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Full text of "Current strategy and tactics of Communists in the United States, Greater Pittsburgh area. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



lis Da<L ^-■' ^ /'^ 
CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF 
COMMUNISTS IN THE UNITED STATES 
(Greater Pittsburgh Area — Part 1) 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 
FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 10, 1959 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GO\/ERNMENT 

JUN13 1959 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
399«9 WASHINGTON : 1959 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
U.S. House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WAI,TER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Oliio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCIi, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 313 

March 10, 1959: Testimony of— 

Mary and Hamp L. Golden 320 

Afternoon session: 

Alexander Staber 346 

Alex Steinberg 352 

R. J. Hardin 354 

Alex Steinberg (resumed) 354 

R. J. Hardin (resumed) 355 

Esther Steinberg 358 

Joseph Rudiak 362 

Hamp L. Golden (resumed) 367 

Mary Golden (resumed) 368 

Joseph Rudiak (resumed) 369 

Viola Schmidt 370 

Nathan Albert 373 

Miriam Schultz 378 

Hyman Lumer 382 

Edmund J. Lange 387 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the adniinistrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolittion 7, January 7, 1959 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on ITn- American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 



Current Strategy and Tactics of Communists in the 
United States 

(Greater Pittsburgh Area — Part 1) 

Current strategy and tactics of Communists in the United States 
was one of the three phases of public hearings held in Pittsburgh, Pa., 
on March 10, 11, and 12, 1959.^ 

Two undercover agents for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
Mary and Plamp Golden, who had served as members of the Com- 
munist Party for a number of years until the moment of their appear- 
ance before the committee, testified that the Communist operation is 
currently more dangerous than in the past, even though the visible 
members of the Communist Party are fewer. Characterizing the 
Communist Party as a revolutionary group, Mr. and Mrs. Golden 
described the arduous discipline of the Communist Party over the 
comrades. In portraying the dedication and zeal of Communists, Mr. 
Golden stated : 

They never sleep. You work 24 hours a day. You attend maybe two meetings 
in an evening and at midnight or early in the morning you pass out leaflets and 
literature at plant gates. You never have a minute of your own, no social life 
whatsoever of your own. 

Mr. and Mrs. Golden attended a meeting of the Communist Party 
only 3 days prior to their appearance before the committee, in which 
meeting the members of the party discussed the evasion and sophistry 
they would employ in their appearance before the committee. At this 
meeting, the party members also discussed, according to the Goldens, 
plans to arouse the citizenry of Pittsburgh against the committee ancl 
its hearings. In this endeavor, they were to contact numerous non- 
Communist groups, political leaders and newspapers without, of 
course, disclosing the fact that they were members of the Communist 
Party. 

In his 12-year tenure in the party, Mr. Golden held numerous re- 
sponsible positions within the operation, including membership on 
the North Side Club executive board of the party within Pitts- 
burgh, and later chairmanship of a cell. In his testimony, he out- 
lined the various security devices used by the party in protecting its 
membership from exposure. He stated that one of the precautions 
taken by the party was the decentralization of the party units and 
the installation of a cutout system whereby all but one member of 
each unit were unaware of the identity of members of other units of 



1 For the other two phases of the hearings, see "Problems of Security In Industrial 
Establishments Holding Defense Contracts (Greater Pittsburgh Area — Part 2)," Mar. 11, 
1959, and "Problems Arising in Cases of Denaturalization and Deportation of Communists 
(Greater Pittsburgh Area— Part 3)," Mar. 12, 1959. 

313 



314 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

the party. When he firet joined the party in 1946, meetings were 
held in large groups, but gradually the units were reduced in size. 
He testified that at present the party's routine activities are nearly 
completely underground, with contact between party members being 
made on an individual basis. 

The party's open activity is effected through the creation and con- 
trol of front groups. The more current of the front groups is the 
Independent Voters League, of which Mr. Golden was a member 
until the time he testified. He further identified the officers of tills 
group and certain of its members as hard-core Communist Party 
members. 

In the course of their testimony, the Goldens also identified as 
Cormnunist Party members certain officers and members of numerous 
fi'ont groups, including the Civil Rights Congress, the American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Bom, and the Progressive 
Party. 

In 1950 the Goldens were identified publicly as members of the 
Conununist Party through the testimony of another Government 
agent who was not aware of the role that the Goldens were playing. 
As a result of this, the Goldens suffered much abuse and vilification 
from their neighbors and fellow workers. However, according to Mr. 
Golden, he felt that it was more important than ever to remain in 
the party and to be in a position to report on Communist activities 
because at the time the party was going underground and he felt it 
was becoming a greater menace than ever before. 

Mr. Golden also testified concerning the numerous devices of the 
Communist Party to obtain funds. According to him, "They were 
always broke but they always had money to cany on." 

Another highlight of the Goldens' testimony was their revelation 
of the concentrated efforts on the part of the Communist Party to 
exei-t influence on Members of Congress and other Government 
officials. They testified that party members deluge Government offi- 
cials with letters and telegrams urging them to support or oppose 
particular legislation of concern to the party without revealing the 
fact that the sender is a Communist, acting under orders of the 
conspiracy. 

In exposing the machinations of the Communist Party in the Pitts- 
burgh area, the Goldens identified over 100 persons whom they knew 
as Communist Party members during their sei'vice in the party. 

Following the Goldens' testimony, the committee called eight per- 
sons who had been identified by the Goldens and confirmed by staff in- 
vestigation to be current, active leaders of the Communist Party in 
the Pittsburgh area. Two individuals, Alex Staber and Joseph Ru- 
diak, are current officers of the Independent Voters League. Both 
invoked the privilege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimina- 
tion when asked to confirm or deny the testimony of the Goldens re- 
specting their Communist Party membership and activities. 

Another witness who had been identified by the Goldens as a leader 
of the Communist Party movement in Pittsburgh was Alex Stein- 
berg. The Goldens' information concerning Steinberg's member- 
ship was corroborated by the testimony of Mr. R, J. Hardin, who had 
also served as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation. Mr. Steinberg also invoked constitutional privileges when 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 315 

asked to confirm or deny the testimony respecting liim given by the 
Goldens and Mr, Hardin. 

The other leaders of the party in the Pittsburgh area who were 
called as witnesses declined to give the committee any direct informa- 
tion concerning their role in the Communist conspiracy in Pittsburgh, 
invoking the privilege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimina- 
tion. 

The remaining witness in this first phase of the hearings was Hy- 
man Lumer, the national educational secretaiy of the American 
Communist Party. Mr. Lumer was a speaker before a student group 
at the University of Pittsburgh on February 26, 1959. According to 
the Pittsburgh Press, Mr. Lumer discussed in his speech the "political 
philosophy" of the Communist Party. However, when pertinent 
questions were asked JSIr. Lumer by the committee concerning the 
conspiratorial nature of the Commmiist Party and his underground 
activities in the conspiracy he refused to answer, invoking the privi- 
lege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 



39&9© — 69—2 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Greater Pittsburgh Area — Part 1) 



TUESDAY, MARCH 10, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Pittshurgh^ Pa. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to notice, at 10 : 05 a.m., in courtroom No. 6, Neve Fed- 
eral Building, Pittsburgh, Pa., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (subcommittee 
chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana; Gordon H, Scherer, of Ohio; and William M. Tuck, of 
Virginia. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and William Margetich, investigators. 

Mr, Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

As usual, the Chair desires to make an opening statement explana- 
tory of the hearings this morning. 

The hearings which begin today in Pittsburgh, Pa., are in further- 
ance of the powers and duties of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, pursuant to Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, wdiich 
not only establishes the basic jurisdiction of the committee, but also 
mandates this committee, along with other standing committees of 
the Congress, to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution 
of our laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the 
particular committee. 

In response to this power and duty, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is continuously in the process of accumulating factual in- 
formation respecting Communists, the Communist Party, and Com- 
munist activities which will enable the committee and the Congress 
to appraise the administration and operation of the Smith Act, the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, the Conmiunist Control Act of 1954, 
and numerous provisions of our Criminal Code relating to espionage, 
sabotage, and subversion. In addition, the committee has before it 
numerous proposals to strengthen our legislative weapons designed to 
protect the internal security of our Nation. 

317 



318 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

I shall now read the resolution of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, authorizing and directing the holding of the instant hear- 
ings here in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania : 

Be it resolved, That hearings by the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities or a subcommittee thereof, to be held in Pittsburgh, Pa., and at such 
other place or places as the chairman may indicate, on such date or dates as the 
chairman may determine, be authorized and approved, including the conduct of 
investigations deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, 
relating to the following matters and having the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. The extent, character, and objects of Communist infiltration into civic and 
political organizations in the Pittsburgh area, and Communist propaganda 
activities therein, the legislative purpose being to obtain additional information 
for use by the committee in consideration of a proposed amendment to section 4 
of the Communist Control Act of 1954, prescribing a penalty for knowingly and 
willfully becoming or remaining a member of the Communist Party with knowl- 
edge of the purpose or objective thereof, and for the additional legislative purpose 
of adding to the committee's overall knowledge on the subject so that Congress 
may be kept informed and thus prepared to enact remedial legislation in the 
national defense and for internal security, when and if the exigencies of the 
situation require it. 

2. The employment of members of the Communist Party in defense facilities 
or in industrial establishments holding defense contracts with the Army, Navy, 
or Air Force, the legislative purpose being to obtain additional information for 
use in considering a recommendation for legislation prohibiting such employment 
without regard to the requirement of registration as contained in section 5 of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. 

3. The Communist Party membership and activities of officers, international 
representatives, business agents, and other representatives and agents of a labor 
organization or labor organizations having bargaining contracts with industrial 
establishments under national defense contracts involving classified work for 
the Army, Navy or Air Force, for the legislative purpose of obtaining additional 
information for use in considering a recommendation for legislation requiring 
such officers, representatives and agents to meet the same security standards as 
members of such labor organization or labor organizations who have access to 
classified material. 

4. Communist Party membership or Communist Party activities of individuals 
subject to proceedings for deportation or denaturalization, for the legislative 
purpose of obtaining additional information for use in considering a recommenda- 
tion for legislation to strengthen the procedures for deportation and denatural- 
ization of Communists and those persons under Communist discipline. 

5. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned of the Internal Se- 
curity Act, the Communist Control Act. the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
and all other laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the 
committee, the legislative purpose being to exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution of these laws to assist the Congress in appraising the administra- 
tion of such laws, and in developing such amendments or related legislation as 
it may deem necessary : Be it further 

Resolved, That the hearings may include any other matter within the juris- 
diction of the committee which it, or any subcommittee thereof appointed to 
conduct this hearing, may designate. 

I shall now read the order of appointment of the subcommittee to 
conduct these hearings, made by Chairman Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania. This is directed to Mr. Arens. 

To Mr. Richard Arens, Staff Director, House Committee on Un-American 
Activities: 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Representatives William M. Turk nnd Gordon H. Scherer, as asso- 
ciate members, and Representative Edwin E. Willis, as chairman, to conduct 
hearings in Pittsburgh, Pa., Tuesday, March 10, 1959, at 10 a.m., on subjects 
under investigation by the committee and take such testimony on said day or 
succeeding days as it may deem necessary. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 319 

Please make this action a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates liis inability to serve please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 2d day of March 1959. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

These hearings in Pittsburgh will have three phases. The first 
phase will deal with current strategy and tactics of Communists in 
the Greater Pittsburgh area who are not necessarily connected with 
the vital industry of this section of the country. The second phase 
will deal with the problems of security in industrial establishments 
holding defense contracts, of which the Pittsburgh area is typical. 
The third phase will deal with problems arising in cases of denat- 
uralizing and deportations of Communists, of which cases a substan- 
tial number have occurred in this district. 

After we have heard the witnesses who have been summoned on 
the first phase of these hearings, I shall make a statement for the 
record, outlining the scope and some of the problems with which we 
shall expect to deal in the second phase of the hearings; then at the 
conclusion of the second phase of the hearings, I shall in similar 
fashion make a statement for the record pointing up some of the 
issues which are of concern to the committee in the third phase of 
the hearings. 

Today the Communist Party, though reduced in size, continues as 
a serious threat to the security of our Nation. It has long since 
divested itself of unreliable elements. Those who remain are the 
hard-core, disciplined agents of the Kremlin on American soil. Most 
of the Communist Party operation in the United States today con- 
sists of underground, behind-the-scenes manipulations. 

We know that the strategy and tactics of the Communist Party 
are constantly changing for the purpose of avoiding detection in an 
attempt to beguile the American people and the Government respect- 
ing the true nature of the conspiracy. As we, on the Committee on 
Un-American Activities, seek to develop factual information for our 
legislative purpose, we are constantly met with numerous and un- 
founded charges respecting the nature of our work and our objectives. 
We seek only the facts. Insofar as it is within the power of this 
committee, as a part of the U.S. Congress, we shall obtain the facts 
and we shall do so within the framework of carefully prescribed 
rules of justice and f airplay. 

What are the present strategies and tactics of the Communist 
operation in this general area? What techniques are the hard-core 
Communists pursuing in order to avoid detection as they pursue 
their nefarious work? What are the lines of control and communi- 
cation between the various Communists' nests across the Nation? 
What loopholes or weaknesses exist in our present security laws? 
How may those laws be strengthened ? These questions shall be upper- 
most in our minds as we elicit testimony during these hearings. 

May I emphasize that the purpose of the subcommittee here in 
Pittsburgh is to sample factual material with reference to types and 
patterns of activity, and not to attempt to exhaust the subject matter. 
We have not subpenaed witnesses for these hearings merely to put 
on a show, nor shall we attempt to interrogate in these hearings even 
a significant percentage of all possible witnesses on whom we have 
compiled information. 



320 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified as 
a member of the Commmiist Party during the course of the committee 
hearmgs will be given an early opportunity to appear before this com- 
mittee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining any 
testimony adversely affecting him. It is also the policy of the com- 
mittee to accord any witness the privilege of being represented by 
counsel; but within the provisions of the rules of this committee, 
counsel's sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise his client. 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind, or an 
audible comment during the hearings, for or against, will not be per- 
mitted. This is a serious proceeding in which we are earnestly trying 
to discharge an important and arduous duty, which is not a pleasant 
one, but which is imposed upon us by order of the representatives of 
all the people in the Congress, with the general objective of maintain- 
ing the security of this great Nation. 

I might say that just a few months ago this committee was reconsti- 
tuted and as usual we can only operate by direction of the whole House, 
we can only operate if funds are made available and if Congress directs 
us to operate. And our funds were made available and we were or- 
dered to pursue our duties, which are not pleasant to any of us and 
the money was made available and as far as I know there was not one 
single dissenting vote to our obligations heard from anyone out of 435 
representatives of the people in the House of Representatives. 

Would you care to make an additional statement, Mr. Tuck. 

Mr. Tuck. No, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have none. 

Mr. Willis. The record will reflect that the full subcommittee is 
present as designated by Chairman Walter. 

Governor Tuck and I serve on tv/o committees, the Judiciary and 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities. As the chairman 
frequently says this assignment is thrust upon him as it is upon us. 
And I do not want to belabor the point, but we can stand whatever 
gaff or criticism is directed upon us. We will proceed with our work. 

Mr. Counsel, please call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. If you please, Mr. Chairman, Mary and Hamp Golden, 
kindly come forward. Remain standing while the chairman adminis- 
ters an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hands. Shall I swear them to- 
gether ? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Do you and each of you solemnl}' swear that you will 
tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Golden. I do. ^ 

Mr. Golden. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF MARY AND HAMP L. GOLDEN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourselves by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Golden. I am Mary Golden. I live at 1730 Brett Street, 
Pittsburgh 5. I was emploj^ed doing clerical work at Bailey Employ- 
ment Agency up until today when notified I was being replaced. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 32] 

Mr. Golden. I am Hamp L. Golden. I work at the PI. J. Heinz Co. 

Mr. Akens. Are you husband and wife ? 

Mr. Golden. Husband and wife. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. and Mrs. Golden, are you now, this very moment, 
members of the Communist Paity ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Golden. Up to now. 

Mr. Arens. Have either of you ever been ideologically in sympathy 
with the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Golden. "We have not. 

Mr. Golden. JSTo. 

Mr. ScHERER. 'Just a minute, Mr. Arens. Would you ask that 
the microphones be moved up a little closer ? It is difficult for me to 
hear the witnesses. 

]SIr. Arens. In other words, you are both now and have been in the 
Communist Party serving your country by furnishing infonnation 
on the activities of the party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Golden. That is correct. 

Mrs. Golden. Correct. 

]Mr. Arens. I expect, Mr. Chairman, to interrogate each of them 
separately, but for very strong personal reasons and the pressure of 
this occasion they have requested and we have told them that it 
would be permissible for Mr. and ]Mrs. Golden to sit together. There 
may be some questions in which one may want to assist the other on 
the information as we proceed here, if it meets with your pleasure. 

Mr. Willis. As I understand, both of them are right now for the 
first time disclosing that their membership, so-called membership, in 
the Communist Party was really as agents of tlie Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and of their Government; is that correct? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct, yes, sir. 

Now, Mr. Golden, please tell us first of all, when did you join 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Golden. In ilugust 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Golden, when did you join the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Golden. In August of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to interrogate you in the course of your 
testimony here on a number of items, but for the moment I should 
like to ask you in anticipation of these hearings what was the last 
function you performed for the Communist conspiracy in the Pitts- 
burgh area ? 

Mrs. Golden. We attended a meeting Saturday afternoon in which 
we were in Hymen Schlesinger's office in which we were told what 
to say before this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Who all were at that meeting? 

Mrs. Golden. Aniia Devunich 

Mr. Arens. Would you please, Mrs. Golden, spell the names and do 
not reveal the name of any person who was not known to you to a 
certainty to be a member of the Communist Party unless we have 
an explanation subsequently. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Counsel, I perhaps should have been listening 
a little more attentively. Are they telling about being in an office 
of a man named Schlesinger recently ? 



322 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. Just 3 clays ago, I recall from what she just said. 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Golden. Saturday. 

Mr. Arens. That was their last function. Then they had another 
function 4 or 5 days ago which we will explore in a few minutes. 

Mr. ScHERER. What was the purpose of being in this man Schles- 
inger's office ? 

Mr. Arens. She said the purpose of being in Schlesinger's office 
was to obtain information or instructions respecting their conduct 
as Communists before this committee. 

Now, would you kindly proceed ? 

Mrs. Golden. Those present were Alex and Essie (Esther) Stein- 
berg, Miriam Schultz, Allan McNeil, Anna Devunich. 

Mr. Arens. Spell that last name, please. 

Mrs. Golden. D-e-v-u-n-i-c-h. 

Genne Crockert Kuhn, I think her last name is. She has recently 
been married again. Nate Albert, Eddie Lange, Joseph Eudiak. 

Mr. Arens. JoeRudiak? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. R-u-d-i-a-k? 

Mrs. Golden. That is right. Alex Staber, Katherine Kemenovich. 

Mr. Arens. "Would you spell the last name, please ? 

Mrs. Golden. Ke-m-e-n-o-v-i-c-h. Steve Devunich, husband of 
Anna. Viola Schmidt, Hymen Schlesinger. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now while you are under oath iden- 
tify, to a certainty, each and every one of those persons whose names 
you have just called, as a person known by you while an undercover 
agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Communist Party, 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own words, if you please, what tran- 
spired in this meeting which took place a couple of days ago. 

Mrs. Golden. It was discussed the things that have been done to stir 
up the people to protest these hearino-s, calling Congressmen, calling 
on members of the National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People and, in general, trying to get people other than Com- 
munist Party members to protest these hearings that are being held 
right now. 

Mr. Arens. Was there displayed to you at that time any docu- 
ments which were being disseminated in this vicinity under the aus- 
pices of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. We hand you a document which has been marked 
"Golden Exhibit No. 1," entitled, "Unions Are Their Target." This 
committee is severely attacked by a group carried on the document 
as the Independent Voters League, Post Office Box 7314, Pittsburgh 
13, Pa., Joseph Rudiak, president, Alex Staber, secretary. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or not 
it is a true and correct reproduction of a document displayed to you 
2 days ago as a document being disseminated here by the Communists 
or under Communist auspices ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

(Golden Exhibit No. 1 retained in committee files.) 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 323 

Mr, Akens. Is the Independent Voters League controlled by the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. Mr. Chairman, at this point I think it should be 
pointed out since the Independent Voters League has just been men- 
tioned, that there appears ni this morning's Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 
an advertisement headed ''Why is the Un-American Committee Com- 
ing to Pittsburgh?" Then in the advertisement follows an attack 
upon the committee and it is signed by the Independent Voters League, 
Joseph Rudiak, president, Alexander Staber, secretary. 

It should be obvious that the people of Pittsburgh who read that 
ad would have no way of knowing that the Independent Voters 
League, a high-sounding name, is actually supported and a part of the 
Communist appaiatus as has just been testified to here. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us just a little more detail on what went 
on in this meeting 3 days ago, in which 3^ou met with a number of 
comrades ? 

Mr. Golden. We were coached by Mr. Schlesinger to be sure and 
plead the fifth, the first and the fifth, if there were any objections or 
when directed by the committee to answer to plead the fifth, be sure 
and plead the first, be sure and plead the fifth amendment and if your 
counsel you employed didn't make it in time for the hearing that you 
were to take the sixth amendment. Stress the fifth amendment at all 
times on all questions. 

Mr. Arens. Were you instructed on how to vilify the conmiittee and 
attack the committee ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes. On questions of persecutions of the so-called 
minority groups, the deportation cases and to blast the committee at 
every chance we had for un-American activities, as they call them. 

Mr. Scherer. Who gave those instructions ? 

Mr. Golden. Mr. Schlesinger. 

Mr. Scherer. Is he a member of the bar ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir ; city of Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Scherer. What is his first name ? 

Mr. Golden. Hymen. 

Mr. Scherer. Hymen Schlesinger. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to interrogate you on a number of facets of 
the Communist operation here. First of all, I should like to ask each 
of you this question : Is the Communist Party now larger or smaller 
as a formal entity than it has been in the past? 

Mr. Golden. The visible members are much smaller, but it is the 
core that is left now. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist operation now more dangerous or 
less dangerous than it has been in the past ? 

Mr. Golden. It is more dangerous, due to the fact it is underground 
more and it can't be kept track of as good. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us something about the nature of the op- 
eration from the standpoint of the dedication of its participants? 

Mr. Golden. Well, initiation in the party covers schooling that you 
are trained for, work in the party, to usurp Government organizations, 
to function on their directives, to carry out their plans of infiltrating 
unions, front groups and et cetera. 

30099—69 9 



324 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Golden, at that point I should like to make an 
observation and then interrogate 3^011. 

I recently read an article which appeared in the Pittsburgh Press 
to the effect that a national leader of the Conununist Party was sched- 
uled to speak here in Pittsburgh at a jDublic forum on a "political" 

series of talks, talks on "political" philosophy and "political" activity. 
On the basis of your service as an undercover agent in the Commu- 
nist Party since 1946 until this very moment, do you construe and in- 
terpret the Communist Party as a "political" organization, or is it 
something else? 

Mr. Golden. No. I sum it up as a r evolutional^- group. They 
used the term lightly until after some trouble. They call it economic 
revolution, now. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps it would be appropriate in the order of the 
testimony of yourselves, Mr. and Mrs. Golden, if I first ask Mr. 
Golden to give a little of his own career in the Communist Party. 

]\Ir. Golden, during the 12 years that you were in the Communist 
Party, could you tell us the positions of leadership which you held 
in its operation in the Greater Pittsburgh area ? 

Mr. Golden. I was a member of the executive board of the North 
Side Club of the Communist Party. Also chairman of the North 
Side Club, later on when security came in, the club was broken up 
into cells and I was chairman of a eel], also dues collector; and a 
member of a committee of five of the food group that was later 
formed. I held several other positions as committeeman in collecting 
petitions and getting signatures; that is how they got the mailing list. 

Mr. Arens. So tliis record may be absolutely clear, during all of 
the period of your service in the Communist Party since 1946 until 
this instant, and during all the period of ser\'ice of Mrs. Golden in 
the Communist Party, you have at no time been ideologically in 
sympathy with the Communist operation, but you were in it at the 
behest of the FBI serving your country ? 

Mr. Golden. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. We expect to explore some of your hardships in just 
a few minutes in tliat capacity. 

Mr. Willis. Did you over the years give regular reports to the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation of what was going on ? 

Mr. Golden. Every meeting that we attended, covered, we tried 
to correctly identify those present, wliat they said, the outline of the 
policy of the party that was instilled in us to carry out, we tried 
to give a true and honest report of each and every meeting we at- 
tended. 

Mr, Willis. Let me ask you this question. Of course we do not 
know you and Mrs. Golden, but have both of you taken an oath to 
tell the truth ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. And this is an official body of the Congress and an oath 
falselj'' taken or testimony given after taking an oath which is not 
true, becomes perjury. 

Now, what you are saying, you are saying under oath. 

Mrs. Golden. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. As I understand, you are going to name names, people, 
places, dates. You know you have your reputation on the line 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 325 

under oath and you know the consequences if that is not true and you 
are perfectly willing in naming individuals for them to be as coura- 
geous and for them to take the oath and deny. Then for sure, both 
sides could not be correct, and then perjury would lie somewhere. But 
you are willing to take that chance because you have taken the oath 
to tell the truth ? Ri^ht ? 

Mr. Golden, That is right. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Golden, would you kindly give us a brief resume 
of your own personal background. First of all, when and where 
were you born ? 

Mr. Golden. In Barbourville, K}^., 1900, August 26. 

Mr. Arens. And a word, please, sir, about your education. 

Mr. Golden. Two years of high school and I left to join the Navy 
in the First World War. 

Mr. Arens. What have been your principal places of employment? 

Mr. Golden. In and around the Pittsburgh area the last 20 years, 
4 years at Allis-Chalmers and almost 17 years at H. J. Heinz Co. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Golden, although we expect in your principal tes- 
timony to interrogate you at length on some matters, would you kindly 
at this point give us a resume of your personal background, including 
your education, principal places of employment and the like ? 

Mrs. Golden. I was born and raised in Etna, Pa., a little borough 
right outside the city. I am a high school graduate and for 6 weeks 
T have been attending a business school studying key punch. I am 
to graduate from that school this evening. For almost 3 years I 
worked at Pennsylvania Truck Lines as a clerk-typist, timekeeper, 
and most recently, since the first of this year doing clerical work for 
the Bailey Employment Agency up until today and I was notified I 
was being replaced. 

Mr. Arens. Before we get into the detail of the Communist opera- 
tion here I should like you to tell us a little bit of the work and the 
hardship which you have endured during these many years as under- 
cover agent in the Communist Party. First of all could you tell us 
something about the discipline of the Communist Party over the 
comrades in their social life ? 

Mrs. Golden. We were on call at all times. We had meetings in 
our home. People used our phone for toll calls without asking. On 
one occasion I went to Harrisburg with Miriam Schultz and we got 
back about 9 o'clock in the evening and I said, "Hamp will ride 
you home." 

"No, I think I will just stay here tonight." 

She didn't ask me if she could or anything. "I will just stay here 
tonight." 

He was out all the time. We had no home life, no social life and 
couldn't plan on going anywhere. The party had affairs, Mother's 
Day, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Fourth of July, things which we 
had to attend, and work. 

Mr. Arens. Were you permitted to leave this general area without 
party permission ? 

Mrs. Golden. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us an illustration of that ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes. ' One time I wanted to go on a vacation to see my 
father down in the town where I was born and I was first told I 



326 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

couldn't go. We had urgent work and leaflets to distribute. I told 
them he ^Yas sick and very elderly and I was going. So it was granted. 

They never sleep. You Avork 24 hours a day. You attend maybe 
two meetings in an evening and at midnight or early in the morning 
you pass out leaflets and literature at plant gates. You never have a 
minute of your own, no social life whatsoever of your own. 

Mr. Aeens. Did you have any church life or did the party under- 
take to dominate that phase of your activity ? 

Mrs. Golden. I am a member of the Catholic Church and I was 
constantly criticized because of this membership. I was told that it 
was all right to belong to other churches, but since the Catholic Church 
was so anti-Communist that I shouldn't belong to that. 

Mr. Arens. The record reflects, ]\Ir. Golden, back in 1950, in public 
testimony before this committee, a witness was testifying about a 
number of members of the Communist Party and he identified you 
as a Communist, is that correct ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us if anything happened at that time from 
the standpoint of your activity or the effect this testimony had on 
your activity ? 

ISIr. Golden. We lost all our friends that were not in sympathy and 
T lost prestige in my union where I had been president of Local 325 
and had been on the executive board some 6 years. I was a delegate 
to the central labor union, and delegate to the State Federation of 
Labor. I lost out on all my activities in the union organizations and 
also was blackballed from joining the veterans clubs. 

Mr. Arens. You are a veteran ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. You were blackballed from the Legion ? 

Mr. Golden. I was told that if my card went in, I would be out. 
The Veterans of Foreign Wars I was trying to join, too. Out of 
embarrassment for the guy who presented me I withdrew my 
application. 

Mr. Willis. Probably after the occasion of being denied member- 
ship, a resolution was adopted carrying out what you really believed 
in, but you could not disclose it. 

Mr. Golden. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. So you had to stand that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have children, Mr. and Mrs. Golden ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir, we have two. 

Mr. Arens. Give us their ages, please. 

Mrs. Golden. Evelyn is 14 and Thomas will be 12. 

]Mr. Arens. Did they suffer any hardship as a result of this identi- 
fication of yourselves as Communists ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us a word about that ? 

Mrs. Golden. They couldn't play out in the yard when we were first 
disclosed as Communists and the neighbors would call them Commies 
and later on Ave moved and people would bring up the fact that their 
mother and dad were Communists and they were embarrassed by it, 
asked us questions : were we Communist ? We couldn't even denj it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have to move as a result of the identification ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir, twice. 



CtJRRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 327 

Mr. Arens. Then may I ask you this question : In view of the fact 
that you had been publicly identified as Communists, in view of the 
fact you were suffering all of this humiliation and hardship, why 
didn't you then come out from the party and say, "We are undercover 
agents of the FBI in the party" and live an easier life ? 

Mr. Golden. By that time, when this came out, the Communists 
went underground and it was more critical to do a better service to the 
Government by staying in and taking abuse, I could really be useful, 
which up to that time I thought I had been useful, but I felt I would 
be more useful to the FBI. I stayed and took the abuse and tried to do 
a better job. 

Mr. Arens. That was about 1950 ? 

Mr. Golden. That's right. 

Mr. Arens. It is my understanding from your testimony, it is your 
judgment as a member of the Cormnunist Party at the behest of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, until at least you took this oath this 
morning, that it is a more dangerous and serious organization now 
than ever before, is that correct ? 

Mr. Golden. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. May we proceed, Mr. Golden, with some of the details of 
your own participation in the movement ? You stated that you joined 
the Communist Party in 1946. Tell us, if you please, sir, the circum- 
stances surrounding" your admission into the Communist Party. 

Mr. Golden. I was in close contact witli one Joseph Mankin, now 
deceased. He was the chairman of the North Side Club. He belonged 
to another local but was affiliated witli the same union that my local 
was. He knew my work in the union and he thought it was a good 
chance and he tried to indoctrinate me for a year or more before I 
finally agreed to join the party to carry out their work. 
Mr. Arens. After joining the Communist Party in 1946, to what 
group or entity of the Communist Party were you first assigned? 

Mr. Golden. To the North Side Club. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about the organizational frame- 
work or structure of the party in western Pennsylvania when you 
joined the Communist Party in 1946 ? 

Mr. Golden. Western Pennsylvania was District 5 of the party. 

Mr. Arens. Under whose direction was District 5 ? 

Mr. Golden. Under the direction of the organization of Communist 
Party offices in New York. The district was broken down into sec- 
tions and the sections were broken down into groups. In the city 
there were the North Side Club, the Squirrel Hill Club, tlie Hill 
group, Oakland group. West Pittsburgh or the UE group and the 
East Pittsburgh group. 

Mr. Arens. How long did this structural framework remain? 
When did they change it ? 

Mr. Golden. Up until Cvetic made his expose. 

Mr, Arens. Was there a professional group in addition to other 
groups you talked about ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, there was a professional group in the city that 
none of us ever saw or contacted. 

Mr. Arens. What was the membership of the Communist Party 
at that time in the Pittsburgh area ? 

Mr. Golden. It run into the thousands. We had no way of telling 
exactly how many. 



328 CUERENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OP COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. How many members constituted the North Side Club ? 

Mr. Golden. Approximately between 60 and TO. You could never 
know because 30 would attend a meeting tonight and the next meet- 
ing would be 30 or 35 more, but there would be people at the next 
who weren't at the first. It was hard to identify them even in your 
own club. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an officer of the North Side Club? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What office did you hold ? 

Mr. Golden. First executive board member and then chairman 
of the North Side Club. 

Mr. Arens. What constituted the membership of the North Side 
executive board ^ 

Mr. Golden. Well, the North Side executive board had about 6 
members at the time I joined. There was James Dolsen, he was the 
literature director of western Pennsylvania. Mark Lovett, in whose 
home we had a mimeograph machine that ran off our leaflets. Jolin 
Vidmar, Rudy Kranish, Herbert Nusser, Joe Mankin, and Harry Ho- 
zak who later associated himself with the Trotskyite group and was 
thrown out of the party. 

Mr. Arens. How did the North Side Club receive its directives? 

Mr. Golden. From some representative of the committee called 
the City Central Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the persons on this central committee who 
brought the directives to the Nortli Side Club ? Was Evelyn Abelson 
on the central committee? 

Mr. Golden. Evelyn Abelson and TVssio Steinbei-g, Joe Mankin, 
Dave Grant. 

Mr. Arens. Was Ben Careathers? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, Ben Careathers was a director on that. 

Mr. Arens. ^y]\o were the officers of the North Side Club? 

Mr. Golden. Well, Dolsen, Lovett, Vidmar, Mankin, Nusser and 
myself at one time. 

Mr. Arens. What were the principal activities of the North Side 
Club ? 

Mr. Golden. It was mostly political at that particular time. 

Mr. Arens. l^Hiat do you mean by "political"? 

Mr. Golden. It tried to get front groups, church organizations, etc., 
to affiliate themselves with the Communist Party. The party would 
try to infiltrate them and get into leadership so as to lead them on is- 
sues of public interest at that time; and would also make up a com- 
mittee with a high-sounding name and honest people joined it. And 
it was a good thing until it was thoroughly infiltrated and when they 
would drop out, it would leave the Communists in control of these 
various committees. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us the names of the members of this 
North Side Club ? And I say for the record, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. 
and Mrs. Golden, in order to be 100 percent accurate in their testi- 
mony and in identification of people, are testifying from notes which 
they have yeiy carefully prepared over the course of a considerable 
period of time in order to avoid any possible inaccuracy. We asked 
that they bring those notes with them and allude to them freely dur- 
ing their testimony today so there can be no possibility of any inac- 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 329 

curacy. Would you kindly o-jve us the names of the members of the 
North Side Club? 

Mr. Golden. Patrick Cush ; he was a charter member. He is now 
dead. Matthew Ahel. 

Mr. Arens. If you have a name, Mr. Golden, please, sir, that is a 
little difficult of pronunciation or a little bit unusual, would you 
kindly spell it and then "ive us a word of identification of each person 
wdio to your certain knowledge was a member of the North Side 
Club of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Golden. Matthew Ahel. He worked at H. J. Heinz Co. and 
does yet. Arthur Bartl. He was in the language group working 
on a now defunct nationality paper that operated on East Street 
for a number of years. They moved to Chicago. Isaac Bey, an elder 
man, an insurance salesman. Anna Devunich, who signed my wife 
up and was on the City Central Committee. 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Golden, may I make another suggestion, if any 
of these persons has to your certain knowdedge voluntarily disasso- 
ciated themselves from the Communist Party you might mention that, 
too, please, sir. 

Mr. Golden. There was Rudy Kranish, a one-armed paper hanger, 
it sounds silly, but it is true. He has disassociated himself but he 
was at one time a North Side Club member. Eddie Lange, presently 
employed as an orderly at the Allegheny General Hospital. He still 
delivers Sunday Workers and edicts from the party in New York 
and pamphlets, magazines, and books. Agnes Mankin, wife of Joseph 
Mankin, deceased member. She has renounced herself as far as I 
know from the party and taken no actual part since his death. 

Anne Perpich was in the youth group. Norma Quinn, a Negro 
housewife. John Vidmar, he worked on this language paper that 
was on East Street. Arthur Bartl. He worked on the language 
paper on the north side. Lillian Lewis of the youth gTOup. 

Mrs. Golden. She is the wife of William Albertson now. 

Mr. Golden. Daisy Bartl. She was the wife of Bartl who worked 
on the language group, and Eddie Zuckamandel. He sold papers 
on the north side, the Daily Worker, et cetera. Charlie Kerns. 

Mr. Arens. K-e-r-n-s? 

Mr. Golden. Yes. An ex-radio script writer. Mary Kish, William 
Kompus, he was active in the hotel-restaurant. Ida Lewis. She 
was in the youth movement. Shirley Nusser, wife of Herb Nusser, 
onetime treasurer of the North Side Club. Jean Vidmar, sister of 
John Vidmar, active in youth group organizations. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you continue to work in the North Side 
Club? 

Mr. Golden. Until we were broken dow^n for security reasons into 
cells. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Golden. Around shortly after Cvetic's testimony. We started 
to be broken dow^n. They got wind of something, shortly before, 
because of the Smith Act trials that were going on. 

Mr. Arens. What was the breakdown ? 

Mr. Golden. It was broken down into cells. There would be five 
people. One person would act as chairman, collect the dues and 
then turn them into your representative from the City Central Com- 



330 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

mittee. Those cells, you didn't know from your cell who was in the 
next cell for security purposes. 

:Mr. Akens. That was called the cutout system, was it not? 

Mr. GoLDEisr. Yes, it was the cutout system. 

Mr. Arens. The committee is workino; in this field trying to de- 
velop facts on the Communist conspiracy and we are frequently con- 
fronted with the problem of what is a member of the Communist 
Party operation. Does the Communist operation have people who 
are Communists in the conspiratorial apparatus who do not have the 
status, say, of a member like a person would be a member of the 
Rotary Club or member of the Methodist Church or member of the 
cliamber of commerce ? Can you help us on that, Mrs. Golden. 

Mrs. Golden. Well, in 1951, Joe Mankin and John Vidmar came 
to our liome and asked us if we wanted to continue our membership, 
that some people were being frightened over Cvetic's testimony. They 
were named in the paper and although they were still good people 
they felt tliat their actual membership in the party might hurt them 
as far as their employment or sometliing was concerned. So they 
were going around to ask each individual whether they wanted to 
remain in the party or not. 

Mr. Arens. But those who said they did not want to remain as a 
member were still Communists, were they not ? 

INIrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. And they still were in the operation ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. They could always depend on them for 
money and to distribute leaflets in their organizations that they be- 
longed to. 

]Mr. Arens. Mr. Golden, you have told us of some of the various 
units, cells, in this security system, the language unit and the food 
unit. Wliat were some of the other units ? 

Mr. Golden. The hotel-restaurant workers liad a unit and profes- 
sional groups had a unit and UE had a unit. 

Mr. Arens. "^^^lat was your group ? 

Mr. Golden. I was in the food. 

Mr. Arens. "^Ylio was chairman of this group ? 

Mr. Golden. I was. 

Mr. Arens. Who else was in this food gi'oup ? 

Mr. Golden. It was Eddie Lange, myself, Lila Grushka, Matt 
Ahel. 

Mr. Arens. For the ])ast few years has the Communist Party been 
open or has it been princii^ally undergi'ound ? 

INIr. Golden. It has been principally underground operating 
llirough the various fronts. 

Mr. Arens. From whom do the individual Communists now receive 
their orders or their directives ? 

Mr. Golden. I presume it comes into the city, from the district 
leadership, last known to be Steve Nelson. And then it i-s passed 
out to the committeemen, central committee, or members that have 
been on the committee and it is brought individually to you in your 
home or your gi'oup. 

Mr. Willis, We will take a formal recess for 5 minutes or so. 

(Subcommittee members j^resent: Representatives Willis, Tuck, 
and Scherer. ) 

(Brief recess.) 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 331 

(Subcoinniittee members present at the time of the reconvening of 
the subcommittee: Kepresentatives Willis, Tuck, .and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. Counsel 
will please proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Golden, I should like, if you please, to interrogate 
you respecting Communist Party finances. I hope to cover the front 
groups and their operations a little later. 

Could you tell us in your own words the basic information which 
you have acquired respecting the finances of the Communist opera- 
tion, particularly in this area, the Pittsburgh area ? 

Mr. Golden. Some moneys were sent in from New York to help 
out in the organization of the steel drive. I was told that several 
times. But the dues I considered a small part of the money. But then 
they have social affairs. Some of them had birthdays three or four 
times a year. They would solicit from professional business such as 
doctors, people of means, business establishments, drycleaners. These 
are the ones that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. I will not ask you at the moment, or at least in this 
public session, to give us the names of persons who are non-Commu- 
nists and have made substantial contributions but could you be spe- 
cific in giving us patterns or types of instances in which substantial 
funds have been channeled into Communist Party coffers to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Golden. As stated, they would contact these professional 
people, people of means, some of them doctors, some business estab- 
lishments. 

Mr. Arens. Did the comrades make known to these people of means 
that they were representing the Communist operation ? 

Mr. Golden. No, it would usually be a drive on to protect somebody 
or to kill some bill that was unethical to people in their business. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any instance in mind in which any inher- 
itances were channeled into the Communist operation ? 

Mrs. Golden. There was one instance that I recall. There was a 
meeting of the executive committee of the North Side Club in our 
house and one Eddie Zuckamandel, who had inherited some money, 
was given permission to collect the inheritance. 

Mr. Arens. The party permitted him to collect his own inherit- 
ance ? Was that correct ? 

Mrs. Golden. He was given permission to travel to New York and 
Florida to collect approximately $10,000 — when he reached his 21st 
birthday. He had been working on the North Side selling Workers 
and distributing leaflets and things like that. Wlien he came back 
from his 6-weeks' leave of absence, instead of moving back to the 
North Side he moved to Oakland and he wanted to get his party card 
transferred over to the Oakland Section of the party. The meeting 
was held to determine whether they should grant his' transfer or not. 
He was finally granted a transfer and after the meeting was — he was 
given permission to leave this meeting, it was mentioned that he had 
only given $300 of the $10,000 to the party. They expected to get 
much more out of it. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any accounting of the finances of the party 
made to the comrades in the various cells ? 

39999 — .59 4 



332 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Golden. Now and then a collection was made, the amount 
would be announced, $200 

Mr. Arens. That would be iust for an individual function ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, but there was never anything said how it was 
spent or who spent it. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any particular shortage of money for the 
Communist operation as you observed in this area ? 

Mr. Golden. No. They were always broke but they always had 
money to carry on. They raised it from somewhere. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to interrogate you with respect to pres- 
sure activities that you mentioned a few moments ago. Do you 
possess any information concerning the efforts of the Communist 
operation and the Communist Party here in the Pittsburgh area to 
exert influence on Members of the Congress and other officials of the 
Government ? 

Mr. Golden. It has been known that they would call on their local 
Congressmen. They would have meetings, pass out postal cards, and 
it has been known that perhaps they signed a lot of them themselves. 
I know I signed, mailed some 10 or 12, with phony names on them. 
They would pressure; they made trips to Washington, D.C., in pro- 
test of five bills that were passed on subversion, the Mundt-Nixon and 
Avhat have you. 

Mr. Willis. You mean they would write letters and sign phony 
names ? 

Mr. Golden. Sometimes ; they would run out of names. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever participate in any of these trips to Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir ; I went down to Washington. 

Mr. Arens. What was the position and what was the activity of the 
Communist Party with reference to the basic immigration laws, say 
the Walter-McCarran Immigration and Nationality Act? 

Mr. Golden. They protested strongly against that and they tried to 
influence all front groups to correspond and they tried to influence 
unions, pointing out it would be bad for them. They tried to influence 
eveiyone to fight and repeal it. 

Mr. Arens. Did the party at any time make it known in these 
activities that it was doing so at the behest of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Golden. No. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to interrogate you on some of these front 
groups. You mentioned earlier that the last group of the Commu- 
nist Party that you were active in a few weeks ago, a few days ago, 
as a matter of fact, was this Independent Voters League. Please 
explain what the Independent Voters I^eague is. 

Mr. Golden. It is composed right now of all the members who are 
known to be Communist members. Their idea, one of them, in this 
leaflet here, is to fight any committee or any law that tends to curb 
them on their activities. 

Mr. Arens. On Golden Exhibit No. 1 previously mentioned and 
headed "Unions Are Their Target," the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is attacked by the Independent Voters I^eague. 

To your certain knowledge is Joseph Rudiak, president of the In- 
dependent Votei's League, a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 333 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge is Alexander Staber, secre- 
tary of the Independent Voters League, a member of the Communist 
Party now ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is the same organization that inserted the ad 
in this morning's Pittsburgh Post-Gazette to which I referred a short 
time ago, is it not ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir; that is true. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were Joseph Rudiak and Alexander Staber who 
signed that ad as president and secretary, respectively, of the Inde- 
pendent Voters League appearing in this morning's Pittsburgh 
Gazette, present at the meeting in Schlesinger's office a few days ago ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did they participate in the discussions that were 
held there ? 

Mr. Golden. Very much so. 

Mr. Scherer. I notice also an ad that appeared in yesterday morn- 
ing's Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Monday, March 9. This ad is quite a 
lengthy ad and it is signed by quite a number of individuals, more 
or less prominent in leftwing activities throughout the country, in- 
cluding Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, and this ad reads as follows : 

The advertisement below appeared in the Washington Post Jan. 7, 1959 — 

and I am reading from the ad in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette of 
March 9 — 

The advertisement below appeared in the Washington Post Jan. 7, 1959. On 
the same day Rep. James Roosevelt introduced a resolution which would abolish 
the House Un-American Activities Committee (H.R. 53). The resolution is still 
pending. 

The Un-American Activities Committee has announced hearings in the New 
Federal Bldg. of Pittsburgh on Tues., Wed., and Thurs. of this week. The 
following ad is therefore reproduced here as a public service by the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, Harvey O'Connor, ehaii-man, Corliss Lamont, vice 
chm., Clark Foreman, director, 421 Seventh Ave., N.Y. 1, N.Y. 

And then follows the usual bitter attack upon the Committee on Un- 
American Activities. It is then signed by the individuals, as I have 
indicated. 

Let me ask you, at this meeting in Schlesinger's office was there a 
representative of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee present 
also? 

Mr. Golden. One Mr. Foreman. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Clark Foreman, the director of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, was at this meeting in Schlesinger's office ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And that, Mr. Chairman, is the Clark Foreman, who 
is the director of that committee and whose name appears in this ad 
that I have just read. 

Now, do you remember anything Clark Foreman said at that tune 
at the meeting ? 

Mrs. Golden. He just told the people that if they in all good con- 
science decided to plead the fifth, that they should by all means do 
so. He had this particular ad and stated that they were putting 
this ad in the newspaper, that he was also contacting different people 
in this area to condemn the hearings that were scheduled. 



334 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Clark Foreman made that statement at this meet- 
ing of persons who had been subpenaed before this committee, persons 
you have identified as known members of the Communist Party. He 
made that statement in Schlesinger's office just a few days ago. 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Harvey O'Connor, who is named here as chairman 
of this committee of which Clark Foreman is director^ — I might say 
for the record at this point and for the good people of Pittsburgh who 
read these ads and do not know the source of these ads — has been 
identified as a member of the Communist Party. I will pass over 
Corliss Lamont without any comment. 

Then also there is Frank Wilkinson, who signed this ad. He is the 
executive director of this same Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. 
He was convicted, was he not, Mr. Arens, in the Federal courts of 
Atlanta about 3 or 4 weeks ago and sentenced to 1 year in prison for 
contempt of Congress ? 

And what is the record of Carl Braden, who is also identified with 
this Emergency Civil Liberties Committee that placed this ad in the 
Pittsburgh press? 

Mr. Arens. Carl Braden, likewise identified as a member of the 
Communist Party, having been subpenaed by this committee to testify 
at Atlanta, Ga., refused to answer a number of questions, was con- 
victed and sentenced to a year in jail by the United States District 
Court in Atlanta. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee which 
placed this ad has been also cited by this committee and the Senate 
Internal Security subcommittee, has it not, Mr. Arens, as a Commu- 
nist-controlled and Communist-dominated committee or organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. We have issued a report on the Emergency Civil Lib- 
erties Committee entitled, "Operation Abolition," which sets forth the 
long Communist and Communist front records of practically every 
officer and trustee of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. Is 
that not right, Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct ; yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. And the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation. J. Edgar Hoover, has in a public statement and letter compli- 
mented this committee on the excellency of the report on the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee, has he not ? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, I just want to make this observation, that this 
ad, and I don't want to belabor the point, which appeared in the 
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette yesterday morning issued by the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee and the individuals to whom I have re- 
ferred does carry the names of a large group of citizens from this 
country who are more or less prominent and who may influence the 
readers of that ad because their names appear on this ad. It is indica- 
tive of how people can be serving the Communist cause and serving 
an organization such as the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Golden, when was the last meeting you attended 
as a Communist of the Independent Voters League ? 

Mr. Golden. Saturday a week ago, Roosevelt Hotel. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 335 

Mr, Arens. And who were the Communist Party members who 
were in attendance at this meeting of the Independent Voters League 
at the Roosevelt Hotel here in Pittsburp;h a week or so ago ? 

Mr. Golden. Alex Steinberg, Alex Staber, Joe Rudiak, Nathan 
Albert, Gus Santes, and myself. 

Mr. Arens. What other front groups were you active in as a com- 
rade, as a Communist? 

Mr. Golden. Civil rights organization, the Progressive Party, the 
two principal ones. 

Mr. Arens. In general, what were the purposes of these front 
groups ? 

Mr. Golden. They were to recruit members to carry out the poli- 
cies of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. How did the Communist Party members, the comrades 
in this conspiracy control the front groups? 

Mr. Golden. By helping to organize them and then present their 
policies and push those forward and take over. 

Mr. Arens. Did they caucus frequently? 

Mr. Golden. They caucused frequently. 

Mr. Arens. As to how they were going to penetrate and control 
these organizations? 

Mr. Golden. They caucused before and after every meeting and 
in between. 

Mr. Arens. Was the Progressive Party of Western Pennsylvania 
controlled by the Communist Party? 

Mr. Golden. Absolutely. 

Mr. Arens. What Communist Party members were also membei'S 
of the Progressive Party ? 

Mr. Golden. Most all of them. Here I have listed some names. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give those names to us on this record 
now? 

Mr. Golden. J. B. Richardson, Henry Bichner, of Philadelphia, 
Pearl Griffin, Rebecca Horowitz, James Quinn, Joe Robinson, Ted 
Wright, Joe and Agnes Mankin, Jack Sartisky. 

Mr. Arens. That is M-a-n-k-i-n? 

Mr. Golden. Right. Essie Steinberg, Sol Garfield, of Philadelphia, 
who was there lots, Mr. William Hamlet, Ida Lewis, Alma Robinson, 
Allen Thomas, Miriam Schultz, Gabe Kish, Thomas Fitzpatrick, 
Vladimir Slomberg, are some of the names. I don't have them all. 

Mr. Arens. Who from the Communist Party were penetrating and 
active in controlling the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Golden. Nathan Albert, Joe Rudiak, Miriam Schultz, Ben 
Careathers, Steve Nelson and wife, Essie Steinberg, Allen Thomas, 
Rebecca Horowitz, Bessie Steinberg, Evelyn Abelson, Smmy Sartisky, 
Al McNeil, Lila and Jerry Grushka, Ted and Eileen Rowland, Steve 
Suto are some of those in the CRC. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to interrogate you, if you please, respect- 
ing Communist Party training schools. While a member of the Com- 
munist Party did you attend any schools or classes conducted by the 
Communist Party training schools ? 

Mr. Golden. I attended three sessions. 

Mr. Arens. Where were those held? 

Mr. Golden. One was held in Wood Street. 



336 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OE COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. Here in Pittsburgh? 

Mr. Golden. Yes. Over up in the jewelry store. One was on 
Liberty Avenue, I think it was 9170, the second or third floor and one 
in Toni Nuss' home. 

Mr. Arens. What were you taught concerning the revolutionary 
aims of the Communist operation ? 

Mr. Golden. We were taught the principles of Marxism and com- 
munism and on economic situations and political situations, how to 
meet and work in groups in political groups and how to control or 
lead front organizations along the party line. 

Mr. Arens. Were you told liow to agitate among the masses? 
Mr. Golden. That was part of the education. 
Mr. Arens. Who were the instructors in these schools ? 
Mr. Golden. Bill Albertson, first had it, later he went to Detroit, 
and then between teachers we had some four or five meetings in a 
housing project in Toni Nuss' home in the South Side and then Wil- 
liam Gordon came in from New York and finished the instruction and 
Steve Nelson taught a class one night. He was here to talk. 

Mr. Arens. Was any emphasis placed upon the objective of the 
Communist operation in penetrating labor groups ? 

Mr. Golden. The principal target was labor organizations. I was 
taught to infiltrate all unions, particularly steel, electrical, food, and 
places that had Government contracts ; that later on you would be, if 
something happened, in position to help create chaos. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us some of the techniques and strategy 
of the Communist Party in infiltrating labor organizations? 

Mr. Golden. We were supposed to affiliate, or to become a member 
of the union, you attached yourself to the top leadership of the unions, 
you worked very diligently and very hard. You carried out all the 
directives and make yourself a good, loyal union man and then to get 
in a minority position and work your way up in the leadership, slowly 
infiltrating into the union the ideas through resolutions on cases that 
concern labor or minority groups; you would then influence your 
unions through resolutions that you would carry in and work your 
way into that so you can control their policies. 

Mr. Arens. Were you cautioned as to revealing your true identity 
as a member of the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Golden. That was inevitable. You wouldn't be any use to 
them if it was known in your union that you was a Communist Party 
member. 

Mr. Arens. During your activity in the Communist Party, did 
you have any contact: with the UE, United Electrical, Kadio and 
Machine Workers Union of America ? 

Mr. Golden. We had a couple meetings in their office. At that 
time I think it was the old Wabash Building they were in. 
Mr. Arens. These are Communist cell meetings ? 
Mr. Golden. Yes. 

They were trying to get certain issues before the public and before 
the unions at this particular time. One issue was a protest on the 
hiking of the trolley fares. They wanted to get the names and to 
secure mailing lists and to get people to protest. This was another 
way they got their mailing list for these various fronts. 

Mr. Arens. Was this protest group completely controlled by the 
Communist Party? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 337 

Mr. (xOLDKisr. As far as my knowledge is, yes, 

Mr. Arens. Did you also meet at the UE headquarters persons 
\A ho were officials of the UE but who were known by you to be 
comrades, members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. GoLDEK. Yes. Tom Fitzpatrick, Tom Flanagan. 

Mr. Arens. Tom Fitzpatrick. What was the second name? 

Mr. Golden. Flanagan. Tliomas Flanagan and Tom Quinn, 
There were otliers here. 

Mr, Arens. Did you meet Harold Briney there by any chance? 

]Mr. Golden. No, I don't think I did. Not at this meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever met him as a comrade ? 

Mr, Golden. I can't recall if I have or not, 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting leaflets which 
were distributed by the comrades which were printed at UE head- 
quarters or with UE equipment? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, they printed leaflets on these protests and other 
things that they were fighting at that time. They were passed out 
at various mills. They were printed in the downtown office and car- 
ried out of there and put in cars and distributed. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, the work of the Communist Party here 
was carried through UE at the expense of the rank and file members 
of the UE who paid their dues to the UE, is that correct ? 

Mr. Golden. Probably true. We gave them no money. 

]Mr. Arens. In your work in tlie labor field, have you had any ex- 
perience with the Taft-Hartley affidavit as far as the Communist 
Party was concerned ? 

]Mr. Golden. Yes. I went to protest meetings. I ran for office in 
the union after I had been exposed, and I was told to go ahead and 
run by the party ; in fact the party made up the slate of Communist 
inembers and sympathizers for Local 325. If we Avere elected we were 
to sign the noii-Comnnmist affidavit oath and put the proof of the 
burden on the Government to ])rove we were members. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, you were to go ahead and sign it even 
though you were a Communist? 

Mr. Golden. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And sign it as though you were not a Communist? 

Mr. Golden. That is right. Put the burden of proof on the Govern- 
ment to prove we were. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to dwell a little, Mr. Golden, on patterns 
of activity in the field of Communist propaganda. The United States, 
as this committee has revealed time and again, is constantly barraged 
with Communist propagand a both from abroad and from sources here 
within the United States, In your work in the Communist Party, did 
you acquire any knowledge of the techniques of this Conamunist propa- 
ganda ? 

Mr. Golden. Sure. They would take some issue that had some small 
part of truth in it and they would build that up and publicize it and 
twist it around to fit their own needs. They would stress civil liberties 
and individual rights and persecution of minority groups et cetera, 
anything they could get to the front, get to the masses, get money and 
help fight, they would infiltrate them. 

Mr. Arens. What is the main source of Communist propaganda in 
the Pittsburgh area now ? 



338 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Golden. It comes from New York by mail and is distributed on 
the North Side and to me, I live near Crafton, by one Eddie Lange. 
In the past I have received Daily Workers, Sunday Workers, Political 
Affairs, and books, that anyone writes in the Communist Party. It is 
a must you take them. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting any reproducing 
equipment presently in operation by the Communists here ? 

Mr. Golden. Not at the present, but in the past we got out our own 
information through leaflets. We had a mimeograph machine in one 
Mark Lovett's home when he lived on Federal Street and then, as I 
stated before, leaflets and things were run off in the UE office for 
protest of different things. 

Mr. Arens. What has happened in the recent past to the Foreign 
Languages Press in this vicinity? 

Mr. Golden. That, due to the pressure brought on it, after they 
were exposed the circulation fell off, they broke it up here and moved 
to Chicago, figuring it would be a larger city and they could operate 
better without harassment. 

Mr. Arens. Who moved to Chicago, with that Connnunist press, 
do you recall ? 

Mr. Golden. Well, there was John Vidmar and his father moved 
with them. Daisy and Arthur Bartl went with it. 

Mrs. Golden. Calvin Brooks. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge, were all of these individuals 
Communists ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Golden. They moved with the paper to Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have knowledge of persons in this area who 
are Communists and who have traveled abroad to engage in Commu- 
nist Party activities ? 

Mr. Golden. I know only of one. and that is Anna Devmiich. 

Mr. Arens. "\^^lere did she go ? 

Mr. Golden. I think to Plungary. 

Mr. Arens. During the 12 years that you were a member of the 
Communist Party did you become aware of Communist Party mem- 
bership of any persons other than those you have already indicated 
and identified? 

Mr. Golden. I don't know tliem all. But I know some moi'e. 

Mr. Arens. Those who were in contact with you as comrades in the 
operations in which you were engaged? Kindly give those to us now, 
])lease, -NA-itli a word of comment on each. 

Mr. Golden. Genne Crockert from Wheeling, W. Va., she is head 
of the party down there. She later married. I think it is Kulm, mar- 
riage name. Jerry Grushka. 

Mrs. Golden. He is from New York. 

Mr. Arens. Spell that, please, sir. 

Mrs. Golden. G-r-u-s-h-k-a. 

Mr. Golden. He was in the youtli movement. 

Mrs. Golden. He was. 

Mr. Golden. Bobby Jones. He was active in the hotel-restaurant 
and food. Communist Party groups that belonged to the liotel and 
restaurant workers' union. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 339 

Elmer Kish, one time helped organize in Washington County. Nick 
Lazaris, who was the head of the hotel and restaurant workers group 
of the Connnunist Party. 

Milo Mannila, Steve Nelson, Andy Onda, Ted Rowland, Hymen 
Schlesinger, Ernest Careathers, Rachel Cooper, Herbert (jlickman, 
Vince Kemenovich, Ruth Kish, Al McNeil, Francis McGill, Isaac Bey, 
Antoinette Nuss, J. B. Richardson, Eileen Rowland, Vladimir Slom- 
berg. There are some more. 

Mr. Aw2NS. Mrs. Golden, you testified you joined the Communist 
Party in 1947. Please relate on tliis record the circumstances of your 
joining the Communist Party. 

Mrs. (tolden. After my husband had joined there were executive 
conmiittee meetings held at my home. The first ones I didn't attend. 
Not being a member of the party, I went to a movie. When I got home 
the meeting wasn't over and I sat in the kitchen. After the meeting 
was over Joe Mankin had said, "The next meeting we have, why don't 
you stay here 'i You might learn something.'' So he prweeded to talk 
to me and ask me how I felt about this and how I felt about that. 
And in August of 1947 we had a meeting at our home to form a 
branch of the (^ongress of American Women in Pittsburgh on the 
North Side and Anna Devunich came to our home and Joe Mankin 
was there, too. Since they weren't very many women present, some 
of them had been on vacation, they decided to postpone this meeting 
and Anna Devunich asked me to join the party that evening, and 
I did so. 

Mr. Ar?:ns. And you did so with the full knowledge and coopera- 
tion of your husband, and you also did so at the instigation and 
knowledge of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is that correct? 

Mrs. Golden. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. To what group were you assigned after you joined 
the Communist Party ? 

Mm. Golden. The North Side Club. 

Mr. Arens. That was the same group to which your husband was 
assigned ? 

Mrs. Golden. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Since he has already testified respecting that particular 
entity of the Communist Party we will not interrogate you on that. 
What were your principal activities in the Communist Party, Mrs. 
Golden? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, I was appointed to assist the membership 
director, John Vidmar, to type the letters and the envelopes, call 
people on the phone, but my chief activity was in front groups. 

Mr. Arens. Of what fi'ont group were you first a member? 

Mrs. Golden. It was first called the Housewives Price Protest 
Committee and then it was later changed to the Housewives Protest 
Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Was it created and controlled by the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of the Housewives Protest 
Committee ? 

Mrs. Golden. At that time they were opposing the lifting of price 
controls. 

39999 — 59 5 



340 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. How many members ? 

Mrs. Golden. When it started out there must have been about 100 
members. 

Mr. Arens. In this group of 100 members controlled by the Com- 
munists, how many were actually comrades, Communists? 

Mrs. Golden. About 8 to 10, at the most. 

Mr. Arens. What did this group do ? How did they raise money ? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, they went out, they distributed petitions. We 
would go on street corners and go out to get petitions signed, sent out 
letters and — 

Mr. Arens. Wliat did they do with the petitions ? 

Mrs. Golden. They sent them to Washington. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat Communist Party members were in the House- 
wives Protest Committee ? 

Mrs. Golden. Miriam Schultz, Anna Devunich, Evelyn Abelson, 
Mark Lovett, Agnes Mankin and myself. 

Mr. Arens. Of what other front groups were you a member? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, I was a member of a peace group that started 
out. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of it ? Do you recall ? 

Mrs, Golden. There was one meeting held to form a club. It was 
more or less a city meeting to organize peace clubs in the various 
sections of the city. And then the North Side had their own peace 
meeting and formed the North Side Peace Club. 

Mr. Arens. Was it controlled by the Communists ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Civil Eights Congress ? 

Mrs, Golden, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Were you active in the Rosenberg Committee ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you active in the Committee To End Sedition 
Laws? 

Mrs, Golden, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Arens, Were you active in the American Committee for Pro- 
tection of Foreign Bom? 

Mrs, Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens, Were you active in a number of other similar groups? 

Mrs. Golden, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens, Were they all controlled by the conspiratorial system ? 

Mrs, Golden. Yes, sir, 

Mr. ScHERER. How did vou find time for social life? 

Mrs, Golden, We didn't, 

Mr. Arens, How did the Communists retain control of these 
groups? You indicated that in this one group only a handful of 
comrades controlled a rather large group. How was that done? 

Mrs. Golden. Most of these groups, now the peace group, there were 
a few known Communists in it. But they would brino; up an issue 
on the floor and get the resolutions passed. The Civil Rights Con- 
2Tess, Rosenberg Committee, they were all born by the Communist 
Party and it was just another Communist Party meetinof as far as — 
there wasn't anybody outside of party members who attended these 
functions. 

Mr, Arens. What techniques were used by the front groups to raise 
money ? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 341 

Mrs. Golden. We had picnics and dinners, and we had Russian 
movies. We sent out "appeals" letters. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you get your mailing list ? 

Mrs. Golden, They had union mailing lists, they had the party 
mailing list of people that had contributed in the past and we had 
petitions signed, and would take some names from these petitions and 
use them. 

Mr. Arens. You mentioned that you were a member of this North 
Side Peace Club. What was the purpose of this group? 

Mrs. Golden. To oppose universal military training, to oppose test- 
ing of atom bombs, to protest the Korean war. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any instance in mind which was partic- 
ularly significant in connection with opposing the Korean war? 

Mrs. Golden, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about it ? 

Mrs. Golden. Joe Mankin lived upstairs over us when we lived on 
the North Side. And he had had a meeting up there of his group, 
John Vidmar, Helen and Bill Kompus, Agnes and myself. I hadn't 
been to the meeting but I was called up at 11 o'clock. The news was 
on and everybodv had to keep quiet until we heard the news. At 
that time the United Nations overseas were retreating. Joe was very 
jubilant over the w^hole thing. He stated that the imperialists, capi- 
talists, would never win the Korean war, as our boys were not used 
to fighting against guerrilla warfare. They had fought with guer- 
rillas in World War II, but never against. Therefore the people's 
democracies would win the fight. 

Mr. Arens. What Communist Party members were also members of 
the North Side Peace Club? 

Mrs. Golden. Joe Mankin, Tom Flanagan, Miriam Schultz, Eve- 
lyn Abelson, Viola Schmidt. 

Mr. Arens. Was Agnes Mankin a member ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. Gabe and Mary Kish, Nick Kelich, Sunny 
Sartisky, Bobby Jones, Bessie Steinberg, Helen and Bill Kompus, 
Jerry anl Lila Grushka, John Vidmar, Daisy and Arthur Bartl, 
Anne Perpich. 

Mr. Arens. What Communist Party members were also active in 
the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, practically the same ones. 

Mr. Golden. Same group. 

Mr. Arens. What Communist Party members were members of the 
Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg case ? 

Mrs. Golden. Practically the same ones. 

Mr. Arens. How about the Committee To End Sedition Laws ? 

Mrs. Golden. Same ones. 

Mr. Arens. And the American Committee for Protection of For- 
eign Born ? 

Mrs. Golden. Same ones. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a successor here to the American Committee 
for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Mrs. Golden. No. But at the same time that that committee was 
functioning they had what was called a Nationality Committee of 
Western Pennsylvania. 



342 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. What was its purpose ? 

Mrs. Golden, This was to fight the Walter-McCarran Act and 

Mr. Arens. That is the Immigration and Nationality Act, popu- 
larly known as the Walter-McCarran Act ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. And the American Committee for Protection 
of Foreign Born had been cited as a subversive organization and 
therefore it was felt that the Nationality Committee could carry on 
the work because it hadn't been cited and therefore some people 
wouldn't be frightened into not working with the Nationality Com- 
mittee, where they wouldn't work with the American Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever attend a victory celebration for Steve 
Nelson ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us about it, or about them, if you at- 
tended more than one ? 

Mrs. Golden. They had a couple. There was one in January of 
1954 when the State Supreme Court overruled the conviction of Steve 
Nelson on his sedition case. 

Mr. Arens. Where was this held and how many people were pres- 
ent ? Tell us about it, please. 

Mrs. Golden. It was held in the Fort Pitt Hotel. Near approxi- 
mately 100 people present. Well, it was 

Mr. Arens. Was it mider Communist Party control? 

Mrs. Golden, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In connection with your activities in these front groups 
did you ever travel to other cities to participate in conventions or any 
activities on behalf of the Communist operation ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you describe briefly some of these meetings? 
Who were the leaders, where they were held and what you did? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, in April of 1953 I went to Philadelphia with 
Miriam Schultz and Nate Albert and Joe Mankin. And Nelson was 
there. 

Mr. Arens. Steve Nelson ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of your going ? 

Mrs. Golden. This was supposedly a CRC conference. 

Mr. Arens. Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs. Golden, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a bit about it, please. 

Mrs. Golden. They had plannecl to get 50,000 signatures on peti- 
tions to reverse the Steve Nelson conviction on sedition. And iii turn 
they were going to try to get the IWO, International Workers Order, 
which the New York State Insurance Department broke up, to help 
defeat the Walter-McCarran Act and distribute -3,000 leaflets on the 
Smith Act. They talked about trials in Philadelphia that were going 
on. Smith Act trials. They made a proposal to Governor Fine to 
annul the 20-year sentence of Steve Nelson. And then Nelson spoke 
on how he had to go to trial without a lawyer. 

Mr. Arens. Did the delegation get to see the Governor? 

Mrs. Golden. This was to take place later. 

Mr. Arens. Did the delegation eventually see the Governor? 

Mrs. Golden. That I don't know. I can't recall. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 343 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communists reveal the fact that they were 
Communists ? 

Mrs. Golden. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you subsequently participate in a Progressive Party 
affair in Youngstown, Ohio ? 

Mrs. Golden. We both did. 

Mr. Arens. You and your husband ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And what Avas the nature of that affair 'i Could you give 
us a word about that ? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, they had a picnic in Youngstown and at this, 
the Rosenberg petitions were passed around and then they discussed 
sending a delegation of 10,000 people to Washington to demonstrate 
against the conviction of the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Arens. Was this all controlled by the Communists ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you subsequently go to New York City on a con- 
ference ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that, please. 

Mrs. Golden. In October of 1953 I went to New York City, for a 
people's conference to fight the McCarran law prosecutions, and Mc- 
Carthyism. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to Chicago for any conferences? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, I went to Chicago in December of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of that conference ? 

Mrs. Golden. To repeal the Walter- McCarran Act and defend its 
victims. 

Mr. Arens. What transpired there ? 

Mrs. Golden. Well, there was a talk about the people being de- 
ported. 

Mr. Arens. Did they talk about raising funds to defeat the Walter- 
McCarran Act ? 

Mrs. Golden. They were to raise $50,000 to defeat the Walter- 
McCarran Act. 

Mr. Arens. How many comrades went from Pittsburgh to Chicago 
for this session? 

Mrs. Golden. 22. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend any other out-of-town functions at the 
behest of the Communist operation ? 

Mrs. Golden. I went to Harrisburg with Steve Nelson, Miriam 
Schultz, Sonny Robinson, and Art Shields. When Steve's Supreme 
Court hearing was coming up on his sedition case, there were delega- 
tions there from New York, Philadelphia, and other areas. They 
were to see the Governor to ask him to reverse the conviction of the 
State. 

Mr. Arens. Did they make known to the Governor that they were 
comrades ? 

Mrs. Golden. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Golden, I would like to ask you, as I asked Mr. 
Golden when he was concluding his testimony, to give us now the 
names of other persons who have not as yet been identified by your- 
self in connection with some unit of the Communist Party but who 



344 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

were to a certainty known by you to be members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mrs. Golden. Charlie Soldo. 

Mr. Arens. Spell that last name, please. 

Mrs, Golden. S-o-l-d-o. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please. 

Mrs. Golden. He was active in the language groups, nationality 
groups. Joe Takacs. He was also active in the nationality groups. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Katherine Kemenovich as a comrade? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. K-e-m-e-n-o-v-i-c-h. 

Mrs. Golden. She was one of the people that went to Chicago with 
us. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Alex Rakosi ? 

Mrs. Golden. Eakosi? 

Mr. Arens. Eakosi. You know him as a comrade ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir, he attended that meeting in Hymen Schle- 
singer's office Saturday. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Jolm Regan as a comrade ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, he was an active in youth, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Harold Spencer, S-p-e-n-c-e-r? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are there others you knew as comrades whom you have 
not as yet identified in connection with some unit of Communist op- 
eration ? 

Mrs. Golden. Minnie Mazur. She is the sister of Becky Horowitz. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell that last name, please ? 

Mrs. Golden. H-o-r-o-w-i-t-z. 

Mr. Arens. The first lady's name is Minnie ? 

Mrs. Golden. Minnie. 

Mr. Arens. And her last name ? 

Mrs. Golden. M-a-z-u-r. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. And a word about her, please. 

Mrs. Golden. She was a sister of Becky Horowitz and she helped 
out and attended a lot of nationality affairs. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know her as a Communist ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others ? 

Mrs. Golden. Bessie Chosky. She was also active in nationality 
groups, particularly Jewish. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell her last name, please ? 

Mrs. Golden. C-h-o-s-k-y. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a comrade ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any others ? 

Mrs. Golden. I can't think right now. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, as the chairman knows and as the wit- 
nesses of course know, these witnesses have been in contact with the 
staff over the course of many months. We have had, under oath, ex- 
tensive interviews and consultations with these two witnesses on some 
subjects covered here today, but there are other matters which, as 
the chairman knows, it would not be prudent at this time to develop 
with these witnesses in a public session. Therefore, Mr. Chairman, 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 345 

I respectfully suggest that would conclude the staff interrogation of 
this session. On behalf of the staff, if you please, Mr. Chairman, we 
would like to publicly express our profound admiration and deep 
appreciation to these two people for the excellent cooperation they 
have given to this committee over the course of the many months 
the committee has been assembling information respecting the gen- 
eral subject matter of their testimony. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Arens, on behalf of the subcommittee I, and 
through this committee, on behalf of the Congress, I should say that 
we acknowledge an obligation of this Congress. It must have been a 
very grievous and distressing experience to have had one's children 
shunned in the community, from one community to another, and when 
because they were serving their Government they could not reveal 
exactly what their lives were. Unquestionably Mr. and Mrs. Golden 
must have been the subject of intensive investigation by the FBI 
before they were accepted in their assignment. As far as I am con- 
cerned, I do not know of a greater investigative agency than the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation. If they have been good enough for 
J. Edgar Hoover for the last 12 years they are good enough for me and 
this committee and the Congress. And I hope all the people, or the 
great majority of the people in this area have the pleasure to know 
that Mrs. Golden has been going to school and expects to get a cer- 
tification of graduation or some recognition of her studies tonight 
and for one I wish you luck in your new life. And I hope that the 
friends who have shunned you in the past will understand why you 
devoted 12 long years of your life in a worthy undertaking for the 
Government of the United States. 

I have no particular questions. There are certain areas of informa- 
tion that can not now, at least, be revealed from these two witnesses. 
I do not know whether we will be permitted to do that later. Our 
staff will have to decide that question. 

Governor Tuck, are there any questions you would like to ask ? 

Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, I would like to say that I wholeheartedly 
concur in the statement which you have made on behalf of this com- 
mittee. I want to join in your words and appreciation of the pa- 
triotic services rendered by these two witnesses. As they have testi- 
fied a number of questions occurred to my mind that I might like 
to ask. But for fear that I might trespass and transgress some of 
those areas which it might not be in the public interest to have dis- 
closed, I will withhold any questions that I may have in mind. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, of course I join in the sentiments ex- 
pressed by my two colleagues. I happen to know something of the 
type of service that these two people rendered to the Government 
of the United States. There is no question that this Government now, 
as of this moment, is facing the greatest threat to its very existence. 
These people have had a part in helping this Government offset that 
threat, at least to offset the threat from within. 

I join in the sentiments expressed by my two colleagues and the 
staff. 

Mr. WiLiJS. The subcommittee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p.m. March 10, 1959, the hearing was re- 
cessed until 2 p.m. of the same day. Subcommittee members present : 
Kepresentatives Willis, Tuck, and Scherer.) 



346 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, MARCH 10, 1959 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Alex Staber, please come forward and remain stand- 
ing while the chairman administers an oath. 

( Representative Tuck entered the room.) 

Mr. Staber. Mr. Chairman, I would like to present a motion. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Staber. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEXANDER STABER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly be seated. 

Mr. Staber. I would like to present a motion. 

Mr. Arens. Please be seated. 

Mr. Staber. You mean I am not allowed to present a motion? 

Mr. Arens. Please be seated. Kindly identify yourself by name, 
residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Staber. INIy name is Alexander Staber. I live at D62 Talbot 
Towers, Braddock, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation, please, sir ? 

Mr. Staber. Due to the nature of this inquiry, I am going to 
claim my rights under the hrst amendment of free speech, free opinion, 
and I want to invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you told this com- 
mittee your occupation while you are under oath you would be supply- 
ing information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Mr. Chairman, may I address the Chair? 

Mr. Arens. Would you please answer the question? 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The rules of the committee, as counsel knows, are to 
advise his client of his rights. There is a pending question. 

Mr. ScHLEsiNGER. I waut to move to quash the subpena because 
of the invasion of the right to counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Would you advise your client, please, sir? 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Mr. Chairman, I am addressing the Chair. 

Mr. SciiERER. Regular order, ]Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, would you please answer the question? 

Mr. Willis. Counsel knows tlie rules. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel please restrain yourself. 

Mr. Willis. Witness is here and there is a pending question rela- 
tive to his occupation, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you told this com- 
mittee while you are under oath what your occupation is you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 347 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. I chiim my rights under the first amenchnent of free 
opinion, and I invoke the privilege of tlie fifth amendment, 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel honestly if you told this committee what 
your occui)ation is you would be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal ])roceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScuERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask 

Mr. Staber. The same answer, first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Staber. The same answer, the first and fifth. 

Mr. Sc'herer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question because the question counsel asked him was 
merely to test this witness' good faith in invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. The courts have indicated that that question should be asked 
by this committee when it is not sure that the witness is invoking the 
fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, that is unquestionably true. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. lu auswer to occupation question in this case 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest counsel be advised his sole and 
exclusive prerogative is to advise his client. 

Mr. Schlesinger (continuing). Terminated. 

Mr. AViLLis. The situation is this: It is up to the witness to invoke 
tlie right of the fifth amendment as lie has a perfect right to. But 
the point is that in order to invoke that privilege tliere must be an ap- 
prehension that it might tend to incriminate him and so on, as coun- 
sel well knows, and the question is whether or not he is honestly in- 
voking it. 

If he has apprehensions that by telling us his occupation it might 
put him in jeopardy, it is up to his conscience, but I order him to 
answer that question, or to answer whether or not he apprehends 
that it might tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. Staber. I apprehend this question will put me in jeopardy, 
therefore I am invoking the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to the subpena 
that was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Staber. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Schlesinger. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Staber. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you should be advised again that your sole 
and exclusive prerogative here is to advise the witness. 

Mr. Schlesinger. The witness w'ants to make a motion and tried 
to make a motion, and he wouldn't be listened to. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Counsel, please restrain yourself. 

Mr. Witness, please tell this committee 

Mr. Schlesinger. May I finish my sentence ? 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Schlesinger. I was cut otf in the middle. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

39999—59 6 



348 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr, ScHLESiNGER. Coiisultation between this witness 



Mr. Arens. Restrain yourself. Let counsel be advised his sole- 
Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Spies and informers on this witness 

Mr. Arens. As counsel well knows the rules of the committee- 



Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Your Honor, this committee has violated the 
constitutional ri^ht. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will proceed and answer the outstanding 
question. 

Mr. Arens. "VN^iere and when were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Staber. I was bom December 11, 1919, in the community 
of Ardmore, otherwise known as Forest Hills, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. Give us if you please, sir, a brief sketch of your 
education. 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Staber. I am invoking the privilege of the fifth on the ques- 
tion — put me in jeopardy. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully about your education you would be supplying information 
that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. I honestly think this question is a link in the chain 
that will put me in jeopardy. Therefore I am using the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present oc- 
cupation ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Staber. I am invoking the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat occupation did you have immediately prior to 
your present occupation ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Arens. We should like to display to you now a document, which 
has been identified in this record as Golden Exhibit No. 1, entitled 
"Unions Are Their Target." It attacks this committee, tells about the 
terrible things this committee is doing and is signed by the Independ- 
ent Voters League, Post Office Box 7314, Pittsburgh, 13, Pa., Alex- 
ander Staber, secretary. 

Kindly look at the exhibit and tell this committee whether or not 
that is a true and correct reproduction of a document of which you 
were one of the authors. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. May I read this out loud ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly respond to the question, sir. 

Mr. Staber. Wliat is the question, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you author the document that has just been dis- 
played to you ? 

Mr. Staber. I would like to read it to see. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 349 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. The question is very simple. There is no necessity for 
you to make a spectacle reading it out loud. Read it to yourself and 
answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. In view of the testimony of the informers this morn- 
ing I am claiming the first amendment and the privilege of the fifth. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said in view of the testimony of the informers 
this morning. I assume you are referring to the testimony of Mr. 
and Mrs. Golden. Is that right ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. Those are the informers and stool pigeons I am re- 
ferring to. 

Mr. Arens. I want you to tell this committee, then, in what respect 
was the testimony of the Goldens untrue ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Staber. First amendment and the fifth amendment on that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. You called them informers. We are giving you an op- 
portunity to state now whether or not anything they said to this com- 
mittee this morning is untrue. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. You refuse to tell the committee ? 

Mr. Staber. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. When the Goldens identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party, were they telling this committee a truth or an un- 
truth this morning ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stx\ber. First and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. When they stated that you were in Mr. Schlesinger's 
office last Saturday with other witnesses and Communists who had 
been subpenaed to appear before this committee, were they telling the 
truth to this committee or were they telling an untruth ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. I claim the privileges of the sixth amendment, the right 
to counsel, and I would like to make this motion. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer my question. He said these people were informers, and I want 
to know in what respect these people misinformed this committee this 
morning. 

Mr, Willis. You are directed to answer the question, 

Mr, Staber. I am still claiming the rights of the sixth amendment 
to get counsel and privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Willis, Proceed. Ask the next question. 

Mr, Arens, When the Goldens testified this morning that the parties 
who attended that meeting were members of the Communist Party, 
were they telling this committee the tmth or an untruth ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Staber. The sixth and the fifth. 

Mr, Arens. When the Goldens told this committee this morning 
that at this meeting in Schlesinger's office last Saturday the insertion 
of the ads which appeared in this morning's Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 



350 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

was discussed, were tliey telling the truth to this committee or were 
they misrepresenting the facts in any way ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Staber. The first, the sixth, and the fifth amendments to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You mean you refuse to answer and invoke those pro- 
visions of the Constitution in refusing to answer? 

Mr. Staber. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have anything to do with the placing of this 
ad by the Independent Voters League in that newspaper here in Pitts- 
burgh ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. I am using the first amendment, freedom of the press, 
and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the Alexander Staber whose name appears on 
the ad in this morning's Pittsburgh newspaper? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. The first amendment, freedom of the press, and the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. On Saturday in Mr. Schlesinger's office you were still 
under the impression at that time that the Goldens were members of 
the Communist Party, were you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. The sixth amendment, the right to counsel, and the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. In fact at that time you knew they were members of the 
Communist Party, but did not know that they were undercover agents 
for the Federal Bureau of Investigation; is that not right? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. Sixth, right to counsel, and the fifth, 

Mr. Arens. At that time you and Mr. Schlesinger there, your coun- 
sel, and the others present were discussing with them how you 
would bait this committee when you and the other witnesses appeared 
before this committee, were you not ? 

Mr. Staber. First amendment, right to free speech; the sixth, right 
to counsel; and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. And the able Mr. Schlesinger was advising those wit- 
nesses how to bait this committee and how to answer the questions that 
were asked, was he not, at that meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. Sixth amendment, right to counsel, and the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Were the Goldens tellinc; this connnittee the truth when 
they said that Clark Foreman, of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee, which placed the other ad in the Pittsburgh press, was present 
at the meeting in Mr. Schlesinger's office on Saturday? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. First amendment, right to free speech; sixth amend- 
ment, right to counsel, free speech, and press; fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Who gave you the information contained in the ad 
about the voting records of the members of this committee? Who 
gave you that information ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 351 

Mr. Staber. First amendment, freedom of the press; fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. x^RENS. Do you think it wouki incriminate you to tell this com- 
mittee where you got the infornuition that you used in an ad that 
you placed in the press? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. I have reasonable grounds as to my apprehension, and 
I am claiming the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Did you satisfy youi-self before you placed that ad in 
the press that the facts stated in that ad were true or untrue, partic- 
ularly with reference to voting records ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. First amendment, freedom of press; fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did any member of the Communist Party supply you 
with the information contained in that ad ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Staber. First amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. As of this moment, you are a member of the Communist 
Party, a hard-core member of the Communist Party, are you not? 

Mr. Staber. First amendment and tlie fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Staber, it is the information of this committee 
that you have been recently designated by a hierarchy of the con- 
spiracy in the United States to be the successor in these parts to 
Steve Nelson. I should like now to put it to you as a fact, sir, that 
you have been designated as the successor to Steve Nelson in the 
Greater Pittsburgh area of the Communist Party and ask you while 
you are under oath to affirm or deny that fact. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Staber. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Joseph Rudiak, whose name ap])ears as 
president of the Independent Voters League on that exhibit? 
( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Staber. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. The Committee on Un-American Activities is under- 
taking to solicit information, tedious, difficult as it may be, respect- 
ing the operation of the international Communist conspiracy, which 
is out to destroy freedom everywhere and to destroy the Constitution 
of the United States. Its purpose is to submit that information to 
the U.S. Congress that it there may undertake to devise legislation 
and amendments to existing laws to cope with this conspiratorial 
apparatus which would overthrow this Government by force and 
violence. 

Do you, sir, now have information, current information, respecting 
the techniques, strategies, tactics, and activities of that Communist 
conspiracy in the Pittsburgh area? 

(The witness c(mferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Staber. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 
Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 
(The witness excused.) 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. At tills time, Mr. Chairman, I would like to 
move to quash the subpena to this witness and the interference of 
right to counsel. May I hand the motion ? 



352 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mv. Willis. Hand it to our director. We will have it for our 
records. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the next witness, if you please, Alex 
Steinberg, please come forward. Please remain standing while the 
chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Steinberg. I object to being televised. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I do. 

Mr. Willis. The rules of the committee are that until a witness 
is sworn he is, of course, not under the jurisdiction of this committee, 
but upon being sworn if he makes the request it must be respected. 
The TV people will act accordingly. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEX STEINBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Steinberg. My name is Alex Steinberg. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up, 
please ? 

Mr. Steinberg. My name is Alex Steinberg. 

Mr. ScHERER. I can't hear the witness from here. 

Mr. Steinberg. Alex Steinberg. Can you hear ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Steinberg. 5542 Jackson Street, Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please ? 

Mr. Steinberg. In view of the fact that I believe this committee 
is trying to deprive me of my means of earning a livelihood, I decline 
to answer that on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you refusing to answer because you feel we are 
trying to deprive you of a livelihood or because you fear that your 
answer might incriminate you? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Which is your basic reason for refusing to answer? 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Counsel, I believe that 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Mr. Chairman, I believe that this will put me in 
reasonable apprehension of jeopardy, and I claim the first and fifth 
amendments. 

]Mr. Arens. You are appearing in response to a subpena wdiich 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you please identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Schlesinger. My name is Hymen Schlesinger, and I am a 
member of the Allegheny County Bar, I practice law in the city 
of Pittsburgh, Pa. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 353 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present place 
of employment, Mr. Steinberg ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I invoke my rights under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment? 

Mr. Steinberg. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been employed in any activity since 
you reached adulthood concerning which you can tell this committee 
without revealing information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Steinberg. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born? 

Mr. Steinberg. I was born in Pittsburgh, July 11, 1914. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you educated? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I claim the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Is that because you were in attendance at Communist 
Party training schools part of the time? 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first occupation after you completed 
your education ? 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Have you always been known by the name of Alex 
Steinberg ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Steinberg, this morning Mr. and Mrs. Hamp 
Golden, testified under oath before this committee that for a period 
of time while they were members of the Communist Party at the 
behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to get information 
to help protect this country against this conspiracy, they knew you, 
sir, as a member of the Communist Party. We would like to give 
you an opportunity now, while you are under oath, to deny that 
assertion. Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Steinberg. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you are now a mem- 
ber of the Nationality Committee of the Communist Party in Western 
Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Steinberg. Is that a question? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of an organization called the Inde- 
pendent Voters League? 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that since 1949 you have 
been in the underground apparatus of this conspiracy operating in the 
Pittsburgh area. If that is not true, deny it, sir, while you are under 
oath. 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 



354 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a Mr. and Mrs. Hamp Golden? 

Mr. Steinberg. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Steinberg. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that in the pres- 
ence of this witness another witness be sworn. 

Mr. WiELis. Let that be done. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hardin, kindly come forward. Remain standing, 
if you please, sir. Raise your right hand while the chairman admin- 
isters an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear, sir, that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hardin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF R. J. HARDIN 

Mr. Arens. Please state your full name. 

Mr. Hardin. R. J. Hardin. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hardin, what is your occupation ? 

Mr, Hardin. I am employed at Domestic Machine Co. as a helper. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Hardin. I have. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to interrogate you at length in a few moments, 
but for the present over what period of time were you a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hardin. Off and on from the year of 1931 until 1954. 

Mr. Arens. During all that period of time were you a member of 
the Communist Party serving your Government at the behest of 
security agencies and police agencies ? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your memberehip in the Com- 
munist Party, did you know as a Communist a man by the name 
of Alex Steinberg ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see in the courtroom now the man you knew as 
a Communist by the name of Alexander Steinberg? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. That is Mr. Steinberg. That is Mr. Alex Stein- 
berg. 

Mr. Arens. Is he the man that has just been testifying? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEX STEINBERG— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Steinberg, you have just heard the testimony of 
Mr. Hardin that while he was in the Communist Party at the behest 
of police agencies to serve these agencies he knew you, sir, as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. So there will be no question of these 
faceless informers, look at this man now in your presence and tell 
this committee while you are under oath, was he telling the truth 
or was he in error when he just identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 355 

Mr. Steinberg. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully sujjf^est that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of Mr. Steinberg, and I respectfully suggest 
Mr. Hardin be requested to assume the witness chair because we have 
a few more questions to ask him. 

Mr. Willis. One second. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Mr. Chairman, I should like to make the same 
motion to quash the subpena as to Mr. x\.lexander Steinberg as was 
made in connection with Mr. Alexander Staber and for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Willis. What was that? 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. I am making the same motion with reference 
to Mr. Alexander Steinberg that I made with reference to Mr. Staber. 
I would like to be heard on it. 

Mr. Willis. Our rules permit a person to file papers or statements 
with the director for our consideration. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. It is a motion to quash a subpena. 

Mr. Willis. The motion is received and as usual, it will be received 
by the staff. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. I think it is a different category, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hardin, will you kindly return to the witness chair, 
and Counsel, would you kindly retire, if you please 'i 

Mr. SCHLESINGER. A pleasuTC. 

TESTIMONY OF R. J. HARDIN— Resumed 

Ml'. Arens. Mr. Hai'din, you have been sworn a few moments ago 
and in the course of veiy brief testimony at that time stated, did you 
not, that for some period of years, beginning in about 1930 or 1931, 
up to and including about 1954, you were a member of the Communist 
Party. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes, sir, off' and on. I wasn't all the time. 

Mr. Arens. During that period of time you served solely and ex- 
clusively at the instigation and request of police agencies and our 
Government ; did you not ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes, police agencies and the FBI. 

Mr. Arens. At no time were you in sympathy with the Communist 
Party ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us, if you please, sir, the highlights of the 
places where you served in the Communist Party, beginning, as I 
understand, in Danville, Va. 

Mr. Hardin. I was a member of the, Communist Party at High 
Point, X.C. for a period of 6 or 8 months. I joined at the request 
of police organizations. My job there was to check on the activities, 
the movements of the Communists. There had been a lot of trouble 
down in that part of the country, a lot of bombings and killings, and 
the police organizations were checking on it. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain your then membership in 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hardin. At High Point? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 



356 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. BUrdin. About 6 or 8 months. 

Mr. Arens. When was the next experience you had within the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hardin. In Danville, Va., from 1934 until 1937. 

Mr. Arens. And tell us just a word about your activity there. 

Mr. Hardin. I joined the Communist Party in Danville, Va., in 
1934 at the request of a police organization, the police commissioner 
of Danville. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve in the Communist Party there ? 

Mr. Ha-rdin. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. Then what was your next service in the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Hardin. I joined the Communist Party again in the year of 
1943 in Ebensburg Pa., at the request of Government men. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve then ? 

Mr, Hardin. I reported Communist activities to the Government 
agencies to 1954, December 8. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hardin, the scope of the inquiry of this committee 
is confined to certain items which the chairman has specified in his 
opening statement. Therefore, we do not propose in this hearing now 
to interrogate you at length on a number of items on which we know 
you possess information. You have testified extensively in staff inter- 
rogations, have you not? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Under oath? 

Mr. Hardin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You have been interviewed and worked with our staff 
on a number of items, have you not ? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. For present purposes I expect to interrogate you only 
with respect to about half a dozen or so persons in the Pittsburgh 
area as to whether or not to your certain knowledge as a member of 
the Communist Party these persons were Communists, members of the 
Communist Party. 

First of all, the man who has just preceded you to the witness stand, 
Alexander Steinberg. Tell us a word about the basis upon which 
you know he is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Hardin. Mr. Steinberg and I attended Communist Party meet- 
ings in Pittsburgh together, well, I will be very conservative about it, 
3 or 4 or 5 years, maybe longer. He was a member of the policymak- 
ing committee in this district. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Alex Staber as a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. He is the man who preceded Mr. Steinberg to the wit- 
ness stand, it he not ? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Nathan Albert as a Communist? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about him, please. 

Mr. Hardin. I attended policymaking meetings of the Communist 
Party with Mr. Albert during the years of 1948 and 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Edmund Lange? 
L-a-n-g-e ? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 357 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word about him, please. 

Mr. Hardin. I saw Mr. Lange at Communist Party meetings in 
1949. 

Mr. Arens. Closed Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Hardin. He attended closed Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Viola S-c-h-m-i-d-t ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about her, please. 

Mr. Hardin. I attended a large number of Communist Party meet- 
ings with Miss Schmidt. 

Mr. Arens. Miriam S-c-h-u-1-t-z? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In passing may I ask, and I don't believe I asked 
you this before, even in our interrogations privately, and I should 
have. Did you know the Goldens as Communists? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. I saw them at meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever work with them as Communists? 

Mr. Hardin. No. I went to Communist Party meetings. I have 
seen them. I never saw them at very many meetings, but I saw 

Mr. Arens. They were in different units of the conspiracy than you, 
were they not? 

Mr. Hardin. They were around some of the policymaking commit- 
tees, a few, Mr. Golden was. 

Mr. Arens. Joe Rudiak ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Hardin. I saw him at policymaking meetings of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Steve Devunich, D-e-v-u-n-i-c-h ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him ? 

Mr. Hardin. He attended Communist Party meetings. He was a 
close friend of Roy Hudson. 

Mr. Arens. Anna Devunich? Is she Steve Devunich's wife? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did she attend the policy meetings ? 

Mr. Hardin. Yes. She attended meetings. I didn't see her in as 
many as her husband. 

Mr. Arens. Beginning about the time you left the Communist 
Party, the operation was going deeper and deeper underground, was 
it not? 

Mr. Hardin. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word from the standpoint of the 
importance of the coal industry to the Communist operation in the 
Pittsburgh area ? 

Mr. Hardin. The leaders of the Communist Party from New York 
and all over the country, they class Pittsburgh as the most important 
part of the country due to the heavy concentration of steel and coal, 
more especially the coal. Roy Hudson made the statement to me, 
"The party that controlled the coal controlled the Nation," and they 
made a special effort to get a large number of Communist Party mem- 
bers among the coal miners. 



358 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. You worked in the coal sections of Pennsylvania in the 
Communist Party, did you not ? 

Mr. Hardin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. We have taken extensive testimony under oath from 
you in executive session on that issue, have we not ? 

Mr. Hardin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chainnan, we have no further questions of this 
witness at this time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Although you were representing a police agency of 
government while you were a member of the Communist Party, you 
did not know that the Goldens, who were also membei*s of the Com- 
munist Party, were undercover agents for the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation at the same time ? 

Mr. Hardin. No, I did not. 

Mr. Willis. That is the way the FBI operates. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Willis, We appreciate your appearance, Mr. Hardin, and we 
are indebted to you for the valuable contributions you have made to 
law and order and preservation of and perpetuation of our institu- 
tions in America. On behalf of the subcommittee, the full commit- 
tee, and the Congi-ess, we salute you. 

Mr. Hardin. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Next witness, if you ]:)lease, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Esther Wilda Steinberg. Please come forward. Remain standing 
while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mrs. Steinberg. I would like to object to being televised. 

Mr. Willis. After you are sworn. Please raise your right hand. 
Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Steinberg. I do. 

Mr. Willis. Now you are under our jurisdiction. TV people and 
photographers will respect our rule, please. 

TESTIMONY OF ESTHER STEINBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mrs. Steinberg. My name is Esther Steinberg. I live at 5524 
Jackson Street, Pittsburgh 6. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. I decline to answer that on the grounds of first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Solely for the purpose of identification, are you the 
wife of Alexander Steinberg, who preceded you to the witness stand ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, if you told this commit- 
tee while you are under oath whether or not you are the wife of 
Alexander Steinberg, solely for the purpose of identification, you 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 359 

would be supplying information that might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. In view of what has Ijeen stated before I have 
reasonable apprehension of jeopardy and claim the privileges of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. I think I catch on to counsel's advice. I used the 
word "jeopardy" in a loose sense awhile ago. But I think counsel 
knows it is not the correct presentation of the invocation. So I would 
prefer that you make a direct answer to the question as propounded 
by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
whether or not you are the wife of Alexander Steinberg, solely for 
the purpose of identification, you would be supplying information 
that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred witli lier counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. That might be a link in a chain, and I claim the 
privileges of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. I was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. I have reasonable grounds for appreliension, and 
I claim the privileges of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you attended Communist Party training schools? 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name other than the name 
"Steinberg" since you have been married? « 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Can you help us on this Housewives Protest Commit- 
tee? Were you one of the instigators of that group known as the 
Housewives Protest Committee here in the Pittsburgh area? 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Mary Golden? 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mary Golden testified this morning under oath that she 
knew you as a membei- of the Conmiunist Party. We would like to 
give you an opportunity now to deny that identification of yourself 
as a member of tlie Communist Party. Do you care to avail yourself 
of that opportunity ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Steinberg. I do not dignify the statements of an informer, 
and I claim the privileges of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Was she misrepresenting to this committee when she 
said you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you changed your opinion of Mrs. Golden since 
10 o'clock this morning? 

Mrs. Steinberg. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you met with Mrs. Golden in the course of the 
last few days ? 

Mrs. Steinberg. I claim the privileges of the first and the fifth 
amendments. 



360 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. Wlien were you last in telephone conversation with Mrs. 
Golden? 

Mrs. Steinberg. I claim the privileges of the first and the fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. In what groups are you active here in Pittsburgh ? 

Mrs. Steinberg. I claim the privileges of the first and the fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully mider oath about your activities in groups and organiza- 
tions in the Pittsburgh area, that you would be supplying informa- 
tion that might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Steinberg. My answer is the same. I claim the privileges 
of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that concludes the staff interrogation 
of this witness. 

I would like to announce that the witnesses thus far have apparently 
overlooked signing their witness fee vouchers here. As they prob- 
ably know, or could be advised by counsel, they are entitled to their 
witness fees. It is customary. If they sign a voucher, it will be 
paid to them. 

Mrs. Steinberg. I will be there, Mr. Arens, after the session. Now 
or either way. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. May I ask the Chair if it is required that the 
witnesses sign for their money. If it is not required, I am going to 
advise all of them not to sign. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel's sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise 
the clients. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Merelv a matter of inquiry, Your Honor. 

Mr. Arens. They have to sign to get their witness^ fee. 

Mr. Willis. They have to sign if they want to be eligible to receive 
the witness fee. That is the rule. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. You sav it is required? If it is required, then 
we have no choice. I will advise them to sign. If it is not required 

Mr. Willis. If they do not want their money, they do not have to 
sign, of course not. If they want their witness fee, they must sign the 
voucher. 

Mr. SciiLESiNGER. They are entitled to that. But if they are not re- 
ouii^d to sign to get their witness fee, then, of course, they won't. 
If they have to sign to get their witness fee, I will advise them to sign. 
Thank you. 

Mrs. Steinberg. I don't know what am I supposed to do now. 

Mr. Willis. I do not know if you want to take the advice or not. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. She may be excused ? 

Mr. Wtt.lis. Yes. Witness excused. 

We will take an informal recess for just a few minutes, and then the 
Avitnesses who have previously testified may sign their vouchers in 
order to claim their witness fee. 

(Brief in recess.) 

( Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommitee will please come to order. 

Counsel, will you call your next witness. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 361 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, before calling the next witness, if it 
meets with your pleasure, I should like to make an announcement and 
then make a request of the chairman. Two persons who were under 
subpena to appear today have produced doctors' certificates or similar 
representations respecting their state of health, A Mr. Meyran 
Schroeder, M-e-y-r-a-n S-c-h-r-o-e-d-e-r, also known as Mr. Morris 
S-h-i-n-d-1-e-r, has produced a doctor's certificate to the effect that 
he is being hosj^italized as of March 8 . Therefore, Mr. Chairman, I re- 
spectfully suggest you order that his appearance, pursuant to this 
subpena, be continued until such time as he has recovered, or such time 
as he is in physical condition to appear. 

Mr. Willis. They were both served ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Let the record show the service and let it be understood 
that they will remain under subpena, the subpenas remain outstand- 
ing, the service remains, but their appearance will be deferred to a 
later date. 

Mr. Arens. And the second party is Genne Eva Kuhn from West 
Virginia, who has a similar situation, and we respectfully request a 
similar order. 

Mr. Willis. A similar order will be in effect. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, do you have any knowledge whether this 
witness, Shindler, was actually in the hospital at that time ? I notice 
the letter says arrangements have been made for him to enter Presby- 
terian Hospital on March 8, 1959. I am wondering whether you 
know whether he actually entered the hospital. 

Mr. Arens. I do not know, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Can the staff investigate or detennine whether he ac- 
tually went to the hospital ? 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, we will do that. 

Mr. Scherer. This is confusing. This doctor's certificate was 
signed on March 2, 1959; and in a paper called The Progress (Penn- 
sylvania Township Paper), issue of March 5, 1959, there is a news 
article which contains a letter written by Maurice Shindler which 
indicates he is going to appear before the committee and will in- 
voke the fifth amendment. The letter also, of course, contains an 
attack upon the committee and indicates that his identification before 
this committee by Matthew Cvetic back in 1950, is untrue. I am 
wondering how we had this doctor's certificate as early as March 2, 
when this letter, written purportedly by this same witness, appeared 
in The Progress under date of March 5 ? 

Mr. Schlesinger. Mr. Scherer, may I explain that? 

Mr, Willis, Let the staff look into it, 

Mr, Scherer, I ask the staff to investigate that, 

Mr. Arens. Ready for the next witness, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Joseph Rudiak, kindly come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Rudiak. I do. 

I object to being photographed, televised, Mr. Chairman. 



362 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Willis. The rule previously announced will be respected, 
please. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me just a minute on this Shindler matter. 
Did we grant him a continuation to a later date? Does the record 
show granting a continuation ? 

Mr. Arens. The record will reflect I believe, Mr. Scherer, the chair- 
man granted that a continuation subpena will be in effect. 

Mr. Willis. I deferred appearance for today. We are going to be 
here on Thursday. 

Mr. Scherer. That is what I mean. Deferred appearance — be- 
cause I think this thing should be explained. 

Mr. Willis. Prima facie case has been made for it today. 

He is to remain under subpena. Tlie staff' will look into it. Whether 
or not he will be recalled tomorrow or Thursday or later will be 
determined. 

Mr. Arens. Has the witness been sworn, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Willis. The witness has been sworn. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH RUDIAK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. RuDiAK. Joseph Rudiak, 1008 Jane Street, Pittsburgh, South 
Side. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly complete your answer ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you please identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation? 

Mr. RuDiAK. I said my name was Joseph Rudiak, 1908 Jane Street, 
South Side Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Arens. And kindly complete your answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Ri DiAK. As far as my occupation is concerned, I believe I am 
reasonably under apprehension that by giving my occupation it would 
jeopardize, I would jeopardize myself. 

I claim the flrst and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel if you told this committee what your oc- 
cupation is you would be supplying information that could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mv. Rltdiak. It would be a link in the chain. I claim the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens.. Have you ever been known by any name other than 
the name Rudiak ? 

Mr. Rudiak. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Rudiak. You asked me — what was the question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, ])lease ? 

Mr. Rudiak. I answered that question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AJSJU TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 363 

Mr. EuDiAK. I was born April 21, 1911 . 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Rttdiak. I was born in a shanty in Bntler, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I am going- to invoke the lirst and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. liave you attended Communist Party training schools? 

Mr. RuDiAK. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us of all the education you had, exclusive of any 
education you had or training you had from the Communist Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. Because it will be a link in the chain, I am invoking 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the Chair order 
and direct the witness to tell this committee of his education exclu- 
sive of any education he has had in the Communist Party, for the 
reason that there could not be any conceivable link in any chain of a 
man's education exclusive of his education and training by the Com- 
munist Party which could give a basis for a criminal action against 
him. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. Couuscl has heard of — — 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that counsel here 
be admonished again his sole and exclusive prerogative as he knows 
or should know is to advise his client. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel . ) 

Mr. EuDiAK. I can't understand your question. Here's the thing. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell this committee all of the education you 
have had exclusive of 

Mr. RuDiAK. I want to know whether you mean public schools, high 
schools, parochial schools. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. Yes, if you please, sir, exclusive of 
any training you had by the Communist Party in its training schools. 
That is the question, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I went to public schools for about, I believe 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Your counsel does not know that. 

Mr. RuDiAK. Just don't know how many years I went to public 
schools. 

Mr. WiLris. Just approximately. 

Mr. RuDiAK. Well, I went about 7 or 8 years 

Mr. Willis. Did you finish high school ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. To public schools. 

Mr. Arens. Did you finish high school ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. I also went while I went to public schools, I attended a 
language school catechism every Friday. I also attended high school 
approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I don't understand the question. 

Mr, Arens. When did you complete your education ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. What education ? 

Mr. Arens. You went to hijrh school ? 



364 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. RuDiAK. Public schools. 

Mr. Arens. Did you p-o to hi oh school, ]:)]ease, sir ? 

Mr. RiiDiAK. Went to high school. 

Mr. Arems. Wh.eu did you complete your high school training? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Approximately, your best recollection, if you please, 
sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. Somewhere in the twenties. 

Mr. Arens. And did you pursue any college courses, any courses 
in college? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RuDiAK. Do you mean a recognized college? 

Mr. Arens. Any college. 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. RuDTAK. I am asking any recognized colleges? 

Mr. Scherer. Recognized or unrecognized. 

Mr. RiTDiAK. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about the unrecognized colleges that you at- 
tended. 

Mr. RuDiAK. I invoke the first and fifth amendment. I would like 
to have a drink of water here with another glass here. I am dry. 

Mr. Arens. Help j^ourself , sir. 

Mr. RuDiAK. I want a clean glass hei-e. 

Mr. Arens. See that he has a clean glass, please. 

Mr. Witness, liave you told us of all of the education you have had 
exclusive of any education under Communist auspices ? 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I am invoking the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I don't think you understand me. You told us you 
have gone to higli school, have you not ? 

Mr. RuDiAK.^ That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Where else have you gone to school ? Where else have 
you been trained exclusive of any Communist training ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. I told you I went to public school, I went to high 
school, and I aso went to Catholic ca.techism school. 

Mr. Arens. Have you gone to any other schools ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDTAic. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been trained in Commiuiist leadership train- 
ing schools? 

Mr. RuDiAK. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time was the last training of any 
kind you have had? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you last in school, training schools of any 
kind? 

Mr. RuDiAK. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Aeens. How long after you completed this course in high 
school did you assume your next training or next educational ac- 
tivity? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 365 

Mr. RuDiAK. I invoke the first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens. What name have you used otlier than the name Rudiak ? 
Have I asked you about that — whether I have or not, I will ask you 
again. What name have you used other than the name Rudiak? 

Mr. Rudiak. I invoke the first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens. We want to display to you "Golden Exhibit No. 1," 
entitled, "Unions Are Their Target," It is a leaflet issued by the In- 
dependent Voters League and lists Joseph Rudiak as president, Alex 
Staber, as secretary. Would you kindly look at the document as it is 
being displayed to you and tell this committee, while you are under 
oath, whether or not you are the Joseph Rudiak w4io is president of 
the Independent Voters League and whether or not you caused this 
leaflet to be produced ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel,) 

Mr, Rudiak, I am invoking the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you caused to be produced this leaflet which 
has been displayed to you, and whether or not you are the Joseph 
Rudiak, president of the Independent Voters League, you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rudiak. It could be a link in a chain, I invoke the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr, Arens. Are you now, this minute, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Rudiak. I invoke the first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens, Mr, and Mrs, Golden testified this morning under oath 
that while they were members of the Communist Party at the behest 
of the FBI they knew you, sir, as a member of the Communist Party. 
Were they telling the truth or were they in error ? 

Mr, Rudiak, I invoke the first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens, What organizations do you belong to now ? 

Mr, Rudiak, I invoke the first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens. Now can you tell us the organizations you belong to 
of a non-Communist variety ? 

Mr. Rudiak. I belong to — I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr, Arens. How many organizations do you belong to ? 

Mr. Rudiak, First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now possessed of information respecting the 
techniques, activities, strategy, and tactics of . the Communist con- 
spiracy, which is to destroy this very Government under whose 
flag you, sir, have protection ? 

Mr, Rudiak, I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr, Arens, Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that w^ill conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER, I have one or two questions, IMr. Chairman, 

Mr, Rudiak, as president of the Independent Voters League, when 
did you submit the ad which appeared in this morning's Pittsburgh 
press, attacking this committee? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel,) 

Mr, Rudiak. I invoke the freedom of the press and the fifth amend- 
ment, and freedom of the press covei-s the first amendment under the 
Bill of Rights. 



366 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you deny that you are the president of the Inde- 
pendent Voters League ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I invoke the first amendment, which gives me the 
privilege of freedom of assembly, and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you do not vrant to tell the public that 
you put this ad in the paper. That is all we want to know. What 
does that have to do with freedom of the press ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. The first amendment under the Bill of Rights gives 
everybody the freedom of assembly, 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. 

Mr, RuDiAK. You understand that. And also I am invoking the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tuck. He sure has freedom of speech. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. and Mrs. Golden testified this morning that you 
were at this strategy meeting in Mr. Schlesinger's office on last 
Saturday. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Their testimony is correct in that respect, is it not? 

Mr. RuDiAK. Could I address you. Congressman Scherer, is that 
it? I have the Bill of Rights with me here, as provided in the origi- 
nal amendments to the Constitution of the United States. This is 
a copy. I am invoking the sixth amendment, and I will read it. 

* * * to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory 
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to have the assistance of 
counsel for his defense. 

Mr. ScTiERER. Were you in the hearing room this morning when 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Are you ready so I can proceed? Were you in the 
hearing room this morning when Mr. and INIrs. Golden identified you 
as a member of the Communist Party and as a participant in this 
strategy meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. And also as the president of the Independent Voters 
League ; were you here this morning, and heard that testimony ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDTAK. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question as to wether he was here this morning. He read 
the sixth amendment, which says he has the right to be confronted 
face to face with his accuser, and I just wanted to know. I saw him 
back there, and I just want to know now whether he heard tliat testi- 
monv. We want him to tell us whether he heard that testimony. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. He invoked the sixth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. The simple question was whether you were in 
the courtroom this morning when Mr. and Mrs. Golden testified, and 
I have been asked to direct you to answer that question, I think that 
is a proper request. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis, You are not being asked about any thing else. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. So I direct you to answer that simple question. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 367 

Mr. RuDiAK. I heard testimony by two informers this morning. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you, Mr. Chairman, to direct the witness to 
answer the question. He said he heard testimony by two informers. 
I ask whether or not he was present when Mr. and Mrs. Golden testi- 
fied. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK, I was here when two persons were called on by the com- 
mittee and gave their names. 

Mr. Willis. We are not going to waste any more time. You don't 
have to answer it. I direct you to answer it directly. 

Mr. RuDiAK. They gave their names as Golden. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know those people before this morning ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. I am invoking the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. You just read the sixth amendment and said that 
you have a right to be confronted by witnesses who accuse or identify 
you. Did you hear in this hearing room this morning, Mr. and Mrs. 
Golden identify you as a member of the Communist Party, as being 
present at the strategy meeting at Mr. Schlesinger's office on last 
Saturday, and as being president of the Independent Voters League ? 
Did you hear that testimony ? 

Mr. EuDiAK. Is that the question ? Is that a question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. That is a question. I am not asking whether it is true 
or not. I am just asking you whether you heard that testimony. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I wasn't paying any attention to what they were say- 
ing. 

Mr. ScHERER. You didn't pay any attention to it. 

Mr. Golden, would you step forward a minute ? 

TESTIMONY OF HAMP L. GOLDEN— Resumed 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Golden, do you know the witness seated there? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. How long have you known him ? 

Mr. Golden. Approximately 10 to 12 years. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Golden. I do. 

Mr. Scherer. Was he a member of the Communist Party as late as 
last Saturday ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Was he present in the strategy meeting in Mr. Schle- 
singer's office? 

Mr. Golden. He was so named in the testimony this morning, yes, 
sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Is this Mr, Rudiak the president of the Independent 
A^oters League as you testified this morning ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, the meeting in Mr. Schlesinger's office was 
arranged about a week before, was it not ? 



368 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Golden. Some 2 or 3 days I knew of it. It could have been 
arranged prior. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who made the arrangement ? 

Mr. Golden. I don't know for sure who made it, but I was called 
by Alex Staber to attend the meeting. 

Mr. Scherer. You didn't go to see a lawyer then, you were just 
called to attend the meeting ? 

Mr. Golden. That is right and get our instructions how to proceed. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Mr. Staber at the meeting when you got there ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes. They were all present, and my wife and I. 

Mr. Scherer. Was Mr. Rudiak at the meeting ? 

Mr. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. That is all. 

Mrs. Golden, would you mind stepping forward ? 

TESTIMONY OF MARY GOLDEN— Resumed 

Mr. Scherer. Mrs. Golden, do you know the witness seated there 
at your left ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know him as James Rudiak ? 

Mrs. Golden. Joe Rudiak. 

Mr. Scherer. I beg your pardon. Joe Rudiak ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know him to be a member of Communist 
Party while you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Was he also president of the Independent Voters 
League ? 

Mrs. Golden. I never attended meetings in that group. 

Mr. Scherer. Were the ads that were to be placed in the paper 
discussed at the Schlesinger meeting ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did he participate in the discussion ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Now when was the meeting in the Schlesinger office 
arranged ? 

Mrs. Golden. My husband was told about it the Saturday pre- 
viously when he attended an Independent Voters League meeting at 
the Roosevelt Hotel and he received a phone call during the week 
notifying him of this meeting that took place Saturday. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Schlesinger was not your lawyer, was he ? 

Mrs. Golden. No, sir. We were told to see the Lawyer Referral 
Service, contact other organizations to try and get a lawyer. 

Mr. Scherer. Who told you to contact the Lawyer Referral 
Service ? 

Mrs. Golden. Mr. Schlesinger. 

Mr. Scherer. Did he tell you that as well as some of the other 
witnesses ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes. Everyone should try and get a lawyer. If 
they can't get their own, go to the Lawyer Referral Service. 

Mr. Scherer. Go to the Lawyer Referral Service? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 369 

Mr. ScHEREK. And that statement was made at the meeting in Mr. 
Schlesinger's office on Saturday? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. 

Mr ScHERER. Was anything further said as to what a person should 
do if he could not get a lawyer from the Lawyer Eeferral Service? 

Mrs. Golden. See Hymen before the hearings this morning at 10 
o'clock. 

Mr. ScHERER. See wdio before the hearings ? 

Mrs. Golden. Schlesinger. He said, "See me this morning before 
the hearings. Don't go in without a law^yer." 

Mr. Scherer. Was that conversation addressed to all of the people 
present ? 

Mrs. Golden. Yes, sir. It was told to me as I was leaving the 
meeting at 4: 30. "Make sure you have a lawyer." And then I was 
told to contact Esther Steinberg to let her know whether I had got 
my own attorney, and as late as last night I called about 10 o'clock, 
and I talked to Alex Steinberg, and I told him that I'd gotten 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. You may be seated. Fine. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH RUDIAK— Resumed 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Iludiak, you heard the testimony of these two wit- 
nesses. Is there anything about their testimony that is untrue? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I am invoking the right to counsel, the sixth amend- 
ment, and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You are invoking what ? Is the sixth amendment — 
is that the only amendment that you invoke ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. And the fifth. 

Mr. Scherer. And the fifth. 

You would not say that any part of the testimony of these people 
whom you refer to as informers is untrue then, would you ? 

Mr. RuDiAK. I am invoking the first and fifth amendments to the 
Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Scherer. The fact is, Mr. Iludiak, you are the one who as 
president of the Independent Voters League called the meeting in 
Schlesinger's office, are you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RuDiAK. I am invoking the sixth amendment, right to counsel, 
and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Viola Schmidt. 

Kindly come forward and please remain standing while the chair- 
man administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Miss Schmidt. I do, and I do object to being televised. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 



370 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Miss Schmidt. And I also protest, Mr. Chairman, I think they are 
taking undue advantage of a woman. 

Mr. Willis. Put out tlie television lights please. 

Miss Schmidt. I mean it, too. 

Mr. Willis. Respect that rule please. 

TESTIMONY OF VIOLA SCHMIDT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGEE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify 5^ourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

IMiss Schmidt. My name is Viola Schmidt, as j^ou know. 

Mr. ScHERER. Raise your voice. We cannot hear you. 

Miss Schmidt. My name is Viola Schmidt. My address is 3454 
Ward Street. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please ? 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt, (xentlemen, I must stand on my rights. 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon? 

INIiss Schmidt. Can you hear me now? Would this help any? 

Mr. SciiERER. We cannot hear way up here. 

Miss Schmidt. My voice isn't very large. I know it. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think if you get close to the mike we can. 

Miss Schmidt. I must stand on my rights. The first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution in refusing to answer that question 
because that could possibly do me harm. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel you could be prosecuted criminally if you 
told this committee what your occupation is? 

Miss Schmidt. Gentlemen, it might possibly be a link in the chain 
which might jeopardize me and I must stand on these rights. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by this committee ? 

Miss Schmidt. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Miss Schmidt. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. My name is Hymen Schlesinger, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. And, Counsel, you represented the two previous wit- 
nesses, I believe ? We failed to get that on the record. 

Mr. ScHLESTNGER. Y^es, that is true. 

Mr. Arens. Now, ma'am tell us where you were born. 

Miss Schmidt. I was born in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Miss Schmidt. August 22, 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your education. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. Gentlemen, again I must claim my rights under the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States in 
refusing to answer that question because it could possibly be a link 
in a chain which might possibly injure me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend high school ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND 'J^ACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 371 

Miss Schmidt. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. ^^^lere? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. Fifth Avenue High School. 

Mr. Arexs. When did you o-raduate, if you did graduate? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. I liave no objection to answering that question. 
However, I am a little hazy about the year in which I graduated. 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollection. 

(The Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss ScioiiDT. I would say a})proximately 1939, 1940, 1941. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ^ 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. I had 4 years of university training. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. Duquesne University. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate? 

Miss Schmidt. "\\^ien ? That was, I believe, 1945. 

Mr. Arens. In what course did you receive your degree ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. Field of education. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. I took further courses toward a master's degree. 

Mr. Arens. Where, please ? 

Miss Schmidt. Duquesne. 

Mr. Arens. Did that then complete your formal education? 

Miss Schmidt. Well 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. Well, if by that you mean public schools. 

Mr, Arens. Non-Communist we will stipulate for the moment. 

Miss Schmidt. Education, then the answer would be "Yes.'* 

Mr. Arens. That completed your formal education. Now, tell us 
what other training you have had besides the training that you have 
just described on this record. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. I must claim my rights under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mrs. Arens. Have you received training by the Communist con- 
spiracy in the Pittsburgh area ? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist while you were in attendance 
at Duquesne University ? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, at this moment, a Communist? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a lady by the name of Mary Golden ? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mary Golden testified that while she was a member of 
the Communist Party she knew you as a member of the Communist 
Party. Was she truthful in that identification ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



372 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you Miss or Mrs. Schmidt? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. That surely can't incriminate me. I am Miss. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that you have 
been exceedingly active in promoting Communist programs and com- 
munism among youth groups in the Pittsburgh area. Would you now 
while you are under oath tell this committee whether or not you have 
been instrumental in promoting communism among the youth of this 
area ? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What groups did you belong to when you were in at- 
tendance at Duquesne University ? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the conspiratorial organiza- 
tion dedicated to the overthrow of the Constitution of the United 
States and the Government of the United States hj force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr, Arens. Did you attend an}'^ meeting with other comrades in 
the course of the last 10 days in anticipation of 3^our appearance here 
today ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. I believe this question is in violation of my rights 
of not only the first and fifth amendments, but the sixth amendment 
which entitled everyone 

Mr. Arens. No ; we will never concede it is in violation of any right. 
It is only a question we have a right to ask, and if you feel honestly 
that a truthful answer to that question might tend to give information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding you have a 
privilege under the Constitution to decline to answer that question. 

Miss Schmidt. This also violates my right to counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Just so the record is clear. I am making an assertion it 
does not violate any rights. It is only an assertion by yourself that 
it violates a right. Kindly tell this committee your response to the 
principal question which is outstanding. 

Miss Schmidt. I am sorry. I didn't get your question. 

Mr. Arens. The question is, Have you, since you were subpenaed 
by this committee, been in session with persons known by you to be 
members of the Communist Party for the purpose of devising your 
strategy and tactics in your appearances before this committee today? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments and also the sixth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than the 
name Viola Schmidt ? 

Miss Schmidt. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Nathan Albert. 

Kindly come forward. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 373 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Albert. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF NATHAN ALBERT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HARRY CAPLAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Albert. My name is Nathan Albert. I live at 5121 Centre 
Avenue, Pittsburgh. Eelation to the third part of that question, I 
claim the privilege of the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Caplan. Counsel would like to make a statement, please. 

Mr. Akens. You are appearing today, Mr. Albert, in response to a 
subpena which has been served on you by this committee ? 

Mr. Albert. It is true, and I have counsel here with the help of 
the Pittsburgh Bar Association, who is sitting beside me, who says 
he wishes to make a statement. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Caplan. Gentlemen, I have just been here about 10 or 15 min- 
utes. I am one of the attorneys here because of the referral service 
that is provided by the Allegheny County Bar Association. And as a 
servant of the court and as a member of that organization, I acceded 
to their insistent request that I be here as counsel for one of the gentle- 
men. I might say at that time 

Mr. Willis. That is perfectly proper. 

Mr. Caplan. I am just making that statement just as a matter of 
record for whoever it may be. 

Mr. Willis. We appreciate your remark. You have not identified 
yourself. 

Mr. Caplan. My name is Harry Caplan. My address is 1308 
Law and Finance Building here in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Arens. Whei-e and when were you born, Mr. Albert ? 

Mr. Albert. I was born in Pittsburgh in 1910. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word about your education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. In relation to that question, I wish to claim the privi- 
lege of the first and fifth amendments, since there may be links that 
may lead to criminal proceedings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend high school ? 

Mr. Albert. I claim the first and fifth in relation to that question 
also, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend college? 

Mr. Albert. I claim the same grounds on that question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend Communist Party training schools, un- 
derground training schools ? 

Mr. Albert. I will claim the privileges of the first and fifth amend- 
ments to that question. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
pi ace of employment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



374 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Albert. I will use the first and fifth amendments on that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. Are you employed at tlie Montefiore Hospital here in 
the Pittsburgh area ? 

Mr. Caplan. Is the question "you are" or "you were" ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you ? 

Mr. Albert. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of tlie first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I am going to ask you to direct the 
witness to answer that question because I cannot possibly see how an- 
swering that question could be incriminating, as to whether he is em- 
ployed at a hospital here. How could that in any way incriminate 
him ? I ask you to direct the witness. 

Mr. Albert. I feel there may be a link. 

Mr. Caplan. Just a minute. Is there something from the Chair ? 

Mr. Willis. I will have to direct him to answer because this is 
testing his good faith in the proper invocation. Now, if he has a 
reason to invoke which does not appear on its face he may so state, 
and I understand he was about to do so. 

Mr. Caplan. Just a moment. He did invoke the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. "Wii>LTs. On its face. On its face that is not a proper invoca- 
tion unless he has feared that to reveal his employment would tend 
to incriminate him or subject him to criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Caplan. Would you please repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. The question was a direction from the chairman to 
answer the question as to whether or not he is employed in a hospital 
here in the Pittsburgh area. 

Mr, Albert. I believe you mentioned the name Montefiore 
Hospital? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Albert. My memory is very good. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. I fear tliat it may. 

Mr. Caplan. Just a minute. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. Well, I am not now working. I am unemployed, so 
I am not working at the Montefiore Hospital. 

Mr. Arens. When were you last working there? 

INIr. Albert. About a few weeks ago. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Albert. Less than a year. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
employment at the hospital ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. On the basis that this may lead to incriminate me I 
therefore plead the first and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment activity at the hospital? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. Painting. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaged in any occupation since you 
completed your formal education up to and including the time that 
you began your employment at the hospital concerning which you 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 375 

can tell this committee without revealing information that might be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Albert. In relation to that question I must plead the first 
and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been convicted of a criminal offense? 

Mr. Albert. In relation to that question I must plead the 

Mr. Arens. Were you convicted in 1948 and later served 18 months 
in the Allegheny County Workhouse ? 

Mr. Albert. I must plead the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and dii'ected to answer that question. He has been convicted 
and has served his time. I can conceive of no possible basis upon 
whicli an answer to the question as to whether or not lie has been 
convicted, reflected in a court record, could possibly incriminate him. 

Mr. Caplan. May I make a statement, please? I am in a most 
peculiar position. May I say something, please? 

Mr. Willis. I am afraid not. 

Mr. Caplan. Before the Chair, and may I answer that comment, 
please ? 

Ml'. Arens. Your sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise your 
client, and abide by the ruling of the Chair. 

Mr. Caplan. I will abide by the Chair. I would like to make a 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. Your sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise your 
client. 

Mr. Willis. You should only advise your client. 

Mr. Caplan. Excuse me, 

Mr. Willis. Has he invoked his privilege ? 

Mr, Caplan. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Willis. I think perhaps he will be directed, that the Chair 
will unless counsel presses it awfully hard. 

Mr, Caplan. I am not trying to press. Gentlemen, please under- 
stand. 

Do I understand — just a moment, please. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, we are going on to another question. 

Mr. Willis. I am not directing him to say any more. I am com- 
pletely satisfied with that. 

Mrs. Arens. Have you been active in the Committee To End Sedi- 
tion Laws ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and fifth amendent. 

Mr. SoHERER. Wliat was the question. I did not hear the last ques- 
tion, Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in the Committee To End Sedi- 
tion Laws ? 

Mr. Willis. Would you kindly give us an answer to the question, 
please, sir? 

Mr. Albert. I answered that with invoking the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than the 
name Nathan Albert? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 



376 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a Mr. and Mrs. Hamp Golden? 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. They identified you this morning as a person known 
by them to a certainty to be a member of the Communist Party. Were 
they in error in their identification or were they accurate and truthful ? 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I hand you now an article from the Worker, Sunday, 
June 29, 1952, entitled "To Welcome Nate Albert Home." A welcome- 
home party for Nate Albert being given by the Civil Eights Congress 
at the Jewish Cultural Center, 6328 Forbes. It tells about Albert being 
released from his imprisomnent and his sentence for inciting a riot. 
It quotes Nathan Albert about how happy he is to learn what all has 
been accomplished and the like. Would you kindly look at this photo- 
static reproduction of the Communist Worker, with reference to this 
celebration welcoming you home from your imprisonment and tell this 
committee while you are under oath whether or not the statements 
attributed to you there, the contents of the article are substantially true 
and correct. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Albert. I will invoke the first and fifth amendments to this 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were convicted of inciting to riot? 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the docu- 
ment which has been displayed to the witness be appropriately marked 
and incorporated by reference in this record. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

(Document marked "Albert Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We want to show you a photostatic reproduction of 
an article appearing in the September 13, 1949, Daily Worker, a letter 
to Ben Gold signed, "Nathan Albert," which states — 

The trial of the 12 is a trial against every American who loves freedom and 
democracy and hates fascism and its instigators. 

It tells all about what is being done to fight the trial of the 12 Com- 
munist leaders and according to the author there is enclosed a check 
apparently for that purpose. 

Kindly look at this document, which is being handed to you, and 
tell this committee whether or not that is a true and correct repro- 
duction of a letter sent by yourself on behalf of the 12 Communist 
traitors who were being tried then in Foley Square. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and the fifth amendments on that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment be appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in 
this record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "Albert Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 377 

Mr. Akens. Now I should like to hand you, if you please, sir, a 
photostatic reproduction of another article appearing in the Daily 
Worker, January 7, 1946, entitled, "Pittsburgh CP To Honor Vets,^' 
Avhich states : 

A tribute to Comuiuiiist servicemen Ivilled in the war and to 50 Comniiiuist 
veterans now returned will be held in Pittsburgh, January 20, by the Communist 
orgaiuizatiou there. 

It tells about the number of Communist veterans to be honored, in- 
cluding, according to this article, Nathan Albert, active in the strug- 
gles of the electrical workers. 

Kindly look at this article that is being handed to you and tell this 
committee while you are under oath were the facts represented in this 
article true and correct to your certain knowledge? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and the fifth amendment to thai; 
question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, this document 
be appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in this record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "Albert Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I display to you a photostatic reproduction of a 
letter received by a former chairman of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities in Washington, D.C., protesting certain investi- 
gations by this committee as being un-Constitutional and unwar- 
ranted, beyond the constitutional scope of the committee and the like. 
Signed, "Nathan Albert, 6308 Forward Avenue, Pittsburgh 17, Pa." 
Kindly look at that document being dis]3layed to you now and tell 
Ihis committee while you are under oath whether that is a true and 
correct reproduction of a letter sent by you to a former chairman of 
this committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Albert. I invoke the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist conspiracy when 
you sent that letter to Washington, D.C. ? 

Mr. Albert. Mr. Chairman, I invoke the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

(Document marked "Albert Exliibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this very instant, a member of an or- 
ganization dedicated to the overthrow of the Government of the 
United States by force and violence? 

Mr. Albert. Mr. Chairman, I invoke the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. I have one more question, Mr. Chairman. 

I hand you a document entitled, "Unions Are Their Target," issued 
bv the Independent Voters League, Joseph Rudiak, president, Alex- 
ander Staber, secretary. Kindly look at that document already iden- 
tified on this record (Golden Exhibit No. 1) and tell the committee 
whether you were instrumental in the dissemination of that article in 
the Pittsburgh area in the course of the last several days. 

Mr. Albert. Mr. Chairman, I invoke the first anri tlie fifth amend- 
ment. 



378 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of tliis witness. 

Mr. Willis. The Chair wishes to thank Mr. Caplan for his appear- 
ance here and the local bar for providing this service. 

Mr. Caplan. Thank you very much. I didn't realize that under 
the powers of your committee, counsel cannot make any statement or 
question. 1 didn't realize that. 

(Witness excused.) 

(Mr. Scherer left the room.) 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Miriam Schultz. 

Kindly come forward. 

Mr. S'cHLESiNGER. Mr. Chairman, the lights hurt her eyes. 

Mr. Willis. Turn off the lights. Kindly raise the right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Schultz. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MIRIAM SCHULTZ, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

INIr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Schultz. My name is Miriam Schultz. I live at 2715 Murray 
Avenue, and I am a housewife. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mre. Schultz, in response to 
a subpena served upon you by this committee? 

Mrs. Schultz. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Schultz. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. ScHLESiNGER. My name is Hymen Schlesinger and my address 
is the Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word about your education, Mrs. 
Schultz. 

Mrs. Schultz. I was educated in the public schools of Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Arens. And did you go to college ? 

Mi-s. Schultz. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did that conclude your formal education, the public 
schools ? 

Mrs. Schultz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any training other than the training 
you have received in public schools ? 

Mrs. Schultz. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received training in Communist Party lead- 
ership training, underground training schools ? 

Mrs. Schultz. First and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been known by any name other than the name 
Miriam Schultz since you were married ? 

IMrs. Schultz. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the course of the last several years gone to 
see the Governor of this State, the then Governor of this State on be- 
half of certain causes in which vou were active? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 379 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHULTz. Mr. Counsel, I decline to answer that on the grounds 
that the right of petition for redress of grievances is involved. There- 
fore, the hrst amendment. And the fifth amendment as well. 

Mr. Arens. We are not undertaking to preclude your right to go 
there. We want to interrogate you with respect to that and particu- 
larly within the jurisdiction of this committee to determine whether 
or not when you went, you went as an agent of an international Com- 
munist conspiracy or whether you went as a citizen. Now, we would 
like to show you a tliermofax reproduction of an article appearing in 
the May 29, 1953, Communist Daily Worker, "20 Delegates Present 
Nelson's Case in Pennsylvania Governor's Office," w^hich indicates 
that Miriam Schultz was spokesman of the Pittsburgh delegation. 
Kindly look at this document which is being handed to you and tell 
this committee whether or not that document truthfully and accu- 
rately reproduces the facts in respect to your visit to the office of the 
Governor as a spokesman for a group in the Pittsburgli area. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schultz. ]\Ir. Counsel, may I request that we have no pic- 
tures ? I don't know whether I did make that request or not. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, and the chairman ordered during your testimony 
there be no pictures. 

Mrs. Schultz. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? 

Mrs. Schultz, On the grounds of the first amendment, as well as 
of the fifth, I decline to answer that question. 

]\Ir. Arens. Did you tell the Governor and did you tell the State 
officials when you went there you were an agent of the Communist 
conspiracy to bring pressure on them or make representations to them ? 

Mrs. Schultz. On the grounds of the first and the fifth amendment 
I decline to answer the question. The right of petition for redress of 
grievances is here involved. 

(Document marked "Schultz Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you or have you in the recent past been executive 
secretary of the Pittsburgh chapter of the Civil Rights Congress? 

(The Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 
Mrs. Schultz. Mr. Counsel, that question abrogates the rights of 
freedom of assembly. Therefore, I use the first amendment as well as 
the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully now direct your attention to an article 
appearing in the April 12, 1953, Communist Daily Worker, "Win Bill 
of Rights Case at Homestead Steel Gates," in which the following 
appears : 

"This is an impurtant victory for free speecli," said Miriam Scliultz, tlie execu- 
tive secretary of tlie Pittsburgh Chapter of the Civil Rights Congress, who led 
the leaflet group. 

This article is telling about a group passing out leaflets to some 
10,000 workers. 

Kindly look at the article which is being handed to you and tell 
this committee while you are under oath whether or not that quota- 
tion attributed to you is true and correct. 

(The witness conferred Avith her counsel.) 



380 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mrs. ScHULTz. Mr. Counsel, I believe with all my heart in the first 
amendment which guarantees the freedom of press. Therefore on 
the basis of the first amendment I decline to answer this as well as 
on the basis of the fifth. 

(Document marked "Schultz Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you believe with all the intensity of your heart in the 
preservation of the Constitution of the United States ? 

Mrs. Schultz. That has been — are you asking my opinion ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Schultz. This is my opinion. I have devoted my life to the 
preservation of the civil rights of all Americans regardless of their 
color, their skin, their race, their knowledge, or their loyalties. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of an association dedicated to 
the overthrow of the Governm-ent of the United States and to de- 
struction of the Government of the United States by force and 
violence ? 

Mrs. Schultz. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Now we have a letter from the readers to the Communist 
Daily Worker and this letter is signed Miriam Schultz, executive 
secretary of the Pittsburgh Civil Rights Congress. 

Kindly look at this letter which is now being handed to you and tell 
this committee while you are under oath whether it is a true and 
correct reproduction of the letter sent by you to the Communist Daily 
Worker. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Schultz. Oh, my goodness, yes. This involves the first 
amendment, the freedom of press, freedom of assembly and therefore 
I decline to answer both on that ground and on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment as well. 

(Document marked "Schultz Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you in addition to your other activities been an 
author, a columnist ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schultz. That certainly infringes. That question is an in- 
fringement of the right of free expression, free publication, there- 
fore on the grounds of the first as well as on the fifth I decline to 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now a thermofax reproduction of the 
Communist Daily Worker bearing a column, "Court Said 'No Case,' 
but Dolsen's Bail is Doubled. By Miriam Schultz, Executive Secre- 
tary, Pittsburgh Civil Rights Congress." 

Kindly look at that article being handed to you and tell this com- 
mittee under oath whether or not that is a true and correct reproduc- 
tion of an article appearing under your byline in the Communist 
Daily Worlver ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 
(Mr. Scherer returned to the room.) 

Mrs. Schultz. The question clearly infringes on the whole question 
of the right to bail, which is protected in the eighth amendment, the 
question of the independence of the judiciary. It certainly involves 
the question of freedom of press in the first amendment and on the 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 381 

basis of all those amendments, as well as of the fifth, I decline to 
answer. 

(Document marked "Schultz Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each and 
every one of these exhibits which has been displayed to the witness be 
appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let them be so marked and incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mrs. Schultz, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is undertaking to develop factual information respecting 
strategy and tecluiiques of the conspiratorial operation in the United 
States designed to overthrow this Government by force and violence 
and establish world communism. 

Do you presently have information respecting the machinaitions 
and operations of the Communist Party in the Pittsburgh area, cur- 
rent information ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schultz. Mr. Counsel, I would like to see this committee in- 
vestigate the White Citizens Councils, the Ku Klux Klan, 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be directed to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Schultz. As to that specific question I invoke the fifth amend- 
ment as well as the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. This morning Mrs. Mary Golden, who had been an un- 
dercover agent at the behest of the FBI in the Communist conspiracy 
in this area, at great sacrifice to herself, undertaking to get informa- 
tion to protect this comitry against conspirators, testified, under oath, 
that she knew you as a member of the Communist Party as a part of 
this atheistic, godless conspiracy which is threatening freedom every- 
where. We would lilce to give you an opportunity now, while you are 
under oatli, to deny that testimony. Do you care to avail yourself 
of that opportunity ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schultz. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Witness excused. 

We do not have any extensive testimony but to relieve the reporter 
we will take a 5 -minute break. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, 
and Scherer. ) 

(Brief recess.) 

(Subcommittee members present at the time of the reconvening of 
the subcommittee: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, please call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Hyman Lumer, please come forward and remain stand- 
ing while the chairman administers an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Lumer. I do. 



382 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OE COMMUNISTS 

TESTIMONY OF HYMAN LUMER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

Mr. LuMER. Mr. Chairman, may I in accordance with the rulings 
earlier today offer this mption for the committee's consideration ? 

Mr. Willis. You may hand it to the staff member. 

Mr. LuMER. INIr. Chainnan, there is a motion to quash my subpena 
on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. LuMER. I thought I had. I thought I had taken an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, I administered the oath. 

Mr. Arens. Have a seat, please, sir. 

Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Lu3iER. Name is Hyman Lumer. I live at 640 West 153d 
Street, New York City. 

With reference to my occupation, I will invoke my rights under the 
first and fifth amendments and decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by this committee ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes, it was served on me at the University of Pitts- 
burgh at a meeting. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, please identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Schlesinger. My name is Hymen Schlesinger. My office is at 
the Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. AYhere did you say you were when you were served with 
this subpena ? 

Mr. Lumer. In the University of Pittsburghi. 

Mr. Arens. In what part of the University of Pittsburgh? 

Mr. Lumer. Student Union. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Mr. Lumer. Thursday, February 26. 

Mr. Arens. And in what building ? 

Mr. Lumer. In the Student Union. 

Mr. Arens. And where in the building? 

Mr. Lumer. In the ballroom. 

Mr. Arens. ^Yere you on the platform ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you on the platform ? 

Mr. Lumer. One moment, please. 

May I ask whether these questions are directed to the actual 
service of the subpena ? 

Mr. Arens. Please answer the question. Where were you when 
you were served with the subpena to appear before this committee? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you please answer the question ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. Mr. Chairman, I have already stated that the subpena 
was served on me at the University of Pittsburgh in the ballroom and 
I believe that I have fully answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you on the lecture platform when you were 
served with tliis subpena ? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISa?S 383 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. At this point I will invoke the first and fifth amend- 
ments and decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question. How can it possibly incriminate him to say 
whether he was on the platform when he was served the subpena. 

Mr. Willis. I think that is a proper request. It opened up the 
subject. 

Mr. LuMER. If the question is simply in relation to the subpena, 
I do not recall whether I was actually on or off the platform. 

Mr. Arens. Were you on the lecture platform in full view of the 
student audience when you were subpenaed ? 

Mr. LuMER. The same answer. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell a representative of the American Civil 
Liberties Union that you were on the lecture platform in full view of 
the student audience when you were subpenaed to appear before this 
committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ltjmer. I will decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What were you doing there at the University of Pitts- 
burgh when you were subpenaed to appear before this committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I again decline to answer on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is you were not served on any lecture platform 
and not in view of any student body, is that not a fact ? 

Mr. LuMER. I will decline to answer that on the same ground. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us get a direction to answer. I ask you to direct 
the witness to answer for the simple reason it cannot possibly incrimi- 
nate him. The second reason is he has already opened the door by his 
previous testimony. 

Mr. LuMER. If the question is in reference to the service, I have 
already answered it to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Willis. The question, irrespective of what it directs itself to, 
is developing the point that you, yourself, urged and opened up, and 
I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. LuMER. I answered it previously by saying I didn't know. 
That I did not recall, rather. 

Mr. Willis. Is that your answer now, you do not recall ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Ltjmer. The question as to what the actual spot of service 
was, I said I do not recall. That is my answer. 

Mr. Scherer. No, the next question, though, we are interested^ in 
is, did you tell a representative of the American Civil Liberties Union 
that you were served on the platform in open view of all the students 
present? That is the question. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. LuMER. That is not the question that you were directing me 
to answer. It was a subsequent question. 

Mr. Scherer. I will ask you the question then, again, Mr. Arens 
asked you — 

Mr. Lumer. Then I will answer it as I did before. I decline to 
answer on the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 



384 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. ScHEREK. I ask you to direct him to answ&r the question as to 
whether or not he told a representative of the American Civil Liber- 
ties Union that he was on the platform in view of the student body 
when he was served. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. LuMER. Please may I have a moment to talk to my attorney ? 

Mr. Willis. You may. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. The questions with regard to the sei-v'ice of the sub- 
pena I do not recall having had any conversation with anyone in the 
Civil Liberties Union in that respect. 

Mr. Arens. The fact is, however, that you were not served on any 
platform and you were not served in the presence of any student 
gathering ; is that not correct ? 

Mr. LuMER. My answer was I did not recall whether I was served 
on the platform or not. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were served by a U.S. marshal, were you not? 

Mr. LuMER. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I asked you what you were doing there at the Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I will decline to answer that on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. According to the Pittsburgh Post- Gazette of February 
24, 1959, which I am going to display to you in a little while, you 
were invited out there to discuss various political ideas, and various 
political philosophies. Did you discuss political ideas or political 
philosophies with the students ? 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that also on the gi'ounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party or is it a 
■ conspiratorial organization ? 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the students when you lectured at the Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh about your underground activities in the con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Lumer. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the students that for a number of years 
you effaced all identification of yourself, changed your name, your 
identification, by every possible device and worked underground 
in this conspiracy to destroy this country? Did you tell them that? 

Mr. Lumer. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Where had you been lecturing prior to the time that 
you were invited to discuss political ideas and political philosophies 
with these students at the university here ? 

Mr. Lumer. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Had you been on a lecture tour ? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Was it your purpose to portray to the students that the 
Communist operation in the United States was a political philosophy 
and ideology, or a part of an atheistic, Godless force of deceit and 
treachery and intrigue, designed to destroy freedom everywhere? 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 385 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer on the same oronnds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this instant, a member of the Communist 
conspiratorial force designed to destroy the Constitution of tlie 
United States and this country by force and violence ? 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. LuMER. Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. A word about your education. 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You have a Ph. D. degree ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I will decline to answer that on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Was your appearance at the University of Pittsburgh 
caused to be arranged directly or indirectly by any person, other than 
yourself, known to be a member of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now an article that ap- 
peared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette of February 24, 1959, which 
reads — 

The national education secretary of tlae American Communist Party is sched- 
uled to speak Thursday to students of the University of Pittsburgh — 

and so forth on a program, according to this article, of various po- 
litical ideas and political philosophies. Kindly look at this article 
and tell this committee whether or not it gives a reasonably accurate 
summa]";^^ of the facts with respect to your appearance before the 
student body at the University of Pittsburgh to discuss political ideas 
and political philosophy. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. LuMER. Just a moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Lumer Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Was it your objective, as education secretary of the 
Communist Party, to go to the University of Pittsburgh for the pur- 
pose of giving respectability, attempted respectability to a conspirac}^ ? 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with the youth at the University of 
Pittsburgh the Hungarian uprising in which the tanks of the con- 
spiracy mowed down innocent men and women like wheat? 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with tlie students the slave labor camps 
in Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with the students the criminal activi- 
ties of the conspiracy enmeshed in all segments of the society of this 
Nation ? 



386 CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Who invited you to attend the session and lecture at the 
university ? 

Mr. LuMER. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Where else do you intend to lecture to attempt to give 
respectability to a Godless, atheistic conspiracy ? 

Mr. LuMER. I will decline on the same grounds to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever changed your name ? 

Mr. Lumer. Decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever changed your physical appearance 

Mr. Lumer. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. — for the purpose of concealing your identity? 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now education secretary of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. How much of the Communist Party is now below 
gi'ound ? 

Mr. Lumer. I decline that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. This Committee on Un-American Activities is pres- 
ently and has been for some time in the process of tediously, ardu- 
ously developing factual information by direction or indirection re- 
specting the manipulations and operations and tecliniques of this con- 
spirational force which is threatening freedom everywhere. Do you, 
sir, presently have information about the present techniques of these 
matters of deceit, as J. Edgar Hoover calls them, which are penetrat- 
ing various segments of our society, that you can give a committee 
of the U.S. Congress so that it can take this information back to Wash- 
ington and legislate to protect freedom in this country against con- 
spirators ? Do you have such information presently ? 

]\[r. Lumer. Decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the stafT interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you related in any way to Wilfred Lumer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Sciierer. Do j^ou laiow Wilfred Lumer? 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Sciierer. Do you have a brother? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I will decline on the same grounds to answer that. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The final witness for today, if you please, Mr. Chair- 
man, Edmund J. Lange. 

Kindly come forward, i-emain standing while the chairman admin- 
isters an oath. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Lange. I do. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 387 

IMr. Arens. Have a seat, please. 

Mr. Lange. Will you please put the light out? I can't see. It 
hurts my eyes. I Avant no pictures. 
Mr. Willis. Put out the light. 

TESTIMONY OF EDMUND J. LANGE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HYMEN SCHLESINGER 

Mr. Akexs. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Lange. Edmund Lange, 1317 James Street, Pittsburgh, Zone 12. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly complete your answer to the ques- 
tion ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation, please, sir? 

Mr. Lange. I feel that my occupation will incriminate me so I use 
the first and the fifth amendments of the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where is this witness employed ? Do you know, Mr. 
Investigator ? 

Mr. Arens. The information we have is that he is presently em- 
ployed at the Allegheny General Hospital. Is that correct, Mr. 
Lange ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. He said that he feels answering the question as to 
his employment might incriminate him. I just want to show how 
silly that is. 

Mr. Lange. I am sorry that has been disclosed, but that is correct. 

Mr, Arens. How could the disclosure of where you are presently 
employed incriminate you ? 

Mr. Lange. Make me a link in the chain. Your Honor. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at the Allegheny 
General Hospital? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lange. Two and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

INIr. Lange. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat has been your occupation at the Allegheny 
General Hospital? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lange. Orderly. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you l)()i'n ? 

Mr. Lange. Etna, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Lange. 1910. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go to high school? 

(The witness confei-red with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lange. I didn't go to high school. 

Mr. Arens, Tell us the education and training you have had. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



388 CURRENT STRATEflY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 

Mr. Lange. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 
Mr. Arens. Have you attended Communist Party training schools? 
Mr. Lange. I decline to answer on the first and fifth. 
Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Hamp Golden? 
Mr. Lange. I decline to answer on the first and fifth. 
Mr. Arens. This morning Mr. Golden testified that while he was 
a member of the Communist Party serving his Government to get 
information on this conspiratorial menace he knew you as a Com- 
munist and that you were currently responsible for receiving and 
delivering to people here in the Pittsburgh area certain Communist 
Party literature, including the Sunday Worker, Masses and Main- 
stream, and other propaganda of the conspiracy. Was Mr. Golden 
truthful in his statements in that regard or was he in error? 

Mr. Lange. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Golden said he knew you as a Communist. Are 
you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lange. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to Washington, D.C. ? 

Mr. Lange. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. There are a lot of 
people in Washington, D.C, who are not Communists. 

Mr. Willis. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. I asked him if he had ever been to Washington, D.C, 
and he invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Lange. There might be a link in the chain. Your Honor. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in the military, in the Army? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in the Army ? Please answer the 
question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Or in any branch of the service. 

Mr. Lange. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used your U.S. Army uniform for 
Communist Party purposes or objectives? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lange. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you use your U.S. Army uniform in Washington, 
D.C, on a Communist Party mission ? 

Mr. Lange. First and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean after he was discharged from the Army ? 

Mr. Arens. When were you discharged from the Army ? That will 
help us. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lange. I decline to answer on the first and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist while you were in the Army ? 

Mr'. Lange. May be a link in the chain, Your Honor. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question 
when he was discharged from the Araiy. He said he was in the Army. 
How can it incriminate him as to when he was discharged ? It is a pub- 
lic record. We can get it. . . 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. It is a simple 
question and it might turn out for your benefit, I do not know. 



CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF COMMUNISTS 389 

Mr, Lange. Repeat the answer, please. Repeat the question. 

Mr. Willis. When were you discharged from the Army ? 

Mr. Lange. 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Did you thereafter use your U.S. Army uniform for 
Communist objectives? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lange. First and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently distribute Communist Party litera- 
ture, propaganda and material in the Pittsburgh area ? 

Mr. Lange. First and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact that you are now one of the principal disseminators of 
Communist Party literature and propaganda in the Pittsburgh area. 
If that is not so, deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Lange. Freedom of speech and press, assembly, and the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4:57 p.m., Tuesday, March 10, the subcommittee 
recessed to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, March 11, 1959.) 

(Subcommittee members present at the time of the recess. Repre- 
sentatives Wills, Tuck, and Scherer.) 

X 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A PaRB 

Abelson, Evelyn 328, 335, 340, 341 

Ahel, Matthew 329 330 

Albert, Nathan 322, 335, 342, 356, 373-378 (testimony) 

Albertson, William 329, 336 

B 

Bartl, Arthur 329, 338, 341 

Bartl, Daisy (Mrs. Arthur Bartl) 329, 338, 341 

Bey, Isaac 329', 339 

Bichner, Henry 335 

Braden, Carl 334 

Briney, Harold ~ 337 

Brooks, Calvin 338 

C 

Caplan, Harry 373 

Careathers, Benjamin 328, 335 

Careathers, Ernest ' 339 

Chosky, Bessie 344 

Cooper, Rachel 339 

Crockert, Genne. ( See Kuhn, Genne Eva. ) 

Cush, Patrick 329 

Cvetic, Matthew 327, 329, 330, 361 

D 

Devmiich, Anna (Mrs. Stephen Devunich) 321, 322, 329, 338-340, 357 

Devunich, Stephen 322, 357 

Dolsen, James (H.) 328, 380 

F 

Fine, John S 342 

Fitzpatriclc, Thomas (J.) 335^ 337 

Flanagan, Thomas (F.) 337', 341 

Foreman, Clark 333, 334^ 350 

G 

Garfield, Sol 335 

Glickman, Herbert 339 

Gold, Ben 37(5 

Golden, Hamp L 313-315, 320^345~ (testimony), 

349, 350, 353, 354, 357, 358, 365, 366, 367-368 (testimony), 376, 388 
Golden, Mary (Mrs. Hamp L. Golden) 313 

314, 315, 320-345 (testimony), 349, 350, 353, 354, 357-360, 365' 

366, 367, 368-369 (testimony), 371, 376, 381. 

Gordon, William 335 

Grant, Dave ~~~ ~ 328 

Griffin, Pearl ~ 335 

Grushka, Jerry I~_I_I_I Z_ 3357338, 341 

Grushka, Lila (Mrs. Jerry Grushka) 330, 335, 341 

1 



il INDEX 

2 Page 

Hamlet William - 

Hardin! R. J. (Reuben JO 314,315,354-358 (testimony) 

Hoover, J. Edgar 334, 345, 386 

Horowitz, Rebecca "Becky" ^^' ^ 

Hozak, Harry ^^° 

Hudson, Roy ^^' 

J 
Jones, Bobby 338, 341 

K 

Kelich, Nick 341 

Kemenovich, Katherine ^^A ^^ 

Kemenovicb, Vincent ^^^ 

Kerns, Charles M., Jr J^^ 

Kish, Elmer ^2? 

Kish, Gabor (Gabe) ^^o- ^"^^ 

Kish, Mary "^^^^ ^^1 

Kish, Ruth ^2i 

Kompus, Helen ^Jf 

Kompus, William ^-^^ ^*^ 

Kranish, Rudy %f' ^^^ 

Kuhn, Genne Eva Crockert ^-^A ^^°' ^"-^ 

L 

Lamont, Corliss --~- P.^^' ^^f 

Lange, Edmund J 322, 329, 330, 338, 356, 357, 387-389 (testimony) 

Lazaris, Nicholas (Nick) 339 

Lewis, Ida (M.) 329, rfdb 

Lewis, Lillian (B.) Toq'qqq qIo 

Lovett Mark (P.) 32S, 66s, 6W 

Lumer,' Hyman___ 315, 382-386 (testimony) 

Lumeri Wilfred 386 

M 

Mamula, Milo (D.) ZnTTVoVoAn ?f? 

Mankin, Agnes (Mrs. Joseph Mankin) 329, ddD, 6W, a%x 

Sankin! jLph_ 327-330, 335, 339, 341, 342 

Mazur, Minnie 344 

McGill, Francis -q9o"qq., HI 

McNeil, James Allan Donald ^^A <*^»» ^**« 

N 

Nelson, Margaret (Mrs. Steve Nelson) 335 

Nelson, Stevil, 330, 335, 336, 339, 342, 343, 351, 379 

Nuss, Antoinette "Toni" 336, 339 

Nusser, Herbert-^ 32», 32y 

Nusser, Shirley (Mrs. Herbert Nusser) 329 

O 

O'Connor, Harvey 333, 334 

Onda, Andrew (Andy) 339 

P 

Perpich, Anne 329, 341 

Q 

Quinn, James 335 

Quinn, Norma 329 

Quiim, Thomas, J 337 



INDEX 



Ul 



•.-. , ^ Page 

Rakosi, Alex (Roth) __ 044 

Regan, John ~_~ ~~ 11— n_Z__Z"II 344 

Richardson, J. B ~ Zok ooq 

Robinson, Alma (Mrs. Joseph "Sonny" Robinson) __ "_~II ' 33^ 

Robinson, Joseph "Sonny" ~~ ~~ 00- oYq 

Roosevelt, Eleanor I Z~ZIIZII 'lt% 

Roosevelt, James ~_ 000 

Rosenberg (Ethel) ZZZZZZ ^3 

Rosenberg (Julius) ~ ~ oTo 

Rowland, Eileen ~ oqp; qqq 

Rowland, Ted "Z""_ZZZ~Z tH' So 

Rudiak, Joseph ~_~~ I-I-I-IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII'sm' 322 323 

332, 333, 335, 351, 357, 361, 362-367 (te"stim"ony),"368, 369 (testi- 
mony), 377. 

Santes, Gus oofr 

Sartisky, Jack Z ZZZZZZZZZZZZ 335 

Sartisky, Sonya "Sunny" (Mrs. Jack Sartisky) ZZZZ~335 341 

Sehlesinger, Hymen 321-323, ~333, "334, 339, 

e , .^^ ,,. , 344, .346, 349, 350, 352, 358, 362, 366-370, 378, 382, 387 

Schmidt, Viola 322, 341, 3.57, 370-.372 (testimony) 

Schroeder, Meyran. (/See Shindler. Maurice.) 

Imelds Art"''''^ ^^^' ^^^' ^^^' ^^^^^^' 3^^' 378-381 (testimony) 

Shindler, Maurice (Morris). (Also known as Meyran "schoederrZZZ~361 362 

Slomberg, Vladimir oo^' qqq 

Soldo, Charlie 212I.~~i:~:~~: — ----—--—-- 665, 3d9 

Spencer, Harold ~ _~ ~__ 3^ 

Staber, Alexander 314~3w 323 

„^ . -^ , , , 333, 335, 346-352 (testimony), 355,~3.56, 36.5, .368, 377 
Steinberg, Alex. (Alexander) 314 322 .335 

c,. . , „ . 352-355 (testimony), 356, 358, 3^59,369 
Steinberg, Bessie _ 328 335 341 

Steinberg, Esther (Essie) Roth (Mrs. Alex Sternberg)_ZZ_ZZ__Z '__ '322, 

„^ ^, 335, 358^360 (testimony), 369 
Suto, Steve 335 

T 

Takacs, .Toe 344 

Thomas, Allen Z ~__Z Z ZZZ 335 

V 

Vidmar, Jean 39^ 

Vidmar, John J 328-33oZ 33"8Z~339, 341 

W 

Wilkinson, Frank ooa 

Wright, Ted ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 335 

z 

Zuckamandel, Eddie 329 33J 

Organizations 

A 
Allegheny General Hospital 329 337 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 314, 34(>-342 

B 

Bailey P^mployment Agency 320 325 



iv INDEX 

Q Page 

Civil Rights Congress (Pittsburgh) 314, 335, 340-342, 379, 380 

Committee To End Sedition Laws 340, 341, 375 

Commimist Party, USA: 
Districts : 

District 5 (western Pennsylvania) 327 

State Organization : 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania : 

City Central Committee 328-330 

East Pittsburgh Group 327 

Food Group 324, 330, 338 

Hill Group 327 

Hotel-restaurant Workers Group 329, 330, 338, 339 

Language Group 329, 330 

North Side Club 313,324,327-329,331,339 

Oakland Group 327,331 

Professional Group 327, 330 

Squirrel Hill Club 327 

UE Group (West Pittsburgh) 327,330 

West Pittsburgh Group. (See UE Group.) 

Youth Group 329 

Congress of American Women (Pittsburgh) 339 

D 

Duquesne University 371 

E 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United 336, 337 

Local 325 326, 337 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 333, 334, 350 

F 

Foreign Languages Press 338 

H 

Heinz, H. J. Co 325,329 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union 338 

Housewives Protest Committee' 339,340,359 



Independent Voters League 314, 322, 323, 332-335, 348, 350, 365, 367, 369 

International Workers Order 342 

M 
Montefiore Hospital 374 

N 

Nationality Committee of Western Pennsylvania 341, 342, 353 

North Side Peace Club (Pittsburgh) 340,341 



(Pittsburgh) Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 340,341 

Progressive Party, Western Pennsylvania 314, 335 

U 
University of Pittsburgh 315,382-385 

Publications 
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 323, 333 



1 Previously called Housewives Price Protest Committee. 

o 



iiiiiiliif, 

3 9999 05706 oioi 



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