80.5 


80.2 


82.1 


No 


1993 


22,214 


20.1 


78.4 


63.7 


51.4 


38.5 


28.0 


1.5 


53.7 


33.1 


47.6 


47.4 


58.2 


69.1 


69.6 




1988 


19,439 


31.0 


68.6 


52.2 


38.8 


27.6 


19.5 


0.4 


60.7 


39.9 


70.4 


74.6 


77.2 


78.9 


80.0 


Don't know 


1993 
1988 


2,939 
2,141 


25.1 
36:0 


73.9 
63.2 


55.9 
50.0 


43.1 
40.1 


31.8 
28.7 


23.6 
20.4 


1.0 
0.8 


49.0 
59.7 


34.6 
41.7 


43.5 
70.6 


47.7 
69.4 


50.6 
73.1 


61.3 
74.4 


66.4 




78.9 


Not specified 


1993 


3,726 


28.3 


3.3 


1.2 


1.0 


0.4 


0.4 


68.4 


1.4 


1.8 


7.8 


20.0 


50.0 


_ 


100.0 




1988 


3,388 


6.1 


4.4 


3.3 


1.7 


1.2 


1.0 


89.5 


3.8 


13.0 


68.3 


82.1 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Percent, on an annual basis, of all products 
manufactured at the plant, that are shipped 
directly to other companies who are prime 
defense contractors to Federal Defense 


































Agencies: 
Yes: 


































1 to 25 percent 


1993 


9,934 


9.3 


90.1 


78.1 


68.0 


53.5 


41.9 


0.6 


65.8 


49.3 


56.8 


55.4 


65.1 


73.6 


73.5 




1988 


10,101 


18.7 


81.2 


66.6 


52.4 


41.3 


30.9 


0.1 


71.9 


50.4 


77.0 


79.0 


80.1 


80.1 


81.3 


26 to 75 percent 


1993 


2,499 


10.5 


89.3 


82.1 


67.9 


51.0 


38.4 


0.2 


62.3 


42.6 


69.1 


49.0 


47.9 


71.1 


75.3 




1988 


1,012 


10.9 


88.9 


74.9 


63.6 


51.0 


36.9 


0.1 


75.3 


67.7 


76.4 


77.4 


78.9 


76.4 


80.4 


Over 75 percent ' 


1993 


1,148 


13.5 


86.2 


77.0 


61.4 


48.3 


38.2 


0.3 


52.4 


18.7 


35.8 


40.2 


68.0 


59.8 


66.3 




1988 


683 


17.7 


80.2 


67.4 


61.9 


52.0 


39.6 


2.1 


65.3 


43.3 


71.9 


75.3 


76.6 


76.2 


78.3 


Don't know 


1993 


(NA) 
601 


(NA) 
27.5 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


No: 
None 


1988 


72.5 


59.3 


48.6 


38.7 


28.9 




63.1 


27.7 


76.6 


77.1 


79.8 


82.7 


85.2 


1993 


1 1 ,808 


24.4 


73.7 


57.1 


45.8 


34.0 


24.2 


1.8 


49.2 


31.9 


35.8 


48.0 


60.8 


66.3 


67.7 




1988 


22,874 


29.1 


70.6 


54.4 


40.8 


30.1 


21.4 


0.3 


61.3 


40.1 


70.3 


74.3 


77.8 


79.1 


81.0 


Don't know 


1993 
1988 


13,573 
1,028 


17.7 
25.8 


81.2 
73.5 


66.7 
59.8 


53.3 
46.5 


40.2 
36.9 


29.1 
27.0 


1.1 
0.7 


57.7 
69.0 


37.0 
48.7 


51.0 
76.8 


53.2 
80.3 


58.9 
82.1 


70.8 
84.5 


72.5 




85.0 


Not specified 


1993 


4,029 


26.9 


9.0 


5.8 


4.5 


3.5 


3.2 


64.1 


3.2 


0.6 


13.2 


38.0 


51.2 


63.6 


44.2 




1988 


3,349 


5.5 


4.0 


3.1 


1.6 


1.3 


1.3 


90.4 


2.8 


12.5 


53.4 


64.3 


70.1 


75.4 


74.1 


Percent of the plant's total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 


































None 


1993 


13,687 


25.9 


72.3 


55.8 


44.6 


31.9 


21.6 


1.7 


47.6 


29.0 


34.4 


48.0 


56.8 


67.3 


69.0 




1988 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


Less than 1 percent 


1993 


15,360 


15.5 


83.6 


69.6 


58.0 


45.0 


34.4 


0.9 


60.7 


42.2 


54.5 


52.4 


62.2 


70.9 


72.2 




1988 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


1 to 1 9 percent 


1993 


4,737 


9.0 


90.4 


78.6 


66.4 


53.5 


39.6 


0.6 


64.3 


42.1 


61.3 


48.8 


63.9 


71.9 


73.5 




1988 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


20 to 49 percent 


1993 


3,912 


6.0 


93.5 


85.6 


70.5 


55.1 


44.3 


0.5 


66.2 


53.6 


58.6 


53.1 


65.9 


73.3 


72.9 




1988 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


50 percent or more 


1993 


1,398 


8.7 


90.2 


78.6 


64.2 


48.6 


40.0 


1.1 


57.5 


45.5 


45.7 


55.2 


51.1 


67.5 


66.4 




1988 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


Not specified 


1993 


3,897 


25.6 


8.2 


5.6 


4.1 


2.6 


2.4 


66.2 


4.8 


1.9 


18.0 


89.7 


50.0 


66.7 


69.6 




1988 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 1. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND PLANNING TO USE TECHNOLOGIES, BY 
CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ESTABLISHMENT— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Year 



Number 
of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 1 
(a) 



Minimum number of technologies used 
(Percent of establishments) 



Not 
spec- 
ified 2 



Planning to acqure at least 1 

technology with*i 5 years 



Peroer • v v. *~ - 



Where is most of the research and development 
work for the plant done: 
Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for the 
plant conducted: 
In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal training for 
the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to work with 
the technologies used in the plant: 
Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or indirectly, 
10 percent or more of the voting stock or other 
equity rights to the plant: 
Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1,834 

(NA) 
25,416 

(NA) 
4,969 

(NA) 
7,046 

(NA) 
3,726 

(NA) 



29,449 

(NA) 
1,099 

(NA) 
3,506 

(NA) 
5,251 

(NA) 
3,686 

(NA) 



26,952 

(NA) 
1,637 

(NA) 
5,287 

(NA) 
9,115 

(NA) 



13,905 

(NA) 

19,836 

(NA) 

5,401 

(NA) 

3,849 

(NA) 



3,265 

(NA) 
34,703 

(NA) 
1,447 

(NA) 
3,576 

(NA) 



23.0 
(NA) 
13.0 
(NA) 
10.9 
(NA) 
34.2 
(NA) 
27.5 
(NA) 



16.3 
(NA) 

9.9 
(NA) 

9.6 
(NA) 
28.3 
(NA) 
26.6 
(NA) 



17.5 
(NA) 

7.7 
(NA) 

7.5 
(NA) 
27.1 
(NA) 



27.6 
(NA) 
11.5 
(NA) 
9.3 
(NA) 
28.2 
(NA) 



5.5 
(NA) 
18.6 
(NA) 
11.2 
(NA) 
25.9 
(NA) 



76.4 
(NA) 
86.0 
(NA) 
88.4 
(NA) 
64.0 
(NA) 
2.8 
(NA) 



82.4 
(NA) 
89.2 
(NA) 
90.4 
(NA) 
70.8 
(NA) 
3.4 
(NA) 



81.1 
(NA) 
92.3 
(NA) 
92.4 
(NA) 
43.8 
(NA) 



71.0 
(NA) 
87.9 
(NA) 
88.7 
(NA) 
4.3 
(NA) 



93.5 
(NA) 
80.3 
(NA) 
88.8 
(NA) 
2.0 
(NA) 



58.1 
(NA) 
73.1 
(NA) 
77.9 
(NA) 
45.0 
(NA) 
1.2 
(NA) 



68.4 
(NA) 
79.1 
(NA) 
80.2 
(NA) 
53.6 
(NA) 
2.0 
(NA) 



66.4 
(NA) 
81.7 
(NA) 
84.9 
(NA) 
33.1 
(NA) 



55.2 
(NA) 
74.3 
(NA) 
77.7 
(NA) 
2.7 
(NA) 



84.4 
(NA) 
65.6 
(NA) 
80.8 
(NA) 
1.0 
(NA) 



41.8 
(NA) 
60.0 
(NA) 
68.7 
(NA) 
35.6 
(NA) 
1.2 
(NA) 



56.8 
(NA) 
73.5 
(NA) 
67.2 
(NA) 
38.7 
(NA) 
1.6 
(NA) 



54.3 
(NA) 
74.8 
(NA) 
73.9 
(NA) 
24.1 
(NA) 



43.8 
(NA) 
61.8 
(NA) 
65.7 
(NA) 
1.9 
(NA) 



73.2 
(NA) 
53.5 
(NA) 
68.6 
(NA) 
1.0 
(NA) 



31.0 
(NA) 
45.1 
(NA) 
59.7 
(NA) 
24.4 
(NA) 
0.8 
(NA) 



43.7 
(NA) 
60.6 
(NA) 
53.4 
(NA) 
24.7 
(NA) 
1.3 
(NA) 



41.3 
(NA) 
63.2 
(NA) 
60.1 
(NA) 
15.4 
(NA) 



33.6 
(NA) 
47.7 
(NA) 
47.5 
(NA) 
1.3 
(NA) 



62.3 
(NA) 
39.9 
(NA) 
58.5 
(NA) 
0.4 
(NA) 



24.2 
(NA) 
33.2 
(NA) 
49.3 
(NA) 
16.2 
(NA) 
0.6 
(NA) 



32.8 
(NA) 
51.5 
(NA) 
40.5 
(NA) 
15.3 
(NA) 
1.2 
(NA) 



30.5 
(NA) 
52.7 
(NA) 
48.0 
(NA) 
9.7 
(NA) 



24.0 
(NA) 
36.3 
(NA) 
35.3 
(NA) 
1.3 
(NA) 



49.9 
(NA) 
29.3 
(NA) 
46.9 
(NA) 
0.4 
(NA) 



0.6 
(NA) 

1.0 
(NA) 

0.7 
(NA) 

1.7 
(NA) 
69.7 
(NA) 



1.3 

(NA) 

0.9 

(NA) 

(NA) 
1.0 
(NA) 
70.0 
(NA) 



1.4 
(NA) 

(NA) 
0.1 
(NA) 
29.1 
(NA) 



1.4 
(NA) 

0.6 
(NA) 

2.0 
(NA) 
67.5 
(NA) 



1.0 
(NA) 

1.2 
(NA) 

(NA) 
72.1 

(NA) 



45.6 
(NA) 
60.9 
(NA) 
63.0 
(NA) 
41.9 
(NA) 
1.6 
(NA) 



57.2 
(NA) 
64.5 
(NA) 
70.0 
(NA) 
45.3 
(NA) 
2.0 
(NA) 



55.4 
(NA) 
67.5 
(NA) 
73.9 
(NA) 
27.6 
(NA) 



48.5 
(NA) 
61.6 
(NA) 
63.2 
(NA) 
2.3 
(NA) 



645 
(NA) 
56.0 
(NA) 
62.8 
(NA) 
0.4 
(NA) 



37.9 
(NA) 
44.2 
(NA) 
41.3 
(NA) 
22.1 
(NA) 
3.5 
(NA) 



38.7 
(NA) 
60.6 
(NA) 
36.2 
(NA) 
23.8 
(NA) 
1.2 
(NA) 



38.4 
(NA) 
65.9 
(NA) 
35.3 
(NA) 
15.3 
(NA) 



29.9 
(NA) 
43.8 
(NA) 
489 
(NA) 
1.5 
(NA) 



358 
(NA) 
35.5 
(NA* 
37.0 
(NA1 
0.4 
(NA) 



44.9 


39.8 


41.1 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


50.0 


-:•■ '. 


627 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


51.4 


47.0 


65.6 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


37.2 


462 


52.0 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


6.7 


- 


26.7 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


45.8 


49.8 


61.0 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


51.4 


52.5 


71.1 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


55.3 


70.7 


691 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


45.2 


46.1 


50.7 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


26.9 


43.8 


- 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


44.5 


47.7 


60.0 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


55.2 


55.4 


67.9 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


69.9 


744 


69 7 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


42.0 


48.0 


51 9 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


38.8 


47.6 


57.5 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


52 1 


51.8 


606 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


49.8 


58.2 


643 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


21.3 


452 


560 


(NA) 


(NA) 


N- 


72.5 


445 


74^ 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


449 


5- - 


601 


(NA) 


(NA) 


(NA) 


51.7 


525 


469 


(NA) 


(NA) 


V. 


(NA) 




NA 



645 
(NA) 
71.9 
(NA) 

-.2 ', 
(NA) 

69 ; 

(NA) 
(NA) 



684 
(NA) 
640 
(NA) 
81.5 
(NA) 
71.1 
(NA) 
1000 
(NA) 



68.3 
(NA) 
51.4 
(NA) 
81.7 
(NA) 
715 
(NA) 



633 
(NA) 
747 
(NA) 
677 
(NA) 

(NA) 



SBUB 

(NA) 
71.0 
(NA) 
"• B 
(NA) 



". 
(NA) 
71 7 
(NA) 
740 
(NA) 
70.5 
(NA) 
70.8 
(NA) 



71.0 
(NA) 
688 
(NA) 
779 
(NA) 
66 I 
(NA) 
778 
(NA) 



694 
(NA) 
74 9 
(NA) 
79.7 
(NA) 
62 7 
(NA) 



(NA) 
716 
(NA) 
743 
(NA) 
612 
(NA) 



710 
(NA) 

n - ; 

(NA) 
-•» i 
(NA) 

-*f 



Note: Data may not add to the totals due to the independent rounding of individual (igures. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are s*mp»* 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 2A. NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, AND IMPLEMENTING 
SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES 



Technology 



Year 



Used in 
operations 



No. 



When technology was first implemented 



Within the 
past 2 years 



No. 



The last 
2 to 5 years 



No. 



More than 
5 years ago 



No. 



Not 
specified 1 



No. 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 2 



No. 



Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 
computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 



Digital representation of CAD output 
used in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 

Numerically controlled or computer 
numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 
systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 
materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data. . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 



25,139 
15,436 

10,961 
6,680 

4,850 
3,924 

5,437 
4,217 

20,078 
16,368 
2,120 
1,716 
3,679 
3,057 
2,035 
2,246 



1,121 

1,252 

471 

596 



4,230 
3,937 
5,360 
4,926 

12,520 
7,472 
9,464 
6,427 



7,638 

5,858 

13,018 

12,697 

11,522 
10,785 



58.8 
39.0 

25.6 
16.9 

11.3 
9.9 



12.7 
10.7 

46.9 
41.4 
5.0 
4.3 
8.6 
7.7 
4.8 
5.7 



2.6 
3.2 
1.1 
1.5 



9.9 
10.0 
12.5 
12.5 

29.3 
18.9 
22.1 
16.2 



17.9 
14.8 
30.4 
32.1 

26.9 
27.3 



5,290 
(X) 

2,520 
(X) 

1,642 
(X) 

1,651 
(X) 

1,874 

(X) 
641 

(X) 
824 

(X) 
405 

(X) 



233 
(X) 
66 
(X) 



1,017 
(X) 

1,268 
(X) 

4,298 
(X) 

3,318 
(X) 



3,187 
(X) 

2,245 
(X) 

3,050 
(X) 



12.4 
(X) 

5.9 
(X) 

3.8 
(X) 

3.9 
(X) 

4.4 
(X) 
1.5 
(X) 
1.9 
(X) 
0.9 
(X) 



0.5 
(X) 
0.2 
(X) 



2.4 
(X) 
3.0 
(X) 

10.0 
(X) 
7.8 
(X) 



7.4 
(X) 
5.2 
(X) 

7.1 
(X) 



11,194 
(X) 

4,653 
(X) 

2,069 
(X) 

1,992 
(X) 

4,994 

(X) 

538 

(X) 

1,280 

(X) 

762 

(X) 



381 
(X) 

164 
(X) 



1,495 
(X) 

1,852 
(X) 

5,126 
(X) 

3,492 
(X) 



2,595 
(X) 

4,363 
(X) 

4,259 
(X) 



26.2 
(X) 

10.9 
(X) 

4.8 
(X) 

4.7 
(X) 

11.7 
(X) 
1.3 
(X) 
3.0 
(X) 
1.8 
(X) 



0.9 
(X) 
0.4 
(X) 



3.5 
(X) 
4.3 
(X) 

12.0 
(X) 
8.2 
(X) 



6.1 

(X) 

10.2 

(X) 

10.0 
(X) 



8,284 
(X) 

3,614 
(X) 

983 
(X) 

1,633 
(X) 

12,679 

(X) 

846 

(X) 

1,474 

(X) 

805 

(X) 



468 
(X) 

203 
(X) 



1,554 
(X) 

2,026 
(X) 

2,584 
(X) 

2,269 
(X) 



1,535 
(X) 

5,730 
(X) 

3,678 
(X) 



19.4 
(X) 

8.4 
(X) 

2.3 
(X) 

3.8 
(X) 

29.6 
(X) 
2.0 
(X) 
3.4 
(X) 
1.9 
(X) 



1.1 
(X) 
0.5 
(X) 



3.6 
(X) 
4.7 
(X) 

6.0 
(X) 
5.3 
(X) 



3.6 

(X) 

13.4 

(X) 

8.6 
(X) 



371 
(X) 

174 
(X) 

156 
(X) 

161 
(X) 

531 
(X) 
94 
(X) 

101 
(X) 
63 
(X) 



40 
(X) 
38 
(X) 



164 
(X) 

215 
(X) 

512 
(X) 

384 
(X) 



322 
(X) 

681 
(X) 

535 
(X) 



0.9 
(X) 

0.4 
(X) 

0.4 
(X) 

0.4 
(X) 

1.2 
(X) 
0.2 
(X) 
0.2 
(X) 
0.1 
(X) 



0.1 
(X) 
0.1 
(X) 



0.4 
(X) 
0.5 
(X) 

1.2 
(X) 
0.9 
(X) 



0.8 
(X) 
1.6 
(X) 

1.3 
(X) 



1.3 
1.4 

2.5 
2.7 

4.0 
3.5 

3.3 
3.1 

1.5 
1.4 
5.5 
4.9 
3.3 
2.9 
4.1 
3.8 



5.6 
5.0 
6.6 
6.9 



3.7 
3.1 
3.3 
2.8 

2.1 
2.2 
2.5 
2.4 



2.9 
2.6 
2.1 
1.6 

2.3 
1.8 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

(X) Not applicable. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 2B. NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE 
SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES 



Technology 



Year 



Used in 
operations 



No. 



Plan to use within 



v%' 



The next 
2 years 



No. 



2 to 5 
years 



No 



No plans 
to use 



No. 



Not 
\^<-.\ I ad 






No. 



Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 
computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 



Digital representation of CAD output 
used in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 

Numerically controlled or computer 
numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 
systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 



Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 
materials 



Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 



1993 
1988 
1993 
1988 

1993 
1988 



25,139 
15,436 

10,961 
6,680 

4,850 
3,924 

5,437 
4,217 

20,078 
16,368 
2,120 
1,716 
3,679 
3,057 
2,035 
2,246 



1,121 

1,252 

471 

596 



4,230 
3,937 
5,360 
4,926 

12,520 
7,472 
9,464 
6,427 



7,638 

5,858 

13,018 

12,697 

11,522 
10,785 



58.8 
39.0 

25.6 
16.9 

11.3 
9.9 

12.7 
10.7 

46.9 
41.4 
5.0 
4.3 
8.6 
7.7 
4.8 
5.7 



2.6 
3.2 
1.1 
1.5 



9.9 
10.0 
12.5 
12.5 

29.3 
18.9 
22.1 
16.2 



17.9 
14.8 
30.4 
32.1 

26.9 
27.3 



1,949 
4,117 

2,807 
3,567 

2,028 
2,670 

1,769 
1,683 

1,059 
1,135 
967 
924 
1,571 
1,658 
1,340 
1,295 



479 
616 
242 
322 



1,545 
1,598 
1,871 
1,786 

3,645 
3,608 
4,222 
3,621 



3,608 
3,135 
1,655 
1,823 

3,958 
4,229 



4.6 
10.4 

6.6 
9.0 

4.7 
6.7 



4.1 
4.3 

2.5 
2.9 
2.3 
2.3 
3.7 
4.2 
3.1 
3.3 



1.1 
1.6 
0.6 
0.8 



3.6 
4.0 

4.4 
4.5 

8.5 
9.1 
9.9 
9.2 



8.4 
7.9 
3.9 

4.6 

9.3 
10.7 



2,115 
3,641 

3,738 
4,797 

3,035 
4,283 

2,399 
2,861 

1,611 
1,966 
2,074 
2,687 
2,033 
3,175 
1,886 
3,129 



1,443 

1,670 

658 

1,190 



2,661 
3,111 
2,765 
3,107 

2,820 
3,193 
3,740 
3,919 



4,459 
4,918 
2,026 
2,419 

3.750 
4,473 



4.9 

9.2 

8.7 
12.1 

7.1 
10.8 



5.6 
7.2 

3.8 
5.0 
4.8 
6.8 
4.8 
8.0 
4.4 
7.9 



3.4 
4.2 
1.5 

3.0 



6.2 
7.9 
6.5 
7.9 

6.6 
8.1 
8.7 
9.9 



10.4 

12.4 

4.7 

6.1 

8.8 
11.3 



10,071 
(X) 

21,175 
(X) 

28,152 
(X) 

28,865 
(X) 

16,279 

(X) 
33,315 

(X) 
31,222 

(X) 
33,103 

(X) 



35,567 
(X) 

37.169 
(X) 



30,117 
(X) 

28,537 
(X) 

19,741 
(X) 

21,199 
(X) 



22,861 
(X) 

21,925 
(X) 

19.553 
(X) 



23.5 
(X) 

49.5 
(X) 

65.8 
(X) 

67.5 
(X) 

38.0 

(X) 
77.9 

(X) 
73.0 

(X) 
77.4 

(X) 



83.1 
(X) 

86.9 
(X) 



70.4 
(X) 

66.7 
(X) 

46.1 
(X) 

49.5 
(X) 



53.4 

(X) 

51.2 

(X) 

45.7 
(X) 



3,512 
3,338 

4,119 
3 562 

4,722 
3,738 

4,317 
3,764 

3,759 
3,432 
4,310 
3,591 
4,281 
3,534 
4,422 
3,639 



4.175 
3.456 
4.246 
3.454 



4.233 
3.531 
4.251 
3.489 

4.069 
3.592 
4,161 
3.601 



4,228 
3.614 
4.166 
3.525 

4 006 

.• -IS 5 



8.2 


1.3 


8.4 


1.4 


9.6 


2.5 


9.0 


2.7 


11.0 


4.0 


9.5 


3.5 


10.1 


3.3 


9.5 


3.1 


8.8 


1.5 


8.7 


1.4 


10.1 


5.5 


9.1 


4.9 



10.0 

8.9 

10.3 



> s 



3.3 
2.9 

4.1 



92 
9.8 


3.8 
5.6 


8.7 


5.0 


9.9 


6.6 


8.7 


6.9 


9.9 


3.7 


89 


3.1 


9.9 


3.3 


8.8 


2.8 


9.5 


21 


9.1 


2.2 


9.7 


25 


9.1 


2.4 


9 9 


29 


9 1 


2.6 


9' 


2.1 


8.9 


16 


9-: 


23 



0.7 
0.6 

0.6 
0.5 

0.4 
0.3 



0.4 
0.3 

0.7 
0.6 
0.3 
02 
0.3 
02 
02 
0.2 



0.1 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
0.3 
0.4 
0.4 



06 
04 
0.5 
04 



05 
04 
06 
0.5 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. (X) Not applicable. 

'"Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology. 



10 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 3. NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS BY NUMBER OF TECHNOLOGIES USED OR PLANNED 





Number of 
establish- 
ments cur- 
rently using 


Number of establishments planning to use additional technology within 5 years 


Relative 
standard 


Number of technologies 


Number of technologies planned: 


error of 
"Currently 







1 


2 


3 to 4 


5 to 10 


11 to 17 


using" (per- 
cent) 1 




1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 


10,715 

5,540 

4,753 

5,218 

4,253 

3,458 

2,450 

2,052 

1,572 

1,106 

710 

508 

275 

172 

110 

60 

29 

10 


8,292 

2,977 

2,322 

2,058 

1,273 

959 

756 

578 

414 

243 

181 

158 

96 

68 

52 

40 

22 

10 


847 

589 

507 

775 

687 

487 

334 

335 

298 

238 

164 

124 

50 

63 

38 

13 

7 


590 

507 

382 

360 

526 

541 

382 

301 

267 

228 

158 

103 

61 

19 

20 

5 


442 

762 

698 

864 

846 

872 

474 

504 

367 

231 

166 

91 

56 

22 


494 

638 

789 

1,076 

884 

598 

488 

334 

226 

166 

41 

32 

12 


47 
67 
55 
85 
37 
1 
16 

2 


2.7 

4.2 

4.4 

4.2 

4.7 

5.1 

5.5 

5.8 

6.7 

7.4 

6.7 

9.3 

9.6 

10.1 

10.6 

14.3 

14.8 

27.5 



- Represents zero. 

1 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



11 



Table 4A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 

years 



No plans 



Not 



Ml ,' 

,Vr~. - 

tarn 

MM ' 



MAJOR GROUP 34 

Fabricated Metal Products 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

MAJOR GROUP 35 

Industrial Machinery and Equipment 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



46.5 

19.3 

7.0 

9.5 

40.4 
3.4 
6.6 
3.8 



1.2 
0.3 



8.1 
9.6 

20.1 
14.5 



16.7 
30.2 

20.2 



64.1 
34.8 
11.6 

11.8 

61.9 
4.3 
5.4 
3.6 



30,373 
6,623 



28,926 

711 

5,148 

2,839 



49,045 
12,226 



58,869 
14,151 



90,726 
1,429 
4,672 
1,817 



12.9 
4.7 
2.5 

2.8 

4.2 
1.1 
1.5 
0.8 



0.3 
0.1 



2.1 
2.4 

7.4 
5.4 



6.9 
4.9 

6.1 



11.6 
7.5 
3.5 

3.2 

4.6 
1.5 
1.4 
0.6 



20.3 
8.7 
3.4 

3.4 

11.1 
0.8 
2.4 

1.5 



0.7 
0.2 



2.9 
3.4 

7.7 
4.9 

5.4 
10.9 

6.8 



28.9 

14.5 

4.7 

4.6 

14.3 

11 
1.5 
1.5 



12.7 
5.7 
0.9 

3.1 

23.9 
1.3 
2.7 
1.3 



0.3 
0.1 



2.6 
3.2 

4.0 
3.8 

3.9 
12.6 

6.2 



22.8 

12.3 

3.0 

3.6 

41.6 

1.5 
2.2 
1.4 



0.7 
0.1 
0.3 

0.3 

1.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
0.6 



1.0 

0.4 



0.4 
1.7 



1.1 



0.9 
0.5 
0.5 

0.4 

1.3 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 



5.1 
6.0 

3.7 

4.2 

2.5 
1.9 

4.1 
3.2 



0.9 
0.5 



3.3 
4.1 



8.0 
8.9 



8.0 
3.2 



9.2 



4.1 
7.1 
5.4 

3.8 

2.1 
24 
2.5 
2.5 



5.9 


32.1 


10 3 


8.8 


54.5 


11.5 


6.3 


70.6 


M4 


5.4 


68.9 


M0 


5.3 


41.0 


10.8 


6.1 


76.5 


12.1 


5.4 


72.0 


11.9 


4.4 


76.3 


12.3 


3.2 


83.2 


11.5 


1.3 


86.1 


11.8 


5.8 


71.4 


11.3 


6.6 


68.0 


11.7 


5.5 


55.4 


11.0 


8.6 


566 


11.3 


8.1 


54.9 


12.3 


4.2 


50.8 


11.6 


9.6 


49.7 


113 


4.5 


19.2 


80 


9.1 


395 


95 


es 


64.0 


12.1 


5.2 


69.2 


101 


2.4 


25.3 


84 


4 8 


783 


103 


.-: 


786 


103 


.'S 


79 7 


10 4 



1.8 

15 
08 

07 

1.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.4 



02 
0.1 



07 
0.7 

1-2 
1.0 



1 1 
13 



1.1 



1 4 
1 4 

09 

0.8 

as 

05 
03 



12 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 No. 
years to 



plans 
use 



specified 



Not 
fii 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Clsed in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



MAJOR GROUP 35— Cont. 

Industrial Machinery and Equipment— Cont. 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking plant 
to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or custom- 
ers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

MAJOR GROUP 36 

Electronic and Other Electric 
Equipment 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 

Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 

Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



2.3 

1.1 



8.1 
10.6 

29.4 
21.0 



15.4 
29.0 

28.1 



64.2 
21.5 
16.1 

17.0 

34.5 
7.8 

15.2 
5.3 



3.8 
1.7 



11.8 
17.5 

37.1 
30.5 



21.9 
30.7 

33.2 



41,937 
21,953 



35,907 
7,742 



19,684 
4,341 

13,809 
5,083 



0.6 
0.1 



2.0 
2.7 

9.7 
7.0 



6.6 
4.6 

7.4 



48,504 
28,401 



11.6 

4.5 

.4.9 

5.6 

3.4 
2.1 
3.3 
1.0 



0.6 
0.3 



2.5 
3.9 

13.0 
11.3 

9.7 

5.6 

7.4 



0.5 
0.3 



2.7 
3.7 

12.4 
8.5 



5.7 
10.1 

10.8 



29.2 

10.6 

7.3 

6.0 

8.5 
2.0 
5.6 
2.0 



1.6 
0.7 



4.6 
6.0 

15.2 
10.3 



6.4 
9.2 

12.3 



1.1 
0.5 



3.3 
4.0 

6.2 
4.9 



2.7 
12.8 

8.8 



22.5 
6.0 
3.7 

4.9 

21.4 
3.5 
5.9 
2.1 



1.5 
0.6 



4.0 
7.0 

7.4 
7.3 



4.6 
14.4 

11.9 



0.2 
0.2 



0.2 
0.2 

1.0 
0.7 



0.5 
1.5 

1.1 



0.9 
0.4 
0.2 

0.5 

1.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.2 

0.1 



0.6 
0.6 

1.5 
1.6 

1.3 
1.6 

.1.5 



0.9 
0.5 



3.2 
4.0 

7.7 
9.1 



7.5 
4.3 

9.1 



4.2 
5.8 
5.0 

4.0 

2.4 

1.7 

.4.8 

4.1 



1.7 
0.7 



4.7 
5.1 

9.9 
11.2 

9.6 
3.5 

9.9 



2.4 
1.0 



5.4 
5.9 

6.9 
9.4 



12.5 
5.5 

8.4 



4.1 
7.1 
6.9 

4.9 

3.2 
3.1 
6.7 
4.9 



4.2 
2.4 



7.7 
6.9 

8.0 
8.6 

10.4 
5.0 

7.8 



84.6 
87.3 



73.2 
69.5 

46.2 
50.5 



55.0 
51.5 

45.0 



17.8 
54.0 
59.9 

62.5 

49.1 
75.8 
62.0 
73.9 



79.0 
83.9 



63.8 
58.9 

33.8 
38.2 

46.5 
49.3 

38.5 



9.9 
10.1 



10.1 
10.0 

9.8 
10.0 



9.5 
9.8 

9.4 



9.7 
11.6 
12.1 

11.7 

10.8 
11.5 
11.2 
11.8 



11.3 
11.3 



12.0 
11.5 

11.1 
11.4 

11.4 
11.4 

10.7 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



13 



Table 4A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 Nopians Not 

years to use s p e cifi e d 



MB '.' 



's-.--.h-- ' 



MAJOR GROUP 37 

Transportation Equipment 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, supplies, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

MAJOR GROUP 38 

Instruments and Related Products 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control manufacturing 

machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

In procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



53.9 

25.5 

9.6 

15.5 

44.1 

5.4 

10.1 

11.7 



3.8 
2.2 



15.6 
16.2 



28.0 
23.9 

23.4 
30.7 

26.8 



65.5 
18.5 
16.1 

14.2 

35.1 
6.3 



29,604 
6,705 



21,966 

833 

5,177 

10,128 



54,063 
22,933 



24,712 
2,827 



12.0 
6.7 
4.0 

5.4 

4.7 
1.6 
2.0 
2.5 



0.6 
0.3 



3.2 
3.1 



9.4 
8.2 



8.0 
4.5 

7.8 



10,469 
532 



12.8 
5.3 
6.5 

4.7 

6.0 
1.6 



22.2 
8.5 
4.0 

5.0 

11.7 
1.6 
3.2 
3.8 



1.0 
0.6 



5.4 
5.5 



10.7 
8.7 



9.0 
9.0 

10.0 



30.2 
6.6 
5.9 

5.5 

8.9 

1.4 



18.3 
9.6 

1.1 

4.8 

26.1 

2.0 
4.7 
5.2 



2.1 
1.3 



6.4 
6.8 



6.8 
6.2 



5.0 
15.8 



7.8 



21.5 
6.0 
3.1 

3.7 

20.3 
3.0 



1.3 
0.7 
0.5 

0.3 

1.6 
0.1 
0.3 
0.2 

0.1 



0.6 
0.8 



1.1 
0.7 



1.5 
1.3 



1.3 



1.0 
0.5 
0.6 

0.4 

0.9 
0.4 



5.3 


4.8 


6.2 


9.4 


5.3 


9.4 


4.5 


7.1 


2.9 


3.2 


3.3 


4.2 


3.6 


3.8 


2.7 


4.6 


0.8 


3.9 


1.0 


2.3 


3.5 


5.4 


4.4 


5.2 


7.8 


5.9 


9.6 


6.8 


7.0 


10.2 


3.2 


3.1 


8.2 


7.5 


3.3 


4.3 


7.1 


8.2 


3.8 


7.6 


4.2 


6.3 


2.3 


42 


2.5 


4.1 



265 
48.3 
63.8 

61.3 

40.0 
76.0 
71.4 
69.3 



80.4 
83.4 



64.7 
63.2 

47.4 
488 

48.6 
51.8 

46.6 



17.8 
56.1 
61.7 

64.8 
486 



9.5 
107 
11.8 

11.6 

9.8 
11.1 
11.0 
11.7 



11.1 
11.1 



10.8 
10.9 



109 
109 

10.8 
11.2 

10.8 



91 

102 
10 8 

10.4 

9 6 
10.2! 



16 
1.3 

0.9 

1.1 

1.5 
05 
03 
09 



03 
0.3 



10 
10 



13 
\2 



1.2 

13 

^2 



15 
1.1 

10 



14 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



MAJOR GROUP 38— Cont. 



Instruments and Related Products— Cont. 



Pick and place robots 
Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems . 



Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, supplies, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 



11.7 
3.8 



4.8 
1.5 



11.7 
14.7 



40.7 
30.0 



15.3 
29.8 

29.0 



2,707 
839 



20,829 
10,352 



2.3 
1.0 



1.1 

0.2 



3.4 
3.6 



13.7 
9.5 



6.8 
5.8 

6.5 



5.0 
1.1 



1.6 
0.6 



3.7 
4.5 



16.6 
11.8 



5.3 
10.0 

11.5 



3.9 
1.5 



1.9 
0.7 



4.4 
5.8 



8.4 
6.9 



2.2 
12.1 

9.4 



0.4 
0.2 



0.2 



0.3 
0.8 



2.0 
1.9 



1.1 
2.0 

1.7 



3.5 
3.6 



1.6 
0.4 



3.7 
4.4 



9.6 
11.8 



10.2 
4.4 

8.7 



4.8 
4.7 



5.0 
1.6 



7.2 
7.1 



6.3 

8.1 



9.9 
4.2 

7.6 



69.8 
77.5 



78.3 
86.1 



66.7 
62.9 



33.3 
39.7 



54.0 
51.7 



44.5 



10.3 
10.5 



10.2 
10.5 



10.7 
10.9 



10.2 
10.4 

10.5 
10.0 

10.3 



0.8 
0.4 



0.4 
0.3 



0.8 
1.0 



1.5 
1.4 

1.0 
1.4 

1.3 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



15 



Table 4B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38 



FOR 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



standard mm 

j of "Used « 

Not operations" 



MAJOR GROUP 34 
Fabricated Metal Products 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation to CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

MAJOR GROUP 35 

Industrial Machinery and Equipment 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 
materials 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



46.5 

19.3 

7.0 

9.5 

40.4 
3.4 
6.6 
3.8 

1.2 
0.3 



8.1 
9.6 

20.1 
14.5 



16.7 
30.2 

20.2 



64.1 
34.8 
11.6 

11.8 

61.9 
4.3 
5.4 
3.6 

2.3 
1.1 



8.1 



20.8 
9.0 
3.9 

2.5 

14.9 
1.3 
1.0 
0.8 

0.2 



6.6 
7.8 

6.2 

4.8 



3.6 
10.7 

7.6 



27.8 
13.5 

5.0 

3.1 

20.8 
1.6 
0.8 
0.7 

0.2 
0.1 



6.9 



19.6 
7.2 
2.0 

4.4 

16.6 

1.2 
2.9 
1.7 

0.6 
0.1 



0.5 
0.5 

7.7 
5.3 



4.3 

11.2 

6.5 



27.5 

15.3 

4.2 

5.3 

29.3 
1.1 
2.4 
1.5 

0.8 
0.3 



0.5 



2.7 

1.4 
0.6 

1.9 

4.8 
0.2 
2.1 
0.9 

0.2 
0.2 



0.2 
0.2 

1.5 
0.8 



2.3 
2.7 

2.0 



3.4 
3.4 
1.2 

1.9 

8.2 
0.5 
1.8 

1.0 

0.6 
0.3 



0.2 



2.5 
0.9 
0.3 

0.3 

1.6 
0.5 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.1 



0.4 
0.2 

2.7 
2.4 



5.2 
3.0 

2.3 



3.3 
1.0 
0.9 

0.8 

1.5 
0.8 
0.1 
0.2 

0.6 
0.1 



0.3 



1.2 

1.0 
0.3 

0.5 

2.8 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 



0.4 
0.9 

1.9 
1.2 



1.3 
2.9 

2.1 



2.5 
1.9 
0.4 

0.8 

3.1 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 

0.1 
0.2 



0.: 



16 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



MAJOR GROUP 35— Cont. 

Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment — Cont. 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

MAJOR GROUP 36 

Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 

and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

MAJOR GROUP 37 
Transportation Equipment 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



10.6 

29.4 
21.0 



15.4 
29.0 

28.1 



64.2 
21.5 
16.1 
17.0 

34.5 
7.8 

15.2 
5.3 

3.8 
1.7 



11.8 
17.5 

37.1 
30.5 



21.9 
30.7 

33.2 



53.9 

25.5 

9.6 

15.5 



8.5 

8.1 

4.9 



4.8 
10.8 

10.3 



27.8 

10.2 

8.9 

5.8 

13.3 
4.3 
3.5 
1.7 

0.7 
0.1 



8.7 
12.5 

10.7 
9.7 



6.4 
13.4 

13.9 



22.8 

10.1 

4.9 

3.9 



0.9 

13.2 
9.7 



3.8 
10.2 

9.6 



27.6 

7.4 

4.3 

5.4 

13.2 
1.2 
5.0 
1.2 

1.5 
0.6 



1.0 
1.9 

16.6 
11.4 



5.8 
8.4 

9.4 



22.2 

10.9 

2.2 

6.3 



0.4 

1.9 
1.5 



1.8 
2.3 

2.9 



3.9 

2.0 

1.0 

3.3 

4.7 
1.1 
5.0 
1.9 

0.8 
0.5 



0.8 
1.5 

2.3 

2.5 



2.0 
3.0 

3.0 



2.8 
2.5 
0.6 

3.4 



0.5 

4.6 
3.7 



4.1 
3.1 

3.4 



3.0 

1.2 

1.5 

1.6 

1.3 
0.7 
0.7 
0.2 

0.5 
0.3 



0.1 
0.5 

4.8 
4.3 



5.8 
3.6 

4.2 



3.7 
1.1 
1.0 

1.4 



0.3 

1.6 
1.2 



1.0 
3.0 

2.2 



2.3 

1.0 

0.5 

1.1 

2.5 
0.5 
1.1 
0.4 

0.2 
0.1 



1.2 
1.3 

2.9 
2.7 



1.9 
2.6 

2.8 



2.4 
1.1 
0.9 

0.6 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



17 



Table 4B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MAJOR GROUPS 34 TO 38— Continued 



FOR 



Technology 


Used in 
operations 


Sing 


e most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 


standard error 
of "Used *\ 


Improved 
quality 


Increased 
output 


Lower labor 
cost 


Other 


Not 


MAJOR GROUP 37— Cont. 
Transportation Equipment— Cont. 

Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 


44.1 

5.4 

10.1 

11.7 

3.8 
2.2 

15.6 
16.2 

28.0 
23.9 

23.4 
30.7 

26.8 

65.5 
18.5 
16.1 
14.2 

35.1 
6.3 

11.7 
3.8 

4.8 
1.5 

11.7 
14.7 

40.7 
30.0 

15.3 
29.8 

29.0 


17.0 
3.1 
1.4 
5.3 

0.2 
0.3 

11.8 
12.8 

8.1 
7.8 

6.4 
10.8 

10.1 

27.7 
8.0 

10.1 
4.6 

13.5 
3.9 
2.8 

0.9 

0.8 
0.2 

8.4 
10.7 

12.3 
10.0 

4.7 
12.6 

11.6 


16.7 
0.8 
3.9 
2.5 

1.1 

0.3 

1.4 
0.8 

11.3 
8.2 

6.5 
10.1 

8.1 

29.0 
7.2 
2.8 

4.5 

12.9 

1.0 
3.8 
0.8 

1.9 

0.5 

1.6 
1.8 

15.3 
10.5 

3.6 

7.1 

10.0 


5.7 
0.8 
4.3 
3.1 

1.9 

1.1 

0.7 
0.9 

2.0 
2.5 

1.9 
2.2 

2.4 

2.5 

1.8 

1.3 

3.6 

5.0 
0.6 
4.5 
1.8 

1.1 
0.7 

0.7 
1.0 

2.7 
2.9 

1.5 
3.5 

2.7 


1.9 
0.6 
0.2 
0.5 

0.5 
0.4 

0.4 
0.5 

4.2 
3.3 

6.4 
5.3 

4.2 

3.3 
0.5 
1.1 

0.5 

1.3 
0.5 
0.2 
0.1 

0.6 

0.1 

0.2 
0.3 

5.6 
3.8 

3.6 
3.6 

2.1 


3.5 
0.1 
0.3 
0.4 

0.1 

1.3 
1.3 

2.6 
2.2 

2.1 
2.4 

2.2 

3.2 
1.2 
0.7 

1.1 

2.7 
0.2 
0.7 
0.3 

0.5 
0.1 

0.8 

1.1 

4.9 
2.9 

2.1 
32 


1.5 

5 


Pick and place robots 


08 


Other robots 


09 


Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 


0.3 
0.3 

1.0 
1 


Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 


1.3 
1.2 


Programmable controllers 


1 3 


Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 


1 2 


MAJOR GROUP 38 
Instruments and Related Products 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control manufac- 
turing machines 


1.5 
1 1 


Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 

Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 

Numerically controlled or computer 
numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 


1.1 

1.0 

15 
06 


Pick and place robots 


08 


Other robots 


04 


Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 


04 
0.3 

0.8 
1 


Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 


15 

1 4 

1 


Programmable controllers 


• i 


Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 


• •■ 







Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

'"Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology 



18 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY EMPLOYMENT SIZE 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 No 
years 



plans 
use 



to 



Not 



specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



EMPLOYMENT SIZE 20 TO 99 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

EMPLOYMENT SIZE 100 TO 499 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or 

systems 

Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



49.5 

22.0 

8.9 

7.6 

41.4 
2.8 
3.6 
1.3 



0.6 
0.3 



5.5 
7.9 



20.5 
14.6 

12.0 
20.5 

18.8 



76.4 
30.5 
14.1 

21.4 

56.5 
7.5 

15.9 
9.5 



4.1 
1.3 



56,340 
15,712 



81,323 
1,500 
4,375 
1,057 



32,796 
19,569 



53,423 
10,602 



53,341 
1,680 

10,041 
4,811 



12.3 
5.0 
3.0 

2.3 

4.2 
1.0 
1.2 
0.4 

0.2 



1.5 
2.2 



7.5 
5.6 

5.3 

4.1 

5.8 



12.9 
7.8 
5.2 

7.6 

4.8 
2.4 
3.4 
2.0 



1.0 
0.3 



22.8 
9.6 
4.0 

2.9 

10.9 
0.5 
1.4 
0.6 



0.2 
0.1 



2.0 
2.8 



8.6 
5.3 

3.8 
7.3 

6.7 



34.4 

12.8 

5.5 

7.5 

13.4 
2.2 
5.7 
4.1 



1.6 
0.5 



13.5 
7.0 

1.5 

2.2 

25.2 
1.1 
1.0 
0.3 



0.1 
0.1 



1.7 
2.6 



3.5 
3.1 



2.4 
7.9 

5.5 



28.5 
9.5 
3.2 

5.7 

36.9 
2.7 
6.3 
3.1 



1.3 
0.4 



0.9 
0.4 
0.4 

0.2 

1.1 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 



0.3 
0.4 



0.9 
0.7 

0.6 
1.2 

0.9 



0.6 
0.4 
0.2 

0.6 

1.5 
0.3 
0.5 
0.3 



0.2 
0.1 



4.7 
5.5 
3.6 

3.0 

2.4 
1.7 
2.6 
2.4 



0.4 
0.3 



2.9 
3.8 

7.5 
8.2 

6.7 
3.6 

9.0 



4.5 
8.9 
7.2 

6.7 

2.1 
3.2 
6.3 
4.6 



2.5 
1.1 



5.8 
8.0 
5.6 

4.7 

3.9 
4.3 
3.5 
3.0 



2.1 
0.7 



5.5 
5.8 



6.9 
8.7 



9.6 
5.0 



8.7 



3.1 
10.6 
10.5 

7.8 

3.5 
5.7 
7.8 
7.6 



6.0 
2.8 



29.7 
52.9 
68.8 

72.6 

41.5 
79.1 
'78.2 
81.0 



85.0 
86.7 



74.2 
70.5 



53.6 
56.6 



59.8 
59.0 

52.0 



9.5 
41.9 
58.9 

55.6 

30.6 
75.0 
61.7 
69.2 



79.3 
86.4 



10.2 
11.6 
13.1 

12.1 

10.8 
12.1 
12.1 
12.3 



11.8 
12.0 



11.9 
11.9 



11.5 
11.8 



11.9 
11.9 



11.4 



6.6 
8.2 
9.4 

8.6 

7.3 
8.6 
8.3 
9.0 



8.1 
8.4 



1.0 
0.9 
0.6 

0.5 

0.9 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 



0.2 
0.1 



0.5 
0.5 



0.8 
0.7 



0.7 
0.8 

0.8 



0.7 
0.8 
0.5 

0.7 

0.8 

0.5 
0.6 
0.5 



0.3 
0.2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



■'- 



Table 4C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY EMPLOYMENT SIZE— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



•.v 



error c* 

ta i 



EMPLOYMENT SIZE 100 TO 499— Cont. 

Automatic sensor based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 

plant to subcontractors, 

supplies, and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 

floor 

EMPLOYMENT SIZE 500 AND OVER 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or 

systems 

Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines . . 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 



16.4 
20.0 

44.1 
34.3 



28.4 
49.1 



41.8 



87.2 
48.1 
30.3 

40.1 

67.1 
22.6 
42.8 
29.6 



23.6 
11.8 



39.1 
38.8 

72.5 
63.4 



47.1 
69.8 

62.8 



69,142 
34,132 



69,703 
11,733 



37,108 

4,666 

17,096 

14,838 



112,440 
42,164 



4.3 
4.9 

15.6 
12.4 

12.0 
7.7 

9.9 



6.2 

7.7 
8.0 

7.8 

4.3 
4.7 
4.9 
3.1 



3.0 
1.3 



5.3 
4.7 

17.2 
13.6 



15.3 
4.4 

10.1 



5.9 
6.9 



17.5 
12.6 



10.1 
16.8 

16.8 



26.5 

17.4 
12.7 

14.3 

12.6 
7.0 

12.6 
7.9 



6.6 
4.1 



12.1 
11.4 

27.3 
25.3 



17.6 
17.0 



21.3 



5.6 
7.5 



9.4 
8.1 



5.3 
22.2 

13.1 



53.3 

22.2 

8.8 

16.9 

48.2 
10.6 
23.9 
18.0 



13.4 
6.1 



20.9 
21.5 

25.2 
22.5 

12.5 
45.5 

28.6 



0.6 
0.8 



1.6 
1.2 



1.1 
2.4 

2.0 



1.3 
0.9 
0.8 

1.2 

1.9 
0.3 
1.3 
0.6 



0.6 
0.4 



0.8 
1.2 

2.7 
2.0 

1.7 
2.9 

2.8 



5.5 
5.7 



11.5 
13.9 



12.4 
4.5 

10.1 



1.0 

7.6 
7.4 

6.6 

2.3 
4.6 
4.2 

5.6 



3.1 
1.8 



4.3 

4.5 

6.0 

10.5 



11.1 
2.4 



5.6 



7.9 
7.6 

6.3 
9.3 

12.2 

4.2 

8.6 



0.3 

7.2 

10.2 

6.1 

1.3 
7.4 
6.5 
7.9 



7.8 
6.3 



63 
7.3 

2.3 

4.5 



11.0 
1.9 

5.0 



61.9 
58.1 



29.8 
344 



38.6 
34.2 

31.6 



3.8 
28.3 
42.5 

38.0 

21.0 
56.1 
37.8 
46.9 



569 
71.1 



41.1 

40.2 

11.3 
13.3 



21 9 
169 



8.3 
8.6 

8.2 
8 1 

8.3 
8.0 

7.8 



7.8 
8.8 

9.6 

9.1 

8.2 

9.4 

8.7 

10.0 



8.8 
9.0 



92 
9.1 

80 
83 

89 



06 
06 

08 
06 

07 

08 

06 



05 

08 
08 

08 

0.8 
0.7 
08 
0.7 



0.7 

06 



08 
08 

7 

08 



08 
0.7 

08 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



20 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY EMPLOYMENT SIZE 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



EMPLOYMENT SIZE 20 TO 99 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

EMPLOYMENT SIZE 100 TO 499 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



49.5 

22.0 

8.9 

7.6 

41.4 
2.8 
3.6 
1.3 



0.6 
0.3 



5.5 
7.9 



20.5 
14.6 



12.0 
20.5 

18.8 



76.4 
30.5 
14.1 

21.4 

56.5 
7.5 

15.9 
9.5 



4.1 
1.3 



23.1 
9.4 
4.5 

2.1 

14.2 
1.0 
0.6 
0.3 

0.1 



4.5 
6.3 

5.9 
4.1 



3.1 
7.9 

7.3 



29.8 

12.5 

7.5 

6.3 

21.8 
4.2 
3.0 
2.7 



0.5 
0.1 



20.0 
8.8 
2.7 

3.2 

18.7 
0.8 
1.7 

0.6 



0.2 
0.1 



0.3 
0.5 

8.8 
6.1 



2.8 
6.8 

6.0 



35.9 

13.1 

4.3 

8.6 

22.8 
1.6 
5.7 
3.3 



1.7 
0.5 



2.5 
2.0 
0.7 

1.4 

5.0 
0.3 
0.9 
0.3 



0.1 
0.2 

1.4 
0.9 



1.4 
1.7 

1.7 



4.0 
2.3 
0.9 

4.0 

7.5 
0.9 
5.9 
2.6 



1.0 
0.3 



2.5 
0.7 
0.7 

0.5 

1.4 
0.6 
0.2 
0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



0.2 
0.3 

2.7 
2.4 



3.5 
2.3 

2.4 



4.2 
1.5 
0.9 

1.2 

1.9 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 



0.6 
0.2 



1.8 
1.3 
0.3 

0.5 

2.7 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.3 
0.6 



1.8 
1.2 



1.0 
2.1 

1.6 



3.0 
1.3 
0.5 

1.5 

3.5 
0.4 
1.0 
0.7 



0.3 
0.2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



2' 



Table 4D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY EMPLOYMENT SIZE— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Not 

Other apeo'ie-:' 



of "Used n 



EMPLOYMENT SIZE 100 TO 499— Cont. 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . , 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



EMPLOYMENT SIZE 500 AND OVER 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems. 



Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



16.4 
20.0 

44.1 
34.3 



28.4 
49.1 

41.8 



87.2 
48.1 
30.3 

40.1 

67.1 
22.6 
42.8 
29.6 



23.6 
11.8 



39.1 
38.8 

72.5 
63.4 



47.1 
69.8 

62.8 



12.6 
15.0 



13.0 
10.6 



7.9 
18.8 

15.8 



33.2 
21.0 
16.3 

12.2 

26.3 

12.6 

8.4 

10.2 



2.7 
1.2 



29.3 
29.6 



21.3 
19.7 



14.8 
24.5 

24.0 



1.5 
2.0 



18.8 
13.0 



7.7 
16.4 

13.3 



38.9 

17.4 

5.6 

13.7 

22.7 
4.2 

13.4 
6.5 



8.5 
2.8 



3.9 
3.8 

28.4 
23.5 



13.4 
23.1 

20.8 



0.8 
1.3 



2.4 
2.9 



2.7 
4.2 

4.3 



8.7 

6.4 
3.3 

9.5 

12.9 
2.6 

17.7 
10.2 



8.0 
6.0 



2.6 
2.5 

7.5 
7.4 



6.0 
8.8 

6.6 



0.4 
0.7 



6.9 

5.3 



7.8 
5.5 

4.7 



4.3 

1.8 
3.5 

3.3 

2.4 
2.3 
1.2 
1.4 



3.2 

1.1 



1.0 
0.7 



10.5 
8.8 



9.9 
9.3 

6.8 



1.1 
1.2 



3.2 
2.8 



2.4 
4.7 

4.0 



2.4 

1.8 
1.5 

1.8 

3.2 
1.1 
2.2 
1.7 



1.2 
0.8 



2.4 
2.4 



50 
4.2 



32 

4.3 



0.6 
0.6 



0.8 



0.7 
0.8 

0.8 



0.5 
0.8 
0.8 

08 

0.8 
0.7 
0.8 
0.7 



0.7 
0.6 



08 
0.8 



0.7 

:5 



B 

0.7 



Note: Data might not add exactly to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures 

- Represents zero. 

'"Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



22 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY AGE OF PLANT (YEARS) 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



LESS THAN 5 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation to CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

5 TO 15 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



63.5 
21.1 
12.5 

13.4 

38.4 
4.0 
8.1 
3.1 



2.5 
0.5 



8.0 
11.0 

32.9 
22.7 



15.0 
25.6 

27.5 



62.0 
26.4 
12.9 

13.3 

47.9 
4.9 
8.7 
4.2 



2.5 
1.0 



22,297 
2,448 



10,791 

508 

2,566 

1,041 



13,121 
7,234 



43,543 
10,654 



46,258 
1,661 
8,314 
6,410 



19.0 
8.1 
4.5 

5.7 

6.2 
1.6 
2.7 
1.0 



0.7 
0.1 



3.1 
4.3 

14.0 
9.9 



6.9 
7.5 

11.4 



12.8 
5.2 
4.8 

3.8 

4.2 
1.7 
2.1 
1.0 



0.6 
0.1 



31.1 
9.5 
6.2 

4.9 

15.8 
1.4 
4.0 
1.8 



1.4 
0.2 



3.3 
5.0 

13.3 
8.9 

4.4 
11.5 

9.6 



28.4 

13.2 

5.3 

5.2 

11.9 
1.2 
3.5 
1.7 



0.8 
0.4 



12.3 
3.2 
1.4 

2.5 

15.7 
0.8 
1.3 



0.2 



1.2 
1.3 

3.7 
2.7 

2.0 
4.9 

4.4 



19.8 
7.6 
2.3 

3.8 

30.5 
1.8 
2.8 
1.4 



1.0 
0.4 



1.0 
0.3 
0.3 

0.2 

0.7 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 



0.1 
0.1 



0.3 
0.4 



1.9 
1.2 



1.7 
1.7 

2.0 



1.0 
0.4 
0.5 

0.6 

1.3 
0.3 
0.3 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 



5.7 
6.7 
5.1 

4.1 

3.8 
1.3 
2.5 
4.0 



1.5 
0.2 



4.5 
6.7 

11.6 
13.7 



9.7 
4.6 

13.1 



5.2 
6.9 
4.5 

4.5 

2.5 
2.6 
4.1 
3.4 



1.0 
0.9 



4.8 
7.3 
6.6 

6.3 

3.9 
4.2 
5.3 
4.4 



4.6 
2.0 



7.6 
7.7 

6.6 
9.8 



12.8 
5.3 

9.1 



5.6 
9.1 
7.4 

5.7 

4.1 
5.3 
4.6 
4.1 



3.9 
1.5 



23.7 
62.2 
71.0 

71.5 

51.3 

86.4 

80.4 

'84.5 



87.8 
93.5 



75.3 
70.5 

45.4 
50.2 



58.8 
61.1 

47.9 



25.3 
54.1 
70.4 

72.9 

42.9 
83.1 
78.6 
84.2 



89.2 
93.2 



2.3 
2.8 
4.8 

4.7 

2.6 
4.0 
3.6 
4.0 



3.7 
3.8 



4.6 
4.1 

3.5 
3.5 



3.7 
3.3 

2.5 



2.0 
3.5 
4.8 

3.7 

2.7 

4.1 
3.9 
4.1 



3.4 
3.5 



2.3 
1.9 
1.3 

1.3 

2.2 

0.7 
1.0 
0.5 



0.7 
0.1 



1.0 
1.2 

1.9 
1.6 



1.4 
1.8 

1.9 



1.4 
1.2 
0.9 

0.8 

1.4 
0.5 
0.6 
0.4 



0.3 
0.1 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



23 



Table 4E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY AGE OF PLANT (YEARS)— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



— 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to me 



Not 



no ',' 
J— d - 



5 TO 15 YEARS— Cont. 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

16 TO 30 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

OVER 30 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



9.9 
13.3 

32.8 
25.0 

18.0 
30.4 

28.2 



64.4 
29.0 
12.7 

13.4 

53.7 
6.2 
9.4 
5.2 



2.5 
1.4 



10.6 
13.3 

30.0 
22.6 



20.5 
33.1 

29.4 



63.1 
31.4 



54,725 
24,816 



47,694 
12,118 



60,953 
1,668 
8,067 
5,087 



56,933 
36,831 



63,792 
12,583 



2.2 
2.8 

11.5 
9.4 

8.0 
5.1 

8.3 



11.9 
6.8 
3.4 

4.5 

5.4 
1.6 
2.3 
0.9 



0.5 
0.2 



3.0 
3.4 



9.7 
7.6 



8.1 
5.8 

6.5 



12.5 
6.7 



3.9 
4.5 

13.9 
8.5 

5.4 
9.6 

10.0 



29.3 

11.5 

5.7 

4.5 

13.1 
1.3 
3.0 
2.1 



0.8 
0.5 



2.9 
4.0 



11.5 
8.4 



7.1 
10.6 



11.1 



25.0 

11.1 



3.3 
5.6 

6.0 
5.6 

4.0 
14.1 

8.8 



22.3 

10.4 

3.3 

4.1 

33.6 
3.0 
3.8 
1.9 



1.0 
0.6 



4.3 
5.2 

7.5 
6.2 



4.5 

15.2 



10.5 



25.0 
13.1 



0.5 
0.4 



1.4 
1.4 



0.6 
1.5 



1.2 



0.9 
0.3 
0.4 

0.4 

1.6 
0.3 
0.3 

0.3 



0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
0.7 

1.3 
0.5 

0.8 

1.5 

1.2 



0.6 
0.5 



4.3 


6.4 


4.6 


7.2 


8.9 


7.6 


10.5 


10.0 


8.9 


12.1 


4.1 


5.1 


10.7 


9.2 


4.8 


4.3 


7.6 


10.4 


5.5 


8.1 


4.6 


5.6 


2.9 


3.7 


2.5 


5.0 


4.3 


6.0 


3.6 


5.5 


1.0 


3.1 


0.6 


1.5 


3.5 


7.1 


4.5 


6.7 


8.6 


7.0 


10.4 


8.6 


9.4 


11.3 


3.6 


5.0 


8.9 


9.7 


4.1 


66 


6.6 


97 



75.8 


aue 


71.2 


3.7 


47.5 


3.2 


51.2 


33 


57.5 




56.7 


38 


46.7 


3.1 


24.8 


1.7 


49.5 


35 


686 


5 1 


72.8 


3.6 


37.4 


2.3 


82.6 




76.6 


38 


81.7 


4.0 


89.8 


35 


92.7 


3.8 


75.3 


35 


72.0 


35 


51 3 


J ' 


54.7 


3.7 


552 


36 


54.9 


34 


489 


31 


-T5: 




494 


2.9 



24 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY AGE OF PLANT (YEARS)— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No 



plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



OVER 30 YEARS— Cont. 

Design and engineering: — Cont. 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, supplies, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 



10.6 

15.2 

57.3 
5.7 

10.8 
7.7 



4.0 
1.7 



13.5 
15.6 

30.3 
24.0 

22.0 
39.1 

30.7 



53,320 
4,000 

12,533 
8,159 



88,896 
26,679 



3.8 

3.7 

3.9 
1.6 

1.5 
1.2 



0.6 
0.2 



2.3 
3.0 



9.5 
6.8 



8.6 
4.6 

6.0 



4.0 

5.5 

11.7 
1.7 
2.8 
2.1 



1.1 
0.6 



4.8 
5.7 

12.5 
9.5 

8.7 
13.3 

12.1 



2.5 

5.6 

40.6 
2.3 
6.3 
4.2 



2.2 
0.9 



6.0 
6.4 

7.6 
7.0 

4.0 
19.2 

11.1 



0.2 

0.3 

1.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 



0.4 
0.6 

0.7 
0.7 

0.6 
1.9 

1.5 



5.4 

4.1 

1.5 
2.6 
3.9 
2.8 



1.3 
0.4 



3.4 
3.7 

8.9 
9.3 

8.3 
4.3 

8.2 



8.0 

6.5 

4.4 
6.0 
4.8 
4.9 



3.5 
1.9 



5.7 
6.4 

7.0 
9.5 

9.3 
5.1 

9.0 



71.8 

70.6 

34.9 
82.6 
77.4 
80.7 



88.1 
92.7 



74.2 
71.1 

51.1 
54.2 



56.9 
48.8 

49.3 



4.2 

3.6 

1.9 
3.0 
3.1 
3.9 



3.1 
3.4 



3.2 
3.2 

2.8 
2.9 

3.6 
2.7 

2.8 



0.8 

0.8 

1.5 
0.4 
0.6 
0.5 



0.3 
0.1 



0.8 
0.8 

1.3 
1.1 



1.1 
1.4 

1.2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



25 



Table 4F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY AGE OF PLANT (YEARS) 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 

output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



'i'JS' 



- -. •-.- •; ' 



E^oe- 



LESS THAN 5 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the fac- 
tory floor 

5 TO 15 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



63.5 
21.1 
12.5 

13.4 

38.4 
4.0 
8.1 
3.1 



2.5 
0.5 



8.0 
11.0 

32.9 
22.7 



15.0 
25.6 

27.5 



62.0 
26.4 
12.9 

13.3 

47.9 
4.9 
8.7 
4.2 



2.5 
1.0 



28.5 
9.9 
8.1 

4.8 

14.5 
2.4 
2.0 
0.7 

0.4 



6.4 
8.0 

9.0 
8.6 



4.3 
10.9 

11.9 



27.2 

10.9 

6.2 

3.9 

16.9 
2.4 

2.1 
1.5 



0.3 
0.2 



26.8 
8.2 
2.8 

4.8 

17.6 
0.8 
3.0 

1.1 



0.9 
0.2 



0.4 
0.6 

13.9 
7.8 



4.1 

7.2 

8.0 



26.8 

11.2 

4.4 

5.4 

21.2 

0.9 
3.6 

1.4 



1.0 
0.2 



3.6 
1.6 
0.2 

2.1 

3.6 

0.4 
2.5 

1.1 



0.4 
0.2 



0.1 
0.9 

1.9 
1.4 



1.2 
1.8 

1.3 



2.9 
2.4 
1.0 

2.2 

5.9 
0.6 
2.2 
1.0 



0.5 



2.4 
0.5 
0.9 

1.1 

0.9 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 

0.7 



0.2 
0.7 

4.3 
3.1 



3.6 
2.8 

3.6 



3.5 
1.1 
1.0 

0.9 

2.1 
0.8 
0.3 
0.2 



0.6 

0.2 



2.5 
1.6 
0.5 

0.8 

2.1 
0.2 
0.6 
0.3 



0.1 
0.1 



0.9 
09 

3.9 

2.0 



1.9 
3.1 

2.9 



2.0 
0.9 
0.4 

1.1 

2.4 

0.3 

Die 

0.3 



0.1 
02 



2.3 
1.9 
1.3 

1.3 

22 
0.7 
1.0 
0.5 



0.7 
0.1 



1.0 
1.2 

1.9 
1.6 



1.4 
1.8 

1.9 



1.4 
1.2 
0.9 

0.8 

1.4 

0.5 
06 
0.4 



0.3 
0.1 



26 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY AGE OF PLANT (YEARS)— Continued 



Technology 


Used in 
operations 


Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 


Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 


Improved 
quality 


Increased 
output 


Lower labor 
cost 


Other 


Not 
specified 1 


5 TO 15 YEARS— Cont. 

Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 


9.9 
13.3 

32.8 
25.0 

18.0 
30.4 

28.2 

64.4 
29.0 
12.7 

13.4 

53.7 
6.2 
9.4 
5.2 

2.5 
1.4 

10.6 
13.3 

30.0 
22.6 

20.5 
33.1 

29.4 

63.1 

31.4 
10.6 
15.2 
57.3 


8.0 
10.4 

9.6 
6.9 

5.0 
11.7 

10.9 

27.6 

12.4 

6.8 

3.0 

18.8 
2.6 
1.4 
1.3 

0.3 

8.1 
9.8 

9.2 
6.7 

6.1 
13.0 

11.5 

27.3 

13.0 

5.0 

4.7 

21.6 


0.7 
1.1 

14.0 
10.2 

4.2 
10.7 

9.6 

27.4 

11.7 

3.3 

5.9 

22.8 
1.9 
3.6 
1.6 

1.1 

0.5 

1.2 
1.7 

13.1 
9.1 

4.9 
11.1 

8.7 

27.0 

12.5 

3.0 

5.8 

23.5 


0.4 
0.8 

2.1 
1.6 

2.1 
2.1 

2.5 

3.6 

2.6 

1.1 

3.2 

7.6 
0.6 
3.5 
1.8 

0.6 
0.4 

0.4 
0.4 

1.8 
2.2 

2.5 
3.0 

3.6 

3.9 
3.1 
1.3 

3.1 
7.9 


0.1 
0.3 

4.6 
4.0 

5.5 
3.2 

3.2 

3.5 

1.0 

0.9 

0.8 

1.7 
1.0 
0.4 
0.3 

0.5 
0.4 

0.5 
0.5 

3.8 
3.4 

5.1 
3.4 

3.4 

3.1 
1.4 
0.9 

0.9 
1.4 


0.7 
0.8 

2.6 
2.3 

1.3 
2.9 

2.1 

2.6 
1.7 
0.7 

0.5 

3.8 
0.4 
0.5 
0.3 

0.1 

0.5 
1.0 

2.2 
1.3 

2.0 
2.8 

2.3 

2.1 
1.4 
0.4 
1.0 
3.8 


0.7 
0.8 


Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 


1.2 
1.1 

1.0 


Programmable controllers 


1.2 


Computers used for control on the fac- 
tory floor 


1.2 


16 TO 30 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 


1.5 

1.4 

1.0 

0.9 

1.5 
0.7 
0.6 
0.4 


Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 


0.2 
0.2 

0.8 
0.9 


Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data. . . 
Local area network for factory use 
Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 


1.2 
1.1 

1.1 


Programmable controllers 


1.3 


Computers used for control on the fac- 
tory floor 


1.3 


OVER 30 YEARS 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 


1.6 
1.4 


Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 

Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 

Numerically controlled or computer 
numerically controlled machines 


0.8 
0.8 
1.5 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



27 



Table 4F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY AGE OF PLANT (YEARS)— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Not 

Other spec ' ec 



'-.■■'.■ 



OVER 30 YEARS— Cont. 

Fabrication/machining and 
assembly: — Cont. 



Materials working lasers. 
Pick and place robots. . . 
Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, supplies, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the fac- 
tory floor 



5.7 

10.8 

7.7 



4.0 
1.7 



13.5 
15.6 

30.3 
24.0 



22.0 
39.1 

30.7 



2.9 
1.2 
2.2 



0.5 
0.2 



10.8 
12.7 

8.5 
7.0 



5.3 
13.8 

10.7 



1.3 
3.9 
2.5 



1.4 

0.3 



1.0 
0.8 

12.1 
9.5 



6.6 
12.6 

10.3 



0.7 
4.8 
2.2 



1.5 

0.9 



0.7 
0.7 

2.7 
2.0 



2.4 
4.4 

3.1 



0.6 
0.4 
0.4 



0.4 
0.1 



0.3 
0.3 

5.1 
3.9 



6.4 
5.3 

3.9 



0.5 
0.5 
0.4 



0.2 
0.1 



0.8 
1.0 

1.9 
1.7 



1.4 
3.4 

3.2 



0.4 
0.6 
0.5 



0.3 
0.1 



0.8 
0.8 

1.3 
1.1 



1.1 
1.4 

1.2 






Note: Data might not add exactly to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology. 



28 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MANUFACTURING PROCESS 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



FABRICATION/MACHINING 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control manufacturing 
machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 

plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 

and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 

floor 

ASSEMBLY 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 

Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 

Numerically controlled or computer 
numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 

Automatic storage and retrieval 
systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 

Performed on incoming or in-process 
materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



51.5 

32.2 

9.3 

8.2 

57.1 
6.0 
7.5 
1.9 



2.1 
0.6 



10.0 
13.1 

21.6 
18.2 

16.3 
29.5 

26.6 



67.3 
10.8 
15.6 

15.8 

14.6 
3.2 

12.6 
4.8 



4.5 
1.8 



10.8 
15.7 

40.3 
31.8 

20.7 
25.1 

28.5 



13,152 
7,054 



45,315 

1,141 

3,408 

535 



21,976 
9,863 

35,930 
3,473 



5,285 

830 

5,570 

7,903 



33,866 
26,432 



13.1 
6.9 
1.8 

2.0 

5.0 
2.3 
1.5 
0.6 



0.6 
0.1 



3.0 
4.6 

7.9 
6.6 



6.6 
4.2 

6.5 



13.8 
2.1 
4.6 

5.4 

2.8 
1.0 
2.6 
0.8 



0.6 
0.3 



2.4 
3.8 

13.9 
10.9 



9.7 
6.2 

8.2 



22.9 
12.7 
:, 4.6 

3.4 

14.8 
1-0 
2.7 
0.7 



0.8 
0.2 



3.8 
4.5 

8.2 
6.7 



5.3 
10.7 

11.1 



32.6 
5.6 
7.8 

5.8 

4.9 
0.6 
5.1 
1.9 



2.0 
0.7 



4.3 
5.7 



16.7 
11.5 



5.9 
8.4 



10.0 



13.9 

11.9 

2.1 

2.3 

35.3 
2.3 
3.2 
0.6 



0.6 
0.2 



2.9 
3.7 

3.7 

i 3 - 8 

3.8 
13.1 

7.5 



20.3 
3.0 
3.0 

4.0 

6.4 
1.2 
4.4 
1.8 



1.8 
0.7 



3.8 
5.8 

8.2 
7.9 

4.5 
9.4 

9.2 



1.5 
0.6 
0.9 

0.5 

2.0 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 



0.4 
0.3 

1.8 
1.2 



0.6 
1.5 

1.5 



0.5 
0.1 
0.2 

0.5 

0.5 
0.3 
0.4 
0.2 

0.1 



0.3 
0.4 

1.4 
1.5 

0.6 
1.2 

1.1 



4.5 
6.1 
3.7 

3.0 

3.4 
2.7 
3.0 
2.5 



0.6 
0.3 



3.5 
5.2 

8.2 
9.1 



7.7 
3.4 

10.0 



4.4 
4.8 
44 

3.8 

1.9 
1.5 
3.9 
2.9 



1.8 
0.9 



3.6 
4.3 

9.6 
10.3 

9.9 
3.8 

9.4 



7.8 
J.4 
5.4 

5.2 

3.6 
4.7 
4.0 
4.6 



2.5 
1.6 



6.1 
6.7 

7.8 
10.0 



12.8 
5.7 

9.6 



3.6 
6.1 
6.1 

4.3 

3.2 
2.7 
6.1 

4.4 



5.0 
2.3 



7.7 
6.6 

7.2 
8.3 

10.6 
4.0 

7.8 



35.0 
50.0 
76.1 

80.0 

34.1 
82.8 
81.3 
86.6 



91.2 
94.1 



76.9 
71.3 

59.7 
59.9 



59.6 
57.9 

51.3 



22.7 
75.0 
70.6 

73.3 

77.7 
89.7 
74.1 
84.8 



85.9 
92.3 



74.8 
70.5 

39.5 
46.6 



55.4 
64.4 

51.8 



1.1 
3.2 
5.3 

3.6 

1.8 
3.9 
4.1 
4.3 



3.6 
3.5 



3.4 
3.6 



2.7 
2.7 



3.6 
3.5 

2.5 



2.0 
3.3 
3.3 

2.7 

2.6 
2.9 
3.3 
3.1 



2.7 
2.7 



3.1 
2.8 

3.4 
3.0 



3.5 
2.7 



2.6 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



29 



Table 4G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MANUFACTURING PROCESS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No ;s". 



'.v 

ipK I Bd 



■n '.' 
iMd - 

b i 



FABRICATION/MACHINING AND 
ASSEMBLY 



Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer numeri- 
cally controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems . . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

NEITHER 

FABRICATION/MACHINING 

NOR ASSEMBLY 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data .... 
Local area network for factory use 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



69.0 
33.0 
13.0 

15.9 

62.7 
6.1 
9.7 
6.6 

2.8 
1.3 



11.1 
13.5 

33.3 
24.4 



20.5 
36.0 

30.8 



29.3 
8.2 
4.3 

4.9 

12.8 
2.9 
2.3 
1.8 



1.1 
0.6 



9.3 
10.5 



19.4 
14.3 



122,793 
26,041 



119,511 

5,654 

21,977 

12,045 



152,362 
57,031 



5,354 
1,325 



1,367 
217 
498 
217 



13.9 
8.0 
4.9 

4.9 

5.5 
1.7 
2.2 
1.2 

0.6 
0.2 



2.6 
2.8 

11.4 
8.4 

8.5 
5.5 

8.0 



6.2 
1.1 
1.9 

0.9 

2.3 
0.4 
0.9 
0.9 



0.3 
0.2 



1.5 
1.7 



5.8 
5.9 



29.9 

14.0 

5.1 

5.7 

15.3 
1.7 
3.2 
2.5 

0.8 
0.4 



3.6 
4.5 

13.7 
9.3 



7.2 
12.0 

11.4 



13.0 
2.3 
1.2 

1.4 

1.9 
0.7 
0.8 
0.5 



0.3 
0.2 



4.0 
3.6 

7.0 
2.7 



24.4 

10.6 

2.7 

5.0 

40.4 
2.4 
4.1 
2.7 

1.3 
0.6 



4.5 

5.5 

7.1 
5.9 

3.9 
16.6 

10.1 



8.4 
4.4 

1.0 

1.8 

8.5 
1.8 
0.5 
0.4 



0.3 
0.3 



2.7 
4.2 

5.3 

4.9 



0.8 
0.4 
0.3 

0.3 

1.5 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 

0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
0.6 



1.1 
0.8 



1.0 
2.0 



1.3 



1.6 
0.4 
0.2 

0.8 
0.1 



0.2 



1.0 

1.0 

1.3 
0.7 



5.3 
8.3 
6.0 

5.2 

2.7 
2.7 
4.3 
3.8 

1.0 
.6 



4.1 
4.9 

9.8 
11.3 

9.5 
4.6 

10.6 



3.4 
2.7 
2.1 

1.4 

0.7 
0.9 
2.6 
2.3 



1.4 
0.4 



3.3 
2.2 

4.7 
85 



5.3 


18.8 


10.9 


45.0 


9.1 


67.5 


7.2 


68.3 


4.4 


28.4 


6.5 


81.3 


5.6 


77.4 


5.3 


80.7 


3.7 


89.4 


1.5 


93.4 


7.0 


74.5 


7.5 


70.9 


7.3 


47.0 


10.2 


51.1 


11.5 


55.5 


5.6 


50.8 


9.8 


46.0 


3.3 


58.7 


6.0 


75.4 


4.4 


802 


1.6 


84.0 


3.1 


75.5 


1.4 


866 


1.7 


855 


1.4 


86.3 


2.6 


876 


1.7 


89 1 


3.0 


•?. ; 


3,3 


77.0 


IS 


e:-.: 


4 ~ 


647 



1.5 

2.7 
44 

3.5 

1.8 
3.3 
3.0 
3.6 

3.0 
3.2 



33 
3.3 



2.7 

3.0 



3.0 
30 



2.8 



54 
76 
90 

8.1 

8.0 
8.2 
80 



7.3 



6,1 
7.0 

7.1 



30 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MANUFACTURING PROCESS— Continued 





Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 


Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 


Percent distribution 




Technology 


When technology was 
first implemented 


Plan to use within 


Not 
specified 


Absolute 
standard 


Within 
past 2 
years 


Last 2 to 
5 years 


More 

than 5 

years 

ago 


Not 
speci- 
fied 1 


2 years 


2 to 5 
years 


No plans 
to use 


error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 


NEITHER 

FABRICATION/MACHINING 

NOR ASSEMBLY— Cont. 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 


12.3 
29.8 

20.9 


5,926 
2,506 


4.8 
6.4 

5.9 


3.8 
10.1 

5.8 


3.0 
12.1 

7.4 


0.7 
1.1 

1.9 


6.2 
1.3 

4.9 


7.8 
2.2 

7.8 


66.1 
59.2 

59.8 


7.6 
7.5 

6.6 


1.9 


Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 


3.0 
2.4 



Note: Data might not add exactly to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



31 



Table 4H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MANUFACTURING PROCESS 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



staodarO error 
I of "U»ed in 
Not operations" 



Other specified 1 



'^-.".H'- ' 



FABRICATION/MACHINING 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

ASSEMBLY 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 
materials 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



51.5 

32.2 

9.3 

8.2 

57.1 
6.0 
7.5 
1.9 

2.1 
0.6 



10.0 
13.1 

21.6 
18.2 



16.3 
29.5 

26.6 



67.3 
10.8 
15.6 

15.8 

14.6 
3.2 

12.6 
4.8 

4.5 
1.8 



10.8 



26.0 

14.3 

5.0 

1.8 

20.9 
2.6 
1.5 
0.2 

0.3 



7.7 
10.5 

6.8 
6.3 



5.2 
13.4 

9.8 



29.3 
5.6 
9.9 

5.7 

5.6 
1.9 
3.5 
1.8 

0.7 
0.3 



8.3 



17.9 

14.1 

2.7 

3.4 

25.2 
1.1 
3.2 
0.9 

0.9 
0.2 



0.9 

1.1 

7.9 
6.4 



3.9 
8.8 

8.4 



29.9 
3.2 
3.5 

5.1 

5.0 
0.3 
4.6 

1.2 

1.9 
0.4 



1.0 



3.8 
1.4 
0.8 

2.2 

6.2 
0.9 
2.3 
0.5 

0.4 

0.3 



0.3 
0.3 

1.3 
0.9 



1.3 
1.9 

2.1 



3.6 
1.4 
0.8 

2.9 

2.8 
0.4 
3.3 

1.4 



1.1 
0.7 



0.7 



1.9 
0.9 
0.4 

0.3 

0.9 
1.0 

0.1 

0.5 
0.1 



0.5 
0.2 

2.7 
2.6 



4.8 
2.5 

3.4 



3.1 

0.4 
1.1 

1.3 

0.6 
0.4 
0.5 
0.2 

0.7 
0.2 



2: 

2.0 
0.5 

0.6 

4.5 

0.7 
0.5 
0.2 

0.1 



0.6 
0.9 

2.9 

2.0 



1.2 
3.7 

3.3 



1.7 
0.3 
0.3 

1.1 

0.8 
0.2 
0.8 
0.2 



0.1 



:s 



2.2 

2.1 
1.2 

0.8 

2 2 

0.9 
0.9 
0.5 

0.6 
0.2 



1.1 

1.3 

1.7 
1.5 



1.4 
1.9 

1.9 



1.6 
0.8 
1.0 

1.0 

1.0 
0.4 

:? 

0.4 

0.4 
0.2 



: ? 



32 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MANUFACTURING PROCESS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



ASSEMBLY— Cont. 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

FABRICATION/MACHINING 
AND ASSEMBLY 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

NEITHER 

FABRICATION/MACHINING 

NOR ASSEMBLY 

Design and engineering: 
Computer aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



15.7 

40.3 
31.8 



20.7 
25.1 

28.5 



69.0 
33.0 
13.0 

15.9 

62.7 
6.1 
9.7 
6.6 



2.8 
1.3 



11.1 
13.5 

33.3 
24.4 



20.5 
36.0 

30.8 



29.3 
8.2 
4.3 



12.2 

12.2 
11.4 



6.5 
10.1 

12.6 



28.7 

13.4 

6.1 

4.4 

22.3 
2.8 
1.4 
1.8 



0.3 
0.1 



8.9 
10.3 



9.3 
6.2 



5.2 
12.8 

11.1 



14.6 
4.0 
2.9 



1.2 

17.4 
11.5 



5.5 
7.2 

8.3 



31.0 

13.6 

4.0 

6.7 

27.1 
1.5 
3.7 
2.2 

1.0 
0.4 



0.9 
1.2 



14.5 
10.3 



5.5 
12.8 

10.4 



7.9 
2.8 

1.1 



1.4 



2.6 
2.5 



2.5 
2.3 

2.5 



3.6 
3.3 
1.2 

2.9 

8.3 
0.7 
3.8 
2.0 



0.8 
0.5 



0.5 
0.6 



2.4 
2.2 



2.2 
3.4 

3.3 



0.9 
0.8 
0.2 



0.2 



4.9 
3.6 



5.0 
3.4 

3.0 



3.7 
1.4 
1.1 

1.1 

2.4 
0.8 
0.4 
0.3 



0.5 
0.2 



0.3 
0.6 



5.1 
4.2 



5.9 
4.1 

3.8 



3.8 
0.1 
0.1 



0.9 



3.4 
2.9 



1.3 
2.3 

2.4 



2.4 
1.5 
0.5 

0.8 

3.4 
0.3 
0.5 
0.4 



0.1 
0.1 



0.6 
0.9 



2.1 
1.6 



1.8 
3.2 

2.3 



2.2 
0.4 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



22 



Table 4H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MANUFACTURING PROCESS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



specified" 



re 



^r".e" ' 



NEITHER 

FABRICATION/MACHINING 

NOR ASSEMBLY— Cont. 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems. 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 



Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



4.9 

12.8 
2.9 
2.3 
1.8 

1.1 
0.6 



9.3 
10.5 



19.4 
14.3 



12.3 
29.8 

20.9 



0.8 

3.5 
1.3 
0.4 
1.1 

0.3 



6.8 
7.7 

6.6 
6.5 



2.8 
12.8 

11.4 



1.9 

5.6 
1.3 
1.0 
0.2 

0.4 
0.2 



0.7 
0.9 

6.6 

4.2 



2.0 
7.4 

4.3 



1.3 

1.6 

0.5 
0.2 



0.3 
0.2 



0.1 

1.3 
0.3 



2.9 
2.4 

0.7 



0.1 

0.2 



0.2 



0.7 

0.3 



2.7 
2.3 



2.9 
4.4 

1.6 



B 

1.9 
0.3 
0.3 
0.4 



1.2 
1.6 



2.3 
0.9 



1.7 
3.0 

2.9 



1.3 

2.3 
1.1 

0.5 
0.6 

0.3 

0.2 



1.8 
1.9 

2.3 
2.0 



1.9 
3.0 



Note: Data might not add exactly to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



34 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 41. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 No plans 
' i use 



years 



to I 



Not 



specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



CONSUMER 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems . . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

COMMERCIAL 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 
numerically controlled machines ....... 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems . . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing; 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



48.2 

15.1 

8.4 

12.6 

33.9 
3.8 

12.8 
7.2 

2.7 
2.1 



9.7 
12.6 

20.7 
20.9 

20.6 
35.3 

25.2 



66.3 
26.7 
16.7 

17.1 

44.4 
6.1 

10.6 
4.0 

3.0 
1.3 



10.2 
11.6 



9,297 
2,446 



8,994 

674 

5,968 

5,397 



45,574 
9,833 



23,786 
4,872 



19,651 
3,195 
6,259 
1,221 



12.6 
3.6 
2.7 

2.8 

5.3 
0.8 
2.2 
1.1 

0.4 
0.4 



2.2 
3.3 

7.9 
8.3 

8.6 
4.0 

7.0 



13.4 
6.9 
5.6 

5.8 

4.3 
2.7 
2.2 
0.9 

0.8 
0.3 



3.0 
3.2 



24.1 
6.5 
2.6 

5.1 

11.2 
1.7 
4.6 
2.4 

1.0 
0.7 



3.7 
3.5 

7.7 
6.8 



6.1 
15.6 



10.1 



30.8 

12.8 

8.2 

6.7 

11.9 
1.0 
4.5 
1.3 

1.1 
0.5 



3.8 
3.3 



10.5 
4.7 
2.8 

4.3 

17.0 
1.3 
5.6 
3.6 

1.1 
1.0 



3.4 
5.1 

4.1 
4.4 

4.9 
13.6 

7.0 



21.3 
6.9 
2.5 

4.4 

27.3 
2.2 
3.7 
1.6 

1.0 
0.4 



3.0 
4.6 



1.1 
0.3 
0.3 

0.4 

0.4 

0.4 
0.2 

0.2 



0.4 
0.6 

0.9 

1.4 

1.0 
2.1 

1.1 



0.8 
0.2 

0.4 

0.2 

0.9 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 

0.1 
0.1 



0.5 
0.5 



4.8 
5.9 
4.5 

4.2 

2.6 
1.9 
6.4 
3.4 

1.4 
1.5 



4.2 
4.6 



11.1 
11.2 



9.8 
3.6 

10.8 



2.8 
7.1 
4.3 

5.5 

1.9 
3.3 
4.4 
5.5 

1.8 
0.6 



4.7 
4.2 



7.0 

10.0 

6.2 

7.7 

6.0 
5.1 
6.7 
5.5 

6.4 
2.5 



6.9 
7.0 



7.8 
8.8 



10.0 
7.2 

10.1 



4.9 
8.0 
8.5 

5.5 

4.6 
5.0 
5.7 
5.0 

4.1 
1.8 



7.8 
8.7 



35.8 
64.0 
75.0 

70.5 

52.8 

,83.3 

69.0 

78.1 

84.6 
88.8 



73.6 
70.7 

55.0 
54.0 



54.3 
49.0 

49.1 



24.7 
56.3 
67.4 

69.1 

47.4 
83.2 
77.1 
82.6 

88.7 
93.8 



74.4 
72.8 



4.2 
5.1 
5.9 

5.0 

4.7 
5.9 
5.1 
5.8 

5.0 
5.0 



5.5 
5.2 

5.3 
5.0 



5.3 
4.9 

4.8 



1.4 
1.9 
3.1 

2.7 

1.7 
2.5 
2.2 
2.9 

2.3 

2.4 



2.9 
2.6 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



v: 



Table 41. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



'.v 



.■*< ■ 

X*^a- 

M I 

pmemt ' 



9.0 


7.6 


12.9 


9.7 


10.8 


12.2 


5.2 


4.5 


10.4 


9.1 


5.4 


5.0 


7.0 


8.7 


4.9 


7.0 


3.9 


5.9 


2.8 


3.2 


1.8 


5.3 


2.5 


4.7 


2.5 


4.2 


0.9 


3.0 


0.3 


1.3 


3.1 


6.3 


3.8 


6.9 


8.9 


6.7 


10.1 


9.2 


9.0 


10.9 


4.0 


5.0 


9.5 


9.4 


6.2 


5.8 


8.3 


11.5 


6.3 


9.1 


5.1 


7.0 


24 


5.6 


3.6 


54 


6.4 


55 


4.5 


6.7 



COMMERCIAL— Cont. 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

INDUSTRIAL 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer 

aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems . . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

TRANSPORTATION 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



38.7 
27.4 

18.7 
30.2 

32.2 



64.3 
29.8 
11.3 

11.7 

55.6 
5.3 
7.7 
3.5 



2.4 
0.7 



8.9 
12.2 



30.3 
21.7 



18.2 
32.2 

27.4 

64.3 
31.3 
11.9 

20.7 

54.9 

5.6 

14.8 

13.6 



19,686 
13,338 



78,851 
16,907 



90,324 
2,357 
9,446 
6,097 



67,601 
31,559 

22,060 
5,511 



25,838 

588 

6,877 

6,648 



15.1 
11.2 

9.4 
6.2 

11.7 



12.6 
6.3 
3.8 

3.4 

4.4 
1.5 
2.2 
0.8 

0.6 
0.1 



2.3 
3.0 



9.9 
7.0 



7.8 
5.6 

5.9 



15.6 
7.4 
3.8 

6.4 

4.7 
2.1 
2.9 
2.8 



15.5 
9.5 

6.1 
9.5 

11.7 



28.4 

12.7 

4.6 

4.1 

12.8 
1.1 
2.5 
1.4 

0.9 
0.2 



2.9 
4.6 



12.4 
8.3 



6.0 
10.8 

10.4 

26.4 

10.7 
5.1 

7.1 

16.4 
1.9 
4.6 
5.3 



6.8 
5.6 



2.5 
13.5 

7.4 



22.4 

10.4 

2.3 

3.7 

36.9 
2.4 
2.8 
1.2 



0.8 
0.2 



3.4 
4.2 



6.7 
5.6 



3.5 
14.4 

9.9 

21.0 

12.2 

2.7 

7.0 

31.8 
1.4 
6.7 
5.2 



1.3 

1.2 



0.6 
1.1 

1.3 



1.0 
0.5 
0.5 

0.5 

1.5 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 



0.1 
0.1 



0.3 
0.4 



1.3 
0.8 

0.9 

1.5 

1.2 

1.2 
0.9 
0.2 

0.2 

1.9 
0.2 
0.5 
0.2 



42.5 
47.8 



55.2 
56.5 

46.8 



23.8 
51.4 
72.2 

74.6 

36.4 
84.2 
81.7 

86.0 



90.3 
94.4 



78.2 
73.9 



51.1 
558 



5? ' 
55.9 

50.9 



229 
463 
676 

638 

820 
710 



2.2 
22 



3.1 
3.6 

1.6 



1.5 
3.2 
4.7 

3.9 

2.0 
3.3 
3.4 
3.7 



3.3 
3.3 



34 
3.3 



3.0 
3.2 



33 
2.8 

29 



5,1 

3.4 

19 
3.4 
34 

4.' 



36 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 41. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No' plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



TRANSPORTATION— Cont. 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

GOVERNMENT 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 
manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

OTHER 

Design and engineering: 

Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer- 
aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control manufacturing 
machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 
in procurement 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



3.5 
2.9 



17.8 
21.1 

33.9 
29.2 



32.2 
44.3 

34.2 



74.1 
33.8 
19.1 

16.3 

62.9 
7.0 
9.8 
4.9 



6.3 
0.9 



16.0 
18.4 

45.3 
30.7 



15.7 
29.3 



33.6 



63.7 
26.1 
11.7 



56,854 
24,134 



26,612 
3,832 



1 1 ,620 
452 
633 
313 



7,121 
7,312 



14,230 
3,975 



0.9 
0.6 



3.2 
3.9 

11.3 
9.3 



10.4 
7.8 

10.7 



13.8 
7.3 
7.9 

3.8 

7.2 
0.8 
2.0 
0.9 

0.7 



3.7 
2.9 

13.0 
8.5 

5.9 
4.7 

7.2 



14.8 
7.6 
3.4 



1.0 
0.8 



7.4 
7.2 

13.1 
11.0 



12.9 
13.9 

12.3 



30.9 

13.4 

7.5 

6.2 

13.2 
2.1 
3.5 
1.6 



1.7 

0.2 



4.7 
7.1 



18.7 
13.3 



5.3 
8.8 

10.2 



29.0 

12.0 

5.8 



1.5 
1.3 



6.5 
9.1 

8.3 
8.3 



8.1 
20.2 

10.3 



28.6 

12.6 

3.6 

6.2 

41.4 
3.9 
4.3 
2.3 



3.9 
0.7 



7.5 
7.8 



11.9 
8.0 



3.8 
14.3 

15.1 



19.3 
6.4 
2.1 



0.2 
0.1 



0.6 
0.9 

1.2 
0.6 



0.8 
2.4 

0.9 



0.8 
0.5 
0.1 

0.1 

1.0 
0.1 

0.1 



0.2 
0.6 

1.7 
1.0 



0.6 
1.4 

1.0 



0.5 
0.2 
0.3 



0.7 
0.8 



4.0 
7.8 

9.4 
12.3 



6.8 
3.6 

11.4 



1.4 

7.1 

<5.6 

4.1 

1.5 
4.1 
4.9 
3.2 



1.0 
0.5 



6.2 
5.7 

7.9 
7.2 

7.8 

4.2 

9.4 



5.8 
6.7 
6.4 



4.7 
3.0 



7.6 
6.4 

8.5 
9.7 



12.3 
3.7 

9.6 



4.8 
11.8 

7.5 

6.2 

3.4 
6.2 
5.9 
5.5 



2.8 
1.4 



6.7 
7.2 

5.7 
10.4 



14.2 
5.4 

10.4 



4.8 
9.7 
8.6 



87.8 
90.1 



67.8 
61.9 

45.2 
46.1 



46.2 
45.3 

42.1 



18.3 
43.7 
62.7 

69.7 

31.1 
78.7 
75.5 
82.3 



86.3 
93.2 



67.8 
63.1 



39.7 
48.6 



58.6 
57.4 

43.0 



23.3 
53.9 
68.2 



3.3 
3.1 



2.7 
2.8 

2.9 
2.6 



2.5 
3.1 

2.7 



1.5 
3.6 
5.1 

3.7 

1.1 
3.9 
3.9 
4.1 



3.6 
4.0 



3.4 
5.7 



1.4 
3.1 



3.9 
3.7 



3.5 



2.4 
3.6 
5.2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



r 



Table 41. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distnbutjon 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 

speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



No plans 

to .ve 






.-^ - 

DJMH 
feM 



OTHER— Cont. 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems . . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, and/or 
customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 



11.2 

42.2 
4.9 
5.7 
4.0 

2.4 
0.8 



10.0 
12.7 



27.8 
22.3 



13.6 
24.1 

26.9 



12,811 

378 

2,174 

660 



14,467 
8,242 



5.1 

4.5 
1.7 
0.9 
0.5 

0.2 



2.0 
2.8 



9.2 
8.6 



5.4 
3.5 



6.7 



3.4 

11.7 
1.7 
1.9 
1.8 

0.8 
0.5 



3.4 
4.0 



13.4 
7.7 



4.9 
8.1 

10.8 



1.9 

25.2 
1.3 
2.8 

1.7 

1.4 
0.4 



4.2 
5.2 



4.1 
5.1 



2.6 

11.1 



7.7 



0.8 

0.8 
0.2 
0.1 



0.5 
0.8 

1.1 
0.9 

0.7 

1.5 

1.7 



5.1 

3.2 
2.5 
3.9 
3.2 

1.3 
0.7 



4.6 
5.8 

8.6 
9.0 

8.6 
3.3 

8.2 



4.2 

3.6 
4.6 
4.3 
4.1 

2.3 
1.0 



5.7 
5.2 

7.3 
10.3 

11.4 
5.4 

8.2 



75.4 


4.1 


47.9 


3.0 


83.3 


4.8 


81.2 


4.9 


846 


4.1 


89.5 


4.5 


92.7 


48 


75.9 


38 


72.3 


4.0 


52.2 


4.1 


54.1 


42 


63.0 


34 


638 


3.4 


53.8 


29 



\2 

24 
07 
07 
0.5 

0.4 
02 



1.2 
1 4 

1.9 
1.7 



■ -: 

17 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



38 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4 J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



CONSUMER 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

COMMERCIAL 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



48.2 

15.1 

8.4 

12.6 

33.9 
3.8 

12.8 
7.2 



2.7 
2.1 



9.7 
12.6 



20.7 
20.9 



20.6 
35.3 

25.2 



66.3 
26.7 
16.7 

17.1 

44.4 
6.1 

10.6 
4.0 



3.0 
1.3 



21.3 
7.0 
3.3 

3.0 

13.8 
1.9 
2.0 
2.2 



0.5 
0.1 



7.7 
9.8 



6.8 
5.9 



5.5 
13.3 

11.1 



29.4 
12.8 
10.8 

5.9 

18.0 
2.3 
2.2 
1.0 



0.5 
0.1 



18.5 
4.5 
2.8 

4.0 

11.6 
0.7 
3.1 
1.5 



0.8 
0.6 



0.8 
0.8 



8.1 
7.0 



4.8 
10.0 

6.8 



28.9 
9.6 
4.3 

7.5 

17.3 
1.9 
4.6 

1.1 



1.3 
0.5 



3.7 
2.2 
1.0 

3.5 

5.1 
0.3 
6.5 
3.0 



0.8 
1.0 



0.6 
0.8 



0.9 
1.1 



2.6 
3.8 

2.4 



2.6 
2.1 
0.6 

1.9 

5.8 
0.8 
3.0 
1.6 



0.7 
0.4 



2.9 
0.8 
0.9 

1.4 

1.7 
0.8 
0.5 
0.2 



0.3 
0.3 



0.1 
0.1 



3.2 
4.2 



5.9 
5.2 

3.4 



3.5 
1.2 
0.8 

1.1 

1.9 
0.8 
0.5 



0.4 
0.2 



2.0 
0.7 
0.5 

1.1 

2.1 
0.1 
0.9 
0.4 

0.2 



0.8 
1.1 



1.8 
2.8 



1.8 
3.0 

1.7 



2.1 
1.1 
0.3 

1.0 

1.8 

0.3 
0.5 
0.3 



0.2 
0.2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



v- 



Table 4 J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 

quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 

specified' 



of "Used in 

operators 
(percent/* 



COMMERCIAL— Cont. 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

INDUSTRIAL 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use .... 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

TRANSPORTATION 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



10.2 
11.6 

38.7 
27.4 



18.7 
30.2 

32.2 



64.3 
29.8 
11.3 

11.7 

55.6 
5.3 
7.7 
3.5 



2.4 
0.7 



8.9 
12.2 

30.3 
21.7 



18.2 
32.2 

27.4 



64.3 
31.3 
11.9 



7.7 
8.7 

12.2 

9.0 



5.3 
11.5 

14.3 



26.6 

12.5 

5.4 

3.1 

18.6 
2.6 
1.3 
0.8 



0.3 
0.1 



7.4 
9.6 

8.5 
6.2 



4.9 
12.3 

9.7 



28.6 

11.0 

6.3 



1.0 
1.0 

15.0 
10.7 



5.8 
10.4 

9.2 



29.9 

12.7 

3.8 

5.2 

26.1 
1.3 
3.4 
1.6 



1.0 
0.2 



0.7 

1.0 

13.8 
9.2 



4.5 
11.6 

9.4 



24.5 

14.3 

3.1 



0.5 
0.4 

2.8 
2.4 



2.2 
3.6 

3.7 



3.1 
2.3 
0.8 

2.3 

7.0 
0.5 
2.2 

0.8 



0.4 
0.2 



0.3 
0.6 

1.7 
1.5 



2.3 
2.5 

2.9 



4.2 
3.0 
0.7 



0.1 
0.3 

6.0 

3.8 



4.4 
2.9 

2.6 



3.1 

1.0 
0.8 

0.7 

1.5 
0.7 
0.2 
0.1 



0.5 
0.1 



0.3 
0.5 

4.0 
3.6 



5.0 
3.3 

3.5 



4.2 
1.0 
1.4 



0.8 
1.2 

2.8 
1.7 



1.0 
1.9 

2.6 



2.0 
1.6 
0.5 

0.5 

2.9 
0.5 
0.5 
0.2 



0.1 
0.1 



0.3 
0.5 

2.4 

1.3 



1.6 
28 

2.2 



3.0 
22 

05 



1.0 
1.1 

1.8 
1.6 



1.5 
1.7 

1.8 



1.2 

1.1 
0.8 

0.7 

1.2 
0.5 
0.5 
0.3 



0.3 
0.1 



06 
0.7 

1.0 

: ~ 



11 

1.0 



20 

1 4 



40 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



TRANSPORTATION— Cont. 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

GOVERNMENT 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data. . 
Local area network for factory use 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



20.7 

54.9 

5.6 

14.8 

13.6 



3.5 
2.9 



17.8 
21.1 



33.9 
29.2 



32.2 
44.3 

34.2 



74.1 
33.8 
19.1 

16.3 

62.9 
7.0 
9.8 
4.9 



6.3 
0.9 



16.0 
18.4 



45.3 
30.7 



6.4 

21.0 
2.4 
2.3 
4.8 



0.2 
0.3 



14.5 
17.2 



8.2 
8.2 



8.6 
15.7 

12.6 



36.8 
13.5 
10.1 

5.3 

19.7 
4.6 
2.3 
2.4 

0.7 



12.1 
12.5 

13.5 
10.3 



8.4 

21.3 
1.3 
5.5 
3.6 



0.8 
0.7 



1.5 
1.4 



13.6 
11.4 



7.7 
14.3 

11.3 



26.0 

10.7 

2.9 

4.5 

26.7 
0.8 
3.4 
0.7 



3.0 
0.3 



1.4 
1.9 

19.2 
11.9 



4.1 

5.7 
1.0 
6.0 
3.4 



1.5 
1.2 



0.5 
0.6 



3.0 
2.8 



2.4 
2.7 

2.3 



7.4 
7.8 
4.5 

5.6 

13.1 
0.7 
3.3 
1.4 



1.7 
0.5 



0.9 
2.8 



5.4 
3.6 



1.2 

2.3 
0.8 
0.3 
1.1 



0.8 
0.6 



0.4 
0.6 



6.6 
4.9 



10.7 
7.2 

5.5 



2.3 
1.2 
1.2 

0.7 

1.4 
0.7 
0.5 
0.3 

0.7 



0.5 
0.6 

4.8 
2.8 



0.9 

6.0 
0.3 
0.8 
0.8 



0.2 
0.1 



1.0 
1.4 



2.6 
2.3 



2.9 
4.8 

2.6 



1.9 
0.8 
0.4 

0.2 

2.9 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 



1.1 
0.7 

2.6 
2.3 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



41 



Table 4J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



of "Used m 
Not j operations" 

.:,<;'. ' ec (percent/ 2 



GOVERNMENT— Cont. 

Communication and control:— Cont. 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



OTHER 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems. 



Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



15.7 
29.3 

33.6 



63.7 
26.1 
11.7 

11.2 

42.2 
4.9 
5.7 
4.0 



2.4 
0.8 



10.0 
12.7 

27.8 
22.3 



13.6 
24.1 

26.9 



5.1 
12.3 

13.3 



30.5 

11.0 

6.1 

3.3 

16.6 
2.6 
1.5 
1.1 



0.1 
0.1 



7.0 
9.7 

9.1 

6.7 



4.3 
10.2 

10.7 



4.7 
7.6 

12.4 



23.1 

12.2 

2.7 

4.0 

17.3 
0.8 
2.0 
1.5 



0.8 
0.1 



0.9 
1.3 

10.8 
8.3 



3.0 
6.7 

7.7 



1.7 
5.1 

3.6 



3.2 
1.2 
1.1 

2.1 

4.3 

0.7 
1.7 
1.1 



0.9 
0.4 



0.4 
0.4 

2.0 
2.1 



1.2 
1.5 



3.0 
2.2 

1.4 



4.7 

1.4 
1.4 

0.9 

1.9 
0.5 
0.3 
0.2 



0.6 
0.3 



1.1 
0.3 



4.1 
3.3 



4.2 
2.9 



1.3 
2.1 

2.9 



2.7 
0.5 
0.3 

0.9 

2.5 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 



0.7 
1.0 



2.0 
1.8 



0.9 
3.4 

28 



1.6 
2.3 

2.7 



2i 
2.1 
1.2 

1.2 

24 
0.7 
0.7 
0.5 



0.4 
0.2 



1.2 
1.4 



1.9 
1.7 



1.5 
1.7 

1 9 



Note: Data might not add exactly to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



42 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4K. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



LESS THAN $5 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

$5 TO $100 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval systems . . 
Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



46.3 

19.1 

7.6 

15.7 

39.4 
4.4 

16.4 
4.5 



2.1 
1.4 



14.8 
18.1 

25.3 
24.5 



26.1 
45.1 

30.4 



53.6 

27.4 

9.3 

15.7 

51.1 
6.1 

14.7 
6.0 

1.9 
1.1 



10.5 
13.3 

24.2 
20.7 



22.3 
36.1 



29.8 



18,568 
3,330 



11,994 

838 

7,359 

3,557 



46,919 
12,407 



22,078 
8,109 



46,083 
4,230 

16,537 
5,793 



69,073 
21,930 



12.9 
5.2 
1.6 

4.6 

5.3 
1.6 
4.1 
1.2 



0.8 
0.2 



4.2 
5.3 

8.4 
9.9 



8.7 
8.1 

9.5 



13.8 
6.7 
3.5 

5.5 

4.7 
2.3 
3.3 
1.2 

0.4 
0.2 



2.2 
3.3 

10.1 
7.5 

9.7 
6.8 

7.8 



20.3 
6.9 
4.0 

5.9 

14.2 
1.0 
5.2 
1.7 



0.8 
0.7 



4.9 
5.8 

11.5 
7.8 

10.3 
16.1 

10.2 



25.2 

12.0 

3.5 

5.8 

13.1 
1.3 
5.3 
2.5 

0.5 
0.4 



4.0 
4.6 

9.1 
8.0 

7.1 
11.9 

11.8 



12.9 
6.9 
1.8 

4.8 

19.2 
1.7 
6.7 
1.4 



0.5 
0.5 



5.1 
6.1 

4.5 
5.8 

6.4 
18.9 

9.3 



13.8 
8.1 
1.7 

3.8 

31.5 
2.3 
5.7 
2.0 

0.8 
0.4 



3.8 
4.9 

4.3 
4.4 



4.4 

15.4 

8.5 



0.2 
0.2 
0.3 

0.5 

0.8 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

0.1 



0.6 
0.8 

0.9 
1.1 

0.8 
1.9 

1.4 



0.8 
0.7 
0.5 

0.5 

1.9 
0.3 
0.4 
0.3 

0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
0.4 



0.7 
0.8 



1.1 
2.0 



1.7 



7.4 
5.7 
4.3 

4.3 

3.4 
2.1 

5.9 
5.2 



1.4 
0.5 



6.2 
7.5 



10.2 
11.3 



11.3 
3.5 

10.9 



5.4 
6.7 
4.4 

5.2 

2.9 
2.9 
5.1 
4.2 

1.5 
0.5 



3.5 
4.9 

10.0 
12.4 

10.2 
4.6 

10.9 



6.9 
9.9 
7.5 

6.0 

5.3 
3.7 
6.8 
4.9 



4.6 
1.3 



7.6 
8.5 



7.3 
8.6 



9.1 
3.8 

9.8 



6.3 
9.6 
7.9 

7.0 

4.4 
5.9 
7.6 
6.6 

5.0 
2.7 



9.1 
8.5 

8.0 
9.7 



10.9 
5.5 

10.6 



36.7 
62.2 
75.2 

70.2 

48.8 
85.6 
67.4 
80.3 



88.0 
92.7 



67.4 
62.7 



53.5 
52.1 



50.0 
45.0 

45.6 



32.5 
52.9 
73.1 

68.3 

39.5 
81.1 
68.9 
78.9 

87.8 
91.9 



73.2 
69.5 

54.3 
53.9 

53.0 
50.6 

45.9 



2.8 
3.1 
5.3 

3.8 

3.1 
4.2 
3.6 
5.1 



3.9 
4.0 



4.0 
3.3 



3.7 
3.6 



3.5 
2.8 

3.2 



2.3 
3.3 
5.3 

3.8 

2.2 
3.9 
3.7 
4.2 

3.8 
3.8 



3.7 
3.8 

3.5 
3.3 



3.6 
3.2 



2.9 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



^ 



Table 4K. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



>\v 'r, s-<-. "" - 



2 years 



2 to5 
years 






'.v 



M '-' 

jMd ■ 

opera 

ftons 

pmemt 



$101 TO $1,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

$1,001 TO $2,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



63.6 
27.0 
11.6 

13.6 

54.6 
6.3 
6.5 
5.6 



3.0 
0.8 



10.3 
13.8 

29.6 
25.3 



16.4 
30.6 

28.1 



68.3 
26.8 
17.9 

13.3 

43.7 
4.9 
6.1 
4.3 



3.9 
1.0 



10.5 
13.6 



30.7 
22.3 



16.2 
23.5 

26.3 



23,820 
6,451 



53,908 
1,113 
3,988 
2,586 



43,064 
15,696 

7,543 
2,125 



7,164 
247 
488 
362 



4,490 
3.809 



14.6 
6.2 
4.4 

4.0 

5.4 
1.5 
1.5 
1.3 



0.6 
0.1 



2.3 
2.4 

10.3 
9.8 

7.7 
5.5 

7.4 



13.7 
5.7 
4.9 

3.3 

2.6 
1.9 
1.5 
0.4 



0.3 
0.1 



2.2 
2.2 

10.2 
7.3 

6.2 

4.0 

8.3 



28.7 

11.5 

5.2 

5.4 

12.3 
1.4 
2.3 
2.0 



1.3 
0.4 



3.6 
4.7 

11.5 
8.8 

4.4 
9.9 

10.8 



31.1 
11.7 
10.0 

5.0 

12.7 
1.3 
2.7 
2.3 



2.4 
0.2 



5.4 
6.7 

14.0 
10.7 



7.0 

o. 1 



10.2 



18.8 
8.7 
1.8 

4.0 

35.5 
3.1 
2.5 
2.2 



0.9 
0.3 



4.0 
6.3 

6.3 

5.7 

3.7 
13.2 

9.2 



22.8 
8.9 
2.8 

4.7 

27.2 

1.5 
1.5 
1.5 



1.1 
0.7 



2.4 
4.4 

4.1 
3.3 

1.5 
9.8 



1.5 
0.6 
0.2 

0.2 

1.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 

0.1 



0.3 
0.4 

1.5 
1.1 

0.6 

1.9 

0.7 



0.6 
0.5 
0.2 

0.4 

1.3 
0.1 
0.3 



0.5 
0.3 

2.4 
1.0 

1.5 
0.5 

1.5 



4.1 


6.0 


7.0 


9.7 


4.6 


7.1 


4.3 


6.8 


2.0 


3.7 


2.2 


4.3 


3.7 


4.1 


2.4 


3.9 


0.7 


3.4 


0.8 


1.7 


4.1 


5.4 


4.7 


6.5 


9.4 


7.3 


10.8 


9.6 


8.4 


12.1 


4.0 


6.3 


10.3 


10.9 


3.7 


4.9 


6.4 


6.7 


3.1 


7.4 


4.3 


5.4 


3.2 


6.8 


1.5 


5.8 


2.7 


3.7 


2.6 


2.7 


1.6 


2.6 


0.8 


0.7 


4.1 


4.0 


3.5 


5.2 


9.8 


4.7 


8 8 


8.2 


6: 


■. ; -: 


,<8 


54 


8 • 


6 2 



25.0 


1.3 


53.9 


2.4 


73.3 


3.4 


7Z4 


3.0 


38.1 


1.6 


83.8 


3.3 


82.5 


32 


85.4 


2.7 


90.4 


26 


939 


2.8 


77.3 


2.9 


72.0 


29 


51.0 


2.7 


51.1 


32 


60.4 


2.7 



48.2 


24 


222 


0.9 


58.0 


22 


680 


36 


73.7 


33 


450 


14 


85.9 


1.9 


83.9 


3.7 


867 


38 


899 


21 


j?: 


23 


-54 


31 


KM 


22 


BM 


18 


x<> 


:: 


8- .- 


2 7 


54 8 




.-*? 


20 



44 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4K. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 1 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 2 



$2,001 TO $10,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data .... 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 

OVER $10,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) 

CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output used 

in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. . . 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or testing: 
Performed on Incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 
Local area network for technical data .... 
Local area network for factory use 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



73.5 
31.1 
14.3 

11.7 

54.9 
4.0 
4.2 
3.5 



2.5 
1.2 



8.0 
9.7 

34.7 
23.2 



14.9 
24.5 

27.3 



83.3 
33.8 
17.6 

11.8 

54.2 
4.6 
4.3 
5.5 



4.8 
1.9 



10.7 
12.7 

48.2 
28.0 



18,352 
4,046 



16,045 
254 
708 
418 



11,807 
6,326 



84,709 
12,477 



33,211 
1,065 
2,230 
7,929 



12.5 
7.5 
5.7 

3.5 

5.9 
0.7 
0.6 
0.7 



0.5 
0.3 



2.4 
2.7 

12.0 
8.3 

7.2 
4.6 

6.4 



12.6 
6.8 
5.0 

3.3 

3.7 
1.0 
0.5 
0.8 



0.8 
0.1 



2.7 
3.2 

14.6 
7.6 



32.9 

13.6 

5.3 

3.6 

14.1 
1.4 
1.4 
1.0 



0.8 
0.3 



2.9 
3.2 



15.2 
8.3 



4.5 
8.1 



10.0 



35.1 

13.8 

7.2 

3.6 

10.7 
1.6 
1.6 
1.7 



1.1 
0.6 



3.0 
4.6 

18.9 
10.5 



27.8 
9.8 
2.8 

3.7 

34.2 
1.7 
2.0 
1.7 



1.2 
0.4 



2.6 
3.5 

6.7 
5.8 

2.6 

10.4 

9.5 



34.6 

12.8 

4.8 

4.7 

38.7 
1.7 
2.2 
2.8 



2.8 

1.0 



4.8 
4.5 

12.6 
8.7 



0.4 
0.1 
0.5 

0.8 

0.7 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 



0.3 

0.8 
0.8 

0.7 

1.4 

1.4 



1.1 
0.4 
0.6 

0.2 

1.1 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 



0.3 
0.4 

2.1 
1.1 



5.8 
8.3 
7.0 

5.2 

1.5 
2.2 
2.0 
3.8 



1.1 
0.2 



3.4 

4.3 

8.6 
8.3 

6.9 

4.5 

10.0 



2.9 
7.8 
7.2 

3.2 

2.6 
2.8 
2.8 
2.6 



1.2 
0.8 



3.1 
3.2 

7.8 

10.5 



3.8 
9.1 
7.4 

5.2 

2.9 

5.8 
3.9 
4.5 



2.7 
1.3 



7.0 
7.0 

7.5 
10.7 

12.1 
4.9 

7.9 



2.5 
9.9 
8.8 

4.6 

2.8 
5.5 
2.5 
2.7 



2.3 
1.0 



4.9 
4.7 

6.4 
9.7 



15.6 
48.5 
67.1 

75.0 

38.9 

84.7 

,86.6 

84.9 



91.0 
94.1 



78.1 
75.7 

46.4 
54.5 

62.7 
62.9 

51.7 



10.8 
45.9 
62.5 

76.7 

38.3 
84.1 
87.2 
86.0 



88.8 
93.3 



78.4 
76.0 

35.8 
49.4 



1.2 
2.9 
4.2 

3.1 

1.9 
3.2 
3.3 
3.3 



2.6 
3.2 



3.4 
3.2 

2.8 
3.3 



3.4 
3.2 

3.2 



0.5 
2.5 
3.9 

3.7 

2.0 
3.0 
3.1 
3.2 



2.9 
3.1 



2.9 
3.4 

1.8 
2.5 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



*-: 



Table 4K. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 





Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 


Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work 
stations 


Percent distribution 




Technology 


When technology was 
first implemented 


Plan to use within 




Within 
past 2 
years 


Last 2 to 
5 years 


More 

than 5 

years 

ago 


Not 

speci- 
fied 1 


2 yea/s 


2to5 
years 


No plans 


Not 


mm '. 

"U*edn 

oc**a- 

toa 


OVER $10,000— Cont. 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 


18.5 
30.0 

30.1 


35,960 
32,342 


7.7 
3.3 

6.2 


6.9 
9.3 

10.8 


3.4 
15.7 

12.0 


0.5 
1.7 

1.1 


8.8 
4.0 

8.8 


12.0 
4.5 

7.3 


57.6 
59.1 

51.3 


3.0 
24 

2.5 


1.2 


Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the factory 
floor 


1.4 
14 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology.' 



46 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 4L. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 1 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



LESS THAN $5 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, supplies, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

$5 TO $100 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 
materials 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



46.3 

19.1 

7.6 

15.7 

39.4 
4.4 

16.4 
4.5 



2.1 
1.4 



14.8 
18.1 

25.3 
24.5 



26.1 
45.1 

30.4 



53.6 

27.4 

9.3 

15.7 

51.1 
6.1 

14.7 
6.0 



1.9 

1.1 



10.5 



18.6 
7.4 
3.6 

3.7 

18.2 
1.8 
2.4 
1.2 



0.2 
0.2 



12.2 
13.8 

8.4 
8.2 



5.9 
16.3 

13.0 



24.7 

11.9 

4.8 

4.8 

19.0 
2.5 
2.5 
1.7 

0.3 



8.2 



19.3 
8.4 
2.5 

6.9 

12.6 
0.8 
6.5 
1.6 



0.3 
0.5 



1.1 
1.6 

8.9 
8.8 



5.5 
15.2 

8.0 



20.9 

10.4 

2.9 

5.9 

21.6 
1.1 
6.0 
2.0 



0.8 
0.4 



0.6 



2.4 
1.3 
0.2 

3.6 

4.1 
0.5 
6.1 
1.1 



0.8 
0.3 



0.5 
0.7 

2.0 
2.0 



4.1 
4.7 

2.5 



2.9 
2.3 
0.5 

3.0 

6.3 
1.0 
4.9 
1.7 



0.4 
0.3 



0.5 



4.6 
1.1 
1.1 

0.7 

2.2 

1.1 
0.3 
0.3 



0.9 
0.3 



0.2 
0.4 

4.1 
3.9 



8.5 
5.2 

4.4 



2.9 
1.2 
0.6 

0.9 

1.6 
1.1 
0.4 
0.2 



0.2 
0.3 



0.6 



1.8 
1.4 
0.2 

1.1 

2.6 
0.2 
1.2 
0.3 

0.1 



1.0 
1.6 

2.1 
1.8 



2.1 
3.8 

2.7 



2.4 
1.9 
0.5 

1.3 

4.0 
0.6 
1.0 
0.5 

0.1 



0.5 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



47 



Table 4L PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



standard error 
of "Used ri 



Not 



Other 



-^ec ' 



$5 TO $100— Cont. 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing:— Cont. 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

$101 TO $1,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 

Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems 

Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 

Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . 

Local area network for factory use .... 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 

$1,001 TO $2,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . . . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



13.3 

24.2 
20.7 



22.3 
36.1 

29.8 



63.6 
27.0 
11.6 

13.6 

54.6 
6.3 
6.5 
5.6 



3.0 
0.8 



10.3 
13.8 

29.6 
25.3 



16.4 
30.6 

28.1 



68.3 
26.8 
17.9 



10.9 

8.2 
7.1 



5.9 
14.2 

11.5 



30.5 

12.1 

6.2 

4.7 

19.9 
3.3 
1.4 
1.5 

0.4 



8.0 
10.5 

8.5 
7.4 



5.1 
12.5 

10.4 



24.1 

8.6 

10.3 



0.7 

9.0 
7.2 



5.4 
11.5 

8.3 



25.0 

10.6 

3.3 

4.8 

22.4 
1.8 
2.2 
1.9 



1.3 
0.1 



1.1 
1.3 

12.5 
9.6 



3.6 
9.2 

9.2 



34.2 

12.1 

4.9 



0.6 

1.7 
1.5 



2.3 
3.2 

3.5 



3.6 
2.2 
0.9 

2.8 

7.3 
0.3 
2.3 
1.8 



0.5 
0.4 



0.4 
0.7 

1.6 
1.4 



1.7 
2.0 

2.7 



4.0 
2.4 
1.5 



0.5 

3.8 

3.8 



6.5 
3.9 

3.7 



2.5 
0.9 
0.9 

0.8 

1.5 
0.5 
0.3 
0.3 



0.7 
0.1 



0.1 
0.4 

4.5 
4.1 



4.9 
3.8 

3.9 



4.9 
1.6 

9 



0.7 

1.7 
1.3 



2.3 
3.6 

3.2 



2.1 
1.3 
0.3 

0.4 

3.8 
0.4 
0.4 
0.2 



0.1 
0.1 



0.7 
1.0 

2.5 
2.8 



1.1 
3.4 

2.1 



1.6 
24 
0.3 



0.9 

1.1 
1.1 



1.2 
1.4 

1.4 



1.8 

1.6 
1.1 

1.1 

1.7 
0.7 
0.5 
0.6 



0.5 
0.1 



0.9 
1.1 

15 
1.4 



12 
1.5 

1.5 



3-7 
29 



48 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 41. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 







Single most significant reason for using the technology 


Absolute 


Technology 




(percent distribution) 




standard error 
of "Used in 
















Used in 


Improved 


Increased 


Lower labor 




Not 


operations" 




operations 


quality 


output 


cost 


Other 


specified 1 


(percent) 2 


$1,001 TO $2,000— Cont. 
















Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
















Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 


13.3 


2.3 


6.7 


2.1 


1.5 


0.9 


2.1 


Numerically controlled or computer 
















numerically controlled machines 


43.7 


12.0 


19.7 


6.2 


2.9 


3.2 


3.4 


Materials working lasers 


4.9 


2.5 


1.2 


0.4 


0.8 


- 


0.9 


Pick and place robots 


6.1 


2.0 


1.8 


1.1 


0.9 


0.2 


1.0 


Other robots 


4.3 


1.6 


1.1 


1.4 


" 


0.2 


0.8 


Automated material handling: 




Automatic storage and retrieval 
















systems 


3.9 


0.9 


0.8 


0.7 


1.0 


0.4 


0.9 


Automatic guided vehicle systems 


1.0 


- 


0.2 


0.6 


- 


0.1 


0.3 


Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
















testing: 
















Performed on incoming or in-process 
















materials 


10.5 


7.4 


1.3 


0.6 


0.7 


0.6 


1.7 


Performed on final product 


13.6 


10.0 


1.8 


0.7 


0.7 


0.6 


1.9 


Communication and control: 
















Local area network for technical data. . . 


30.7 


7.6 


13.5 


3.0 


3.8 


2.8 


2.8 


Local area network for factory use 


22.3 


6.0 


9.5 


2.3 


2.6 


2.1 


2.3 


Intercompany computer network linking 
















plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
















and/or customers 


16.2 
23.5 


2.9 
8.1 


6.0 
8.4 


1.3 
3.0 


4.6 
2.9 


1.4 
1.2 


1.8 


Programmable controllers 


2.4 


Computers used for control on the 
















factory floor 


26.3 


8.1 


8.5 


2.3 


5.4 


2.1 


2.5 


$2,001 TO $10,000 
















Design and engineering: 
















Computer-aided design (CAD) or 
















computer-aided engineering (CAE) 


73.5 


32.4 


34.2 


2.7 


3.0 


1.5 


2.3 


CAD output used to control 
















manufacturing machines 


31.1 


12.7 


14.0 


3.4 


0.5 


0.8 


2.1 


Digital representation of CAD output 
















used in procurement 


14.3 


7.0 


4.1 


1.6 


1.1 


0.6 


1.4 


Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
















Flexible manufacturing cells or systems . 


11.7 


3.5 


5.1 


1.2 


1.0 


0.9 


1.2 


Numerically controlled or computer 
















numerically controlled machines 


54.9 


18.0 


27.8 


7.6 


0.6 


1.4 


2.3 


Materials working lasers 


4.0 


2.2 


1.3 


0.3 


0.1 


0.1 


0.6 


Pick and place robots 


4.2 


0.6 


1.8 


1.8 


0.1 


- 


0.6 


Other robots 


3.5 


1.1 


1.5 


0.7 


0.1 


0.2 


0.4 


Automated material handling: 




Automatic storage and retrieval 
















systems 


2.5 


0.4 


1.1 


0.6 


0.4 


- 


0.3 


Automatic guided vehicle systems 


1.2 


0.2 


0.3 


0.4 


0.1 


0.3 


0.3 


Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
















testing: 
















Performed on incoming or in-process 
















materials 


8.0 


6.1 


1.0 


0.3 


- 


0.5 


1.0 


Performed on final product 


9.7 


7.4 


1.0 


0.6 


0.2 


0.4 


1.1 


Communication and control: 
















Local area network for technical data. . . 


34.7 


8.8 


17.9 


2.0 


3.9 


2.1 


2.0 


Local area network for factory use 


23.2 


5.8 


11.3 


2.1 


2.8 


1.2 


1.6 


Intercompany computer network linking 
















plant to subcontractors, suppliers, 
















and/or customers 


14.9 
24.5 


3.9 

7.2 


5.7 
10.0 


1.4 
2.5 


2.8 
2.9 


1.2 
2.0 


1.5 


Programmable controllers 


1.7 


Computers used for control on the 
















factory floor 


27.3 


8.2 


11.8 


2.9 


2.3 


2.2 


1.9 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



4's 



Table 4L PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: BY MARKET PRICE FOR MOST PRODUCTS— Continued 



Technology 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 

specified 1 



A.t/so4ute 

standard error 

of "Used n 

operations" 

(percent/* 



OVER $10,000 

Design and engineering: 
Computer-aided design (CAD) or 

computer-aided engineering (CAE) . 
CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines 

Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement 



Fabrication/machining and assembly: 
Flexible manufacturing cells or systems. 
Numerically controlled or computer 

numerically controlled machines 

Materials working lasers 

Pick and place robots 

Other robots 



Automated material handling: 
Automatic storage and retrieval 

systems 

Automatic guided vehicle systems. 



Automatic sensor-based inspection or 
testing: 
Performed on incoming or in-process 

materials 

Performed on final product 



Communication and control: 

Local area network for technical data. . . 

Local area network for factory use 

Intercompany computer network linking 
plant to subcontractors, supplies, 
and/or customers 

Programmable controllers 

Computers used for control on the 
factory floor 



83.3 
33.8 
17.6 

11.8 

54.2 
4.6 
4.3 
5.5 



4.8 
1.9 



10.7 
12.7 



48.2 
28.0 



18.5 
30.0 

30.1 



33.5 

14.6 

9.2 

2.8 

16.9 
2.5 
1.1 
1.9 



0.5 
0.3 



8.9 
9.7 



12.7 
7.0 



6.2 
11.3 

12.6 



39.1 

13.6 

4.5 

5.1 

25.6 

1.1 
1.4 
1.4 



2.0 
0.4 



0.7 
1.2 



21.3 
12.1 



4.9 
10.1 

11.2 



4.6 
3.8 

1.7 

2.7 

8.0 
0.4 
1.6 
1.6 



1.6 
0.7 



0.4 
0.9 



3.4 
2.8 



2.1 
2.5 

2.0 



3.8 
1.0 
1.3 

0.9 

1.9 
0.4 
0.2 
0.3 



0.4 
0.2 



0.2 
0.4 

6.6 
4.1 



4.2 
3.1 

2.2 



3.2 
1.0 
0.9 

0.4 

2.5 

0.3 
0.1 
0.3 



0.3 
0.2 



0.4 
0.5 



4.1 

2.1 



1.2 
3.0 

2.3 



1.3 
1.5 
1.2 

0.9 

1.6 
0.5 
0.3 
0.4 



0.3 
0.2 



0.9 
1.0 



1.6 
1.3 



1.2 
1.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 

2 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 






50 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 5A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: COMPUTER- 
AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OR COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE) SYSTEMS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 



Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over . . 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 



Neither 

Not specified . 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 



30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 



4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



Don't know . . 
Not specified 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



57.9 

46.6 

64.2 

64.2 
53.8 

65.5 



49.5 
76.4 
87.2 



63.4 
62.0 
64.4 
63.1 
3.2 

51.4 
67.3 
69.0 
29.2 
4.9 

48.3 
66.3 
64.4 
64.3 
74.0 
63.6 
9.0 

46.3 
53.5 
63.6 
68.2 
73.6 
83.4 
12.3 



69.1 

60.6 

52.9 

3.4 



70.0 
78.6 
62.1 
56.0 
61.5 
7.5 



179,466 

30,373 

58,869 

35,907 
29,604 

24,712 



56,340 
53,423 
69,703 



22,297 
43,543 
47,694 
63,792 
2,139 

13,152 

35,930 

122,793 

5,354 

2,237 



9,297 
23,786 
78,851 
22,060 
26,612 
14,230 

4,629 

18,568 
22,078 
23,820 

7,543 
18,352 
84,709 

4,395 



83,121 

84,418 

9,430 

2,496 



65,633 
14,901 

3,957 
39,114 
52,708 

3,152 



12.1 

12.9 

11.6 

11.6 
12.0 

12.8 

12.3 

12.9 

6.2 



19.0 
12.8 
11.9 
12.5 
0.4 



13.1 

13.8 

13.9 

6.2 

0.8 



12.6 
13.4 
12.6 
15.7 
13.8 
14.8 
1.5 

12.9 
13.8 
14.6 
13.7 
12.5 
12.6 
1.4 



14.1 

13.1 

10.0 

0.8 



14.6 
16.2 
11.1 
11.9 
13.1 
1.3 



25.8 

20.3 

28.9 

29.2 
22.2 

30.2 

22.8 
34.4 
26.5 



31.1 
28.4 
29.3 
25.0 
0.6 



22.9 
32.6 
29.9 
13.0 
3.0 



24.1 
30.8 
28.4 
26.4 
30.9 
29.0 
3.5 

20.3 
25.1 
28.7 
31.1 
32.9 
35.1 
5.2 



29.2 

27.8 

25.8 

0.8 



29.2 
30.0 
26.4 
26.0 
29.0 
3.3 



19.1 

12.7 

22.8 

22.5 
18.3 

21.5 



13.5 
28.5 
53.2 

12.3 
19.8 
22.3 
25.0 
1.3 



13.9 

20.4 

24.4 

8.4 

0.8 



10.5 
21.3 
22.4 
21.0 
28.5 
19.3 
3.7 

12.9 
13.8 
18.8 
22.8 
27.8 
34.6 
5.0 



24.6 

19.1 

15.4 

1.6 



25.3 
29.5 
23.6 
17.2 
18.8 
2.7 



0.9 

0.7 

0.9 

0.9 
1.3 

1.0 



0.9 
0.6 

1.3 

1.0 
1.0 
0.9 
0.6 
0.9 



1.5 
0.5 
0.8 
1.6 
0.3 



1.1 
0.8 
1.0 
1.2 
0.8 
0.5 
0.3 

0.2 
0.8 
1.5 
0.6 
0.4 
1.1 
0.7 



1.2 
0.6 
1.7 
0.2 



0.9 
2.9 
1.0 
0.9 
0.6 
0.2 



4.5 

5.1 

4.1 

4.2 
5.3 

3.3 



4.7 
4.5 
1.0 



5.7 
5.2 
4.8 
4.1 
0.4 

4.5 
4.4 
5.3 
3.4 
0.3 

4.8 
2.8 
5.4 
6.2 
1.4 
5.8 
0.9 

7.4 
5.4 
4.1 
3.7 
5.8 
2.9 
1.8 



5.2 
4.7 
4.8 
0.2 



5.8 
2.6 
3.4 
4.8 
4.9 
0.2 



4.9 

5.9 

4.5 

4.1 
4.8 

4.3 



5.8 
3.1 
0.3 



4.8 
5.6 
4.3 
6.6 



7.8 
3.6 
5.3 
3.3 
0.1 



7.0 
4.9 
5.0 
5.8 
4.8 
4.8 
1.7 

6.9 
6.3 
6.0 
4.9 
3.8 
2.5 
2.1 



6.0 
4.7 
6.7 
0.5 



5.8 
3.0 
8.0 
5.6 
5.1 
0.2 



23.5 

32.2 

19.2 

17.8 
26.5 

17.8 



29.7 
9.5 
3.8 



23.7 
25.3 
24.8 
25.0 
9.2 



35.0 
22.7 
18.8 
58.7 
9.2 



35.8 
24.7 
23.8 
22.9 
18.3 
23.3 
11.4 

36.7 
32.5 
25.0 
22.2 
15.6 
10.8 
14.0 



18.4 

28.0 

33.6 

8,3 



17.0 
15.6 
26.1 
31.4 
26.7 
10.1 



9.2 

10.3 

8.0 

9.7 
9.5 

9.1 



10.2 
6.6 
7.7 



2.3 
2.0 
1.7 
1.2 
87.2 



1.1 
2.0 
1.5 
5.4 
85.4 



4.2 
1.4 
1.5 
0.8 
1.5 
2.4 
76.9 

2.8 
2.3 
1.3 
0.9 
1.2 
0.5 
69.8 



1.4 

2.0 

2.0 

87.7 



1.5 
0.2 
0.3 
2.2 
1.8 
82.1 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



51 



Table 5A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: COMPUTER- 
AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OR COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE) SYSTEMS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



to use 



Not 



tfMdad 

■MB '.' 
"Used in 

fern 

(perce^r 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the for- 
mal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled per- 
sonnel to work with the tech- 
nologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



46.7 
65.8 
77.7 
85.6 
79.6 
6.3 



43.8 
72.1 
65.4 

34.1 
2.4 



63.6 
74.2 
71.8 
51.3 
3.4 



62.1 
72.4 
76.8 
31.6 



54.1 

69.1 

64.7 

4.0 



77.0 

61.2 

73.4 

2.4 



23,643 
70,520 
28,141 
36,867 
15,170 
5,123 



3,008 

143,509 

25,178 

7,172 
598 



134,319 

11,154 

21,962 

11,129 

901 



117,631 
14,260 
34,541 
13,033 



51,534 

107,364 

19,376 

1,190 



20,394 

147,466 

10,904 

702 



11.2 
15.1 
14.5 
12.7 
11.5 
0.5 



13.9 
14.7 
13.5 

7.5 
0.3 



13.4 
12.3 
14.3 
11.4 
0.8 



13.2 

15.3 

14.1 

7.1 



11.2 

13.7 

16.7 

0.8 



14.8 

13.2 

10.1 

0.4 



21.6 
29.0 
34.2 
38.1 
34.3 
2.1 



20.6 
31.7 
28.4 

17.2 
0.8 



28.0 
28.7 
33.6 
25.0 
0.9 



27.5 
29.1 
34.8 
14.8 



24.8 

30.9 

26.6 

1.6 



33.9 

27.3 

32.9 

0.8 



13.1 
21.0 
27.1 
33.7 
33.5 
3.3 



8.6 
24.7 
22.6 

8.7 
1.0 



21.2 
33.1 
22.3 
14.4 

1.5 



20.4 

27.6 

26.6 

9.3 



17.6 

23.1 

21.2 

1.4 



27.4 

19.8 

28.6 

1.1 



0.8 
0.7 
1.9 
1.1 
0.3 
0.4 



0.7 
1.0 
0.9 

0.7 
0.3 



1.0 
0.1 
1.6 
0.5 
0.2 



1.0 
0.4 
1.3 
0.4 



0.5 
1.4 
0.2 
0.2 



0.9 
0.9 
1.8 
0.1 



4.8 
5.8 
4.7 
2.5 
4.2 
0.2 



5.0 
5.0 
4.5 

4.7 
0.2 



5.0 
1.9 
7.4 
3.3 
0.4 



5.2 
3.3 
5.4 
2.2 



4.1 
5.1 
6.2 
0.3 



1.7 
5.1 
6.6 
0.2 



6.8 
5.4 
3.6 
3.3 
1.2 
0.5 



5.5 
5.1 
4.3 

6.9 
0.1 



5.3 
3.5 
3.1 
7.2 

0.2 



5.4 
3.3 
3.3 

4.5 



5.4 
5.0 
6.4 
0.1 



3.2 
5.7 
1.0 
01 



39.1 
21.8 
12.8 

7.6 
13.8 

7.9 



44.2 
16.1 
24.4 

522 
8.2 



24.2 
19.5 
16.9 
36.9 
6.3 



25.2 
21.0 
13.8 

24.5 



343 

19.6 

204 

9.5 



17.0 

26.2 

19.0 

5 1 



2.6 
1.3 
1.1 
1.0 
1.1 
85.1 



1.5 

1.6 
1.5 

2.1 
89.0 



1.9 
1.0 
0.9 
1.3 
89.6 



2.0 

1 

0.7 

37.2 



^1 

1.2 

2.2 

86.2 



1.1 

18 
0.1 



1.6 
1.2 
1.7 
1.6 
3.2 
0.9 



38 
0.9 
1.8 

2-2 

06 



0.9 
38 
2.6 
2.4 
0.7 



10 
3.0 
19 
1.6 



13 
1.1 
22 
08 



1.9 
08 
3-2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



52 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 5B PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OR COMPUTER-AIDED 
ENGINEERING (CAE) SYSTEMS 



Establishment characteristic 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equipment . . 

36, Electronic and Other Electric Equip- 

ment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Products. . . . 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all products 
manufactured at the plant that are shipped 
to other companies that are prime 
contractors to Federal Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent of the total value of shipments that 
are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



42,991 

13,190 
14,231 

7,472 
4,110 
3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 

14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



Percent distribution 



Used in 
operations 



57.9 

46.5 
64.1 

64.2 
53.9 
65.4 

49.5 
76.4 
87.2 

63.5 
62.0 
64.4 
63.1 
3.2 

51.5 
67.3 
69.0 
29.3 
4.9 

48.2 
66.3 
64.3 
64.3 
74.0 
63.7 
9.0 

46.3 
53.6 
63.6 
68.3 
73.5 
83.3 
12.4 

69.1 

60.6 

52.9 

3.4 



70.0 
78.7 
62.1 
56.0 
61.5 
7.4 



46.8 
65.7 
77.9 
85.6 
79.5 
6.3 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 



Improved 
quality 



24.9 

20.5 
27.5 

27.4 
22.7 
27.4 

22.8 
29.1 
33.8 

28.2 
26.8 
27.2 
27.0 
1.1 

25.8 
29.0 
28.3 
14.5 
2.3 

20.9 
29.2 
26.3 
28.4 
36.5 
30.0 
3.1 

18.2 
24.4 
30.4 
23.6 
32.2 
32.6 
5.1 

30.3 

25.1 

26.7 

1.1 



29.3 
32.3 
31.9 
24.5 
26.5 
3.0 



22.1 
27.3 
32.7 
34.9 
33.6 
2.1 



Increased 
output 



24.7 

19.6 
27.5 

27.6 
22.2 
29.0 

20.0 
35.7 
40.0 

26.8 
26.8 
27.4 
27.0 
1.1 

17.9 

29.9 

31.0 

7.9 

1.3 

18.5 
28.9 
29.9 
24.5 
26.0 
23.1 
3.9 

19.3 
20.9 
25.0 
34.2 
34.2 
39.1 
4.4 

28.2 

27.3 

18.2 

1.8 



30.7 
33.1 
22.5 
23.0 
26.9 
3.5 



17.0 
29.4 
35.9 
37.7 
36.3 
3.1 



Lower labor 
cost 



3.1 

2.7 
3.4 

3.9 
2.8 
2.5 

2.5 
3.9 
8.9 

3.6 
2.9 
3.6 
3.9 
0.1 

3.8 
3.6 
3.6 
0.9 
0.2 

3.7 
2.6 
3.1 
4.2 
7.4 
3.2 
0.4 

2.4 
2.9 
3.6 
4.0 
2.7 
4.6 
1.2 

4.3 
2.8 
3.5 
0.1 



4.0 
5.1 
3.1 
3.5 
2.6 
0.6 



2.7 
3.4 
3.8 
5.1 
4.1 
0.3 



Other 



3.0 

2.5 
3.3 

3.0 
3.7 
3.3 

2.5 
4.2 
4.5 

2.4 
3.5 
3.5 
3.1 
0.1 

1.9 
3.1 
3.7 
3.8 
0.1 

2.9 
3.5 
3.1 
4.2 
2.3 
4.7 
0.2 

4.6 
2.9 
2.5 
4.9 
3.0 
3.8 
0.6 

3.6 
3.2 
2.6 
0.1 



3.3 
4.5 
2.9 
2.8 
3.6 



3.1 
3.5 
2.4 
4.2 
3.1 
0.3 



Not 
specified 2 



2.1 

1.2 
2.5 

2.3 
2.4 
3.2 

1.8 
3.0 
2.4 

2.5 
2.0 
2.6 
2.1 
0.8 

2.0 
1.7 
2.4 
2.2 
1.1 

2.0 
2.1 
2.0 
3.0 
1.9 
2.7 
1.5 

1.8 
2.4 
2.1 
1.6 
1.5 
3.2 
1.0 

2.6 
2.1 
1.9 
0.2 



2.7 
3.8 
1.7 
2.2 
1.9 
0.3 



1.9 
2.0 
3.0 
3.7 
2.2 
0.5 



Absolute 

standard error 

of "Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



-:'; 



Table 5B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OR COMPUTER-AIDED 
ENGINEERING (CAE) SYSTEMS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Percent distribution 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



v.- 



oCUsedn 



Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done . 
Not specified 



Where is most of the formal training for the 
staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff conducted 
Not specified 



Who conducts most of the formal training for 
the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 



Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to work 
with the technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 



Does a foreign entity own, directly or indi- 
rectly, 1 percent or more of the voting 
stock or other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



43.7 
72.2 
65.4 
34.1 
2.4 



63.6 
74.2 
71.8 
51.3 
3.5 



62.2 
72.3 
76.8 
31.6 



54.1 

69.1 

64.8 

4.0 



77.0 

61.2 

73.4 

2.5 



21.5 
30.0 
27.2 
18.3 
0.8 



28.1 
32.4 
28.3 
19.3 
1.2 



27.3 
34.1 
31.8 
11.9 



23.7 

29.7 

26.3 

2.3 



28.7 

26.6 

33.1 

1.1 



14.8 

32.7 

27.3 

9.5 

1.1 



26.7 
33.2 
33.0 
22.5 
1.7 



26.6 
28.8 
33.0 
13.7 



23.0 

29.7 

27.6 

1.4 



36.1 

25.9 

28.9 

1.1 



2.8 
3.5 
4.1 
2.7 
0.2 



3.5 
3.8 
3.9 
2.8 
0.1 



3.2 
4.2 
4.9 
1.7 



3.1 
3.7 
3.3 
0.1 



5.9 
3.2 

2.8 

0.1 



2.3 
3.6 
4.4 
1.9 
0.1 



3.1 
3.6 

4.1 
3.8 
0.2 



3.0 
3.4 
4.4 
2.3 



2.5 
3.3 
5.6 
0.1 



4.1 
3.2 

4.7 
0.1 



2.3 
2.4 
2.5 

1.7 
0.2 



22 

1.1 
2.4 
3.0 
0.2 



2.1 
1.9 
2.6 
2.0 



1.8 
2.8 
2.0 
0.2 



22 
2.3 
3.9 



3.8 

1-8 
2-2 

Obfl 



0.9 
3.8 
2.6 
2.4 
0.7 



1.0 
3.0 
1.9 

1.6 



1.3 
1.1 
2.2 

08 



1.9 
08 
3 2 
06 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major group, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. Relative standard errors 
for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology" 



54 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 5C PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: COMPUTER- 
AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT TO CONTROL MANUFACTURING MACHINES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified .... 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 



Neither 

Not specified . 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 



30,502 

10,321 

2,168 



4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 



6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 



4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 



5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



25.3 

19.2 

34.8 

21.5 
25.5 

18.4 

22.0 
30.5 
48.2 



21.1 
26.4 
29.0 
31.4 
1.0 



32.1 

10.8 

33.0 

8.2 

2.0 



15.1 
26.8 
29.9 
31.2 
33.8 
26.2 
3.5 



19.2 
27.5 
27.0 
26.8 
31.0 
33.8 
6.0 



36.1 

23.3 

21.1 

0.2 



35.1 
42.1 
42.0 
22.3 
23.3 
1.7 



38,047 

6,623 

14,151 

7,742 
6,705 

2,827 



15,712 
10,602 
11,733 



2,448 

10,654 

12,118 

12,583 

244 



7,054 

3,473 

26,041 

1,325 

154 



2,446 
4,872 
16,907 
5,511 
3,832 
3,975 
507 



3,330 
8,109 
6,451 
2,125 
4,046 
12,477 
1,510 



21,331 

14,949 

1,605 

163 



13,351 
3,042 
1,585 
9,832 
9,761 
477 



5.8 

4.7 

7.5 

4.5 
6.7 

5.3 



5.0 
7.8 
7.7 



8.1 
5.2 
6.8 
6.7 
0.1 



6.9 
2.1 
8.0 
1.1 
0.2 



3.6 
6.9 
6.3 
7.4 
7.3 
7.6 
0.9 



5.2 
6.7 
6.2 
5.7 
7.5 
6.8 
1.0 



8.0 
5.6 
4.5 
0.1 



8.8 
6.5 
9.4 
5.3 
5.3 
0.2 



10.7 

8.7 

14.5 

10.6 
8.5 

6.6 



9.6 
12.8 
17.4 

9.5 
13.2 
11.5 
11.1 

0.1 



12.7 
5.6 

14.0 
2.3 
1.5 



6.5 
12.8 
12.7 
10.7 
13.4 
12.0 

1.4 



6.9 
12.0 
11.5 
11.7 
13.6 
13.8 

3.4 



14.3 

10.7 

7.7 



14.9 
15.8 
16.4 

9.5 
10.4 

0.8 



8.4 

5.7 

12.3 

6.0 
9.6 

6.0 



7.0 

9.5 

22.2 

3.2 

7.6 

10.4 

13.1 



11.9 
3.0 

10.6 
4.4 



4.7 

6.9 

10.4 

12.2 

12.6 

6.4 

1.1 



6.9 
8.1 
8.7 
8.9 
9.8 
12.8 
1.6 



12.9 
6.8 
8.7 
0.1 



11.0 

16.8 

15.1 

7.3 

7.4 

0.7 



0.4 

0.1 

0.5 

0.4 
0.7 

0.5 



0.4 
0.4 
0.9 



0.3 
0.4 
0.3 
0.5 
0.8 

0.6 
0.1 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 

0.3 
0.2 
0.5 
0.9 
0.5 
0.2 
0.1 



0.2 
0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.1 
0.4 



0.9 
0.2 
0.2 



0.4 
3.0 
1.1 
0.2 
0.2 



6.4 

6.0 

7.1 

5.8 
6.2 

7.1 



5.5 
8.9 
7.6 



6.7 
6.9 
7.6 
6.6 
0.5 

6.1 
4.8 
8.3 
2.7 
0.8 

5.9 
7.1 
7.0 
8.3 
7.1 
6.7 
1.4 



5.7 
6.7 
7.0 
6.4 
8.3 
7.8 
1.9 



8.3 
6.5 
4.4 
0.4 



8.4 
8.2 
5.5 
5.2 
7.6 
0.4 



8.6 

8.8 

9.1 

7.1 
9.4 

8.2 

8.0 

10.6 

7.2 



7.3 
9.1 
10.4 
9.7 
0.3 

8.4 
6.1 
10.9 
6.0 
0.5 

10.0 
8.0 
8.7 
11.5 
11.8 
9.7 
2.4 



9.9 
9.6 
9.7 
6.7 
9.1 
9.9 
1.2 



11.1 
8.6 
6.9 
0.6 



11.0 
10.6 
8.6 
7.7 
9.6 
0.8 



49.0 

54.5 

39.5 

54.0 
48.3 

56.1 



52.9 
41.9 
28.3 



62.1 
54.1 
49.5 
49.4 
10.5 



50.0 
75.0 
45.0 
75.5 
10.6 

64.0 
56.3 
51.4 
46.3 
43.7 
53.9 
13.9 



62.2 
52.9 
53.9 
58.0 
48.5 
45.9 
18.4 



42.2 
57.7 
64.6 
10.4 



43.2 
38.3 
42.0 
60.4 
56.3 
13.7 



10.7 

11.5 

9.5 

11.6 
10.7 

10.2 



11.6 
8.2 
8.8 



2.8 
3.5 
3.5 
2.9 
87.6 



3.2 
3.3 
2.7 
7.6 
86.3 

5.1 
1.9 
3.2 
2.5 
3.6 
3.6 
78.7 



3.1 
3.3 
2.4 
2.2 
2.9 
2.5 
72.6 



2.3 

4.0 

3.0 

88.4 



2.2 
0.8 
1.7 
4.4 
3.2 
83.4 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



55 



Table 5C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: COMPUTER- 
AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT TO CONTROL MANUFACTURING MACHINES— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



No plans Not 

to use specified 



MKM '.' 

-VK - 
Mfr 



'j^'.h" ' 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the for- 
mal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,723 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



27.4 
26.8 
29.1 
28.9 
30.5 
1.8 



22.1 
29.0 
23.3 

27.3 
0.3 



28.4 
32.1 
29.6 
20.9 
0.6 



27.3 
30.9 
33.9 
13.3 



18.1 

31.7 

38.0 

0.8 



27.1 

27.8 

25.5 

0.3 



10,285 

13,290 

5,155 

5,691 

3,144 

483 



994 

25,206 

6,441 

5,387 
19 



29,949 

1,983 

3,611 

2,436 

69 



26,428 
3,545 
5,258 
2,818 



9,539 

22,516 

5,876 

116 



3,370 

31,903 

2,765 

9 



5.9 
6.4 
6.9 
6.9 
7.1 
0.4 



7.0 
6.9 
4.7 

5.4 

0.1 



6.5 
6.7 
6.6 
5.6 
0.1 



5.9 
7.7 
8.2 
3.8 



3.9 
7.6 
8.3 
0.2 



7.1 
6.3 
6.6 



12.1 
11.8 
10.0 
12.4 
12.1 
0.2 



10.1 
12.0 
10.9 

11.8 
0.1 



11.7 

12.5 

15.1 

9.1 

0.4 



11.4 

12.2 

15.4 

5.8 



8.7 
13.0 
14.9 

0.4 



10.7 

11.9 

9.8 

0.3 



8.9 

8.5 
11.1 

8.9 
11.3 

1.1 



5.0 
9.6 
7.6 

9.6 
0.1 



9.8 

12.7 

6.8 

6.1 



9.6 

11.0 

9.4 

3.6 



5.3 
10.4 
14.5 

0.2 



9.0 
9.2 
8.1 



0.5 

0.1 
1.1 
0.7 

0.1 



0.5 
0.1 



0.5 



0.4 
0.2 
1.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.4 

0.9 
0.1 



0.2 
0.7 

0.3 



0.3 
0.4 
1.0 



5.3 
7.8 
7.5 
8.9 
7.9 
0.7 



3.1 
7.9 

8.1 

4.0 
0.2 



6.8 
6.7 
10.9 
5.2 
0.8 



6.8 
7.8 
9.9 

3.0 



5.6 
7.5 

9.0 

0.5 



6.2 
7.0 

9.5 
0.3 



7.9 
10.0 
11.0 

11.7 
6.4 
0.4 



6.4 

10.3 

8.9 

7.2 
0.4 



9.5 
6.6 
11.0 
7.9 
0.3 



8.8 

9.8 

13.4 

5.0 



7.9 

10.1 

10.9 

0.4 



7.8 
9.5 
9.7 
0.2 



55.8 
52.2 
50.0 
47.8 
51.8 
11.0 



67.1 
49.5 
56.7 

57.9 
9.8 



51.8 
52.4 
46.6 
62.5 
8.2 



53.4 
50.8 
41.0 
40.2 



65.4 
47.7 
38.1 
11.4 



56.0 

52.6 

52.5 

66 



3.5 
3.1 
2.3 
2.7 
3.4 
86.2 



\2 
32 
2.9 

3.6 
89.4 



3.4 
22 

1.8 

3.5 

90.1 



3.6 

0.8 

1.7 

386 



3.0 

3.0 

4.1 

869 



2.9 

3.3 

2.8 

92 6 



1.4 
1.1 
1.7 
1.7 
2.9 
0.5 



3.4 
0.8 
1.3 

2.1 
0.1 



0.8 
38 
2.5 
2.0 
02 



08 
2.9 
1.9 
1.3 



1.0 
1.0 
23 
0.3 



16 
08 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. Retetrv* 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



56 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 5D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT TO CONTROL 
MANUFACTURING MACHINES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Percent distribution 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equip- 

ment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equip ment , 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Prod- 

ucts 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither , 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified , 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military specifica- 
tions: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

See footnotes at end of table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



25.3 

19.3 

34.8 

21.5 
25.5 

18.5 

22.0 
30.3 
48.1 

21.1 
26.4 
29.0 
31.4 
1.0 

32.2 

10.8 

33.0 

8.1 

1.9 

15.1 
26.7 
29.8 
31.3 
33.8 
26.1 
3.6 

19.1 
27.4 
27.0 
26.8 
31.1 
33.8 
6.0 



36.1 

23.3 

21.1 

0.3 



10.5 

8.8 

13.1 

10.0 
9.9 

7.8 

9.1 
12.1 
21.0 

9.1 
10.8 
12.0 
12.9 

0.1 

13.8 
5.5 

13.1 
4.0 
0.5 

7.0 
12.7 
12.1 
10.8 
13.4 
10.8 

1.4 

6.9 
11.7 
12.0 

8.3 
12.5 
14.3 

2.1 



13.7 

10.0 

11.2 

0.1 



10.3 

7.2 

15.3 

7.4 
10.9 

7.2 

8.8 
13.0 
17.4 

8.2 
11.2 
11.7 
12.5 



14.1 
3.2 

13.6 
2.8 
0.4 

4.5 
9.6 
12.7 
14.3 
10.7 
12.2 
0.9 

8.4 
10.4 
10.6 
12.1 
14.0 
13.6 

2.5 



15.2 
9.3 
7.0 



2.3 

1.4 

3.4 

2.0 
2.5 

1.8 

2.0 
2.3 
6.4 

1.6 
2.4 
2.6 
3.1 



1.4 
1.4 
3.3 
0.8 



2.2 
2.1 
2.3 
3.0 
7.8 
1.2 
0.3 

1.3 
2.3 
2.2 
2.4 
3.4 
3.8 
0.4 



3.7 
1.8 
2.1 



1.0 

0.9 
1.0 

1.2 

1.1 

0.5 

0.7 
1.5 
1.8 

0.5 
1.1 
1.0 
1.4 



0.9 
0.4 
1.4 
0.1 



0.8 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.2 
1.4 



1.1 
1.2 
0.9 
1.6 
0.5 
1.0 
0.5 



1.4 
0.9 
0.4 



1.3 

1.0 

1.9 

1.0 
1.1 

1.2 

1.3 
1.3 
1.8 

1.6 
0.9 
1.7 
1.4 
0.9 

2.0 
0.3 
1.5 
0.4 
1.0 

0.7 
1.1 
1.6 
2.2 
0.8 
0.5 
1.0 

1.4 
1.9 
1.3 
2.4 
0.8 
1.0 
0.5 



2.1 
1.2 
0.5 
0.1 



9,934 
2,499 



35.1 
42.2 



14.3 
13.5 



14.7 
17.1 



2.4 
6.2 



1.6 
0.6 



2.1 
4.8 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



57 



Table 5D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT TO CONTROL 
MANUFACTURING MACHINES— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Percent distribution 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
tpec ihi' 



Acv., .-■-. 

standard 

error of 

"Usedm 

operations" 



Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: — Cont. 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff con- 
ducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal train- 
ing for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 



Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



1,148 
11,808 
13,573 

4,029 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



42.1 

22.2 

23.3 

1.8 



27.4 
26.9 
29.2 
28.9 
30.5 
1.7 



22.1 
29.1 
23.4 
27.3 
0.2 



28.5 
32.0 
29.5 

20.9 
0.5 



27.4 
30.9 
33.9 
13.2 



18.1 

31.8 

37.9 

0.7 



27.1 

27.7 

25.4 

0.3 



15.1 
9.5 

10.4 
0.9 



12.3 
10.5 
12.3 
11.0 
12.0 
0.5 



9.2 
11.6 
10.3 
12.3 

0.1 



11.8 
15.5 
10.9 

8.6 
0.1 



11.5 

13.6 

13.4 

5.1 



8.5 
13.3 
12.1 

0.3 



10.6 
11.5 

11.0 
0.3 



19.6 
8.9 
9.1 
0.7 



10.0 
11.9 
11.4 
12.2 
13.3 
0.7 



7.8 
12.2 

8.4 
10.9 

0.1 



11.5 
12.0 
12.8 

8.6 
0.2 



11.0 

11.5 

13.8 

5.8 



6.6 
12.5 
18.8 

0.4 



11.6 
11.2 

10.4 



3.4 
2.3 
2.1 



2.4 
2.5 
2.6 
3.0 
1.7 
0.2 



2.7 
2.6 
2.7 
1.9 



2.5 
2.5 
2.5 

2.2 

0.2 



2.4 
2.9 
3.2 
1.3 



1.5 
3.1 
2.9 
0.1 



2.8 
2.5 
2.5 



2.6 
0.7 
0.9 



1.2 

1.1 
0.6 
1.1 
0.7 
0.2 



0.2 
1.2 
0.9 
0.7 



1.1 
1.7 
1.3 

0.4 



1.0 
2.0 
1.6 
0.3 



0.6 
0.9 
2.9 



0.8 
1.1 

^6 



1.5 
0.8 
0.8 
0.1 



1.5 
0.9 
2.3 
1.7 
2.7 
0.2 



2.1 
1.4 
1.1 
1.5 
0.1 



1.5 
0.4 
2.1 

1.0 
0.1 



1.4 
0.9 
2.0 
0.8 



0.8 
1.9 
1.4 



1.3 
1.5 
1.0 



4.9 
1.2 
1.1 
0.6 



1.4 
1.1 
1.7 
1.7 
2.9 
05 



3.4 
0.8 
1.3 
2.1 
0.1 



0.8 
3.8 
2.5 

2.0 
0.2 



0.8 
2.9 
1.9 
1.3 



1.0 
1.0 
2.3 
03 



16 

as 

22 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of indivdual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

'For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown m this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C. "Sampling and Estimating Methodolgy." 



58 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 5E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: DIGITAL 
REPRESENTATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT USED IN PROCUREMENT 
ACTIVITIES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions (per- 
cent) 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More than 

5 years 

ago 



Not 
specified 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. . 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Elec- 
tric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military specifi- 
cations: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the 
plant that are shipped directly to 
other companies who are prime 
defense 

contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 
14,231 

7,472 

4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



11.3 

7.1 

11.7 

16.1 
9.6 

16.1 

8.9 
14.1 
30.3 

12.4 
12.9 
12.8 
10.5 
0.2 

9.4 

15.6 

13.0 

4.3 

1.0 

8.4 
16.7 
11.2 
11.8 
19.1 
11.6 

1.3 

7.7 
9.2 
11.6 
17.9 
14.3 
17.6 
3.1 



14.6 

11.5 

6.8 

0.2 



9,934 


16.1 


2,499 


17.0 


1,148 


11.0 


1 1 ,808 


11.3 


13,573 


9.7 


4,029 


0.4 



3.8 

2.5 

3.5 

4.9 
4.0 

6.5 



5.5 
8.8 
3.1 
3.0 
3.4 
0.2 



4.8 

3.4 

4.7 

7.3 
4.0 

5.9 



3.0 


4.0 


5.2 


5.5 


8.0 


12.7 


4.5 


6.2 


4.8 


5.3 


3.4 


5.7 


3.8 


4.0 


0.1 


- 


1.8 


4.6 


4.6 


7.8 


4.9 


5.1 


1.9 


1.2 


0.1 


0.7 


2.7 


2.6 


5.6 


8.2 


3.8 


4.6 


3.8 


5.1 


7.9 


7.5 


3.4 


5.8 


0.4 


0.4 


1.6 


4.0 


3.5 


3.5 


4.4 


5.2 


4.9 


10.0 


5.7 


5.3 


5.0 


7.2 


1.3 


1.3 


5.0 


6.1 


3.8 


5.0 


2.1 


3.1 


0.1 


- 



7.0 
5.0 
7.0 
5.1 
4.0 
0.1 



2.3 

0.9 
3.0 

3.7 

1.1 

3.1 

1.5 
3.2 
8.8 

1.4 
2.3 
3.3 
2.5 
0.1 

2.1 
3.0 
2.7 
1.0 
0.1 

2.8 
2.5 
2.3 
2.7 
3.6 
2.1 
0.4 

1.8 
1.7 
1.8 
2.8 
2.8 
4.8 
0.5 



2.9 
2.4 
1.5 
0.1 



3.2 
2.2 
.9 
2.9 
1.9 
0.1 



0.4 

0.3 

0.5 

0.2 
0.5 

0.6 

0.4 
0.2 
0.8 

0.3 
0.5 
0.4 
0.2 



0.9 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 

0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
0.2 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 

0.3 
0.5 
0.2 
0.2 
0.5 
0.6 



0.6 
0.3 
0.1 



0.4 
1.0 



0.3 
0.4 



4.7 

3.7 

5.4 

5.0 
5.3 

3.8 

3.6 
7.2 
7.4 

5.1 
4.5 
5.5 
5.4 
0.5 

3.7 
4.4 
6.0 
2.1 
0.4 

4.5 
4.3 
4.9 
6.3 
5.6 
6.4 
1.1 

4.3 
4.4 
4.6 
3.1 
7.0 
7.2 
0.5 



7.0 
4.3 
2.0 
0.3 



7.0 
4.9 
8.2 
4.2 
4.4 
0.2 



7.0 

6.3 

6.8 

6.9 
9.4 

7.6 

5.6 

10.5 
10.2 

6.6 
7.4 
8.1 
8.0 
0.2 

5.4 
6.1 
9.1 
4.4 
0.3 

6.2 
8.5 
7.0 
9.1 
7.5 
8.6 
2.1 

7.5 
7.9 
7.1 
7.4 
7.4 
8.8 
0.7 



9.1 
6.8 
6.8 
0.3 



8.7 
12.3 
3.6 
6.3 
7.4 
0.9 



65.1 

70.6 

64.0 

59.9 
63.8 

61.7 

68.8 
58.9 
42.5 

71.0 
70.4 
68.6 
71.8 
10.8 

76.1 
70.6 
67.5 
80.2 
11.4 

75.1 
67.4 
72.2 
67.6 
62.7 
68.2 
16.5 

75.2 
73.1 
73.3 
68.0 
67.1 
62.5 
22.7 



64.8 
72.5 
79.4 
10.9 



63.9 
62.1 
72.2 
73.7 
73.4 
14.7 



12.0 

12.4 

12.1 

12.1 
11.8 

10.8 

13.1 
9.4 
9.6 

4.8 
4.8 
5.1 
4.2 
88.3 

5.3 
3.3 
4.4 
9.0 
86.9 

5.9 
3.1 
4.7 
5.1 
5.1 
5.2 
79.0 

5.3 
5.3 
3.4 
3.6 
4.2 
3.9 
72.9 



4.4 

5.0 

5.0 

88.3 



4.3 
3.6 
5.0 
4.6 
5.0 
83.8 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



59 



Table 5E PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: DIGITAL 
REPRESENTATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT USED IN PROCUREMENT 

ACTIVITIES— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions (per- 
cent) 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More than 

5 years 

ago 



Not 
specified 2 



Plan to use wrthin 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
-^e-. I ad 



"Used*) 
opera- 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal train- 
ing for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the for mal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm . . . 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled per sonnel 
to work with the tech noiogies 
used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly 
or indirectly, 10 percent or more 
of the voting stock or other equity 
rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


8.9 


15,360 


11.5 


4,737 


12.6 


3,912 


23.7 


1,398 


19.4 


3,897 


0.7 



1,834 


4.6 


25,416 


13.9 


4,969 


13.1 


7,046 


7.6 


3,726 


0.4 


29,449 


13.2 


1,099 


10.5 


3,506 


13.2 


5,251 


6.1 


3,686 


0.3 


26,952 


12.7 


1,637 


14.2 


5,287 


14.4 


9,115 


3.9 



13,905 

1 9,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



9.5 
13.5 
15.1 

0.5 



16.2 

11.7 

16.1 

0.3 



2.8 


3.9 


4.2 


4.8 


4.3 


5.6 


7.4 


10.4 


6.5 


6.3 


0.2 


0.3 



2.2 

4.5 
5.2 

2.4 
0.1 



4.5 
2.0 
4.7 
2.0 

0.1 



4.1 
5.2 
5.8 
1.2 



3.3 
4.4 

5.1 
0.1 



4.3 
4.0 
6.1 
0.1 



1.6 
5.9 
5.3 

3.7 
0.2 



5.5 
5.8 
5.5 
3.0 
0.1 



5.5 
5.8 
5.4 
2.0 



4.1 
6.1 
5.2 
0.2 



7.6 
5.0 
5.3 
0.1 



1.8 
2.2 

2.4 
4.7 
6.6 
0.2 



.8 
3.0 
2.4 

1.1 
0.1 



2.8 
2.1 
2.7 
0.9 
0.1 



2.7 
2.7 
2.9 

0.6 



1.9 
2.4 
4.6 
0.2 



4.1 
2.3 

4.4 
0.1 



0.4 
0.3 
0.3 
1.2 



0.5 
0.2 

0.4 



0.4 
0.6 
0.3 

0.2 



0.4 
0.5 
0.3 
0.1 



0.2 
0.6 
0.2 



0.2 

0.4 
0.3 



2.9 
6.2 
6.3 
6.5 
6.4 
0.5 



2.1 
6.1 
5.4 

2.1 



5.3 
7.0 
7.2 
2.1 
0.2 



4.9 
7.6 
8.3 
1.5 



4.2 
6.0 
4.5 



5.6 
5.1 
4.6 



5.2 

8.6 

10.5 

9.4 

7.1 
0.4 



7.5 
7.9 
9.6 

5.2 

0.2 



7.9 

13.0 

8.6 

4.2 
0.2 



7.4 
12.3 
10.7 

2.6 



6.1 
8.7 
7.9 
0.3 



10.3 
7.3 
9.1 



77.4 
69.5 
66.5 
56.7 
63.5 
12.0 



83.7 
67.1 

68.2 

80.0 
10.1 



68.6 
67.0 
67.1 
83.2 
9.0 



69.7 
64.6 
63.4 
52.5 



76.2 
67.1 
66.7 
12.3 



64.8 
71.1 

65.1 



5.7 

42 
4.2 
3.6 
3.7 

865 



Z1 
5.0 

3.7 

5.1 
89.3 



5.0 
2.5 
3.9 
4.4 
90.2 



5.2 
1.3 

3.1 
395 



4.1 

4.7 

5.9 

870 



3 1 
49 
52 



: 9 

0.7 
1.0 
\& 

2.5 
'.2 



1.1 
0.6 

^2 

1.3 
0.1 



0.6 
1.7 
1.5 
1.1 
0.1 



06 
1.7 

1.3 
0.6 



0.7 
0.7 
1.6 
0.1 



1 4 

as 

1 9 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

'For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. Relative 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



60 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 5F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN 
(CAD) OUTPUT USED IN PROCUREMENT ACTIVITIES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Percent distribution 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equip- 
ment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Prod- 
ucts 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military specifica- 
tions: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

See footnotes at end of table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



11.2 

7.0 

11.6 

16.1 
9.6 

16.1 

8.9 
14.0 
30.3 

12.5 
12.9 
12.7 
10.5 
0.2 

9.3 

15.6 

13.0 

4.3 

0.9 

8.4 
16.7 
11.3 
11.9 
19.1 
11.6 

1.3 

7.6 
9.3 
11.6 
17.9 
14.3 
17.6 
3.2 



14.6 

11.4 

6.8 

0.1 



5.8 

3.8 
4.9 

8.8 

4.9 

10.1 

4.4 

7.4 

16.3 

8.0 
6.1 
6.8 
5.0 
0.1 

4.9 
9.8 
6.1 
2.9 
0.2 

3.2 
10.8 
5.4 
6.2 
10.1 
6.1 
0.2 

3.6 
4.8 
6.2 
10.3 
7.0 
9.1 
1.3 



7.5 
5.9 
3.2 
0.1 



3.2 

2.0 

4.2 

4.3 
2.2 

2.8 

2.7 
4.3 
5.6 

2.8 
4.4 
3.3 
3.0 



2.7 
3.5 
4.0 
1.1 
0.4 

2.8 
4.3 
3.8 
3.1 
2.9 
2.7 
0.5 

2.5 
2.9 
3.3 
4.9 
4.1 
4.5 
1.2 



4.2 
3.3 
2.7 



0.9 

0.6 

1.2 

1.0 
0.6 

1.3 

0.7 
0.9 
3.3 

0.2 
1.0 
1.1 
1.3 



0.8 
0.8 
1.2 
0.2 
0.1 

1.0 
0.6 
0.8 
0.7 
4.5 
1.1 
0.1 

0.2 
0.5 
0.9 
1.5 
1.6 
1.7 
0.5 



1.2 
1.0 
0.1 



0.8 

0.3 

0.9 

1.5 
1.0 

1.1 

0.7 
0.9 
3.5 

0.9 
1.0 
0.9 
0.9 



0.4 
1.1 
1.1 
0.1 



0.9 
0.8 
0.8 
1.4 
1.2 
1.4 



1.1 
0.6 
0.9 
0.9 
1.1 
1.3 



1.2 
0.8 
0.4 



0.4 

0.3 

0.4 

0.5 
0.9 

0.7 

0.3 
0.5 
1.5 

0.5 
0.4 
0.7 
0.4 
0.1 

0.5 
0.3 
0.5 

0.2 

0.5 
0.3 
0.5 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 
0.5 

0.2 
0.5 
0.3 
0.3 
0.6 
0.9 
0.1 



0.5 
0.5 
0.4 
0.1 



9,934 
2,499 



16.1 
17.1 



9.1 
7.6 



4.1 
4.1 



1.3 
3.5 



1.0 
1.4 



0.6 
0.4 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



<L- 



Table 5F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN 
(CAD) OUTPUT USED IN PROCUREMENT ACTIVITIES— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Percent distribution 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Not 
Other specified 2 



Absc -*e 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 



Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies:— Cont. 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff con- 
ducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal train- 
ing for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in 
the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



1,148 
1 1 ,808 
13,573 

4,029 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



11.0 

11.2 

9.7 

0.4 



8.9 
11.6 
12.6 
23.7 
19.3 

0.7 



4.6 

13.9 

13.1 

7.5 

0.4 



13.2 
10.6 
13.2 

6.2 
0.3 



12.8 

14.2 

14.5 

3.9 



9.5 
13.4 
15.0 

0.4 



16.2 

11.7 

16.1 

0.2 



4.1 
4.7 
5.6 
0.3 



4.8 
5.1 
6.8 
14.2 
9.3 
0.5 



3.3 
7.0 
7.1 
3.9 
0.1 



6.9 
3.0 
7.9 

2.5 

0.1 



6.5 
6.1 
9.0 
1.6 



4.9 
7.1 
6.8 
0.2 



7.5 

5.9 

11.7 

0.1 



4.9 
4.1 
2.5 
0.1 



2.6 
3.6 
3.8 
5.3 
6.3 
0.2 



0.2 
4.3 
2.4 
2.3 

0.2 



3.8 
3.9 
2.9 

2.2 
0.1 



3.8 
4.2 
3.5 
1.3 



2.6 
3.8 
5.1 
0.1 



4.9 
3.4 
2.5 



1.1 
0.9 
0.4 



0.4 
1.5 
0.4 

1.4 
2.4 



0.3 
1.0 
1.2 
0.9 



1.1 
0.9 
0.5 

0.7 



1.1 
1.8 

0.5 
0.4 



0.7 
1.2 
1.0 



1.7 
1.0 

0.6 



-^ 



0.3 
1.1 
0.7 



0.8 
0.9 
1.1 
1.2 
0.7 
0.1 



1.0 
1.8 

0.4 



0.9 
1.9 
1.6 

0.5 



0.9 
1.5 
1.1 
0.3 



0.9 
0.7 
1.7 



1.4 
0.9 
0.9 



0.4 
0.5 



0.2 
0.4 
0.5 
1.6 
0.6 
0.1 



0.8 
0.6 
0.5 
0.1 
0.1 



0.5 
0.8 
0.4 

0.2 
0.2 



0.5 
0.5 
0.3 
0.3 



0.3 
0.6 
0.5 
0.2 



0.5 



2.4 
0.9 
0.6 
0.1 



0.9 
0.7 
1.0 
1.8 

25 
0.2 



1.1 
0.6 
\2 
1.3 
0.1 



0.6 
1.7 
1.5 

1.1 

0.1 



0.6 
1.7 
1.3 
0.6 



0.7 
0.7 
1.6 
0.1 



14 
0-5 

i a 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major group, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



.", .' S.; ".- :■ .->• •-.-■•;-> 



62 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: FLEXIBLE 
MANUFACTURING CELLS (FMC) OR SYSTEMS (FMS) 











Percent distribution 








When technology was 












Absolute 








Number 




first implemented: 






Plan to use within 




standard 


Establishment characteristic 




























Number 


Used in 


of 
dedi- 






More 












error of 
"Used in 




of 


opera- 


cated 


Within 




than 5 


Not 










opera- 




establish- 


tions 


work 


past 2 


Last 2 to 


years 


speci- 




2 to 5 


No plans 


Not 


tions" 




ments 1 


(percent) 


stations 


years 


5 years 


ago 


fied 2 


2 years 


years 


to use 


specified 


(percent) 3 


All establishments 


42,991 


12.6 


- 


3.8 


4.6 


3.8 


0.4 


4.0 


5.5 


66.8 


11.1 


0.4 


Major Group: 


























34, Fabricated Metal Products. 


13,190 


9.6 


- 


2.8 


3.4 


3.1 


0.3 


4.2 


5.4 


68.9 


12.0 


0.7 


35, Industrial Machinery and 


























Equipment 


14,231 


11.8 


- 


3.2 


4.6 


3.6 


0.4 


3.8 


5.2 


69.2 


10.1 


0.8 


36, Electronic and Other 


























Electric Equipment 


7,472 


17.0 


- 


5.6 


6.0 


4.9 


0.5 


4.0 


4.9 


62.5 


11.7 


0.9 


37, Transportation Equipment . 


4,110 


15.5 


- 


5.4 


5.0 


4.8 


0.3 


4.5 


7.1 


61.4 


11.6 


1.1 


38, Instruments and Related 


























Products 


3,988 


14.3 


- 


4.7 


5.5 


3.7 


0.4 


4.2 


6.3 


64.8 


10.4 


1.0 


Employment size: 


























20 to 99 


30,502 

10,321 

2,168 


7.6 
21.4 
40.2 


- 


2.3 
7.6 
7.8 


2.9 

7.5 

14.3 


2.2 

5.7 

16.9 


0.2 
0.6 
1.2 


3.0 
6.7 
6.6 


4.7 
7.8 
6.1 


72.6 

55.6 

. 38.0 


12.1 
8.6 
9.1 


0.5 


100 to 499 


0.7 


500 and over 


0.8 


Age of plant (years): 


























Less than 5 . . 


4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 


13.3 
13.4 
13.4 
15.1 


- 


5.7 
3.8 
4.4 
3.7 


4.9 
5.2 
4.5 
5.5 


2.5 
3.8 
4.1 
5.6 


0.2 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 


4.1 
4.5 
4.6 
4.1 
0.5 


6.3 
5.7 
5.6 
6.5 
0.7 


71.5 
72.9 
72.8 
70.6 
10.9 


4.7 
3.7 
3.6 
3.6 
87.9 


1.3 


5 to 1 5 


0.8 


16 to 30 


0.9 


Over 30 


0.8 


Not specified 


0.1 


Manufacturing process: 


























Fabrication/machining 


6,795 


8.2 


- 


2.0 


3.4 


2.3 


0.5 


3.0 


5.2 


80.0 


3.6 


0.8 


Assembly 


6,388 


15.7 


- 


5.4 


5.8 


4.0 


0.5 


3.9 


4.3 


73.3 


2.7 


1.0 


Both 


23,393 


15.9 


- 


4.9 


5.7 


5.0 


0.3 


5.2 


7.2 


68.3 


3.5 


0.6 


Neither 


2,577 


4.9 


- 


0.9 


1.4 


1.8 


0.8 


1.4 


1.6 


84.0 


8.1 


1.3 


Not specified 


3,838 


0.3 


_ 


_ 


0.2 


0.1 


. 


0.8 


. 


11.9 


87.0 


0.1 


Market for most products: 


























Consumer 


4,358 


12.6 


- 


2.8 


5.1 


4.3 


0.4 


4.2 


7.7 


70.5 


5.0 


1.0 


Commercial 


5,791 


17.1 


- 


5.8 


6.7 


4.4 


0.2 


5.5 


5.5 


69.1 


2.7 


1.3 


Industrial 


18,796 


11.7 


- 


3.4 


4.1 


3.7 


0.5 


3.9 


5.9 


74.6 


3.9 


0.7 


Transportation 


3,974 


20.7 


- 


6.4 


7.1 


7.0 


0.2 


5.1 


7.0 


63.8 


3.4 


1.6 


Government 


2,141 


16.3 


- 


3.8 


6.2 


6.2 


0.1 


4.1 


6.2 


69.7 


3.7 


2.1 


Other 


3,679 


11.2 


- 


5.1 


3.4 


1.9 


0.8 


5.1 


4.2 


75.4 


4.1 


1.2 


Not specified 


4,252 


2.0 


_ 


0.4 


1.2 


0.3 


0.1 


0.8 


0.5 


18.8 


77.8 


0.7 


Market price for most products: 


























Less than $5 


5,274 


15.8 


_ 


4.6 


5.9 


4.8 


0.5 


4.3 


6.0 


70.2 


3.8 


1.2 


$5 to $100 


10,422 


15.6 


_ 


5.5 


5.8 


3.8 


0.5 


5.2 


7.0 


68.3 


3.8 


1.0 


$101 to $1,000 


8,846 


13.6 


. 


4.0 


5.4 


4.0 


0.2 


4.3 


6.8 


72.4 


3.0 


1.1 


$1,001 to $2,000 


2,023 


13.4 




3.3 


5.0 


4.7 


0.4 


4.3 


5.4 


73.6 


3.3 


2.1 


$2,001 to $10,000 


4,265 


11.6 


. 


3.5 


3.6 


3.7 


0.8 


5.2 


5.2 


75.0 


3.1 


1.2 


Over $10,000 


7,340 


11.8 


. 


3.3 


3.6 


4.7 


0.2 


3.2 


4.6 


76.7 


3.7 


0.9 


Not specified 


4,821 


2.2 


_ 


0.3 


1.2 


0.5 


0.2 


1.0 


0.9 


24.3 


71.6 


0.6 


Products made to military 


























specifications: 


























Yes 


14,112 


17.0 


- 


4.7 


6.4 


5.5 


0.4 


5.3 


7.7 


66.9 


3.1 


0.9 


No 


22,214 


12.0 


- 


3.8 


4.3 


3.5 


0.4 


4.0 


5.0 


74.8 


4.1 


0.5 


Don't know 


2,939 
3,726 


11.0 
0.1 


- 


4.1 


4.1 


2.3 
0.1 


0.5 


3.4 
0.1 


5.0 

0.1 


76.2 
11.0 


4.3 
88.7 


1.7 


Not specified 


0.1 


Percent, on an annual basis, of 


























all products manufactured at 


























the plant that are shipped 


























directly to other companies 


























who are prime defense 


























contractors to Federal Defense 


























Agencies: 


























1 to 25 percent 


9,934 


17.1 


_ 


5.2 


6.7 


4.9 


0.3 


5.9 


7.6 


66.8 


2.7 


1.1 


26 to 75 percent 


2,499 


15.8 


. 


3.6 


6.0 


5.0 


1.2 


3.1 


8.2 


70.4 


2.4 


2.1 


Over 75 percent 


1,148 


16.0 


. 


4.4 


6.2 


5.2 


0.2 


5.1 


3.8 


66.9 


8.2 


3.3 


None 


1 1 ,808 


11.7 


. 


3.3 


4.4 


3.6 


0.4 


3.1 


5.1 


76.3 


3.8 


0.7 


Don't know 


13,573 
4,029 


12.8 
0.3 


- 


4.3 
0.2 


4.2 
0.1 


3.9 


0.4 


4.7 
0.2 


5.4 
0.5 


73.3 
14.7 


3.8 
84.2 


0.7 


Not specified 


0.1 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Vi 



Table 6A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: FLEXIBLE 
MANUFACTURING CELLS (FMC) OR SYSTEMS (FMS)— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of 
dedi- 
cated 
work 

stations 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented: 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 

■pec I ad 



V-i' Ci'" 

twos 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


8.6 


15,360 


15.9 


4,737 


17.4 


3,912 


16.8 


1,398 


16.3 


3,897 


1.6 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



9.8 
14.3 
23.6 

5.7 
0.4 



14.6 

28.0 

16.4 

4.3 

0.4 



13.2 

26.4 

20.3 

3.7 



12.0 

14.5 

15.8 

0.3 



22.3 

12.6 

23.1 

0.2 



2.5 
5.3 
5.7 
4.2 
3.6 
0.3 



2.5 
4.8 
6.0 

1.3 



4.4 
8.3 
5.7 
1.1 
0.1 



3.8 
8.4 
7.6 
0.8 



3.5 
4.6 
4.6 



6.5 
3.9 
6.2 



3.0 
5.4 
7.4 
6.3 
7.2 
0.9 



4.3 
5.2 
8.5 

2.1 
0.2 



5.3 
8.7 
6.2 
2.1 



4.9 
9.2 
6.6 
1.9 



4.4 
5.4 
5.1 
0.2 



8.6 
4.6 
8.1 



2.9 
4.8 
4.0 
5.6 
4.6 
0.4 



2.7 
4.0 
8.3 

1.9 
0.2 



4.4 
9.6 
4.4 
1.1 
0.3 



4.1 
8.1 
5.7 
0.8 



3.8 
3.9 
5.9 
0.1 



6.3 
3.7 
8.3 
0.2 



0.2 
0.4 
0.3 
0.7 
0.9 



0.3 
0.3 
0.8 

0.4 



0.5 
1.4 
0.1 



0.4 
0.7 
0.4 
0.2 



0.3 
0.6 
0.2 



0.9 
0.4 

0.5 



3.5 
5.4 
4.6 
3.9 
3.1 
0.4 



1.0 
4.9 
6.9 

1.9 



4.2 
10.4 
6.1 
3.2 
0.2 



4.0 
8.0 
7.1 
1.7 



3.1 
5.3 
4.4 
0.1 



5.3 
4.3 

5.6 



4.3 
7.0 
7.1 

7.6 
3.6 
0.3 



3.5 
6.7 
6.5 

3.7 



6.3 
4.9 
7.0 
3.7 



5.9 
7.1 
8.2 
2.3 



4.7 
6.8 
6.4 

0.3 



4.5 
6.1 
6.1 



79.2 
68.3 
68.3 
68.3 
73.6 
11.2 



82.7 
70.1 
60.2 

85.7 
9.5 



71.0 
54.7 
67.0 
86.1 
9.3 



72.8 
56.0 
61.9 
53.7 



76.2 
70.4 
68.2 
11.8 



65.1 

73.3 

61.8 

7.0 



4.3 
3.4 
2.6 
3.4 
3.4 
86.5 



2.9 
4.0 
2.8 

3.1 
90.1 



4.0 
2.0 
3.4 
2.8 

90.2 



4.0 

2.5 

2.5 

38.7 



4.0 

3.0 
5.1 



2.9 
3.8 
3.5 

92 8 



: ■■■. 
;-. 
u 

\2 
1.9 
0.6 



1.9 
0.6 
1.3 

1.0 

0-2 



0.6 
3.1 
1.5 
08 
0.1 



06 
2-3 
1.4 
0.6 



08 
06 
16 
0.2 



1.5 
0.5 
2.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates, 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



64 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON 
FOR USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELLS 
(FMC) OR SYSTEMS (FMS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equip- 

ment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Prod- 

ucts 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent , 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



12.6 

9.5 

11.8 

17.0 
15.5 

14.2 

7.6 
21.3 
40.1 

13.4 
13.3 
13.4 
15.2 



8.2 

15.8 

15.9 

4.9 

0.2 

12.6 
17.1 
11.7 
20.7 
16.3 
11.2 
2.0 

15.7 
15.7 
13.6 
13.3 
11.7 
11.8 
2.2 



17.0 

12.1 

11.1 

0.1 



17.0 
15.8 
15.9 
11.7 
12.9 
0.3 



3.5 

2.4 

3.0 

5.6 
3.8 

4.4 

2.0 

6.1 

12.2 

4.6 
3.8 
3.0 
4.4 



1.7 
5.4 
4.3 
0.8 



2.6 
5.6 
3.0 
6.1 
5.3 
3.2 
0.2 

3.4 
4.6 
4.7 
2.2 
3.4 
2.8 
0.7 



4.8 
3.2 
4.0 



4.8 
4.3 
7.7 
2.9 
3.5 



5.0 

4.4 

5.3 

5.4 
6.3 

4.5 

3.2 

8.6 

13.7 

4.8 
5.4 
5.9 
5.8 



3.4 
5.1 
6.7 
1.9 



4.0 
7.5 
5.2 
8.4 
4.5 
4.0 
0.3 

6.9 
5.9 
4.8 
6.7 
5.1 
5.1 
0.8 



7.1 
4.7 
4.3 



7.5 
6.1 
3.0 
4.8 
4.9 
0.1 



2.5 

1.9 

1.9 

3.3 
3.4 

3.6 

1.4 
4.0 
9.5 

2.1 
2.2 
3.2 
3.1 



2.2 
2.9 
2.9 
1.3 
0.1 

3.5 
1.9 
2.3 
4.1 
5.6 
2.1 
0.1 

3.6 
3.0 
2.8 
2.1 
1.2 
2.7 
0.2 



3.3 
2.5 
1.4 
0.1 



3.1 
4.2 
3.8 
2.3 
2.4 



0.8 

0.3 

0.8 

1.6 
1.4 

0.5 

0.5 
1.2 
3.3 

1.1 
0.9 
0.8 
0.9 



0.3 
1.3 
1.1 
0.1 



1.4 
1.1 
0.7 
1.2 
0.7 
0.9 



0.7 
0.9 
0.8 
1.5 
1.0 
0.9 
0.2 



0.9 
0.9 
0.4 



0.7 
0.9 
0.9 
1.1 
0.8 



0.8 

0.5 

.8 

1.1 
0.6 

1.1 

0.5 
1.5 
1.8 

0.8 
1.1 
0.5 
1.0 



0.6 
1.1 
0.8 
0.9 
0.1 

1.1 
1.0 
0.5 
0.9 
0.2 
0.9 
1.4 

1.1 
1.3 
0.4 
0.9 
0.9 
0.4 
0.3 



0.9 
0.8 
1.0 



0.8 
0.4 
0.4 
0.7 
1.2 
0.1 



J93 Manufacturing Technology 



*-: 



able 6B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON 
FOR USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING CELLS 
(FMC) OR SYSTEMS (FMS)— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



error of 
"Used* 

(percent) 2 



ircent of the total value of shipments 
lat are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

lere is most of the research and 
evelopment work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

lere is most of the formal training for 
le staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Dutside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

io conducts most of the formal 
aining for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

ficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
ork with the technologies used in the 
lant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

*/ery difficult 

Not specified 

ies a foreign entity own, directly or 
idirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
Dting stock or other equity rights to 
le plant: 

Ves 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



8.7 
15.9 
17.5 
16.8 
16.3 

1.7 



9.9 

14.3 

23.6 

5.7 

0.4 



14.6 
28.0 
16.4 

4.3 
0.4 



13.3 

26.4 

20.2 

3.6 



12.0 

14.5 

15.8 

0.3 



22.3 

12.5 

23.0 

0.3 



2.4 
4.3 
4.5 
5.3 
5.2 
0.4 



1.1 
4.2 
6.6 
1.0 
0.1 



4.0 
9.3 
3.9 

1.2 
0.1 



3.9 
5.9 
5.1 
0.9 



3.8 
3.8 
4.0 
0.1 



7.7 
3.3 
5.5 
0.1 



3.4 
6.3 
7.0 
6.3 
8.2 
0.9 



4.2 
5.8 
8.3 
3.1 
0.1 



5.8 

10.5 

7.8 

1.5 
0.1 



5.2 

11.1 

9.2 

1.0 



4.8 
5.9 
6.2 



6.7 
5.2 
9.3 
0.1 



1.7 

3.4 
3.6 
2.8 
1.7 
0.1 



3.9 
2.7 
4.8 
0.8 



2.8 
6.3 
3.5 

0.9 
0.1 



2.5 
6.1 
4.3 
0.7 



1.9 
3.2 
3.0 
0.2 



4.5 
2.4 
4.9 



0.5 
1.0 
1.1 
1.4 

0.4 
0.2 



0.9 
1.9 
0.3 



1.1 
0.6 
0.5 

0.2 



1.0 
1.5 
0.8 
0.2 



0.7 
0.9 
1.3 



1.2 
0.8 

1.5 



0.6 
0.9 
1.4 
1.0 
0.8 
0.1 



0.7 
0.7 
2.1 

0.4 
0.2 



0.9 
1.4 
0.7 

0.4 
0.1 



0.7 
1.8 
0.9 
0.8 



0.8 
0.8 
1.3 



2.1 
0.7 
1.7 



08 
0.8 
1.3 
\2 
1.9 
0.6 



1.9 
0.6 
1.3 
1.0 

0.2 



0.6 
3.1 
1.5 

0.8 
0.1 



0.6 
23 
1.4 
0.6 



0.8 
0.6 
1.6 
0.2 



1.5 
0.5 
2.1 
0.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sarrp e 
ilative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found In appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" Includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given In appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



66 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: NUMERICALLY 
CONTROLLED (NC)/COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (CNC) MACHINES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
1 1 ,808 
13,573 
4,029 



46.3 

40.4 

61.8 

34.5 
44.1 

35.1 

41.4 
56.6 
67.0 

38.4 
47.9 
53.7 
57.3 
1.6 

57.1 
14.6 
62.7 
12.7 
2.7 

33.9 
44.4 
55.6 
54.8 
62.8 
42.2 
7.8 

39.5 
51.1 
54.6 
43.7 
54.9 
54.2 
10.0 



62.4 

44.3 

42.5 

0.6 



61.2 
65.9 
64.8 
42.3 
46.6 
3.4 



171,772 

28,926 

90,726 

19,684 
21,966 

10,469 

81,323 
53,341 
37,108 

10,791 
46,258 
60,953 
53,320 
450 

45,315 

5,285 

119,511 

1,367 

293 

8,994 
19,651 
90,324 
25,838 
11,620 
12,811 

2,533 

11,994 
46,083 
53,908 

7,164 
16,045 
33,211 

3,366 



86,360 

76,597 

8,748 

65 



55,776 
13,849 

4,751 
49,309 
46,740 

1,347 



4.3 

4.2 

4.6 

3.4 
4.7 

5.0 

4.2 
4.8 
4.3 

6.2 
4.2 
5.4 
3.9 



5.0 
2.8 
5.5 
2.2 



5.3 
4.3 
4.4 
4.7 
7.2 
4.5 
1.1 

5.3 
4.7 
5.4 
2.6 
5.9 
3.7 
0.8 



4.9 
4.9 
2.6 



5.3 
6.6 
7.0 
5.0 
3.7 



11.6 

11.1 

14.3 

8.5 
11.7 

8.9 

10.9 
13.4 
12.6 

15.8 
11.9 
13.1 
11.7 
0.2 

14.8 
4.9 

15.3 
1.9 
1.0 

11.2 
11.9 
12.8 
16.4 
13.2 
11.7 
0.7 

14.2 
13.1 
12.3 
12.6 
14.1 
10.7 
2.7 



13.5 

12.1 

12.7 

0.3 



13.6 
11.8 
15.0 
12.0 
12.6 
1.0 



29.2 

23.9 

41.6 

21.4 
26.1 

20.3 

25.2 
36.9 
48.2 

15.7 
30.5 
33.6 
40.6 
0.6 

35.3 
6.4 

40.4 
8.5 

1.7 

17.0 
27.3 
36.9 
31.8 
41.4 
25.2 
5.0 

19.2 
31.4 
35.5 
27.2 
34.2 
38.7 
5.6 



41.8 

26.3 

27.0 

0.3 



40.7 
43.4 
41.8 
24.5 
29.1 
2.3 



1.2 

1.2 

1.3 

1.2 
1.6 

0.9 

1.1 
1.5 
1.9 

0.7 
1.3 
1.6 
1.1 
0.8 

2.0 
0.5 
1.5 
0.1 



0.4 
0.9 
1.5 
1.9 
1.0 
0.8 
1.0 

0.8 
1.9 
1.4 
1.3 
0.7 
1.1 
0.9 



2.2 
1.0 
0.2 



1.6 
4.1 
1.0 
0.8 
1.2 
0.1 



2.4 

2.5 

2.1 

2.4 
2.9 

2.3 

2.4 
2.1 
2.3 

3.8 
2.5 
2.9 
1.5 
0.5 

3.4 
1.9 
2.7 
0.7 
0.3 

2.6 
1.9 
2.8 
2.4 
1.5 
3.2 
0.6 

3.4 
2.8 
2.0 
3.2 
1.5 
2.6 
0.9 



2.0 
3.0 
2.4 
0.2 



2.6 
4.4 
1.0 
2.4 
2.4 
0.3 



3.7 

5.3 

2.4 

3.2 
3.2 

4.2 

3.9 
3.5 
1.3 

3.9 
4.1 
3.7 
4.4 



3.6 
3.2 
4.4 
3.1 
0.2 

6.0 
4.6 
3.2 
5.6 
3.4 
3.6 
0.4 

5.3 
4.4 
3.7 
6.8 
2.9 
2.8 
0.9 



4.4 
3.9 
2.7 
0.2 



4.0 
4.2 
2.0 
4.4 
3.8 
0.2 



37.8 

41.0 

25.3 

49.1 
40.0 

48.8 

41.5 
30.6 
21.0 

51.3 
42.9 
37.4 
34.9 
10.3 

34.1 
77.6 
28.4 
75.5 
10.3 

52.8 
47.4 
36.4 
35.2 
31.1 
47.9 
12.8 

48.8 
39.5 
38.1 
45.0 
38.9 
38.3 
17.1 



29.9 
46.0 
49.0 
10.5 



31.2 
25.2 
30.5 
47.7 
44.4 
12.9 



9.8 

10.8 

8.4 

10.8 
9.8 

9.6 

10.8 
7.3 
8.2 

2.6 
2.7 
2.3 
1.9 
87.7 

1.8 
2.6 
1.8 
8.0 
86.5 

4.7 
1.7 
2.0 
1.9 
1.1 
3.0 
78.3 

3.1 
2.2 
1.6 
1.4 
1.9 
2.0 
71.2 



1.4 

2.8 

3.5 

88.5 



1.1 
0.2 
1.6 
3.2 
2.7 
83.1 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



-r 



Table 6C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: NUMERICALLY 
CONTROLLED (NC)/COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (CNC) MACHINES— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to5 
years 






'.',• 



-.■:■ ■; 
coe^a- 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



48.7 
50.7 
54.3 
54.5 
45.3 
3.6 



43.9 
52.2 
48.0 

48.6 

1.2 



50.0 
52.2 
63.4 
44.4 
1.8 



48.7 
53.6 
64.2 
27.4 



37.9 

55.6 

65.2 

2.3 



54.4 

50.1 

49.5 

1.1 



60,781 
59,478 
23,562 
18,903 
7,881 
1,166 



4,461 

101,126 

26,844 

39,042 
296 



119,377 

7,625 

14,985 

29,489 

295 



102,015 
10,599 
28,275 
30,882 



37,187 

105,762 

28,101 

721 



18,461 

144,992 

8,104 

213 



4.5 
4.8 
50 

5.1 
5.1 



5.2 
5.6 
4.2 

1.9 



4.8 
3.8 
8.2 
2.1 
0.1 



4.6 
4.9 
7.4 
1.5 



3.2 
5.6 
5.4 
0.2 



5.3 
4.6 
5.1 
0.1 



11.6 
13.6 
12.8 
13.5 
8.6 
1.3 



10.3 
13.0 
13.8 

11.1 
0.6 



12.6 
11.6 
14.0 
12.0 
0.4 



12.4 

13.4 

14.3 

7.2 



9.9 
13.8 
15.6 

0.4 



15.7 

12.3 

11.6 

0.6 



31.2 
31.2 
34.7 
34.6 
29.7 
2.2 



25.3 
32.2 
28.7 

34.7 
0.6 



31.3 
34.7 
39.3 
29.3 
1.2 



30.4 
34.4 
40.7 
18.0 



23.9 

34.3 

43.5 

1.7 



32.2 

31.8 

31.6 

0.4 



1.4 

1.1 
1.8 
1.3 
1.9 
0.1 



3.1 

1.4 
1.3 

0.9 



1.3 
2.1 
1.9 
1.0 
0.1 



1.3 
0.9 
1.8 
0.7 



0.9 
1.9 

0.7 



1.2 
1.4 
1.2 



1.9 
3.2 
2.6 
2.4 
2.8 
0.4 



0.9 
2.8 
3.9 

1.4 



2.6 
4.9 
2.8 
1.5 

0.2 



2.5 
3.6 
3.7 
1.0 



2.1 
2.6 
3.7 



29 
2.5 
3.2 



3.3 
4.9 
4.0 
4.0 
2.0 



6.1 
4.5 
3.0 

1.9 
1.0 



4.3 
2.6 
2.7 
3.4 
0.1 



4.3 
3.8 
3.0 
2.2 



3.3 
4.6 
3.7 



40 
4.0 
42 



434 
39.1 
380 
37.3 
47.8 
9.8 



477 
38.2 
42.7 

46.0 
8.4 



40.5 
38.7 
30.3 
48.8 
8.0 



41.8 
38.1 
28.3 
31.5 



54.1 
35.3 
24.2 
11.1 



36.6 

41.1 

41.3 

6.3 



2.9 
£1 
1.1 
1.7 

£1 
86.2 



1.3 
2.3 
2.5 

22 

894 



2.6 
1.5 
1.0 
2.0 
90.0 






27 

0.9 

0.8 

378 



26 

1.8 

3.2 

866 



21 

23 

18 

926 



1.5 
\2 
1.9 
2J0 
3.3 
0.7 



39 
0.9 
18 

2.3 
04 



09 
4.1 

24 

2* 
04 



09 
32 
18 
1.6 



13 
10 
2.0 
06 



£0 
08 
3-2 

; j 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
*"Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



68 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 

USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (NC)/COMPUTER NUMERICALLY 
CONTROLLED (CNC) MACHINES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
1 1 ,808 
13,573 
4,029 



46.3 

40.4 

61.9 

34.5 
44.1 

35.1 

41.4 
56.2 
67.1 

38.4 
47.9 
53.7 
57.3 
1.6 

57.1 
14.7 
62.7 
12.8 
2.8 

33.9 
44.4 
55.6 
54.9 
62.9 
42.2 
7.9 

39.4 
51.1 
54.6 
43.6 
54.9 
54.2 
10.0 



62.4 

44.3 

42.5 

0.6 



61.1 
66.0 
64.9 
42.3 
46.6 
3.4 



16.0 

14.5 

19.7 

12.8 
16.3 

13.1 

13.6 
20.7 
26.3 

14.2 
16.2 
17.9 
20.7 



20.3 
5.5 

21.5 
3.5 
0.8 

13.4 
17.6 
18.0 
19.6 
18.7 
16.2 
2.5 

17.9 
17.7 
19.6 
11.7 
17.4 
16.2 
3.7 



21.0 
15.5 
15.7 



20.9 
19.3 
25.8 
14.3 
17.0 
0.4 



19.9 

16.6 

29.3 

13.2 
16.7 

12.9 

18.7 
22.6 
22.7 

17.6 
21.2 
22.8 
23.5 
0.6 

25.2 
5.0 

27.1 
5.6 
0.8 

11.6 
17.3 
26.1 
21.3 
26.7 
17.3 
1.8 

12.6 
21.6 
22.4 
19.7 
27.8 
25.6 
4.0 



26.8 

19.2 

17.1 

0.3 



26.1 
30.1 
30.0 
18.1 
19.5 
2.0 



6.0 

4.8 

8.2 

4.7 
5.7 

5.0 

5.0 

7.4 

12.9 

3.6 
5.9 
7.6 
7.9 



6.2 
2.8 
8.3 
1.6 



5.1 
5.8 
7.0 
5.7 
13.1 
4.3 
0.8 

4.1 
6.3 
7.3 
6.2 
7.6 
8.0 
0.6 



8.5 
5.4 
5.6 



8.2 
10.6 
3.6 
5.7 
5.7 
0.2 



1.5 

1.6 

1.5 

1.3 
1.9 

1.3 

1.4 
1.9 
2.4 

0.9 
2.1 
1.7 
1.4 



0.9 
0.6 
2.4 
0.2 



1.7 
1.9 
1.5 
2.3 
1.4 
1.9 
0.2 

2.2 
1.6 
1.5 
2.9 
0.6 
1.9 
0.6 



2.2 
1.4 
2.0 



1.6 
2.2 
3.1 
1.8 
1.6 



2.9 

2.8 

3.1 

2.5 
3.5 

2.7 

2.7 
3.5 
3.2 

2.1 
2.4 
3.8 
3.8 
1.0 

4.5 
0.8 
3.4 
1.9 
1.2 

.2.1 
1.8 
2.9 
6.0 
2.9 
2.5 
2.5 

2.6 
4.0 
3.8 
3.2 
1.4 
2.5 
1.1 



3.9 
2.8 
2.0 
0.3 



4.2 
3.8 
2.4 
2.4 
2.9 
0.8 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



-/: 



Table 6D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 

USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (NC)/COMPUTER NUMERICALLY 
CONTROLLED (CNC) MACHINES— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



— 



Not 
specified 2 



error of 
"Used in 

(percent) 3 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 1 9 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



48.6 
50.7 
54.4 
54.5 
45.3 
3.5 



44.0 
52.2 
47.9 
48.6 
1.2 



50.0 
52.2 
63.3 

44.3 
1.7 



48.8 
53.5 
64.2 
27.5 



38.0 

55.6 

65.2 

2.3 



54.3 

50.1 

49.4 

1.1 



16.8 
17.1 
19.0 
17.9 
21.0 
1.4 



13.3 
17.9 
19.9 
15.3 
0.2 



17.8 
16.0 
20.7 

13.6 
0.5 



17.2 

17.6 

23.0 

7.8 



13.2 

18.3 

25.6 

0.6 



20.0 

17.0 

20.0 

0.4 



20.5 
22.9 
21.3 
23.5 
17.7 
1.4 



15.9 
22.7 
17.8 
22.6 
0.3 



21.4 
23.6 
28.1 

19.2 
0.3 



21.3 
22.0 
25.6 
12.1 



16.0 

24.9 

25.5 

0.5 



19.5 

22.1 

17.3 

0.3 



6.7 
6.2 
7.7 
7.1 
3.5 
0.3 



8.6 
6.7 
6.0 
5.7 
0.2 



6.3 

10.1 

8.5 

6.0 
0.3 



6.1 
8.4 
9.1 
3.5 



5.4 
7.0 
7.8 
0.3 



8.3 
6.3 
7.3 



1.4 
1.7 
2.3 
2.2 
1.1 
0.2 



0.7 
1.8 
1.5 
1.5 



1.8 
0.5 
1.8 

1.5 



1.5 
2.6 
2.2 
1.0 



1.6 
1.5 
2.2 

0.4 



2.9 
1.6 
0.8 



3.2 
2.8 
4.0 
3.9 
1.9 
0.3 



5.5 
3.0 
2.6 
3.5 
0.5 



2.9 
2.1 
4.1 

4.1 
0.6 



2.6 
2.8 
4.2 
3.1 



1.7 
3.9 
4.1 
0.5 



3.6 
3.1 
4.0 
0.3 



1.5 
\2 
1.9 

2 : 

3.3 
0.7 



3.9 
0.9 
1.8 
2.3 
0.4 



0.9 
4.1 
2^ 

2.4 
0.4 



0.9 
32 
1.8 
1.6 



1.3 
1.0 
2.0 
06 



2.0 

: B 

3.2 
0.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



70 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: MATERIALS 
WORKING LASERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 



Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over . . 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified .... 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 



Neither 

Not specified . 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant, that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense contrac- 
tors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



5.0 

3.4 

4.3 

7.9 
5.3 

6.4 

2.8 

7.6 

22.6 

4.0 
5.0 
6.2 
5.8 
0.2 

5.9 
3.1 
6.0 
2.9 
0.2 

3.8 
6.0 
5.4 
5.6 
7.0 
4.9 
1.1 

4.4 
6.2 
6.3 
4.8 
4.0 
4.5 
1.7 



8.3 
3.8 
2.9 
0.1 



7.8 
7.5 
8.4 
3.5 
4.5 
1.3 



7,846 

711 

1,429 

4,341 
833 

532 

1,500 
1,680 
4,666 

508 

1,661 

1,668 

4,000 

8 

1,141 
830 

5,654 

217 

3 

674 
3,195 
2,357 
588 
452 
378 
201 

838 
4,230 
1,113 

247 

254 
1,065 

100 



5,478 

2,131 

236 



1,775 
367 
227 
996 

4,367 
113 



1.5 

1.1 

1.5 

2.1 
1.6 

1.6 

1.0 
2.4 
4.7 

1.6 
1.7 
1.6 
1.6 
0.1 

2.3 

1.0 
1.7 
0.4 
0.1 

0.8 
2.7 
1.5 
2.1 
0.8 
1.7 
0.1 

1.6 
2.3 
1.5 
1.9 
0.7 
1.0 
0.9 



2.3 
1.3 
0.8 
0.1 



2.3 
1.4 
1.2 
1.3 
1.4 
0.6 



1.3 

0.8 

1.1 

2.0 

1.6 

1.4 

0.5 
2.2 

7.0 

1.4 
1.2 
1.3 
1.7 



1.0 
0.6 

1.7 
0.7 
0.1 

1.7 
1.0 
1.1 
1.9 
2.2 
1.7 
0.3 

1.0 
1.3 
1.4 
1.3 
1.4 
1.6 
0.5 



1.8 
1.2 
0.9 



1.6 
1.0 
3.2 
1.2 
1.3 
0.1 



2.0 

1.3 

1.5 

3.5 
2.0 

3.0 

1.1 

2.7 

10.6 

0.8 
1.8 
3.0 
2.3 

0.1 

2.3 
1.2 
2.4 
1.8 



1.3 
2.2 
2.4 
1.4 
3.9 
1.3 
0.6 

1.7 
2.3 
3.1 
1.5 
1.7 
1.7 
0.3 



3.9 
1.1 
1.2 



3.5 
4.4 
4.0 
0.9 
1.6 
0.6 



0.2 

0.2 

0.2 

0.3 
0.1 

0.4 

0.2 
0.3 
0.3 

0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 



0.3 
0.3 
0.2 



0.1 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 

0.1 
0.3 
0.3 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 



0.3 
0.2 



0.4 
0.7 



0.1 
0.2 



2.2 

1.9 

2.4 

1.7 
3.3 

2.5 

1.7 
3.2 
4.6 

1.3 
2.6 
2.5 
2.6 
0.2 

2.7 
1.5 
2.7 
0.9 
0.4 

1.9 
3.3 
1.8 
3.6 
4.1 
2.5 
0.5 

2.1 
2.9 
2.2 
1.5 
2.2 
2.8 
0.2 



3.2 
2.0 
1.8 



3.1 
2.7 
2.7 
2.3 
2.0 



4.8 

6.1 

4.8 

3.1 
4.2 

4.1 

4.3 
5.7 
7.4 

4.2 
5.3 
5.0 
6.0 
0.2 

4.7 
2.7 
6.5 
1.4 
0.3 

5.1 
5.0 
5.3 
5.4 
6.2 
4.6 
1.0 

3.7 
5.9 
4.3 
5.8 
5.8 
5.5 
2.1 



6.7 
4.5 
3.5 
0.5 



6.7 
6.7 
4.3 
4.5 
4.7 
0.2 



77.0 

76.5 

78.3 

75.8 
76.0 

76.9 

79.1 
75.0 
56.1 

86.4 
83.1 
82.5 
82.6 
11.5 

82.8 
89.7 
81.3 
86.6 
12.2 

83.4 
83.2 
84.2 
82.1 
78.8 
83.3 
18.7 

85.6 
81.1 
83.8 
85.8 
84.7 
84.1 
24.4 



79.0 
85.4 
87.3 
10.6 



80.1 
81.1 
79.6 
85.5 
84.6 
15.0 



11.1 

12.1 

10.3 

11.5 
11.1 

10.2 

12.1 
8.6 

9.4 

4.0 
4.1 
3.7 
3.0 
87.9 

3.9 
2.9 
3.3 
8.2 
86.9 

5.9 
2.5 
3.3 
3.4 
3.9 
4.8 
78.7 

4.2 
3.9 
3.3 
1.9 
3.2 
3.0 
71.6 



2.9 

4.1 

4.6 

88.8 



2.4 
2.0 
5.0 
4.2 
4.2 
83.5 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



71 



Table 6E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: MATERIALS 
WORKING LASERS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use 



2 years 



-*- 



2to5 
years 






■■?■■■.' v 



pmem l 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the for- 
mal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



3.2 
5.2 
7.3 
9.4 
9.6 
0.7 



5.1 
5.7 
8.1 

2.6 
0.3 



5.6 
9.1 
6.0 
2.7 
0.3 



5.0 
9.4 
8.3 
1.9 



4.4 
6.1 
5.5 
0.1 



10.3 
4.8 
7.3 
0.1 



759 
4,856 
905 
941 
281 
104 



175 
5,787 
1,621 

254 
9 



6,500 
678 
427 
233 

7 



5,532 

1,156 

927 

230 



1,524 

5,557 

755 

9 



862 

6,655 

329 



1.2 
1.6 
1.7 
2.5 
3.6 
0.2 



1.4 
1.7 
2.3 

0.8 
0.1 



1.9 
1.7 
1.5 
0.4 
0.1 



1.8 
2.4 
1.9 
0.3 



1.4 
1.6 
2.5 
0.1 



2.9 
1.5 
2.4 
0.1 



0.9 
1.5 
1.7 
1.6 
1.7 
0.3 



1.6 
1.4 
2.6 

0.4 

0.1 



1.4 
1.8 
0.9 
1.3 
0.1 



1.3 
2.1 
1.4 
0.9 



0.9 
1.6 
1.7 



2.4 
1.2 
2.1 



1.0 
1.9 
3.6 
4.4 
3.9 
0.2 



1.3 
2.3 
2.9 

1.4 
0.1 



2.1 
4.0 
3.6 
0.9 
0.1 



1.7 
4.5 
4.6 
0.6 



1.8 
2.6 
1.3 



4.3 
1.9 
2.4 



0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.9 
0.4 



0.8 
0.3 
0.3 



0.2 
1.6 



0.1 



0.2 
0.4 

0.4 
0.1 



0.3 
0.3 



0.7 
0.2 

0.4 



1.8 
3.2 
2.3 
2.4 
0.9 
0.1 



1.5 
2.6 
3.4 

1.2 



2.3 
2.5 
3.9 
1.9 
0.2 



2.2 
3.5 
3.8 
1.2 



1.8 
2.7 
3.0 
0.1 



3.3 
2.3 
3.0 
0.1 



5.0 
5.3 
6.8 
4.5 
3.9 
0.6 



3.8 
5.6 
3.9 

4.8 
1.0 



5.1 
6.7 
9.8 
2.4 

0.2 



4.9 
6.8 
9.6 
1.5 



3.5 
6.5 
5.4 
0.2 



6.3 
5.0 
6.8 
02 



85.1 
83.2 
81.4 
81.0 
82.8 
12.3 



87.5 
82.3 
81.1 

87.8 
9.2 



82.9 
79.6 
78.4 
89.5 
9.2 



83.8 
78.2 
76.5 
56.6 



86.9 
81.5 
81.0 
12.4 



77.4 

84.0 

79.4 

68 



4.9 
3.2 
2.3 
2.6 
ZA 
N ': 



2.2 
3.8 
3.5 

3.7 
895 



4.0 

1.9 

19 

3.4 

90.2 



4.1 

2.1 

1.8 

388 



3.5 

32 

52 

87 2 



27 
38 
35 



: -: 

OS 

oe 
11 

1.9 
0-2 



14 
04 

0.8 

0.7 

0.1 



0.3 
1.7 
\2 
05 
0.1 



03 
15 
1.2 
0.3 



04 
0.4 
09 
01 



11 
03 

• -■ 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



72 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: MATERIALS WORKING LASERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment , 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 , 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000... 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



4.9 

3.4 

4.3 

7.8 
5.4 

6.2 

2.8 

7.5 

22.6 

4.0 
4.9 
6.2 
5.7 
0.1 

6.0 
3.2 
6.1 
2.9 
0.2 

3.8 
6.1 
5.3 
5.6 
7.0 
4.9 
1.1 

4.4 
6.1 
6.3 
4.9 
4.0 
4.6 
1.7 



8.3 
3.9 
2.8 
0.1 



7.7 
7.4 
8.4 
3.5 
4.5 
1.3 



2.2 

1.2 

1.4 

4.3 
3.1 

3.9 

0.9 

4.1 

12.6 

2.3 
2.3 
2.4 
2.7 
0.1 

2.3 
1.9 
2.8 
1.3 
0.1 

1.9 
2.3 
2.4 
2.2 
4.6 
2.5 
0.4 

1.8 
2.2 
3.2 
2.5 
2.2 
2.5 
0.5 



3.5 
1.9 
1.3 
0.1 



2.8 
3.3 
4.6 
2.0 
2.2 
0.4 



1.1 

1.2 

1.1 

1.2 
0.8 

1.0 

0.8 
1.5 
4.2 

0.8 
0.9 
1.9 
1.3 



1.1 
0.3 
1.5 
1.3 



0.7 
1.9 
1.3 
1.3 
0.8 
0.8 
0.2 

0.8 
1.1 
1.8 
1.2 
1.3 
1.1 
0.2 



1.9 
0.9 
0.8 



2.2 
2.2 
0.6 
0.7 
0.9 
0.4 



0.6 

0.2 

0.5 

1.1 
0.8 

0.6 

0.3 
0.9 
2.6 

0.4 
0.6 
0.6 
0.7 



0.9 
0.4 
0.7 



0.3 
0.8 
0.5 
1.0 
0.7 
0.7 
0.1 

0.5 
1.0 
0.3 
0.4 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 



1.0 
0.4 
0.6 



0.6 
0.6 
1.9 
0.3 
0.8 
0.1 



0.7 

0.5 

0.8 

0.7 
0.6 

0.5 

0.6 
0.6 
2.3 

0.3 
0.8 
1.0 
0.6 



1.0 
0.4 
0.8 



0.8 
0.8 
0.7 
0.8 
0.7 
0.5 
0.3 

1.1 
1.1 
0.5 
0.8 
0.1 
0.4 
0.4 



1.6 
0.3 



1.5 
0.6 
1.3 
0.4 
0.5 



0.3 

0.3 

0.4 

0.5 
0.1 

0.2 

0.2 
0.4 

1.1 

0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 



0.7 
0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 

0.1 
0.3 
0.5 
0.3 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 

0.2 
0.6 
0.4 

0.1 
0.3 
0.1 



0.3 
0.4 
0.1 



0.6 
0.7 

0.2 
0.2 
0.4 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



73 



Table 6F PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: MATERIALS WORKING LASERS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Not 
Other specified 2 



Ac v. SH 

standard 

error of 

"Usedwi 

apwatw 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



3.3 
5.2 
7.3 
9.4 
9.6 
0.6 



5.1 
5.7 
8.0 
2.5 
0.2 



5.6 
9.2 
6.0 

2.8 
0.2 



5.0 
9.5 
8.3 
1.9 



4.4 
6.1 
5.5 
0.1 



10.3 
4.8 
7.3 
0.1 



1.0 
2.2 
4.0 
5.3 
5.0 
0.3 



2.2 
2.6 
4.4 
0.4 
0.1 



2.6 
4.3 
2.3 

1.1 
0.2 



2.4 
5.8 
3.0 
0.8 



2.0 
2.7 
2.4 
0.1 



5.2 
2.1 
4.0 
0.1 



1.1 
1.3 
1.2 
1.7 
1.6 
0.2 



0.5 
1.2 
1.3 
1.5 
0.1 



1.3 
0.5 
2.1 

0.7 



1.0 
0.9 
3.2 
0.4 



0.9 
1.6 
0.9 



1.4 
1.3 
0.8 



0.5 
0.5 
1.0 
0.5 
1.1 



0.1 
0.6 
1.3 
0.3 



0.6 
1.3 
0.6 

0.5 



0.5 
1.6 
0.7 
0.4 



0.4 
0.7 
0.9 



1.3 
0.5 
1.2 



0.5 
0.7 
0.5 
1.3 
1.6 
0.1 



1.2 
0.8 
0.5 
0.4 



0.8 
1.2 
0.8 

0.5 



0.8 
0.9 
0.6 
0.3 



0.6 
0.8 
0.9 



1.6 
0.7 
0.5 



0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.7 
0.2 



1.1 

0.4 

0.4 



0.4 
1.9 
0.2 



0.3 
0.2 
0.8 
0.1 



0.5 
0.2 
0.4 



0.8 
0.3 
0.7 



0.5 
0.5 

1.1 

1.9 

: 2 



1.4 
0.4 
0.8 
0.7 
0.1 



0.3 
1.7 
1.2 

0.5 
0.1 



03 
1.5 
12 
0.3 



04 
0.4 
0.9 
0.1 



1.1 
0.3 

1.3 
1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



74 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: PICK AND 
PLACE ROBOTS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
worksta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 



6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



Don't know . , 
Not specified . 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



8.5 

6.7 

5.3 

15.2 
10.2 

11.6 

3.7 
15.9 
42.7 

8.2 
8.7 
9.4 
10.8 
0.1 



7.6 
12.5 
9.8 
2.2 
0.5 

12.8 
10.6 
7.7 
14.7 
9.8 
5.7 
1.0 

16.4 
14.7 
6.5 
6.0 
4.2 
4.4 
1.4 



10.5 
8.9 
5.7 
0.2 



10.8 
7.1 
8.1 
7.6 

10.3 
0.8 



31,512 

5,148 

4,672 

13,809 
5,177 

2,707 

4,375 
10,041 
17,096 

2,566 

8,314 

8,067 

12,533 

32 



3,408 

5,570 

21,977 

498 

60 

5,968 
6,259 
9,446 
6,877 

633 
2,174 

156 

7,359 
16,537 

3,988 
488 
708 

2,230 
204 



13,787 

15,625 

2,009 

91 



8,378 
767 
512 

8,635 

13,061 

160 



1.9 

1.5 

1.4 

3.3 
2.0 

2.3 

1.2 
3.4 
4.9 

2.7 
2.1 
2.3 
1.5 
0.1 



1.5 
2.6 
2.2 
0.9 
0.4 

2.2 
2.2 
2.2 
2.9 
2.0 
0.9 
0.1 

4.1 
3.3 
1.5 
1.5 
0.6 
0.5 
0.7 



2.7 
1.8 
0.8 
0.1 



2.7 
2.3 
1.2 
1.4 
2.3 
0.2 



3.0 

2.4 

1.5 

5.6 
3.2 

5.0 

1.4 

5.7 

12.6 

4.0 
3.5 
3.0 
2.8 



2.7 
5.1 
3.2 
0.8 
0.1 

4.6 
4.5 
2.5 
4.6 
3.5 
1.9 
0.4 

5.2 
5.3 
2.3 
2.7 
1.4 
1.6 
0.4 



3.1 
3.5 
1.7 



3.4 
1.8 
3.5 
2.9 
3.7 
0.2 



3.4 

2.7 

2.2 

5.9 
4.7 

3.9 

1.0 

6.3 

23.9 

1.3 
2.8 
3.8 
6.3 



3.2 
4.4 
4.1 
0.5 



5.6 
3.7 
2.8 
6.7 
4.3 
2.8 
0.4 

6.7 
5.7 
2.5 
1.5 
2.0 
2.2 
0.3 



4.5 
3.3 
3.0 
0.1 



4.5 
3.0 
3.3 
2.9 
4.1 
0.3 



0.2 

0.1 

0.2 

0.4 
0.3 

0.4 

0.1 
0.5 
1.3 

0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 



0.2 
0.4 
0.3 



0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.5 

0.1 
0.1 

0.4 
0.4 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 



0.2 
0.3 
0.2 



0.2 

0.1 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 



3.6 

4.1 

2.5 

4.8 
3.6 

3.5 

2.6 
6.3 
4.2 

2.5 
4.1 
4.3 
3.9 
0.2 

3.0 
3.9 
4.3 
2.6 
0.4 

6.4 
4.4 
2.5 
6.4 
4.9 
3.9 
1.0 

5.9 
5.1 
3.7 
2.7 
2.0 
2.8 
0.5 



4.6 
3.7 
2.5 



5.4 
2.0 
5.3 
3.5 
3.5 
0.3 



4.7 

5.4 

3.2 

6.7 
3.8 

4.8 

3.5 
7.8 
6.5 

5.3 
4.6 
6.0 
4.8 



4.0 
6.1 
5.6 
1.7 
0.2 

6.7 
5.7 
4.7 
5.5 
5.9 
4.3 
0.3 

6.7 
7.6 
4.1 
3.7 
3.9 
2.5 
1.7 



7.0 
4.2 
3.0 
0.2 



6.3 
5.7 
5.9 
4.1 
5.0 
0.3 



72.2 

72.0 

78.6 

62.0 
71.4 

69.8 

78.2 
61.7 
37.8 

80.4 
78.6 
76.6 
77.4 
11.7 

81.3 
74.1 
77.4 
85.5 
11.9 

68.9 
77.1 
81.7 
69.9 
75.5 
81.2 
19.0 

67.4 
68.9 
82.5 
83.9 
86.6 
87.2 
24.8 



75.0 
78.9 
85.1 
10.8 



75.1 
82.8 
75.7 
80.9 
77.2 
14.7 



11.0 

11.9 

10.3 

11.2 
11.0 

10.3 

12.1 
8.3 
8.7 

3.6 
3.9 
3.8 
3.1 
88.0 



4.1 
3.3 
3.0 
8.0 
86.9 

5.1 
2.2 
3.4 
3.4 
3.9 
4.9 
78.7 

3.6 
3.7 
3.2 
3.7 
3.3 
3.1 
71.5 



2.8 

4.2 

3.7 

88.8 



2.4 
2.3 
5.0 
3.9 
4.1 
83.9 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



75 



Table 6G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: PICK AND 
PLACE ROBOTS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
worksta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use wrtf-nn 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No ^ v\ 
to use 



v.- 



Jtoad - 
ton 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 



Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 



Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 



Difficulty in hiring skilled person- 
nel to work with the technolo- 
gies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 



Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
1 5,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



5.5 
10.5 
12.3 
13.4 
11.6 

0.9 



9.8 

8.8 

21.2 

2.7 
0.3 



9.6 

22.0 

12.2 

3.0 

0.2 



8.9 
23.8 
13.4 

1.9 



7.5 

11.2 

7.3 

0.3 



19.2 
7.9 

21.3 
0.1 



4,482 
16,124 
4,838 
3,493 
2,371 
203 



1,274 
15,169 
13,959 

1,050 
61 



25,913 

1,963 

2,956 

647 

34 



21,984 

3,289 

5,415 

824 



6,944 

21,035 

3,501 

32 



8,042 

20,455 

3,015 



1.8 
2.3 
2.0 
2.7 
1.4 
0.1 



2.9 
2.3 
2.9 

0.6 
0.1 



2.1 
4.8 
2.8 
0.9 
0.1 



2.0 
5.4 
2.9 
0.5 



1.8 
2.4 
1.6 
0.1 



4.1 
1.9 
2.8 
0.1 



1.8 
3.3 
5.0 
5.1 
5.2 
0.3 



4.3 
3.0 
7.6 

0.9 
0.1 



3.4 
7.9 
3.9 
1.0 



3.2 
8.0 
4.3 
0.7 



2.5 
4.0 
2.6 



7.6 
2.7 
7.4 



1.8 
4.7 
4.9 
4.9 
4.1 
0.5 



2.2 

3.3 
10.1 

1.2 
0.1 



3.8 
8.9 
5.3 
1.0 
0.1 



3.4 

10.2 

5.9 

0.7 



3.1 
4.4 
3.0 
0.2 



6.7 

3.1 
10.8 



0.1 
0.2 
0.4 

0.7 
0.9 



0.4 
0.2 

0.6 



0.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 



0.3 
0.2 
0.3 



0.1 
0.4 
0.1 



08 
0.2 
0.3 



2.7 
4.9 
5.2 
3.5 
2.4 
0.2 



1.1 
4.6 
4.9 

1.5 
0.1 



3.9 
8.3 
4.8 
2.5 
0.4 



3.6 
5.9 
6.3 
1.6 



3.5 
4.1 
4.7 



5.1 
3.7 
5.9 
0.2 



3.5 
6.8 
6.0 
4.0 
2.1 
0.4 



5.1 
5.6 
7.0 

2.0 
0.2 



5.3 
4.9 
6.2 
3.3 
0.1 



4.9 
6.6 
7.5 
2.0 



3.8 
5.9 
5.8 
0.1 



6.8 
4.9 
5.4 



83.6 
74.7 
74.2 
76.3 
81.1 
12.1 



81.8 
77.4 
63.4 

90.4 
9.1 



77.3 
60.7 
74.8 
88.0 
93 



78.6 
60.3 
71.2 
55.8 



81 4 
75.9 
77.1 
12.6 



666 

79.8 

62.5 

7.0 



4.8 
3.1 
2.3 
2.6 
2.7 
BO 5 



2.1 
36 
3.4 

3.4 
90.4 



3.8 
4.1 
2.0 
3.3 

902 



4.0 

3.5 

1.6 

387 



39 

29 

5.0 

87 1 



22 
3.7 
48 

9: - 



OS 

as 

OS 

n 

2.0 

02 



1.8 
0.4 
1.1 

0.6 
02 



0.4 
^7 
12 
06 
0.1 



0.4 
23 
1.0 

04 



0.5 
05 
09 
01 



14 
03 
20 
01 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

'For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. flotaiue 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



76 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: PICK AND PLACE ROBOTS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equip- 

ment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Prod- 

ucts 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



8.5 

6.6 

5.5 

15.2 
10.1 

11.7 

3.6 
15.8 
42.8 

8.1 
8.7 
9.4 
10.8 
0.1 

7.5 
12.6 
9.7 
2.3 
0.6 

12.8 
10.6 
7.7 
14.8 
9.8 
5.8 
0.9 

16.4 
14.7 
6.5 
6.1 
4.2 
4.4 
1.5 



10.6 
9.0 
5.7 
0.1 



10.8 
7.1 
8.1 
7.6 

10.2 
0.8 



1.5 

0.9 
0.7 

3.4 

1.4 

2.5 

0.6 
2.8 
8.4 

1.9 
2.0 
1.4 
1.1 



1.5 
3.4 
1.3 
0.4 



1.9 
2.1 
1.3 
2.2 
2.3 
1.5 



2.2 
2.4 
1.3 
2.0 
0.6 
1.1 
0.2 



1.7 
1.7 
0.9 



1.5 
1.3 
1.5 
1.2 
2.1 
0.2 



3.3 

2.9 

2.4 

5.0 
3.9 

3.8 

1.7 

5.7 

13.4 

3.0 
3.6 
3.6 
3.9 
0.1 

3.2 
4.6 
3.7 
1.0 
0.4 

3.1 
4.6 
3.4 
5.5 
3.4 
2.0 
0.2 

6.5 
6.0 
2.2 
1.8 
1.8 
1.4 
0.7 



4.3 
3.5 
1.2 
0.1 



4.6 
3.5 
2.7 
2.7 
3.7 
0.3 



2.9 

2.1 

1.8 

5.0 
4.3 

4.5 

0.9 

5.9 

17.7 

2.5 
2.2 
3.5 
4.8 



2.3 
3.3 
3.8 
0.5 



6.5 
3.0 
2.2 
6.0 
3.3 
1.7 
0.5 

6.1 
4.9 
2.3 
1.1 
1.8 
1.6 
0.4 



3.7 
3.0 
2.8 
0.1 



3.5 
2.2 
3.7 
2.8 
3.6 
0.1 



0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.7 
0.2 

0.2 

0.2 
0.4 
1.2 

0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.4 



0.5 
0.4 



0.5 
0.5 
0.2 
0.3 
0.5 
0.3 



0.3 
0.4 
0.3 
0.9 
0.1 
0.2 



0.3 
0.3 
0.3 



0.3 
0.1 
0.2 
0.4 
0.3 



0.5 

0.3 

0.4 

1.1 
0.3 

0.7 

0.2 
1.0 
2.2 

0.6 
0.6 
0.5 
0.5 



0.5 
0.8 
0.5 
0.3 
0.1 

0.9 
0.5 
0.5 
0.8 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 

1.2 
1.0 
0.4 
0.2 

0.1 
0.2 



0.7 
0.5 
0.6 



0.9 
0.1 
0.1 
0.5 
0.5 
0.1 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



77 



Table 6H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: PICK AND PLACE ROBOTS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



standard 

error o< 

"Usedn 

operations" 

(percent; 5 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 



Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant , 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. , 
Not specified 



Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 



Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 1 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



5.4 
10.5 
12.3 
13.5 
11.6 

0.9 



9.9 
8.8 
21.2 
2.7 
0.3 



9.6 
22.0 
12.2 

2.9 
0.1 



8.9 
23.7 
13.4 

2.0 



7.5 

11.2 

7.4 

0.2 



19.2 
7.9 

21.4 
0.1 



1.3 
1.2 
2.2 
3.2 
3.0 



2.4 
1.6 
3.0 
0.4 



1.8 
2.7 
2.0 

0.2 



1.8 
2.6 
2.1 
0.1 



1.5 
1.8 
1.5 



4.8 
1.2 
3.7 



2.0 
4.3 
4.4 
4.6 
4.9 
0.5 



2.7 
3.3 
8.1 
1.7 
0.1 



3.7 
8.9 
5.3 

0.8 
0.1 



3.3 
9.3 
5.9 
0.5 



2.6 
4.4 
3.1 
0.2 



6.8 
3.2 
6.4 
0.1 



1.4 
4.1 
4.8 
4.4 
2.6 
0.4 



3.8 
2.9 
8.2 
0.6 
0.1 



3.2 
9.0 
4.1 

1.3 
0.1 



2.9 
9.5 
4.8 
0.8 



2.8 
3.9 
2.0 



6.1 
2.6 

10.4 



0.2 
0.4 
0.2 
0.7 
0.1 



0.3 
0.6 

0.1 



0.4 
0.5 
0.2 

0.1 



0.3 
0.6 
0.2 
0.1 



0.3 
0.4 
0.2 



0.3 
0.3 
0.2 



0.6 
0.4 
0.7 
0.6 
0.9 



0.9 
0.6 
1.2 



0.6 
0.8 
0.5 

0.6 



0.5 
1.6 
0.4 
0.4 



0.4 
0.7 
0.6 



1.2 

0.5 
0.8 



0.5 
0.5 
0.9 
1.1 
2.0 
0.2 



1.8 
0.4 
1.1 
0.6 
0.2 



0.4 
2.7 

1.2 

0.6 
0.1 



0.4 
2.3 
1.0 
0.4 



0.5 
0.5 
0.9 
0.1 



1.4 
0.3 
2.0 
0.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 



- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown m this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



78 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 61. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: OTHER 
ROBOTS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1 ,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



Don't know . , 
Not specified 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



4.7 

3.7 

3.7 

5.3 
11.7 

3.8 

-1.4 

9.5 

29.6 

3.0 
4.2 
5.2 
7.6 
0.1 

2.0 
4.7 
6.6 
1.8 
0.1 

7.3 
4.0 
3.6 
13.5 
4.9 
4.0 
0.9 

4.4 
6.0 
5.6 
4.2 
3.5 
5.4 
0.6 



5.4 
5.2 
4.6 
0.1 



5.7 
2.6 
2.0 
5.4 
5.3 
0.3 



20,706 

2,839 

1,817 

5,083 
10,128 

839 

1,057 

4,811 

14,838 

1,041 
6,410 
5,087 
8,159 
9 

535 

7,903 

12,045 

217 

6 

5,397 

1,221 

6,097 

6,648 

313 

660 

370 

3,557 

5,793 

2,586 

362 

418 

7,929 

61 



7,975 

10,578 

2,115 

37 



4,745 

186 

109 

5,968 

9,657 

41 



0.9 

0.8 

0.6 

1.0 
2.5 

1.0 

0.4 
2.0 
3.1 

1.0 
1.0 
0.9 
1.2 



0.6 
0.8 
1.2 
0.9 



1.1 
0.9 
0.8 
2.8 
0.9 
0.5 



1.2 
1.2 
1.3 
0.4 
0.7 
0.8 



1.1 
1.1 
0.6 



1.1 
0.8 
0.7 
1.1 
0.9 
0.2 



1.8 

1.5 

1.5 

2.0 
3.8 

1.1 

0.6 
4.1 
7.9 

1.8 
1.7 
2.1 
2.1 



0.7 
1.9 
2.5 
0.5 
0.1 

2.4 
1.3 
1.4 
5.3 
1.6 
1.8 
0.3 

1.7 
2.5 
2.0 
2.3 
1.0 
1.7 
0.4 



1.9 
2.0 
1.5 



2.0 
0.8 
0.3 
2.1 
2.2 



1.9 

1.3 

1.4 

2.1 
5.2 

1.5 

0.3 

3.1 

18.0 



1.4 
1.9 
4.2 
0.1 

0.6 
1.8 
2.7 
0.4 



3.6 
1.6 
1.2 

5.2 
2.3 
1.7 
0.4 

1.4 
2.0 
2.2 
1.5 
1.7 
2.8 
0.2 



2.3 
1.9 
2.4 
0.1 



2.4 
1.0 
1.0 
2.0 
2.1 



0.1 

0.1 

0.2 

0.2 
0.2 

0.2 

0.1 
0.3 
0.6 

0.2 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 
0.2 



0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

0.2 

0.1 
0.3 
0.1 

0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 
0.1 



0.2 



0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



3.1 

3.2 

2.5 

4.1 
2.7 

3.6 

2.4 
4.6 
5.6 

4.0 
3.4 
3.6 
2.8 
0.2 

2.5 
2.9 
3.8 
2.3 
0.7 

3.4 
5.5 
2.5 
4.5 
3.2 
3.2 
0.7 

5.2 
4.2 
2.4 
2.6 
3.8 
2.6 
0.3 



4.6 
2.8 
2.6 



5.3 
2.4 
2.3 
2.5 
3.2 
0.2 



4.3 

4.4 

3.8 

4.9 
4.6 

4.7 

3.0 
7.6 
7.9 

4.4 
4.1 
5.5 
4.9 



4.6 
4.4 
5.3 
1.4 
0.2 

5.5 
5.0 
4.2 
6.7 
5.5 
4.1 
0.2 

4.9 
6.6 
3.9 
2.7 
4.5 
2.7 
2.6 



6.1 
4.2 
2.4 



5.8 
4.4 
6.4 
3.5 
5.1 
0.1 



76.5 

76.3 

79.7 

73.9 
69.3 

77.5 

81.0 
69.2 
46.9 

84.5 
84.2 
81.7 
80.7 
11.8 

86.5 
84.8 
80.7 
86.3 
12.0 

78.0 
82.6 
86.0 
71.0 
82.3 
84.5 
19.3 

80.3 
78.9 
85.4 
86.7 
84.9 
86.0 
24.2 



80.8 
83.4 
85.9 
11.1 



80.5 
88.3 
86.6 
84.5 
81.7 
15.4 



11.4 

12.3 

10.4 

11.8 
11.7 

10.5 

12.3 

9.0 

10.0 

4.0 
4.1 
4.0 
3.9 
88.0 

4.3 
3.1 
3.6 
8.2 
86.9 

5.8 
2.9 

3.7 
4.3 
4.1 
4.1 
79.0 

5.1 
4.2 
2.7 
3.8 
3.3 
3.2 
72.3 



3.2 

4.5 

4.6 

88.8 



2.9 
2.3 
2.6 
4.1 
4.8 
83.9 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



79 



Table 61. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: OTHER 

ROBOTS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



No plans 
to use 






Abac .-.<= 
turn v 

"Usedn 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



2.9 
6.2 
7.8 
6.3 
4.3 
0.4 



3.7 

4.5 
14.7 

0.9 
0.3 



5.2 
13.3 
7.4 
2.0 
0.1 



4.6 

13.4 

8.6 

1.4 



4.1 
6.2 
4.6 



12.4 

4.1 

11.9 



3,480 
9,713 
3,201 
1,823 
2,424 
64 



404 

7,057 

12,050 

1,069 
125 



17,387 

801 

1,805 

699 

13 



14,288 

1,686 

3,846 

886 



4,270 

12,858 

3,572 

4 



3,583 

15,466 

1,654 

3 



0.4 
1.4 
1.5 
1.1 
1.1 



0.9 
1.0 
2.5 

0.1 



1.0 
1.2 
2.2 
0.5 



1.0 
1.5 
1.8 
0.3 



1.1 
1.0 
1.1 



2.3 
0.8 
2.7 



1.4 
2.3 
2.3 
2.1 
1.6 



2.7 
1.7 
4.9 

0.4 
0.2 



2.0 
4.8 
2.3 
0.9 



1.7 

4.7 
3.0 
0.6 



1.3 
2.4 
1.9 



5.4 
1.5 
3.6 



1.0 
2.4 
3.8 
2.6 
1.4 
0.4 



0.1 
1.7 
6.9 

0.4 



2.0 
7.1 
2.6 
0.6 



1.7 
7.2 

3.6 
0.4 



1.7 

2.5 
1.4 



4.3 
1.7 
5.2 



0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.5 
0.2 



0.1 
0.4 



0.1 



0.2 
0.2 
0.3 

0.1 



0.2 

0.2 

0.1 



0.3 
0.2 



0.4 

0.1 
0.4 



1.8 
4.4 
3.5 
4.5 
4.6 
0.1 



1.0 
4.1 
4.3 

0.9 



3.4 
8.6 
3.9 
1.8 
0.2 



3.1 
7.5 
5.0 
1.2 



2.6 
3.6 
4.9 



4.7 
3.3 
3.9 

0.1 



3.7 
5.5 
5.7 
4.7 
3.9 
0.2 



3.1 
5.1 
6.7 

2.6 

0.1 



5.0 
4.3 
4.9 
3.0 
0.1 



4.6 
6.3 
6.1 
2.0 



3.8 
5.4 
4.8 



5.9 
4.5 
6.4 



86.4 
80.4 
80.6 
81.5 
84.7 
12.9 



89.9 
82.3 
70.5 

91.9 
9.2 



82.0 
71.8 
81.5 
89.8 
9.4 



83.1 
70.2 
78.4 
56.8 



85.2 
81.5 
80.9 
12.9 



74.3 

84.0 

72.1 

7.1 



5.1 
3.5 
2.4 
3.1 
2.6 
86.5 



2.3 
4.0 
3.7 

3.8 
90.4 



4.3 

2.1 

2.3 

3.4 

90.2 



4.5 

2.6 

19 

386 



4.3 

3.4 

4.9 

87.1 



2.9 
4.0 

5.7 
92 8 



0.3 
0.4 
0.7 
0.6 
0.9 
02 



0.8 
0.3 
0.9 

0.2 
0.1 



02 
1.8 
0.9 
0.5 
0.1 



03 
1.4 
0.7 
0.3 



0.4 
0.3 
0.5 
0.1 



1.0 
0.2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

^or each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sampte estimates. Reiaeve 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
z "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



80 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 6J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: OTHER ROBOTS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $1 0,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
1 1 ,808 
13,573 
4,029 



4.7 

3.8 

3.6 

5.3 
11.7 

3.8 

1.3 

9.5 

29.6 

3.1 
4.2 
5.2 
7.7 
0.1 

1.9 
4.8 
6.6 
1.9 
0.2 

7.3 
4.0 
3.5 
13.6 
4.9 
4.0 
0.8 

4.4 
6.0 
5.6 
4.3 
3.5 
5.5 
0.7 



5.3 
5.2 
4.6 
0.1 



5.6 
2.6 
2.0 
5.5 
5.3 
0.4 



1.3 

0.8 
0.7 

1.7 

5.2 

0.9 

0.3 

2.5 

10.2 

0.6 
1.4 
1.3 
2.2 



0.2 
1.8 
1.7 
1.1 



2.2 
0.9 
0.8 
4.7 
2.3 
1.0 
0.1 

1.2 
1.7 
1.4 
1.5 
1.0 
1.9 



1.5 
1.4 
1.6 



1.4 
0.4 
1.6 
1.7 
1.4 
0.2 



1.5 

1.7 
1.5 

1.2 

2.5 

0.8 

0.6 
3.3 
6.5 

1.1 
1.4 
1.6 
2.5 



0.9 
1.2 
2.2 
0.2 



1.5 
1.1 
1.6 
3.6 
0.7 
1.5 
0.2 

1.6 
2.0 
1.9 
1.1 
1.5 
1.4 



1.9 
1.6 
1.2 



2.1 
1.2 
0.1 
1.5 
1.8 



1.4 

0.9 

1.0 

1.9 
3.1 

1.8 

0.3 

2.6 

10.2 

1.1 
1.0 
1.8 
2.2 



0.5 
1.4 
2.0 
0.2 



3.0 
1.6 
0.8 
3.4 
1.4 
1.1 
0.3 

1.1 
1.7 
1.8 
1.4 
0.7 
1.6 
0.6 



1.6 
1.5 
1.3 
0.1 



1.6 
0.6 
0.3 
1.6 
1.7 



0.2 

0.2 

0.2 

0.2 
0.5 

0.1 

0.1 
0.3 
1.4 

0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 



0.1 
0.2 
0.3 



0.2 

0.1 
1.1 
0.3 
0.2 



0.3 
0.2 
0.3 

0.1 
0.3 



0.2 
0.2 
0.4 



0.2 
0.3 

0.3 
0.2 



0.3 

0.2 

0.3 

0.4 
0.4 

0.3 

0.1 
0.7 
1.7 

0.3 
0.3 
0.3 
0.4 



0.2 
0.2 
0.4 
0.4 
0.1 

0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.8 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 

0.3 
0.5 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
0.1 



0.2 
0.4 
0.1 



0.3 
0.1 
0.1 
0.4 
0.3 
0.1 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



*' 



Table 6J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: OTHER ROBOTS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Not 
Other specified 2 



'-."-.' .'-.■". 

error of 

"Used in 

(percent j- 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent , 

1 to 19 percent , 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 1 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



2.9 
6.2 
7.8 
6.2 
4.3 
0.4 



3.7 
4.5 
14.8 
0.9 
0.3 



5.1 

13.3 

7.3 

2.1 
0.1 



4.6 

13.4 

8.6 

1.4 



4.2 
6.1 
4.6 



12.3 

4.2 

11.9 



0.8 
1.8 
2.2 
1.4 
1.3 
0.2 



1.1 
1.2 
4.7 
0.2 



1.3 
4.0 
2.8 

0.7 



1.2 
3.3 
3.0 
0.4 



1.6 
1.5 

1.0 



3.4 
1.2 
2.7 



1.0 
2.1 
1.9 
2.1 
0.7 
0.1 



0.6 
1.7 
3.4 
0.4 



1.7 
3.7 
2.1 

0.5 



1.6 
3.6 
2.4 
0.3 



1.2 
2.1 

1.3 



3.4 
1.4 
3.1 



0.8 
1.6 
2.7 
2.0 
1.2 
0.2 



1.0 
1.1 
5.4 
0.2 
0.1 



1.5 
4.5 

1.3 

0.9 
0.1 



1.3 
5.3 
2.1 
0.6 



1.1 
1.8 
1.7 



3.7 

1.1 
5.0 



0.1 
0.3 
0.4 
0.4 
0.4 



0.4 
0.2 
0.5 



0.2 
0.5 
0.4 



0.2 
0.7 

0.4 



0.3 
0.2 
0.2 



0.6 
0.2 
0.5 



0.1 
0.4 
0.7 

2 
0.7 



0.5 
0.3 
0.9 

0.2 



0.3 
0.5 
0.7 

0.1 
0.1 



0.2 
0.5 
0.6 
0.2 



0.1 
0.5 
0.4 



1.1 
0.2 
0.6 



0.3 
0.4 
0.7 
0.6 
0.9 

:2 



DJ 
0.3 
0.9 
02 
0.1 



0.2 
1.8 
0.9 

0.5 
0.1 



0.3 
1.4 
0.7 
0.3 



0.4 
0.3 
0.5 
0.1 



1.0 
0.2 
1.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



82 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 7A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATIC 
STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS (AS/RS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first 
implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



42,991 



2.6 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,190 


1.3 


14,231 


2.4 


7,472 


3.8 


4,110 


3.8 



3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



4.8 

.5 

4.1 

23.5 

2.4 
2.5 
2.4 
4.0 



2.0 
4.5 
2.8 
1.1 
0.1 

2.7 
3.0 
2.4 
3.6 
6.3 
2.4 
0.3 

2.2 

1.8 
2.9 
3.8 
2.6 
4.8 
0.3 



3.9 
2.3 
2.4 
0.2 



9,934 


4.0 


2,499 


3.7 


1,148 


1.7 


11,808 


2.0 


13,573 


2.7 


4,029 


0.3 



0.5 

0.3 

0.6 

0.6 
0.6 

1.1 

0.2 
1.0 
3.0 

0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.6 



0.6 
0.6 
0.6 
0.3 



0.4 
0.8 
0.6 
0.9 
0.7 
0.2 



0.8 
0.4 
0.6 
0.3 
0.5 
0.8 



0.8 
0.4 
1.0 
0.1 



0.6 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 
0.8 
0.1 



0.9 

0.7 

0.5 

1.6 
1.0 

1.6 

0.2 

1.6 
6.5 

1.4 
0.8 
0.8 
1.1 



0.8 
2.0 
0.8 
0.3 



1.0 
1.1 
0.9 
1.0 
1.7 
0.8 
0.1 

0.8 
0.5 
1.3 
2.4 
0.8 
1.1 
0.1 



1.1 
1.0 
0.4 
0.1 



1.2 

1.5 
0.5 
0.8 
0.9 
0.1 



1.1 

0.3 

1.1 

1.5 
2.1 

1.9 

0.1 

1.3 

13.4 

0.2 
1.0 
1.0 
2.2 



0.6 
1.8 
1.3 
0.3 



1.1 
1.0 
0.8 
1.5 
3.9 
1.4 
0.2 

0.5 
0.8 
0.9 
1.1 
1.2 
2.8 
0.1 



1.9 
0.8 
1.0 



2.1 
1.6 
0.8 
0.7 
0.9 
0.1 



0.1 



0.2 

0.1 
0.1 

0.2 



0.2 
0.6 

0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 

0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 

0.1 
0.1 

0.1 



0.1 
0.1 



0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



1.1 

0.9 

0.9 

1.7 
0.8 

1.6 

0.4 
2.5 
3.1 

1.5 
1.0 
1.0 
1.3 
0.3 

0.6 
1.8 
1.0 
1.4 
0.8 

1.4 
1.8 
0.9 
0.7 
1.0 
1.3 
0.5 

1.4 
1.5 
0.7 
1.6 
1.1 
1.2 
0.3 



1.3 
1.1 
0.9 
0.1 



1.6 
1.1 
0.9 
1.0 
1.1 
0.1 



3.3 

3.2 

2.4 

4.2 
3.9 

5.0 

2.1 
6.0 
7.7 

4.6 
3.9 
3.1 
3.5 



2.5 
5.0 
3.7 
2.6 
0.1 

6.4 
4.1 
3.0 
4.7 
2.8 
2.3 
0.3 

4.6 
5.0 
3.4 
2.6 
2.7 
2.3 
0.7 



4.0 
3.6 
2.7 



4.2 
2.4 
0.9 
3.4 
3.8 
0.7 



82.2 

83.2 

84.6 

79.0 
80.4 

78.3 

85.0 
79.3 
56.8 

87.8 
89.2 
89.8 
88.1 
11.8 

91.2 
85.9 
89.4 
87.6 
12.2 

84.6 
88.7 
90.3 
87.8 
86.3 
89.5 
21.2 

88.0 
87.8 
90.4 
89.9 
91.0 
88.8 
27.3 



88.2 
89.2 
90.5 
10.9 



87.8 
91.0 
91.6 
90.2 
88.6 
15.2 



10.8 

11.5 

9.9 

11.3 
11.1 

10.2 

11.8 
8.1 
8.8 

3.7 
3.4 
3.5 
3.1 
87.8 

3.6 
2.7 
3.0 
7.3 
86.8 

5.0 
2.3 
3.3 
3.3 
3.6 
4.5 
77.6 

3.9 
3.8 
2.6 
2.1 
2.6 
2.9 
71.4 



2.8 

3.8 

3.4 

88.7 



2.4 
1.6 
5.0 
3.4 
3.9 
83.6 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Vi 



Table 7A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATIC 
STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS (AS/RS)— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first 
implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



No o a"i 
to use 



Not 
vac I -', 



\'a' 0%'0 

mo '.' 
.■^ - 

MM 
tons 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


1.2 


15,360 


2.8 


4,737 


5.0 


3,912 


5.6 


1,398 


5.6 


3,897 


0.3 


1,834 


3.1 


25,416 


2.6 


4,969 


6.8 


7,046 


0.8 


3,726 


0.2 


29,449 


2.9 


1,099 


7.7 


3,506 


2.0 


5,251 


1.7 


3,686 


0.1 


26,952 


2.8 


1,637 


7.5 


5,287 


2.7 


9,115 


1.2 



13,905 


2.8 


19,836 


3.1 


5,401 


2.2 


3,849 


0.2 



3,265 


6.6 


34,703 


2.3 


1,447 


8.7 


3,576 


0.2 



0.1 
0.5 
1.3 
1.7 
1.1 
0.1 



1.6 
0.4 
1.6 

0.2 
0.1 



0.6 
0.8 
0.3 
0.7 



0.6 
0.7 
0.4 
0.4 



0.5 
0.7 
0.4 



2.2 
0.4 
1.2 



0.5 
1.0 
1.8 
1.6 

1.3 
0.1 



0.7 
1.0 
2.3 

0.1 
0.1 



1.0 
3.8 
0.8 
0.1 
0.1 



1.0 
3.5 
1.0 
0.1 



0.8 
1.1 
1.0 



2.3 
0.8 
2.7 
0.1 



0.5 
1.3 
1.8 
1.9 
2.6 
0.1 



0.5 
1.1 
2.8 

0.5 



1.2 
2.9 
0.9 
0.9 



1.1 
3.2 

1.2 
0.6 



1.5 

1.1 
0.7 
0.2 



1.8 
1.0 
4.7 
0.1 



0.1 

0.1 
0.4 
0.6 



0.3 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



0.3 
0.1 
0.1 



0.8 
1.2 
1.7 
1.7 
1.1 
0.1 



0.2 
1.2 
2.5 

0.3 



1.2 
4.9 
0.5 
0.6 
0.2 



1.0 
4.7 

1.1 
0.5 



1.2 
1.3 
1.0 



2.0 
1.0 
2.7 



2.5 


91.4 


4.3 


4.0 


89.1 


2.9 


4.7 


86.6 


2.2 


5.1 


85.0 


2.6 


4.1 


86.7 


2.4 


0.2 


12.9 


86.5 


2.7 


92.0 


2.1 


4.2 


88.5 


3.4 


5.2 


82.8 


2.8 


0.6 


94.8 


3.5 


0.4 


9.9 


89.5 


4.0 


88.3 


3.6 


4.5 


80.7 


2.1 


4.5 


91.1 


1.9 


1.2 


93.6 


3.0 


0.1 


9.4 


90.2 


3.8 


88.6 


3.8 


5.6 


80.7 


1.4 


4.9 


89.9 


1.4 


0.7 


59.0 


38.7 


3.4 


89.2 


3.4 


4.0 


89.0 


2.7 


3.3 


88.5 


5.1 




12.8 


87.0 


5.9 


82.9 


2.7 


3.3 


90.0 


3.4 


5.7 


79.8 


3.1 




7.0 


~: ? 



02 
02 
0.7 
0.6 

0.8 
0.1 



1.0 
02 
0.7 

0.4 

0.1 



02 
1.1 
0.3 
0.7 
0.1 



0-2 
0.9 
0.3 
0.4 



0.3 
0.2 
04 
0.1 



1.0 
0.1 
20 
0.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates Restive 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



84 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 7B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON 
FOR USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATIC STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS 
(AS/RS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and Equip- 

ment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related Prod- 

ucts 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



2.6 

1.2 

2.3 

3.8 
3.8 

4.8 

0.6 

4.1 

23.6 

2.5 
2.5 
2.5 
4.0 



2.1 
4.5 
2.8 
1.0 
0.1 

2.7 
3.0 
2.4 
3.5 
6.3 
2.5 
0.4 

2.2 
1.9 
3.0 
3.8 
2.5 
4.8 
0.3 



3.8 
2.3 
2.5 
0.2 



4.0 
3.9 
1.7 
1.9 
2.7 
0.3 



0.3 

0.2 

0.1 

0.7 
0.2 

0.8 

0.1 
0.5 
2.7 

0.4 
0.3 
0.3 
0.5 



0.3 
0.6 
0.3 
0.3 



0.5 
0.5 
0.3 
0.2 
0.7 
0.1 



0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.8 
0.4 
0.5 



0.4 
0.3 
0.2 



0.3 
1.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.3 
0.1 



1.0 

0.6 

0.8 

1.5 
1.1 

1.9 

0.2 
1.7 
8.5 

0.9 
1.0 
1.1 
1.4 



0.9 
1.9 
1.0 
0.4 



0.8 
1.3 
1.0 
0.8 
3.0 
0.8 
0.1 

0.3 
0.8 
1.3 
0.8 
1.1 
2.0 
0.1 



1.6 
0.8 
0.3 
0.2 



2.1 
1.1 
0.2 
0.8 
0.7 
0.1 



0.7 

0.2 

0.6 

0.8 
1.9 

1.1 



1.0 
8.0 

0.4 
0.5 
0.6 
1.5 



0.4 
1.1 
0.8 
0.3 



0.8 
0.7 
0.4 
1.5 
1.7 
0.9 
0.1 

0.8 
0.4 
0.5 
0.7 
0.6 
1.6 
0.1 



1.0 
0.6 
0.6 



1.0 
1.1 
0.5 
0.4 
0.8 



0.5 

0.2 

0.6 

0.5 
0.5 

0.6 

0.2 
0.6 
3.2 

0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 



0.5 
0.7 
0.5 



0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
0.8 
0.7 
0.6 



0.9 
0.2 
0.7 
1.0 
0.4 
0.4 



0.6 
0.4 
1.4 



0.4 
0.4 
0.6 
0.4 
0.8 



0.1 



0.1 

0.2 
0.1 

0.5 



0.3 
1.2 

0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 



0.1 
0.2 
0.1 

0.1 

0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 

0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.4 

0.3 
0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



0.3 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



85 



Table 7B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON 
FOR USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATIC STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS 
(AS/RS)— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 

specified 2 



Ar„v. .••; 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

(percent) 3 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 1 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



1.1 
2.8 
4.9 
5.7 
5.7 
0.3 



3.1 
2.6 
6.7 
0.7 
0.2 



3.0 
7.6 
2.0 

1.7 
0.1 



2.8 
7.6 
2.7 
1.1 



2.8 
3.1 
2.1 
0.2 



6.5 
2.2 
8.7 
0.1 



0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.6 
1.4 
0.1 



0.7 
0.3 
0.7 
0.1 



0.4 
0.8 
0.3 



0.4 
0.7 
0.4 



0.3 
0.3 
0.6 



0.6 
0.3 
0.5 



0.4 
1.3 

2.0 
1.7 
1.5 



0.4 
1.1 
2.1 
0.4 
0.1 



1.1 
2.3 
0.7 

0.9 



1.1 
3.0 
0.9 
0.5 



1.3 
1.0 
0.8 
0.1 



1.4 
1.0 
3.8 



0.3 
0.7 
1.1 
1.4 
1.3 
0.1 



0.5 
0.7 
2.0 
0.2 



0.8 
3.3 
0.6 

0.1 
0.1 



0.7 
2.3 
0.8 
0.1 



0.6 
0.9 
0.4 



2.1 
0.5 
2.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.3 
1.2 
1.6 
0.9 
0.1 



1.1 
0.4 
1.6 
0.1 



0.5 
1.3 
0.5 

0.6 



0.5 
1.3 
0.5 
0.4 



0.5 
0.6 
0.3 
0.1 



1.8 
0.3 
2.3 



0.1 
0.1 

0.2 
0.4 
0.5 



0.4 
0.1 
0.3 

0.1 



0.2 



0.1 



0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 
0.1 



0.6 
0.1 

0.1 



: > 

0.2 
0.7 
0.6 
0.8 
0.1 



1.0 
0.2 
0.7 
0.4 
0.1 



0.2 
1.1 
0.3 

0.7 
0.1 



0.2 
0.9 
0.3 
0.4 



0.3 
0.2 
0.4 
0.1 



1.0 
0.1 
2.0 
1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



86 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 7C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATIC 
GUIDED VEHICLE SYSTEMS (AGVS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 



Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over . . 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 



30,502 

10,321 

2,168 



4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 



6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 



4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



1.2 

0.4 

1.1 

1.6 
2.2 

1.5 



0.3 

1.3 

11.9 



0.4 
1.0 
1.4 
1.7 



0.5 
1.7 
1.3 
0.7 
0.2 



2.1 
1.3 
0.6 
2.8 
0.9 
0.9 
0.3 



1.4 
1.1 
0.8 
1.0 
1.2 
1.8 
0.1 



1.0 
1.3 
1.5 



9,934 


1.1 


2,499 


0.3 


1,148 


0.6 


1 1 ,808 


1.4 


13,573 


1.3 


4,029 


- 



0.2 

0.1 

0.1 

0.3 
0.3 

0.2 



0.3 
1.3 



0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 



0.1 
0.3 
0.2 
0.2 



0.4 
0.3 
0.1 
0.6 



0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 



0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.2 

0.2 
0.2 
0.2 



0.4 

0.2 

0.3 

0.7 
0.6 

0.6 



0.1 
0.5 
4.1 



0.2 
0.4 
0.5 
0.6 



0.2 
0.7 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 



0.7 
0.5 
0.2 
0.8 
0.2 
0.5 
0.2 



0.7 
0.4 
0.4 
0.2 
0.3 
0.6 



0.3 
0.5 
0.5 



0.3 
0.1 
0.1 
0.5 
0.5 



0.5 

0.1 

0.5 

0.6 
1.3 

0.7 



0.1 
0.4 
6.1 



0.4 
0.6 
0.9 



0.2 
0.7 
0.6 
0.3 



1.0 
0.4 
0.2 
1.3 
0.7 
0.4 
0.1 



0.5 
0.4 
0.3 
0.7 
0.4 
1.0 



0.5 
0.5 
0.6 



0.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.5 
0.5 



0.1 



0.2 



0.1 
0.1 
0.4 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 



0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.3 



0.6 

0.5 

0.5 

0.7 
1.0 

0.4 



0.3 
1.1 
1.8 



0.2 
0.9 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 



0.3 
0.9 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 



1.5 
0.6 
0.3 
0.8 
0.5 
0.7 
0.2 



0.5 
0.5 
0.8 
0.8 
0.2 
0.8 
0.2 



0.6 
0.7 
0.2 



0.2 
0.1 



1.2 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 



1.5 

1.3 

1.0 

2.4 
2.3 

1.6 



0.7 
2.8 
6.3 



2.0 
1.5 
1.5 
1.9 



1.6 
2.3 
1.5 
1.7 



2.5 
1.8 
1.3 
3.0 
1.4 
1.0 



1.3 
2.7 
1.7 
0.7 
1.3 
1.0 
0.1 



2.0 
1.5 
1.0 
0.1 



2.3 
0.8 
0.5 
1.5 
1.6 



85.9 

86.1 

87.3 

83.9 
83.4 

86.1 

86.7 
86.4 
71.1 



93.5 
93.2 
92.7 
92.7 
12.0 



94.0 
92.3 
93.4 
89.0 
12.7 



88.8 
93.8 
94.4 
90.1 
93.2 
92.7 
20.7 



92.7 
91.9 
93.9 
95.2 
94.1 
93.3 
28.3 



93.4 
92.7 
92.9 
11.2 



93.0 
96.5 
93.6 
93.0 
92.5 
16.2 



11.0 

11.8 

10.1 

11.3 
11.1 

10.5 

12.0 
8.4 
9.0 



3.8 
3.5 
3.8 
3.4 
87.9 



3.5 
2.7 
3.2 
8.2 
86.8 



5.0 
2.4 
3.3 
3.1 
4.0 
4.8 
78.7 



4.0 
3.8 
2.8 
2.3 
3.2 
3.1 
71.2 



2.9 

3.9 

4.5 

88.7 



2.4 
2.0 
5.0 
3.6 
4.1 
83.7 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



87 



Table 7C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATIC 
GUIDED VEHICLE SYSTEMS (AGVS)— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
spec ' hr. 



-:■.: .■-. 

error of 
"Used in 

■MHB- 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


0.2 


15,360 


1.4 


4,737 


2.1 


3,912 


2.0 


1,398 


2.5 


3,897 


0.1 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



1.0 
1.1 
3.8 

0.1 
0.2 



1.2 
3.6 
0.9 
0.2 
0.2 



1.1 
3.7 
1.3 
0.2 



13,905 


0.9 


19,836 


1.5 


5,401 


0.6 


3,849 


0.3 



3.9 
0.9 
3.3 



0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 



0.1 
0.2 
0.5 



0.2 
0.8 



0.1 
0.8 
0.2 



0.1 
0.2 
0.1 



0.7 
0.1 
0.9 



0.1 
0.5 
0.8 
0.6 
0.9 



0.3 
0.4 
1.2 

0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
1.7 
0.4 

0.1 



0.4 
1.5 
0.5 



0.3 
0.6 
0.1 



1.9 
0.3 
0.4 



0.1 
0.6 
1.0 
0.9 
1.0 
0.1 



0.3 
0.4 
2.0 



0.1 



0.5 
1.1 
0.5 
0.2 
0.1 



0.5 
1.3 
0.5 
0.1 



0.5 
0.6 
0.4 
0.1 



1.1 

0.4 
1.9 



0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.4 



0.3 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 

0.2 



0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.5 
0.6 
1.0 
0.6 
0.5 
0.1 



0.4 
0.5 
2.2 

0.1 



0.7 
0.7 
0.3 
0.1 
0.2 



0.6 
1.8 
0.6 
0.1 



0.7 
0.5 
0.6 



1.0 
0.6 
1.2 



1.0 
1.9 
2.4 
1.7 
2.3 
0.1 



1.5 
1.6 
3.7 

0.2 
0.3 



1.8 
2.3 
2.1 

0.3 



1.7 
3.1 
2.4 
0.3 



1.4 
1.9 
1.5 



3.6 
1.4 
2.3 
0.1 



93.8 
92.8 
92.2 
93.0 
91.8 
13.8 



94.8 
93.2 
87.4 

96.4 
10.0 



92.3 
91.4 
94.8 
96.1 
9.4 



92.6 
89.8 
94.2 
60.5 



93.6 
93.1 
91.9 
12.5 



88.9 

93.5 

89.9 

7.2 



4.4 
3.2 
2.4 

2.7 
2-8 

86.0 



2.3 
3.7 
3.1 

3.2 
89.5 



3.8 
1.9 
1.9 
3.3 
90.2 



4.0 

1.6 

1.5 

38.8 



3.4 

3.0 

5.5 

87.1 



2.7 

3.6 

3.2 

92.8 



0.1 
0-2 
02 
03 
0.5 
0.1 



02 
0.1 
0.4 

0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.7 
02 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.6 
02 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.3 



0.5 
0.1 

: I 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. Relative standard 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



88 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 7D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATIC GUIDED VEHICLE SYSTEMS (AGVS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



1.1 

0.3 

1.1 

1.7 
2.2 

1.5 

0.3 

1.3 

11.8 

0.5 
1.0 
1.4 
1.7 



0.6 
1.8 
1.3 
0.6 
0.2 

2.1 
1.3 
0.7 
2.9 
0.9 
0.8 
0.3 

1.4 
1.1 
0.8 
1.0 
1.2 
1.9 
0.2 



1.0 
1.3 
1.5 



1.1 
0.4 
0.6 
1.4 
1.3 



0.1 



0.1 

0.1 
0.3 

0.2 



1.2 

0.1 
0.2 



0.3 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 

0.3 

0.1 

0.2 

0.2 



0.1 
0.3 



0.1 
0.1 
0.2 



0.1 



0.1 
0.2 



0.3 

0.1 

0.3 

0.6 
0.3 

0.5 

0.1 
0.5 
2.8 

0.2 
0.2 
0.5 
0.3 



0.2 
0.4 
0.4 
0.2 



0.6 
0.5 
0.2 
0.7 
0.3 
0.1 



0.5 
0.4 
0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 



0.3 
0.4 
0.1 



0.4 
0.1 
0.5 
0.4 
0.2 



0.4 

0.2 

0.3 

0.5 
1.1 

0.7 



0.3 
6.0 

0.2 
0.2 
0.4 
0.9 



0.3 
0.7 
0.5 
0.2 
0.1 

1.0 
0.4 
0.2 
1.2 
0.5 
0.4 
0.1 

0.3 
0.3 
0.4 
0.6 
0.4 
0.7 
0.1 



0.5 
0.4 
0.4 



0.5 
0.3 
0.1 
0.3 
0.5 



0.2 

0.1 

0.1 

0.3 
0.4 

0.1 

0.1 
0.2 
1.1 



0.2 
0.4 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 



0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0.6 

0.3 



0.3 
0.3 
0.1 

0.1 
0.2 



0.1 
0.2 
0.3 



0.1 

0.2 
0.1 

0.1 



0.2 
0.8 

0.1 
0.2 

0.1 



0.1 
0.1 

0.1 



0.2 
0.1 
0.1 

0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.5 



0.4 
0.2 



0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



'*:■} 



Table 7D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATIC GUIDED VEHICLE SYSTEMS (AGVS)— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



■:■-.".>■-. 

error of 

"Used in 

operations' 

(percentr 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 1 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



0.3 
1.4 
2.0 
2.0 
2.5 
0.1 



0.9 
1.0 
3.7 
0.1 
0.2 



1.3 
3.6 
0.9 

0.2 

0.2 



1.2 
3.8 
1.4 
0.2 



1.0 
1.5 
0.5 
0.4 



3.9 
0.9 
3.3 



0.2 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.3 



0.1 
0.5 
0.1 



0.1 
0.3 



0.2 



0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.4 
0.4 
0.9 
1.0 



0.1 
0.3 
0.9 



0.4 
1.0 
0.3 



0.3 
1.1 
0.4 



0.3 
0.4 
0.2 



1.7 
0.2 
1.6 



0.1 
0.6 
1.0 
0.5 
0.6 



0.4 
0.3 
1.8 

0.1 



0.4 
2.2 
0.4 

0.1 
0.1 



0.4 
1.9 
0.5 
0.1 



0.4 
0.6 
0.3 



1.2 
0.4 
1.0 



0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 



0.2 
0.5 
0.1 
0.1 



0.2 



0.1 



0.2 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 



0.2 
0.2 

0.1 



0.4 
0.2 
0.5 



0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.6 



0.3 
0.1 
0.2 

0.1 



0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 

0.3 
0.1 



0.2 

0.2 



0.4 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
0.5 
0.1 



0.2 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.7 
0.2 

0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.6 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.3 



0.5 
0.1 
0.8 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



90 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 8A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATED 
SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING PERFORMED ON INCOMING OR IN-PROCESS 
MATERIALS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,736 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9.9 

8.0 

8.2 

11.7 
15.5 

11.8 

5.5 
16.4 
39.1 

7.9 

9.9 

10.6 

13.5 

0.5 

10.1 

10.8 

11.1 

9.2 

0.3 

9.7 
10.3 

8.9 
17.7 
16.1 
10.1 

2.5 

14.8 
10.4 
10.2 
10.5 

7.9 
10.8 

2.2 



14.7 
9.0 
6.2 
0.2 



Don't know . 
Not specified 



9,934 


14.7 


2,498 


13.3 


1,148 


15.2 


1 1 ,808 


7.8 


13,573 


9.7 


4,029 


0.5 



2.4 

2.1 

2.0 

2.5 
3.2 

3.4 

1.5 
4.3 
5.3 

3.1 
2.2 
3.0 
2.3 
0.1 

3.0 
2.4 
2.6 
1.5 
0.1 

2.2 
3.0 
2.3 
3.2 
3.7 
2.0 
0.7 

4.2 
2.2 
2.3 
2.2 
2.4 
2.7 
0.3 



3.3 
2.3 
1.6 
0.1 



3.2 
4.0 
5.1 
1.7 
2.4 
0.2 



3.5 

2.9 

2.7 

4.6 
5.4 

3.7 

2.0 

5.9 

12.1 

3.3 
3.9 
2.9 
4.8 
0.4 

3.8 
4.3 
3.6 
4.0 
0.2 

3.7 
3.8 
2.9 
7.4 
4.7 
3.4 
0.9 

4.9 
4.0 
3.6 
5.4 
2.9 
3.0 
0.9 



5.1 
3.3 
1.9 



5.0 
4.1 
6.2 
3.2 
3.3 
0.1 



3.6 

2.6 

3.3 

4.0 
6.3 

4.4 

1.7 

5.6 

20.9 

1.2 
3.3 
4.3 
6.0 



2.9 
3.8 
4.5 
2.7 



3.4 
3.0 
3.4 
6.5 
7.5 
4.2 
0.6 

5.1 
3.8 
4.0 
2.4 
2.6 
4.8 
0.4 



5.7 
3.1 
2.0 
0.1 



5.9 
5.0 
3.9 
2.6 
3.6 
0.2 



0.4 

0.4 

0.2 

0.6 
0.6 

0.3 

0.3 
0.6 
0.8 

0.3 
0.5 
0.4 
0.4 



0.4 
0.3 
0.4 
1.0 



0.4 
0.5 
0.3 
0.6 
0.2 
0.5 
0.3 

0.6 
0.4 
0.3 
0.5 

0.3 
0.6 



0.6 
0.3 
0.7 



0.6 
0.2 

0.3 
0.4 



3.6 

3.3 

3.2 

4.7 
3.5 

3.7 

2.9 
5.5 
4.3 

4.5 
4.3 
3.5 
3.4 
0.3 

3.5 
3.6 
4.1 
3.3 
0.5 

4.2 
4.7 
3.1 
4.0 
6.2 
4.6 
0.8 

6.2 
3.5 
4.1 
4.1 
3.4 
3.1 
0.7 



5.1 
3.5 
1.1 
0.1 



5.3 
4.6 
7.4 
2.6 
3.5 
0.4 



6.1 

5.8 

5.4 

7.7 
5.4 

7.2 

5.5 
7.9 
6.3 

7.6 
6.4 
7.1 
5.7 
0.9 

6.1 
7.7 
7.0 
3.0 
0.1 

6.9 
7.8 
6.3 
7.6 
6.7 
5.7 
0.3 

7.6 
9.1 
5.4 
4.0 
7.0 
4.9 
0.9 



9.4 
4.9 
6.1 
0.2 



8.5 
11.0 
5.1 
4.5 
6.4 
0.8 



69.6 

71.4 

73.2 

63.8 
64.7 

66.7 

74.2 
61.9 
41.1 

75.3 
75.8 
75.3 
74.2 
10.8 

77.0 
74.8 
74.5 
78.3 
12.2 

73.6 
74.4 
78.2 
67.8 
67.7 
75.9 
18.2 

67.5 
73.2 
77.3 
78.4 
78.1 
78.4 
25.2 



67.4 
79.0 
84.0 
10.7 



68.6 
67.9 
67.0 
81.7 
76.7 
14.4 



10.9 

11.3 

10.1 

12.0 
10.8 

10.7 

11.9 
8.3 
9.2 

4.6 
3.6 
3.5 
3.2 
87.6 

3.4 
3.1 
3.3 
6.1 
86.9 

5.5 
2.9 
3.4 
2.7 
3.4 
3.8 
78.2 

4.0 
3.7 
2.9 
3.1 
3.4 
2.9 
71.0 



3.5 

3.7 

2.6 

88.9 



2.9 
3.2 
5.4 
3.4 
3.6 
83.8 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



91 



Table 8A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATED 
SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING PERFORMED ON INCOMING OR IN-PROCESS 

MATERIALS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



r.o 



to use 



Not 
specified 



i -.•>-. .■■-. 

:•*■ -.■-.■'. 

amm v 

"Osedn 

opera- 

■BM 

(percent; 3 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant .... 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


8.1 


15,360 


11.3 


4,737 


12.6 


3,912 


13.6 


1,398 


13.8 


3,897 


1.2 



1,834 


9.3 


25,416 


10.3 


4,969 


20.6 


7,046 


5.8 


3,726 


0.3 


29,449 


11.4 


1,099 


17.6 


3,506 


12.5 


5,251 


4.4 


3,686 


0.5 


26,952 


10.9 


1,637 


18.1 


5,287 


13.7 


9,115 


2.9 



13,905 


7.8 


19,836 


12.0 


5,401 


13.3 


3,849 


0.6 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



17.7 
9.7 

19.9 
0.1 



1.9 
2.7 
3.0 
3.4 
3.2 
0.3 



3.4 
2.5 
4.3 

1.3 



2.8 
2.5 
2.8 
1.4 



2.6 
3.1 
3.3 
0.8 



2.3 
2.7 
2.6 
0.3 



4.8 
2.3 
4.0 
0.1 



2.9 
4.0 
4.4 
4.8 
4.4 
0.6 



3.9 
3.4 
7.4 

2.7 
0.2 



4.0 
6.1 
5.6 
1.0 
0.1 



3.7 
6.9 
5.7 
1.0 



2.7 
4.2 
5.1 
0.2 



5.9 
3.5 
6.8 



2.9 
4.2 
4.7 
4.9 
6.0 
0.3 



1.9 
4.0 
7.8 

1.7 
0.1 



4.1 
8.6 
3.9 
1.9 
0.3 



4.1 
7.8 

4.4 
1.0 



2.6 
4.6 
5.1 
0.1 



6.3 
3.6 
7.0 



0.4 
0.4 
0.5 
0.5 
0.2 



0.1 
0.4 

1.1 

0.1 



0.5 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



0.5 
0.3 
0.3 
0.1 



0.2 
0.5 

0.5 



0.7 
0.3 
2.1 



2.7 
5.1 
3.2 
3.9 
2.4 
0.9 



4.0 
4.4 
5.0 

1.4 
0.1 



3.8 
7.8 
4.8 
3.1 
0.2 



3.3 
10.3 

5.4 
2.1 



3.0 
4.1 
5.6 
0.3 



4.8 
3.8 
4.9 
0.1 



4.4 
8.0 
8.9 
7.0 
4.6 
0.5 



5.2 
7.8 
6.9 

2.7 
0.1 



6.6 
7.8 
10.6 
3.7 
0.5 



6.6 

7.3 

10.2 

2.0 



5.5 
8.0 
4.8 
0.3 



9.7 
6.3 
7.0 



80.5 
72.4 
72.9 
72.3 
76.0 
11.2 



79.1 
73.7 
65.2 

87.0 
9.8 



74.3 
65.4 
70.1 
86.4 
8.5 



75.3 
63.1 
68.9 
54.3 



80.2 
73.0 
71.2 
11.7 



65.1 

76.6 

66.0 

6.9 



_ 



A2 

3.1 
2.4 
3.1 
3.2 

86.3 



2.3 
3.9 
2.3 

3.1 
897 



3.9 
1.4 
2.0 

2.4 
90.4 



4.0 

1.2 

1.8 

38.6 



3.4 

3.0 

5.2 
87.2 



28 

36 

2.2 

929 



: -- 

0.6 
1.0 
1.0 

1.9 
0.4 



2.1 
0.5 
1.2 

1.0 
0.1 



0.5 
2.0 
1.4 
1.0 
0.1 



0.5 
1.8 
1.1 
0.5 



0.6 
0.6 
13 
03 



1 3 
0.4 

2 1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



92 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 8B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATED SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING 
PERFORMED ON INCOMING OR IN-PROCESS MATERIALS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



9.8 

8.1 

8.1 

11.8 
15.6 

11.7 

5.5 
16.3 
39.1 

8.0 

9.9 

10.6 

13.6 

0.5 

10.0 

10.8 

11.1 

9.2 

0.3 

9.8 
10.2 

8.9 
17.8 
15.9 
10.1 

2.5 

14.8 
10.5 
10.3 
10.5 

7.9 
10.7 

2.2 



14.6 
8.9 
6.2 
0.2 



14.6 

13.4 

15.2 

7.8 

9.7 

0.5 



7.7 

6.6 

6.8 

8.6 
11.8 

8.4 

4.5 
12.5 
29.3 

6.2 

8.0 

8.1 

10.8 



7.7 
8.3 
8.9 
6.8 
0.1 

7.6 
7.7 
7.4 
14.3 
12.1 
7.0 
1-2 

12.2 
8.2 
8.0 
7.3 
6.1 
8.9 
1.0 



11.1 
7.3 
4.4 
0.1 



11.7 
10.6 
9.5 
6.1 
7.7 
0.4 



0.8 

0.5 

0.5 

1.0 
1.4 

1.6 

0.3 
1.5 
3.9 

0.4 
0.7 
1.2 
1.0 
0.1 

0.9 
1.0 
0.9 
0.7 
0.1 

0.8 
1.0 
0.7 
1.5 
1.4 
0.9 
0.3 

1.1 
0.6 
1.1 
1.3 
1.0 
0.7 
0.1 



1.4 
0.6 
0.1 
0.1 



1.1 
0.7 
3.9 
0.7 
0.7 



0.4 

0.2 

0.2 

0.8 
0.7 

0.7 

0.1 
0.8 
2.6 

0.1 
0.4 
0.4 
0.7 



0.3 
0.7 
0.5 



0.6 
0.5 
0.3 
0.5 
0.9 
0.4 
0.1 

0.5 
0.5 
0.4 
0.6 
0.3 
0.4 



0.7 
0.3 
0.1 



0.5 
1.0 
0.9 
0.2 
0.5 



0.3 

0.4 

0.3 

0.1 
0.4 

0.2 

0.2 
0.4 
1.0 

0.2 
0.1 
0.5 
0.3 
0.4 

0.5 

0.3 
0.7 



0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
1.1 



0.2 
0.6 
0.1 
0.7 

0.2 
0.3 



0.4 
0.2 
0.5 



0.3 
0.4 
0.5 
0.3 
0.2 



0.6 

0.4 

0.3 

1.2 
1.3 

0.8 

0.3 
1.1 
2.4 

0.9 
0.7 
0.5 
0.8 



0.6 
0.8 
0.6 
1.2 
0.1 

0.8 
0.8 
0.3 
1.0 
1.1 
0.7 
0.9 

1.0 
0.5 
0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.7 



0.9 
0.5 
1.1 



1.0 
0.7 
0.4 
0.5 
0.6 
0.1 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



V; 



Table 8B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATED SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING 
PERFORMED ON INCOMING OR IN-PROCESS MATERIALS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified* 



"Usedm 
(percent) 3 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



8.1 
11.3 
12.6 
13.7 
13.8 

1.2 



9.4 

10.2 

20.6 

5.8 

0.3 



11.3 
17.6 
12.5 

4.4 
0.4 



10.9 

18.1 

13.7 

3.0 



7.9 
12.0 
13.2 

0.5 



17.7 
9.7 

19.8 
0.1 



6.8 
9.1 
9.8 
9.2 
9.9 
0.6 



8.0 
7.8 
16.2 
5.2 
0.1 



8.9 

14.4 

9.6 

3.5 
0.3 



8.6 
15.0 
10.3 

2.1 



6.2 

9.5 

10.1 

0.5 



13.2 

7.7 

15.3 



0.7 
0.9 
0.8 
1.6 
0.8 



0.4 
1.0 
1.5 
0.2 



0.9 
1.2 
1.8 

0.3 



0.8 
0.9 
1.8 
0.2 



0.5 
1.0 
1.4 



1.5 
0.8 
1.5 



0.1 
0.5 
0.6 
1.2 
0.4 



0.3 
0.4 
1.0 
0.1 



0.5 
0.6 
0.5 

0.3 



0.4 
0.8 
0.7 
0.2 



0.3 
0.4 
0.7 



0.9 
0.4 
0.6 



0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
2.3 
0.5 



0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.3 



0.3 
0.2 
0.2 

0.3 



0.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 



0.4 
0.3 
0.3 



0.4 
0.3 
0.1 



0.4 
0.7 
1.1 

1.3 

0.5 



0.5 
0.6 
1.8 
0.1 
0.2 



0.8 
1.2 

0.5 



0.1 



0.7 
1.0 
0.8 
0.2 



0.5 
0.8 
0.8 



1.7 

0.5 
2.3 
0.1 



0.6 
1.0 
1.0 
1.9 

0.4 



2.1 
0.5 
1.2 
1.0 
0.1 



0.5 
2.0 
1.4 

1.0 
0.1 



0.5 
1.8 
1.1 
0.5 



06 
0.6 
1.3 
0.3 



1.3 
0.4 

2.1 
n 1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sa^c e 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate Is given In appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



94 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 8C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATED 
SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING PERFORMED ON FINAL PRODUCT 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 
2 to 5 
years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified .... 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 



30,502 

10,321 

2,168 



4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 



6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 



4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 



5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



12.4 

9.6 

10.6 

17.5 
16.2 

14.7 



8.0 
20.1 
38.8 



11.0 
13.3 
13.3 
15.7 
0.2 



13.1 
15.7 
13.4 
10.4 
0.4 



12.5 
11.6 
12.2 
21.2 
18.4 
12.8 
2.7 



18.0 
13.2 
13.8 
13.6 

9.7 
12.7 

2.9 



17.7 

11.4 

11.1 

0.2 



9,934 


19.3 


2,499 


16.6 


1,148 


19.7 


1 1 ,808 


9.3 


13,573 


12.2 


4,029 


0.8 



2.9 

2.4 

2.7 

3.9 
3.1 

3.6 



2.2 
4.9 
4.7 



4.3 
2.8 
3.4 
3.0 
0.1 



4.6 
3.8 
2.8 
1.7 
0.1 



3.3 
3.2 
3.0 
4.0 
2.9 
2.8 
0.9 



5.3 
3.3 
2.4 
2.2 
2.7 
3.2 
0.5 



3.6 
2.8 
4.3 
0.1 



3.9 
3.1 
7.7 
2.6 
2.8 
0.4 



4.3 

3.4 

3.7 

6.0 
5.5 

4.5 



2.8 

6.9 

11.4 



5.0 
4.5 
4.0 
5.7 



4.5 
5.7 
4.5 
3.6 
0.3 



3.5 
3.3 
4.6 
7.2 
7.1 
4.0 
1.2 



5.8 
4.6 
4.7 
6.7 
3.2 
4.6 
0.3 



5.8 
4.2 
3.1 



6.6 
7.4 
7.3 
3.3 
3.9 
0.1 



4.7 

3.2 

4.0 

7.0 
6.8 

5.8 



2.6 

7.5 

21.5 



1.3 
5.6 
5.2 
6.4 
0.1 



3.7 
5.8 
5.5 
4.1 



5.1 
4.6 
4.2 
9.1 
7.8 
5.2 
0.3 



6.1 
4.9 
6.3 
4.4 
3.5 
4.5 
1.2 



7.6 
3.9 
3.0 
0.1 



8.1 
5.7 
4.5 
3.0 
4.9 
0.2 



0.5 

0.6 

0.2 

0.6 
0.8 

0.8 



0.4 
0.8 
1.2 



0.4 
0.4 
0.7 
0.6 



0.3 
0.4 
0.6 
1.0 



0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.9 
0.6 
0.8 
0.3 



0.8 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 
0.3 
0.4 
0.9 



0.7 
0.5 
0.7 



0.7 
0.4 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.1 



4.3 

4.1 

4.0 

5.1 
4.4 

4.4 



3.8 
5.7 
4.5 



6.7 
4.6 
4.5 
3.7 
1.0 



5.2 
4.3 
4.9 
2.2 
0.5 



4.6 
4.2 
3.8 
7.8 
5.7 
5.8 
1.0 



7.5 
4.9 
4.7 
3.5 
4.3 
3.2 
0.6 



6.2 
4.2 
1.0 
0.1 



6.9 
6.3 
7.5 
3.7 
3.4 
0.4 



6.3 

6.6 

5.9 

6.9 
5.2 

7.1 



5.8 
7.6 
7.3 



7.7 
7.2 
6.7 
6.4 



6.7 
6.6 
7.5 
3.3 
0.2 



7.0 
8.7 
6.9 
6.4 
7.2 
5.2 
0.6 



8.5 
8.5 
6.5 
5.2 
7.0 
4.7 
1.4 



9.5 
5.4 
5.9 
0.2 



9.1 
9.0 
4.7 
4.3 
7.4 
0.5 



66.0 

68.0 

69.5 

58.9 
63.3 

62.9 



70.5 
58.1 
40.2 



70.5 
71.2 
71.9 
71.1 
10.8 



71.3 
70.5 
70.9 
77.0 
11.9 



70.7 
72.8 
73.9 
61.9 
63.1 
72.3 
17.1 



62.7 
69.5 
71.9 
75.5 
75.7 
75.9 
23.4 



63.2 
75.4 
78.6 
10.5 



62.2 
64.6 
62.9 
79.1 
73.2 
14.5 



11.0 

11.7 

10.0 

11.5 
10.9 

10.9 



11.9 
8.6 
9.1 



4.1 
3.7 
3.5 
3.2 
88.1 

3.6 
2.8 
3.3 

7.0 
87.1 



5.2 
2.6 
3.3 
2.8 
5.7 
4.0 
78.7 



3.3 
3.8 
2.9 
2.2 
3.2 
3.4 
71.6 



3.4 

3.7 

3.4 

88.9 



2.5 
3.4 
5.2 
3.6 
3.8 
83.8 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 8C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: AUTOMATED 
SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING PERFORMED ON FINAL PRODUCT— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 
2 to 5 
years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to5 
years 



to use 



•pec ' ad 



--.,-. .■-. 

ana v 
"Uaedn 

opera- 
tions" 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant 
conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with 
the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 1 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


11.4 


15,360 


13.6 


4,737 


15.3 


3,912 


17.5 


1,398 


12.6 


3,897 


1.6 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



12.7 
13.0 
23.0 

8.9 

0.4 



29,449 


14.0 


1,099 


22.9 


3,506 


16.3 


5,251 


7.4 


3,686 


0.5 


26,952 


13.4 


1,637 


22.5 


5,287 


17.1 


9,115 


4.7 



9.4 
15.8 
16.0 

0.4 



24.0 

12.1 

19.9 

0.2 



2.7 
3.3 
3.2 
4.3 
2.6 
0.5 



2.3 
3.1 
5.3 

2.4 



3.2 
5.0 
3.8 
2.5 
0.1 



3.0 
5.6 
4.0 
1.6 



2.4 
3.8 
3.1 
0.2 



6.2 
2.9 
2.5 
0.1 



4.2 
4.3 
6.1 
5.9 
4.3 
0.2 



5.4 
4.5 
7.3 

3.2 

0.3 



4.8 
7.8 
6.8 
2.0 



4.4 
8.4 
7.0 
1.4 



3.3 
5.4 
5.6 
0.2 



8.2 
4.2 
6.3 



3.9 
5.6 
5.4 
6.4 
5.5 
0.9 



4.9 
4.9 
9.0 

3.2 
0.1 



5.4 
9.3 
5.6 
2.3 
0.3 



5.5 
7.5 
5.8 
1.3 



3.3 
6.0 
6.7 



8.6 
4.6 
8.8 
0.1 



0.6 
0.4 
0.6 
0.9 
0.2 



0.1 
0.5 
1.4 

0.1 



0.6 
0.8 
0.1 
0.6 
0.1 



0.5 
1.0 
0.3 
0.4 



0.4 
0.6 
0.6 



1.0 
0.4 
2.3 



3.6 
5.5 
5.8 
4.3 
4.6 
0.3 



2.7 
5.1 
6.1 

2.8 



4.4 
7.1 
8.1 
3.5 
0.2 



3.9 
9.3 
8.4 
2.2 



3.5 
4.8 
7.4 
0.3 



5.8 
4.5 
5.3 



4.6 
8.7 
9.1 
6.2 
4.6 
0.5 



5.8 
7.8 
7.1 

4.1 
0.2 



7.1 

7.7 
9.6 
3.7 
0.5 



7.0 
8.5 
9.7 
2.1 



5.8 
8.2 
5.3 
0.4 



8.3 
6.7 
8.3 



76.0 
69.1 
67.3 
69.0 
74.9 
11.0 



74.7 
70.4 
60.9 

81.2 
9.8 



70.8 
59.8 
64.1 
82.0 
8.4 



71.8 
58.0 
63.1 
51.9 



77.7 
68.2 
66.4 
11.6 



590 

72.8 

63.9 

69 



4.3 
3.1 
2.6 
3.0 
32 
88 i 



4.1 
3.7 
2.9 

3.0 

896 



3.8 
2.5 
2.1 
3.4 
90.4 



3.9 
1.7 
1.7 

39.1 



36 

2.9 

50 

87.3 



28 
3.7 
2.7 

92 9 



'. 9 
0.7 
12 
12 
1.5 

: e 



2.3 
05 
1.3 

1.2 

02 



0.5 
2.8 
1.7 
12 
0.1 



0.6 
£1 
13 
06 



06 
0.7 
15 
03 



17 
05 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. Relative sta n du d 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



96 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 8D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATED SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING 
PERFORMED ON FINAL PRODUCT 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



12.4 

9.6 

10.6 

17.6 
16.3 

14.7 

7.9 
19.9 
38.8 

11.0 
13.4 
13.3 
15.6 
0.2 

13.1 
15.7 
13.5 
10.6 
0.4 

12.6 
11.6 
12.2 
21.1 
18.4 
12.7 
2.7 

18.1 
13.3 
13.9 
13.7 

9.7 
12.8 

2.9 



17.6 

11.3 

11.1 

0.2 



19.2 
16.7 
19.8 

9.3 
12.2 

0.8 



9.5 

7.7 

8.4 

12.4 
12.8 

10.6 

6.3 
14.8 
29.6 

7.8 
10.3 

9.8 
12.7 

0.1 

10.5 

12.1 

10.3 

7.6 

0.1 

9.7 
8.7 
9.5 
17.1 
12.4 
9.7 
1.7 

13.8 
10.8 
10.5 
9.8 
7.4 
9.7 
1.8 



13.3 
8.9 
7.9 
0.1 



15.3 

11.9 

11.7 

7.1 

9.5 

0.3 



1.0 

0.5 

0.9 

1.9 
0.8 

1.8 

0.5 
2.0 
3.8 

0.6 
1.1 
1.7 
0.8 
0.1 

1.1 
1.2 
1.2 
0.9 
0.1 

0.8 
1.0 
1.0 
1.4 
1.9 
1.3 
0.2 

1.6 
0.7 
1.3 
1.8 
1.0 
1.2 
0.1 



1.6 
0.9 
0.7 
0.1 



1.7 
1.2 
5.6 
0.7 
0.7 
0.2 



0.6 

0.2 

0.4 

1.5 
0.9 

1.0 

0.2 
1.3 
2.5 

0.9 
0.8 
0.4 
0.7 



0.3 
1.4 
0.6 
0.1 
0.1 

0.8 
0.4 
0.6 
0.6 
2.8 
0.4 



0.7 
0.6 
0.7 
0.7 
0.6 
0.9 
0.1 



1.1 
0.5 
0.2 



0.7 
2.6 
1.5 
0.3 
0.6 



0.4 

0.2 

0.5 

0.5 
0.5 

0.3 

0.3 
0.7 
0.7 

0.7 
0.3 
0.5 
0.3 



0.2 
0.2 
0.6 
0.3 



0.1 
0.3 
0.5 
0.6 
0.6 
0.3 



0.4 
0.5 
0.4 
0.7 
0.2 
0.4 



0.5 
0.3 

1.1 



0.3 
0.2 
0.7 
0.5 
0.4 



0.8 

0.9 
0.3 

1.3 

1.3 

1.1 

0.6 
1.2 
2.4 

0.9 
0.8 
1.0 
1.0 



0.9 
0.9 
0.9 
1.6 
0.2 

1.1 
1.2 
0.5 
1.4 
0.7 
1.0 
0.8 

1.6 
0.7 
1.0 
0.6 
0.4 
0.5 
1.0 



1.1 
0.8 
1.2 



1.3 
0.7 
0.3 
0.6 
1.0 
0.3 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



97 



Table 8D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: AUTOMATED SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING 
PERFORMED ON FINAL PRODUCT— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



0?h<b' 



Not 
specified 2 



-.■■'.■ v 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 5 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in 
the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



11.5 
13.7 
15.3 
17.5 
12.5 
1.6 



12.7 

13.0 

23.0 

9.0 

0.4 



14.0 
22.8 
16.2 

7.4 
0.4 



13.4 

22.4 

17.2 

4.7 



9.4 
15.9 
15.9 

0.4 



24.1 

12.2 

19.8 

0.2 



9.3 

11.0 

11.0 

11.9 

7.0 

1.3 



10.1 
9.7 

17.7 
7.7 
0.2 



10.8 
18.6 
12.8 

4.9 
0.3 



10.5 

18.3 

13.2 

3.0 



7.3 
12.0 
12.7 

0.4 



17.4 
9.5 

14.2 
0.1 



1.0 
1.0 
1.2 
1.9 
2.1 



0.3 
1.2 

1.5 
0.8 



1.2 
1.2 

1.7 

0.6 



1.2 
0.9 
1.7 
0.4 



0.6 
1.4 
1.4 



1.6 
1.1 
1.3 



0.3 
0.8 
0.7 
1.4 
1.4 



0.8 
0.7 
1.1 
0.2 



0.6 
0.7 
1.0 

0.6 



0.6 
1.5 

1.1 
0.3 



0.4 
0.9 
0.7 



1.4 
0.6 

0.9 



0.2 
0.3 
0.9 
0.9 
1.0 
0.2 



0.5 
0.8 



0.5 
0.2 



0.5 



0.5 
0.4 
0.1 
0.3 



0.2 
0.6 
0.3 



1.5 
0.3 
1.0 



0.8 
0.8 
1.5 
1.3 
1.0 
0.1 



1.4 
0.9 
1.8 
0.2 
0.2 



0.9 
2.2 
0.6 

0.7 
0.1 



0.8 
1.3 

1.2 
0.7 



0.8 
1.0 
0.8 



2.1 
0.7 
2.5 



: '; 
0.7 
1.2 

1.2 
1.5 

; r. 



2.3 
0.5 
1.3 
1.2 
0.2 



0.5 
2.8 
1.7 

1.2 
0.1 



0.6 
2.1 
1.3 

: e 



0.7 

1.5 
0.3 



1.7 

05 
2.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



98 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS FOR TECHNICAL DATA 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2-5 
years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2-5 years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



28.8 

20.1 

29.3 

37.1 
28.0 

40.7 

20.5 
44.1 
72.4 

32.9 
32.8 
30.0 
30.3 
1.5 

21.6 
40.2 
33.3 
19.4 
1.5 

20.6 
38.6 
30.3 
33.9 
45.3 
27.8 
4.7 

25.3 
24.2 
29.6 
30.7 
34.7 
48.2 
5.4 



35.0 

29.8 

25.6 

1.2 



Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



9,934 


38.9 


2,499 


35.7 


1,148 


31.5 


11,808 


23.9 


13,573 


31.6 


4,029 


3.3 



9.9 

7.4 

9.7 

13.0 
9.4 

13.7 

7.5 
15.6 
17.2 

14.0 

11.5 

9.7 

9.5 

0.7 

7.9 

13.9 

11.4 

5.8 

0.7 

7.9 
15.1 

9.9 
11.3 
13.0 

9.2 

2.4 

8.4 
10.1 
10.3 
10.2 
12.0 
14.6 

1.3 



11.5 

10.7 

7.8 

0.6 



12.9 
12.1 
13.8 

8.4 
10.9 

1.0 



11.7 

7.7 

12.4 

15.2 
10.7 

16.6 

8.6 
17.5 
27.3 

13.3 
13.9 
11.5 
12.5 
0.1 

8.2 

16.7 

13.7 

7.0 

0.4 

7.7 
15.5 
12.4 
13.1 
18.7 
13.4 

1.0 

11.5 
9.1 
11.5 
14.0 
15.2 
18.9 
2.5 



14.2 

12.0 

10.9 

0.3 



16.2 

15.0 

8.6 

9.5 

12.9 

1.6 



6.0 

4.0 

6.2 

7.4 
6.8 

8.4 

3.5 

9.4 

25.2 

3.7 
6.0 
7.5 
7.6 
0.5 

3.7 
8.2 
7.1 
5.3 
0.1 

4.1 
6.7 
6.7 
8.3 
11.9 
4.1 
0.7 

4.5 
4.3 
6.3 
4.1 
6.7 
12.6 
1.1 



7.7 
6.1 
5.2 



8.0 
7.6 
8.6 
5.2 
6.4 
0.4 



1.2 

1.0 

1.0 

1.5 
1.1 

2.0 

0.9 
1.6 
2.7 

1.9 
1.4 
1.3 
0.7 
0.2 

1.8 
1.4 
1.1 
1.3 
0.3 

0.9 
1.3 
1.3 
1.2 
1.7 
1.1 
0.6 

0.9 
0.7 
1.5 
2.4 
0.8 
2.1 
0.5 



1.6 
1.0 
1.7 
0.3 



1.8 
1.0 
0.5 
0.8 
1.4 
0.3 



8.4 

8.0 

7.7 

9.9 
7.8 

9.6 

7.5 

11.5 

6.0 

11.6 
8.9 
8.6 
8.9 
0.3 

8.2 
9.6 
9.8 
4.7 
0.5 

11.1 
9.0 
8.9 
9.4 
7.9 
8.6 
1.5 

10.2 
10.0 
9.4 
9.8 
8.6 
7.8 
0.9 



10.6 
8.3 
8.5 
0.2 



10.4 

10.4 

13.0 

7.6 

9.3 

0.1 



6.5 

5.5 

6.9 

8.0 
5.9 

6.3 

6.9 
6.3 
2.3 

6.6 
7.6 
7.0 

7.0 
0.1 

7.8 

7.2 
7.3 
3.5 
0.5 

7.8 
7.6 
6.7 
8.5 
5.7 
7.3 
0.7 

7.3 
8.0 
7.3 
4.7 
7.5 
6.4 
1.3 



8.5 
6.6 
4.3 
0.2 



9.2 
10.6 
5.2 
5.7 
6.5 
0.4 



45.8 

55.4 

46.2 

33.8 
47.4 

33.3 

53.6 
29.9 
11.3 

45.4 
47.5 
51.3 
51.1 
10.5 

59.7 
39.5 
47.0 
65.3 
10.9 

55.1 
42.5 
51.1 
45.2 
39.7 
52.2 
15.2 

53.4 
54.3 
51.0 
52.9 
46.4 
35.8 
21.2 



43.5 

51.7 

57.4 

9.8 



39.5 
41.4 
46.1 
59.6 
49.0 
12.7 



10.5 

11.0 

9.8 

11.1 
10.9 

10.2 

11.5 
8.2 
8.0 

3.5 
3.2 
3.1 
2.8 
87.8 

2.7 
3.4 
2.7 
7.1 
86.7 

5.3 
2.2 
3.0 
2.9 
1.4 
4.1 
77.9 

3.7 
3.5 
2.7 
1.8 
2.8 
1.8 
71.2 



2.4 
3.5 

4.2 
88.5 



2.1 
1.8 
4.2 
3.2 
3.6 
83.5 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Yi 



Table 9A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS FOR TECHNICAL DATA— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2-5 
years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2-5 years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 



onere 



i -":•-. -:■ 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant con- 
ducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with 
the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


18.2 


15,360 


31.6 


4,737 


44.4 


3,912 


55.0 


1,398 


47.3 


3,897 


2.6 



1,834 


21.2 


25,416 


35.0 


4,969 


40.4 


7,046 


14.9 


3,726 


1.3 


29,449 


32.2 


1,099 


41.0 


3,506 


38.7 


5,251 


19.8 


3,686 


1.6 


26,952 


30.6 


1,637 


40.8 


5,287 


44.4 


9,115 


12.3 



13,905 


27.0 


19,836 


35.1 


5,401 


29.3 


3,849 


1.9 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



48.2 

29.2 

44.6 

0.9 



6.7 
10.2 
17.1 
18.2 
15.2 

0.9 



7.8 
12.1 
14.2 

4.5 
0.7 



10.8 

13.5 

15.8 

6.4 

0.9 



10.1 

14.5 

17.7 

4.0 



9.4 
11.7 
11.3 

0.6 



16.9 
9.9 

17.8 
0.6 



7.2 
13.4 
18.0 
20.9 
19.4 

0.8 



8.6 
14.3 
15.1 

6.5 
0.4 



13.0 

15.2 

15.0 

9.4 

0.3 



12.6 

13.4 

17.3 

5.4 



10.9 

14.8 

10.0 

0.9 



19.4 

12.0 

14.0 

0.2 



3.2 

7.1 

7.9 

13.5 

10.0 

0.4 



4.5 
7.2 
9.9 

2.6 
0.1 



7.1 

11.5 

6.6 

2.6 
0.3 



6.8 

11.1 

7.8 

1.8 



5.9 
7.0 
6.7 
0.1 



10.4 
6.0 

11.1 
0.1 



1.1 
0.9 
1.4 
2.4 
2.7 
0.5 



0.3 
1.4 
1.2 

1.3 
0.1 



1.3 
0.8 
1.3 
1.4 
0.1 



1.1 
1.8 
1.6 
1.1 



0.8 
1.6 
1.3 
0.3 



1.5 
1.3 
1.7 



7.8 
9.8 
10.9 
8.8 
9.6 
0.5 



7.3 

9.7 
11.3 

6.0 
0.2 



8.9 

14.2 

10.7 

8.2 

0.5 



8.6 
13.5 
10.9 

5.3 



6.9 

10.9 

8.6 

0.2 



10.2 
9.0 

10.2 



6.6 
7.8 
6.2 
7.8 
6.2 
0.6 



5.1 
7.8 
6.7 

5.6 

0.2 



7.0 

7.3 

10.2 

5.4 

0.6 



6.9 

10.2 

8.9 

3.3 



5.1 
7.9 
9.4 

0.5 



5.2 
7.3 
5.9 
0.2 



63.3 
48.0 
36.7 
26.2 
34.8 
10.3 



65.2 
44.5 
38.4 

70.2 
8.8 



48.7 
33.5 
38.2 
64.1 
7.1 



50.6 
33.3 
34.0 

40.5 



57.5 
43.7 
48.4 
10.5 



33.7 

51.4 

36.4 

6.1 



4.1 
2.7 

1.8 

2.1 

£1 

86.0 



1.2 
3.1 
32 

3.3 
89.5 



3.2 
4.1 
2.2 

2.5 
902 



3.3 

2.1 

1.8 

38.5 



3.4 
24 
4.3 

B7 : 



2.6 

3.1 

3.0 

92 8 



1.1 
1.1 

1.9 
2-0 
32 
0.5 



3.1 
0.8 
18 

1.6 
04 



0.8 
39 
24 
1 7 
0.4 



08 
3.1 
1.9 
1.0 



1.1 
1.0 
19 
05 



2.0 
0.7 
31 
03 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. Relative 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



100 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: LOCAL AREA NETWORKS FOR TECHNICAL DATA 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment , 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
who are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



28.8 

20.1 

29.4 

37.1 
28.0 

40.7 

20.5 
43.9 
72.5 

32.9 
32.8 
30.0 
30.3 
1.4 

21.6 
40.3 
33.3 
19.4 
1.4 

20.7 
38.7 
30.3 
33.9 
45.4 
27.8 
4.8 

25.4 
24.2 
29.6 
30.7 
34.7 
48.1 
5.3 



35.0 

29.9 

25.5 

1.3 



38.8 
35.8 
31.6 
23.9 
31.7 
3.3 



8.3 

6.2 

8.1 

10.5 
7.9 

12.2 

5.8 
12.8 
21.3 

8.8 
9.5 
9.2 
8.4 



6.8 
12.0 
9.2 
6.6 
0.1 

6.6 
12.1 
8.4 
8.1 
13.5 
9.0 
1.1 

8.3 
8.1 
8.5 
7.6 
8.8 
12.7 
1.6 



9.9 
6.8 
6.8 
0.1 



11.3 

10.0 

14.7 

6.3 

9.3 

0.4 



12.2 

7.7 

13.2 

16.6 
11.3 

15.3 

8.8 
18.7 
28.4 

13.9 
14.0 
13.1 
12.1 
0.4 

7.9 

17.4 

14.5 

6.6 

0.4 

8.1 
15.0 
13.8 
13.6 
19.2 
10.8 

1.5 

8.9 
9.0 
12.5 
13.5 
17.9 
21.3 
2.3 



15.0 

12.7 

9.1 

0.3 



16.5 
15.6 
12.0 
10.9 
12.5 
1.8 



2.0 

1.5 

1.9 

2.3 
2.0 

2.7 

1.4 
2.4 
7.5 

1.9 
2.1 
1.8 
2.7 



1.3 
2.6 
2.4 
1.3 



0.9 
2.8 
1.7 
3.0 
5.4 
2.0 
0.4 

2.0 
1.7 
1.6 
3.0 
2.0 
3.4 
0.2 



2.5 
2.0 
1.7 



3.2 
3.7 
1.2 
1.6 
1.6 



4.1 

2.7 

4.6 

4.8 
4.2 

5.6 

2.7 

6.8 

10.5 

4.3 
4.6 
3.8 
5.1 
0.4 

2.7 
4.9 
5.1 
2.7 
0.1 

3.2 
6.0 
4.0 
6.6 
4.8 
4.1 
0.1 

4.1 
3.8 
4.5 
3.8 
3.9 
6.6 
0.5 



4.7 
4.1 
6.0 
0.1 



4.8 
4.8 
2.1 
3.1 
5.6 
0.2 



2.3 

1.9 

1.6 

2.9 
2.6 

4.9 

1.8 
3.2 
5.0 

3.9 
2.6 
2.2 
1.9 
0.5 

2.9 
3.4 
2.1 
2.3 
0.8 

1.8 
2.8 
2.4 
2.6 
2.6 
2.0 
1.7 

2.1 
1.7 

2.5 
2.8 
2.1 
4.1 
0.8 



2.8 
2.3 
2.0 
0.8 



3.1 
1.7 
1.6 
2.0 
2.6 
0.8 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



101 



Table 9B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: LOCAL AREA NETWORKS FOR TECHNICAL DATA— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 

specified* 



V '■■.".--■.■'. 

error of 

"Used in 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



18.2 
31.6 
44.5 
55.0 
47.3 
2.6 



21.2 
34.9 
40.3 
14.9 
1.3 



32.2 
40.9 
38.6 

19.8 
1.7 



30.5 
40.8 
44.4 
12.3 



27.1 

35.0 

29.4 

1.9 



48.3 

29.2 

44.5 

0.9 



4.9 

9.0 

15.2 

15.0 

13.4 

0.2 



8.5 
9.8 
13.5 
3.3 
0.1 



9.7 
12.3 
11.1 

3.3 
0.1 



8.9 
13.1 
14.5 

2.0 



8.6 
9.7 
8.1 
0.3 



14.0 

8.5 

10.6 



7.4 

14.0 
17.9 
23.2 
18.8 
1.1 



6.4 

15.6 

15.2 

5.3 

0.4 



13.3 
12.6 
17.0 

10.6 
0.7 



13.0 

14.3 

17.5 

6.2 



11.2 

15.0 

12.1 

0.9 



21.4 

12.2 

20.1 

0.5 



1.2 
2.5 
2.3 
3.3 
3.1 
0.2 



0.7 
2.3 
2.6 
1.7 
0.1 



2.1 
5.5 
3.3 

0.9 



1.9 
5.0 
3.7 
0.6 



1.6 
2.4 
2.8 



2.0 
2.1 
3.3 



2.8 
4.3 
5.6 
8.7 
6.7 
0.2 



2.0 
4.7 
6.3 
3.0 
0.1 



4.4 
7.2 
5.2 

3.3 

0.3 



4.4 
5.8 
5.6 
2.1 



3.9 
4.9 
4.2 
0.2 



7.5 
4.0 
7.4 



1.9 
1.8 
3.5 
4.8 
5.3 
0.8 



3.7 
2.6 
2.7 
1.6 

0.6 



2.6 
3.3 
2.1 

1.6 

0.5 



2.4 
2.6 
3.1 
1.4 



1.8 
3.1 
2.1 

0.5 



3.4 
2.4 
3.1 



1.1 
1.1 
1.9 

2 ; 

3.2 
0.5 



3.1 
0.8 
1.8 
1.6 

0.4 



0.8 
3.9 
2.4 

1.7 
0.4 



0.8 
3.1 
1.9 
1.0 



1.1 
1.0 
1.9 
0.5 



2 

0.7 

3.1 
0.3 



No. • Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are same e 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found In appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



102 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS FOR FACTORY USE 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 


More 

than 5 

years 

ago 


8.0 


5.3 


4.9 


3.8 


8.5 


4.9 


10.3 


7.3 


8.7 


6.2 


11.8 


6.9 


5.3 


3.1 


12.6 


8.1 


25.3 


22.5 


8.9 


2.7 


8.5 


5.6 


8.4 


6.2 


9.5 


7.0 


0.4 


0.2 


6.7 


3.8 


11.5 


7.9 


9.3 


5.9 


2.7 


4.9 


0.6 


0.1 


6.8 


4.4 


9.5 


5.6 


8.3 


5.6 


11.0 


8.3 


13.3 


8.0 


7.7 


5.1 


1.0 


0.3 


7.8 


5.8 


8.0 


4.4 


8.8 


5.7 


10.7 


3.3 


8.3 


5.8 


10.5 


8.7 


1.8 


0.9 


10.6 


7.1 


7.9 


5.1 


6.8 


4.3 


0.3 




11.3 


8.0 


9.9 


6.8 


6.5 


6.1 


6.0 


3.6 


9.3 


5.9 


0.9 


0.3 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products . 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 



Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over . . 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified .... 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies who 
are prime defense contractors 
to Federal Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 



30,502 

10,321 

2,168 



4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 



6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 



4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 



5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



21.8 

14.5 

21.1 

30.5 
23.8 

30.1 



14.7 
34.3 
63.4 



22.7 
24.9 
22.7 
24.0 
0.9 



18.3 
31.8 
24.4 
14.2 
0.8 



20.9 
27.5 
21.7 
29.2 
30.8 
22.3 
3.5 

24.6 
20.7 
25.4 
22.3 
23.2 
27.9 
3.9 



28.6 

21.1 

21.1 

0.6 



9,934 


31.1 


2,499 


28.3 


1,148 


24.2 


1 1 ,808 


17.5 


13,573 


23.2 


4,029 


1.7 



7.6 

5.4 

7.0 

11.3 
8.2 

9.5 



5.6 
12.4 
13.6 



9.9 
9.4 
7.6 
6.8 
0.1 



6.6 

10.9 

8.4 

5.9 



8.3 
11.2 
7.0 
9.3 
8.5 
8.6 
1.8 



9.9 
7.5 
9.8 
7.3 
8.3 
7.6 
1.1 



9.7 
7.4 
8.7 
0.2 



10.6 

11.0 

10.6 

7.0 

7.1 

0.4 



0.9 

0.4 

0.7 

1.6 
0.7 

1.9 



0.7 
1.2 
2.0 



1.2 
1.4 
0.5 
0.7 
0.2 

1.2 
1.5 
0.8 
0.7 
0.1 



1.4 
1.2 
0.8 
0.6 
1.0 
0.9 
0.4 



1.1 
0.8 
1.1 
1.0 
0.8 
1.1 
0.1 



1.2 
0.7 
1.3 
0.1 



1.2 
0.6 
1.0 
0.9 
0.9 
0.1 



9.7 

8.9 

9.1 

11.2 
9.6 

11.8 



8.2 
13.9 
10.5 



13.7 

10.5 

10.4 

9.3 

0.3 

9.1 

10.3 

11.3 

8.5 

1.0 



11.2 

12.9 

10.1 

12.3 

7.2 

9.0 

1.2 



11.3 

12.4 

10.8 

8.8 

8.3 

10.5 

0.5 



11.8 
9.7 

11.5 
0.1 



12.3 

9.7 

9.3 

* 8.2 

11.8 

0.5 



8.7 

8.6 

9.4 

8.6 
6.8 

8.1 

8.7 
9.3 
4.5 

9.8 
10.0 
8.6 
9.5 
0.3 

10.0 
8.3 

10.2 
4.7 
0.2 



8.8 
9.7 
9.2 
9.7 
10.4 
10.3 
1.4 



8.6 
9.7 
9.6 
8.2 
10.7 
9.7 
1.7 



9.8 
9.4 
7.7 
0.3 



9.9 
15.1 
7.3 
8.0 
9.7 
0.4 



49.1 

56.6 

50.5 

38.2 
48.8 

39.6 

56.6 
34.4 
13.3 

50.2 
51.2 
54.7 
54.2 
10.6 

59.9 
46.6 
51.1 
64.7 
11.3 

54.1 
47.8 
55.8 
46.1 
48.5 
54.1 
14.9 

52.1 
53.9 
51.1 
58.5 
54.5 
49.4 
22.6 



47.0 
56.1 
55.8 
10.2 



44.4 
44.9 
53.9 
62.5 
51.8 
13.6 



10.8 

11.3 

10.0 

11.4 
10.9 

10.4 



11.8 
8.1 
8.3 



3.5 
3.3 
3.7 
2.9 
87.9 

2.7 
3.0 
3.0 
7.9 
86.7 



5.0 
2.2 
3.2 
2.6 
3.1 
4.2 
78.9 



3.6 
3.3 
3.2 
2.2 
3.3 
2.5 
71.4 



2.7 

3.7 

3.9 

88.7 



2.3 
2.1 
5.3 
3.7 
3.5 
83.7 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



"/; 



Table 9C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS FOR FACTORY USE— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 
years 



V, 






Not 

v/mt ' ad 



: >—-■;■ ~- 

opera- 






Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 



Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 



No research and development 
done 



Not specified 



Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 
Not specified 



Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant . . . 
Staff from outside the plant . . 
Trainers from outside the firm 
Not specified 



Difficulty in hiring skilled per- 
sonnel to work with the tech- 
nologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 



Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


13.8 


15,360 


25.2 


4,737 


33.8 


3,912 


37.4 


1,398 


32.9 


3,897 


1.4 



1,834 


15.5 


25,416 


26.2 


4,969 


35.2 


7,046 


9.4 


3,726 


0.5 


29,449 


25.1 


1,099 


35.0 


3,506 


27.4 


5,251 


11.0 


3,686 


1.2 


26,952 


23.7 


1,637 


37.7 


5,287 


32.4 


9,115 


7.2 



13,905 


19.8 


19,836 


26.4 


5,401 


24.1 


3,849 


1.3 



3,265 


36.8 


34,703 


22.1 


1,447 


29.8 


3,576 


0.6 



5.2 

8.3 

13.7 

12.2 

10.2 

0.3 



7.3 

9.3 

10.5 

3.7 



8.7 
8.8 
11.7 
3.6 
0.3 



8.1 
10.9 
13.2 

2.3 



6.3 
9.6 
8.8 
0.3 



12.0 
7.8 

11.5 
0.1 



4.8 

9.6 

12.6 

13.2 

12.8 

0.5 



5.1 

9.8 

13.3 

2.7 
0.4 



9.4 
13.0 
8.4 
4.3 
0.5 



8.7 
12.8 
12.4 

2.8 



7.5 
9.6 
8.9 
0.3 



14.6 
8.1 
9.3 
0.4 



3.0 
6.5 
6.4 
10.6 
8.4 
0.3 



3.0 

6.0 

10.2 

2.5 

0.1 



6.1 
12.0 
5.8 
2.4 
0.4 



6.0 

11.6 

6.0 

1.4 



5.3 
5.9 
6.1 
0.4 



9.2 
5.3 
8.0 



0.8 
0.8 

1.1 
1.4 
1.5 
0.3 



0.1 

1.1 
1.2 

0.5 



0.9 
1.2 
1.5 
0.7 



0.9 
2.4 
0.8 
0.7 



0.7 
1.3 
0.3 
0.3 



1.0 
0.9 
1.0 
0.1 



8.5 
11.1 
13.3 
11.9 

11.2 
1.1 



9.0 
11.4 
13.0 

6.5 
0.3 



10.3 

19.0 

15.1 

7.1 

0.4 



9.8 
16.5 
16.0 

4.5 



8.3 
12.3 

10.8 



13.2 

10.1 

15.0 

0.1 



8.7 
10.0 

9.2 
10.6 

8.1 

0.8 



10.2 
99 
9.3 

7.7 
0.3 



9.5 
8.0 
13.2 
6.5 
0.7 



9.2 
11.2 
12.6 

4.2 



7.4 
10.1 
12.3 

0.8 



8.9 
9.5 
8.6 
0.2 



64.8 
50.3 
42.2 
37.6 
45.0 
10.7 



64.1 
49.1 
39.6 

73.1 
9.1 



51.4 
36.6 
41.4 
73.0 
7.4 



53.6 
33.9 
36.6 
45.7 



61.1 
48.4 
48.2 

108 



38.5 
547 

44.0 






4.2 

3.3 
1.5 
2.5 
2.7 
85.9 



1 2 
3.5 
2.8 

33 
896 



3.6 
1.4 
3.0 
23 
903 



37 

0.7 

24 

384 



3.3 

28 

46 

87 1 



2.6 
34 
2.6 



1.0 
1.0 

1.7 
1.9 
27 
0.3 



2-. 
08 
1.6 

1 3 
02 



07 
34 
2.0 

12 
0.3 



0.7 
£9 
1.7 
0.7 



09 
09 
18 
04 



18 
06 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates Relative sta ndard 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



104 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: LOCAL AREA NETWORKS FOR FACTORY USE 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/ machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
that are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



21.8 

14.5 

21.0 

30.5 
23.9 

30.0 

14.6 
34.1 
63.4 

22.7 
25.0 
22.6 
24.0 
1.0 

18.2 
31.8 
24.4 
14.3 
0.8 

20.9 
27.4 
21.7 
29.2 
30.7 
22.3 
3.5 

24.5 
20.7 
25.3 
22.2 
23.2 
28.0 
3.8 



28.6 

21.1 

21.1 

0.7 



31.1 
28.3 
24.2 
17.5 
23.2 
1.8 



6.4 

4.8 

4.9 

9.5 
7.6 

9.9 

4.1 
10.3 
19.7 

8.4 
6.8 
6.7 
6.9 



6.3 
11.3 
6.1 
6.5 
0.1 

5.8 
8.9 
6.1 
7.9 
10.1 
6.7 
1.0 

8.0 
7.0 
7.4 
5.8 
5.8 
6.9 
1.2 



8.3 
6.3 
5.5 
0.1 



8.9 
8.9 
7.9 
4.2 
7.6 
0.3 



8.6 

5.3 

9.7 

11.4 
8.2 

10.5 

6.1 
12.9 
23.5 

7.8 
10.2 
9.1 
9.5 
0.3 

6.4 

11.5 

10.3 

4.2 

0.4 

7.0 
10.7 

9.2 
11.4 
11.9 

8.3 

1.0 

8.8 
7.2 
9.6 
9.5 
11.3 
12.1 
1.8 



11.7 
8.2 
7.3 
0.3 



13.4 
11.7 
9.7 
6.8 
8.3 
1.0 



1.7 

0.8 

1.5 

2.5 
2.5 

2.9 

0.9 
2.9 
7.4 

1.4 
1.6 
2.2 
2.0 
0.1 

0.9 
2.5 
2.2 
0.3 



1.1 
2.4 
1.5 
2.8 
3.6 
2.1 
0.1 

2.0 
1.5 
1.4 
2.3 
2.1 
2.8 
0.2 



2.7 
1.4 
1.2 



2.3 
3.0 
3.9 
1.7 
1.4 



3.4 

2.4 

3.7 

4.3 
3.3 

3.8 

2.4 
5.3 
8.8 

3.1 
4.0 
3.4 
3.9 
0.3 

2.6 
3.6 
4.2 
2.3 
0.1 

4.2 
3.8 
3.6 
4.9 
2.8 
3.3 
0.1 

3.9 
3.8 
4.1 
2.6 
2.8 
4.1 
0.5 



3.9 
3.4 
5.3 



4.3 
3.8 
1.4 
3.1 
4.1 
0.1 



1.7 

1.2 

1.2 

2.7 
2.2 

2.9 

1.2 
2.8 
4.2 

2.0 
2.3 
1.3 
1.7 
0.3 

2.0 
2.9 
1.6 
0.9 
0.2 

2.8 
1.7 
1.3 
2.3 
2.3 
1.8 
1.3 

1.8 
1.3 
2.8 
2.1 
1.2 
2.1 
0.2 



1.9 
1.8 
1.8 
0.2 



2.2 
0.9 
1.3 
1.7 
1.9 
0.3 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



->: 



Table 9D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: LOCAL AREA NETWORKS FOR FACTORY USE— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specrfied* 



"Used m 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
which are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 1 9 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



. 3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



13.9 
25.3 
33.8 
37.4 
32.8 
1.4 



15.6 

26.1 

35.2 

9.5 

0.5 



25.1 
34.8 
27.4 

11.1 
1.2 



23.7 

37.5 

32.4 

7.2 



19.9 

26.4 

24.2 

1.3 



36.8 

22.2 

29.8 

0.5 



3.4 
7.5 

11.1 

11.2 

10.5 

0.2 



5.4 
7.6 
10.4 
2.7 
0.1 



7.6 
9.8 
7.6 

2.1 
0.1 



6.9 
12.5 
10.2 

1.4 



6.5 
7.7 
5.6 



9.8 
6.6 
9.5 
0.1 



5.5 
10.2 
13.3 
14.3 
11.8 

0.8 



4.2 

10.9 

12.2 

3.2 

0.4 



9.7 
13.0 
10.7 

5.7 
0.7 



9.4 
14.1 
12.0 

3.3 



7.4 

10.4 

10.8 

0.6 



15.1 
8.8 

10.7 
0.5 



1.1 
2.1 
2.8 
2.5 
2.6 
0.2 



0.8 
1.9 
3.6 
0.8 



1.9 
2.0 

3.1 

0.8 



1.7 

2.8 
3.8 

0.4 



1.6 
1.8 
2.7 
0.3 



3.4 
1.7 
2.8 



2.3 
4.2 
3.9 
6.0 
5.1 
0.1 



3.0 
3.7 

6.6 
2.0 



3.8 
6.1 
4.4 

1.8 
0.3 



3.9 
4.9 
4.0 
1.4 



3.2 
4.2 
3.4 
0.2 



5.6 
3.5 

4.4 



1.6 
1.3 
2.7 
3.3 
2.8 
0.3 



2.3 
2.0 
2.4 
0.8 
0.1 



2.0 
3.9 
1.5 

0.7 
0.1 



1.8 
3.2 
2.5 
0.7 



1.3 
2.3 
1.6 
0.2 



2.9 
1.7 



1.0 
1.0 
1.7 
1.9 

2.7 
0.3 



2.5 
0.8 
1.6 
1.3 
0.2 



0.7 
3.4 
2.0 

1.2 

0.3 



0.7 
2.9 
1.7 
0.7 



0.9 
0.9 
1.8 
0.4 



1.8 
0.6 
23 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



106 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO 

USE: INTERCOMPANY COMPUTER NETWORKS LINKING PLANTS TO SUBCONTRACTORS, 
SUPPLIERS, OR CUSTOMERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments. 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products. 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment . 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less thrn 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000. : 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant, that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense 
contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



17.7 

16.6 

15.5 

22.0 
23.5 

15.4 

12.1 
28.5 
47.1 

15.0 
18.0 
20.5 
21.9 
0.9 

16.3 
20.7 
20.6 
12.3 
1.4 

20.7 
18.6 
18.2 
32.2 
15.6 
13.6 
2.1 

26.2 
22.3 
16.4 
16.2 
14.9 
18.5 
2.5 



21.1 

19.0 

12.4 

0.7 



Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



9,934 


24.4 


2,499 


14.6 


1,148 


22.2 


11,808 


15.2 


13,573 


19.6 


4,029 


2.6 



7.4 

6.9 

6.6 

9.7 
8.0 

6.8 

5.3 
12.0 
15.3 

6.9 
8.0 
8.1 
8.6 
0.5 

6.6 
9.7 
8.5 
4.8 
0.1 

8.6 
9.4 
7.8 
10.4 
5.9 
5.4 
1.1 

8.7 
9.7 
7.7 
6.2 
7.1 
7.7 
0.5 



9.4 
7.7 
4.1 
0.1 



10.7 
8.4 
9.5 
6.3 
7.4 
0.8 



6.0 

5.4 

5.7 

6.4 
9.0 

5.3 

3.8 
10.1 
17.6 

4.4 
5.4 
7.1 
8.7 
0.3 

5.3 
5.9 
7.2 
3.8 
1.1 

6.2 
6.1 
6.0 
12.9 
5.3 
4.9 
0.4 

10.3 
7.1 
4.4 
7.0 
4.5 
6.9 
1.3 



7.2 
6.3 
4.7 
0.4 



8.4 
3.1 
8.2 
5.4 
6.5 
1.4 



3.6 

3.9 

2.7 

4.6 
5.0 

2.2 

2.4 

5.3 

12.5 

2.0 
4.0 
4.5 
4.0 
0.1 

3.8 
4.5 
3.9 
3.0 
0.2 

4.9 
2.5 
3.5 
8.1 
3.8 
2.6 
0.3 

6.4 
4.4 
3.7 
1.5 
2.6 
3.4 
0.4 



3.6 
4.3 
2.3 
0.1 



4.6 
2.8 
4.1 
2.8 
4.5 
0.3 



0.7 

0.4 

0.5 

1.3 
1.5 

1.1 

0.6 
1.1 
1.7 

1.7 
0.6 
0.8 
0.6 



0.6 
0.6 
1.0 
0.7 



1.0 
0.6 
0.9 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.3 

0.8 
1.1 
0.6 
1.5 
0.7 
0.5 
0.3 



0.9 
0.7 
1.3 
0.1 



0.7 
0.3 
0.4 
0.7 
1.2 
0.1 



8.3 

8.0 

7.5 

9.8 
7.0 

10.2 

6.7 
12.4 

11.1 

9.7 
8.9 
9.4 
8.3 
0.3 

7.7 
9.9 
9.5 
6.2 
0.5 

9.8 
10.8 
9.0 
6.8 
7.8 
8.6 
1.4 

11.3 
10.2 
8.4 
6.2 
6.9 
8.8 
1.9 



10.7 
7.9 
9.4 
0.1 



10.1 
9.6 
8.5 
7.1 
9.9 
0.4 



10.3 

8.1 

12.5 

10.4 
10.2 

9.9 

9.6 
12.2 
11.0 

12.8 

12.1 

11.3 

9.3 

0.3 

12.8 

10.6 

11.5 

7.8 

0.2 

10.0 
12.2 
10.9 
12.3 
14.2 
11.4 
1.0 

9.1 
10.9 
12.1 
13.4 
12.1 
12.0 

1.7 



13.7 

10.3 

6.9 

0.3 



15.1 

15.9 

11.8 

8.9 

9.8 

0.4 



52.8 

54.9 

55.0 

46.5 
48.6 

54.0 

59.8 
38.6 
21.9 

58.8 
57.6 
55.2 
56.9 
10.6 

59.6 
55.4 
55.5 
66.1 
11.2 

54.3 
55.2 
58.7 
46.2 
58.6 
62.9 
16.5 

50.0 
53.0 
60.4 
61.5 
62.7 
57.6 
21.7 



51.8 
58.7 
67.4 
10.2 



47.9 
57.8 
55.1 
64.7 
56.8 
12.9 



10.9 

12.3 

9.5 

11.4 
10.8 

10.5 

11.9 
8.3 
8.9 

3.7 
3.4 
3.6 
3.6 
87.9 

3.6 
3.5 
3.0 
7.6 
86.8 

5.3 
3.1 
3.3 
2.5 
3.9 
3.4 
79.1 

3.5 
3.6 
2.7 
2.7 
3.4 
3.0 
72.1 



2.7 

4.0 

3.9 

88.8 



2.5 
2.2 
2.4 
4.0 
3.8 
83.6 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



107 



Table 9E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO 

USE: INTERCOMPANY COMPUTER NETWORKS LINKING PLANTS TO SUBCONTRACTORS, 
SUPPLIERS, OR CUSTOMERS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number 
of estab- 
lishments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 No 
years 



plans 



Not 

specified 



i:v. .■■-. 



error o< 

"Usedn 

opera 

fan; 



Percent of the plant's total value 
of shipments that are exported 
for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development 

done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff. . . . 
Not specified 

Who conducts most of the 
formal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant 
Staff from outside the plant . . . 
Trainers from outside the firm . 
Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled 
personnel to work with the 
technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights to the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 


14.3 


15,360 


22.2 


4,737 


22.3 


3,912 


20.8 


1,398 


20.6 


3,897 


1.8 



1,834 


17.1 


25,416 


18.3 


4,969 


36.6 


7,046 


11.5 


3,726 


0.1 


29,449 


19.7 


1,099 


40.4 


3,506 


23.1 


5,251 


10.2 


3,686 


0.4 


26,952 


18.4 


1,637 


39.3 


5,287 


25.9 


9,115 


6.7 


13,905 


14.8 


19,836 


21.8 


5,401 


21.7 


3,849 


0.9 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



27.2 

18.0 

30.1 

0.2 



5.9 
9.3 
9.3 
9.5 
5.5 
1.0 



4.9 

8.2 

11.9 

5.9 



8.3 
8.5 

10.9 
4.4 
0.2 



8.0 
10.1 
11.3 

2.7 



6.1 

8.7 
11.0 



9.1 

7.7 

13.3 

0.1 



5.1 
7.5 
7.7 
6.0 
8.7 
0.3 



4.7 

6.3 

12.5 

3.7 



6.6 

16.7 

6.8 

4.0 



6.0 

14.2 

9.2 

2.6 



4.7 
8.0 
5.8 
0.4 



11.4 
5.9 

10.2 



2.7 
4.7 
4.0 
4.3 
4.6 
0.4 



6.9 

3.0 

10.8 

1.4 



4.0 
13.7 
4.7 
0.9 
0.2 



3.8 

12.9 

4.6 

0.6 



3.6 
4.1 
3.8 
0.3 



5.8 
3.6 
5.6 
0.1 



0.6 
0.7 
1.3 
1.0 
1.8 
0.1 



0.6 
0.8 
1.4 

0.5 
0.1 



0.8 
1.5 
0.7 
0.9 



0.6 
2.1 
0.8 
0.8 



0.4 
1.0 
1.1 
0.2 



0.9 
0.8 
1.0 



6.5 
10.4 

8.8 
11.9 
11.7 

0.5 



10.2 
9.6 

9.4 

6.4 



9.0 
14.6 
12.2 

5.5 
0.4 



8.5 
12.7 
14.1 

3.4 



8.1 
9.7 
8.9 
0.3 



12.8 
8.6 
9.5 

0.1 



9.6 

12.1 

14.1 

12.1 

6.2 

1.0 



7.5 
12.0 
11.7 

9.3 
0.5 



11.7 
9.6 

15.4 
6.7 
0.2 



11.4 

11.3 
15.2 

4.1 



8.6 
12.3 
14.5 

0.5 



13.8 

11.0 

11.1 

0.1 



65.0 
52.2 
52.8 
52.3 
59.0 
10.7 



63.6 
56.3 
39.6 

69.7 
9.8 



56.0 
33.6 
46.7 
74.3 
8.6 



57.8 
35.0 
42.9 
47.1 



65.1 
52.9 
50.6 
11.2 



43.7 

58.7 

463 

69 



4.6 

3.1 
1.9 
2.9 
2.6 
86.0 



1:6 

3.8 
2.8 

3.1 
89.6 



3.7 
1.7 
26 
3.3 
90.4 



3.9 

1.6 

1.9 

38.7 



3.3 

3.3 

42 

87.0 



2.5 
3.6 
3.1 

92 8 



1.0 
0.9 
1.4 
1.5 
2.3 
0.5 



2-9 
0.7 
1.7 

1.4 
0.1 



0.7 
39 
2.0 
\2 
0.1 



0.7 
3.0 
1.6 
0.7 



0.8 
0.8 
1.8 
04 



1.7 
06 
25 
01 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 
- Represents zero. 

' For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates Reiatrve sun dM d 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



108 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 

USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: INTERCOMPANY COMPUTER NETWORKS LINKING PLANTS TO 
SUBCONTRACTORS, SUPPLIERS, OR CUSTOMERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
that are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



17.7 

16.7 

15.4 

21.9 
23.4 

15.4 

12.0 
28.3 
47.1 

15.0 
18.0 
20.5 
22.0 
0.9 

16.3 
20.7 
20.5 
12.3 
1.3 

20.6 
18.7 
18.2 
32.2 
15.7 
13.6 
2.0 

26.1 
22.3 
16.4 
16.2 
14.9 
18.5 
2.6 



21.1 

19.1 

12.5 

0.6 



24.3 
14.6 
22.2 
15.2 
19.7 
2.6 



4.8 

3.5 

4.7 

6.4 
6.4 

4.7 

3.1 

7.7 

14.8 

4.2 
5.0 
6.0 
5.3 
0.2 

5.2 
6.4 
5.2 
2.8 
0.4 

5.5 
5.3 
4.8 
8.5 
5.0 
4.3 
0.3 

5.9 
5.9 
5.0 
2.8 
3.9 
6.2 
0.5 



5.5 
5.5 
2.7 



6.8 
4.2 
4.3 
4.0 
5.5 
0.6 



4.5 

4.3 

3.8 

5.8 
6.5 

3.6 

2.8 

7.6 

13.4 

4.1 
4.2 
4.9 
6.6 



3.9 
5.5 
5.5 
2.0 
0.3 

4.8 
5.8 
4.5 
7.7 
4.7 
3.0 
1.0 

5.5 
5.4 
3.6 
6.0 
5.7 
4.9 
1.1 



5.7 
4.8 
2.9 
0.1 



6.4 
4.9 
4.7 
4.0 
4.9 
0.2 



2.0 

2.3 

1.8 

2.0 
1.9 

1.5 

1.4 
2.7 
6.0 

1.2 
2.1 
2.5 
2.4 



1.3 
2.5 
2.2 
2.9 
0.1 

2.6 
2.2 
2.3 
2.4 
1.7 
1.2 
0.1 

4.1 
2.3 
1.7 
1.3 
1.4 
2.1 
0.1 



2.0 
2.2 
2.2 
0.1 



2.2 
1.8 
1.1 
1.9 
2.5 
0.3 



4.9 

5.2 

4.1 

5.8 
6.4 

3.6 

3.5 
7.8 
9.9 

3.6 
5.5 
5.1 
6.4 
0.3 

4.8 
5.0 
5.9 
2.9 
0.3 

5.9 
4.4 
5.0 
10.7 
3.0 
4.2 
0.1 

8.5 

6.5 
4.9 
4.6 
2.8 
4.2 
0.5 



6.0 
5.3 
2.6 
0.3 



7.0 
3.3 
10.8 
4.0 
5.1 
0.8 



1.5 

1.3 

1.0 

1.9 
2.1 

2.1 

1.0 
2.4 
3.2 

1.9 
1.3 
2.0 
1.4 
0.4 

1.2 
1.3 
1.8 
1.7 
0.3 

1.8 
1.0 
1.6 
2.9 
1.3 
0.9 
0.6 

2.1 
2.3 
1.1 
1.4 
1.2 
1.2 
0.4 



1.9 
1.4 
2.0 
0.2 



1.9 
0.4 
1.3 
1.3 
1.8 
0.7 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



'Vi 



Table 9F. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 

USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: INTERCOMPANY COMPUTER NETWORKS LINKING PLANTS TO 
SUBCONTRACTORS, SUPPLIERS, OR CUSTOMERS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



"Used in 
Not operations" 
specified 2 (percent; 3 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 1 9 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



14.3 
22.2 
22.4 
20.8 
20.5 
1.7 



17.1 
18.3 
36.5 
11.5 
0.1 



19.7 
40.5 
23.1 

10.2 
0.4 



18.5 

39.4 

25.9 

6.7 



14.9 

21.8 

21.8 

0.9 



27.2 

18.1 

29.9 

0.1 



3.5 
6.0 
7.9 
4.9 
7.1 
0.1 



4.3 

5.0 

10.3 

2.9 



5.4 

12.7 

5.4 

2.7 



5.4 

10.3 

6.0 

1.4 



4.1 
6.1 

5.5 



9.1 
4.8 
7.9 



3.7 
5.9 
5.2 
5.7 
4.9 
0.3 



2.1 

4.9 

10.0 

2.5 



5.0 

10.6 

6.9 

2.0 
0.1 



4.7 
9.6 
7.9 
1.3 



4.1 
5.5 
5.4 
0.2 



6.4 
4.7 
8.6 
0.1 



1.8 
2.6 
2.3 
2.0 
1.4 



4.3 
2.2 
3.1 
0.8 



2.3 
3.5 
2.4 

0.8 



2.2 
4.8 
2.6 
0.5 



1.7 

2.4 
2.5 
0.1 



3.4 
2.0 
3.0 



4.0 
6.6 
5.1 
5.2 
5.2 
0.5 



4.3 
4.8 

10.0 
4.4 



5.3 

10.8 

7.4 

2.9 



4.9 

11.1 

7.8 

2.1 



4.0 
5.8 
7.1 
0.6 



6.5 
5.1 
7.5 



1.3 
1.3 
1.9 
3.0 
1.9 
0.7 



2.2 
1.4 
3.1 
1.0 
0.1 



1.6 
2.8 
1.1 

1.8 

0.2 



1.4 
3.5 
1.5 
1.4 



1.1 
2.1 

1.4 



1.8 
1.5 
2.8 
0.1 



1.0 
0.9 
1.4 
1.5 
2.3 
0.5 



2.9 
0.7 
1.7 
1.4 
0.1 



0.7 
3.9 
2.0 

1.2 
0.1 



0.7 
3.0 
1.6 
0.7 



0.8 
0.8 
1.8 
0.4 



1.7 
0.6 
2.5 
0.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sampte estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



110 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO 
USE: PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 


No plans 


years 


to use 


4.7 


51.0 


4.2 


50.8 


5.5 


51.5 


5.0 


49.3 


3.1 


51.8 


4.2 


51.7 


5.0 


. 59.0 


4.2 


34.2 


1.9 


16.9 


5.3 


61.1 


5.1 


56.7 


5.0 


54.9 


5.1 


48.8 


0.2 


10.3 


5.7 


57.9 


4.0 


64.4 


5.6 


50.8 


2.2 


59.2 


0.6 


34.3 


7.2 


49.0 


4.5 


56.5 


5.0 


55.9 


3.7 


45.3 


5.4 


57.4 


5.4 


63.8 


0.7 


14.4 


3.8 


45.0 


5.5 


50.6 


6.3 


56.5 


5.4 


64.7 


4.9 


62.9 


4.5 


59.1 


0.5 


19.3 


5.8 


49.8 


5.0 


57.1 


2.1 


61.4 


0.6 


10.1 


5.2 


49.2 


10.2 


52.6 


3.1 


60.6 


3.9 


60.4 


5.3 


54.4 


0.4 


12.4 



Not 
specified 



All establishments 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Prod- 

ucts 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation 

Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 



Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over . . 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 



Market price for most 
products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000.. 
$2,001 to $10,000. 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense con- 
tractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 

4,110 

3,988 



30,502 

10,321 

2,168 



4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 



6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 



4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 



5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
1 1 ,808 
13,573 
4,029 



29.9 

30.1 
29.0 
30.7 
30.6 
29.9 



20.5 
49.1 
69.8 



25.6 
30.3 
33.1 
39.0 
1.4 



29.5 
25.2 
36.1 
29.7 
3.0 



35.3 
30.2 
32.3 
44.3 
29.2 
24.2 
5.6 



45.0 
36.1 
30.5 
23.5 
24.5 
30.0 
6.1 



36.3 

30.9 

28.8 

0.5 



38.4 
29.6 
31.6 
28.9 
32.2 
3.9 



214,378 

49,045 
41,937 
48,504 
54,063 
20,829 



32,796 

69,142 

112,440 



13,121 
54,725 
56,933 
88,896 
702 



21,976 

33,866 

152,362 

5,926 

248 



45,574 
19,686 
67,601 
56,854 

7,121 
14,467 

3,073 



46,919 
69,073 
43,064 

4,490 
1 1 ,807 
35,960 

3,066 



83,753 

114,086 

16,291 

247 



69,568 

5,608 

4,199 

57,296 

76,435 

1,272 



5.0 

4.9 
4.6 
5.6 
4.5 
5.8 



4.1 
7.7 

4.4 



7.5 
5.1 
5.8 
4.6 
0.1 



4.2 
6.2 
5.5 
6.4 
0.3 



4.0 
6.2 
5.6 
7.8 
4.7 
3.5 
0.5 



8.1 
6.8 
5.5 
4.0 
4.6 
3.3 
0.1 



7.1 
4.7 
3.3 



6.9 
4.8 
8.0 
4.8 
4.9 
0.5 



10.1 

10.9 

10.1 

9.2 

9.0 

10.0 



7.3 
16.8 
17.0 



11.5 

9.6 

10.6 

13.3 



10.7 

8.4 

12.0 

10.1 

0.8 



15.6 
9.5 
10.8 
13.9 
8.8 
8.1 
1.0 



16.1 
11.9 
9.9 
9.2 
8.1 
9.3 
3.0 



10.5 
11.2 
12.6 



12.4 
11.0 

7.8 
10.1 
10.7 

2.1 



13.2 

12.6 
12.8 
14.4 
15.8 
12.1 



7.9 
22.2 
45.5 



4.9 
14.1 
15.2 
19.2 

0.2 



13.1 

9.4 

16.6 

12.1 

0.7 



13.6 
13.4 
14.4 
20.2 
14.3 
11.1 
2.4 



18.9 
15.4 
13.2 

9.8 
10.4 
15.7 

2.6 



16.8 

13.5 

10.8 

0.1 



17.5 
11.3 
14.9 
12.7 
14.5 
0.7 



1.6 

1.7 
1.5 
1.5 
1.3 
2.0 



1.2 
2.4 
2.9 



1.7 
1.5 
1.5 
1.9 
1.1 



1.5 
1.2 
2.0 
1.1 
1.2 



2.1 
1.1 
1.5 
2.4 
1.4 
1.5 
1.7 



1.9 
2.0 
1.9 
0.5 
1.4 
1.7 
0.4 



1.9 
1.5 
2.1 
0.4 



1.6 
2.5 
0.9 
1.3 
2.1 
0.6 



3.7 

3.2 
4.3 
3.5 
3.2 

4.4 



3.6 
4.5 
2.4 



4.6 
4.1 
3.6 
4.3 
0.2 



3.4 
3.8 
4.6 
1.3 
1.4 



3.6 
5.2 
4.0 
3.6 
4.2 
3.3 
0.6 



3.5 
4.6 
4.0 
3.8 
4.5 
4.0 
0.5 



5.3 
3.3 
4.2 
0.1 



4.8 
4.9 
2.7 
2.7 
4.8 



10.8 

11.6 
9.8 

11.4 
11.2 
10.0 



11.9 
8.0 
8.9 



3.3 
3.8 
3.4 
2.7 
87.9 



3.5 
2.7 
3.0 
7.5 
60.7 



4.9 
3.6 
2.8 
3.1 
3.7 
3.4 
78.8 



2.8 
3.2 
2.7 
2.5 
3.2 
2.4 
73.6 



2.9 

3.7 

3.5 

88.7 



2.5 
2.7 
2.0 
4.2 
3.3 
83.2 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



111 



Table 9G. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO 
USE: PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 

\-^'. ' Ml 



ana a 

"Usedm 

opera 

•or i 



Percent of the plant's total 
value of shipments that are 
exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 10 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and develop- 
ment done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant 
conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff . . 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the for- 
mal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant. . . 
Staff from outside the 

plant 

Trainers from outside the 

firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled per- 
sonnel to work with the tech- 
nologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 per- 
cent or more of the voting 
stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 

1,637 

5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



24.4 
36.6 
39.1 
36.9 
34.8 
3.1 



27.1 
33.2 
56.8 

15.1 
1.3 



33.6 
58.6 
39.2 
17.0 
1.4 



31.1 

62.0 

46.6 
11.0 



26.2 

36.0 

37.8 

1.3 



49.3 

30.1 

54.6 

0.3 



43,058 
102,239 
29,059 
25,169 
12,862 
1,990 



7,129 

109,959 

88,930 

6,968 
1,392 



1 75,026 

15,024 

17,199 

6,402 

726 



141,741 

24,790 

39,331 
8,515 



64,155 

118,101 

31,833 

289 



34,201 

161,420 

18,669 

88 



4.6 
6.1 
6.8 
4.4 
4.9 
0.5 



5.8 
5.7 
7.5 

2.9 



5.4 
4.4 
7.8 
4.4 
0.1 



5.3 

7.3 

7.0 
2.6 



5.1 
5.6 
5.9 
0.2 



7.6 
5.1 
8.6 



8.0 
11.9 
13.8 
13.4 
15.1 

0.7 



6.7 
11.9 
17.2 

4.7 
0.3 



11.6 

14.2 

12.6 

5.8 

0.4 



10.8 

15.8 

15.6 
3.6 



9.0 
12.0 
12.9 

0.3 



17.3 

10.2 

16.0 

0.1 



10.2 
16.9 
16.5 
17.5 
12.9 
1.4 



13.2 
13.7 
29.3 

7.1 
0.7 



14.9 

37.5 

16.0 

5.8 

0.6 



13.5 

34.8 

21.5 
3.8 



11.3 

15.9 

17.7 

0.5 



22.1 
13.2 
26.2 



1.6 
1.7 
2.0 
1.6 
1.9 
0.5 



1.4 
1.9 
2.8 

0.4 

0.3 



1.7 
2.5 
2.8 
1.0 
0.3 



1.5 

4.1 

2.5 
1.0 



0.8 
2.5 
1.3 

0.3 



2.3 
1.6 
3.8 
0.2 



3.6 
4.8 
3.2 
4.1 
4.5 
0.2 



2.7 
4.6 

2.7 

3.4 

0.1 



4.3 
5.1 
5.3 
1.6 
0.7 



4.1 
5.5 



5.9 
1.0 



3.7 
4.0 
5.5 



2.9 
4.1 
4.6 
0.2 



4.3 
5.6 
5.0 
6.9 
2.5 
0.4 



6.0 
5.7 
2.7 

4.2 

0.5 



5.3 
3.9 
7.3 
2.6 
0.3 



5.4 

2.7 

5.9 
2.0 



3.5 
5.6 
7.3 
0.3 



3.2 
5.4 
1.9 
0.3 



63.1 
50.4 
51.0 
49.7 
55.3 
10.2 



62.6 
53.0 
35.6 

73.7 
8.6 



53.4 
30.7 
45.7 
75.6 
7.4 



55.7 

28.6 

39.7 
47.5 



63.2 
51.7 
45.0 
11.1 



422 

57.0 

35.1 

6.3 



4.6 
2.7 
1.8 
£3 
2.9 
86.3 



1.6 
35 
22 

3.7 
89.5 



3.5 
1.6 
2.5 
3.3 
90.1 



3.7 

1.2 

1.9 
38.5 



3.4 

29 

4.3 

872 



25 
34 

3 9 



1.3 
1.1 
1.8 
1.8 
2-9 
0.5 



0.8 
1.9 

16 



: ; 
4.0 

z* 

16 
04 



08 

3.1 

2.0 
1.0 



1.1 
10 
2-2 

0.4 



20 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

'For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



112 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology: 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
that are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
1 1 ,808 
13,573 
4,029 



29.9 

30.2 

29.0 

30.7 
30.7 

29.8 

20.5 
48.9 
69.8 

25.6 
30.4 
33.1 
39.1 
1.4 

29.5 
25.1 
36.0 
29.9 
1.0 

35.2 
30.2 
32.2 
44.3 
29.3 
24.1 
5.5 

45.0 
36.1 
30.6 
23.5 
24.5 
30.0 
6.1 



36.2 

31.0 

28.8 

0.4 



38.4 
29.7 
31.5 
28.8 
32.2 
3.9 



11.1 

10.4 

10.5 

13.1 
10.7 

12.3 

7.7 
18.3 
24.5 

10.8 
11.5 
12.8 
13.3 



12.7 

9.8 

12.6 

12.7 

0.2 

13.2 
11.4 
12.0 
15.3 
12.3 
9.7 
1.4 

16.1 

13.8 

12.1 

8.1 

7.2 

11.2 

2.8 



13.8 

11.7 

7.9 

0.1 



13.9 
11.1 
16.4 
11.2 
11.6 
0.9 



9.9 

11.2 

10.2 

8.4 
10.1 

7.1 

6.8 
16.3 
23.1 

7.2 
10.7 
11.1 
12.6 

0.3 

8.8 
7.2 
12.8 
7.4 
0.3 

10.0 

10.4 

11.6 

14.3 

7.6 

6.7 

1.2 

15.2 

11.5 

9.2 

8.4 

10.0 

10.1 

2.0 



11.7 

10.4 

9.7 

0.2 



14.0 
9.4 
7.3 
8.9 

10.5 
1.6 



2.6 

2.7 

2.3 

3.0 
2.2 

3.5 

1.7 
4.2 
8.8 

1.8 
2.1 
3.0 

4.4 



1.9 
2.3 
3.4 
2.4 
0.1 

3.8 
3.6 
2.5 
2.7 
5.1 
1.5 
0.4 

4.7 
3.2 
2.0 
3.0 
2.5 
2.5 
0.5 



3.7 
2.4 
2.4 



3.3 
4.1 
3.4 
2.6 
2.7 



3.4 

3.0 

3.1 

3.6 
5.3 

3.6 

2.3 
5.4 
9.3 

2.8 
3.2 
3.4 
5.3 
0.1 

2.5 
3.4 
4.1 
4.4 
0.1 

5.2 
2.9 
3.3 
7.2 
2.2 
2.9 
0.2 

5.2 
3.9 
3.8 
2.9 
2.9 
3.1 
0.6 



3.4 
3.6 
6.0 



3.6 
2.5 
1.3 
3.6 
4.2 
0.7 



2.8 

2.9 

3.0 

2.6 
2.4 

3.2 

2.1 
4.6 
4.3 

3.1 
2.9 
2.8 
3.4 
1.0 

3.7 
2.3 
3.2 
3.0 
0.3 

3.0 
1.9 
2.8 
4.8 
2.1 
3.4 
2.3 

3.8 
3.6 
3.4 
1.2 
2.0 
3.0 
0.2 



3.6 
2.8 
2.8 
0.2 



3.7 
2.6 
3.1 
2.6 
3.1 
0.7 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



~'i 



Table 9H. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology: 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 2 






Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 10 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



24.4 
36.6 
39.1 
37.0 
34.6 
3.0 



27.0 
33.1 
56.8 
15.1 
1.3 



33.6 
58.6 
39.2 

17.0 
1.4 



31.1 
62.0 
46.6 
11.0 



26.2 

35.9 

37.8 

1.3 



49.2 

30.1 

54.6 

0.4 



10.0 
12.3 
15.0 
15.1 
13.9 
1.1 



9.7 

12.8 

20.0 

4.7 

0.7 



12.8 
21.3 
12.1 

6.6 
0.3 



12.0 

20.9 

16.1 

4.0 



10.5 

12.8 

14.6 

0.1 



18.7 

11.3 

17.8 

0.1 



7.3 
13.4 
12.6 
10.7 
10.3 

0.9 



6.7 

10.9 

18.7 

5.8 

0.3 



11.1 
21.9 
13.9 

4.8 

0.5 



10.2 

22.0 

16.5 

3.0 



8.7 
11.5 
13.7 

0.6 



16.2 

10.0 

17.7 

0.3 



2.3 
3.1 
3.8 
3.5 
2.1 
0.2 



4.3 
2.9 
5.0 
1.1 



3.1 
3.2 
3.0 

1.6 



2.9 
4.2 
3.5 

1.1 



2.5 
3.2 
2.9 
0.1 



4.8 
2.6 
5.6 



2.1 
4.8 
3.7 
4.7 
4.1 
0.4 



2.5 
3.5 
8.4 
1.7 



3.6 
8.1 
5.7 

2.0 

0.3 



3.2 

10.0 

6.1 

1.2 



3.0 
4.0 
4.3 
0.2 



4.9 
3.3 
9.4 



2.7 
3.0 
4.1 
3.1 
4.3 
0.4 



3.9 
3.1 
4.8 
1.7 

0.2 



3.0 
4.1 
4.5 

2.0 

0.4 



2.8 
5.0 
4.4 
1.7 



1.5 
4.4 
2.4 
0.3 



4.5 
2.9 
4.0 
0.1 



1.3 
1.1 

1.8 
1.8 

2.9 

: 5 



3.3 
0.8 
1.9 
1.6 
0.6 



0.8 
4.0 
2.4 

1.6 
0.4 



0.8 
3.1 
2.0 
1.0 



1.1 
1.0 
2.2 
0.4 



2.0 
0.7 
3.3 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



114 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 91. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: COMPUTERS 
USED FOR CONTROL ON THE FACTORY FLOOR 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2 to 5 
years 



No plans 
to use 



Not 
specified 



Absolute 
standard 
error of 
"Used in 
opera- 
tions" 
(percent) 3 



All establishments 



Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Prod- 

ucts 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other 

Electric Equipment 

37, Transportation 

Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 



Manufacturing process: 
Fabrication/machining . 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 



Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most 
products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 



Products made to military 
specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



Percent, on an annual basis, of 
all products manufactured at 
the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies 
who are prime defense con- 
tractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 

4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

1 1 ,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 



5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



26.5 

20.2 
28.1 
33.2 
26.9 
29.1 

18.9 
41.8 
62.8 

27.4 
28.3 
29.3 
30.7 
0.5 

26.6 
28.5 
30.8 
21.0 
3.9 

25.2 
32.1 
27.4 
34.2 
33.5 
26.9 
5.8 



30.4 
29.8 
28.1 
26.3 
27.3 
30.1 
6.5 



34.8 

26.2 

22.6 

0.4 



33.5 
35.8 
34.8 
23.1 
29.0 
3.4 



95,865 

12,226 
21,953 
28,401 
22,933 
10,352 

19,569 
34,132 
42,164 

7,234 

24,816 

36,831 

26,679 

307 

9,863 
26,432 
57,031 

2,506 
34 

9,833 

13,338 

31,559 

24,134 

7,312 

8,242 

1,447 



12,407 

21,930 

15,696 

3,809 

6,326 

32,342 

3,355 



44,969 

46,955 

3,852 

89 



26,620 

6,082 

2,512 

29,353 

30,457 

842 



7.0 

6.1 
7.4 
7.4 
7.8 
6.5 

5.8 

9.9 
10.1 

11.4 
8.3 
6.5 
6.0 
0.2 

6.5 
8.2 
8.0 
5.9 
0.6 

7.0 
11.7 
5.9 
10.7 
7.2 
6.7 
1.9 



9.5 
7.8 
7.4 
8.3 
6.4 
6.2 
2.8 



9.2 
6.7 
6.9 
0.2 



8.1 
10.6 
10.2 
6.5 
7.5 
0.5 



9.8 

6.8 
10.8 
12.3 
10.0 

11.5 

6.7 
16.8 
21.3 

9.6 

10.0 
11.1 
12.1 



11.1 

10.0 

11.4 

5.8 

1.9 

10.1 
11.7 
10.4 
12.3 
10.2 
10.8 
1.1 



10.2 
11.8 
10.8 
10.2 
10.0 
10.8 
1.8 



12.0 

10.4 

7.4 



12.5 

10.9 

7.5 

9.4 

10.5 

2.4 



8.5 

6.2 
8.8 
12.0 
7.8 
9.4 

5.5 
13.1 
28.6 

4.4 

8.8 

10.5 

11.1 

0.2 

7.5 
9.2 
10.1 
7.4 
0.5 

7.0 
7.4 
9.9 
10.3 
15.1 
7.7 
1.3 



9.3 
8.5 
9.2 
6.3 
9.5 
12.0 
1.0 



12.2 
7.9 
5.9 
0.1 



11.8 

13.4 

15.5 

6.4 

8.9 

0.3 



1.2 

1.1 
1.1 
1.5 
1.3 
1.7 

0.9 
2.0 
2.8 

2.0 
1.2 
1.2 
1.5 
0.1 

1.5 
1.1 
1.3 
1.9 
0.9 

1.1 
1.3 
1.2 
0.9 
1.0 
1.7 
1.5 



1.4 
1.7 
0.7 
1.5 
1.4 
1.1 
0.9 



1.4 
1.2 
2.4 
0.1 



1.1 
0.9 
1.6 
0.8 
2.1 
0.2 



9.1 

9.2 
9.1 
9.9 
8.2 
8.7 

9.0 

10.1 

5.6 

13.1 

10.7 

8.9 

8.2 

1.0 

10.0 
9.4 

10.6 
4.8 
2.3 

10.8 
10.4 
9.5 
11.4 
9.4 
8.2 
2.4 



10.9 

10.9 

10.3 

8.7 

10.0 

8.8 

1.1 



11.1 
9.3 
9.9 
0.2 



11.0 

11.1 

8.2 

8.7 

10.3 

1.0 



8.5 

9.6 

8.4 
7.8 
7.5 
7.6 

8.7 
8.6 
5.0 

9.1 
9.2 
9.7 
9.0 
0.1 

9.6 
7.8 
9.8 
7.8 

0.7 

10.1 
9.1 
9.4 
9.6 

10.4 
8.2 
0.6 



9.8 
10.6 
10.9 
6.2 
7.9 
7.3 
1.4 



10.9 
8.4 
7.9 
0.5 



11.4 
13.5 
8.8 
6.9 
9.3 
0.2 



45.4 

49.7 
45.1 
38.5 
46.6 
44.5 

52.0 
31.6 
18.1 

47.9 
48.7 
48.9 
49.3 
10.5 

51.3 
51.8 
46.0 
59.8 
33.1 

49.1 
46.8 
50.9 
42.1 
43.0 
53.8 
12.8 



45.6 
45.9 
48.2 
56.8 
51.7 
51.3 
19.7 



40.7 
52.8 
56.6 
10.2 



41.7 
37.4 
46.3 
57.9 
48.6 
12.2 



10.4 

11.3 
9.4 
10.7 
10.8 
10.3 

11.4 
7.8 
8.5 

2.5 
3.1 
3.1 
2.8 
87.9 

2.5 
2.6 
2.8 
6.6 

59.9 

4.8 
1.6 
2.9 
2.7 
3.5 
2.9 
78.4 



3.2 
2.8 
2.4 
2.0 
3.2 
2.5 
71.3 



2.4 

3.3 

3.0 

88.6 



2.3 
2.2 
2.1 
3.4 
3.0 
83.2 



See footnotes at the end of the table. 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



115 



Table 91. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE: COMPUTERS 
USED FOR CONTROL ON THE FACTORY FLOOR— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
opera- 
tions 
(percent) 



Number 
of dedi- 
cated 
work sta- 
tions 



Percent distribution 



When technology was 
first implemented 



Within 
past 2 
years 



Last 2 to 
5 years 



More 

than 5 

years 

ago 



Not 
speci- 
fied 2 



Plan to use within 



2 years 



2to5 



No plans 
to use 



Not 



V-4' I-.'. 

%",- ',' 

"Used* 

DBMS' 

tons" 






Percent of the plant's total 
value of shipments that are 
exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

10 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research 
and development work for the 
plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and develop- 
ment done 

Not specified 

Where is most of the formal 
training for the plant con- 
ducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff . . 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the for- 
mal training for the staff: 
Staff from inside the plant . . . 
Staff from outside the 

plant 

Trainers from outside the 

firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled per- 
sonnel to work with the tech- 
nologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 per- 
cent or more of the voting 
stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 

25,416 

4,969 

7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 



26,952 

1,637 

5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



22.3 
30.1 
36.8 
35.1 
37.5 
2.6 



29.2 
29.5 
42.8 

17.4 
0.8 



30.4 
43.4 
32.8 
15.2 
1.4 



28.3 

44.4 

40.5 
9.9 



22.3 

31.9 

35.7 

1.7 



44.0 

26.8 

44.3 

0.7 



16,705 
32,540 
13,721 
15,295 
16,956 
648 



1,934 
56,625 
32,871 

4,269 
167 



78,946 

5,336 

7,649 

3,736 

198 



57,096 

17,997 

16,112 
4,659 



18,740 

63,858 

12,911 

357 



13,490 

72,565 

9,725 

85 



6.9 
7.5 
9.6 
8.0 
6.6 
1.0 



10.1 
7.7 
9.5 

5.4 
0.2 



7.8 
14.2 
9.3 
4.0 
0.3 



7.3 
12.8 



10.8 
2.7 



5.7 

8.2 

10.2 

0.5 



8.7 

7.3 

11.8 

0.2 



8.1 
11.0 
14.5 
13.1 
15.3 

0.4 



7.8 
10.7 
17.4 

7.0 
0.4 



11.3 

15.1 

12.4 

5.5 

0.5 



10.7 
13.9 



15.7 
3.2 



7.6 
12.3 
13.2 

0.5 



18.2 
9.8 

14.6 
0.3 



6.1 
10.3 
11.3 
12.3 
13.5 

0.9 



11.1 

9.6 

13.6 

4.6 
0.2 



9.8 

13.6 

10.1 

5.0 

0.3 



9.0 

15.1 

13.0 
3.2 



8.0 

9.7 

11.2 

0.4 



15.3 
8.5 

14.2 
0.1 



1.2 
1.3 
1.4 
1.7 
2.1 
0.3 



0.2 
1.5 
2.3 

0.4 



1.5 
0.5 
1.0 
0.7 
0.3 



1.3 
2.6 



1.0 
0.8 



1.0 
1.7 
1.1 
0.3 



1.8 
1.2 
3.7 
0.1 



8.7 
10.9 

9.9 
10.3 
11.4 

0.5 



10.7 
10.5 
10.6 

7.6 
0.1 



9.6 

17.6 

13.6 

7.8 

0.2 



9.3 

14.6 

13.8 
4.9 



8.9 
10.4 
11.4 

0.3 



12.4 
9.8 
9.0 
0.1 



7.4 
11.1 

8.7 
11.0 

4.1 

0.8 



11.4 

10.2 

7.8 

6.6 

0.2 



9.1 
5.0 

13.6 
8.1 
0.6 



9.1 

6.2 

12.0 
5.0 



7.6 
10.1 

10.6 
0.5 



7.9 
9.5 
7.3 
0.2 



58.3 
45.0 
42.9 
40.8 
44.8 
10.0 



47.1 
46.8 
36.7 

65.3 
9.3 



47.8 
32.7 
38.1 
66.3 
7.5 



49.9 

34.0 

31.9 
42.0 



58.4 
45.2 
37.7 
10.7 



334 

50.9 

37.9 

6.4 



3.4 
2.8 
1.7 
2.8 
2.1 
86.2 



1.7 
3.1 

2.1 

3.1 
89.5 



3.2 
1.5 
1.9 
2.5 
90.2 



3.3 

0.7 

1.8 
38.0 



2.8 
2.5 
4.6 

86.8 



2.2 

3.1 

1.3 

:?: - 



1.2 

\a 
\& 
\& 

3.0 

: -: 



3.7 
0.8 
1.7 

1.7 
0.3 



0.8 
3.8 
2-2 
1.5 

0.4 



08 

3.0 

1.9 
09 



1.0 
09 
2JZ 

0.5 



1.9 
0.7 
30 
0.2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



116 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 9J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: COMPUTERS USED FOR CONTROL ON THE FACTORY 
FLOOR 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



Absolute 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



All establishments 

Major Group: 

34, Fabricated Metal Products 

35, Industrial Machinery and 

Equipment 

36, Electronic and Other Electric 

Equipment 

37, Transportation Equipment 

38, Instruments and Related 

Products 

Employment size: 

20 to 99 

100 to 499 

500 and over 

Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/ machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1,000 

$1,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $10,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military specifica- 
tions: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all 
products manufactured at the plant 
that are shipped to other companies 
that are prime contractors to Federal 
Defense Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent , 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know , 

Not specified 

See footnotes at the end of the table. 



42,991 

13,190 

14,231 

7,472 
4,110 

3,988 

30,502 

10,321 

2,168 

4,893 

13,722 

11,303 

9,310 

3,763 

6,795 
6,388 
23,393 
2,577 
3,838 

4,358 
5,791 
18,796 
3,974 
2,141 
3,679 
4,252 

5,274 
10,422 
8,846 
2,023 
4,265 
7,340 
4,821 



14,112 

22,214 

2,939 

3,726 



9,934 
2,499 
1,148 
11,808 
13,573 
4,029 



26.5 

20.2 

28.1 

33.2 
26.8 

29.0 

18.8 
41.6 
62.8 

27.5 
28.2 
29.4 
30.7 
0.5 

26.6 
28.5 
30.8 
20.9 
1.3 

25.2 
32.1 
27.4 
34.2 
33.6 
26.9 
5.7 

30.4 
29.8 
28.1 
26.3 
27.3 
30.1 
6.4 



34.9 

26.2 

22.6 

0.5 



33.6 
35.8 
34.7 
23.1 
28.9 
3.4 



10.0 

7.4 

10.1 

13.8 
10.0 

11.3 

7.2 
15.3 
24.0 

11.7 

10.8 

11.4 

10.3 

0.1 

9.3 
12.3 
10.9 
11.4 

0.6 

10.9 
14.2 

9.4 
12.4 
13.3 
10.4 

1.7 

12.8 

11.2 

10.2 

8.1 

8.1 

12.4 

2.6 



13.0 

10.1 

7.0 

0.1 



12.4 
12.6 
17.5 

8.5 
11.2 

0.7 



8.5 

6.5 

9.6 

9.4 
8.1 

10.0 

6.0 
13.3 
20.8 

8.0 

9.6 

8.7 

10.3 



8.4 

8.3 

10.4 

4.3 



6.8 
9.2 
9.4 
11.3 
12.4 
7.7 
1.2 

8.0 
8.3 
9.2 
8.5 
11.8 
11.2 
1.2 



11.4 
8.2 
7.7 



11.7 
15.0 
7.4 
7.0 
8.6 
1.0 



2.6 

2.0 

2.9 

3.0 
2.4 

2.7 

1.7 
4.3 
6.6 

1.3 
2.5 
3.6 
3.1 



2.1 
2.5 
3.3 
0.7 
0.1 

2.4 
3.7 
2.9 
2.3 
3.6 
1.8 
0.3 

2.5 
3.5 
2.7 
2.3 
2.9 
2.0 
1.0 



3.6 
2.5 
1.1 



2.8 
3.6 
2.0 
3.0 
2.5 
0.6 



3.2 

2.3 

3.4 

4.2 
4.2 

2.1 

2.4 
4.7 
6.8 

3.6 
3.2 
3.4 
3.9 



3.4 
3.0 
3.8 
1.6 



3.4 
2.6 
3.5 
5.5 
1.4 
4.2 
0.1 

4.4 
3.7 
3.9 
5.4 
2.3 
2.2 
0.7 



3.8 
3.2 
3.7 



3.7 
3.1 
4.8 
3.1 
3.7 
0.1 



2.3 

2.1 

2.2 

2.8 
2.2 

3.1 

1.6 
4.0 
4.8 

2.9 
2.1 
2.3 
3.2 
0.4 

3.3 
2.4 
2.3 
2.9 
0.6 

1.7 
2.6 
2.2 
2.6 
2.9 
2.8 
2.4 

2.7 
3.2 
2.1 
2.1 
2.2 
2.3 
0.9 



3.1 
2.1 
3.1 
0.3 



3.0 
1.4 
3.0 
1.6 
3.0 
0.9 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



117 



Table 9J. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING AND THE SINGLE MOST SIGNIFICANT REASON FOR 
USING SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES: COMPUTERS USED FOR CONTROL ON THE FACTORY 

FLOOR— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establish- 
ments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Single most significant reason for using the technology 
(percent distribution) 



Improved 
quality 



Increased 
output 



Lower labor 
cost 



Other 



Not 
specified 2 



a bee .•--. 

standard 

error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent] 5 



Percent of the total value of shipments 
that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more 

Not specified 

Where is most of the research and 
development work for the plant done: 

Outside this plant 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done. . 
Not specified 

Where is most of the formal training for 
the staff conducted: 

In this plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

conducted 

Not specified 

Who conducts most of the formal 
training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 

Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to 
work with the technologies used in the 
plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 

Does a foreign entity own, directly or 
indirectly, 1 percent or more of the 
voting stock or other equity rights to 
the plant: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 



13,687 
15,360 
4,737 
3,912 
1,398 
3,897 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 

5,251 
3,686 



26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 



13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



22.2 
30.1 
36.9 
35.1 
37.4 
2.5 



29.1 
29.5 
42.8 
17.3 
0.8 



30.3 
43.3 
32.8 

15.2 
1.5 



28.3 
44.4 
40.4 
10.0 



22.3 

31.9 

35.6 

1.7 



44.0 

26.8 

44.4 

0.6 



7.8 
11.6 
13.8 
13.8 
14.8 

1.1 



12.0 

11.3 

14.7 

6.8 

0.3 



11.6 
12.5 
11.2 

6.3 
0.3 



10.9 

13.9 

15.2 

3.6 



7.6 
12.6 
13.4 

0.5 



17.5 

10.1 

15.4 

0.2 



6.8 

9.7 

13.2 

10.9 

10.9 

0.5 



6.9 
9.7 
14.4 
4.9 
0.1 



9.5 
17.8 
10.8 

5.4 
0.3 



8.9 
15.9 
12.8 

3.4 



7.8 

9.5 

12.2 

0.3 



14.6 
8.6 

13.4 
0.1 



2.6 
2.9 
2.7 
3.4 
1.7 
0.2 



2.4 
2.8 
3.9 
2.3 



2.9 
4.3 
4.2 

0.8 



2.8 
4.2 
4.2 
0.5 



2.3 
2.9 
3.6 
0.3 



3.9 
2.6 
4.6 



2.9 
3.4 
4.2 
4.2 
5.0 
0.3 



4.8 
3.3 
5.3 
2.3 



3.6 
5.7 
4.5 

1.6 
0.2 



3.3 
6.5 
5.1 
1.1 



3.1 
3.6 
4.0 



4.0 
3.3 
6.4 



2.1 
2.5 
2.9 
2.8 
5.0 
0.4 



3.0 
2.5 
4.5 
1.0 
0.4 



2.8 
3.0 
2.1 

1.2 
0.6 



2.4 
3.8 
3.1 
1.4 



1.5 
3.2 
2.4 
0.6 



4.0 
2.3 
4.7 
0.3 



1.2 
1.0 
1.8 
1.8 
3.0 
0.5 



3.7 
0.8 
1.7 
1.7 
0.3 



0.8 
3.8 
2.2 

1.5 
0.4 



0.8 
3.0 
1.9 
0.9 



1.0 
0.9 
2.2 

0.5 



1.9 
0.7 
3.0 
0.2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not specified" includes data for nonrespondents. 
3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



118 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 10A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: COMPUTER- 
AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OR COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE) SYSTEMS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 

Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



6,097 
768 
532 



144 



21.8 
26.5 
15.6 
1.6 
18.1 
16.4 



15.4 
35.5 
19.4 

0.8 
19.2 

9.7 



20.2 

42.7 

24.5 

1.2 

5.2 

6.2 



41,118 
12,081 
14,436 



2,354 



21,563 
25,868 
19,778 
4,611 
12,936 
12,990 



8,973 
10,234 
9,102 
932 
3,762 
5,852 



7,234 
9,303 
11,716 
3,561 
1,962 
7,607 



3,770 
413 
382 



4,092 



20.4 
25.4 
,15.7 
1.6 
17.3 
19.6 



24.6 
34.6 
11.7 

1.8 
21.0 

6.3 



26.3 
33.3 
11.6 
0.7 
15.9 
12.2 



3.3 

8.9 

10.2 



20.6 



1.1 
1.3 
0.8 
0.2 
1.1 
1.1 



1.6 
3.3 
2.0 
0.2 
3.3 
1.7 



2.0 
4.3 
3.0 
0.2 
1.4 
0.9 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



119 



Table 10B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: COMPUTER- 
AIDED DESIGN (CAD) OUTPUT USED TO CONTROL MANUFACTURING MACHINES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in opera- 
tions 



Number of dedi- 
cated work sta- 
tions 



Not currently 
used in opera- 
tions* 



Absolute stand- 
ard error of 
"Used in opera- 
tions" (percent)' 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



2,709 
349 
236 



33 



21.0 
26.2 
17.5 
1.4 
15.6 
18.3 



14.1 
32.1 
21.6 

0.5 
24.5 

7.2 



21.6 

37.3 

31.0 

1.3 

3.0 

5.8 



10,237 
1,316 
1,931 



255 



4,689 
7,008 
4,353 
1,147 
2,566 
3,446 



747 
1,060 
976 
62 
551 
510 



809 

1,283 

1,544 

543 

188 

1,368 



7,158 
832 
678 



4,203 



21.5 
26.2 
14.8 
1.7 
19.1 
16.7 



19.4 
37.0 
15.5 

1.3 
17.0 

9.8 



22.3 
40.9 
15.9 

1.0 
11.0 

8.9 



5.7 

15.2 
10.4 



-<r d 



2.0 
2.1 
1.7 
0.4 
1.5 
2.0 



1.8 
5.3 
3.5 
0.2 
6.7 
2.0 



2.4 
3.6 
4.2 
0.3 
0.6 
1.0 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations*" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample esCmates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



120 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 10C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: 
DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OUTPUT USED 
IN PROCUREMENT ACTIVITIES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent , 

26 to 75 percent , 

Over 75 percent , 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



1,349 
163 
155 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



4,058 


22.0 


4,602 


23.6 


3,297 


18.9 


758 


2.5 


2,853 


14.2 


2,011 


18.8 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



610 


14.4 


773 


26.1 


567 


15.3 


113 


0.9 


526 


32.1 


222 


11.2 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



11.9 

46.0 

31.0 

1.1 

4.3 

5.7 



8,518 

1,018 

759 



4,227 



7.5 
19.6 
18.3 



41.4 



21.1 


1.9 


26.8 


2.4 


15.1 


2.2 


1.4 


0.7 


18.7 


1.8 


16.9 


2.6 



18.1 


3.5 


37.1 


4.9 


18.1 


3.4 


1.1 


0.4 


17.1 


11.6 


8.5 


4.1 



24.6 


2.4 


38.3 


8.6 


17.7 


5.2 


1.1 


0.3 


9.6 


1.0 


8.7 


1.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



121 



Table 11 A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: FLEXIBLE 
MANUFACTURING CELLS (FMC) OR SYSTEMS (FMS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Acv: sh 

\"-.'Zi-r. ■-.■■'.■ v 

"Used in 

:.■:■-.'• • 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75) percent, of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



1,302 

140 

91 



12 



23.6 
21.5 
13.6 
1.9 
19.0 
20.4 



20.0 
36.0 
19.6 
0.8 
11.6 
12.0 



25.8 

30.0 

32.2 

1.4 

1.3 

9.3 



1,041 
823 



4,224 



20.9 
27.1 
16.0 
1.6 
17.7 
16.7 



17.1 
35.1 
17.3 

1.1 
20.9 

8.5 



21.6 

41.1 

19.0 

1.0 

9.5 

7.8 



14.5 
10.6 



30.1 



2.3 
1.8 
1.5 
0.3 
2.0 
2.7 



3.1 
6.3 
3.1 
0.3 
1.8 
37 



3.2 
2.9 
3.8 
0.2 
0.4 
1.7 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations' 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



122 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 1 1 B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: NUMERICALLY 
CONTROLLED (NC)/COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED (CNC) MACHINES 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



4,774 
559 
526 



39 



20.8 
25.6 
17.3 
1.4 
19.3 
15.6 



15.7 
36.0 
19.8 

0.8 
21.7 

6.0 



19.4 

39.9 

21.4 

1.0 

9.2 

9.1 



41,369 
7,551 
4,908 



451 



19,092 
25,848 
19,727 
4,233 
17,536 
10,578 



4,442 
5,146 
4,180 
324 
3,535 
2,358 



2,957 
3,079 
2,794 
860 
1,040 
2,032 



5,093 
622 
388 



4,197 



22.0 
27.1 
13.4 
1.9 
16.1 
19.5 



19.9 
34.3 
14.8 
1.3 
17.1 
12.6 



27.9 

39.6 

18.5 

1.3 

7.1 

5.4 



4.1 
11.5 
12.3 



26.2 



1.4 
1.5 
1.2 
0.2 
1.3 
1.3 



2.0 
4.8 
2.6 
0.3 
4.6 
1.4 



2.3 
5.6 
3.3 
0.2 
2.9 
2.9 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



123 



Table 11C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: 
MATERIALS WORKING LASERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currentty 

used in 

operations 2 



standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



617 
63 
65 



18.1 
26.7 
20.9 
0.9 
12.9 
20.5 



22.9 
35.5 
21.2 
0.3 
9.4 
10.6 



24.3 

36.4 

27.5 

1.6 

2.0 

8.2 



1,288 
121 

231 



545 
833 
677 
126 
485 
273 



93 

112 

98 

7 
59 
29 



200 
188 
191 
119 
119 
169 



9,250 

1,118 

849 



4,236 



21.6 
26.2 
15.2 
1.7 
18.3 
17.0 



17.1 

35.3 
17.4 

1.1 
20.3 

8.8 



21.9 

40.1 

19.9 

1.0 

9.1 

8.0 



10.9 
17.4 

12.4 



57.5 



2.4 
4.0 
2.9 
02 
2.0 
3.8 



3.7 
4.2 
3.0 
0.2 
2.8 
5.4 



3.2 
3.1 
2.8 
0.4 
0.5 
1.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



124 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 1 1 D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: 
PICK AND PLACE ROBOTS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
7? J 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



738 
77 
89 



20.7 
22.4 
10.2 
1.1 
22.1 
23.5 



21.7 
27.5 
24.2 
0.6 
12.1 
13.9 



27.6 

33.6 

28.0 

0.7 

3.3 

6.8 



4,537 
284 
275 



28 



2,544 
2,160 
1,682 
943 
1,641 
1,550 



210 
215 
182 
66 
171 
156 



222 
218 
179 
32 
63 
116 



9,129 

1,104 

825 



4,228 



21.4 
26.6 
16.1 
1.6 
17.5 
16.8 



17.2 
35.9 
17.1 

1.1 
20.2 

8.5 



21.4 

40.6 

19.6 

1.1 

9.2 

8.1 



7.6 

13.9 

9.2 



38.0 



3.8 
2.4 
1.1 
0.2 
2.3 
3.2 



2.5 
3.1 
3.1 
0.2 
2.5 
5.5 



2.4 
3.0 
2.7 
0.2 
1.0 
1.6 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



125 



Table 1 1 E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: OTHER ROBOTS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



standard error at 

"Used in 

operations" 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 

Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



412 
37 
69 



30.9 
25.1 
13.5 
1.8 
11.8 
16.9 



24.7 
34.2 
23.1 

1.7 
14.3 

2.0 



36.7 

31.3 

23.0 

1.1 

0.9 

7.0 



3,044 

98 

219 



26 



2,493 
2,462 
1,916 
2,056 
996 
1,021 



47 
77 
60 
8 
68 
14 



151 
107 
145 
85 
22 
100 



9,455 

1,144 

845 



4,228 



20.8 
26.3 
15.7 
1.6 
18.2 
17.4 



17.2 
35.3 
17.4 

1.0 
19.8 

9.3 



20.6 

40.6 

20.3 

1.1 

9.4 

8.0 



10.3 
18.7 
10.7 



38.7 



4.6 
3.3 
1.8 
0.3 
2.3 
2.7 



5.7 

4.4 
5.6 
0.9 
4.7 
0.8 



4.1 
3.5 
2.6 
0.2 
0.4 
1.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 



Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



126 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 12A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: AUTOMATIC 
STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS (AS/RS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



317 
55 
69 



4,058 


20.7 


4,602 


20.1 


3,297 


22.5 


758 


1.6 


2,853 


17.7 


2,011 


17.4 



610 


16.4 


773 


45.2 


567 


16.1 


113 


0.5 


526 


12.6 


222 


9.2 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



22.8 
32.2 
29.1 
2.2 
3.1 
10.6 



9,542 

1,126 

846 



4,234 



10.2 

15.8 

9.0 



(NA) 



21.4 


2.5 


26.5 


2.3 


15.3 


3.4 


1.6 


0.3 


17.9 


3.3 


17.3 


2.5 



17.6 


2.8 


34.7 


3.9 


17.7 


3.3 


1.1 


0.2 


20.0 


3.8 


8.9 


2.9 



22.0 


2.7 


40.5 


3.1 


19.7 


2.9 


1.0 


0.6 


9.1 


1.2 


7.7 


2.2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



127 



Table 12B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: AUTOMATIC 
GUIDED VEHICLE SYSTEMS (AGVS) 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 
operations* 



£">', .•■-. 

standard error of 

"Used m 

operations'* 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



91 
12 
16 



4,058 


33.4 


4,602 


21.6 


3,297 


10.4 


758 


3.0 


2,853 


8.8 


2,011 


22.8 



610 


24.0 


773 


18.3 


567 


36.0 


113 


- 


526 


20.2 


222 


1.5 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



32.9 
16.1 
35.3 
0.8 
0.2 
14.7 



9,776 

1,169 

898 



4,236 



21.2 


3.2 


26.3 


2.8 


15.7 


1.7 


1.6 


0.6 


18.0 


1.5 


17.2 


3.8 



21.1 



(NA) 



17.4 


6.3 


35.5 


6.1 


17.4 


96 


1.1 


0.1 


19.6 


12.9 


9.0 


0.5 



21.8 


5.9 


40.3 


49 


20.2 


6.1 


1.1 


0.3 


8.7 


0.1 


7.9 


4.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
z "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
""Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



128 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 13A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: AUTOMATIC 
SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING PERFORMED ON INCOMING OR IN-PROCESS 
MATERIALS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 

Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



1,044 
151 
136 



16 



4,058 


17.1 


4,602 


28.6 


3,297 


16.1 


758 


1.2 


2,853 


15.9 


2,011 


21.1 



610 


24.9 


773 


32.5 


567 


22.0 


113 


0.6 


526 


15.8 


222 


4.2 



496 


28.8 


597 


31.8 


440 


26.7 


129 


2.0 


321 


2.2 


232 


8.5 



8,823 

1,030 

778 



4,220 



7.4 
10.9 
10.0 



(NA) 



22.0 


1.6 


25.9 


3.2 


15.6 


1.8 


1.7 


0.3 


18.2 


1.6 


16.6 


3.1 



16.2 


2.8 


35.8 


3.6 


16.9 


3.0 


1.1 


0.2 


20.3 


3.1 


9.7 


0.9 



20.6 


3.5 


41.5 


3.5 


19.2 


2.7 


0.9 


0.5 


9.9 


0.7 


7.9 


1.3 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



129 



Table 13B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: AUTOMATIC 
SENSOR-BASED INSPECTION OR TESTING PERFORMED ON FINAL PRODUCT 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



"Used in 
operations" 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



1,096 
181 
155 



22 



4,058 


20.0 


4,602 


27.2 


3,297 


17.8 


758 


1.4 


2,853 


16.1 


2,011 


17.5 



610 


20.4 


773 


26.5 


567 


22.5 


113 


0.8 


526 


20.0 


222 


7.8 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



23.7 

37.2 

26.8 

1.5 

3.0 

7.8 



8,771 

1,000 

759 



4,214 



21.5 


2.0 


26.1 


2.7 


15.4 


1.8 


1.6 


0.3 


18.1 


1.5 


17.3 


2.5 



6.7 

11.0 

9£ 



(NA) 



16.9 


2.1 


37.2 


2.7 


16.6 


2.9 


1.1 


0.3 


19.1 


3.8 


9.1 


2.0 



21.7 


3.0 


40.5 


3.3 


18.9 


2.7 


0.9 


0.3 


10.0 


0.6 


8.0 


11 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



130 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 14A. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS FOR TECHNICAL DATA 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



3,264 
325 
328 



33 



4,058 


21.1 


4,602 


24.9 


3,297 


16.8 


758 


1.7 


2,853 


16.6 


2,011 


18.9 



610 


19.9 


773 


35.3 


567 


20.1 


113 


1.0 


526 


13.1 


222 


10.6 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



19.1 
36.3 
21.0 
1.7 
8.1 
13.8 



6,603 
856 
586 



4,203 



21.5 
27.1 
15.0 
1.6 
18.7 
16.2 



4.2 

9.4 

11.2 



(NA) 



1.4 
1.4 
1.2 
0.2 
1.2 
1.6 



16.5 


2.9 


35.1 


3.3 


16.5 


1.9 


1.1 


0.3 


22.6 


2.5 


8.2 


2.2 



24.2 


2.2 


42.4 


4.0 


20.2 


2.6 


0.6 


0.4 


8.9 


3.2 


3.7 


3.9 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



131 



Table 14B. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: LOCAL AREA 
NETWORKS FOR FACTORY USE 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currentty 

used in 

operations 2 



V5" 



"Used rt 
(percent)' 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



2,457 
287 
223 



18 



4,058 


20.8 


4,602 


22.5 


3,297 


18.0 


758 


1.8 


2,853 


15.3 


2,011 


21.7 



610 


16.4 


773 


29.8 


567 


18.2 


113 


0.6 


526 


23.4 


222 


11.6 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



23.0 

37.8 

22.5 

2.4 

6.5 

7.8 



7,410 
894 
691 



4.218 



21.6 


1.5 


27.9 


1.4 


14.6 


1.5 


1.6 


0.3 


19.0 


1.2 


15.3 


2-1 



4.9 
12.2 



(NA) 



18.2 


3.2 


37.7 


3.7 


17.7 


2.5 


1.3 


0.2 


17.3 


72 


7.9 


2.7 



21.7 


24 


40.6 


3.3 


19.7 


21 


0.5 


0.5 


9.5 


2.9 


8.0 


1.2 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting 'Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



132 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 14C. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: INTERCOMPANY 
COMPUTER NETWORKS LINKING PLANTS TO SUBCONTRACTORS, SUPPLIERS, OR CUSTOMERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 

Percent, 1 to 25 percent, of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent, 26 to 75 percent, of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 

Percent, over 75 percent, of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



1,576 
146 
121 



39 



4,058 


21.1 


4,602 


23.1 


3,297 


13.7 


758 


1.8 


2,853 


20.6 


2,011 


19.7 



610 


21.1 


773 


43.1 


567 


24.0 


113 


0.9 


526 


8.1 


222 


2.8 



496 


15.3 


597 


43.6 


440 


24.5 


129 


1.9 


321 


1.6 


232 


13.0 



8,291 

1,035 

793 



4,197 



5.5 
19.8 
11.7 



(NA) 



21.4 


1.8 


27.0 


2.0 


16.1 


1.2 


1.6 


0.4 


17.2 


1.9 


16.7 


1.9 



17.0 


4.7 


34.1 


10.6 


16.6 


5.2 


1.1 


0.3 


21.1 


2.3 


10.1 


0.8 



23.2 


2.0 


39.7 


4.1 


19.5 


3.1 


0.8 


0.6 


9.8 


0.4 


7.0 


2.1 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in opera tir, ns" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
""Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



' ';'; 



Table 14D. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: PROGRAMMABLE 
CONTROLLERS 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently "Used in 

used in operations" 

operations 2 (percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



2,566 
322 
226 



26 



18.6 
21.7 
14.4 
1.6 
21.6 
22.1 



24.3 
35.0 
18.8 

0.6 
14.0 

7.3 



27.4 

34.9 

25.1 

1.0 

4.2 

7.4 



44,562 
4,046 
3,373 



691 



28,682 
27,216 
15,009 
6,158 
14,735 
13,412 



2,405 
2,502 
2,035 

175 
2,245 

894 



2,350 
2,376 
1,889 
516 
640 
1,521 



7,301 
859 
688 



4,210 



22.6 
28.3 
16.1 
1.6 
16.3 
15.1 



14.4 
35.6 
17.2 

1.3 
21.8 

9.7 



19.6 
42.6 
18.4 

1.1 
10.2 

8.1 



4.7 

13.4 

8.2 



- 



1.3 
1.3 
1.1 
02 
1.7 
2.0 



3.7 
5.3 
3.0 
0.2 
3.5 
26 



24 
2.7 
2.9 
0.2 
0.8 
1.4 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting •Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
""Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know. 



134 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Table 14E. PERCENTAGE OF ESTABLISHMENTS USING, PLANNING, OR NOT PLANNING TO USE SELECTED 
TECHNOLOGIES WHO SHIP DIRECTLY TO FEDERAL DEFENSE AGENCIES: COMPUTERS 
USED FOR CONTROL ON THE FACTORY FLOOR 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of 
establishments 1 



Used in 
operations 



Number of 

dedicated work 

stations 



Not currently 

used in 

operations 2 



Absolute 

standard error of 

"Used in 

operations" 

(percent) 3 



Establishments who manufacture products that are 
shipped directly to Federal Defense Agencies 
(number): 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 4 



Percent (1 to 25 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (26 to 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



Percent (over 75 percent) of shipments to Federal 
Defense Agencies shipped to the following agency: 

Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of the Air Force 

Marine Corps 

Defense Logistics Agency 

Other 

Not specified 



9,867 

1,181 

914 



4,236 



4,058 
4,602 
3,297 
758 
2,853 
2,011 



610 
773 
567 
113 
526 
222 



496 
597 
440 
129 
321 
232 



2,781 
379 
269 



12 



20.5 
21.7 
17.8 
1.4 
19.0 
19.6 



16.4 
35.6 
19.8 

0.6 
17.8 

9.8 



24.1 

44.9 

20.2 

1.0 

3.9 

5.9 



21,462 
3,846 
3,104 



374 



11,352 

12,879 

10,427 

2,421 

7,852 

6,748 



2,626 
3,323 
1,894 

423 
1,321 

991 



2,205 
2,554 
2,397 
1,176 
828 
1,511 



7,086 
802 
645 



4,224 



21.8 
28.5 
14.5 
1.7 
17.4 
16.1 



18.2 
35.0 
16.3 

1.3 
20.7 

8.5 



20.7 
37.8 
20.5 

1.1 
10.9 

9.0 



4.6 
11.9 
11.8 



(NA) 



1.4 
1.3 
1.4 
0.2 
1.6 
1.6 



2.1 
4.4 
3.0 
0.2 
3.8 
2.8 



2.9 
5.2 
2.6 
0.2 
0.8 
0.9 



Note: Data may not add to totals due to the independent rounding of individual figures. 

Percents are derived by dividing the total percent reported in each military agency by the number of establishments reporting "Used in operations" 
who ship directly to Federal Defense Agencies. 

- Represents zero. (NA) Not available. 

1 For each characteristic, excluding all establishments, major groups, and employment size, the numbers shown in this column are sample estimates. 
Relative standard errors for these sample estimates can be found in appendix D. 
2 "Not currently used in operations" includes data for nonrespondents. 

3 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 
4 "Not specified" includes data for "None" and "Don't know." 



A-1 



Appendix A. Explanation of Terms 



Manufacturing Technologies. The definitions and terms 
for the manufacturing technologies listed below were 
developed after consultation with several trade associa- 
tions, primarily the Robotic industries Associatbn and the 
Automation Forum. The major government agencies con- 
sulted were the International Trade Administration and the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology. 

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and/ or Computer-Aided 
Engineering. Use of computers for drawing and designing 
parts or products and for analysis and testing of designed 
parts or products. 

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/ Computer-Aid ed Man- 
ufacturing (CAM). Use of CAD output for controlling machines 
used to manufacture the part or product. 

Digital Data Representation. Use of digital representa- 
tion of CAD output for controlling machines used to 
manufacture the part or product. 

NC/CNC Machine. A single machine either numerically 
controlled (NC) or computer numerically controlled (CNC) 
with or without automated material handling capabilities. 
NC machines are controlled by numerical commands, 
punched on paper or plastic mylar tape while CNC machines 
are controlled electronically through a computer residing in 
the machine. 

Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC). Two or more machines 
with automated material handling capabilities controlled 
by computers or programmable controllers, capable of 
single path acceptance of raw material and single path 
delivery of finished product. 

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS).Two or more 
machines with automated material handling capabilities 
controlled by computers or programmable controllers, 
capable of multiple path acceptance of raw material and 
multiple path delivery of finished product. A FMS may also 
be comprised of two or more FMC's linked in series or 
parallel. 



Materials Working Laser. Laser technology used for weld- 
ing, cutting, treating, scribing, and marking. 

Robot. A reprogrammable, multifunctbnal manipulator designed 
to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices 
through variable programmed motions for the performance 
of a variety of tasks. 

Pick and Place Robot. A simple robot, with one, two, or 
three degrees of freedom, which transfers items from 
place to place by means of point-to-point moves. Little or 
no trajectory control is available 

Automatic Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS). 
Computer controlled equipment providing for the auto- 
matic handling and storage of materials, parts, subassem- 
blies, or finished products. 

Automatic Guided Vehicle System (AGVS). Vehicles 
equipped with automatic guidance devices programmed to 
follow a path that interfaces with work stations for auto- 
mated or manual loading and unloading of materials, tools, 
parts, or products. 

Technical Data Network. Use of local area network (LAN) 
technology to exchange technical data within design and 
engineering departments. 

Factory Network. Use of local area network (LAN) tech- 
nology to exchange information between different points 
on the factory floor. 

Programmable Controller. A solid state industrial control 
device that has programmable memory for storage of 
instructions, which performs functions equivalent to a relay 
panel or wired solid state logic control system. 

Computers Used for Control on the Factory Floor. 
Exclude computers imbedded within machines, or com- 
puters used solely for data acquisitions or monitoring. 
Include computers that may be dedicated to control, but 
which are capable of being reprogrammed for other func- 
tions. 



B-' 



Appendix B. Report Form 



DUE DATE: 30 DAYS AFTER RECEIPT 



0MB No. 0607-0766: Approval E/pires 02 ^"J* 



form SMT-1 

(3-23-93) 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



SURVEY 

OF 

TECHNOLOGY 

PREVALENCE AND PLANS 
FOR USE 



Bureau of the Census 
RETURN \ Attn: CIR 
TO / 1201 East Tenth Street 

Jeffersonville, IN 47133-0001 



NOTICE - Response to this inquiry is required by law (Title 13, U.S. Code). By the same law, 
your report to the Census Bureau is confidential. It may be seen only by sworn Census 
employees and may be used only for statistical purposes. The law also provides that copies 
retained in your files are immune from legal process. 



In correspondence pertaining to this report, please refer to Census File Number (CFN) 



(Please correct any errors in name, address, and ZIP Code. 



TO PLANT MANAGER OR ENGINEER 

The health of the U.S. economy depends, to a large degree, on the productivity and competitiveness of American 
industry. To remain strong in the face of world competitive pressures, American industry must remain a leader in the 
development and use of advanced manufacturing technologies. Policymakers in Government and industry have 
expressed an increased need for information to assess patterns of use and diffusion of advanced manufacturing 
technologies across major manufacturing industries. In the absence of comprehensive and consistent information on this 
topic, the Bureau of the Census is conducting the following Survey of Technology: Prevalence and Plans for Use. 

We selected the establishment shown in the address box as part of a larger sample. It is important that we receive a 
response from each of the selected establishments, including yours, and that the department or authority most familiar 
with this plant's operations respond frankly to this survey. 

The law (Title 13, United States Code) requires your response to this survey. By Section 9 of the same law, your report to 
the Census Bureau is confidential. Only sworn Census Bureau employees will see the information you report and will use 
it only for statistical purposes. Please return the completed report within 30 days. If you have any questions concerning 
this survey, please call Mr. Steve Pope on (301) 763-1728. 

Thank you for your cooperation in this important survey. We appreciate your help. 

Sincerely, 




Harry A. Scarr 
Acting Director 
Bureau of the Census 



INSTRUCTIONS 

Section A - For each of the technologies listed, either mark an "X" in column 01 to indicate it is currently used in 
operations and indicate the number of dedicated workstations in column 02, OR mark an "X" in column 10, 11, or 12 to 
indicate when you plan to use the technology. If a technology is currently used in operations (that is, for each box marked 
in column 01), mark an "X" in column 03, 04, or 05 to indicate when the plant first began using the technology and mark 
an "X" in column 06, 07, 08, or 09 to indicate the most significant reason for the plant using the technology. 

Section B - Mark an "X" in one box for each question concerning characteristics of your establishment. 

Section C - Please verify that your form is complete. Use the "REMARKS" section if you would like to further explain any 

of your responses. 

Section D - Provide contact information, sign, and return the form in the enclosed preaddressed envelope. Thank you 
for your cooperation with this important survey. 

Reasonable estimates are acceptable. 



BURDEN HOUR ESTIMATE 

We estimate the public reporting burden for this collection of information to be 15 minutes per questionnaire, including 
the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and 
completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding the burden estimate or any other 
aspect of this collection including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Associate Director for Administra: a 
Paperwork Project 0607-0766, Room 3104, FB-3, Bureau of the Census, Washington. DC 20233-0001: and to the Office of 
Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 0607-0766, Washington, DC 20503. 



B-2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



SECTION A - TECHNOLOGY USAGE 


INSTRUCTIONS 
Section A - For each of the technologies listed, 
either mark an "X" in column 01 to indicate it is 
currently used in operations and indicate the 
number of dedicated workstations in column 02, 
OR mark an "X" in column 10, 11, or 12 to indicate 
when you plan to use the technology. If a 
technology is currently used in operations (that is, 
for each box marked in column 01), mark an "X" in 
column 03, 04, or 05 to Indicate when the plant 
first began using the technology and mark an "X" 
in column 06, 07, 08, or 09 to indicate the most 
significant reason for the plant using the 
technology. 


CURRENTLY 

USED IN 
OPERATIONS 


When did this plant 
first begin using this 
technology? 

Mark (X) one box. 


What is the single most 
significant reason for the 
plant using this technology? 

Mark (X) one box. 


Used 

in 
opera- 
tions 

(01) 


Number 

of 
dedicated 
work- 
stations 

(or 
items of 
equip- 
ment) 
(02) 


Within 
the past 
2 years 

(03) 


In the 

last 

2 to 5 

years 

(04) 


More 

than 

5 years 

ago 

(05) 


Improved 
quality 

(06) 


Increase 
output 

(07) 


Lower 
labor 
cost 

(08) 


Other 
(09) 


Technology 


1. DESIGN AND ENGINEERING 

a. Computer aided design (CAD) and/or 
computer aided engineering (CAE) n 




















b. CAD output used to control 

manufacturing machines (CAD/CAM) 12 




















c. Digital representation of CAD output 

used in procurement activities 13 




















2. FABRICATION/MACHINING 
AND ASSEMBLY 

a. Flexible manufacturing cell(s) (FMC) 

or system(s) (FMS) 21 




















b. Numerically controlled 
(NC)/computer numerically 
controlled (CNC) machine(s) 22 




















c. Materials working laser(s) 23 




















d. Pick and place robot(s) 24 




















e. Other robots 25 




















3. AUTOMATED MATERIAL 
HANDLING 

a. Automatic storage and retrieval 

system (AS/RS) 31 




















b. Automatic guided vehicle 

systems (AGVS) 32 




















4. AUTOMATED SENSOR BASED 
INSPECTION AND/OR TESTING 
EQUIPMENT 

a. Performed on incoming or in - 

process materials 41 




















b. Performed on final product 42 




















5. COMMUNICATIONS AND 
CONTROL 

a. Local area network for technical data 51 




















b. Local area network for factory use 52 




















c. Intercompany computer network 
linking plant to subcontractors, 
suppliers, and/or customers 53 




















d. Programmable controller(s) 54 




















e. Computer(s) used for control on 

the factory floor 55 





















FORM SMT-1 (3-23-93) 



Page 2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



B-: 



Section A - Continued 


NOT CURRENTLY 

USED IN 

OPERATIONS 


Plan to use 
within: 


No plans 
to use 

(12) 


The next 
2 years 

(10) 


2 to 5 

years 

(11) 









































































































FORM SMT 1 (3-23-93) 



DEFINITION OF TERMS 



Survey of Technology: Prevalence and Plans for Use 



1. DESIGN AND ENGINEERING 

a. Computer Aided Design (CAD) and/or Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) - 
Use of computers for drawing and designing parts or products and for analysis 
and testing of designed parts or products. 

b. Computer Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) - 

Use of CAD output for controlling machines used to manufacture the part or 
product. 

c. Digital Data Representation - Use of digital representation of CAD output for 

controlling machines used in procurement activities. 

2. FABRICATION/MACHINING AND ASSEMBLY 

a. Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC) - Two or more machines with automated 
material handling capabilities controlled by computers or programmable 
controllers, capable of single path acceptance of raw material and single path 
delivery of finished product. 

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) - Two or more machines with 
automated material handling capabilities controlled by computers or 
programmable controllers, capable of multiple path acceptance of raw material 
and multiple path delivery of finished product. A FMS also may be comprised of 
two or more FMCs linked in series or parallel. 

b. NC/CNC Machines - A single machine either numerically controlled (NO or 
computer numerically controlled (CNC) with or without automated material 
handling capabilities. NC machines are controlled by numerical commands 
punched on paper or plastic mylar tape. CNC machines are controlled 
electronically through a computer residing in the machine. 

c. Materials Working Laser(s) - Laser technology used for welding, cutting, 
treating, scribing, and marking. 

d. Pick and Place Robot(s) - A simple robot, with one, two, or three degrees of 
freedom, which transfers items from place to place by means of point-to-point 
moves. Little or no trajectory control is available. 

e. Robot(s) - A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move 
materials, parts, tools, or specialized device through variable programmed 
motions for the performances of a variety of tasks. 

3. AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING 

a. Automatic Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS) - Computer controlled 
equipment providing for the automatic handling and storage of materials, parts 
subassemblies, or finished products. 

b. Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) - Vehicles equipped with 
automatic guidance devices programmed to follow a path that interfaces with 
work stations for automated or manual loading and unloading of materials, tools, 
parts, or products. 

4. AUTOMATED SENSOR BASED INSPECTION AND/OR TESTING 
EQUIPMENT 

Automated Sensor Based Inspection and/or Testing Equipment - Includes 
automated sensor based inspection and/or testing performed on incoming or 
in-process materials, or performed on the final product. 

5. COMMUNICATIONS AND CONTROL 

a. Technical Data Network - Use of local area network (LAN) technology to 

exchange technical data within design and engineering departments. 

b. Factory Network - Use of local area network (LAN) technology to exchange 
information between different points on the factory floor. 

c. Intercompany Computer Network - Use of network technology to link 

subcontractors, suppliers, and/or customers with the plant. 

d. Programmable Controller(s) - A solid state industrial control device that has 
programmable memory for storage of instructions, which performs functions 
equivalent to a relay panel or wired solid state logic control system. 

e. Computer(s) Used for Control on the Factory Floor - Exclude computers 
imbedded within machines, or computers used solely for data acquisitions or 
monitoring. Include computers that may be dedicated to control but are capable of 
being programmed for other functions. 



Page 3 



RJMM continue wi 



i- ." .-\*o* * 



B-4 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



SECTION B - CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT 


1 . How many years has this 
establishment manufactured 
products at this location? 


911 1 


1 n Less than 5 years 3 O 16 to 30 years 
2D 5 to 15 years 4 D Over 30 years 


2. How would you characterize the 
nature of manufacturing 
at this plant? 


912 | 


i n Fabrication/machining 3 O Fabrication/machining and assembly 

2 n Assembly 4 H Neither fabrication/machining nor assembly 


3. What is the average market price 
for MOST products of 
this plant? 


913 | 


iH Less than $5 4 D $1,001 to $2,000 

2 n $5 to $100 5 D $2,001 to $10,000 

3 n $101 to $1,000 en Over $10,000 


4. What is the market for MOST 
of the products of this plant? 


914 | 


1 D Consumer (personal use by household) 4 O Transportation 

2 n Commercial (e.g., offices, hospitals, 5 D Government 

services, etc.) * 6 rj 0ther -.Specify v 

3 n Industrial (manufacturing, mining, 

construction, and utilities) 




5. Are any of the products produced 
in this plant manufactured to 
military specifications? 


915 


iD Yes 
2D No 
3 n Don't know 


6. On an annual basis what 

percentage (based on value of 
goods and services) of all 
products manufactured at this 
plant are shipped directly to 
Federal defense agencies (such 
as the Departments of the Army, 
Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, 
the Defense Logistics Agency, 
etc.)? 


916 


1 □ 1 to 25% 

2 □ 26 to 75% 

3 n Over 75% 

4 n None I 

r— i _ ,, , r Skip to item 8 

5 l_l Don t know J ^ 


7. Of the shipments to Federal 

defense agencies reported above 
in item 6, what percentages are 
shipped to the agencies listed? 


917 | 


1 n Department nf the Army % 
7 r~l Department nf the Navy % 
-* n Department nf the Air Fnrr.e % 
*n Marine Cnrps % 
s IH Defense I ngistir.s Agency % 
r I - ! Other % - Specify 
TOTAl 100% 




8. On an annual basis what 

percentage (based on value of 
goods and services) of all products 
manufactured at this plant are 
shipped to other companies that 
are prime contractors to Federal 
defense agencies? 


918 


1 □ 1 to 25% 

2 D 26 to 75% 

3 □ Over 75% 

4 D None 

5 D Don't know 



FORM SMT-1 (3-23-93) 



Page 4 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



SECTION B - CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT - Continued 



What percent of this plant's total 
value of shipments are exported 
for direct sale? Include shipments to 
foreign subsidiaries. 



919 



1 □ None 

2D Less than 10% 

3D 10 to 19% 



4 □ 20 to 49% 

5 □ 50% or more 



10. Where is most of the research and 
development work for this plant 
done? 



i □ Outside the firm 
2 D In this plant 



3 LJ Elsewhere in the firm 

4 □ No research and development done 



1 1 . Where is most of the formal 
training for staff of this plant 
conducted? 



921 



i D In this plant 

2 D Elsewhere in the firm 

3 D Outside the firm 

4 Q No formal training for staff - Skip to item 13 



12. Who conducts most of the formal 
training for staff of this plant? 



922 



i LJ Staff from this plant 

2 LJ Staff from elsewhere in the firm 

3 CH Trainers from outside the firm 



13. How difficult has it been to hire 
skilled personnel to work with the 
technologies used in this plant? 



923 



1 □ Not difficult 
2 IZ] Some problems 
3d Very difficult 



14. Does a foreign entity (company, 
individual, government, etc.) own, 
directly or indirectly, 10 percent 
or more of the voting stock or 
other equity rights in this plant? 



924 



iD Yes 
2d No 
3 CJ Don't know 



REMARKS 



FORM SMT-1 (3 23-93) 



I'.mr '.- 



•".•VS.- .-.- • :' • ' >.-.'■ ' • .' 



B-6 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



SECTION C - VERIFICATION 



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FORM SMT-1 (3-23-931 



Page 6 



♦U.S. G.P.0.:1993-341-833:820u3 



C-1 



Appendix C. Sampling and Estimating Methodologies 



SAMPLING METHODOLOGY 

The estimates within this report are based upon a 
sample of establishments selected randomly. The meth- 
odology used to select the sample is as follows. 

The scope of the survey was defined to include all 
manufacturing establishments classified within U.S. Stand- 
ard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code Major Groups 34 to 
38. The universe frame for the SMT was constructed from 
the Census Mail File. A total of 43,551 establishments 
were identified as in-scope. For sampling purposes and 
publication considerations, the universe frame was strati- 
fied by three-digit SIC and total employment size classifi- 
cation (SIC-3 x TE). Three TE size breaks were used in the 
stratification process: 20 to 99, 100 to 499, and 500 or 
more. 

Since the primary intent of the report was to produce 
estimated establishment counts and prevalence rates at 
stratified and aggregate levels, simple random sampling 
(SRS) was chosen as the most efficient sampling proce- 
dure. In stratified SRS, each stratum is treated as a 
population from which an independent sample is selected. 
Each sampling unit (i.e., establishment) within the stratum 
has an equal chance of being selected. Of the 43,551 
in-scope establishments, 8,432 were selected for the 
survey. 



Estimated Establishment Counts 



where 
X'„ 



is the estimated total establishment count 
for the criteria of interest defined by cell j. 

is the estimated total establishment count 
for the criteria of interest defined by stra- 
tum h. 

W h = N h /n h is the sampling weight associated with the 
n h establishments of stratum h (i.e., the 
inverse of the sampling fraction f h = 
N h /n h ). 

X ih =1 if establishment i of stratum h satisfies the 

criteria of interest defined by cell j. 

= if it does not. 



Relative Standard Errors of Estimated Counts. To 

estimate the variance of an estimated total X\ for cell j, it 
was necessary to estimate the variance contribution of 
each of the individual stratum cells (SIC-3 x TE) which 
combined to form cell j. For a given stratum h, the variance 
is estimated by 



°- 2 x. 



= d-Pxv) (W h ) (W h -1) (n„j 



(2) 



where W h is defined above, and n x; is the total number of 
sample establishments in stratum h satisfying the criteria 
of interest for cell j, and p x; is the proportion of establish- 
ments satisfying the criteria of interest, as defined below. 



Estimated establishment counts for the various publica- 
tion level cell categories are derived as simple weighted 
estimates where the stratum weights, the inverse of the 
sampling fraction for any given stratum, serve as estab- 
lishment weights. The method of estimation is described 
below. 



Px = — = 
K " n h 



2^ 
1=1 

n h 



(3) 



The sum of the stratum variances is the vanance of the 
estimated establishment count X , for cell j as represented 
below. 



Estimates. The following assumes L strata comprise 
publication cell j. Each stratum h (h = 1, 2, ... L) has a 
population of N h from which a sample of size n h has been 
selected. Each estimated establishment count, X',, for 
publication cell j is computed as follows: 



•*-: 



»*i 



v* 






Finally, the relative standard error. V x , of the estirnated 
total X'j, the value appearing in the tables, is defined below. 



X', = 22w h x ih = 2x; 



htji i 



M 



(D 



v* = 









C-2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



Estimated Prevalence Rates 

Estimates. Prevalence rates for cell j are expressed as 
the ratio of two estimated establishment counts: 



Pr'i = 



Y'i 



(6) 



where X'j and Y'j are simple weighted counts as defined in 
the "Estimated Establishment Counts" subsection. 



Absolute Standard Error Estimates of Prevalence Rates. 

The variance, <r 2 r , , of prevalence rate pr'j, above, is defined 



by: 



°1, =tP r i] 2 



L Xf + Yf ~ 2 






(7) 



where 



X'j, cr 2 and pr'j are defined above. Y'j and pr'j are 
computed in a similar fashion. The covariance term 
cr x . r is computed as: 



O-X'Y'i = 2 OX' h Y' h 
he| 



(8) 



2 

he) 



/ Px h PrA 
V " Px'„yJ 



(W h )(W h -1)(n x . h r h ) 



where: 
n XV Px; 



n Y ' h , Pr h 



n Y' h X' h 



Px;y; 



are defined by the numerator and are 
described above, and 

are defined similarly for the denomina- 
tor. 

is the total number of establishments in 
stratum h satisfying the criteria of inter- 
est as defined by both the numerator 
and denominator. 

is equal to n x - y / n h 



Finally, the absolute standard error of the prevalence rate 
pr., the value found in the tables, is obtained by taking the 
square root of the variance, a-V, 



<V, = V^vi 



(9) 



Estimates. We estimated the cell ratio, rl, as the weighted 
average of the individual establishment totals contained 
within cell j. 



r'i = 



where: 
W h 
Qih = 



L n h 

22 w h Q ih 

h«ji=1 
L n h 

22 w h z ih 

heji = 1 



Z'i 



(10) 



z ih = 



is defined in above. 

the value associated with the ith estab- 
lishment in stratum h if the criterium of 
interest, as defined by cell j, is satisfied. 

if it is not satisfied. 

1 if establishment.! of stratum h satis- 
fies the criterium of interest, as defined 
by cell j. 

if it does not. 



Absolute Standard Errors of Ratio Estimates. To esti- 
mate the variance of an estimated ratio, r'j, for cell j, it was 
necessary to estimate the absolute variances o-q. and 
erf.., and covariance cr QZ - 



°i, = 2(N h )(W h -1) 

h£j 




■4 



= S lN » ,<w -- ,, [fe)-(?^^)] 



o-az , = 2(N h )(W h -1) 




n' h ( 2Q ih ) 2> 
i=i 

(n h ) (n h -1). 



(11) 



(12) 



(13) 



where 2nhZih = n z - h for a given stratum h since Z ih = 
1 for a particular establishment if the criterium of interest 
has been satisfied. 

Finally, the absolute standard error, oy, of the estimated 
ratio r'j, is computed by taking the square root of the 
variance estimate, a-*, described below. 

0-2 



I = [r?] 



rn-2 



Q'i 2 + Z'i 2 



< 



m\ 



(14) 



Limitations of the Data 



Ratio Estimates. Tables 10 through 14 of this report 
display additional ratio estimates and their associated 
standard errors. These ratios are not ratios of estimated 
establishment counts, but are estimated averages of estab- 
lishment values for the various survey variables. 



Sampling Error. The sample drawn for this survey is but 
one of many possible samples that could have resulted 
using the sampling methodology described earlier. Each of 
these possible samples would likely yield somewhat differ- 
ent estimated establishment counts, prevalence rates, and 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



C-'i 






ratio estimates. The sampling error for a given sample is 
defined as the difference between the sample estimate 
and the result theoretically obtainable from a comparable 
complete canvass of the target population. For this par- 
ticular sample, this error is unknown. 

In conjunction with its associated estimate, the standard 
error can be used to construct confidence intervals about 
the sample estimate. These intervals allow one to ascribe 
a probability or confidence that the complete coverage 
value falls within those intervals. More precisely: 

a. The interval defined by one standard error above and 
below the sample estimate can be expected to include 
the complete coverage value with 67 percent confi- 
dence. 

b. The interval defined by two standard errors above and 
below the sample estimate can be expected to include 
the complete coverage value with 95 percent confi- 
dence. 

c. The interval defined by three standard errors above 
and below the sample estimate can be expected to 
include the complete coverage value. 

For establishment counts, relative standard errors appear 
in the tables. To convert a relative standard error to a 
standard error, use the formula 



<rx',= (V Xi )(X'j). 



(15) 



Then X'j ± (m) (cry.) for m = 1,2, and 3 defines the 
intervals described above. 



Nonresponse. Not all selected establishments chose to 
respond to the survey and not all respondents completed 
each questionnaire item. No attempt was made to impute 
for either type of nonresponse. We have chosen to pro- 
vide, as a separate estimate in each of the table presen- 
tation a "Not specified" estimate. Thus, every mailed 
establishment of the survey is accounted for in each of the 
tables. The "not specified" estimates may contain estab- 
lishments other than nonrespondents. For example, if a 
respondent indicated to us that the plant surveyed was out 
of business, the responder was tallied as "not specified". 
In any event, estimated counts cannot be interpreted as 
universe estimates unless the "not specified" cell happens 
to be zero. They can be characterized as representing 
estimated lower bounds. 

Because of the "not specified" classification, the esti- 
mated prevalence rates and ratio estimates presented in 
the tables should also be viewed with caution because 
they are based strictly upon reporters for the appropriate 
categories. For example, the prevalence rate in table 5A 
for USED IN OPERATIONS-AGE OF PLANT UNDER 5 
YEARS is based only upon (1) those respondents who 
reported that the age of their plant are less than 5 years of 
age, and (2) the subset of those same respondents who 
reported that they use the technology defined by table 5A. 
We were not able to obtain a response for every plant to 
the "age of plant" inquiry. As a result, the "Not Specified" 
Column was created in the "age of plant" category. As 
mentioned above, no attempt was made to ascribe responses 
to specific plants who either failed to return their question- 
naire or who returned the questionnaire, but failed to 
answer particular inquiries. If the response pattern of such 
nonrespondents were known, it is likely that the preva- 
lence rates would be somewhat different. 



D-1 



Appendix D. Estimates of Relative Standard Errors 



ESTIMATES OF RELATIVE STANDARD ERRORS FOR THE NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, 

BY CHARACTERISTIC 



Establishment characteristic 





Relative standard error 


hments 


(percent) 1 


4,893 


4.2 


13,722 


2.3 


11,303 


2.6 


9,310 


2.8 


3,763 


4.9 


6,795 


3.8 


6,388 


2.6 


23,393 


1.3 


2,577 


5.9 


3,838 


4.8 


4,358 


4.1 


5,791 


3.6 


18,796 


1.7 


3,974 


4.0 


2,141 


6.0 


3,679 


4.6 


4,252 


4.6 


5,274 


3.7 


10,422 


2.7 


8,846 


3.1 


2,023 


6.9 


4,265 


4.5 


7,340 


2.9 


4,821 


4.5 


14,112 


2.1 


22,214 


1.4 


2,939 


5.9 


3,726 


4.9 


9,934 


2.8 


2,499 


6.4 


1,148 


9.7 


11,808 


24 


13.573 


22 


4.029 


4.7 


13,687 


23 


15,360 


2.0 


4,737 


3.6 


3,912 


38 


1,398 


6 5 


3.897 


48 



Age of plant (years): 

Less than 5 

5 to 15 

16 to 30 

Over 30 

Not specified 

Manufacturing process: 

Fabrication/machining 

Assembly 

Both 

Neither 

Not specified 

Market for most products: 

Consumer 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Transportation 

Government 

Other 

Not specified 

Market price for most products: 

Less than $5 

$5 to $100 

$101 to $1 ,000 

$1 ,001 to $2,000 

$2,001 to $10,000 

Over $1 0,000 

Not specified 

Products made to military specifications: 

Yes 

No 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent, on an annual basis, of all products manufactured at the plant that are shipped 
directly to other companies that are prime defense contractors to Federal Defense 
Agencies: 

1 to 25 percent 

26 to 75 percent 

Over 75 percent 

None 

Don't know 

Not specified 

Percent of the plant's total of shipments that are exported for direct sale: 

None 

Less than 1 percent . 

1 to 19 percent 

20 to 49 percent 

50 percent or more '. 

Not specified 

See footnote at the end of the table. 



D-2 



1993 Manufacturing Technology 



ESTIMATES OF RELATIVE STANDARD ERRORS FOR THE NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, 

BY CHARACTERISTIC— Continued 



Establishment characteristic 



Number of establishments 



Relative standard error 
(percent) 1 



Where is most of the research and development work for the plant done: 

Outside the firm 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

No research and development done 

Not specified 



Where is most of the formal training for the plant conducted: 

In the plant 

Elsewhere in the firm 

Outside the firm 

No formal training for staff 

Not specified , 



Who conducts most of the formal training for the staff: 

Staff from inside the plant 

Staff from outside the plant 

Trainers from outside the firm 

Not specified 



Difficulty in hiring skilled personnel to work with the technologies used in the plant: 

Not difficult 

Some problems 

Very difficult 

Not specified 



Does a foreign entity own, directly or indirectly, 10 percent or more of the voting stock 
or other equity rights to the plant: 
Yes 



No 

Don't know . . 
Not specified 



1,834 
25,416 
4,969 
7,046 
3,726 



29,449 
1,099 
3,506 
5,251 
3,686 

26,952 
1,637 
5,287 
9,115 

13,905 

19,836 

5,401 

3,849 



3,265 

34,703 

1,447 

3,576 



7.6 
1.3 
3.5 
3.9 
5.0 

1.0 
8.1 
5.1 
4.4 
4.9 



1.2 
6.3 
3.8 
3.1 

2.2 

1.6 
4.2 
4.9 



3.8 
0.6 
6.3 
5.0 



1 A description of the standard error of the estimate is given in appendix C, "Sampling and Estimating Methodology." 



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