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$B 15 3M? 

L B 



AUGUST, 1919 



Model and Training School 



GIFT or 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



AUGUST, 1919 ! 



Model and Training School 


Ivntered as second-class matter April IS, 1913, at the post office, San Diego, California, 
under the Act of August 24, 1912. 

19 19 

« « • . . « 










READING — — 8-13 

PHONICS 14-16 




TYPING ^— 1 44 






HISTORY 107-126 




FINE ARTS 152-160 

MUSIC 161-165 


HYGIENE 170-174 


( -y 



EDWARD L. HARDY, President of the School. 

Since the making of an elementary school curriculum is merely an effort to print 
a fairly adequate statement as to the materials and methods used in directing 
children through a period of living and learning, with added exhibits of results 
and of the mechanics of some of the processes used in getting these results, it is 
important that an effort should be made beforehand to indicate the ideas back of 
this curriculum making. 

The principal idea back of this particular curriculum is that of synthesis, — not 
of a series of compromises but of a genuine synthesis of necessity and of aspiration. 
The ideal home achieves a synthesis of the lives of the children in the home, 
interested chiefly in their play, and the lives of the grown-up members of the 
family, interested chiefly in their several vocations. This ideal home is the best 
place possible for both the grown-ups and the children. Each group is better 
because the presence of the other compels ever recurring daily solution of the 
problems of home life, and compels a conscious effort to think the zvhole problem 

The ideal school would be the one that achieved the successful synthesis of the 
child's desire to do things and to know things and of his inevitably childish way 
of doing and knowing, with the adult's desire to have the child do and know 
certain things useful and agreeable to the adult and to society. It is entirely 
possible to make an approach to this ideal school, since the child knows, probably 
all too well, that the situation gives the adult the right to demand certain things 
of the child, and since the adult, at any rate the adult of some enlightenment, is 
beginning to admit the rights and the needs of the child. 

All of this means that nearly all of our controversies as to what are the right 
things in education are needless. The controversy now raging between the formal 
disciplinarians and the champions of the doctrine of interest, with either side 
trying to illustrate and justify its conclusions in the real or alleged lessons of the 
great war, is a case in point. Both are wrong and both are right; but the 
one who becomes an absolutist in his doctrine, is entirely wrong. However, the 
disciplinarian not too far gone in his conviction can be made to see that the best 
discipline implies an intense interest — as at West Point, where the cadet's willing- 
ness to submit to a rigidly formal discipline in drill and in studies because of his 
ardent interest in an officer's life and career constitutes an effective synthesis of 
the two opposed, but only seemingly opposed, principles. Similarly, and it is an 
illustration of the irony of life, the tradition-shattering individualist generally ends 
his career by becoming the founder of a cult or school, with, of course, its sacred 
method or procedure or discipline. In other words, what life wants and will have 
is controlled or disciplined interest. 

Similarly, life demands the synthesis of individualism and absolutism that we 
call democracy, a social state in which the individual exists neither wholly for the 
state nor the state wholly for the individual, but each for the other. The proper 
kind of school then, in a democracy, is not the one that makes its only quest a 
search for a method of individual study, but is the one that seeks to develop a 
method of socialized yet individual study and development. 

The vocationalists and the culturists must compose their quarrel, and must agree 
that it is the business of education in a democracy to produce the cultured worker 
and citizen. Those who insist that in our educational zoological garden there are 
no such exhibits as the school "subjects," must be brought to admit that a vague 
and general wholesale business in language will not solve the problem of spelling, 


and that perfect scoring in making change in the school "store" will not absolve 
the child of the need of learning the multiplication tables in the "arithmetic" lesson. 

In other words, effective synthesis implies correct anah^sis, and it is the particular 
business of the elementary school to read and to analyze the large problem of 
education, and to attempt synthesis only after an analysis that has made clear 
what are the particular problems of the elementary school and what are the 
particular syntheses that these problems involve. 

As an illustration of a specific effort to achieve a synthesis in the solution of 
a pressing elementary school problem, the findings of a committee appointed to 
report on the matter of individual instruction are presented as follows : 

The committee on individual instruction agrees that the need of the elementary 
school is not one of radical change from group teaching to individual instruction, 
as such, but is, rather, a practical plan for more efficient instruction of the indi- 
vidual without depriving him of the social advantages offered by group contact. 
Therefore the committee proposes the following plan for expanding and strength- 
ening individual instruction already in operation in the training school and for 
supplementing this in various ways : 

I. To provide for the individual above the average. 

1. By giving him the opportunity to work, in certain subjects, in grades 

higher than his own. 

2. By giving him extra, definite assignments which will supplement his 

regular work. 

3. By offering him opportunity for growth along undeveloped lines, thus 

shortening or omitting lines along which he excels. 
II. To provide for the individual below the average. 

1. By offering him the opportunity to make up work in certain subjects in 

grades lower than his own. 

2. By giving him supervised individual instruction in subjects needing 


3. By supplying special projects for cases of misfit. 
Notes Relating to I and II. 

1. It is suggested that each class supervisor be given charge of one grade (B & A divisions) 

which will occupy two rooms as at present, — and one additional room, — the additional 
room to be a "clearing house room" for children above and below the average of that 
grade. Under this plan there would be "all-day" or two "half-day" strong student 
assistants for each "clearing house room." 

2. It is suggested that the minimum required instruction for all members of each grade be 

determined, and that we permit and provide, whenever the case demandS; individual 
advancement beyond the course of study. 

III. To provide for wider use of the standard tests in all grades where practical, 

and also for psychological testing of individuals whose status can not be 
determined by means of the standard tests. 

The purpose of the use of the standard tests would be: 1. To determine 
the meaning of the terms "average," "above average," "below average," 
used under provisions I and II. 2. To enable the student teacher to have 
a definite basis for her estimate of individual progress. 3. To reduce the 
work required by the mechanics of a subject to its lowest terms, thus 
allowing time for the development of appreciation. 

IV. Provision for the student teachers to keep records of individual progress 

along definite lines. The purposes of this would be: 1, more efficient 
training in the recognition of individual needs when teaching the group; 
2, a definite means for estimating the judgment of the student teacher. 
V. Provision for a purely individualistic type of teaching in arithmetic in the 
6A grade, — this to be tried out for one quarter and results reported. 



Statement by the Directors of Education. 



Stages of growth and development. 

The child passes through more or less clearly defined periods of development, 
and the physical and mental characteristics of each period should be very important 
determining factors in the teaching of any subject matter; therefore the teacher 
must know these dominant characteristics and their educational significance and 
harmonize her procedure with them. 

A. Periods of growth. 

(1) The transition period between later infancy and childhood, marked approxi- 
mately by the years six to eight, is motor-active, imitative, and sense-perceptive. 
The child is most vitally interested in the activities which he performs. His 
pleasure is derived from action, not the result of the act. He is accumulating 
experiences, largely through the senses, to be used in all future thinking. 

(2) The period of childhood, from eight to twelve roughly speaking, is still 
motor-active but with a gradual transferring of the interest to the results of the 
act. The child becomes increasingly objective, and his constructive efforts make 
bids for the approval of others. This tendency leads to joy in the work as keen 
as in play. Social interests multiply ; co-operative work and play appeal strongly ; 
desire for the approval of the group plays a stronger part. The collecting instinct 
and the instinct of curiosity lead to the study of elementary science. This is pre- 
eminently the period for drill, because the "mind grows to the form in which it is 

(3) Early adolescence, from twelve to sixteen, is marked by the tendency to 
hero worship and the conscious imitation of the hero. Individual differences 
multiply. The child becomes reflective but is not logical. While he is interested 
in causes and effects, he is still analogical and incapable of sustained orderly 
thought. This is the age of the moral and aesthetic awakening. 

B. Order of development. 

Some of the most important facts as to the order of development are : 

(1) Large muscles develop before finer ones. 

(2) Acquisition of sense material precedes organization. 

(3) Perception and memory are well developed before reasoning. 

(4) Ear discriminates before eye. 

(5) Fundamental before accessory muscles. 

(6) Interest in the concrete before the abstract; objective before the subjective; 

the dynamic before the static ; processes before results ; himself before 
others; play before work. 

C. The theory of recapitulation. 

The theory that the child in his play lives through the periods of development 
through which the race has passed finds its application in the order of subject 
matter in history, literature, and industrial arts. 

D. Individual difTerences. 

The necessity for understanding individual differences grows out of the failure 
of the school to do justice to the individual and still preserve the group. Indi- 
viduals display various aspects of mind just as they do various aspects of body. 


These differences can be measured by tests. Therefore teachers should know the 
different tests and their proper uses in order to discover these differences and to 
use their knowledge as aids and guides in gradirig, classifying and teaching 


The child grows only through his own activity; therefore teach less in order 
that the children may learn more. 


When the child's activity is self-motivated the interest and results are incom- 
parable with those obtained by prescribed tasks; therefore the teacher must seek 
and take advantage of the ample opportunities offered to have children work out 
problems growing out of their own needs. 


Through imitation the individual takes on alphabetic, basic habits of speech, 
manners, action, thought, beliefs and attitudes; therefore it is all-important that 
he copy the correct models. These are to a large extent within the power of the 
teacher to control. 


Native interests are deeply rooted in instincts and are indications of needs; 
therefore the teacher must know and wisely feed them. 

Many varied interests give breadth and richness to life, while one or a few 
dominant interests give depth and unity to life; therefore the teacher should lead 
the child to have many varied, wholesome interests, and gradually to organize 
these in subordination to one or a few large, permanent interests. 

An interest is most potent at the time of its appearance; therefore the teacher 
must "strike while the iron is hot." 

Interest is the sine qua non of attention and of learning; therefore the teacher 
must be skillful in securing and holding interest. 

Discipline and drill. 

In the discussion of the periods of growth, the statement is made that the 
period of childhood (from eight to twelve) is pre-eminently the period for drill. 
However, it by no means follows that because the "curve" of drill runs high in 
this period it is not noticeable in the period of later infancy and in the period of 
early adolescence. The element of drill should always be present in learning, and 
the element of discipline in teaching and in school control, for the very practical 
reasons that living and learning require both ; but both drill and discipline should 
deal mainly with specific problems, for no matter what arguments may be urged 
for formal (general) discipline in later adolescence and in youth, they do not 
apply in the field of the elementary school, where the necessity of conquering the 
specific difficulties experienced in acquiring skill in the use of the fundamental 
tools of learning and in working out the projects of children is quite sufficient to 
develop the right attitude toward the doing at need of difficult or disagreeable 
things. Increasingly, however, as the child develops, he should be led into the 
knowledge that a reasonable submission to necessity, or law, is right, and that an 
individual can easily do the wrong thing, in a specific case, unless he is controlled 
by ideals or principles. 


Attention is the focalization of consciousness motivated by interest, and is a 
necessary condition of learning. The teacher must realize that it can not be 
secured as such, but is the result of interest. 


There are three kinds of attention: (a) passive, which is hereditary and without 
feeling of effort; (b) active, which is due to individual purpose and is accom- 
panied by a feeling of effort, and this becomes (c) secondary-passive through 
individual experience accompanied by increased interest which decreases the feeling 
of effort. Hence, it becomes the aim of the teacher to lead the child from passive 
through active to secondary-passive attention. 

Both the nature of the objects to which the mind attends and the span of 
attention vary with the child's development; consequently it is important for the 
teacher to know what is normal at each stage. 

The effort in attention is largely due to withdrawing consciousness from appealing 
objects rather than to focusing it upon others ; therefore the teacher should reduce 
distractions and make all conditions favorable. 

The physical attitudes appropriate to attention facilitate its functioning; there- 
fore the teacher should see that the child assumes the attitude of attention. 


Two or more elements which occur in consciousness tend forever to recur 
together; therefore the teacher must see that those elements and only those occur 
together in consciousness whose recurrence together is advantageous. (Note the 
effect of committing a poem to memory as a punishment or under compulsion.) 


Memory is not a faculty or power but the characteristic of mind to receive 
impressions, to retain them, and to recall them according to the law of association. 
Its physical basis is the plasticity of nervous matter. Since the degree of plasticity 
is determined by heredity, only retentiveness and recall are modifiable by education. 

Individuals differ as to the kinds of stimuli which make the deepest impressions 
(they are eye-minded, ear-minded, motor-minded, etc.). Hence, the teacher, by 
means of tests and observation, should learn what these individual differences are 
and adapt her teaching to them. In teaching a class she must make the appeal 
through eye, ear, and muscle to meet the needs of the varying types. 

Readiness of recall depends upon vividness of the original experience, repetition, 
the number and kind of associations, and the feeling of need. Therefore the 
teacher must (a) take advantage of all that makes an original experience vivid, 
as strong stimulus, surprise, novelty, etc. ; (b) provide for repetition with interest 
in the form in which it is to function; (c) lead the child to make as many mean- 
ingful associations as possible. 


Habits are acquired tendencies to specific action in definite situations, and are 
advantageous because they make for speed, accuracy and certainty, save energy, 
lessen fatigue, and free consciousness for higher purposes ; therefore the teacher 
must aid the child to reduce to habit as many advantageous reactions as desirable. 

The stages in the conscious acquisition of a habit are (a) consciousness of need, 
(b) desire to acquire it, (c) repetition with interest until fixed; therefore the 
teacher should awaken a feeling of need, and a desire to acquire a habit, and 
stimulate repetition with interest, allowing no exception to occur until the habit 
is fixed. 

The stages in breaking a bad habit are : (a) recognition of the habit as wrong 
or undesirable, (b) desire to break it and to substitute its opposite, and (c) per- 
sistent repetition of the good and inhibition of the bad until the habit is fixed. 
Hence, the teacher must bring to focal consciousness the wrong habit as wrong, 
arouse a sincere desire to break it and to acquire its opposite, and continue to 


provide or utilize situations demanding the frequent repetition of its opposite 
until the new habit becomes habitual. This applies esoecially to children over the 
age of twelve years, because before that age focalization upon the evil habit tends 
to fix it rather than to aid in its eradication. 

The habit of success is one of the most necessary conditions of progress ; there- 
fore the teacher should establish this habit by assigning tasks which the child can 
perform with a reasonable degree of effort, and by seeing that he habitually 
performs them successfully. 

Habitual attitudes and emotions are more significant in character building than 
specific skills; hence the teacher must consciously inhibit harmful attitudes and 
stimulate wholesome, constructive ones. 

Moral education. 

Moral training is essentially like other forms of training, habit being the basis ; 
therefore the teacher should co-operate with the home and the church in helping 
to establish those ideals and habits of action which they are striving to develop. 
It is most important that the teacher, in moral education, work out for each group 
that she teaches, the proper synthesis of moral training through incidents and 
occasions with moral training based upon a direct teaching of laws and ideals, and 
that she use the direct teaching increasingly as the child grows older. 


The mind acquires new only by means of past experiences ; therefore the teacher 
must see that the child has in focal consciousness those ideas and feelings most 
needed in interpreting the new. If he has not yet experienced this necessary 
basis, the teacher must help him to get it. 

Thinking or reasoning. 

It is the nature of mind to think a new thing first as a vague whole, then as to 
its parts, and, finally, to rethink these parts into a more definite whole. Therefore, 
the teacher should present a new subject or problem, first as a whole, then lead the 
child to a study of its parts, and finally lead him to synthesize or organize these 
parts into a meaningful unity. 

In inductive thinking the mind (a) sees a problem or question, (b) observes a 
sufficient number and variety of particulars to warrant a conclusion, (c) by com« 
parison sifts out common elements, (d) combines these into a generalization, 
(e) expresses this generalization in adequate language, and (f) tests its validity 
by application to new particulars. The teacher who leads a child to think indue- 
tively must follow this order of procedure, being most careful to lead the child 
himself to do the thinking. 

In deductive thinking the mind (a) sees a problem or question involving the 
interpretation of a particular by means of a known generalization, (b) observes 
the particular as to its characteristics, (r) thinks a generalization (definition, law, 
or principle) as a pQssible explanation, (d) compares the particular with the 
general, (e) accepts or rejects a generalization as it corresponds or fails to corre- 
spond to the characteristics of the particular. The teacher who purposes to lead 
the child to think deductively must follow this order in her procedure, leading the 
child himself to think. 

In a democracy, training children to think independently,,carefully, sanely is one 
of the highest functions of the school. 




The purpose of primary education today is so to utilize the children's interests 
and tendencies through the recognition of their stages of development that they 
may live a life of rich experience within the school. 

if it is true that children and not subjects are being taught, there can be no 
such thing as differentiation of subjects in the primary grades or an arbitrary 
forcing of the subjects before a need is felt. Since children in these periods of 
later infancy and early childhood are sense perceptive, imitative and motor active, 
since their interests lie largely in the activities which they perform and their 
pleasure is derived from action rather than the result of the act, since this is the 
time when they "are accumulating experiences largely through the senses to be 
used in all future thinking," it can readily be seen that the beginning of the mastery 
of the three R's must grow out of a real desire because of a felt need aroused by 
a rich personal experience. 

Nature study in the form of school gardens, the care of pets, and excursions for 
the purpose of getting first-hand experience with plant and animal life; history 
which gives dramatically, by means of the story and motor activity, an oppor- 
tunity to relive the primitive life period of development through which the race 
has passed ; literature which plays so large a part in character and language devel- 
opment ; music, drawing, games, — all furnish the necessary background out of 
which the so-called "formal subjects," reading, writing, oral and written language 
and number work may naturally grow. 

The "expression" subjects in the primary grades, such as language, reading, 
handwork, games and music become an educative force for a child when they 
reflect and are vitally connected for him with those experiences derived from the 
"content" subjects in which his interest lies. This point is emphasized and illus- 
trated under Projects, Number Work, Reading, Phonics and Industrial Arts for 
the primary grades. All subjects in the primary grades are so interdependent, 
interwoven and informally taught that there can be no arbitrary, invariable follow- 
ing of a daily time and subject schedule. To list the subjects singly in a course 
of study is misleading, unless attention is called, as here, to the fact that such 
listing in this bulletin does not imply the policy of segregation in the teaching of 
the "subjects" in the elementary school. 


The state textbooks are used as required in all of the grades and in all of the 
subjects in which they have been printed. Student teachers are given adequate 
training in the use, in the class room, of the state texts. The texts are not listed 
in the bibliographies contained in this course of study, because their use is taken 
for granted and the list can be obtained on application to ihe superintendent of 
public instruction. 


No formal course in manners and morals is outlined in the curriculum,— this 
for the reason that manners are not taught formally, but, rather, incidentally 
along the lines of suggestions contained in the bulletin by the commissioner of 
elementary schools, while morals are taught both indirectly and directly as 
indicated in the outlines of the school subjects. 



CAROLINE I. TOWNSEND, Assistant Diiector of Education. 

Outline of Purpose of the Work in Reading in the Primary Grades. 

I. To train the children, upon entering school, to think of reading as a means to 
an end — namely, thought getting and thought giving — and not an end in 

1. By giving beginners, during the first few weeks of school life, a back- 

ground of experiences and impressions, through such content and 
expression subjects as history, literature, nature study and motor- 
active work, out of which reading may naturally grow. 

2. By utilizing the natural opportunities for incidental reading which grow 

out of school projects or out of any real need connected with the 
life of the school, home or community. 

3. By withholding the introduction of phonics as one means of word 

getting until the children recognize it as a tool only. 

II. To help the children into possession of the power to get thought silently, at 
their maximum rates of speed, by giving careful attention to suitability of 
reading material from the standpoint of child interest, to the work of the 
eye in reading, and to book hygiene. 

III. To insure careful reading habits by asking for interpretation of subject matter 

read silently, in terms of oral explanation, reports, dramatization or oral 

IV. To decrease the amount of oral reading and increase that of silent reading in 

accordance with the stages of development through which the children are 

V. To protect the children against the demand for voicing inane subject matter 
for the purpose of word repetition, or subject matter that is too difficult for 
oral sight reading from the standpoint of content or vocabulary. 

Grade IB. 

I. Incidental reading. 

Among the opportunities for incidental reading in the training school are 
the following: 

A. Simple written directions and commands concerning the work of 
the day written upon the board by the teacher, when the need 
demands, and interpreted in terms of action by the children. This 
kind of work paves the way for interpretation of directions for 
playing a game which furnishes the child motive for reading and 
offers opportunity for silent reading. 

a. Examples of the type of first directions and commands: 

1. Please close the door. 

2. Pass the books. 

3. Go to the blackboard. 

4. Turn. Stand. Pass. 


b. Examples of directions for seat work based on a story read 

or told, the directions being read silently and followed by 
the group: 
Draw a picture of: 

1. The three bears. 

2. The home of the three bears. 

3. Little Silverhair. 

c. Example of directions concerning a nature study excursion: 

Look carefully for : 
The Meadow Lark. 
L Its song. 

2. How it flies. 

3. Its colors. 

li. Labels used in various connections. 

a. The teacher makes tags for the various common objects in 

the schoolroom. These tags may be made of manilla card- 
board and printed with the school "Price and Sign 
Marker," the children making it a game to see who can 
put the tags in their proper places. Such objects as door, 
chair, window, chalk, eraser, pointer, table, desk, book, 
flag, flowers, are among those thus tagged. 

b. Children label their nature study charts, flower calendars 

and simple weather records. 

c. Children paste descriptive labels made by the teacher or 

written by themselves under their illustrative drawings or 
paper cuttings. 

d. Children label their sand table projects that this work may 

be understood by those unfamiliar with the work of the 

e. Our primary playroom offers, among other educative mate- 

rials, some inexpensive type outfits that the children may 
use for printing anything they wish to print because of a 
felt need, while working out their individual projects. 
They may print their own names, or label anything con- 
structed, or print signs for their building-block stores, 
streets or parks, or prices for articles in their play-stores. 

C. The teacher places the rhymes mounted with their illustrations, that 

have been played, sung or learned during the game or literature 
period, in a prominent place in the room, after first showing the 
group the location of each line of the rhyme. 

D. Children paste illustrations in "Stampkraft" rhyme books, after the 

rhymes have been memorized, thus strengthening the association 
between the appearance of the rhyme as a whole and the illustra- 
tion. This work has proved so fascinating that the children have 
practically taught themselves to recognize not only lines but many 
words in the rhymes, and often the entire rhyme has been 

E. Permit small groups of children to look over the teacher's shoulder 

while she reads in books where small portions of the text are 
associated with the illustrations. 


F. Tn the primary playroom provide games of various kinds, made by 

the older children for the first grade, which involve some reading 
in order to play the game. 

G. Offer the children the use of a primary reading table providing such 

opportunities as the following : 

a. Labelled toys ; scrap books and picture books of wild and 

tame animals, birds, flowers, a circus parade, with the 
names associated with the pictures. 

b. Envelopes containing both words and pictures ; children 

match the two. 

c. Well chosen picture cards with words on the opposite sides. 

The child's problem : To see how many cards he can name 
by looking at the word only. 

d. Rhymes cut apart into their various lines and put into boxes 

or envelopes with illustrations of same. The child's 
problem : To put these together correctly and associate 
them with their pictures. 

e. A variety of attractive story books, such as Little Black 

Sambo, by Bannerman ; Mother Goose in Silhouette, by 
Buffum ; the Beatrix Porter Books and illustrated folk 
tales — after the stories have been read to the group. 

In such ways as these, entirely without the element of formal drill, our first 
grade children gain a large vocabulary of common words and actually do much 
toward teaching themselves to read. While to them the reading is wholly inci- 
dental to the end to be accomplished, it is by no means haphazard work on the 
part of the teacher. Beginning, possibly, on the first day of school, a little is 
offered at a time, and the difficulties are gradually increased as the child's power 
grows. It is power thus acquired that creates the desire to read and keeps reading 
from becoming a class exercise. 

II. Reading taught directly during the regular reading periods. 

The analytical method of approach to the subject of reading is psychological, 
since the sentence or word is the familiar unit of thought to the child before 
entering school and since it is possible by starting in this way to use subject 
matter which can truly be read. (See I and first part of V under "Purpose of the 
Work in Reading," page 8.) 

After the sentence is presented as a whole, its analysis into phrases and word 
v/holes may follow. Analysis of the word whole followed by phonic synthesis is the 
next step, and phonic synthesis (see "Teaching of Phonics," page 15) naturally 
begins when sight words begin to be confused because of their similarities. 

The sources for reading material which grow most naturally out of child 
interest are (1) the story, (2) the rhyme, (3) action, and (4) common group 

1. The story. 

The first three or four stories read by the grove '^ -hose which the 
children have previously heard and told during the literature period. 
With these for a background the following method of procedure may 
ensue: (1) A portion of the story taken each day, — orally contributed, a 
sentence at a time, in answer to the teacher's questions, by members of 
the group. (2) These sentences analyzed, giving the necessary time and 
attention to word drill growing out of this analysis. 


After these familiar stories have been studied, the children will possess 
a reading vocabulary, which, together with their first knowledge of 
phonics, will enable them to work out analytically stories unfamiliar in 
thought but possessing similarities in vocabularies. 

Among the best texts, at present, which use the story as a source for 
first reading lessons are : 

The Free and Treadwell Primer. Row, Peterson & Co. 

The New Barnes Primer. A. S. Barnes Co. 

Work-a-day Doings. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

2. The rhyme. 

Method of procedure : 

1. Memorization before seeing the rhyme in script or print. 

2. Group repeat it as a whole as teacher points to line wholes in order. 

3. Individual children find lines in order. 

4. Individual children find lines out of order, — the easier lines first. 

5. Children discover, first the obvious words or phrases, then the more 

difficult ones. 
Rhyme charts made in the school, printed with the "Price and Sign 
Marker," prove very satisfactory for group work. 

3. Action. 

"Things to do" and games to play may be written upon the blackboard or 
printed upon charts. Such simple one-word sentences as "Run," 
"Skip," "Hop," "Jump," "Walk," "Sing," furnish the beginning for this 

The "game" is not to voice the sentence, but to read it silently and inter- 
pret it in terms of action. 

4. Common group experiences : 

For method' of working these out and using for reading lessons, see 
Grade I, Language Outline, page 38. 
Examples : 

School excursions. 

Primitive life. See "History for First Grade." 

Nature study. 

Any school project. 

Grade IA. 
I. Subject matter. 

1. The same utilization, as in I B, of all possible opportunities for incidental 


2. Records of group experiences. See I B. 

3. Action. 

Interpretation of written or printed directions for doing or making 

4. Story. 

Such texts as the Free and Treadwell First Reader, Folklore Book I, 

Summer's First Reader and Baldwin's Fairy Reader are suggested 

for group study. 
Many opportunities are offered for individual supplementary reading 

through the books listed for this "grade in the Training School 



II. Method of procedure for group reading. 

This varies with the kind of content to be read. The study-recitation 
method is practical where the subject matter taxes all of the child's 
reading power. 

Oral sight reading gives the group pleasure and a feeling of power, provided 
the subject matter presents no difficulties that will impede the child's 
fluency. Such subject matter needs to be much simpler than that men- 
tioned in the above paragraph. 

This easier content also offers excellent opportunity for silent study of the 
entire lesson, followed by oral reports or informal dramatization by 
members of the group. 

III. Individual zvork. 

Very often opportunity may be given for each child to read silently some- 
thing he selects himself, the teacher helping when needed. These stories 
may or may not be read or told to the group. 

Grade II. 

Group and individual work differ only in degree from that of the first grade. 
With increasing power to master the mechanics of reading, larger experi- 
ences are possible. 

Among the books used for group work are : Second Readers by Free and 
Treadwell, Summer, Elson, and Baker and Carpenter ; The Story Hour, 
Book II; Progressive Road to Reading, Book II; Folklore Reader, Book II; 
The Second Fairy Reader by Baldwin; Folklore Stories and Proverbs by 
Weltse; Eskimo Stories, Rand-McNally ; Mewanee, the Little Indian Boy, 
Wiley; The Tree Dwellers and Early Cave Men, Catherine Dopp. 

Grade III. 

In addition to the supervised study of reading and also to informal reading 
during the regular reading periods, the lessons in arithmetic, geography, 
history and nature study furnish content for the reading of the third and 
fourth grades. Among the sets of books used for this group during the 
daily reading periods are : 

Free and Treadwell Third Reader. Row, Peterson & Co. 

Summer's Third Reader. Beattys & Co. 

Riverside Third Reader. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Progressive Road to Reading. Book III. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Fables and Folk Stories. Scudder. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Fifty Famous Stories. Baldwin. American Book Co. 

Later Cave Men. Dopp. Rand-McNally. 

Alice in Wonderland. Carroll. Ed. Pub. Co. 

Through the Looking Glass. Carroll. Ed. Pub. Co. 

Robinson Crusoe. Baldwin. American Book Co. 

Old Mother West Wind. Thornton Burgess. Little, Brown & Co. 

Mother West Wind's Children. Thornton Burgess. Little, Brown & Co. 
Grade IV. 

While the amount of oral reading in the third grade decreases over that of 
the second, with the proportionate increase of silent reading, the decrease 
is still more marked in the fourth grade. Not only is this true, but group 
reading becomes less popular as the desire increases to "read ahead" indi- 
vidually. Opportunities for doing this, of the same kinds mentioned under 
preceding grades, are now given on a broader and larger scale. 


While time and careful attention are given to intensive study by the group of 

such books as The Vikings, Four Old Greeks and the Radford edition of 

King Arthur, the group also reads widely in the library or among books 

provided for individual reading. 
Reports before the class, on what has been read, are frequently given, or at 

times group members carefully prepare to read orally, for the benefit of the 

class, something of particular value and interest discovered by themselves 

or provided by the teacher. 
Valuable sets of books for this grade are : 

Baker and Carpenter Fourth Reader. 

Free and Treadwell Fourth Reader. Row, Peterson & Co. 

Adventures of Pinocchio. Collodi. Ginn & Co. 

The Vikings. Jennie Hall. Rand-McNally. 

Four Old Greeks. Jennie Hall. Rand-McNally. 

Moni, the Goat Boy. Ginn & Co. 

Little Lame Prince. Mulock. Ed. Pub. Co. 

The Kipling Reader. Appleton & Co. 

The Knights of King Arthur. Rand-McNally. 

Bibliography on Reading in the Primary Grades. 
Psychology of Reading. 

Huey: Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading. Macmillan. 
Pedagogy of Reading. 

Huey : Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading. Macmillan. 

Klapper: Teaching Children to Read. Appletons. 

Gesell : The Normal Child and Primary Education. Ginn & Co. 
History of Reading Methods. 

Huey : Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading. Macmillan. 





I. To train the children, after an interest in reading has been aroused and the 
need for help in getting words is felt, to think of phonics as one of several 
helpful tools for working out words for themselves as a means to the end 
of reading, — i. e., thought getting, not reading as an end in itself: 

1. By withholding work in phonic synthesis until the beginning children 

have been in school for six or eight weeks. 

2. By teaching this work during a drill period apart from the reading 

II. To help the children into possession of the power to articulate and pronounce 
correctly the words for which they have the phonic facts : 

1. By working constantly for distinct and exact utterance, smooth and 
rapid blending, when sounding words. 
III. To train the children to learn the new sound by hearing it in a known word 
and to recall the sound when forgotten by rethinking the word through 
which it was taught, thereby protecting them against the prevalent demand 
for making false association of the letter sound with the sound made by 
something in the animal world. When they are taught that "m" is the 
sound that the cow makes, "a" the "happy baby" sound and "t" the sound 
of the watch, the mental gymnastics required to get the word "mat" 
phonetically are absurdly unnecessary. 
IV. Realizing the inconsistency Of our English language, to make possible the 
mastery of the phonic facts most needed and the application of these to 
words occurring in the children's reading by omitting those facts belonging 
to word study classes in grades above the primary. 
V. To help the children to retain their power to get words phonetically by occa- 
sionally reviewing in the third and fourth grades the work of the first two 

IB Grade. 
1. Before formal work in phonic synthesis is begun, a Httle time can profitably 
be given to games that will train the children to hear correctly the elements 
of words. 

1. Rhyming words: 

Teacher or child : "I'm thinking of a word that rhymes with 'cake'." 
The substance of the questions following would be : "Is it bake, 
take, lake, make," etc.? until the right word is guessed. 

2. Children listen for the rhyme words as a verse is repeated, — /. e., the 

words rhyming with "Hubbard" and "there" in "Old Mother 
Hubbard," etc. 

3. Children tell what two words rhyme in such a jingle as: 

"Little Nancy Etticoat," etc. 

4. Children recognize words when spoken slowly enough by the teacher 

to separate the initial sound from the word-ending, — i. e., "Stand 
when you hear your name" (the teacher pronouncing the names 
slowly), "M-ary," "J-ohn," etc. 

5. Teacher, and later some child, give directions for perfoiming some 

action, separating one word of the direction into initial sound and 
word ending, — i. e., "Point to the f-ish," "to the t-able." "Touch 
your d-esk," "your b-ook," etc. 


II. Letter sound tiaught : 

1. Consonants: 

b; e (hard) ; d; f; g (soft) ; h; j ; k; 1; m; n ; p; r; s (as in "see") ; 
t ; V ; w. 

2. Vowels : 

The long and short sounds of a, e, i, o ; short "u" ; long "y" ; and "ee." 

3. Method of procedure : 

a. Teach as initial sounds, by means of word lists, twelve of the con- 

sonant sounds most needed, such as b, c, d, f, g, h, m, n, p, r, s, t. 
Start always with a known sight word, ,the teacher contributing 
other words beginning with the same sound, there being no 
attempt at this stage to have the children master the word endings, 
nor any work in phonic synthesis until these twelve consonants 
are learned as initial sounds. 

b. First work in phonic synthesis : 

Teach short "a" in combination with the above twelve consonants. 
As a rule, the children can take this easily and intelligently from 
six to eight weeks after entering school, 

c. Teach the remaining short vowel sounds . (with the exception of 

short "y"), the sound of "ee" and also the remaining consonant 

d. Teach the long vowel sounds, with the exception of long "u," which 

is a difficult sound and not much needed at this time. 
lA Grade. 

1. Careful review of the consonant and vowel sounds taught in the IB Grade. 

2. Teach g (soft) ; c (soft) ; s as in "his"; long "u" and short "y." 

3. Teach the first half of the following group of combinations in words of one 

syllable : 

sh; ch; wh; th (surd) as in "thin"; th (sonant) as in "this"; ing; all; 
aw; ar; or; ea, as in "eat"; ea, as in "head"; oa; ai, as in "sail"; 
ight; long oo, as in soon; short oo, as in "book"; ay; ou; ow, as in 
"how" ; ow, as in "blow" ; ang ; ong ; ung ; er, as in "her" ; ir, as in 
"bird"; iir, as in "fur"; ed, like t, as in "liked"; ed, like d, as in 
"turned"; qu; kn, as in "know"; ew, like long u, as in "few"; ew, like 
. oo, as ia "crew"; wr, as in "write"; mb, as in "thumb." 

Help the children in this grade to think silently the two or three 
sounds in the wdrd-eridings of vC^ords of one syllable and to utter each 
word-ending as one sound. 
2B Grade. 

1. Review thoroughly the work of the first grade. 

2. Finish teaching the group of combinations listed under lA. 

Place more stress in this grade on rapid, smooth and accurate blending: 

a. Of the two or three initial consonants. 

b. Of the vowels with their following consonants. 

2A Grade. 

1. Review all preceding work. 

2. Teach the following group of initial and final syllables : 

a, as in around; in; en; ly; ny; ty; ness; less, ful; est; ure; age, ous, 
tion ; some ; il ; el ; ed, as in "parted" ; be ; de ; re ; pre ; dis ; ex ; pro ; ap ; 
ad ; af ; at ; an ; ab ; ob ; or ; con ; col ; tie after "s," as in whistle ; tie as in 


Note I. — Always present the new sound, initial consonant, vowel, combination, initial and final 
syllable, through a familiar sight zvord, — that is, through phonic analysis. When 
a sound is forgotten, the children should think thp word through which the sound 
was taught. These words may be kept permanently on the blackboard, or on 
perception cards. 

Note II. — When learning a new sound, as when learning to spell by letter, the children need 
to get the new sound through as many avenues as possible, — the eye, the ear, the 
voice and the hand. 

I. The eye, ear and voice are active through such games as the following: 

1. A list of different words containing the new sound on the board 

duplicated in two other columns; different ariangement in each 
column : 

a. The teacher sounds a word in one column and the child finds 

the same word in another column, sounds and pronounces it. 
Continue this until each child has had a turn. 

b. Two children, each with a pointer and column of his own, may 

play the game. The teacher points to a word in the third 
column. E)ach child finds it in his column, sounds and pro- 
nounces it. 

2. Perception cards containing the words above mentioned: 

a. The teacher turns a card and calls some child's name. Child 

quickly responds with word. 

b. The teacher passes out cards. Children match with word on 

board, pronouncing it, if possible, without sounding the word 
aloud. When finished, stand card in chalk ledge. 

c. Then let one child pick up as many cards as possible, speaking 

each word distinctly as he does so. 
II. The children may learn to write the new letter or letter group toward the 
close of the phonics period on the day a new sound is taught. 
This is done by: 

a. Focalization of attention while the teacher writes the letter or 

letter group calling attention to form. 

b. Children trace in the air while the teacher writes again. 

c. Children trace in the air while the teacher watches. 

d. Children close eyes and trace in air. 

e. Children try it on board, uttering the sound when through 
Note III. — With all games for phonic drill, continually check up the child who misses by fre- 
quently returning to him for the solution of his problem. 
Bibliography on "The Teaching of Phonics." 

1. Method. 

.Klapper: Teaching Children to Read. Appletons, — Chapter VIII. 
Huey: Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading. Macmillan, — pp. 281-287. 

2. For helpful word lists for phonic drill: 

Akin: Word Mastery. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 



CAROLINE I. TOWNSEND, Assistant Director of Education. 

The Study of literature has no other reason for being than to promote that love 
of literature by which alone it can become a vital influence upon life. 

Literature in the primary grades at once suggests that large field of first-class 
writing which groups itself under nursery rhymes, folk and fairy tales, simple 
myths, fables, animal stories, stories of real life and of adventure, and such poetry 
as that of Rosetti and Stevenson. 

The method of presentation in the lower grades is from necessity largely by 
word of mouth, since primary children have not yet mastered the mechanics of 
reading. Nevertheless, even by the end of the first year the desire to read has 
been created to the extent that some of the first crude, yet literary, art is fluently 
read and enjoyed, this ability increasing proportionately throughout the grades. 
Grade I. 

Simple, short, objective stories, easy to see through, without much of the element 
of suspense and no unnecessary detail. Stories, rhymes and verses characterized 
by repetition, alliteration and rhythm. The following lists will show the type of 
literature : 

Folk Tales. 
The Old Woman and the Sixpence. 

In "Six Nursery Classics." O'Shea. 

The Pancake. 

In "East o' the Sun." Gudrun Thorne 
Thomsen. Row, Peterson & Co. 

The Three Billy Goats Gruff. 

The Lad Who Went to the North Wind. 

Tales from the Norse. 
Dasent. Putnams. 

The Three Little Pigs. 
The Three Bears. 
The Other Little Red Hen. 
The Gingerbread Man. 

In"Stories to Tell to Children" and 
"How to Tell Stories to Children." 
Sara Cone Bryant. 

Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Reynard and the Cock. 
Boots and His Brothers. 
The Sheep and the Pig Who Set Up 

In "East o' the Sun." Gudrun Thorne 
Thomsen. Row, Peterson & Co. 

The Lion and the Mouse. 

In "Fable Land." Emma Serl. Silver, 
Burdett & Co. 

The Ant and the Dove. 

In "Fairy Stories and Fables." Baldwin. 
American Book Co. 

The Hare and the Tortoise. 
The Lark and the Farmer. 
The Wind and the Sun. 
The Dog and His Shadow. 

In "Fables and Folk Stories." Scudder. 
Houghton-Mifflin Co. 


SAN DiEGd srArt normal school; 

Nursery Rhymes. 
Little Boy Blue. 
Little Miss Muffit. 
Old King Cole. 
Simple Simon. 
Little Jack Horner. 
Jack Sprat. 

Three Wise Men of Gotham. 
In "Nursery Rhyme Book." 
Andrew Lang. 

Rhymes and Verses. 
Table Manners. 
Bed Time. 

Nursery Rhyme Riddles. 
Humpty Dumpty. 
Round as a Biscuit. 
St. Ives. 

Twelve Pears Hanging High. 
I Have a Little Sister. 

In "Nursery Rhyme Book." 


Wilcox Smith. Dodd, Mead & Co. 

The Goops 
Pub. Co. 

Gillett Burgess. Stokes 

If All Were Rain. 
The City Mouse. 
Wrens and Robins. 
Who Has Seen the Wind? 
Boats Sail on the River. 
What Is Pink? 

The Rain. 


Birdie With a Yellow Bill. 

Bed in Summer. 

At the Seaside. 

A Good Play. 

The Swing. 

Sing Song: Christina Rossctti. 


A Child's Garden of Verse. Robert 
Louis Stevenson. Rand-McNally Co. 

Fairy Stories and Fables. 
American Book Co. 


Grade II. 

The great favorite is the imaginative story, longer and with more detail than 
that of the first grade. The rhythmic impulses are still strong in this grade. 
Poetry, both lyric and epic, appeals. ' 

Stories. ... 

Fables : 
The Dog in the Manger. 
The Crow and the Pitcher. 
The Man, the Boy, and the Donkey. 
The Fox and the Crow. 
The Town and Country Mouse. 
Belling the Cat. 

Folk and Fairy. Tales : 
The Elves and the Shoemaker. 
The Fisherman and His Wife. 

The Straw, the Coal, and the -Bean.. 
Snow White and Rose Red. 
Briar Rose. 
Dick Whittington and His Cat. 

The Children's Hour. Eva March 
Tappan. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 



How Brother Rabbit Fooled the Whale 

and the Elephant. 
The Jackal and the Alligator. 
Epaminondas and His Auntie. 

Stories to Tell to Children. 
How to Tell Stories to Children. 
Sara Cone Bryant. 

Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

The Steadfast Tin Soldier. 
The Apple Branch. 
Five Out of One Shell. 
The Nightingale, 

Hans Andersen. Houghton-Miflflin Co. 

Rhymes and Poetry. 
Rhymes : 

Politeness. The Goops : 


Gillett Burgess. Stokes. 

Poetry : 
The Wind. 
My Shadow. 
Foreign Children. 
Windy Nights. 
My Bed Is a Boat. 

Wynken, Blynken and Nod. 
The Rock-a-by Lady. 
The Sugar Plum Tree. 
The Duel. 
The Night Wind, 

Rhyme Riddles. 
There Was a King Met a King. 
Old Mother Twitchett. 
In Marble Walls, 
Hick-a-more Hack-a-more. 
In "Nursery Rhyme Book," 
Andrew Lang. Warner Co. 

Child's Garden of Verse. Robert Louis 
Stevenson. Rand-McNally Co. 

Eugene Field. Scribners. 

Hiawatha's Childhood. 

(Through "The Hunting of the Deer. 

Grade III. 

The imaginative type of story is still demanded, but the question "Is it true?" is 
heard. The realistic story is enjoyed and the hero of physical courage admired. 
Animal stories, at this stage, make a strong appeal. 


Robinson Crusoe: Defoe. 

In part told, in part read, by the teacher. 
Children read for themselves the Baldwin edition of Crusoe. 
Interpretation of the story through dramatization and other concrete 
Alice in Wonderland. Lewis Carroll. 
Through the Looking Glass. Lewis Carroll. 

Read by the teacher as the children follow the text, the children taking part by 
reading the simpler parts of the stories. 



Tales of Old England: Fifty Famous Stories. Baldwin. American Book Co. 

Robin Goodfellow. 

King Alfred and the Shepherd. 

The Merry History of the Cobbler and the King. 
Story of Johnny Bear. Lives of the Hunted. Thompson Seton. Scribner. 
Rikki Tikki Tavi. Jungle Book. Rudyard Kipling. Century Co. 


Foreign Lands. 
Land of Story Books. 
Escape at Bedtime. 
The Lamplighter, 
The Sun's Travels. 
Armies in the Fire. 

The Fairy Folk. 

The Owl and the Pussy Cat. 
The Wind and the Moon. 
The Sandpiper. 

Child's Garden of Verse. Robert Louis 
Stevenson. Rand-McNally Co. 

Posy Ring Golden Numbers. Wm. 
AUingham. McClure, Phillips & Co. 

Nonsense Book. Edward Lear. Duffield. 

George McDonald. 

Celia Thaxter. 
Poems Every Child Should Know. 

Burt. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

Grade IV. 

This is a transition period. Some children cling to the imaginative story, but 
the larger interest of the group centers around the historical story and the stories 
of out-of-door life and adventure. Animal stories, both true and imaginative, 
are much in demand. The epic poem makes a much stronger appeal than the lyric. 

Type of Story. (In addition to those listed under fourth grade reading.) 
Jungle Books I and II. Kipling. 

Wully-Redruff. Wild Animals I Have Known. Thompson Seton. Scribner. 
A Little Boy Lost. Hudson. W. H. Knopf, Pub. 

Thirty Days Hath September. 
A Riddle. 
The Sea. 

The Mountain and the Squirrel. 
Abou Ben Adhem. 
The Village Blacksmith. 
A Day. 

Nursery Rhyme Book. 

Jonathan Swift. 

Barry Cornwall. 


Leigh Hunt. 


Emily Dickinson. 

Above from "Golden Numbers." McClure, Phillips & Co. 
What Do We Plant When We Plant 
the Tree? Burton Stevenson. Holt Co. 


Bibliography on Literature and How to Teach It in the Lozver Grades. 

I. Books covering both of the above points : 

1. lyiterature in the Elementary School. MacClintock, Porter Lander; Uni- 

versity of Chicago Press. 

2. Stories and Story Telling. Keyes, Angela ; D. Appleton & Co. 

3. How to Tell Stories to Children. 

Stories to Tell to Children. Bryant, Sara Cone. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

n. How to Teach Poetry. 

The Teaching of English. Chubb, Percival. Macmillan Co. 
How to Teach. (Chapter on "Memorization." Strayer and Norsworthy. 
Macmillan Co. 



GERTRUDE SUMPTION BELL, Assistant Director of Education. 

General Principles and Aims. 

The book long ago ceased to be a luxury. Literature has become a prime 
necessity to cultivated human life. Its contributions to the equipment of an 
open-minded, generous and effective boy or girl are of the highest potential value, 
and should be clearly apprehended by everyone who expects to plan or direct the 
reading of literature in the school. 

It is quite evident that the method appropriate to "Evangeline" should not be 
used in teaching "The Chambered Nautilus"; and "Hunting the Deer" would 
demand still another mode of procedure, while either "Treasure Island" or 
"Quentin Durward" would exact a special treatment. Very few general direc- 
tions may be given for the teaching of literature. Clear-cut conceptions of aims 
are, for the intelligent teacher who appreciates good literature, the best guides to 

Oral reading should not be an exercise or performance for the sake of learning 
to read. To the child there must be a genuine reason for reading orally: viz, to 
prove his point, to show that his conclusions are warranted by the words of the 
author, to illustrate peculiarities or excellences of style, to entertain or to please 
others. The wise teacher utilizes many real motives for oral readings. Pupils 
prepare and read to their own classmates or to others something which their 
hearers have not read, and the purpose to make others understand or enjoy is 
genuine and not assumed. Such reading, stimulated by attentive, appreciative 
listeners, really results in ability to read orally. Reports upon material read 
silently should be as sincere ; if made upon something all have read, a report must 
have in it more than mere reproduction to raise it above meaningless, insincere 

Intensive study, paragraph by paragraph and word by word, with use of the 
dictionary and other aids, needs motivation most of all. Competitive recitations, 
in which each group works out good questions to be answered by those who really 
understand the text, result in live study. 

Throughout the literature work, sincerity must be the watchword. The pretense 
of admiring or loving what is really distasteful, uninteresting or stupid is an evil 
all too prevalent, and is due to the academic cult of "classical" literature. 

Supplementary reading is stimulated and directed by means of a recommended 
list given each pupil. He reports from time to time as to the books he has read 
and his impressions of them, and he often tries to lead others to read the ones he 
has liked best by telling them the most interesting features. A surprising amount 
of collateral reading is being done by the sixth, seventh and eighth grade children. 

Fifth Grade. 

Literature and Reading. 

These subjects are undifferentiated now because elementary problems of 
mechanics should be mastered by this time to such a degree that all additional 
technique may be acquired through reading several texts and real literature. 

Special emphasis is laid upon learning to use the dictionary intelligently, forming 
the reading habit or taste, increasing speed and accuracy in silent interpretation, 
and acquiring good habits of oral reading. 


From the following list of material, choice is made from term to term in the 
light of other subjects which give dominant interests for a period, or as determined 
by season of year or particular occasion : 

Hawthorne Tanglewood Tales. 

Wonder Book. 

Spyri Heidi. 

De la Ramee, L. The Nurnberg Stove. 

Defoe Robinson Crusoe. 

Long, W. J.- - Animal stories. 

Kipling Animal stories. 

Thompson-Seton Animal stories. 

Baldwin Siegfried, Roland, etc. 

Burnett Little Lord Fauntleroy. 

Sara Crewe. 

Lanier King Arthur. 

Pyle, H. Robin Hood. 

Johnston, S. F — — -"Little Colonel" series. 

Harris, J. C. Uncle Remus. 

Page, T. N Captured Santa Claus. 

Two Little Confederates. 
Richards, L. E Captain January. 

Florence Nightingale. 

Stockton, F. Fanciful Tales. 

Stoddard, W. O Talking Leaves. 

Van Dyke - The First Christmas Tree. 

Biographies of such men and women as Daniel Boone, David Crockett, 
Paul Jones, Helen Keller, Clara Barton, Sir Francis Drake, Lafayette, Lincoln, 
Washington, Franklin, Edison, Wright, Marconi, are read. 

Groups of stories, myths or poems about flowers, birds, dogs, cats, horses, 
etc., are included. 

Dramatizations, as subject matter and the children's interest demand, correla- 
tions with language, nature-study, history and geography, whenever possible, are 

Much reading is individual and silent, often at home. Oral reading is usually 
given place in response to the child's desire to give pleasure to others. 


Sixth Grade. 

All that is outlined under "Fifth Grade" applies here, and much of the material 
listed under that caption is equally appropriate at this stage. Selection is made 
from such additional material as the following : 

Irving Rip Van Winkle. 

Legend of Sleepy Hollow. 

Ruskin King of the Golden River. 

Browning Pied Piper of Hamelin. 

Bible Beatitudes. 

Psalms XIX, XXIV, XC. 
Mark Twain Joan of Arc. 

Prince and Pauper. 

Barbour For the Honor of the School. 

Dudley Following the Ball. 

Henning Jeanne D'arc. 

Ingersoll _— -— Book of the Ocean. 

Kipling Captains Courageous. 

Lamb (Charles & Mary) Tales from Shakespeare. 

Van Dyke The Other Wise Man. 

Wiggin Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. 

The Birds' Christmas Carol. 

Another group of biographies is read, with groups of poems about flowers, 
animals, heroes, etc. Memorizing and dramatization are especially stressed and 
yield rich returns at this age. 

Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

The intensive study of a few well-chosen, typical poems, essays, short stories, 
myths, legends, novels, etc., by pupils and teacher working together to get from 
each whatever each may have for all and to acquire intelligent methods of reading, 
should lead directly to the extensive reading of the same type after each introduc- 
tion. If the intensive study is not exhaustive, analytical, oversentimental, or 
critical, it should result not only in enjoyment and appreciation of the thing 
studied, but also in a keen desire to read more by the same author or of the same 

Most of this work must of necessity be silent, individual reading, with only 
occasional discussions, questions, recitations, or well-motivated oral readings. 
The method varies with the type. An illustration may make this clearer. 

In teaching Evangeline, a narrative poem, the teacher prepares the class by an 
interesting account of the historic background, describes the physical Acadia of 
the time, and tells how Longfellow heard the story of the separation of the two 
lovers by the conditions of the exile. Thus she creates the atmosphere of knowl- 
edge and feeling necessary for the interpretation of the poem. She then reads 
aloud (every teacher of literature should be able to read well orally), with a few 
explanations and pauses for effective imaging, until the rhythm and the poetic 
conceptions and imagery have caught the children ; then without further discussion 
or assignment, she allows them to go on reading silently and as rapidly as they 
can to the end. Following this, the teacher leads a discussion in which the story 
is briefly told, the characters are grouped and the poem is reread for answers to 
such questions as, What do we know of the appearance of Evangeline? of 
Gabriel? of Father Felician? of the character of each? Lines are quoted to prove 


that the poem really tells us these things and that our fancies are not running 
riot. If the children wish to dramatize all or part, they should be aided in doing 
so in as natural and spontaneous a manner as possible. They may preserve the 
poetic form and spirit by using the exact words of the poem wherever possible, 
and by making other speeches as consistent in form as they can write them. 
Children should be encouraged to memorize beautiful or quotable lines which 
appeal to them, rather than be required to memorize those which the teacher 
prefers and imposes upon them. 

The purposes of the first or intensive type of work are (a) to increase the 
child's ability and skill in getting thought from the printed page, (b) to increase 
his word and phrase vocabulary, (c) to give him a method of study appropriate to 
different types of literature, (d) to teach him how to use such aids as dictionary, 
cyclopedias, and other reference books, (e) to give skill in oral reading. 

The purposes of the second or extensive type of work are, (a) to increase skill 
and speed in reading, both silent and oral, (b) to increase vocabulary, (c) to 
establish as habitual the methods of interpretation given in intensive work (d) to 
increase skill in use of aids to study, (e) to give breadth of knowledge of litera- 
ture appropriate to this stage of development, (/) to arouse, stimulate and feed 
interest in and appreciation of the best examples of the types of literature studied, 
and in the best writers. 

The types studied are, (a) narrative, in the form of short story, novel and poem, 
(b) drama in the form of dramatizations made by the class of stories read, and 
one Shakespearean drama, (c) essay in the form of biography, history, moral 
theses and scientific expositions, (rf) poetry, especially narrative, lyric and didactic. 

Seventh year. 
Intensive : 

Paul Revere's Ride (narrative poem). 

King Robert of Sicily (allegorical poem). 

Evangeline (narrative poem with moral theme. Girls study this). 

Miles Standish (narrative poem with moral theme. Boys study this). 

Treasure Island (tale of adventure). 

Group of patriotic selections: Preamble to Constitution, Gettysburg Address, 

O Captain ! My Captain ! The Ship of State, God Give Us Men, Selections 

from Wilson's Speeches. 
A Man Without a Country (class dramatization). 
Rab and His Friends (nature story). 

Pamphlets published on Citizenship by State Commissioner. 
Extensive : 

(Silent reading, followed by a few class discussions or recitations.) 

The Birds of Killingworth. 

Columbus (oral reading stressed). 

Evangeline (boys). 

Miles Standish (girls). 

The Perfect Tribute (read by teacher to pupils). 


Individual readings followed by reports to class: 
Group of nature stories from Kipling, Seton-Thompson, Burroughs, Long, 

Group of stories of heroism. 


*Grotip of lives of great men of the twentieth century, each boy choosing one of 
the following: Wilson, Roosevelt, Foch, Pershing, Edison, Marconi, Wright 
brothers. Rockefeller, Henry Ford, Carnegie, Hoover, Jacob Riis, Russell 
Sage, Schwab, Ty Cobb, Charlie Chaplin, Douglass Fairbanks, Armour, 
Booker T. Washington, Billy Sunday, Josef Hoffman, Mischa Elman, 
St. Gaudens, Rodin, Jack London, Lloyd George, etc. 

*Group of lives of great women of the twentieth century, each girl choosing one 
of the following: Jane Addams, Maud Adams, Maud Ballington Booth, 
Ella Flagg Young, Mrs. Burnett, Ellen Terry, Pavlowa, Mary Pickford, 
Marguerite Clarke, Madam Curie, Madame Schumann-Heink, Nordica, 
Calve, Anna Howard Shaw, Clara Barton, Emmeline Pankhurst, Katherine 
Breshkovsky, Selma Lagerlof, Jeanette Rankin, etc. 

*Some of the names in these groups have been selected from the pupils' points of view. 
Reading to pupils by teacher of — 

Poems valuable especially for rhythm, music, etc. 

Poems valuable especially for imagery (sensuous). 

Poems valuable especially for adaptation of form to ethical theme. 

Poems valuable especially for symbolism. 

Eighth year. 
Intensive : 

Chambered Nautilus. 



Incident of a French Camp. 

Herve Riel. 

Merchant of Venice (girls). 

Julius Caesar (boys). 

Quentin Durward. 

Silas Marner. 
Extensive : 

The teacher reads to the class. The Three Things, Message to Garcia, How the 
Water Came Down at Lodore, How They Brought the Good News from 
Ghent, The Perfect Tribute, etc. 

The children read silently, rapidly, with occasional discussions or reports, 
books which they choose from a well-selected and pretty large collection of 
books placed at their disposal. 

As much time as can be spared from the intensive work is given to reading in 
circumstances which help to form the "library habit." The books are at 
hand and the pupils are made responsible for those which they take out for 
reading, either in the class room or at home. The teacher is the librarian, 
ready to advise and direct when difficulties are encountered and to see that 
pupils are not wasting time or becoming discouraged by grappling with 
books that are too advanced in thought or language. The reading goes on 
very much as the reading in the ordinary citizen's life is to proceed, but 
with the advantages that may be derived from the equipment and the intelli- 
gent interest of the school. 



Supplementary Reading Recommended for the Seventh and Eighth Grades. 
At least three books from the following list each year : 

Seventh Grade. 
Up from Slavery, Booker T. Washington; Heroes Who Fight with Fire, Jacob 
Riis ; Ramona, Helen Hunt Jackson ; In African Forest and Jungle, Du Chaillu ; 
Boys' Life of Edison, Meadowcraft ; The Jungle Book, Kipling. 

Eighth Grade. 

The Story of Hull House, Jane Addams; The Children of the Tenements, 
Jacob Riis; Men of Iron, Howard Pyle; Last Days of Pompeii, Bulwer- 
Lytton ; John Halifax, Gentleman, Mulock ; Things a Boy Should Know About 
Wireless, St. John. 

Books used for class study have been omitted from the following list. Honors 
will be awarded those pupils in each class reading and reporting upon the 
greatest number of these books. Not more than one-half of the books read 
may be from Division VI. After the three recommended books from the 
first list have been read, any of the others on that list will count. 

I. Invention and Science. 

Baker, Ray Stannard. 
Boys' Book of Inventions. 

Maule, Harry E. 
Boys' Book of New Inventions. 

Black, Alexander. 

Photographs, Indoors and Out. 

Duncan, F. M. 

Harpers' (Publishers). 
Boys' Book of Electricity. 

Holland, R, S. 
Historic Inventions. 

Howden, J. R. 
Boys' Book of Locomotives. 

Price, Overton W. 
The Land We Live In (Boys' Book 
of Conservation). 

Simmonds, Ralph. 
All About Airships (All About Air- 
craft: new & rev. ed.. Funk, 1916), 

Story, Alfred T. 
The Story of Photography. 

Wheeler, Francis Rolt. 
Thos. A. Edison. 

II. Animal Stories. 

Atkinson, Eleanor. 
Greyfriar's Bobby. 

Jordan, David Starr. 
Story of a Salmon. 

Baldwin, James. 
The Wonderbook of Horses. 

Burroughs, John. 
Sharp Eyes. 

Comstock, John H. and Anna B. 
How to Know Butterflies. 

Kipling, Rudyard. 
Jungle Books. 

London, Jack. 
White Fangs. 
Call of the Wild. 

Miller, Olive Thorne. 
First Book of Birds. 



Culbertson, Anne. 
At the Big House. 

Dana, Richard K. 
The Boy with the U. S. Fisheries. 

Fox, John, Jr. 
The Little Shepherd of 
Kingdom Come. 

Harris, Joel Chandler. 
Uncle Remus Tales. 

Ollivant, Alfred. 
Bob, Son of Battle. 

Ouida (De la Ramee, L.). 
A Dog of Flanders. 

Roberts, Charles G. D. 
Red Fox. 

Seton-Thompson, Ernest. 
Wild Animals I Have Known. 

in. TravEi, AND Adventure. 

Bacon, Alice M. 
Japanese Girls and Women. 

Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth. 
Boyhood in Norway. 

Du Chaillu, Paul. 

Country of the Dwarfs. 

Finnemore, John. 
Peeps at Many Lands. 

Grenfell, J. B. 
Dr. Luke of the Labrador. 

Hale, E. E. 
Stories of Discoveries Told by 

Higginson, Col. Thomas W. 
Young Folk's Book of American 

Hough, Emerson. 

Story of the Cowboy. 
Story of the Indian. 

Hillegas, Howard C. 
Oom Paul's People. 

Ingersoll, Ernest. 
The Book of the Ocean. 

Irving, Washington. 
Fur Traders of the Colorado River. 

Jackson, Helen Hunt. 

Father Junipero and the Mission 
Indians of California. 

Jenks, Tudor. 

Boys' Book of Explorations. 

Lee, Yan Phon. 
When I Was a Boy in China. 

Moffett, Cleveland. 
Careers of Danger and Daring. 

Muir, John. 
The Mountains of California. 

Nansen, Fridtjof. 
Farthest North. 

Stanley, Sir Henry Morton. 
Through the Dark Continent. 
How I Found Livingstone. 

Stratemeyer, Edward. 
Dave Porter in the South Seas. 

Twain, Mark. 

Life on the Mississippi. 
Innocents Abroad. 

White, S. E. 
The Riverman. 



IV. Myths, Legends, Fancifui, Taus, Etc. 

Baldwin, James. 
Story of Siegfried. 
Story of Roland. 

Barrie, J. M. 
The Little White Bird. 

Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth. 
Norseland Tales. 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. 
The Snow Image. 
Tales of the White Hills. 
Great Stone Face. 

Holbrook, Florence. 
Northland Heroes. 

Brown, Abbie Farwell. 
Robin Hood and His Forest Rangers. 

Howells, William Dean. 
The Howell Story Book (Scribners), 

Bulfinch, Thomas. 
Legends of Charlemagne. 
Age of Fable. 
Age of Chivalry. 

Bunyan, John. 
Pilgrim's Progress. 

Butler, Isabel. 
The Song of Roland. 

Carroll, Lewis. 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. 
Through the Looking Glass. 

Chapin, Anna Alice. 

Wonder Tales from Wagner. 
Wotan, Siegfried and Brunhilde. 
The Story of the Rhinegold. 

Child, Clarence G. 

Church, Alfred G. 
Heroes of Chivalry and Romance. 

Frost, William Henry. 
Knights of the Round Table. 
The Court of King Arthur. 

(luerber, H. A. 

Story of the Greeks. 
Story of the Romans. 
Myths of Greece and Rome. 
Legends of the Middle Ages. 
Legends of Switzerland. 

Irving, Washington. 
The Alhambra. 

Lamb, Charles and Mary. 
Tales from Shakespeare. 

Lanier, Sidney. 
Boys' King Arthur. 

Longfellow, Henry W. 

McSpadden, J. W. 
Stories from Wagner. 

MacManus, Seumas. 
In Chimney Corners. 
At the Bend of the Road. 

Pyle, Howard. 
Robin Hood Stories. 

Raspe, Rudolph. 
Baron Munchausen. 

Stockton, Frank. 
Fanciful Tales. 

Swift, Jonathan. 
Gulliver's Travels, 

Wilkins, Mary E, 
The Pot o' Gold. 




V. History and Biography. 

Abbott, J. S. C. 
David Crockett. 
Daniel Boone. 
Kit Carson and Others. 

Abbot, Willis J. 
Blue Jackets of '61. 

Addams, Jane. 
Twenty Years of Hull House. 

Barnes, James. 
With the Flag in the Channel. 
Midshipman Farragut. 

Bishop, J. B. 
Panama Gateway. 

Bolton, Sarah K. 
Famous Gifts and Givers. 

Brad}^ Cyrus Townsend. 
Indian Fights and Fighters. 

Coffin, Charles C. 
Boys of 76. 
Building of the Nation. 

Comstock, Harriet T . 
A Boy of a Thousand Years Ago. 

Ewing, Juliana. 

Story of a Short Life. 

Fiske, John. 
The War of Independence. 

Johnson, Rossiter. 
The Hero of Manila. 

Keller, Helen. 
Autobiography (Story of My Life). 

McLaren, Barbara. 
Women of the War. 

Monvel, Boutet de. 
Joan of Arc. 

Morris, Charles. 

Heroes of Progress in America. 

Nicolay, Helen. 
Boy's Life of Lincoln. 

Page, Thomas Nelson. 
Robert E. Lee. 

Parkman, Francis. 
The Struggle for a Continent 
(ed. by P. Edgar). 

Richards, Laura E. (Mrs.). 
Florence Nightingale. 

Rideing, W. H. 

Boyhood of Famous Authors. 

' Riis, Jacob. 

The Making of an American. 
Hero Tales of the Far North. 
How the Other Half Lives. 

Franklin, Benjamin. 

Frothingham, Jessie Peabody. 

Sea Fighters from Drake to Peabody. 
Holland, Rupert Sargent. 

Historic Boyhoods. 

Historic Girlhoods. 

Jackson, Helen Hunt. 

Father Junipero and the Mission 
Indians of California. 

Seelye, Elizabeth. 
Story of Columbus. 
Life of Washington. 

Twain, Mark. . 
Joan of Arc. 

Warner, Chas. Dudley. 
Being a Boy. 

Willard, Frances. 

Nineteen Beautiful Years. 

Alcott, Louisa M. 
(Any of her books.) 


VI. Fiction. 

Jewett, Sarah Ornc. 
Hetty Leicester. 
The White Heron. 


Alden, W. L. 

The Cruise of the Canoe Club. 

Aklrich, Thomas Bailey. 
Story of a Bad Boy. 

Austin, Mary. 

^ The Basket Woman. 

Blackmore, R. D. 
Lorna Doone. 

Boniface, J. L. 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson. 
Editha's Burglar. 
Sara Crewe. 
The Dawn of a Tomorrow. 

Churchill, Winston. 
The Crisis. 
Richard Carvel. 

Cooper, James Fennimore. 
Leather Stocking Tales. 

Craik, Dinah Mulock. 
The Little Lame Prince. 

Davis, Richard Harding. 
Stories for Boys. 
The Bar Sinister. 

Davis, Wm. Stearns. 
A Victor of Salamis. 
A Friend of Caesar. 

Defoe, Daniel. 
Robinson Crusoe. 

Johnson, Owen. 

Kingsley, Charles. 
Westward Ho! 

Kipling, Rudyard. 
Wee Willie Winkie. 
Captains Courageous. 
Jungle Books. 

Lytton, Bulwer. 

Last Days of Pompeii. 

Martineau, Harriet. 
Peasant and Prince. 

Mitchell, Weir. 
Hugh Wynne. 

Montgomery, L. M. 
Anne of Green Gables. 

Ouida (De la Ramee, L.). 
The Nurnberg Stove. 

Porter, Gene Stratton. 
Michael O'Halloran. 

Porter, Jane. 
Thaddeus of Warsaw. 
Scottish Chiefs. 

Rice, Alice Hegan. 

Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch 

Scott, Sir Walter. 
Quentin Durward. 
The Talisman. 



Dickens, Charles. 
David Copperfield. 

Dodge, Mary Mapes. 
Hans Brinker. 

Dumas, Alexander. 
The Count of Monte Cristo. 
The Man in the Iron Mask. 
The Three Guardsmen. 

Eggleston, Edward. 
The Hoosier Schoolmaster. 
The Hoosier Schoolboy. 

Gilder, Jeanette. 

• Autobiography of a Tomboy. 

Grant, Robert. 
Jack Hall, or the Schooldays of an 
American Lad. 

Holland, J. G. 
Arthur Bonnicastle. 
Seven Oaks. 

Stevenson, Robert Louis. 
The Black Arrow. 
Prince Otto. 

Tarkington, Booth. 

Trowbridge, J. T. 
Cudjo's Cave. 

Twain, Mark. 
Tom Sawyer. 
Huckleberry Finn. 
The Prince and the Pauper. 

Wallace, Lew. 
Ben Hur. 

Wiggin, Kate Douglas. 
Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. 

White, Stewart Edward. 
The Blazed Trail. 

Short stories by Tolstoi, Kipling, Poe, Hawthorne, Van Dyke, Stockton, etc. 


(Adapted, slightly modified, for Biography and Narrative Poems ) 

1. Who. 

a. Be able to tell interesting things about the author. 

b. Name the principal characters in order of their importance. H there is a 

hero or heroine, tell who it is. 

c. Describe the appearance and character of the principal personages. 

2. When. 

a. If story has a time setting, give it. Over how long a period does the story 

extend ? 

b. If story is independent of time (could have happened at any time), why do 

you think the author made it so? 

3. Where. 

If story has place setting, give it. Does it change, one part of the story 
occurring in one place and another part in another place? 

4. What. 

Be able to tell the story simply and briefly. 


5. IVhy. 

a. Does the author seem to have had a purpose in writing the story? If so, 

what? (Every piece of literature either makes us know something, 
makes us feel in some way, or makes us determine to do something. It 
may do all three, but one of these purposes is always strongest.) 

6. How. 

a. In what does the author excel? Does he describe persons better than 
places or places better than persons? Is he especially strong in descrip- 
tion, or in narration? (Narration means action, movement.) 

b. What kind of language does the author use? (Simple, easily understood, 

or difficult. Beautiful, artistic, poetic, harsh, ugly, or commonplace.) 

c. Where is the climax in the story? 

d. Which have you the greater interest in, what happens or how the characters 

think and feel? 

Bibliography of Pedagogy of Literature and Reading. 

Literature and Life J. Rose Colby — Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Literature in the Elementary School— -Porter Lander McClintock — University of 

Chicago Press. 

The Teaching of English Percival Chubb — Macmillans. 

The Teaching of English Carpenter, Baker, and Scott — Longmans, 

Green & Co. 

Great Books as Life's Teachers N. Dwight Hillis— F. H. Revell. 

Special Method in Reading of English 

Classics Chas. McMurry — Macmillans. 

Teaching Children to Read Paul Klapper— D. C. Appleton & Co. 

Interpretation of the Printed Page S. H. Clark— Row, Peterson & Co. 

Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading— E. B. Huey — Macmillans. 
Francis Parker School Year Books. 



IRVING E. OUTCALT, Head Department of English, and 
GERTRUDE SUMPTION BELL, Assistant Director of Education. 

General Principles and Aims. 

"Functional" English for the Elementary School : 

The results achieved by the "language" class or department are notoriously less 
satisfactory to its teachers and to the school in general than those of any other 
class or department. This is partly because the control of the subject can not be 
completely departmentalized. It sometimes seems as if the "English" classes had 
been devised to relieve other classes of responsibility for supervision of the oral 
and written expression of the pupils, the apparent assumption being that "English" 
instruction is susceptible to the same exclusive control as instruction in geography 
or arithmetic. 

This assumption is obviously unwarranted. A vernacular is acquired by imita- 
tion and use, and the process goes forward in one class as well as in another, out 
of school as well as in school ; since the same language is everywhere the medium 
of communication. The "language" class is constantly being credited with an 
authority which it can not exercise and burdened with a responsibility which it 
can not discharge. Many a thoughtful teacher has seriously questioned whether 
it would not be better to abolish the special "language" class or department, in 
0!"der that the responsibility of the entire school for guidance in the mastery of the 
vernacular might be clearly established. 

Be that as it may, the "language" class in the elementary school, if not in the 
high school, can best justify its separate existence by becoming a special agency 
for the promotion of what we may call "functional" English; but it should not 
permit its activity or effectiveness to relieve any other department or class of 
responsibility for the same subject. 

By the time the child enters school, he has already made great progress in the 
mastery of his vernacular. He has learned by the natural method, imitation, and 
has been assisted over immediate difficulties by the apt, if not scientific, pedagogy 
of parents and playmates. The effectiveness of this course of training is not sur- 
prising when we reflect that the final arbiter of the vernacular is always usage. 

There is no reason why the method should be changed. The school takes its 
place in the child's environment. It surrounds him with interesting material and 
deals with it in ways and under circumstances which emphasize the need for 
expression. Its equipment is particularly rich in facilities for supplying the requi- 
site words and in models of correct usage. The effectiveness of the imitative 
method should be greatly enhanced by the conditions which prevail in the school. 

Since usage provides the standard and since the child carries his experiments 
with language into all his activities, it is clear that guidance can not be left exclu- 
sively to any department or class, or even to the school as a whole. Wherever 
expression is evoked by an occasion or by interest in a concrete object, there the 
conditions necessary to progress in the vital mastery of the vernacular are present. 
The needed words are likely to be nearest at hand; the desire for accuracy, ade- 
quacy, and appropriateness in the expression is likely to be keenest. Only with a 
few of the mechanical accessories to expression, such as spelling and pronunciation, 
can there be profit in the kind of drill that might be fitly assigned to a particular 
hour or teacher. The best work that a "language" class can do must be tested 
elsewhere, in the use of language for the expression of ideas for a genuine purpose. 


No language class can determine, within itself, the efficacy of its instruction, 
nor can such a class establish the speech of its members. The pupils go to other 
classes, they play on the school grounds or in the street, they spend much of their 
time at home ; and everywhere they use their vernacular, adding to its scope and 
variety and establishing habits. Moreover, habit formation in speech proceeds 
more rapidly, to the degree that interest is centered in things (ideas) for them- 
selves, rather than in language for itself. 

Every department of the school is dependent upon speech for its own effective- 
ness. We do not, therefore, conclude that the history class should be transformed 
into an "English" class; but the history class must use the English language, not 
,; slovenly, makeshift approximation to it. The attributes of a perfect medium of 
communication are needed, in the interest of an effective mastery of the material 
nf history. The teacher should consider that, to adapt a French dictum, "if it is 
iu)t clear, it is not English," and, moreover, that it is not history. 

The "English" class, or department, has one advantage, however, in its oppor- 
tunity to make use of the extra-school, unacademic interests and activities of the 
pupils. It has access to a wide variety of material about which it is important that 
children should be encouraged to speak and write, under supervision, and in which 
teachers may well interest themselves, in order that they may bridge the gap 
between school and life and make expression more immediately vital. 

The most fruitful teaching of language, then, is possible only in circumstances 
which demand accuracy, adequacy and appropriateness in language because of 
respect for the material which is to be communicated. It matters little whether 
the work be designated "English" or "geography" or "arithmetic." A class which 
does not, consciously or unconsciously, promote effectiveness in the use of language 
can not be doing justice to any subject upon which it may be engaged. On the 
other hand, a class which labors upon expression as an end in itself has a harder 
task than that of the Israelites under their Egyptian taskmasters ; for it is trying 
to make bricks out of nothing but straw. 

"Functional" English tries to face the problem candidly, and refuses to treat the 
language as itself an object of study in the elementary school. It repudiates the 
assumption that instruction in language can be relegated to a special department 
or class, since the usage which determines speech can not itself be determined by 
any academic authority. English usage is particularly arbitrary, not amenable to 
those classifications and not exhibiting those orderly sequences which give delight 
to the grammarian. Such generalizations as can be made are of very little assist- 
ance in furthering the mastery of a vernacular that is pressing in from all sides 
with peremptory examples. Indeed, they are more likely to be impediments, if 
they are taken seriously. They may be very helpful in the interpretation of the 
phenomena of language, when these are questioned for light upon human psychol- 
ogy or linguistic evolution, but that is a different matter. 

There is no adequate justification for the stud}', in the elementary school, of any- 
thing that can rightly be called "English grammar." Where our usage exhibits 
uniformity or system, as in regular plurals and the past tense of weak verbs, the 
child has already caught the trick of it. Where system is practically nonexistent, 
as in pronouns, strong verbs, and irregular plurals, the ipse dixit of usage is final. 
These irregular forms have been called into use by the child in its earliest efforts 
to speak. They are generally the commonest and most necessary words in the 
language; in fact, they owe the persistence of their irregularities chiefly to their 
universal familiarity and homeliness, and are, therefore, most safely and inevitably 
referred to everyday usage, rather than to any sort of system. The vestiges of 
ancient inflections still to be deciphered in these apparently lawless forms are 


interesting to the etymologist or historian, but can mean nothing helpful to the 
child, whose only interest in words rises from his imperative desire to make him- 
self understood. 

"Functional" English recognizes the fact that our language is still alive and 
growing, and that the growth is from within, directed by the nature of the material 
which rises to demand expression. It refuses to assume that present forms are 
final. It does not regard rigid standardization as possible or even desirable. It 
considers that a language that has ceased to grow — that is, to change — has ceased 
to live. It contemplates a living language as a medium which must develop as the 
thoughts of men are widened, and expects it to grow in grace or to deteriorate as 
the ideas of the men who use it become more or less worthy. It insists that the 
preservation of a language in health and vigor depends not upon the watchfulness 
and diligence of linguistic purists and specialists, but upon the spiritual health and 
vigor of the people who use that language from day to day as a medium for the 
communication of their thoughts and feelings. 

The school should regard as mischievous any form of instruction that would 
present mere facility in the use of language as a thing of importance; but it is the 
business of the school to enrich and inspire the lives of children and at the same 
time to lead them to adequate self-expression through the common speech of man. 


The expressive side of the English problem consists in leading a child, inex- 
pressive, almost inarticulate at times, with a meager and inaccurate vocabulary, 
with environment constantly pulling the standard down, through natural social 
relationships, interest in facts and skills which he is acquiring, to think clearly 
and to acquire a degree of freedom in expressing himself which is adequate to his 
life needs. Since skill in speech is the end, all the laws of habit formation arc 
guiding principles. 

The child gains skill in expression only as a result of using language for a 
sincere purpose. Growing out of the work of the school in all its phases there 
are so many genuine, urgent needs for saying and writing things that the skillful, 
alert teacher of composition, watchful of the children and their varied activities, 
is fairly overwhelmed with their number. From these she chooses the best for 
her purpose and aids the children in expressing effectively what they have a real 
need for expressing. 

In the first six grades, in so far as possible, the child should have his mind upon 
purpose and content and not upon form. Discriminative observation, clear thinking 
and sincere effort to make another understand should be uppermost. The teacher's 
task is to present only correct language forms, prevent errors, and, when errors do 
occur, to substitute the correct form with as little shifting of attention from con- 
tent to form as possible. Every legitimate device should be used to secure 
imitation of good models and frequent repetition of correct forms until they feel 
right. The utilization of the most vital and most interesting activities of the 
child's school life leads to the most sincere language work. 

In the seventh and eighth grades the additional problem of meeting the child's 
increasing power of self-direction and his tendency to be reflective modifies pro- 
cedure. We now need to make him conscious of his errors as such, and to awaken 
a sincere desire to acquire better speech habits. He now asks, "How may I know 
which is right?" Therefore, he needs such grammar as really functions in helping 
him to better expression. 

Oral composition has the right of way throughout school, as it does in life. We 
speak a thousand times oftener than we write. All the child's oral speech in all 


recitations and on playgrounds should be carefully watched, and the most kindly, 
vmpathetic spirit of mutual helpfulness in improving speech should dominate the 
>chool, so that a general sensitiveness to error and an appreciation for the word 
"fitly spoken" becomes manifest. Teachers and pupils alike need much higher 
standards of oral speech than those prevailing now. 

As the need for writing comes relatively late, so written composition has a very 
slight place in the lower grades. Little by little, as real needs arise for recording 
or communicating, the child acquires such written forms as meet these needs. 
IVinciples of habit formation guide procedure here. Drills upon forms which 
children feel a need for function and are interesting. 

The child is brought to a realization of his need of guidance and help when he 
has something worth saying and a real desire to express it to someone for the 
purpose of making him know or feel or do. Then, in order to accomplish this 
purpose effectively, the pupil gladly works over his expression until it is the best 
he can make it. In so doing he acquires language skill. A project may illustrate 
what can be done. 

A class of seventh grade boys studying the early history of California became 
interested in the missions. In geography they studied the physical conditions of 
southern California in relation to the needs of the early missionaries, made relief 
maps of El Camino Real, locating missions upon it, etc. In "industrial arts" each 
hoy chose a mission and spent weeks in constructing a satisfactory model repro- 
ducing its essential features. In "literature" each boy read all available material 
on his mission from our own and the city library. Extensive use of cyclopedias, 
dictionaries, reference books of all kinds, indexes and tables of contents was 
involved. In "language" the notes taken while doing this reading were organized, 
and a coherent account of each mission was written. The following term the same 
class typed these accounts in good form. A term later, in the printing class, the 
children printed this material in the form of a book, and in the industrial arts 
class bound it. 


CAROLINE I. TOWNSEND, Assistant Director of Education. 

Purpose of the Work. 

I. To help the children into possession of the power to express themselves cred- 
itably, orally and in v^rriting: 

1. By making every lesson during the day incidentally a language lesson, — 

i. e., by noting carefully mistakes in English and correcting them, with 
attention given to training in organized thinking in connection with 
every subject. 

2. By utilizing the natural opportunities for real self-expression and commu- 

nication that grow out of the life of the school, home or community. 

3. By protecting the children against the demand for talking or writing 

merely as a class exercise. 

4. By recognizing the limitations of children of primary age, i. e., — 

(a) Stressing composite group work both oral and written; 

{h) Limiting the amount of individual work to something within the 

power of the individual. 

5. By stressing a few definite, formal points in each grade. 


Outline of the Course in Language. 
Grade I. 

Oral language. 

1. Retell stories in part and whole. 

2. Dramatize stories: Informal dramatization growing out of the work in 

history and literature. 

3. Records of group experiences : 

Nature study excursions, school gardens, sand-table problems relating 
to history and literature, primitive life dramatized and worked out indus- 
trially, all furnish illustration for these records. They are contributed 
compositely by the group, written upon the board by the teacher, and, if 
possible, are returned to the group for reading material after being 
printed in the school print shop. 

4. Original stories suggested by a picture. 

Written language, 

1. One-word labels written by the children where the need for words is felt : 

a. For pictures of the child's making which tell the story of some 

school activity ; 

b. For scrap-books ; 

c. For weather, flower, bird charts ; 

d. In explanation of a sand-table problem ; 
c. Child's own name to identify his work. 

2. Very simple records, not more than one sentence each in length, pertain- 

ing to the life of the school, — an explanation of some group experience. 

3. A letter of appreciation or invitation, one sentence in length. 

Grade II. 
Oral language. 

1. Retelling and dramatizing of stories. 

2. Composite records of group experiences. (See Grade I.) 

3. Original prose riddles. 

These may be short descriptions of tame or wild animals, wild flowers, 
garden flowers, birds, something that lives in the sea, on the desert, 
underground, — showing reaction to interest in nature study, geography 
or some other phase of school activity. 

The prose riddles may be worked out compositely or individually by 
one group for another group to guess. The group problem would be to 
think out characteristic traits, distinctive marks of appearance, etc., and 
to follow a definite outline such as : "where it lives" ; "how it looks" ; 
"what it does." 

4. Imaginary situations. 

If a fairy should grant you three wishes. 

If you could do just as you pleased on Saturday. 

If you should get lost down town. 

5. How to make something. 

Children tell of home activities, — i. e-., toys made, something cooked, 
home gardens. 

6. Habits of home pets. How to care for these pets. 


Written language. 

1. Records or explanations of group experiences. (See Grade 1.) 

Records for this grade arc limited to two sentences. They may take 
the form of a diary reporting progress on a group project. 

2. Letters, children given the salutation and closing: 

a. To absent children. 

b. To a similar group in another school. 

c. To personal friends or relatives. 

The "quantity problem" may be solved by having the group decide on 
some one thing to write about, — /. c, "What we are studying in history." 
"What we are reading." "The new game we learned to play." 

d. Invitations and letters of appreciation when the need demands. 

Formal points stressed in this grade. 
Capitalization : 

Beginning of sentence. 

Pronoun "I." 

Persons and places. 

Days of the week. 

Period at the end of a sentence. 

Interrogation point. 

Grade III. 
Oral language. 

1. Retelling and dramatizing of stories. 

2. Original stories. 

Composite work at first, — i. c, a new "Mother West Wind" story, 
after one or two of the Thornton Burgess books have been read. 

3. Charades. 

These may be thought out compositely by the group and written upon 
the board in dramatic form by the teacher. 
Group problem: 
a. To choose a compound word or a word of two syllables, such as 

undertake, seaweed, reindeer. 
h. To think out three scenes, stating, if necessary, the time, place and 

c. To use the first part of the word in the first scene, the second part 

in the second scene, and the whole word in the last scene. 

d. To limit each "scene" to as few words as possible. If the word 

seems obscure bring it in more than once, or possibly emphasize 
it vocally. 

4. Records. 

Composite records of school experiences. These records may be 
printed in the school print shop and combined in books, bound and 
illustrated by the children. The geography and history for this grade 
furnish fine inspiration for the work, — i. e.\ 1. A series of five or six 
records growing out of study of life among the Eskimos, Japanese, or 
Mexicans, — the climate, homes, dress, food, games. 2. See "Third 
Grade Project," page 144. 


Written language. 

1. Letters and invitations: 

To absent children; to groups in other localities; to personal friends 
and relatives of the individual. Quantity limited as in Grade II. 

2. Diaries. See Grade II under "Written language." 

3. Original rhyme riddles. 

The nursery rhyme riddles enjoyed in the first two grades furnish back- 
ground for this work. These riddles may reflect any work in which the 
group is interested, the nature study furnishing rich material. 

Among the simplest subjects for rhyme riddles worked out in the 
training school were those suggesting a character in Mother Goose, a 
third grade problem presented by them to the first grade. 
Group problem : 
To make riddles about characters in Mother Goose. 
To make each riddle two lines long. 
To tell about the character without using his name. 
To make the lines "sing" alike. 

4. Original rhymes. 

1. A four-line stanza fashioned after "A Boy's Song," but descriptive 

of California life. 

2. Verses fashioned after Christina Rossetti's "What Is Pink?", but 

applicable to this part of the country, — a third grade project for 
the first grade. 

3. A jingle for a Christmas card, valentine or birthday greeting. 

5. Records. 

Brief individual records of school experiences much shorter than those 
worked out compositely. See "Oral Language" for this grade. 

Formal points emphasized. 

Beginning of sentence. 

Every line of poetry. 

Proper names. 

Days of week, months, holidays. 

Child's own address, including punctuation marks involved. 

How to address an envelope. 

Period and interrogation point at end of sentence. 

Abbreviations, such as, — Mr., Mrs., Calif. 

Such as, — their, there; hear, here. 
Indentions and margins. 

Grade IV. 
Oral language. 

1. Retelling and dramatizing of stories. 

2. Individual reports to the group on silent reading relating to history, 

geography, nature study or any other phases of school activity. 

3. Individual reports to the group on story books read at home or as extra 

reading in school. 

4. Individual or composite reports of projects worked out by the individual 

or the group. These may be given for the benefit of the Friday assem- 
bly, meeting of parents or other group. 


5. Original fables, after the spirit and form of some of the old fables have 

been studied. 

6. Original stories centering around some hero used for class study, — i. e., 

a new story of St. Francis. 

7. The dramatization of these original stories. 

8. Original dialogues suggested by a picture. 

9. Original dialogues suggested by an imaginary situation, — i. e., "John's 

mother sent him to the store to buy a loaf of bread. He came home 
with sugar cookies." 
10. Superlative situations. 

"The happiest birthday I ever had." 
"The j oiliest ride I ever took." 

Written language. 

1. Friendly letters, with date. (Limited in quantity.) 

2. Business letters, when the need demands. 

3. Invitations. 

4. "5," "6," "9," "10," "11," under "Oral language," may carry over into the 

written work. 

5. Diaries, recording nature study excursions, the growth of gardens or 

pets, the coming of California wild flowers, the study of birds of 

6. The end of an original story after the first part has been read by the 

group. Problem : Each child to finish it, in his own way, using as 
few sentences as possible. 

7. Original verses and rhyme riddles: 

a. See suggestions for third grade. 

h. About California birds or wild and garden flowers studied in this 

c. A new "Goop" rhyme. 

8. Records explaining how group or individual projects were carried out. 

In group problems, this would be composite work, compiled in book 
form, illustrated and bound by the children. 

Formal points emphasized : 

1. Review of work in third grade. 

2. Capitalization. 

Titles of books, poems, stories. 

3. Punctuation. 

Comma in a series and after names used in direct address. 
Comma after "yes" and "no." 
Apostrophe in singular possessives. 
Quotation marks in unbroken quotations. 

4. Common and needed homonyms. 

5. Stricter attention to margins and indention. 

Bibliography on the Teaching of Language. 
Campagnac: Teaching of Composition. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Cooley : Language Teaching in the Grades. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Gesell : The Normal Child and Primary Education. Ginn & Co. 


Fifth Grade. 

FLORENCE L. SMITH, Class Supervisor, Training School. 

The language needs of the child of fifth grade school age appear chiefly in 
connection with school activities and the content subjects of the elementary school 
curriculum. In the ''language period," conscious, definite help is given to him in 
meeting these needs. Letter writing, making records, books, newspaper, etc., 
motivate written language, and every lesson is a lesson in oral English. 

Word study leads to familiarity with the literal meaning of a number of the 
roots which recur oftenest, and of the commonest prefixes and suffixes. Rules for 
spelling (two or three) which are most practical are developed, and are applied 
until their observance becomes habitual. 

Sixth Grade. 

ALICE GREER, Class Supervisor, Training School. 

The problem is practically the same as in the preceding grade, with a higher 
standard for both oral and written speech. Greater skill in using the dictionary 
and other reference books is aimed at. 

A study is made of a daily newspaper as to what it contains, how it is made, 
how news is collected, how the staff is organized, etc. The class is organized as 
a newspaper staffs, each pupil studying his own duties, and trying to discharge them 
as the class makes up a newspaper, or, rather, a school paper which is printed near 
the close of the school year. This problem motivates a great deal of work, not 
only in this class but throughout the school. 

Spelling and word study follow the lines suggested above. 

Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

1. Letter writing. 

(a) To children in all parts of United States. 

(From three to eight letters exchanged.) 

(b) To missionaries in China and India known to the teacher, 

(c) To members of the faculty absent on leave. 

(d) To former student teachers in army and navy. 

(e) To publishers, etc., for information, material, etc. 

(/) To an author, expressing appreciation of his book and inviting him to 

visit the school. 
(g) To parents, inviting them to Parents' Meetings. 

2 Book making (either as gifts to the teacher or for the Training School library 
for use of the children), 
(a) Original stories for lower grades. 
(h) Original stories suggested by Poe's Devil in the Belfry. 

(c) Original poems and stories suggested by Why the Chimes Rang. 

(d) The missions. 

(e) History of the EngHsh language. 
(/) Accounts of excursions. 

(g) Dramatizations. 

(h) Roosevelt Memorial. 


3. Programs for training school assemblies. 

(a) Dramatizations from literature. 

(b) Four-minute speeches. 

(c) Thrift Stamp speeches. 

(d) Liberty Bonds drive. 

(e) Junior Red Cross appeals. 
(0 "Better English" drive. 
(g) Celebrations of birthdays. 
(It) Memorial for Roosevelt. 

4. School newspaper. 

(a) News. 

(b) Original stories and poems. 

(c) Accounts of school activities. 

a. Red Cross work. 

b. Parties. 

c. Assemblies. 

d. Moving pictures. 

e. Lectures. 

5. Extended projects. 

(a) Newspapers. 

(b) California missions. 

(c) Book making, 

(d) Pageant on growth in freedom. 

6. Games and drills to secure specific skills or to extend vocabulary. 

7. Grammar (Eighth Grade). 

Study of sentence as a whole ; kinds of sentences on basis of purpose and 
complexity; essential elements, parts of speech, phrases and clauses, such 
properties of parts of speech as are necessary to the understanding of the 
few rules which are most frequently violated. Study of such rules and drill 
exercises in applying them complete the eighth grade work. 

8. Standard tests and scales. 

(a) Kelly Silent Reading Test. 

(b) Trabue Completion Scale. 

(c) Ay res' Spelling Scale. 

(d) Studebaker Spelling Tests (sentence tests). 

(e) Thorndike's Understanding of Sentence Test. 

Bibliography of Pedagogy of Language and Grammar. 

The Teaching of English Percival Chubb. 

The Teaching of English Paul Klapper. 

The Teaching of English Carpenter, Baker, and Scott. 

The Elementary Course in English James Hosic. 

Linguistic Development and Education M. V. O'Shea. 

Report of Committee of Thirty on Reorganization of Courses in English. 

Language Teaching in the Grades A. N. Cooley. 

Self Cultivation in English Palmer. 

-44 SAN dii:go state normai, school. 


JANE ADAMS, Instructor in Typing. 

7A Grade. 

Fundamentals of typing, including the names of the various parts of machine 
in order that the pupil may express himself in clear English regarding them. 

1. Ready use in all common operations of typewriter. 

2. Ability to follow copy continuously, using a light, staccato stroke and 

maintaining an easy, erect position. 

3. Care and cleaning of typewriter. 

4. Beginning of language correlation. 


1. Dictation, as means of fixing habits of good position, steady rhythm 

and even touch, staccato stroke, with eyes on copy. 

2. Selected exercises to perfect knowledge of keyboard, with frequent use 

of blindfold tests and the making of quick keyboard sketches. 

3. Supplemental exercises to correct errors of fingering and technique 

when necessary for a particular group or individual. 
Net speed, 12 to 20 words per minute (using 10-count penalty). 

8B Grade. 

Aims and methods. 

1. Introduction and practice of more complicated operations of typewriter 

as needed in connection with correlation with language work, e. g., 
copying of outlines, letters, poetry, stories, election ballots, programs, 
tabulated records of tests in spelling, typing, etc. 

2. Increase of speed and accuracy through : 

o. Weekly tests, — records of progress to be kept in tabulated or 

graph form. 
h. Special attention before it becomes fixed to any error or practice 

which would tend to lower speed or accuracy. 
Net speed, 15 to 30 words per minute. 

8A Grade. 

Same as for 8B, except that tabulation problems, etc., are more complicated, and 
greater independence is expected of the pupil in working them out. 
Net speed, 25 to 40 words per minute. 

Note. — Typing is given for its effect on language, rather than as a vocational subject. 


FLORENCE L. SMITH, Class Supervisor, Training School. 

In grades three and four the attention of the child may readily be directed to 
the easy, flowing quality which is the basis of all excellent writing. He is inter- 
ested not particularly in the results of his writing, that is, the appearance of his 
forms, but in the act of producing them. This is made as pleasurable as possible 
through the introduction of much rhythm and the spirit of play into the period of 
practice. Any device which rhythmically teaches movements that may later be 
applied to the formation of letters is here practicable. Precision should not be 
expected from children in this stage of development; in fact, the attention to 
perfect letter forms demanded by some teachers tends to inhibit the very grace 
of action and relaxation of the muscles which must come before the writing 


process produces beauty of line. Practically all of the models presented to the 
child here should be executed in the presence of the class by the teacher, attention 
being called to the movements used rather than to the appearance of the form 
after it is complete. Much drill to fix correct posture of body, arm and hand is 
given here, and the simpler movements which tend to develop the muscles in right 
habits of pressure and force are stressed. That is, a child is taught the value 
of a light, continuous pressure, and also experiments with his own arm to see how 
much more muscular force he must use to produce the capital letters than the 
small, how the "push-up" for 1, h, b, k, and f is the same in each case, and the 
corresponding "down-pull" for g, y, q, z and f also the same in each case. In 
general the synthetic method rather than the analytic is used in all work; that is, 
words containing letters to be studied arc presented rather than the single letter 

In the upper grades much emphasis is placed upon the frequent measurement of 
his writing by the pupil himself. The great danger always is that a child, even 
though perfectly trained in the lower grades, gradually becomes a poorer and 
poorer writer unless the tendency to carelessness is constantly restrained. This 
tendency to relaxing effort to write well is no doubt a natural result of the sudden 
plunge into the multiplied interests of the older child life, with the accompanying 
need of more rapid, more abundant expression in writing. Such a situation can 
not adequately be met by further practice carefully executed during the writing 
period; rather, the teacher must arouse a new comprehension on the part of the 
child that his writing can be above or below a certain standard acceptable for his 
grade as he himself determines, and further that he can attain and retain the desired 
standard only by continuously exercising care in all writing, whether that done in 
the writing period or in any other period. He must patiently learn to eliminate 
the ugly things present in his writing due to haste or thoughtlessness, — as the half- 
finished letter, the inaccurate scrawl, the imperfectly formed b which resembles f, 
the faulty spacing and alignment. With the consciousness of need for study 
awakened, the pupil is ready for the detailed analysis of letter forms presented in 
the upper grades. 


Freeman, F. L. The Teaching of Handwriting. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Gesell, A. L. The Child and Primary Education. Ginn & Co. 
Thompson, Mary E. Psychology & Pedagogy of Writing. Warwick & York. 
Thorndike, E. L. Handwriting. Teacher's College, Columbia Univ. 
Zaner, C. P. Manual No. 144. Zaner & Bloser Pub. Co. Columbus, Ohio. 



The purpose of teaching spelling is to give skill in spelling words correctly 
under the impetus of need for expression. Until this reaction becomes automatic 
when consciousness is focused upon content and not upon form, the end of spelling 
has not been realized. 

Essential factors in securing this skill are: 

1. A vivid, correct visual image of the word. 

2. A vivid, correct auditory image of the word. 

3. A vivid, correct auditory image of the syllables and their corresponding visual 



4. Ear images of letters in their proper sequence may aid some types of 

5. Meaning and use. 

6. Etymology. 

7. Law of spelling involved, if it is one of the few vital, uniform laws, such as — 

(a) doubling final consonant; 

(b) dropping final e; 

(c) syllabication. 

Spelling is best taught incidentally to the thought subjects, but this does not 
relieve the teacher of the obligation to meet the most pressing spelling problems 
specifically. A period set apart or regularly taken from language seems best. Pre- 
vention of wrong impression or reaction is much more important than correcting 
mistakes and breaking habits. 

The study of the origin and structure of many words as the child meets them in 
content subjects is supplemented by specific lessons, drills and games for the 
purpose of giving a new word sense, a keener appreciation of the structure of 
our language and keys which unlock many doors. 

Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes which recur often, become keys 
to the great variety of combinations in which they occur, — c. g., graph, a Greek 
root meaning to zurite, gives the key to a large number of words coined in recent 
years to name new things ; tele, meaning afar off or distant, unlocks not only 
telegraph but telephone and many others. The literal meanings of words in the 
group containing graph, graphy, grapher, graphic, incidentally give a clue to all 
those others in which auto, bio, geo, tele, stcno, photo, phono and many others are 
found. The value of this work can scarcely be overestimated. 

Sheppe's Word Studies and the dictionary are used for such lessons. The Ayres 
spelling scale and the Courtis tests based on it are used throughout the grades. 

Bibliography of Pedagogy of Spelling. 

The Child and His Spelling Cook and O'Shea— Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

The Teaching of Spelling Gertrude Longenecker — (out of print). 

Spelling (Results of Investigation) J. W. Studebaker — (1916) Newson. 

Measurement of Ability in Spelling L. P. Ayres— Russell Sage Foundation. 

Measurements in Spelling Report of Department of Education. New 

York City, 1918. 

The Teaching of English Paul Klapper— D. C. Appleton & Co. 

The Teaching of Spelling Suzzallo— Houghton-:Mifilin Co. 

State Text. 

Bulletin No. 3, Bureau of Research, Kansas City. Mo. (Sept. 1918). 
Teaching Spelling by Plays and Games— S. A. Courtis, Detroit. 
State Text (Dr. Fernald) (going to press). 

Since a bulletin on the teaching of spelling, written by Gertrude Longenecker, 
former head of the school's department of education, and published in 1914, has 
gone out of print, and since a considerable demand for it continues, the following 
reprinted pages taken from it are offered as a help to the teacher in training and 
the teacher in service : 






Improvement in spelling can be effected through changes in subject matter, and 
through changes in methods of work. 

The changes in subject matter include changes in the form, the kind, and the 
number of words taught. 

(a) Simplified Spelling. 

First, as to the form: Just as rapidly as it is feasible, schools the country over 
should adopt the simplified forms recommended by the Simplified Spelling Board, 
1 Madison avenue. New York. The present difficulty is that the school books are 
still printed in the old form and confusion may follow the attempt to teach the 
simplified forms. Only the inertia of old habits prevents the ready acceptance of 
the simplified forms. Philologists favor them. The ordinary citizen holds back. 
It is a nuisance to change the old habits. The awkward irrational forms "look 
better" to us than the new and unaccustomed forms. But these excuses should 
not be strong enough to lay the burden upon the oncoming generation. Huey, in 
"Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading," estimates that simplified spelling would 
reduce the printing of every book by one-fifth. With the prevalent eyestrain of 
school children, this saving is worth considering. In addition, when one considers 
the reduction of the difficulty in the teaching of spelling, one must believe that 
simplified spelling would be a large item in the elimination of waste in the 
elementary school. 

(b) Selection of Words. 

Next, as to the kind of words to be taught : In a period gone by, "catch-words," 
long and difficult words, held a conspicuous place in the speller's repertory. Ability 
to spell was an accomplishment, a case of "art for art's sake." When one hears 
of fourth grade children today being required to spell category, paragon, irre- 
mediable, one is impressed again with the fact that educational practice improves 
very slowly. Ordinary words, everyday words, should constitute, in the main, the 
subject matter of spelling lessons. Indeed, if one is desiring difficulties, the diffi- 
culties of English orthography are largely exhausted in the common words. But 
it is not because of their difficulty that they should be given, but because they form 
the bulk of the average person's writing vocabulary. And here is the key to the 
selection of words : They must be those words which children need to use in their 
writing. Not necessarily the new words found in the reading lesson, not necessarily 
those found in the geography or history lesson, but those which the children have 
immediate need for in their written work of all kinds. When the teacher grants 
this to be the function of the spelling lesson — to teach the children to spell those 
words which they wish to write, certain consequences follow. First, the list of 
words is sufficiently reduced in number to make the task possible. Second, she 
need no longer require the children to give definitions of the spelling words and 
use them in artificially made sentences ;* for these are the well-known, the oft-used 
words of the children's own vocabularies. They will not wish to write them until 
they are quite accustomed to using them orally. How shall the teacher select these 
ordinary words? Whenever the children are writing compositions, they should be 
encouraged to ask for the spelling of any words they are uncertain of, or should 
look them up in the dictionary. In either case, a list of such words should be kept 
by the children or the teacher. From such a list the most frequently used words 
should be made the basis of spelling lessons. In addition to such words called for 



by individuals, there are some five hundred to a thousand words which are the 
stock of all writers of English. It is safe to assume that all children need these 
words in their writing. Such a core of words Mr. Leonard Ayres furnishes in 
"Spelling Vocabularies of Business and Personal Letters," published in 1913 by 
the Russell Sage Foundation. Mr. Ayres collected 2,000 business and personal 
letters written under a variety of circumstances and by and to a variety of 
people; he listed the first word of every line of these 2,000 letters and tallied the 
number of times each was used. The first surprising result was that he found 
I that in all the letters together only 2,001 different words were used. That is, the 
composite writing vocabulary of these 2,000 letters was only 2,001 words. The 
i second surprising fact was that he found 542 words were used seven-eighths of 
the time. No doubt, further investigations should be made in order to determine 
' indisputably that this list of 542 words is the common burden bearer of written 
i communications. But even now it may be tentatively so considered. These 542 
words are not the words usually found in spelling books. They are so insignificant 
as to be beneath the notice of makers of textbooks on spelling. And yet they are 
indispensable to the average adult writer. Would it not seem wise, then, to 
incorporate these 542 little words in the spelling lessons given throughout the 
elementary school ? Since the bulletin reporting this investigation is out of print at 
present, the Ayres list of words has been added to this pamphlet as an appendix. 

There are other lists of words which for various reasons might well be incorpo- 
rated in the spelling lists of the elementary school. "When the team of Cleveland 
children won the spelling championship at the N. E. A. Convention in 1908, they 
had to spell a list of what is considered by educators the best collection of ordinary 
words ever prepared for test purposes. The list was compiled by Prof. L. C. Lord, 
Miss Adelaide S. Baylor, President H. B. Brown of Valparaiso, and Mason S. 
Stone of Vermont. Hicks has taken this list as the finest that can be compiled, 
and has made it the final test of the pupils that will use his new book, the "Hicks' 
Champion Spelling Book." (See Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 17, 1909. The 
list is to be found in th^ Champion Speller, part 2.) 

Mr. W. E. Chancellor offers a list of 1,000 words which he believes to be the 
most needed. (See Journal of Education-, May 26, 1910.) 

The lists of words in which perfection has been reached in each of the lower 
grades of the Milwaukee schools may also be found suggestive. (See Journal of 
Education, February 10, March 10, April 4, 7, 1910.) 

In addition to these suggestive lists the teacher should keep a record of words 
taught in her grade from year to year. By sorting and comparing these records 
she will find those words which are peculiar to the community and its interests. 
One such list has been printed in the appendix of this bulletin. 

A selection of words made on the basis of individual and social need is much 
more vital than the selection of words provided by any spelling book, made up 
without reference to any particular group of children. At best, the ordinary 
spelling book will be useful only as a reference book to the teacher. 

(c) The Number of Words. 

When Mr. Hicks took charge of the spelling of the Cleveland schools, he insisted 
that children of all grades were given too much work in spelling to do it well. 
Mr. Hicks would have but 312 words taught intensively each year, two a day, with 
repeated reviews. The two words are thoroughly taught by the instructor. Eight 
words are reviewed the same day. Next day the two words intensively taught the 
day before go into the review column, and two new words are emphasized. Every 
eight weeks the eighty words taught are reviewed. 


In the training school of the San Diego Normal School, two words have been 
taught daily in third and fourth grades during the past year, and from three to 
five words in grades above the fourth. Spelling lessons, as such, have not been 
given below the third grade. 

It is possible to restrict the list of words in this way, when one makes the 
children's need in written work the basis for the selection of words. While this 
may seem an unambitious daily stint to the teacher accustomed to the formidable 
daily lists of fifteen to twenty-five words, upon consideration she may think it 
preferable that the children master unquestionably three hundred to four hundred 
words a year than that they smatter over two thousand and in the end be uncertain 
of all. In this connection, the following newspaper item will be of interest to 
California teachers: "Spelling books used at present by the public schools of 
California contain approximately 15,000 words, many so technical that not one in 
1,000 children would ever use them. Miss Anne M. Nicholson, secretary of the 
Textbook Committee of the California State Board of Education, is convinced of 
the inutility of crowding so many words into a school speller. ^Acting upon her 
recommendations, the State Board of Education proposes a spelling book with a 
basic vocabulary of 3,000 words and a series of supplementary spellers to be used 
in the higher grades and high school and made up with reference to the anticipated 
future work or employment of the pupils." (Christian Science Monitor, 1914.) 


Besides the increased effectiveness of instruction in spelling by changes in the 
form, the kind and the number of words taught, much improvement can be 
wrought by changes in methods of teaching, testing, and drilling. 

(a) The Teaching of the Spelling Lesson. 

The first psychological law of habit formation, the focalization of attention, can 
be used to advantage. The teacher speaks and writes the word to be learned, 
while the children watch her or trace it in the air accompanying her movements. 
The class should spell this first word orally, and each child should write it in a 
note book kept for spelling lists, the word remaining upon the board during this 
time. The teacher should throw particular emphasis upon any letters which may 
cause trouble. These are near the middle of the word, usually. She should say, 
for instance, "Remember that 'separate' is spelled s-e-p-a-r-a-t-e." Later she 
should say, "What letter in 'separate' must you be sure to get right, John?" 
Never should she, nor should the children, say what wrong letter might be used 
instead. We must see to it that the right impression, only, is made, and that it 
is made as clearly and forcefully as possible. 

Any analysis of the word which will facilitate the child's grip upon the order 
of letters in it should be resorted to. Sometimes syllabication will accomplish 
this; as in such words as independent, Mississifypi. argumentation — words in which 
the syllables are phonetic. We do not favor visually breaking words into syllables 
by hyphens or marking them diacritically, for the reason that the children should 
always see the word as it will be read or spelled in normal use. Pointing out the 
syllables in the continuously-written word will serve the purpose. Sometimes the 
analysis can best take the form of showing familiar words in the new ; as in 
review, headache, disappoint, preparation, breadth. Sometimes discovering phono- 
grams simplifies the problem; as in field, shield, thoroughness, loveliness. In this 


connection the playing of Dumb Crambo, particularly in the lower grades, con- 
tributes to finding likenesses in words. For instance, the new word is "stand." 
It is written upon the board. The teacher says, **I am thinking of a word that 
rhymes with "stand." The children guess. She answers, "No, it is not 'band'," 
writing "band" below "stand," and so making a column of phonogrammic words. 
Sometimes noting a prefix or a suffix and telling briefly the significance of it, adds 
to the ease of comprehension. The word, itself, should be considered in choice 
i>f devices for teaching it, rather than the following of any few devices constantly. 
Indeed, variety of device is one of the requirements for keeping attention active. 
The teacher's ingenuity here will be paid for in the alertness of the class. 
l"\)calization of attention is our object at this point. 

After discussion of the sort indicated above, several children should be sent to 
the blackboard to write the word. Others may spell it orally. In similar ways 
each of the two to five words should be taught. Among the various devices for 
attentive repetition, Mrs. Nellie Sebree, of our sixth grade, finds it effective to let 
one child call upon another to spell three words which the first dictates from the 
review words of the week, together with the words of the new lesson, all of which 
are written upon the board. The first child faces the board in order to dictate, 
the second turns his back to the board so that he shall not see the spelling. The 
second, after spelling successfully, then calls upon a third, who turns his back 
to the board while the second dictates three words — and so on through the class. 

The intensive teaching of each word employs the principle of multiple associa- 
tion ; the eyes see, the ears hear, the voice utters, and the hand forms the succes- 
sion of letters in the word, all within the minute in which the new word is being 
focalized. This fullness of association is fundamental to memorization. Of the 
four kinds of impression, the visual is probably most potent. H. E. Kratz tested 
the ability of 743 pupils to spell words after they had been clearly and slowly 
pronounced ; the average result was 44.8 per cent. He then displayed the words 
in large type ; the average result of the subsequent test was 66.2 per cent. He 
then displayed them in large type, at the time having them clearly and slowly 
pronounced; the average result was IZ.l per cent. (See Kratz: Studies and 
Observations in the School Room.) In addition to the auditory-visual impression 
used in these tests, the Bailey-Manly system of teaching spelling and Mr. Hicks' 
method employ the motor machinery both of vocalization and of hand and arm 
movements. Tests made by Mr. W. A. Lay in 1899, teaching spelling by these 
several appeals, showed that motor activity of vocal organs and hands is most 
important in the work of memorizing, and that visual impressions are more 
important than auditory. (See Burnham : Hygiene and Psychology of Spelling, 
Fed. Sem. December, 1906.) 

The essentials to be kept in mind during this teaching drill are : iirst, attention 
shall be focalized upon the word at its first appearance and shall be kept active 
in all subsequent repetitions of the order of letters in the word. This can be 
secured through varieties of devices which will occur to the teacher from time to 
time; second, the right form shall be repeated many times. If a child falters he 
shall be told correctly, or shall glance at the board, — he must not be permitted to 
give expression to a wrong form; third, multiple associations shall be made in 
the brain through the employment of four kinds of sensory apparatus. 

(b) The Testing of Spelling. 

Some hours after the spelling has been taught, there should be a brisk oral drill, 
followed by a writing of the words — (1) in a list at the teacher's dictation, and 
(2) in sentences either made by the children or dictated by the teacher. In the 


third and fourth grades of our school Miss Pauline Black finds it helpful to 
require the class to pronounce the word after her, then to pause a moment and 
think it through, and then to write it. After the dictation the children should 
put away their pens and should take their pencils, and, as the teacher respells each 
word, orally or in writing on the board, they should check any misspelled word and 
rewrite it correctly. Each child should then place his score at the head of his 
paper. The class may have been divided previously into two groups of approxi- 
mately equal spelling abilit3^ Each group may now report the individual scores 
to the opposing group, which may then figure up the group-average, which should 
be recorded on a chart, like the one shown on page 7. The teacher should then 
take up the papers, and glance over any which she may think it best to supervise. 

(c) Making Correct Spelling of Words Habitual. 

Because habits are formed by attentive repetition, there should be frequent 
review drills. At least once a week all the words of the past two weeks should 
be reviewed. Once a month the more troublesome words should be reviewed. 
Once in two months the words of the past two months should be reviewed. 
Whenever these words occur in any of the children's written work, misspelling of 
them should be tallied and incorporated in the spelling mark of the month. These 
reviews may take the form of oral spell-downs, or of written list-tests, or of 
dictated context into which the words are woven. The latter has the advantage of 
being more nearly like the test which daily situations make. When the oral spell- 
down is used certain poor features in the old-fashioned spell-down should be elim- 
inated. By the old practice, the poorest speller, the child who most needed drill 
was discarded early in the drill ; a troublesome word was repeatedly misspelled 
down the line. In our spell-downs, which we should call spell-ups, perhaps, when 
a child misspells, the teacher checks one point for the opposing side ; immediately 
she spells the word correctly orally and in writing on the board, so that the wrong 
impression may be overcome; she hands a slip to the child who failed, on which 
he himself writes the correct form ; and she allows the poor speller to remain in 
line so that he may get the advantage of the entire drill. At the end of the drill, 
that side wins, of course, which has received the most checks from its opponents. 
Before taking his seat, every child who holds a slip on which he has written the 
word which he missed, must spell the word correctly, write his name on the slip, 
and put it on the teacher's desk and spell it again correctly, on the following day. 

(d) The Children's Alphabetized List. 

Under the caption, "The Teaching of Spelling," reference was made to a note- 
book in which the children enter their daily spelling lists. The last half of the 
book should be alphabetized, the children cutting large capital letters from maga- 
zines or newspapers, and pasting one at the head of each page; or, if the school 
owns a price marker or a set of rubber stamps, using these to mark each page. 
Once a week the children re-enter the words of the week under the proper letters. 
Not only does this provide another opportunity for attentive repetition, but it makes 
the words easy of reference whenever a doubt arises as to the spelling of a word. 
If a child who is writing a composition asks for the spelling of a word which he 
has already had, the teacher refers him to his spelling book. In the frequent 
reviews and tests, any mistake made by a child can be corrected by his reference 
to his spelling book. 

This notebook should be passed on with the child into the next grade, in order 
that the next teacher may hold her class responsible for the words previously 
learned. She should give occasional reviews of these words, and any mistake in 


spelling them in written work should be tallied and incorporated in the spelling 
mark of the month. It is by such persistent reviews and unfailing demand that 
the children spell correctly a comparatively small number of words, that satisfac- 
tory results are to be secured. 


In content subjects the actuating motive for their study should be found within 
the subjects themselves. But in the drill subjects, subjects which are merely 
artificial tools for the handling of some content subject, the motive is likely to be 
extraneous to the subject. Spelling is essentially a drill subject, skill in which is 
necessary for the adequate handling of written composition. One of the problems 
in teaching spelling is to find motives sufficiently compelling to keep attention 
active in the learning process. Of such motives competition is the most effective, 
and perhaps the most legitimate to appeal to. Group competition is preferable to 
individual rivalry, not only because it is a more social motive, but also because it 
spurs on the poorest speller for his group's sake, whereas he could have no hope of 
individually excelling his class. 

Group competition may be secured in the following way: Let the class be 
divided into two groups approximately equal in spelling ability. This can be done 
by appointing captains who choose sides, or on the basis of spelling marks won on 
a test or during a month. Under the caption, "The Testing of Spelling," reference 
was made to securing the group averages after every written spelling lesson. 
Each group can figure out the average of the opposing group from the individual 
scores which are reported, — this, in itself, is a good exercise in practical arithmetic. 
When these group averages are secured, they should be entered upon the monthly 
spelling chart, which should be posted in a conspicuous place so that all may see. 
The chart is made by drawing vertical and horizontal lines to form squares. At 
the head of each vertical line enter the date of a school day. At the left of each 
horizontal line a per cent, beginning with 100 per cent at the top and decreasing 
by steps of 1 per cent to 90 per cent. It will be found that the range is usually 
from 95 per cent to 100 per cent. Trace the curve made by each group, from day 
to day, using two colors of chalk so that the standing of each group will be evident 
at a glance. A similar score chart of individual daily scores may be kept in the 
back of his spelling book by each individual. The contest may be made among 
several, rooms of a school building, and the chart posted in the hallway where all 
may see it as they pass. Such group competition enlists the efforts of all the good 
spellers in a group on behalf of the weak speller. If, as occasionally happens, 
the efforts of the good spellers to reform the poor become too strenuous, and 
resentment of repeated failures runs too high, a redistribution of groups will 
break the tension. 

The results of oral spell-downs of groups may be kept on a similar chart. (See 
page 47 for the chart form.) 


In our school we are using fifteen to twenty minutes daily for spelling. The 
teaching of spelling requires ten minutes, and the written test, the averaging of 
scores, and the marking of the chart requires from five to ten minutes. Mr. Wallin 
(Spelling Efficiency, p. 21) finds that the average amount of time used by a 
number of the leading cities of the country is 7.22 per cent of the school day, or, 
if the day is five hours in length, twenty-two minutes. He finds that Cleveland 
uses 5.96 per cent of the available time, or agahi, if the day is five hours long, 
I bout eighteen minutes. 



MIRIAM A. BESLEY, Director of Education. 

The purpose of the work in arithmetic throughout the school is fourfold : 

(1) To help children to come into the possession of the power to use or apply 
number intelligently wherever it is needed in their daily school, home, or commu- 
nity life. 

(2) To secure through scientific practice the degree of accuracy and speed in 
figuring or calculating which is commensurate with the child's age and ability. The 
attainment of this skill is to be determined by measuring his ability three or four 
times a year with the Courtis Standard Research Tests. 

(3) To protect children against unjust demands for explanations of their mental 
processes — sometimes called "analysis" — with the consequent waste of time and 

(4) To insure careful reading habits by insisting upon intelligent interpretation 
of problems before their solution is begun. 

From the child's standpoint the purpose of number work is merely a direct means 
to some end which he wishes to gain. 

In history, geography, and all forms of manual activity, the child is constantly 
measuring, comparing, analyzing and judging the number element coming con- 
sciously or unconsciously into all of the work. If it is so planned that the work 
commands the best effort of the child without going beyond his mental grasp, there 
will be a distinct advance in knowledge of arithmetic from grade to grade. 

These outlines for each grade are simply attempts to show what the outcome in 
each grade may be. It is not meant that facts and processes will be taught and 
abandoned in any given grade. They will be used, when necessary, throughout the 
child's school life, but for economy's sake there is a place, for example, where the 
multiplication tables should become automatic. 

Although number work may seem from the child's viewpoint to be incidental to 
some other work^ the teaching of number is not at all a haphazard or fragmentary 
performance and there is a very definite minimum requirement in formal work to be 
accomplished by the pupils of each grade. In every grade certain difficulties in the 
form of new facts or new processes will be presented. These must be overcome 
in order to gain new ideas. This is the economical place to teach a process and a 
legitimate time for drill. 

To the end that these purposes may be realized in a measure and arithmetic be 
recognized as an important factor in helping a child to gain control of his environ- 
ment, the elimination of certain traditional topics as contributing nothing to the 
attainment sought is desirable. The list follows : 

1. Greatest Common Divisor. 

2. Least Common Multiple, except by inspection. 

3. Complex and Compound Fractions. 

4. Long confusing problems in Fractions. 

5. Apothecaries and Troy Weight, Surveyor's Measure, Paper Measure, rood 

in Square Measure, dram and quarter in Avoirdupois Weight, and any 
obsolete units of other tables, tables of foreign money, and all reduction of 
more than two steps. 

6. Cases in percentage. 

7. True discount. 

8. Profit and Loss, as a separate topic. 

9. Partnership. 


10. Problems in taxes, insurance, bonds, stocks, partial payments, bank discount, 

compound interest, longitude and time, and lumber measure, except for 
informational value. 

11. Mensuration, except such phases as are based on common experience, as 

problems in papering, painting, plastering, etc., belong to specialized trades 
and should be taught vocationally. 

12. The Metric System. 

13. Cube and square root, except possibly the squares and corresponding roots 

of numbers to 12, and the cubes to 5 with the corresponding roots. 

14. The puzzle type of problem. 

With these eliminations, due emphasis can be placed upon the topics remaining 
in the field of elementary mathematics, as — 

1. Reading and writing of numbers. 

2. Primary number facts. 

3. Fundamentals, /. e., addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of — 

a. Integers. 

b. Fractions (to twelfths). 

c. Decimals (to three places). 

4. Reductions. 

a. Fractions changed to higher and lower terms. 

b. Mixed numbers to improper fractions and the reverse. 

c. Fractions to decimals and the reverse. 

5. The tables of linear, square, cubic and liquid measure, avoirdupois weight, 

time, and U. S. money. 

6. The common aliquot parts. 

7. Finding the perimeter and surface of common plane figures, and the volume 

of solids. 

8. Percentage applications in — 

a. Trade discount. 

b. Profit and loss. 

c. Commission. 

d. Simple interest. 

9. Applications to social and economic conditions, i. e., issues involved in saving 
and loaning money : 

a. Taxation, taxes and tax levies. 

b. Banking. 

c. Borrowing. 

d. Bonds and stocks. 

e. Insurance. 

f. Public expenditures. 

g. Public utilities. 

h. Profits and investments. 

The textbooks should be used as a guide and a help, but the real life of the 
school and the community should furnish the material for real mathematical prob- 
lems. Thus the art of problem making as well as the art of problem solving should 
receive consideration. 

First Grade. 
No conscious instruction of number work. Where measuring in connection with 
making things, such as a playhouse, valentines, calendars, etc., is desirable, frequent 
use of the linear unit of inch, etc., may be taught. Counting with and without 
objects satisfies the strong rhythmic impulse of this age. 


Second Grade. 

Suggestions for 2B. 

(1) Reading and writing numbers to 100. 

(2) Counting. 

By Ts and 2's with objects to 20; without objects by 5's to 50; and by lO's 
to 100. 

(3) Addition and Subtraction. 

Oral : The first 25 combinations and the reverse subtraction facts. 

(4) Measurement. 

Cent, nickel, dime, inch, foot. 

(5) Fractions. 

Idea of halves objectively developed. 

(6) Signs. 

Suggestions for 2A. 

(1) Reading and writing numbers to 1,000. 

(2) Counting. 

By 3's to 30, by 4's to 40, and by 5's to 100. 

(3) Addition. 

Oral : The 45 combinations. 
Written : Small sums, no carrying. 

(4) Subtraction. 

Oral : Reverse of the 45 combinations. 

Written: With numbers of two figures and no borrowing. 

(5) Measurement. 

Monetary units from cent to dollar ; dozen ; inch, foot ; pint, quart, cup. 

(6) Fractions. 

Ideas of halves and fourths objectively. 

(7) Signs. 

(8) Problems. 

Simple one-step problems arising from the children's own experience during 
the year. 

Required of Children Leaving the Second Grade. 

1. Notation and Numeration. 

To read and write three-place numbers. 

2. Addition and Subtraction. 

The 45 combinations and the corresponding separations. 

To add and subtract two-place numbers with no carrying or borrowing. 

3. Measurements. 

Inch, foot ; pint, quart, cup ; cent, dime, nickel, quarter, half-dollar, dollar ; 

4. Problems. Simple one-step. 

5. Terms and signs. 

Meaning of add, subtract, plus, minus. 



Perhaps the most useful and suggestive single book is First Journeys in Number- 
land, by Harris and Waldo, published by Scott, Foresman & Co. 

Hoyt and Peet's Everyday Arithmetic, Book I, Part I, Chapter I, published by 
Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Chadsey-Smith Efficiency Arithmetic, published by Atkinson, Mentzer & Co. 

Third Grade. 
Suggestions for SB. 

(1) Reading and Writing Numbers to 1,000. Roman numerals as needed. 

(2) Counting. 

By 2's, 3's, 4's, etc., from to 60. 
By 2's, 3's, 4's, etc., from 1 to 60. 
By 2's, 3's, 4's, etc., downward from any multiple of the number. 

(3) Addition. 

Oral : 45 combinations made automatic. 

Written : Sums with carrying involving the first steps. 

(4) Subtraction. 

Oral : Reverse of the 45 combinations made automatic. 
Written : Simple with borrowing. 

(5) Multiplication. 

Oral : Tables of 2's, 4's, 5's, lO's and 3's developed. 

Written : Multipliers of one figure corresponding to the tables learned. No 

(6) Divisions. 

Oral : Simple divisions within the tables. 

Written : Divisions of one figure corresponding to the tables learned. No 

(7) Measurement. 

Inch, foot, yard ; pound, pint, quart, cup ; hour, day, week, month, and year ; 
time by the clock. 

(8) Fractions. 

Ideas of halves, fourths, and thirds objectively developed. 

(9) Terms and signs. 

Plus, minus, sum, difference. 
+ _ X -^ = 

(10) Problems. 

Simple one-step oral problems concerning things within the child's own 

Suggestions for 3A. 

(1) Reading and writing numbers to 10,000. Dollars and cents in decimal form. 

(2) Counting. 

As in 3B. 

By 2's, 3's, 4's, etc., from 1 to any number. 

By 2's, 3's, 4's, etc., from any number. 

By 2's, 3*s, 4's, etc., downward from any number 

(3) Addition. 

Oral : 45 combinations made automatic and carried to higher orders. 


(4) SubtractJon. 

Oral : Reverse of the 45 combinations made automatic and carried to higher 

Written : Three digit numbers with borrowing. 

(5) Muhiplication. 

Oral : Tables of 9's, 6's, 7's, 8's developed. 

Written: Multipliers of one and two figures with carrying developed 
according to suggestions. 

(6) Division. 

Oral : Simple divisions within the tables. 

Written : Divisors of one figure the reverse of multiplication with one figure. 

(7) Measurement. 

Review measures of previous grades. Add parts of a dozen and parts of 
a pound. 

(8) Fractions. 

Fractional parts of numbers within the limits of the tables learned ; /'. c, 
^ of 42 and i of 42. 

(9) Signs and terms. 

Those of preceding grades. 
(10) Problems. 

Simple oral one-step problems made from material within the child's own 
experience, such as store keeping. 

Required of Children Leaving the Third Grade. 

1. Reading and writing numbers to 10,000, and amounts of money as dollars and 

cents. Reading the clock. 

2. All addition and subtraction facts to 19 made automatic. 

3. Addition and subtraction of numbers to three places, including money. 

4. Multiplication and corresponding division facts through 9's. Employ carrying 

in the written work. 

5. Standard measurements. 

Suggestions for the Third Year. 

Teachers should insist that pupils write numbers legibly and in conformity with 
the system of penmanship prescribed by the state law. Let there be a need for 
writing numbers, as for example the children's own house and telephone numbers. 

In order to make the combinations automatic, there should be daily short drills 
and frequent use in games. Observe carefully the scientific classification of the 
combinations as follows : 

1— very easy: 0000000000 
and the reverse. 
2— easy: 11111111 

2 2 3 4 5 
2 3 3 4 5 

and the reverse. 
3— average: 2222333342 
and the reverse. 


: 2 2 



4 4 4 

4 6 7 



8 9 



6 7 8 
and the 

9 6 7 



hard : 



5 5 6 

6 6 7 





8 9 7 
and the 

8 9 8 



Give particular attention to irregular counting as a good form of drill. Modified 
forms of the same combinations with carrying should be given for drill : 

7 17 27 Z7 

6 6 6 6 etc., etc. 

This drill is sometimes known as addition or subtraction by endings. See Hoyt 
and Peet, Book I, Part I, page 26, footnote. 

In written addition, the first steps should be with two or three numbers in a 
column only, and no carrying. The following steps in carrying should be closely 
adhered to : 

1. Carrying in one column only and the carrying figure 1 : 

12 541 

6 132 

3 56 

2. Carrying in one column only with the carrying figure 2. 

3. Carrying in one column only with carrying figure 1 or 2. 

4. Carrying in any number of columns, the carrying figure being any number. 
In teaching written subtraction, teach it as an imitative process. The "addition 

method" should be used in teaching children to make change as a preparation for 



Pupils should be led to see that multiplication is but a short or quick way of 
adding a group of like numbers. For example : 


|- is 4 X 3 = 12, an expression of the same result by a short cut. 

12 J 

As in the case of the 45 combinations and separations, the multiplication tables 
are not really learned until they have become automatic. But this does not mean 
that pupils should not be required to multiply numbers in written multiplication. 
Written work in muhiplication should be given as the tables are being developed, 
for written multiplication is in itself a way of reviewing the tables. 

Teachers must not make elaborate explanations of each process. The funda- 
mental processes should be taught largely through imitation. The problem in all 
the lower grades is to fix a habit of accurate and quick response. 


Operations in written multiplication should progress in the order of difficulty: 

1. Single multipliers without carrying: 

214 514 

X 2 X 2 

2. Same with carrying in one place and the carrying figure 1 : 

219 516 432 

X 2 X 3 X 4 

3. With carrying figure 2 : 

216 516 

X 4 X 4 

4. A combination of 2 and 3 : 

5. Quick multiplication by 10. 
Quick multiplication by 20. 

6. Multipliers of two figures using 12, 14, 16, etc. 

The suggestions made for multiplication apply in many ways to division, espe- 
cially as to the steps in progress. 

The tables of measurement need not be learned as such in the lower grades. 
The object in introducing them is that the need for them generally arises through 
gardens, and other projects. They offer excellent opportunities for estimating 
or guessing, and testing the "guess" by actual measurement. 

In developing a feeling for fractional parts, the pupils should make their own 
circles, oblongs, squares, etc., which they can use to work out the ideas of fourths, 
halves, under the teacher's direction. The purpose of teaching fractions in this 
grade is to enable pupils to recognize the expressions i, i, etc., and to know what 
they mean. 

The problems should be simple oral ones. For example : 

Our flag has 7 red stripes and 6 white ones. How many stripes has it? 

There are 20 children in this room. One rainy day i of them were absent. 
How many were absent? 

Everyday Arithmetic, Book I, Part I, by Hoyt and Peet, will be found helpful 
to use in connection with this course of study. Also Efficiency Arithmetic, 
Primary, Part I, by Chadsey-Smith. 

Fourth Grade. 

Suggestions for 4B. 

(1) Reading and Writing Numbers to 100,000. Dollars and cents in decimal form. 

(2) Counting. 

Continued as in 3A outline. 

(3) Addition. 

Oral : Quick drill, especially in higher orders. 

Written : Sums with any number of columns continued. Apply simple tests 

for accuracy and speed occasionally. Those in Studebaker practice tests 

will be found valuable. 


(4) Subtraction. 

Oral : Quick drill, particularly in subtracting by "cndintrs" carried to higher 
orders : 

57 47 27 87 Z7 etc. 

>_9 —9 _9 —9 —9 

Written : Apply simple tests frequently as suggested above for addition. 

(5) Multiplication. 

Oral: Table completed through 12 X 12. 

Written : Multiplicands with dollars and cents. Multipliers of two and 

three figures. Short process of multiplying by 10 and 100. The zero 


(6) Division. 

Oral : Finding factors within all the tables — 

72 -^9, 72 -^ 8, etc. 
Written: Short division with and without remainders. Use dividends of 
dollars and cents. Short process of dividing by 10 and 100. 

(7) Measurements. 

Use of units previously learned. Mile, square inch, and foot. Easy sur- 
face measurements if needed. Reading thermometer. 

(8) Fractions. 

Oral : Ideas of halves to tenths, inclusive. Comparison of halves with 
fourths and eighths; thirds with sixths, etc. Finding fractional parts of 
things and groups. 

(9) Terms and signs. 

Use of those previously used together with abbreviations used in measure- 

(10) Problems. 

One-step problems involving whole numbers based on school and home 
experience of the pupils. Store-keeping furnishes most of this material. 

Suggestions for 4A. 

(1) Reading and writing numbers to 1,000,000. Dollars and cents in decimal 


(2) Counting. 

Continued as in 3A outline. 

(3) Addition. 

Oral : Adding series of numbers given visually and orally. 

Written : Apply simple tests for accuracy and speed more frequently. 

(4) Subtraction. 

Oral : Quick drills given orally and visually. 

Written : Apply simple tests for accuracy and speed more frequently. 

(5) Multiplication. 

Oral: Tables automatic if possible. 

Written : Multiplicands with dollars and cents. Multipliers with three or 
more places with zero in tens place. Emphasize short process of multi- 
plying by 10 and 100. 

(6) Division. 

Oral : Dividing numbers to 50 by any number through 12 with remainder. 
Written : Long division with simple divisors of two places without 



(7) Measurements. 

Review and use of those previously learned. 

(8) Fractions, 

Oral : Idea of fractional parts to twelfths. 

(9) Terms and signs. 

Use of those already learned. Abbreviations for any measurements learned. 

(10) Problems. 

Increasing use of store-keeping as material for simple one-step problems. 
Bills of goods. 

Required of Pupils at Close of the Fourth Year. 

1. Multiplication and division tables automatic. 

2. Multiplication process complete. 

3. Long division by simple two digit numbers: 11, 12, 21, 22, 31, 32, etc. 

4. Attainment of the standard of accuracy and speed in addition and subtraction 

as measured by the Courtis Standard Research Tests. 
Addition : 6 attempted, 4 right, 67% accuracy. 
Subtraction: 7 examples attempted, 5.6 right, or 80% accuracy. 

5. Problems arising from needed use of standard measures, — money, areas of 

garden plots, etc., required in the pupils' projects. 

Suggestions for Fourth Year. 

1. Be sure to introduce the zero difficulty in reading and writing numbers. 
Eliminate the use of the word "and" in reading numbers. Notice suggestions 
under "Third Grade." 

2. Beginning with this grade, those pupils who are not making progress with 
their tables should receive individual attention and concentrate on their special 
difficulties. Try to prevent the formation of such habits as counting on fingers, 
whispering or saying any formula, or giving the answer in wrong form. Children 
should be taught to see the result in the most direct and economical way. Remem- 
ber that perfect oral work does not transfer to the written form perfectly. 

Drill periods must be short and snappy. Five to ten minutes daily will accom- 
plish standard results if your practice is intelligently planned, t. e., has sufficient 
\ariety to hold the attention of all during the drill or game. 

Do not expect to complete the process of long division. Make only an intelligent 
beginning, a good foundation for the next grade to build on. Above all things, 
do not attempt more than the standard degree of accuracy and speed in any of the 
four fundamental operations. 

Teaching long division is merely the establishment of another mechanical habit, 
and is- therefore subject to all the laws of habit making. Observe carefully the 
graduation of the steps. Use 11, 21, 31, 41, etc., and 12, 22, 32, 42, etc., as the 
first two digit divisors. Let the first figure of the dividend be divisible by the first 
one of the divisor, and so on. For example : 

11/T3T 21/231 21/252 21/672 21/106 


Problems may be read from the printed text, blackboard or typewritten sheet. 
Interpret all problems before solving them, to make sure that the difficulty is not 
one of reading rather than mathematics. Keep them simple, mostly oral, and well 
within a child's experience. Examples of problems of this kind may be found in 



Efficiency Arithmetic (Primary Book), by Chadsey-Smith, published by Atkinson, 
Mentzer & Co. Everyday Arithmetic, by Hoyt and Peet, Book I, Part II, is a 
good text to put into the hands of the children. The Studebaker Economy Prac- 
tice Tests can be used to good advantage several times a week. 

Fifth Grade. 

Suggestions for 5B. 

(1) Reading and writing numbers to 1,000,000. Dollars and cents. 

(2) Counting. 

Continued as in previous grades. Counting by 12i, 25, and 50 to 100. 

(3) Addition and Subtraction. 

Oral : Occasional quick drills in the combinations carried to higher orders : 

29 49 59 
8 8 8 etc. 

Rapid adding of vertical columns for practice in recognizing the sum. 

. Adding from the bottom up, the pupil should read 7, 13, 21, 27. 

Subtractions by endings: 

25 45 65 

_ 8 — 8 — 8 

Also making of change quickly. 

Written: Practice with the Studebaker Economy Practice Tests or similar 
(4) Multiplication. 

Oral : Tables automatic. Quick dictation of products : 


X 15 



» Should be 0, 3, 7, and 6, 4, 1. 0, 9, 1, 2. 

Written : Multipliers of three and four figures. Multiplicands of dollars and 
cents. Short process of multiplying by 10, 100, and 1,000. Emphasize the 
zero difficulty. 

(5) Division. 

Oral: Dividing numbers to 100 by any number through 12, as 2 to 20; 

3 to 30; 4 to 40; 5 to 50, etc. 
Written : Review and complete the process of teaching long division. 

(6) Measurements. 

Use of those already learned and the addition of new ones as needed. 


(7) Fractions. 

Classification, reduction, addition and subtraction of simple fractions, 

(8) Terms. 

Those used in common fractions and measurements. 

(9) Problems. 

Problems involving integers and fractions, the making of problems from the 
pupils' school and home experience. 

Suggestions for 5 A. 

(1) Reading and writing numbers to 1,000,000,000. Common fractions with 

denominators to twelfths and decimal fractions of two places. 

(2) Counting. 

Continued as in 5B. 

(3) Fundamental operations with whole numbers practiced daily for about 10 


(4) Measurements. 

Continued as in 5B. 

(5) Fractions. 

Addition and subtraction continued. Multiplication and division of very 
simple common fractions. 

(6) Decimal fractions. 

Other uses than in dollars and cents with which the children are familiar. 
Addition and subtraction of decimals of two places. Multiplication and 
division of decimals, multiplier and divisor being an integer. 

(7) Problems. 

Problems growing out of school or home activities involving integers, frac- 
tions and decimals. Simple fractions in use of recipes for candy, etc., and 
in drawings for woodwork are suggested. 

Requirements at the Close of the Fifth School Year. 


The reading and writing of numbers to billions; four fundamental operations 
with whole numbers, including long division ; weights and measures learned ; easy 
problems in addition, subtraction, and multiplication of fractions. See Everyday 
Arithmetic, Book II, Part III, pages 28-80. Efficiency Arithmetic (Intermediate), 
pages 51-95. 

Attainment of the standard of accuracy and speed in the four fundamental opera- 
tions with whole numbers as measured by the Courtis Standard Research Tests : 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 8 5.6 or 70% 

Subtraction 9 7.4 or 83% 

Multiplication 8 6 or 75% 

Division 6 5 or 77% 

Suggestions for Fifth Year. 
Pupils should be given the Courtis Standard Research Tests, omitting long 
division, some time during the first month of school, and their performance judged 
by the 4A standard which follows : 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 6 4 or 67% 

Subtraction 7 5.6 or 80% 

Multiplication 6 4.6 or 67% 

Division _._ 4 2.2 or 57% 


This is for the purpose of "taking stock" and appreciating what each child 
needs to do to attain the goal of the 5A standard. 

Daily practice of about ten minutes should be given witii the Studebaker tests — 
each child keeping his daily score as per directions. Strict attention should be 
paid to all children who are not making reasonable progress, with a view to 
diagnosing each case and applying the remedy for the inaccuracy or lack of speed. 
In other words, study the individual to help him form a correct habit. 

About the midyear test the class again to see how far each individual has 
progressed toward the goal and at the same time to judge whether the teaching 
has been efficient or not. At the close of the year test again. 

Meantime continue the daily practice with the Studebakers. If at any time 
your class would appear to be tired of the tests, give the drill in some other way 
for a week or so. In case all the group should be weak in a certain operation, as 
for example long division, give the long division tests in succession. 

Remember that there must be constant emphasis upon the fundamentals, because 
all pupils should know how to add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers 
as accurately and as rapidly as other children of about the same age. The Courtis 
tests tell you whether your pupils are able to do this or not. 

In 5B begin long division as if the children had never been taught it. During 
the long vacation they have forgotten this process for which they have had no use 
whatever. See suggestions for 4A. 

Problems may be read from the text, blackboard, notebook, or typewritten sheet. 
Interpret all problems before solving, to be sure that the children read correctly; 
then most of the difficulties will never exist. Keep all problems simple and well 
within a child's experience. Work in problems as well as other phases will be 
found in Efficiency Arithmetic (Intermediate), by Chadsey-Smith, published by 
Atkinson, Mentzer & Co. The fraction work in Everyday Arithmetic, by Iloyt 
and Peet, Book II, Part III, is particularly good to follow, and these books should 
be put into the hands of the children after the subject has been introduced without 

Sixth Grade. 

Suggestions for 6B. 

(1) Reading and writing of large numbers in connection with geography, war 

statistics, etc. 

(2) Practice in fundamental operations three or four times a week. 

(3) Measurements: Review tables. 

(4) Fractions. 

A. Common : Review addition, subtraction ; multiplication and division 

thoroughly taught. 

B. Decimals : Review reading and writing of two places. Continue to three 

and four places. 
Review addition and subtraction. Continue work in multiplication and 
division, using decimals as multipliers and divisors. Develop rules for 
pointing off in the above inductively. 

(5) Problems in whole numbers, fractions and decimals, as in finding averages 

and grades in spelling, etc. Simple business forms in keeping simple 


Suggestions for 6 A. 

(1) Notation and numeration continued as in 6B. 

(2) Four fundamental operations continued as in 6B. 

(3) Measurements : Continued. 

(4) Fractions. 

A. Common: Reviewed through use in problems. 

B. Decimals : Continued as in 6B, 

(5) Percentage. 

Oral: Give per cents as other form of common or decimal fractions. Per 
cents of quantities, etc. See Everyday Arithmetic, Book II, Part IV, 
pages 78-84. 

Written : Finding per cents of numbers when too difficult to do orally. See 
Everyday Arithmetic, Book II, Part IV, pages 84-101. 

(6) Problems : Continued as in 6B. 

Requirements at the Close of the Sixth School Year. 


The reading and writing of any whole numbers, fractions and decimals. Review 
and thorough treatment of the four fundamental operations with common and 
decimal fractions ; beginnings of percentage ; weights and measures ; and the 
attainment of the standard degree of accuracy and speed in the four fundamental 
operations with whole numbers as measured by the Courtis Standard Research 
Tests : 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 10 7.3 or n% 

Subtraction 11 9.3 or 85% 

Multiplication 9 7 or 78% 

Division 8 6.9 or 87% 

Suggestions for Sixth Year. 

Some time during the first month of the school year the pupils should be given 
the Courtis Standard Research Tests, and their performance in the use of the four 
fundamental operations with whole numbers be judged by the 5 A Standard which 
follows : 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 8 5.6 or 70% 

Subtraction 9 7.4 or 83% 

Multiplication 8 6 or 75% 

Division 6 5 or 77% 

Compare the average of the class with the above average as well as the score of 
each pupil with it, in order to help him to understand what he needs to work on 
to attain the goal for the 6A grade. 

Daily practice of from 8 to 10 minutes should be given with the Studebaker 
tests, each child keeping his own daily score as per instructions. The teacher's 
attention should be directed particularly toward those pupils who are not making 
satisfactory or reasonable progress, with a view to diagnosing each case and 
applying the remedy for inaccuracy or lack of speed. In other words, study the 
individual to help him break incorrect habits. 

About the middle of the year test the class again to see how far each individual 
has progressed toward the goal and at the same time to judge whether the teaching 
has been effective or not. At the close of the year make a final test. 


Meantime continue the daily practice with the Studebakers. If at any time the 
ilass appears tired of this form of practice, vary it by giving some other examples 
-r suspending such practice for a few days. In case a pupil or the whole group 
should be weak in a certain process, as for example, addition, give the addition 
tists in succession. 

There must be constant emphasis upon the fundamentai,s because ali. 
' I piLs should know how to add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers 


*. ourtis tests tell you whether or not your pupils are able to do this. 

All problems should be read and interpreted before being solved. Many times 
have the children interpreted some of the problems in their books without solving 
them at all. Keep problems within the child's experience as far as possible. Sug- 
,L:estive material may be found in Efficiency Arithmetic (Intermediate), by Chadsey- 
Sinith, published by Atkinson, Mentzer & Co., pages 178-279. 

Introduce any subject first without any text in the children's hands. After a 
lesson or two without books, take the Everyday Arithmetic, Book II, Part IV, 
which can be given to the children. 

An article on sixth grade storekeeping by Mrs. N. B. Sebree, formerly super- 
visor of that grade, may be obtained in the Training School Library. Copies of 
the Efficiency Arithmetic herein alluded to may be obtained there also. 

7B Grade. 

(1) Test the ability of the pupils in reading and writing large numbers in con- 
nection with their geography work, war statistics, etc. 

In this connection, cover the work in Everyday Arithmetic, Book III, Part V, 
Chapter II. Each pupil may have a copy of this book from the T. S. Library. 

(2) Daily practice in fundamental operations with integers must be. continued 
with all pupils who are not above the standard for their grade in this particular. 
Use of the Studebaker practice tests several times a week has been found the most 
desirable way of conducting this practice so that each individual shall receive 
drill in the operation in which he particularly needs it. 

(3) Review fundamental processes and fractions in Everyday Arithmetic, 
Book III, Part V, Chapter I. The teacher will find supplementary material in 
Efficiency Arithmetic (Advanced), Chapters I and II. Apply at the T. S. Library 
for this book. 

(4) Review percentage in Everyday Arithmetic, Book III, Part V, Chapters III 
and IV. Supplementary material in Efficiency Arithmetic, Chapter III. 

(5) Chapters IV and VI in Everyday Arithmetic, Book III, Part V. 

Suggestions for Seventh Grade. 
Good as all the practical problems in decimals, percentage, etc., are, the one out- 
standing fact is that the world demands that oil boys and girls should know how 
tc add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers as accurately and as rapidly 
as other children of about the same age. In order to bring about this result, 
follow this plan : 

Some time during the first month of the school year the pupils should be given 
the Courtis Standard Research Tests and their performance measured by the 6A 
standard which follows : 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 10 7.3 or 73% 

Subtraction 11 9.3 or 85% 

Multiplication 9 7 or 78% 

Division ._ _ 8 6.9 or 87% 


Compare the score of each with the above in order to help him to understand 
what he needs to work on to attain the goal for the 7 A grade. 

Daily practice of from 8 to 10 minutes should be given with the Studebaker 
tests, each child keeping his own daily score as per instructions in the manual. 
The teacher's attention should be directed particularly toward those pupils who 
are not making reasonable progress, with a view to diagnosing the case and apply- 
ing the remedy for the inaccuracy or lack of speed. Help the pupil to break any 
incorrect habits. Keep a record of each child's progress on the sheets provided 
for the purpose. 

About the close of the 7B work test the class again with Courtis tests to see 
how far each individual has progressed toward the goal and at the same time to 
judge whether the teaching has been efficient or not. At the close of the 7A work, 
test again and judge performance by the 7A standard, which follows : 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 11 8.2 or 75% 

Subtraction 12 10 or 86% 

Multiplication 10 8 or 80% 

Division 10 9 or 90% 

Meantime, daily practice with the Studebakers should be continued all through 
the 7A Grade. If at times the class appears tired of this form of practice, vary it 
by giving some other examples or suspending such practice for a few days entirely. 
In case a pupil or the whole group is weak in a certain process, as for example, 
division, give the division tests in succession. 

Emphasize the interpretation of problems before solving them. 

Introduce or review any subject orally without the books in the pupils' hands. 

7A Grade. 

(1) Daily practice in fundamental operations with integers must be continued 

with all pupils who are not above the standard required for the 7A grade. 

See Suggestions for IB Grade. 

(2) Everyday Arithmetic, Book III, Part V, Chapters V, VII, VIII and IX. 

Suggestions for '^A Grade. 

Instead of (2) it would be an excellent plan to study some phase of business 
arithmetic in the dramatic form, or devote the time to working out the arithmetic 
problems connected with any projects which may be in process of development in 
the grade. 

Suggestive material for dramatizing a business will be found : 

Francis W. Parker School Year Book, Vol. IV, June, 1915, pages 97-103. 
Catalogue of the Francis Parker School, 1915-16, page 74. 

8B Grade. 

(1) Daily practice in fundamental operations with integers must be continued with 
all pupils who are not above the standard required for the grade. 


Every 8B pupil should measure up to the 7A standard (sec Suggestions for 70 
C.rade) at the beginning of 8B. At the close of 8A he should be able to measure 
up to the following as a result of the Courtis tests: 

Attempted. Right. 

Addition 12 9.1 or 76% 

Subtraction 13 11.3 or 87% 

Multiplication 11 8.9 or 81% 

Division 11 10 or 91% 

For suggestions with regard to all of the above, see 7B Grade suggestions. 
(2) Everyday Arithmetic, Book III, Part VI, Chapters I-VI. Supplementary 
work may be found in other arithmetics. 

Suggestions for 8B Grade. 

Instead of (2) it would be far better to devote the time to working out the 
nrithmetic problems connected with any projects which may be in process of 
development in the grade. War problems in connection with geography and 
history would be good. 

8A Grade. 

(1) Same as 8B Grade. 

(2) Everyday Arithmetic, Book III, Part VI, Chapters VII-XIII. Supplemented 

by work in State text, especially the chapter on the equation. 

Suggestions for 8 A. 

Instead of (2) work on projects, or make a study of San Diego's taxing machin- 
ery, or study stocks and bonds in a dramatic way. See Elementary School Journal, 
December, 1917, pages 264-267. Other suggestive material will be found in Effi- 
ciency Arithmetic (Advanced), Part II, which can be obtained in the T. S. 


\ Foundational Study in the Pedagogy of Arithmetic (H. B. Howell). The 

Macmillan Co. 
How to Teach Arithmetic (Brown and Coffman). Row, Peterson & Co. 
The Teaching of Arithmetic (Paul N. Klapper). D. Appleton & Co. 
How to Teach Fundamental Subjects, Chapter III (Kendall and^ Mirick). 

Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
The Psychology of . the Common Branches, Chapter IX (F. N. Freeman). 

Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Motivation of School Work, Chapter IX (H. B. and G. M. Wilson). Houghfon- 

Mifflin Co. 
Teaching Elementary School Subjects, Chapters IX and X (L. W. Rapeer). 

Chas. Scribner's Sons. 



VINNIE B. CLARK, Supervisor of Geography. 

The purpose in formulating the following course of study is to furnish an out- 
line for teachers who have no time for constructive planning. 

The aim of the course is to suggest the presentation and use of geographical 
material in ways that will form good geographical habits with special reference 
to their use in life both in a cultural and in a practical or economic fashion. 
Cognizance is taken of the fact that a very large majority of the pupils will have 
no further opportunity to study this subject either in the high school or in the 
university or college. 

In planning the course the main task has been one of elimination. There is no 
attempt to study each continent from an elementary and later from a more 
advanced point of view ; neither has there been an attempt to study a large number 
of the countries of the earth. The ones of greatest international importance and 
those of closest interest to us are stressed; but through the habits cultivated it is 
hoped that the pupils will be able to learn intelligently of the others as they 
become the center of international or personal interest. 

The elements of social geography (manners and customs), and of industrial 
geography, occupy the greater part of the time, but some of the fundamental 
principles of economic geography form a part of the work of the upper grades. 
Locational geography is not taught as an end in itself, but it is used as a daily 
tool in all grades with a realization that comparative position is an important 
factor in the interpretation of geographical facts. Physical geography, too, is not 
taught in any given part of the course, but in each grade those topics are developed 
which are needed in explanation of the subjects under discussion, as, for instance, 
vulcanism is explained when the class is studying a region of volcanic activity, 
and the formation of a delta is studied when the class is studying a prosperous 
agricultural community or large city which is the outgrowth of delta conditions. 

Beginning in the fifth grade there is definite correlated instruction in climatic 
control of geographical factors, but most of meteorology and climatology is alto- 
gether too scientific for introduction into the elementary curriculum. 

In each grade, the children are expected to add to their geographical vocabulary, 
learning the new terms as they have use for them. More than one-fourth of the 
time is devoted to the study of local and United States geography in recognition 
of the fact that that most closely touches the pupils' lives. A small amount of the 
subject matter is chosen because it is especially interesting to children. Some is 
chosen for culture, whether it has or has not direct economic bearing. The work 
as outlined constantly furnishes excellent material for correlation in industrial arts, 
language and literature. 

The course of study is so arranged that it represents the logical development of 
the subject matter, but not necessarily the order in which the topics are studied in 
each particular grade. The subject matter is arranged as it appears below in 
order that the student teacher may be aided in seeing it in its entirety. The order 
-of presentation is constantly changed, being adapted to each particular group of 
children and to the texts and other materials and opportunities available at the 

As the aim in making the course is to make geography function in life, the 
eighth grade work deals with the interpret«ition of those current events which are 
based wholly or largely on geographical laws. This is the spirit of the "new 


he course represents a transitory stage,— one step in the adaptation of the 
II subject to the best interests of modern development. It is hoped that before 
..iiy have read this outline that we shall have reached the next step — a better 

Third Grade. 

The work of this year includes local geography and stories of child life in other 

lands. The topics in local geography seek to begin the interpretation of maps and 

H's through the association of known places and map symbols. This map 

k precedes the study of child life, so that the children may use their knowledge 

Kips in determining the relative positions of the countries under discussion. 

, lie greater portion of the time is devoted to stories of other countries. It is 
not intended that all classes shall study all of the countries which are included in 
the list below, but that a suitable selection shall be made for each group of 
children. The aims of this portion of the work are to arouse interest in the 
manners and customs of other people through the story form, and so to broaden 
the child's interest, also to give an idea of the world as a whole. 

The climate and topography of a region are not taught as subjects in themselves, 
but only as factors in determining the life and activities of the inhabitants. There 
is no attempt made to have the children fully understand life responses, or to 
generalize ; but they acquire details which will find their places later when the 
principles of geography are more fully developed. 

Through the class work interest in geography is stimulated and the children are 
introduced to books which they may read in their library reading and at home. 
The bibliography below furnishes a list of books from which the children may 
choose. Every stimulation is given to this outside readiiig, and. pupils are also 
encouraged to subscribe to the magazine "Everyland," as it is particularly adapted 
to children's interests. 

I. Introductory local geography. 

A. Points of compass, — at San Diego, map of schoolroom, map of school 

block, map of San Diego, globe, use of compass. 

B. San Diego and its environs, — 

1. San Diego bay, — uses, meaning of bay. 

2. Pacific ocean. . 

3. Point Loma, meaning of peninsula. 

4. Coronado islands, meaning of island. 

5. Coronado, meaning of land-tied island. 

6. Strand, development of sandbar, use; sand dunes. 

7. Jetty, construction, use; fog horns. 

8. Buoys, piers, wharf, Dutch Flats. 

9. Lighthouses, use; life in; other kinds; supported by whom. 
10. Sand table problems. 

C. Mission Valley (Trip to Mission Cliff Gardens)— Characteristics of valley 

floor and upland, formation of valley and side canyons, the river in 
summer and winter, ground water and wells. 

D. Day and night. 

II. Child life in other lands. 

A. Eskimos (Alaska) — Primitive people of high latitude. Winter and sum- 
mer homes, dress, food, boats, dog teams and sleds ; musk ox, walrus, 
seals, salmon, bear, reindeer; northern lights; Indians, white people; 
farming in summer; volcanic activity. 



B. Pygmies, — Primitive people of low latitude. 

Appearance, dress, houses, food, nature of people, weapons, pastimes; 
forests of central Africa. 

C. Holland, — Temperate lowland. 

Dikes, canals, windmills; rural life, houses, dress, markets, dog carts, 
sports; dairying, raising of tulips, truck gardens, fishing. 

D. Switzerland, — Free mountainous country. 

Playground of Europe; rural life, homes, stables, dress, food, herders, 
haying, carving ; life in city, clocks and watches ; mountains and glaciers, 
mountain passes, St. Bernard dogs, tunnels, winter and summer sports : 

E. Mexico, — Our nearest neighbor. 

Life on hacienda, the rich and the peons, dress, schools, food, pulque; 
desert vegetation, henequen ; life in city, markets, national sports, festival 
days ; tropical vegetation, bananas, coconuts ; trip to a silver mine. 

F. Japan, — Oriental island empire. 

People, homes, manners, street scenes, method of travel, games, festival 
days, schools; tea, fishing, silk, rice, unusual plant life, as cherry trees, 
wistaria, lotus, chrysanthemums. 

Third Grade Geography: Japanese Home and Garden. 

G. Philippine Islands, — Our island possessions. 

People, homes, food, schools, water buffalo, sports, manila hemp; a day 
in Manila. 

H. Arabia, — Nomadic people. 

Homes and journeyings on desert; oases, dates, clothing, food; chil- 
dren's playthings, schools of the cities ; camels, ostriches, horses. 

I. France, — A country of great present interest. 

Village life, homes, dress, ways of living; child life in Paris, markets,] 
Eiffel Tower, underground tubes ; manufacture of silk, of perfume ; | 
vineyards, chateau life; schools, fairs. - ; 

J. Child life in United States. 

Winter and summer sports in eastern and western United States and 
in northern and southern United States. 



Frye. New Geography. Bk. I, pages 1-72. Ginn & Co. 

.'\nclrews. Seven Little Sisters. Ginn & Co. 

Chance. Little Folks of Many Lands. Ginn & Co. 

Shaw. Big People and Little People of Many Lands. New York Book Co. 

Perkins. The Twin Series — Eskimo, Dutch, Belgian, French, Japanese, Irish, 

Mexican. Houghton-Miflflin Co. 
Smith. Holland Stories. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Smith. Eskimo Stories. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Grover. The Overall Boys in Switzerland. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Grover. The Sunbonnet Babies in Holland. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Ohnstead & Grant. Ned and Nan in Holland. Row, Peterson & Co. 
Burks. Barbara's Philippine Journey. World Book Company. 
Little; Francisco the Filipino. American Book Co. 
Button. School Children the World Over. F. A. Stokes & Co. 
Youth's Companion. The Wide World. Ginn & Co. 
Youth's Companion. Under Sunny Skies. Ginn & Co. 
Youth's Companion. Toward the Rising Sun. Ginn & Co. 
Youth's Companion. Strange Lands Near Home. Ginn & Co. 
Youth's Companion. Northern Europe. Ginn & Co. 

References for the Teacher. 

The Little Cousin Series. Page Co. 

Little People Everywhere — Series. Little, Brown & Co. 

Peeps at Many Lands — Series. A. & C. Black, London. The Macmillan Co. 

George. Library of Travel. A. Flanagan. 

Carpenter. Geographical Readers. Set — American Book Co. 

Tolman & Hart. Around the World. Bks. I, H, HI, IV. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Morris. Home Life in All Lands. Lippincott. 

Headland. The Chinese Boy and Girl. Revell Co. 

Wade. Dolls of Many Lands. W. A. Wilde Co. 

Fourth Grade. 

This year's work teaches the geography of California and of the United States 
through the geography of San Diego. 

The aims are: (1) to encourage the pupil's power of observation; (2) to 
develop the questioning attitude and so to lead to an intelligent attitude of mind ; 
(3) to gain some insight into the relation of the home city to the other parts of 
the United States ; (4) to furnish a certain amount of first-hand knowledge which 
will form a background in interpreting conditions in other parts of the world; 
and (5) to teach children how to acquire information from books. 

In the development of many of the subjects the most important source of 
information is found in the trips to local points of interest. These should be, 
preferably, class exercises. The second important source of information is 
various kinds of pictures. Books form a third source, and information furnished 
by the teacher in story form the last. It is as the first sources predominate over 
the last that the work is considered vital. 

In handling subjects which are correlated with an excursion, the work falls into 
three distinct parts : first, the preparation for the trip ; second, the trip ; and third, 
a discussion of the trip with additional teaching and a general summary. Taking 
the subject of Wheat, (Topic XIII in outline) as an illustration, the preparation for 


the trip consists in a study of the conditions of growth,, stories of harvesting anc 
preparation for the market as outlined under A. Each child is then provided 
with the following questions which the children read and discuss in class in ordei 
that each child may know what to look for on the trip. 


1. Where did the mill get the wheat? 

2. How was the wheat brought to San Diego? 

3. How was the wheat put into the storage bins? 

4. Discuss the storage bins. 

5. What is first done to make wheat into flour? 

6. What are middlings? 

7. How is the flour sifted? How many times is it sifted? Why is it sifted? 

8. What is bran? 

9. What is whole wheat? 

10. What is graham? 

11. How is the flour put into sacks? 

12. What sizes of sacks are used? 

13. Why does the man who sews up the sacks have a magnet? 

14. What are the chief markets for this flour? 

15. What advantage is there in the location of this factory? 

16. How is corn meal made? 


1. From what is macaroni made? 

2. How is the dough kneaded? 

3. How is it molded? How dried? 


1. Of what are crackers made? 

2. How is the dough set? 

3. How is the dough kneaded? 

4. Explain how the crackers are rolled and cut. 

5. How are they baked? Packed? 

6. To what other cities are these crackers shipped? 
After the trip the questions are answered in class. 
Both in the preparation for the trip and in the discussion, the children are aided 

in getting their own material and information from their texts and from other 

In developing subjects which are not correlated with excursions, the acquisition 
of information falls into five parts: first, information furnished by any child's 
experience gained in local observation or travel ; second, information found in the 
text, which is usually very meagre; third, that given by a child in the form of a 
special report prepared as library work; fourth, that told or read to the class by 
the teacher; and fifth, that acquired from pictures which are used in explanation 
with the first four sources. 

As an illustration of the development of such a subject, take Topic IV— 
Irrigation and Water supply. First, questions to be answered from the children's 
knowledge : 

1. How do you irrigate your gardens? Why? 

2. How are citrus groves irrigated? 
.3. From where does the water come? 

4. Describe Sweetwater Dam and other dams in the back country. 


5. Where are dams built? 

6. Why do we have dams? 

7. Why is irrigation necessary? 

8. The children should then add any personal knowledge they have of any other 

irrigated region. 

9. Who has lived in a region in which irrigation is not necessary? Describe. 
The children's texts do not furnish additional material on this subject, but 

l'\iirbank's "Western United States" furnishes material for the teacher. 

In summarizing, the children should see that irrigation is common to the 
western states but not to the eastern, should know why so much of the western 
part requires it, should understand why the area of irrigated land is increasing 
rapidly and the part that the government takes in development projects. 

The subjects in this year's work are so selected that they are directly related to 
the children's lives, most of them dealing with their food, clothing or homes. The 
details of manufacturing of even familiar objects are generally omitted, stress 
being laid on the simple processes of our industrial and agricultural life. Attention 
is here given to physiographic controls, and at the end of the year's work the 
children should have some knowledge of the main physiographic provinces of 
North America in regard to their extent, characteristic features and climate, and 
the effect of these upon life, both plant and animal, and upon human activities. 

Various forms of motor work are used, having for their purpose, first, the 
developing, systematizing and rounding out of the subject matter; second, the 
increasing of the interest by making the work more playful and at the same time 
more concrete; and, third, the developing of ideas. The motor work includes 
such types as making of product belt maps, sand table problems, scrapbooks, paper 
cutting, posters and the making of collections. 

As in the third grade, the children are encouraged to supplement their school 
work by reading along geographical lines. Attractive books are called to their 
attention in class and then permitted to circulate under the guidance of the 
geography teacher. These books are on the subjects studied in class, but also on 
any geography subjects of special interest to children. In order to sustain the 
world interest developed in the third grade, and also to prepare the children for 
the more intensive work on the continents later, the grade is furnished with the 
current numbers of three monthly magazines, the National Geographic Magazine, 
Travel, and Everyland. 

In order that the reading of these magazines may be directed, a weekly assembly 
of the entire fourth grade is held. The time is devoted to music, reading and 
geography. During this time children give reports on magazine articles, and also 
on trips which they have taken or of which they have knowledge from their 

Outline of Subject Matter. (40 weeks.) 

I, Trip to Old Town, — site of old San Diego; olive industry, citrus fruits, 
cacti; sand table problem (out of doors if possible). 
II. Trip to Fort Rosecrans and the new lighthouse. 

III. Interpretation of maps of San Diego County; automobile maps for each 

child, location of places already known. 

IV, Irrigation and water supply, in this region ; contrast with regions of heavier 

V. Balboa Park (Trip to Zoo), — gift, purpose, uses; city parks in general; 
compare with national parks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, Grand Canyon of 


VI. Transportation, by land and water. 
VII. The fish industry. 

A. Of San Diego (trips to piers, market and canneries), — tuna, albacorc, 

yellowtail, sardines, lobsters, turtles, etc. 

B. Of west coast and Alaska, — salmon, herring. 

C. Of east coast, — cod, oysters. 
VIII. Fruits. 

A. Figs. 

B. Grapes, — raisins, table grapes. 

C. Prunes, apricots, peaches, etc. 
IX. Nuts, — walnuts, almonds, pecans. 

X. Truck gardening, — its relation to a city. 
XI. Lumber industry, of San Diego (a trip to mill), of the Northwest, of New 
England, of the South ; paper making ; purpose of National Forests, 
conservation ; shipbuilding. 
XII. Imperial Valley. 

A. Formation. 

B. Irrigation. 

C. Industries. 

1. Dates, — introduction from Asia, conditions of growth, varieties, 

harvesting crop, marketing, food value. 

2. Cotton (the subject of cotton is introduced here, but is taught 

for the cotton belt at the same time), — regions, conditions of 
growth, ginning, baling, manufacturing, use of water power, 
products from cotton seeds. 

3. Poultry. 

4. Melons and cantaloupes, — marketing. 

5. Stock raising. (These industries in Imperial Valley are used to 

introduce the subjects. Discussions of these industries in the 
regions where they are more important follow.) 

a. Hogs, — method of raising, regions, reasons. 

b. Cattle, — ranching, regions, reasons. 

f. Sheep, — life of a flock of sheep, regions, reasons. 

d. Difference between cattle and sheep ranches. 

e. Transportation to meat packing centers, — work at packing 

houses, refrigerator cars. 
/. Export trade, — live animals, fresh meat, canned and smoked 

g. Wool, — shearing, cleaning, baling, transportation, spinning, 

carding, weaving. 
h. Hides, — tanning, uses. 
i. Horses and mules, — main regions. 

6. Alfalfa. 
XIII. Wheat. 

A. Raising of wheat. 

1. In West. 

2. In Central States, — life on a farm, sowing, harvesting, threshing, 


B. Trip to flour mills, cracker factory and macaroni factory. 

C. Flour, — making, uses, substitutes, marketing. 

D. Wheat belt, — its relation to other parts of the United States from an 

economic point of view. 


E. Milling centers, — Minneapolis, Buffalo. 

F. Transportation routes for export to foreign countries. 

G. Importance as a food in this country and in other countries. 
XIV. Corn, — maize or Indian corn. (This would be included in a trip to the 

flour mills.) 

A. Uses. 

1. As a food to man. 

2. As a food for stock. 
a. Hogs. 
h. Milch cows and cattle. 

3. Other uses. 

B. Corn belt. 
XV. Kaffir corn and other sorghums. 

XVI. Rye, barley, oats. 

XVII. Rice, — conditions of growth, regions, preparation for market. 
XVIII. Dairying, — trip to dairy, work of a separator, making butter, making of 
cheese, making of ice, a dairy farm, dairying in main dairy states, 
market for dairy products. 
XIX. Sugar. 

A. Beet, — conditions of growth, regions producing, refining centers. 

B. Cane, — conditions of growth, regions, by-products, refining centers 
as San Francisco, New Orleans, Philadelphia. 

C. Maple. 

D. Honey. 

E. Importance of sugar. 
XX. Tobacco, — trip to cigar factory, study of method of manufacture, con- 
ditions of growth, main regions, main markets as Louisville, Ky. 

XXI. Petroleum, — how formed, drilling, regions, products. 
XXII. Coal, — method of mining, miners, kinds, coal fields, relation to manufac- 
turing, other uses, coke. 

XXIII. Iron, — important regions, mining, transportation to coal fields, pig iron, 
iron and steel products, Pittsburg, Birmingham. 

XXIV. Copper, gold and silver treated by the same method as iron and coal. 
XXV. Onyx and granite, — quarrying, uses, comparison of buildings in regions 

having building stone and those without it. 
XXVI. Semi-precious stones of San Diego County, — trip to mine exhibit. 
XXVII. Type cities, — New York, San Francisco, Washington, 
CXVIII. Summary. 

A. Climate. 

1. Difference between north and south. 

2. Difference between east and west. 

B. Physiography, — compare density of population and products of the 
plain and mountain states. 

C. Main regions for manufacturing, mining and farming. 



Frye. New Geography. Bk.- 1, pages 75-177. 
Shillig. The Four Wonders. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Hall. Weavers and Other Workers. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Button. In Field and Pasture. American Book Co. 



Mott and Button. Fishing and Hunting. American Book Co. 

Tappan. The Farmer and His Friends. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Chamberlain. How We Are Fed. The Macmillan Co. 

Chamberlain. How We Are Clothed. The Macmillan Co. 

Chamberlain. How We Are Housed. The Macmillan Co. 

Chamberlain. How We Travel. The Macmillan Co. 

Tolman and Hart. Around the World. Bk. IV. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Fairbanks. Geography of California. Whitaker. 

Chase and Clow. Stories of Industry. Bks. I and II. Educational Publishing Co. 

Fairbanks. Rocks and Minerals. Educational Publishing Co. 

Fairbanks. Stories of Mother Earth. Educational Publishing Co. 

Carpenter. How the World Is Fed. American Book Co. 

Carpenter. How the World Is Clothed. American Book Co. 

Carpenter. How the World Is Housed. American Book Co. 


Companion Series. Our Country East. Perry Mason Co. 
Companion Series. Our Country West. Perry Mason Co. 
Companion Library. The Great Lake Country, Along the Atlantic, In New 

England, On the Plains, On the Gulf, etc. Perry Mason Co. 
Rocheleau. Great American Industries. (3 volumes.) Flanagan. 
Carpenter. North America. American Book Co. 
Crissey. The Story of Food. Rand-McNally & Co. 
Freeman and Chandler. World's Commercial Products. Ginn & Co. 

For additional references for the teacher's use, see the bibliography for 7B. 

Fifth Grade. 

The aims of this year are: (1) to develop correct habits of study; (2) to teach 
the correct use of geographical materials; (3) to cultivate logical thinking through 
constant relation of cause and effect, and also to cultivate a logical and correct 
expression of the same; (4) to develop a desire to travel; (5) to furnish a certain 
amount of information to aid in intelligent living. 

The work includes the study of South America, Australia, and Asia. South 
America is selected as the first continent for intensive work, first, because it is the 
continent in which the effect of physiographic and climatic controls on human 
activities, products and commerce is most clearly and simply shown; and, second, 
because of its rapidly increasing relations with the United States. Australia 
repeats many of the same geographical laws, and Asia introduces the more com- 
plicated physiographic conditions as well as the more difficult climatic conditions 
of the temperate zone. In studying each of these continents the main topics are 
the manners and customs of the people, the products supplied to the United States 
or to other parts of the world, and also those commodities which are handled as 
imports. The interdependence of temperate and tropical countries is developed. 

The topics given under each continent are suggestive, the work being adapted, 
increased, diminished or modified in various ways for successive groups of chil- 
dren. The list of reference books aims to furnish a variety of books large enough 
to meet the tastes of the different children, and also to be adequate in number for 
the class. 

In this grade training in the following subjects is begun as the need for each 
one of them arises : 

I. Latitude and longitude. 

Latitude is taught thoroughly before beginning longitude. 


II. Zones. 

III. Doldrums, trade winds, horse latitudes, westerlies. The subject of winds is 
taught by itself, and each belt is also emphasized where it is the controlling 
factor in the subject under discussion. 

Order of procedure. 

A. Characteristics of doldrum belt. 

B. Trades. 

1, approximate extent of each belt; 2, causes; 3, migration; 

4, location in South America and world. 

C. Horse latitudes. 

D. Westerlies. 

IV. Use of index. 

V. Use of scale of miles. 
VI. Use of legend. 
VII. Use of pronouncing gazetteer. 
VIII. Use of reference books. 

Outline of Subject Matter. 
South America. (20 weeks.) 

I. Climate (taught as a factor of control). 
II. Topography. 

A. Highlands, — Andes mountains, Brazilian highlands, Guiana highlands. 

B. Valleys and rivers, — Amazon, Orinoco, Paraguay, Parana, La Plata. 

III. People, government, and languages (relation to history). 

A. Native Indians, — Incas, Tehuelches, Onas, Yaghans, Caribs. 

B. Negroes. • 

C. Whites. 

IV. Vegetation zones (taught in connection with other subjects). 

A. Tropical forests. 

B. Grassy regions, — Campos of Brazil, Llanos of Venezuela, Pampas of 

Argentina, Gran Chaco (parklike). 

C. Deserts. 

1, Dry desert, — Atacama (nitrate of soda). 

2. Cold desert. 
V. Plant products. 

Tropical,— rubber, coffee, Brazil nuts, coconuts, vegetable ivory, 

Panama straw hats, cacao, bananas, manioc. 
Temperate, — wheat, corn, flaxseed, mate. 
VI. Animal products, — cattle and sheep and related products. 
VII. Mineral products,— nitrate of soda, guano, tin, asphaltum, copper, emeralds, 

VIII. Animals. 

A. Domesticated, — llama, vicuna, alpaca, guanaco. 

B. Wild. 

IX. Commerce, — reasons for exportation of raw products and importation of 

manufactured articles. 
X. Trade routes,— land and water, causes for lack of ample railroads. 
XI. Possible excursions,— tire company, wholesale grocery, jewelry and gem 

stores, municipal pier. 


XII. Suggestive motor work,— beasts of burden, methods of transportation 
(especially types of boats), types of homes, weapons, Argentine ranch 
scene, Carib or other Indian village, rubber plantation, etc. The motor 
work furnishes material for correlation with industrial arts. 


Frye. New Geography. Book I, pages 178-189. Ginn & Co. 

Allen. Geographical and Industrial Studies, South America. Ginn & Co. 
Reference books and magazines. 

National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D. C. 

Pan American Union. Washington, D. C. 

The South American Magazine. 310 Lexington avenue. New York City. 

Everyland Magazine. 160 Fifth avenue. New York City. 

Bowman. South America. Rand-McNally & Co. 

Carpenter. South America. American Book Co. 

Carpenter. South America. Advanced. American Book Co. 

Freeman and Chandler. World's Commercial Products (pictures). Ginn & Co. 

Chamberlain. Home and World Series. The Macmillan Co. 

Coe. Our American Neighbors. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Youth's Companion. Strange Lands Near Home. Ginn & Co. 

Wade, etc. Cousin Series, — Brazil, Argentina, Panama. Page Co. 

Australia. (5 weeks.) 
I. Position and size. 
II. Topography, Continental Border, and Barrier Reef. 

III. Climate. (Review winds.) 

IV. Animals. 

A. Native, — causes of peculiarity, varieties. 

B. Imported, — sheep, cattle. 
V. Plants. 

A. Native, — varieties, types of commercial value. 

B. Imported, — cereals. 
VI. People. 

A. Aborigines. 

B. Europeans. (Relate to history.) 
VII. Minerals, — gold. 

VIII. Pearl fisheries. 
IX. Government aid in industries and education. 
X. Trade routes. 

A. Oceanic, — Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide. 

B. Railroad, — transcontinental roads, Perth. 
XI. Tasmania. 

XII. New Zealand, — compare with Australia. 
XIII. East Indies, — general location and character of products. 

Fox. Peeps at Many Lands — Australia. A. & C. Black. 
Nixon. Our Little Australian Cousin. Page Co. 
Carpenter. Austraha. American Book Co. 
Herbertson. Australia and Oceania. A. & C. Black. 
Kellogg. Australia and Islands of the Sea. Silver, Burdett & Co. 
National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D. C. 
Asia. World and Its People. Book VII. Silver, Burdett & Co. 


Asia. (15 weeks.) 
Size in comparison with other continents. 
Comparison in size of Asia and Europe. 
Boundary line between Asia and Europe. 

I. Topography, coastline, review of zones with deductions as to climate and 
II. Philippine Islands. 

A. Location, number, topography, climate. 

B. People (relate to history), — natives, Spanish, Americans, others. 

C. Manners and customs, — homes, dress, religion, etc. 

D. Education. 

E. Products, — Manila hemp. 

F. Development of islands with American aid. 

III. Japan. 

A. Position, topography (Fujiyama), climate. 

B. Manners and customs, — homes, gardens, shops, dress, games, school, 

farm life, religion, pagodas. 

C. Industries. 

1. Agriculture, — rice, tea, silk, bamboo. 

2. Fishing. 

3. Mining, — coal. 

4. Manufacturing, — textiles, lacquer, basketry, pottery, toys, paper, 


D. Density of population and necessity for territorial expansion. 

E. Korea. 

F. Merchant marine. 

G. Modern improvements, — telegraph, telephone, railroads. 

IV. China. 

A. Size and topography. 

B. Climate, — include floods. 

C. History, — isolation, Great Wall, Grand Canal, curious inventions, 

ancient buildings. 

D. Manners and customs (China proper), — ceremonial life, homes 

(include house boats), dress, foods, primitive methods of work, 
methods of travel, education and religion. 

E. Industries. 

1. Agriculture, — tea, rice, silk, millet, cotton. 

2. Mining, — future of. 

3. Manufacturing, — textiles, brick tea, paper. 

4. Fishing. 

F. Density of population, — effect on labor. 

G. Manchuria. 
H. Thibet. 


V. India. 

A. Comparative size. 

B. Topography, — Himalayas, plains, plateau. 

C. Climate, — special reference to monsoons. 

D. Density of population as related to plenty and famine. 

E. Relation to England. 

F. People. 

1. Manners and customs, — old and new. 

a. Castes. 

b. Homes. 

c. Foods. (Mainly vegetable diet.) See religion. 

d. Dress. 

e. Religion, — of the Hindus, with scenes on Ganges and at 

Benares ; Mohammedanism, with scenes at Delhi. 
/. Education. 
g. Travel. 

G. Industries. 

1. Agriculture, — wheat and other cereals, cotton, tea (reference to 

Ceylon), rubber (reference to Ceylon), coffee. 

2. Lumbering, 

3. Manufacturing. 

H. Government improvements, — railroads, schools, postal system, tele- 
graph, electric power, factories. 
I. Commerce, — Calcutta, Bombay. 
VI. Siberia. 

A. Possibilities in the future. 

1. Resources, — agricultural, mineral, forest. 

B. Needs for development, — government, education, transportation. 
VII. Holy Land. 

A. Present scenes. 

B. Relation to Christianity, — Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Jordan River, Dead 

Sea, Sea of Galilee. 
VIII. Oriental rugs, — Turkoman, Persian, Kirghiz. 


Carpenter. Asia. American Book Co. 

Allen. Geographical and Industrial Studies of Asia. Ginn & Co. 

Huntington. Asia. A Geographical Reader. Rand-McNally & Co. 

Redway. All Around Asia. Scribner's Sons. 

Youth's Companion Series. Toward the Rising Sun. Perry Mason Co. 

Little Cousin Series. Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Arabian, Indian, Hindu, 
Persian, Armenian, Jewish, Siamese. L. C. Page. 

Peeps at Many Lands Series. Japan, Ceylon, Burma. A. & C. Black. 

McDonald & Dalrymple. Ume San in Japan. Little, Brown & Co. 

Headland. Chinese Boy and Girl. F. H. Revell. 

Holland. Things Seen in Japan. E. P. Dutton. 

Scidmorc. Jinrikisha Days in Japan. Harper Bros. 

Fink. Lotus Time in Japan. Scribner's Sons. 


Sixth Grade. 
The aims in the sixth grade are the same as those which govern the work in 
the fifth grade. In these two years each continent is taken up separately as 
preparation for more intensive work on North America. As in the fifth grade, 
in studying each country special emphasis is laid on the manners and customs of 
the people. This leads to a discussion of the various nationalities which have 
emigrated to the United States. Special distinctive industries, the reasons for the 
same, and their relation to the United States, are of the next importance. Great 
manufacturing industries which are common to most of the great countries of 
the world receive less attention. Art and architecture are discussed in so far as 
tlicy affect the life of the people. 

Topics and book reports are important parts of the work. The topical reports 
are short, are given by individual children before the entire class, are on the 
Mihject or country which the class is studying at the time, cover material found 
ill reference books instead of in the texts, and have as their chief aim the increas- 
ing of interest by furnishing additional explanatory material. These topics are 
generally selected by the teacher, and outlines are given to the children to aid 
l>otli in their preparation and in giving the report before the class. 

One book report is given each week by some child. The bibliography indicates 
1) »oks which may be used. Generally a book is selected which is not directly 
associated with the class work but which is interesting from a child's point of view. 
Iceland, or Finland, from "Peeps at Many Lands Series," "Our Little Bohemian 
Cousin," and "Dutch Days" are illustrations of good books. An outline for the 
book report is also given to the child to help him in selecting the important parts. 
Reports on articles in the National Geographic Magazine are given during the 
same period. 

Europe. (1 year.) 

I. Eurasia, — review position, relative size, coast line, topography, drainage, 
climatic belts. 

II. Europe as a whole. 

A. Location, — value of lying in temperate zone, proximity to Asia and 

Africa, relation to western hemisphere. 

B. Coast line. 

C. Topography. 

D. Vegetation zones,— tundras, steppes, temperate forests, subtropical 


E. The position, topography, coast line and climate of each country is 

studied when that country is taken up. They are taught as the 
factors determining all human activities, and so the development of 

III. France. 

A. Coast line and seaports,— Bordeaux, Havre, Cherbourg, Brest, St. 

Nazaire, Nantes, Calais, Marseilles. Note how recent events have 
brought some of these ports into prominence. 

B. Climate,— importance of westerlies, difference between northern and 

southern France, comparison with other countries in same latitude. 

C. People, — in rural districts of southern and northern France, in Paris. 

D. Industries,— agriculture, dairying, vineyards and wine industry, graz- 

ing, fishing, mining; manufacture of silk, cotton, wool, iron and 
steel, porcelain, gloves, lace, imitation jewelry, etc. 

E. Paris and Versailles. 


IV. Belgium. 

A. Position with respect to other European countries and to main ocean 


B. Industries, — relation of present progress in reconstruction to former 

important industries. 

C. Density of population, — ^pre-war and present. 
V. Holland. 

A. Topography, — hilly regions and their value, plains, reclamation of land 

in past and future. 

B. People, — life in rural districts, in cities. 

C. Occupations, — agriculture, dairying, raising of bulbs, truck gardening, 

making of pottery, diamond cutting and other manufacturing. 

D. Important cities, — Hague, Amsterdam, Rotterdam. 
VI. Germany. 

A. Resources, — mineral, agricultural, forest. 

B. Development of manufacturing. 

C. Political parts of. See current events. 
VII. Austria-Hungary. 

This country should be studied in relation to the varied types of people 
who made up the old Austria-Hungary: Magyars, Slavs, Germans, etc. 
This will naturally lead to the discussion of the regrouping and location 
of the various peoples as determined by the Versailles Peace Conference. 
This readjustment from the old to the new can be best brought out 
through the making of two maps by the individual members of the class, 
the first representing the former political parts and the second represent- 
ing the new boundaries when determined. Special attention is given to 
the manners and customs of the Magyars, Bohemians and Servians, as 
being topics on which material suitable for children may be found. 
VIII. Italy. 

A. Climate in comparison with California. 

B. People, — life in rural districts, in cities. 

C. Agricultural products, — compared with Southern California; raising of 


D. Industries, — marble, mosaics, fishing, manufacturing, dairying. 

E. Typical cities, — Rome, Naples, Venice. 
IX. Spain and Portugal. 

A. People, — life in rural districts, in cities. 

Spanish customs in southwestern United States. 

B. Industries, — reasons for backward condition. 

C. Typical cities, — Lisbon, Oporto, Madrid; Barcelona. 

D. Special topics, — Gibraltar; Granada and the Alhambra. 

X. British Isles, — Meaning of Great Britain, United Kingdom, British Isles, 
British Empire. 

A. Ireland, — rural life, round towers, Blarney Castle, Lakes of Killarney, 

peat bogs, linen industry, shipbuilding. Giant's Causeway, etc. 

B. Scotland, — life of the people, collie dogs, heather, sheep raising, ship- 

building, mining. 

C. England. 

1. People, — life in rural England. 

2. Industries, — manufacturing of cotton, wool, steel, toys, mining of 

coal and iron, agriculture, fishing. 


3. Commerce, — imports and exports. 

4. Colonies, — the commercial relation of England to each of her 

larger colonies. 

5. Transportation, — railroads, canals, merchant marine. 

6. London. 

XI. Russia. The following outline may be used, providing that Russia remains 
as in 1914, or may apply to any remaining portion. Any part which 
is set up as an independent country should be treated separately. 

A. Area, — comparison with United States. 

B. Vegetation zones and resources of each, — tundras, forest belt, agricul- 

tural belt, black earth region, steppes or the pastoral belt. 

C. Mineral resources, — petroleum, coal, iron, platinum, precious stones, 


D. Fishing resources, — Arctic, Baltic, Black Sea, Caspian Sea. 

E. Life in rural districts. 

F. Government as it has affected the people, general lack of education, 

poverty, democratic spirit as exemplified in local representative 

Geography: Model of project to be made by children. 

G. Transportation,— railroad mileage in proportion to area, Trans- 
Siberian Railroad, Murmansk Railroad, Archangel Railroad. 
XII. Norway and Sweden. 

A. Position, coast line, topography. 

B. Climate, — compared with others in same latitude. 

C. The midnight sun. 

D. Manners and customs, — of Norway, of Sweden. 

E. Characteristic scenery. 

F. Main industries, — of Norway, of Sweden. 

XIIL Denmark. Its development into a great agricultural country. 
XIV. Switzerland. 

A. Position in Europe, topography. 

B. Rural life, — homes, pastoral industries, dairying, wood carving, 


C. Glaciers and other types of scenery. 

D. Mountain passes and tunnels. 

E. Industries, — watch making, nitrate industry. 


XV. Greece. Type cities, — Athens and Salonika. 
XVI. Turkey. Constantinople, — scenes in that city. 


Tarr & McMurry. Advanced Geography. State text. 
Allen. Industrial Studies of Europe. Ginn & Co. 
Carpenter. Geographical Reader. Europe. American Book Co. 
Reference books. 

Blaich. Three Industrial Nations. American Book Co. 
Herbertson. Europe. Clarendon Press. 

George. Little Journey Series, — Scotland and Ireland, France and Switzer- 
land, England and Wales, Holland, Belgium and Denmark, Italy and Spain, 

etc., etc. Flanagan. 
Little Cousin Series, — Scotch, Irish, English, Russian, French, Belgian, Dutch, 

Danish. L. C. Page & Co. 
Peeps at Many Lands Series, — Wales, Scotland, London, France, Iceland, 

Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Hungary, Finland, Ireland, Holland, Norway, 

etc. A. and C. Black. 
Little People Everywhere Series. Donald in Scotland, Kathleen in Ireland, 

Marta in Holland, Gerda in Sweden, Boris in Russia, Rafael in Italy, Josefa 

in Spain. Little, Brown & Co. 
King. Northern Europe. Lothrop. 
Cole. Modern Europe. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

De Groot. When I Was a Girl in Holland. Lothrop, Lee and Shepard. 
Hall. Dutch Days. Moffat, Yard & Co. 
. Ambrosi. When I Was a Girl in Italy. Lothrop, Lee and Shepard. 
Irving. Alhambra. 

7B Grade. 


The work of the seventh grade is devoted to the study of North America, the 
greater portion of the time being given to the United States. The work consists 
of the working out of certain problems and is very frequently correlated with the 
work in English and in arithmetic. The time devoted to any one problem varies 
from one week to six weeks, and the problem is sometimes a class and sometimes 
an individual one. The subjects for discussion are so selected that they arouse 
the pupil's interest in the development and growth of the United States, and also 
in the relation of the United States to other nations. 

Some of the problems which have been studied are : Shipbuilding, the work of 
the U. S. government in reclamation of land, establishment of national parks and 
forests, the Weather Bureau, the place of immigrants in industry, infant 
industries, the commerce on the Great Lakes, transcontinental railroads, the chief 
exports and imports of the United States, our trade with South America, the 
mineral resources of Canada and of Mexico compared with those of the United 
States, the railroads and natural resources of Alaska, the geographical factors 
determining growth of the large cities, and the development of waterways in the 
United States. 



Southworth and Kramer. Great Cities of the United States. Iroquois Pub. Co. 

Hotchkiss. Representative Cities of the United States. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

Allen. Industrial Studies of United States. Ginn & Co. 

McMurry. Type Studies from United States Geography. The Maoniillan Co. 

r.laich. Three Industrial Nations. American Book Co. 

McMurry. Larger Types of American Geography. The Macmillan Co. 

Mills. Searchlights on Some American Industries. McClurg. 

v'^uiith. Commerce and Industry. Holt & Co. 

v'^mith. Industrial and Commercial Geography. Holt & Co. 

1 )i yer. Elementary Economic Geography. American Book Co. 

I'.i shop and Keller. Industry and Trade. Ginn & Co. 

The New International Year Book. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York City. 

v'^iatistical Atlas of the United States. Census Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

World Almanac. Press Publishing Co. New York City. 

I'. S. Agricultural Yearbook. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Mineral Resources of Canada. Department of Mines, Ottawa, Canada. 

-Mineral Resources of United States. Department of Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Trade of the United States: Imports, Part I; Exports, Part II. Department of 

Commerce, Washington, D. C. 
Ccography of the World's Agriculture. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 

D. C. 

8B Grade. 


The first six weeks is given to a study of mathematical geography, the following 
topics being discussed: Solar system, movements of the earth, zones, seasons, 
length of daylight, latitude, longitude, standard time, phases of the moon, and 
eclipses of the sun and moon. 

The remainder of the time is devoted to the geography of current events. 
The problems studied differ each year, but the outlines below indicate some of the 
types of work. 

I. New boundary lines in Europe. 

A. The old parts of Austria-Hungary. , 

B. The Czechoslovaks, — economic resources of Bohemia, etc. 

C. The Jugoslavs. 

D. Ukraine, — its peoples and resources. 

E. Poland. 

F. Finland. 

G. Lithuania. 

H. The former kingdoms in Germany. 
II. The food of the war. 

Wheat, corn, barle}'-, rye, oats, rice, sugar, potatoes, beef, pork, mutton, fish, 
beans, butter, cheese, condensed milk, eggs. 

In developing the above topics, each of the following was discussed: The 
amount produced by each country, the amount formerly consumed by 
each country, the relation of the supply of the United States to the 
world's supply, and the relation of the world's needs to the world's 


III. Food conservation necessitated by the war. 

To emphasize the need of conservation each child made an illustrated book 
on foods which should be eaten, foods which should not be eaten, 
substitutes for sugar, substitutes for wheat and substitutes for meat. 

Newspapers and current magazines will suggest topics of future geographical 
importance, and the class work will consist in the interpretation of those events. 
The readjustments in Europe will furnish commercial and economic problems; the 
econornic development of China will probably furnish excellent international 
topics; the trade of the United States always furnishes excellent material, and 
many less important questions will add zest to the work. There is always an 
abundance of topics rather than a dearth. 

Dolls dressed by eighth grade geography class. 



le Purpose of Nature Study. 
•A very large part of the environment of every child is or should be nature. 
o interest him in this environment and to teach him how to interpret his 
surroundings is the work of the nature study lesson. There can be no doubt that 
l)roper study of nature will give the child more zest in the enjoyment of his 
natural environment and make him more observant and thoughtful. 

Principles Which Guide in the Selection of Material. 

The future seems very far removed to the mind of a little child, and there is 
need for an immediate object of interest. His pets, the wild flowers among which 
he plays, and the quick-growing vegetables of his garden are proper objects of 
his study. As he grows older the goal to which his interest is directed may be 
advanced a little into the future. He can now be interested in learning the 
principles of gardening, for he has the hope of learning how to make a good 
garden of his own at home. Or, his desire to make a mineral collection may be 
.1 sufficient stimulus upon which to base a study of mineralogy. A little further 
along, the boy begins to look forward toward manhood and the girl toward 
womanhood. This forward look of the boy and girl ^ives the teacher an 
opportunity to substitute future aims for those of the immediate present. 

With the coming of this changing view of life (say in the eighth grade) should 
come a change in both the aims and the methods of nature study. For the boys, 
topics of economic importance such as agriculture, electricity, mechanics, etc., 
should be substituted for the merely cultural subject matter of the lower grades. 
Physiology and hygiene, including social hygiene, though necessary in all grades, 
should find their fullest development in the upper grades, where the growing 
desire for manly strength furnishes the necessary motivation. 

With girls the economic sense is not so strong, but their growing interest in 
the well-known womanly qualities, love of beauty and of home making, suggests 
an opportune time for hygiene, domestic science and ornamental gardening. 

Arrangement of Subject Matter by Grades. 

Up to the sixth grade it has been thought best to utilize a great variety of topics, 
for interest can not be sustained without novelty. But as the children become 
older a more definite sequence in subject matter becomes possible. As the nursery 
rhyme period of childhood gives way to the serial story period, the purely observa- 
tional period of nature study should give way to a more consecutive study of some 
given subdivision of nature. 

The name "nature study" may advantageously be dropped at about the sixth 
grade, and such terms as "agriculture," "elementary science," etc., be used instead. 

Localizing important phases of nature study at some definite place in the school 
course is likely to be productive of better teaching than if portions of each phase 
are distributed indiscriminately throughout the curriculum. Their segregation 
enables us, also, to place them in their proper sequence relative to the needs of 
the developing child. 


Pedagogical references. 

The Teaching of Science. Trafton. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Teaching Elementary School Subjects. Rapeer and others. Scribner's Sons. 
Teaching the Common Branches. Charters. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Agricultural Education in the Public Schools. Davis. The University of 

Chicago Press. 
The Teaching of Agriculture. Nolan. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 
Natural Education. Stoner. The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 

Grades 1-4. 

A. Aims, — to develop the child, not to give information. 

I. Individual. 

1. To get the child out of doors. : 

2. Contact v^ith and knowledge of environment through accurate 

observation and reasoning from such observation. 

3. Inspiration from beauties and wonders of nature. 

4. Use of vacation time. 
II. Social. 

Making of more effective citizens. 

B. Methods. 

I. Studying of living material in natural environment where possible. 
II. Living material in school room for class discussion, and close 

III. Collection and preservation of specimens, — as seeds, cocoons, shells, 


IV. Garden planting, — all grades at school. 
Encourage home planting. 

V. Have a flower show, each grade being assigned a certain flower to 

raise at home and for later exhibition. Seed to be furnished children. 

Not what a child grows so much as assumption of responsibility to be 

the chief consideration. 

VI. Pet exhibit, — each child to bring his pet, be able to tell how to care 

for it, etc. 
VII. Familiarize child with excerpts from literature relative to nature study 

C. Materials. 

I. Animals. 

1. Wild. 

2. Tame. 

3. Aquatic. 

II. Seeds and plants. 

III. Insects. 

IV. Birds. 

1. Land. 

2. Water. 

V. Inanimate nature. 

1. Weather. 

2. Sky study. 

3. Rocks. 

4. Magnets. 


D. General method. 

In all grades where possible make use of any material brought by the 
children. Make use also of the child's knowledge of this material. Watch 
closely the interests of the group and modify all outlines to meet its need. 
Each grade is assigned the care of some animal. Definite trees, flowers and 
birds are studied in each grade through outdoor observation. Encourage 
the children to collect seeds, insect eggs and cocoons, that life cycles may be 
observed. Insect cages and aquaria of specified grades should be available 
for all grades. For animal study observe : 

1. Method of food getting. 

2. Method of protection. 

3. Caring for young. 

4. Relation to man. 

Grade I. 

A. Animal Life. 

I. Fish, — aquarium for goldfish in room. See "Nature Study Review," 
April, 1918, for making. Children assist in its preparation and 
assume entire care of fish. Observations of adaptation of body to 
swimming and breathing. During study of "Sea People," have sea 
life aquarium and sand table beach, to be arranged by children from 
their own collections as far as possible. Individual mounts of 
seaweed and shells. 
II. Birds. 

1. Pigeon. 

2. Blackbird. 

Recognition and outdoor study of each. Pigeons later to be 
brought into school room for closer observation. Note calls, 
flight, coloring of each. Tell of nests. Read stories of each. 

B. Plant Life. 

I. Vegetable garden. Children to plant and care for garden. Teach needs 
of plants, — moisture, cultivation, sunshine,. Encourage class in 
observing all that is happening in the garden. Teach earth worm 
as friend of garden. 
II. Flowers. 

1. Nasturtium. 

2. Geranium. 

To be recognized and enjoyed growing and in class room. Seed of 
nasturtium planted, cuttings of geranium rooted to take home. 

3. Wild flowers enjoyed through field trips. Teach conservation in 

gathering, — also artistic arrangement. 
III. Trees. 

1. Palms. 

2. Pepper. 

Through field trips, also by branches brought into school room, 
learn recognition of trees. Discover pepper trees with flowers 
only, with flowers and berries. 

3. Native shrub to be studied, and planted on campus. 


Grade II. 

A. Animal Life. 

I. Fresh water aquarium in school room. Stock with snails, water boat- 
man, etc. See suggestions for first grade. 
II. Guinea pigs. Care of school guinea pigs. Observe habits. Teach 
cleanliness of housing and feeding. Also teach regularity of care. 

III. Cat. 

Begin with an observation lesson. Let one or two pupils bring pet 
kittens and a little milk. Notice manner of drinking. Discuss kinds 
of food most liked by cats. Probably their taste for fish and game 
is inherited from wild ancestors. Notice that the teeth are especially 
fitted for tearing. 

Keep in the dark for a while and observe form and size of pupils. 
Notice that the pupil slits are vertical (as in all the cat tribe), 
enabling cats to look down from trees more easily, and up into the 
tree when on the ground. 

Study means of defense and protection (ability to fight, climb, etc.). 
Notice how the cat is fitted for getting food. Observe its cleanly 
habits, and use it as an object lesson to the children in cleanliness. 

As in the study of all domestic animals, strive to cultivate in the hearts 
of the children a kindly feeling for anything dependent upon us 
as these animals are. 

IV. Birds, — observe as in first grade. 

1. Linnet. 

2. Sparrow. 

B. Plant Life. 

I. How plants work for man. 

1. Seeds and their holders. 

a. Edible, — apples, nuts, pumpkin, etc. 

b. Inedible, — pepper berries, eucalyptus, etc. 

2. Other parts used as food : root, stem, leaves, sap. 

3. Shelter, — lumber. 

4. Clothing, — fibers. 

II. Garden. Plant and care for same. 

Teach recognition of seeds, needs of plants (see first grade outline). 
Record kept of observations made. Individual gardens. 

III. Flowers. 

1. English daisy. 

2. Carnation. 

Follow suggestions for first grade. 

3. Wild flowers as in first grade. Make class calendar by pressing 

and mounting specimens. Label with date, where found, by 

4. Appreciation of abelia hedge planted by former second graders. 

IV. Trees, — to be studied as in first grade. 

1. Eucalyptus. 

2. Camphor. 

3. Torrey pine. 

4. Native shrub to be studied, and planted on the campus. 


Grade III. 

A. Animal Life. 

I. Dog, — to be studied as suggested for cat in second grade. Dwell upon 

breeds ; also uses to man. Read stories. 
II. Rabbit. Care of school rabbits. Observations made. Discuss breeds 
for pets; for economic purposes. 

III. Birds. 

1. Mocking-bird. 

2. Kildee. 

Follow suggestions above. Note specially flash colors, method of 
flight, peculiar run of kildee, songs of the mocking-bird, notes 
of the kildee. Encourage telling of interesting things children 
have seen birds do. 

IV. Insects. 

1. Bees. 

Tell the story of the community life of the hive ; of the three kinds 
of bees ; the life of the young bee while in the brood comb ; the 
character of the comb, the honey, the bee bread, etc., and how 
each is gathered and prepared by the workers. 

Observe carefully all that can be seen in the observation hive. 

2. Ants, — study colony in yard. Have ant colony in room for obser- 

vation of eggs, larvae, etc. See list of apparatus for construction 
of nest. 

3. Moths and butterflies. Observe and note diflferences. 

Collect eggs, keep in insect cages and observe life cycle of swallow- 
tail butterfly ; and find eggs on carrot, sweet annis or parsley. 

B. Plant Life. 

I. Garden. 

1. Begin the work of gardening with a study of the germinating seed. 

Soak seeds of various kinds, preferably large ones, and dis- 
tribute to the children. Continue observation lessons upon 
seedlings at different stages of growth, from the first sign of 
germination until the plant has developed leaves and roots, and 
has absorbed as nourishment the food material in the seed. Let 
pupils sketch from nature some of these stages. 

2. While carrying on the observation lessons above suggested, begin 

practical work upon germination in the garden. That the work 
may be of more personal interest to the child, assign to each an 
individual garden plot. 

3. Plant onion sets, after study of them as true bulbs. 

Note. — In connection with the garden work have pupils learn to recognize 
different seeds used, and the seedlings as they come up; let them verify 
their indoor observations by examining from day to day the sprouting seeds. 
See Morley's "Seed Babies." 

II. Parts of a plant and uses to itself. 

1. Root, — to obtain food. Study kinds of roots. 

2. Stem, — to carry food. 

3. Leaves, — factory. 

4. Flowers, — to reproduce. 

5. Fruit, — treasure box. 



III. How seeds travel, — how, they — 

1. Fly, — dandelion thistle. 

2. Roll, — nuts. 

3. Shoot, — castor bean, alhlaria. 

4. Steal a ride, — broncho grass, anemone. 

5. Are thrown about, — dates, pepper. 

6. Are often aided by water, by birds, by man. 
TV. Flowers. 

1. Bulbs. 

a. Chinese lily. 

b. Daffodil. 

c. Hyacinth. 
; d. Tulip. 

To be studied in connection with geography work on 
Holland. A potted hyacinth to be presented to each grade 
by this class, 
e. Gladiolus montbretia, watsonia recognized, — bulbs to be 

taken home. 

2. Wild flower excursions as in previous grades. Encourage marking 

of bulbs while in bloom, — brodiaea, chocolate lily, etc., — later to 
be dug up and planted upon campus. 
V. Trees. 

1. Eucalyptus. 

a. Sugar gum. 

b. Blue gum. 

c. Lemon gum. 

d. Red flowering gum, 

2. Native shrub planted. Appreciation of cotoneaster. 
C. Inanimate nature. 

I. Observations on time of rising and setting of sun, — weekly record kept. 

Shadow stick used, — observations recorded. 
II. Constellations. (January study.) 

1. Big Dipper. 

2. Cassiopeia's Chair. 

3. Orion. Drawings on board by teacher. Legends and stories told 

to children. 
III. Magnets, — place box with sand from playground, iron filings, tacks, 
needles, bits of various metals, on table. Let children make discov- 
eries, and try experiments. There should be several horseshoe 
magnets supplied. 

Grade IV. 
A. Animal Life. 

I. Wild animals studied in connection with literature. (See outline.) 
II. Cow, — studied in correlation with geography work. (See outline.) 

1. Care of milk demonstrated in school room. 

2. Making of butter, cottage cheese and custard. 

III. Care of a school hen through rearing of brood of chickens. 


IV. Birds. 

4B— 1. Quail. 

2. Humming birds. Observations in field recorded in form of 
outline for 4A grade. 
4A— Field studies of birds in general. Make interesting field trips 
with outlines in hands of children. Class divided into groups of 
three to observe and record birds seen. Class discussion of 
records supplemented by references to books, — Wheelock's 
"Birds of California," especially. 
V. Insects, — terrarium in room. (See list of apparatus.) 

1. Spiders. Find and observe webs, manner of catching prey. Closer 

observation of parts of body, — special note of spinnerets. 

2. Moths and butterflies. 

4B — Study stages in development of tomato worm moth, also 

cabbage butterfly. Teach how to combat. 
4A — Study silkworm from egg to cocoon. Reeling of silk and 
weaving in industrial arts course. Individual records of 
VI. Frogs and toads. 

Procure eggs and watch development. 
P.. Plant Life. 

I. Gardens, — individual. Review work of third grade. Intensive study of 

selection of seeds, methods of planting, care of garden. 
II. Flowers. 

1. Continue work with wild flowers. Blueprint of first specimen of 

each kind brought, — labeled with name, date and child's name. 

2. Sweet peas. 

Proceed as in former grades. 

3. Appreciation of woodbine planted by former grade. 

4. Native shrub planted on campus. 
III. Trees, — review previous grades. 


1. Baileyana. 

2. Armed. 

3. Knife. 

4. Black. 

5. lyong. 

C. Inanimate nature. 

I. Weather conditions in San Diego and locality. See "Carpenter's 
Climate and Weather in San Diego." Keep record of yearly rainfall. 
Compare with preceding year. Class chart of weather kept for one 
month, using standard symbols for wind, temperature, clouds, etc. 
II. Minerals and metals. (See geography course.) 

D. Outline for field bird study. (Mimeographed copies supplied to children.) 


Underscore the Words Which Describe the Bird. 


Name of bird 

1. Where is the bird seen: Woods, border of woods, bushes, open fields, tret- 
or bushes along fences, roadsides, border of stream, marsh, pond or lake, garden, 
orchard, about buildings. 

2. Compare the size of the bird with that of the gull, mocking-bird, or the linnet. 

3. Its most striking colors are : Gray, slate, brown, chestnut, black, white, blue, 
red, yellow, orange, green, olive. 

4. Does it show flash colors when flying? If so, where and what color? 

Under tail, 

5. In action is it: Slow and quiet or active and nervous? 

6. Does it occur alone or in a flock? 

7. In flying does it go : 

Straight and swift, 

Dart about. 

Up and down, wave-like. 

Flap the wings constantly. 

Sail or soar with wings steady, 

Flap the wings and then sail? 

8. Describe its song or call note. 

9. Where does it sit when singing? 
Does it sing while flying? 

For Closer Observation. 

10. Colors and markings of: 




Top of head. 

Eye streak, 


11. Is the bill: Slender and long, short and thick, medium, curved, hooked? 

12. Is the tail: Forked, notched, square, rounded? 


In this year's work the purely aesthetic purpose of the nature study of the 
lower grades begins to give place to the more practical and vocational motives. 

(1) Soil Study. Collect samples of sand, silt and clay. Mix them to make 
loam. Use microscope. Teach origin of soil. Make a set of sieves and separate 
soil imto samples of various degrees of fineness. Do the same by shaking up soil 
in a tall jar of water and allowing it to settle. 

Children collect as many diflferent soil samples as possible. 

(2) Mineral Study. Use the school mineral cabinet, and specimens brought 
by children. Encourage them to make mineral collections for themselves. Study 
the minerals by groups as follows : 

(a) Soil forming rocks: Granite and its constituent parts, namely quartz, 
feldspar and mica. 


(b) Building stone: Limestone, marble, sandstone, granite. 

(c) Ores: Of iron, copper, gold, lead, etc. 

(d) Lavas: Volcanic glass, pumice, etc. 

(>) Semiprecious stones: Giirnets, tourmalines, onyx, etc. 

(3) Marine Study. Aim,— to make the children see with intelligent eyes the 
things likely to be met with in a trip to the beach. 

((/) Study of inanimate objects of interest, as sand and pebbles, their origin and 
riMuix^sition; the water, why salty, amount of salt (found by evaporation), weight 
of the water; the tides, frequency, amount of rise and fall, with cause simply 

(b) Aquatic animal life. Birds, fish, shellfish, star fishes, anemones, crabs, 
lobsters, etc. 

(r) Aquatic vegetable life. Various kinds of kelp and other sea Weeds. 

Proceeds from the sale of school garden vegetables will be used to help defray 
the expense of excursions necessary in this study. 

(4) Study oi- Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Flowers on the Campus. 

The teacher will l)ring to class specimens of leaves and flowers, and teach the 
pupils to identify them quickly at sight. Make frequent excursions about the 
grounds, and with scratch pads and pencils have a few notes and quick sketches 
made from observation. All plants on the campus should be recognized by the 
end of the year. 

With the help of Bailey's "Encyclopedia of Horticulture" give pupils a few facts 
which they can not observe for themselves, as to native country, means of 
propagating, etc. 

Continue garden work throughout the year. 
References : 

Birds of San Diego County — Stevens. Natural History Society, San Diego 

10 cents. 
Bailey's Cyclopedia of Horticulture, 6 vol. Macmillan. $24.00. 
Fishes — Baskett. Appleton. 75 cents. 
Stories of Rocks and Minerals — Fairbanks. Educational Pub. Co. 60 cents. 

6B Class. 

The work of this class centers in the school and home gardens. 

(1) Plant Study. Roots: Study root development, using radish seed on wet 
blotting paper. Collect plants with various kinds of root systems, — tap root, 
fibrous roots, etc. 

Stems : Study circulation, using red ink. Collect samples showing annual rings, 
>lems with piths, stems with joints. 

Leaves : Show transpiration with glass jars turned over plants, grass, etc. Teach 
use of leaves for manufacture of starch, sugar, etc. Need of sunlight. 

(2) Fertilisers. Show samples of artificial fertilizers. The school should have 
samples containing the four chief fertilizer elements, nitrogen, potassium, phos- 
phorus and calcium (saltpeter, ashes, ground bone, lime, etc.). 

Teach methods and importance of using barnyard manures. Make compost 
heap. Use various fertilizers on the gardens. 

(3) Humus. Visit canyons to find leaf mold under bushes. Bring a sample to 
school and compare its behavior with that of soil deficient in humus. Teach 
methods of increasing humus content of soil. 


(4) Preparation of Soil. Teach how to use spade, hoe, rake, etc., properly. 
Why the ground should be mellow, free from clods, and loosened to good depth. 

(5) Planting. By garden practice and classroom instruction teach proper depth 
for various seeds and soils, amount of seed to use (thinning), avoiding crust, 
securing proper amount of moisture. 

(6) Cultivation of crop. Why the garden must be free from weeds and kept 
mellow. Water holding power of dirt mulch. Insist on use of hoe after each 

(7) Practice in raising as many kinds of garden crops as possible. Teach 
varieties of each. 

(8) Make a hotbed and start cabbages, tomatoes, etc. 

(9) Plant and transplant trees, etc., in lath house. 

(10) Visit with whole class some of the best gardens of the neighborhood. 

References : 

Agriculture for Beginners — Burkett, Stevens and Hill. Ginn. 75 cents. 
First Principles of Agriculture — Goff and Mayne. Amer. Book Co. 80 cents. 
California Vegetables — Wickson. Pacific Rural Press. $2.00. 







6A Class. ' ' . . : 

Agriculturjil nature study is continued in this class. Animal life is the theme 
Ik- re. 

( 1 ) Poultry Study. The work of caring for the four poultry yards is divided 
aiiiong the children. The various breeds kept are studied and also other important 
I needs. Principles and practices of feeding and housing. Hens are set and pupils 
operate incubator. Chicks are sold to the children. 

(2) Dairying. Here pupils must depend on classroom instruction and possible 
\isits to dairies or neighborhood cows. Breeds (taught from pictures). Methods 
u-c(l in producing clean, healthy milk. Feeding to make milk. Demonstrate use 
of Habcock tester. 

Nature Study and Agriculture : Trap Nest. 

(3) Bee Study. From the observation hive learn all that can be seen about 
habits of bees. Let class observe as many manipulations as possible of the com- 
mercial hives in the yard. Teach both the fascinating habits of bee behavior and 
l)ractical operations of bee keeping. 

(4) Harmful and beneficial insects. Have the pupils, by collecting specimens of 
caterpillars, maggots, chrysalids, butterflies, insect eggs, etc., observe and study 
tlie various forms and the processes of metamorphosis. Teach the two classes of 
insects with respect to manner of ea.ting, and give the proper sprays for each class. 
C,i\e practice in spraying. Show methods of attacking poultry insects. Demon- 
strate use of carbon disulphide for weevils, etc. Teach insects parasitic upon o^her 
insects, upon animals, and upon man. 

(5) Bird Study. Taken from the economic point of view. The harm and good 
that birds do. Try to find whether the good outweighs the harm. Study classes, — 
as seed eaters, insect eaters, birds of prey, etc. 



Principles and Practices of Poultry Culture — Robinson. 
Farmers' Bulletins 413, 893, 287, 806, 898, 513, and 447. 

of Agr., Washington, D. C.) 
See 6B references. 

Ginn. $2.50. 
(Free from the Dept. 


Manual Training and Agriculture: Cementing poultry house floor. Seventh and eighth 

grade boys. 

8A (Boys). 

(1) Astronomy. Teach the real nature of the heavenly bodies which can be 
seen, — .the sun, moon, stars, planets, meteors, comets. Illustrate by means of 
diagrams and models the relative motions, sizes and positions of these. Show 
especially their relation to the earth. Spend an evening at the school observatory. 

(2) Machinery. Demonstrate with small models the simple machines, — lever, 
pulleys, cogwheels, belt wheels, crank and axle, inclined plane, wedge, screw. 
Teach "advantage" of each. Pupils give examples of each. 

(3) Engines. Steam. Explain and demonstrate with toy model. Gasoline. 
Explain and demonstrate with engine in automobile or motor wheel. 

(4) Sound. Pupils bring violins or other musical instruments and demonstrate 
the methods of securing various pitches, — by differences in length, size, tension, 

Find by experiment velocity of sound. 

Demonstrate speaking tube by using a section of garden hose. 

(5) Air. Make a barometer and take it to as high and low places as are 
accessible. Explain change in reading. 

Teach constituents of air. Make carbon dioxide with soda and vinegar, and 
oxygen with sodium peroxide. 


(6) Heat and cold. Teach ways of insulating heat. (Refer to tireless cooker, 
icehouse, clothing, etc.) Explain chemical changes taking place in fire, — usually 
carbon changing to carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen to water vapor. Demonstrate 
these products of fire. 

(7) Electricity and magnetism. Demonstrate behavior of magnets and compass 
needle. Show how to connect cells. Teach parts of cells, — a chemical and two 
l)lates of different materials. Show several kinds. Structure and action of electric 
liell and telegraph instruments. Make telegraph outfit. Heating and lighting 
action of electricity, — toaster, flatiron, incandescent and arc lights. Visit and 
exphiin all electric • appliances about the building, — meters, switchboard, clock, 
motors, dynamo, etc. 

References : 

The Sciences — Holden. Ginn. 60 cents. 
First Science Book — Higgins. Ginn. 65 cents. 
Star-Land— Ball. Ginn. $1.00. 

8A (Girls). 

Aim: (a) By a discussion of the simpler principles in landscaping to make the 
pupils more observant and discerning, and more appreciative of artistic and tasteful 
arrangement, especially of small gardens, (b) To teach recognition by name of 
the common ornamental plants of San Diego. 

(1) Garden Plans. Place on board sample plans for planting city lots of 
ordinary size. Discuss these, bringing out the guiding principles, e.g., avoidance 
of straight lines, planting in masses with open centers, etc. 

Pupils invent their own plans and discuss them. Visit some of the best examples 
of ornamental gardens within reach. 

(2) Street Planting. Kinds of trees suitable for streets. Uniformity desirable. 
».'t)mpare well and badly planted streets which the pupils can see. 

(3) Lazvns and Lazvn Making. Kinds of grass. Preparation for planting. 
Future care. 

(4) Ornamental Plants. By means of excursions on the campus and along 
near-by streets, as well as by the aid of specimens brought into the room for study, 
learn the names and some of the characteristics of the common trees, shrubs, vines 
and herbaceous flowering plants. 

References : 

Gardening in California — McLaren. Robertson. $3.75. 

California Gardens — Murman. E. O. Murmann, 644 S. Broadway, Los 

Angeles. $2.00. 
California Garden Flowers — Wickson. Pacific Rural Press. $1.50. 
The Garden Beautiful — Braunton. Cultivator Pub. Co., Los Angeles. $1.00. 
Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture — Bailey. (See below.) 



Ants' nest, — for description see Comstock, page 286. 

Beehive, — observation hive in laboratory. 

Insect net, — piece of wire bent into hoop. Twist ends together, fasten to a 

stick, sew on pointed bag of net or mosquito bar. Use for air or water 

Terrarium, — for observation of insects in schoolroom. See description under 

caption "Pets" in Comstock ; or use plant pots with moist earth, glass 

chimney, piece of net. 
Aquarium, — use laboratory jars with wide tops, straight' sides. Stock with 

aquatic plants and insects or fish. See Com.stock. 
Cyanide jar, — poison. Place cyanide in pint jar. Cover with thin coating of 

plaster of paris. Be careful to keep lid on. 
Shadow-stick, — see Comstock. Children to make. 
Hectograph, — see ''Nature Study Review," February, 1918. 
Fern dish with glass cover, — see example in science laboratory. 


I. General. 

Comstock— Handbook of Nature Study. Comstock Pub. Co. $3.25. 

Hodge— Nature Study and Life. Ciinn. $1.50. 

Cornish and others — Standard Library of Natural History. Univ. 

Soc. 5 vols., $33.C0. 
Creighton — Nature Songs and Stories. Comstock Pub. Co. 75 cents. 
Poulson— In the Child World. Bradley. $2.00. 
Gibson — Eye Spy. Harper. $2.50. 
II. Animals. 

1. Wild. 

Hornaday — Animals of North America. Amer. Nat. Hist. 

Scribner. $3.50. 
Stone and Cram — American Animals. Doubleday. $3.00. 
Wright — Four-Footed Americans. Macmillan. $1.50. 
Kipling— Jungle Books, Just So Stories. Century. $1.50. 
Harris— Nights With Uncle Remus. Houghton. $1.50. 
Seton Thompson — Lives of the Hunted. Scribner. $2.00. 
Seton Thompson — Wild Animals I Have Known. Scribner. $2.00. 
Seton Thompson— Trail of the Sandhill Stag. Scribner. $1.50. 
Pierson — Among the Forest People. Button. $1.00. 
Tappan — Farmer and His Friends. Houghton. 60 cents. 

2. Domestic. 

Johonnet — Cats and Dogs. Amer. Book Co. 17 cents. 
Comstock— Pet Book. Comstock Pub. Co. $2.00. 
Gaye— ^Great World Farm. Macmillan. 50 cents. 

3. Aquatic Animals. 

Kellogg and Jordan— Animal Life. Appleton. $1.20. 

Woodruff — Pond in the Marshy Meadow. Saalficld. $1.50. 

Long — Wilderness Ways. Ginn. 45 cents. 

Cooper— Animal Life on Land and Sea. Amer. Book Co. $1.25. 

Baskett — Story of Fishes. Appleton. 75 cents. 

Baskett and Ditman — Amphibians and Reptiles. Appleton. 

60 cents. 
Holder — Half Hours with Lower Animals, Amer. Book Co. 

60 cents. 


111. Insects. 

1. Moths and iJnttcrtlics. 

Dickcrson — Moths and Butterflies. Ginn. $1.25. 

Weed — Life History of American Insects. Macmillan. 50 cents. 

Kellogg — American Insects. Holt. $4.00. 

Nature Study Review, April, 1914; May, 1916; September, 1917, 

Morley — Insect Folk. Ginn. 55 cents. 

2. Ants. 

Daulton — Wings and Stings. Rand. 75 cents. 
McCook— Nature Craftsmen. Harper. $2.00. 

3. Bees. 

Morley— Bee People. McClurg. $1.25. 

Morley— Honey Makers. McClurg. $1.25. 

Daulton — Wings and Stings. Rand. 75 cents. 

Farm Bulletins. Published by U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

4. Spiders. 

Hodge — Nature Study. Ginn. $1.50. 

Nature Study Review, 1915. Comstock Pub. Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 
$1.00 a year, 15 cents a copy. 

5. Beneficial and Harmful Insects. Bulletins in filing case in school 

IV. Birds. 

Miller— First Book of Birds. Houghton. $1.00. 
Miller — Bird Stories. Houghton. 60 cents. 
Miller— Little Brothers of the Air. Houghton. $1.25. 
Wheelock— Birds of California. McClurg. $2.50. 
Wright and Coues — Citizen Bird. Macmillan. $1.50. 
Nature Study Review, October, 1915: December, 1917. A. W. Mum- 
ford, Pub., 536 S. Clark St., Chicago. $1.50 a year, 25 cents a copy. 
Keeler— Bird Notes Afield. Elder. $2.00. 
Mumford — Birds and Nature Magazine. 
V. Plants and Seeds. 

Morley — Seed Babies. Ginn. 30 cents. 

Morley — Little Wanderers. Ginn. 30 cents. 

Morley — Flowers and Their Friends. Ginn. 60 cents. 

Beal — Seed Dispersal. Ginn. 35 cents. 

Gibson — Blossom Hosts and Insect Guests. Newson. 80 cents. 

Payne, Theodore, Los Angeles — (Pamphlet) Calif. Wild Flowers. 
15 cents. 

Chase — Buds, Stems, Roots. Educational. 40 cents. 

Osterhaut — Experiments with Plants. Macmillan. $1.25. 
VI. Sky Studies. 

Pratt — Storyland of Stars. Educational. 40 cents. 

Martin— Friendly Stars. Harper. $1.25. 

Nature Study Review, February, 1914; March, 1915; January, 1918. 

Proctor — Giant Sun and His Family. Silver. 50 cents. 


Key to the Abbreviations Used Above. 

Amer. Book Co American Book Co Los Angeles. 

Appleton Daniel Appleton & Co Chicago. 

Bradley Milton Bradley Co Los Angeles. 

Century Century Co New York. 

Comstock Comstock Publishing Co Ithaca, N. Y. 

Doubleday Doubleday, Page & Co Garden City, N. Y. 

Button E. P. Button & Co New York. 

Educational Educational Publishing Co Chicago. 

Elder Paul Elder & Co San Francisco. 

Ginn Ginn & Co Los Angeles. 

Harper Harper & Bros New York. 

Holt Henry Holt & Co New York. 

Houghton Houghton-Mifflin Co. San Francisco. 

Macmillan The Macmillan Co San Francisco. 

McClurg A. C. McClurg & Co Chicago. 

Newson Newson & Co New York. 

Rand Rand-McNally & Co Los Angeles. 

Robertson A. M. Robertson San Francisco. 

Saalfield Saalfield Publishing Co Akron, Ohio. 

Silver Silver, Burdett & Co San Francisco. 



W. F. Bi.iss, Supervisor. 
Kdith Hammack, Gertrude Laws, Alice Greer. Assistants. 

r Introductory. 

■ The course of study in history is based on the belief that the supreme purpose 

public school education is to enable the individual to become a useful member 
society. A useful member of society must be both efficient and agreeable. He 
must find happiness for himself and contribute to the happiness of others through 
M»cial service — that is, by becoming a citizen. To do this he must not only have 
pc'cial knowledge and skill in some productive activity, but he must also possess 
general culture. Only a person of broad interests and sympathies can be a 
complete citizen. 

Everything that contributes to the general culture of the pupil is desirable and 
"practical" in education, even though it may not be immediately and directly 
transmutable into material products, or develop physical and mental powers that 

imay be exchanged for, or produce, -wealth. 
There is a widespread misapprehension as to what the term "practical" really 
includes. Most persons, apparently, would limit it to the connotation implied 
above, viz : that which produces material wealth. On the contrary, perhaps the 
j most necessary and most truly practical powers and virtues, indispensable to the 
' useful citizen, are only remotely connected with the producing or procuring of 
wealth, and the sooner we come to realize this truth the better for our citizenship. 
Everything that contributes to the moral and spiritual development of the 
individual is practical to the very highest degree. Subjects that tend to develop 
tine sympathies, correct attitudes, lofty motives, and high ideals should find a 
[ place in the school curriculum, along with those other indispensable subjects, the 

I study of which will enable the future citizen to earn a decent living. 
History is not a trade or a profession by means of which any large number of 

■ persons may ever hope to make a living, but, in the light of the above, it is an 
: extremely practical subject, nevertheless. History is the record of the human 
[ race, the story of civilization. It links the past with the present and sometimes 
[ dares, even, to take a peep into the future. Through it we see the great drama 
\ of human life unfolding in all its phases from the tree dweller in his primeval 

forest to the wizards and the savants of the present age. 

If presented properly, history enables pupils, in a spiritual and intellectual sense, 
to live over again in their own emotions and thoughts the experiences, the vicissi- 
tudes, the struggles, the failures and the victories through which have been devel- 
oped the aspirations and the ideals which we cherish and acclaim as the guiding 
principles of the democracies of the new era. They perceive for themselves the 
slow but constant groping from chaos to order ; from darkness and ignorance to 
at least a modicum of light and knowledge; from isolation to (may we say it?) 
internationalism. They will be led to discover that, in the long run, might does 
not make right, but just the opposite; that tyranny and oppression, in the end, will 
always react upon the tyrant, whether it be an individual, a social group, a state 
or an empire; that honesty is the best policy with nations as with individuals. Are 
these things not practical? 

All these and many more the pupils will learn, not from studying the desiccated 
biographies of a few individuals, unrelated in time, space or race; nor in cele- 
brating a few patriotic holidays and birthdays of notables; but through the 
presentation to them, in such form and manner as to be comprehendible, this 


splendid story of the sweep of civilization down the ages,— or to use less flamhoyant 
phrases— the presentation to them of connected, unified, correlated history from the 
first grade upwards. 

It will be perceived that although the necessity of starting with the child "where 
he is" — that is, getting on to his standing ground for a beginning — is not ignored, 
still the course does not depend upon the erroneous theory that only the actual, 
physical experiences and environment of children are of interest to them and that 
they can not take, over and assimilate any information or knowledge that has not, 
in some way, directly grown out of these experiences. We have amply demon- 
strated that such is not the case. For example, most of the children of the 
training school were born and are living in a highly complex, municipal society, 
governed and regulated by an intricate charter and system of ordinances that 
present problems that baffle the comprehension of the ablest lawyers. These 
children are totally unrelated to such an environment. The manner in which 
their food, clothing, housing, etc., are prepared and secured involves a vast 
industrial and economic system which is entirely beyond the powers of their most 
vivid imaginations. Physically, of course, they depend upon these activities for 
their very life, but spiritually and intellectually, at least, they form but little part 
of the younger children's experiences. 

The course in the primary grades rests upon the theory, which experience has 
confirmed, that every child comes into the world endowed with a considerable 
abundance of racial experiences and instincts. For a number of years it lives, to 
a large extent, unconscious of the complex civilization which its overwise 
parents and teachers assume to be "the child's real environment." Tt dwells 
in a sort of imaginary world, made up of vestiges and phantoms of the childhood 
of the race; dreams of the simple and elemental manners, customs and instincts 
of its primeval ancestors. Primitive racial instincts and emotions are also strong 
and lie near the surface in young children — such emotions as curiosity, wonder, 
awe, veneration, fear, affection, etc. 

These instincts and racial inheritances gradually become blurred and fade away 
as the growing child comes more and more into actual spiritual contact with 
present-day activities. It is a serious question in the minds of many students of 
social philosophy whether a forced and rapid abandonment of what may be called 
natural instincts, impulses and hereditary powers, and an attempt to substitute 
therefor what we are pleased to call "rational" methods, may not, in the end, 
weaken the race. However this may be, the doubt is strong enough to cause us 
to be a little cautious in rushing our pupils too swiftly from fancy to fact ; from 
wonderland to stern reality ; from instinct to reason. 

Following this underlying principle, the theme of the course in history in the 
primary grades very naturally is Primitive Civilization. Not the primitive life of 
any particular nation or people, except for illustrative purposes, but primitive life 
as the first stage of progress of civilization in general. We thus begin with the 
child "where he is" and his real, natural, primary "interests" are at once enlisted. 
It must not be inferred from what has been said that the children are confined 
exclusively to the study of primitive civilization. On the contrary, in so far as 
they are able to comprehend them, present-day manners, customs and activities 
are constantly examined and discussed by way of comparison and contrast. 

The instruction consists in the presentation of simple, realistic, dramatic and 
correct accounts of the development of the arts of living grouped around the 
followiiig topics: dwellings, clothing, securing and preparing food, war, social 

SAN DIKGO state NORMA!, SCH(H)r.. lOO 

Mij,'anization including religion, games, etc. Out of these spring ethical, aesthet- 
iral and cultural ideas and the opportunity for the introduction of much interpre- 
iitive matter in the way of myths, folklore, fairy tales, poetry, games, drama, 
pictures, etc. Concrete facts illustrative of primitive life are drawn from ancient 
-ources, e.g., Egyptian, Persian, Hebrew, Greek, Roman, Teutonic; also from 
modern sources, as the Indians of North America and South America, Eskimos, 
native Africanders, etc. The introduction of material frotn the latter sources lends 
reality to the instruction. 

In the fifth and sixth grades, an attempt is made to teach something concerning 

the civilization of the medieval and early modern periods, as exemplified in the 

histories of England, France, Spain, Holland, Switzerland. Germany and the 

I nited States. The work in these two years forms a background for the formal 

study of American history, which follows. Ample opportunity is afforded by the 

topics of this portion of the course for the introduction of much matter along 

i the line of interpretation in the form of ballads, romances, song cycles, dramas, 

'. pictures, etc. It has been fairly well established that children of this stage of 

; development are hero worshipers, and that romance of action appeals to them very 

t strongly. They are getting beyond the more purely imaginative period and now 

\ demand true stories. The topics presented in these grades supply this demand. 

The last two years of the course are devoted to the business of acquiring a 

comprehensive and fairly accurate account of the history and government of our 

own nation and to the study of citizenship. 

Beginning with the pupil's local environment, the various obligations resting 
on the citizen, and his duties, rights and privileges, are discovered, discussed, and 
I traced through the various civil units up to the State and the Nation. Easily and 
naturally the learner is led to see the peculiar relations existing between the 
' states of our Union and the national government. The effort is made to instruct 
children as to the duties and privileges of the average citizen and to inspire them 
with a desire to fulfill them completely, rather than to indulge in learned 
discussions of the abstract theories which lie at the basis of government. 

This course of study has been developed to comply with the requirements of 
the present organization of the elementary schools, made up of eight grades. If, 
as seems probable, a reorganization should take place according to which the 
purely elementary work should cease with the sixth grade and some type of 
intermediate or junior high school should be established to include the seventh 
and eighth grades, all elementary courses would require revision. 

In that case, the only material change necessary in the courses herein suggested 
for the first six grades would be to complete European beginnings of American 
history in the fifth grade and devote the sixth year to a study of American history. 
Further formal study of the history of the United States should then be deferred 
until near the close of the intermediate high school period. 

Methods of Instruction — Elementary School. 

(Note. — For detailed methods in instruction, see Bliss — History in the Elementary Schools. 
American Book Company.) 

Throughout the elementary grades the oral method of presentation should 

prevail, both by preference and through necessity. To succeed, teachers must 

t become expert story-tellers. Here learner, content, method all agree, being primi- 

' tive. The teacher, in imitation of the story-teller of the clan or tribe, must work 

up the subject matter until it is literally at her tongue's end. 



The "Quiz." 

(For specimen questions see "Teaching Plans" below.) 

First, she prepares the pupils for fresh knowledge and new ideas by a brief, 
coherent review of the work of previous lessons. This is done by means of a 
"quiz," consisting of many brief, direct, specific questions, requiring precise but 
brief answers, and reaching as many of the class as possible. These questions 
should not usually call for statements of facts, but rather for answers demanding 
judgment on the part of the pupils and tending to arouse their curiosity. Such 
questions serve to develop an inquiring state of mind and prepare the children 
for the "apperception" of new material. 


The teacher then proceeds to unfold the new installments of the story. This 
portion of the recitation, while usually oral, must not consist in a mere reproduc- 
tion of memorized words. If so, it becomes mechanical, lifeless, dull; and the 
children will soon discover its emptiness. Neither should it be reading aloud. 
In this case it is soothing, hypnotic in its effects. It is the rhythm, the regular 
ebb and flow of sound, that delights. The story must come to the children as if 
direct from the lips of the living teacher, but it must be somewhat informal, 
broken up by frequent questions, "anticipatory" and otherwise, with opportunity 
for questions and intelligent comment on the part of the pupils. 

Beginning with the second grade much of the matter to be presented has been 
put into such form that the average child can easily and profitably read it. It is 
advisable that teachers give all the aid possible to encourage pupils to get notions, 
ideas and impressions from the printed page as soon as possible. 

(For study methods see "Teaching Plans" below.) 

The use of crayon and the blackboard should not be overlooked by the ambitious 
teacher. Nothing is more effective in any grade of the elementary school, or 
higher schools for that matter, than the ability of the teacher to illustrate the 
story or lecture by pictures, sketches, maps, etc., quickly, though roughly, drawn 
while the instructor talks. Along this line all sorts of illustrative material should 
be utilized. Pictures from newspapers, magazines and other sources should be 
employed. The magazines of the day furnish abundant material of this character, 
not only in the literary departments, but in the advertising sections as well. Relics 
in the shape of weapons, utensils, clothing, etc., used by primitive peoples, should 
be displayed to the classes. In many instances excursions can be made by the 
older pupils to historical spots, monuments, buildings, etc. All these are included 
under the head of instruction. 

Specimen Teaching Plan, No. 1. 

(Illustrating the "Quiz" and impromptu drama.) 

General Topic — Primitive Life in Africa. 

Topic for today — "Osam, the African Boy," story of the pygmies. 
Reference— Bliss— //;'j/oo' in the Blcmcntary Schools, pp. 195-198. 
I. Quiz. 

A. Theme — The houses of the pygmies. 

B. Type questions. 

1. How would you like to live in a pygmy's house? 

2. What did these houses look like? 

3. How did the pygmies get into and out of their houses? 

4. What other people live in houses something like these? 


5. Of what use were the great palm trees? What does that tell us 
about the climate? 

6. Tell me some things the pygmies used for food? 

7. How do you know that they ate those things ; the story did not say 
so? (Banauas, melons, beans, etc., were growing in the clearing 
outside the houses and the hunters had brought in game.) 

8. What sort of noises did the pygmies hear in the forests at night? 
(Referring to the wild animals.) 

9. Why did these people not need big houses? 

10. What does "pygmy" mean? 

11. How big do you suppose Osam was? 

12. After the pygmies had eaten their supper what did they do? 
Who came along at this time? 

13. Would you like to hear the story the old mother pygmy told? 
II. Ins-truction — Oral by the teacher. 

A. Topic— 'The Story of Mr. Rabbit," p. 198. 

(Note. — Mr. Harris' exquisite stories are supposed to represent 
African folklore, hence are introduced for that purpose here.) 

1. How Mr. Rabbit got a supper of antelope. 

2. Why the hippopotamus has a short lip. 

3. How the Tar Woman fooled Mr. Rabbit. 

4. How Mr. Rabbit escaped. 
III. Reproduction. 

A. Impromptu drama. 

1. Representing how the Tar Woman caught Mr. Rabbit. 

2. Characters. 

a. Mr. Rabbit. 

b. The Tar Woman. 

c. Chief of the Animals. 



. If ' 


Hf tr*jd§B^^ 


Scene from Third Grade Drama — "Aeneas' Visit to the Underworld.' 



The next step should he the reproduction of various oral portions of the recent 
story hy the pupils. Usually this is in the form of a topical recitation, the 
children relating or discussing episodes or features of the story at the suggestion 
of the teacher. One important purpose of this form of reproduction is to develop 
the power, on the part of the pupils, to talk before the class, or, in other 
words, the power of oral expression. The fundamental aim, however, is to 
discover the mental images produced in the minds of the pupils by the instruction. 


These mental pictures may be ascertained in various other ways, the most 
important of which perhaps are simple games and dramas. Here the play instinct 
may be utilized with pleasure and profit. "Children's spontaneous plays are 
idealized reproductions of the real activities of primitive peoples," says Miss Dopp. 
This social instinct should certainly be employed in teaching history. The plays 
should be simple, devoid of elaborate ceremonies or costuming, and, as far as 
possible, spontaneous on the part of the children. As everyone knows, little 
children are highly imitative, and, if skillfully guided by intelligent teachers with- 
out too much design or authority being displayed, they will often work out for 
themselves simple and effective little plays illustrative of the life of the people 
under consideration. These are by far the most valuable for oiir purposes. 
Occasionally, however, the teacher, with the assistance of the pupils, prepares a 
drama somewhat more ambitious, calling for more formal drill and some ingenuity 
and resourcefulness in costuming. All the "properties" for such plays are made 
in the school by the pupils and teachers. 

(For specimen dramas see Bliss' History in the Elementary Schools, Appendix.) 


Drawing and water-color painting are important modes of expression and 
furnish great delight to children. Most children learn to draw readily and derive 
great enjoyment from this manner of story-telling. One of its advantages lies in 

Eskimo Sledge Team. Second Grade. Model Made of Plasticene. 

the fact that it is always available. No attempt should be made to pfoduce 
drawings technically correct, though, of course, sufficient instructioa. must be 
given to enable pupils to reproduce on blackboard or paper some. semblance of the 
actual pictures floating in their minds. As in the drama, so in drawing, the greater 
the spontaneity the more valuable the results. Drawing seems to be a primitive 
method of expression and comes naturally to children. As little interference as 
possible should occur in their freedom in their work. Various methods of drawing 
may be employed, the most interesting and profitable to children are (1) black- 
board; (2) paper and ordinary pencil; (3) colored crayon and paper; (4) char- 
coal. The last, while somewhat "mussy," is excellent for young children whose 
drawings naturally are .in broad lines. Water colors also may be used with profit. 




For everything in the nature of extensive geographical representation sand is 
lo be preferred over any other material for modeling. Papier mache is cheap, 
easily made from old newspapers and is excellent for representing towns, cities, 
forts, landscapes, etc., and is used frequently in the training school. For models 
that are to be preserved, clay is the best material, but the models should be fired. 
IMasticene, modelene and other forms of prepared substitutes for clay arc very 
ronvenicnt, always ready for use and not expensive. 

Primitive Industry at the Modeling Table. 

Very useful in this direction will be found the reproduction or imitation of 
certalin primitive industries, such as hunting, fishing, developing fire, building 
wigwams and tents, preparing skins for use, making clothing, weapons and primi- 
tive utensils, grinding grain, preparing and cooking foods, etc., — the list is almost 
endless. These activities not only afford great delight to the children and provide 
very effective means for representing their mental images, but also reinforce and 
vivify the formal industrial training which is becoming such a prominent factor 
in our elementary school instruction. (See chapter on "Projects" in this course 
of study.) 

Among the activities employed are not only drawing and sand and clay modeling 
as already described, but also paper folding and cutting, sewing, weaving, wood- 
work, decorating, and simple building operations of various kinds. A complete 
list of models for these activities has been worked out but space prevents its 
insertion here, since it aggregates about 500 subjects. The list ranges from an 
Indian arrow to an Indian village ; from the baby tree dweller's cradle to a papier 
mache model of a Dutch city. All these activities are based on the history stories. 

History Projects. 

The so-called "project" method has been employed in the history department 
for upwards of a dozen years, though it was not known by so ambitious a name. 
If properly guided, excellent results may be obtained by its use and the interests 
of the children developed. Practically all the departments of the school are 


cordially co-operating in the production of dramas, building old missions, erecting 
castles, constructing medieval manors, Indian villages, Dutch towns, etc., etc. 

The most elaborate of the many dramas produced illustrated episodes in the 
stories of Robin Hood, Joan of Arc, the Cid and Greek legends. They are too 
long for insertion here. The dramas were worked out entirely by the pupils, 
under the guidance of their teachers. All the costumes, properties, etc., were 
prepared as part of the regular work in the various departments, and the writing 
of the plays furnished motives and materials for valuable work in English. 

A miniature dwelling of each of the peoples studied is worked out by ihe 
children. Development and preparation of food in the primitive way is illus- 
trated — roasting, boiling, baking, drying, etc. Record-making is developed by this 
method from picture-writing to the modern book. In the line of amusements, an 
Olympic "meet" is the culmination of the Greek stories, and, lastly, records are 
kept by the children of all such activities. 

One caution in project work in history must be noted. As in all such methods, 
there is great danger that interest in the material features of the so-called "project" 
itself — in the castle, the Indian village, the "business" of the play — may be so 
intense as to cause the children to lose sight of the very history which it is 
intended to illustrate. In history, projects create atmosphere, arouse interest, lend, 
sometimes, an air of verisimilitude, but they do not teach co-ordinated history. 
They may easily be overdone. They often require an immense amount of time 
and energy. They should not become mere "fads." 

Indian Pueblos. 


The use of maps and the teaching of geography in connection with history can 
not be urged too strongly. We must connect history with territory, location, 
defined space, or it evaporates into mist. Maps should be used constantly. The 
best map for young children is that made by the teacher herself, showing only 
essentials, omitting all useless details. Direction, distance, altitude, area should be 
developed, but referred to in general terms at first, — e. g., ''long, long ago," "very 
far away," "across this great ocean," "up this very high mountain," are suggestive 
phrases. Geographical terms and specific distances, directions and locations should, 
however, rapidly be introduced as the work progresses, and by the time the fourth 
grade is reached political geography should become a matter of habit with both 
teacher and pupil. 

Outlines for Primary Grades. 

(Note. — For elaboration of the brief outline given below, and for reference books, see Bliss — 
History in the Elementary Schools.) 

General Recitation. Plan. 

1. Quiz and "anticipatory" questions, one-sixth of the period. 



2. Presentation of new installments of the story, about two-thirds of the period. 

3. Reproduction by pupils, if oral, one-sixth of the period ; time for other 
iiKthods of reproduction to be determined by their nature. 


Third Grade History: Indian Village. 

First Grade. 

1. The Tree Dwellers. Dopp — The Tree Dzvellers. 

2. The Cave Dwellers. Dopp — The Early Cave Men; The Later Cave Men. 

3. The Sea Dwellers. Dopp — The Deep Sea People. 

4. The CliflF Dwellers. Wiley and "SxWck— Children of the Cliff; Hopi, the Cliff 


5. The Lake Dwellers. Wiley and Edick — Lodrix, the Little Lake Dzveller. 

Holbrook — Cave, Mound and Lake Dzvellcrs. 

First Grade History: Lake Dwellers. 


Second Grade. 

1. Life in Ancient Egypt. Kemp — History for Graded and District Schools, "How 

Kufu Lived Among the Old Egyptians." 

2. The Early Phcenioians. Kemp — History for Graded and District Schools, "Hozv 

Hiram Became King." 

3. The Early Persians. Andrews — Ten Boys, "Story of Darius." Wells — Hozv 

the Present Came from the Past. 

4. Primitive Life in Modern Africa. Bliss — History in Elementary Schools, 

"Osam, the African Boy." 

5. Primitive Life in the Far North. Scandlin — Hans, the Eskimo Boy. 

6. Primitive Life in Japan. (Correlated with geography). Ayrton — Child Life in 


7. Primitive Life Among the Indians. Jenks — The Childhood of Ji-Shib. Lan- 

sing — Mewanee. 

History: Cliff dwellers. 

(Note. — The last four topics represent primitive civilization of the present day. L,ongfellow's 
Hiawatha is also used in correlation with literature.) 

8. Greek People of Long Ago. 

(NoTE.^ — This represents the mythical period of Greek history and is presented in correlation 
with literature.) 

Third Grade. 

1. Beginnings of Anglo-Saxon Civilization. True — The Iron Star, I-VIIL 

2. The Beginnings of White Man's Civilization in America : 

*a. Pratt — America's Story for America's Children, Vol. I. (Or any other 
suitable account of early explorations in America.) 

b. Winterburn — The Spanish in the Southwest, to p. 160. 
*e. Snedden — Docas, the Indian Boy of Santa Clara. 
*d. Pratt — Stories of. Colonial Children. 

e. Warren — Little Pioneers. 

■ Fourth Grade. 

1. iStories of, the Ancient Greeks. Kemp — Greece in Her Infancy; A Visit to 

Athens. Terry — Historical Stories of Other Lands. Guerber — Story of the 
Greeks, to p. 259. (This is used only as a guide to the teacher. The stories 
: must be simplified, amplified and adapted to the age of the children.) 

2. :Stories of Old Rome. Kemp — Rome in Her Infancy. Andrews — Horatius. 
» _ - Ouerber— ^T/t^ Story of the Romans. (See note to Story of the Greeks, 

above.) Terry — Historical Stories of Other Lands, Book IIL 

'May be read by children. 




Methods of Instruction. 

The methods above outlined apply in a large measure to the fifth and sixth 
grades ; but the pupils here are able to get a larger part of their instruction from 
hooks. The teacher, therefore, will not be so prominen-t a factor in the work of 
instruction. The oral or story-telling method, nevertheless, will necessarily be 
followed largely on account of lack of suitable books for children. Stress in these 
.urades is laid on biography and dramatic and romantic incidents illustrating 
medieval and early modern civilization, consequently opportunities for dramas and 
written compositions are more frequent. In these grades also occasional formal 
written tests or examinations may be held with benefrt at the completion of a 
yiven portion of a topic. Such examina'tions should call for expressions of 
opinions, impressions, and conclusions rather than statements of bald facts. 

The importance of training children to read for themselves and actually to 
apprehend the contents of ordinary books is often overlooked. The tendency at 
present, especially in the training school, is for the teacher to do most of the 
instructing in the way of interpreting and summarizing the texts. It is certainly 
time for pupils in these grades to develop the power of analyzing, classifying, and 
generalizing information, impressions and ideas gained from printed books. The 
teacher still should be the leader and guide, but not the burden bearer of her 
pupils. Self-activity and self-reliance on the part of the children are desired goals. 

The lifth grade closes with the reading of the California State Text on History 
of the United States. 

Model of Old Mission. 

Specimen of Teaching Plan. 

(Illustrating a "study lesson" in sixth grade.) 

C.eneral Topic — The Rival Kings, Henry VIII, Charles V and Francis I. 
Topic for today— The. "Field of the Cloth of Gold." . . " 

I. Quiz and class discussion. (See topics for yesterday's study.) 

(Note. — The purpose of this quiz and discussion is to review the previous lesson and 
prepare pupils for today's study.) 

II. Instruction-. 

A. Pupils read Pitman's Stories of Old France, pp. 105-115. 

B. Topics and questions to be placed on the blackboard for guidance of 

pupils and for discussion at next lesson. 

1. What did Francis and Henry sec about them when they met? 

2. How did they greet each other? Do you think they were sincere? 

Give reasons. 

3. Describe a tourney. 



4. In what manner did Bayard enter the lists? 

5. How do you know that he was a brave knight? 

6. What was the result of Bayard's encounter with each of the 

English lords? 

7. How did Norfolk and Bayard greet each other? 

8. On what terms did Henry and Francis part? Why? 

9. What important information do you get from this story? 

0. Why may the meeting be called a failure? 

1. What impressed you most in the story? 

If possible, the above topics and questions should all be read by pupils before 
they begin the study. 

The teacher should encourage pupils to depend upon themselves and get the 
information and ideas called for out of the book for themselves, but the teacher 
should use the study period for individual help and guidance, especially for the 
poor readers. 

Do not encourage pupils in asking questions while they are studying. It should 
be a period for quiet, thoughtful study and meditation. 

The period for history in the fifth and sixth grades is divided into two parts — 
about two-fifths for the quiz and discussion and three-fifths for the instruction, 
either oral by teacher or in silent reading by pupils. 

Scene from Drama of Robin Hood. Fifth Grade. All the Properties Were Made by the Class. 

Fifth Grade. 

The Early Middle Ages. 
A. The End of the Roman Empire and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages. 

1. Downfall of Rome and Coming of the Barbarians. Lansing — Barbarian 

and Noble (selected stories). Harding — Story of the Middle Ages, 
pp. 9-49. 

2. Charlemagne and His Work. Harding— Chaps. VII, IX. Tappan— iiwro- 

pean Hero Stories, 38-47. 

a. Stories of Roland (selected stories illustrating this period, to be 
given orally for the most part). Baldwin — The Story of Roland. 

3. Monks and Monasteries. HsLrding— Middle Ages, Chap. XVI. 


15. Beginnings of English History. 

1. Alfred the Great and Knute the Dane. Tappan — 72-76. Warren — 

Stories from English History, 26-41. Haaren and Poland — Famous 
Men of the Middle Ages, 119-125. 

2. .William the Conquerer and the Conquest of England. Haaren and 

Poland, 120-130; 163-172. Tappan— 77-93. Harding— Chap. 11. 

Warren — 47-80. Hancock — Children of History. Later Times. Hcvan — 

Stories from British History. 
C TIk- Crusades. Harding— Chaps. XH, XIII. Haaren and Poland— 173-196. 

Tappan— 136-151. T^vvy—Hist. Stories of Other Lands, Hook IV. 
I ). The Struggle for Liberty and Struggle for Nationality. 

1. How the Magna Carta Was Obtained (to be presented by the teacher). 

2. Robin Hood (selected stories illustrating the oppression of the poorer 

classes). Pyle — Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood. 

3. Wallace, Bruce and Douglass. Lang — The Story of Robert the Bruce. 

Warren— 107-119. Tappan— 185-189. 

4. Joan of Arc and the Unification of France. Pitman — Stories of Old 

France. Lang — Joan of Arc, 15-52. Tappan — 136-157. Harding — 
Chap. XVIH. 

5. Louis XI and Charles the Bold, Beginnings of French Nationality. 

Pitman— 53-100. 
Iv Reading State Textbook in U. S. History. 

Sixth Grade. 

The Modern Period. 

A. Life in the Middle Ages. Tappan— 11 &-1 35. Harding— Chaps. XIV, XV. 

B. The Revival of • Learning (to be presented orally by the teacher, for the most 

part). Haaren and Poland— 257-262. Tappan— 152-170. 

C. Ferdinand and Isabella and the Unification of Spain. Haaren and Poland — 

Modern Times — 16-39. 

1. Stories of the Cid (as an introduction). Wilson — Story of the Cid. 

2. Columbus and the Discovery of America. Johnson — The World's 


D. The Elizabethan Period. 

1. The Rival Kings, Henry VIII, Francis I, Charles V. Pitman— 101-150. 

Haaren and Poland^O-85. Warren— 171-208. 

2. The Rival Queens, Elizabeth and Mary, Queen of Scots. RoUt— Tales 

from Scottish History, 92-120. Warren— 206-228. Hancock— C/i/7rfr<?M 
of History, Later Times. 

3. Drake and the Sea Fighters of the Sixteenth Century. Tappan — 209-214. 

Warren— 229-241. Haaren and Poland— 96-110. Johnson— TA^? 
World's Discoverers, 235-271. 
\i. The Struggle for Freedom by the Swiss. Niver — Great Names and Nations, 
Modern, 158-162. Haaren and Poland— 226-233. Tappan— 190-194. 
r F. William the Silent and "Brave Little Holland." Tappan— 204-209. Griffis— 
Brave Little Holland; Young People's History of Holland. 
G. Review of European Background of American History. (See list of books for 
general review and sixth grade in the bibliography at end of the course in 




Methods of Instruction. 

In these grades the California State Textbook in American history forms the 
basis of the work. History during these years is taught largely by a modified 
outline or "topical" method. Lessons should be assigned, as a rule, from the out- 
line by topics and not by pages of the textbook. The learner should be led to 
feel that there are usually several points of view from which almost every subject 
may be considered, and should be encouraged to get into touch with as many of 
these viewpoints as possible. 

7A tlistory and English (Boys) : Santa Barbara Mission. 

The outline for these grades is constructed on the assumption, confirmed by 
years of experience, that it is advisable in the intermediate school for students to 
escape from the rigidity and narrowness of the best textbook to some extent, and 
be stimulated to develop powers of comparison, elimination, selection and arrange- 
ment of historical material. Pupils are expected to keep notebooks in which to 
copy outlines, place maps, pictures, sketches, etc., illustrative of the subject, and 
are encouraged to make brief extracts of their readings and the talks of the 
teacher. Here the first steps are taken in the research or library method of 
studying history. Teachers should make an effort to induce pupils to realize that 
no one textbook, whatever may be its general merits, is sufficient on all points. 
Even if such a book could be produced, it is well for children by this time to 
begin to develop the critical habit in reading history. In order to accomplish this 
purpose it is desirable that they have access to supplementary material. This is 
supplied by the school in ample quantities. 


If this metliod is to be successful it will he necessary to train the pupils how 
to use hooks as instruments in the process of learninf?, For example, supposing 
the topic under consideration is "How George Rogers Clark Saved the Old North- 
west," the plan would he ahout as follows : 

1. Pupils should look through the tal)lc of contents of their textbook. Nothing 
u ill be found there on this topic. 

2. They will search the index and will lind a reference to p. 183. On turning 
ID the page indicated they will find only a brief account. 

3. Next, if books are available, they will look up the pages given in their outlines 
in at least one other satisfactory book. 

4. After reading carefully the various accounts they will put down in their 
notebooks a brief epitome of what they have read. 

5. If time permits, they should copy the map of the Northwest territory and 
Clark's operations, placed on the board by the teacher. 

Or, supposing, from a single book, the pupils are to gather together a coherent 
account of the acquisition of territory by the United States since the adoption of 
the constitution. They will be taught to search the table of contents under various 
heads, e.g., "Expansion," "Territory," "Westward Movement," "Mexican War," 
etc. ; then, to examine the index and to use skill and ingenuity in searching under 
\arious suggestive terms; finally to scan marginal notes and paragraph headings 
in the textbook, noting down on separate slips of paper all the important data 
ihat can be found. Lastly, they should be taught how to sort and arrange their 
materials into a connected coherent account. 

Pupils should be drilled in the process of preparing outlines of topics which they 
liave studied thoroughly. The broad topical outlines given in the complete course 
of study,* modified to suit the pupils and the occasion, are copied into pupils' 
notebooks, and are intended to assist them in such work. 

Teachers must be cautioned, however, against overdoing the outline or topical 
plan. All such work must be of a very simple and elementary character. While 
the attention of pupils is directed to original documents for the purpose of vivify- 
ing the secondary matter found in the texts, nothing in the way of so-called 
"original research" is attempted. Telescoping periods, violent dislocation of the 
chronological order, much emphasis on "institutional" development, tend to confuse 
the young student and to destroy the perspective. Teachers must never lose sight 
of the fact that one of the fundamental purposes of any course of study in 
American history at this stage should be to unfold a clear and unbroken view of 
the co-ordinated history of these United States from their origin to the present 
time. It must not be disjointed or incoherent. Whatever threatens this sense of 
unity and continuity, should be discarded. A judicious combination of the topical 
and chronological arrangement is, doubtless, the best plan. In taking up the 
subject at first, while the process of building up the perspective and developing 
the historical imagination is going on, emphasis should be laid on the sequence of 
events and periods, in short, on chronology. For purposes of review, summaries, 
s'pecial reports, etc., the topical method may be effectively employed. 

Story-telling and simple lecturing are often commendable in these grades. By 
these means the desultory and scattered readings of pupils may be co-ordinated, 
additional information given, and the work enlivened and made much more 
interesting by word pictures and vivid descriptions of picturesque and romantic 
occurrences and the presentation of biographies of important personages. Occa- 
sionally reading aloud to the class may be permitted, but, on the whole, pupils are 

*Bliss' History in the Elementary Schools. 


expected to gain most of -their information from printed material. The power t(j 
do this rapidly and accurately is an important end of history teaching. 
The Recitation. 

In recitations the question method should prevail. Every teacher, not only in 
these grades but all along the line, is expected to develop the ability to conduct 
a lively, interesting, logical "quiz" and class discussion. This requires thorough 
knowledge of the subject-matter, alertness, resourcefulness, self-possession, force. 
It is the most difficult part of the class instruction. Care should be taken to 
dis'tinguish between the "quiz" and the "topical recitation" or class discussion. 
The former should consist of direct, penetrating, clear-cut questions that can be 
answered in a few words. The quiz is the best method for conducting a general 
review, the topical recitation for reproducing and discussing the contents of the 
recent lessons. More subjects can be mentioned and more pupils can be reached 
through the quiz, more originality on the part of pupils displayed through the use 
of the topical method. The topical recitation is employed to discover with what 
logical coherence the learner has received the instruction and also to aid in 
developing his power to talk consecutively for a short time on a given subject 
in the presence of the class. 

The best recitation is that in which is used a judicious mixture of the quiz and 
the topical method. Questions of all sorts should usually be indirect rather than 
direct, calling for opinions, judgments, impressions, in which knowledge will be 
revealed instead of bald facts depending upon mere memory, — questions that stir 
the curiosity, incite the reasoning powers, and develop interest, instead of questions 
that seek for mere information. 

Teachers must be cautioned against going into the details of every topic. One 
of the main purposes of the course is to build up a perspective of x\merican history 
in the minds of pupils. This can be accomplished most effectively by taking a 
brief and rather superficial survey of the whole course of the history of the country 
in chronological order, yet pausing frequently to make a minute study of certain 
typical events, personages, institutions and movements. These "type studies" are 
indicated in the outline. In fact, the most important aim of an outline is to 
preserve the continuity and co-ordination of the subject, while at the same time 
furnishing all necessary suggestions for the study of the special topics. 


The formal study of American History, including civics, or, as we prefer to 
call it, citizenship, occupies at present about one and one-half of the remaining 
two years of the course. As before suggested, a different arrangement would be 
necessary, providing the plan is adopted of completing the strictly elementary 
subjects in the first six years. As it is now, we must conform to the requirements 
of courses of study as they appear in practically all the counties of the state. 
About twelve weeks of this period is devoted to the investigation and study of 
problems pertaining to citizenship. 

A complete outline of the course, wath ample bibliography, appears in Bliss* 
History in the Elementary Schools, American Book Co., and it is unnecessary to 
reproduce any portion of it here. The chief feature of the course is the provision 
for "type" studies ; that is, the study of a few topical colonies pretty thoroughly 
rather than a superficial study of all the thirteen. In the period of exploration a 
few representative Spanish Conquistadors, for instance, are taken up and as 
interesting and complete stories as possible woven out of their accomplishments. 


It is very necessary, with the new views, new attitudes and ideals developed, 
,111(1 the great political changes produced hy the war, that a new type of text 
should appear. This text, while dealing sufficiently with occurrences and problems 
of the present, should not. however, as has been suggested in some quarters, devote 
less time and attention to the history^ of the past. It is a false doctrine that, 
cither young pupils or mature adults can successfully secure a true perspective of 
the history of any nation or people by "studying backwards." No one can under- 
stand nor interpret the present without a tolerably clear knowledge of how the 
present came to be, whence and how it evolved. No child can clearly understand 
the Mexican situation without first a thorough study of the wonderful story of 
the conquest of Mexico by Cortez, which encrusted the Spanish civilization upon 
that of the native Aztecs. We do not need to study the past less thoroughly but 
with different purposes and methods, hence textbooks must be rewritten. 

To note only a few examples of different treatment expected : More attention 
should be given to the "European beginnings of American history." It must be 
clearly developed that European nations took possession of the new world and 
attempted to reproduce each its own particular brand of civilization here. And 
so we had little "New Frances," "New Spains," "New Englands," etc. The new 
histories of the United States will cease to imply, through woeful omissions, that 
Jamestown and Plymouth were the sole centers of important colonization. In 
short, they will be much less provincial and egotistic. The new history will also 
take a different attitude towards England and the revolt of the colonies from the 
mother country. It will be shown that the American revolution was only a phase 
( f a great English movement towards a wider franchise and more equitable repre- 
>entation; that certain circumstances in the relationship between the colonies and 
the home government, at whose head at that time was a despotic German king, 
;iggravated the situation and brought the struggle to a focus in America much 
sooner than at home, and that it was over half a century before the revolution 
(a comparatively bloodless one) succeeded in England. In fact, colonials will be 
treated as Englishmen until the Revolution. 

Another fundamental change needed in texts is less unrelated, desiccated facts, 
strung like beads on a chronological thread, and more interpretation and explana- 
tion revealing cause and effect, showing the relations between occurrences widely 
separated in time or place — briefly, a little bit more of the simple philosophy of 
I'.istory. Current textbooks have suffered from the doctrine, spread abroad by 
the devotees of the so-called "research method," to the effect that it is the business 
of historians to state facts only, without comment, interpretations or deductions. 
Such texts might be sufficient in schools supplied with specialists in history who 
could clothe the dry skeleton of chronology with the flesh and blood and garments 
of living, breathing history. This not being the case in our schools, the textbooks 
must, to a much greater extent, run the chances of "personal bias," "opinion for 
f.'ict," "imposing the author's notions upon the pupils," and the other supposed 
ilrmgers from textbooks from which all ideas, doctrines and conclusions of the 
writers have not been carefully excluded. 

American textbooks of the future must also contain at least one line of propa- 
ganda — they must reveal clearly the story of liberty. They must bring into the 
vision of the pupils the processes of development through which the peoples of the 
United States and their ancestors in Europe have been, and still are, slowly and 
piinfully progressing from autocracy to democracy. 

Until such books are produced American teachers must do the best they can 
to eliminate, supplement and transform the matter and methods of the present 
texts somewhat along the lines suggested. 



In teaching citizenship no formal course or outline is, or ought to he, used. 
The supreme purpose is to induct the pupils into citizenship, as far as possible, 
through their own experiences and observations. 

First, the social machinery of the school is utilized for this purpose. As stated 
elsewhere in this course, various social groups are formed in the 'school, such as 
class organizations, athletic clubs, current history clubs, the associated student 
body. Junior Red Cross, thrift clubs, and lastly, "Correct English" clubs, etc. All 
these afford training in citizenship and are studied with that end in view. 

Next, the larger school units are studied, such as the training school, the normal 
school, and the city system, and the relationship which the intermediate school 
and the individual pupils sustain to each of these is determined. This is well 
within the experiences of the children. 

Further, the civic organizations of the community are taken up. This work is 
done almost wholly through observation accompanied by reports and talks by city 
officials and others. Visits are paid to the city hall ; council meetings are attended ; 
court trials witnessed; water, fire, police and other departments inspected. 

Then, the social agencies of the local community and also, to a limited extent, 
those of the state and nation are considered. As a rule, the class is broken up 
into committees, each committee being assigned the study of a particular agenc\ 
of its own choice. As far as possible, the pupils themselves interview the officials 
of these agencies, receiving their information at first hand. Current publications 
of every description are utilized in this work — newspapers, magazines, trade jour- 
nals, government bulletins, advertising matter, etc., etc. The committees collect 
and collate their data, and oral, and sometimes written, reports are made to the 
class, followed by discussions. Of course only a limited number of social agencies 
can be studied during any given term. 

All such work needs careful guidance and supervision, otherwise it will become 
confused, slovenly and futile. Before the class starts out on excursions plans must 
be carefully formulated, questionnaires of information desired drawn up and the 
purpose of the visit never, lost sight of. Too many such excursions degenerate 
into mere social picnics. 

Finally, through this method, the pupils are led to an intelligent study of the 
organization and functions of the county, state and national governments, and, 
particularly, to a realization of the reciprocal relations of citizens and governments. 
No stress is laid upon abstract theories of government nor upon the minute 
details of constitutions and laws. These are deferred to a later stage of the pupils' 
school life. Not even our ridiculous and complicated method of electing the 
President of the United States is committed to memory! 

As a suggestive text the California State Textbook, Dunn's "The Community 
and the Citizen" is used. The author. Prof. Arthur Dunn, is now a member of 
the Federal Bureau of Education at Washington, and is doing important work 
along the line of civics. Teachers interested should address him for bulletins and 
bibliographies. Hughes — Community Civics, Allyn & Bacon, has recently been 
adopted as a supplementary text. 

A few useful books on the teaching of history. 

Bliss— History in the Elementary Schools. American Book Co. 80 cents. 


Dyne— Socializing the Child. Silver, Burdett & Co. 60 cents. 

Report of the Committee of Eight— The Study of History in the Elementary 

Schools. Scribner. 50 cents. 
Robinson— The New History. Macmillan. $1.50. 
Johnson— Teaching of History. Macmillan. $1.50. 
Books recommended in course of study, 
Andrews — Ten Boys. Ginn. 50 cents. 
Ayrton— Child Life in Japan. D. C. Heath. 20 cents. 
Baldwin— The Story of Roland. Scribner. $1.50. 
Bevan— Stories from British History. Little, Brown & Co. 50 cents. 
Dopp — The Early Cave Men. Rand McNally. 45 cents. 
Dopp — The Later Cave Men. Rand McNally. 45 cents. 
Dopp— The Tree Dwellers. Rand McNally. 45 cents. 
Dopp — The Deep Sea Dwellers. Rand McNally. 45 cents. 
Dopp — The Place of Industries in Elementary Education. University of 

Chicago Press. $1.00. 
Dunn — The Community and the Citizen. D. C. Heath. 75 cents. 
Eggleston — A First Book in American History. American Book Co. 60 cents. 
Griffis— Brave Little Holland. Houghton-Mifflin Co. $1.25. 
Griffis— Young People's History of Holland. Houghton-Mifflin Co. $1.50. 
Guerber — Story of the Greeks. American Book Co. 60 cents. 
Guerber — Story of the Romans. American Book Co. 60 cents. 
Haaren and Poland — Famous Men of the Middle Ages. American Book Co. 

50 cents. 
Hancock — Children of History. Little, Brown & Co. 50 cents. 
Harding — Story of the Middle Ages. Scott, Foresman & Co. 50 cents. 
Holbrook — Cave, Mound and Lake Dwellers. 

Jenks — The Childhood of Ji-Shib. Atkinson, Mentzer & Co. 60 cents. 
Johnson— The World's Discoverers. Little, Brown & Co. $1.50. 
Kemp — History for Graded and District Schools. Ginn. $1.00. 
Lang— The Story of Joan of Arc. E. P. Dutton & Co. 50 cents. 

Lansing— The Story of Robert, the Bruce. E. P. Dutton & Co. 50 cents. 

Niver — Great Names and Nations, Modern. Atkinson, Mentzer & Co. 
40 cents. 

Pitman — Stories of Old France. American Book Co. 60 cents. 

Pratt — America's Story for America's Children. D. C. Heath. 35 cents. 

Pratt — Stories of Colonial Children. Educational Publishing Co. 60 cents. 

Pyle — Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood (School Edition). Scribner. 
50 cents. 

Rolfe — Tales from Scottish History. American Book Co. 50 cents. 

Scandlin — Hans, the Eskimo Boy. Silver, Burdett & Co. 50 cents. 

Sneddin — Docas, the Indian Boy. D. C. Heath & Co. 35 cents. 

Tappan — European Hero Stories. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 65 cents. 

Terry — History Stories of Other Lands. Row, Peterson & Co. 40 cents. 

True— The Iron Star. Little, Brown & Co. $1.50. 

Warren — Little Pioneers. Rand-McNally & Co. 45 cents. 

Warren — Stories from English History. D. C. Heath & Co. 65 cents. 

Thompson & Bigwood — Lest We Forget. Silver, Burdett & Co. (Stories of 
the Great War.) $1.00. 

Wells — How the Present Came from the Past. Macmillan. Vol. I, 56 cents • 
Vol. II, 64 cents. 

9— 45T46 


.Wiley and Edick— Lodrix, the Little Lake Dweller. Appleton. 30 cents. 
Wiley and Edick— Children of the Cliff. Appleton. 30 cents. 
Wilson— The Story of the Cid. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. $1.25. 
Winterburn— The Spanish in the Southwest. American Book Co. 55 cents. 
For general review and useful in all grades to teachers, and especially as texts 
for the sixth grade, the following are recommended : 
Atkinson — European Beginnings of American History. Ginn & Co. $1.00, 
Bourne and Benton — Introductory American History. D. C. Heath & Co. 

60 cents. 
Hall— Our Ancestors in Europe. Silver, Burdett & Co. 16 cents. 
Harding— The Story of Europe. Scott, Foresman & Co. 60 cents. 
Mace and Tanner — The Story of Old Europe and Young America. Rand 

McNally & Co. 75 cents. 
Nida — The Dawn of American History. Macmillan. 80 cents. 



C. R. SCUDDER, Director of Industrial Arts, and 
MARY BENTON, Supervisor, Department of Fine Arts. 

for First Six Grades. 

The immediate aim of this course of study is to complete and bring together in 
an organized way the work done in industrial arts in the various subjects. The 
future aim is constantly to enrich the field of subject-matter and experience in 
the industrial arts that the child may live with an intelligent understanding of the 
industrial, world. 

This course correlates with history, geography and nature study, much of the 
subject-matter and project work being covered in those studies, the remainder 
being covered in the fine arts period, as the fourth grade only has a period set 
apart for project work. The unification of the work can not be grasped without 
following the course of study of any given grade in all of the other subjects. 

Grade I. 

I. Records. 

Through various approaches. 

1. As an incentive to reading, — picture making to tell stories, making of 

picture book to tell story of some activity. (Need of words felt.) 

2. To keep a record, — preserving work to take home by putting in book 

form. **Keeping records of weather conditions, spring flowers, etc. 

3. *To experience and appreciate ways of primitive man, — picture writing 

on bark or skins, notched sticks, cairns. 
II. Shelter. 

1. The doll's house. 

(Subject, — the house typical of pupil's environment.) Its location, 
ventilation, parts, material, and the workers needed to build it. 

Project, — planning and building of house with group divided into 
carpenters, masons, painters, paperhangers, etc. Making furniture of 
wood or cardboard, weaving paper rugs. Choosing materials and 
making curtains. Laying out grounds. Making figures of clay or 
twigs. Twisting of cords for clothesline. 

2. * Subject, — shelter of primitive man. 

Projects, — making models of shelter, with immediate surroundings, 
using sand tables, of tree dwellers, cave dwellers, sea people, cliff 
dwellers and lake dwellers. Making of primitive boats. 
Ill Clothing. 

Subject, — clothing suitable to climate and present needs; care of clothing. 
Recognition of wool, cotton, and silk through handling of fabrics. 
*Clothing of primitive peoples. 
Project, — dressing dolls or figures for the doll's house and grounds, stress 
being on choice of suitable materials. ^Dressing figures in skins, beads, 
etc., for sand-table problems of primitive life. 
IV. Food. 

♦Subject matter and projects, — food of primitive peoples. 

•Covered in history period. 
**Covered in nature-study period. 
NoTB. — All work not starred done in the fine arts classes. 


V. Utensils. 

Subject matter, — primitive baskets. How they are made of bark, reeds, 
splints ; how they are colored ; how they are used at meals and in cooking. 
Making of May baskets of palm fiber or rushes. 

This is followed by a study of the myths of the discovery of pottery, and of 
the uses and forms of clay bowls, with the making of clay dishes for the 
VI. Tools. 

*Primitive implements are studied and illustrated. 

Grade II. 

I. Records. 

Subject matter, — study of records of primitive man, continued. 

*1. Picture writing, on skins and bark with burnt sticks, colored earth, etc. 

*2. Symbolism, as shown upon pottery, baskets and clothing. 

*3. Memory aids, as notched sticks, knotted cords, blazed trails, monu- 
ments, etc. 
Projects, — individual books made, illustrating school and neighborhood 

activities. Group manuscripts compiled and used in printed booklets as 

reading lessons. 
**Record kept of weather, birds, flowers, etc. 
II. Shelter. 

Subject matter, — *shelter of primitive man, continued. Primitive life in 

Africa, Far North, Japan, among the Indians, Early Greece. 
Projects, — *&and-table expressions of typical dwellings of primitive man, 

including clay figures of people and animals, making of boats, trees, etc. 
The first grade playhouse may still furnish the motif for much second grade 

Illustration of Mother Goose village on sand table. 
**Illustration of a public market on sand table. 

III. Clothing. 

Subject matter, — *clothing of primitive peoples. * Weaving of Indian 

blankets and rugs. 
Projects, — *drying a rabbit skin and making clothes for figures of primitive 

people for sand tables. Making cardboard looms and weaving rugs for 

first grade playhouse. Dressing the figures in Mother Goose village 


IV. Food. 

*Food of primitive peoples, continued. 
V. Utensils. 

Subject matter, — Indian pottery and baskets, and symbolism. 
Projects, — making of pottery with stress on symbolic form and decoration; 
palm-leaf May baskets ; Christmas boxes or baskets ; envelopes for 
valentines or any need; clay dishes for first grade playhouse. 
VI. Tools. 

*Tools of primitive man, continued. 
Study of Indian loom. 

* Covered in history period. 
^* Covered in nature-study period. 


Grade III. 

I. Records. 

♦Subject matter: Ancient libraries of Babylon, — clay tablets, writing on 
stone. The library at Alexandria, — papyrus, how made. Rival library 
at Pergamum. 
Classic Greek life. Manuscript through dictation, — use of waxed tablets, 

codex and stiles. Greek hero tales, — Homer and the Odyssey. 

The alphabet. Origin of Phoenician alphabet; Greek alphabet; Roman 

alphabet, — borrowed from Greek and later developed into what we use. 

Children of third grade age enjoy the rebus, giving the transition from 

an ideographic form of writing to the phonetic form (John Martin's 


Projects, — ***making of a rebus, waxing of tablet and etching of letters. 

Group manuscripts, some written, some printed with rubber stamps. 
**Records kept of weather, birds, flowers, seeds etc. Preserving work to 
take home in simple books. Cataloging books in school room and making 
box for index cards. 
II. Shelter. 

Subject matter, — *Greek houses, home life; evolution of Roman house, 
marking growth of family as community unit. 
Greek theater and architecture of temples and public buildings. 
Projects, — *model of Greek or Roman houses, Greek amphitheater, galley 
ship, Roman arch, Roman chariot. 
Dutch and Eskimo villages in correlation with geography. 
****Dutch houses, wind mills. Japanese houses. Dwellings of the 
Eskimos, Irish, Filipinos, Mexicans and Pigmies. 

III. Clothing. 

Subject matter : *Greek and Roman garments, — material, form, names, 
colors and 'decoration. 

****Kinds of clothing worn by Dutch, Japanese, Eskimos, Filipinos, 
Mexicans and Pigmies. 
Projects, — making and dressing paper dolls or clothes-pin dolls in correla- 
tion with geography. 

Making of costumes for Greek or Roman festival. 

Budget of child's clothing in correlation with arithmetic through dressing 
paper dolls. 

Weaving of runner for desk, with Roman striped border, on two-heddle 
loom as community work. 

IV. Foods. 

Subject matter, — ****foods of peoples studied in geography. 
V. Utensils. 

Subject matter: Greek, Roman and Mexican pottery, — typical forms and 

Projects : Making of Greek vase and Roman lamp, — decorated and fired. 

Making of boxes for store project and for Christmas. 

Envelopes and portfolios for any need. 
VI. Tools. 

Study of potter's wheel for making vase forms ; the two-heddle loom, names 

of parts and uses. 
****Filipino weapons, Australian boomerang. 

*Covered in history period. 

**Covered in nature-study period. 

***Covered in language period. 

****Covered in geography period. 




Grade IV. 

I. Records. 

Subject matter. 

1. ♦♦♦Alphabetizing, spelling tests, use of dictionary. 

2. ♦Record making of American Indians and Mission Fathers. 

Cataloging classroom books, making bibliography cases and index cards. 

Pamphlet binding of records of class work. 

Blue-printing of wild flowers, leaves, etc., and binding. 

♦♦♦♦Binding of diaries of trips, and keeping scrap books. 
II. Shelter. 

Subject matter. 

♦Shelter of American Indians, the Mission Fathers, the Pilgrims. 

♦♦♦♦Pioneer homes in United States, — cabins, sod houses. 

Shelter of Aztec Indians. 

On the sand table, — Aztec shelter and garden, Pilgrim settlement. 

Making of a large model of San Diego Mission of adobe bricks, with 
figures of priests, Indians and animals in clay, roof-tiles of clay, colored 
and fired. This will necessitate a trip to the mission to study construc- 
tion, roof timbers, environment, etc. 

Building an adobe oven such as Indians used for baking. 

Building a Pilgrim cabin of sufficient size for children to enter, using slab 
wood to represent logs. 

♦♦♦♦This includes study of lumbering, with trip to mill, figuring amount 
of lumber needed, getting bids, purchasing, planning and constructing 
house and furniture, building fireplace of stones, dipping and molding 
candles, making braided rag rug, and, for community problem, weaving 
a strip of cloth for table cover on two-heddle loom. 

Making models of boats, — Indian canoe, Mayflower, etc. 
III. Clothing. 

Subject matter. 

Clothing of American Indians ; Mission Fathers and Pilgrims, — materials, 
how made. 

****Cotton, — from plant to cloth, with story of Eli Whitney and the 
cotton gin. 

Silk, — ♦♦raising of cocoon. 
♦♦♦♦Process from cocoon to cloth. 

Wool, — ♦♦♦♦from sheep to cloth. 

Carding, spinning, weaving and dyeing of cotton. 

Carding, spinning, weaving and dyeing of wool. 

Reeling silk fiber from cocoon, spinning, weaving and dyeing. 

Making costumes for Pilgrim play, centered about Pilgrim cabin. 

Darning in pattern while weaving textile, as a community problem. 

*Covered in history period. 
**Covered in nature-study period. 
***Covered in language period. 
^***Covered in geography period. 



IV. Food. 

Subject matter. 

Dairy products, — food value of milk and eggs. 
Care of milk taught and demonstrated in classroom. 
Making of butter, cottage cheese and custard. 
See geography outline covering "Interpretation of United States indus- 
tries through local industries." 
V. Utensils. 

Subject matter. 

*Baskets and pottery of North American Indians. 
*Pewter dishes of Pilgrims. 
****Churns of different forms. 
Making a raffia basket with Indian pattern ; pottery with Indian design 
in under-glaze; dishes for Pilgrim cabin; tea tiles with incised line 
design, glazed and fired ; boxes and envelopes for any need. 
VI. Tools. 

Subject matter. 
Demonstration of carding, spinning and weaving. 
Visit to kiln to study process of firing. 
Implements of Indians and Pilgrims. 
Using potter's wheel; making bow and arrow. 

*Covered in nature-study period. 
^**Covered in geography period. 

Industrial Arts: Soap Making. 


Grade V. 

T. Records. 

Subject matter. 
****Record keeping by the Incas. 

♦Copying books by Romans and monks contrasted with duplicating by 
printing today. Materials used in monasteries, — parchment, ink, paint, 
Development of the book, the scroll. Folded pages, — printing and folding 

by machine. 
Evolution of paper industries ; paper in the war ; materials and substitutes. 
Blue-printing wild flowers and binding them in a book, with hinge-joint 

cover, eyelets and Japanese lacing. 
Making ink of nut galls, gum arabic and copperas, — paint of soot and 
glue, — quill pens, and paper of rags. 
II. Shelter. 

Subject matter. 
*The feudal castle, monasteries, the manor house. 
****Shelter of South American Indians, Tehuelche, Caribs, and Incas. 

The dwellings of Chinese and Japanese. 
****Types of boats and vehicles in Egypt, China, Japan and South 
****Making models of dwellings, boats and vehicles mentioned in subject 

III. Clothing. 

Subject matter. 

East Indian printed textiles and batiking. 

*Armor of knights, garb of monks. 

****Inca jewelry. 


Making costumes for class plays, — weaving of textile with pattern on 
four-heddle loom for community problem. 

IV. Food. 

Subject matter. 
****Tea, coffee, cocoa. 
V. Utensils. 

Subject matter. 

Pottery industry of United States, — Indian, Colonial, Dedham, Grueby, 

Markham, Newcomb, Rookwood, Teco. 
Japanese and Chinese pottery. 
Tiles, — decorated and fired, or cast in cement and colored with cement 

Making and decorating a plate to be fired. 
Making of two-piece molds for reproducing vase forms; pouring molds; 

glazing and firing. 
Making basket of reed or native rushes. 
Envelopes and boxes for any needs. 

•Covered in history period. 
****Covered in geography period. 

134 SAN DiEGO statjs normai, schooi,. 

VI. Tools. 

Subject matter. 

Study of Inca implements ; Egyptian water wheel. 

Four-heddle loom, — new parts and uses. 

Making bola of Tehuelche Indians. 

Experience in stacking kiln. 

Grade VI. 
I. Records. 

Subject matter. 
Block printing as transition between manuscript and printing. 
Invention of movable types. Simple printing press. ***( Dramatization 

of "Fust and His Friends" — Browning.) 
Lead type, monotype, linotype, electrotype. Book binding, old and 
modern books. 
Binding records of class work in sewed sections with buckram and paper 

Making of lead type. 

Making gift books, — such as address or receipt books. 
Publishing of a newspaper, special holiday edition, the grade dividing 
itself into editorial and managerial groups, the paper printed on the 
school press. 
Making blue-print paper, printing wild flowers and binding into booklet. 
Making of a pin-hole camera. 
Cutting a wood block for book plate. 
II. Sheher. 

Subject matter. 
****Types of homes of European peoples. 
Egyptian pyramids and the Sphinx. 

Making models of types of transportation, — as jaunting car, Irish; 
droshky, Russian; gondola, Italian; dog wagon, Dutch. 

III. Clothing. 

Subject matter. 

****Flax, — from plant to linen. 

Silk, — from industrial viewpoint. 

Cotton and wool, — from point of view of geography of Europe. 

Weaving individual bags with pattern on four-heddle loom, or of textile 
for the school room, of linen or raw silk. 

Retting, spinning, weaving of flax. 

IV. Food. 

Handled in domestic science class. 
****European foods. 

***Covered in language period. 
f***Covered in geography period. 


V. Utensils. 

Subject matter. 
Pottery, — Delft, Dresden, English, Italian and French. 
Growth of pottery industry. 
Stories of Wedgwood, Pallisy and Enoch Wood. 
Paper box and bag industry. 
Bohemian glass. 
Casting simple box in cement, and coloring. 
Tiles, — Dutch design, glazed and fired. 

Making vase or bowl with three-piece mold, — decorating and firing. 
Covering boxes with cretonne. 
Decorated wooden and paper boxes. 
Pine-needle baskets. 
VI. Tools. 

Subject matter. 
The industrial revolution. The flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, water 
wheel, power loom, steam engine, printing press; to show change in 
industrial life due to invention of machinery. 


For General Reading on Industrial Arts. 

IVwey, John — Moral Principles in Education. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 35 cents. 
J'.onser, Frederick — Fundamental Values in Industrial Education. 
Kussel, James E. — The School and Industrial Life. 

Bound in a bulletin called "Industrial Education." Teachers College, Columbia 

University, N. Y. 50 cents. 
Dopp, Katherine — The Place of Industries in Elementary Education. University 

of Chicago Press. $1.00, 
Kilpatrick— The Project Method. Teachers College Record, Columbia University. 

September, 1918. 

For Specific Study as Teacher's Aids. 


CI odd, Edward— The Story of the Alphabet in The Library of Useful Stories. 

D. Appleton & Co. 50 cents. 
Shaylor, H. W.— Book of Alphabets. Ginn & Co. 10 cents. 
Stevens, Thomas W. — Lettering. Prang Company. $2.00. 
Smith, A. M. — Printing and Writing Materials. Miss A. M. Smith, 111 W. 

Seventy-sixth street, N. Y. $1.36. 
*John Martin's Book — Magazine. John Martin Co., N. Y. 
*JUitler, F. O.— The Story of Paper Making. J. W. Butler Paper Co., Chicago. 

75 cents. 
Sindall, R. W.— The Manufacture of Paper. D. Van Nostrand Co. $2.00. 
Putnam, Geo. H.— Books and Their Makers of the Middle Ages. Part I. G. P. 

Putnam Sons. $2.50. 
Davenport, Cyril — The Book, Its History and Development. D. Van Nostrand 

Co. $2.00. 
*Stein, Evaleen— Gabriel and the Hour Book. The Page Co. $1.00. 

*For children's use also. 


Rawlings, Gertrude— The Story of Books in The Library of Useful Stories. 

D. Appleton & Co. 35 cents. 
*Forman, S. E.— Stories of Useful Inventions. Century Company. 60 cents. 
Mills, J. C— Searchlights on Some American Industries (Paper Making). A. C. 

McClurg & Co. $1.50. 


Herbertson, A. J. — Man and His Work. The Macmillan Co. 60 cents. 
Chamberlain, James F. — How We Are Sheltered. The Macmillan Co. 40 cents. 
*Forman, S. E. — Stories of Useful Invention (The House, p. 123). Century 

Company. 60 cents. 
Carpenter, Frank — How the World Is Housed. American Book Co. 60 cents. 



Brooks, E. C— The Story of Cotton. Rand-McNally & Co. 75 cents. 
Chamberlain, J. F.— How We Are Clothed. The Macmillan Co. 40 cents. 
Corticelli— Silk. The Corticelli Silk Mills, Florence, Mass. 

Earle, Alice Morse — Home Life in Colonial Days. The Macmillan Co. 50 cents. 
*Forman, S. E. — Stories of Useful Inventions (Sch. Ed.). Chap. IX, The Loom. 

Century Company. 60 cents. 
Mowry — American Inventions and Inventors (Cotton, Wool, etc.). Silver, Bur- 

dett & Co. 60 cents. 
Bassett, Sara Ware— The Story of Silk (IIlus.). Penn Pub. Co. 90 cents. 
Kinne and Cooley— Shelter and Clothing. The Macmillan Co. $1.10. 
Pellew, Charles E.— Dyes and Dyeing. Robt. McBride & Co. $2.00. 


Binns, C. F.— The Potters Craft. D. Van Nostrand Co. $2.00. 

Talbot, Mary White — How to Make Pottery; How to Make Baskets; More 

Baskets and How to Make Them. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.00 each. 
Smiles — Josiah Wedgwood. Harper & Bros. $1.50. 
Ries, Heinrich — Clays, Their Occurrence and Use. Wiley. $5.00. 
*Howliston, Mary H. — Cattails Myth of Grandma KaoHn. Flanagan. 40 cents. 
James, George Wharton — Indian Baskets and How to Make Them. $2.50. 
James, George Wharton — Practical Basket Making. Flanagan. 
Davidson, R. C. — Concrete Pottery and Garden Furniture. Munroe. $1.50. 

For texts on types of primitive shelter, clothing, tools, utensils, etc., see history 
and geography bibliographies. 

Bquipment and Supplies. 
Needles, for book binding and basketry, chenile needle. No. 21 or 22. Raffia needle. 

Milton Bradley Co., San Francisco, Cal. 
Thread, for book binding, Barbour's Machine Thread No. 25 or any heavy linen 

Buckram, for binding books, per yard 18 cents. Norman Hall Co., 545 Mission 

street, San Francisco, Cal. 
Eyelets, sohd head, at any book store, per box 25 cents. 

Solid head punch and eyelet set, at any book store, $1.50. 

*For children's use. also. 


laste, Spontem. 


Flour and water, made with 1 tablespoon of flour to one cup of water and 

boiled till thick, with i teaspoon of powdered alum to each cup of paste for 

('.hie, flexible glue for book binding, at any drug store. Le Page's Glue. 
Raffia, natural and colored, by the pound or skein. Send to Milton Bradley Co., 

San Francisco, for samples and prices. 
Rug yarn. Milton Bradley Co. 
r,ooms, for bead loom get Apache looms, 50 cents. American Bead Company, 

Fifth avenue at Forty-fourth street. New York City, N. Y. 
Table or bedside looms, 4 harness type, No. 660 — 4 weaving 22 inches (reed 15d). 

School Loom Company, 1009 Lincoln Highway West, Mishawaka, Indiana. 
I'oot treadle loom, 4 harness type, weaving 24 inches, $3L00. Dr. Herbert Hall, 

Devereaux Mansion, Marblehead, Mass. 

Reeds, 23 to inch, $L20. 

Reeds, 18 to inch, $1.20. 

Reeds, 12 to inch, $1.20. 

Warps, 304 threads, IS yards. 

Warps, 144 threads, 10 yards. 
-Vpron for loom, from Dr. Herbert Hall. 
Shuttles, 30 cents. 
Drawing-in hooks, IS to 20 cents, from Miss Elna De Neegaard, 96 Fifth avenue. 

New York City, New York. 
Mercerized cotton by pound (send for color samples), from Mrs. Anna P. Good- 
child, Herter Looms, 841 Madison avenue. New York City, N. Y. 
Clay, in flour form, from any builders supply company, or Milton Bradley Co. 
Cement, white and gray, from builders supply company ; plaster of paris, from any 

paint store. 
Cement colors, from Pedro J. Lemos, Director of the Museum, Stanford University, 

Palo Alto, California. 


Eucalyptus bark for primitive records. 

Palms — J 

(a) Leaves, split into strips for baskets. 

(b) Fibers, twisted for cords, thongs, etc., for primitive records or weapons. 

(c) The bark or sheath, for primitive records. 
Oak Galls, for ink, — mix with copperas and gum arabic. 
Papyrus, rags and wood shavings or sawdust, for paper making. 

Pine needles, wire vine, papyrus heads, willows, bulrushes and grasses for baskets. 
Clay, reduced to a thin liquid or slip, strained through sieve, settled and partly 

dried, for pottery and modeling. 
Adobe, wet and mixed with tules, for bricks. 

Twigs, tied together and dressed in skins or grasses, for primitive dolls. 
Stone, sticks and bits of leather, for weapons. 
See also Fine Arts supplies. 



C. R. SCUDDER, Director of Industrial Arts. 

For Grades 5, 6, 7 and 8. 

The several purposes or objectives of instruction in the industrial arts are 
stated below, as drawn up by a committee of educators during the past year (1918). 
The order in which they stand has no reference whatever to their relative 
importance. A given purpose may be of prime importance in one grade and of 
comparatively minor importance in another. 

Purposes in industrial arts. 

1. To develop handiness. 

2. To promote the immediate carrying over of ideas into action. 

3. To help discover special interests and aptitudes important for vocational 


4. To provide a means for developing technical skill. 

5. To provide a means for imparting technical knowledge. 

6. To enable the pupil to apply the test of practice to some of his thinking. 

7. To develop the mind by providing constructive problems in materials which 

demand a vigorous mental reaction. 

8. To interest in school work those pupils to whom the traditional studies do 

not appeal. 

9. To create interest in the arts and industries without any reference to their 

vocational significance. 

Grade Five. 

Purposes 7, 6, 2, 1 and 8. 

Main objectives: (Purpose 7) "To develop the mind by providing constructive 
problems in materials which demand a vigorous mental reaction." 

(Purpose 6) "To enable the pupil to apply the test of practice to some of his 

A secondary consideration: (Purpose 2) "To promote the immediate carrying 
over of ideas into action." 

Minor considerations: (Purposes 1 and 8) "To develop handiness." "To 
interest in school work those pupils to whom the traditional studies do not appeal." 

Practical characteristics of projects. 

1. Processes must be varied. 

2. They must be simple and therefore easily comprehended, and such as may 

be applied by the pupils themselves without too much dictation and 
oversight by the teacher. 

3. The projects must be of such a nature that the pupils can judge readily as to 

the degree of excellence of the results attained. 

4. The projects must be such that they can be completed in a reasonably short 


5. They must be such as can be designed or modified easily by the children 

themselves, so that each pupil may have what amounts to an individual 

Practically all of the work done by the children up to the time they pass into 
the fifth grade is illustrative of their academic subjects, or is what we call project 
work. (Illustration — The making in shop or classroom in paper, cardboard and 
wood, of the cart, prairie schooner, boats, train, auto truck, aeroplane, etc., 
showing the development of mechanical means of transportation.) 


When the boys pass into the fifth grade, while the project work is by no means 
abandoned, yet it is only a portion of the work, as they have arrived at an age 
where the desire is to create something which is not merely illustrative, but which 
tlicy or someone else may use after it is made. They have also more or less 
dimly come to a realization of the fact that they must know something about how 
to handle tools correctly and to put things together in the right way, if the 
product is to be strong enough for practical use. Besides the joy that the child 
of this grade finds in creating an article for use, there is the pleasure and develop- 
ment he finds in the proper control and co-ordination of muscles and mind in 
working for fairly exact results in a somewhat difficult medium. 

About a third of the time this year may profitably be given to project work, in 
conjunction with other. school activities. This type of work is scattered through 
the school year, as occasion and need for it arise. Another third of the time is 
devoted to the making of toys and small projects for the pupil's own use. The 
rest of the time is devoted to making toys and small articles for the Children's 
1 lome, or articles to be used in the school or home. 

Because of the child's limitations in the matter of strength and control, the tools 
are limited to the cope saw, file, auger bit and brace, brad awl, hand saw, hammer 
and nails. Materials are limited to %", Yz" and ^" soft wood, oil paints, and 
shellac varnish. 

Toys consist of two-piece animal silhouettes, animals mounted on wheels, jointed 
men and animals, action toys, like the pecking chicken, wood choppers, tops, 
gliders, etc., all painted in representative or contrasting colors. Useful articles 
consist of spool holders, child's wheelbarrow, cart, child's chair, key racks, etc., etc. 
Two periods per week. 

Grade Six. 

Purposes 4, 9, 1 and 6, 8. 

Main objectives: (Purpose 4) "To provide a means for developing technical 
skill," It is obviously impossible to develop the techniques of several trades, but 
it is possible to select one trade or industry and to treat it as illustrative of trade 
technique in general. Even though the vocational significance of the work may 
not be important for the boys, it is highly important to emphasize this question 
of trade technique for social and educational reasons. 

(Purpose 9) "To create interest in the arts and industries without any reference 
to their vocational significance." While only woodwork is given in this grade, 
it is made partially to fulfill the above purpose by class discussions of the various 
trades and industries in which wood is used, as well as of the logging and milling 
operations involved. 

Secondary purpose: (Purposes 1 and 6) "To develop handiness." "To enable 
the pupil to apply the test of practice to some of his thinking." These purposes 
will be inherent in any work that is carried out in strict accordance with the 
above-stated principles. 

Alinor considerations: (Purpose 8) "To interest in school work those pupils to 
whom the traditional studies do not appeal." 
Practical characteristics of projects. 

Projects should be such as to demand the use of the truly typical woodworking 
tools, and the methods employed should be such as to show step by step the correct 
use of these tools in the fundamental operations. 

The child of this age has gained considerable control of his muscles, and there 
are many things that he is interested in making because of his increased responsi- 
bilities at home and because of his more sustained interest in different types of 


play or work. For these reasons we are able to introduce work of a more 
technical nature, involving most of the carpenter's hand tools and the simple 
principles of construction. The pupil works directly from working drawings or 
blue prints. The course is arranged to give him as much training as possible in 
the fundamental tool operations and principles of construction, so that he has some 
idea of how to do the many jobs of a useful nature that a boy or man has to do 
about home all through life. Projects are so classified that the tool operations 
and constructional principles necessary are covered and yet the interest of the 
boy is held ; and a reasonable freedom of selection within the individual's capacity 
is allowed. Emphasis is placed upon the necessity for accuracy. Few toys are 
made in this grade, most of the projects being for practical use. 

Pupils are required to make out a stock bill, figure waste, spoilage, cost of 
accessories, etc. As opportunity offers, the class works some general school or 
class project, which involves direct correlation with the other subjects in the grade. 

Projects are classified and offered in groups, and the class may select from the 
group. After the selected project is completed, the individual who finishes ahead 
of the class may select another from the same group. Work on each project is 
divided into five steps. 

1. Material, — selection, cost, etc. 

During the year, at least five different woods of those most common in 
commercial use must be used by each pupil. 

2. Layout. 

This, during the year, is to include frequent use of the rule, try square, 
framing square, bevel T, protractor, compass (as well as free-hand 
curves), gauge (both with tool and with pencil and finger), etc. 

3. Execution. 

Squaring up with plane should be done on almost every project. Smooth- 
ing with plane, cabinet scraper and sandpaper. Sawing to line with 
boith cross-cut and rip saw. Use of chisel and spoke shave on curved^ 
surfaces, etc. Accuracy, and proper handling and sharpening of tools 
are emphasized. 

4. Assembling. (Showing the necessity for accuracy in execution.) 

Use of common and finish nails, flat head and round head screws, and 
glue, both hot and cold. 

5. Finish. 

Use of oil paint, stain, shellac varnish, and furniture wax. When an 
occasional project calls for it, silax filler is used. 
Emphasis all the way through the work of this grade is placed on the right 
method of doing things, and when poor results are obtained the class is urged 
to discuss the matter and determine the cause. 

Grade Seven. 

Purposes 9, 1, 2 and 6, 3, 8. 

Main objectives: (Purpose 9) "To create interest in the arts and industries 
without any reference to their vocational significance." At this point it is our 
purpose to introduce the pupil to a variety of materials, and incidentally to a 
variety of processes fundamental to the different arts and industries. Work of 
this nature should widen the social horizon of the pupils by giving them glimpses 
of a number of occupations. 

(Purpose 1) "To develop handiness." Considered in its relation to Purpose 9, 
this would mean that the pupil's manipulative ability should be developed 
considerably by his contact with a variety of materials and processes. 


Secondary purposes: (Purposes 2 and 6) "To promote the immediate carrying 
over of an idea into action." "To enable the pupil to apply the test of practice 
to some of his thinking." These two purposes will be continued as objectives, 
but will be decidedly subordinate to purposes 9 and 1, because of the fact that the 
pupil will be called upon to make the acquaintance of materials and processes 
rather than to apply himself to constructive problems involving these materials. 
The processes in each case must be elementary because of the limited time. The 
I^iipil, in the course of his fifth and sixth grade work, has developed the desire and 
al)ility to attack simple problems in construction. The work of the seventh grade 
It tempts to build upon this problem-solving ability, rather than to make any 
.sl)ecial effort to develop it. 

Minor considerations: (Purpose 3) "To help discover special interests and 
ai)titudes important for vocational guidance." This purpose is of some importance 
as it helps the pupil to select his high school course with greater intelligence; 
or, if he leaves school after graduating from the eighth grade, enables him to 
select a job for which he is better adapted. 

(Purpose 8) "To interest in school work those pupils to whom traditional 
studies do not appeal." This purpose is particularly pertinent here, because the 
boy has reached the age when he is restless and inclined to scoff somewhat at 
the value of the subjects which do not hold his interest. 

Practical characteristics of course. 

Of the eight basic arts (graphic, woodworking, plastic, metal- working, textile, 
printing, agricultural and commercial) we have selected work in four. 

Mechanical drawing: Two and three-view drawings to scale, isometric projec- 
tion, pencil tracing, blue-printing. 

Cement work: Making of simple moulds with clay, plaster and wood. Casting 
in them. Casting of small beams of different mixtures and reinforcements, and 
testing their strength on a home-made testing machine. 

Art metal : Etching, saw-pierced work, and soft soldering with iron and torch. 
Later we expect to do some tinsmithing in connection with this work. 

Printing: Six periods per week, last half of year. This course is outlined to 
follow the logical order of processes, — lay of cases, use of printers' stick, type 
setting, justification of lines, imposition, lockup, press work, etc. ; also the 
different sizes and styles of type, and their artistic and practical arrangement in 
setting up various jobs. This knowledge is applied in conjunction with the pupil's 
academic subjects in the issuing at least twice a year of a training school news- 
paper, as well as various other projects. During the past year the class has put 
out a thirty-page Roosevelt memorial pamphlet; a book on California missions, 
the binding and decoration of which were done under the supervision of the art 
department; a reading book of twenty pages, compiled by the third grade pupils 
for use of the first grade pupils; a number of different record cards for the 
different departments of the school ; tickets, etc., etc. Our printing work has had 
a very vital place in the school life of the children. 

In addition to the training in the various materials, tools and processes, a 
number of industrial excursions are made to the local industries that are repre- 
sentative, and to other industries by steriopticon or moving pictures. Not a great 
deal of this excursion work can be done, because it takes too much time from the 
regular school work. 



Grade Eight. 

Purposes S, 4, 8 and 3, 6 and 7. 

Main objectives: (Purpose 5) "To provide a means for imparting technical 
knowledge." By "technical knowledge" is meant an understanding of those 
mechanical, mathematical and scientific principles which are intimately involved in 
practical construction in wood. In other words, the pupil learns the why of 
every thing he does. He learns the composition and methods of manufacture of 
the various finishes, materials and tools he uses, the principles upon which his 
tools are constructed and upon which they work. And this is all very naturally 
reflected in the better use of these tools and materials. 

(Purpose 4) "To provide a means for developing technical skill." With the 
fulfillment of purpose 5, and with emphasis placed on high ideals of workmanship, 
the pupil can not help but gain very materially in the development of "technical 

Secondary purpose: (Purposes 8 and 3) "To interest in school work those 
pupils to whom the traditional studies do not appeal." "To help discover special 
interests and aptitudes important for vocational guidance." These purposes are 
of almost equal importance in the work of this grade, because at this time the 
boys need vocational guidance and particularly that kind of guidance that will 
lead them to enter high school, and to select wisely from the vocational courses 
there offered. 

Minor considerations: (Purposes 6 and 7) "To enable the pupil to apply the 
test of practice to some of his thinking." "To develop the mind by providing 
constructive problems in materials which demand a vigorous mental reaction." 

Practical characteristics of projects. 

To reach the above-named objectives, the work of this grade should be carried 
on in such a way as to reduce class instruction to a minimum, and consequently to 
afford considerable latitude to individual pupils in the choice of projects. These 
projects may, and should in many cases, combine two or more of the handicrafts 
that the pupils have worked in during the past year. In most instances, projects 
in this grade should be selected from an approved list, the instructor being careful, 
of course, to see that the project in each instance is well adapted to the ability 
and the requirements of the individual pupil in question. Community and group 
work are encouraged, and a few visits to industrial plants are made every year. 



MARY BENTON, Supervisor, Department of Fine Arts. 

The terms problem and project as applied to method in teaching are rapidly 
acquiring a limited and technical significance. 

Both problems and projects are activities in which the accomplishment of an 
end chosen by the children because of their own interests and needs necessitates 
I lie acquisition of certain facts and skills heretofore taught formally as a prepara- 
tion for a future need. Essential elements of each are sincere motivation based 
upon the child's present needs, and the skillful direction l)y the teacher of the 
child's activities in accomplishing his purpose so that knowledge and skill of 
permanent value result. 

With these points of similarity in mind the differences are the more obvious. A 
problem is relatively simple, motivates work in one or very few subjects, and the 
resulting knowledge or skill is limited and specific and a short time is required for 
its completion. The project, on the other hand, is more complex, motivates and 
correlates work in practically all the school subjects, yields a great variety of 
knowledge and skill, and requires an extended period of time for its completion. 

In both methods the adult logic of subject matter imposed upon the child gives 
place to the child's logic of need growing out of his life. The child's interest is 
centered upon the end to be accomplished, and this is vital enough to lead him to 
master all sorts of difficulties. The teacher's interest is focused upon making 
the activities yield the greatest possible educational returns. 

The following detailed account of a few typical problems and projects actually 
worked out in the training school will suffice as illustrations. 

Third Grade History Project. 

This project was an outgrowth of a desire on the part of the third grade children 
to imitate the old Greeks. They had been studying Greek stories and wished to 
hold an "Olympic Meet" similar to those of the old Greeks. The "3B's" called 
themselves Spartans and the "3A's," Athenians. The Athenians sent a written 
challenge to the Spartans to meet them on the Olympic field. Planning and pre- 
paring for the "Meet" furnished the basis for a great portion of the work in history 
for twelve weeks. 

Other subjects motivated were the following: 

1. Games and Music. 

The games and tests of strength and skill chosen by the children were races, — 
simple, relay, torch, armor and chariot; wrestling matches; disk throwing, and 
jumping. Boys were chosen to take part in these. After much practice "try outs" 
were held, and the most promising contestants for each event were voted upon by 
the group. 

The girls decided to be "altar maidens." One procession was planned to escort 
the players to the field, during which the altar maidens sang and danced. A second 
procession was to sing and strew flowers in the path of the victors on their way 
to the temple after they were crowned. 



2. Art and Handwork. 

Each boy designed and made his own armor, costume, standard, weapon, or 
anything used in his event. Each girl designed and made her own costume, 
wreath and lyre. 

Greek pottery was made to hold the flowers used in the procession. This 
became a group problem involving design, color and proportion. 

3. Reading and Language. 

The children discovered the need for reading in order to get appropriate ideas 
of costume and design. 

Composite records of the work done were put into book form to be presented 
to the incoming third grade. 

Invitations to the "Meet" were written to parents and friends, and an oral 
announcement was made to the entire school by a "Greek runner," chosen by the 
group. Another child, chosen in the same way, "called" the various events and 
proclaimed the victors to the audience. All activities involved in the "Meet" 
carried over into the children's free play period, so anxious was each child to win 
for his side in the final event. 

A Fourth Grade Project. 

A trip to Old Town, California's real beginning, was planned, which proved to 
be the basis of a term's work in history, geography and nature study, and in part 
of practically all of the other subjects. 

4B Boys Building Model of Mission and Making Adobe Bricks. 

The children decided that the best way to give to others an understanding and 
appreciation of their excursion would be to make a book including many of their 
experiences. There was much class discussion about the subject matter to be used, 
and the phrasing of each chapter was carefully developed through these discussions. 
While the work was directed by the teacher, the contributions to the book were 
entirely the composite work of the group. The "story" of their trip to the olive 


factory in Old Town included the following points: The raising of olives, the 
curing and canning of olives and the making of olive oil. Examples of other 
"chapters" in the book were, "What We Saw on the Way," "What We Saw from 
the Hill," and "The First Mission." 
The following outline indicates how the project motivated other subjects: 

A. Geography: 

Physiography of the site of San Diego. 
Olive industry. 

B. History: 

Early explorers ; discovery of San Diego Bay ; founding of the Mission ; 
founding of San Diego. 

C. Arithmetic : 

Weight of rollers used in crushing fruit for olive oil. 
Number of bottles filled per minute. 
Liquid measure. 

D. Nature Study: 

Study of wild flowers found on trip. 

Oak galls gathered, studied and used for ink. 

Acacia trees studied because of gum arabic used in making ink. 

E. Manual Arts: 

Measurements for size of book. 
Making of paper for title page. 
Making ink for class names for book. 
Quill pens made for writing. 
Blue prints made from films taken on trip. 

F. Language group : 

Oral and written composition. 

Reading in the library for further information upon many of the topics 
listed above. 

Another year, as a result of such an excursion, a model mission was built. The 
children discovered adobe suitable for bricks, near the Normal School ; tules were 
shredded and used with the adobe; molds for bricks were made in the manual 
arts period; a floor plan was drawn to a scale; four elevations of the Mission 
were drawn; tiles for the roof were molded and painted. 



Illustrations of Some Fourth Grade Problems. 

1. Making a sand table model of an Aztec garden, resulting from a study of 
American Indians. 

2. Making and designing Indian food bowls and water jars following "history" 
excursion to the Exposition. 

4B — Indian Pottery. 
Designed from Memory, After a Visit to the Indian Village at the Exposition. 

3. Making and presenting a puppet show based upon the Story of Pinocchio. 

4. Making Christmas toys and quilts for the Children's Aid Home. This problem 
became a project. 

5. Butter and cheese making. 

6. Chicken raising. 

7. Making of money and money boxes for the model store. 

A Fifth Grade Project. 

As a part of their geography work last spring, the children of the fifth grade 
classes went on an excursion around San Diego Bay and to the fisheries. The 
trip proved to be delightfully interesting, and on their return they discussed the 
best method of telling other children in the school about it. 

It was suggested that it would be much easier to show what they had seen if 
they had pictures ; and as they had none large enough they agreed that they would 
make lantern slides, which could be thrown upon the screen in the assembly room. 
Each child, then, chose some feature of the trip in which he was most interested, 
selecting such subjects for pictures as the following: the patrol boat, the fishing 
boats, the kelp dredge, the lighthouses, the seagulls and pelicans, the map of the 
bay, the hydroplanes, the Battleship Oregon, etc. The pupil then looked up 
material of which he was uncertain, as, for example, the habits of the pelicans, 
presented this orally to the class for criticism, wrote a composition embodying what 


seemed to be most interesting, and then learned this as his part. Slides were made 
from free-hand drawings or copied from books or magazines by the children. 
After the drawing was approved by the class and the teacher, the child placed it 
under a cover glass and traced his picture very carefully with lantern-slide ink 
upon the glass. A framing mat was then placed upon the glass, another cover 
glass placed on top of this first one, and both bound together with passe partout 
paper. The slides were then numbered in accordance with the order of descrip- 
tions chosen by the class. The "class lecture," illustrated with these slides, was 
delivered before the other children of the Training School. 
The work of this project was grouped under the following subjects: 

A. Geography (local). 

1. Map of the bay (outline). 

2. Location of points of interest. 

a. The fisheries. 

b. The kelp-drying plant. 

c. Rockwell Aviation Field, etc. 

3. Marine life. 

B. English. 

1. Oral discussion and criticism. 

2. Written description. 

3. Spelling. 

4. Silent reading (investigation). 

5. Oral reading of composition. 

6. Memorizing for delivery. 

C. Drawing and handwork. 

1. Freehand, with pencil. 

2. Copying or tracing with ink. 

3. Practice in judging proportion. 

4. Making of lantern-slide mats. 

5. The passe partout process with glass. 

D. Penmanship. (Careful writing of composition.) 

Other Projects Carried on in the Fifth Grade. 

War Work. 

1. Food Conservation. This project created interest in the class work of geog- 

raphy (transportation facilities), language (the material was orally dis- 
cussed, then put into written form), penmanship, drawing and handwork 
(books were made) and domestic science (recipes). 

2. Red Cross. This project motivated work in domestic science and shop work, 

chiefly. The girls made infant layettes, sewed rags for carpets and did con- 
siderable knitting of afghans, sweaters, etc. The boys made book-ends and 
sold them. All work was recorded in the language and writing periods. 

3. Flags of the allied nations. A drawing project, into which much arithmetic 

entered, as the flags were made to scale from large prints. 

Medieval Castle. A history project which required much careful estimating in 

arithmetic, much reading and oral discussion. 
A Japanese Corner. A geography project, the work being carried on in the 

periods devoted to geography, handwork, art, spelling, composition, reading 

and writing. 



Playhouse Project. 

5-B Grade. 

The playhouse project grew out of the desire of a 5-E class to build a "playhouse, 
big enough to get into." The idea was not to have a house built scientifically, 
either from the standpoint of architectural construction or of finish, but to have 
one which should be an expression of children's activities, within the sphere of 
their experiences and on the level of their abilities. 

The class first decided upon the size and proportions of the house, and the 
number and placing of windows and doors. This involved the problems of pro- 
portion and correct spacing. Then they figured to a scale and made their indi- 
vidual tag-board models. Meantime a committee of boys, chosen by the class, 
visited wrecking companies and secured bids on the required amount of second- 

SB Boys' Playhouse. 
Correlating Arithmetic, Language and Drawing. 

hand lumber which the class had estimated as necessary. After submitting the 
bids to the class, they attended to the purchase and delivery. The boys did the 
actual construction, the teacher working out each problem with them and with the 
class as a whole. The girls made the wall paper from original designs, the best 
being chosen by the class, stenciled curtains and wove one jute rug and one rag 
one. They dyed their own rags for the rag rug and made their designs, while the 
boys built the frame for weaving. The girls also made a bedspread, bed linen, 
bureau scarf, table runner, candlesticks, pottery, etc. 

Each problem and step was discussed and solved by the class when it arose, and 
each was written up as a chapter in the playhouse record book. Even such inci- 
dents as the placing of a placard asking other children of the school to refrain 
from playing on the premises during the course of construction, small mishaps 
and amusing incidents relating to the work, were elected by the children to be 


included in their compositions, which, on the completion of the work, were bound 

into loose-leaf books. 

The main class activities for the entire year centered about the project. They 
might be grouped as follows : 

1. Arithmetic. 

(a) Practical application of fractions. 

(b) Elementary surface measure, 

(c) Elementary linear measure. 

(d) United States money. 

(e) Fundamental operations. 

2. Oral and written composition and record keeping, 

3. Spelling. 

4. Study of housing conditions of other nations. 

5. Manual Arts. 

(a) Figuring to a scale. 

(b) Applied design. 

(c) Weaving. 

(d) Sewing. 

(e) Clay work. 

(f) Basket work. 

(g) Wood work and construction. 
(h) Dyeing and tinting. 

6. Agriculture, 

The following composition from one of the loose-leaf record books will illustrate 
the nature of the work : 

''The 5-B grade decided to make a playhouse, big enough for us all to get 
into. It will be six feet high. It will be eight feet wide and ten feet long. 
The roof will have a pitch of two and one-half feet. We figured in arithmetic 
that it would take two hundred and sixteen feet of lumber one foot wide for 
the sides of our house. It will take seventy-two feet of two by fours for the 
case and the top. It will take twenty-four feet of two by fours for supports. 
It will take twelve feet of two by fours for the ridgepole. It will take five feet 
of two by fours to support the ridgepole. So we will need one hundred and 
thirteen feet of two by fours. 

Joseph Elmer and Thomas Hawley were chosen as representatives of the 
Fifth Grade to see about buying lumber for our playhouse. Miss Harper took 
Joseph and Thomas into the Exposition through the North Gate. They went 
first to the Sinking of the Titanic. The amount of lumber which we needed 
would cost $8.32 there. Next the boys went to the Race Through the Clouds. 
The lumber at the Race Through the Clouds cost twice as much as it did at 
the Sinking of the Titanic. The lumber. was delivered on January 31, 1917, 
The cost of delivery was $1.25, The complete cost of the lumber was $9.57." 

Proposed Project — Seventh or Eighth Grade Boys. 

Shipping and Shipbuilding. 

1. Record of time, materials used, difficulties and ways of overcoming them. 

2. Letters. 

3. Oral reports. 



1. "Captains Courageous" — Kipling. 

2. "Two Years Before the Mast"— Dana. 

3. "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea"— Jules Verne. 

4. Poems of sea life. 

1. Locations of United States Shipyards, 
(o) Climatic conditions. 

(b) Transportation and sources of supplies. 

(c) Leading steamship lines of the world. 

(1) The kinds of cargoes carried. 

1. Costs of various kinds of ships. 

2. Taxes. 

3. Insurance. 

4. Tonnage. 

5. Statistics. 

1. Plates for use in the lantern. 

2. Chemistry of materials used. 

3. Applied electricity. 
Physical Education. 

1. Games used by sailors. 

1. Conventionalized ships for designs for tiles or other decoration. 

2. Camouflage. 


GERTRUDE LAWS, Principal of Training School. 

The assembly motivates much of the work done in the training school. No 
attempt is made at entertainment, but opportunity is offered for each group of 
children to put on an interesting program for the other groups of the school. Lack 
of self-consciousness, the natural childish way of doing things, and sympathetic 
appreciation of one another's work are always conspicuous in these exercises. The 
almost parental pride of the older children when the little first and second grade 
people have charge of the period is very gratifying. There is no clapping of hands 
in applause of the good work done. The eager attention to all that goes on is 
strong evidence of the thing clapping of hands is supposed to express, but too 
often does not. 

Once a week, Friday morning at 9 o'clock, all the children of the training school 
go to the assembly room when there is always the chant of the Lord's Prayer, the 
singing of America, and the flag salute by the entire assembly. Some group then 
gives a phase of its regular work for ten or fifteen minutes. The kinds of things 
done are: reading, arithmetic, games, music, original poems and riddles (which 
are guessed by the auditors), acting Mother Goose rhymes (which are also guessed 
by the other children), rhythmic work, gymnastic drills, reports of excursions, 
(with lantern slides, made by the children themselves, illustrating their trips), 
elementary science experiments, exhibitions of industrial arts problems, with 
reports of the development of each, dramatization of history and literature. Special 
attention is given to such dates as Admission Day, Labor Day, Saint Valentine's 
Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, Washington's Brithday, etc. 


Besides the general assemblies, we have a seventh and eighth grade assembly 
once a week, when more advanced work is done, as reports from the language 
classes on such subjects as Americanization, shipbuilding, "Great Gifts and Givers," 
the Missions of California. Debates, discussion of various phases of the life of 
the school, discussion of vocations open to boys and girls add to the value o! 
these assemblies. Considerable attention is given to parliamentary practice at 
these meetings. Twice a year officers are nominated and elected by ballot, and 
the children gain considerable practice in handling elections and in study of 
common occurrences at municipal and state elections. 

A children's orchestra was organized the first of this year and it has added 
greatly to the interest of the assemblies. 

The assembly, regarded as a social project, is one of the most important of the 
activities of the school. 



MARY BENTON, Supervisor, Department of Fine Arts. 

The purpose of art study and experience in the grades is not to make artists 
of the children, neither is it the finished product in itself; it is rather to develop 
the power to see and that sense of good taste which functions in all walks of life 
in the better production and choice of those things with which man surrounds 
himself. A certain degree of skill in expression and execution, as well as a growth 
in culture, will follow from association with the world's most beautiful examples 
of space art. 

This course of study is based on the stages of growth and development of the 
child outlined in the introductory chapter of this bulletin. In the first three years 
the work is largely guided expression of the child's activities and interests through 
art mediums. The fourth, fifth and sixth years show the growing consciousness 
of the need of more adequate means of expression, and the interest in the result 
increases. The desire for the approval of others spurs the child to increase his 
skill in the use of the art elements and principles. In early adolescence the interest 
becomes more individualized, and the art problems grow out of personal rather 
than group needs. 

The fine and industrial art courses are so closely associated that one should not 
be read without the other. Both motivate and illuminate much of the content of 
the other school subjects. 

Grade I. 
I. Design. 

1. Line : Repetition of lines for good spacing in borders, rug designs and 

panelling for rooms in a doll's house ; repetition with rhythm worked 
out with chalk on the blackboard, or with charcoal on large paper, in 
original expression of different bars of music with varying rhythmic 

2. Dark and light: Two values studied from the child's own work in cut 

paper in relation to good massing and placing. 

3. Color: Names of hues are learned and the first steps in harmony are 

studied through combining colored papers and choosing the color 
schemes for the rooms in the doll's house. The making of flat washes 
for the wall paper is the first step in water-color work. 

4. The elements (line, dark and light and color) and good spacing are 

studied through making surface patterns and borders by means of 
stick printing, or simple motifs worked out from seeds, leaves, etc., for 
wall paper, curtains, dishes, rugs, etc., for the house; in making furni- 
ture and laying out the grounds about the house ; in cover designs for 
booklets, holiday cards and boxes, and in landscape studies of spring 
and autumn. 
II. Representation : Paper cutting, mass painting and modeling of toys, animals, 

birds, fruit, flowers, etc., for study of form. 
III. Illustration: Using the same mediums as in representation, also crayola, the 

children tell in pictures the story of vacation, home and school experiences, 

games, industries, and stories from history, literature, etc., for free 

expression of thought. 


IV. Art study: Emphasis on story element. 
Reynolds — Age of Innocence. 
Raphael — Madonna of the Chair. 
Millet— Feeding Her Birds. 
Millet— First Steps. 
Van Dyck— Baby Stuart. 
Correggio — Holy Night. 
Illustrations by — 

Jessie Wilcox Smith. 

Elizabeth Shippen Green. 

Rose Cecil O'Neill. 

Grade II. 

I. Design. 

1. Une: Character of line. The children try to express an animal, fruit, 

vegetable or flower form by one expressive line with the brush, in this 
way observing the characteristic diflFerences in objects. They also work 
on problems of line in repetition, rhythm and space division. 

2. Dark and light: Two values are studied in cut paper or free-brush 


3. Color : Hue, value and harmony are studied through combining pieces of 

colored paper or fabrics. 

4. The simple steps in these three elements and in the principle of propor- 

tion or good spacing are learned through making and applying surface 
patterns, borders and units to booklets, scrapbooks, holiday cards, 
boxes and baskets, rugs and furnishing for the first grade doll's house. 
Objects used by primitive man, such as pottery, weapons, clothing, etc., 
are studied with stress on symbolism, and are made by children. 
Group posters and landscape settings for scenes from Hiawatha and 
other stories furnish good problems. 
IT. Representation : Animal form is studied through cut paper and free painting 
or is incised in clay in correlation with the history of the cave man. Fruit, 
vegetable and bird forms are studied through paper cutting or wash 
painting, to develop ability to see and express form. 
III. Illustration : Picture writing is done on rabbit skins prepared by the children. 
and on bark, with burnt sticks, colored earth, etc. Home and school 
experiences, vacation sports, etc., are told by free painting or crayola, to 
encourage freedom in expressiort. 
IV. Art study. 

In connection with the study of primitive man, use the "Dawn of Art" 
number of "Art and Archaeology," August, 1916; also "Bird" number, 
December, 1916. 

For character of line, use Japanese brush paintings of animals, children 
and flowers. 

For study of Indian design the children are taken to the San Diego 
Museum of Indian Arts. 

For the story element and simple elements and principles of art : 
Millet — Feeding the Hens. 
Millet — Digging Potatoes. 
Landseer — My Dog. 
Raphael— Madonna of the Chair. 


Mauve — Sheep, Autumn. 
Rembrandt — Lion and Elephant. 
Diirer— Rabbit. 
Breton — Song of the Lark. 
Illustrations by — 
Jessie Wilcox Smith. 
Elizabeth Shippen Green. 
Arthur Rackham. 
Edmund Dulac. 
William Nicholson. 

Grade III. 
I. Design. 

1. Line: Rhythm, proportion and form are studied in Greek, Roman and 

Mexican pottery, and appreciation is gained through designing, building 
and decorating pottery. 

2. Dark and light : Three values are analyzed and applied. 

3. Color : Hues, values, intensities are studied through describing colors of 

papers, textiles, etc., and are applied to original designs in crayola, 
water color and tempera. 

4. All three elements, with pattern and composition, are taught through 

designing Dutch, Japanese, Greek and Roman costumes by means of 
paper dolls, and in making costumes to be worn in Greek and Roman 
games, in making costumes for paper dolls, of plain, plaid or striped 
and figured fabrics in good combination, in correlation with making 
a budget of child's clothing in the arithmetic class, in lettering posters, 
in designing and weaving a Roman striped textile on the two-heddle 
loom as a group problem, in designing portfolios, book covers and 
holiday novelties. 

IL Representation : Brush drawing in mass, or in few action lines, of children, 
animals, birds and flowers, is followed by memory sketches to develop sight 
and memory by eliminating all unnecessary details. 
IIL Illustration : Largely expressed through constructive problems in correlation 
with history, geography and literature, such as a stage setting for a Japanese 
story, with the dolls in costume, through cut paper scenes for study of child 
life in foreign lands, bound into booklets ; and also through illustrations in 
water color, crayola or cut paper of original rhymes for a book. 
IV. Art study. 

Greek and Roman architecture, sculpture and pottery. 
Mexican pottery at the San Diego Museum. 
For line, Japanese prints and brush paintings. 
For action, color and drawing, illustrations by — 
Boutet de Monvel. (Drawings of children.) 
Arthur Rackham. 
Edmund Dulac. 
Jessie Wilcox Smith. 
Chas. L. Bull's animal drawings. 
For interest in the painter as well as for art qualities, the Dutch masters, 
Rembrandt and Pieter de Hooch. 


Grade IV. 

I. Design. 

1. Line: Characteristic action lines are studied in figure drawing. Outline 

is used for study of form in Indian basket and pottery forms. 

2. Dark and light: Three and more values are analyzed and applied. 

(See 4.) 

3. Color: Through inability to describe accurately the color of textiles, 

papers, etc., the need is felt of specific terms. Value and intensity of 
color are then studied. 

4. The applications of 1, 2 and 3 are made in such problems as a frieze for 

the schoolroom showing the coming to California of the Mission 
Fathers, the discovery of America by Columbus, the landing of the 
Pilgrims, etc, — ^problems giving good opportunity for composition and 
study of color harmony and subordination, or the emphasis of a domi- 
nating figure or mass by means of color; also through dyeing of rags 
or wool and designing and weaving rugs or textiles, weaving of pat- 
tern in Indian baskets, decorating tiles and pottery in underglaze 
colors, in making and decorating books, boxes and all holiday novelties 
including carts and toyi^ ; and lettering for signs and posters cut from 
paper, painted with flat bristle brush or printed with spoonbill pens. 
II. Representation : Sketches from figure poses for action and proportion, in cut 
paper, wash painting and charcoal. Memory work as in Grade III. When 
animal, bird or flower forms are drawn or painted, it is done in preparation 
for adaptation to design or to the arrangement of forms in a space, as in 
posters, patterns, etc. 

III. Illustration: Of original rhymes and stories, as in Grade III. 

IV. Art study. 

Indian art at the San Diego Museum is studied, and drawings are made by 

Japanese brush paintings are studied. 

For composition, see William Nicholson's "Square Book of Animals." 
Study of pictures showing Puritan furniture and pewter. 
Picture for subject as well as art quality — 

Boughton — Pilgrims. 

Rembrandt — Windmill. 

Ruysdael — Dutch Landscape. 

de Hooch — Dutch Interiors. 

Murillo — Beggar Boys. 
Lives of the painters are studied, and an art notebook is commenced. 

Grade V. 

I. Design. 

1. Line: Japanese and Chinese forms of writing and their effect on brush 

painting are studied, and the Japanese brush is used in problems which 
develop control and quality of line. The relation of lines and spaces 
is emphasized. 

2. Dark and light and color: Value, intensity and harmony are more care- 

fully analyzed and applied. 

3. The elements and also the principles of spacing, composition and sub- 

ordination are applied in making tile or plate designs, with Feudal 
Castle, Chinese or Japanese motifs, carried out in incised line, fired, 
then glazed by the children, or cast in cement and colored with cement 


wash, in lettering and arranging group panels, posters, etc., in making 
surface patterns for textiles, carried out in batik or block printing; 
designs for book covers or end pages, costumes for class plays, pottery 
and holiday novelties. Lettering is also studied in connection with 
monastic printing and illuminating, and is done with quill pens and 
ink, made by the children, or with spoonbill pens, Japanese and flat 
bristle brushes. 
II. Representation : Pose drawing of figure, developed in flat areas of color with 
no features or detail. In drawing or painting animals, flowers, etc., com- 
position, or the pattern quality, is stressed. 

III. Illustration has been largely absorbed in design, as all problems which in 

reality are illustrative are handled from the standpoint of conveying the 
story through careful use of elements and principles. Cartoons are made 
for lantern slides or the school paper. 

IV. Art study. 

Early manuscripts, showing monastic lettering and illuminating. 
Japanese and Chinese writing, brush paintings, prints and designs. 
Japanese, Chinese, Indian and modern American pottery. 
Old textiles, especially East Indian, for color and pattern. 
For color — 

Jules Guerin's and Maxfield Parrish's illustrations. 
For color, figure drawing and composition — 
Boutet de Monvel — Illustrations of Joan of Arc. 
For line and spacing — 

Sargent — Frieze of the Prophets. 

Millet— The Gleaners. 

Chapu — Figure of Joan of Arc. 
For dark and light pattern — 

Corot — Landscapes. 
For correlation with history — 

The Monk Masters — 

Fra Angelico. 

Filippo Lippi. 


The English artists — 

Burne Jones — The Golden Stairs. 

Gainsborough — The Blue Boy. 

J. M. W. Turner— Rain, Steam and Speed. 

Watts— Sir Galahad. 

Abbey — Quest of the Holy Grail. (For subject.) 

Grade VI. 

I. Design. 

Line: Significant line in figure, and grace and rhythm of line, studied in 
Japanese figure drawings, in statuary and pictures. The children 
interpret prints or pose, from memory, by means of a few main lines, 
and also draw from pose, working for grace and rhythm in line. 

2. Dark and light and color : Ways of harmony building studied and applied. 

3. Elements and principles applied to much the same type of problems as 

in Grade V, with difference in application. The designs for tiles, bowls 
or cement boxes are carried out in intaglio, and the cement is colored 

N. B. — The notebook commenced in Grade IV is continued in character, new books being 
made and decorated. 


by the majolica method, calling for a more advanced understanding of 
the fitness of the design for the purpose in all cases. 
II. Representation : Study of perspective commenced. Experiments in elliptical 
and parallel perspective conducted by the children, and application made in 
still life and landscape problems. (See also work given under Line.) 
Til. Illustration: Cartoons or illustrations arc made for the school newspaper and 
for original stories or rhymes, an<l arc done by cutting wood blocks, from 
which prints arc made, or by photographing with pinhole cameras made 
by the children. 
IV. Art study. 
For line — 

Sculpture by Michelangelo. 

Cartoons by Raemakers. 

Alexander-^Pot of Basil. 

Watts— Sir Galahad. 

Watts— Hope. 

Burnc Jones — Aurora. 

Raphael — Madonna of the Chair. 

Raphael — Madonna of the Grand Duke. 
For line and color — 

Japanese prints, and costumes by Leon Bakst. 
For pattern — 

Pottery and textiles from Europe, Persia, Asia Minor and Egypt. 
In correlation with European geography, the paintings of the following 
masters — 

Dutch — Rembrandt and de Hooch. 

Italian — Raphael and Botticelli. 

Spanish — Murillo and Velasquez. 

English — Watts and Burne Jones. 

French — Rodin, Aiillet and Corot. 

German — Holbein. 
(Notebook work continued.) 

Grade VII (Girls). 

I. Design. 

1. Line: Effects produced by different kinds of line are studied and applied 

in costume and room planning, and simple stage settings for a toy 
theater. Quality of line and correct use of Japanese brush are 

2. Dark and light and color : Four or more values are analyzed, Munsell's 

color theory is studied, and the elements and principles are applied to 
costume and room planning and decoration, also through surface 
pattern, motifs and borders, by means of batik, tie-dyeing, wood 
blocking, stenciling, embroidering, etc., to aprons, scarfs, pillow tops, 
book covers, boxes, bottles and cans for vases, and to many objects for 
which the need arises, — also to posters where lettering forms the 
dominating pattern. Charcoal, oil paint, India ink and tempera are the 
usual mediums. 
II. Representation: Figure drawing as an aid to costume design and for its 

decorative use in poster making. Perspective in connection with room 


158 SAN Di^Go staTIv normal school. 

III. The art study course consists of research, written and oral work, and making 
and decorating an art notebook. The subject matter is: 
7B — 1. Architecture. 

Chinese and Japanese. 

Romanesque and Byzantine, 
2. Art — Period of Italian Renaissance, 
7A — 1. Architecture. 

1. French. 

2. English. 

3. Recent war devastation in cathedrals. 

Modern American. 
2, Art — Time of American Revolution. 
French — Watteau, Le Brun, David. 

English — Gainsborough, Reynolds, Romney, J. M. W. Turner. 
Colonial and Revolutionary conditions in American art. 

Grade VIII (Girls). 

I. Design. 

Elements and principles of art are applied specifically to costume planning 
in such problems as smocks and dresses. Color, line, etc., are studied in 
relation to types in the class, and the garments are made in the sewing 
class. In interior decoration the furniture is studied as to line, strength, 
use, finish and period style, with its placing in the room. This includes 
visits to shops, and budget making. 
II. Art study course : 

1. Nineteenth century and modern art: 

French — David, Millet, Corot, Meissonier, Harpignies, Puvis de 
Chavannes, Rodin, Chapu, Meunier, Rosa Bonheur. 

English — Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Watts, Burne Jones, Hunt, 
Rossetti, Brangwyn, Millais. 

Spanish — Goya, Zuloaga, Sorella. 

Dutch — Raemakers. 

2. American — Artists and illustrators : 

James McNeil Whistler, John Sargent, George Tnnes, John Alexander, 
Edwin Abbey, Saint Gaudens, Jules Guerin, Maxfield Parrish, Elihu 
Vedder, William Chase, John La Farge, Abbot Thayer, Robert 
Henri, Cecelia Beaux, Charles Duveneck, Charles Livingston Bull, 
William Nicholson, Carton Moore-Park, Edwin Blashfield, Frank X. 
Leyendecker, Childe Hassam, Sarah Stillwell, and others. 

3. The art of the Impressionists and its influence is studied. 

4. The class is taken to all worth-while exhibitions of American painters 

at the San Diego Museum Art Gallery and encouraged in intelligent 
criticism and appreciation. 

Fine Arts Bibliography. 
Dow, Arthur W. — Composition. Doubleday, Page & Co. $4.00. 
Dow, Arthur W. — Theory and Practice of Teaching Art. Teachers College, 
Columbia University, N. Y. $1.50. 


Stevens, Thomas Wood— Lettering. Prang Ed. Co. $2.(X). 
Day, L. F.— Pattern Design— Chas. Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 
Izor, Estelle Peel — Costume Design and Home Planning. Atkinson, Mentzer & 

Co. 90 cents. 
Vanderpoel — The Hitman Figure. Inland Printing Co. $2.00. 
Pellew, Charles E. — Dyes and Dyeing. Robt. McBride, 31 Union Square, New 

York. $2.00. 
Fenellosa — Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art. A. Stokes Co. $10.00. 
Reinach, Salomon — Apollo. Chas. Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
vSimpson, Frederick Moore — History of Architectural Development. Longmans, 

Green & Co. $4.00. 
!>atchelder, Ernest A. — Design in Theory and Practice. The Macmillan Co. $1.75. 
Vorton, Dora M. — Freehand Perspective and Sketching. Dora M. Norton, Pratt 

Institute, Brooklyn, New York. $3.00. 
Hichens, Robert — Egypt and Its Monuments. Century Company. $6.00. 
Perrot and Chipiez — History of Art in Ancient Egypt. $15.50. 
Perrot and Chipiez — History of Art in Persia. $15.50. 

Eng. Pub. — Chapman & Hall, London. 

Am. Pub. — Doran; A. C. Armstrong & Son. 
Smithsonian Institute Reports. 
Reports and bulletins from — 

Metropolitan Museum, New York City. 

Fine Arts Museum, Boston. 
Art and Archaeology. 

The Archaeological Institute of American, Washington, D. C. 
International Studio. 

John Lane Company. 
School Arts Magazine. 

The Davis Press, Worcester, Mass. 
Industrial and Applied Art Books. 

Atkinson, Mentzer & Co. 
Speyer School Curriculum. 

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. 60 cents. 

Bquipment and Supplies. 
Manila drawing paper, grey and cream, 24" x 36", $6.00 per ream (500 sheets), 

select paper without sizing. Used for all drawing and painting. 
White water-color paper, 24"x36", $15.00 per ream. Used for water-color and 

Crayola work. 
Bogus paper, sizes 9" x 12", 18"x24", 24" x 36". Used for ink and crayola draw- 
ing, tempera and water-color. 
Kraft paper, 36" wide, No. 60, 5-9 cents per pound, 60 sheets to pound. For cut 

paper work and tempera. 
Black pattern paper. For cut paper work. 

Tag board, for constructive problems, — boxes, doll furniture, etc. 
Composition board, No. 35, 26" x 38", $1.10-$2.00 per bundle, 35 sheets to bundle. 

Used for posters and book covers. 
Industry bond. No. 24, 17" x22", $1.50 per ream. Used for originals for schapiro- 

Solid pulp board, 30" x 40", No. 30, $1.75-$2.00 per bundle, 30 sheets to bundle. 

For posters. 


Construction or cover paper, 20" x 25", 22i" x 2Si", from 1 cent per sheet up. All 

colors. Select from sample books. Buy by sheet. Used for posters, cut paper 

work, tempera and book covers. 
Linoleum, "A. A.," $1.75 per square yard. For block printing. 
Post and Higgins inks. 
Fresco colors, with glue. (Order at any paint store.) For painting scenery for 

school plays and for posters. 
Samples of crayola, pencils, paints, etc, Milton Bradley & Co. 
Sloyd knives, $3.00 per dozen; printing blocks, printing sticks. Wall Craft Co., 

1625 N. Delaware street, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Schapirograph, $12.00 with ink and roll. W. W. Greenwood, Tajo Building, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Paper cutter, $15.00. Dyas & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Japanese paper and brushes. Catalogs from Bunkio Matsuki, Boston, Mass. 
Munsell color material. Catalogs from Wadsworth, Rowland & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Photographic enlargements, large unmounted, 75 cents apiece in quantity. 

Mr. Mechtlin, Coulter Building, Broadway, between Second and Third streets, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Lewis & Co., 226 W. Fourth street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Pacific Stereopticon Co., Wesley Roberts Building,. Los Angeles, Cal. 

C. C. Pierce & Co., Spring near Sixth street, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Reproductions of Hunt and Millet charcoal sketches. Wm. Pierce & Co., 630 

.Washington street, Boston, Mass. 
Prints. Order from catalogs. 

Perry Pictures Co., Maiden, Mass. 

Bureau of University Travel, 136 Stuart street, Boston, Mass. 
Printed publications of Boston Museum. 

List of post cards and photographs. 

Set of Japanese sword guard designs. 
Printed publications of Metropolitan Museum, New York. 
Indian designs (Huicol Indians). Natural History Museum, New York. 
Japanese prints, 

E. L. Shima, 20 E. Thirty-third street. New York. 

Bunkio Matsuki, 2 Newberry street, Boston, Mass. 

Matsumoto Do, Tokio, Japan. 

T. J. Kitagawa Co., 119 E. Washington avenue, Madison, Wis. 

Eizo Kondo, 1947 Broadway, New York. 
Paper houses. 

Zellerbach Paper Co., 113 N. Los Angeles street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne, 242-48 S. Los Angeles street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Wholesale and retail firms. Paints, etc. 

Lawrence Farrell Co., 455 S. Hill street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Duncan Vail Co., 730 S. Hill street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Arey- Jones Co., Fourth between D and E, San Diego, Cal. 

Carpenters, Sixth between C and D, San Diego, Cal. 
Catalogs for school supplies. 

Milton Bradley Co., 20 Second street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Atkinson-Mentzer Co., 2210 S. Park avenue, Chicago, 111. 

The Prang Co., New York, Chicago, Boston, Atlanta, Dallas. 

Devoe & C. T. Reynolds, New York and Chicago. 
Wadsworth-Howland Co., 82-84 Washington street, Boston, Mass. 



DOROTHY F. SNAVELY. Supervisor. 


General foreword. 

In the summing up of this course of study for the Normal Training School, 
every eflfort has been made to avoid the idealization of classroom conditions and 
results achieved which is the temptation of teachers, particularly teachers of 
ocalled "special" subjects. The song and sight reading material outlined for 
study in the respective grades has been selected with the view to spontaneous and 
independent work by the class itself, unsupported by the teacher's voice. A music 
recitation, like a well-organized language or reading lesson, is conducted through 
individual members of the class, not in concert. The analogy is not exact, for 
much valuable group activity should be given a place in the teaching of music; 
l)ut this concerted recitation should find its place only in the singing of familiar 
songs where the natural result is an emotional enjoyment and the real community 
>pirit. When the practice of general unison singing is carried over into the study 
I if new songs or drill upon technical problems of sight reading, the natural result 
is the fostering of dependence and inaccurate habits in the individual. The habit 
of success must be cultivated, — not success because of the frequent prompting and 
support of the teacher, but as the result of a solid, conscious foundation from 
which the child himself works. In music, as in any other subject, the material 
studied must be made to fit the child's ability, not the child to fit the teacher's ideas 
of arbitrary work for a given grade. With this introduction, the following outlines 
found to be practicable in school work are submitted. 

Grade 1. 

A. Rote songs. 

B. Singing games to develop feeling for rhythm and to bring out individual 


C. Rhythmic exercises, — marching, clapping, skipping to music of action songs. 

D. Syllables of about ten simple songs taught by rote as the basis of later eye 


E. Drill in recognition of phrases of familiar songs. 

F. Daily and thorough individual work. 

Grade 2B. 
A. Continuation and development of work outlined for Grade 1. 
R. Formal drill in the ear recognition of musical figures or tone words; drill 
organized under the headings of Chapters I-V, Book I, California State 
Text. e. g.— 
Chapter I— Tonic chord figures. 

II— Tonic chord with neighboring tones. 
Ill & IV — Diatonic figures, simple and varied. 
V — Interval drill, skip figures. 

Grade 2A. 

C. Introduction of eye work through the method of "analytical approach," or 

observation of musical notation of entire familiar song, learning from each 
such lesson staff pictures of several tone words, already familiar by ear. 
No new eye material. 

D. Flash drills,— definite drill in instantaneous recognition of isolated tone words 

learned first from songs, organized under chapter headings stated under 
outline for the ear work of Grade 2B. 

162 san diego state normal school. 

Grade 3. 

A. Rote songs. 

B. Reading of new songs with aid of the teacher. 

Songs of Part Two, Book I, California State Text. 

1. Rhythm of song learned hy scansion of the text, no discussion of note 

values, or note to note beating. 

2. Recognition and singing of familiar tone words, teacher supplying 

connecting links only. 
Grade 4. 

A. Rote songs. 

B. Much sight reading by "scansion" method. 

First study of note values. 

C. Method for finding "do" in all keys. 

D. Rounds preparatory to two-part singing. 

Note. — It has seemed wiser to keep the class on the above type of reading and to 
require independent work, inasmuch as in cases observed too much has been done by 
the teacher when more difficult material has been used, the dependence of the class 
increasing in the upper grades. Sight reading songs should be of such grade that they 
can be sung at sight with a fair degree of spontaneity, with very little help from the 
teacher, the class getting the musical thought as they would read a new story written 
in a familiar vocabulary. Under such conditions, the result should not be a halting, 
stumbling lesson, continually supported by the teacher. 

Grade 5. 

A. Rote songs. 

B. Sight reading, to be selected from organized song material, with no exercises. 

C. Formal drill on points of tone, time and musical theory. All problems 

approached through songs, — never drilled upon abstractly unless a concrete 
occasion has arisen through the material studied. 

Tone Problems. Time Problems. 

1. Intervals of the major scale. 1. Quarter note beat, no division of the 

2. Sharp chromatics, diatonic half-step beat. 

progression. 2. Two equal tones to a beat. 

3. Flat chromatics, diatonic half-step 3. Dotted quarter and eighth notes. 

progression. 4. Phrases beginning on the eighth note 

4. Easy melodies in minor keys. before the beat. 

Alternate study of tone and time problems monthly, with theory problems as 
they appear in songs. 

D. Pitch names of lines and .spaces. 

E. Rounds and simple two-part singing. 

Grade 6. 

A. Rote songs. 

B. Sight reading, organized song material embodying the following problems : 

Tone Problems. Time Problems. 

1. Formal interval study. 1. Dotted quarter note beat, two unequal 

2. Harmonic minor scale. tones to a beat. 

3. Skips to sharp chromatics. 2. Dotted quarter note beat, three equal 

4. Skips to flat chromatics. tones to a beat. 

5. Three tones ascending chromatically. 3. Dotted quarter note beat, more 

6. Three tones descending chromatically. advanced study. 
More advanced problems as they appear in the songs to be read. 

C. Writing of simple melodies, building of scales major and minor according to 

formula of steps and half steps. 

san diego state norma i, schooi.. 163 

Grades 7 and 8. 

Daily chorus singing for twenty-five minutes, one chorus of girls and one of 
hoys; weekly singing of two groups together; two- and three-part singing hy each 
group. Song material should he chosen with view to its interest, not as embodying 
technical problems. All work is toward the development of a love for singing and 
participation in community life. Sight reading is not drilled upon. Many children 
v.'ho for various reasons have not learned to read music with facility or accuracy, 
reach the seventh and eighth grades without the power to gain the nmsical thought 
on a page of music. However, if this is true, it is also true that the adolescent 
period of child development is not the time to emphasize the minute attention to 
detail and the serious drill upon mechanical symbols which real sight reading 
entails. Valuable time should be better devoted to suitable biography alive with 
real interest, to the hearty singing of songs which express the moods and emotions 
of the child himself. At this time music must be made a living language suitable 
for the expression of personal aspirations and ideals, not a school subject of dead 
lines and spaces, sharps and flats. 

This is not a new platform, but the familiar ideal of very many teachers of 
music. Few live up to it ; in the precious twenty minutes assigned to the music 
period only too frequently two-thirds of the time is given over to drill upon old 
bugbears which should have l)een mastered in the fifth or sixth grades. By a fine 
inspirational teacher these left-over ends of sight reading difliculties may be caught 
up without sacrifice of the real aim of music teaching, which is the joy of emo- 
tional expression in the community* group ; but the average grade teacher can 
rarely accomplish both ends of her endeavor, and she should accomplish the one 
rather than sacrifice both. 

Even seventh and eighth grades should learn some songs by rote, — songs suitable 
and interesting in their emotional content, yet perhaps too difficult technically for 
any really spontaneous singing without the material help of the teacher. The 
class should sing many such songs, even though the work should become chiefly 
rote teaching, for the larger ideal is being advanced. The development of sight 
reading may be, to a degree, overshadowed by the pleasure of real music. Only 
this attitude on the part of the teacher can develop through the public schools a 
really singing and music-loving nation. 

Listening Lessons or Music Appreciation. 

Inasmuch as almost all school music has been up to this time the singing of 
songs or vocal musical performance, there remains a large field of child develop- 
ment comparatively untouched. During the life of an individual he hears and sees 
more art than he creates. Unless he is fitted to derive the fullest enjoyment and 
zesthetic development from his environment, the time spent upon his individual 
efforts at artistic activity might better be put to use on more direct and "practical" 
subjects. This unfoldment of emotional receptivity and response to the beautiful 
in all art should be the fundamental end and object of every music lesson; it is 
the very direct aim of the "listening" lesson, its reason for being. 

Beginning with the first grade, listening lessons should be given at least once 
a month, preferably at the regular music period in the classroom. It is important 
that the study atmosphere be maintained at all times and that the class be not 
permitted to drift into the feeling of mere entertainment, a lapse in actual mental 
activity. It is difficult to maintain this attitude in an auditorium with a large 


With little children the first lessons are primarily to develop concentration, — 
keen voluntary attention. Simple songs of the type sung by the children them- 
selves are a splendid means for gaining strict attention, each child trying to be 
first to discover the "story" of the song. The teacher can invent innumerable 
games based on this one idea, in which the slowest child in the class will take part 
without urging. Simple descriptive music without words or a definite story stimu- 
lates the child's imagination to the invention of his own story. The "Hunt in the 
Black Forest" is an example of this type of musical composition. 

Discrimination is the aim toward which the teacher works after gaining the 
voluntary concentration of her class ; discrimination between high and low voices, 
soft and loud tones, happy and sad moods, quick and slow tempi, string or brass 
instruments, solo or group performances, and so continued indefinitely, depending 
only upon the readiness with which the teacher herself can perceive the possibilities 
of her selections of records and upon her skill in questioning. 

When the child reaches the associative period of his development, he is ready 
for more and more advanced subjects for his attention. The study of folk songs 
i.nd dances of all countries, the growth of music since primitive times, musical 
form, absolute and program music, the instruments of the orchestra, the different 
types of song forms and of instrumental musical compositions, are all alive with 
interest when approached through hearing the music rather than studying a book 
about music. The success and value of listening lessons depends upon the teacher's 
ability to stimulate the real interest of the class. 

The Selection of Rote Songs. 

Primary Grades. Songs should be short, of not more than two or four lines, 
during the first year. This precludes the use of many attractive songs which are 
very generally taught in first and second grades, but which are more appropriate 
for older children. A good rote song is compact and clear in its structure, 
emphasizing in simple form the fundamental elements of all art, — unity and variety, 
repetition and contrast. Folk songs illustrate these musical elements, though not 
all folk songs found in school music books express in their texts real child emo- 
tions ; rather they express an adult's idea of child interest. The following songs 
are given as exemplifying the above principles : 

Fido and His Master. 


Ring o' Roses. 

The Holiday. 


Playing Soldier. 
California State Series, Book I. 
Other books for supplementary use containing songs of this type are : 

Lyric Music Primer. Scott, Foresman & Co., Chicago. 

Congdon Music Primer. C. H. Congdon. Chicago. 

Gaynor Songs (Grade Three). Clayton F. Summy, Chicago. 
For fourth, fifth and sixth grades there is a wealth of material. The old home 
and patriotic songs of our country and several standard hymns should be learned. 
Book n of the California State Series is used as the regular music text, also 
Congdon Reader No. 4, "For Early Two Part Singing," C. H. Congdon Co., 


Songs for seventh and eighth grades should be chosen from every available 
source. The following books are suggested, witli a number of songs not published 
in collections : 

The School Song Book (McConathy). C. C. Birchard & Co., Boston. 

The Laurel Music Reader. C. C. Birchard & Co., Boston. 

Laurel Song Book. C. C. Birchard & Co., Boston. 

Book III, California State Text. 

Book IV, Progressive Music Series. Silver, Burdett & Co., Chicago. 

Fifty-live Songs for Community Singing. C. C. Birchard & Co., Boston. 

Rolling Down to Rio (Edward German). 

On the Road to Mandalay (Ole Speaks). 

Invictus (Bruno Huhn). 

Bibliof^raphy of Pedagogical References. 

1. Teachers' Manuals, Vols. I, II, III, Progressive Music Series. Silver, Burdett 

& Co., Chicago. 

2. School Music Teaching (T. P. Giddings). C. H. Congdon Co., Chicago. 

3. Education Through Music (Earns worth). American Book Co., Chicago. 

4. Listening Lessons in Music (Fryberger). Silver, Burdett & Co., Chicago. 

5. What We Hear in Music (Faulker). Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J. 

6. Victor Book of Opera. Victor Talking Machine Co. 

7. Grove's Dictionary of Music. Theo. Presser, Philadelphia, Pa. 

8 International Who's Who in Music. Current Literature Publishing Co., 65 W. 

Thirty-sixth street, New York. 
^. How to Listen to Music. Krehbiel. 

Note. — The department is very much interested in the possibility of the application of tests 
or measurement of ability to the teaching of music in the public schools, and has used, in a 
tentative way, the Seashore tests. Since the whole matter is in the stage of experimentation 
and development, a more definite statement is not possible at this time. 



GLADYS NEVENZEL, Supervisor, Vocational Home Economics. 
REBA FLETCHER DOYLE, Supervisor, Institutional Home Economics. 

Place in the Curriculum. 

In the fifth to the eighth grades, inckisive, under the supervision of the home 
economics department. 

In the first to the fourth grades, inckisive, under the supervision of the industrial 
arts department. 

Time Allowance. 

Sezving. Cooking. 

Grade Number of Total minutes Perioda Total minutes 

periods per week per week 

5A & 5B 2 80 -- __ 

6A & 6B U 60 U 60 

7B H 60 U 60 

7A 2 90 2 90 

8B U 60 3 120 

8A 3 120 U 60 

General Aims. 

1. To create a clear understanding of the processes which support our daily- 

2. To establish, through accurate manipulation of materials, an appreciative 
understanding of the labor involved in the manufacture of various products, and 
a respect for that labor. 

3. To give training in neatness and orderhness, personal responsibility, co-opera- 
tion with, and thoughtfulness for one another, brought about by the doing of 
things in fields in which children are naturally interested, namely: food, clothing 
and shelter. 

Specific Aims. 

This course attempts to combine theoretical with practical work in cooking and 
cleaning, in purchasing and care of foods, together with a study of the use of the 
various foods in the body and of the eflfect of heat on the food principles. The 
elementary sciences are introduced by means of simple experiments, such as the 
action of soda and the acid of sour milk, the expansion of air and water when 
heated, the parts played by yeasts, bacteria and molds. 

The funds for the maintenance of the work are obtained from the sale, in our 
school cafeteria, of all foods prepared by the classes. An institutional class com- 
pletes the menu each day, thus the demands of the cafeteria do not govern the 
lessons taught. The child's development, through a logical sequence, is considered 
first. This arrangement has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. It per- 
mits work with large recipes, more nearly of family size than is ordinarily 
possible in school work, and it presents a real need for the preparation of a 
given special dish. We are also able to help children to select more nourishing 
food for their own luncheons. 


The costs of the recipes used afford arithmetic material. The seventh grade 
has the problem of planning a day's menu for a stated amount. This leads to 
the apportioning of the family income, done in the eighth grade. The class is 
given a family of known size, with definite amounts of money. 

Changes are made in the course of study in both cooking and sewing, as 
occasion demands, especially to suit the diflferent seasons of the year and world 

Outline of Course. 
Grade 6. 

Uses in body. 

Methods of cooking (alone and in combination with other foods). 
Sugars and starches. 
Where found. 

Utilization of natural sugars in fresh and dried fruits. 
School lunch boxes. 
House cleaning. 
Grade 7. 
1. Proteins. 

Use in the body. 
Place in the diet. 
Effect of heat. 

The cooking begins with a combination of starch (as review) and 
protein, such as cornstarch pudding and creamed soups. 

1. Dairy products. 

Milk, eggs and cheese. 

Special emphasis is given to milk, its place in the diet of young children, 
vitamine content, etc. 

2. Animal proteins. (Methods of cooking.) 

Fish, flesh, fowl. 

3. Vegetable proteins. 

Legumes, — also leafy vegetables with particular reference to vitamine and 
mineral content. 
Grade 8. 

1. Batters and doughs. 

(a) Leavening agents. 

(b) Quick breads. 

(c) Yeast breads. 

(d) Substitute breads. 

(e) Cakes. 

2. Salads, — fruits, vegetables, fish and meat. 

3. Ice creams. 

4. Preservation of foods. 

Canning, preserving and drying, — the refrigerator and its care. 

5. Planning of menus. 

The eighth grade will do more work with the planning and serving of 
meals when the training school has its own kitchen and dining room. At 
present the work is done in the room used by the institutional cookery class. 



This course aims to give the pupil a knowledge of how and what to purchase, 
relative costs of materials, economic conditions and values, with the development 
of good standards in wori<manship, care of clothing and appropriateness of 
materials and dress. The study of textiles is covered in the first six grades, in 
geography, history and industrial arts. 

Articles made and methods used vary from year to year to satisfy the needs of 
the particular group of children, or to carry out some industrial arts project. A 
charitable need often furnishes the motive for doing a certain piece of work. 
Grade 5. 

The work in this grade attempts the formation of habits of neatness and 
Thimble and needle drill. 

Stitches used : basting, blanket stitch, running stitch, overcasting hemming, 
top sewing, darning, outline and feather stitch applied to the following articles : 

1. Wash cloths. 

2. Bags. 

3. Holders. 

4. Towels. 

5. Stockings. 

6. Aprons. 

The divisions of the tape measure furnish the l)asis for some of the work in 
Grade 6. 

Machine sewing is begun in combination with handwork, with a review of 
previous stitches and methods, followed by work on buttonholes, hems, 
seams, etc. 
Models made : Cookery apron, towel, cap, princess slip, etc. 
Grade 7. 

The work of this grade includes the use of patterns, adapted to fit the 
individual child. Materials are planned for after measurements are taken. 
Study of the uses of various materials and their suitableness for the garment 
to be made, is included. 

Models made : Aprons, garden and fancy ; undergarments, such as bloomers, 
Grade 8. 

More advanced sewing, chiefly on outside garments. As the work pro- 
gresses more careful work is demanded. Commercial patterns are used, 
adapted to the individual child. 

Models made : Middies, smocks, children's dresses, etc. 
The materials for garments made in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades are 
furnished by the pupils. 

The materials for small models made in the fifth grade are furnished by the 

Bibliography of Educational References. 
Bulletins — U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Cooley, A.M. — Domestic Art in Woman's Education. Scribners. $1.25. 
Dewey, John — School and Society, Rev. Ed., 1915. University of Chicago Press. 

Dewey, John — The Child and the Curriculum. University of Chicago Press 

(paper ed.). 25 cents. 


Dewey, John, and Dewey, Evelyn — Schools of Tomorrow. Dutton. $1.50. 
Dopp, K. — The Place of Industries in Elementary Education. University of 

Chicago Press. $1.00. 
Journals — 

The Journal of Home Economics. American Home Economics Association, 
Baltimore, Md. $2.00 a year, 25 cents a copy. 

Elementary School Journal. University of Chicago Press. $1.50 a year, 
20 cents a copy. 
Rapeer, L. W. — Teaching Elementary School Subjects: Chap. 9, Household Arts, 

by Cora Winchcll ; Chap. 12, Industrial Arts, by Frederick Bonser. Scribner.s. 

Teachers College Bulletin, No. 29. Tentative Course of Study in Household Arts 

for the seventh and eighth grades of the Speyer School, — Speyer School 

Curriculum. Columbia University Press. 50 cents. 
Flagg, Ella Proctor — A Handbook of Home Economics. Little, Brown & Co. 

75 cents. 
Farmer, Fannie Merritt — Boston Cooking- School Cook Book. Little, Brown & 

Co. $1.80. 
Coldwell, Ada Hughes — Home Economics in the Rural School. Bulletin of State 

Normal School of San Diego. •„ 




GEORGIA V. COY, Head Department of Biology. 

l*he chief object of all work in hygiene throughout the eight grades of the 
school is the development on the part of the children of an appreciation of the 
value of health and the formation of habits that will lead to its preservation. 

The work is carried jointly by the departments of physical education and 
biology, material in the lower grades being handled directly by the class teachers. 
Condensed outline : 

Grades One to Four. 

riivsical examination. 

All children are examined by the director of physical education for the detec- 
tion of physical defects, and recommendations are made to parents for treatment 
by the family physician when necessary ; or, as is sometimes the case, treatment 
is secured at public clinics. 

Second Grade Group. The mid-morning cup of milk. 

Daily inspection. 

A. Health inspection. 

As the result of daily inspection for evidences of communicable disease, 
all suspected cases are re-examined by the director, and excluded if con- 
ditions indicate infection. 

B. Personal inspection. 

This is supplementary to the instruction in personal hygiene, and varies 
with the needs of the class ; for example, in grade one for a week or more 
it may be an inspection for clean finger nails. 

Immediate treatment is given all simple first-aid cases, and subsequent treat- 
ment or supervision of home care where necessary. 



General topic : Personal hygiene — cleanliness. 
Examples of lesson subjects: 

Clean hands and faces. Clean teeth. 
Clean desks. Clean books. 
Mouths for food and drink only. 

Individual towels and handkerchiefs as helps to keeping sleeves, jackets and 
dresses clean. 
Posture training. 

Careful adjustment of seats and desks to fit each pupil is made under the 
supervision of the class teacher and supplemented by classroom instruction in the 
why and how of correct sitting and standing. Further direct teaching of this 
kind is done in the gymnasium in connection with exercise designed to aid in 
maintenance of good posture. 

Grades Five to Six. 

In this group the physical examination, daily inspection and care of injuries 
are handled as already noted, except that inspection for personal cleanliness is 
made an individual rather than a class matter. 

An Open Air Class Room. 
General topic : Home and school sanitation — cleanliness extended to surroundings. 
Examples of lesson subjects: 
Clean schoolrooms. 
Good light and how to use it. 
Clean school yards. 
How to dust and sweep. 
The best way to sleep. 


Why foods spoil and how to keep them. 
The garbage can and its care. 
The fly and the mosquito. 
Towels and tooth brushes. 
Credit for hygiene is given in these two groups for actual practice as shown 
in the results of the daily inspection. 

Grades Seven and Eight. 

Since health training is continuous from the first to the eighth grades, the work 
iji this upper division represents merely the more advanced portion of a unified 
course and involves the same aims and methods. 

Examination for physical defects, inspection for evidences of communicable 
disease, posture training and the treatment of small injuries form as important a 
part of the work as in the lower grades. 

Instruction in hygiene in grade seven can best be given in connection with the 
course in civics, while in grade eight five hours weekly for one term are devoted 
to the subject. 

Grade Seven. 

General topic : Community hygiene. 
Suggested lesson subjects : 
The food inspector and his work. 
The city markets, screening, cleanliness, etc. 
The city parks and their value for health. 
The bakery as it should be. 
The city streets ; sweeping, sprinkling, etc. 
Accidents that occur in the city and how they may be avoided. The good 

record of the San Diego Electric Railway in preventing accidents. 
The city sewerage. 

Fires, their causes. Proper doors and fire escapes. 
The water supply. The milk supply. 
The influenza epidemic and its control. 
How disease spread may be prevented. 

Grade Eight. 

General topic : Hygiene, sanitation and physiology. 

All instruction in this course is given the children in talks by the teacher, 
with the aid of such good apparatus as a mounted human skeleton, a life-size 
model of the trunk and head of the human body, models of various sections and 
organs, good charts and compound microscopes. Demonstrations are made of 
internal organs of such animals as the frog and the rabbit, of material obtainable 
from the butcher shop, and of simple classroom experiments wherever efficacious. 
Textbooks are used only as supplements, and serve with the pupils' notebooks 
to fix material already given. 

Emphasis is placed throughout on the value of health and its maintenance by 
hygienic practices, and the prevention of disease spread. 


Condensed Outline of Course. 
1. Introduction. 

A. General structure of the human body, its parts, organs and cells. 

B. Heahh, its value and maintenance. 
II. Bacteria and other micro-organisms. 

A study of molds, yeasts and bacteria, their growth and relation to the 
manufacture and preservation of food and to the cause and spread of 
A. Topics for reports by pupils on outside reading of current literature. 

Sanitation in Panama. 

The work of the Americans in Cuba. 

California's fight against typhoid fever. 

Quarantine, immunity and disinfection. 

War on the fly. 

Mosquitoes and malaria in California. 
III. Nourishment of the body. 

A. Food and diet. 

1. Sources of nutrients in common foods. 

2. Pure-food movement 

3. Hygiene of diet, mouth, teeth and digestive organs. 

B. Preparation of food in the body for use by the cells. 

1. A study of the organs of digestion and their work. 

2. Hygiene of exercise, bathing and rest, and their relation to digestion. 

C. Supply of oxygen to the cells. 

1. A study of the organs of respiration and their work. 

2. Hygiene of the nose and throat. The relation of breathing to 

disease. The relation of posture to breathing. The importance 
of good breathing in athletics. 

D. Delivery of supplies to the cells. 

1. A study of the organs of circulation and their work. 

2. Hygiene of the skin. Clothing and cleanliness. Heart training 

and athletics. 

E. Waste from the cells. 

1. A study of the organs of excretion and their work. 

2. Hygiene of elimination. Avoidance of constipation. 

F. Alcohol, tea, coffee, tobacco, narcotics and patent medicines. 

1. Their effect on body development and results in athletics and 


2. Reports. 

.What the magazines say about drinking and jobs. 

The big business firms and the drinkers. 

The war and alcohol. 

Mr. Ford and his advice to boys. 

G. Support, movement and control of the body, 

1. A study of the bones, muscles and the nervous system and their 


2. Hygiene of exercise and of posture. 

Care of eyes and ears. Rest, sleep and habit formation. 

3. Emergencies. 



H. Common animals and plants and their children. 

1. A study of the reproductive methods of a selected series of plants 
from the algse to the seed plants, and of animals from the one- 
celled forms to the vertebrates, including often both frog and 
and rabbit. 
Texts and references. 

A. For use by pupil. 

General Hygiene — Overton. American Book Co. 60 cents. 

Good Health— Jewett. Ginn & Co, 50 cents. 

Town and City — Jewett. Ginn & Co. 50 cents. 

The Body at Work— Jewett. Ginn & Co. 50 cents. 

Control of Mind and Body — Jewett. Ginn & Co. 60 cents. 

A Handbook of Health — Woods Hutchinson. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

65 cents. 
Community Hygiene — Woods Hutchinson. Houghton-Mifflin Co. 

60 cents. 
The Wonderful House That Jack Has— Millard. Macmillan Co. 

50 cents. 

B. For teacher's reference. 

How to Live— Fisher and Fisk. Funk, Wagnalls & Co. $1.00. 
Teaching Hygiene in the Grades — Andress. Hougton-Mifflin Co. 

75 cents. 
Human Physiology — Stiles. Saunders. $1.50. 
Nutritional Physiology— Stiles. Saunders. $1.25. 
The Human Mechanism — Hough and Sedgwick. Ginn & Co. $2.00. 
Applied Biology — Bigelow (excellent for simple bacteriology). 

Macmillan Co. $1.40. 
Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds in the Household— Conn. Ginn & Co. $1.00. 
Plant and Animal Children— Torelle. D. C. Heath & Co. 50 cents. 
Posture of School Children — Bancroft. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Health Work in the Schools — Hoag and Terman. Houghton-Mifflin 

Co. $1.60. 



JESSIE RAND TANNER, Head Department Physical Education. 

The physical work of the first six grades follows closely the course of study 
prescribed by the state supervisor. Since all of the teaching material appears in 
the state manual, only such phases of the subject are indicated as are particularly 
characteristic of the work done in the Normal Training School. 

Grades I, II and III. 

Action Stories, Singi}i<^ Games, Gymnastic Games. 

Formal gymnastics are not introduced in these grades. 

Emphasis is placed upon the development of rhythm throughout the physical 
activities of the first three grades. This is done chiefly through vigorous singing 
games and the spontaneous interpretation of simple music in terms of movement. 
Music, in the time of the waltz, mazurka, polka, gavotte, etc., is played and the 
children are allowed to express it freely in action. When particularly appropriate 
ejcercises are developed, they are taught to the class as a whole. Some direct 
teaching of definite, simple body movements is necessary at first. 

The games of skill, of which the various forms of bean-bag games are examples, 
are means of rapid growth in co-ordination and group consciousness. The little 
formal game may have but one rule, yet it belongs thereby to that large class of 
games where the team, the umpire, and the rules hold the group to its highest 
possibilities. The little people respond very quickly to the well-conducted game 
of skill if it is no more than "Cat and Rat." Growth in game skill keeps pace with 
growth in any subject. Games are used which are within the grasp of the group, 
but which are difl^cult enough to require time for complete mastery. 

Grade IV. 

This is a transition period when the singing games give way to simple rhythmic 
folk games, called dances. Group activity and skill are more prominent in 
gymnastic games, and the drill element is introduced by means of the informal 
gymnastic lesson. Progress is necessarily slow, due to marked difficulties in 
co-ordination. It is imperative that the games be at once very simple and very 
vigorous. The simplest games of tag are examples of those which give best 
results in the fourth grade. 

Postural training in these four grades should result from proper seating and 
the correct positions when sitting, standing or walking in the schoolroom. 

Grades V and VI. 

These grades show a steady progression in intensity and seriousness of physical 

From the classes of the fifth and sixth grade girls there is a marked response 
to group drill. Much work is done in formal free gymnastics, exercises with 
wands, dumb-bells, and in simple marching tactics. Games of .skill showing 
increase in complexity and the beginnings of team work form a prominent part 
of each lesson. The more elementary folk dances have a large place. 

The fifth and sixth grade boys' classes need very simple, yet very vigorous, free 
gymnastics. The work in general follows that planned for the girls, except that 
athletic games and sports involve less team play and much running. 


Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

Physical education aims to raise health standards, by means of improved posture 
and carriage, greater alertness and endurance and the formation of better habits 
of living. It is impossible to estimate how far those aims are translated into 
results, even under the most skillful teaching. It frequently happens that physical 
education accomplishes much in merely preventing extremes of overdevelopment 
during the years of childhood, when growth is rapid and often one-sided. All 
phases of human activity which tend to raise health standards must be practiced 
daily to produce results. The school can therefore look for results in physical 
education only in so far as it develops habits of proper exercise, hygiene and 
sanitation which appear in daily practice. 

Physical activities for the seventh and eighth grades are grouped according 
to the divisions of the school year. The class work introduces seasonal games 
and events, which later are carried on outside of class. Interest is secured, early, 
by means of some game of wide appeal, such as basket ball for boys and captain 
ball for girls, or volley ball for both. As skill is acquired, less time is devoted to 
the game in class and more to formal gymnastics, gymnastic games, apparatus 
work and folk dancing. Finally the game is played outside of class only, during 
recess or after school, and the next seasonal game is introduced. 

Grade VII (Girls). 

Group drill is frequently at its best here. Excellent form is developed in free 
gymnastics, in work with light apparatus and in marching. Swedish apparatus is 
used, all tendency to stunts being avoided and emphasis placed upon form. Folk 
dances are only slightly more advanced than in the previous group, but games of 
skill are decidedly so, team playing being carried as far as possible. 

Grade VIII (Girls). 

The character of the work in this grade depends somewhat on class interest, 
which varies decidedly. Sufficient formal work is given to supply the corrective 
element favoring improvement in posture. Formal drill is less attractive to girls 
of this age, but individual technique shows marked improvement. Considerable 
time is given to folk dancing, varied by simple aesthetic dancing. Always the 
games of skill, such as volley ball and captain ball, are greatly in favor. The 
latter game is especially valuable as a substitute for basket ball, which, on account 
of the danger of heart strain, should not be included among the activities of girls 
in the grammar school. 

Grades VII and VIII (Boys). 

This group is given complete gA^mnastic lessons, including marching, light 
apparatus or advanced Swedish free exercises, supplemented by games with com- 
plex rules and team play, gymnastic dancing and track sports. For these boys, 
annual interclass and interscholastic track meets give incentive to much of the 
year's work. 

Track work should be done by all of the class at regular class periods, so that 
the entire group may be brought into contact with the hygiene of training by 
receiving the training itself. The boy learns that athletic standards are raised 
by the formal class training, from which he gains better postures and carriage, 
more alertness and endurance. 



General References. 

1. Manual of Physical Education — Clark W. llctherington. Issued by the State 

Board of Education of California. 

2. Games for the Playground, Home, School and (V"inasium — Jessie R. Uancroft. 

Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

3. Physical Exercises, Games and Simple I^'olk Dances — Jessie R. Tanner and 

Georgia V. Coy. Bulletin from San Diego State Normal School. 

4. Physical Education Complete — Lavinia H. Kaull. News Publishing Co., Sacra- 

mento. $2.00. 

5. Teaching of Elementary School Gymnastics — W. P. Bowen. Published by the 

author, Ypsilanti, Mich. $1.00. 

6. Spalding Athletic Library. Copies of various games, each 10 cents. 

7. Music for the Child World — Marie R. Ilofcr. Summv. 





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